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Intermodal and Multimodal Transportation

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024679/00001

Material Information

Title: Intermodal and Multimodal Transportation Analysis of Policy and the Impact of Plans for Connectability of Transportation Systems Between Seaports and Airports
Physical Description: 1 online resource (88 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Murray, Stephanie
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: intermodal, multimodal, personal, port, seaports, transportation
Urban and Regional Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Urban and Regional Planning thesis, M.A.U.R.P.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Ports have traditionally been gateways to, and symbols of a city or country as a whole. The airports and seaports play a major role in the economic welfare of a region. Due to continued economic connection and the movement of goods and people between seaports and airports, increased congestion is beginning to stress the highway and rail corridors in the State of Florida. Demand on the airport and seaport regional facilities are beginning to affect airport access, shipment reliability as well as highway congestion within urban areas. The congestion is beginning to spread along major inter-city corridors and is concentrated at choke points along routes to/from airports, marine ports or intermodal rail terminals (Weisbrod, 2006). The paper explores Hillier s argument for understanding space and a programmatic set of transportation technologies within regional facilities that accommodate or facilitate a wide range of movement at regional scales and ranges occupying adjacent spaces in local, regional and global scales simultaneously. Ultimately the goal is to separate the scales and means of congestion, whether it be the movement of people, such as employees, tourists or local citizens to these facilities, or the separation of functionality of the regional facilities through the movement of cargo and freight. The analysis of the State of Florida s policies, strategic intermodal system and impact of plans can help to provide for the connectability of transportation systems and pedestrian movement from one regional economic generator to another. The research examines several factors to fully understand the connectivity between two large scale activity centers, and importance of scales, congestion, diversity of movement and users, intermodalism, and state policies. The first step in the research was selecting a study area that involved a large scale activity center that integrated various modes of transportation and the continuous movement of pedestrians. Miami International Airport, located in south Florida and London Heathrow Airport were chosen as two study areas in order to understand a larger connection of pedestrian movement between two large scale activity centers. This analysis was then used to evaluate the connections between Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport and Port Everglades. Automated People Mover (APM) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) are used to represent such technology that has been deployed in a variety of contexts to connect airports to other regional activity centers.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Stephanie Murray.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.U.R.P.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Steiner, Ruth L.
Local: Co-adviser: Larsen, Kristin E.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024679:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024679/00001

Material Information

Title: Intermodal and Multimodal Transportation Analysis of Policy and the Impact of Plans for Connectability of Transportation Systems Between Seaports and Airports
Physical Description: 1 online resource (88 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Murray, Stephanie
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: intermodal, multimodal, personal, port, seaports, transportation
Urban and Regional Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Urban and Regional Planning thesis, M.A.U.R.P.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Ports have traditionally been gateways to, and symbols of a city or country as a whole. The airports and seaports play a major role in the economic welfare of a region. Due to continued economic connection and the movement of goods and people between seaports and airports, increased congestion is beginning to stress the highway and rail corridors in the State of Florida. Demand on the airport and seaport regional facilities are beginning to affect airport access, shipment reliability as well as highway congestion within urban areas. The congestion is beginning to spread along major inter-city corridors and is concentrated at choke points along routes to/from airports, marine ports or intermodal rail terminals (Weisbrod, 2006). The paper explores Hillier s argument for understanding space and a programmatic set of transportation technologies within regional facilities that accommodate or facilitate a wide range of movement at regional scales and ranges occupying adjacent spaces in local, regional and global scales simultaneously. Ultimately the goal is to separate the scales and means of congestion, whether it be the movement of people, such as employees, tourists or local citizens to these facilities, or the separation of functionality of the regional facilities through the movement of cargo and freight. The analysis of the State of Florida s policies, strategic intermodal system and impact of plans can help to provide for the connectability of transportation systems and pedestrian movement from one regional economic generator to another. The research examines several factors to fully understand the connectivity between two large scale activity centers, and importance of scales, congestion, diversity of movement and users, intermodalism, and state policies. The first step in the research was selecting a study area that involved a large scale activity center that integrated various modes of transportation and the continuous movement of pedestrians. Miami International Airport, located in south Florida and London Heathrow Airport were chosen as two study areas in order to understand a larger connection of pedestrian movement between two large scale activity centers. This analysis was then used to evaluate the connections between Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport and Port Everglades. Automated People Mover (APM) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) are used to represent such technology that has been deployed in a variety of contexts to connect airports to other regional activity centers.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Stephanie Murray.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.U.R.P.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Steiner, Ruth L.
Local: Co-adviser: Larsen, Kristin E.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024679:00001


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1 INTERMODAL AND MULTIMODAL TRANSPORTATION: ANALYSIS OF POLICY AND THE IMPACT OF PLANS FOR CONNECTABILITY OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS BETWEEN SEAPORTS AND AIRPORTS By STEPHANIE N. MURRAY A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009

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2 2009 Stephanie N. Murray

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3 To my parent s Thank you for sacrificing a great deal so that I could build my life and career

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This project could not have been completed without the support and hard work of my supervisory committee during this process. I would like to thank my c ommittee members, Dr. Ruth Steiner and Dr. Kristin Larsen, for being such an inspiration to me and to this research. I would specially like to thank Dr. Steiner, who has always pushed me to my limits, and who has been instrumental in shaping my career as a Transportation Planner while maintaining my design background and influence. Next, I would like to thank my parents, brothers and significant other for their patience while completing this thesis and masters degree. I especially thank my Mom and Dad for their unconditionally love, encouraging words and allowing me to follow my dreams. I could never have gotten through all this without their support and humor. Without each of them I would never have been able to accomplish all that I have in life.

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5 TABLE O F CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................................... 4 page LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................................ 7 LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................................. 8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .............................................................................................................. 9 ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................................................ 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 12 Ports and Airports ........................................................................................................................ 12 Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 14 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................................... 16 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 16 Space Syntax ................................................................................................................................ 18 Economic Systems within Regional Facilities .......................................................................... 19 Scales ........................................................................................................................................... 21 Congestion............................................................................................................................ 21 Street Grid ............................................................................................................................ 23 Pedestrian ............................................................................................................................. 24 Land Use and Transportation ..................................................................................................... 25 Intermodal/Multimodal Transportation Characteristics ............................................................ 27 Intermodal Center ........................................................................................................................ 28 What is it? ............................................................................................................................. 28 Intermodal Center Scale ...................................................................................................... 29 Transit Modes .............................................................................................................................. 30 Bus Rapid Transit ................................................................................................................ 30 Automated People Mover .................................................................................................... 31 Personal Rapid Transit ........................................................................................................ 32 Smart Growth .............................................................................................................................. 34 Transit Oriented Development ( TOD) ....................................................................................... 35 3 METHODOLOGY ...................................................................................................................... 40 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 40 Site Selection #1 .......................................................................................................................... 40 Site Selection #2 .......................................................................................................................... 41 Transportation .............................................................................................................................. 42

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6 Policy Analysis ............................................................................................................................ 42 Observations/Analysis of Space ................................................................................................. 43 Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 43 4 FINDINGS ................................................................................................................................... 45 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 45 Study Areas .................................................................................................................................. 45 Applied Use of People Movers ........................................................................................... 45 Miami International Airport, FL ......................................................................................... 46 Background and Overview .......................................................................................... 46 Model ............................................................................................................................ 46 Heathrow Airport, London .................................................................................................. 47 Background and Overview .......................................................................................... 47 Model ............................................................................................................................ 48 State Policy .................................................................................................................................. 50 2025 Florida Transportation Plan ....................................................................................... 50 Florida Strategic I ntermodal System .................................................................................. 50 Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act (SAFETEA -LU): ..... 52 Case Study ................................................................................................................................... 54 Fort Lauderdale Hollywood International and Port Everglades .............................................. 54 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 54 Study Project ........................................................................................................................ 55 Description of Project .......................................................................................................... 56 Intermodal Center ................................................................................................................ 56 People Mover ....................................................................................................................... 56 Observations ......................................................................................................................... 57 Human Scale ........................................................................................................................ 57 5 DISCUSSION .............................................................................................................................. 61 Redefining Intermodal and Multimodal Transportation ........................................................... 61 Applicability ................................................................................................................................ 67 6 CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS ........................... 71 Looking Ahead ............................................................................................................................ 71 Recommendations ....................................................................................................................... 73 APPENDIX GLOSSARY ........................................................................................................................................ 74 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................................................................................................... 82 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................................................................................. 88

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Transport Energy Use of PRT versus other Modes of Transportation ............................... 37 4 1 Cruise Pass enger Ridership. Peak afternoon projections. ................................................... 60 5 1 Comparison of Distance Traveled with PRT Systems ......................................................... 70

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Rendering of a PRT system inside the DIA main terminal ................................................. 38 2 2 In Course Prt Station (Rendering). Source: Muller, 2007 ................................................... 39 2 3 PRT and position on a grid. Source: Muller, 2007 .............................................................. 39 4 1 Vicinity Map of Port Everglades and Fort Lauderdale Hollywood International Airport ..................................................................................................................................... 59

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9 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S AGT Automated Guideway Transit CBD Central Business District DOT Department of Transportation FIHS Floridas Intrastate Highway System FLL Fort Lauderdale Hollywood International Airport FT P Florida Transportation Plan GRT Group Rapid Transit HSR High Speed Rail ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITS Intelligent Transportation System LGCP Local Government Comprehensive Plan LRC Long Range Component MIA Miami Dade International Airport MPO Metropolitan Planning Organization PEV Port Everglades PRT Personal Rapid Transit SAFETEA -LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users SCP State Comprehensive Pla n SHS State Highways System SOV Single Occupancy Vehicle STIP State Transportation Improvement Plan TIP Transportation Improvement Program TMA Transportation Management Area

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10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the Universit y of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning INTERMODAL AND MULTIMODAL TRANSPORTATION: ANALYSIS OF POLICY AND THE IMPACT OF PLANS FOR CONNECTABILITY OF TRANSPORTATI ON SYSTEMS BETWEEN SEAPORTS AND AIRPORTS By Stephanie N. Murray August 2009 Chair: Ruth L. Steiner Co chair: Kristen L arsen Major: Urban and Regional Planning Ports have traditionally been gateways to, and symbols of a city or country as a whole. The a irports and seaports play a major role in the economic welfare of a region. Due to continued economic connection and the movement of goods and people between seaport s and airp orts, increased congestion is beginning to stress the highway and rail corridors in the State of Florida Demand on the airport and seaport regional facilities are beginning to affect airport access, shipment reliability as well as highway congestion within urban areas. The congestion is beginning to spread along major inter city corr idors and is concentrated at choke points along routes to/from airports, marine ports or inter modal rail terminals (Weisbrod, 2006). The paper explores Hilliers argument for understanding space and a programmatic set of transportation technologies within regional facilities that accommodate or facilitate a wide range of movement at regional scales and ranges occupying adjacent spaces in local, regional and global scales simultaneously. Ultimately the goal is to separate the scales and means of congestio n, whether it be the movement of people such as employees, tourists or local citizens to these facilities, or the

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11 separation of functionality of the regional facilities through the moveme nt of cargo and freight. The analysis of the State of Floridas pol icies, strategic intermodal system and impact of plans can help to provide for the connectability of transportation systems and pedestrian movement from one regional economic generator to another. The research examines several factors to fully understand the connectivity between two large scale activity centers, and importance of scales, congestion, diversity of movement and users, intermodalism, and state policies. The first step in the research was selecting a study area that involved a large scale activ ity center that integrated various modes of transportation and the continuous movement of pedestrians. Miami International Airport, located in south Florida and London Heathrow Airport were chosen as two study areas in order to understand a larger connecti on of pedestrian movement between two large scale activity centers. This analysis was then used to evaluate the connections between Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport and Port Everglades. Automated People Mover (APM) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) are used to represent such technology that has been deployed in a variety of contexts to connect airports to other regional activity centers.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The cities without names as those we see from a distance, often as a glow on the n ight horizon, but which we cannot approach and enter. Perhaps their distance is maintained because we are only passing by, on our way somewhere else more familiar; or, perhaps, by our desire to keep them in our minds as inviolate and unknown, places for th e future and not for now. All the elements of cities we know are there, the more or less familiar profiles of buildings where people like us, we imagine, live out their lives. But some differences are apparent. As we strain to see more, these differences r eveal the utter strangeness of these cities, their remoteness in more than distance and time from us and what we have known. Any one of these cities seems for want of a better worduncertain. The structure of the city is tentative, as though it were a seri es of inconclusive gestures in space, almost like the pentimenti of an artists drawing, as he or she searches for a form not known in advance. Gone is the familiar sense of work accomplished and, in its place, the uneasy feeling that the work undertaken w as not meant to be accomplished. Our companion on one such journey, a distinguished architect, said, Oh, dont be so surprised. Havent you heard that those cities were designed by crazy fools? They started to build, but dont know how to finish. Still, t hey think theyve created Utopia!(Woods, 2008) The accomplishment of transportation connectivity between two major activity centers will create a network of spaces. Those spaces, well planned, have the greatest potential of allowing people to move among s cales, to invent their existence among a larger concept of movement. The creation of a sense of place among the bigger picture of an urban core is perhaps the most seamless, potentially complex order to fill. The certainty of a structure that connects two major systems is real and known and has the potential to create growth and alleviate conflicts between pedestrian movements among all scales. Ports and Airports Port and airport locations in the past have been perceived as typically serving a region or co mmuni ty in terms of functionality. They are regional facilities that facilitate transportation of people, cargo, petro leum and other industrial products. Their focus now is shifting their focus toward dealing with the mix and seamlessness of movement betwe en these two facilities. The goal is to weave the idealism of form following function into the various scales, hierarchies

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13 and typologies of users, functionality and connections for accommodation of multimodal transportation opportunities. The goal is to create a framework that concentrates on the continued development and growth of a region to link one major facility, the airport, to another major facility, the seaport, to the transit network for a region. Individual attention is required, at all scales in order for a seamless movement along all transportation options between these two activity centers Managing the movement of passengers from one port terminal to anothe r is a transportation issue that needs to be understood by identifying the type of users, the organization of the regional facility, and the connectability and accessibility of transportation technologies between the two. Researchers and policy makers have placed an emphasis on multi -modal transportation intermodal transportation and eco nomic development but there is still a disconnect ion on how these systems work together as a whole. Identifying the patterns of transportation to each destination as well as the interaction on the site and an analysis of the pedestrian scale will provide a basis to make recommendation s on how to balance access with the vital economic role of these ports in a region Ports and seaports play a major role in the economic development of the region. Although many policy makers assume other ground transportatio n systems are mature, economic growth depend on maintain access to relevant suppliers and markets, and the nature of those access needs are continuing to shift dramatically as both markets and suppliers change (Weisbrod 2006) Growth at airports and sea ports is limited by continued congestion on U.S. highways and rail systems. Overseas air and sea shipments depend on improved access to and from U.S. air and marine ports. The need to control congestion around ports and airports is even more critical as

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14 ju st -in -time delivery spreads the businesses supply chains along highway corridors or along choke points along routes to or from the ports or intermodal rail terminals (Weisbrod, 2006) As international trade increases, it is critical for economic developmen t reasons that we expand the range of options for intermodal airports, seaports and the road and rail corridors serving them. As the economies of scale for seaports increases, ground transportation companies and local communities will face higher external ity costs associated with the road and rail congestion. This congestion will in turn increase labor costs, reduce schedule reliability and increase air pollution costs at the port locations, along the corridors serving them and in the regions around them. The public and private costs of increasing ground -side road and rail capacity will become increasingly expensive when the congestion is concentrated at specific facilities and corridors, and where option s for adding capacity are both limited and costly (W eisbrod, 2006) The most compelling argument for expanding our port and gateway options and access routes should be the economic welfare of our citizens. Expanding international trade routes with Canada and connecting Atlantic port facilities can potentia lly help to reduce the access isolation and resulting depressed economies of New Englands northern tier. It can also help to increase options for American freight moving to/from the upper Midwest (Weisbrod 2006) Summary In short, seaports and airports play a major role in the global economy. The regional scale access to those global facilitie s is important. In order for the se global facilities to operate efficiently, we need to address movement at multiple scales within and throughout these facilities a nd speeds for a variety of users using new transportation technology. Demand on these two regional facilities is beginning to affect airport access, shipment reliability and highway

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15 congestion within urban areas. The congestion could adversely affect the o verall economic development of our regions. Ultimately the goal of a well -managed transportation system is to separate the scales and means of congestion, for all users of the system, employees, tourists, local citizens or the movement of car go and freight The analysis of the State of Floridas policies, strategic intermodal system and impact plans can help to provide for the connectability of transportation systems and pedestrian movement from one economic regional facility to another.

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16 CHAPTER 2 LITERAT URE REVIEW Introduction Discrete systems, composed of nothing but mobile individuals, can quite easily form themselves into global systems whose existence as objective realities need not to be doubted. By examining simple cases, we can begin to build a pic ture of how such systems may arise, be lawful and have different types of structure (Hillier, 1984). L ittle literature exists specifically on the connectability between seaports and airports; however, extens ive research and literature exists regarding the research question of connectability of two large scale activity centers through the breakdown of scales, analysis of state policies and the articulation of Hilliers framework of space syntax In Hilliers framework the general ideas of space and spatial c onfiguration and how they can be broken down into components and analyzed as networks of choice can be used to understand the connectivity of transportation systems The literature review is one that provides a comprehensive, yet programmatic set of economic scales and transportation technologies that provide an extensive background for analysis on this topic. Ports have traditionally been gateways to, and symbols of a city or country as a whole. The airports as well as seaports play a major role in the economic welfare of a region. These facilities are the economic engines as well as reflections o f the communities in which they are located They contribute to the local economy through employment opportunities, in ternational trade and other sources of rev enue for the county or region Passenger traffic reflects the level of economic development, demographics, business activity, and tourism. The cargo volumes are also an indication of the strength of the regional economy (Waters, 2007) The economic facili ties are gateways to a city. If the seaport or airport works, it becomes easy and pleasurable to visit the metropolis whether for business or leisure When it doesnt work, there is a high possibility that people may not come back (Waters, 2007) As aviat ion, cruise and tourism

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17 demand continues to grow, as well as higher demands for shipping and trade, increased traffic and passenger volumes will stress our nations regional facilities. Typically, the term port refers to waterside, large -scale complexe s in urban areas. These complexes are equipped to dock boats, large ships and to handle importing and exporting of cargo. Port facilities including their terminals and cargo container areas both in private and public sector are part of what is known as an intermodal transportation system. The locations of ports are typically situated in or adjacent to urban population centers that cater to cruise ships and recreational adventures instead of the normal ocean -going travel liners and cargo container ships (Flo rida Department of Community Affairs, 2007) For a city to attract and retain corporations with national and global ties as well as talented people to work for them -efficient, functional airports and seaports that are easily reached will be increasingly i mportant With increased demand on global facilities, the movement of pedestrians is becoming critical. The problems associated with large scale activity centers are congestion that is beginning to spread along inter -city corridors that is contributing to inefficiencies such as delays, traffic violations due to illegal parking, u -turns, illegal passenger drop off and pickups and a lack of pedestrian and bicyclist safety. The proposed solutions are based upon their scales and connectivity. The connection between seaports and airports must be understood within the context of the need to move people efficiently through multiple scales, speeds, and new transportation technologies in order to create a comprehensive framework for a wide range or global faciliti es. The argument for the connections will provide a background on definitions, scales, congestion issues, context, benefits, challenges and feasibility of intermodal centers as a hub for transportation options and various movements to accommodate pedestria ns. It is time to

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18 rediscover and create the human scale, to ultimately build communities and transportation networks for people, not cars. The transit systems would be better patronized if they were connected effectively with the very spatially -dispersed patterns of origins and destinations i n our cities (Schneider, 2008). Space Syntax Before evaluating the effectiveness or adequacy of transport between two large scale activity centers, one should look deeper than the amount of congestion on the roads or punctuality of public transportation. The following questions one should begin to ask is: (a) To what extent can people either engage or participate in the activities they want. What are the traveling difficulties, costs of obtaining the work they want or choice of career, schools, shopping, cultural events or even the ability to reach those activities they want? Fundamentally the question being asked is how transport is broken down. (b) How accessible is the area that people want to live or prefer to live in or can afford to live? (c) How easy, cheap, fast and pleasant are the journeys that involve community activities and business activities? Are the journey to and from work, school, shopping and to the activity center enjoyable? What is the availability a nd distance for pedestrian accessibility and involving the use of the bicycle as a vehicle? (d) What are the odds of getting in an accident or the number of accidents that have occurred? All of these questions are difficult to formulate when trying to understand the connectivity of large scale activity centers within a few mile distance of each other. Breaking down and recognizing how space affects buildings, transportation systems and public areas enables one to assess the performance of a transit system a nd the ability to judge where improvement needs to be made to create a seamless movement of pedestrians from one major destination to another.

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19 In order to associate and connect two destinations through a transit system and understanding spatially -dispers ed patterns of origins and destinations in our cities (Schneider J. 2008) one needs to look at social activity and interaction that happens within a space or corridor. The framework that is laid out in Hilliers (1984), The Social Logic of Space; Space syntax added to the existing panoply of spatial concepts a new one that potentially reshapes research questions: spatial configuration. The hope was that by learning to describe and analyse different kinds of spatial configuration, or pattern, in the city -for example the differences between the new social housing and traditional urban areas, which seemed prima facie to be critically different it would be possible to detect any influence there might be of social factors in the construction of theses spatial patterns and also to explore any consequences there might be in terms of how social life could and did take place. By learning to control the spatial variable at the level of the complex patterns of space that make up the city, we might be able to gain in sight into both the social antecedents and consequences of spatial form In syntax terms, spatial configuration means relations between spaces which take into account other relations, and so in effect relations between all the various spaces of a system (H illier & Vaughan, The City as One Thing, 2007) Beginning to link the social and spatial concept of connectivity between a modern seaport node and an airport node within a multimodal transport system will in effect provide for a scale that moves from segre gation to integration. First, in order to understand the diversity of movement and the users, the idea of separating various scales in order to understand intermodal and multimodalism needs to be addressed and how congestion, the pedestrian and the street grid begins to engage with space. Economic Systems within Regional Facilities Individual economic systems that comprise a regional facility contain a complexity of scales, systems and movements that all occur with time. A well thought out time pattern tha t allows for the freedom of complex organizations of structural systems to inhabit, to be present. Intermodalism and the ease of movement between various modes of transportation are essential in a seamless transition of the pedestrian from one destination to another.

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20 This time pattern is a shifting, dynamic field of the self determining, self organizing systems (Woods, 1997) The layering of time is embedded into the transportation networks, buildings, materials, events, human life, and the landscape. It is one that is filled with complex layers and immersed into the depth of an overall compressed facility, the airport and seaport. The execution of layering scaled transportation systems into a city is all about time or the timing of those particulars in wh ich it is woven into the urban fabric to define a global facility to where the unreachable becomes reachable, the unavailable become available, the unattainableattainable (Charter, 2005) Layers of time within an economic facility can be occupied in al l forms and in any state. It is up to one to decide how this illusion of time, scale and structure can be transformed and molded to exist for their experience of movement from one facility to the next. As humans we invent, create a world and then populate it with our own ideas, interests, and abstractions (Hailey, 2006). With these ideas, we begin to build and form our own layering of boundaries, peripheries and edges to create the internal and external beginnings of what we would define as a cite, or glo bal facility that reveals itself to be a city of smaller scale, consisting of layers with overgrowth from the city, which is the cistern of the world (Bitz, 2006). This substantial influx of people into the city must not only serve the needs of the l ocal residents but also the additional burden caused by regional traffic. Addressing the impacts of urban growth and redevelopment through the establishment of an innovative system that enhances mobility by linking local and regional transportation networ ks, incorporating alternative transportation modes, and promoting traffic management (City of Boca Raton, 2009). Connections are not formed by chance, rather by the relations to one another through various scales such as the pedestrian, the street grid and the facility that houses economic development. The space in which we live, which draws us out of ourselves, in which the erosion of our lives,

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21 our time and our history occurs, the space that claws and gnaws at us, is also, in itself, a heterogeneous spac e. In other words, we do not live in a kind of void, inside of which we could place individuals and things. We do not live inside a void that could be colored with diverse shades of light, we live inside a set of relations that delineates sites which are irreducible to one another and absolutely not super imposable on one another. Of course one might attempt to describe these different sites by looking for a set of relations by which a given site can be defined. For example, describing the set of relations that define the sites of transportation, streets, trains (a train is an extraordinary bundle or relations because it is something through which one goes, it is also something by means of which one can go from one point to another, and then it is also somet hing that goes by). One could describe, via the cluster of relations that allows them to be defined, the sites of temporary relaxation cafes, cinemas, beaches. Likewise one could describe, via the network of relations, the closed or semi -closed sites of re st the house, the bedroom, the bed, el cetera. But among these sites, I am interested in certain ones that have the curious property of being in relation with all the other sites, but in such a way as to suspect, neutralize, or invent the set of relations that they happen to designate, mirror, or reflect. These spaces, as it were, which are linked with all the others, which however contradict all the other sites, are the two main types (Foucault, 1967) Scales Congestion Congestion occurs at every scale, fr om the local, the regional to the national and international facilities. Congestion however, is not a bad necessarily, but with delays caused, fear of the safety of the pedestrian and slower traffic speeds, congestion has become a nuisance. The space requi rements of a vehicle are much more than that of any other mode of transportation. aggravated the problem of traffic congestion, especially in medium -size and large cities. Not only did the congestion defeat the major feature of the automobile -its high lev el of mobility it led both to inefficiencies and to strong negative impacts of transportation on the urban environment. This has been the main reason for serious problem of our age, one summed up in the brief phrase, collision of cities and cars (Johnson 1993) (Vuchic, 1999) Container traffic as well as pedestrian traffic in the United States tends to be more highly concentrated and is becoming even more so as the use of larger, faster, and more specialized

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22 vessels and planes call the ports that are capable of handling them. As the tourism and cargo demands continue, relieving congestion from one fac ility to the other is the goal. The growth in container traffic has resulted in increased vessel, truck, and rail services in and around port regions. Chall enges posed by the large -scale movement of container traffic include Maintaining efficient cargo flows from point of -origin to final destination in a safe and secure manner, i mproving air quality and reducing noise surrounding port areas, and Removing fre ight bottlenecks at intermodal transfer locations where trucks and railroads connect to marine terminals (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2007) The auto and highway system has given the pedestrian within their automobile free reign of the spaces that they deploy themselves within. The commuter has unprecedented flexibility and movement. Along with this dynamic projection of movement, the automobile and the over abundances of commercial trucks have overtaken the city, the port facilities and the busines s centers of downtowns. Their primary function has been to serve the city but in fact the highways and roadwa ys have created an environment that makes pedestrian movement difficult The congestion caused by such a mobile struc ture has broken the urban fabr ic with the layout of buildings that arent well utilized, the mix of services that block the pedestrians access to the direct connection with other economic facilities, the airport, seaport and the downtown business center. The dependency on automobiles has lead to a magnitude of congestion that doesnt make the movement between any modes of transporta tion seamless but rather erodes the urban livability of neighborhoods and communities by reducing options for those tha t are trapped in the excess of conges tion on the streets and roadways.

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23 At some level of congestion, any given driver will choose to avoid dealing with the congestion, either in favor of an alternative route, an alternative mode, changing the departure time of the trip, a shorter t rip to a similar activity, or avoiding the trip altogetherand the reverse is true, too. If the congestion eases because a new road is built or an old one enlarged, the cost of travel is reduced and the number of trips, even spontaneous ones, will increase (Motava lli, 2001) Equal attention needs to be provided not only for the pedestrian but for the bicycle, auto, and public transit that serves activity centers, community facilities and commercial districts in order to encourage pedestrian activity and in turn rel ieve the increased volume on the roadways. Promoting transportation choices (intermodalism) will allow for a livable city and an in crease of connectability. However, traffic congestion cannot be solved. The roadways are ever increasing vehicle mileage and trips per day by building new highways, extra lanes and additional roadway to accommodate the traffic. By the time most expressways or freeways (those are real misnomers they are not express and certainly not free) are funded and built, they are near, at or over capacity. The reason is simple: development follows on the heel of infrastructure expansion. Since roadways are the current favored investments no or few comparable travel options exist for the great majority of the population. Walking to your de stination has become an event of the past. Pedestrian amenities or necessities fall to the responsibility of local levels of government. Usually towns and enlightened cities plan for accessibility or mobility. It is never done at the regional scale. The pe destrian is simply a Forgotten Factor in Regional Transportation Planning Street Grid (Havlick, 2001) The street grid is a large scale within the regional economy. The street is a division of space and of the pedestrian. The cost of a roadway is great. I t is not to be measured merely in congestion, lost energy, and time. More important are the positive benefits that are forsworn. By giving away land to parkers, or renting it for a pittance, cities are squandering some of the most valuable real estate that they have. There are much better uses for it than the non -movement of vehicles. Its highest and best use is transportation: specifically, for pedestrians. They are the major component of center -city transportation (Whyte, 1988)

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24 Yet as a place to walk a round and experience, incorporating scale and hierarchy into the global system will make individuals the unmotivated motivators of the new transportation system. It is assumed that human beings will deploy themselves in space in some way, perhaps without interconnection from one individual to the next, in which case the process is randomThe question then is how far individuals have to relate their spatial actions to those of others in order to give rise to pattern and form in space (Hillier, 1984) Pede strian After the street grid, the pedestrian is the next large scale within a regional economy. The pedestrian is the lively hood of the systems. The pedestrian and then the street grid have contributed to the rapid growth of urban centers and traffic cong estion. In order to accomplish a transportation system that is seamless, that runs smoothly, to l ink one site to the next, attention needs to be paid not only at the overall large scale of the network but at al l scales no matter how minute they may seem. T he smallest, yet most important economic system that holds together a regional facility is the pedestrian. As large facilities become more densely populated there is increasing interest in predicting and understanding fine scale pedestrian movement. Beginning to understand the scale can in turn help to develop cities and connections for effective transport infrastructure facilities and how the pedestrian uses urban spaces in all conditions. The pedestrian, is a social being, he is also a transportation unit, and a marvelously complex and efficient one. He is self -contained, self -propelled, and moves forward with a field of vision about 100 degrees wide, further widening this with back and -forth scanning movements at almost 180 degrees. He monitors a host of equations: two crossing patterns at left front, 290 feet a minute, three on the right, angle on the cars 30 degrees and closing, a pair abreast dead ahead, a traffic light starting to flash DONT WALK. In fractions of a second he responds with course shi fts, accelerations, and retards, and he signals to others that he is doing

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25 so. Think of the orders and computers it would take to match him! Transportation engineers are spending millions on developing automated people -mover systems. But the best, by far, is the person (Whyte, 1988). As Whyte demonstrates, the pedestrian is a unique being by itself and therefore is a smaller scale that is actually enormous in characteristic and influences the patterns of movement within a facility or urban core. Pedestri ans in global facilities are efficient They walk fast and with authority to get fr om one place to another. In both airports and seaports observations show that these pedestrians are on a timed schedule, the movement in and out, giving and taking. Those m ovements are well organized and orchestrated in such a manner that at first glance is congested and irrational but when one pulls away to look at the larger scale, the overall picture is well timed and systematic. With the subtlest of motions, they signal their intentions to one another: a shift of the eyes, a degree or so off axis, a slight move of a hand, a wave of a folded newspaper (Whyte, 1988). Land Use a nd Transportation Planning between major activity centers needs to be accomplished not only at m ultiple scales but through land use as well. The highway system has given the automobile an unprecedented flexibility to the commuter and credit in shaping the cities in which we live. The commuter could now go cross town laterally between transit lines instead of traveling radially through central business districts or the core of the city. The car provides a convenient, flexible and relatively low -cost of transportation which is favorable amongst a majority of users. Planning between major activity center s needs to be accomplished at multiple scales. Land use and transportation planning are very much like the chicken and the egg. Which came first? In short term, land use shapes the demand for transportation. Many a highway has been built because populati on or commercial growth produced congestion and delays, which

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26 generated political pressures to deal with the situation. On the other hand, the provision of roads changes land values and thus alters the intensity with which land is used, and, with that outc ome, alters the entire pattern of land use. The interstate highway system, to take the largest example, was designed to facilitate movement of vehicles from one existing urban center to another, something it does very successfully (Levy, 2006) Historical ly, cities have developed along their topographic axes. The early highways followed the axes along coasts, rivers, canals and valleys which then in turn encouraged linear development. Overall network geometry determines the probable points of density inc rease. Radial systems, such as those found in Boston, Washington, D.C., and Paris, have inherent centers through which most traffic must pass en route between points. Rectangular grid systems, like those in Miami and New York City, tend to be less centrali zed; shifts and amplifications of local development occur through association with other economic systems (via ports, rivers, and bridges) or with higher capacity pathways (Florida State University and FAU -FIU Joint Center, 1986). The g eneral consensus see ms that major metropolitan areas have favored the automobile over other modes of transportation. Public transportation systems and alternatives have declined and the trend has been toward more highways being built through cities to accommodate the growth. Improving transit leads to more decongested streets by reducing automobile travel as well as improving air quality. Those concerned with urban design often favor transit because it leads to more compact land use pattern that is much friendlier to pedestri ans than is a city designed for automobile transportation. Distances between destinations are shorter, and less land area is given over to streets (Levy, 2006)

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27 Intermodal/Multimodal Transportation Characteristics Intermodal Transportation may be defin ed as the transportation of a person of a load from its origin to its destination by a sequence of at least two transportation modes, the transfer from one mode to the next being performed at the intermodal terminal. The concept is very general and thus, i t means many things to many people; transportation of containerized cargo by a combination of truck, rail and ocean shipping, dedicated rail services to move massive quantities of containers and trailers over long distances, main transportation mode for the international movement of goods, central piece in defining transportation policy for the European Community, trips undertaken by a combination of private (e.g., car) and public (e.g., light rail) transport, and so on (Crainic, 2005) Transportation syst ems affect human society in the most significant aspects. The Policy Guide on Surface Transportation (1997) on the American Planning Association website states the aspects of transportation systems on human society: Land development and land use; Economic activity; Goods movement and trade; Jobs and wages for thousands of workers; Access to places and work, education, health care, social life, and commerce for individuals; Overall livability of communities and metropolitan areas The above lists are the most important to the research. The success of a transportation system and its functionality can have consequences for the built and the natural environment for people and communities that inhabit them. Transportation issues impact people on every scale and wi thin the everyday life of those who live within communities that have high congestion.

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28 The dilemma has been to either build more roads to accommodate the growth of private vehicles or to create public transit alternatives to relieve congestion and provide greater access to a wider range of individuals and working classes. The key to deal with strategies to alleviate the broader social issues as housing, employment opportunities and a higher quality of life is accessibility. People must be able to have acces s and mobility in order to obtain a better quality of life. Traditional transportation planning was based on profiles and characteristics of residential households (family size, income, vehicle owned) and the area itself (population density, distance from the central business district (Rosenbloom and Black, 2000). The last criticism of failing to create more livable and sustainable communities is a concern that has not gone without notice within federal transportation agencies (Edwards, 2001) Interm odal Center Imagine an opportunity, the combination of a transportation gateway and a mixed use activity center (regional facility) that integrates into the urban fabric to create a dynamic, innovative transportation corridor that complements the existing regional grid, local grid and creates a sense of place. The transportation facility will allow people to transfer from one travel destination to the next, from the airport, to the port, or even into the economic core of a city and central business distric t. As described, this vision is an Intermodal Center (IMC), an airport withou t runways (Earth Tech, 2005). What is it? An IMC is a massive transportation hub that provides end connection to commuters who would use the other regional transit projects to access the Airport and the Seaport. It provides connectivity between all forms of ground transportation that is available within a city between the two regional facilities (the airport and seaport), while alleviating congestion on the local

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29 street grid and around each port. The Intermodal Center links rail, both heavy and light, and public bus service to provide the regional accessibility. The IMC offers a seamless centralized transfer between the three scales of the regional facility, the transportation element, as well as the pedestrian and bicycling ground movement. The unique structure, satisfies the specific requirements of all modes of transportation to incorporate the existing infrastructure into the design, while adding an airport connection to ta xis, cruise ports, parking facilities, rental car outlets and other modes of transportation (Earth Tech, 2005) Hillier would define the space of an IMC as an elementary cell; it has an inside as well as an outside The simplest building is, in effect, co nsisting of a boundary, a space within the boundary, an entrance, and a space outside the boundary defined by the entrance, all of these spaces being part of a system which was placed in a larger space of some kind which it carried it. All these elements seemed to have some kind of sociological reference: the space within the boundary established a category associated with some kind of inhabitant; the boundary formed a control on the category, and maintained its discreteness as a category; the world outsi de the system was the domain of potential strangers, in contradistinction to the domain of inhabitants; the space outside the entrance constituted a potential interface between the inhabitant and the stranger; and the entrance was a means not only of estab lishing the identity of the inhabitant, but also a means of converting a stranger into a visitor (Hillier, 1984). Intermodal Center Scale How does this scale of a transportation network interconnect into the IMC (the structure of space) that therefore con nects one regional facility to the other? An intermodal center becomes a cell, and therefore the inhabitants, the visitors of the center become another element of movement or a secondary cell (passenger cell) that can be subdivided. The subdivision of the

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30 passenger cell becomes a pathway of growth and begins to define space within the local grid. The growth is a linear network that is created to move passengers from one destination to the next that can be thought of as a settlement. buildings tend to grow by accumulating boundaries; settlement space tends to grow by accumulating spaces into one continuous system. Settlement space is richer in its potential, in that more people have access to it, and there are fewer c ontrols on it (Hillier, 1984). Tran sit Modes Transit plays large roles in the diversity of movement of people from one space to another. Vuchic (1999) explains in his book Transportation for Livable Cities Bus Rapid Transit that cities that have a balanced multimodal transportation system that accommodates p edestrians, cars and transit are better -quality than other metropolitan areas who may restrict the vehicle or try to rebuild the city to accommodate for adequate transportation for everyone. A balanced transportation system provides for an environment tha t benefits humans and creates a system of space, rather than providing for vehicles. Largely, transit has many different roles in urban areas. From the use of commuters to work, transporting children to school, transit serves as the main distributor for various modes of transportation from bus, rail and air travel to and from terminals and destinations. Overall, transit allows for high capacity of pedestrian movement and allows for less of a carbon footprint by producing fewer pollutants and the consumption of less energy. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is a form of fixed route bus service that combines features like bus -only lanes and bus priority at traffic signals to provide faster, more efficient transportation. BRT includes improvements to infrastructure, vehicles and scheduling in order to provide higher quality bus service for commuters (National BRT Institute, 2008) With the already existing bus

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31 services serving communities near regional facilities and downtown areas, faster bus servic e and expanding into different or more corridors will allow better connections into and between these existing facilities. Benefits such as increased reliability, the ability to build and improve incrementally, the flexibility to serve the suburbs as well as the densely populated cities, the improvement of alternative transit, fostering increased ridership and contributing to the nations effort to reduce oil usage will greater effect a city and county which already has the foundation for such transit imple mentations. The existing transit systems that are available today could be better utilized if they were connected with very spatially -dispersed patterns of origins and destinations in our cities (Schneider, 2008) By providing a connective tissue into the existing framework of buses, rail and park and ride facilities, BRT along with Automated People Movers (APM) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) would allow for a seamless transfer and complement the already existing multimodal transport system within cities. Automated People Mover A smaller scale than the BRT a n automated people mover (APM) system is one that is a fully automated light rail system that operates on an elevated single track in a central business district of a city. The APM is a passenger transport system with high levels of electronic intelligence so that vehicles are operated by computers over exclusive guide ways without need for attendants. Today, almost 130 installations operate around the world (Airfront.21, 2008). The system can pro vide connectability between administrative offices, sports arenas, hotels, commercial, banking, retail districts. The service is free from congestion of vehicle or pedestrian traffic. Advantages of APMs are numerous. They can be used to better configure l and use patterns and parking, allowing strong pedestrian focus in a city or business centers core, which can be

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32 virtually car -free. Principles for smart growth or a new urbanism with using APMs are 1) they can create higher density centers while interconn ecting different parts of a center, 2) the dimensions for guideways and stations are significantly smaller which means that they can negotiate sharper turns and steeper grades, 3) transit improvements will allow for better real estate development due to th e nature of the APMs small scale and integration into existing buildings, and lastly 4) smaller stations that lesson carbon footprints and the quality of less noise all can be integrated directly into buildings. However, APM have a carrying capacity of 20 to 100 passengers. These passengers are mostly standing during their trip to the destination. APM have been used in airports for surface transportation for the past 30 years. With ever increasing technological advances, a new APM had been developed that is smaller, 3 4 passenger vehicle transports, has been implemented. The new category is called Personal Rapid Transit. Personal Rapid Transit Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) uses small (3 to 4 passenger) vehicles (transportation pods or T Pods) to automatically transport passengers and their luggage non-stop to their destinations along designated guideways. Trips are typically on -demand and T -Pods are often waiting at stations prior to the arrival of passengers. The resulting short wait and trip times combine with seated travel to provide an exceptionally high level of service (Personal Rapid Transit, 2000) There are no schedules or fixed routes with PRTs. Ultimately, the passenger decides when and where to go, and they depart within seconds of arriving at a PRT station. The guideways for PRT can be built underground, at grade or over streets. PRT vehicles can be used for the transport of cargo, mail and waste. PRT compared to other means of transport (Personal Rapid Transit, 2000) is energy efficiency and uses four times less ene rgy than the automobile which means that there is no

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33 pollution at the point of use. Electric power plants are getting cleaner with the development of renewable sources and fusion reactors PRTs travel time is 3 5 times faster than buse s and 2 3 times faster than the automobile in rush hour Additionally, PRT is extremely safe due to automation, moderate and constant speed, operation on rails, no fuel on board, redundant design, avoidance of at grade crossings, and separation from pedest rians and other types of traffic. Other incentives of using Personal rapid transit has one guideway lane that has two times the passenger capacity of a freeway lane, and four times the capacity of a street lane with traffic lights There is n o need for pa rking lots. Two -hundredths of a percent of land use compared to thirty percent for the automobile. One post every thirty meters compared to the space taken up by two asphalt lanes The c omfort of the passengers is taken into account so that they can either read or watch TV in privacy during the journey Other incentives are n oise control a factor of one hundred less noise than automobiles, buses, and trains a 24 hours service and the e as e of use of the system is easy and safe enough for children aged 10 and above to use it without adult help. The handicapped and the elderly will also have fewer difficulties than with automobiles or conventional mass transit. Personal Rapid Transit is inherently more energy-sustainable, or "greener," than automobiles and conventional transit. The key to PRT's lower energy usage is its small size (translating into light weight), non -stop service (eliminating most energy -wasting starting and stopping), and on -demand service (PRT vehicles don't move until needed) (Kinetic Net work Seattle, 2004) If you look at Table 2 1 the table shows how PRT compares to other modes of transit. However, PRT is not the answer to everything. It cannot replace the car, although it can replace travel one takes by bus or train. It has been desi gned to be a more convenient option and suitable for travel and connectability from one regional facility to another. How convenient it

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34 could be to fly into an airport, retrieve luggage and then t ransfer onto a PRT pod (FIGURE 2 1 and FIGURE 2 2 ) and trave l to the next destination such as a seaport for cruise tourism or straight into the business/retail center of a city. PRT can even be an option for transfers along a route to a park and ride lot or into an urban core. FIGURE 2 3 illustrates a PRT route on a grid that has the potential to move along the street grid or through buildings and large facilities. Smart Growth Implementing Smart Growth principles and guidelines into the global facilities or a new program that assures good master planning of a trans portation network between the two facilities would only enhance a region but relieve congestion along major corridors and throughout communities that are facing impacts of continued growth of these ports, expansion of trade routes and activity centers or u rban city cores. Smart growth invests time, attention, and resources in restoring community and vitality to center cities and older suburbs in attempt to eliminate urban sprawl. Eradicating infrastructure in the cities and rebuilding developments further o ut may be more of an economic cost than thought to be believed. The goal here is to achieve a sense of community and place. Meanwhile, expanding the range of transportation, employment and housing choices to preserve and enhance resources and promote envi ronmental and public health is a continued effort. Smart growth can be implemented with walkable neighborhoods, the creation of housing opportunities and choices, mixed land uses, compact building design, encouraging higher density development, transportation choices, a strong sense of place, and making development decisions fair, predictable and cost effective (Smart Growth Online). By promoting such principles of smart growth, such as walkable communities, it allows for a more attractive place to live, wo rk, play and visit. Pedestrian activity is made possible by the design element of the location of services, transportation, housing, and offices. Destinations

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35 within close proximities promotes the meshing of such essential benefits for human beings as a wh ole by creating lower transportation costs, and improved personal and environmental health. Preserving open space and critical habitats proves to be connected components of smart growth in accepting such expansion. Reusing the land that has been abandoned, idled or under used in industrial and commercial facilities can be a catalyst for neighborhood revitalization, lessen development pressure and use the infrastructure that currently exists. Not only implementing Smart Growth principles into the design of t he economic facilities but within a community or region as a whole will enhance the connectability of new transportation technologies between the two facilities. Transit Oriented Development (TOD) The alternative transit options could also be used effect ively to extend the TOD concept beyond the traditional quarter -mile walk distance design metric, providing a considerably larger area or development/redevelopment around mass transit stations, and attracting new patrons who are now using autos exclusively and extensively (Schneider, 2008) Transit Oriented Development as an approach to combat traffic congestion and protect the environment has caught on all across the country. The trick for real estate developers has always been identifying the hot transpor tation system. Today, highways are out; urban transit systems are in. The Urban Land Institute (ULI) The seaport and airport are active activity centers and economic facilitators of a city. By incorporating TOD into the connective tissue of a PRT or APM t ransit network, additionally will enhance the sense of place through work, livability, learning, shopping and relaxation. TOD can do more than simply shift some car trips to transit: it also increases Accessibility and Transportation Options through land use Clustering and mix, and non-motorized transportation improvements. This reduces the distance required for car trips, allows a greater portion of trips to

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36 be made by walking and cycling, and allows some households to reduce their car ownership, which to gether can result in large reductions in vehicle travel (Transportation Demand Management Encyclopedia, 2007) Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is an approach to development in the city that focuses on land uses around a transit station or within a trans it corridor such as an activity center as a medium for such a design concept. TOD is typically characterized by (Transportation Riders United, 2006): A mix of uses Moderate to high density Pedestrian orientation and connectivity A variety of Transportation choices Reduced parking High quality of design The housing components of such projects give residents in the city easy access to public transportation such as busses, light rail, and trains for commuting into activity centers or work within the city or elsewhere (Transportation Riders United, 2006). Implicating a TOD in the framework will take several elements, such as, supportive market conditions, a commitment to transit, strong local leadership, and supportive public policies. The quality of the transit service is important and must be frequent, clean, safe and reliable. Leadership must be prevalent in the public and private sectors of planning. The areas of the transit stations and activity centers must have development potential and be competitive w ith other sites within the corridor and the city. Public policies and tools that channel development into the transit corridors should be supportive as well.

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37 Table 2 1 Transport Energy Use of PRT versus other Modes of Transportation MODE BTUs per passe nger PRT 839 Vanpool 1,362 Motorcycle 2,274 Commuter Rail 2,714 Rail Transit 3,268 Auto 3,581 Commercial Air 3,703 Personal Truck 4,057 Bus Transit 4,127 Amtrak 4, 830 Source: Lowson, M.V. (2004). A new approach to sustainable transport systems

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38 Figure 2 1. Rendering of a PRT system inside the DIA main terminal. While the system looks large in the foreground, observing the return guideway in the background provides an appreciation of its small scale. Source: Muller, 2007

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39 Figure 2 2. In Course Prt Station (Rendering) Source: Muller, 2007 ALONG STREET THROUGH BUILDINGS Figure 2 3. PRT and position on a grid. Source: Muller, 2007

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40 CHAPTER 3 MET HODOLOGY Introduction The research methods and materials for this study are described in this chapter. This research uses case study methodology and a theoretical argument of space and scale to investigate and understand the seamless movement of pedestrian s between two large scale activity centers through alternative transportation modes while redefining the definition of intermodal and multimodal transportation. The case study methodology was chosen because it allows for an extensive understanding of inter modalism within the framework of the research question. The paper explores a theoretical argument (Hi lliers) for understanding space and a programmatic set of transportation technologies within regional facilities that accommodate or facilitate a wide ran ge of movement at regional scales and ranges occupying adjacent spaces in local, regional and global scales simultaneously. Furthermore, these facilities are regulated by a set of local, regional, state and federal regulations that influence their deployme nt in specific contexts. The research encompassed several factors to fully understand the connectivity between two large scale activity centers and the breakdown of scales, congestion, diversity of movement and users of the regional facilities and an anal ysis of intermodalism and state policies. Site Selection #1 The first step in the research was selecting a study area that involved a large scale activity center that integrated various modes of transportation and the continuous movement of pedestrians. M iami International Airport, located in south Florida has local economic growth, tourist attractions and a large Latin American population base. This airport was selected because

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41 given the land locked nature of the site and the location for international tr ade and flights to Latin America, the Caribbean and Canada. This site is relatively in close proximity, 26 miles to the main case study of Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport (FLL) and Port Everglades (PEV). The airport has recently developed a massive transportation hub, the Miami Intermodal Center (IMC), which will be completed in 2012. When completed, the intermodal center will ultimately create connectivity between all forms of ground transportation from air, to rail while placing an emphasi s on pedestrians and bicycles (City of Miami, 2000) The intermodal center will also connect to transportation systems in Miami, Fort Lauderdale, the Palm Beaches and the Florida Keys in order to decongest the streets near the airport. Critical areas aroun d this site were chosen to determine similarities and differences between the case study sites and the study area of MIC. MIC is bordered by transportation networks, the Metrorail, Interstate 95, Interstate 395 and the Florida State Road 836 (Dolphin Expre ssway). The MIC is also using an APM system, the MIA Mover that will connect the airport and the terminals of the intermodal center with a 1.25 mile system. Site Selection #2 The second study site, Heathrow Airport in London, was chosen because of the airports deployment of the worlds first PRT system. Another large scale activity center, the Heathrow Airport currently has a PRT system under construction. The new system will replace the existing shuttle buses on site and serve as an internal framework of i ntermodalism and connectivity between terminals, parking facilities and businesses. These two case studies, Miami International Airport and Londons Heathrow Airport were chosen to understand the similarities of scale and transportation technologies in the movement of people from one activity center to another and apply them to the connection between FLL and PEV Additionally the two case studies were chosen as examples of

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42 incorporation of PRT and an intermodal center in each instance. These case example s will determine the effectiveness of the sy stems and illustrate how the facilities can facilitate transit oriented development and how other modal options are integrated into their framework. Transportation Secondly, various scales of transit modes is def ined and explored The combination of transportation connections and the accessibility to the modes are feasible to the research that begins to sets up the framework of intermodalism and effectively integrating pedestrian movement among multiple scales. Th e policy analysis determine s the opportunities and constraints to the use of transportation within large scale movement s Policy Analysis A policy analysis of Floridas 2025 Transportation Plan, the Strategic Intermodal System and Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act (SAFETEA LU) is analyzed to determine if there are any deficiencies in the policy framework. The overall objective is to analyze the framework of how Fort Lauderdale International Airport and Port Everglades are goin g to integrate a PRT system between the regional facilities to alleviate the congestion on major arterials and to move people seamlessly from one location to the other. With the policy analysis, the term intermodalism and its lack of a specific definition are relevant to the research. Intermodalism is defined as the ability to connect, and the connections between, modes of transportation between any place in the United States and any place in a foreign country; between places in the United States through a foreign country; or between place in one or more foreign countries through the United States (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2009) Beginning to redefine the broad term of intermodal transportation to include all modes of transportation is relevant. The scale of the pedestrian and how that scale begins to intertwine into

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43 the term allows for an accurate evaluation of the built environment and the movement of pedestrians seamlessly. Secondary data was collected from the Broward County SunPort Intermoda l Center and People Mover Study that included reports from two separate public workshops, a corridor report and additional background information. Port Everglades Master Plan also provided secondary information to the research. Aerial photographs were obta ined through Google Earth to demonstrate the relationship between the two large activity centers, Port Everglades and Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport, and the close proximity and street connectivity between them. Observations /Analysis of S pace The data collection entailed observations as well as an analysis of the use of space from Hilliers framework from his book, The Social Logic of Space. Observation provides the opportunity to document activities, behavior and physical aspects without having to depend on peoples willingness and ability to respond to questions (Steele, 1996) In the realm of space are the two overall themes, community space and the organization of large -scale activity center s Space in this research was determined by an overview of space and how humans interact with space, the pedestrian, the street grid and congestion. The transportation modes, intermodal center as well has congestion incorporates a wide range of scales and definitions. Neighborhoods are composed by a mosaic of buildings and open spaces, creating public and private realms. Streets give neighborhoods shape, buildings provide tridimensional quality, and outdoor rooms create spaces that will enrich the neighborhood with human interaction (Alexander, 1977) Summary The methodology in this research was a case study methodology that focu sed on a theoretical argument on the organization of space. This chapter laid out the organization and

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44 procedures used to determine the various scales of intermodalism and connectivity of two large scale activity centers through the use of transit modes. Miami International Airport in Florida and the Heathrow Airport in London were two site selections used for the research. The case study of Port Everglades and Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport was used after evaluating two separate site selections that were similar but different in that they are large scale activity centers which contain an internal transportation network and not connecting to other larger fac ilities. The secondary data, book and journal resources were used to understand space and various scales of the regional facilities and how pedestrians move through the space. The aerial photographs, charts, comparisons and use of reports from the case st udy were obtained for research materials for the study.

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45 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS Introduction The goal is to use Hilliers theory of space as a framework for the scale of the pedestrian, the street grid and redefinition of intermodalism for other economic/regio nal facilities in the state of Florida to promote connectability and relieve traffic congestion U ltimately these results could be used in future locations such as the Orlando International Airport and Port Canaveral or Tampa International Airport and the Tampa Port. Each of these regions is unique and sensitive to environmental impacts, types of international trade, variety of touri sm options as well as the proximity between the two facilities. Study Areas Applied Use of People Movers The worlds first a irport people mover is dated back to 1971 at Tampa International Airport. However, there arent any documented cases of connecting economic drivers such as the airport and seaport; there are airport people movers that are common in the United S tates as wel l as at hospitals and within downtown districts. Other examples are Lake Buena Vista, Florid a: Disney Monorail, Disneyworld; Detroit, Michigan: Detroit Peo ple Mover elevated loop system; Jacksonville, Florida in the form of a monorail (the Jacksonville S kyway and Downtown People Mover); Miami, Florida: Metromover ; and Las Colinas, Dallas, Texas Las Colinas APT System. These examples are only a few of many other people mover systems in the U.S. and Europe. Miami International Airport in Florida was select ed be cause of the land -locked nature of the site and the location for international trade and flights to Latin America, the Caribbean and Canada. This site is relatively in close proximity, 26 miles -to the main case study of Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood Inter national Airport (FLL) and Port Everglades (PEV). The MIC is also

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46 using an APM system that is similar to the people mover system that Port Everglades and Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport is using in the case study discussed toward the end of this chapter. The MIA Mover will connect the airport other ground transportation modes, such as rail, pedestrian and bicycle movements, and the terminals of the intermodal center in a 1.25 mile system Miami International Airport, FL Background and Overv iew The location of Miami International Airport (MIA) is influential due to the proximity to tourist attractions, local economic growth and a large population base of Latin Americans and Europeans. MIA has flights to airports throughout the United States, Latin America, the Caribbean as well as Canada. The Miami Intermodal Center (IMC) at the Miami International Airport is planned to ultimately serve as the transportation hub for the airport, connecting air, rail and ground transportation systems. Additionally, retail and passenger services will be included within the facility, and provisions have been included for potential future developments. The project includes future plans for the construction of an APM to transport passengers between the terminals o f the MIA and the MIC facilities (Valente, 2008) The origin of the MIC was found in reports dated in the early 1980s when the city anticipated a need to create connectivity of transportation options to the region due to growth and economic development in the southeast. Model The MIA Mover, is a 1.25 mile system that will connect the Miami International Airport terminals with the MIC. The MIC is an off airport multi-modal transportation center that connects regional rail, bus and rental car facilities With the center, transfer to and between modes of transportation will be smooth and efficient

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47 To cope with the increasing numbers of users of the airport and nearby facilities, the APM system a driverless, automated passenger transport system was se lected to replace the bus system currently used for transportation between the airport terminals and various facilities located in the immediate vicinity, including car rental offices and rail stations used for commuting. The APM features rubber tired vehi cles providing for low noise, safe operation and a smooth and comfortable ride (JCN Network, 2008) The deployment of APM and PRT is beginning to be deployed at other airports. However, it is not a new concept. In the 1970s Morgantown, VA implemented one of the first PRT systems that started off being a new transportation method at the time. The system connects three Morgantown campuses of West Virginia University and downtown Morgantown. The single line is 3.6 miles long and contains five stations (Presby terian College, 2007) The uniqueness of this PRT system in particular is that it can operate on an on-demand needed basis. The PRT vehicle can bypass stations so that any station can be reached non-stop from another location. Ondemand service means that there are relatively little to no waiting time due to the direct capabilities of moving people straight to their destinations. During the low -traffic times, the PRT car will stop at all stations. However, the Morgantown system suffered teething problems resulting in other proposed PRT systems being cancelled and further PRT development languishing for about three decades (Muller, 2007) Now, modern PRT systems are being developed and have much smaller vehicles than the Morgantown PRT and other airport A PMs. The vehicles at Heathrow Airport in London will seat 4 passengers and are small and efficient for a safe and secure travel experience. Heathrow Airport, London Background and Overview Heathrow Airport in London currently has a PRT system under construction. Once completed, it will be the worlds first true c ommercial PRT system The PRT system will begin by connecting Terminal 5 with the longterm parking facility and if successful, the system will

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48 extend throughout the airport. The airport application will link the businesses and staff car parks through the access tunnel into a rede veloped Central Terminal Area. ULTra, the new PRT system will replace the existing shuttle buses. With an average of 8,000 passengers per day, the PRT system will save 8.4 m inutes per trip. Model The PRT system at Heathrow will consist of 18 vehicles. The PRT vehicles are low energy, batteries powered and are driverless. Generating zero local emissions the PRT vehicles will be more energy efficient than their shuttle buses. Additionally, ULTra will help the airport to not only contribute to improvements in the environment but to reduce the congestion on the airport roads (Heathrow Airport London, 2008) The vehicles travel at 25 mph and are on a dedicated guide -way network t hat spans 1.5 miles. The wait time for passengers is roughly around 12 seconds, which enables 95% of the passengers access within a minute or less. The capacity of the vehicle is 4 passengers which enables the travel to be safe and secure as well as light small and efficient (Heathrow Airport London, 2008) In the State of Florida, each airport and seaport in a regional area has a specific specialization, which does not allow for the same interconnected grid of transportation networks such as Port Evergl ades and Fort LauderdaleHollywood International Airport and Miami Port and Miami International Airport and their connectability to rail, central business districts and other modes of transportation alternatives. Typically, in Florida, each port facilities are a single site with an internal diversity of resources. The state of Florida is experiencing many growth related issues Issues such as rapid growth population in the past, this year the state is expecting no growth. G rowth patterns between the regions are beginning to reach capacity limits the ecosystems are becoming stressed

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49 and infrastructure facilities are aging Large scale developments such as shopping centers, large residential communities, such as mixed use developments and sports complexes wil l often affect a number of adjacent communities such as cities and surrounding counties. Floridas transportation system traditionally has been planned by mode, facility, or ownership. The weakest links are often the connections between modes, such as acces from seaports, airports, and other passenger and freight terminals to highways, rail corridors, waterways, and other transportation hubs (Florida, 2009). The State of Florida (2009) estimates that there will be 24.4 million residents in the State of Flor ida by 2025 and that there will be an estimated 92 million visitors by this point as well. This is an increase of t wenty -three precent compared to 2003 levels. Many challenges are at stake for the State, such as capacity constraints. Most urban and inter regional highway corridors are expected to be heavily congested during peak periods, even after planned transportation improvements are made. More than thrity of the states airports are projected to be operating at more than eighty percent capacity, the p oint at which expanded capacity should be under constuction. Floridas seaports must impove waterside, terminal and landside infrastructure to handle rapid growth in frieght and cruise passenger activity. Significant additional capacity is needed in rail a nd urban transit systems to provide variable options for moving people and freight within and between urban areas (Florida, 2009). The airports and seaports are regulated by a set of local, regional, state and federal regluations that influence their depo loyment of intermodal transportaion in specific contexts. These policies standardize the movement of pedestrians among various scales of transportation modes from air to rail, sea and the roadways, integrating into downtown urban areas. The state policies are the 2025 Florida Transportation Plan, Florida Strategic Intermodal System (SIS) and Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act (SAFETEA -LU), Regional Transportation Plan and ISTEA.

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50 State Policy 2025 Florida Transportation Plan T he Florida Transportation Plan is oriented towards land development and transportation relationships and the coordination of these modes of transportation. The policies are to meet the transportaion needs of residents, tourists and business people now unti l 2025 as well as link modal facilities and create a balanced transportation system. The five goals of this plan are (Florida, 2009) : A safer and more secure transportation system for residents, businessses, and visitors; Enriched quality of life and responsible environmental stewardship; Adequate and cost -efficient maintenance and preservation of Floridas transportation assests; Stronger economy through enhanced mobility for people and freight; and Sustainable transportation investments for Floridas future. Florida Strategic Intermodal System Another policy is t he Florida Strategic Intermodal System (SIS) that is developed by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) and represents a shift in the way the state views the development of an investment in Floridas transportation system. Once established, the system will be used to target expenditures aimed at enhancing Floridas economic competitiveness and will include an increased corridor emphasis in planning and funding projects. The system will b e composed of facilities and services of statewide and regional significance for aviation, highway, intermodal rail, seaport, space and transit systems, and accommodations for bicycles and pedestrians (National Policy Consensus Center, 2003) The SIS is a transportation system that: is made up of statewide and regionally significant facilities and services, which makes it strategic, contains all forms of transportation for moving

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51 both people and goods, as well as linkages that provide for a smooth and effi cient transfer between modes and major facilities (intermodal), and it integrates individual facilities, services, forms of transportation (modes) and linkages into a single, integrated transportation network (system). The benefits of having a facility th at is selected as an existing or emerging project for the SIS in a community includes 1) augmented funding which translates into improved development, operation and maintenance of the facility, 2) a larger amount of jobs related to the construction and operation of the facilities, and 3) increased capacity and access to residential and commercial districts that may be greater than accounted for in the land use plan (State of Florida, 2007) Creating a transportation network that provides for the various s cales of transit and pedestrian activity while integrating a seamless movement from one vital economic facility to another is important. There are many new transportation technologies available that need to be understood by identifying the type of users or economic systems, the inter -framework of the regional facility, and the connectivity and accessibility of transportation technologies between the two and quite possibly circulation into business and retail centers of a downtown. Identifying the patterns o f transportation to each destination as well as the interaction on the site and an analysis of the pedestrian scale will be the basis to provide additional access and continued economic viability to those port regions. Additionally, the F ederal Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), calls for a national transportation system that links all forms of transportation, improves public transportation systems and services, provides better access to seaports and airports and enhances effi cient operation of transportation facilities and services (Together,

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52 1995) The 2020 Florida Transportation Plan supports connectivity of facilities through transportation networks though their mission and three underlying goals. Goal 1: Safe transportation for residents, visitors and commerce; Goal 2: Protection of the publics investment in transportation; Goal 3: A statewide interconnected transportation system that enhances Floridas economic competitiveness; and Goal 4: Travel choices to ensure mobili ty, sustain the quality of the environment, preserve community values and reduce energy consumption. Goal 3s objective related closely to the overall purpose of providing alternative transportation between the seaport and airport to move people as well as goods more effectively and efficiently. The objectives for this goal is to place priority on completing the Florida Interstate Highway System, complete a statewide high speed rail system, to improve major airports, seaports, railroads and truck facilitie s to strengthen Floridas position in the global economy, to improve connections between seaports, airports, railroads and the highway system for efficient interregional movement of people and goods and to manage and preserve designated transportation corr idors in cooperation with local governments and through advance acquisition of right -of -way (Together, 1995) Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act (SAFETEA -LU): In addition to SIS, SAFETEA LUs federal guidelines for statewide regional planning support the transportation plan of intermodal network with feasible goals. Following the transportation plan the federal requirements at a minimum, include: The projected transportation demand of person and goods in the metropolitan planning area over the period of the transportation plan; Existing and proposed transportation facilities (including major roadways, transit, multimodal and intermodal facilities, pedestrian walkways and bicycle facilities, and intermodal connectors) that shoul d function as an integrated metropolitan transportation system, giving

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53 emphasis to those facilities that serve important national and regional transportation functions over the period of the transportation plan. In addition, the locally preferred alternati ve selected from the Alternatives Analysis under the FTAs Capital Investment Grant program (49 U.S.C. 5309 and 49 CFR part 611) needs to be adopted as part of the metropolitan transportation plan as a condition for funding under 49 U.S.C. 5309; Operationa l and management strategies to improve the performance of existing transportation facilities to relieve vehicular congestion and maximize the safety and mobility of people and goods; Assessment of capital investment and other strategies to preserve the exi sting and projected future metropolitan transportation infrastructure and provide for multimodal capacity increases based on regional priorities and needs. The metropolitan transportation plan may consider projects and strategies that address areas or corr idors where current or projected congestion threatens the efficient functioning of key elements of the metropolitan areas transportation system; Design concept and design scope descriptions of all existing and proposed transportation facilities in sufficient detail, regardless of funding source, in nonattainment and maintenance areas for conformity determinations under the EPAs transportation conformity rule (40 CFR part 93). In all areas (regardless of air quality designation), all proposed improvements shall be described in sufficient detail to develop cost estimates; Transportation and transit enhancement activities, as appropriate; and A financial plan that demonstrates how the adopted transportation plan can be implemented.

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54 Case Study Fort Lauderda le -Hollywood International and Port Everglades Introduction Improvements to transportation facilities, such as airports, seaports and railways in the State of Florida are crucial in strengthening the states economic position. Florida has roughly six hundr ed and fifty-seven private airports and one hundred and three public airports. With these airports there is sixty percent of the commercial airports that are beginning to reach traffic capacity. Additionally, ninety -four million passengers in 1994 passed t hrough these airports to begin to play an essential role in the leading markets of tourism within our states economy (Transportation F. D., 1996) Floridas seaports, like others on the East and Gulf Coasts including New York/New Jersey, the Port of Virgi nia, the Port of Charleston, and the Port of Savannah, are seeing a diversion of trade from congested West Coast ports. Floridas capture of this booming Asian trade means that the states roads will not have to experience an influx of trucks carrying goods to Florida markets from other out -of -state ports. Conversely, to capture this trade, the states transportation system must be able to move goods and people more efficiently and more cost effectively than elsewhere (Council, 2007) Port Everglades (PEV) and Fort Lauderdale Hollywood International Airport (FLL) are unique economic facilities due to the relative location to one another (See Figure 4 4 ). There is roughly two miles between these two facilities. The connectability of the locations has become a n issue of access congestion of people and freight driven by the demand of the airport and seaport as well as being a major economic engine in the county. With efforts on synergy between the facilities, the countys goal is to support transit and economic development for the county as well as the region through an Intermodal Center and People Mover. The People Mover is a

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55 proposed as a system to ease travel for visitors flying into Fort Lauderdale -Hollywood International Airport to their cruise ships at th e port. The project would cost as much as $1.4 billion, but designed to boost tourism and would take off congested thoroughfares like U.S. 1 and 17th Street (Wright, 2008) Study Project Port Everglades is the economic powerhouse in South Florida. A gatew ay for international trade and cruise ship tourism, it is one of the three busiest cruise ports worldwide (Broward County, 2003). Tourism has always been one of the Countys core industries. During 2003, more than 8.5 million visitors contributed $7.0 bil lion into the local economy according to the Greater Fort Lauderdale Convention and Visitors Bureau. In 2004, the number exceeds 9 million visitors. As a result of the population growth and increase in tourism experienced by Broward County, the air passeng er traffic at the Fort Lauderdale Hollywood International Airport (Airport) and the cruise passenger traffic at Port Everglades (Seaport) have increased substantially (State of Florida Department of Transportation, 2004) Both the Airport and Seaport play a major role in the economic welfare of the region. The Airport contributes more than $2.3 billion to the local economy and employs 31, 500 people either directly or indirectly. The Seaport infuses more than $2.4 billion into Broward Countys economy and provides more than 19,000 jobs through its cruise and international trade activitydue to the land locked nature of each economic facility, the Broward County Intermodal Center and People Mover project (Project) is likely to be the only feasible means to provide additional access and ensure continued economic viability for the Airport and Seaport access/egress points (State of Florida Department of Transportation, 2004) The airpo rt to seaport interaction show that 32.8% (See Table 4 2 ) of the current c ruise bound passengers transfer directly from the airport to the seaport. Additionally, there are 34.9%

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56 (See Table 4 2 ) of the cruise -bound passengers that arrive at the airport a day before they leave on a cruise and stay in hotels overnight. With another 32.3% (See Table 4 2 ) of regional users such as local residents and employees, there is a n anticipated 67.7% (See Table 4 2 ) ridership of the people mover system (County, 2008) Description of Project The Broward County Intermodal Center and People Move r System Corridor Report that is in the Vision 2020 Plan has a framework for future development at each port and the elements that would promote regional transportation and transit improvements. The key elements are listed as the Intermodal Center (IMC) an d the People Mover. Intermodal Center The Intermodal Center ( IMC) is a transportation hub that will provide end connection to the commuters who would use the other regional transit projects to access the Airport and the Seaport. Additionally, the IMC cou ld also serve the requirements of remote parking, kiss -ride and potential joint development. People Mover The People Mover will provide an effective mode of transportation between the Intermodal Center and the Airport or Seaport. This will provide convenie nt access to the employees of the Airport and the Seaport, and to local residents and visitors who utilize these facilities. Additionally, the People Mover will also enhance the capacity to transport multi -day cruise passengers, who use the Airport for the ir air travel and Seaport for their Cruise. There will be an increased level of service and convenience for multi -day cruisers utilizing the Airport to access cruises at the Seaport. The People Mover will also reduce traffic and congestion along the port a nd airport roadways.

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57 Observations Both the seaport and airport are located within two miles of one another and along a major arterial corridor, I 595. The seaport has other major feeder roads such as 17th Street Causeway, I 95, and US 1 (Federal Highway). The linearity of the seaport and airport is considered best for adaptation for transit in contrast to a circular system. The use of the existing highway and transportation framework will provide for the development of a PRT network. Human Scale Understan ding the human scale and how the pedestrian transfers from one regional facility to the next is an intrinsic part of the understanding of architecture throughout history as Hillier (1984) has demonstrated. The human scale, within space can be manipulated t o inspire awe, intimidate, elevate the spirit or reinforce feelings of sheltering and security (Kostof, 1985). Buildings, streets and open spaces are carved out of the urban fabric in order to demonstrate hierarchy and to link together by a specialized an d separate system of spaces for movement (Hillier, 1984). Upon observation at the seaport and airport the movement of people within these systems is awkward and disheveled. Theoretically, pedestrians are strangers to the facilities and therefore they are likely to be moving constantly through the spaces. Locals who are accustomed to the regional networks become static factors at the airport and seaport. They have more static relations to the various parts of the system and the communities that surround the sites. The axial extension of public spaces between the facility accesses the transient people through the use of the PRT system, while the overall organization creates static zones, which the locals have more control over their communities and the overal l congestion. The result is that the public space is the movement element of the pedestrians through the existing street grid. Hillier (1984) explains as a string and bead model. The string represents

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58 movement while each bead added to the string represent s static movement or a static node. People move to the space, the economic facility, not through it. This is when the public space becomes a static zone. In addition to the creation of spaces, these spaces are becoming unlivable. The streets are congested within the surrounding communities as well as the highway system is at capacity. There is an estimated 50,000 jobs created between both Port Everglades and Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport and with that an estimated 32.4% of the employees a re expected to ride the People Mover System. The transit facilities in the area, the tri rail, shuttle services, bus routes and taxis are already underutilized and are not interconnected into the framework of connecting the two ports or to the central busi ness districts of the area.

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59 Figure 4 1 Vicinity Map of Port Everglades and Fort Lauderdale Hollywood International Airport (2 mile distance between two facilities)

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60 Table 4 1 Cruise Passenger Ridership. Peak afternoon projections. Potential APM PM Ridership Cruise Pax Type Percent (per O D Survey) Base Medium High FLL PEV Direct 32.8% 32.8% 32.8% 32.8% From Hotels (FLL users) 34.9% 0% 17.45% 34.9% Other Regional Users 32.3% 0% 0% 0% Total Anticipated Riders 32.8% 50.25% 67.7% Source: (Broward County, 2008)

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61 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION No matter how functional the individual parts of the system may be, the effectiveness of the overall system depends on the interconnectivity of the different parts and modesConnections now much reach beyond a single m ode, to foster an integrated and effici ent transportation system. U.S. House of Representatives, Subcommittee on Highways and Transit, June 18, 2002. Choosing when and how to deploy new technologies; and connect regions and communities to all of the arteri es of commerce such as the roads, railroads, airports, and seaports in order to provide a citizen with greater choices and mobility is the overall objective. Florida has a strategic advantage, its geographic location. The state provides a land bridge betw een world markets and the nation. But this advantageous geographic location can also be an obstacle to successful trade relationships if the length of the Florida peninsula creates service inefficiencies and higher transportation costs that prevent the sta te from outperforming its competitors in these two critical areas. In 2005 and 2006, through the funding provided under the states SIS and SIS Growth Management programs, Floridas seaports made significant headway in connecting their facilities to the ma jor trade corridors that carry goods the length and breadth of Floridas peninsula. It is hoped that the state will be able not only to fund additional road and rail links, but also to accelerate construction. To make an even greater difference in today's competitive environment, however, Florida needs to promote its strategic statewide significant trade corridors for both federal and state funding (Florida Department of Community Affairs, 2007). Rede fining Intermodal a nd Multimodal Transportation The diffe rence in promoting statewide trade corridors, efficient movement of people, advances in transportation all lies in the interpretation and definitions of state policies. In order to link regional transportation through the air and seaport as well as all modes of transportation

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62 seamlessly on an economic scale, using specific transportation technologies to create growth and alleviate conflicts of pedestrian and cargo movement needs to be addressed. One of the most venerated of planning concepts has been the s eparation of vehicular from pedestrian traffic. And for whose benefit has this be en Vehicles (Whyte, 1988)? Given, vehicles hinder pedestri an access that encompasses a regional network, trying to combine alternative t ransportation benefits such as automat ed people movers, pe rsonal rapid transit and bus rapid t ransit allows for the pedestrian to become, literally, a n additional transportation unit. However, the emphasis on intermodal, multimodal transportation and economic development has been used too broadly and delineates conflicting scales. The term intermodalism has been used in various applications and typically includes both passenger transportation and the containerization of freight. The inconsistency of the definition fails to address the variou s scales of transportation in order for there to be an efficie nt and effective movement among modes. An overall definition of intermodal transportation does not exist. The emphasis of intermodalism is captured in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Effic iency Act (ISTEA) of 1991. Section 2 of ISTEA states: to develop a National Intermodal Transportation System that is economically efficient, environmentally sound, provides the foundation for the nation to compete in the global economy and will move people and goods in an energy efficient manner. A National Highway System (NHS), consisting primarily of existing Interstate routes and a portion of the Primary System, is established to focus Federal resources on roads that are the most important to interstat e travel and national defense, roads that connect with other modes of transportation, and are essential for international commerce (United States of America, 1991) Competition between vari ous modes of transportation has begun to produce a transport system that is fragmented and not integrated into the framework of cities and their infrastructure. In addition to this, research literature has acquire d a large number of definitions that merely suggest that there is not a fundamental interpr etation of this ter m. Merriam Webster Dictionary

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63 begins to define intermodal as involving the use of more than one mode of transport for a journey ; used for intermodal transport (Merriam -Webster Dictionary, 1963) This definition contains a fundamental characteristic of i ntermodalism, the use of multiple carriers and the trip of one journey. However, the definition lacks detail as well as the variety of scales. Containerization is not mentioned, which most definitions reference neither is the use of freight or passenger mo vement as the basis of the definition. The Organization for Economic Co Operation and Development (OECD), which brings together other countries with the same mission on committing to democracy and a market economy, defines intermodal transportation on its website as: Movement of goods (in one and the same loading unit or a vehicle) by successive modes of transport without handling of the goods themselves when changing modes (OECD, 2003) In addition to the vehicle bias, the definition has another serious flaw. Only one mode and two types of routes of transportation are mentioned in this definition. The vehicle can be a road or rail vehicle or vessel which is a fundamental untruth and suggests that the transportation involved is in the form of container or trailer movement. There is no mention of other movement of scales except for freight which is large and heavy. Freight transport is higher volume; long distance shipping that requires larger staging areas to assemble cargo containers and flatbeds. This de finition should be considered inappropriate. The United States Department of Transportations Federal Highway Administration defines intermodal transportation as: the ability to connect, and the connections between, modes of transportation; the transport ation between any place in the United States and any place in a foreign country; between places in the United States through a foreign country; or between places in one or more foreign countries through the United States (Transportation U. D., 2009)

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64 Th is definition is too broad in that it includes everything and there is a constraint for potential research in this area. The types of modes are not defined, neither is scale mentioned. There is a broad range from national to international clauses and doesnt clearly define whether there is container or non -container moments or movement through air or by sea, rather just the broad sense of the term connections, modes and transportation movements internally in the United States and between foreign countries. Intermodal is also referenced to include multimodal which doesnt clear up the broad spectrum of the term either. Multimodal in this sense only adds more confusion by definition: the availability of transportation options using different modes within a sys tem or corridor (Transportation U. D., 2009) This term is often confused with intermodalism. Intermodal is multiple modes of connections that are access and destination oriented. Connectivity is required within each category but it doesnt necessary need to connect the categories. Multimodal on the other hand is similar in that it is multiple modes of transportation; however, a multimodal system enhances the capacity across modes. Multimodalism is both capacity and access/location driven (Oberstar, 2003) Containerization seems as though it is the common theme in all the definitions presented. Intermodal transportation in all instances was connected with the aiding definition or correction of intermodal freight transportation. The definitions were typical ly restricted to freight and not the movement of people or pedestrians. The terms were relatively broad but in some instances there were specific modes that were mentioned within the definition as well as specific corridors or routes. Ultimately, these def initions are varied and varied in the sense of who is defining it and what their overall objective is for intermodalism. This proves that there is not a general

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65 definition of intermodal transportation and the reason why there is such a disparity among scal es and transportation systems that often more than not, fail. It seems almost typical that Congress, other officials and policy makers use the term intermodalism and multimodalism in the broadest interpretations as synonymous of one another. As part of an intermodal transportation policy, an underlying principle should be to focus on the movement of passengers and freight from one point to another, irrespective of the number of modes involved. This is challenging since transportation policy and funding dec isions whether surface, aviation, maritime, passenger rail, or pipeline and hazardous materials tend to be made modally and often in a disjointed fashion (Beek, 2008) What is puzzling about the situation today is why we should have undertaken such extens ive revisions to urban and locality structures, when the effects of the new forms of spatial arrangement appear, at best, as no improvement and, at worst, as socially damaging. It is often said that changes in the urban surface were the result of the inven tion and spread of the motor car. This is untenable for one very simple reason: the morphological prototypes of the new urban surface were developed fifty years before the invention of the motor car, and by the time when the motor car was only beginning to penetrate the more affluent regions of society, the diffusion of the new prototypes was under way (Hillier, 1984) Floridas urban surface, with the principles of syntactic analysis in mind shows a fundamental shift from a system that is continuous, open and distributed street system, to one that is discontinuous, that is, divided into a number of relatively closed local domains as Hillier suggests The essence of this change is encapsulated in a change in habitual terminology: a street is an open and distributed local event in a larger open and distributed system, whereas the generic term that has replaced it, the estate, refers to a discrete, probably closed local domain with some degree of segregation from surrounding estates (Hillier, 1984) In ter ms of spatiality and interconnection, we have begun to think of systems and facilities as closed and nondistributed. There is a strong tendency to use physical boundaries when planning for transportation systems between economic facilities as well as lacki ng in internal

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66 hierarchy of the systems from the most important, the pedestrian to the most familiar, the destination (facility) which is connected by the street grid. Ports have generally oriented themselves to increasing industrial production and have fa iled to support the non-productive workers whose responsibilities include both the organization of production and the organization of social reproduction (Hillier, 1984) Therefore, it is the relationship to each of the systems that make the space and th e ability to eliminate the concept of non interchangeable zones or corridors. Beginning to adopt a more unified and long range approach to planning policy that addresses causes as well as symptoms; we must get beyond treating such issues as open space pre servation, affordable housing, highway congestion, transportation, air quality, and infrastructure costs independently, as if there are no linkages between them. For those interested in an integrated federal transportation policy, this creates little conf idence that the sum of the modal parts will result in a national transportation policy. We have previously addressed this challenge in the context of freight policy and recommended four actions that would help orient policy toward the promises of the Inter modal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). As policymakers again direct attention to intermodal transportation solutions incorporating concerns about the national economy, energy and the environment, incorporating intermodal thinking is v ital. While such thinking in passenger transportation has arguably advanced to a greater degree than it has with freight -in part because of increased flexibility and advances in statewide and local planning -decision -making is still too circumscribed within modal silos resulting in suboptimal solutions (Beek, 2008)

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67 Applicability In order to have an effective inter -modal transportation system, all modes must be utilized to their full potential and int egrated into a seamless system. Honorable Emil H. Franke l, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S. DOT, June 18, 2002 The case study of the Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport and Port Everglades connectability effort is distinctive due to the proximity between the two facilities (roughl y 2 miles). Even though there is such a close proximity to each economic engine, a closer look at Port Eve rglades and the number of people dispersing through the facility, there is a noticeable spillover effect of the traffic congestion from the port into the existing neighborhoods. In the Broward County Corridor Report, the project was divided into three segments. Those segments include the Airport, the Port and the area that is located between the Port and Airport. The following criteria were established to meet the needs of the corridor level analysis (County, 2008) : System functionality with People Mover corridor option alternatives: Options with higher ratings were options that were compatible with the greatest number of options from the People Mover c omponent of the project Property Impacts: The right -of -way acquisition necessary for the proposed location was factored in, with location entirely on public lands lending to a high rating, and location requiring property acquisition scoring lower. Inter -mo dality: The ability of the option to connect to other elements of the regional transportation system was evaluated Environmental Impacts: The degree to which the proposed location impacted wetlands or undeveloped areas or posed impacts to T&E species was e valuated Security Issues: The ability of the location to function within the increased restrictions of port access were considered, as were the amount additional infrastructure necessary to make any given option comply with the increased restrictions. The applicability of Transit Oriented Development in this case would not be efficient. There is a disparity of scales from looking at Calthorpes (1993) basic TOD layout.

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68 TOD suggests that it will increase pedestrian and transit trips while also reducing the number and length of the automobile trips. The scale of Calthorpes model that includes a central business district that is designed to link the central city cores, suburban downtown, and other major activity centers doesnt relate to Airports and Seaports even though they are activity centers in their own sense, through scale. However, the TOD is made up of a commercial area, with civic and transit uses that are integrated into the framework. There are housing opportunities and public space surrounding it which is similar to the Port Everglades and Fort Lauderdale Hollywood International Airport case study. The densities at that activity center however are much larger and cannot take into consideration the concept of TOD. In summary, the design principles of transit oriented developments are to: Organize growth on a regional level to be compact and transit supportive; Place commercial, housing, jobs, park, and civic uses within walking distance of transit stops; Create pedestrian friendly street networks wh ich directly connect local destinations; Provide a mix of housing types, densities, and costs; Preserve a mix of housing types, densities, and costs; Preserve sensitive habitat, riparian zones, and high quality open space; Make public spaces the focus of b uilding orientation and neighborhood activity; and Encourage infill and redevelopment along transit corridors within existing neighborhoods. The ports do not work in the framework of a TOD because they would need to be more transparent and have an integrat ed network within the facilities. Ports have the capacity or availability to be transit oriented but without the development part of TOD and integration of residential housing units.

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69 PRT works exceptionally well in the case study due to the organization a round short trip distances from one point to the other. Table 5 1 shows the distance traveled with each PRT system in the study area and within the case study. Each application, the distances are effective primarily because of the short distance, under 5 mile track that they travel between stations. The development of the activity center is distributed according to how much market capture any given center could support based on limited regional connectivity. In the Miami International Airport as well as the London Heathrow Airport, the use of PRT or APM is limited to under a five mile radius from the airport to the intermodal centers. The People Mover project and the Broward County Intermodal Center is likely to be the only feasible means by which the county is going to be able to provide additional access and ensure that the Airport and Seaport have continued economic viability. Both the Airport and Seaport are located at the east end of the county near the coastline. The landlocked nature of each economi c engine as well as the access corridors of I 595, US 1 and surface streets, it is very unlikely that the traditional roadway improvements will suffice in providing the access that is necessary to meet the demands of passengers, employees and freight. Addi tionally, the policies that regulate seaports and airports focus mainly on cargo and not on pedestrian movement. Agencies, whether economic development or department of transportation fail to place an emphasis on moving passengers from one activity center to another and the various modes that need to be used. Global connectivity is unsuccessful at the state, regional, and local scales and needs to be addressed more closely through the breakdown of the scales that pedestrian movement is coordinated.

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70 Table 5 1 Comparison of Distance Traveled with PRT Systems Site System Used Distance of Network Miami International Airport APM: Miami Mover 1.25 miles London Heathrow Airport PRT: Ultra 1.5 miles Morgantown, VA PRT 3.6 miles Port Everglades/Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood Intern. PRT 2 miles

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71 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS The seaport and airport facilities are regulated by a set of local, regional, state and federal regulations that in fluence their deployment in specific contexts and further they are regulated by a set of professional practices as well. Seaports and airports play a major role in the global economy. The regional scale access to those global facilities is important. In o rder for the global facilities to operate efficiently, we need to address movement at multiple scales within and throughout these facilities and speeds for a variety of users using new transportation technology. Demand on the airports and seaports are begi nning to affect access, shipment reliability as well as highway congestion in urban areas. The ability to reach the airport or even seaport via mass public transportation and not other factors like on time departures, lost luggage incidents, or the time it takes to clear security in these facilities in crucial in creating a comprehensive framework for the State of Florida and the movement of people efficiently. Looking Ahead Looking ahead for the next fifty years, it is critical for the development reasons that we expand the range of options for international airports, seaports and the road and rail corridors that are servicing them. The policies that frame intermodal transportation is used too broadly and with that there is a discrepancy amongst agencies a nd how they deploy the terminology. The scale from pedestrian to containerized cargo is vast and needs to be broken down into smaller pieces. Beginning to adopt a more unified and long range approach to planning policy that addresses causes as well as symp toms; we must get beyond treating such issues as open space preservation, affordable housing, highway congestion, transportation, air quality, and

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72 infrastructure costs independently, as if there are no linkages between them. The movement and scale of pedes trians in relation to the street grid, the economic facility and the transportation network is imperative for intermodalism. Coordinating the four traditional methods of transportation road, rail, water, and air -into a system that promotes the seamless tr ansition of people between modes are enormous. Incorporating the human element into a meaning for intermodal transportation may provide the impetus toward the realization of such a transportation network (Jones, 2003) Transit -oriented development can be simply defined as a mix of uses, at various densities, within walkable radius of a transit stop. A more meaningful definition incorporates the goal of creating a functional integration of transit and surrounding development which each supports and streng thens each other. In the case of activity centers such as ports and airports, TOD doesnt work well with the scale of the community. Although there are similarities in the context of the surrounding region to support TOD, the context of a port is in sense a large city within itself. TOD are typically located within walking distance of a transit stop or station and are served with light rail, commuter rail, streetcar, bus rapid transit or local bus system. In the case of the Port Everglades/Fort Lauderdale I nternational Airport case study, incorporating the TOD principles and characteristic wouldnt work due to the magnitude of scale and the unintended consequences of such a large facility. A transportation network design that encompasses the overall networ k geometry determines the probably points of density increase. When looking at the transportation network in Boston, Washington D.C. or Paris, it is a radial system that has inherent business centers through which traffic must pass between points. This is in reference to Hilliers (1986) hub and spoke concept. New Yorks transportation network on the other hand is less centralized and is a

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73 rectangular grid. The shifts and amplifications of the local development occur through association with other economic systems, such as the ports, rivers, and bridges. The linear grid is best suited for the adoption of transit in contrast to the circular system. Highways and railroads have already provided the framework for not only development to occur but for the existi ng land use as well to implement more efficient transportation alternatives. Recommendations Further research recommendations would begin to seek out other states and what policies and procedures are being implemented for the movement of people within reg ional facilities Identifying other seaport and airport locations to see what obstacles they face with pedestrian movement and what has proven to be effective or ineffective. Further research in security of bringing pedestrians into the airport to the inte rmodal center and the intermodal center to the seaport or within any combination of travel would be inte resting to understand when using a transportation mode such as PRT or APMs. Research in how PRT and APM systems began, where they are currently being d eployed and the effectiveness or lessons learned from implementation would be advised for further research. Exploring international transportation initiatives to understand how relationships between object and space and human interaction and pedestrian movement are being addressed would be useful in aiding more information to the research. Ultimately knowing the zoning and land use is important for integration of a new transportation network and creating transparency between how pedestrians use the PRT or A PMs and connecting to existing regional transportation networks.

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74 APPENDIX GLOSSARY AGT Automated Guideway Transit -A generic term that includes all advanced systems with automated, driverless vehicles traveling on exclusive guideways or roadways. CBD Cent ral Business District The single business and commercial region, which dominates the financial life of an urban region and may also contain a very substantial portion of the specialty commercial activity. (Traditional area of this type of activity, which m ay have been supplanted by other outlying areas in recent years). Congestion/Congested The level at which transportation system performance is no longer acceptable due to traffic interference. The level of acceptable system performance may vary by type or transportation facility, state or local government policy, geographic location (metropolitan area or subarea, rural area, etc.) and time of day. Controlled Access (Facility) A street or highway to which the right of way access is highly regulated to maximize operational efficiency and safety of the through traffic using the facility. All persons have a right of access to or from such facilities at the locations and in the manner determined by the Florida Department of Transportation. Customers Residents visitors and businesses that have the need or desire to travel and/or ship goods from place to place. Density The number of people per square mile in an urban area. DOT Department of Transportation

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75 Factors/ISTEA Sets of factors and criteria in state and federal laws to be considered in the development of long range statewide and metropolitan transportation plans. Fixed Route -An invariant path over which a transit vehicle is assigned and operated. FIHS Floridas Intrastate Highway System A system of existing and future limited access and controlled access facilities which have the capacity to provide high speed and high -volume traffic movements in an efficient and safe manner. FTP Florida Transportation Plan A statewide, comprehensive transportation plan to be annually updated, which is designed to establish long range goals to be accomplished over a 20 25 year period and to define the relationships between the long range goals and short range objectives and policies implemented through the work program. Goals -A statement of the long term end or outcome toward which programs and activities are ultimately directed. Goods Movement GRT Movement from place to place over the transportation system of all forms of raw materials, manufactured products, packages an d mail and other items involved in commerce. One or more of the following means of transportation may be used: trucks, railroads, airplanes and ships. Group Rapid Transit A GRT System that serves groups of people with similar origins and destination. Stations are on sidings off of the main guideway, permitting through traffic to bypass. There is extensive use of switching, and guideways may merge or divide into branch lines to provide service on a variety

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76 of routes. Vehicles have a capacity of ten to sixty passengers. Headways range from 60 seconds down to 3 seconds. Guideway Specifically designed way traversed by transit vehicles constrained to the way. Headway The time interval between identical points on successive vehicles passing the same poin t along the way. HSR High Speed Rail -A fixed guideway transportation system for transporting people or goods, capable of operating speeds in excess of 125 miles per hour. ITS Intelligent Transportation System A wide range of advanced technologies and ide as, which, in combination, can improve mobility and transportation productivity, enhance safety, maximize the use of existing transportation facilities, conserve energy resources and reduce adverse environmental effects. Intermodal A transportation eleme nt that accommodates and interconnects different modes of transportation and serves the movement of people and goods. Intermodal facilities include highway elements providing terminal access, ports, pipeline farms, airports, marine and/or rail terminals, m ajor truck terminals, and transit terminals including park and ride facilities and intercity bus terminals. ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 The most recent federal law establishing planning and programming requirements for surface (highway, transit, bicycle and pedestrian) transportation facilities and services.

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77 Interregional Generally, travel or trips that traverse two or more countries. This includes travel or trips between metropolitan areas, or between metropolitan an d nonmetropolitan areas. Interstate Travel or trips that traverse two or more states. Also refers to the Interstate Highway System. Light Rail Transit Generally a duo rail electric traction service which runs at street level (with or without segregati on). Passengers board from the street, there is overhead collection of power, and train operations during rush hours do not exceed three vehicles. LGCP Local Government Comprehensive Plan-An adopted plan of a municipality or county which describes its fut ure development and growth, including appropriate land development regulations. LRC Long Range Component Long range part of the FTP, updated at least every five years, or more often as needed to reflect changes in the issues, goals and long range objective s for the ensuing 20 years. Major Activity Center A defined urban area where pedestrian traffic is denseshopping area, school, industrial park, sports complex. Master Plans -A multimodal study that selects and evaluates various alternatives for provisi on of mobility within an interstate highway corridor. Master plans provide decision -makers with guidance in the selection of alternatives and meet the requirements of major investment studies. The formal Project Development and Environment (PD&E) process r efines the preferred alternative developed by

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78 the master plan and completes the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. Metropolitan Area The geographic area in which the metropolitan transportation planning process required by state and federa l law is carried out. The area covers the existing urbanized area and the area expected to become urbanized within 20 years (See also Urbanized Area.) Mobility The ability of people to complete desired trips or for goods to be moved from place to place. Modal System Plans Departmental plans which provide input to the Florida Transportation Plan (for example, needs and key modal issues). These plans also contain the details of Florida Transportation Plan implementation for development, operation and maint enance of individual methods of moving people and goods (along highways, railroads, in buses, on bicycles, etc.) Mode A method or means of travel from place to place (highways, transit, railroads, bicycle, walking, water, air, etc.) or means of transport ation. Monorail A guideway where vertical vehicle support and later guidance is provided by a single track or rail. Network A system of real or hypothetical interconnecting links form the configuration of transit routes and stops that constitute the to tal system. Objectives, Long Range One or more statements, for each goal, that are focused on achieving part of the goal. Objectives are developed considering any legal jurisdictional, or resource limitations to achieving the goal in its broadest interpr etation. Specific objectives may be associated with more than one goal.

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79 Objectives, Short Range One or more statements, for each long range objective, of the specific, measurable, intermediate end that is achievable and marks progress toward a goal. Spe cific objectives may be associated with more than one goal and/or long range objective. Paratransit Those elements of public transit which provide service between specific origins and destination selected by the individual user with such service being provided at a time that is agreed upon by the user and the provider of the service. Paratransit service is provided by taxis, limousines, dial a ride, buses and other demand responsive operations that are characterized by their nonscheduled, non-fixed route nature. People Mover Becoming a generic term for any slow moving AGT system which is placed in dense urban areas or activity centers. Also a trademark of the WEDway People Mover System at Disneyland. PRT Personal Rapid Transit -A term restricted to systems with small vehicles carrying one person or one person with related party (up to six people maximum) traveling together by choice. System requires a network with off line stations and extensive switching. Under computer control, vehicles switch at guide way intersections to follow the shortest uncongested path from origin to destination without intermediate stops. Vehicle headways are usually less than 3 seconds, approaching fractional second headways for high capacity service. Prototype A working syst em or component designed to demonstrate technical operation only.

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80 Public Transit -Service provided for the carriage of passengers and their incidental baggage within cities and metropolitan areas, usually on a fare -paying basis. The term is not applied to intercity transportation. SCP State Comprehensive PlanA plan, enacted in Florida law, that provides long range guidance for the orderly social, economic and physical growth of the state. The plan is composed of goals, objectives and policies that are st atewide in scope. It is contained in Chapter 187, Florida Statutes. SHS State Highways System A network of approximately 12,000 miles of highways owned and maintained by the state or state -created authorities. Major elements include the interstate, Flori das Turnpike and other toll facilities operated by transportation authorizes and arterial highways. STIP State Transportation Improvement Plan A program that includes all projects within a state that are funded under the Federal Transit Act and Title 23 developed in cooperation with MPOs and local governments and consistent with local and state long range plans. In Florida, project with state funding are also included. Statewide (Transportation) System -An interconnected system of statewide transportation facilities and services, the primary function of which is to serve international, interstate and interregional customers. Elements include the Florida Intrastate Highway System, air carrier airports, seaports, multicounty railroad passenger and freight services, interstate and interregional intermodal terminal and facilities, etc.

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81 Transit, Public The transporting of people by a system, operated locally or regionally, consisting of one or more types of vehicles and/or services available for public pas senger travel and mobility. TIP Transportation Improvement Program A priority list of projects developed by a metropolitan planning organization this is to be carried out within the three -year period following adoption. The TIP must include documentation of federal and state funding sources for each project and be consistent, to the maximum extent feasible, with adopted local government comprehensive plans. Travel The movement of persons or goods from one place to another by one mode or a combination of m odes. Trip The one -way movement of one person between his or her origin and destination, including the walk to and from the means of transportation. Urbanized Area A geographic region containing 50,000 or more residents as designated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, within boundaries fixed by state and local officials and approved by the U.S. Department of Transportation for transportation planning and federal funding activities.

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82 LIST OF REFERENCES Airfront.21. (2008). APMs -Automated People Movers R etrieved November 12, 2008, from Airfront.21: Serving Smart Urban Citizens: http://www.airfront.us/apms.html Alexander, C. (1977). A pattern language: towns, buildings, construction. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. American Planning Association. (2004, April 25). Policy Guide on Public Redevelopment Retrieved September 15, 2008, from Legislation & Policy/ Policy Guide: http://www.planning.org/policy/guides/adopted/redevelopment.htm Beek, S. V. (2008). Intermodal Passenger Policy and Airports Retrieved Febru ary 2009, from Eno Transportation Foundation. Broward County. (2008, January 10). Broward County Intermodal Center and People Mover: Project Briefing Retrieved November 2008, http://www.broward.org/airport/pdfs/projworkshopjan2008.pdf Calthorpe, P. (2002, Fall). The City of Tomorrow. (S. London, Interviewer) Charte r, S. (2005). Stacey Charter Quotes: Life, Time Quotes. Retrieved from Think Exist: http://thinkexist.com/quotes/stacey_charter/ City of Boca Raton. (2009). City of Boca Raton Multimodal Transportation District Retrieved November 2008, from http://www.boc amobility.com/Overview.htm City of Gainesville. (2008, April). About Gainesville, FL: General Facts Retrieved February 2009, from City of Gainesville website: http://www.cityofgainesville.org/VISITOR/AboutGainesville/GeneralFacts/tabid/341/Default.as px Ci ty of Gainesville. (2008). Bus Rapid Transit System: Transit Project. Retrieved October 15, 2008, from Regional Transportation System (RTS): http://www.gorts.com/brts/aboutbrt.html City of Gainesville. (2008). Gainesville Community Redevelopment Agency. R etrieved September 15, 2008, from http://www.gainesvillecra.com/about_redev.php City of Gainesville. (2003, February). Plan East Gainesville: Final Report. Retrieved February 2009, from http://www.planeastgainesville.org/downloads/Final/EXECUTIVE_SUMMARY.p df City of Miami. (2000). Miami Intermodal Center Retrieved November 2008, from http://www.micdot.com/index.html City of Ohio. (2006). Community Development Retrieved 9 30, 2008, from Citizen Participation in Community Developmen: http://ohioline.osu.edu/cd -fact/l700.html

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83 Connections: Bringing Florida Together. (1995). 2020 Florida Transportation Plan. Tallahassee: State of Florida. Crainic, T. (2005, December). Intermodal Transportation. Retrieved March 2009, from http://www.crt.umontreal.ca/~theo/mba8L9 1/CrainicKimIntermodal.pdf Earth Tech. (2005). Ports and Intermodals Retrieved Novemeber 12, 2008, from Earth Tech: http://www.earthtech.com/index.htm Edwards, C. P. (2001, July). A Socioeconomic, Community -Based Approach for Developing an Integrated Mass Transit System for Baltimore City Retrieved March 2009, from National Transportation Center, Morgan State University: http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.eng.morgan.edu/~ntc/Research_Projects/C ompleted_Projects/edwards_socioeconomic_files/i mage004.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.eng.mor gan.edu/~ntc/Research_Projects/Completed_Projects/edwards_socioeconomic.htm&usg Environmental Defense Fund. (2007, June 1). Traffic, Health, and Climate: Congestion Pricing. Retrieved October 5, 2008, from http://www .edf.org/page.cfm?tagID=6241 Federal Highway Administration. (2006, December). Congestion Pricing: A Primer Retrieved October 5, 2008, from http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/congestionpricing/congestionpricing.pdf Fisher, R., & Ury, W. (1991). Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. London: Penguin Books. Florida Department of Community Affairs. (2007, June). Best Management Practices: Guiding the Way to Waterfront Revitalization Retrieved January 2009, from www.dca.state.fl.us Flo rida Department of Community Affairs. (2007, June). Guiding the Way to Waterfront Revitalization Retrieved January 2009, from Best Management Practices: www.dca.state.fl.us Florida Department of Transportation. (1996). Implementing the 2020 Florida Transportation Plan: 1996-2005. Tallahassee: State of Florida. Florida League of Cities. (2006). Florida Redevelopment Association Retrieved September 16, 2008, from http://www.redevelopment.net/mainstreet.aspx Florida Ports Council. (2007, June). Mission Plan 2006-2007. Retrieved January 2009, from Florida Ports Council Web site: http://www.flaports.org/2007.asp Florida State University and FAU FIU Joint Center. (1986). State Transportation Modal Alternatives for Growth Management. South Florida: Florida State University. Forester, J. (1987). Planning In the Face of Conflict. APA Journal 303314. Foucault, M. (1967). Of Other Spaces (1967), Heterotopias. Retrieved February 2009, from http://foucault.info/documents/heteroTopia/foucault.heteroTopia.en.html

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84 Geori gia Department of Community Affairs. (n.d.). State Planning Recommendations Retrieved 9 30, 2008, from Citizen Participation Techniques. Havlick, S. (2001, February). Australia: Walking the 21st Century Retrieved January 2009, from A Pedestrian: The Forg otten Factor in Regional Transportation Planning: http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/mediaFiles/walking_21centconf01keypaper_havlick.pdf Heathrow Airport London. (2008, October 21). Heathrow's Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) system is on track as guideway construction phase is completed Retrieved March 2009, from http://www.heathrowairport.com/portal/page/Heathrow%5EGeneral%5EOur%20business%20an d%20community%5EMedia%20centre%5ENews%20releases%5EResults/e993760079e1d110V gnVCM10000036821c0a____/a22889d8759a0010VgnVCM200000357e120a____/ Hillier, B. (1984). The Social Logic of Space. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hillier, B. (1984). The Social Logic of Space. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Hillier, B., & Vaughan, L. (2007). The City as One Thing. Progress in Planning, 67 (3) pp. 205230. ITS Decision. (2007, June 12). Services and Technologies: Congestion Pricing. Retrieved October 4, 2008, from http://www.calccit.org/itsdecision/serv_and_tech/Congestion_pricing/congestion_pricing_summ ary.html JCN Netwo rk. (2008, October 2). MHI Receives 2nd Order for Automated People Mover At Miami International Airport, following Initial Order Placed in 1999. Retrieved January 2009, from JCN: Japan's Corporate News Network: http://www.japancorp.net/Article.Asp?Art_ID=2 0114 Jones, B. (2003). Developing a Standard Definition of Intermodal Transportation. Retrieved January 2009, from Mississippi State University: http://www.ie.msstate.edu/ncit/tech_trans/3.Jones%20Cassady%20BowdenDeveloping%20a%20Standard%20Definition%20ofIntermodal%20Transportation.pdf Kinetic Network Seattle. (2004). A New Option for Urban Transit Retrieved December 4, 2008, from Personal Rapid Transit: http://kinetic.seattle.wa.us/prt.html Knowles, B. H. (1998). Modern Transport Geography. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Levy, J. M. (2006). Contemporary Urban Planning. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall. McNeil, W. (2009, February 25). Plans for prison on NE 39th Ave. are put on hold. Gainesville Sun p. 1A. Merriam Webster Dictionary. ( 1963). Intermodal Retrieved November 2008, from http://www.merriam -webster.com/dictionary/intermodal

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85 Motavalli, J. (2001). Breaking Gridlock: Moving Toward Transportation That Works. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. Muller, P. (2007). A Personal Rapid Tr ansit/Airport Automated People Mover Comparison. Retrieved December 2008, from http://www.prtcons.com/docs/A%20Personal%20Rapid%20Transit%20and%20Airport%20Auto mated%20People%20Mover%20Comparison.pdf National BRT Institute. (2008). What is Bust Rapid Trans it? Retrieved November 2008, from http://www.nbrti.org/ National Policy Consensus Center. (2003). Florida Strategic Intermodal System. Retrieved Decemeber 1, 2008, from Florida Strategic Intermodal System Case Study: http://www.dot.state.fl.us/planning/sis / National Trust for Historic Preservation. (2008). Main Street: Revitalizing your Commercial District. Retrieved September 16, 2008, from http://www.mainstreet.org/content.aspx?page=2§ion=1 Oberstar. (2003). Forum: Community Design: Multimodal and Int ermodal Retrieved February 2009, from http://www.cts.umn.edu/Events/OberstarForum/2003/documents/neckarpresentation.pdf OECD. (2003, April). Glossary of Statistical Terms: Intermodal Transport Retrieved February 2009, from Organization for Economic CoOp eration and Development: http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=4303 Personal Rapid Transit. (2000). Personal Rapid Transit Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Taxi 2000 Skyweb Express: http://www.personalrapidtransit.com Presbyterian College. (2007, S eptember 18). Morgantown, West Virginia: Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) Retrieved March 2009, from Transit: http://web.presby.edu/~jtbell/transit/morgantown/ Reconnecting America. (2008, December). The Human Scale Retrieved 2009 January, from Center for Tranist Oriented Development: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N4yb9bRA5vc&eurl=http://www.reconnectingamerica.org/p ublic/stories/275&feature=player_embedded Schneider, J. (2008, January 7). Personal Rapid Transit: The Connective Tissue of Better Mobility Ret rieved January 2009, from Planetizen: http://www.planetizen.com/node/29142 Schneider, R. (2009, January 21). Classroom Lecture: Negotiation. Gainesville, FL, U.S. Smart Growth Online. (19962008). Smart Growth Retrieved September 16, 2008, from A Service of the Smart Growth Network: http://www.smartgrowth.org/about/default.asp

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86 State of Florida Department of Transportation. (2004). Advance Notification Fact Sheet. Fort Lauderdale Florida: State of Florida Department of Transportation. State of Florida. (2009). Florida Department of Transportation. Retrieved January 2009, from 2025 Florida Transportation Plan: http://www.dot.state.fl.us/planning/FTP/ State of Florida. (2007). Florida Strategic Intermodal System Committee: Managing Conflict Through Design. Ret rieved December 3, 2008, from Florida Strategic Intermodal System : http://consensus.fsu.edu/academic_directory/2004casestudies/DanielSIS.pdf Susskind, L., & Cruikshank, J. (2006). Breaking Robert's Rules. New York: Oxford University Press. Taylor Powell, E., & Steele, S. (1996, August). Collecting Evaluation Data: Direct Observation Retrieved March 2009, from Univerity of WisconsonExtention Cooperative Extention: http://learningstore.uwex.edu/pdf/G3658 5.pdf Tranportation Alternatives. (1997 2008). Conge stion Pricing Retrieved October 5, 2008, from http://www.transalt.org/campaigns/congestion U.S. Department of Transportation. (2007). America's Container Ports: Delivering the Goods. U.S. Department of Transportation. (2009, March). Planning Glossary: Fe deral Highway Administration Retrieved March 2009, from Federal Highway Administration: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/index.html U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2008). Brownfields and Land Revitalization. Retrieved September 17, 2008, from http://epa.gov/brownfields/index.html United States of America. (1991). Intermodal Surface and Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Retrieved January 2009, from http://ntl.bts.gov/DOCS/ste.html Valente, A. (2008). Performance -based Fire Protection for the Miami Interm odal Center Retrieved January 2009, from http://www.nfpa.org/assets/files//PDF/Proceedings/Performancebased_Fire_Protection -Miami_Intermodal_Center_ _.pdf Virginia DOT. (n.d.). Congestion Pricing in the U.S.: Congestion Pricing. Retrieved October 3, 2008, from http://www.virginiadot.org/info/resources/congestion_pricing/cp_in_us.pdf Vuchic, V. (1999). Transportation for Livable Cities. New Brunswick: Center for Uban Policy Research. Walters, W. (2007, September 17). The Importance of Airports Retrieved J anuary 10, 2009, from All About Cities: http://allaboutcities.ca/the -importance -of airports/ Waters, W. (2007, September 17). The Importance of Airports Retrieved January 2009, from All About Cities Website: http://allaboutcities.ca/the importance -of airp orts/

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87 Weisbrod, G. (2006, November). Economic Development of Port/Seaport Cargo. Retrieved November 2008, from Economic Development Research Group and National Surface Transportation Policy and Revenue Study Commission: http://www.edrgroup.com/about us/ edr group in the news/weisbrod testimony -to -the -national -surface transportation policy committee.html Whyte, W. (1988). City: Rediscovering the Center. New York: Doubleday. Wikipedia. (2008, October 2). Congestion Pricing. Retrieved October 4, 2008, from h ttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congestion_pricing Wikipedia. (2009, February 11). Intermodal Transport Retrieved January 2009, from Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intermodal_transportation Woods, L. (1997). Radical Reconstruct ion. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Wright, T. (2008, January 7). Broward airport -seaport transit plan still alive: A new elevated system between the airport and Port Everglades could boost tourism in Broward and ease traffic on local roads. Retr ieved January 2009, from http://www.soflo.org/media/article.asp?articleID=301

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88 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Greatness is not in where we stand, but in what direction we are moving. We must sail sometimes with the wind and sometimes against it -but sail we must, an d not drift, nor lie at anchor (Oliver Wendell Holmes). Stephanie Murray is an artistic, innovative urban designer who grew up in Lighthouse Point, Florida. She is the oldest of three siblings. After high school, she attended the University of Florida and received a Bachelor of Arts in a rchitecture. Upon receiving her undergraduate de gree she decided to pursue her masters degree in Urban and Regional Planning at t he University of Florida and a certificate in historic p reservation. She hopes to continue her education and purs ue a second masters degree in building c onstruction at the University of Florida. Her interests in planning include community redevelopment, transportation planning, urban design, seaport planning and coastal management. Outside of sch ool, Stephanie enjoys spending time with her family and friends, being active, the beach, water activities and traveling. Stephanies goals include becoming a successful planner at a seaport or airport, a sustainable builder, travelin g around the world, and continually being a catalyst for change.