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Introduction of Wave Set-up Effects and Mass Flux to a Numerical Storm Surge Model

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024720/00001

Material Information

Title: Introduction of Wave Set-up Effects and Mass Flux to a Numerical Storm Surge Model
Physical Description: 1 online resource (71 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Kline, Shaun
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: flux, hurricanes, mass, model, numerical, slosh, storm, surge, swan, waves
Civil and Coastal Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Hurricanes wreak havoc on the lives and infrastructure of coastal communities. Storm surge, a local rise in sea level elevations, is perhaps the most devastating element of these tropical cyclones. Storm surge depends on the tidal stage, barometric pressure, Coriolis effects, wind stress, and wave forcing, as well as the local bathymetry. In the past, many storm surge numerical models, such as Sea Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes (SLOSH), neglect wave forcing components to conserve computational efficiency. This omission would surely be preferred when wave forcing is not significant. However, numerous situations could necessitate the inclusion of waves' effects to more correctly model the surge both spatially and temporally. We chose two wave forcing components, set-up from wave stresses and mass flux transport, to incorporate into the SLOSH storm surge model through a two-way coupling methodology. Our aim is to better understand the relative contribution of each effect and their relationship to both storm strength and bathymetry. To this end, we conduct numerous tests of different forcing variations: wind-stress only, wind and wave stresses, and wind and wave stresses with mass flux transport. These options were simulated on three hurricanes and two SLOSH basins. The storms range in intensity between a Category 1 (34 m/s) and Hurricane Andrew, a Category 5 storm (74 m/s). Our two basins were chosen for bathymetric contrast: Tampa Bay, a shallow and gentle shelf, and Miami, which has a steeper and deeper shelf. Wave stresses and mass transports were obtained using the Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) third-generation wave model with time dependent water level and wind inputs from the SLOSH wind-stress-only test. We determine that the impact of wave set-up and mass flux to storm surge levels varies between locations ? even for the same storm in the same basin ? proving that the interaction between the wind and wave forcing components is indeed very complex. On average, however, the addition of the wave set-up and mass flux raises the maximum storm surge levels 10 to 30 percent, although isolated positions experience increases well above 100 percent. We also look at the effects of the wave forcing on specific points and overland inundation. We find that the largest increase to overland inundation occurs for the shallow basin, a result that most likely indicates a lack of proper grid resolution in the Miami basin. Coarse resolution in the breaking zone results in wave stress from SWAN to be minimized during the interpolation process. Further, we find wave forcing components contribute the most increase by percentage for the weaker Category 1 storm than during the stronger hurricane simulations. This result does not imply that wave forcing is not of importance for Category 4 and 5 storms, only that wind stresses are responsible for a larger percentage of the overall storm surge.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Shaun Kline.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Slinn, Donald N.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-02-28

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024720:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024720/00001

Material Information

Title: Introduction of Wave Set-up Effects and Mass Flux to a Numerical Storm Surge Model
Physical Description: 1 online resource (71 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Kline, Shaun
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: flux, hurricanes, mass, model, numerical, slosh, storm, surge, swan, waves
Civil and Coastal Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Hurricanes wreak havoc on the lives and infrastructure of coastal communities. Storm surge, a local rise in sea level elevations, is perhaps the most devastating element of these tropical cyclones. Storm surge depends on the tidal stage, barometric pressure, Coriolis effects, wind stress, and wave forcing, as well as the local bathymetry. In the past, many storm surge numerical models, such as Sea Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes (SLOSH), neglect wave forcing components to conserve computational efficiency. This omission would surely be preferred when wave forcing is not significant. However, numerous situations could necessitate the inclusion of waves' effects to more correctly model the surge both spatially and temporally. We chose two wave forcing components, set-up from wave stresses and mass flux transport, to incorporate into the SLOSH storm surge model through a two-way coupling methodology. Our aim is to better understand the relative contribution of each effect and their relationship to both storm strength and bathymetry. To this end, we conduct numerous tests of different forcing variations: wind-stress only, wind and wave stresses, and wind and wave stresses with mass flux transport. These options were simulated on three hurricanes and two SLOSH basins. The storms range in intensity between a Category 1 (34 m/s) and Hurricane Andrew, a Category 5 storm (74 m/s). Our two basins were chosen for bathymetric contrast: Tampa Bay, a shallow and gentle shelf, and Miami, which has a steeper and deeper shelf. Wave stresses and mass transports were obtained using the Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) third-generation wave model with time dependent water level and wind inputs from the SLOSH wind-stress-only test. We determine that the impact of wave set-up and mass flux to storm surge levels varies between locations ? even for the same storm in the same basin ? proving that the interaction between the wind and wave forcing components is indeed very complex. On average, however, the addition of the wave set-up and mass flux raises the maximum storm surge levels 10 to 30 percent, although isolated positions experience increases well above 100 percent. We also look at the effects of the wave forcing on specific points and overland inundation. We find that the largest increase to overland inundation occurs for the shallow basin, a result that most likely indicates a lack of proper grid resolution in the Miami basin. Coarse resolution in the breaking zone results in wave stress from SWAN to be minimized during the interpolation process. Further, we find wave forcing components contribute the most increase by percentage for the weaker Category 1 storm than during the stronger hurricane simulations. This result does not imply that wave forcing is not of importance for Category 4 and 5 storms, only that wind stresses are responsible for a larger percentage of the overall storm surge.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Shaun Kline.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Slinn, Donald N.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-02-28

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024720:00001


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