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Life Cycle Analysis of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Production from a Theoretical Willow Farm

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024711/00001

Material Information

Title: Life Cycle Analysis of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Production from a Theoretical Willow Farm
Physical Description: 1 online resource (161 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Matta, Sameer
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: assessment, biomass, cycle, diesel, farm, fischer, gasification, gasifier, lca, life, production, salix, tropsch, willow
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mechanical Engineering thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The environmental performance of woody biomass harvested from a theoretical 10,000-hectare willow farm to be used as feedstock for a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel production plant is analyzed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The life cycle includes energy inputs and emissions from fuel production, nursery operations, machinery manufacture and transportation, fertilizer manufacture and transportation, fuel production, farming operations, biomass transportation, gasification, FT synthesis, and FT diesel fuel transportation. Data for field operations are taken from studies done on actual willow farms in the United States. Energies and emissions for all inputs are taken from several outside sources, so as to result in a range of data. Three different harvest yields of 10, 13.5, and 18.7 oven dry tons per hectare are assumed. Over the life of the farm, farming operations produce between 51 and 71 units of biomass energy per unit of fossil energy consumed and release between 5.2 and 6.6 Mg of CO2 eq. per hectare. Fertilizer utilization and biomass harvesting represent the most energy intensive and environmentally destructive operations. The FT diesel production plant consists primarily of a gasifier and FT-reactor. Data for six gasifiers and five FT-reactors are used from other studies, and result in 18 possible configurations Airblown systems are primarily for tri-generation, while oxygen systems are primarily for maximized fuel production. Heat balances are performed on the production plant, to utilize waste streams, which are fed into a gas and steam turbine. Excess waste heat is also used to run an absorption refrigeration cycle to cool the gas turbine inlet air. The resulting production plant produces between 210 and 662 barrels of Fischer-Tropsch diesel per day. The resulting energy balances for FT diesel before transportation, including electricity as a co-product, are between 11.6 and 17. After the fuel is transported, the energy balances are between 7.7 and 11.5. For every megajoule of FT diesel produced, an average of 65 grams of CO2 eq. gases is released. Results confirm data from other studies, and support the claim that FT diesel from willow biomass is a viable substitute for conventional fuels.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Sameer Matta.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Ingley, Herbert A.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-02-28

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024711:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024711/00001

Material Information

Title: Life Cycle Analysis of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Production from a Theoretical Willow Farm
Physical Description: 1 online resource (161 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Matta, Sameer
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: assessment, biomass, cycle, diesel, farm, fischer, gasification, gasifier, lca, life, production, salix, tropsch, willow
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mechanical Engineering thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The environmental performance of woody biomass harvested from a theoretical 10,000-hectare willow farm to be used as feedstock for a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel production plant is analyzed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The life cycle includes energy inputs and emissions from fuel production, nursery operations, machinery manufacture and transportation, fertilizer manufacture and transportation, fuel production, farming operations, biomass transportation, gasification, FT synthesis, and FT diesel fuel transportation. Data for field operations are taken from studies done on actual willow farms in the United States. Energies and emissions for all inputs are taken from several outside sources, so as to result in a range of data. Three different harvest yields of 10, 13.5, and 18.7 oven dry tons per hectare are assumed. Over the life of the farm, farming operations produce between 51 and 71 units of biomass energy per unit of fossil energy consumed and release between 5.2 and 6.6 Mg of CO2 eq. per hectare. Fertilizer utilization and biomass harvesting represent the most energy intensive and environmentally destructive operations. The FT diesel production plant consists primarily of a gasifier and FT-reactor. Data for six gasifiers and five FT-reactors are used from other studies, and result in 18 possible configurations Airblown systems are primarily for tri-generation, while oxygen systems are primarily for maximized fuel production. Heat balances are performed on the production plant, to utilize waste streams, which are fed into a gas and steam turbine. Excess waste heat is also used to run an absorption refrigeration cycle to cool the gas turbine inlet air. The resulting production plant produces between 210 and 662 barrels of Fischer-Tropsch diesel per day. The resulting energy balances for FT diesel before transportation, including electricity as a co-product, are between 11.6 and 17. After the fuel is transported, the energy balances are between 7.7 and 11.5. For every megajoule of FT diesel produced, an average of 65 grams of CO2 eq. gases is released. Results confirm data from other studies, and support the claim that FT diesel from willow biomass is a viable substitute for conventional fuels.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Sameer Matta.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Ingley, Herbert A.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-02-28

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024711:00001


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Full Text

PAGE 19

1.1 Fossil Fuels

PAGE 23

1.2 Alternative Fuels

PAGE 25

1.3 Fischer -Trops ch Diesel

PAGE 26

1.3.1 Willow Biomass Salix Salix

PAGE 27

Salix Salix 1.3.2 Gasification

PAGE 29

1.3.3 The Fischer-Tropsch Process

PAGE 33

Salix Straw

PAGE 36

2.1 Introduction to Life Cycle Assessments

PAGE 38

2.2 Life Cycle Assessments of Liquid Fuel Production Systems

PAGE 56

3.1 Data Acquisition

PAGE 57

3.2 Life Cycle Assessment 3.2.1 Goal, Scope, Boundaries, and Functional Unit

PAGE 58

3.2.2 Willow Farm Characteristics

PAGE 60

3.2.3 Willow Farm Materials 3.2.4 Energy Inputs for Fuels, Chemicals, and Materials

PAGE 64

3.2.5 Nursery Operations 3.2.6 Fertilizer and Herbicide Application

PAGE 65

3.2.7 Machinery Manufacture & Transport

PAGE 66

3.2.8 Field Operations TT dieselTPP QP PP

PAGE 67

T mtFWTS P ABSCS EE oilQP 3.2.9 Willow Biomass Harvest Yields

PAGE 68

Salix vfertrateYIAe Y 3.2.10 Biomass Transportation

PAGE 69

oDR 3.2.11 Drying and Storage

PAGE 70

3.2.12 Carbon Balance from Biomass Cultivation

PAGE 71

3.2.13 Nitrogen Balance for Biomass Cultivation

PAGE 72

3.2.14 P roduction Plant Commissioning and Decommissioning 3.2.15 Gasification

PAGE 74

3.2.16 Gas Cleaning

PAGE 75

3.2.17 The Fischer-Tropsch Process

PAGE 76

n nC

PAGE 77

3.2.18 Gasifier and Fischer -Tropsch Reactor Coupling 3.2.19 Thermodynamic Heat Balance on the Production P lant

PAGE 78

dryerfeedstock fgQmxh

PAGE 79

syngas psyngasei syngasQmCTT syngasrankineQQ steam steamwater steamQmhh O OO OQmhh air airair airQmhh wasteCOPQQcooling n psyngas fii iCmC ideal steamturbine enterexitW hh

PAGE 80

W

PAGE 81

3.2.20 Environmental Impact Assessment

PAGE 127

4.1 Life Cycle Assessment

PAGE 131

4.2 Comparison of Results with O ther LCAs