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Designscholar

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024789/00001

Material Information

Title: Designscholar Examining Creative Thinking in an Online Learning Community for Interior Design Graduate Students
Physical Description: 1 online resource (143 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Ransdell, Marlo
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: creativity, design, education, graduate, interior, motivation, online, technology
Design, Construction, and Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Design, Construction, and Planning Doctorate thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Designscholar: Examining Creative Thinking in an Online Learning Community for Interior Design Graduate Students This study examined the creative thinking of interior design graduate students in an online learning community. This study considered potential changes in creative thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration) about design research resulting from peer-led online discussions. It further studied the learner characteristics of personal motivation and domain-relevant skills as predictors of creative thinking in interior design graduate students. This study used 21 students from three interior design graduate programs across the United States. These students participated in online discussions on the Designscholar website for six-weeks during the fall of 2008. Personal motivation was assessed with a standardized instrument, the Work Preference Inventory, and domain-relevant skills were evaluated with a locally developed instrument. The information from these surveys was compared with pre and post-test essay measures that assessed creative thinking and the dimensions of creative thinking; (fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration). The findings suggest that the use of peer discussions in an online learning community like Designscholar can increase the creative thinking about design research in interior design graduate students with particular benefit to incoming students who hold previous degrees in fields unrelated to interior design. It also found that intrinsic motivation positively influenced creative thinking about design research, while extrinsic motivation had a negative impact. The interactions in the online discussions lead to significant gains in creative thinking about understanding and defining a personal interest in interior design research.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Marlo Ransdell.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Portillo, Margaret B.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024789:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024789/00001

Material Information

Title: Designscholar Examining Creative Thinking in an Online Learning Community for Interior Design Graduate Students
Physical Description: 1 online resource (143 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Ransdell, Marlo
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: creativity, design, education, graduate, interior, motivation, online, technology
Design, Construction, and Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Design, Construction, and Planning Doctorate thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Designscholar: Examining Creative Thinking in an Online Learning Community for Interior Design Graduate Students This study examined the creative thinking of interior design graduate students in an online learning community. This study considered potential changes in creative thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration) about design research resulting from peer-led online discussions. It further studied the learner characteristics of personal motivation and domain-relevant skills as predictors of creative thinking in interior design graduate students. This study used 21 students from three interior design graduate programs across the United States. These students participated in online discussions on the Designscholar website for six-weeks during the fall of 2008. Personal motivation was assessed with a standardized instrument, the Work Preference Inventory, and domain-relevant skills were evaluated with a locally developed instrument. The information from these surveys was compared with pre and post-test essay measures that assessed creative thinking and the dimensions of creative thinking; (fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration). The findings suggest that the use of peer discussions in an online learning community like Designscholar can increase the creative thinking about design research in interior design graduate students with particular benefit to incoming students who hold previous degrees in fields unrelated to interior design. It also found that intrinsic motivation positively influenced creative thinking about design research, while extrinsic motivation had a negative impact. The interactions in the online discussions lead to significant gains in creative thinking about understanding and defining a personal interest in interior design research.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Marlo Ransdell.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Portillo, Margaret B.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024789:00001


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DESIGNSC HOLAR: EXAMINING CREATIVE THINKING IN AN ONLINE LEARNING COMMUNITY FOR INTERIOR DESIGN GRADUATE STUDENTS By MARLO EVELYN RANSDELL A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009 1

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2009 Marlo E. Ransdell 2

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To m y boys Joey, Joel, and Josh 3

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ACKNOWL EDGMENTS I would first like to sincerely thank my family for their love and support. I would also like to extend my gratitude to my committee chair, Dr. Margaret Portillo, for her amazing guidance and patience throughout my educational career. Many thanks go to my committee members; Dr. M. Jo Hasell, Dr. Colleen Swain and Professor John Maze for their expertise and wisdom for the direction of this research. Their encouragement and support for the study was greatly appreciated. I want thank my wonderful editor, Sherry Riley, whose assistance proved invaluable. Additional thanks to my consulting statistician Kunle Kutu. Thank you to the Florida State University graduate students, who I am deeply in debted, for taking the time to take part in the essay judging process of the study, Tracie Kelly and Taneshia West. Further, I would like to thank Dr. Jill Pable for giving me a chance to pilot test this study in her class at Florida State University during the fa ll of 2007. I also extend my gratitude to Dr. M. Jo Hasell at the University of Florida, Dr. Cigdem Akkurt at Iowa St ate University, and Dr. Janetta McCoy of Washington State University for their cooperation in coordinating student involvement in the dissertation study during the fall of 2008. Lastly, I would like to thank all the students who took part in the pilot and dissertat ion studies from Florida State University, Iowa State University, University of Florida, and Washington St ate University. 4

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................8LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................................10ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................11 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .13Introduction .............................................................................................................................13Background .............................................................................................................................13Purpose ...................................................................................................................................17Problem Statement ..................................................................................................................18Research Questions .................................................................................................................20Questions about Creative Thinking .................................................................................20Questions about Personal Motivation ..............................................................................20Questions about Domain Expertise .................................................................................20Limitations ..............................................................................................................................21Conclusion ..............................................................................................................................222 REVIEW OF LITERATURE.................................................................................................23Introduction .............................................................................................................................23Theoretical Background: Constr uctivist Educational Theory ................................................23Interior Design Higher Education ...........................................................................................30Background in Interior De sign Graduate Education.......................................................30Componential Theory of Creativity .................................................................................33Dimensions of Creative Thinking ...................................................................................35Online Learning in Higher Education .....................................................................................36Online Learning Communities ........................................................................................36Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) .................................................................38Online Learning in Interior Design Education ................................................................41Conclusion ..............................................................................................................................453 METHODLOGY................................................................................................................... .47Introduction .............................................................................................................................47Theoretical Foundation of Designscholar ..............................................................................47Instruments .............................................................................................................................49 5

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Work Preference Inventory (W PI)...............................................................................49Creative Thinking Assessment of Design Research Essay .............................................52Background Survey .........................................................................................................53Pilot Study ..............................................................................................................................53Pilot Study: Lessons Learned .................................................................................................54Dissertation Study ...................................................................................................................57Sample .............................................................................................................................60Module: Week One ..........................................................................................................62Module: Week Two .........................................................................................................63Module: Week Three .......................................................................................................64Module: Week Four .........................................................................................................64Module: Week Five .........................................................................................................64Module: Week Six ...........................................................................................................64Summary .................................................................................................................................654 RESULTS...................................................................................................................... .........66Introduction .............................................................................................................................66Assessing Change in Creative Thinking .................................................................................67Questions about Creative Thinking .................................................................................67Summary ..........................................................................................................................69Assessing Personal Motivation and Its Impact on Creative Thinking ....................................70Questions about Personal Motivation ..............................................................................70Summary ..........................................................................................................................75Assessing Domain Expertise and Its Impact on Creative Thinking .......................................75Questions about Domain Expertise .................................................................................75Summary ..........................................................................................................................79Participation Data ...................................................................................................................79Conclusion ..............................................................................................................................835 DISCUSSION................................................................................................................... ......85Introduction .............................................................................................................................85Questions about Creative Thinking ........................................................................................85Questions about Personal Motivation .....................................................................................91Questions about Domain Expertise ........................................................................................93Participation ............................................................................................................................96Limitations ..............................................................................................................................98Future Research: Recommendations for Designscholar .......................................................101Recommendations for Online Learning Comm unities for Interior Design Education .........103APPENDIX A RESEARCH DESIGN..........................................................................................................105B PILOT TEST INSTRUMENTS OVERVIEW.....................................................................107 6

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Constructivist Online Learning Environm ent Survey (COLLES)....................................107Attitudes Towards Thinking and Learning Survey (ATTLS) ..............................................107Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) ..................................................................................107C INSTRUMENT: WORK PREFER ENCE INVENTORY (WPI).........................................109D DESIGN RESEARCH ESSAY RUBRIC............................................................................110Pre-Test Rubric .....................................................................................................................110Post-test Rubric .....................................................................................................................111E INSTRUMENT: BACKGROUND SURVEY.....................................................................112F INSTRUCTOR PACKET.....................................................................................................113Introduction Letter ................................................................................................................113Instructor Guide ....................................................................................................................114Student Handout ...................................................................................................................115Informed Consent Document ................................................................................................116G SCREEN SHOTS OF DESIGNSCHOLAR HOMEPAGE..................................................118H SCAFFOLDING EXAMPLES.............................................................................................119Discussion Example 1 ...........................................................................................................119Discussion Example 2 ...........................................................................................................121I DESIGN RESEARCH ESS AY: STUDENT EXAMPLE....................................................123Pre-Test Rubric .....................................................................................................................123Pre-Test Example ..................................................................................................................124Post-test Rubric .....................................................................................................................125Post-Test Example ................................................................................................................126J REFERENCES USED IN DESIGNSCHOLAR DISCUSSIONS.........................................128Topical Group References ....................................................................................................128Discussion 1 References .......................................................................................................129Discussion 2 References .......................................................................................................131Discussion 3 References .......................................................................................................133Discussion 4 References .......................................................................................................135LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................137BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................143 7

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 1-1 Variables in the study. ........................................................................................................20 2-1 Educational Structure .........................................................................................................27 3-1 Pilot study weekly outline of activities ..............................................................................55 3-2 Background degrees in the sample ....................................................................................60 3-3 Interrater reliability analysis of judging process. ...............................................................61 3-4 Word count range and average for Re search Knowledge and Interest Essays. .................62 4-1 Variables in the study. ........................................................................................................66 4-2 Comparison of creativity pre and pos t-test scores: Overall creativity. ..............................67 4-3 Comparison of creativity pre and posttest scores: Research K nowledge Essay...............68 4-4 Comparison of creativity pre and post-te st s cores: Research Interest Essay. ...................69 4-5 Linear regression analysis: Probab ility of intrinsic motivation scales as a predictor of creative thinking: Combined Essays.............................................................................71 4-6 Linear regression analysis: Probab ility of intrinsic motivation scales as a predictor of creative thinking: Research Knowledge Essay.............................................................72 4-7 Linear regression analysis: Probability of extrinsic m otiv ation scales as a predictor of creative thinking flexibility : Research Knowledge Essay. ...........................................73 4-8 Linear regression analysis: Probability of extrinsic m otiv ation scales as a predictor of creative thinking elaboration: Research Interest Essay. ...............................................74 4-9 Linear regression analysis: Probability of dom ain relevant skills as predictors of creative thinking: Combined Essays. ................................................................................76 4-10 Linear regression analysis; Probability of residential career in terest as a predictor of creative thinking: Combine Essays. ..................................................................................76 4-11 Linear regression analysis: Probability of dom ain relevant skills as predictors of creative thinking: Rese arch Knowledge Essay. ................................................................77 4-12 Linear regression analysis; Probability of residential career in terest as a predictor of creative thinking: Rese arch Knowledge Essay. .................................................................78 8

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4-13 Linear regression analysis: Probability of domain relevant skills as predictors of creative thinking: Rese arch Interest Essay. ......................................................................78 4-14 Interactions of topical groups in online discussions over six-weeks.................................79 4-15 Journals used by students during th e first three online discussions. ..................................80 9

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LIST OF FI GURES Figure page 2-1 Constructivist Reflection Cycle (Oliver 2000, p. 7)..........................................................28 2-2 Componential Theory of Creativity Model (Amabile, 1983). ...........................................33 4-1 Scatterplot of the impact of intrin s ic motivation on overall creative thinking. .................71 4-2 Scatterplot of intrinsic motivation on crea tive thinking in th e Research Knowledge Essay. .................................................................................................................................72 4-3 Scatterplot of extrinsic motivation on crea tive thinking in th e Research Knowledge Essay. .................................................................................................................................73 4-4 Scatterplot of extrinsic motivation impact on creative thinking in the Research Interest Essay. ....................................................................................................................74 10

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Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy DESIGNSCHOLAR: EXAMINING CREATIVE THINKING IN AN ONLINE LEARNING COMMUNITY FOR INTERIOR DESIGN GRADUATE STUDENTS By Marlo Evelyn Ransdell August 2009 Chair: Margaret Portillo Major: Design, Construction, and Planning This study examined the creative thinking of inte rior design graduate students in an online learning community. This study considered pote ntial changes in creat ive thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality, and ela boration) about design research resulting from peer-led online discussions. It further studied the learner ch aracteristics of persona l motivation and domainrelevant skills as predictors of creative thinking in interi or design graduate students. This study used 21 students from three interior design graduate programs across the United States. These students participat ed in online discussions on the Designscholar website for sixweeks during the fall of 2008. Personal motivation was assessed with a standardized instrument, the Work Preference Inventory, and domain-releva nt skills were evaluated with a locally developed instrument. The information from thes e surveys was compared with pre and post-test essay measures that assessed creative thinking a nd the dimensions of creative thinking; (fluency, flexibility, originalit y, and elaboration). The findings suggest that the use of peer disc ussions in an online l earning community like Designscholar can increase the creative thinking about design research in interior design graduate students with particular benefit to incoming students who hol d previous degrees in fields unrelated to interior desi gn. It also found that intrinsi c motivation positively influenced 11

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creative thinking about design rese arch, while extrinsic m otivation had a negative impact. The interactions in the online discussions lead to significant gains in creative thinking about understanding and defining a personal in terest in interior design research. 12

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Introduction Experienced design students, educators and practitioners alike can surely recall the excitement and gratification that came from solving a design problem through research and analysis of the many complex factors that infl uenced the design. Whether the discovery comes from studying design related information or the late st influences seen in design literature, the experience was enhanced when shared with peers. Satisfaction came from consulting with peers on a new project, brainstorming on research idea s, and discussing common challenges. These interactive experiences expanded the opportunity to dial ogue with those who understood the issues. Whatever the reason for the dialogue, do these discussions also expand the desire and ability to think creatively and co mmunicate effectively? What if beginning graduate students, regardless of their geographical location, could acce ss an online network of peers to discuss their emerging interests, collectively analyze the disc iplines that impact their design concepts, and work together to gain advanced knowledge to find new solutions to design challenges. If done in an online forum, students could not only adva nce their understanding of design research but become a larger network of emerging research and even improve their overall communication skills. Recent changes in t echnology and increasing acceptan ce of online learning in higher education provide the ideal opportun ity to examine these issues a nd consider new strategies in course structure that could ma ximize graduate student opportuniti es to sharpen their creative research skills. Background Careful study into interior design gradua te curriculum has shown that effective educational programs require the development of thoughtful and precise research and

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communication skills, including wr iting, critical readi ng, qualitative thinki ng, and process of analysis and synthesis (Wolf, 1996, p. xi). These skills are essential to graduate students in interior d esign due to the interd isciplinary nature of this fiel d of academic study. While faculty within programs tailor and guide thesis research, students must be able to comprehend, analyze, and synthesize complex research topics from a wide range of subjects as diverse as sustainability, historic preserva tion, and environmental psychology. In addition to being interdisciplinary in natu re, interior design is a constantly evolving academic discipline with a growing common body of knowledge (Carll White & Dickson, 1994; Dohr, 2007). Recipients of an interior design graduate degree are expected to build upon previous research and add to the knowledge base (Carll White & Dickson, 1994; Guerin & Thompson, 2004). Research, for the purposes of this study, is previous literature and documentation on the discovery, interpretation, and development of methods and systems for the advancement of interior design (Dickenson & Mars den, 2009). Research-based design solutions from previous research findings give future interior designers a way to base, defend, and rationalize the design decisions they make (Guerin & Thompson, 2004; Hasell & Scott, 1996). Incorporating research into design education is a way to advance th e scholarly culture of interior design and bridge the practice and academic worlds (Dohr, 2007). Also, the ability to incorporate research-based design solutions into the practice of interior design has recently emerged as an important and necessary skill for in terior design students. As a result, more and more educators are including this important tool in traditional studio education. This trend is reinforced by the recent change in standards for all accredited interior design programs set forth by the interior design accrediting body, the Council for Interior Design Ac creditation (CIDA). The 2009 CIDA standards call for interior desi gn students to evaluate select, and apply 14

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inform ation and research findings to design and for programs to expose students to design research and problem solving methods in undergraduate and graduate curriculum (Council for Interior Design Accreditation, 2009 ). Communication and critical dialogue can help further student understanding about design research and how it is incorporated into successful design solutions. The goal of this dissertation study was to examine an online learning community (OLC) created for interior design mast ers students and the impact of online discussions on changes in their creative thinking about design research. Fu rther, it seeks to evaluate and determine the influence of personal motivation and domain expertise on creative thinking. Using online discussions as a vehicle for co mmunication about design research allows students to heighten their awareness of research topi cs and methodologies. By discu ssing current lite rature, students begin to create a necessary foundation to develop original and relevant re search in the field. Prior exposure to design-based research may be limited for students due to many coming from other backgrounds than design, and because research has typically not been emphasized in undergraduate interior design programs. A focus report in the Journal of Interior Design on the interior de sign body of knowledge within the discipline highlights effective commun ication as a basic competency in the discipline need (Guerin & Martin, 2004). The process of transferring information from one source to another is crucial for interior designers who must convey thei r design solutions and decisions many times to clients, contract ors, and related professionals. Without effective communication, designers will be unable to convey their visions. To furthe r better communicat ion, studies call on programs to provide more opportunities for st udents and faculty to engage in dialogue and the exchange of ideas of scholarly merit (Guerin & Thompson, 2004, p. 7). This needed 15

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dialogue can take s place face-to-face or remotely usi ng computer-mediated communication (CMC) and can be facilitated through oral and/ or written means. Through the use of current technologies, CMC s allow students to interact with spec ial interest groups that share common research interests. These connections would not be formed in the daily face-to-face student interactions within programs. Using a delivery method like asynchronous online discussions, students can interface with others engaged in a design research process regardless of geographic and time differences. Previous research in online di scussions shows that cultivati ng online relationships, providing feedback, and reflecting on others opinions can increase interactivity and scholarship among students resulting in a higher order of cr eative thought (Dutt-Doner & Powers, 2000; Romiszowski & Ravitz, 1997). Online discussion s afford students the opportunity to reflect upon and analyze their own opinions, increase their motivation in education, and share resources with other peers in terested in similar topics (Chickeri ng & Ehrmann, 1996). Studies show that the reflective writing activities that take place in online discussions gr oups enhance critical and creative thinking in students and have applications across disciplines (Cisero, 2006). For interior design, researchbased design relies on communication skills and refl ective writing to integrate existing literature findings in to current design solutions. Inte rior design graduate students engaged in developing a research agenda can benefit from reflective writing within online discussions through networking, sharing ideas an d resources, and considering the divergent opinions within a group of peers. Likewise in design research and de velopment, a cycle of imaging, presenting, and testing occurs where desi gners and researchers move away and toward problem resolution (Zeisel, 2006). Communication and the oppor tunity to reflect on ideas maintain the cycle of development that yields creative solutions in design practice and research. 16

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Specifically, a graduate degree in interior design should incl ude both professional design content and research m ethods to promote the integration of res earch into the design process (Weigand & Harwood, 2007, p. 3). The online learning community tailored for inte rior design graduate education is a new and innovative way to increase co mmunication skills, advance creative thinking about design research, and supplement the traditional methods of graduate seminar instruction with current technologies. Online discussions reinforce th e important cycle of imaging, presenting, and testing of ideas within a supportive, discipline-specific peer audience with similar research interests. Wider exposure can al so introduce a variety of design research topics and produce new theoretical and methodological a pproaches to design research. Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of an online instructional module that uses online discussions to promote creative thinking about design research. The original module designed for this dissertation research, Designscholar created by the author of the study, was designed to promote online in teraction among graduate students at geographically diverse interior design graduate programs. The fram ework for the study reflects Theresa Amabiles componential model (1983) that defines creativit y as a function of three learner components: creative thinking skills, persona l motivation, and domain-relevant skills. The purpose of the Designscholar module is to tap into all three com ponents. This study evaluates potential changes in creative thinking about design research through pre and post measures. Further, the study assesses the dimensions of creative thinking identified in previous literature as fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration of ideas (Torrance, 1988). Evaluating these dimensions gives insight into specific facets of creativ e thinking that impact participation in the Designscholar online module. The interconnectedness of the learner and content constructs is 17

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central to this study, and hypothesi zed intrinsically m otivated learners would show greater gains in creative thinking about design research than those less internally motivated counterparts. Research has shown that intrin sically motivated students appear driven by their own personal desires such as challenge and enjoyment whereas extrinsically motivated students are driven by reward and recognition (Amabile, Hill, Hennesse y, & Tighe, 1994). The componential theory of creativity describes intrinsic motiv ation as positively affecting an individuals creativity where challenge drives the creative process (Amabile 1983). Namely, researchers see extrinsic motivation, or creativity through reward, as detrimental to the creative process (Amabile, 1996; Kaufman, 2002). Along with examining personal motivation through a survey, the study also assesses domain-relevant skills Through a simple background questionnaire, students provide information on their educational background, ex perience in design, and exposure to design research thus far. This assesses the students previous knowledge, experience, and expertise in the field of interior design. Creative thinking, pe rsonal motivation, and domain-relevant skills are examined together as avenues to enhance creat ivity and the vital components of the discovery process in design research. See Appendix A for a diagram of the research design. Problem Statement Involving students in discussions about the si gnificance of research and scholarship in interior design during graduate school is cri tically important. Not only can this heighten awareness and interest in resear ch but it can also increase dialogue between future practitioners, educators, and/or researchers a nd therefore, increase the sense of community among those in the interior design field. Communities define themselves by the commonalities of membership, influence, integration and fulfillment of needs, and shared emotional connection (McMillian & Chavis, 1986). Belonging to a community of de sign scholars can increase exposure to new and diverse ideas about design research. The act of creating and particip ating in a scholarly 18

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community is proposed to enhance the graduate st udent learning experience. This is especially im portant in relatively low enrolled programs. Of 169 CIDA accredited undergraduate programs, 52 programs additionally offer graduate degrees in inte rior design or related fields with a 2-3 year completion time (Interior Design Educators Council, 2009). More than 64% of these graduate programs had 10 or fewer students enrolled in 2004 with 7% reporting only 1 or 2 students. For students enrolled in a small graduate program, discussions about interior design research with students who have similar interest s may be exceedingly difficult, given the diverse research topics students gravitate to even with in small programs. Using online discussions can broaden graduate student peer communication and enhance awarene ss and a personal interest in design research. This could also be a means for creating a community to advance research in the interior design field through nurturing members. A few published studies have utilized onlin e technologies to connect students from different programs who are engaged in studio design projects, but this does not seem to be systematically integrated into either course work or curricula (Botti-Salitsky, 2005; Kucko, Prestwood, & Beacham, 2005; Matthews & Weigand, 2001). Recently, there has been more use of online technology for interior design educatio n. The Savannah College of Art and Design has started an online blog to connect grad student s (Savannah College of Art and Design, 2009). Also, Colorado State implemented a hybrid degr ee program that uses online classes to supplement face-to-face classes minimizing time sp ent on campus (Colorado State University, 2009). However, these few instances of distance de livery integration in tr aditional design schools truly call for more in-depth research into the changing fi elds of design, education, and technology to inform successful use of online learning in the discipline. 19

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Research Questions Questions about Creative Thinkin g What is the relationship between participation in Designscholar and overall creative thinking about design research? What is the relationship between participation in Designscholar and creative thinking about understanding design research? What is the relationship between participation in Designscholar and creative thinking about defining a personal inte rest in design research? Questions about Personal Motivation What is the relationship between personal motivation and overall creative thinking about design research? What is the relationship between personal motivation and creative thinking about understanding design research? What is the relationship between personal motivation and creative thinking about defining a personal interest in design research? Questions about Domain Expertise What is the relationship between domain expertise and overall creative thinking about design research? What is the relationship between domain expertise and creative thinking about understanding design research? What is the relationship between domain expertise and creative thinking about defining a personal interest in design research? Table 1-1. Variables in the study. Creative Thinking Motivation Domain Relevant Skills Fluency Intrinsic Year Enrolled Flexibility Challenge Design Education Originality Enjoyment Design Work Experience Elaboration Extrinsic Design Interest Compensation Commercial Practice Recognition Residential Practice Academic Teaching Academic Research 20

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Limita tions This study has a modest sample size (n=21), but represented three geographically diverse interior design graduate programs across the United States. The programs involved handled participation in this module differently. The samp le consisted of 14 from Iowa State University, while Washington State involved 5 students. Th ese two of the three institutes required participation and assessed a grade for their stude nts based on their involve ment. The University of Florida started with 6 student s, but only finished with 2 students who completed the module. The remaining faculty member made this an op tional activity with no grade and saw high student attrition. This may speak to the importance of external motivation and/or perhaps idiosyncratic issues with the individual students. This study focused on masters students tradi tional graduate theses, and project based theses with a research component It did not measure the differences in how these two types of students reacted, and this should be considered for future research. However, these findings can be generally applied to the vari ety of graduate programs currently in interior design (MS, MA, MID, and MFA). Students had diverse educatio nal backgrounds with 12 having design related undergraduate degrees including; in terior design, architecture, and art, and 9 having degrees not related to interior design. This study did not have any students in terested in pursuing a PhD after completion of their masters degree. Therefore future research may want to examine learning communities involving doctoral students; yet, the rea lity is that most master s students in interior design will not pursue research careers. It does, however, ne ed to be acknowledged that research-based design is gaining increased reco gnition in the field as professionals apply an understanding of design research within their practice. Armed with a masters level specialization, these students are gaining needed domain expertise. In conjunction with domain 21

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expertise and personal motivation, creative thinking skills contribute to ove rall creativity of practicing p rofessionals and academics with in the field of interior design. Conclusion The study explored the relationship among the ke y learner characteristics of creative thinking skills, personal motivation, and dom ain-re levant skills in an online learning module focused on design research The outcome of the module was an online discussion forum that introduced learners to a range of design research and facili tated peer knowledge building, creative thinking, and critical discourse in an online comm unity. This technology allowed diverse learners to advance their creative th inking about design research through existing literature and peers within the community who may have not been available for face-to-face interaction. This learner inter action incorporates multiple points of view in turn advancing expertise and needed creative thinking within a sc holarly culture of design inquiry (Dohr, 2007). 22

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23 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Introduction The development of the interior design graduate student online learning community for this study, Designscholar, was grounded in constructivist ed ucational theory. The following review defines and discusses the educational th eory used in the study followed by an overview on the current state of interior design graduate education. Educational th eory and interior design education are further related to the literature on creativity and di mensions of creative thinking. The closing discussion examines online learning in higher education and focuses on interior design applications. Theoretical Background: Constructivist Educational Theory To understand how constructivist educationa l theory guided the development of this research study, it is important to review the major philosophical paradigms that shaped educational theories. A paradigm is a consensu s of opinion within a scie ntific community on the theoretical assumptions, techniqu es, and laws within a specific context (Chalmers, 1982). A paradigm is a comprehensive belief system that guides research and practice in a field (Heinecke, Dawson, & Willis, 2001, p. 295). Heinecke, Dawson, and Willis (2001) further identify paradigm characteristics as taking positions on a) ontol ogy (the nature of reality), b) epistemology (the nature of knowledge) and c) methodology (the nature of how one comes to know). Paradigms vary from author to author but two generally accepted competing paradigms are positivism and interpretivism ((Heinecke, Dawson, & Willis, 2001). For the purposes of this study, these two philosophies will be compared and contrasted. The goal of a positivist resear cher is to uncover universal truths. The ontology of the paradigm is that probable truth is knowable because it is extern al to that of the learners mind

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and reality (Heinecke, D awson, & Willis, 2001). The epistemology belief assumes the researcher will maintain an objective stance to obtain discoverable facts. The researcher and learner are outsiders taking in information to reach closer to an external truth. For example, instructors who align themselves with positiv ism see the goal of education as acquiring knowledge (universal truths) leading to the mastery of a predetermined skill set (Fosnot & Perry, 2005). Methodology systematically a pplies the scientific method of inquiry to uncover universal truths and sees this as the only source of knowledge. The sc ientific method allows objective collection and judgment of facts and uses induction to generalize probable truths to teach and inform. The behaviorist educational theory is reflected in semi nal works by Ivan Pavlov (1927) and B.F. Skinner (1953). It focuses teaching and learning on the teacher. Behaviorists master a pre-determined set of skills or content in learning. Behaviorism defines the learner as a participant who observes an instructor discuss a topic or de monstrate an activity. The learner needs external motivation and is perceived as a passive and subm issive learner (Skinner, 1953). This method has implications in modifying behavi or, but does not explain a significant change in true understanding or cognitive change. (Fosnot & Perry, 2005). The result of learning is modeling the behavior of others. The instructor assumes the role of teacher and dictates the learning process for learners. The learner becomes a recipient of pre-sele cted information. Differences among learners are not considered; ther efore, and all learners are taught in the same manner. Some behaviorist approaches to teaching are reflected in traditional lecture formats and teacher-led discussions. Assessments are the same for all students to gauge the effectiveness of each learners ability to recall information on a sp ecific set of skills. From this stance, learning is thought to be universal a nd externally guided. 24

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In contrast, interpretivism s ees that what we call knowledg e does not and cannot have the purpose of producing representations of an independent reality, but instead has an adaptive function (v on Glasserfield, 2005, p. 3). Inte rpretivism is in opposition to positivism and is based in the major works of Jean Piaget (1971). The ontology of interpretivism sees reality as grounded in context that cannot be se parated from the learner. Real ity is a social construction of the learner and knowledge is an interpretation by the learner. Interpretivist do not dismiss external reality, they merely di smiss the idea that it is an i ndependently knowable reality (Heinecke, Dawson, & Willis, 2001, p. 300). Interp retivism seeks to understand information placed within a context, not to uncover a universal truth external to the le arners reality as with the post-positive perspective. Epistemology places emphasis on the subjective nature of learning and the learner because of pr evious knowledge and perceptions Interpretive assumptions contend that the resear cher always brings pre-existing know ledge and experience and that these undoubtedly shape and influence the learning and research processes. Interpretivism sees the goal of education as the process of learning and uncovering acceptable truths within the context of the learner. This methodology differs from the scientific method by subjectively approaching the collection and judgment of fact s within a context. This collaborative approach leads to possible truths that emerge through individual and social context. Constructivism educational theory, based on the writings of Lev Vygotsky (1978) and John Dewey (1938), focuses teaching and learning on the learner and their proce sses. Constructivism is an educational theory deve loped under the assumptions of an interpretivist paradigm. According to Vygotsky, social constructivism is a variety of cogniti ve construction that emphasizes the collaborative nature of learning, whereby learners engage in collaborative activities, construct ra ther than acquire knowledge, and ex trapolate their ow n meaning from 25

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various exp eriences (Lang, Peer, Divaha ran, Chia, Williams, Wong, & Jamaludin, 2005, p 4849). The focus of learning is on cognitive development and a deep understanding during the learning process (Fosnot & Perry, 20 05). It relies heavily on the le arner to initiate inquiry and discovery within a supportive comm unity of learners. Learning is viewed as a social process supported and maintained by intera ctions. Constructivism contends that all learners enter the learning community equally and participate in teach ing and learning. Each learner is responsible for contributing as well as l earning from the social interactio ns with others. There are no hierarchical distinctions among lear ners and the goal of the interaction is the social construction of knowledge. The collective knowledge of the community cannot exist without the participation of individuals in the community (Fosnot & Perry, 2005). The knowledge community becomes larger than any one learner a nd reaches to support the needs of all learners. Instructors assume the roles of f acilitators and respond to the learning process as it unfolds. The learner directs the flow of information and sele cts the information explored, making this theory adaptable to a variety of learning styles and learner personalities. Constructivist approaches to teaching are active learning techniques, such as peer-learning and problem-based learning (Oliver, 2000). Assessments such as reflective writing assignment s are more individualized. These assessments focus on the process of learni ng for each learner, rather than on the end results of recalling information through st andardized examinations. Each of these paradigms has been used in education and online learning. A positivist educational theory, behaviorism, is the traditiona l approach to teaching and learning. This theory was used in the development of the initial distance education cour ses (Garrison, 1993). Constructivist educational theory, related to the paradigm of inte rpretivism, is increasingly being used in distance education and is becoming th e predominant theory for distance education 26

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delivery. T his increase is due to technology cat ching up to the needs of the constructivist teacher; creating active learning a nd social connections within a community of learners. The instructor who adheres to a cons tructivist approach to teaching is now able to harness technology to create a community of learners. Table 2-1. Educational Structure Philosophical Paradigm Positivism Interpretivism Educational Theory Behaviorism Constructivism Educational Strategy Passive Learning Active Learning Learning Technique Instructor as Expert Instructor as Facilitator Activities Lecture Peer Discussion Technology Tool Presentati on Software Online Discussion Group Table 2-1 shows the educational structur e under the two competing paradigms of positivism and interpretivism. Th e philosophical paradigms place the educational theories within a larger philosophical context of reality and know ledge. Educational strategies guide teaching and learning goals while learni ng techniques structure the peda gogic activities. Technology for example compares power point to online discussi ons to match educational theory. These tools facilitate learning activities, techniques, strate gies, theories, and overall paradigm assumptions about teaching and learning. Technology choices cl early reflect the theoretical assumptions of the educator and his or her educational paradigm. It is important to recognize that the assu mptions of each paradigm and the related educational theories impact choices on curriculu m development and delivery. It is also important to point out that many times we see the overlap of theo ries. Aspects and techniques of different theories are implemented to deal with the variety of course content and learning styles of the students. Some scholars maintain that the positive methodology is quantitative and that interpretivism is qualitative, but often they are used to suppl ement one another (Heinecke, Dawson, & Willis, 2001; Jonassen, 2000). It is important to note that positivism and 27

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interpretivis m approaches to learning are not mu tually exclusive. For instance, traditional lectures of pre-determined information can be in tegrated in collaborativ e peer-writing exercises that are directed and developed by the learners. Further, learning assessments can take the form of a standardized examination (quantitative) a nd a reflective writing piece (qualitative). This acknowledges that different lear ners learn and process inform ation in different ways. Techniques and activities that suppo rt multiple learning theories may be more effective than one approach alone (Nussbaumer, 2001). Using a variety of teaching styles also facilitates a diverse range of learning styles (Ferdig & Roehler, 2003; Mupinga, Nora, & Yaw, 2006; Nussbaumer, 2001; Peggram, 2007). The thought processes and intros pection occurring during the learning process are at the center of the constructivist educational theory. Reflective writing or dialogue allows the learner to revisit ideas to improve or further focu s understanding (Barab & Duffy, 2000; Cisero 2006; Oliver, 2000). Revisiting ideas also enhances the grade performance of undergraduate students (Cisero, 2006). The act of reflection is not onl y an important part of constructivist student learning, but is also a necessary component of th e research and academic writing process. Kevin Oliver (2000) encourages the c onstructivist reflection cycle, s een in Figure 2-1. The cycle assumes that as students express their conception of an idea or their mental models, they reflect on the opinions of others or feedback provided a bout their ideas, and they revise their initial conception to account for new opinions and feedback" (Oliver, 2000, p. 7). Figure 2-1. Constructivist Re flection Cycle (Oliver 2000, p. 7). Reflect Revise Express 28

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Figure 2-1 illustrates the cons tructivist reflection cycle adap ted from Oliver (2000, p. 7). Likewise, John Zeisels (2006) related spiral of inquiry in design research presents the design process as involving reflection af ter initial idea presentation to focus and refine solutions for reinterpretation. Each conceptual shift moves the researcher one step closer to the domain of acceptable responses (Zeisel, 2006, p. 30). This search for possible tr uths reinforces the constructivist theoretical assumption that there is not always one right answer, especially in interior design. This is also reinforced by Donald Schons (1983) refl ective practice concept which views learning as a conti nuous cycle of reflection on ones own experiences while being guided by professionals or expert s in the field. The interior design process lends itself to multiple acceptable solutions. Designers return to reflection after idea presentation to further refine their solutions. Similarly, the constructiv ist reflection cycle is be st facilitated through a social community of knowledge holders who respond to the expressions and revisions of others. Reflection and reflective writing allow the learner to assimilate new perspectives and information and synthesize connectio ns to previously held knowle dge (Cisero, 2006). It has also shown to increase grade performance in student s. Cheryl Cisero (2006) found that when undergraduate educational psychology students we re required to write reflectively on assigned readings their grades improved over those who did not. Her study found that there was a significant increase from D to C grades with a slight increase from B to A grades in the intervention group (n=166) over the control group (n=317) (Cisero, 2006). This study showed that C students or those with the least amount of unders tanding saw the greatest gains. The goal of reflective writing and the refl ection cycle is to encourage deep understanding and learning, also thought of as creating conceptual shifts or revising mental models (Budd, 2000). The reflection cycle prepares stude nts for learning through expressi on, reflection, and revision. 29

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From a constructivist point of view, learning ha ppens during conceptual shifts, or transfer and assimilation of new information (Oliver, 2000; Zeisel, 2006). These result in changes in the mental model students hold about information. When learners change or adapt their mental models to incorporate and synthesize new inform ation into different contexts, they begin to generate knowledge for and within themselves. Shifts in student mental models happen in interior design graduate educat ion where students are charged with incorporating previous research into their evidence-based design solutio ns. Incorporating research and reflective activities into interior design decisions grounds the decisi ons in a growing body of knowledge and continues to produce needed and necessary future research. This is ev idenced in the growing use of evidence-based research in interior design graduate programs. Interior Design Higher Education Background in Interior Design Graduate Education Graduate education in interior design historically has resulted in a number of degree types. These include Master of Science (MS), Master of Arts (MA), Master of Interior Design (MID), and Master of Fine Arts (MFA). First-professional students who enter an interior design graduate program with a different undergradu ate background results in a primarily practice degree of an MA, MS, or MID. Others who come to graduate education with a design degree, or post-professionals, pursue research and/or practice degrees that results in a MA, MS, MID, or MFA. The varying degrees and student type s in these programs has caused problems and confusion about what degrees entail and what th e terminal degree type is in interior design. These degrees vary in their nomenclature, th e background of the studen ts (first vs. postprofessional), accreditation st atus, and curriculum within the programs (Interior Design Educators Council, 2006). Graduate education has been the topic of many articles, position papers, and white papers with in the community of design e ducators (Dohr, 2007; Guerin, 2007; 30

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Kroelinger, 2007; Rabun, 2007; Thom pson, 2007; We igand & Harwood, 2007). The topic of these discussions has centered on how to define a terminal degree for the field and to overview what is currently offered to gra duate students in interior design. The Interior Design Educators Council (IDEC) has called for a stricter definition of the terminal degree in interior design. They propos e a definition for the degree to include both professional design content and research methods, a nd to promote the integration of research into the design process (Interior De sign Educators Council, 2006). Of ten, there has been a lack of understanding about design resear ch at the undergraduate and graduate levels (Dickinson & Marsden, 2009). In practice, in terior designers base their design decisions on both subjective and objective knowledge derived th rough a variety of sources (Pable, 2009). Dickinson and Marsden (2009) propose that desi gn decisions can be informed by gathering information from soft sources via the web and trade publica tions, data collection through programming, the application of published findings, and conducting investigations that add to the knowledge in the field. This reaches beyond basing design decisions on intuition and hunches of the designer and places emphasis on evidence-based design. The nature of interior design makes it a profe ssional and theoretical field which relies on real-world practice and a knowledge base grounded in theory. IDEC recommendations are to call the degree a Master of Interior Design (MID ) in order to clarify the requirements of the degree and being a professional degree that inco rporates research into the design process (Interior Design Educators Council, 2006). This has been reiterated by many who voice the need to clarify the degree requirements (Dohr, 2007; Guerin, 2007; Kroe linger, 2007; Rabun, 2007; Thompson, 2007; Weigand & Harwood, 2007). The n eed for qualified educators has driven 31

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much of this discuss ion due to many program s not accepting certain degree types as terminal degrees for teaching at the university level. The Interior Design Educator s Council (IDEC) listed 50+ job opportunities around the country at accredited institutions for interior design educators during the summer of 2007 (Interior Design Educators Council, 2007). This increasing number of job vacancies is due to faculty that are reaching retirement age, as well as to the fact that most designers go into practice to carry out their creative desi gn solutions. Once designers ha ve obtained their degree and licensing, they practice in a specific area of design to obtain expertise within their field. Designers returning to interior design graduate programs are dive rse in their population and their learning styles (Nussbaumer, 2001; Watson & Thompson, 2001). This calls for a variety of teaching techniques and non-traditional means of de livery to meet the needs of all learners. Focusing on alternative means of delivery can also link students across different programs. As of August 2008, 42 post-professional interior design and related programs had enrolled students. Of these 42 programs; 15 had more th an 10 students, and 27 had 10 students or less enrolled. Of these 27; 15 had 5 students or le ss enrolled, and 5 schools only had 1 student. These small programs could broaden their students peer community by using online technological tools for communi cation among students. Most of these degree programs have small enrollment numbers and diverse populations of traditional and non-traditional students. Integrating online delivery techniques into interi or design graduate educ ation can reach students without access to traditional m eans of education and ease the cu rrent burden of limited qualified educators in the field. Therefore, these student s may find online collabor ation through distance learning technology helpful in the completion of their degree. Interior design is also a field that requires a high degree of creativity to solve co mplex design problems (Gardner & Weber, 1990). 32

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While online collaboration m ay help interior design graduate students in their degree completion, it can also enhance students cri tical and creative thinking skills about interior design and the role of design research. Componential Theory of Creativity Domain-Relevant Skills Motivation Creative Thinking Skills Figure 2-2. Com ponential Theory of Creativity Model (Amabile, 1983). Amabile (1983) proposes a theoretical framew ork for the study of creativity using the componential theory of creativity. In this theory she identifies three components of creativity; creative thinking skills, ta sk motivation, and domain-relevant sk ills as seen in Figure 2-2. Used across disciplines, creative thinki ng skills enable learners to orga nize and present their responses and bring information and motivation together for an appropriate yet imaginative problem solution. The use of these three aspects of crea tive problem solving uncovers what skills people use to arrive at appropri ate problem solutions. When processing information, motivation in itiates and sustains problem solving. Motivation influences how the search for a creativ e solution will begin and if it will be ultimately carried out (Amabile, 1996). Acco rding to Amabile (1993), the two primary scales of motivation are intrinsic motivation, (interna l challenge and interest) and extrinsic motivation (outward 33

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reward or co mpensation) are presen t in all people. In this theo ry the intrinsically motivated state is conducive to creativity, whereas the ex trinsically motivated state is detrimental (Amabile, 1983, p. 91). Intrinsic and extrinsic mo tivation is further sub-divided to understand what influences each primary scale. Intrinsic motivation is viewed through the sub-scales of challenge and enjoyment. Extrinsic is further analyzed as recognition and reward. These subscales give insight into wh at drives intrinsic and extrinsic primary motivation. Domain-relevant skills are the skills each person draws upon for appropriate problem solving. These pre-existing skills shape res ponses and the criteria for response selection (Amabile, 1996). Mihaly Csikszentmalyi (1988, 1999) views creativity as being shaped by the individual working within a field in a specific domain. The nature of the individual and their status of knowing impacts creative processes within their particular domain of expertise. This paradox of creativity is that one must carry a certain level of knowledge about the domain in order to engage in creative thought, but they should be able to look at things in a fresh and novel way (Csikszentmalyi, 1988). The componential th eory of creativity sugg ests that those who possess moderate to high levels of creative th inking skills, intrinsic motivation, and domainrelevant skills will produce work judged high in creativity and will likely continue to produce similar work. On the other hand, those with low levels of creative thinking skills, intrinsic motivation, and domain-relevant skills will produce work judged low in creativity and will have low interest in future similar engagements (Amabile, 1996; Kaufman, 2002). Examining this theory, a study of creative writing students and journalism students uncovered the differences in motivation on the creative proce ss (Kaufmann, 2002). This studied the motivational orientation of students in relation to two di fferent writing styles, creative writing and journalistic writing. He found that the intrinsically motivated student s were more prevalent in the creative writing 34

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field than in the journalism fi eld (Kaufm an, 2002). This suggests the creativ e writer may be more internally motivated while the journali sm writer is motivated to greater degree by motivating factors of deadlines and external pressures. Amabiles model accounts for a system of influence on creativity which includes the person, motivating factors, and their expertise. To further understand th e changes in creativity among students, the individual dimensions of creativity are explored. E. Paul Torrance adopts a purely psychological persp ective that focuses on measuring dime nsions of creative thinking. By looking at specific aspects of crea tivity, a better understanding of how creativity is influenced is formed. This helps to further understand how motivation and domain-re levant skills impact creative thinking and the individual dimensions of creative thinking. Dimensions of Creative Thinking Research into creativity shows there are ways to operationalize and assess creative thinking. Torrance (1988) builds upon the classi c work of J.P. Guilford (1967) and explains creativity through the dimensions of fluency, fl exibility, originality, a nd elaboration. These criteria of creativity are a be nchmark for quantifying the creativ e abilities of learners and a further way to measure intelligence (Torrance, 1974). For example, fluency reflects the number of ideas presented. These can be easily counted to assess fluency of creative thi nking. Flexibility concerns the de tail of each idea, or the amount of information provided on each idea. Originality considers the deviation from the expected or the uniqueness and rarity of the ideas presente d. Elaboration was the richness and detail of language used to explain ideas. Each of these di mensions contribute to creativity and yield an overall creativity score. These hallmarks of creati vity have been tested and have been proved to be effective in assessing crea tive thought in previous resear ch studies (Torrance, 1988). 35

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Research has found that creativ ity levels of students differe d depending on the m ajor that they chose in college (Gardner & Weber, 1990). Interior design student s scored significantly higher on creativity scales than those in hotel and restaurant administration. These results suggest that interior design may a ttract a more creative type of stude nt. It also suggests that the curriculum within interior design programs enhan ces creative potential in students more than other majors such as hotel and restaurant administration (Gardner & Weber, 1990). Judging creativity within a constructivis t online learning envi ronment with the componential theory of creativity uncovers changes in the learners constr uction of knowledge. This study uses an online learning environment, Designscholar grounded in the ontology, epistemology, and methodology of the paradigm in terpretivism and the educational theory of constructivism. Using an online learning envi ronment, students who would otherwise never interact have an opportunity to discuss and share information related to th eir educational goals. This environment promotes an online learning community that allows users to engage in creative thinking and thoughtfully consider scholarship within the field through online discussions about design research. Online Learning in Higher Education Online Learning Communities Online learning communities promote interaction, allow reflection, and provide an authentic and engaging online environment. An online learning community brings people together who have similar resear ch, professional, or educational interests. An online learning community is a virtual environment where people come together to learn informally (Bell, 2005, p. 68). Learning communities are used in prof essional fields as well as educational and professional development arenas and have shown to promote successful and sustained communication. The U.S. Department of Educat ion meta-analysis on online learning studies 36

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revealed that students who engaged in som e or a ll of their course conten t online performed better than those who took the same or comparable course as a face-to-f ace interaction (Means, Toyama, Murphy, Bakia, & Jones, 2009). This study revealed that their may be an educational advantage to blended learning environm ents (Means, et al., 2009). Online learning communities achieve success by meeting the needs of their specific users (Cuban, 1988). The growth of educational technologies has helped establish effective learning communities throughout the country for student s in distance education programs and professionals in continuing education. Educa tional technologies allo w people with similar interests to form a virtual community. These communities allow people with a wide range of knowledge and differing motivation to learn thro ugh interaction. Res earch at the Western Governors University has shown that online learning communities foster communication, contacts, and a sense of community. They also have led to an 80% retention rate among students who are involved and enhanced student persistence and degree completion (Santovec, 2004). Online learning communities can offer students a place where they come together virtually and feel acceptance. Virtual learning communities allow students the ability to dialog together, which contributes to peer support (Santovec, 2004, p. 4). Participation in an online learning community supports a students transition from an outsider looking in to an insider within an academic community (Calvery & MacDonald, 2002) Distance educators show increasing acceptance of the idea that the development of a sense of community among learners in online courses enhances their learning experience (Anderson, 2004, p. 183). Roy Pea (1988) of the Stanford Research In stitute states that technology can have the greatest impact on education by establishing new learning communities. The communication and volume of useful material ca n broaden opportunities for teacher s and students alike within an 37

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online learning community (Pea, 1988). The use of online learning communities m akes information, research, and discussions more accessible to a greater number of people. Successful online learning communities are st ructured to promote interaction. They provide a safe environment where people are free to express their opinions and where interaction is based on a constructive dialogue (Charalambos Michalinos, & Chamberl ain, 2004). The rules are clearly defined for participation in th e community, and the communication methods are accessible to all participants (Charalambos, Michalinos, & Ch amberlain, 2004). Online learning communities use many different methods to prom ote and increase communication among users. The technology selected for an online learning co mmunity must be appropriate for the content and for the users involved. Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) CMC tools can be categorized into two broad presentation methods; synchronous and asynchronous. This categorizati on relates to the tec hnology the facilitate real-time or delayedtime interactions. Synchronous tools, such as chat rooms and computer conferencing, allow learners to connect in real-tim e with seamless text, audio, or video. This environment requires all users to participate on the same schedule. In contrast, asynchronous technologies, such as email, listservs, and discussion forums, allow us ers to access information from the community when they choose. This allows for greater flexibility in participation in the community and for reflective time to respond or generate informati on. How these technologies allow learners to interact is important; however, it may be more important to study the type s of interactions each technology tool facilitates. This ensures the tool is suitabl e for the content, user, and intended interaction. Technologies must be chosen not only for user appropriateness, but for content and theoretical appropriateness. One-alone, one-toone, one-to-many, many-to-many interactions are 38

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related to the elem ents of CMC (Harasim 1989; Paulsen, Barros, Busch, Compostela, & Quesnel, 1994). The types of interacti ons support different learning approaches. One-alone communication, information retrieval, is characterized as an interaction with content. To take place, these interactions do not need support from the community (Paulsen et al.,1994). Information retrieval is used in higher education in the form of databases such as; Dissertation Abstracts and Academic Search Premier. The use of online databases in university courses has risen from 10% in 1995 to 43% 5 years later shown by th e Campus Computing Project (cited in Duhaney, 2005). These database s are used by learners to gain knowledge of precedent research, allowing for categorizing and retrieval of information. Content retrieved from these databases becomes part of the c ontent of critical educa tional discussions. The most widely used one-to-one tool in educational technology is email. Campus Computing Project (cited in Duhaney, 2005) showed that over 70% of college faculty use email to communicate with students. Also, email has increased in use from only 20% of courses incorporating email into the class structure in 1995 to 60% of courses in 2000. This one-to-one tool allows time-delayed communication from one learner to another in a relatively secure and private environment. The asynchronous nature of email allows the user time to reflect and respond in a timely and appropriate manner. In stant messaging is one-to-one communication in a synchronous environment. When one learner is online, another learner can send a private message to that user. This allows for real-time private communication. Distributed listservs also work like email. The only difference is that each individual email is sent to all members of the community making it a one-to-many technology. It is asynchronous and allows for mass communication to group member s. Podcasts allow learners to play audio and/or video on demand (Beldarr ain, 2006). Weblogs, or blog s, are personal web pages 39

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dedicated to each user. The inform ation posted is public and invites th e public to interact through responses. Blogs are described as person al online journals (Ferdig & Trammell, 2004). They allow users to arrange text, images, da ta, and media objects for viewing online (Blood, 2002). Blog use is currently being explored in educational sett ings (Ferdig & Trammell, 2004; Fichter, 2005; Beldarrain, 2006). Blogs are bein g used as a tool for social constructivist educational activities by supporting social interaction of ideas on line (Ferdig & Trammell, 2004). In educational contexts, instructors are using bl ogs as reflective writing tools to document the learning process and intellectual growth of the learner (Bel darrain, 2006). Computer conferencing allows users to interact in real-time as a group. This many-tomany communication can be facilitated by an instru ctor or a student (Harasim, 1989). Threaded discussion forums are asynchronous environments One member posts a message and all group members can read and respond. This type of technology also uses mass email to inform members of new information when it is posted. The difference between blogs and discussion forums is that blogs are dedi cated personal web pages for each individual user, and discussion boards are managed by all members of the comm unity (Ferdig & Trammell, 2004). Blogs are also public web pages, while onl ine discussions within course management software are only accessible to those enrolled in the course. Async hronous threaded discussions provide a flexible environment that supports the growth of collectiv e knowledge within the group, not just in individual members. Discussions can be categorization and archived for retrieval. The number one technology in a WebCT course management study that impacted student achievement was asynchronous discussions for messaging between students and instruct ors (Hoskins & Van Hooff, 2005). 40

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The various CMC technologies th at support the four types of online interactions also support different teach ing and learning approaches Appropriate technology is driven by the needs of the users, the content, and the educational goals All of these asp ects of online learning cannot be accomplished with one technology applica tion. Using various methods can result in a broader audience. It is important to consider the needs of l earners in an environment and therefore offer a variety of teach ing techniques and activities. There are a variety of CMC tools and course ma nagement software that can be integrated into educational programs. Selection of the tool s used in online learning communities is critical to maintain the involvement of users and th e appropriateness for the field. Online learning communities present a unique experience for interior design graduate students by bringing people from different traditional universities togeth er in an online environment to discuss their similar design interests. This extends the peer support community for interior design graduate students that may be in small or isolated program s. The uses of online learning communities for design education have not been explored to this point, but applications of online technologies have taken place in a small number of instances. Online Learning in Interior Design Education The current status of online learning in desi gn education is small a nd largely exploratory at this point in time. Of 4,413 programs survey ed offering online degrees, 16 of these were in the fields of art and design (Global Networ k Academy, 2007). There are instances of CIDA accredited undergraduate programs such as; Colorado State University, Cornell University, Oklahoma State University, and University of Wisconsin-Madison, incorporating online learning into their curriculum to meet the needs of their students and their program requirements, but they are yet to offer fully-online degrees (Botti-Sali tsky, 2005). Many of the reported instances of 41

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online learning in interior design educati on have focused on the design studio at the undergraduate level (Botti-Sali tsky, 2005; Kucko, et al., 2005; Matthews & W eigand, 2001). The adoption of online learning has been slow to take place in an arts-based curriculum. The traditional view of studio classes and culture has been the largest barrier to adopting new techniques and technologies for collaborati on (Bender & Good, 2003). For example, the distance education instructional mo del may be viewed as incompatible with traditional teaching methods used in art-related disciplines lik e interior design (Bender & Good, 2003, p. 67). Technology introduces a variety of different techniques that ar e not as reminiscent of the traditional Beaux-Arts approach. Research in to innovative adoption targeted interior design faculty who were not currently us ing online technologies for instru ction. Pre-test and post-test scores for adoption were compared after the samp le of design faculty had seen a presentation on the positive advantages of innovation in techno logy and its applicati on to interior design education. The findings showed that faculty we re open to adoption, but had reservations about how effective this technology would be in a fu lly online art-based curriculum. Online adoption may be better suited for the graduate degree in in terior design because it is research oriented and focuses on writing components more than an undergraduate degree. The following are examples of online integration in interior design edu cation that have been documented through published research. The Virtual Design Studio (VDS) is a concept that brings the design studio environment to a virtual environment on the internet (Botti-Sa litsky, 2005). The VDS model takes the place of the traditional studio environment and us es one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many computer mediated communication tools. This research was conducted by faculty and evaluated by students who were involved in the experience. The sample set was comprised of students 42

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enrolled in a single interior design course w ithin one university. Th e m odel utilized various software packages to aid in the collaboration and interaction needed in the design studio environment (Botti-Salitsky, 2005). The challenge for this project was to build relationships among the students and the faculty members. This interaction is needed to work through the design process. This project c ontributes to the information needed to implement online design studio coursework, but it has not been retested to gauge the lasti ng effective on design curriculum delivery. The Consortium for Design Education (CODE) project merged students from six institutions across Canada, United States, and Mexico for a four-year period (Kucko, et al., 2005). This project not only looked at online studio collaboration fo r 200 interior design students, but it also addressed cu ltural differences and exchanged selected students over the fouryear period. This international a pproach gave students an appreciation for interior design within a culture different from their own. The online de sign charette took place over an intense two-day period and was repeated yearly th roughout the four years. The char ette brought students together from different schools, countries and cultures. The focus of th e virtual project was to expose students to the use of online technol ogies to create an in ternational experience through an interior design project (Kucko, et al., 2005). This project highlights the online experience as a way to communicate and interact with those that w ould otherwise be inaccessible. The technology provided a positive experience for those i nvolved by opening up comm unication among design students across the globe. These studies all show that technology in the interior design education realm offers opportunities to increase communication and exposu re to different points of view. The commonalities of the studies reveal that students from various geographic locations and different 43

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disciplines show benefits from online comm unication with each ot her, whether through understanding allied disciplines or incorporating another cultural perspective. The downside to these studies is that they are often fleeting. Th ey are only being used in singular instances and do not have longevity throughout programs. The application of online learning communities in interior design graduate education has not been documented through publishe d studies at this point; howev er, an enormous contribution to the field was made by Denise Guerin and Cari n Martin at the University of Minnesota, who launched an online clearinghouse for interior design research: Informedesign at www.informedesign.com (Informedesign, 2009). This innovativ e website allows easy searches through categorized databases of interior design related research ar ticles to help bridge the gap between res earch and practice. It is a valu able resource for student s who are searching for literature within their topic of in terior design research. It contains full citation and abstract, but does not present the full-text articles. Yet, ther e remains a need for engaged dialogue and further critique of the information presented. Designscholar seeks to add to this innovation by creating a seamless community of scholarship in desi gn, providing a forum for further engagement, dialogue, and critique of design research. Research has currently exte nded the body of knowledge to web-based information sites like Wikipedia (Mendoza, 2009). This tool highli ghts the interdisciplinary nature of interior design research by using an alternative appr oach to the body of knowledge by removing the boundaries that previously define d interior design research (Mendoza, 2009). Mendoza (2009) suggests that the online Wikipedia approach can be inclusive and create a systemic body of knowledge. 44

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These online ventures highlight the n eed for more research in the area of Interior Design online education. This research differs in that it is not interested in communication and collective knowledge building for the resear ch experience and process. The nature of connecting and sharing information in a research class lends itself to online distance education delivery. The textual nature of resear ch literature review and writing is easier to accommodate in an online environment than is the experien tial nature of the studio class. Colorado State recently launched a series of online courses to accelerate grad uate degree completion. This hybrid approach, however, still requires students to travel to a traditional classroom for a small portion of the courses (Colorado State Universi ty, 2009). For the most part, t echniques in online learning are being utilized in small numbers in interior design programs. Most of the course offerings, like higher education in general, are single stand-alone courses that are integrated into a traditional curriculum, or traditional course s with an embedded online com ponent. Further exploration and research should be conducted to see if expans ion of these ideas can enhance interior design graduate education. To gauge the effectiveness of the constructivist le arning environment the Designscholar online learning community, the conceptual shifts of the students involved were measured through the componential theory of crea tivity (Amabile, 1993). This theory uncovered the changes that took pla ce in the learners creative thinking skills. Conclusion The literature reviewed for this study in cluded educational theory, interior design graduate education, creative thi nking, and online learning in hi gher education. Constructivist educational theory and the compone ntial theory of creativity can best serve as the educational basis for this study. These theories, along with previous research in to online learning and interior design programs, guided the choice of act ivities and tools for online learning community, Designscholar A number of studies have examined the educational online learning community 45

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and the opportunities offered by this new technol ogy. In the field of interior design, more research is n eeded. 46

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CHAP TER 3 METHODLOGY Introduction The purpose of the methodology is to create and test the effectiv eness of an online learning community, Designscholar for interior design graduate education, examining the impact of this learning experi ence on creative thinki ng about design research. The assessment tapped into the learners creative thinking sk ills (fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration), motivational orienta tion, and domain-relevant skills. Chapter three also discusses the studys sampling, procedures, and requireme nts for the construction, development, and implementation. Theoretical Foundation of Designscholar Constructivist education theory guided the development of the online learning community, Designscholar Therefore, the assumptions upon which the online learning community rests are: the learner is an active creator of knowledge, all participants add to the collective knowledge of the comm unity, knowledge is created and exists within the community, reflective writing supports the reflection and re vision of ideas, and the instructor assumes a supportive role (Cisero, 2006; Fosnot & Perry, 2 005; Lang, et al. 2005; Oliver, 2000). This community enabled interior design graduate students to make and maintain social connections to explore meanings of research in their field through online discu ssions during a six-week period. The intent of the online learning community was to expand discipline-specific collective knowledge of the group and enable each participant to think more creatively about design research. Using asynchronous discussion groups, students read and responded to peers in an online environment. This study frames learners as the producers of knowle dge within a specific 47

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context and the online learning co m munity as a place where their co llective knowledge is shared and distributed. Designscholar was influenced by the researchers pe rsonal experience in an online course, Instructional Computing 1, offered by Rick Ferdig in the School of Teaching and Learning at the University of Florida. This eight-week course included a weekly online discussion module for group members to discuss pertinent research ar ticles relating to their thesis topics. The discussions with others enroll ed in the course led to revelations about online learning communities in interior design education and ul timately reflected in this current study. For this dissertation stud y, the researcher developed Designscholar using Moodle, a free, open-source course management software ava ilable on the internet through www.moodle.org. Moodle was launched in August 2002 and was target ed at small university level courses. Research was conducted on the natu re of collaboration and reflecti on that occurred within the platform. Through this research, subsequent versions have been re leased making Moodle a constant and evolving work in progress. Moodle is suitable for fully online courses as well as a tool for supplementing face-to-face courses as well. Other course management software, such as WebCT and Blackboard, were avai lable and could have been employed in the study; however both are driven by a more behaviorist approach to learning and did not fit the researchers assumptions about teaching and learning Moodle developer Martin Dougiamas built this software to mirror the most prevalent research in online learning on theories such as constructivism and social constructivism. This position focuses on collaborative discourse to deve lop a community of lear ners or practice. Moodle supports individual development of meani ng through sharing of text s, theories, and other artifacts of meaning (Dougiamas & Taylor, 2002). It is used successfully in many professional 48

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and educational organizations to create m ean ing and learning for the whole community by creating communication among th e individuals involved. The researcher purchased the domain name www.designscholar.com as well as a host server service through www.siteground.com from 2006-2008. During th e pilot study in 2007, another server service w as purchased thr ough www.moodlerooms.com because the original server proved unreliable. This pur chase of another server service resulted in a change in the web address to http://designscholar.unlocklearning.net This web address was used for the remainder of the pilot study and renewed for 2008 for use in the dissertation study. Instruments Both the pilot and dissertation study tested th e efficacy of six instruments: Constructivist Online Learning Environment Survey (COLLES), Attitudes Towards Thinking and Learning Survey (ATTLS), Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), Work Preference Inventory (WPI), Creative Thinking Assessment of Design Resear ch Essay, and Background Survey. Some of these instruments from the pilot study ultimately proved not to be effective for assessing the key variables of the study (e.g., cr eative thinking skills, personal motivation, and domain-relevant skills). Below is an overview of the instruments used during the dissertation study. For information on the instruments used in the pilot study see Appendix (B). Work Preference Inventory (WPI) The WPI was used in the pilot study and pr oved to uncover interesting results about student motivation. It was also used for th e dissertation study (see Appendix C). This instrument was designed to measure peoples motivational orientation in relation to work or school concerns (Amabile, et al, 1994). The WPI was created under tw o grants awarded to Teresa Amabile: Mechanisms of Creativity, from the National Institute of Mental Health, and Creativity in the R&D Laboratory, from the Exxon Educational Foundation (Amabile et al., 49

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1994). The instrum ent comes in two forms: th e Student Work Preference Inventory and the Adult Work Preference Inventory. The two show only slight cha nges in wording to address the intended population. This study utilized the St udent Work Preference Inventory to uncover motivational orientation towards school-related activities. The Student WPI consisted of 30 questions scored as follows: Alw ays true of me, Often true of me, Sometimes true of me, Never true of me. The survey presented two scales intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, and assigned a score to each scale for each respondent. WPI scales of motivation have been used to assess the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations effect on creative tasks (Amabile, 1985; Amabile et al., 1994; Kaufman, 2002). This looks at the learners motivational orientation when engaging in school related creative tasks. Studies of motiv ation have shown that hi gh intrinsic motivation translates to a higher perceived level of creative product. Re search into cr eative writing students motivation shows that when intrinsic mo tivation is driving the creative writing process, the end product is perceived as more creativ e by writing critics (Kaufman, 2002). Conversely, when extrinsic forces are driv ing creative writing tasks, the perceived end product is judged much lower in creativity (Amabile, 1985). The intrinsic motivation scale was scored from 14 and represented the level of challenge and enjoyment for engaging in scho ol-related tasks. The extrinsic motivation scale, also scored 1-4, represented the level of engagement in school-related tasks when outward recognition and grades were considered. Prev ious studies using this survey found that the mean of the undergraduate population was 2.99 for intrinsic motivation and 2.57 for extrinsic motivation (Amabile et al., 1994). This survey has been correlated with measures of personality, attitude, and creativity such as; Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myer s, 1962), Strong Interest Inventory (SII; Hanson 50

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& Cam pbell, 1985), Kirton Adaption-Innovation I nventory (KAI; Kirton 1976), and Creative Personality Scale (CPS; Gough, 1979) Relationships between these questionnaires and surveys have been established as well as meaningful fact or structures and internal consistency for the instrument (Amabile et al., 1994). The WPI has b een used to rate journa lism students in higher education and creative writers in education and in the workplace (Amabile et al. 1994, Kaufaman, 2002). Amabiles resear ch (1994) states that student samples showed completing of the WPI at 6, 12, and 24 month intervals after the in itial test administrations. These retests have proven the short stability of the instrument with a Cronbachs Alpha ranging from 0.76 to 0.85 (Amabile et al., 1994). This instrument show ed good short term reliability that slightly decreased over time. The two primary scales of intrinsic and extrin sic motivation were furt her divided into sub scales of challenge and enjoym ent within the intrinsic scale, and outward and compensation within the extrinsic scale. The WPI does not label learners as either only intrinsically or extrinsically motivated. It examines both type s of motivation co-existing within the learner (Amabile, et al., 1994). The level of each intrinsi c and extrinsic motivation is assessed. One is seen as a dominant orientation. Further expl oration into the subscal es can determine what specific aspects of intrinsic or extrinsic motivation are driving students to engage in school related tasks. These findings suggest that pe rsonal choice and internal motivation of challenge and enjoyment are more conducive to creative activities. Studies in online learning technologies have also shown that voluntary use or intrinsi c motivation to use instructional resources and technologies in education correlates to achievement (Hoskins & Van Hooff, 2005). Motivation is a variable that is missing from much of th e online learning literature and calls for further 51

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questioning of what drives people to utili ze online learning and e ducational technologies (Hoskins & Van Hooff, 2005). Lim itations to this are that students m ay answer differently about their motivation depending on what school related activities they might be thinking of or involved in at the time of the survey. The WPI was given in hard copy format to th e students in the pilot study because this was how the researcher received the survey from the author. The dissertation study used Survey Monkey online to distribute the survey after ga ining approval from the author, Amabile. The WPI produced data about student motivational or ientation by assessing in trinsic and extrinsic motivation scores. Creative Thinking Assessment of Design Research Essay To assess creative thinking about design rese arch, students were asked to explain their knowledge about design research and to describe their personal interest in design research. These pre and post-test essays were the Resear ch Knowledge Essay and the Research Interest Essay. Each student wrote the pre-test essays during the first week of the study and then completed the post-test essays during the last week of Designscholar. The pre and post-test essays were judged on a 7-point likert scale using the dimensions of creativity from Torrence (1988): fluency, flexibility, originality, and elab oration. The judging revealed scores for each dimension ranging from 0-6, and an overall creativity score ranging from 0-24. Appendix D contains the rubric used for the pre and post-test judging. Two Florida State University graduate students judged the essays. These two students we re both involved in crafting their own research thesis and both were one semester from gra duating with an MFA in interior design. The researcher trained the judges to identify fluenc y, flexibility, originality, and elaboration within the essays and revealed a reliability level with in the judging process above .80. Each judge was asked to read all the essays and code each for fl uency or number of ideas presented. After this 52

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initial read ing, they were asked to read each ag ain for the flexibility or depth of the ideas presented. A final reading of all the essays resulted in coding the originality, or diversity, of the ideas and the elaboration of the language used to describe the ideas. This data produced a measured change in creative thinking skills that was analyzed alongside personal motivation and domain-relevant skills. Th is data was used for the remainder of the study. Background Survey A straightforward background survey examin ed the study participants demographics, experience in interior design, and interest in and interest in de sign research and practice (See Appendix E). The survey contained 10 questions pertaining to undergra duate degrees, current degree program, the year they were currently enro lled, and their interest level in design practice and research. Pilot Study Before collecting the dissertation data, a five week pilot study took place during the fall semester of 2007. This allowed the researcher to pretest the technology to identify and correct any unforeseen problems as well as compare sta ndardized instruments that assessed student learning styles and motivation. The pilot study us ed 26 graduate students enrolled at Florida State University, a CIDA accredited school. The make up of the class was 23 females and 3 males. This module was used in conjunction wi th a graduate level course entitled, Design Issues. This course met face-to-face once a wee k, and each student was required to participate. The professor of the Design Issues course part icipated in the discus sions and assessed a participation grade for each student. This pilot study module took place from September 3, 2007 to October 7, 2007. Permission was asked of all pa rticipants. During the first class meeting, all participants signed and submitted appropriate human subjects forms. The students completed the Constructivist Online Learning Environment Survey, the Attitudes Towards Thinking and 53

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Learning Survey, the Myers-Briggs Type Indica tor, the W ork Preference Inventory, and the Background survey. The researcher tracked each st udents frequency of participation. Table 3-1 presents a weekly outline of the expectations for the students during the pilot study. Pilot Study: Lessons Learned The lessons that were learned from the p ilot study refined the organization of the dissertation study. Adjustments to the final study focused on: technology and accessibility of the online environment; the selection of standardized tests; required level of participation; development for guidelines for the selection of peer reviewed pub lications; and privacy concerns. The results from the pilot study located some t echnical problems. The original server and web address were slow to come online and many times were unavailable. This caused frustration among the students. Two weeks into the pilot study a more reliable se rvice provider and new web address were secured. This information wa s emailed to students and they used the new address with no further complications. The pilot study also helped the researcher sele ct the most appropriate standardized tests for the study. The Constructivist Online Learni ng Environment Survey (COLLES) pre and posttests were positively biased therefore this inst rument was not used by the researcher. Students commented that they thought they were being le d to answer items a certain way, so the survey was not used in the dissertation study. The pr e and post-tests were the same instrument and results did not significantly correlate w ith learning or motivation style. The Attitudes Towards Thinking and Learning Su rvey (ATTLS) was explored in the pilot study as a viable option for assessi ng learning type, but actually retu rned no new data in light of having the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) results. The MBTI assessed the same profile, but is much more widely used in architecture and design student popula tions. The pilot study 54

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Table 3-1. Pilot study week ly outline of activities Week Description of pilot study activities Register to become a member of Designscholar at http://www.designscholar.com Create personality profile for class. Complete Myers Briggs Type I ndicator (MBTI) survey online. Complete Constructivist On-Line Learning Environment Survey (COLLES) pre-test survey online. Create your blog and pos t your introduction. 1 Submit MBTI type and blog address on line through course page website. Complete the Attitudes Towards Th inking and Learning Survey (ATTLS). Post an article reflection assignment to your personal blog. This is a reflection and analysis on an article in an area of design re search. This should include key points and quotes from the article, a discussion in why it is noteworthy research, and a discussion on what is means to your research. 2 Respond to at least one article reflection from one of your peers. Complete the Work Preferen ce Inventory Survey (WPI). Post an article reflection assignment to your personal blog. This is a reflection and analysis on an article in an area of design re search. This should include key points and quotes from the article, a discussion in why it is noteworthy research, and a discussion on what is means to your research. 3 Respond to at least one article reflection from one of your peers. Post an article reflection assignment to your personal blog. This is a reflection and analysis on an article in an area of design re search. This should include key points and quotes from the article, a discussion in why it is noteworthy research, and a discussion on what is means to your research. 4 Respond to at least one article reflection from one of your peers. Post an article reflection assignment to your personal blog. This is a reflection and analysis on an article in an area of design re search. This should include key points and quotes from the article, a discussion in why it is noteworthy research, and a discussion on what is means to your research. Respond to at least one article reflection from one of your peers. 5 Complete COLLES post-test. 55

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data showed correlations with MBTI types and m otivational orie ntation. They also showed relationships between the students profiles, and th eir level of involvement in online discussions. However, once the pilot study was completed and the focus of the dissertation study refined, a decision was made not to use the MBTI since it did not measure the primary variables of the study. Besides determining which standardized measures to use, the pilot study also helped gauge how students were interacting wi th each other in the module. Frequency of interaction was tracked for the five-week study. The number of posts for each student was dependent on the length of the module. The first week required students to post one introduction. During the subsequent weeks, students posted one time and responded one time. This resulted in a minimum number of nine posts and responses for the duration of the module. The minimum amount of posts was set so that interaction could truly be meas ured above and beyond a certain required amount. Setting a required amount was important for comparison of the level of involvement among groups. Previous research in online discussion design states that constructivism is the predominant educational theory in online learning and it allows the student to decide their participation level. All attempts were made to increase participation and the student motivation to engage. Forced involveme nt leads to less qualit y, therefore the module attempted to tap into the internal motivation of the students to engage in the community. Throughout the pilot study there were 104 ar ticles posted by the 26 participants. The resulting number of posts and responses during the module was 396. Each student was expected to post a minimum of nine times over the five weeks. The average number of posts per person was 15.2. This resulted in participation of 69.2% above the required minimum participation for the group. The most referenced publications were Journal of Interior Design, Contract 56

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Magazine, Interiors and Sources and Design Studies. About half of the articles posted cam e from scholarly peer-reviewed journals and were located initially through www.informedesign.com. The other half came from trade and popular press sources including online websites. The dissertation study required students to use pe er-reviewed journals so that all participants would be disc ussing research that was deemed scholarly for the field. During an informal interview session with the students in their faceto-face Design Issues seminar course, the researcher as ked students to reflect on the experience they had had with their weblogs and with Designscholar A few students did not like th e public nature of the weblogs and wanted a private way to discuss this informa tion with their class. One student said she had been the victim of a stalker and did not like th at the weblog information was public. She chose to use a code name instead of her own with he r weblog, as did a few othe rs. They also thought there were too many weblogs to review and thought it would be a good idea to have smaller topical groups instead of having to search th rough 26 weblogs to find personally relevant postings. These insights from the student interv iews in the pilot study guided changes made to Designscholar for the dissertation study. Dissertation Study The researcher and the Chair of the disse rtation committee made initial contacts to graduate programs through phone calls and emails to identify potential faculty and programs for the study. This resulted in participation of the University of Florida (UF) Iowa State University (ISU), and Washington State University (WSU). The programs selected within their respective universities were similar in term s of program quality, research e xpectations and were housed in similarly configured academic units. In the past five years, DesignIntelligence highly ranked the three selected interior design pr ograms. Further, the programs ar e all located in Association of American University (AAU) resear ch-intensive universities. Fina lly, the selected programs offer 57

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com parable degrees and are housed within Colleg es of Design that also include architecture programs. The University of Florida and Washi ngton State also offer interdisciplinary doctoral programs with an interior design concentration; Iowa State University does not. All participating students were seeking a graduate degree in interior design and ha d the expectation to complete an original research thesis. Some theses would be defined as traditiona l research and others a thesis project with a research component. The schools were ge ographically diverse representing the Southeast, Midwest, and Northw est regions of the United States. The University of Florida, Iowa State Univ ersity, and Washington State University have first and post-professional pr ograms tailored the variety of students entering the degree programs. The UF post-professional program requi res 36 hours of coursework and thesis for an interior design undergraduate to obtain a Master of Interior Design (Univers ity of Florida, 2009). For those coming from other fields seeking a fi rst-professional degree, the requirements are 85 hours of coursework including leveling courses from the undergraduate studio curriculum and a university thesis. For students with architect ure or design related unde rgraduate degrees, the requirements are 58 graduate credit hours of le veling courses and thesis writing. The leveling courses for non-interior design majo rs ensure that all students enga ge in a significant number of studio class and support classes to be qualified to practice interior design and meet requirements to sit for the licensing examination. Graduate curriculum re lies on research methods, seminars, and specialized independent study culminating in a thesis reflecting th e students research interest. Similarly, Iowa State University (ISU) offers a post-professional program that requires 34 graduate credits to obtain a Master of Arts. Th e university also offers a first-professional degree that requires 40 hours of preparator y coursework in addition to the 34 graduate course credits for 58

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a Master of Arts (Iowa S tate University, 2009). Th is results in a thesis project with a research component. ISU also offers a Master of Fine Arts degree which requires a minimum of 60 course hours with a research thesis (Iowa St ate University, 2009). All of these degrees incorporate some degree of design studio curr iculum with research writing components. Washington State University (WSU) offers a Ma ster of Arts in interior design in a twoyear and three-year track. The two-year track is for post-professionals who hold an interior design or related undergraduate de gree. This degree culminates in a university thesis and requires 46 hours of course work (Washington St ate University, 2009). The first-professional track is a project based thesis that results in 75 hours of coursework (Washington State Univeristy, 2009). Both of these degrees require students to have skills in writing and research. This research involved graduate students from the three universities and therefore required approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Florida. The IRB granted approval after reviewing an abstract of the study, the thr ee survey instruments, and the appropriate consent forms. After identifying the programs willing to participate in the study, a mailer was sent to the faculty member who was teaching the graduate level research methods seminar (UF and WSU) or the i ndependent study course (ISU). An informational packet contained a letter of introduction, an overview of the project, and the human subject forms for student consent (see Appendix F). Participating students signed the cons ent forms and returned them by mail to the researcher. The professors at the schools then overviewed the project to the participating students in their respective seminars or meeting times. A handout from the packet directed participating students to visit the Designscholar website at http://designscholar.unlocklearning.net to become registered in th e study. Evaluation of student participa tion was left to the discretion of the professors at each of th e respective schools. The 59

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professor had no responsibility for adm inistering the study; two of the three professors opted to grade participation. Students could withdraw from the module voluntarily at anytime. Sample The Designscholar module took place completely online from September 08, 2008 to October 19, 2008. The sample for the dissertation study consisted of 21 interior design master level graduate students from the University of Florida (n=2), Iowa State University (n=13), and Washington State University (n=6). The sample included 18 females (86%) and 3 males (14%). Ages ranged from 23 44 with an average age of 28.35. There were 7 (33%) students enrolled in the first semester of their second year of gr aduate school and 14 (67%) in the initial semester of their first year. There were 21 students holding bachelor degr ees with12 of these in art and design related fields. Ta ble 3-2 is a list of the undergraduat e degrees represented in the sample. Table 3-2. Background degrees in the sample Undergraduate Degree Disc ipline Students (n=21) Interior Design 8 Art 3 Communications 2 Marketing 2 Agriculture 1 Architecture 1 Biology 1 Mathematics 1 Modern Languages 1 Nursing 1 Of the 21 students in the study, 14 (67%) were in the MA degree program, 3 (14%) were in the MID degree program, and 4 (19%) were in the MFA degree program. There was one Ph.D. student who participated in the st udy; data was not used. Previous work experience in an art and design related field for the samp le was reported as 12 (57%) havi ng previous experience and 9 (43%) having no experience. 60

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The judging process involved two m asters students from Florida State University. They analyzed and coded pre and post-te st essay data to establish the creative thinking level of each essay. The pre-test essay questi ons were, What is design research and why is it important to the field?, and What are your inte rests in design research? The post-test essay questions were, With your new understanding from the online discus sions, explain what de sign research is and why it is important to the field?, and What are your interests in design research and have they changed after the online discussions? These essays were coded for fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration and afterwards assigned a score for each dimension. This coding resulted in an overall creativity score. The dimensions of fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration were judged on a likert-type scale ranging from 0 to 6. After meeting with a consulting statistician, the data were analyzed for inter-rater reliability using Cronbachs alpha. Cronbach's alpha determines the internal consis tency or average correlation of items between raters to gauge their reliab ility (Nunnaly, 1978). Higher scor es represent a high level of agreement between the judges and translate into reliable findings. Reliability of the judging process lends confidence to the findings used for the remainder of the study. Table 3-3. Interrater reliability analysis of judging process. Cronbach's alpha Research essay Interest essay Combined essays Overall Creativity 0.94* 0.95* 0.95* Fluency 0.91* 0.92* 0.92* Flexibility 0.94* 0.90* 0.93* Originality 0.78* 0.78* 0.78* Elaboration 0.82* 0.92* 0.89* Pre-test 0.95* 0.88* 0.92* Post-test 0.91* 0.95* 0.93* above 0.70 agreement 61

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The pre and post-test essay que stions that assessed creative thinking yielded a reliability level above the generally accepted level of .70 or higher for social science research (Nunnaly, 1978). The judging process was statistically establis hed as having a high le vel of reliability for each of the essays judged. Table 3-3 reveals that the Research Knowledge Essay pre-test showed a Cronbachs alpha of .95 and the post-test was .91. Also, the Research In terest Essay pre-test was .88 with the post-test of .95. These reliability levels show th at the creative thinking change data were judged consiste ntly by the two judges. The essays that were judged averaged 300 wo rds per essay. These essays were untimed and completed during the first week of the Designscholar module. The essays were coded for dimensions of creativity; fluency, flexibility, originality, and elabora tion on the essay score sheet. A coded student example is provided in Appendix I. Th e average and range of word counts for each essay ar e reported in Table 3-4. Table 3-4. Word count range and average fo r Research Knowledge and Interest Essays. Word Counts Descriptive Statistics Knowledge Essay Pre-test Knowledge Essay Post-test Interest Essay Pre-test Interest Essay Post-test Range 73 459 117 791 52 525 90 383 M 278 368 263 219 The researcher tracked and calculated data from the background survey, the Work Preference Inventory (WPI) survey, the design research essay rubric and participation within the online module. The six week study took place completely online on the Designscholar site. Module: Week One During the first week, students completed a num ber of activities to prepare for the online discussions. First students logged onto the site to become a me mber and selected a username and password. After this, they cr eated a personality profile for ot hers to view. The personality profile contained information about them, their res earch interests, and prov ided an opportunity to 62

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post a picture. Once the profile s were created, students com pleted two surveys by linking to Survey Monkey from the Designscholar site. The first survey was the background survey that yielded data on their domain releva nt skills. This survey took approximately five minutes to complete. The second instrument was the WPI whic h assessed the level of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for school related tasks. This surv ey took about 10-15 minutes to complete. To assess a baseline for each students creative thin king skills, the pre-test essay was written and uploaded to the website as a word document. Lastly, students were asked to read others personality profiles and the scaffolding examples provided by the researcher of the upcoming discussions. The scaffolding examples are pres ented in Appendix G. These examples were provided to give students an unde rstanding of what was expected of them and to show samples of quality and critical online discussions. The information gained from the personality pr ofiles and the essays a bout their interest in design gave the researcher topi cs for group assignments. The topical groups were: workplace design, hospitality design, restoration, sustaina bility, universal design, healthcare design, and cultural implications in design. Ea ch group began with three to four people with similar research interests. This resulted in seven discussion groups for the st udy. Due to attrition, one group was left with two students. The group assignments were posted on the site and the researcher sent an email to the students asking them to check the site and locate their other group members. Module: Week Two The second week started the online group discussi ons and these lasted for the remainder of the five weeks of the study. For the first discussion, students were guided to www.informedesign.com and asked to locate an article in th eir area of res earch. This article was assigned as the topic for their first discussion pos t. Each group member started a discussion and included three main ideas in their post; a summar y of the main points, a discussion on why the 63

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article was important, and an explanation on how it related to their research. Each group m ember then visited their other group membe rs posts and responded to each of them. Module: Week Three Week three guided students to one of four peer reviewed journals in the field; Journal of Interior Design, Design Issues, Design Studies, or Environment and Behavior They were asked to post information about the article that including the three main ideas of ; the summary of main points, why the article was important, and what it meant to their research, from one of the sources and to respond to all of their group members posts. Module: Week Four Week four asked students to fi nd an article from any peer re viewed journal that was not listed the week prior. This week again required st udents to post the article review about the main points of the article, why it was important to de sign research, and what it meant to them. They were also asked to respond to each of their group members. Module: Week Five During the fifth week students visited their respective schools libra ry website and found a thesis or dissertation from their department to ove rview. Students posted a review of the thesis or dissertation that included wh at the main points of the theses, why it was important, and what it meant to their research. Again, they were as ked to respond to each of their group members discussions about their select ed thesis or dissertations. Module: Week Six The final week of the study asked students to reflect on the onlin e discussions and the experience in Designscholar for their final post. These posts were to include their thoughts on the online discussions and to critique Designscholar as a tool for graduate education. They also responded to each of their group members reflections as well. This last week also included 64

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finishing the design thinking post essays for co mparison in order to m easure the change in creative thinking. These were written as wo rd documents and uploaded to the website. Summary The methodology for this study assessed creativ e thinking skills, personal motivation, and domain-relevant skills to evaluate the e ffectiveness of an online learning community, Designscholar for encouraging creative thinking a bout design research through online discussions and individual i nvestigations. The methodology not only yielded data on the characteristics of student s who participated in Designscholar but also on thei r perceptions of what constitutes design research. Correlating st udent motivation with creative thinking skills data and domain-relevant skills data within the online learni ng environment answered the research questions posed for the study. The results of the pilot study helped focus the methodology of the dissertation study and improve d the evaluation of the learning experience arising from Designscholar. 65

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CHAP TER 4 RESULTS Introduction This goal of this dissertation study was to examine an online learning community created for interior design masters students and study the impact of online discussions on creative thinking about design research. Fu rther, it sought to evaluate and determine the influence of personal motivation and domain expertise on crea tive thinking. These findings describe the analysis of statistical data on the three components of creativity; creative thinking skills, personal motivation, and domain-relevant skills from th e componential model of creativity (Amabile, 1983). Participation data are also pr esented to understand the use of the Designscholar online discussions. Creative thinking skills were m easured in pre and post-test essay questions designed to calculate a change in creative thin king and the individual dimensions of creative thinking about design research. Personal motivation was assesse d with the Work Preference Inventory (WPI) (Amabile, et al, 1984) and domain expertise was measured through a background survey. Both motivation and domain -relevant skills were examined for their influence on creative thinking a nd the dimensions of creative thinking. Table 4-1 overviews the three primary variables believed to influence cr eativity (Amabile, 1983). An alpha level of .05 was used in all the statistical tests performed on the data. Table 4-1. Variables in the study. Creative Thinking Motivation Domain Relevant Skills Fluency Intrinsic Year Enrolled Flexibility Challenge Design Education Originality Enjoyment Design Work Experience Elaboration Extrinsic Design Interest Compensation Commercial Practice Recognition Residential Practice Academic Teaching Academic Research 66

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Assessing Change in Creative Thin king Questions about Creative Thinking First, this study was interested in seeing if there was a significant ch ange in the creative thinking scores for both essay quest ions. This question examined the overall change in creative thinking from the online module. What is the relationship between participation in Designscholar and overall creative thinking about design research? The data from both the Research Knowledge E ssay and the Research Interest Essay were collapsed for analysis. A non-parametric paired t test, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, was used to establish change through yielding a Z score an d p-value. The data from each essay questions were combined to provide an overall measure of creativity before and after the online discussions. The data in Tabl e 4-2 reveals a significant change (p=.000) in overall creative thinking skills about design research from the pre-test to the post -test measure. Further, there was also a significant change in 3 of the 4 dimens ions of creative thinki ng. Flexibility (p=.001), originality (p=.000), and elaboration (p=.000) showed significan t change, but fluency did not appear to change significantly. Table 4-2. Comparison of creativity pre and post-test scores : Overall creativity. Pre-test Mean Post-test Mean Wilcoxon signed rank test (two-tailed) Creative Thinking 6.28 11.54 Z = -3.81, p = .000* Fluency 1.80 2.39 Z = -1.71, p = .088 / NS Flexibility 1.622.35 Z = -3.22, p = .001* Originality 1.982.28 Z = -3.59, p = .000* Elaboration 1.22 2.09 Z = -3.56, p = .000* *p<.05 67

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Next, this study was interested in seeing if there was a significant change in creativity scores for the Research Knowledge essay. This e ssay question asked particip ants to explain their understanding of design research and how it re lates to the field of interior design. W hat is the relationship between participation in Designscholar and creative thinking about understanding design research? This question examined the data collected from the Research Knowledge Essay that focused on each participants unders tanding of design research. The data were analyzed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test to show change in unde rstanding about design research. The data show significant change in creative thinking repor ting a p-value of .000 in Table 4-3. Further, it also shows that three of the four dimensions of creative thinking are significantly changed; fluency (p=.001), flexibility (p=.000), and elaboration (p=.002), but the remaining component of originality showed no significant difference. Table 4-3. Comparison of creativity pre and post-test scores: Research Knowledge Essay. Pret-test Mean Post-test Mean Wilcoxon signed rank test (two-tailed) Creative Thinking 5.57 10.85 Z = -3.77, p = .000* Fluency 1.80 3.08 Z = -3.22, p = .001* Flexibility 1.30 3.60 Z = -3.81, p = .000* Originality 1.20 1.72 Z = -1.25, p = .211 / NS Elaboration 1.27 2.42 Z = -3.03, p = .002* *p<.05 Finally, this study was interest ed in seeing if there was a change in the creative thinking scores of the Research Interest Essay. This question sought to uncover whether creative thinking about the participants intere st in design research had ch anged over the 6 weeks of the Designscholar module. What is the relationship between participation in Designscholar and creative thinking about defining a personal inte rest in design research? 68

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This question used data f rom the Research In terest Essay where participants were asked about their personal interest in design research. The data were analyzed with the same nonparametric paired t test, the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The results in Table 4-4 showed significant change (p=.007) in participants persona l interests in design rese arch. Further, Table 4-6 highlights that two of the four dimensions of creative thinking were significantly changed; originality (p=.001), and elabora tion (p=.014). The remaining two dimensions of fluency and flexibility showed no significant change when di scussing the participants personal interest in design research. Table 4-4. Comparison of creativity pre and pos t-test scores: Res earch Interest Essay. Pre-test Mean Post-test Mean Wilcoxon signed rank test (two-tailed) Creative Thinking 6.98 8.92 Z = -2.68, p = .007* Fluency 2.01 1.70 Z = -.645, p = .519 / NS Flexibility 2.422.60 Z = -1.01, p = .313 / NS Originality 1.772.83 Z = -3.28, p = .001* Elaboration 1.17 1.88 Z = -2.45, p = .014* *p<.05 Summary These comparisons show that creative thinki ng was significantly impacted from pre to post-test measures over both essays. Also, flexibility, origina lity, and elaboration of creative thinking were significantly differe nt. Further, there was a sign ificant change in the fluency, flexibility and elaboration of the Research Know ledge Essay and change in the originality and elaboration of the Research Interest Essay. Establishing signifi cant change in the pre and postmeasure of creative thinking allows this data to be studied further to explain why the change occurred. This information was used in the rema inder of the data analysis to further understand how the variables of personal mo tivation and domain relevant skill s impact creative thinking and the dimensions of creative thinking. 69

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Assessing P ersonal Motivation and It s Impact on Creative Thinking Following the Componential Theory of Creativ ity (Amabile, 1983), that states creativity is a function of creative thinking skills, motivation, and domain-relevant skills, this study was interested in learning if a nd how motivation impacts creativ e thinking. This study further examined motivational orientation sc ores as a predictor of the change in creative thinking scores. Personal motivation for involvement in school-relate d activities was assessed with a standardized test, The Work Preference Inventory Student Version (WPI). This survey assesses the students locus of motivation in school related tasks (e .g., intrinsic and extrinsic). There are also secondary scales of challenge and enjoyment fo r intrinsic and reward and recognition for the extrinsic scale. Intrinsic and extrinsic scores were reported fo r each participant with one being more dominant than the other. Also, subscale data were reported and analyzed for the impact on creative thinking. Linear regr ession was used to analyze th e impact of the primary and secondary scales of motivation on the measured change in creative thinking in the online discussions. The statistical test linear regression, attempts to model the relationship between variables and determine if one va riable is a predictor of the ot her (Cohen, J., Cohen P., West, & Aiken, 2003). This test reports a p-value for es tablishing significance and a positive or negative Beta value to determine the direction of influence one variable has on the other. Questions about Personal Motivation Personal motivation scores were first comp ared with overall crea tive thinking scores on both essays. This question compared the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic personal motivation on the change in overall creative thinking skill s seen from participation in the module. What is the relationship between personal motivation and overall creative thinking about design research? 70

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Table 4-5 and Figure 4-1 show that intrinsic m otivation positively influe nced the change in overall creative thinking (p=.009) Specifically, the secondary scale of enjoyment also significantly influenced creativ e thinking across both essays (p =.030). Extrinsic motivation primary and secondary scores had no impact on overall creative thinking. Table 4-5. Linear regre ssion analysis: Probability of intrinsic motivation scales as a predictor of creative thinking: Combined Essays. Primary and secondary predictors (motivation) Intrinsic Challenge Enjoyment r2 Outcomes Combined Essay Beta sig. Beta sig. Beta sig. Creative Thinking .573 .009* NS NS .456 .030* 0.35 Fluency NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Flexibility NS NS NS NS NS NS 0.34 Originality NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Elaboration NS NS NS NS NS NS NS *p<.05 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 22.22.42.62.833.23.43.63.84 Intrinsic motivation scoreCreative thinking score for combined essays Figure 4-1. Scatte rplot of the impact of intr insic motivation on overall creative thinking. Personal motivational scores were also compared to the creative thinking scores of each individual essay. This questi on was interested in the impact of personal motivation on the change in creative thinking about understanding design research from the Research Knowledge Essay. 71

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W hat is the relationship between personal motivation and creative thinking about understanding design research? Intrinsic motivation positively influenced the change in creative thinking (p=.002) about understanding design research as seen in Table 4-6 and Figure 4-2. Further, intrinsic motivation predicted increased flexibility in creative thinking about design research. Those with higher intrinsic motivation scores showed an increase in their flexibility of creative thinking. Also, the secondary scale of intrinsic motivation, enjoyment, was shown to be a predictor as well. Table 4-6. Linear regre ssion analysis: Probability of intrinsic motivation scales as a predictor of creative thinking: Rese arch Knowledge Essay. Primary and secondary predictors (motivation) Intrinsic Challenge Enjoyment r2 Outcomes Research Knowledge Essay Beta sig. Beta sig. Beta sig. Creative Thinking .574 .002* NS NS .499 .050* 0.57 Fluency NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Flexibility .505 .017* NS NS NS NS 0.34 Originality NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Elaboration NS NS NS NS NS NS NS *p<.05 0 5 10 15 20 25 22.22.42.62.833.23.43.63.84 Intrinsic motivation scoreCreative thinking score for research knowledge essay Figure 4-2. Scatte rplot of intrinsic motivation on creative thinking in th e Research Knowledge Essay. 72

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Extrins ic motivation produced a negative effect on the change in creative thinking for the Research Knowledge Essay as seen in Table 47 and Figure 4-3. Also, the secondary extrinsic motivation scale of reco gnition (p=.008) showed a negative effect on creative thinking about design research with a coefficient of -0.58. Table 4-7. Linear regre ssion analysis: Probability of extrinsic motivation scales as a predictor of creative thinking flexibility: Research Knowledge Essay. Primary and secondary predictors (motivation) Extrinsic Reward Recognition r2 Outcomes Research Knowledge Essay Beta sig. Beta sig. Beta sig. Creative Thinking -.513 .006* NS NS -.58 .008* 0.57 Fluency NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Flexibility NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Originality NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Elaboration NS NS NS NS NS NS NS *p<.05 0 5 10 15 20 25 22.22.42.62.833.23.43.63.84 Extrinsic motivation score Creative thinking score for research knowledge essay Figure 4-3. Scatte rplot of extrinsic motivation on creative thinking in th e Research Knowledge Essay. Finally, this study compared motivational orientation to the creativ e thinking score from the Research Interest Essay. This question exam ined the influence of personal motivation scores on creative thinking about personal in terest in design research. 73

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W hat is the relationship between personal motivation and creative thinking about defining a personal interest in design research? Extrinsic motivation had a positive impact on creative thinking about personal interest in design research (p=.001). In Table 4-8, creativ e thinking was also influenced by the extrinsic secondary scale of recognition. There were two dime nsions of creativity that were also affected by personal motivation scores; originality and el aboration. Originality was influenced by the secondary scale, recognition. Creative thinki ng elaboration was influenced by the primary extrinsic score and both the secondary scores of reward and recognition. Intrinsic motivation was seen to have no impact on changing personal interest. Table 4-8. Linear regre ssion analysis: Probability of extrinsic motivation scales as a predictor of creative thinking elaboration: Research Interest Essay. Primary and secondary predictors (motivation) Extrinsic Reward Recognition r2 Outcomes Research Interest Essay Beta sig. Beta sig. Beta sig. Creative Thinking .698 .001* NS NS .634 .007* 0.51 Fluency NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Flexibility NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Originality NS NS NS NS .593 .016* 0.43 Elaboration .617 .004* .532 .008* .402 .050* 0.57 *p<.05 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 22.22.42.62.833.23.43.63.84 Extrinsic motivation scoreCreative thinking score for research interest essay Figure 4-4. Scatte rplot of extrinsic motivati on impact on creative thinking in the Research Interest Essay. 74

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Summary Personal motivation was a predictor of crea tive thinking across both the essay questions. Intrinsic motivation had a posit ive influence on overall creativ e thinking and creative thinking about understanding design research Extrinsic motivation had a negative effect on the essay about understanding design research, but had a positive impact on the essay about personal research interests. Assessing Domain Expertise and Its Impact on Creative Thinking Along with looking at motivation as a predic tor of creative thinking, this study was also interested in examining the impact of domain re levant skills on creativ e thinking. Information on each students domain expertise was gather ed through a background survey given at the beginning of the module. This survey asked 10 questions of each participant a bout their interests, experience, and educat ion level in design and related de sign research. This information was analyzed alongside change in creative thinki ng from the pre and post-test measures. The data were analyzed using simple and multip le regression where creative thinking was the dependent variable and the inde pendent variables were year en rolled in graduate school, undergraduate educational background, previous de sign work experience, and interest in design practice. Questions about Domain Expertise Domain-relevant skills were first analyzed with the creative thinking scores combined from both essays. This question addressed the imp act of student domain expertise in the field of interior design on overall crea tive thinking in both the Resear ch Knowledge Essay and the Research Interest Essay. What is the relationship between domain expertise and overall creative thinking about design research? 75

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Table 4-9 shows that overall change in crea tive thinking was signifi can tly influenced by the year in which each student was enrolled in graduate school and their undergraduate educational background. The negative coefficien t of -0.642 shows that the effect was negative resulting in first year students showing significa nt gains in their overall creative thinking over the students who had advanced furt her in their programs. Table 4-9. Linear regre ssion analysis: Probability of domain relevant skills as predictors of creative thinking: Combined Essays. Primary predictors (domain-relevant skills) Year Enrolled (0=Y1/1=Y2) Design Degree (0=N/1=Y) Career Goal (0=Edu/1=Prac) r2 Outcomes Combined essays Beta sig. Beta sig. Beta sig. Creative Thinking -.642 .002* -.403 .030* NS NS 0.6 Fluency NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Flexibility NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Originality NS NS NS NS .612 .007* 0.46 Elaboration NS NS -.473 .050* NS NS 0.26 *p<.05 Also, students without a previ ous design degree exhibited significant achievements in creative thinking (p=.030), and specifically elaboration of cr eative thinking (p=.050). Previous work experience in design did not appear to im pact overall creative thinking. Also, career interest showed a significant influence on originality of creative thinking. Table 4-10. Linear regre ssion analysis; Probability of residentia l career interest as a predictor of creative thinking: Combine Essays. Secondary predictors (domain-relevant skills) Residential Practice (0=N/1=Y) r2 Outcomes Combined Essay Beta sig. Creative Thinking .732 .002* .52 Fluency NS NS NS Flexibility .614 .014* .40 Originality NS NS NS Elaboration .571 .025* .34 *p<.05 Further, Table 4-10 shows that an interest in residential design pr actice has a significant impact on overall creative thinking (p=.002), fl exibility (p=.014), and elaboration (p=.025). 76

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Therefore, students who identified an inte rest in residential de sign exhibited significantly higher gains in overall creative thinking and increased fl exibility and elaboration of ideas compared to students with other career interests of research, teaching, and commercial practice. Domain-relevant skills were next compared with creative thinki ng scores about the understanding of design research. This question used data from the Research Knowledge Essay which discusses the participants un derstanding of design research. What is the relationship between domain expertise and creative thinking about understanding design research? Table 4-11. Linear regre ssion analysis: Probability of domain relevant skills as predictors of creative thinking: Rese arch Knowledge Essay. Primary predictors (domain-relevant skills) Year Enrolled (0=Y1/1=Y2) Design Degree (0=N/1=Y) Career Goal (0=Edu/1=Prac) r2 Outcomes Research Knowledge Essay Beta sig. Beta sig. Beta sig. Creative Thinking -.815 .000* -.329 .031* NS NS 0.73 Fluency NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Flexibility -.472 .048* NS NS NS NS 0.32 Originality NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Elaboration -.637 .005* NS NS NS NS 0.48 *p<.05 Change in creative thinking about understa nding design research was significantly influenced by the year in which each student wa s enrolled in graduate school (p=.000). There were also significant changes, seen in Table 4-11, for first year stude nts in the flexibility (p=.048) and elaboration (p=.005) of creative thinking about unde rstanding design research. Also, the negative coefficient of -0.329 show ed students without previous design degrees exhibited significant gains in their overall cr eative thinking about understanding design research. Even though there was no significant influence of career goals on creative thinking, the sub scale of residential career in terest did produce an impact as seen in Table 4-12. This table shows that in the Research Knowledge Essay, st udents with a high degree of interest in a 77

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residential design practice caree r had signif icant gains in thei r creative thinking and in the flexibility of creative thinking ove r those with ot her interests. Table 4-12. Linear regre ssion analysis; Probability of residentia l career interest as a predictor of creative thinking: Resear ch Knowledge Essay. Secondary predictors (domain-relevant) Residential Practice (0=N/1=Y) r2 Outcomes Research Knowledge Essay Beta sig. Creative Thinking .595 .020* 0.34 Fluency NS NS NS Flexibility .539 .041* 0.27 Originality NS NS NS Elaboration NS NS NS *p<.05 Lastly, this study was interested in how doma in relevant skills impacted the creative thinking scores on the Research Interest Essay. This question looked at the impact of domain expertise in the field of interi or design on creative thinking about personal interest in design research. What is the relationship between domain expertise and creative thinking about defining a personal interest in design research? Table 4-13. Linear regre ssion analysis: Probability of domain relevant skills as predictors of creative thinking: Rese arch Interest Essay. Primary predictors (domain-relevant skills) Year Enrolled (0=Y1/1=Y2) Design Degree (0=N/1=Y) Career Goal (0=Edu/1=Prac) r2 Outcomes Research Interest Essay Beta sig. Beta sig. Beta sig. Creative Thinking NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Fluency NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Flexibility NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Originality .616 .012* NS NS NS NS 0.34 Elaboration .501 .041* NS NS NS NS 0.27 *p<.05 The only variable to influence creative thinki ng was year enrolled in the current degree program. Those who were enrolled in their second year of gradua te school saw a greater impact on originality (p=.012) and elaboration (p=.041) of creative thinking about a personal interest in 78

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design research. Table 4-13 shows that the dom ain expertise v ariable s of undergraduate educational background, prior work experience in design, and interest in design practice showed no significant impact on the students personal interest in design research. Summary This information shows that some of the dom ain-relevant skills in the study impacted creative thinking and the dimensions of creativ e thinking about design research. The most influential variable was the year enrolled in current masters program and residential design career interest. Participation Data This study also collected data about student participation on Designscholar. The primary themes of the participation data include tracking the frequenc y of interaction and cataloging references used in the online discussions. This section also includes two examples taken from the online discussion groups to illustrate the type of discussions that took place and to give an insight into the use of Designscholar Table 4-14. Interactions of topical groups in online discussions over six-weeks. # ppl Group Topic total interactions min. interactions percentage over min. 3 Workplace Design 56 45 24% 3 Restoration / Historical Design 54 45 20% 3 Cultural / Housing Design 54 45 20% 3 Sustainability Issues 66 45 47% 3 Universal Design 45 45 00% 2 Hospitality Design 32 20 60% 4 Healthcare Design 92 80 15% Frequency of interaction was tracked for each topical group and illustrated in Table 4-14. This shows that the average interaction was 23% above the minimum requirement. The group with the most frequent interaction was the he althcare group, but they were also the only group 79

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with 4 people. As a result, they were required to interact m ore than groups with 2 or 3. The sustainability group interacted more than any other group with 3 people. The group with two people showed the most interaction, but their mi nimum number of interactions was lower than the other groups. References are organized by topi cal groups in Appendix J. Th is also contains complete citations of each artic le and thesis reference used during the first four discussions. Further, Table 4-15 shows all journals used and the fre quency of use during the discussions. Table 4-15. Journals used by students dur ing the first three online discussions. # Journal times cited 1 Journal of Interior Design 12 2 Design Issues 10 3 Environment and Behavior 10 4 Journal of Environmental Psychology 6 5 Journal of Architecture and Planning Research 4 6 Journal of Consumer Research 2 7 Journal of Corporate Real Estate 2 8 Addictive Behavior 1 9 Applied Ergonomics 1 10 Cornell Hospitality Quarterly 1 11 Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 1 12 Crime Prevention Studies 1 13 Ergonomics 1 14 Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal 1 15 Housing and Society 1 16 Housing, Theory and Society 1 17 ICON (Magazine of ASID) 1 18 International Journal of Contem porary Hospitality Management 1 19 International Journal of Hospitality Management 1 20 Journal of Personality 1 21 Journal of Physiological Anthropology 1 22 Journal of Retailing and Consumer Service 1 23 Journal of Urban Affairs 1 24 Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 1 63 80

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The first three discussions asked students to post inform ation on an article from a journal related to their research and respond to thei r group members. An example of an online discussion is the following retail discussion group discussing an articl e during discussion 3: Student A posts: The article I read was Dete rminants of Consumers Aesthetic Responses to Point-of-Purchase Materials. It was written in 2002 by C. Jansson, B. Bointon, and N. Marlow. The article discu sses research that was done about point-of-purchase (POP) displays and how they will affect the cons umer into purchasing whatever is being displayed. The researchers were testing to see how the consumer responded to aesthetic values in POP displays in regards to clar ity, mystery and legibility. They had 100 people between the ages of 18 and 35 look at cardboar d cutout displays th at were designed to display and advertise a specific product. The subjects were given a questionnaire to fill out to evaluate the complexity, mystery, coherenc e, and legibility of each POP display. They found that only clarity and myst ery were statistically signifi cant but mystery had a stronger influence on aesthetic response than clarity. This is a notewor thy article because it takes a fairly simple approach to answering a rather complicated idea. They realized when doing this study that there are limitations to it a nd in order to get a more accurate conclusion further study would need to be done. I think this could be a fascinating study if it was developed even further and made it to be mo re accurate. This could be done by asking a few stores to be a part of this study and th en they would be able to supply the POP displays. Then the researchers could adjust di fferent factors to see how the subjects would respond to them. This way the displays are of a more accurate quality than homemade POP displays, thus the subjects responses would be more accurate. Student B responds: I have myself particip ated in several studies conducted by apparel merchandising graduate students concerning POP displays and other similar retail environment issues. I think this article compli ments your research very well. POP displays are a big part of modern retail environmen ts. I wonder if studie s conducted in retail establishments with different price points would have different results concerning the importance of the variables being studied. I would guess that clarity would be more important in a budget store and mystery more im portant in a high-end retail environment. Student A responds: This relates to my res earch because I want to see how consumers respond to every area of a high end retail stor e. POP displays play a huge role in retail design and it is key that these displays attr act consumers attention and allow them to quickly see what the store is offering. Also th ese displays need to done in a way that makes the consumer want to buy wh atever is being offered. Student B responds: I also th ink it would be interesting to see how interior designers could take the results of this study that clarity and mystery ar e the most important elements of POP displays and try to incorpor ate these elements directly into the entire retail environment. That itself might be an interesting long-term sort of study. Are those elements most important in POP displays? W ould consumers be more willing to spend in an environment based off of those specific principles? 81

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Student C responds: It is very interesting to m e to read ab out retail design. I haven't had the opportunity to resear ch it myself, or design any retail pr ojects in school. This is such a unique field of design. Whereas other design s may focus on drawing people into an environment to stay a while and be comfortable in the space, retail is focused on drawing people in and getting them out. I think the POP displays is a good illustration of that concept. How can we quickly draw upon interest, quickly inform, and inspire to purchase? I agree with (Student B) regarding the design of the space. It equally must quickly draw upon interest, quickly inform and inspire to purchase. It seems that there are other important elements in the successful desi gn of both the POP display and the retail environment. For example, color, contrast, lighting, or sensory experiences such as the tactile. These elements have a significant psychological and physical affects upon the occupant. Maybe the researcher considered thes e design elements as co ntributors to clarity and mystery. Regardless, I think the study can be thicker by considering other design elements besides mystery, complexity, coheren ce and legibility. I want to know how they decided that these four components were the only ones to consider. If more specific elements and principles of design were tested in regards to the POP display, the results could translate more clearly in to the interior environment. Regarding your suggestions for strengthening the study, I w onder if there would be more variables if the study implemented authentic POP displays. For exam ple, familiarity with the product, both positive and negative, may influence the results. Using home-made displays may have granted the researcher more control over th e study. However, I do agree that authentic displays would yield a more accurate study. Maybe if there were 5 different products that were each represented by 3 varying POP displays. This way the products are not only compared to one another, but design elements are tested by varying the design elements and keeping the product constant. The fourth discussion of Designscholar asked student to post information about a thesis related to their research and re spond to their group members. This is an example of an online discussion in the workplace group discu ssing a thesis from discussion 4: Student A posts: This study examines the phys ical work environmen t and explores how to utilize natural elements for reducing stress at work. There is little research on the relationship between work and st ress, despite the fact that 50 % of working people work in and office environment. There is much rese arch that supports the idea that natural elements may help alleviate stress. This study examined ways to optimize natural elements in the physical environment to alle viate stress and increas e performance. The methodology used to determine if natural elemen ts had an affect on stress and performance included a paper based survey. The survey wa s given to seven participants who evaluated different office environments. There were 4 di fferent images used and each participant had to determine weather or not the environment wa s stressful. The images used included one with obvious amounts of natural elements, obvious amounts of manufactured elements, and combinations of both. The next part of the survey used ten statements based on the perceived stress scale. A statistical analysis wa s performed in order to evaluate the survey. Results = participants perceived that natural elements may reduce stress; natural materials may create a less stressful environment that manufactured ones; participants perceived no 82

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difference; between actual wood and lam inate materials; using natural materials for furniture may reduce stress more that using natural; materials on the floor and wall finishes. This is relevant to my study because stress can be a giant factor in the process of giving birth. If natural elements can be used to reduce stress in work environments it is likely that they can also be used in birth environments. Lee, K. (2007) Using Natural Elements for Reducing Stress Potential at Work Unpublished masters thesis. Washington State University. Student B responds: This thesis makes sense in a way, but in other is lacking an issue: design preference. Many pictures of birthing ro oms I have seen have natural materials, but in styles I particularly dete st. So the variable design style should be accounted. Don't you think so? Student A responds: Preference is an importa nt issue, I think this study was does look at the preference between man made materials an d natural materials. When I think about typical office environments many things come to mind as common place. Plastic used to make furniture, metal for shelving and cab inetry, man made fibers for carpet and upholstery like nylon, rayon and polyester. When thinking about natu ral materials the study found that people prefer Wool, and co tton, and silk for carpet and upholstery, wood for furniture and shelving. It is prefer ence taken down to one of the lowest common denominator, removing color, pattern, and style. Student C responds: I'm surprised to know that the participants perceived no difference between the real natural material s and artificial look materials. This could be a key to add natural elements in less cost, which is the main reason for not adding th e actual real natural materials in office spaces. I can't imagine the stressful state after bi rth that requires the need to be calmed down but I encourage the need of natural elements in birth environments as long as they do not interfere with the st erilized space. Studying the consequences of natural elements, such as attracting bugs or causing molds, will be required when the powerless new mother and "fragile" infant are the main users in that space. Student D responds: what about the natura l view? is it count as one of a natural elements? of is it only talking about the natural material? Student A responds: There is definitely a place for natural views, but it was not in the scope of this thesis. It just examined natural elements that are on the in terior of the space. Student E responds: I think the natural materials mainly indicate wood, bamboo and something else have warm touch sensory and na tural smell. However, I think, according to stone, like marble and granite, which have le ss effect on alleviating stress. Because they feel so cold and tough, maybe their patte rn can help people release stress. Conclusion The research questions for the study can be answ ered using data from the three areas of the componential theory of creativity (Amabile, 1983), creative thinking, motivation, and domain83

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relevant skills. This study produced reliable data, establishing consistency in the judging process. It also showed that significant change in creative thinki ng did occur in both the areas of understanding design research and defining a personal interest in design research after the online discussions in Designscholar Further, it explored the primar y (intrinsic and extrinsic) and secondary (challenge, enjoyment, recognition, and reward) variables of motivation and the level of the students domain-relevant sk ills as predictors of creative thinking and the dimensions of creative thinking. 84

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85 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Introduction This study considered potential changes in creative thinking (f luency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration) about design research resulting from online discussions with peer groups. It further studied the re lationship between learner charac teristics of personal motivation and domain-relevant skills as predictors of crea tive thinking about resear ch in interior design graduate students. This chapter also explains th e data that surfaced in terms of specific creative dimensions. These results will be discussed and interpreted in relation to the pedagogical literature. The findings from this study appear to validate the constructivist educational theory of the online learning community Designscholar and the technological tool of online discussions as an appropriate means of increasing creative th inking about design research. The participation in the online discussions and the limitation of this study are also presented. The chapter concludes with future research recommendations for enhancing Designscholar and developing online learning communities for interi or design graduate education. Questions about Creative Thinking The questions about creative thinking test a ch ange in the pre and post measure of creative thinking. These questions needed to be answered before other analyses could be made. The analysis of the data focused on the combined data from each of the essays. What is the relationship between participation in Designscholar and overall creative thinking about design research? What is the relationship between participation in Designscholar and creative thinking about understanding design research? What is the relationship between participation in Designscholar and creative thinking about defining a personal inte rest in design research?

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The results of the study uncovered the change ob served in creative thinking due as a result of the Designscholar online learning community. Designscholar showed a significant im pact on the change in creative thi nking about design research fo r the students involved. I agree that design research can and should be incorporated into the design profession. We as designers should design based on what re search is out there to better our designs and improve the experiences of those w ho spend time in the spaces we create. Overall, I think forums such as this are exce llent ways to connect with other students in the field as well as gain a sometimes different perspective on a variety of different issues. Through socially engaging in written dialogue about design research, participants appeared to enhance their understanding of design research and better define thei r own personal research interest. They also gained skills in locating and reading research articles for their research topics. As in the constructivist reflection cycle (Oliver, 2000), the process of expression, reflection, revision of ideas occurred in the onl ine discussions. Using a community of peers, students were able to build upon their knowledge of design research. This community succeeded in creating a resource for st udents to share and discuss ideas in order to advance the understanding of research in the interior design field. This fi nding validates th e constructivist pedagogy that underlies the development of Designscholar as an appropriate way to engage students in actively thinking about design research. Overall cha nge in creative thinking about design research emerged as did dimensions of fluency, flexibility, original ity, and elaboration in the student reflections in their essays. The Research Knowledge Essay asked students about their understanding of design research and its implication to the fi eld. Answers to this question revealed a significant change in this area afte r the completion of the module. The Research Interest Essay asked students a bout their own personal interests in design re search. The answer to this question also revealed a significant change in creative thinking about specific interests in design education. This information not only va lidates the underlying ed ucational theory of 86

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Designscholar it also supports online discussions as an appropriate tool for a constructivist way of teaching and learning This finding is in line with the study by Cisero (2000) that looked at sharing reflective writing as a wa y to increase creative and cri tical thinking in undergraduate students. By engaging students in written reflection followed by peer discussions about design literature, students increase their ability to think about the subject matter. This enhances student understanding of design research and can increase the previously observed lack of understanding of what design research is and how it is used to inform design decisions (Dickenson & Marsden, 2009). Research has also shown that learni ng through a community th at builds collective knowledge is an effective way to incr ease critical thinking (Oliver, 2000). Designscholar met success as a constructivist learning environment that enhanced cr eative thinking th rough the use of reflective writing shared through a community of learners. It was shown to increase understanding and focus personal interest in de sign research. Howeve r, some discussions revealed nave assumptions about design research th at were reinforced by their peers. If an instructor was involved as a f acilitator then the discussions could have been clarified and misconceptions and alternative explana tions could have been raised. To get a better view of where creativity specif ically changed the dimensions identified by Torrance (1974) of fluency, flexibility, original ity, and elaboration were further examined. Overall, Designscholar increased these dimensions but va riation did appear between the two parts of the pre and post-tests. Students saw a positive change in these dimensions when discussing their understanding and personal intere sts in design research. The dimension of fluency did not impact the change in overall creative thinking. This shows that students did not change the amount creative ideas. However, th ere was a significant positive change in the 87

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f lexibility of their design research ideas where students acknowledged a wider range of research topics than had previously considered. For example one student commented: Design Scholar has allowed me to see the pos sibilities for a variety of focuses within a specific topic. Also, the dimension of origin ality increased as well. St udents offered more novel or original ideas about design rese arch once involved in the online discussions. The change in elaboration was seen through the increased use of appropriate language when discussing design research. Through exposure to li terature in the field and discussions centered on design research, students began to incorporate scholarly language in to their reflectiv e writings. This was not only due to exposure to previous design literature, but also to peers using the appropriate language in their online discussions. Students modeled the scholarly language from the research articles they received, reviewed, and critiqued. The precision in online discu ssions increased because of the use of domain-specific language an d growing content knowledge in th e field. This speaks to the development of expertise, which is also the th ird component of Amabiles framework in addition to creative thinking skills and motivation. The students began using language that separated them from those without an unde rstanding of design in turn build ing upon their domain-relevant skills. The specific dimensions of creativity we re also independently studied for each of the essay questions where interesting outcomes surfaced. Students had an increase in fluency, flexibil ity, and elaboration of their creative thinking when they discussed their understanding of design research. The change in fluency was seen through student identificati on of more topics under the broad umbrella of design research after taking part in the online discussions. Instead of referring to the broad topic of hospitality design, for example, the students who participated in Designscholar began to suggest information about 88

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hotel, restaurant, and bar designs sho wing maturation in their th inking about research topics. The following student excerpts allude to growth and development. I think these past discussions have been very interesting bot h in terms of the variety of topics discussed as well as s eeing everyone's feedback and opin ions. There were definitely some subjects discussed which I knew next to nothing about, like narrative inqui ry, so it was quite interesting to learn mo re about it. Other topics I had studied a bit before so it was interesting to hear every one else's thoughts on them. Going through this unique experience, Ive been exposed to new design areas and explored different design issues in addition to my familiarized research topic. Learning more about design research and the effect of design elements, such as color, lighting, and natural elements, forms a mental block filled with new experiences from a variety of topics. We have been exposed to different environments and settings such as retail, commercial spaces, hotels, and h ealthcare institutes. Reading about different methods of research and design tools, such as P.O.E, interviews, and surveys, was valuable knowledge for future, or current, research uses. Also, tied to the increase in topics was an increase in the depth of understanding about each topic, or increased flexibility. The pre-test essays showed that students listed topics of design research but their understanding of each was limited. After the online discussions, their knowledge had increased by understanding each topic with more depth. They began to related and connect topics such as ligh ting design informing lighting choices in hospitality sector; hotels, restaurants, and bars. Students were able to discuss each in more detail and understand its relevance to design in a connected way. Also I was curious about some topics we discussed before and then I was able to study them more and more. Over the past few weeks during the discussions on design scholar, Ive come to realize the extent of which research topics can be studied. First of all th ere are an unlimited number of thesis topics all of which could take a different approach to the topic of study. The change in the dimension of elaboration wa s seen in the choice of language. Students used language they had seen in literature that was appropriate to de sign and inherent to discussing the field in a more scholarly way. The post-test essays contained references to sustainability, accessibility, and post-occupancy ev aluation; terminology that did not appear in 89

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the pre-test essays. These changes displayed an increase in topics, a deeper understanding of topics, and an appropriate use of design language when discussing these topics in detail. The one dimension that did not seem to show much change was originality. This is actually understandable because this essay questi on asked students to explain their level of understanding about the topics that had been discu ssed in their groups. Or iginality did not factor into the change in creative thinking because th e information in student essays contained the collective knowledge built within the group. Th ere may have not been enough concentration within a certain stream of research to remark whether or not it was original. Students may not have had enough depth of understanding about research in a given area such as sustainability, to ascertain originality. The essays often provi ded information on the same topics the group discussed as a whole. When discussing understanding of design research, the study showed that certain dimensions influenced a change in creative thin king. The dimensions that impacted change in personal interest were original ity and elaboration. Fluency a nd flexibility did not change. Students kept their original person al interests and did not add to th e list of topics they wanted to pursue. This, in fact, is a positive aspect of the study. It appears that students came in with a personal interest and, through the online discussions, focused on thei r interest instead of adding unrelated topics. However, flexibility was not changed. Students maintained their depth of understanding about their topi cs of personal interest. I have found this discussion forum to be an interesting way to evaluate and think through my thesis topic as well as give feedback to others. The dimension of originality changed from pre to post-test measures. This is an understandable and very interesting finding of the study. While originality was not changed in the essay about understanding design research, it was significantly changed in the essay about 90

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personal interest. This m eans that students bega n to personalize and focus their interests after participating in the online discussions. Their ex planations were also more in-depth when they identified a research focus area and appeared be tter equipped to disc uss their research. For example, Appendix I shows the developm ent of a research idea from pre to post essays. First, the student expresses an intere st in work environments and ways in which movement in the workplace could help fight obesit y. Then the student expressed more original ideas in the post essay which contained references to studying a specific population in the work environment; the millennial. The essay further focused on how work environments could reflect this cohorts social values and characteristics. Designscholar had a significant impact on the way design students creatively think about their understanding and personal interests in de sign research. The data show that online discussions are an appropriate tool for communica tion among peers about sc holarly literature in the field of design. Data also show that this interaction imp acts overall student thinking and learning. The data was further analyzed to de termine what variables influenced the observed change in creative thinking. The following in formation on personal motivation uncovers how motivation impacted the creative thinking of students involved in the online discussions. Questions about Personal Motivation The questions about personal motivation examined how personal motivation might predict creative thinking a nd change in the dimensions of crea tive thinking. Motivation scores were compared to the change in overall creativity and for th e individual essays. What is the relationship between personal motivation and overall creative thinking about design research? What is the relationship between personal motivation and creative thinking about understanding design research? 91

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W hat is the relationship between personal motivation and creative thinking about defining a personal interest in design research? Personal motivation was assessed through the Work Preference Inventory survey. This survey was scored and compared to the changes observed in creative thinking and its components. Overall, the sample was highly intr insically motivated. The sample also showed moderate levels of extrinsic motivation. Also, 17 of the 21 showed higher intrinsic scores, while 4 showed higher extrinsic scores. A larger sample is needed to test these findings but these findings seem to suggest that when compared to overall creative thinki ng, intrinsic motivation had a positive and significant impact on the observed change. This follows the previous literature on the componential th eory of creativ ity by Amabile (1983) th at states intrinsic motivation is conducive to creative thinking. Ex trinsic motivation did not influence creative thinking change when the data from both essay qu estions were collapsed. However, when each essay question was examined independentl y, the findings were a bit different. Intrinsic motivation positively influenced creative thinki ng change about understanding design research, which follows the assumptions of previous research (Amabile, 1983; Kaufman, 2002). When extrinsic motivation was analyzed, it actually showed a negative effect on creative thinking. This finding is also in line with the co mponential theory of crea tivity that states that extrinsic motivation is detrimenta l to creative thinking (Amabile, 1983). More specifically, the component of flexibility was positively influenc ed by intrinsic motivation. This means that students with higher intrinsic scor es exhibited wide ranging unders tanding about design research. Extrinsic motivation did not significantly in fluence any of the i ndividual components of creativity. Overall, higher scores in extrinsic motivation negativ ely impacted creative thinking. However, the negative impact observed in th e understanding of desi gn was not seen when students discussed their personal in terest. Interestingly, extrinsi c motivation showed to have a 92

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positiv e influence on creative thinking and intrinsic motivation showed no impact. When the components of creativity were studied, elaboratio n surfaced as the component that was impacted significantly by extrinsic motivati on, while the other components we re not affected at all. This study shows that some extrinsic motiv ation is helpful, but beyond that, intrinsic motivation becomes the primary driver to complete research related tasks. This is evidenced in the student who went above and beyond frequency and quality of discussions. Personal motivation was observed to influen ce creative thinking about understanding and personal interest in design research. The co mponential theory of cr eativity not only lists personal motivation as an influencing factor, it also presents domain expertise as the third component of creativity. The following inform ation will explain how domain expertise also impacts creative thinking within the Designscholar online discussions. Questions about Domain Expertise Domain expertise was examined to determine the effect of interior design content and knowledge on creative thinking and the dimensions of creative thinking. The combined essay score along with the individual scores for both the essay questi ons were compared. What is the relationship between domain expertise and overall creative thinking about design research? What is the relationship between domain expertise and creative thinking about understanding design research? What is the relationship between domain expertise and creative thinking about defining a personal interest in design research? Domain expertise was evaluated through a b ackground survey given at the beginning of the 6-week Designscholar study. This survey yielded data on four components of domain expertise, year enrolled in graduate school undergraduate educational background, previous design work experience, and pers onal interest in desi gn practice and academic careers. This 93

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sam ple consisted of graduate students who are acquiring research knowledge and skills, therefore, they are not considered experts. Overall creative thinking was influenced by the year the student was enrolled in graduate school. This means that students who were in thei r first year of graduate school saw a significant change in their overall creativ e thinking about design research compared to those who were further along in their programs. These first year students also had significant gains in the originality and elaboration of th eir overall creative thinking. A second year student commented that this tool would have been most useful during her first year in the interior design graduate program when she was searching for a thesis topic. This opinion was expressed by several student participants as follows: This discussion forum has been helpful in that it has forced me to begin some research for my thesis (even though I am really not yet to that stage.) I think that the best part about it was getting to hear opinions and thoughts on my discussion topics from students of other schools. I wish this online discussion was provided in the beginning of my masters program. Another variable that had a significant impact on creative thinking was domain expertise. Students with undergraduate degrees in fields that were outside of interior design had a larger change in creative thinking than those with degr ees in interior design, architecture, or art. Therefore, students with low levels of domain-re levant skills saw the mo st significant gains in how they thought about interior design research. This finding is reflected in the paradox of creativity argument which states that creativity n eeds to strike a balance between the challenge of the task and the skill of the performer (Csikszentmihalyi, 1989. This also speaks to having enough knowledge about a certain topic to engage in discussions about it, but to be fresh and look at things from a new perspective. Th e incoming students with non-design backgrounds had the most to gain in the discussions because they had the most to learn. Each students previous 94

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design work experience was not an influencing fact or, but a high am ount of interest in a practice did influence creative thinking. An interest in an academic career ch ange overall creative thinking, but it did increase the di mension of originality. This could speak to the nature of interior design researchers in ac ademic careers looking for a speci fic original research agenda. Specifically, the students who were interested in a residential design practi ce career saw a larger change in their overall creativ e thinking. The change was traced to a significant impact on the components of flexibility and elaboration. These students came away with a deeper understanding of design research and used mo re design related langua ge after the online discussions. This is an interesting finding because students interested in residential design often come to design education with a focus on aesthetic s of home interiors rather than critical design research. They also may have not fully understood the depth of the research base in the field. This group of students stands the most to gain by participating in th e online discussions. Students with an interest in a career in residential design practi ce not only showed the biggest increase in creative thi nking change about understanding de sign research, but also in the dimensions of flexibility and elaboration. Also, first year students saw the biggest change in creative thinking and, more specif ically, saw this change in th e component of elaboration. Personal interest was not impacted by any of the domain expertise variables. The change in creative thinking about personal interest cannot be attributed to any of the domain expertise factors. The data showed that the year enrolled in graduate school, undergraduate degree background, previous design work experience, and interest in pr actice or academic careers did not influence student personal interest in design research. This means that change in creative thinking about personal interest in design must be attributed to reasons other than domain expertise in the field. The change is likely becau se of what is being discussed in research and 95

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what they are learning in their curr ent graduate education curricula. It can also be attributed to the fact that many students had already chosen to pics for study and stayed with them because they were near the end of completion of their th esis and degree. These outcomes suggest further refinements of Designscholar for future study. Participation Members of the Designscholar online learning community overa ll were quite engaged in the six-week learning experience. Each student was required to post one article or thesis assignment a week and respond at least once to each of their group members. On average, students interacted 24% more than was required. The majority of the groups in this study were comprised of 3 participants. It is the resear chers recommendation that online discussion groups use 3-4 participants to give a variety of opi nion, but still be manageable for meaningful individual engagement for all discussions. When comparing this to the participation of the pilot study, there is a marked difference. The pilot st udy yielded a participa tion level of 80% more than required. This is attributed to the involve ment of the instructor during the pilot study. The instructors involvement help strengthen the community and the involvement of all the members. This is confirmed through previous studies that state hybrid methods of teaching may be the most beneficial to diverse popul ations of students. This study would recommend using an instructor or mentor in the de velopment of online discussions. At the close of the six-week study, students were asked to reflect on th e experience. Of the 21 participants, 15 had positive comments about the online discussions while 6 had neutral and/or negative comments. Some of these pos itive comments from the student reflections underscore the importance of cr eating a sense of community: It sure is helpful to have a network of de sign researchers that ar e in the process of conducting their theses. 96

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We belong to a culture in which the majority of our social networking takes place online. I think it is valuable to utilize this for design education. It ha s been beneficial to me to share my topic and receive input. I think it this was very beneficial to me because I could get more information from my group members. Also it encourages me to do research. Thus I appreciated all members input. We were talking about our own interestin g research related to our thesis and it is very good for me because I have a chance to know others processes on how to develop a thesis by using research. Other comments centered on areas for improvement: I find that this forum has been very diffi cult to exchange information. Not only are our areas of interest dissimilar, the lack of real-time exchange that exists in studio allows for a more conversational approach for solving the problems at hand. I do not think I would participate in this again, it was too time consuming. When entering a new discipline, it is critical for new learners to form a sense of belonging within the field. This can be done through le arning the new scholarly language, understanding what is recognized and valued in the knowledge base, and identifying gaps in previous literature. Becoming part of a community invo lves sharing values and norms with others in the community. An online learning community offers a place for new learners in a field to get an understanding of what is involved in their new communit y. This can aid those coming from diverse backgrounds in what the community is about a nd how they can learn a nd give back to it. All of the 21 students who fini shed the requirements of the st udy influenced this research in one way or another through their comments and their responses about design research. Overall, the participation of the students involved uncovered mos tly positive and some negative aspects of Designscholar The study began with 26 participants and finished with 21 who stayed actively involved in the online discussions. Instructors at two of th e three schools required st udent participation and assessed a small participation grade for their invo lvement. The remaining school did not require participation and saw 4 students drop out in the fi rst three weeks. This was a result of the time 97

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comm itment for participation and the fact that many students saw this as an extra activity on their already full plates. Overall, I think that a discussion forum like th is is a great idea, but I am not sure if it would actually be used to its full potential wh en its users are not be ing forced to use it routinely. This would be a good project over the summer; frequently graduate students are looking for some additional inspiration during the summer as there are not a lot of courses available to us; and we are usually doing research or interning. Attempting to complete this during the regular semester wa s very difficult along with our mandatory coursework. Limitations The study had some limitations in its research design including its sma ll sample size of 21 students from three interior design programs. Also, the study was 6 weeks long, so people were brought together for only a limited period of time. Ideally, it would have been very insightful to track if participation in Designscholar ultimately proved to enhance the students end product, but this was beyond the scope of th e dissertation. Longitudinal res earch could begin to ascertain whether or not involvement in on line discussions about design re search impacts the quality of graduate level research. The student in Appendix I suggested two important ideas for further study; the idea of reviewing prec edent cases, and the idea of bu ilding upon previous generational work environment studies. This su ggests that this student sees th eir personal interest in design incorporating previous research to inform their decision. This sp eaks to a possibility that using online discussions about design research can inst ill the use of research in design decision making as a primary skill. Furthermore, students were at different poi nts of completion in the masters degree programs. Ideally this would be recommende d for incoming masters students who have a limited understanding of interior design research and who have yet to develop a strong personal interest in design research. Interaction was possibly too short to develop any lasting personal 98

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connections. There were 26 students who started Designscholar but 21 completed the six-week study. Not all programs required students to part icipate, and therefore the study lost 5 over the course of the online discussions. As discussed previously, the difference in accountability of students from different schools presented a few problems. Because some students were not required to participate, they slowly dropped out. This left groups with fewer members who were actively involved leading to less dialogue and fewer opinions for reflection. I do think the forum has a great potential, but it should be incorporated in a theory class course, and reward the participants with credit for doing it. Othe rwise people just get swamped with other things, especially studio, and kind of give up, or dont put much effort in it. Students may have been more actively involve d not only if their pa rticipation had been required, but also if their inst ructor had commented on the discussions. Involvement from educators or practitioners coul d boost the performance of those with high extrinsic motivation simply because they would know they were being he ld accountable. The role of the instructor in the online learning community was different in th e pilot and dissertation studies. The pilot study witnessed larger participation numbers in the weekly discussi ons and this can be in part contributed to the active role of the instructor during the pilot study. This study was a success due to the overwhelming number of intrinsically motivated individuals who tend to go above in beyond, but could benefit from a partic ipating role of a lead instruct or to guide the discussions. This study could also benefit from online t echnologies other than asynchronous online discussions. The technology used for this study re flected a widely available tool that the researcher was able to find and offered a low cost solution. This study could benefit from upgraded technology. Using real-time discussi ons or instant messaging could potentially increase involvement and facilitate student in teraction if they did not have to wait for responses. Having to post, then wait, then wait some mo re is very frustrating. We all have a lot of projects going on at the same time and making ti me to check to see if we have a response is very non-conducive to the immediate process of learning and designing. 99

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Along with changing technological tools, the study could also change the organization of the peer discussion groups. The students disp layed a diverse population of interests and their level of completion within their program s was diff erent as well. This resu lted in broad topical groups for the online discussions. Students were grouped as close as possible to others with similar interests, but this may have reinforced a narrow view of the topic. In interdisciplinary design research we see that influences can be found in diverse topics and opinions. I really appreciated other st udents coming into our group, and vi ce-versa, to discuss topics and give feedback. Thus, the individual groups seemed a little restrictive. One option is to have it always open without deadlines or assigned groups. In this way we could use it to get in touch with likeminded re searchers, and exchange information as the need arises. The students that participated in Designscholar were at different stag es of their degrees. Some were first year students searching and re fining topic selection and some were second year students nearing completion of their thesis. Th ese types of online disc ussions may better serve first year students who are exploring design rese arch topics and learning about researchs role and use in graduate education. I believe that the use of design scholar is mo re beneficial at the li terature review phase once we have our topics of interest select ed so we can use the shared documents and journals as references. On the other hand, it won't hurt using this before selecting our interests to browse through the contents and explore different areas of research. I found that there are so many interesting ideas out there through the discussion, and I wish that I was exposed to these before I de termined my research topic for thesis this year. Students were also experiencing Designscholar through a variety of courses within their programs. Some students were participating as part of a studio course, some from an independent study 1 hour credit, while other where enrolled in a research methods type seminar course. The different expectations of each class may have put different demands on the individual students. This experience may serve st udents better if they ar e on level playing fields 100

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of what is expected from their program s along with their Designscholar work (i.e. literature review or studio project). These limitati ons of the study offer recommendations to Designscholar and to future research in online learni ng communities in interior design education. Future Research: Recommendations for Designscholar This research study uncovered fundamental ways Designscholar or a similar type of online learning community could be changed to enhance the learning experience of graduate students. These fundamental changes came from the research in the pilot and dissertation studies and from student comments about the online discussions The following outlines some of the major changes for assessments, users, and organization of the module that could be made to the Designscholar online learning community. Recommendations for assessments are to a dd student learning style measures like the Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator to assess the divers ity of learning styles in an online community. The online environment could also me measured using a survey created from constructivist educational theory constructs in order to analyze the effectiven ess of the online community as a true constructivist environment. Student dial ogue could also be anal yzed dialogue to uncover themes in the discussions in order to unde rstand and enhance the discussion through an intervention of questions or comments. Surveys could also uncover student attitudes about their use of research in design problems before and af ter the module. This could also incorporate surveying students after their degr ee completion to see if research became an integral part of their design decision making in their theses. As sessing the sense of comm unity created in the online learning community through the Sense of Community Index (SCI) could measures membership, influence, integration and fulfillment of needs, and the shared emotional connection that is created online. 101

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Recommendations for us ers are to involve instructors at the programs to evaluate and give feedback to better the commun ity. Using online discussions could increase communication between teacher and student by involving instructors in the discussions. It is also important to involve instructors to increase accountability and oversight of participation. Even though this could be a valuable tool for students, the study sh owed that students need to be graded or held accountable for their participati on in the community. Instructor involvement could also be paired with adding outside expe rts to increase the quality and diversity of knowledge in the online discussions. Recommendations for module are to target incoming students for semester long enrollment. This could help students with a preliminary topic sear ch and understanding of design research. Also start students by looking to popular sources of information gathering first, then build to peer reviewed journals followed by thesis and dissertatio ns. Mentors or second year school liaisons could be used to mentor groups of incoming students. It may be beneficial to give each group an article to read and discuss. This could be recommended by their instructor or by one group member. Keeping discussions focused may be a way to elicit better quality discussions. Anot her effective technique fo r sharing resources may be through cataloging the articles and theses that have been discussed for easy access. This could be a searchable database th at allows others to view a gr oups dialogue on a certain article or thesis. Also, articles could be uploaded to each post so students could reach the original article easily. Finally, using upgr aded technology could make this experience more interesting for the students and instructors. This study coul d benefit from newer tec hnologies that allow for seamless real-time communication, web meetings and conversations could be recorded and archived. 102

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Recommendations for Online Learning Communi ties for Interior Design Education The develop ment of online learning communitie s should be considered within interior design programs for a number of reasons. They could be used within courses, programs, or across programs to strengthen knowledge building and inter-personal relationships. The following are recommendations for usi ng an online learning community like Designscholar within and across programs. Recommendations for uses within programs are for mentoring incoming students with more experienced graduate students. Online le arning communities could be beneficial to graduate students across levels to create an ongoing dialogue open to all students and faculty members to reach beyond face-to-face classes. This could create a consistent link among programs for graduate students to ask questi ons, respond, mentor, share resources, and gain diverse opinions and advice about design research topics. The co mmunity could be enriched and diversified by engaging in discussions with ot her programs internationally. It could also strengthen relationship of schools and the students who will be en tering the work force together. Conclusion The purpose of this study was to determine if creative thinking about design research changed from online discussions on Designscholar More specifically, the study explored the specific dimensions of creative thinking -fluenc y, flexibility, originality, and elaboration to determine whether or not development occurred through participation in an online learning module involving graduate stud ents across programs. Furthe r, the influence of personal motivation and domain relevant sk ills was studied for its possible influence on creative thinking. The study found that graduate students creativ e thinking about design research significantly changed from the online discussions. It also f ound that those students who appeared intrinsically motivated had a positive influence in their creative thinking about design research, while 103

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extrinsically m otivated students saw negative im pact. Domain expertis e, along with personal motivation and creative thinking sk ills, also appeared to impact the level of creative thinking about research seen in th e participants of the study. This su pports the premise that knowledge is socially constructed and that discussing knowle dge within a community can boost the knowledge of all involved. The more the students are immersed in the field they are able to expand their discipline-specific ideas a nd hopefully research cont ributions to the field. Designscholar shows much promise as a means for socially construc ting knowledge and advancing the development of research skills in interi or design. As technology con tinues to change and evol ve, it is a tool that assists in connecting those of a specific commun ity together. Ultimately, online approaches hold great potential for building and sustaining an info rmed and engaged community of learners in all disciplines. 104

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APPENDIX A RESEARCH DESIGN 105

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106 Creative Thinking Post-Score Flexibility Fluency Originality Elaboration Creative Thinking Pre-Score Flexibility Fluency Originality Elaboration Work Preference Inventory (WPI) Survey Intrinsic Motivation Score N ewsbrief Pos t Res p onse Demographic and Background Survey Post-Test Essay Designscholar Module (intervention) Pre-Test Essay Person Extrinsic Motivation Score

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107 students preferred online learning environm environm em beginning and end of the pilot study. The prepreferences in their online learning environm post-test asked the sam in the topics related to relevance, re interpretation. Students were Often, and Al students perception of an online the online environm w l in an online environm Moodle system first week. This survey was com Disagree, Som Agree. Th them learn learning as a m p s p personality profiles and learni 1987). The MBTI was developed from Carl J described as four m extroversion, introversion, judgm questions th The 8 variab sensing (N a APPENDIX B PILOT TEST INSTRUMENTS OVERVIEW Constructivist Online Learning Environment Survey (COLLES) The COLLES instrument assesses the online teaching environment. It compares ent w ith what they actually experience in an online ent. The pre and post-test were gi ven during the pilot study. These tests were bedded within the Moodle course management software and were taken online at the test asked focused questions on the students ent and is taken before student participation. The e questions, but framed the questions to examine the students experience Designscholar online environment after their part icipation. The 26 questions covered flective thinking, intera ctivity, tutor support, peer support, and given the options of Almost Never, Seldom, Sometimes, most Always. The pre and post measures were examined to compare the learning environment prior to participation with their views of ent after their experience. The limitations of this survey are that it only deals ith quantitative data and should incorporate a qualitative component to fu rther inquire about the earning environment. Attitudes Towards Thinking and Learning Survey (ATTLS) The ATTLS asked students about their learning styles and their attitudes towards learning ent. This was also given du ring the pilot test. This test was housed in the like the COLLES, and was given to all participants of th e pilot study during the posed of 20 questions that were answered with Strongly ewhat Disagree, Neither Agree or Disagree, Somewhat Agree, and Strongly e results show how students feel abou t peer discussions in their learning and label as connected or separated learners. Conne cted learners are those who tend to approach ing as a collective and social experience, an d separated learners are those that approach ore individualized task. The lim itations of the ATTLS are that students can be igeon-holed as one of two types of learners, not taking into account di fferences within each cale. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) The MBTI is an instrument that gauges st udent learning styles. This was given to all articipants of the pilot test. It is a well research and widely used instrument to assess ng styles (Myers, 1962; Myers & McCaulley, 1985; McCaulley, ungs theory of psychology types. These are ental powers of sensing, intuition, thinking, and feeling; and four attitudes of ent, and per ception. The MBTI contains a series of 96 at yield a four-lette r learning type referencing Jungs (1923) powers and attitudes. les create a total of 16 learning types that emerge; (E) extrovert (I) introvert, (S) ) intuitive, (T) thin king (F) feeling, and (J) judgi ng (P) perceiving. These pairs re scored with one dominant variable being, a lthough both types are presen t, resulting in the 4-

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letter type for each learn er. Measures of attitude are seen in the first and last letters of the learning type. The first pair, (E) extrovert (I) introvert, are two different ways people interact with the world around them. The last, (J) judging (P) perceiving, are two ways people prefer to order their lives and world (Quenk, 2000). One of the two middle variables in the learning type, (S) sensing (N) intuitive, are ways that people gather and process information. The other middle variable, (T) thinking (F ) feeling, is representative of how people make decisions with the above information (Quenk, 2000). Limitations to the survey are that people tend to change learning styles over time and many times score differently on the test depending on when it was taken (Quenk, 2000). Limitations to the MBTI are that users can actually change types depending on when and where they take the survey. 108

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APPENDIX C INSTRUME NT: WORK PREFERENCE INVENTORY (WPI) #__________ 5/19/95 Work Preference Inventory Student Version Teresa M. Amabile, Ph.D. Please rate each item in terms of how true it is of you. Please circle one and only one letter for each question according to the following scale: N = never or almost never true of you S = sometimes true of you O = often true of you A = always or almost always true of you N S O A 1. I am not that concerned with what other people think of my work. N S O A 2. I prefer having someone set clear goals for me in my work. N S O A 3. The more diffic ult the problem, the more I enjoy trying to solve it. N S O A 4. I am keenly aware of the goals I have for getting good grades. N S O A 5. I want my work to provide me with opportunities for increasing my knowledge and skill set. N S O A 6. To me success means doing better than other people. N S O A 7. I prefer to figure things out for myself. N S O A 8. No matter what the outcome of a project, I am satisfied if I feel I gained a new experience. N S O A 9. I enjoy relatively simple, straightforward tasks. N S O A 10. I am keenly aware of the GPA goals I have for myself. N S O A 11. Curiosity is the driving force behind much of what I do. N S O A 12. I am less con cerned with what work I do that what I get for it. N S O A 13. I enjoy t ackling problems that are completely new to me. N S O A 14. I prefer work I kno w I can do well over work that stretches my abilities. N S O A 15. I am concerned ab out how other people are going to react to my ideas. N S O A 16. I seldom think about grades and awards. N S O A 17. I am more comfortable when I can set my own goals. N S O A 18. I believe that there is no point in doing a good job if no one else knows about it. N S O A 19. I am strongly motivated by the grades I can earn. N S O A 20. It is important for me to be able to do what I enjoy most. N S O A 21. I prefer work ing on project with clear ly specified procedures. N S O A 22. As long as I can do what I enjoy, I am not that concerned about exactly what grades and awards I can earn. N S O A 23. I enjoy doing work th at is so absorbing that I fo rget about everything else. N S O A 24. I am strongly mo tivated by the recognition I can earn from other people. N S O A 25. I have to feel that I am earning something for what I do. N S O A 26. I enjoy trying to solve complex problems. N S O A 27. It is importa nt for me to have an outlet for self-expression. N S O A 28. I want to find out how good I really can be at my work. N S O A 29. I want other people to find out how good I really can be at my work. N S O A 30. What matters most to me is enjoying what I do. Copyright 1985, Teresa M. Amabile 109

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APPENDIX D DESIGN R ESEARCH ESSAY RUBRIC Pre-Test Rubric Pre-Test Essays / Participant #___________ Reviewed by _______________ Date_______ Question 1 What is design research and why is it important to the field? Overall Creativity Score__________ Creative Thinking N/A Very Low Low Average Above Average High Excellent Fluency : Amount of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Flexibility : Detail of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Originality : Uniqueness or rarity of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Elaboration : Richness of language presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Que stion 2 What are your interests in design research? Overall Creativity Score__________ Creative Thinking N/A Very Low Low Average Above Average High Excellent Fluency : Amount of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Flexibility : Detail of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Originality : Uniqueness or rarity of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Elaboration : Richness of language presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 110

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Post-te st Rubric Post-Test Essays / Participant #___________ Reviewed by ________________ Date_______ Question 1 With your new understanding from the online discussions, explain why design research is important to the field. Overall Creativity Score__________ Creative Thinking N/A Very Low Low Average Above Average High Excellent Fluency : Amount of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Flexibility : Detail of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Originality : Uniqueness or rarity of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Elaboration : Richness of language presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Que stion 2 What are your interests now in desi gn research and have they changed after the online discussions? Overall Creativity Score__________ Creative Thinking N/A Very Low Low Average Above Average High Excellent Fluency : Amount of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Flexibility : Detail of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Originality : Uniqueness or rarity of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Elaboration : Richness of language presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 111

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APPENDIX E INSTRUME NT: BACKGROUND SURVEY Name ___________________________________________ Sex___________________ Age ________________ Highest Educational Degree Completed ________________________________ Previous Degree Field of Study ______________________________________ Current Degree Program in In terior Design (circle one) M.A. M.S. M.F.A. M.I.D. PhD. What year are you currently working on in your degree program (circle 1) 1 st year 2 nd year 3 rd year 4 th year Professional Work Experience in Design (circle one) None Moderate (1-4years) High (5+years) Interest in Design Research (circle one number) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not interested Very Interested Career Goal Interests: Commer cial Practice (circle one number) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not interested Very Interested Career Goal Interests: Residential Practice (c ircle one number) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not interested Very Interested Career Goal Interests: Desi gn Education (circle one number) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not interested Very Interested Career Goal Interests: Desi gn Research (circle one number) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not interested Very Interested 112

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APPENDIX F INSTRUCT OR PACKET Introduction Letter August 18, 2008 Janetta M. McCoy, Ph.D. Associate Professor PO Box 1495 Interdisciplinary Design Institute Washington State University Spokane, WA 99210-1495 Dr. McCoy, Thank you for agreeing to participate in the curre nt Designscholar online learning community for the fall 2008 semester. This mailer contains in formation you will need for your students to get started. Enclosed are the informed consent fo rms from the University of Florida for the participating students to sign, al ong with a stamped retu rn envelope to mail them back at your convenience. I have included a handout for each student with my contact information, which also explains how to log onto a nd access the Designscholar website http://designscholar.unlocklearning.net The participation of you and your students is such a great h elp in validating this study and helping me achieve my ultimate goal of degree completion. Your assistance is greatly appreciated. If there are any questions, pleas e feel free to contact me at marloransdell@yahoo.com or 850508-5061. Thank you and I hope you have a great sem ester, Marlo Ransdell Doctoral Candidate Department of Design, Construction, and Planning University of Florida 113

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Instructor Guide Instructors Guide to Designscholar What is the purpose of the study? The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of an instructional module on developing creative thinking about design research. The module, Designscholar has been created to promote online interaction among interior design graduate students at different universities. Who is involved in the study? Graduate students in interior design from three land grant universities--the University of Florida, Iowa State University, and Washington State University--will participat e in this on-line learning experience. All of these programs have been highly ranked by DesignIntelligence in the past five years, and offer comparable degrees that are housed within Colleges of Design across three regions of the United States. What is involved in this study? Students will complete 2 online surveys, a Demographic and Background Survey and the Work Preference Inventory. They will write a short design research essay the first week and again the sixth and final week of the module. They will also be involved in weekly online di scussions that center on design literature. Each week students will be directed to different databases and journa ls to find and read appropriate articles for the online discussion groups. Here are the sources that students will use: These will be Informedesign.com (week 2), Journal of Interior Design, Design Issues, Design Studies, or Environment and Behavior (week 3), Other peer reviewed journals in allied fields (week 4) Thesis from the students home department or program (week 5). This information should be given at the introduction of the module to allow st udents time to find all the necessary literature for the module. What is my role as an instructor? All information about the module is deta iled in full on the website. The inst ructor will introdu ce the module and ultimately assign a participation grade. The instructor is welcome to join the website in order to monitor students, but is asked to not participate in the discussions. How do I login to the site: 1. Visit: http://designscholar.unlocklearning.net 2. C reate an account by choosing a username and pass word and entering your em ail contact information. 3. You will receive an immediate email containing a link to follow to complete your account. 4. Your enrollment key is: research. This will be entered when completing your account. 5. You are now ready to access the De signscholar Online Learning Community. How do I grade student involvement in the module: Each instructor will be sent a spreadsheet at the close of the six week study with information about their participating student involvement. This spreadsheet will track the frequency and the timeliness of involvement. This information will show if students met the basic requirements of participation in the module activities. Where do my students and I go for questions or problems related to the site or module? Please contact Marlo Ransdell anytime at marloransdell@yahoo.com or at 850-508-5061. Maj or Professor Meg Portillo can also be contacted by the instructors at mportill@ufl.edu 114

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Student Handout Visit: http://designscholar.unlocklearning.net Create an account by choosing a usernam e and password and entering your email contact information. You will receive an immediate email containing a link to follow to complete your account. Your enrollment key is: research You are now ready to access the Designscholar online learning community. For questions or further information please contact Marlo Ransdell at marloransdell@yahoo.com or 850-508-5061 DESIGNSCHOLAR CONTACT AND LOGIN INFORMATION 115

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Informed C onsent Document Protocol Title: Designscholar : Examining Creative Thinking in an Online Learning Community for Interior Design Graduate Students. Please read this consent document carefully befo re you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of an online instructional module (Designscholar) on promoting creative thinking about design research. What you will be asked to do in the study: You will be asked to register online at http://unlocklearning.designscholar.net for participation in the study. The first week will require 2 surveys, th e Work Preference Inventory to asse ss motivational orientation and a short demographic and background survey to assess demographics and expertise. You will also be asked to respond to two essay questions of Why is design research important to the field? and What are my interests in design research?. After this you will be assigned to a small 34 person groups based on your design interests. These groups will be used for the remainder of the study. During the following 5 weeks you will be asked to read design related research articles. You will find and read one artic le each week and post a summari zed response to the article to the online discussion for your group. You are also asked to respond to each of you peers within your group on their research article dicsussion. During the last week of the study you will be asked to write two essays on the following questions: With your new understanding from the online discussions, why is design research important to the field? and What are your interests now in de sign research and have they changed after the online discussions? Time required: 6 weeks. Risks and Benefits: There are no risks associated with participating in this study. Compensation: You will not be compensated for this st udy by the investigator, but you will r eceive a participation grade for taking part from your instructor at your University. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your information will be assigned a code number. The list connecting your name to this number will be kept in a locked file in my office. When the study is completed and the data have been analyzed, the list will be destroyed. Your name will not be used in any report. Voluntary participation: Your choice to participate in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw from the study: 116

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You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytim e. Your instructor at your University will assign a participation grade, so this should be addressed to them. There is no penalty assigned by the website or the principal investigator. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Marlo Ransdell, Graduate Student, Department of Interior Design, University of Florida. Address: 1733 River Birch Hollow, Tallahassee, Fl, 32308 Phone: 850-508-5061 Email: marloransdell@yahoo.com Sup ervisor: Dr. Margaret Portillo, Chair and Associate Prof essor, Department of Interior Design, University of Florida Address: P.O. Box 115703, Gainesville, FL 32611-5703 Phone: 352-392-0252 ext. 334 Email: mportill@ufl.edu Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; phone 352-392-0433. Agreement: I have read the procedure described abov e. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. Participant: ___________________________________________ Date: _________________ Principal Investigator: ___________________________________ Date: _________________ 117

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APPENDIX G SCREE N SHOTS OF DESIGNSCHOLAR HOMEPAGE 118

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APPENDIX H SCAFF OLDING EXAMPLES Discussion Example 1 Student Online Discussion Student A Post Key Concepts and/or quotations After read ing, writing, and sharing narrative stories as part of the design process, students indicated that the pr ocess helped think about space more holistically; aided them in overcoming their own biases; facilitated emotional connections with space; and encouraged mo re collaborative, detailed work. Many students indicated they may use narratives in the design process in their professional practice, particularly as a tool to communicat e ideas to clients. However, few students voiced concern that the narrative methods may be well-received in professional settings. Once student believed the narrative interventions had a negative impact on the design process. Why this is noteworthy The authors believed that there is a new design philosophy in a holistic way to make the potential benefits of using storytelling methods in the design process. The article mentioned few approaches: This design philosophy would convince people especially design students and professionals to involve a human-centered design method. The authors felt that the previous research of using narratives may expand the understandings of human-centered design issues and improve interpersonal and leadership skills. Narrative methods prefer us e verbal thinkers this is a new design challenge for the visual learners. What this means to me This new design method may be becoming a trend in the design education, however the participants responses brought me a concern. These positive and negative responses may affect these students traditional ways of thinking. The story forced us to focus our thoughts and clarify concepts I believe that stories pushed our thinking to a greater level. The use of stories in studio had a big impact on my choices. I believe that students and professionals should try this design method to see if they are willing to move out of their comfort zone. However, my findings from these sources show many students are favoring to avoid this design method in order to save their traditional thinking and at least, their future design careers. Let me ask all of you a few questions: 1. Visual learners (or picture thinkers) or verbal thinkers? (Im pretty much visual thinker than s eeing floating words in my head). 2. Are you willing to try this narrative method? (I am willing to try this method, but it is highly likely to go back to my old-fashioned visual thinking). Article Danko, Sheila; Meneely, Jason; Po rtillo, Margaret. Using Narratives in the Design Process. Referred from the Info rmeDesign. Humaniz ing Design through Inquiry. The Journal of Interior Design, Volume 31, No. 2, pp 10-28. Student B Responds This is a great topic. I believe that I am a combination of both but more so a visual thinker. In design, for example, I can visua lize exactly what a room should look, smell, feel like and I make design choices to reach th at visualization. However, because I have a learning disability, somethings like new words or words in a foreign language I have to see the word a few times before I can make the connection of what it is and how it is constructed even if I spell it the first time I see it. I would like to try to use the story telling method of learning. I think it would be interesting to see if that allows for a more creative process to designing 119

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Student C Responds I must be a combo learner. I see things visu ally, for the most part, but I also see words when I try to recall information. I think often it is helpful to create narratives about the potential occupants of a space (especially wh en they are too numerous or are not available for face-to-face interview... like in a hotel or hospital). Na rrative creation is a really neat process--I incorporat ed it into my undergraduate thesis as well. It is interesting what you can create when you design a space to tell the story of its occupant. Check out the book "Story Starters" for help developing a narrative--for fun or for design. Student A Responds To me, this concept is a lot like explaining our perspective drawing in class to someone else. We are forced to be extremely articulat e and justify each design decision. While we also explain our design decisions when presenting a project in class, I think this method would force us to analyze our work more intensely. 120

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Discussion Example 2 Student Online Discussion Student A Post Key points: This article looks at the increasing use of computer rendered presentations in design education compared to hand rendered presentations, how the manner in which a studio project is presented affects the final assessment or grade."...one of the debate areas indicates the problem that fully supporting computer aided presentations in design education is feared to lead to the loss of hand drawing skills in time". The authors evaluate this debate by braking down possibl e negatives of computer rendering compared to hand rendering into three ar eas: (1) loss of author identity: "the traceable features in a drawing that distinguish the author of the design/drawing from the others" (2) problems on authenticity: "the authenticity of a drawing is directly proportional to its capacity to reflect the author's identity." (3) proficiency of the instructor(s) in computers: "the expectation of a gap between the instructors with hand drawing backgrounds and students skilled in computer techniques". After questioning students and teachers, they found that students pref er a combination of hand and computer rendered presentations, a lthough sometimes the computer techniques used in drawing may "cast shadows" on the overall design content and that it is possible for presentation to loose the character that would have been gained from hand rendering. They all "agreed on the fact that computers will be dominant in the design practice, yet that does not seem to be so for design education...hand skills will preserve their value in the near future". There are also obvious pr oblems with using computer rendering when the skill level is poor, that the student uses the computer "as a scapegoat....'The computer did it!'" "...the devotion of hand drawing in academia does not stem from pure conservatism. It is the warmth of the hand touch that is sought for...the anxiety is partially based on the suspicion that computers might be dragging the whole act of design towards a moreengineering look. As much as practice and academ ia shift to computers, the value of hand touch increases that much, in inverse proportion." What this means to me and the field: First of all, I'm glad to see that there is literature out there on this subject, as we are presently involved in this debate and are constantly concerned with developing both our comput er and hand skills. There are also several factors which this article does not address su ch as other important attributes of hand rendering and how this whole debate translat es to professional practice. One of the biggest arguments is that hand skills are invaluable when dealing with clients. Not everything is a one-time studio presentation. Clients will disagree and request that the design immediately start working out other possibilities. The design that can respond with an informative sketch on demand will be the most effective. It would be incredibly helpful for a study to be conducted among the top designers to see how computer and hand rendering is evaluated. Article: "The (in)secure position of the design jury towards computer generated presentations". Design Studies Vol. 26 No. 3 May 2005. Student B Responds I know we always talk about this topic, and I am glad that you found this article valuing the hand skills. Read my blog about graphic facilitation this week, it goes along with your interest. So far, I have found that understanding and having the ability to hand render has helped tremendously in learning computer aided drawing as well. Sketching is the backbone of all visual media and to lose or never learn this ability is sort of like handicapping oneself... 121

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Student C Responds I too think that sketching is the backbone of communicating a visual idea. I wish there was more information out there indicating which skill will be more used in the work force. I know that computer drawings are the "wave of the future", but hand rendering I find to be my favorite part and I actually really dislike using VIZ. Although it might add a more "realistic" view of the space, I feel it makes it too technical and no longer connected to the designer and the client. Student D Responds To add to Student C I think that computer re nderings also make the client feel like the design in set and final, whereas hand renderings have a way of communicating flexibility in the design solution. So many students these days see CADD and VIZ and other computer software as the begin all / end all t ool to designers. The value of hand skills are rarely given their due. For me hand rendering is basically an art form. The "realistic" look you get with the VIZ software actually looks to cold and unfriendly. I think that the human hand adds the authors identity or pe rsonality to the piece that gives it passion and life. Give me hand-rendering any day please. Student A Responds I definitely agree that there is a loss of the "author's identity" when it comes to CAD/VIZ drawings. I have used both, and I also feel that sometimes it is the combination that makes a presentation better. I sometimes use CAD/VIZ to determine the exact sizes of things, but then I will trace over them, and ha nd render. This is a great way to combine the advantages of computer renderings with th e feel of hand drawings. I think that the computer also exaggerates certain things( inte nsifying colors, or allowing the user to create unrealistic materials). All in all, I thin k that any user has more control if they are doing things by hand. I value things a lot more if I created them, or rendered them myself. I chose this article because I see the relevance in the field and in our current education. Student D Responds I thought I would also add one of my experiences I recall the first time I handed a client my "shop drawings" for a rather complex project. I only do hand drawings for renderings. I'm not a purist by any stretch: I just stink at Autocad or any of the other software choices. I found after trying to teach myself Autocad for the seventeenth time I tended to simply grip the mouse tighter hoping for some sort of high-tec osmosis to happen between me and the evil Autocad beast. Once I decided to just shelve the software my road to calmed nerves and overall health was a sh ort one with a nice cul de sac at the end. My clients chuckle at the novelty hand rendering everything seems to be, but I usually win the project and there is no denying that I am the artist/author of the renderings. Would the sketches and drawings of Frank Wright be as treasured if they were a .DWG file? HA! (rhetorical) Student A Responds What a great thought about FLW drawings!! Hand renderings have a way of being seen as art as well as communication, where computer drawings are more likely to be seen as final representations of space. The artist is removed from drawings because anyone could create the same line, color, an d texture with the computer. 122

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APPENDIX I DESIGN R ESEARCH ESSAY: STUDENT EXAMPLE Pre-Test Rubric Pre-Test Essays / Participant # 22A Reviewed by TK Date 10/01/08 Question 1 What is design research and why is it important to the field? Overall Creativity Score 7 Creative Thinking N/A Very Low Low Average Above Average High Excellent Fluency : Amount of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Flexibility : Detail of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Originality : Uniqueness or rarity of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Elaboration : Richness of language presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Qu estion 2 What are your interests in design research? Overall Creativity Score 7.5 Creative Thinking N/A Very Low Low Average Above Average High Excellent Fluency : Amount of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Flexibility : Detail of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Originality : Uniqueness or rarity of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Elaboration : Richness of language presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 123

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Pre-Test Ex ample Research Knowledge What is design research and why is it importa nt to the field? Design is the production, which is conceived as a built form, responding to clients, programs, budgets, and other real-world factor s. Design research is the activity that is contained in design process to find applicable, reasonable, and solid st rategy, tactic, hypotheses based on literatures or case studies. During design process, we see this back-and-forth activity between design research and concept, sche matic, and design development stages. Design research is certainly important in design activity since it tests and informs validity and reasons for design activity. I see Interior Design as an applied practical and direct human-environment-interactive art discipline. The art of interior de sign is functional and leads to th e enhancement of the quality of life and culture of occupants. I believe that understanding the relationship between environment and human is the most important aspect in an Inte rior Design. As we all have heard of, we spend most of our life in an indoor environment. Cons equently, it is necessary to study how the certain indoor environment has impact on human behaviors and activities. Interior Design is often perceived as eith er subordinate of architecture or decorating practice which has emphasis on aesthetical attract iveness of an indoor space. These perceptions are result of lack of design research in Inte rior Design. It is no doubt that Interior Design contains critical link to create successful indoor environment with deep understanding of human factors and exterior context. Understanding the relationship between human behaviors and environment cannot solely rely on designers intu itive and creative thinking. It requires rigorous design research that informs tactic, strategy, a nd hypotheses. Interior De sign always deals with human welfares and public safety which are very important in everyday human life. In that respect, it plays critical role in creating livable environment a nd enhancing the quality of human living. By design research, the analytical and logical design activity, Inte rior Design establishes credibility and concrete reas oning which further becomes plausible and solid academic discipline, promoting effective solu tion to Interior Design problems. Research Interest What are your interests in design research? My interest in design research is looking at health and m ovement in work environment. In health aspect, I focus on increasing problem of obesity. The health problem of obesity is major issue across all generation. Work e nvironment is experiencing dive rsity in generations and their differences. Consequently, my design research concentrates on finding out why increasing problem of obesity is such a th reat to health and well-being of people in work environment across generations and how Interi or Design can ameliorate the problem. Research shows that regular exercise is one of best strategy to fight obesity. Looki ng at the elements of physical environment, promotion of movement become s effective tactic in fighting obesity. By considering effectual space plan ning and understanding internal and external context, I plan to develop design guide that promotes movement in work environment to fight increasing crossgenerational health problem, obesity. The challeng e of my design research is finding out tactics and strategies of accommodating both promo tion of movement and productivity in work environment. 124

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Post-te st Rubric Post-Test Essays / Participant #: 22A Reviewed by: TK Date: 11/14/08 Question 1 With your new understanding from the online discussions, explain why design research is important to the field. Overall Creativity Score 16.5 Creative Thinking N/A Very Low Low Average Above Average High Excellent Fluency : Amount of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Flexibility : Detail of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Originality : Uniqueness or rarity of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Elaboration : Richness of language presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Q uestion 2 What are your interests now in design res earch and have they changed after the online discussions? Overall Creativity Score 14.5 Creative Thinking N/A Very Low Low Average Above Average High Excellent Fluency : Amount of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Flexibility : Detail of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Originality : Uniqueness or rarity of ideas presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Elaboration : Richness of language presented Comments: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 125

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Post-Test E xample Research Knowledge With your new understandi ng from the online discussions, explain why design research is impor tant to the field? Design research is important because it informs design. Design becomes logical and clear based on rigorous design re search. Without thorough research on certain topic, argument cannot be made to enrich your design. If the design does not have logic and reasons behind it, it does not make sense which becomes a bad design. Design research also guides and makes you more knowledgeable about the certain topic you are interested i n. Design scholar was particularly another means of research process. It had a value in that under the one umbrella of topic, there were different mean s of the topic. For example, in my group A, the umbrella was work environment, and there were people looking at air craft interior hospital, and home environment to interpret what work means to us linking to various interior environment characteristics. Looking at various possibilitie s of work environment certainly broaden my viewpoints about my research. I am personally familiar with work environment and lighting. For work environment, as I discovered, it does not pertain in office environment. It can be air craft, home, hospital, or school. I think we can call everyda y living itself is working in a way, so the boundary of work environment is limitless. The physical characteristic s of work environment are some of valuable details that we as designers s hould consider when we approach to design workplace. People tend to work better in comfortable space. And, that is what we need to research. What kind of physical environment make people feel comforta ble and satisfying to work? Many researches show that there needs attention for spatial orga nization, architectonic details, ambient conditions, resources, and view or visual access of the environment. So, que stion is whether those physical characteristics are only applicable for the work environment. The answer is no. These can be applied to any other environment. Lighting is another topic that gains a lot of attention in terms of sustainability, energy efficiency, health, and beauty in these days. Lighting is one of elements in ambient condition. Consequently, as you can see, these topics are all related closely in certain distances and influence each other in various degrees. So, wh at do we need to do about design research as designer? More researches we do, more valuable relationships of these elements we can find. Design always needs to focus the big picture of the human context re lating design context. Design cannot solely stand alone without human context. Whether it is social problem or political problem, we need to define the challe nges/problems in human context, research about the causes of the problems, address the prob lem in design context which becomes design solutions. To get to the solution, design research is crucial. Without unde rstanding the context of the problem and precedents, how can we approach to design which means we will suggest a new way? Interior design is the study that informs how human will live and work in an indoor environment. It plays critical role in creating livable environm ent and enhancing the quality of human living. By design research, the analytical and logical design ac tivity, Interior Design establishes credibility and concrete reasoni ng which further becomes plausible and solid academic discipline, promoting effective solu tion to Interior Design problems. Research Interest What are your interests now in design research and have they changed after the online discussions? 126

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My interest in design research has been cha nged dram atically from the beginning of design scholar. I definitely gained vari ous insights and got to find out th at there are so many interesting research topics out there that I have not been exposed to. My research topic is the millennial ge neration (born 1980-1999) and work (office) environment. In this research, I examine physi cal characteristics of work environment and sociological aspects of the millennial generati on. I find that one research topic cannot stand by itself, but many other researches inform the resear ch that I try to get to. Some of detail points I need to study about physical char acteristics would be spatial orga nization, architectonic details, ambient conditions, resources, and view or visu al access of work environment. Since I am linking these properties to the characteristics of the millennials, I need to find out how the characteristics of one generation are reflected in the work environment. In order to do that, I will study precedents cases on work environment, a nd find out how values and characteristics of particular generation either aff ected or are considered in th e design of work environment. Consequently, my research is adding another ch apter of work environment design for this new generation, the millennials. This is very valuable study in workplace desi gn and also any interior that considers the population of the millennials. Especially, sevent y-six million of the millennials are entering the workplace, the workforce is expecting some ch anges. There are significant differences among generations in characteristics, values, and experiences. Many companies are concerned about potential collisions between the millennials needs and wants and what is provided in the current workforce. Consequently, there is a need for re search about the relationship between the current physical workplace and the millennials unique ch aracteristics, values and culture that would inform what kind of changes are needed in de signed environment to accommodate their needs and wants. This understanding of generation in spatial context can open the door for various other research topics; school or hos pital work environments. 127

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APPENDIX J REFER ENCES USED IN DESIGNSCHOLAR DISCUSSIONS Topical Group References Group Topic Journals used (used more than once) Workplace Design Design Issues; Environment and Behav ior (2); Ergonomics; ICON(ASID); Journal of Corporate Real Estate (2); Journal of Environmental Psychology; Journal of Interior Design Retail Design Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administra tion Quarterly, Design Issues (3), Environment and Behavior; International Journal of Hospitality Management; Journal of Interior Desi gn; Journal of Retailing and Consumer Service; Journal of Urban Affairs Cultural / Housing Design Design Issues; Environment and Behavior (2); Family and Consumer Science Research Journal; Journal of Architectural and Planning Research; Journal of Environmental Psychology; Journal of Interior Design (2); Journal of Personality Sustainability Issues Cornel Hospitality Quarterly; Design Issues (3); International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management; J ournal of Architectural and Planning Research (3); Journal of Interior Design Universal Design Environment and Behavior; Housi ng and Society; Housing, Theory, and Society; Journal of Environmental Psychol ogy; Journal of Interior Design (3); Journal of Physiological Anthropology; Merill-Palmer Quarterly Hospitality Design Addictive Behaviors; Crime Preventi on Studies; Environment and Behavior (2); Journal of Consumer Research (2) Healthcare Design Applied Ergonomics; Design Issues; Environment and Behavior (3); Journal of Environmental Psychology (3); J ournal of Interior Design (4) 128

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Discussion 1 References Group (n=7) Journals discussion 1 (n=21) Workplace Design Veitch, J. & Newsham, G. (2000). Exercised control, lighting choices, and energy use: An office simulation experiment. Journal of Environmental Psychology 20 (3), 219-237. DeCroon, E., Sluiter, J., Kuijer, P., & Frings-Dresen, M. (2005). The effect of office concepts on worker health and performan ce: A systematic review of the literature. Ergonomics 48 (2), 119-134. Pullen, W. (2001). Flexibili ty in the workplace: Instrumental or creative? The case of the Dutch Government Buildings Agency. Journal of Corporate Real Estate 3 (2), 121131. Retail Design Sulek, J. M, & Hensley, R. L. (2004). The relative importance of food, atmosphere, and fairness of wait: The case of a full service restaurant. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 45 (3), 235-247. Lloyd, R. (2002). Neo-Bohemian: Art and neighborhood redevelopment in Chicago. Journal of Urban Affairs 24(5) 517-532. Siu, K.W.M. (2003). Users creative responses and designers roles. Design Issues. 19 (2), 64-73. Cultural / Housing Design Blankenship, C. (2005). Cultural sustainab ility in design, Outside the center: Defining who we are. Design Issues. 21(1), 24-31. Kahana, E., Lovegreen, L., Kahana, B., & Kahana M. (2003). Person, environment and person-environment fit as influences on residential satisfaction of elders. Environment and Behavior, 35 (3), 434-453. Manzo, Lynne. (2003). Beyond house and haven: Toward a revisioning of emotional relationships with places. Journal of En vironmental Psychology. 23(1). 43-61. Sustainability Design Tzschentke, N., Kirk, D., & Lynch, P. (2004). Reasons for going green in serviced accommodation establishments. Internati onal Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 16(2), 116-124. Levi, D. (2005). Does history matter? Perceptions and attitudes toward fake historic architecture and historic preservation publication. Journal of Architecture and Planning Research 22 (2), 148-159. Blankenship, C. (2005). Cultural sustainab ility in design, Outside the center: Defining who we are. Design Issues. 21(1), 24-31. Universal Design Miller, A. & Maxwell, L. (2003). Explorin g the role of home design in fostering family interaction: The use of programming methods in research. Journal of Interior Design. 29 (1&2), 50-65. Hansen, E.B. & Gottschalk, G. (2006). What makes older people consider moving house & what makes them move? Housing, Theory, and Society 23(1), 34-54. Staff Writer, (2006). Violence exposure, IQ, academic performance, and children's perception of safety: Evidence of protective effects. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. 52 (2), 264-287. Hospitality Design Bellis, M. A., Hughes, K., & Lowey, H. (2002). "Healthy night clubs and recreational substance use from a harm minimisation to a healthy settings approach." Addictive Behaviors 27 1025-035. Thompson, C. J., & Arsel, Z. (2004). The Starbucks brandscape and consumers' (anticorporate) experiences of globalization. Journal of Consumer Research. 31, 631-642. 129

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Healthcare Design Baskaya, A., Wilson, C., & Ziya (2004). Patient wayfinding within complex clinics. Environment and Behavior. 36(6), 839-867. Shin, J., Maxwell L., & Eshelman P. (2004) Hospital birthing rooms mothers prefer: A study of mothers' perception of hominess. Journal of Interior Design. 30(2). 23-36. Dijkstra K, Pieterse M.E., Pruyn A.Th.H. (2008). Individual differences in reactions towards color in simulated healthcare environments: The role of stimulus screening ability. Journal of Environmental Psychology 28, 268-277. Park, N.-K., & Farr, C. A. (2007). The effects of lighting on consumers' emotions and behavioral intentions in a retail environment: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Interior Design 33 (1), 17-30. 130

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Discussion 2 References Group (n=7) Journals discussion 2 (n=21) Workplace Design Danielsson, C. (2008). Office type in relation to health, well-being, and job satisfaction among employees. Environment and Behavior 40 (5), 636-668. Zukowsky, J. (1997). Design for the jet age: Charles Butler and Uwe Schneider. Design Issues 13(3), 67-78. Magee, J. (2000). Home as an altern ative workplace: Negotiating the spatial and behavioral boundaries between home and work. Journal of Interior Design. 26(1), 35-47. Retail Design Davies, J. (2004). Interior design: Using the management services approach in retail premises. Design Issues 48(7). 10-13. Chayutsahakij, P. (1998). The effects of lighting design on preference in the retail interior environment. Design Issues. 14(2). 18-26. Waxman, L (2008). The coffee shop: Soci al and physical fact ors influencing place attachments. Journal of Interior Design. 31(3), 35-53. Cultural / Housing Design Kaya, N. and Weber, M.J. (2003). Territorial behavior in residence halls: A cross-cultural study. Environment and Behavior. 35, 400-414. Wang, D. (2006). A form of affection: Sense of place and so cial structure in the Chinese courtyard residence. Journal of Interior Design. 32(1), 28-39. Danko, S., Meneely, J., & Portillo, M. (2006 ). Humanizing design through narrative inquiry. Journal of Interior Design 31(2), 10-28. Sustainability Design Frascara, J. (2007). Hiding lack of knowledge: Bad words in design education Design Issues 23(4), 23-37. Wahl D.C. and Baxter, S. (2008). The designers role in facilitating sustainable solutions. Design Issues. 24(2), 72-83. Stieg, C., (2006). The sustainability gap. Journal of Interior Design 32(1). vii-xxi. Universal Design Johansen, T. H. (2007). An exploratory study of disabled tenants' level of satisfaction under the Fair Housing Amendments Act. Journal of Interior Design. 32(2). 28-43. Park, N.-K., & Farr, C. A. (2007). The effects of lighting on consumers' emotions and behavioral intentions in a retail environment: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Interior Design, 33 (1), 17-30. Kahana, E., Lovegreen, L., Kahana, B., & Kahana M. (2003). Person, environment and person-environment fit as influences on residential satisfaction of elders. Environment and Behavior, 35 (3), 434-453. Hospitality Design Gueguen, N., Jacob, C., Guellec, H., Morineau T., and Lourel, M. (2008). Sound level of environmental music and drinking behavior: A field experiment with beer drinkers. Environment and Behavior. 32,1795-1798. Fisher, B. S. and Nasar, J. L. (1992). Fear of crime in relation to three exterior site features. Environment and Behavior 24(1). 35-65. Healthcare Design Arnell, A. & Devlin. A. S., (2003). Health care environments and patient outcomes. A review of the literature. Environment and Behavior 35(5), 665694. 131

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Shepley, M.M., Bryant, C., & Frohman, B. (1999). Validating a building prototype: A postoccupancy evaluation of a womens medical center. Journal of Interior Design. 21(2). 15-29. Wahl D.C. and Baxter, S. (2008). The designers role in facilitating sustainable solutions. Design Issues. 24(2), 72-83. Kazunori, H. Yoshiko, M. (2006). The effects of interior design on communication and impressions of a counselor in a counseling room. Environment and Behavior 38, 484-502. 132

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Discussion 3 References Group (n=7) Journals discussion 3 (n=21) Workplace Design Leslie, T. (2005). The Pan Am terminal at Idlewild / Kennedy Airport. Design Issues, 21(1), 63-80. Feingold, J. (May/June 2008). The fluid workspace: Designing for the way people work today." ICON (Magazine of American Society of Interior Designers). 24-27. Venezia, C. & Alle, V. (2007). Suppor ting mobile worker networks: Components for effective workplaces. Journal of Corporate Real Estate 9(3), 168-182. Retail Design Bitgood, S. and Dukes, S. (2006). Not another step! Economy of movement and pedestrian choice point behavior in shopping malls. Environment and Behavior. 38; 394. Bell, S. (1999). Image an d consumer attraction to intraurban retail environments: An environment psychology approach. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Service 6(2), 67-78. Gursoy, D., Maier, T. A., & Chi, C. G. (2008). Generational differences: An examination of work values and generational gaps in the hospitality workforce. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27(3), 448-458. Cultural / Housing Design Van der Zee, K., van Oudenhoven, J.P., & de Grijs, E. (2004). Pe rsonality, threat, and cognitive and emotional reactions to stressful intercultural situations. Journal of Personality 72, 1069-1094. Salingaros, N.A. (1998). A scientific basis for creating architectural forms. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 15(4), 283-292. Sherman S. & Combs, R. (1997). Characteristics related to elderly persons perceived difficulty of remaining in their current homes. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal. 26(1) 59-74. Sustainability Design Butler, J. (2008). The compelling "har d case" for "green" hotel development. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly 49, 234-244. Stern, A. L. & MacRae, S. (2003). Understanding the consumer perspective to improve design quality. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research. 20(1), 16-28. Zwarts, A. & Coolen, H. (2006). The meaning of preferences for residential environment feature: A case study among apartment dwellers in the Netherlands. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 23(3). 200-215. Universal Design Crews, D. E. and Zavotka, S. (2006). Aging, disability, and frailty: Implications for universal design. Journal of Physiological Anthropology 25(1), 113-118. Christensen, D. L. and Carp, F. M. (1987). PEQI-Based environmental predictors of the residential satisfaction of older women. Journal of Environmental Psychology 7, 45-64. Miller, C. & Olson, M. (2006). Perceptions of terminology associated with aging in place. Housing and Society 33(2). 63-71. Hospitality Design Macintyre, S, Homel, R (1997). Danger on the dance floor: A study of interior design, crowding and aggression in nightclubs, In R.Homel (eds) Policing for Prevention: Reducing Crime, Public Intoxication and Injury, Crime Prevention Studies Volume 7, Mosey NY: Criminal justice Press. Thompson, C. J., & Arsel, Z. (2004). The Starbucks brandscape and consumers' (anticorporate) experiences of globalization. Journal of Consumer Research 31 631-642. 133

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Healthcare Design Shin, J., Maxwell L., & Eshelman P. (2004). Hospital birthing rooms mothers prefer: A study of mothers' perception of hominess. Journal of Interior Design. 30(2). 23-36. Dijkstra K, Pieterse M.E., Pruyn A.Th.H. (2008). Individual differences in reactions towards color in simulated healthcare environments: The role of stimulus screening ability. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28, 268-277 Maxwell, L.E. and Chmielewski, E. J. (2008). Environmental personalization and elementary school childrens self-esteem. Journal of Environmental Psychology 28(2), 143153. Van Galen, G.P., Liesker, H., & de Haan, A. (2007). Effects of a vertical keyboard design on typing performance, user comfort and muscle tension. Applied Ergonomics 38(1), 99-107. 134

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Discussion 4 References Group (n=7) Thesis discussion 4 (n=21) Workplace Design Saccopoulos, Christos A. A. (1974). The flow of passengers and baggage at international airport passenger terminal buildings Unpublished masters thesis, Iowa State University. Shim, Eunju. (2000) Territoriality: Theoretical Build ing Blocks for Planning Office Workstations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Iowa State University. Aries, M.B. (2005). Human lighting demands: Healthy lighting in an office environment Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Technisc he Universiteit Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Retail Design Miller, Alexandra M. (2005). Fun in the Workplace: Toward an Environment-Behavior Framework relating Office Design, Employee Creativity, and Job Satisfaction. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Florida. Hall, S. J. (2008). Enhancing Well-being: A Multisensory Interior Environmental Experience. Unpublished maters thesis, Washington State University. Ahn, Kyu-Ho. (2002). Emotional experience in st ore environment: Adaptive theoretical framework and its application for store design. Unpublished maters thesis (M.F.A.),Iowa State University. Cultural / Housing Design Lee, Sang Hae, (1986). Feng Shui: Its context and meaning Published doctoral dissertation, Cornell University. Noble, Jillian S. 2007. The construction of scale in museum exhibition design: Negotiating context and narrative with object display Unpublished masters thesis, Washington State University. Lee, J. (2005). Design of a dinner theater and residential space for the renovation of the E. E. Warren Opera House in Greenfield, Iowa Unpublished masters thesis, Iowa State University. Sustainability Design Ahn, K. (2002). Emotional experience in store environment: Adaptive theoretical framework and its application for store design, Unpublished masters thesis, Iowa State University Onal, O. (xxxx). Understanding business travelers' pr eferences related to "workstation" design in contemporary hotel guest rooms: Web survey among business travelers Unpublished masters thesis, Washington State University. Newlin, Dee A. (2006). Nature and design: Assisting with the healing process. Universal Design Berry, E. (2008). Everyday habits and routins: Design strategies to individualize home modifications for older people. Unpublished masters thesis, Washington State University. Zhou, Y. (xxxx). Flexible design in senior housing. Unpublished masters thesis. Wang, Yanlin. (2005). Creating Positive Wayfinding Experience Unpublished masters thesis (M.F.A.), Iowa State University. Hospitality Design Fernandez, M. (2005). Crime prevention and the perception of safety Unpublished masters thesis, Louisiana State University. Chen, L.W. (1991). Interior design variables in shopping malls: A study of visual preference. Unpublished masters thesis, Iowa State University. Healthcare Design Lai, H.-Y. (1998). Naiad Caf, Des Moines, Iowa Unpublished masters thesis, Iowa State University, Ames. 135

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Lee, K. (2007) Using Natural Elements for Reducing Stress Potential at Work. Unpublished masters thesis. Washington State University. Edge, K.J. (2003). Wall color of patients room: Effects on recovery. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Florida. Miller, Alfred H. (xxxx). The effects of prominent features, cue attention, and task knowledge on spatial cognition and judged sense of competence Unpublished masters thesis, Washington State University. 136

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143 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Marlo Ransdell currently lives in Tallahassee, FL with her family. She teaches full-time at Florida State University in the De partment of Interior Design. She earned her Bachelor of Arts Degree in Interior Design from the University of Kentucky in 2002, and completed her Master of Science Degree in Interior Design at Universi ty of Kentucky in 2004. She enrolled in the University of Florida college of Design, Construction, and Planning dur ing the fall of 2004 to pursue her doctorate degree.