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The Effects of Hotel Guestroom Lighting on Consumers' Emotional States, Preferences and Behavioral Intentions

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024814/00001

Material Information

Title: The Effects of Hotel Guestroom Lighting on Consumers' Emotional States, Preferences and Behavioral Intentions
Physical Description: 1 online resource (80 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Pae, Joo
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: american, culture, hotel, interior, korean, lighitng
Interior Design -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Interior Design thesis, M.I.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: THE EFFECTS OF HOTEL GUESTROOM LIGHITNG ON CONSUMERS? EMOTIONAL STATES, PREFERENCES AND BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS Even though hotels are moving to a residential or home-like style and design to accomplish that task, there is a concern that hotel design in Korea are designed by foreign designers and design companies without an understanding and awareness of Korean residential culture and interior design needs and preference. Moreover few empirical lighting studies have been conducted. Furthermore, no study focusing specifically on hotel guestroom lighting for customers from different culture cultures has been found. For this reason, this study focused on understanding the impact of different lighting conditions in a hotel guestroom on emotional states, preferences, and behavioral intentions of customers from two different cultures. The experimental research followed a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design with repeated measures to identify the impact of culture group, lighting color and lighting intensity. The sample consisted of a total of 175 adults, 87 Americans and 88 Koreans. All subjects had a limited knowledge of lighting and were screened for color blindness before participation in the study. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) American subjects preferred the hotel guestroom with low intensity and warm color lighting the most while Korean group rated the hotel guestroom with high intensity and warm color lighting as the most preferable one.; 2) American participants perceived dim lighting as more arousing than bright lighting while Korean participants evaluated bright lighting as more arousing than dim lighting.; 3) The finding of this study suggested a positive relationship between pleasure and preference. The scenes selected by both groups regarding their preference and pleasure remained constant.; 4) American participants responded under the dim lighting condition that they would recommend the guestroom to their friends, while Korean participants responded under the bright lighting condition that they would stay longer in that guestroom.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Joo Pae.
Thesis: Thesis (M.I.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Park, Nam-Kyu.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024814:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024814/00001

Material Information

Title: The Effects of Hotel Guestroom Lighting on Consumers' Emotional States, Preferences and Behavioral Intentions
Physical Description: 1 online resource (80 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Pae, Joo
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: american, culture, hotel, interior, korean, lighitng
Interior Design -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Interior Design thesis, M.I.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: THE EFFECTS OF HOTEL GUESTROOM LIGHITNG ON CONSUMERS? EMOTIONAL STATES, PREFERENCES AND BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS Even though hotels are moving to a residential or home-like style and design to accomplish that task, there is a concern that hotel design in Korea are designed by foreign designers and design companies without an understanding and awareness of Korean residential culture and interior design needs and preference. Moreover few empirical lighting studies have been conducted. Furthermore, no study focusing specifically on hotel guestroom lighting for customers from different culture cultures has been found. For this reason, this study focused on understanding the impact of different lighting conditions in a hotel guestroom on emotional states, preferences, and behavioral intentions of customers from two different cultures. The experimental research followed a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design with repeated measures to identify the impact of culture group, lighting color and lighting intensity. The sample consisted of a total of 175 adults, 87 Americans and 88 Koreans. All subjects had a limited knowledge of lighting and were screened for color blindness before participation in the study. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) American subjects preferred the hotel guestroom with low intensity and warm color lighting the most while Korean group rated the hotel guestroom with high intensity and warm color lighting as the most preferable one.; 2) American participants perceived dim lighting as more arousing than bright lighting while Korean participants evaluated bright lighting as more arousing than dim lighting.; 3) The finding of this study suggested a positive relationship between pleasure and preference. The scenes selected by both groups regarding their preference and pleasure remained constant.; 4) American participants responded under the dim lighting condition that they would recommend the guestroom to their friends, while Korean participants responded under the bright lighting condition that they would stay longer in that guestroom.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Joo Pae.
Thesis: Thesis (M.I.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Park, Nam-Kyu.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024814:00001


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1 THE EFFECTS OF HOTEL GUESTROOM LIGHTING ON CONSUMERS EMOTIONAL STATE S PREFERENCE S AND BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS By JOO YOUL PAE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF INTERIOR DESIGN UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009

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2 2009 Joo Youl Pae

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3 To my Wife and Parents

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my m ajor professor, Dr. Nam -Kyu Park for her guidance, advice, and patience. She is a wonderful mentor, and an invaluable asset to my education. I would also like to thank my other committee member Prof. Jason Meneely for his support and invaluable advice Th is thesis would never have been completed without their precious help. I am grateful to all faculty members, staff members, and friends in the Department of Interior Design for their inspiration, time and support through the years of my graduate work. I wo uld like to thank my family, especially my loving parents: my dad, Won-Sik Pae and my mom, Eul Bun Kim for their endless love, support and encouragement from long distance. Thank you so much for everything that both of you have done for me. Finally, this thesis is dedicated to my wife Jae Yeon Jin who always stood by me with endless love and sacrifice. I would like to express my special thanks to my wife for her support and encouragement with her sacrifice as a wife. I could not have done this without her Words cannot express my gratitude and love for her.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................................... 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................................................................................................... 5 LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................................ 7 LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................................. 8 ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................................... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 11 Research Purpose & Questions .................................................................................................. 13 Definition of Terms ..................................................................................................................... 13 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................................... 15 Light Color and Intensity ............................................................................................................ 15 Cultur al Aspects in Design ......................................................................................................... 20 Hotel Guestroom Lighting Design ............................................................................................. 24 A Conceptual Model of the Study .............................................................................................. 27 3 RESEARCH METHO D S ........................................................................................................... 31 Rationale for Experimental Settings .......................................................................................... 31 Lighting Condition s .................................................................................................................... 33 Participants .................................................................................................................................. 38 Instruments .................................................................................................................................. 39 Data Collection ............................................................................................................................ 41 Data Analy sis ............................................................................................................................... 42 4 FINDINGS ................................................................................................................................... 43 Characteristics of the Participants .............................................................................................. 43 Reli ability of Measures ............................................................................................................... 44 Lighting Preference ..................................................................................................................... 45 Arousal States .............................................................................................................................. 50 Pleasure States ............................................................................................................................. 51 Behavioral Intention (Customer Loyalty) .................................................................................. 53

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6 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ........................................................................................ 55 Lighting Preference ..................................................................................................................... 55 Arousal States .............................................................................................................................. 58 P leasure S tates ............................................................................................................................. 60 Behavioral Intention (Customer Loyalty) .................................................................................. 61 Limitations ................................................................................................................................... 62 Conclusion and Implications ...................................................................................................... 63 APPENDIX A IRB APROVAL .......................................................................................................................... 65 B CONSENT FORM ...................................................................................................................... 66 C SURVEY INSTRUMENT 1 AM ERICAN VERSION ......................................................... 67 D SURVEY INSTRUMENT 2 KOREAN VERSION .............................................................. 71 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................................................................................................... 75 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................................................................................. 80

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Characteristics of the Participants ......................................................................................... 44 4 2 Cronbachs Alpha Coefficients for the Reliabilities of Scales ............................................ 45 4 3 Results of the Chi -square Analysis for the Subjects Lighting Preference ........................ 46 4 4 Mean and Standard Deviation (SD) Scores for Subjects Lighting Preference ................. 48 4 5 Analysis of Variance for Subjects' Lighting Preference ...................................................... 48 4 6 Descriptive S tatistics and I ndependent S ample t test Results ............................................. 49 4 7 Mean and Standard Deviation (SD) Scores for Subjects Lighting E valuation of Arousal States ......................................................................................................................... 50 4 8 A nalysis of Variance for Subjects Lighting Evaluation of Arousal States ....................... 51 4 9 Mean and Stan dard Deviation (SD) Scores for Subjects Lighting Evaluation of Pleasure States ........................................................................................................................ 52 4 10 A nalysis of Variance for Subjects Lighting Evaluation of Pleasure States ...................... 52 4 11 Mean and Standard Deviation Scores for Subjects Lighting Evaluation of Behavioral Intention (Customer Loyalty) ............................................................................. 53 4 12 Analysis of Variance for Subje cts Lighting Evaluation of Behavioral Intention (Customer Loyalty) ................................................................................................................ 53

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Typical H otel Gu estroom L ighting D esign (Karl en & Benva, 2004) ................................. 26 2 2 Outline of the M R M odel (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974) ................................................... 28 2 3 The C onceptual M odel for the Study .................................................................................... 30 3 1 The Lighting Plan for an Experimental Hotel Guestroom (390 sq.ft. / Not to Scale) ....... 34 4 1A A G raph of the Subjects Most P refer red G uestroom L ighting .......................................... 47 4 1B A G raph of the Subjects Least P refer red G uestroom L ighting .......................................... 47 4 2 Interaction Effect for Culture Gr oup by Light Color by Light Intensity on Lighting Preference ............................................................................................................................... 49 4 3 Interaction Effect for Culture Group by Light Color by Light Intensity on Arousal States ....................................................................................................................................... 51 4 4 Interaction Effect for Culture Group by Light Color by Light Intensity on Pleasure States ....................................................................................................................................... 52 4 5 Interaction Effect for Culture Group by Light Color by Ligh t Intensity on Behavioral Intention (Customer Loyalty) ................................................................................................ 54

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Interior Design T HE EFFECTS OF HOTEL GUESTROOM LIGHITNG ON CONSUMERS EMOTIONAL STATES, PREFERENCES AND BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS By Joo Youl Pae Aug ust 2009 Chair: Nam -Kyu Park Major: Interior Design Even though hotels are moving to a residential or h ome like style and design to accomplish that task, there is a concern that hotel design in Korea are designed by foreign designers and design companies without an understanding and awareness of Korean residential culture and interior design needs and prefe rence. Moreover few empirical lighting studies have been conducted. Furthermore, no study focusing specifically on hotel guestroom lighting for customers from different culture cultures has been found. For this reason, t his study focused on understanding t he impact of different lighting conditions in a hotel guestroom on emotional states, preferences and behavioral intentions of customers from two different cultures. The experimental research followed a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design with repeated measures to identify the impact of culture group, lighting color and lighting intensity. The sample consisted of a total of 175 adults, 87 Americans and 88 Koreans. All subjects had a limited knowledge of lighting and were screened for color blindness before particip ation in the study. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) American subjects preferred the hotel guestroom with low intensity and warm color lighting the most while Korean group rated the hotel guestroom with high intensity and warm color lighting as the most preferable one. ; 2) American participants perceived dim lighting as more arousing than bright lighting while Korean

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10 participants evaluated bright lighting as more arousing than dim lighting. ; 3) The finding of this study suggested a p ositive relationship between pleasure and preference. The scenes selected by both groups regarding their preference and pleasure remai ned constant ; 4) American participants responded under the dim lighting condition that they would recomme nd the guestroom to their friends while Korean participants responded under the bright lighting condition that they would stay longer in that guestroom.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION One of the distinct features of our contemporary global society is the way in which business t rade, cultural exchange, and overlapping economic and political spheres have shrunk the distances between nations. This social phenomenon has also influenced business strategies and design processes in the interior design industry. Currently, designers in one country work on a wide range of facilities throughout the world, such as hotels, corporate offices, mixed use complexes, and healthcare facilities. As a result, many large companies in the interior design industry have become international ized (Ham, Gu erin & Scott 2004), and more and more design firms seek o pportunities in the international marketplace (Mattila, 1999). In this context, identifying culturally related differences in occupants environmental behavior s and preferences has become a critica l concern for interior designers. Hence, interior designers need to be culturally sensitive in order to face these design challenges. Many marketing researchers have emphasized the importance of understanding other cultures in international marketplaces (Robertson, 1980; Ham et al., 2004) It has been suggested that culture is one of the underlying determinations of consumer behavior with the most pervasive influence upon individuals (Rapoport, 1969; Robertson 1980; Park & Farr, 2007). By knowing a culture a n interior designer can begin to understand the needs and preferences of their users which is an important element in formulating an international marketing strategy (Ha m et al., 2004). Over the past three decades, Korea has enjoyed an annual average e conomic growth rate of 8.6 percent and has emerged as the world's 11th largest trading nation. In less than two generations, the nation has established itself as one of the world s leading shipbuilders and manufacturers of electronics, semiconductors and a utomobiles. This high growth rate of the Korean economy in the last 30 years has ex panded their building industry and i n 2007, the

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12 Korean construction industry ranked 7th (95.1 billion dollar market) in the world (Korea culture and information service 2002 ). With this steady growth in construction, Korea has been a target place for international design companies. Currently, a substantial number of large architecture and interior design companies located in the U.S. have designed Americas leading internati onal brand hotels in South Korea. Al though hotels are moving to a residential or home like style and design to accomplish that task (Judy & Cathy, 1999), there is a concern that hotel guestrooms in Korea are designed by foreign design companies without an understanding and awareness of Korean residential culture and interior design needs and preferences. Some researches believe that because these interior spaces have been designed without regard for Korean customers preferences, the design might cause Kore an customers to feel uneasy (Kim & Kim, 2004) Some lighting s tudies that focused specifically on lighting preference s between Americans and Koreans showed that there are clear differences between the two cultures (Park & Farr, 2007, Lim, Kim & Kwon, 2007). These authors suggested that foreign designers acquire an understanding of Koreans lighting preference prior to planning interior spaces for Korean users. Designing interior space without understanding cultural differences risks the possibility that th e space cannot thoroughly serve the needs of users. Moreover, this may leads to both time and financial loss in the design process by increasing the likelihood of needing the plans to be modified and thus having to make changes to construction orders late in the process problems that could be avoided if architects or interior designers have a comprehensive understanding of the cultural differences of users and tailor designs to satisfy these differences Although the importance and benefits of well design ed lighting are generally acknowledged for interior environments, few empirical lighting studies have been conducted. Furthermore, no study focusing specifically on hotel guestroom lighting for customers from different cultur es has been

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13 found. For these reasons the focus of this study concentrated on examining lighting perceptions and preferences for consumers from different cultural backgrounds. Research P urpos e & Questions This study focused on understanding the impact of different lighting conditions i n a hotel guestroom on emotional states, preference s and behavioral intentions of customers from two different cultures. The specific objectives of the study were to identify the effects of lighting with two different light colors (warm and cool) and inte nsities (bright and dim) on emotional states (arousal and pleasure) lighting preference s and behavioral intentions ( customer l oyalty) by using two study groups, Americans and Koreans To accomplish the objective of this study, the s pecific research ques tions were addressed as follows: 1 Do American and Korean customers differ significantly in their preference of a hotel guestroom s l ighting color and intensity? 2 Do American and Korean customers differ significantly in their arousal states under the differe nt lighting conditions associated with different color and intensity i n a hotel guestroom? 3 Do American and Korean customers differ significantly in their pleasure states under the d ifferent lighting conditions associated with different color and intensity in a hotel guestroom? 4 Do American and Korean customers differ significantly in their behavioral intention (customer loyalty) under the different lighting conditions associated with different color and intensity in a hotel guestroom? Definition of Terms Th e following terms are used in this study and are defined as follows : 1 American People who were born and raised in t he United States of America 2 Arousal The extent to which a person feels excited or stimulated (Baker, Levy & Grewal 1 992).

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14 3 Color temperatu re (CT) of a light source A manner of describing the apparent color of a light source. Commonly used to express the cool or warm color of a source that deviates from neutral. Expressed in degrees Kelvin (K). (Russell, 2008) 4 Culture The complex of value s, ideas, attitudes, and other meaningful symbols created by people to shape human behavior and the artifact of that behavior transmitted from one generation to another. (Eagle, Blackwell & Miniard, 1986) 5 Korean People who were born and raised in Korea 6 Light c olor The light character istic that is perceived as either warm or cool in this study 7 Light intensity Luminous intensity which is perceived as either bright or dim in this study

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15 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW In this chapter, the literature was re viewed in the following three relevant topics : 1) lighting color and intensity 2) c ulture aspects in design and 3 ) hotel guestroom lighting design. To guide the current study, a n integrated theoretical framework regarding emotional states, preferences an d behavioral intentions of users from different cultures based on physical environment atmospher ic theories has been developed and presented at the end of this chapter. Light Color and Intensity Color temperature which describes the apparent color of a l ight source is typically expressed in terms of how warm or cool the light is perceived to be (Rea, 2000). Correlated color temperature (CCT) describes the color appearance of a light source measured by degrees Kelvin (K) (Gordon, 2003). Light with an oran ge -yellow appearance is considered warm light and has a CCT rating of 3500K or less. Typically, i ncandescent light is said to be warm white light because it emphasizes the long end of the spectrum, with warm color tones orange through red. In contrast, l ight with a white appearance is considered neutral light and has a CCT rating between 3500K and 4000K. Light with a blue -white appearance is considered cool light and has a CCT of 4000K or higher Fluorescent light is said to be a cool white source due to its being dominated by the short end of the spectrum, with cool color tones of green through blue (Gordon, 2003) Technically brightness is the result of the interaction between an illumination level and reflectance. Successfully dealing with brightn ess requires an interior designer to consider all the factors that affect this phenomenon, including subjective responses, the context of the situation, personal vision attributes, light sources, directional qualities, simultaneous contrast, and characteri stics of elements of the design. The light level or illuminance that falls on a surface can

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16 be measured in foot -candles or lux. A foot candle (fc) is a unit of illuminance equal to the amount of light that falls on a surface within a one -foot radius of the source The lux (lx) is the i nternational s ystem of u nits unit of illuminance and luminous emittance. It is used in photometry as a measure of the apparent intensity of light hitting or passing through a surface. It is analogous to the radiometric unit wa tts per square meter but with the power at each wavelength weighted according to the luminosity function, a standardized model of human brightness perception (Winchip, 2008 ). Perceptions of lighted settings are the result of the brains interpretation of physiological reactions to those lighted settings (Steffy, 2008 ). Several researchers have conducted studies to determine the influence of environmental light conditions on humans mood and behavior. Heerwagen and Heerwagen (1986) stated that light can aff ect physiological functioning, as well as mood, energy, and behavior. Baron, Rea, and Daniels (1992) indicated specific lighting conditions elicit positive effects, improve cognitive function, and increase social behaviors. The findings of Baron et al. wer e consistent with other research addressing the positive behavioral effects resulting from bright light. Yet studies suggesting experimental evidence on psychological effects of lighting are few (Baron, Rea, & Daniels, 1992; Gifford, 1988) and have failed to find direct effects of light on mood (Baron et al. 1992) and on performance of various cognitive tasks (Boray, Gifford & Rosenblood, 1989; Veitch, Gifford, & H ine, 1991). In spite of these debates, Flynn, Spencer, Martyniuk and Hendrick (1 973) suggested that lighting conditions do much more than provide necessary levels of illumination for task performance. In this context, designing functional lighting to enhance a users performance as well as to fulfill physical and psychological needs of the user is a very important issue for interior designers.

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17 At present, knowledge of psychological effect of lighting is to a large extent based on the results from lighting preference and visual perception studies. Flynn (1977) suggested that lighting patterns may be recognized as a visual language which can communicate impressions of mood, thus creating psychosocial impressions such as intimacy, privacy and warmth. He also noted that these impression and moods are fundamental to satisfaction in the space. Flynn et al. (1973) investigated the effect of environmental lighting as a mediator that affects user impressions and behaviors. In the first phase of the study, six different lighting arrangements in a lighting demonstration room were rated by subjects on 34 sema ntic differential rating scales. They identified five factors or categories of impression; those impressions are 1) evaluative impression such as like -dislike, beautiful ugly, and relaxed tense, 2) perceptual clarity, 3) impression of spatial complexity (visual clutter), 4) impression of spaciousness, 5) impression of formality such as informal -formal and roundedangular (Flynn et. al., 1973) They suggested that lighting variables induce some consistent and shared impressions for the users. In the second phase of the study, three dimensions of interior lighting were obtained through a multidimensional procedure. In this procedure, subjects were asked to judge only the relative similarities or differences for 38 pairs of the six lighting conditions in the s ame test room. The subjects were left to create their own criteria for making this judgment. Their analysis indicated that three dimensions were best used for the judgments of similarities and differences, which were peripheral -overhead, uniform -nonunifor m, and bright dim. They suggested that users impressions in interior environments may be manipulated by changing the combination of these dimensions of lighting (St e ffy, 2008). Mehrabian (1976) suggested that the level of arousal influences environmental preference and varies by the intensity of the environmental stimuli. According to

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18 Mehrabian(1976) lighting is a significant environmental stimulus which affects the level of arousal. Mehrabian stated brightly lit rooms are more arousing than dimly lit on es. Mehrabians theory has been applied to various studies on the impact of lighting as an environmental stimulus (Gifford, 1988; Biner Bulter, Fischer, & Westergren, 1 989; Areni & Kim, 1994; Veich, Gifford, & Hine, 1991; Veitch, 1997). Gifford (1988) in vestigated the effect of lighting level and room dcor on interpersonal communication. In the study, hypotheses were based on the arousal and comfort models. Female undergraduate students were paired with friends. The pairs of friends were asked to write t wo letters to one another in bright vs. soft lighting and office like vs. home -like dcor. The results showed more general and intimate communication occurred in brighter light than softer light, and in home like conditions than office like conditions. Gif ford stated t he results are consistent with an arousal model that placing individuals in soft lighting will lower their arousal levels which, in turn, will lower their activity levels. Biner, Butler, Fischer and Westergren (1989) applied the arousal optim ization model to investigate lighting preference and its interaction with social situations and task demands. Undergraduate students were asked to rate different situations in terms of their lighting level preference. The situations included both visual an d nonvisual activities. They found that romantic partnerships evidently lowered the preference for brightness compared to platonic friendships. The effect of these social situations was significant for nonvisual activities while it was weakened for visua l activities. They concluded that lighting levels influence preference and performance by its effect on vis ibility of an individuals perceptual field as well as by its effect on arousal.

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19 Areni and Kim (1994) applied arousal and visual acuity theory to st udy the influence of in -store lighting on consumer behavior in a wine store. Data were collected by direct observation of consumers in a wine cellar of a restaurant under two different lighting settings, bright and soft. The results showed that customers e xamined and handled more items under bright lighting than soft lighting. Contrary to their hypothesis, there was little or no effect of lighting on the amount of time couples spent in the cellar, but couples spent more time in the wine cellar than other ty pes of customers. Based on the results, they addressed the importance of the impact of lighting on functional aspects of the purchase process (i.e. the ability to examine merchandise) as well as the impact of lighting on consumers perception of the store s image. Knez and Kers (2000) found that age and gender interacted with the illuminance and the colour temperature of the lighting, causing different kinds of mood shifts. A two -way interaction between type of lamp and age on negative mood showed that the younger group best preserved a negative mood in the warm white lighting while working with a battery of cognitive tasks; for the older group, cool white lighting accounted for the identical effect. The younger females were shown to preserve the positive mo od as well as the negative mood better than the younger males, and a main effect of age in all cognitive tasks revealed the superiority of younger to older adults in cognitive performance. Kller Ballal, Laike, Mikellides and Tonello (2006) s study was c arried out in real work environments at different seasons and in countries with different latitudes. The results indicated that in the countries situated far north of the equator there was a significant variation in psychological mood over the year that di d not occur in the countries closer to the equator. When all four countries (Argentina, Saudi Arabia, Sweden and the U.K) were considered together, the result revealed that the light and colour of the workplace itself also had an influence on the mood

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20 of p ersons working there. The workers mood was at its lowest when the lighting was experienced as much too dark. The mood then improved and reached its highest level when the lighting was experienced as just right, but when it became too bright the mood decli ned again. C ultur al Aspects in Design Rapoport has developed a nonverbal communication approach for the built environmental that also assumes a mutual relation between people and environments. Rapoport (1969) determined that the cultural factors have an e ffect on human s physical environment. In other words, the primary determinant of physical environment is not physical factors like climate, need for shelter, materials, socioeconomics, defense, and religion, but cultural factors, which are modified by the above physical factors Rapoport (1977) indicated that the cultural template shape physical environments as well as life styles. Rapoport (1982) identifies three levels of meaning in built environments: high-level meaning describes cosmological and supernatural symbolism that may be encoded in buildings and city layouts, middle -level meaning refers to deliberate messages about identity and status communicated by the designers and constructors of buildings and cities, and low -level meaning describes the way s in which the built environment channels and interacts recursively with behavior and movement. These levels are not independent and mutually exclusive, and in most cases individual cities and buildings conveyed meanings on two or three of the levels. Hof stede (1980) proposed that there are core cultural values that effect social organization and interaction. The five values are: power distance (i.e. the level of acceptance in a society of inequality), i ndividualism vs. c ollectivism, m asculinity vs. f emini nity (the distribution of roles within a society and to what extent male values such as competition dominate over female values such as cooperation), u ncertainty a voidance (i.e. and its ramification on decision making), t ime o rientation (long term vs. short term planning.). He then tested his theory by

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21 studying IBM employees throughout the world. At the time, the late 1970s early 1980s, IBM was the largest transnational around with a presence in 64 countries. What he found was that these core values a re not only prevalent, but consistent over time. Hence, considering cultural difference has been an important theme of various scholarly studies. Cross -cultural studies of preferences for landscape and urban planning found similarities in landscape preference when cultures are relatively similar. For example, Shafer and Tooby (1973) compared landscape preference between Scots and Americans. They showed similarities in landscape preference, preferring natural landscapes. Zube and Mills (1976) also found simi larities in landscape preference between Australians and Americans, culturally similar groups. Some studies found similarities even among cultures that are dissimilar (Kwok, 1979; Berlyne, Robbins & Thompson, 1974). For example, Kwok (1979) used Kllers (1972) semantic scales and a sample of architecture and landscape slides to obtain data from Chinese students in Singapore and from middle -income British professionals in London. The semantic factors of both groups showed high agreement with Kllers factors of Swedish subjects, which indicate similarity across different cultures. In contrast, other studies showed differences in preferences for landscape between cultures. Zube and Pitts (1981) study discovered relatively low correlations in scenic quality ratings between Virgin Islanders and Americans. Yang and Brown (1992) also reported significant difference in landscape preference between Korean and Western subjects. Some cross -cultural studies found both similarities and differences in landscape prefere nces among cultures. Kaplan and Herberts (1987) study reported that A merican and Australian subjects showed high agreement in landscape preferences while larger differences were found between sub -cultural groups of Australian subjects.

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22 Cross -cultural stu dies in color investigated the influence of culture on color preference and emotions induced by color. The researchers who examined cultural influences on color preference can be divided into three distinct groups. O ne group of researchers suggested that u niversal connections between color and emotion may exist across different cultures. Osgood (1960) found an agreement of the meanings associated with colors between two different groups Recently, Xiao et al. (2007) concluded that emotional response to colo r depends mainly on its lightness and chroma and little on hue and no distinct difference was found among the seven region groups for most of the emotional variables. Ano ther group of researchers maintained that the influence of color on both emotions and preferences may vary by culture. Choungourain (1968) concluded that there are distinct cultural differences among various groups as well as some gender differences. Saito (1994) also reported that there are unique color preferences for each different cultu re group. However, more recent studies reported both cultural agreements and differences in color -emotion associations (Hupka, Zaleski, Otto, Reidell, & Tarabrina, 1997; Ou, Luo, Woodcook, & Wright, 2004) Park and Guerin (2002) conducted a cross -cultural study to identify differences in color meaning and preferences in interior design through their own integrated color palette developed in their 1995 study. They pointed out that previous studies investigated a single color hue, not a designed selection of colors, or color palettes, which is more representative of how color is actually viewed. Six abstract color palettes differ ing in hue, value, chroma, value contrast, and chroma contrast were shown to 100 American British Korean, and Japanese college students. They reported that there are cultural differences in the subjects preferences and meanings of color palettes. The four different culture groups showed preference differences on hue temperature, value level, chroma level, and contrast level.

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23 Cross -cu ltural studies on lighting preferences in indoor environment s are rare. Yano and Hashimoto (1997) conducted a study to clarify the chromaticity coordinates of the preferred complexion of Japanese woman under illumination S ubjective estimation experiments were conducted on the complexions of 3 female models under 40 colors of illumination. In their study, they compared their results with those of Sanders (1959) study on the preferred complexion of Caucasian wom e n. They concluded that preferred complexion o f Japanese women under illumination is different from that of Caucasian wom e n. Japanese women preferred their complexion to look more reddish in hue than Caucasian women and preferred less saturation than Caucasian w omen. Quellman and Boyce (2002) studied the light -source color preferences of people of different skin tones. Their 32 subject s were representative of a variety of nationalities and skin tones and were divided into four groups of white s of European descent ; Asian s of Chinese, Japanese or Thai nationality ; people of Indian or Sri Lanka n nationality ; and African -American s The result showed each group has significant ly different preferences for the 7 different light sources which are considered as typical illumination in interior environments. In p articularly, the subjects were asked what they liked or disliked about how the light sources illuminated the ir skin Generally, subjects from Europe, the lightest skin type, liked the lamp types with warmer tones that made their skin have a healthy glow, a natural look and a relatively tan ned appearance Subjects from Asia (China, Japan and Thai land) generally liked lamp types that were neutral and white, having the appearance of daylight They liked looking lively and stressed the desire for whiteness and healthiness. They did not like lamp types that made them look too green and too yellow. Thus, they did not like the warmer sources and liked neutral sources that were not too cool. Subjects from India and Sri Lanka generally liked lamp types that brought o ut the red and

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24 golden undertones of their skin. The African -American group liked lamp types that made their skin look warmer and richer, smoother and more even. T hey did not like lamp types that made their skin look dull, too red, too shiny or ashen. Most recently, Park and Farr (2007) conducted a cross -cultural study to identify the effect of lighting on consumers emotions and behavior in a retail environment. They used the M R model to investigate the effect of lighting on retail emotional states, behav ioral intentions, and perceptions between American s and Korean s They used a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design to asses s the mutual effects of color temperature, color rendering, and cultural differences. Each of the 49 A merican and Korean subjects were asked to complete the questionnaire to evaluate the perception of arousal, pleasure and approach avoid intention after experiencing the inside and outside of the experimental cubicles which were displayed as retail stores. They found distinct cultural differences i n perception and preferences of different lighting conditions in the store environments. They found that higher CCT (5000K) lighting was considered more arousing than lower CCT (3000K) lighting. In addition participants assessed the lower CCT setting as m ore pleasant than the higher CCT setting and American participants preferred higher CRI levels than Korean participants Visual clarity was also rated higher for higher CCT levels. Hotel G uestroom Lighting Design Bitner (1992) stated that a hotels physic al environmental design plays an important role in customers impression formation Moreover, it is the most significant factor driving the hotel purchase decision and in creating value during a customer s stays (Dube & Renagham, 2000). Dube and Renagham m aintained that the physical environment is one of the top attributes considered in the hotel purchase decision among hotel users and it creates value for the guests during their stay. In light of the importance of the physical property of a hotel and in co njunction with the concept of servicescapes, it is important that hotels pay closer attention to the physical

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25 settings. West and Purvis (1992) stated that hotel design should be considered part of the marketing mix because of its importance as a visual ref erence and distinguisher. The authors stressed that many of the messages that a hotel wishes to convey to their guests can be effectively communicated through their hotels design. According to McDonough et al. (2001) hotels are in the business of memor ies ; therefore, hotel owners, architects and interior designers must work carefully to ensure a good and lasting memory for hotel guests. Rutes et al. (2001) argued that the guestroom and the guest bathroom have a more lasting impression on the lodging gu est than any other single interior space more than the lobby, the restaurants, or the function space. A single negative experience can keep a guest from returning to a hotel. This will not only deprive the hotel of that persons future patronage, but pos sibly the patronage of that persons friends and family. Siguaw and Enz (1999) indicated that the architectural style of a hotel did have an impact on the profitability and success of the hotel. They believe that i n order to provide a harmonious and comfortable environment where guests can feel like they are at home, hotels aim to adopt a home like style Design elements in hotel guestroom s that may help create this feeling include residential style lighting, furniture, and materials. Ultimately, a guestroom environment is a place where guest s want to relax and rest. Therefore, hotel designers should understand the function or design of the hotel environment to fulfill a consumers desire to relax and rest. For instance, long -distance travelers can experi ence sleep deprivation because of changed circadian rhythms. Winchip (2008) suggested that variable illumination levels and room -darkening window treatments in guestrooms can help users adjust to a new time zone. Currently, hotels designers are recognizi ng the specific needs of the target markets and identifying features and amenities that these groups most want and expect. According to Rutes

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26 and Adams (1985), the transient business person needs single accommodations, the convention and group markets need double -bed rooms, and the leisure market wants rooms to sleep two or more guests. Also, because each of these market groups uses the room differently, the designer must consider work and meeting functions in one case and family activities in another. The hotel industry is beginning to show an increased interest in lighting. This is due to both an increase in customer demand, particularly from women and business travelers, and new concerns about rising energy costs (Colbert, 2001). Smith (1978) mentioned t hat good lighting in a hotel can transform a dull interior into an exciting place and radically alter its mood from day to night. IESNA (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America) stressed the appearance of space and luminaries, the luminance of r oom surfaces and color appearance as importan t lighting quality issues for hotel guestroom s (Rea, 2000). The lighting designers ( Karlen & Benya 2004) proposed lighting guideline for hotel guestroom s Figure 2 1. Typical H otel Gu estroom L ighting D esign (Karlen & Benva, 2004)

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27 They also provided a lighting design solution in the hotel guestroom shown in Figure 2 1 to address visual tasks in the following manner : 1 A ceiling surface luminaire is mounted in the entry. It distributes light widely, which is e specially needed to illuminate the closet. 2 A lamp is mounted on the wall between the beds. This lamp usually has two separate bulbs and shades, permitting light for either or both beds. This lamp is usually portable, but plugged into the wall. 3 Table and f loor lamps are located near each task (Karlen & Benya, 2004, p.180) A Conceptual Model of the Study Mehrabian and Russells (1974) models provided the theoretical base for the current study to examine the effects of lighting having different color temp erature s and light intensities on emotional states (arousal and pleasure) lighting preference, and behavioral intentions (loyalty ) by using two study groups, Americans and Koreans Mehrabian and Russells (1974) model (M -R model) suggested a paradigm of t he stimulus -organism response (S O R). The interactions between the physical environment (S) and human behavior (R) as mediated by the individuals emotional states (O) suggested an input -output system in which an individuals emotional reactions to envi ronments can generate various behaviors. Input refers to environmental perceptions such as color, light, and smell, and output refers to behavioral responses such as walking, drinking, expressing boredom and taking a nap. The three dimensions that Mehrabi an addresses as basic emotional reactions to an environment, and the source of all feeling, are arousal, pleasure and dominance Pleasure refers to the extent to which individuals feel good, happy, pleased, or joyful in a situation, whereas arousal denot es the degree to which individuals feel stimulated, excited, or active. Dominance is defined as the extent to which a person feels influential, in control, or important.

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28 Approach avoidance is a behavioral response (R) of emotional reactions (O) elicited b y environmental stimuli (S) (Mehrabian, 1976; Mehrabian & Russell, 1974; Donovan & Rossiter, 1982). Mehrabian (1976) stated that, in the M R model, an individuals behavioral responses induced by all environments are categorized into two groups of approach and avoidance. Approach avoidance is defined in a broad sense to include physical movement toward, or away from, an environment or stimulus, degree of attention, exploration, favorable attitudes such as verbally or nonverbally expressed preference or lik ing, approach to a task (the level of performance), and approach to another person (affiliation) (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974, p. 96). Figure 2 2 Outline of the M R M odel (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974) Studies that tested the M R model found supportive re sults for the dimensions of pleasure and arousal, whereas there were discrepancies for the dimension of dominance. Some studies found that dominance did not have a significant effect on approach or avoidance behaviors (Russell & Pratt, 1980; Ward & Russell 1981). Thus, dominance, in relation to approach or avoidance behavior, has not been given much attention in recent studies. For example, Donovan Rossiter, Marcoolyn and Nesdale (1994) and Park & Farr (2007) defined two (pleasure and arousal) rather than three (pleasure, arousal, and dominance) basic dimensions

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29 of emotional states. These studies indicated that the physical environment could be considered the same as the first component of the M -R model: environmental stimuli (S). In addition, the feat ure of behavioral intentions is congruent with aspects of approach avoidance behavior, which is the third component of the M R model: behavioral responses (R). Even though some designers provide d lighting design guide lines for hotel guestroom s there is n o empirical study on the effect of lighting in hotel guestroom s on consumers emotions and preferences. The review of cross -cultural studies revealed similarities and dissimilarities of preference for environmental settings between or among cultural groups However, most of the cross -cultural studies on environmental preferences were conducted in the field of landscape and urban design. Studies on preference s for interior environment s were limited. Scott ( 1993) asserted that the theoretical perspectives of landscape preference are relevant to interior settings. Although these previous studies are helpful in terms of building a theoretical framework for studying preference s for interior environment s they have limitation s because they do not specifically addr ess the concerns of interior design The M R model was applied in many studies on the lighting effects on users in built environment s indicating that lighting affects users mood s and behavior s Yet many of these studies lack an overall framework for co nsidering the color quality and intensity level of lighting in interior environmental settings. As mentioned above, Park and Farr (2007) investigated the effect of the color of light in a retail environment on shopper s and employed cross -cultural compariso n s In contrast to that study, the current study focuse d on not only the effect of the light color quality (warm or cool), but also the light intensity level (dim or bright) on the lighting preference, the emotional states and the behavioral intention s of people from different cultural background s in a hotel guestroom environment. Therefore a conceptual model has been

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30 proposed for the investigation of the effect of lighting conditions in a hotel guestroom on emotional states, preference and behavioral inte ntions of customers from two different cultures (see Figure 2 3 ). This study refines and extends the study model of Donovan et al. (1994) and Park and Farr (2007) study by testing the M R model through the manipulation of specific hotel guestroom lighting factors using a computer graphic perspective s. Figure 2 3 The C onceptual M odel for t he Study

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31 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHOD S This chapter presents the research methods of this study First, the rationale for selecting the experimental settings and ligh ting conditions are presented Then it describes details of the experimental method including the following : the participants, the data collection instruments and the collection procedure L astly, the methods used for data analysis are explained Rational e for Experimental Settings In order to assess the impact of different lighting conditions in a hotel guestroom on emotional states, preferences and behavioral intentions of customers from two different cultures, the research participants were shown color perspective slides which have different lighting conditions of hotel guestroom Although true experimental design h as the direct advantage of enabling variables to be systematically manipulated, compared, and controlled, the construction costs are high and the time requirements are lengthy (Sommer & Sommer, 1997). An alternative method that has been w ell documented in the literature is the use of photographs to represent three dimensional space though a two-dimensional medi um According to Sommer and Sommer (1997) behavioral simulations (showing photographs, videos, or models of settings) are imitations of actual conditions and they are intended to resemble the real situation in many of its functional characteristic s without being mistaken for it. There are several examples of studies (Hendrick Martyniuk, Spencer, & Flynn, 1 977; Marsden 1999; Chayutsahakij 1998) that have successfully used various visual stimuli to measure different aspects of how people experience the built environment. Marsden (1999) used color photographs of existing assisted living buildings to examine the influence of faade elements on the viewers perception of hominess. In this study, Marsden (1999) listed several advantages listed below, of using photographs to represent envir onments:

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32 (1 ) the possibility of including buildings that are located in scattered places without having to obtain responses on site; ( 2 ) a reduction in the amount of time required of participants as a result; (3 ) the ability to focus on specific aspects of designated buildings; and ( 4 ) the ability to control for potential distractions such as inclement weather, seasonal differences, people, cars, signage, poles, wires, glare, and dark shadows A number of empirical studies have demonstrated that responses to photographs of environments correlate rather highly with responses to the actual environments (Feimer, 1984; Stamps, 1990) Hendrick et al. (1977) conducted the same experiment of their previous study on the effect of environmental lighting on users i mpression s and behavior s (Flynn et al. 1973), substituting slides of the lighting arrangements for the real lighting arrangements in demonstration room s They concluded the slides of lighting arrangements are reasonably good as a substitute for a real spac e when semantic differential rating scales is used as the method. The results indicated that 72% of the total comparisons of slides and real space were congruent. Multidimensional scaling of slides, however, did not duplicate the results of the real space The authors stated semantic differential results for slides indicate that slide simulation is promising as a tool for studying probable evaluations of real spaces (Hendrick et al., 1977, p. 505) Photos of various settings have often been used in experi ments involving natural environments because of the difficulty in changing the independent variable in natural settings. Although using numerous alternative settings in experiments leads to a large sample, it is very difficult to control other variables that will not be explored or accounted for in a given study but yet may nonetheless affect other factors that the study set out to examine and thereby potentially decrease the accuracy of the studys findings Chayutsahakij (1998) investigated consumer retai l lighting preferences based on Kaplan s environmental preference theory, taking a specific look at the

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33 preferences for lighting direction. Chayutsahakij (1998) used pictorial representations of the same interior space with different lighting strategies as king users to evaluate these choices based on which they preferred in order from least to most. Lighting Condition s Lighting conditions for this study were identified through hotel design and lighting design guide books (Rutes, 1985; Rea, 2000; Rutes et. al., 2001; Karlen & Benya, 2004). All digital perspectives have been generated into the following seven different scenarios : 1) Slide one four d ifferent lighting conditions with the combinations of two different light color (warm and cool) and intensities (bright and dim) 2) Slide two w arm color and b right lighting, 3) Slide three cool color and bright lighting, 4) Slide four warm color and dim lighting, 5) Slide five c ool color and d im lighting, 6) Slide six four d ifferent intensities of lighting (t he color of lighting was held constant), 7) Slide seven four d ifferent colors of lighting (the intensity of lighting was held constant). Figure s 3 2 to 3 7 present the digital slides used in this study. After classifying these lighting schemes, the inform ation was used to create a virtual chain -hotel guestroom. To define the color of light, the CIE Chromaticity diagram was employed. For warm color light, the reddish and yellowish color at the color temperature between 2,5 00K and 3,5 00K was selected F or cool color light, the bluish and whitish color at the color temperature over 5, 000K was used. The overall hotel guestroom was limited to 36.20 (390 sq.ft.) Materials and colors were chosen to replicate current aesthetic viewpoints. During this phase, a nighttime scene was selected as a background image for each slide. Since the amount of daylight coming into the interior space affects the ligh t level in the interior, day lighting was excluded from the study.

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34 Auto Cad 2008 and 3D Studio 9 were used to build the physical envelope and furniture ; V Ray was employed to add texture, define light sources, and to render the final images. During this pr ocess, the researcher consulted with design experts in different design fields including interior lighting, interior design and color to ensure that all created images well represent typical luxury-hotel guestrooms with designated lighting solutions (se e Figure 3 1) As can be seen in Figure 3 3 to 3 9, the seven slides were presented in a PowerPoint slide Figure 3 1 The Lighting Plan for an Experimental Hotel Guestroom (390 sq.ft. / Not to Scale)

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35 (1) Lighting Condition A (Warm / Bright) (2) Lighting Condition (Cool / Bright) (4) Lighting Condition D (Cool / Dim) (3) Lighting Condition C (Warm / Dim) Figure 3 2. Slide one ( Four Different Lighting C onditions ) Figure 3 3 Slide Two (Warm and Bright L ighting Condition)

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36 Figure 3 4 Slide Three (Cool and Bright L ighting Condition) Figure 3 5 Slide Four (Warm and Dim L ighting Condition)

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37 Figure 3 6 Slide Five (Cool and Dim L ighting Condition ) (2) Lighting Intensity B (Medium High) (1) Lighting Intensity A (Highest) (3) Lighting Intensity C (Medium Low) (4) Lighting Intensity D (Lowest) Figure 3 7 Slide Six (Four Different I ntensit ies of L ighting from High to Low )

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38 (1) Lighting Color A (Cool) (2) Lighting Color B (Medium Cool) (4) Lighting Color D (Warm) (3) Lighting Color C (Medium Warm) Figure 3 8 Slide Seven ( Four Different C olor s of L ighting from Cool to Warm Particip ant s The t arget population in this study was gathered from two universities in both the U.S. and South Korea, and consisted of 175 students 19 to 35 years old. The total group was divided into two subgroups: 8 7 American subjects and 88 Korean subjects. Th e participants in this study were drawn from students taking regular course s at a state university in the southeast region of the U.S. majoring in H uman Performance and Recreation and a national university in the south region of South Korea majoring in Mat erial E ngineering The researcher made arrangements with the professors from the two colleges to solicit students to voluntarily participate in the study. The criteria for the subjects were as follows: (1) were born and raised in America or Korea; (2) are adults 19 to 35 years old; (3) have not taken any lighting courses or worked in

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39 lighting fields; (4) are not color blind; (5) are nonarchitecture and design students. To avoid introducing the additional variable of age effects, subjects ages for both Am ericans and Koreans were limited to the range from 19 to 35years. To control for prior knowledge, individuals who have taken lighting courses or worked as a professional by exercising lighting knowledge were excluded from the study. This study also exclude d architecture, interior design, and landscape architecture students as research participants, since designers tend to perceive the environment differently than nondesigners (Gifford, 2002) Since one of the major goal s of the current study is to help des igners understand users (non-designers) emotions and preference s non -design students were specifically included. Color perception is a very important ability that was required of subjects in this study. In this context, all subjects were asked whether o r not the y have any visual impairment (such as color blindness) that can not be corrected by eyeglasses or contact lenses. Prior to contacting the students to acquire participants for the study, the researcher applied for and was granted permission to use human subjects by the Universitys Institutional Review Board ( see Appendix A) Instruments The data collection instrument for this study was a self administered questionnaire, presented in two sections Section one was designed to obtain demographic and background information on each participant. Section two present ed a series of questions which include d seven parallel lighting slides to identify the effects of lighting with light color and intensity on preferences, emotional states, and behavioral intent ions by comparing two culture groups (see Appendix C & D ). Demographic questions were asked to determine the relationship of the study variables and participants background information and to exclude extraneous variables including age, visual impairment and previous lighting experience. To hold customers purpose of hotel

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40 visiting, the scenario was established by the researcher trying to make the participants be in the hotel guestroom for their business trip. T o investigate the lighting preference in a ho tel guestroom regarding the study variables, participants were asked to perform the following tasks: 1) select the most and least prefer red hotel guestroom lighting among four lighting conditions from Slide one (see Figure 3 2); 2) rat e the preference of e ach lighting condition shown independently from slide two to slide five (see Figure 3 3 to 3 6) using a 5 -point likert scale; 3) Finally, select the most preferable lighting condition among four different intensities of light from slide six (see Figure 3 7 ) and four different colors of light from slide seven (see Figure 38) The questions were adapted from Flynn s study of subjective impressions (Flynn & Spencer, 1977) The measures for emotional states of arousal and pleasure were selected from Mehrabian and Russells pleasure arousal scales (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974). The arousal scale has four adjective items including s leepy, e xciting, w ide awake, and c alm while pleasure was measured using four items such as r elaxed, p leasant, c omfortable, and happy. The ratings were made on a 5 point scale ranging from not at all to very much Additional questions were asked to determine the consistency of the study variables regarding the subject s perception of the room s lighting. It was composed of five items: c ool, b right, w arm, d im, and hazy. The customer loyalty attributes as forms of behavioral intention w ere also assessed using a 7 -point likert scale ranging from 3 as being s trongly disagree to +3 as being s trongly agree P articipants were asked to rate their level of agreement with statements like I would recommend this hotel to my friends This question model was adapted to this study from previous perceived service quality and customer loyalty studies ( Bitner, 1992; Jones & Sasser, 1995; Wakefiel d & Blodgett, 1996)

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41 The questionnaire was originally written in English. In order to improve the reliability and validity of the study, translation was utilized for the Korean questionnaire The English questionnaire was translated into Korean by the inve stigator, and the questionnaire that was translated into Korean was translated back in to English by another translator. The original and back translated questionnaires were compared, edited, and verified. A pilot study was conducted to test the measuring i nstrument prior to conducting the final study as well as to collect data from research subjects to serve as a guide for the major study. Based on feedback from the pilot test the questionnaire was revised. Data Collection The experiment took place at university classrooms in both the U S and Korea. The classroom for the Korean group is about 832 s quare feet (77 ) 32 by 26 (9.8m by 7.9m ), with a height of 9 (2.7m) T he room seats approximately 35. The walls are made of concrete and painted with white color paint. The ceiling is covered by white acoustical ceiling tile s There are two sources of lighting in th e classroom. The first is daylight from the windows on the left side of the classroom and the second is directional light from fluorescent lighting on the ceiling. To avoid introducing the additional variable of the classroom s lighting effects, the natur al light was blocked out by blind and all artificial lighting was turned off. The screen is 7 by 7 (2.1m by 2.1m), rectangular shape d, and white in color. For American participants, a classroom of about 2 496 square feet (232 ), 52 by 48 (15.85m by 14.63m ), was arranged. The room approximately seats 60 students. The ceiling height is 10 (3.05m) and also covered by white ceiling tile s The room has concrete block walls painted with white paint. There are no window s that can introduce natural light and only fluorescent lighting on the ceiling which was turned off during the data collection A white screen that is 7 6 by 7 6 (2.3m by 2.3m ) in size was used

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42 for this test. Participants were asked to complete a survey within a s et time during a class period. After giving their consent to participate in the study (see Appendix B) students were asked to devote a total of 15 minutes of a regularly scheduled class period to participating in the current study. Data Analysis All d ata collected from the experiment settings w ere analyzed in three steps. First, preliminary statistics were obtained using the Statistical Package of the Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive statistics were attained to determine the distributional characterist ics of each variable, including the mean and standard deviation. For three dependent variables including arousal, pleasure and behavioral intentions a reliability test was employed to examine the internal consistency of scales. Three inferential statistical measures were used in this study: 1) T he preference of the four lighting conditions associated with two different color s of light and intensity levels was analyzed by using the Chi -square analysis ; 2) Independent sample t -tests were performed to compar e the differences between the culture groups for hotel guestroom lighting preference; 3) A factorial design with repeated measures was used for three evaluation dimensions (arousal, pleasure, and behavioral intentions) involving the basic design independent variables (2 culture groups x 2 light color s x 2 light intensities ). The selection of an alpha level of 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance.

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43 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS T his chapter presents the results of t he study. The chapter begins with a discussion of the characteristics of the participa nts and the result s of the reliability test. The following section presents findings on lighting preference, emotional states of arousal and pleasure, and behavioral intentions. Characteristics of the Parti cipants A t otal of 89 American subjects volunteered in the study. Two of the 89 subjects were eliminated from the study because one subject was colorblind and t he other was not born and raised in the U.S. Therefore, 87 American subjects who met the requir ements for participation were used for this study. A total of 97 Korean subjects recruited in the study. Nine of the 97 subjects were eliminated f ro m the study because they listed themselves as colorblind. Therefore, 88 Korean subjects who met the requirem ents for participation were used for this study. The total participants in this study consisted of 175 adults. Table 4 1 presents the frequency distribution of the general characteristics of the respondents in each of the groups tested. The 87 American su bjects included 64 males (73.56%) and 23 females (26.44%). The 88 Korean subjects included 65 males (73.86%) and 23 females (26.14%). The 87 subjects in the American group included 26 who were less than 21 years old (29.89%), 58 who were 21 to 25 years old (66.67%), two who were 26 to 30 years old (2.30%), and one who was 31 to 35 years old (1.15%). The 88 subjects in the Korean group included 23 who were less than 21 years old (26.14%), 51 who were 21 to 25 years old (57.95%), 11 who were 26 to 30 years ol d (12.50%), and three who were 31 to 35 years old (3.41%). The study subjects frequency of hotel us e per year ranged from none to more than nine per year. The 87 American subjects group included one who does not use a hotel per year

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44 (1.15%), 31 who use a hotel one to three times per year (35.63%), 24 who use a hotel four to six times per year (27.59%), 18 who use a hotel one to three times per year (35.63%), and 13 who use a hotel more than nine times per year (14.95%). The 88 Korean subjects group include d 33 who do not use a hotel per year (37.50%), 45 who use a hotel one to three times per year (51.14%), nine who use a hotel four to six times per year (10.23%), and one who use s a hotel more than nine times per year (1.14%). Table 4 1. Characteristics o f the Participants Characteristics American (N=87) Korean (N=88) Total (N=175) n % n % n % Gender (1) Male (2) Female 64 23 73.56 26.44 65 23 73.86 26.14 129 46 73.71 26.29 Age (1) Less than 21 years (2) 21 25 years (3) 26 30 years (4) 31 35 years 26 58 2 1 29.89 66.67 2.30 1.15 23 51 11 3 26.14 57.95 12.50 3.41 49 109 13 4 28.00 62.29 7.43 2.29 Hotel us ing / year (1) None (2) 1 3/year (3) 4 6/year (4) 7 9/year (5) more than 9/year 1 31 24 18 13 1.15 35.63 27.59 20.69 14.95 33 45 9 0 1 37.50 51.14 10.23 0.00 1.14 34 76 33 18 14 19.43 43.43 18.86 10.29 8.00 Reliability of Measures Prior to the inferential analysis, Cronbachs alpha test was performed on the variables of arousal, pleasure, and behavioral intention (loyalty). The total value of Cronbachs coefficient alpha test was calculated under each lighting condition: (1) Lighting Condition A warm and bright lighting (2) Lighting Condition B cool and bright lighting, ( 3) Lighting Condition C warm and dim l ighting and (4) Lighting Condition D cool and dim lighting. Table 4 2 show s the result s of the reliability test for the variables under each lighting condition.

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45 Based on the Mehrabian and Russell (1974) arousal scale, four adjective items (sleepy, exciting, a wake, and calm) were used as an arousal measure. Although the reliability value of arousal was low at 0.55, this value was approaching the acceptable level of 0.6 and this scale has been commonly used in the previous studies. Therefore, this measure was ke pt for further analysis. The p articipant s state of pleasure in the hotel guestroom was also measured using four adjectives : relaxed, pleasant, comfort, and happy. The reliability of the scale was acceptable at 0.89. Behavioral intention (loyalty) was meas ured using the level of agreement with three statements: I would recommend this hotel to my friends; I would come back whenever I need hotel services in this city; and if it is possible, I would stay longer in this room. The scale had acceptable i nternal c onsistency at 0.97. Table 4 2. Cronbachs Alpha Coefficients for the Reliabilities of Scales Measure Lighting Condition s Total Lighting Condition A (warm / bright) Lighting Condition B (cool / bright) Lighting Condition C (warm / dim ) Lighting Condition D (cool / dim) Arousal 0. 47 0.60 0.49 0.63 0.5 5 Pleasure 0.86 0.88 0.91 0.92 0.89 Behavioral Intention (Customer Loyalty) 0.97 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.97 Lighting Preference In order to investigate lighting preference, three different statistical analyses were performed based on the types of questions. For the selection of the most and least preferred lighting among four different lighting conditions the Chi -square analysis was utilized. The results of the analysis are shown in table 4 3

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46 Table 4 3. Re sults of the Chi -square Analysis for the Subjects Lighting Preference The Most Preferred Lighting Total Lighting Condition A ( warm / bright) Lighting Condition B ( cool / bright) Lighting Condition C ( warm / dim ) Lighting Condition D ( cool / dim) American 4 (4.60%) 7 (8.00%) 54 (62.10%) 22 (25.30%) 87 (100%) Korean 46 (52.30%) 38 (43.20%) 3 (3.40%) 1 (1.10%) 88 (100%) Total 50 (28.60%) 45 (25.70%) 57 (32.60%) 23 (13.10%) 175 (100%) 2 14.78 p 0.00*** The Least Preferred Lightin g Total Lighting Condition A ( warm / bright) Lighting Condition B ( cool / bright) Lighting Condition C ( warm / dim ) Lighting Condition D ( cool / dim) American 47 (54.00%) 22 (25.30%) 5 (5.70%) 13 (14.90%) 87 (100%) Korean 2 (2.30%) 12 (13.60%) 36 (40. 90%) 38 (43.20%) 88 (100%) Total 49 (28.00%) 34 (19.40%) 41 (23.40%) 51 (29.10%) 175 (100%) 2 79.96 p 0.00*** *** p < .001 For the most preferred lighting condition as illustrated in Figure 4 1 cultural group had a statistically significant impact ( 2 = 1. 21, p < 0.0 00). A greater proportion of American participants (62.10%) evaluated Lighting Condition C (warm / dim) as their most preferred lighting than did Korean participants (3.40%). However, a greater proportion of Korean participants (5 2.30%) selected Lighting Condition A (warm / bright) as the ir most prefer red lighting than did American participants (4.60%). Also, a higher percentage of Korean participants (43.20%) selected Lighting Condition B (cool / bright) as their second preferred lighting than did American participants (8.00%). For the least preferred lighting condition (see Figure 4 1 ), cultural group was statistically significant ( 2 = 1. 21, p < 0.0 00). A greater proportion of American participants (54. 0 0 %)

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47 evaluated Lighting Co ndition A (warm / bright) as their least preferred lighting than did Korean participants (2.30%). C onversely Korean participants selected Lighting Condition C, warm and dim light ( 43.20% ) and Lighting Condition D, cool and dim light ( 43.20% ) as the ir leas t prefer red lighting. Fi g ure 4-1A. A G raph of the Subjects M ost P referred G uestroom L ighting Fig ure 4-1B. A G raph of the Subjects L east Preferred G uestroom L ighting

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48 A factorial design with repeated measures was used to assess lighting preferenc e for the interaction effects of cultural g roups by light color and by light intensity Table 4 4 shows the mean and standard deviation scores. Table 4 4. Mean and Standard Deviation (SD) Scores for Subjects Lighting Preference Cultural Group Mean SD N Lighting Condition A (w arm / bright ) American Group 2.83 1.150 86 Korean Group 3.68 1.056 88 Total 3.26 1.181 174 Lighting Condition B (c ool / bright ) American Group 3.38 .935 86 Korean Group 3.76 1.083 88 Total 3.57 1.027 174 Lighting Con dition C (w arm / dim ) American Group 4.01 1.101 86 Korean Group 2.52 .971 88 Total 3.26 1.275 174 Lighting Condition D (c ool / dim ) American Group 3.56 1.013 86 Korean Group 2.23 .906 88 Total 2.89 1.167 174 5 point Likert type scale: 1 = not at all and 5 = very much Table 4 5. Analysis of Variance for Subjects' Lighting Preference Source df SS MS F P Culture Between Error 1 172 27.347 149.13 0 27.347 .8 6 7 31.541 .000 *** Light Color Light Intensity Culture x Color Culture x Intensity C olor x Intensity Culture x Color x Intensity Within Error 1 1 1 1 1 1 172 .135 19.313 1.117 178.675 20.907 4.407 190.903 .135 19.313 1.117 178.675 20.907 4.407 1.110 .135 15.263 1.119 141.209 18.837 3.971 .714 .000 .292 .000 .000 .048 *** *** *** p .05 **p .01. ***p .001 As can be seen in Table 4 5, a significant three -way interaction was obtained with a calculated F (1, 172) = 3.97, p < .05. As illustrated in Figure 4 2 A merican participants (M =

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49 4.01) evaluated Lighting Condition C (w arm / dim light ) as the most prefer red lighting condition while Korean participants selected Lighting Condition B cool/bright light (M = 3.76) and Lighting Condition A, warm / bright light (M = 3.6 8 ). 2.83 4.01 3.38 3.56 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Bright Dim Warm Cool @ American Group 2.83 4.01 3.38 3.56 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Bright Dim Warm Cool @ American Group 3.67 2.52 3.76 2.23 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Bright Dim Warm Cool @ Korean Group 3.67 2.52 3.76 2.23 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Bright Dim Warm Cool @ Korean GroupPreference Score Figure 4 2. Interaction E ffect for Culture G roup by L ight Colo r by L ight I ntensity on L ighting P reference Independent sample t tests were performed to compare the culture differences for four different light color s and intensities in a hotel guestroom. Both descr iptive statistics and p -values were generated for each and the results are presented in Table 4 6 The preference for the four different light intensities showed statistical significance at t (173) = 8 .5 p = 0.0 00. American participant s preferred the low er intensity levels ( M = 2. 78, SD = 689) of lighting conditions, while Korean participant s preferred the higher intensity levels ( M = 1.94, SD = .613) lighting conditions in a hotel guestroom. Table 4 6. Descriptive S tatistics and Independent S ample t -t est R esults N Mean SD t value p Light Intensity Preference 8.50 000*** (1) American 87 2.78 .689 (2) Korean 88 1.94 .613 Light Color Preference 2.27 .024* (1) American 87 2.41 .857 (2) Korean 88 2.11 .890 p <.05, *** p <.001

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50 For the four different color s of light, there was statistical significance at t (173) = 2.27, p =0.0 24. American participant s preferred the warmer color of light ( M = 2. 41 SD = 857) than Korean participant s did ( M = 2 11, SD = 890) in a hotel guestroom. Ar ousal States A factorial design with repeated measures was used to assess lighting arousal states for the interaction effects of cultural groups by light color and by light intensity. Table 4 7 shows the mean and standard deviation scores. Table 4 7. Mea n and Standard Deviation (SD) Scores for Subjects Lighting Evaluation of Arousal States Cultural Group Mean SD N Lighting Condition A (w arm / bright ) American Group 2.91 .568 87 Korean Group 3.03 .733 88 Total 2.97 .657 17 5 Lighting Condition B (c ool / bright ) American Group 3.37 .581 87 Korean Group 2.85 .741 88 Total 3.11 .713 17 5 Lighting Condition C (w arm / dim ) American Group 3.12 .547 8 7 Korean Group 3.18 1.013 88 Total 3.15 .814 17 5 Lighting Condition D (c ool / dim ) American Gro up 3.18 .634 8 7 Korean Group 2.54 .781 88 Total 2.86 .778 17 5 5 point Likert type scale: 1 = not at all and 5 = very much As can be seen in Table 4 8, significant two -way interactions, culture by intensity and color by intensity were obtained with a calculated F (1,173) = 27.30, p < 0.001 and F(1,173) = 19.036, p < 0.001 respectively. As illustrated in Figure 4 3 American participants (M = 3.27) perceived dim lighting as more arous ing, while Korean participants (M = 3.10) evaluated bright lighting a s more arous ing Both groups perceived the cool and bright lighting condition as more arousing than the warm and bright light ing

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51 Table 4 8. A nalysis of Variance for Subjects Lighting Evaluation of Arousal States Source df SS MS F p Culture Between Error 1 173 10.219 81.802 10.219 .473 21.613 .000 *** Light Color Light Intensity Culture x Color Culture x Intensity C olor x Intensity Culture x Color x Intensity Within Error 1 1 1 1 1 1 173 .203 .953 .319 19.673 8.244 .044 74.923 .203 .953 .319 19.673 8.244 .044 .433 .483 1.323 .759 27.300 19.036 .102 .488 .252 .385 .000 .000 .750 *** *** p .05 **p .01. ***p .001 3 3.11 3.15 2.86 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Bright Dim Warm Cool 3.01 3.1 3.27 2.7 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 American Korean Bright Dim Figure 4 3. Interaction Effect for Culture Group by Light Color by Light Intensity on Arousal Stat es Pleasure States A factorial design with repeated measures was used to assess lighting preference for the interaction effects of cultural g roups by light color and by light intensity Table 4 9 shows the mean and standard deviation scores. As can be seen in Table 4 10, a significant three -way interaction was obtained with a calculated F (1, 173) = 8.305, p < .0 1 As illustrated in Figure 4 4 A merican participants (M = 4.15) evaluated Lighting Condition C (warm/dim light ) as the most pleasurable lighting condition, while Korean participants selected Lighting Condition A, warm and bright light (M = 3.56) and Lighting Condition B, cool and bright light (M = 3. 51).

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52 Table 4 9 Mean and Standard Deviation (SD) Scores for Subjects Lighting Evaluation of Pleas ure States Cultural Group Mean SD N Lighting Condition A (w arm / bright ) American Group 2.82 0.93 87 Korean Group 3.56 0.91 88 Total 3.19 0.99 175 Lighting Condition B (c ool / bright ) American Group 3.26 0.78 87 Korean Group 3.51 0.93 88 Total 3.39 0.87 175 Lighting Condition C (w arm / dim ) American Group 4.15 0.79 87 Korean Group 2.68 0.79 88 Total 3.41 1.08 175 Lighting Condition D (c ool / dim ) American Group 3.70 0.86 87 Korean Group 2.45 0.75 88 Total 3.07 1.02 175 5 point Likert type scale: 1 = not at all and 5 = very much Table 4 10. A nalysis of Variance for Subjects Lighting Evaluation of Pleasure States Source df SS MS F P Culture Between Error 1 173 33.142 94.396 33.142 .546 60.740 .000 *** Light Color Light Intensity Culture x Color Culture x Intensity C olor x Intensity Culture x Color x Intensity Within Error 1 1 1 1 1 1 173 .901 .339 .830 150.111 12.249 5.364 111.744 .901 .339 .830 150.111 12.249 5.364 .646 1.207 .368 1.112 163.029 18.964 8.305 .274 .545 .293 .000 .000 .004 *** *** ** p .05 **p .01. ***p .001 3.56 2.68 3.51 2.45 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Bright Dim Warm Cool @ Korean Group 3.56 2.68 3.51 2.45 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Bright Dim Warm Cool @ Korean Group 2.83 4.15 3.26 3.7 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Bright Dim Warm Cool @ American Group 2.83 4.15 3.26 3.7 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Bright Dim Warm Cool @ American Group Figure 4 4. Interaction Effect for Culture Group by Light Color by Light Intensity on Pleasure States

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53 Behavioral Intention ( Customer Loyalty ) A factorial design with repeated measures was used to assess behavioral intention for the interaction effects of cultural groups by light color and by light intensity. Table 4 11 shows the mean and standard deviation scores. As can be seen in Table 4 12, two significant two -way interactions, culture by intensity and color by intensity were obtained with a calculated F (1,173) = 191.951, p < 0.001 and F (1,173) = 14.157, p < 0.001 respectively. Table 4 11. Mean and Standard Deviation Scores for Subjects Lighting Evaluation of Behavioral Intention ( Customer Loyalty) Cultural Group Mean SD N Lighting Condition A (w arm / bright ) American Group 4.20 1.73 87 Korean Group 5.34 1.26 88 Total 4.77 1.61 175 Lighting Condition B (c ool / bright ) Ame rican Group 4.76 1.38 87 Korean Group 5.34 1.52 88 Total 5.05 1.48 175 Lighting Condition C (w arm / dim ) American Group 5.79 1.36 87 Korean Group 3.37 1.41 88 Total 4.57 1.84 175 Lighting Condition D (c ool / dim ) American Group 5.27 1.40 87 Korean Group 2.86 1.32 88 Total 4.06 1.82 175 7 point Likert type scale: 1 = Strongly Disagree and 5 = Strongly Agree As illustrated in Figure 4 5, American participants (M = 5.53) responded under the dim lighting condition that they w ould recommend the guestroom to their friends while Korean participants (M = 5.34) responded under the bright lighting condition that they would stay longer in that guestroom. Both participants (M = 5.05) responded under cool and bright lighting conditions that they would come back whenever they needed hotel services in that area.

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54 Table 4 12. Analysis of Variance for Subjects Lighting Evaluation of Behavioral Intention (Customer Loyalty) Source Df SS MS F p Culture Between Error 1 173 104.758 310.883 104.758 1.797 58.296 .000 *** Light Color Light Intensity Culture x Color Culture x Intensity C olor x Intensity Culture x Color x Intensity Within Error 1 1 1 1 1 1 173 2.292 60.459 3.306 469.284 27.447 3.447 335.410 2.292 60.459 3.306 469.284 27.447 3.447 1.939 1.161 24.729 1.675 191.951 14.157 1.778 .283 .000 .197 .000 .000 .184 *** *** *** p .05 **p .01. ***p .001 4.48 5.34 5.53 3.12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 American Korean Bright Dim 4.48 4.58 5.05 4.07 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bright Dim Warm Cool 4.48 5.34 5.53 3.12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 American Korean Bright Dim 4.48 4.58 5.05 4.07 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bright Dim Warm Cool Score Figure 4 5. Interaction Effect for Culture Group by Light Color by Light Intensity on Behavioral Intention ( Customer Loyalty)

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55 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCL USION The primary purpose of the study was to understand the impact of different lighting conditions on subjects emotional states (arousal and pleasure) preferences and behavioral intention s (customer loyalty) according to two different cultures, Americans and Koreans in a hotel guestroom. In this chapter, the variables and the associated research questions are reviewed with the theories developed in Chapter 2 and the results generate d in C hapter 4. The limitations of the study are presented and f urther research recommendations and implications of the study are also discussed. Lighting Preference To investigate the overall lighting preference s of two different cultures in a hotel guestroom, participants were asked to select the most and least preferred lighting conditions in slide one The lighting preference was reconfirmed by rating the level of preference through slide two to five The result s show ed that the subjects hotel guestroom pre ferences were significantly affected by cultural background and lighting conditions ( intensity and color of light ) In terms of the most and lea st preferred guestroom lighting 62.10% of the American group preferred the hotel guestroom with warm and dim l i ghting the most and 54.00% of them considered the lighting condition with warm and bright lighting as the least preferable one. In c ontrast to the American groups response 52.30% of the Korean group rated the hotel guestroom with warm and bright lightin g as the most preferable one. Interestingly, a high percentage of Koreans, 4 3.2 0% selected the guestroom with cool and bright lighting as the second most preferable one. The hotel guestroom with cool and dim lighting was rated as the second least preferre d by 43.20% of the Korean group. Contrary to the American group, 40.90% of the Korean group rated the hotel guestroom with warm and dim lighting as the least preferable one.

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56 The results from slide one showed that the American group has a strong lighting p reference in hotel guestrooms However, with respect to the American groups least preferred lighting, this study found that 25.30% of the American group also rated lighting condition B, which has cool and bright lighting, as the least preferred the guestr oom. The result f r om the Korean group s respondents also showed a strong preference in terms of lighting intensity: 95.50% of the Korean participants preferred lighting condition A and B which have bright lighting conditions and 84.10% of them considered l ighting condition C and D with dim lighting as the least preferable one. This result indicates that the Korean groups lighting preference is strongly affected by lighting intensity, but the color of l ighting may not affect their lighting preference as str ongly as light intensity Although it was expected that Koreans prefer to have cool and bright lighting in a hotel guestroom because of the lighting usage in their residence p ossible reasons for the result of Koreans lighting preference are 1) Korean s traditional beliefs affecting Korean housing 2 ) their purpose of staying in a hotel, 3) recent changes in their lifestyle s and 4) the frequency of hotel visits. First of all, traditional Korean housing affected by Feng -shui, Geomancy, and YinYang philos ophy (Hong, 1975) may had influenced on their lighting preference. Since ideal location and orientation are considered to bring good fortune and a house facing south traditionally has been one of the most important design elements (Hong, 1975). In addition a large south -facing door, wall, or window is also preferred to maintain a full view of the outside and natural light The result form Korean participants indicated that Korean group prefer cool and bright lighting source which is similar to natural ligh t in day time C onsequently traditional belief and housing style of Korean may have had an influence on the ir lighting preference.

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57 It is also possible that Americans and Koreans may have different purposes for staying in hotels. Korean s may use hotels mor e for leisure than for business as opposed to Americans who may use hotels more for business purposes. Considering the sizes of Korea and the U.S., this supposition makes sense. The land area of the Republic of Korea is 99 373 (61 750 mile) which is 2/3rds the size of the state of Florida. Moreover, the well -organized transportation system in Korea enables Korean s to make a roundtrip to nearly anywhere in Korea within one day. Generally speaking, business meetings that require travel are scheduled for the shortest amount of time possible to reduce the costs. For this reason, Korean s may have less need to stay in a hotel for business purposes; thus, leisure may be their main reason for using a hotel. In other words, Korean s may expect a hotel guestroom to have not a homey environment but instead an environment that is different from home and, therefore, special because their hotel visit is for leisure purposes. For this reason, Korean s may still prefer the high intensity ligh ting common ly found in their homes, but yet prefer either warm or cool color lighting, depending on the type of color they have in their home, to distinguish the hotel guestroom environment (associated with special leisure time) from their normal, everyday home environment. Moreover, relatively recent changes in the lifestyles of Koreans could affect their preference for lighting. For the last 30 years, an enormous amount of various western cultures ha s spread rapidly in Korea because of the development of Korean industry and international trade (Korea culture and information service 2002). Even though Korean s still prefer bright and cool color lighting in their home, many commercial spaces such as high-end restaurants and luxurious boutiques use dim and w arm color lighting similar to the international trend of lighting for high -end servicescape This change of lifestyle may encourage Koreans to be come familiar with and amenable to warm color lighting.

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58 Finally, the low frequency of hotel use among the Kor ean subjects may have had an influence on the results. As seen in the dem ographic characteristics in this study, the Korean subjects frequency of visiting a hotel is remarkably less than that of American subjects. This indicates the possibility of differe nce s between American and Korean expectation s regarding the environment of a hotel guestroom. Hotel s are not commonly visited by the Korean subjects, so some of them may expect an extraordinary experience in a hotel and therefore, prefer interior settings that differ from their home. In the test to investigate each groups lighting intensity and color temperature preference, the results showed that lighting color, lighting intensity and culture group had a significant effect on the subjects lighting pref erence The results from each group s mean number showed that the American group prefers the dim lighting more than the Korean group. The other test using different lighting color as a factor in arousal showed that the American group prefers the warm color lighting more than the Korean group. In sum, the lighting preference s of the two different cultures regarding a hotel guestroom were significantly different, and th e s e results aligned with Park and Farr s (2007) cross -cultural study. However, the importan t new finding is that the intensity of lighting also strongly and directly had an affect on each groups lighting preference. Arousal States Though arousal is a well accepted measure for investigating the relationship between environmental cues such as li ghting and a persons emotional state, the reliability value of arousal in this study was low at 0.55 A possible reason for the lack in the reliability value of arousal is misinterpretation of the wording by participants. To measure the participants stat e s of arousal, four items of adjectives were used : sleepy, calm, awake, and exciting Even though the researcher translated the English words into the Korean language and then had a Korean

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59 professor translate the Korean back into English to ensure consiste ncy, it may not have been sufficient in terms of communicating the meaning of words. In particular, Koreans may have attached more positive associations to the term exciting than Americans. Despite the lack of the reliability value of arousal, the result s showed that there are significant two -way interactions, culture by intensity and color by intensity, in the test. American participants perceived dim lighting as more arousing than bright lighting while Korean participants evaluated bright lighting as more arousing than dim lighting. Both groups of participants perceived cool and bright li ghting as the most arous ing condition and warm dim lighting also as the second most arous ing one. The result s support the previous studies indicating that arousal levels are influenced by lighting ( Meharibian, 1976; Flynn, 1977; Gifford, 1988; Areni & Kim, 1994; Park & Farr 2007). ). However, the result of American group seems to contradict the findings of Flynn s (1977) study Flynn (1977) examined the subjects arous al level in general interior settings using different lighting compositions and used relaxation as a state associated with lighting conditions. The result of Flynn (1977) s study showed that the participants were more aroused in the cool color and bright l ighting condition. However, Flynn s study focused on a general interior environment rather than specific environments like hotel guestrooms. Moreover, Flynn did not compare the difference in the state of arousal between different culture groups. In sum, t he findings of the current study partially did not support the F lynn s theory the relationship between a person s arousal level and lighting conditions The result suggested that the arousal level under certain lighting conditions in an interior environment is affected by the purpose of the space and user s cultural background. It is suggested that further studies should be

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60 conducted to investigate how people from different cultural backgrounds perceive arousal in various interior environments. P leasure S t ates The participants pleasure states for different lighting conditions in a hotel guestroom were significantly affected by light c olor and intensity and preferred color and intensity of lighting differed based on participants cultural background. The Am erican group felt the most pleasure in the guestroom with low intensity and warm color lighting, while the Korean participants responded that the guestroom with high intensity and warm color lighting was the most pleasant. Moreover, the American participants evaluated the high intensity and warm color lighting room as the least pleasant one while Koreans selected the guestroom with low intensity and cool color lighting as the least pleasant room The results supported the proposed study model of this study by showing that the color and intensity of the light source as environmental stimuli affect users pleasure level w hich is influenced by their cultural background. The strong connection between lighting characteristics and participants level of pleasure in this study also confirmed the Mehrabian Russell model that clearly indicated a connection between environmental dimensions and state of pleasure (Donovan & Rossiter, 1982). In addition, it aligned with previous research using the M R model to investiga te the specific effects of environmental lighting on the experience of persons mood (Areni & Kim, 1994; Donovan et al., 1994; Park & Farr, 2007). This result especially supported Park and Farrs (2007) cross -cultural study indicating cultural differences impact lighting perception of pleasure. T he finding of this study suggested a positive relationship between pleasure and preference. The lighting conditions selected by both groups regarding their preference and pleasure remained constant. The result align ed with previous studies (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974; Mehrabian, 1976; Donovan & Rossiter, 1982) to investigate pleasure plays a

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61 pivotal role in determining approach avoidance behaviors such as preference, physical approach, desire to explore, and affiliati on. Behavioral I ntention (Customer Loyalty) The result of this study did not confirm the proposed study model which expected that the color and intensity of lighting as environmental factors affect a persons behavioral intention (customer loyalty) which is influenced by each persons cultural background. However the results showed that there are two significant two -way interactions, culture by intensity and c olor by intensity, in the test. American group responded under the dim lighting condition that they would be a loyal customer, while Korean subjects responded their loyalty under the bright lighting condition. Both participants responded under cool and bright lighting conditions that they would come back whenever they needed hotel services in that are a. The result suggested that even though the lighting condition in hotel guestrooms may affect which hotel a person selects, it may not be the main or have a direct effect on the persons decision P ossible reasons for this are suggested in previous studi es (Krutson, 1988; Turley & Bolton, 1999; Lauer & Pentak, 2000). Krutsons (1998) comprehensive study showed that both business and leisure travelers considered clean, comfortable, well -maintained rooms, convenient location, prompt and courteous service, s afe and service environment, and friendly and courteous employees important when selecting a hotel for the first time or for repeat visits. Though lighting and interior designers point out that lighting can change how people perceive and experience the spa ce (Winchip, 2008 ), users may perceive a lighting condition in a hotel guestroom as a part of the entire holistic experience and perceived as a whole ( Turley & Bolton, 1999; Lauer & P entak, 2000).

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62 Limitations A few limitations may have affected the result s of this study. One possible limitation of this study is the use of a simulated space instead of an actual environment. Although photographs and digital images have been used in other experimental research, there are some weaknesses to these instruments. F or example, it is possible that slides may influence a peoples impression in some ways that differ from the actual experience of visiting a physical environment. Researchers found that physical environmental image attributes including visual cue s auditor y cues, olfactory cues and temperature s serve as environmental stimuli that interact with consumers responses in hotel environments. However, the current study did not examine if physical stimuli, such as the noise, temperature, and smell of the hotel gue stroom influence d individuals impression. Another limitation is the experimental setting. The data collection environment such as classroom size and lighting sources was not exactly same because the experiment took place in two different University s clas sroom both in the U.S. and Korea. The difference of the experimental setting may cause another variable of participants viewing direction. Moreover, different technology tool like a projector and screen also may introduce the additional variable of color perception. Furthermore, the sample of the current study may have affected the results. Although the current study excluded architecture, interior design and landscape architecture students as research participants, since designers tend to perceive the env ironment differently than nondesigners (Gifford, 2002), the difference in major of each groups (American Human Performance and R e creation, Korean Material Engineering) is can be another limitation. Moreover, t he current study only includes the univers ities students lighting preference emotional state and behavioral intention regarding a hotel guestroom. Thus, the result s of the current study may not represent various hotel users.

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63 Conclusion and Implications This study is an example of simulation res earch. This type of research involves controlled replications of real -world environments, or hypothesized real -world environments for the purpose of studying dynamic interactions within that setting (Groat & Wang, 2002). There are some strengths of this me thodological approach in relation to the current study. First of all, compared to testing peoples responses to an actual situation, simulation is more economical and provides more control. Moreover, ratings by people viewing slides and photographs tend to be similar to those given by people rating the actual scene (Stamps, 1990). O ther strength of this study is the sampling. Samples of Korean s and American s as two different cultures in Park and Farrs study were limited to those students enrolled at Oklaho ma State University during the study period and those people living in Stillwater, Oklahoma. For the sample of Koreans, acculturation may be a variable that could impact the lighting perception and preference. By contrast, the participants of the current s tudy were drawn from university students in both the U.S. and Korea. The current study confirms the assumption that there are differences in how people perceive and feel about different lighting conditions in hotel guestroom environments due to their cult ural background Knowledge generated by this study will contribute to a better understanding of human preference which, in turn, affects lighting solutions in future hotel design. It should provide useful knowledge about the effectiveness of light as a des ign component as well as the value of consumers physical and psychological ambient needs. Moreover, t he results of this study could be useful for designer, users and hotel managers in assessing the quality of a well -designed interior hotel space. Further research may examine different types of interior spaces such as workplace s, retail stores and hospitals T he lighting preference and perception for each type of interior may

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64 vary based on the function of the space and the purpose and activities in each t ype of space. Th e topic of the current study is also worthy of further research since visual stimuli provided by lighting environment s surrounds humans daily and almost constantly. Knez and Kers (2000) found that age and gender interacted with the illuminance and the colour temperature of the lighting causing different kinds of mood shifts. Moreover Kller et al. (2006) indicated that the difference of latitudes affect on psychological mood of workers. These previous studies suggest another further study a reas that could be explored further by a replication of this study include comparison s of lighting perception and preference of 1) males to females, 2) culture groups with specified age ranges, and 3) a random sampling of subjects in several geographical areas of different country.

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65 APPENDIX A IRB APROVAL

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66 APPENDIX B CONSENT FORM I nformed Consent Lighting Preference in Hotel Guestroom: A cross-cultural comparison Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Thank you in advance for you participation. Purpose of the study: The following survey is part of a study that seeks to determine the effects of the different light color and intensity on consumers lighting preference in a hotel guestroom. The result s will be used to make recommendations to hotel industry to improve the hotel service experience. What you will be asked to do in the study: You will be asked to rate eight different lighting conditions generated by computer graphic software. Then, you wi ll be given a short demographic survey that will be used to determine the relationship of your lighting preference and previous experience. This questionnaire is expected to take no longer than 20minutes to complete. Risk and Benefits: There are no expect ed risks or benefits associated with the study. Compensation: There is no compensation for participating in this study. There are no direct benefits to you in completing this survey. Confidentiality: You will NOT be asked to give your name or contact inf ormation. Any personal demographic information will only be used to compare your answer to other participants. Your responses will be anonymous. Voluntary Participation: Participation is voluntary and you are under no obligation to complete this questionn aire. Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at any time without consequence. You do not have to answer any questions that you do not want to answer. If you choose to withdraw, please inform the administrator and y our questionnaire will be destroyed. If you have any questions about this research project, please fell free to contact Pae, Joo Youl, Graduate Student at (352) 6720908 ( choco1217@ufl.edu) and Dr. Park, Nam -Kyu, Assistant Professor, Department of Interior Design at (352) 3920252 ext.338 ( npark@ufl.edu ). For additional information regarding human participation in research, please contact the Campus Institutional Review Board (IRB) in the University of Florida Gainesville IRB Office at (352) 3920433 Principal Investigator s Signature Participant s Signature (Pae, Joo Youl)

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67 APPENDIX C SURVEY INSTRUMENT 1 AM ERICAN VERSION Scene #1 1. Which lighting condition do you most prefer? (1) Room A (2) Room B (3) Room C (4) Room D 1.2 Please, explain why you do you most prefer this. 2. Whic h lighting condition do you least prefer? (1) Room A (2) Room B (3) Room C (4) Room D 2.1 Please, explain why do you least prefer this. Scenario Y ou are in New York for your job interview. You will stay in this hotel room for 3 days. After finishing your interview, you had a dinner and then just have returned your hotel room on 8pm. Before you go to bed, you have some time to relax. Please, evaluate your feeling to 7 guestrooms with different lighting conditions.

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68 Scene #2 #5. 1. Please rate your feeling to this lighting condition. Not Very at all much Not Very at all much Relaxed 1 2 3 4 5 Comfortable 1 2 3 4 5 Pleasant 1 2 3 4 5 Wide awake 1 2 3 4 5 Sleepy 1 2 3 4 5 Happy 1 2 3 4 5 exciting 1 2 3 4 5 Calm 1 2 3 4 5 2. Please rate the lighting condition of this room. Not Very at all much No t Very at all much Cool 1 2 3 4 5 Warm 1 2 3 4 5 Bright 1 2 3 4 5 Dim 1 2 3 4 5 Like 1 2 3 4 5 Hazy 1 2 3 4 5 3. Base on the lighting condition of this room. P lease rate the following statements. Questions Stron gly Strongly Disagree Agree I would recommend this hotel to my friends. 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 I would comeback whenever I need hotel services in this city. 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 If it is possible, I would stay longer in this r oom 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 4. Do you like this lighting condition in this room? (1) Yes (2) No 4.1 If No, what would you recommend to improve the lighting condition of th is room?

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69 Scene #6 1. Which lighting condition do you most prefer? (1) Room A (2) Room B (3) Room C (4) Room D Scene #7 1. Which lighting condition do you most prefer? (1) Room A (2) Room B (3) Room C (4) Room D

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70 The following questions pertain to demographic information. Please choose one answer per question that is the most appropriate for you. 1. Y our gender? (1) Male (2) Female 2. What is your age? (1) Less than 21 (2)21 2 5 (3) 2 6 3 0 (4 ) 31 35 (5) more than 3 5 3. Are you U.S. citizen? (1) Yes (2) No 3 1. If yes, were you born and raised in the U.S.? (1) Yes (2) No 4. How often do you visit a hotel per year? (1) None (2)) 1 3/year (3) 4 6/year (4) 7 9/year (5) more than 9/year 5. Do you have a visual impairments (such as color blindness) that can not be corrected by your glass or contact lenses? (1) Yes (2) No 6. Have you taken any lighting courses or worked as a professional to gain knowledge of lighting? (1) Yes (2) No 7. Do you usually wear glasses or contacts to correct your vision? (1) Yes (2 ) No 7.1 If yes, are you wearing them now? (1) Yes (2) No Thank you for your time!! Joo Youl Pae University of Florida, Department of Interior Design Master Student e -mail: choco1217@ufl.edu

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71 APPENDIX D SURVEY INSTRUMENT 2 KOREAN VERSION Scene #1 1. ? (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D 1.2 2. ? (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D 2.1 Scenario 3 8 7

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72 Scene #2 #5. 1. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 2. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 3. 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 4. ? (1) (2) 4.1 (2)

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73 Scene #6 1. ? (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D Scene #7 1. ? (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D

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74 1. (gender) ? (1) (2) 2. (age) (1) 20 (2) 21 25 (3) 26 30 (4) 31 35 (5) 36 3. ? (1) (2) 1 3 (3) 4 6 (4) 7 9 (5 ) 10 4. ( ) ? (1) (2) 5. ? (1) (2) 5.1 (1) ? (1) (2) University of Florida, Department of Interior Design Graduate Student e -mail : choco1217@ufl.edu phone : 352 672 0908

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78 Park, Y. & Guerin, D. (2002). Meaning and preference of interior color palettes among four cultures. Journal of Interior De sign, 280, 2739. Quellman, E. M. & Boyce, P. R. (2002). The light source color preferences of people of different skin tones. Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Soc iety, 31(1) 1091 18. Rea, M. S. ( 2000). IESNA Lighting H andbook: reference and application, ( 9t h Ed .). New York NY: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Publications Department. Rapoport, A. (1969). House form and culture. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hall. Rapoport, A. (1977). Human aspects of urban form. Towards a man-envir onment approach to urban form and design. Oxford, Pergamon Press. Rapoport, A. (1982). The meaning of the built environment: A nonverbal communication approach. Beverly Hills: Sage. Robertson, T. S. (1980) Consumer Behavior Illinois : Scott Foresman & Com pany. Russell, S (2008) The Architecture of Light, La Jolla, CA : Concept N ine Rutes, W A. & Adams, L. (1985) Hotel Design, Planning and Design, New York NY: W. W. Norton & Company. Rutes, W A., Penner, R H. & Adams, L. (2001). Hotel Design, P lanning and Development New York NY : W. W. Norton & Company. Saito, M. (1994). A cross -cultural study on color preference in three Asian cities: Comparison between Tokyo, Taipei and Tianjin. Japanese Psychological Res earch, 36(4) 219232. Scott, S. C. (1993). Complexity and mystery as predictors of interior preferences. Journal of Interior Design, 19(1) 25 33. Scott, S. C. (1989). Preference, mystery and visual attributes of interiors. a study of relationships. [ D octoral D issertation ] University of Wisconsin Madison WI. Shafer, E. L Jr. & Tooby, M. (1973). Landscape preference: An international replication. J. Leisure Res. 5 60 65. Siguaw, J. A. & Enz, C. A. (1999). Best practices in hotel architecture. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarte rly, 40 4449. Smith, D (1978). Hotel and restaurant design. London, U.K .: Design council Publications Sommer, B & Sommer, R (1997) A practical guide to behavioral research; Tool and Techniques ( 4th Ed .) New York NY : Oxford University Press. Stef fy, G R. (200 8 ). Architectu ra l Lighting D esign ( 3rd Ed.) New York, NY: J Wiley & Sons

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79 Turley, L. W. & Bolton, D. L. (1999). Measuring the affective evaluations of retail space environments. Journal of Professional Servi ces Marketing, 19(1) 31 44. Ve itch, J. A. (1997). Revisiting the performance and mood effects of information about lighting and fluorescent lamp type. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 17, 253262. Veitch, J. A., Gifford, R. & Hine, D. W. (1991). Demand characteristics and full s pectrum lighting effects on performance and mood. Jo urnal of Environmental Psychology, 11, 87 95. Wakefield, K. L. & Blodgett, J. G. (1996). The effect of the servicescape on customers' behavioral intentions in leisure service settings. The Journal of Ser vices Marketi ng, 10(6) 4562. Ward, L. M. & Russell, J. A. (1981). The psychological represent of molar physical environment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, 121152. West, A. & Purvis, E. (1992). Hotel Design; The need to develop a st rategic approach. International Journal of Contemporary Hospit ality Management, 4(1) 1522 Winchip, S M. (2008 ). Fundamentals of Lighting New York NY: Fairchild Publishers Yang, B. B. & Brown, T. B. (1992). A cross -cultural comparison of preference for landscape styles and landscape elements. Environment and Behavior. 24141, 47 1 507. Yan o, Y. & Hashimoto, K. (1997). Preference for Japanese complexion color under illumination. Color Research and Application. 22, 269274. Zube, E. H. & Mills, L. V., Jr. (1976). Cross -cultural explorations in landscape perception. In Studies in landscape perception. Inst. for Man & Environ., Univ. of Mass., Amherst, Mass. 162169

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80 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Joo Youl Pae was born in Pohang South Korea in December 1979. In February of 2004, he obtained a Bachelor of Science in h ousing and i nterior d esign from Kon-K uk University, Seoul, Korea. After gaining working experience as an interior designer in Seoul, South Korea, Joo Youl decided to go to the University of Florida to earn his Master of Interior Design. His primary research interest focuses on the culture div ersity in interior environment. After his August 2009 graduation, Joo Youl plans to work for an interior design firm that specializes in hospitality design in Southern California.