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Emotional Response to Typogrpahy

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024677/00001

Material Information

Title: Emotional Response to Typogrpahy The Role of Typographic Variations in Emotional Response to Advertising
Physical Description: 1 online resource (103 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Guthrie, Kevin
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: adsam, arousal, dominance, emotional, emotions, fonts, panas, pleasure, response, typefaces, typography
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Typography is one element that graphic designers consider when creating advertisements and other documents. Designers have long-held the notion that typefaces can be used to elicit an emotional response. This study tested this notion by measuring the participants emotional responses to typefaces variations in an ad using a within-subjects design. Looking at affective responses, AdSAMregistered trademark was used to test emotions, PANAS was used to capture mood, and Aad/Abr was used to capture feelings. This study used a Repeated Measures ANOVA, ANOVA, Post-hoc analysis, and open-ended qualitative questions to analyze the data collected. Although none of the findings in this study were significant, the study provided a basis for further exploration into emotional response to typefaces.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Kevin Guthrie.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Goodman, Jennifer R.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024677:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024677/00001

Material Information

Title: Emotional Response to Typogrpahy The Role of Typographic Variations in Emotional Response to Advertising
Physical Description: 1 online resource (103 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Guthrie, Kevin
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: adsam, arousal, dominance, emotional, emotions, fonts, panas, pleasure, response, typefaces, typography
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Typography is one element that graphic designers consider when creating advertisements and other documents. Designers have long-held the notion that typefaces can be used to elicit an emotional response. This study tested this notion by measuring the participants emotional responses to typefaces variations in an ad using a within-subjects design. Looking at affective responses, AdSAMregistered trademark was used to test emotions, PANAS was used to capture mood, and Aad/Abr was used to capture feelings. This study used a Repeated Measures ANOVA, ANOVA, Post-hoc analysis, and open-ended qualitative questions to analyze the data collected. Although none of the findings in this study were significant, the study provided a basis for further exploration into emotional response to typefaces.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Kevin Guthrie.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Goodman, Jennifer R.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024677:00001


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1 EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO TYPOGR PAHY: THE ROLE OF TYPOGRAPHIC VARIATIONS IN EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO ADVERTISING By KEVIN L. GUTHRIE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009

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2 2009 Kevin L. Guthrie

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3 To my family

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS There are many individuals to acknowledge for their help th roughout this thesis process. First, I would like to tha nk m y thesis committee: Dr. Robyn Goodman for her support, encouragement and being a wonderf ul thesis chair; Dr. Jon Morris for the use of the AdSAM measure; and Dr. Michael Weigold for the statis tical and methodological a ssistance. Next, I have to thank my amazing family (Stuart, Patricia, Brian, and Matthew) for their encouragement in completing my graduate studies. Special thanks also go to my friend Keely Hope for all of her editing assistance and all-around moral support. A dditionally, I want to thank Dr. Betsy Pearman for all of her statistical assistan ce. Without Dr. Pearman, I would still be staring at the computer screen. Special thanks go to my former classmates and tutors at the Edinburgh College of Art for the slightly unhealthy typogra phy and graphic design fascinat ion. Finally, thanks to Max Miedinger, designer of Helvetica

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page 0ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........8LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................................9ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................10 CHAP TER 311 TYPOGRAPHY AND EMOTIONS...................................................................................... 111Typography in Branding......................................................................................................... 121Eliciting Emotion with Typography.......................................................................................131Scope and Importance of the Research Problem.................................................................... 141Overview of the Remainder of the Study............................................................................... 15412 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................161Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........161Typography.............................................................................................................................163History of Typography....................................................................................................173Readability, Legibility and Comprehension of Typography........................................... 183Typography and Color.....................................................................................................233Typeface Personality....................................................................................................... 243Typeface Memorability................................................................................................... 264Typography in Branding.................................................................................................. 274Summary..........................................................................................................................301Emotions and Advertising...................................................................................................... 311Typography and Emotions...................................................................................................... 361Limitations of the Current Body of Literature........................................................................ 371Theoretical Framework.......................................................................................................... .384Perception Theory........................................................................................................... 394Affect Theory..................................................................................................................402Hypothesis..............................................................................................................................412Summary.................................................................................................................................43533 MEASURING EMOTIONAL RE SPONSE TO TYPOGRAPHY......................................... 452Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........452Operational Definitions........................................................................................................ ..454Independent Variables.....................................................................................................455The experimental stimulus....................................................................................... 465Rationale for the imagery......................................................................................... 48

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6 4Dependent Variables....................................................................................................... 495Pleasure.................................................................................................................... 496Arousal.....................................................................................................................506Dominance...............................................................................................................506Additional dependent variables................................................................................ 516Questionnaire...........................................................................................................524Reliability and Validity...................................................................................................536Reliability.................................................................................................................536Validity.....................................................................................................................546Confounding variables............................................................................................. 564The Experimental Design................................................................................................ 574The Experimental Pretest................................................................................................ 574Participants......................................................................................................................582Procedure................................................................................................................................592Summary.................................................................................................................................6164 RESULTS...................................................................................................................... .........682Descriptive Statistics......................................................................................................... .....682Analysis of Variance an d Post-hoc Analysis.......................................................................... 705Gender.............................................................................................................................715Age..................................................................................................................................715Class................................................................................................................................725Survey group order..........................................................................................................725Ethnicity...................................................................................................................... ....732AdSAM.................................................................................................................................736Emotion Groups....................................................................................................... 736Perceptual Map......................................................................................................... 742Qualitative Results............................................................................................................ ......745Themes within the Qualitative Results............................................................................ 746Copy themes.............................................................................................................747Car themes................................................................................................................ 757Gender themes..........................................................................................................767Repetition themes..................................................................................................... 767Price themes............................................................................................................. 765Typeface Specific Themes.............................................................................................. 777Typeface themes....................................................................................................... 777Palatino themes........................................................................................................787Helvetica Neue 65 Medium themes......................................................................... 787Papyrus.....................................................................................................................797Qualitative summary................................................................................................ 803Summary.................................................................................................................................80755 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION.......................................................................................... 883Analysis....................................................................................................................... ...........883Limitations of the method...................................................................................................... .92

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7 7Experimental design................................................................................................. 928Typeface decisions................................................................................................... 928Artificiality............................................................................................................... 938Bias...........................................................................................................................943Further Research............................................................................................................... ......953Summary.................................................................................................................................968LIST OF REFERENCES...............................................................................................................989BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................102

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Survey groups in randomized order................................................................................... 623-2 Respondent demographics................................................................................................. 634-1 Descriptive statistics..................................................................................................... .....814-2 ANOVA tests and posthoc analysis: Gender.................................................................... 824-3 ANOVA tests and post-hoc Analysis: Age........................................................................824-4 ANOVA tests and posthoc analysis: Class....................................................................... 834-5 ANOVA tests and post-hoc analysis: Survey.................................................................... 83

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3-1 Inspiration for questionnaire advertisem ent. 2008 C-Class Mercedes-Benz..................... 643-2 Image information. Keyword (the search terms used to locate the imagery in the iStockPhoto database)........................................................................................................653-3 Test advertisements with typographic manipulations........................................................ 653-4 Questionnaire groups. This figure visually highlights the six surv eys (links) with the randomized order of the mani pulated advertisements.......................................................663-5 AdSAM data code Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance (PAD) Measure. This figure shows the AdSAM manikins and their correlated values................................................ 674-1 AdSAM Emotion Groups Palatino. This figure highlights the AdSAM Emotions Groups and the adjectives associated with the Palatino typeface.....................................844-2 AdSAM Emotion Groups Helvetica 65 Neue Medium. This figure highlights the AdSAM......................................................................................................................854-3 AdSAM Emotion Groups Papyrus. This figure highlights the AdSAM Emotions Groups and the adjectives associated with the Papyrus typeface..................................... 864-4 AdSAM Perceptual Map Total Sample Question Comparison. This figure highlights the mean results of the PAD mean scores from the independent variables along a Pleasure by Arousal graph..................................................................................... 87

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10 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO TYPOGRAPHY: THE ROLE OF TYPOGRAPHIC, VARIATIONS IN EMOTIONAL RESPONSES TO ADVERTISING By Kevin L. Guthrie August 2009 Chair: Robyn Goodman Major: Advertising Typography is one element that graphic designe rs consider when creating advertisements and other documents. Designers have long-held the notion that typefaces can be used to elicit an emotional response. This study tested this notion by measuring the pa rticipants emotional responses to typefaces variations in an ad us ing a within-subjects design. Looking at affective responses, AdSAM was used to test emotions, PANAS was used to capture mood, and Aad/Abr was used to capture feelings. This study us ed a Repeated Measures ANOVA, ANOVA, Post-hoc analysis, and open-ended qualitative questions to analyze the data co llected. Although none of the findings in this study were significant, the study provided a ba sis for further exploration into emotional response to typefaces.

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11 CHAPTER 1 TYPOGRAPHY AND EMOTIONS Graphic design is a vital part of our visual world, communicating a variety of m essages, some of which communicate direction, feelings, or emotions. Rick Poynor, a respected writer on graphic design, states, graphic design is the communications framework through which these messages about what the world is and what we should aspire to (Hustwit, 2007, 2:38). The role and nature of graphic design, whether overt or concealed, affects everyone. Typography is one element of graphic design that contributes to the overall aesthetic of visual communication. The role of typography is very important in creating advertisements, logos, and other documents. Typography is considered to be a crucial elem ent of graphic design (McCarthy & Mothersbaugh, 2002). Typography01, according to Byrne (2004), is the arrangement of letters and words that conveys information and meaning (p.2). In advertising, typography can communicate or reinforce messages add to a documents personality and even influence emotions. Childers and Jass (2002) refe r to typography as the art of designing communication by means of the printed word (p .94). Broos (2001) adds that typography is defined as the deliberate use of letters (p.100 ), helping to make a case for typography as a valid discipline of study with rules and parame ters to follow, rather than an ill-informed application. Furthermore, type can be utilized to set a mood or a structure, promote readability and navigation, give clues about the nature of the do cument, convey how a passage of text is to be used, and even reveal important elements in th e passage (Schriver, 1997). However, the lack of empirical evidence has left type out of the visu al communication rhetoric, pinning type as less 1 The terms typeface and font are typica lly synonymous, and are used as such in this study, but there are subtle differences. A typeface is the entire set of characters cont ained in the design and is more creative and stylized (Schriver, 1997) while a font, according to Baudin (1988/84), focuses mainly on one size and style of a typeface.

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12 important. This forces designers to resort to making decisions on type based on personal preferences or even tradition rather than thr ough research (Brumberger, 2004). Type can provide more than just words on paper. Evidence suggest s that type can communi cate meaning outside of the words the typeface represents, helping to support a product or brand message (Brumberger, 2004; Childers & Jass, 2002), or even elicit an emotion. Typefaces can communicate more than the apparent written meaning. Neville Brody, a prominent graphic designer f eatured in 2007s documentary Helvetica stated: the way a message is dressed is going to de fine our reaction to that message in the advertising. So if it says, buy these jeans, a nd its a grunge font, you would expect it to be some kind of ripped jeans or to be sold in some kind of underground clothing store. If you see the same message in Helvetica, you kno w its probably on sale at Gap (Hustwit, 2007, 40:50). This suggests that typefaces complement products, help to communicate a products underlying meaning, set expectations about the product through visual cues and even elicit an emotional response; therefore, it is important to study the emo tional responses to typography. Typography in Branding Typography is one aspect of the overall decisi on of advertising and m arketing strategy. Businesses face many branding challenges including difficulty in developing a logo that is an official visual representations of a brand name and intrin sic to all identity programs (Tavassoli & Han, 2002, p.14). Typographic elements often play a vital role in developing a memorable company logo (Tavassoli & Han, 2002). The typeface has a particular voice that speaks for all of the elements of the brand. Erik Spiekermann of United Designers Network commented on Marlboros typeface by stating, anyone can buy [Neo Contact], but Marlboro have made the typeface theirs. You can recognize any Marlboro ad from miles away because of that typeface (Hustwit, 2007, 39:52).

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13 A case study by Melewar, Hussey, and Srivor avilai (2005) discussed the re-branding efforts of France Telecom, focusing on the overall re-branding efforts incl uding brand structure, visual identity, company name, logo, color, typef ace and slogan. Designers paid special attention to the typeface, choosing one that fit a tel ecom company but offered a greater human feel through the use of a lower case style and varying co lors to emphasize the last three characters of their company, com (Melewar, Hussey, & Srivoravilai, 2005). Typeface considerations, along with other key visual elements, were consider ed in trying to create a favorable, global, and recognizable identity. The case study revealed the importance co rporations place on developing their visual image and how elements like typog raphy are given a great deal of attention. Eliciting Emotion with Typography The way in which a sign, advertisem ent, logo or everyday item is presen ted in a particular environment can affect a persons emotional response. Different typefaces can be used in a seemingly infinite number of ways eliciting a variety of emotions12 from the viewer (Hustwit, 2007). In graphic design you can take the same message and present it in three different typefaces, and the response to that, the immediate emotional response will be different. And the choice of the typeface is the prime weapon in that communication (Hustwit, 2007, 40:50). According to Michael C. Place of the graphi c design studio Build, one of the biggest achievements in graphic design is to elicit an em otional response from an ad or other piece of visual communication. Choosing a typeface for a design or advert isement may elicit a response, 2 Emotion is one of many affective constructs. Others affective constructs like feelings or mood share similar characteristics, yet, according to Aaker, Stayman and Vezina (1988) feelings are considered here to be conceptually similar to emotions but generally less intense (p.2). Holbrook and OShaughnessy (1984) consider emotions to be derived from the response to an environment and directed toward a specific target. In measuring emotions, this study will use the Pleasure, Arousal and Domina nce (PAD) scales to measure levels of emotions. According to Mehrabian and Russell (1974), each measure in the PAD scale is bi polar, creating levels of each dimension ranging to each extreme. This suggests human beings ar e constantly in a state of emotion.

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14 but if the optimal typeface is paired with good design, a designer may just get this real whoo, kind of like, ooh, thats nice (Hus twit, 2007, 1:08:02) feeling. Furthermore, consumers emotional response to type is thought to be at a subconscious level. According to Will-Harris (2000), type is emotional on a subliminal level because of the connotation it conveys (p.3). Rather than dir ectly conveying emotion, he suggests that the viewers associations of previ ous experiences with a typeface help him or her recognize the typeface in some setting and what matters is that [they] have seen that typeface before . (p.3). Tobias Frere-Jones of Hoefler and Frere-Jones, a typeface design firm, echoes the notion that a typeface can affect the reader without conscious consideration, stating: even if they are not consciously aware of th e typeface they are read ing, theyll certainly be affected by it. The same way that an actor thats miscast in a role will affect someones experience of a movie or play that they are watching. Theyll still fo llow the plot, but be less convinced or excited or affected. [T]ypography is similar to that, where the designer choosing typefaces is essentiall y a casting director (Hustwit, 2007, 31:21). Scope and Importance of the Research Problem Even though graphic design practitioners subs cribe to the idea that typefaces can elicit em otion, the typographic research has focuse d on readability (Gump, 2001), legibility, comprehension (Brumberger, 2004), color (Weh r & Wippich, 2004), personality (Brumberger, 2003a), memorability (Childers & Jass, 2002) a nd branding (Hertenstein Platt & Brown, 2001), while emotional studies have looked at topics like attitude toward advertisements (Aad) (Morris & McMullen, 1994), emotional response typolog ies (Batra & Holbrook, 1990; Holbrook & OShaughnessy, 1984), and studies measuring emotional respons e through nonverbal mechanisms (Goodman, Morris & Su therland, 2008). None have looked at emotional responses to the typefaces in advertisements. Therefore, the present study explores consumers emotional responses to typography.

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15 Developing a greater understand ing of the emotional responses elicited by different typefaces can help to further the application of typefaces in various situations, aiding design practitioners in making more informed typographic decisions. If the desired communication requires a higher level of an emotion, knowing the typefaces with greater levels of emotional responses would be beneficial. If eliciting emoti on is not important, like when an image needs to generate the emotion, the knowledge of typefaces with very little or low emotional elicitation would be of greater benefit. Ther efore, this study aids in determ ining the effects of typefaces on the viewers emotional response on a variety of typefaces. Schriver (1997) states that rather than dismissing typography research as irrelevant and allowing designers and businesses to make their design decisions based on personal preference or even cost would be a mistake. Instead, research into typeface allows designers to think more creatively about their design re lated decisions. Through the results of this study, new thoughts on typography will occur. With the inherent impor tance placed on type in design, there is no empirical evidence supporting graphic designers beliefs that typography can elicit emotion. Overview of the Remainder of the Study Studying ty pography and emotions independently will aid in providing a framework to study emotional responses to various typef aces. Chapter 2 provides a literature review encompassing a variety of studies from each ar ea, setting up a body of literature supporting a theoretical foundation for studying emotional response to typography. The methods discussed in Chapter 3 detail how typeface emotions were meas ured. Results in Chapter 4 are then discussed, followed by the analysis and discussion in Chapter 5.

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16 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Research studies on em otional response to typography are very limited. However, typography and emotions have been studied separa tely, creating a solid re search foundation to relate to and develop further studies on the re lationship between the two subjects. Chapter 2 details various studies from the typography a nd emotion literature to build support for studying emotional response to ty pography in advertising. First, Typography details a brief history of t ypography and the previous research into the subject. Emotions and Advertising provides rese arch into the concept of emotions. Various studies help to provide a f oundation to use emotions to study the emotional response to typefaces. The Typography and Emotions section su mmarizes the limited research on the subject of typography and emotions. Finally, Limitations of the Current Body of Literature helps to see the current research as well as the areas for additional inquiry. The Theoretical Framework section discusses the two key theories that info rm the current research: Perception and Affective Theory. Chapter 2 concludes with the research hypotheses. Typography The literature review begins with the hi story and various m ovements in typography. Readability, Legibility and Comprehension section helps to highlight the foundational typography research. Typography and Color starts to explore th e aesthetic research into typography, specifically looking at the effects of color on type. Typeface Personality further extends type research in looking at the persona lities associated with typefaces. Branding in Typography discusses the role of typefaces in overall branding considerations.

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17 History of Typography Typography has a long history, dating back as far as 3000 B.C. Typefaces started primitively as symbol carvings on cave walls an d slowly developed throughout many years. The Chinese developed calligraphy and paper. The Greek s helped to develop th e visual letterform. Romans included the serif23 in their stone inscriptions. M onks during the Dark Ages produced hand-created manuscripts developing elaborate letterforms (Black Letter) as well as the Gothic lettering style. Movable t ype was developed in the 15th century and rapidly spread the production of printed materials (Byrne, 2004; Schriver, 1997 ), which according to Meggs (1992) helped to advance civilization by providing a way to increase literacy and increase societal knowledge. In the 19th century, the Industrial Re volution brought about ne w innovations in typography, mainly in the increased efficiencies of the pr oduction of type-reliant products like magazines, newspapers, and other regularly pr oduced publications. This era is credited with the birth of the modern advertising, which lead to the use of la rge wooden display type in ads as well as other design related creati ons like photography, sans serif34 and condensed typefaces. Furthermore, various art and cultural movement s of the period helped to further progress the field of typography (Byrne, 2004). Although it was created in the 19th century, the sans serif typeface gained greater popularity during the 20th century (Schriver, 1997). The increase in popularity was due to the mid-19th century production and manufacturing effi ciencies of many new typefaces. During this time the typographic alphabet made a radical transformation from being a series of rigid 3 A serif is decorative line or element added to the top and bottom of a letterform, projecting off of the main stroke. Serif typefaces are commonly found in many publications like books, magazines or newspapers (Schriver, 1997). 4 Sans serif is a typeface without serifs or decorative strokes at the beginnin g and end of a typeface stroke. These typefaces had greater uniformity in their line thickness, greater distinc tion between typeface styles (bold and regular) and even a greater visual distinction between parts of the text (Schriver, 1997).

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18 formulas and standards, to being flexible and creative, allowing for stylistic interpretations by the creators of typefaces, creating many new and i nnovative type specimens (Byrne, 2004; Lupton & Miller, 1996). A major shift came when computers were introdu ced allowing new type styles to emerge in digital formats. Various applications of type were created with greater ease because of computer technology. The end of the 20th century saw the wide spread use of the Internet, a medium that has relied heavily on typogra phy to deliver communication (Byrne, 2004). Readability, Legibility and Co mprehension of Typography Typographic studies also have explored areas such as readability, legibility and com prehension of type. Readability, as defined by Tinker and Paterson (1946), is based on and measured by the speed of reading. Legibility, as defined in Tinker and Paterson (1942) is a combination of ease and speed of reading a pa ssage. Comprehension, in a typographic sense, looks at the effects of typographic variations on reading comprehension. An early readability type study by Paterson and Tinker (1940) used typography to observe the effects of line width on eye movements. Usin g a tool called the Minnesota eye-movement camera, they recorded the patterns of eye m ovements with varying degrees of line widths: standard (19 picas45), short line (9 picas) and long line (43 picas). Using a series of reading tests utilizing the Scotch Roman typeface (lower case, 10-point type size ) comparing the standard line to the short line and the standa rd line to the long line, this st udy concluded that lines either excessively short (9-picas) or excessively long (43-picas) are read more slowly when compared to the standard line (19-picas). Furthermore, reading patterns were negatively influenced because 5 A pica (or point) is a standard meas urement of a typeface, which is often used to measure line widths. Other commonly used measurement systems include inches, agate, didot, un its, en and em (Byrne, 2004).

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19 readers were not using optimal horizontal cues to read the shorter lines while long lines caused difficulty in finding the next line. In a subsequent study, Tinker and Paterson (1942) looked at reader pref erences of typeface characteristics including book versus bold type and lower case versus all capitals (caps). Using five paragraphs and a speed-read ing test, Tinker and Paterson (1942) found readers viewed lower case to be more legible and pleasing. 11.8% th an all capitals. The respondents judgments between legibility and pleasing characteristics between the arrangements were closely related. Lower case reported a mean rank of 13 for legibi lity and 11 for pleasingness, bold face reported a mean rank of 17 for legibility and 19 for pleas ingness, while similar results occurred for all capitals with a mean of 19 for legibility and 19 for pleasingness. Lower case was read at a more rapid pace (11.8%) than all caps and received higher rankings for legibility and pleasing characteristics. In another study Paterson and Tinker (1944) measured the eye movements in reading typography. Specifically, Paterson and Tinker (1944) researched the way the eye reads print typography under optimal (ten-point two-point leading, 19-pica line width, black print on white paper stock) and non-optimal (six-point, 34-pi ca line width, white print on black background, white paper stock) conditions. Photographic eye movement captu ring techniques were used to measure fixations56, number of words per fixation, length of pauses, perception time and number of regressions67. Type used in non-optimal conditions returned .8 percent more fixations, 16.98 percent fewer words read per fixations, 6.2 4 percent longer pause duration, 27.29 percent 6 Fixations are the span of time the eye spends stationary (Paterson & Tinker, 1944). 7 Regressions are the re-reading or backwards eye movement (Paterson & Tinker, 1944).

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20 longer perception78 and 93.3 percent more regressions (p .80) or greater inefficiencies than type under optimal settings. Tinker and Paterson (1946) also compared the results of reader preferences (i.e., judged legibility and judged pleasing char acteristics) and read ability measurements (speed of reading) between two typographical arrangements89 (i.e., a variety of typogr aphical variations and a regular lower case Roman arrangement) on newspr int. Overall there were three test groups (Groups 1, 2, & 3) consisting of two forms (F orms A & B) in each group. Each test forms consisted of 30 paragraphs of 30 words each, with variations between three groups. Group 1 (control group) compared Form A and B, both us ing 7-point typeface, 12-pica line width, and 1point leading. Group 2 compared Form A w ith Form B having the following medley arrangement: Ten-point Roman lower case, 12-pica line width, two-point leading Ten-point italic, 12-pica lin e width, two-point leading Seven-point Roman lower case, 12-pica line width, one-point leading Seven-point bold, 12-pica line width, one-point leading Seven-point bold face, 10-pica line width, one-point leading Seven-point all capitals, 12-pi ca line width, one-point leading Seven-point Roman lower case, 10-p ica line width, one-point leading Seven-point all-capitals bold face, 12 -pica line width, one-point leading Seven-point Roman lower case, 11-pica lin e width, one-point l eading and boxed in Group 3 compared Form A and B, with Form B having the following medley arrangement: Ten-point Roman lower case, 12-pica line width, two-point leading Seven-point Roman lower case, 12-pica line width, one-point leading Seven-point bold lower case, 12-pica line width, one-point leading Seven-point all-capit als, 12-pica line widt h, one-point leading Seven-point bold face, 12-pica line width, one-point leading Ten-point Roman bold face, nine-pic a line width, two-point leading Ten-point Roman bold face, 10-pica line width, two-point leading 8 Perceptions are the sum of the pause durations (Paterson & Tinker, 1944). 9 Arrangement refers to the decision to make variations to a documents typeface (Tinker & Paterson, 1946). Typically variations include decisions like italics, Roman lowe r case, all-capitals, bold, line width, type size, leading and placing text within a frame or box (Byrne, 2004).

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21 Ten-point italic face, nine-pic a line width, two-point leading Ten-point all-capital italics, nine -pica line width, two-point leading Ten-point Roman bold face, 10-pica line width, two-point leading, boxed-in Ten-point italics, 10-pica line wi dth, two-point leading, boxed-in Findings of Tinker and Paterson (1946) showed medley arrangements negatively affected the reading rate. The medley arra ngements for Group 2 were read 1.48 paragraphs slower (8.35%) than the control group and the medley arrange ments for Group 3 were read 2.00 paragraphs slower (11.39%), which suggests the increase d embellishments and complications of the typeface variations decrease readability. Furt her, a preference study was conducted by taking each form and ranking 181 reader opinions of the legibility and pleasing aspects of the medley arrangements, finding that legibili ty ranking has the same result as the reading speed studies with the top ranking to Group 1. Second and third in the legibility test was medley arrangements for Group 2 and 3. The pleasing aspects of the type arrangements showed the medley arrangement for Group 2 was found to be the most pleasing, followed by Group 1, then Group 3. Contemporary eye tracking studies have been used to measure readability using more sophisticated eye-tracking technologies. Josephs on (2008) sought to measure the legibility of various serif and sans serif typefaces: Times New Roman, Arial, Verdana, and Georgia. Specifically, this study focused on the on-screen legibility of the typeface, a medium with lower visual quality than the printed medium. After pe rforming an eye-tracking te st, as well as rating the typefaces along a ten-point s cale, the study found that Verdana typeface performed best, with an overall low eye regression rate as well as an overall preference from the participants (Josephson, 2008). Further, readability studies of typography ar e found in Brumberger (2004), which focused on the relationship between a pa ssage of text and the typogra phic effects of reading time, comprehension and the trustworthiness of the writer (ethos). Based on the findings of

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22 Brumberger (2003a), Brumberger (2004) Aria l, Bauhaus Md BT and Black Chancery were chosen to represent the personali ties of direct, frie ndly and elegant respectively. Performing an ANOVA test and utilizing a convenience sample of college students, Brumberger (2004) found no significant effects on the read ing time of the text, typeface or the interactions between text and typeface. An ANOVA test was performed on reading comprehens ion, finding significant effects between texts but no significant differenc es between the text and the typeface persona. A chi-square test revealed no signi ficant differences on improving or lowering levels of ethos based on typeface interaction. However, the significant typeface by text interaction finding suggests that a readers perception of a document and its writer are shaped by the interaction between the verbal and visual rhetoric. Although initial intentions of the study were not found to be significant, the outcome supports a need for making design a part of the wr iting process, rather than an afterthought based on the verbal and vi sual findings. Further im plications proposed included abandoning a prescriptive approach to teaching and practicing document design (p.22). Gump (2001) studied typeface readability by testing the effects of typefaces on the participants mood/emotion. Ten typefaces (i.e., Arial, Cooper Light, Monospaced, Bernhard Modern, Square 721, Times New Roman, Courier Ne w, Alternate Gothic 2, Engravers Gothic, and Stymie) were used chosen for this experime nt as well as possible moods/emotions elicited (i.e., rigid, friendly, plain, elegant and no opinion). By testing three hypotheses on university students and faculty members, Gu mp (2001) looked for changes in the mood/emotions of the reader. The first hypothesis stated that the participants agreed on the majority of typefaces as being easy to read, with overwhelming agreem ent for Arial (98.8%), Cooper Light (97.6%), Square 721 (94.0%) and Stymie (92.7%). The results only highlighted one pa rticular statistically

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23 significant difficult to read typeface, Alternat e Gothic 2 (72.6%). The second hypothesis stated that moods and emotional characteristics of vi ewing a typeface would be agreed upon by the majority of participants. Findings showed four out of ten typeface styles were considered the best-fit mood/emotion. Results included Arial as be ing plain (65%), Bernhard Modern as elegant (63.1%), Alternate Gothic 2 as rigid (52.4%), and Stymie as friendly (51.2%). The third hypothesis was supported, which stated no consensu s would be reached between the respondents on the typefaces that were the easiest to rea d, most difficult to read and their favorite. Typography and Color Beyond serif and sans serif typ efaces, color is another aspect that has been explored in the type literature. Tavassoli (2001) examined the effects of color memory and evaluations of English alphabetic and Chinese logographic br and names. The authors examined a persons memory recall of the color of the print logograp h versus alphabetic brand names by showing the participants, of English and Chinese speaki ng origin, information on a computer screen. Participants were then asked to recall the logog raphs in a different order and to rearrange the colors between the items. Results indicated the Chinese logographic brand names had a significantly greater le vel of color memory (M=11.47, SD=2.10) than the English alphabetic words (M=9.60, SD=2.32). The second experiment exam ined whether print color can be used to transfer an evaluative connotat ion between brand names sharing the same color (p.107), using previously discovered positive and negative co lor evaluations to develop a rating. Findings suggested that print colo r was more influential for the logogr aphic Chinese brand names than the alphabetic English names. Wehr and Wippich (2004) also investigated type and color by looking at the effects of the prominent elements of typography on participants recall of past life experiences. In this study, 80 participants were presented with 40 nouns in various typographic va riations and colors.

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24 Participants were asked to imagine the noun show n in the color described. For example, black would be considered normal for the noun cat, while blue would be considered an atypical pairing. Words in unusual handwriting were cons idered atypical and also matched with an imagery task. Results showed a significant link be tween words that are written in an atypical typeface or color had a significantly higher leve l of recall than words written in a regular typeface or color. The findings allude to the importance of having a memorable typeface for greater overall memorable brand by using lesser used typefaces and color. Typeface Personality Physical characteristics o f typeface like color, serifs and readability can be easily interpreted. More complicated in terpretations involve intangibl e characteristics like typeface personality, which rely on mo re subjective judgments. In order to establish type personalities, Brum berger (2003a) discussed the overall language of typography focusing on recurring pe rsonality perceptions with an established set of typefaces. The 15 typefaces used in the study were: Adle r, Arial, Bauhaus Md BT, Black Chancery, Casablanca Antique Italic, Conic Sans MS, Counselor Script, Cour ier New, Garamond, Harrington, Lucida Sans Italic, Lydian BT, S quare721 BT, Times New Roman and VanDijk. The first study showed high positive correlation betw een Black Chancery and Counselor Script suggesting a great deal of similar personality perceptions. High nega tive correlation was found between Adler and Counselor Script, suggesting great differences between personas. Further comparisons grouped the typefaces within three areas: elegance, directness, and friendliness. Counselor Script (elegance), Arial (directness) and Bauhaus Md BT (friendliness) had the highest correlations with the aforementioned adjectives. The s econd portion of this study looked at the same personality perceptions related to a passage of text. Brumberger (2003a) found the participants were able to assign a personality to a particular typeface as we ll as a passage of text.

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25 Using 15 different 375-word bodies of text from a variety of sources, participants grouped the text passage to a particular pe rsonality attribute, generating three categories Professionalism, Violence, and Friendliness, accounting for 92% of the total variance. This study found strong evidence to support the claim that people do consistently ascribe pa rticular personality attributes to a particular typefaces and text passages (p.221). Using the high performing typefaces (i.e., Arial-direct, Bauhaus Md BT-friendly and Counselor Script-elegant) and text passages (i.e., Cognitive Psychology-professional, Rainbow Six-violent and Newsweek-friendly) from the first study (200 3a), Brumberger (2003b) explored the participants awareness of a ppropriately paired passages of text and typeface. The first study showed statistically significant main effects fo r text and typeface and the interaction between each. Arial (direct) was found to be appropriate for Cognitive Psychology (professional text), while Bauhaus Md BT (friendl y) was more appropriate for Newsweek (friendly text). Counselor Script (elegant), however, was not considered appropriate for ove rall use but more appropriate for a professional-oriented text Additionally, this study measur ed the extent to which the personality of the typeface affect s the perception of the personality of the text passage using a semantic differential scale. In this manipula tion, Arial (direct) was re placed with Times New Roman (direct), finding that the personality of the typeface did not have a significant impact on the personality of the text passage. Type style910 was studied by Tantillo, Di Lorenzo-Ai ss and Mathisen (1995), who looked at the significance of the differences in type styles This exploratory study m easured six type styles using a convenience sample of 250 students. The type styles consisted of three serif (i.e., Century School Book, Goudy Old Style and Times New Roman) and three sans serif typefaces (i.e., 10 Type Styles, according to Byrne (2004), are Roman italic, bold, demi, heavy, condensed, extended, and various combinations of these.

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26 Avant Garde Gothic, Helvetica and Univers) of differing style and weight, selected by a focus group of typesetters and graphi c designers. The respondents desc ribed their reactions to the typefaces along a semantic differential sc ale. Their findings showed that the serif typefaces were overall considered more elegant, charming, emotional, distinct, beautiful, interesting, extraordinary, rich, happy, valuable, new, gentle, young, calm[,] less trad itional[,] more personality freshness, high quality, vita lity, and legibil[e] (p.452) while the sans serif type styles showed more manly, powerful, smart, upper-class, readable, and louder (p.452). Furthermore, Tantillo, Di Lorenzo-Aiss a nd Mathisen (1995), looked at the style variations within and between both the sans serif and serif groups. The results found that significant differences exist in the sans serif group with Avant Garde Gothics descriptors different than those of Helvetica and Univers. Results for Goudy Old Style suggested that it had characteristic of being more pleasing and gentle than Century Schoolbook and Times New Roman. Interestingly, Helvetica and Univers retu rned a rather harsh perception, which ranked very low on the mean scale results for the desc riptors of readable-not readable (1.93 and 1.80) and legible-not legible (1.88 and 1.82). The recommendations and findings for this study suggested that type selection is important from an advertisers perspective because typefaces can be matched to the particular feeling or emotion they are trying to convey. Typeface Memorability Studying personality in typefaces can offer som e elements into the way a typeface will be perceived. Memorability refers to how long the t ypeface will be remembered as well as how the typeface aids in consumer memory of a product. Memorability was briefly mentioned in Hustwit (2007) referring to the relationshi p between the style of typefaces and a shelf life for uniqueness. The more graphic designers use the typeface a nd the greater exposure it has to the public, the greater the loss of style. Ultimately, the type face could become familiar, predictable, and

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27 ultimately dull . (45:05), which suggests that typeface style does not continue to become stylish and unique as it is popularized. In the second of a two-part study, Childer s and Jass (2002) focused on typeface meaning and influence on consumer memory. Childers an d Jass (2002) looked for the influence of copy claims, photographic elements and t ypeface associations to increase recall of brand features and benefit claim through varying the visual elements from their first experiment. Findings showed greater brand memory when typef ace, picture and ad copy were consistent. Overall, Childers and Jass (2002) study returned signifi cant results of increased memory of the brands when consistency among typeface semantic cues, adver tisement visual cues, and advertisement copy claims increased (p.93). Typography in Branding The visual elem ents of a logo are very im portant in branding. A company must use the visual elements like colors, phot ography, and typography effectivel y to help enhance consumer recall of their brand. Henderson, Giese and Cote (2004) sought to develop guidelines to aid corporations in their typeface selections. This em pirical investigation capture[s] the differences among typefaces, the response dimensions type faces generate, and how typeface design dimensions are related to response dimensions ( p.62). Data for this study was collected in four stages: first the design charac teristics of universal design111 and typeface-specific design112 were selected; 82 graphic designers then rated 210 ty pefaces using a semantic differential scale viewing the typefaces in 16-point size and on white paper; a list of typeface impressions 11 Universal design is a subjective desc ription of typefaces, relying on judgments of the viewer. Characteristics of universal design are symmetry, activity, complexity, natura l, distinctive, ornate, speci al use, conveys meaning, depth, uniform, balanced, smooth, symmetrical, curved, organic, slanted, active and readable (Henderson, Giese & Cote, 2004). 12 Typeface specific characteristics are more objective, describing physical traits of typefaces like short/tall, serif/sans serif, ascenders/descenders, heavy, repeat, fat an d condensed/extended (Henderson, Giese & Cote, 2004).

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28 (innovative, calm, liking, interesting, formal, strong, warm, honest, familiar, emotional, masculine/feminine, and attractive) were devel oped based on the input from graphic designers; finally the list of developed typefaces were gathered and college students rated the 210 typefaces. A confirmatory factor analysis in Henderson, Giese and Cote (2004) found four strategically relevant response dimensions to de scribe their impression s: Pleasing/displeasing (i.e., warm and attractive), engaging/boring (i.e., interesting and emotiona l), reassuring/settling (i.e., calm, formal, honest, familiar, and nega tive), and prominent/subtle (i.e., strong and masculine). Using a factor analysis, typeface design dimensions were found for both universal and typeface specific typefaces; finding three dime nsions for both universal (i.e., elaborateness, harmony and naturalness) and type face specific variables (i.e., fl ourish, weight and compressed). Regression analysis showed a strong corre lation between the four dimensions (i.e., pleasing/displeasing, engaging/boring, reassuring /settling and prominent/subtle) and the typeface impressions elements. Pleasing/displeasing expl ained 51.4% of the variance, prominent/subtle explained 52.8%, engaging/boring explained 68. 0% and reassuring/unsettling explained the 73.4%. From this analysis Henderson, et al. (2004) made guidelines for managing typeface impressions including: as a spokesperson projects an image of the company, typeface appears to have the potential to influence the impressions crea ted by corporate communi cations. The strength of the relationship between typeface design a nd the resultant impressions suggests that corporations can have significant co ntrol over the impressions (p.66) Further findings in Henderson, et al. (2004) re veal that using natural, script typefaces produce more reassuring and pleasin g fonts (p.66). However, the researchers suggest that the overuse of a particular typeface could have unintended consequences, leading to the respondent becoming desensitized to the typeface and the intended response. Instead, the corporations

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29 should use a multitude of typefaces to obtain thei r desired response, often combining typefaces to achieve specific results. In combining typeface s the authors reported that as the corporations emphasize one typeface and its associated respon se, another typefaces ability to elicit an associated emotional response suffers (Henderson, Giese & Cote 2004). Tavassoli and Han (2002) studied a combination of the logo elements of a brand name with the auditory elements. The authors looked at the identifying elements, both auditory and visual, of brands comparing the differences in the wr iting of the brand name between Chinese with English script. In the first experiment, native Mandarin and English-speaki ng participants studied the word-visual brand pairings and word-auditory parings. Those pairings we re then tested via on screen graphics for their level of recall. The second experiment followed using bilingual participants. The results of an ANOVA test suggested the main effect of pairing the word-visual was remembered better than the word-auditory pair ing. A paired t-test confirmed the significance for within language groups for word-visual brand memory parings in Cantonese, but not significantly different for the word-visual pair ing in English. Although this study did not focus on emotional response, the word-visual pairing finding lends support for st udy into the emotions using the visual elements of the t ypefaces within an advertisement. Check-Teck (2000) studied designing logos for corporations online identities, focusing on the attractiveness, complexity and creative elem ents of e-logos. Through one-on-one interviews of individuals from Singapor e-based technology corporations, Check-Teck (2000) discovered: a positive correlation between attractiveness a nd complexity; a close correlation between attractiveness and creativity; some correlation betw een attractiveness and quantity of characters; a correlation between attractiv eness and the use of symbols; no statistically significant correlation between the a ttractiveness and the quantity of diffe ring colors in the logo; a strong

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30 positive correlation between the perceptions of corporate professionalism (p.341) and attractiveness; and a modestly (p.341) posit ive relationship between the firm and logo attractiveness. Although Check-T eck (2000) did not address typography directly, the study explored the importance of an overall branding effort. Typographic elements play a large role in the of the visual brand presence. Hertenstein, Platt and Brown ( 2001) discussed design as an im portant part of financial success for business. This cohort study looked at 51 businesses over a five-year period to assess the relationship between the companies design e fforts and their financial successes, utilizing financial data to back up the results. Findings in dicated that firms who we re more effective in their design efforts were stronger in growth rates, results relative to sale s, ratios relative to assets, and stock market returns (p. 14-18). Design may not directly affect each of those areas, but a value of good design this would be one of the ma ny factors contributing to the success of the organization. Childers and Jass (2002) addressed the level of typeface influence on the perceptions of a brand. The authors used a booklet to display ads to either test the memorability of the copy, which contained either a typeface supporting the product claim or one that provided meaning to oppose the product claim. This study determined that type meanings were significant in influencing perceptions of bra nds in their advertisements. Summary This section looked at a wide range of typography related topi cs starting with the History of Typography, followed by the Readability, Le gibility and C omprehension of Typography. Typography and Color as well as Typeface Pers onality and Typeface Memorability were discussed. Finally this section detailed literature on Typography in Branding.

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31 Emotions and Advertising With previous type research showing prom ising results in looking at elements like characteristics, personality and branding, it is im portant to link the psychological aspects of emotions to the current typographic discourse. Studi es listed here looked at how emotions have been previously studied while focusing on the more relevant area of emotional studies in advertising. Measuring emotions instead of cognition is im portant to this study. According to Zajonc (1980), an affective reaction, like an emotion, occurs prior to cognitive processing, rejecting the commonly held notion that emotions are elicited only after cognitive processing has occurred. According to Tsal (1985), the length of time a participant can remember a message could be greater when the message generates affective re sponses rather than cognitive responses. In measuring emotional response to typefaces in ad vertisements, it is important to capture the respondents affective (pre-c ognitive) response, providing a better assessment of the respondents emotions. Early emotion research falls into the real m of environmental psychology, using human emotional responses to environments as interv ening variables linking th e environment to the variety of behaviors it elicits (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974, p.vi ). Mehrabian and Russell (1974) found three emotional criteria, which can describe most emotional states: Pleasure, Arousal and Dominance (PAD). Further evidence from Me hrabian and Russell (1977) supported the PAD scale with three independent and bipolar dimens ions: pleasure-displeasure, arousal-nonarousal, and dominance-submissiveness.

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32 Holbrook and Batra (1987) studied the role of emotional reactions in the relationship between ad content and attitudes113 elicited toward the ad or br and. This study found a set of sixfactors that help to describe television advertising emo tional, threatening, mundane, sexy, cerebral and personally relevant content. Further re sults show the PAD scale as a mediator of the effects of the ad content on attitude toward the ad and partial mediat or of the effect of ad content on attitude toward the brand. Additional studies in televisi on advertising have used ads to discover the relationship between attitude toward the a d, attitude toward the brand, br and attribute evaluations and judgments on ad characteristics as well as looking at the cause of feelings importance of feelings and the variation of feelings (Burke & Edell, 1989; Edell & Burke, 1987). Edell and Burke (1987) found four implications in looking at feeli ngs in relation to advertising effects including: a link between positive and negativ e feelings co-occurring; both positive and negative feelings are important factors of ad effectiveness; feelings contribute uniquely to attitude toward the ad, brand and attribute beliefs; and the importance of variations of feelings and judgments toward the ad characteristics. Burke and Edell (1989) co ncluded that feelings are closely linked to ad characteristics, evaluation of the attributes and attitude toward th e brand, indicating the importance of affective responses to ads. The feelings from the respondents reflected the need for inclusion in measures of advertising effect s. Although these studies show positive elements in emotions and their relationshi p in advertising, the focus of the study concerns television advertising, rather than typography. 13 Attitude, as defined by Petty and Cacioppo (1981), is a general and enduring positive or negative feeling about some person, object, or issue (p.7). Although emotions are sought after in this research, it is important to recognize, compare, and define other affective co mponents used in previous research.

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33 Various studies have sought to develop a t ypology for their affective measures (Aaker, Stayman & Vezina, 1988; Batra & Holbrook, 1990; Holbrook & OShaughnessy, 1984). Aaker, Stayman and Vezina (1988) focused on feelings, rath er than the more intense emotions. Aaker, et al. (1988), identified and reduced fe elings stimulated from viewing an advertisement to a list of 655 feelings to two clusters of 22 and 31. The study found that the procedure used changes the generated list of feelings. Batra and Holbrook (1990) developed a typolog y of affective responses to be used in advertising. The typology consisted of a list that recommended the use of 12 responses. Generated through cluster analysis, the list covered a range of moods and emotions. This list is broader in scope than previous research. Holb rook and OShaughnessy (1984) examined the role of emotion in advertising by highlighting emotions as separate from other responses elicited by consumers, like motivation and affect. The st udy also developed an emotional process and typology of emotional content which helps to create a process by which marketing researchers [develop] a better understanding of the role of em otional content in adve rtising (p.54). Several studies have utilized emotional response measures in advertising, which specifically focused on PAD scales to measur e emotional response. Morris and McMullen (1994) utilized AdSAM a non-verbal and cross-cultural em otional response measure, to measure several emotional responses contained w ithin an advertisement. According to Morris (1995), AdSAMs visual nature eliminate[s] the majority of problems associated with verbal measures (p.65) allowing for the respondent to interpret for themselves which graphic best represents their feelings towa rd the advertisement in a re latively short amount of time, decreasing participation wear-out. The emotions depicted in each SAM are based on actual human emotional facial expressions which increase the response rate to the advertisements as

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34 the respondents identified their feelings with one of the SAM expressions, rather than a verbal or numerical description of the emotion (Lang, 1980) Forty ads were selected and judged for fit within the study, and then shown to 37 undergra duate students (Morris & McMullen, 1994). The study involved four presentation modes: respondents viewed the first 15 seconds of the ad and measured the first half after viewing; responde nts viewed the second half and measured the second half after viewing; res pondents viewed the entire 30-sec ond ad and measured the entire ad after viewing; respondents viewed both halves of the 30-s econd ad and measurements were taken after each half of the ad. Results suppor ted the notion that seve ral responses did occur within the advertisements for both the Pleasur e and Arousal measures. In addition, this study found that more than one emotional response coul d be detected by measuring the advertisement in halves. Subsequent findings also showed th e ad overall elicited more Pleasure as a full advertisement rather than in halves and the s econd half of ads produced greater amounts of Pleasure than the first half. Morris and Waine (1993) studied the emotional responses elic ited from a pre-production advertisement compared to a post-production advertis ement, with the possible goal of being able predict emotional responses to finished commercials (p.1). Us ing a sample of 123 undergraduate students, the author s exposed the respondents to various formats, like storyboards, animatics, and completed commercials. AdSAM was used to measure the audiences emotional response and an ANOVA test to determine significant differences between the emotional response for the formats of the 16 ads. The resear chers discovered that the ad format was not significant for Pleasure, Arousal or Dominance. A main effect was discovered for the individual ads and their respective formats for Pleasure ( F= 0.36) and Arousal ( F= 2.58). Significant differences were found between th e 16 ads themselves on Pleasure (F=20.88) and Arousal scales

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35 ( F= 11.79). Significant differences were also found between the format s of seven of the sixteen ads for Pleasure and three of the sixteen ads for Arousal. Goodman, Morris and Sutherland (2008) used AdSAM to find the varied emotions associated with the beauty types found in mag azine ads. This study used photographs from Vogue Cosmo InStyle and Allure magazines from 2003-04 that f it criteria of the six beauty types: Classic Beauty, Cute, Girl-Next-Door, Trendy, Sensual/Exotic and Sex Kitten. The research asked 258 undergraduate students to classi fy the photographs of a models beauty on a five-point scale to see similar ities between industry classificati ons. The researchers then asked 127 respondents to use AdSAM to report their emotional re sponse to the photographs given. Based on a factor analysis, groupings between the existing six categories of beauty types were collapsed into two dimensions: Classic Beauty /Cute/Girl-Next-Door ( CCG) and Sexual/Sensual (SS). Findings indicated High CCG/Low SS models were significantly higher on Pleasure scores than Middle Models and High SS/Low CCG. Arousal scores we re significantly higher for the High CCG/Low SS models than the Middle Mo dels and the High SS/Low CCG, suggesting greater arousal from viewing models generally considered less attractive. Dominance scores were significantly less for the High SS/Low CC G models than the High CCG/Low SS and Middle Models. The High SS/Low CCG models made the women feel less empowered (p.157). Overall results showed that the High CCG/Low SS models generated more positive feelings like Interested a nd Excited or Warmly Accepting (p.158) while the High SS/Low CCG models produced more negati ve feelings like Ambivalent or Reserved/Reluctant (p.158). Results of this study highlight the need for consideration to be given to the respondent classification of beauty types rath er than industry classifications.

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36 Other affective measures, like the Positiv e Affect/Negative A ffect Schedule (PANAS) scale, have been used to measure the lower-level moods. The PANAS scale helps to measure the two dimensions of mood: pos itive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). Watson, Clark, and Tellegen (1988) developed this s cale to provide a quick and easily administered scale to measure the respondents PA and NA over time. The tenitem mood scale for PA consists of the following mood states: enthusiastic, interested, determined, excited, inspired, alert, active, strong, proud, attentive. The mood scale for NA c onsists of: scared, afraid, upset, distressed, jittery, nervous, ashamed, guilty, irritable, and hos tile. Participants ranke d each mood state based on the degree to which a particular mood st ate was felt. The scale ranges from one, which represents very slightly, to five representing extremely. The PANAS scale was shown to be internally consistent and have excellent convergent and discrimina nt correlations with lengthier measures of the underlying mood factors (p.1069). This measur e asked respondents their moods over time with categories, like moment, today, past few days, past few weeks, year, and general (p.1065). Typography and Emotions The previous section introduced em otions a nd the various applica tions in advertising. However, very few typographic studies exist linking emotions and typography. A study by Kastl and Child (1968) explored emotional meaning of typographic variables. The study looked at several dimensions of typography: angular versus curved, bold vers us light, simple versus ornate and serif versus sans serif The participants, a sample of colleg e students, first classified various moods by viewing and recording th eir responses on a Likert scale from zero to five, zero being no mood and five being a strong mood. The results show that there were various moods sparked by various typefaces. Mood categories like spri ghtly, sparkling, dreamy, and soaring (p.440) matched with curved, light a nd ornate (p.440) suggesting a sans serif typeface. The categories

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37 of sad, dignified, and dramatic (p.440) matched well with the more angular and bold typefaces, suggesting a serif quality typeface. After a thorough review of the literature, this 40-year-old study is the only study that has directly ex plored emotional responses to typography. Limitations of the Current Body of Literature The m ajor limitation of the previous research is that much has been addressed concerning various areas of typography and emotions individually. Many studies have looked at important type-related issues such as readability (Tinker & Paters on, 1946), color (Wehr & Wippich, 2004), type style (Tantillo, Di Lorenzo-Aiss & Mathisen, 1995) type impressions (Henderson, Giese & Cote, 2004), and characteri stics and personality of type (Brumberger, 2003a), but very few have addressed emotional responses to the typeface used in an ad. Type studies began by studying eye movement s and measuring them to determine the optimal size, line width, type style and mixed type forms (Paterson & Tinker, 1940; Paterson & Tinker, 1944; Tinker & Paterson, 1942; Tinke r & Paterson, 1946). Although studies have focused on optimizing the usage of type, there was never a component of emotional response. The emotional response studies that do exist are often limited based on the verbal responses utilized. Gump (2001) had limited emotional response choices limiting the respondents emotional response options, often condensing both mood and emotions into the same response set. Similarly, many of the verbal response measures used, pose a problem for a study measuring emotions. As noted in Gump (2001) the respondents may have differed on the meanings that they assigned to the subjectiv e terms (p.273), calling into question the accuracy of the observed emotions. Kastl and Child (1968) show ed a series of typefaces with an associated mood adjective, asking the respondent to rank, on a scale of one to five (not conveyed to very strongly conveyed), the degree to which the ty peface matched the adjective association. The

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38 verbal and visual association ma y have been different for each individual respondent based on the perceived meaning or severity of the adj ective shown. Kastl and Child (1967) are limited by the use of a verbal response mechanism to identif y meaning of emotions of typefaces as well as the results of the generated m ood categories like sprightly, sp arkling, dreamy, and soaring (p.440), creating differences in de finitions of these moods. Type studies that utilized many type variations may overwhelm the participants. Gump (2001) noted that the subtle differences betw een the typefaces or even the moods/emotions elicited might be unfamiliar to the participants and even unrecognizable. Henderson, Giese and Cote (2004) exposed the responde nt to 20 typefaces, but with that number of typefaces, comparison between typefaces could be confusing to the respondent. Simply showing a typeface to a consumer ma y not allow them to fully experience a complete emotional response. Typefaces are not typically observed alone; rather, they are shown in a particular context, like in a book, on a st orefront, or in an a dvertisement with other supporting imagery. Seeing a typeface out of cont ext may not fully or accurately elicit an emotion in the respondent. Current research This research seeks to fill the gap in the current type studies by specifically looking at emotional response to typ ography in ads. This study hopes to discover a relationship between emotions and typefaces to help prov ide support for the long-held practitioner belief that emotions can be elicited through typefaces. Theoretical Framework Given the b ody of literature presented above and consideration to the limitations and purpose of the research, the follo wing theoretical framework is used in this study. The present research uses a hybrid of perception theory in visual communication and affect theory.

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39 Perception theory helps to validate the use of emotional response in a study concerning visual communications, while affect theory supports the em otions being used as a measure in this study. Perception Theory Perception theory is the com bination of neur ological research and ps ychological principles applied to visual communications. This theo ry, developed by Barry (2005), maintains that emotions are involved in the processing of vi sual communications and specifically targets visual communication as paralle ling perceptual process dependent on primary emotion-based systems of response (p.45). Furthermore, throu gh neurological research, perception theory has revealed that a respondents visual processi ng is unconscious, leading to responses based on emotions. The unconscious processing can have a gr eat impact on emotions, leading to actions or emotional responses being molded a particular way (Barry, 2005). This theory is important for many forms of communications research, specifically those looking for a respondents reaction to some form of visual media. As most messages are communicated through visual media, it is impor tant to understand how we interpret those messages. The eyes and brain play a large role in interpretation, collecting visual information through the eyes and then seamlessly interp reted by the brain, a llowing the brain to unconsciously learn emotionally (Barry, 2005). Barry (2005) further adds to this theory st ating messages are unconsciously processed in areas of the brain that do not understand that art and mass media are not reality instead, their visual power can have enormous impact on our emotional developm ent (p.61). For this current research, perception theory provides pa rt of the necessary visual and emotional framework for studying the emotional response to typography in ads.

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40 Affect Theory Affect theory states that a persons emotions are elicited in a pre-cognitive state, or reactionary rather than procedural (Zajonc, 1980). This theory, according to Tomkins (1991), is counter to the a cognitive theory ap proach, which states that in orde r for an affect response to be enabled, a series of cognitive processes must be met prior to the affective reaction. Affect theory supports the idea that emotional responses are not consci ous or logical. Early affect theory development by Tomkins (1962) vi ews affect as a primary biological mechanism and are a motivator of human behavior. Biologic al mechanisms like facial expressions, heart rate, blood flow, vocalizations and other mechanisms help to observe an affective response. Tomkins (1962) places affect as one of five systems of huma n function, alongside homeostatic, drive, cognitive, and motor systems. In contrast to other theories (e.g., Cognitive theory) affect theory allows for a more expansive account of both experiences and motivations of human beings. Affect theory also looks at the primary a ffects from a biological perspective. Primary affects are the observed facial, autonomic and cerebral responses (Tomkins, 1962). Furthering the primary affects, Tomkins (1991) puts forth nine pairs of primary affective responses, indicating intensity differences with the hyphena ted affect descriptors: interest-excitement, enjoyment-joy, surprise-startle, distress-anguis h, fear-terror, sham e-humiliation, contemptdisgust, and anger-rage. Although these descriptors do not represen t a full range of affective response intensity, other measures of affectiv e responses, like the PAD scale, use bipolar measures (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974). Affect theory remains a notion that it is independent, explaining the moments where emotions are elicited rapidly and other functions stay the same, but affect theory also, at times can explain the correlation and interrelation of the other system s. Tomkins (1981) states that

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41 affective reactions function as analogic amplifiers, or the moment when the organism to experience a state of urgency or state of caring about the experience. Tomkins (1981) states that without affect amplification no thing else matters, and with amplification anything can matter (p.54). Morris, Woo, Geason, and Kim (2002) stated that emotional response is a powerful predictor of intention an d brand attitude, and given the diagno stic capabilities that are missing in other measures of affect (e.g., Attitude Toward the Ad), it is a valuable tool for strategic planning, message testing, and brand tracking (p .14). To provide additional support for affect theory, Zajonc (1980) stated the form of expe rience that we came to call feeling accompanies all cognitions, that it arises early in the process of registration and retrieval and that it derives from a parallel, separate, and partly inde pendent system in the organism (p.154). Perception theory uses the visual and neur ological research foundation, combined with affect theory with its precognitive and reacti onary foundation, which provides a basis to study both the visual aspects and the emotional response aspects. The combination of perception theory and affect theory provides a basis to study by visual and emotional response aspect of typography. Hypothesis Em otional response to typefaces in advertisem ents has not previously been studied. In a review of the literature typefaces eliciting emotion was disc ussed in the context of practical application of typography. However, empirical research on emotional response to typography was minimal. The following research que stion was explored in this study: Will the typefaces contained in an advert isement elicit an affective response? Based on previous research, nove lty typefaces are seldom used and often deviate from the typical design of other typefaces, which produc es greater respondent interest (Baudin, 1988/84;

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42 Wehr & Wippich, 2004). This study utilized the typeface Papyrus (PAP) as the novelty selection for its visual uniqueness. Most novelty typefaces are purposefully created and are generally limited in practical use. Respondent s will most likely respond to PAP with high Pleasure, high Arousal, and high Dominance. This typeface is no t regularly viewed in publications, which will create a novel experience for the viewer. Henderson, et al. (2004), stated that novelty typefaces, like PAP, fall into several clusters of typefaces th at generate an average to high levels of pleasing, engaging, reassuring and prominent res ponses. Further supporting the hypothesis, Wehr and Wippich (2003) found that words using unco mmon typefaces are remembered more than words using common typefaces. The serif option will produce a moderate response. The typeface chosen for the serif typeface is Palatino (PAL) a common serif font. This particular serif is not overly ornate, focusing on readability rather than style. Serif fonts, in general, are common for both body copy and headlines. Henderson et al. (200 4) stated that common fonts, like PAL, fall into a cluster of typefaces that were found to generate a boring (p.67) affective response. Wehr and Wippich (2003) state that commonly used typefaces considered to be normal like many sans serif typefaces may not have as great of an em otional response like th e novelty typeface. The respondents will most likely respond with moderate Pleasure, moderate Arousal and moderate Dominance. Furthermore, sans serif typefaces are quite versatile allowing for many different applications. The typeface chosen to represent the sans serif category is Helvetica Neue 65 Medium (HEL). As this typeface is quite common in both body copy and headline applications, a moderate emotional response will be elicited. This claim is loosely supported by Wehr and Wippich (2003), which found commonly viewed typefaces would not stand out (p.145) when

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43 compared to lesser-viewed typefaces like the nove lty typefaces. Henderson et al. (2004) also supports the sans serif generating a response that would fall within the cluster of a boring (p.67) affective response. This sans serif will be associated with low Pleasure, low Arousal and low to moderate Dominance. The following hypotheses were generated: H1: The novelty typeface will produce the higher levels of Pleasure when compared to the serif and sans serif options. H2: The novelty typeface will produce the higher levels of Arousal when compared to the serif and sans serif options. H3: The novelty typeface will produced the higher levels of Dominance when compared to the serif and sans serif options. Additional measures will be used to compare the results of the PAD (emotions) with the less intense measures of PANAS (mood), Aad, and Abr (feelings). PANAS, Aad, and Abr act as comparison measures help to compare the differi ng levels of affect elicited. The hypotheses for the additional affective measures are: H4: The novelty typeface will produce the great est mood response in the PA measure of PANAS when compared to the serif and sans serif options. H5: The serif typeface will product the greatest mood response in the NA measure of the PANAS scale, when compared to the sans serif and novelty options. H6: The novelty typeface will produce the greatest Aad score when compared to the serif and sans serif options. H7: The novelty typeface will produce the greatest Abr score when compared to the serif and sans serif options. Summary Chapter 2 introduced the foundational elem en ts for studying typography. The first section of the chapter focused on typography, looking at the history and the literature on the physical elements, color, personality, memorability a nd branding. The second section of this chapter looked at the emotional literature. These sectio ns helped to create an understanding for studying

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44 a persons emotional response to typefaces. The final section focused on the hypothesis of this study. Chapter 3 introduces the method in which to test how the typefaces elicit emotional responses.

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45 CHAPTER 3 MEASURING EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO TYPOGRAPHY Introduction Chapter 3 highlights the research m ethod and procedures used to study emotional response to typographic variations in advertisements. Disc ussed first is the resear ch design, then the unit of analysis, independent a nd dependent variables, the procedure used, the AdSAM method and finally the statistical models us ed in analyzing the results. Po tential confounding variables are discussed at the conclusion of this section. In the methods s ection to follow, by holding many elements constant, accounting for potential conf ounding variables, this study seeks to discover emotional response to various typefaces, compare those results to the additional affective measures. Operational Definitions The following sections define the variables us ed in this study. The Independent Variables section high lights the typefaces used to elic it the emotions, the stimulus used in the questionnaire, and a rationale for this study. De pendent Variables sectio n discusses Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance (PAD), three elements th at measure the emotional response. Additional dependent variables are discussed along w ith the details of the questionnaire. Independent Variables The typeface was m anipulated by using th ree different styles contained in an advertisement. The typefaces used in the test ad were Palatino (PAL) Helvetica Neue 65 Medium (HEL) and Papyrus (PAP), representing the serif, sans serif and novelty typefaces respectively. PAL was chosen to represent the serif type style. PAL was chosen over the popular Times New Roman serif typeface, as it is less prevalent to the average computer user. Times New

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46 Roman is the common default for many word processing programs and is familiar to many users. Commonly used typefaces, like Ti mes New Roman was found to be less salient when compared to more unique typefaces and was associated w ith typeface clusters with average levels of pleasure, high levels of reassurance and low levels of engaging (Henderson, et al., 2004; Wehr & Wippich, 2004). These clusters were similar to th e PAD measure used in this study. In an effort to lessen any negative association, a different serif typeface was used. Instead of choosing a typeface that was found to be boring (Henderson et al., 2004, p.67), the current research utilized PAL as a representative of a serif typeface, a more unique style. HEL was chosen to represent the sans serif category. Graphic designe rs commonly use the various styles of Helvetica in many in many applications. It is chosen for its versatility, availability and familiarity (Schriver, 1997). A lthough designers are aware of this typeface, the common observer may not be able to recognize this typeface. Novelty typefaces, like PAP, are not typically chosen for items like body copy but are potentially complementary in cert ain design considerations, like in headline applications of niche periodicals. Legibility and readability of PAP is not the main concern, rather the visual uniqueness is the focus (Baudin, 1988/84). The experimental stimulus The stim ulus advertisement was created by the re searcher and featured a fictitious sports car. This product type was chosen based on the prevalence of similar ads in magazines and newspapers. As the product featured was entirel y fictitious, it would not confound the results with previous brand associations. There were three versi ons of the ad created, using each of the three typefaces. Each ad had the same head line, body copy, layout, colors, and photograph. The type sizes were held constant throughout each ad type, with minor differences to adjust for the

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47 different font variations. Th ere was an obvious size difference between the headline and body copy text, but each ads headline used 28-point typeface with a 34-point leading and 12-point typeface with 24-point leading for the body c opy. The body copy in each ad was set to left justification. Each ad type has a consistent layout with each typeface variation. The layout of the ad featured one main visual used (car), the same placement of visual, headline, and body copy, and the page oriental was portrait (i.e., 8.5 inches wide by 11 inches tall), a similar dimension used in magazine advertisement. The elements and layouts were chosen for stylistic purposes to make it look like an advertisement the part icipant would normally experience, further increasing exte rnal validity. Furthermore, the ad had a fictitious logo, which was created to represent the product featured in the ad to enhance realism, cr ease artificiality, and increase external validity. Each participant was randomly given one of six Internet hyperlinks to an online survey. Each survey displayed a different order of typefaces. The six to tal links represented all possible combinations of typeface orders. The links allowe d the researcher to show the participants the advertisement with the typeface ma nipulations in different orders, controlling for the order of the ads. Without varying the order of the typef aces shown, the order itself could have had a confounding effect on the emotional response elicited. The questionnaires were cr eated using SurveyMonkey, an online survey tool (SurveyMonkey, 2008). Each of the six surveys wa s built using this tool, requiring all but the qualitative questions to be answered. After creating each questionnaire, SurveyMonkey provides a link to give to the respondents to participate. Six different survey groups were created, each featuring a different order of the ad variations, shown in Table 3-1.

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48 Rationale for the imagery In creating the ad, magazine searches were performed to locate images, layouts, and copy of previous ads representi ng the automobile category, adding external validity to the test ads. An advertisement for a Mercedes-Benz spor ts car, featured in an April 2008 Wired magazine (Figure 3-1) provided both the visual inspiration and copy for the test ad (2008 C-Class). The imagery was changed to prevent exis ting brand association, but the copy was predominately used verbatim, making minor adjust ments to the specifications featured the copy. Using the existing copy helped to further increa se the external validity of the test ad. After creating a rough draft sket ch of the layouts with pe n and paper, both the body copy and headlines were written using Microsoft Wor d. The imagery for the questionnaire was located and purchased from iStockphoto, an online roya lty-free stock photography website (iStockphoto, 2008). The image was selected because of its visual independence from an existing brand. The image did not feature any brand names or recogn izable brand elements but obviously represented the product category. Once the imagery was select ed, minor modifications to the copy were made to highlight fictitious engine specifications, creating co hesiveness between the copy and the visual. Further consideration was give n to the background of the im age chosen with preference given to an object with a white background, wh ich allowed for easy integration into Adobe InDesign CS2, an industry standard page layout software package used to create the test ad. Figure 3-2 shows the image and corresponding phot o identification information used in this study. The page layout software, Adobe InDesign, wa s used to create th e layout, headline and body copy into a digital format. InDesign allows for the control of image placement and size

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49 adjustments, as well as the ability to control for the line spacing (leading114) of the headline and body copy. The image was imported into InDesign without any manipulation of the image content. Size adjustments were made to f it the visual within the layout. The body copy was imported into InDesign and held constant through out each variation of the ad. Once the layout for the ad was created with both the image a nd the body copy, the entire ad was duplicated on a new page and the typefaces used were manipulate d, keeping the exact lay out intact. This step was repeated once more for the third typeface variation. Figure 3-3 shows the final ads with the typeface manipulations. Dependent Variables The dependent variables are the em otional resp onses to the typographic variations elicited from the advertisement. Specifically, the three el ements that form an emotional response are Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance (PAD). Pleasure Russell and Mehrabian (1974) define Pleasure as a feeling state that occurs on a bipolar dim ension of pleasure-displeasure. Pleasure occurs as a basic response to some form of stimuli. The difficulty in narrowly defining Pleasure, accor ding to Tiger (1992), is that this element of emotional response is a highly subjective a nd private emotion. Even though Pleasure is subjective, it can be measured by allowing a responde nt to self-report their f eelings in a reliable manner, removing any problems with semantic differences of researcher determined verbal scales115. 14 Leading is a measure of the space between lines of text Specifically leading is the distance from baseline-tobaseline among lines of text (Schriver, 1997, p.327) 15 Both verbal and nonverbal scales require cognitive proc essing on the part of the respondent. The advantage of AdSAM as a nonverbal and cross-cultural measure is that it allows for the respondents to rely on their own interpretation of emotional descriptor, rather than a specifi c predetermined definition (Mehrabian & Russell, 1977).

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50 In the current study, Pleasure is expre ssed as graphical manikins with AdSAM using facial expressions ranging from smiling and happy to frowning and unhappy, along a nine-point Likert scale from 9 (happy) to 1 (unhappy) (Morris, 1995). Self-reporting mechanisms like AdSAM116 allow a respondent to determine his or her level of Pleasure in response to a stimulus. Pleasure results from Russell and Me hrabian (1977) were compared to the Pleasure results of Morris (1995) and found th ere was a high correlation of .93. Arousal Arousal is defined as a state of feeling that varies along a dim ension of frantic excitement to sleepiness (Russell & Mehr abian, 1974). Arousal is measured graphically with AdSAM by using these dimensions, showing a frantically excited manikin with very large eyes to a sleepy manikin with eyes closed. The Arousal measure is measured along a nine-point Likert scale from 9 (frantically excited) to 1 (sleepy) (Morris, 1995). In comparing Arousal results of Russell and Mehrabian (1977) to Morris (1995), there was a high level of correlation of .93. Dominance Dom inance is based on the degree to which a pe rson feels in control or being controlled. Russell and Mehrabian (1974) define Dominance as the extent to which he[/she] feels unrestricted or free to act in a variety of ways (p.19). Graphically, Dominance is measured by the size of the manikin, from very small to very large on a nine-point Likert scale from 1 (very small manikin) to 9 (very large manikin). The sm all-sized manikin repres ents feeling controlled or a state of submissiveness (l ow Dominance), while the large manikin represents feeling in 16 As previously mentioned, using AdSAM allows the respondent to determine their level of emotional response for his/herself, rather than choosing a predetermined verbal measure. This provides a more accurate assessment of emotional response.

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51 control or powerful (high Dominance) (Morris, 1995) Morris (1995) Dominance results were compared to Russell and Mehrabian (1977) and found adequate correlation of .66. Additional dependent variables In addition to using the PAD m easure, other dependent variables were used. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) was used to measure the potential moods that could also be elicited from this study using a ten-item scale from one (very slightly) to five (extremely). Even though emotion is the central interest of this study, emotion is a more intense affective response than mood. PANAS acts as a highly reliabl e and valid measure of mood. This scale was used for comparison to the PAD emotional resp onse scale (Watson, Clark and Tellegen, 1988). Attitude toward the ad (Aad) and attitude toward the brand (Abr) measures were also utilized in this study. This measure was chosen based on its prevalence in previous studies to measure feelings, a less intense response than em otions. A semantic differential scale was used to compare the feeling responses of the Aad and Abr to the emotional responses of AdSAM. According to Edell and Burke (1987) Aad and Abr are cited as good meas ures of feelings, a generally less intense response than emotions Specifically, Edell and Burke (1987) found for most of the advertisements utilized in their study, Aad and Abr contributed to the understanding of the feelings elicited. Furthermore, Aad and Abr are often used as a factor that influences purchase intention. Aad will be measured using three, seven-point semantic differential scales (unpleasant/pleasant, uninteresting/interesting, and uninformative/informative); while Abr will be measure the level the respondent liked the brand along a five-point semantic differentia l (definitely purchase, possibly purchase, indifferent, possibl y would not purchase and definitely would not purchase). Comparisons were made to determine statistically significant differences.

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52 Questionnaire. All the dependent variables were measured us ing an online questionnaire. There were six versions of the questionnaire wi th each with a different link for the respondent to access. Using the Table 3-1 and the created ad variations in Fi gure 3-3, the created ads were formed into the different online questionnaires shown Figure 3-4, ensuring no repetition of order. Below each advertisement in the online questionnaire, the AdSAM nine-point scale was placed to measure the participants PAD to qui ckly record their emotional response. AdSAM allowed the respondent to respond to the advertisement in less than 15 seconds (Morris, 1995). Further questions, utilizing the PANAS scal e, were asked concerning the mood of the respondent. Then semantic differential questions were used to m easure the audiences attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand. This helped to control for any liking/disliking of the ad design and level of involvement with the product itself. Further, to discover specific reasons as to why the respondents liked and disliked the ad, qualitative questions were utilized. In addition to specific reasons, these qualitative re sponses allowed the researcher to verify the quantitative results as well as fi nd unforeseen and underlying bias. As the respondents gave their selections for each PAD scale, a predetermined coding sheet (Figure 3-5) was used in the survey to assi gn each response a number. This number corresponds to the PAD level shown by the Self-Assessment Ma nikins (SAM). The number also corresponds to the actual amount of PAD. For instance, if a respondent felt low levels of Pleasure, they would respond on the right-hand side, or with the unhap py SAM, and would receive a lower number. If the respondent felt a high level of Dominance to ward the advertisement, they would choose the larger SAM, receiving a higher number. Each ad contains the PAD manikin sets show n above. The elements of the PAD scale as measured by AdSAM helps to form the respondents emotional response.

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53 Reliability and Validity This section discusses the reli ability and validity of using the emotional response measure AdSAM. First discussed is reliability, then vali dity, followed next by confounding variables. Reliability The basis of the Self-As sessment Manikin (SAM ) is reliable, as according to Russell and Mehrabian (1977). Russell and Mehrabian (1977) did extensive work on PAD scales finding reliability to be .93 for Pleasure, .88 for Ar ousal and .79 for Dominance. The graphic SAMs were also shown to be reliable in Lang (1980) mirroring all but one of Russell et al. (1977) results with Pleasure (.94), Arous al (.94) and Dominance (.66). In the current re search, the PAD scores returned a Cronbachs Alpha of .68 for PAL, .70 for HEL, and .66 for PAP. Reliability for the PANAS measure was test ed by Watson, Clark, and Tellegen (1988), showed an alpha of .89 for the positive affect (PA) scale and an alpha of .85 for the negative affect (NA) scale for the moment time inst ruction. As this study seeks to measure an immediate response, the reliability scores were utilized for the moment or at the present moment (p.1065). Overall, the measure had an over all reliability ranging from an alpha of .86 to .90 for the PA scale and from .84 to .87 for the NA s cale, which included the time references of today, during the past few days, during the past few weeks, during the past year, and in general, that is, on the averag e (p.1065). In the current resear ch, PANAS reported reliabilities of: .95 (PA) and .88 (NA) for PAL; .95 (PA) and .90 (NA) for HEL; and .94 (PA) and .90 (NA) for PAP MacKenzie, Lutz, and Belch (1986) u tilized attitude toward the ad (Aad) and attitude toward the brand measures (Abr), reporting reliabilities of .85 and .92 respectively. Furthermore, Edell & Burke (1987) suggested that measuring Aad and Abr while an audience views an ad

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54 would improve our understanding of the viewers experience. In the cu rrent research, these scales were asked following exposure to the stimulu s. The combined reliabili ties observed in the current research showed a Cronbachs Alpha of .77 for PAL .77 for HEL, and .75 for PAP. Validity The valid ity of the AdSAM method has been supported in previous studies ranging from advertising, advertising strategy, evaluation, and marketing communications. As stated previously, Morris and McMull en (1994) measured the PAD levels of 41 30-second advertisements, discovering that multiple emotional responses could be found in one ad, as well as supporting the measure of ad in halves to detect multiple emotional responses. The AdSAM measure has a high degree of content validity117, accurately covering a range of human emotions. Based on human facial expressions, AdSAM accurately measures the PAD of the respondents, covering the range of meanings in the con cept of emotions and emotional response. The use of PAD in AdSAM is validated by previous studies from Mehrabian and Russell (1974) and Mehrabian and Russell (1977) finding that the combination of the three measures can describe most emotional states, each are independent, and each are measured along bipolar dimensions. Lang (1980) found the Self-Assessment Manikins (SAM) were able to visually represent the PAD scales (Figure 3), capturing the subtle di fferences in a participants affective response without utilizing verbal scales previously used in affective studies (Osgood, Suci, & Tannenbaum, 1957). The PAD scores for the SAM scale were highly correlated (.937, .938, .660 respectively) with the previous results by Mehr abian and Russell (1974), mirroring the results of the findings using a semantic differential scale. Results from the visual PAD scales of Lang 17 Content validity refers to the degree to which a measure covers the various meanings within a concept, such as emotions (Babbie, 2004).

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55 (1980) show convergent validity118 with the findings verbal resp onse scales of Mehrabian and Russell (1974), both correlated and encompassing the measures that make up an emotion. Specifically, studies have used AdSAM to test storyboards, creative strategies and gender differences in emotional response presenting a hi gh degree of convergent validity (Morris, 1995). As this study focuses on affective responses, the AdSAM measurement allows for the respondent to quickly and easily respond to each ad, using a minimum amount of time (15 seconds). As Zajonc (1980) discussed, affectiv e responses are made in a pre-cognitive state, usually within a short time frame after bei ng exposed to the stimulus. With the AdSAM measure able to quickly capture this pre-cognit ive, affective response, the measure shows a high degree of face validity. In fu rther support of the AdSAM measure, Punne tt and Pollay (1990) discuss that using facial expres sions help to provide a measure of response that is automatic. With the participant able to select his or her feeling represented by a f acial expression, this provides an accurate representation of the emotion elicited by the ad. The ads used in the current re search were based upon real ad vertisements and promotions for products in the categories represented. The headlines a nd body copy were based on copy featured in the actual ads, adapted for the fictitious products. The imagery was also loosely based on the imagery found in actual ads. Using printed advertisement as a basis, this provides the created ads with a realistic feel providing external validity. Previous studies have used complicated defini tions of emotions by using verbal terms that could be defined by the respondents in different ways (Henders on, Giese & Cote, 2004) as well as studies utilizing numerical scal es that ask the respondent to rank the emotion elicited (Kastl & Child, 1968). For the current research, a non-verbal measure of emotional response was utilized 18 Convergent validity is a subset of content validity that s eeks to measure the constructs that theoretically should be related to each other and have an observed rela tionship between the constructs (Trochim, 2006, p.1).

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56 to prevent confusion of terms and thus increasi ng external validity. More specifically a PAD scale was utilized, capturing all aspects of emo tions (Russell & Merabian, 1977). Furthermore, the SAM allows for a non-verbal, cross cultural and non-gender specific mechanism to measure emotions (Morris, 1995). Confounding variables There were a few potential confounding variables discovere d in the creation of the fictitious ad vertisements that could have cause d problems if left uncontrolled. The addition of a visual in each ad could influence the emotional response, especially if the customer does not recognize or identify with the imagery shown. Th e images were held constant throughout the survey groups to address this potential issue. The layout could also affect emotional res ponse as the decision to use typographical elements like white space considerations, spacing of the margins or even whether to use one or two columns. Typographic elements like type si ze, leading and kerning could have lead to confounding results. Holding type size, layout, leading, kerning, margins and white space constant throughout each of the ads, however, controls these factors. One confounding variable was the respondent s exposure to all three typographic variations of the same ad. This could potentially lead to participant wear out and could affect the results. By creating the six surveys with a varyin g order of ads, the participant wear out should be minimal. Furthermore, without controlling for the order of effects, the actual order of the typefaces could have been a factor in th e emotional response to that typeface. The advertisements created featured different typography elements, with the visuals and layout held constant. Another consideration was to make part icular words bold to emphasize them, but McCarthy and Mothersbaugh (2002) empha size that by using bold or italic text, the copy indicates there is something of importance in the text. The focus of this study is not the

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57 relevancy or importance of the body copy. Instead, the typeface itself was focus. Drawing too much attention to the meaning of the copy could have been count erproductive for this experiment and possibly confound the results. The Experimental Design A post-test only, within-subjects experim e ntal design was utilized, showing three variations of an advertisement to the respondents. This design was used to see which of the three treatments would elicit the greate st emotional response from the participants. The subjects would know the true nature of the experiment after th e first treatment partic ularly since all three conditions are shown. This experi ment utilized a large sample si ze, reducing the probability of type II error or the failure of not observi ng a difference when a difference exists. The researcher recognized the potential wea kness of the within-s ubjects experimental design. The order of effects or the respondents seeing one ad could affect their emotional response to a subsequent ad. To counter this we akness, six different surveys were created to account for all possible orders of the ads to be shown to the respondents, removing any effect of the order of the ads. The Experimental Pretest An experimental pretest was done with 10 unde rgraduate students in an upper division elective course at the sam e large, southeastern university. The questionnaire was carried out on a smaller population, separate from the large lect ure format courses planned for the main study. The participants did not overla p, and no students took the questi onnaire in both pretest and the actual experiment. The questionnaire was given in the online format to check for any bias, unclear terminology of the survey, the appropriate number of questions, and the clarity of the types of questions. Further attention was paid to any thoughts the respon dents had during their participation.

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58 The pretest found that the survey needed to be condensed to have fewer questions with fewer ads. The original questionnaire contained two different ads with th ree typeface variations per ad. Each ad variation had 33 questions, wi th the respondent answering 198 questions. The questionnaire was shortened to only one ad with three typeface variations totaling 99 questions. During the pretest, concerns we re expressed about the AdSAM measure and not remembering what each PAD measure represented. The test ad exposed the respondent to the AdSAM measure in the instructions only. Base d on this recommendation, an abbreviated reminder was placed after the ad variation and pr ior to the question. This allowed the respondent to familiarize and remind them of the details of the measure. Participants The researcher used a sam ple of 361 underg raduate college students aged 18 and older from a large southeastern university. Participants were identified from advertising courses and an invited to complete the survey. These partic ipants were asked questions regarding their emotional responses to the advertisem ents with three type variations. Students who participated in this study were primarily from the journalism and communications college with over 46% of the respondents fr om advertising, journalism, telecommunications and public re lations majors. Other major groupings of respondents were the business students with over 25% (marketi ng, accounting, finance, management, general business) and students in lib eral arts studies (psychol ogy, sociology, anthropology, English, religion and other areas of study). The female respondents made up 74% of the to tal respondents and 26% of the respondents were male. The largest age grouping to partic ipate was the 20-year-old group, representing 41% of the total respondents. When 19 and 21-year-o ld group was included, they represented 85% of the total respondents. Students who identified themselves in their j unior or third year were the

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59 largest population of respondents at 47.6%. Ethnically, the larges t respondent group identified themselves as White at 64%, 16.1% Hispanic, and 10.2% as Black. The demographics of the participants in the study are shown in Table 3-2. Procedure Research was perform ed during the fall 2008 semester from September to November. Instructors were contacted about gaining access to their student populations. As incentive, the professors or instructors agreed to provide extra credit for the st udents to participate in this study. Three total classes (Class 1, 2, 3) were uti lized to request part icipation returning 361 respondents. Each participant was given a piece of paper with instructions, the researchers contact information, a corresponding li nk to participate in the st udy, and a corresponding Web ID number. For example, the first survey group questionnaire was assigned a range of Web ID numbers between 100-199, the second survey ha d 200-299, the third had 300-399, the fourth had 400-499, the fifth had 500-599 and the sixth had 600-699. These web ID numbers allowed for random assignment of the participants. Each piece of paper was placed into groupings and randomly ordered for distribution to the participants. To randomly order the pieces of pape r, a random numbers table was used to select from the groupings of web ID numbers. The firs t number in each number set was used to determined the web ID grouping to select from fo r inclusion into a distri bution group, utilizing a top to bottom vertical method. For example, if the random numbers table showed the number the first number was used to select a piece of paper from the 300 set of web ID and placed face down. If the next number was a piece of paper was selected from the set of web ID. This process was repeated until all piece of paper were included in one randomly ordered stack for distribution.

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60 The randomly ordered pieces of paper were physi cally distributed to the participants. The participants followed the link to participate in the questionnaire. Cont act information of the researcher was included in case the participan t had trouble accessing th e online questionnaire. The web ID provided the researcher with informa tion to correctly send the appropriate link to the online questionnaire. The participants read the piece of paper and ty ped in the link to participate in the online study. The informed consent was shown to the partic ipant online. If they chose to participate, they would type their name, student identificat ion number, web ID number, the course number they were to receive extra cred it and choose whether or not they choose to participate. The time limit given for this survey was seven days or one week from the date the survey was distributed to them in class by the researcher. After the informed consent, the AdSAM measurement scale was explained prior to viewing the advertisements to familiarize the pa rticipants with this measure using non-technical terminology. Once familiar, they proceeded with th e survey. The survey showed one of the ads followed by the AdSAM, PANAS, attitude toward the ad (Aad), attitude toward the brand (Abr), and qualitative measures. Each page showed anothe r ad with a different typeface with the same order of questions. The respondents saw the adver tisement and all of the typefaces. The survey link provided to the students was randomized to prevent the same order of typefaces being shown to all participants. Once the survey time ended after one week, th e results were downloaded from the online survey, SurveyMonkey, coded using the established AdSAM coding sheets and sent to AdSAM for processing. Further proce ss of the data involved compiling the six different surveys into a single excel document.

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61 The resulting data was entered into SAS and a within-subjects multivariate ANOVA test was performed. An Analysis of Variance (ANOV A) test was then performed to find the differences among the means of each of the typeface variations. Summary Chapter 3 be gan with the operational definitions of both the independent and dependent variables. The independent variables of the typef ace were discussed as the experimental stimulus as well as the rationale for the imagery, while the dependent variable discussed the emotional response measures including the PAD scale. Fu rther scales used in this study included the PANAS as well as measures of Aad and Abr. Further details on the que stionnaire were mentioned. Reliability and validity were discussed, as well as the potential confoundi ng variables in this experiment. The within-subjects experimental desi gn was mentioned along with the experimental pretest that was performed, followed by the part icipant demographics. Finally, this chapter discussed the detailed procedure of carrying out this experiment. Chapter 4 will detail the findings of this study, highlighting the result s from the questionnaire, highlighting AdSAM analysis of PAD, PANAS, Aad, and Abr.

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62 Table 3-1. Survey groups in randomized order Groups Typeface Order Link 1 PAL HEL PAP Link 2 HEL PAP PAL Link 3 PAL PAP HEL Link 4 PAP PAL HEL Link 5 HEL PAL PAP Link 6 PAP HEL PAL This table shows the randomized order of the typefaces used in the questionnaire. PAL was used to denote Palatino, HEL was used to denote Helvetica Neue 65 Medium, and PAP was used to denote Papyrus for this table.

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63 Table 3-2. Respondent demographics Demographic Subscale n % Gender Male (1) 9426.0 Female (2) 26774.0 Age* 18-19 (1) 7921.88 20 (2) 14841.00 21 (3) 8523.55 22-34 (4) 4913.57 Ethnicity White (1) 23164.00 Black (2) 3710.20 Hispanic (3) 5816.10 Asian (4) 174.70 Native Indian (5) 2.60 Other (6) 164.40 Year in School Freshman (1) 61.70 Sophomore (2) 10629.40 Junior (3) 17247.6 Senior (4) 7520.80 Graduate / Masters (5) 2.60 Top Five Majors Advertising (1) 11130.70 Public Relations (2) 3910.80 Marketing (6) 3910.80 Finance (12) 236.40 Sports Management (5) 185.00 Class General population (1) 12835.50 General population (2) 19253.20 Journalism majors (3) 4111.40 This table provides a summary of the demographic information of the study participants. The superscripts denote the number used to represent the particular categories. For example, Male is represented in the da ta as a value of 1. *The mean age of the partic ipants was 20 years old. The Class demographic variable represented the co urse from which the participant population was found.

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64 Figure 3-1. Inspiration for quest ionnaire advertisement. 2008 C-Class Mercedes-Benz. This figure shows the advertisement feat ured in an April 2008 issue of Wired magazine.

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65 Figure 3-2. Image information. Keyword (the sear ch terms used to locate the imagery in the iStockPhoto database): Fast Car. File #: 6029133. File name: iStock_000006029133Medium.jpg. Resolution (pixels119): 1550 x 1239 px. This figure highlights the specific information of the imagery used in the advertisements featured in the questionnaire. PAL HEL PAP Figure 3-3. Test advertisements with typographic manipulations. This figure features the test advertisements used in the survey with the three type face manipulations. 19 Pixels (px) are a measuremen t of image size (Byrne, 2004).

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66 Link 1 Link 2 Link 3 Link 4 Link 5 Link 6 Figure 3-4. Questionnaire groups. This figure visually highlights the six surv eys (links) with the randomized order of the manipulated advertisements.

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67 Figure 3-5. AdSAM data code Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance (PAD) Measure. This figure shows the AdSAM manikins and their correlated values. Pleasure shows low to high happiness, Arousal shows high to low ar ousal, and Dominance shows low to high dominance.

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68 CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS Chapter 4 starts with the Descriptive Statis tics section, which discussing the m eans and Repeated Measures ANOVA results. Next the ANOV A and Post-hoc Analysis identified key variables of statistica l significant and the relationships between the variables. The AdSAM generated data is discussed next, focusing on the visual output of the PAD results. Finally, the qualitative results from the open-ended measures are discussed. Descriptive Statistics The survey used four established m easures, AdSAM, PANAS, Aad and Abr measures. The survey followed up with two open-ended quali tative questions. The means and standard deviations for each of the study variables were calculated and are presented in Table 4-1. The within-subjects design required the use of the General Linear Model (GLM) to perform a Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The Repeated Measures ANOVA results are discussed within the PAD, PANAS, Aad, and Abr. In addition to the Repeated Measures ANOVA, consideration in each secti on was given to statistically signi ficant contrast variables. H1 stated the novelty typeface PAP would produce the higher levels of Pleasure when compared to the serif and sans serif options. The results showed that the serif typeface PAL produced a mean of 6.30 ( SD =1.62) for Pleasure. The typefaces HEL and PAP produced means of 6.21 ( SD =1.62) and 6.14 ( SD =1.64) respectively. A Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance was run looking at the differences between the means of the PAD subscales and each typeface variation ( F (2, 359)=2.28; p=.10). There was no statistically signi ficant difference overall. In the contrast variables, the results showed that there was a statisti cally significant difference between

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69 PAP and PAL (.04 < .05), but no statistically significant difference between PAP and HEL. The findings did not support the hypothesis. H2 stated the novelty typeface PAP would produce higher levels of Arousal when compared to the serif and sans serif options. Findings did no t support the hypothesis. For Arousal, the means produced were 5.64 ( SD =2.00) for PAL 5.65 ( SD =1.98) for HEL, and 5.47 ( SD =2.11) for PAP. In performing a Repeated Meas ures ANOVA test, no statistically significant differences were found between the means for Pleasure ( F (2, 329)=2.03; p=.13). H3 stated the novelty typeface PAP would produce higher levels of Dominance when compared to the serif and sans serif options. The means produced were 5.86 ( SD =1.73) for PAL 5.78 ( SD =1.83) for HEL, and 5.81 ( SD =1.92) for PAP. The Repeated Measures ANOVA reported no overall statistically significant di fferences amongst the dependent variables ( F (2, 359)=.48; p =.62). H4 stated that the novelty typeface PAP would generate the greatest PA mood response when compared to the serif and sans serif typefaces. The findings di d not support the hypothesis. For PA, the means produced were 25.11 ( SD =9.84) for PAL 24.76 ( SD =10.04) for HEL, and 24.30 for PAP ( SD =9.64). The Repeated Measures ANOVA found no overall statistically significant differences amongst the dependent variables ( F (2, 329)=2.27; p=.11), but in the contrast variables showed a statistically significant relationship between PAL and PAP (.04 < .05). H5 stated that the serif typeface PAL would produce the greatest NA mood response when compared to the novelty and sans serif typefaces. The findings did not support the hypothesis.

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70 For the NA, the means produced were 12.53 ( SD =4.29) for PAL 12.92 ( SD =4.80) for HEL, 12.81 ( SD =4.88) for PAP. The Repeated Measures ANOVA found no statistica lly significant differences amongst the dependent variables ( F (2, 321)=1.31; p=.27). H6 stated that the novelty typeface PAP would product the greatest Aad score when compared to the serif and sans serif options. The findings did not support the hypothesis. The means produced for the Aad measure found were 13.72 (SD =3.73) for PAL 13.59 ( SD =3.78) for HEL, and 13.35 ( SD =3.70) for PAP. No statistically significant results were reported for the Repeated Measures ANOVA ( F (2, 359)=2.71; p=.07), but found statistical significance between the contrast variables PAL and PAP (.02 < .05). H7 stated the novelty typeface PAP would produce the greatest Abr score when compared to the serif and sans serif options. The findings did not support the hypothesis. The Abr produced means of 2.64 ( SD =1.13) for PAL 2.63 ( SD =1.18) for HEL, and 2.56 ( SD =1.15) for PAP. No statistically significant results were re ported for the Repeated Measures ANOVA ( F (2, 359)=2.26; p=.11). As with many of the other measures statistical significance was found in the contrast variables PAL and PAP (.04 < .05). Analysis of Variance and Post-hoc Analysis This section highlights the Analysis of Vari ance (ANOVA) tests that were conducted using SAS to identify any demographic variables that had any bearing on the results. The dependent variables used were age, gender, class the survey was distribu ted to, survey group order, and ethnicity. Perform ing a post-hoc analysis allowed the researcher to discover the specific relationships between variables that were cau sing the statistically si gnificant relationships. Scheffes Test, a more conservative oriented test, was utilized to identify the significant

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71 relationships at p < .05. Tables 4-2 through 4-5 details the re sults of the ANOVA and post-hoc analysis. Gender Statistical significance was f ound between gender (1=Male, 2=Fem ale) and the following dependent variables: PAL/Pleasure ( F (1, 359)=10.53; p=.00) PAL /Arousal ( F (1, 359) =8.32; p=.00), HEL/Pleasure (F (1, 359) =9.89; p=.00), HEL/Arousal ( F (1, 359)=5.81; p=.02), PAP/Pleasure (F (1, 359)=6.04; p=.02), PAP/Arousal ( F (1, 359)=5.44; p=.02), PAP/Dominance ( F (1, 359)=6.68; p=.01), PAL/Aad1 ( F (1, 359)=6.53; p=.01), PAL/Aad2 ( F (1, 359)=10.94; p=.01), HEL/Aad1 ( F (1, 359) =7.11; p=.01), HEL/Aad2 ( F (1, 359) =6.45; p=.01), PAP/Aad1 ( F (1, 359) = 11.67; p=.00), PAP/Aad2 ( F (1, 359) = 7.07; p=.01), PAL /PA (F (1, 345) =11.15; p=.00), HEL/PA ( F (1, 346) =7.00; p=.01), and PAP/PA ( F (1, 349) =11.30; p=.00). As there were only two levels for gender, the post-hoc showed Gender 1 (Male) and Gender 2 (Female) was the significant re lationship variables. Table 4-2 highlights the statistically significant gender results and the associated relationships. Age As stated in the dem ographic section, age groups were condensed into four groups (Group 1=18-19; Group 2=20; Group 3=21; Group 4=22-34). Statistical significance was found for the dependent variable PAL /NA ( F (3, 340)=17.88; p=.01). The post-hoc analysis identified age groups 1 (18-19 year-olds) and 3 (21 year-olds) as statistically significant. Table 4-2 highlights the statistically significant age resu lts and the associated relationships.

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72 Class The class data derived from the classes that participated in this study. There were three total classes (Class 1, 2, and 3) and based on the responses, Class and PAP/NA ( F (2, 339) =23.42; p=.03) were found to be statis tically significant dependent variables. Classes 2 and 3 were found to be statistically significant in the post-hoc analysis. Table 4-4 highlights the statistically significant class results and the associated relationships. Survey group order Survey group order (T able 3-1) was tested to find if there was any significant relationship between the orders in which the respondents re ceived the typeface variations (Table 4-2). The ANOVA found the following dependent va riables to be significant: PAL /Pleasure (F (5, 355)=3.84; p=.00), HEL/Pleasure (F (5, 355) =3.40; p=.01), PAP/Pleasure ( F (5, 355) =3.42; p=.01), PAP/Arousal ( F (5, 355) = 3.90; p=.00), PAP/Dominance (F (5, 355) =2.79; p=.02), HEL/Aad1 ( F (5, 355) =2.37; p=.04), HEL/Aad3 ( F (5, 355) =2.69; p=.02), PAP/Aad2 ( F (5, 355) =2.25; p=.05), PAL /PA ( F (5, 341) =3.90; p=.00), HEL/PA ( F (5, 342) = 2.30; p=.05), and PAP/PA ( F (5, 345) =2.97; p=.01). The post-hoc revealed relationships between th e following variables: survey 3 and survey 2 ( PAL /Pleasure); survey 3 and survey 6 ( PAL /Pleasure); survey 2 and survey 4 (HEL/Pleasure); survey 4 and survey 1 (PAP/Pleasure); survey 4 and survey 1 (PAP/Dominance); and survey 3 and survey 6 ( PAL /PA). Although there were reported st atistical significant relations hips, the post-hoc reported several findings that did not turn up a specific survey relatio nships. These variables were:

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73 PAP/Arousal, HEL/Aad1, HEL/Aad3, PAP/Aad2, HEL/PA, and PAP/PA. Table 4-5 highlights the statistically significant survey order re sults and the associated relationships. Ethnicity Ethnicity was used to find if a respondent s ethnic group (1=White; 2=Black; 3=Hispanic; 4=Asian; 5=Native Indian; 6=Othe r) had any significan t rela tionship to an y of the dependent variables. In running the ANOVA for ethnicity, the following depe ndent variables were found to be significant: PAP/Pleasure (F (5, 355) =2.84; p=.02) and HEL/PA ( F (5, 342) =2.47; p=.03). Even though there were statistically significant differences, the post-hoc returned no significant relationships between the ethnicities. AdSAM The following topics report th e data processed by AdSAM results. The results include the Emotion Groups, Perceptual Map, and the mean PAD scores. Emotion Groups The AdSAM Emotion Groups graphed the results along a Pleasure and Arousal, three by three grid. Based on the participants responses the means were plotted on the grid. The percentage within each cell indi cates the percentage of participant mean response that falls within a particular cell. The results showed very similar patterns between each typefaces results. High percentages of respondents fell into the Ambivalent cell and the Intere sted/Excited cell. The results for PAL showed 33% for the Ambivalent cell and 28% for the Interested/Excited cell (Figure 4-1). HEL showed 30% for the Ambivalent cell and 31% for Interested/Excited (Figure 4-2). PAP showed 33% for the Ambiva lent cell and 27% for the Interested/Excited cell (Figure 4-3) Similar adjectives were associ ated with the results for each of the ad variations. Ambivalent reported sympat hetic, sensitive, intere st, haughty, and nostalgic

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74 while the adjectives for Interested/Excited were excited, stimulated, exuberant, aroused, and alive. Additionally, the Ambivalent category for HEL reported the adjective stoic, differing from the other typefaces. Perceptual Map AdSAM perceptual map places the Pleasure and Ar ousal means within a graph to visually show the placement of each independent variab le (Figure 4-4). The output placed the emotional responses in the upper-right quadran t of the perceptual map, which represents a positive side of the graph. From this graph, the results show PAL elicited the greatest emotional response. Because of the close visual proximity to the othe r typefaces, further statistical analysis showed no statistical significance amongst the emotional responses. Qualitative Results At the conclusion of the questionnaire, the respondents were asked the following openended questions: W hat about this ad stands out ? and What did you dislike about this ad? These questions provided insight into common ov erall themes and typeface specific themes. However, neither the overall or typeface specif ic responses produced a dominant theme amongst the qualitative results. Themes within the Qualitative Results The sections below highlight recurring positive and negative themes found in the qualitative responses of each typeface variatio ns. The sections Copy, Car, Gender, Repetition, and Price highlight the responses, al ong with direct participant quotes. Copy themes The copy featured in this ad had regularly occurring positive and nega tive responses. Som e commented on the simplicity of the copy, the technical terms used to describe the car, and that additional information about the car and brand stood out the most. One particular respondent

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75 stated the copy used powerful and blunt words, while another felt the the words in the ad and the car complement each other well. One is not taking precedence over the other. Some respondents mentioned the copy was clich and too technical, using unnecessary jargon. One respondent stated Ju st plain meaner [is] not very informative, especially for people who dont know cars or its jargon (shor t-throw manual transmission??). Another respondent mentioned: [The copy] didnt really give me a reason to buy the car. I have no need to be driving something with seven speeds. I dont do anything particularly sporty with my car so why would I need a 700 horsepower engine. It just doesnt give me any motivation to buy it. Comments like the one above concerning the m eanness of the ad were often mentioned as a negative response. One respond ent mentioned this made the ads appear not as intelligent as they would probably want as well as it bei ng a bad angle to tak e. Another respondent mentioned that the concept was really dumb aggressive driving is bad. Car themes The striking im age of the car frequently stood ou t in the responses. The vast majority of comments related to the image of the car were positive. One response in particular mentioned, The car is amazing which, in turn, makes the ad work. Another respondent stated that the picture stands out the most, its very in your face and modern. Interestingly within the commonly occurring co mments of the car itself, the respondents would comment on the quality or animal ch aracteristic (anthropomo rphization) of the automobile. As this car is completely fictitious and exists only as a three dimensional computer rendering, it was interesting to see respondents maki ng statements as to t he quality of the car and its attributes as the standout characteristics, insinuating qual ity based solely on the ad and category of automobile this car is perceived to belong. Another stated that the picture made the car look like it is growling, providing animal characteristics. One respondent made a

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76 connection between the copy and the image sta ting the word meaner in the copy looks good because the car is low to the ground like a feline ready to pounce or attack. The car looks like it is on the prowl. More critical or negative responses towa rd the image were frequent, accounting for approximately a third to a fourth of the comm ents related to the image. The participants negative comments seemed to be generated between the image and an inability to relate to the product type. One person mentioned I hate cars as items of fashi on and I think its stupid when advertisers (or anyone else) tr[ies] to make them look cool. Many respondents mentioned that it was the same as every other car advertisement they have ever viewed. Gender themes An interesting finding was a gender-oriented response. Although the vast m ajority of responses did not comment on gender issues, a si gnificant number of respondents mentioned the product image and copy were aimed too much toward the male audience. One respondent mentioned the ad is too boring, doesnt appeal to women, but I would assume that women arent really the target audience fo r this car. Another respondent stated the ad was too machomachismo-stereotypical male. Repetition themes The choice to use a within groups experim ent al design did generate recurring negative feedback from the respondents. For some, ha ving seen the same advertisement was annoying. One respondent stated, I had to judge the same ad three times. This is definitely annoying and I really dont want to buy this car anymore. Price themes Even though the advertising copy m ade no men tion of price, severa l respondents seemed to insinuate a monetary value af ter viewing the ad. One respondent mentioned that he/she could

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77 not afford this type of car, so its hard to pay attention. Anothe r mentioned that he/she could never afford this product so it has nothing to do with me or my lifestyle. It is almost teasing me as a consumer. I find the product to be wasteful. Although th ese responses were not overly prevalent, it does suggest th at a different product category w ould be better suited for this respondent demographic. Typeface Specific Themes Typeface Specific Themes reports co mmon responses to the typefaces featured in the ads. Responses include overall typeface comment s, comments specifically related to PAL HEL, and PAP. Typeface themes The typeface seem ed to generate respons es both positively and negatively. Often, the responses would state their preference for a typeface variation. Often the order which they viewed the typefaces would be compared. Respo ndents often would mention that the last ad viewed was better than the pr evious two. This occurred for several of the survey orders. Interestingly, several of the respondents that mentioned typefaces felt that the information had changed from one ad to another. As menti oned previously, each ad contained the same copy with the same layout, varying only the typeface us ed in each ad. One respondent in particular perceived a little more info than the previous ad. It is possible that the typeface variation had an affect on the perceived information in the adve rtisement. Another responde nt stated that in the PAL ad variation, the language is softer and more approachable, even though the copy used is the same.

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78 Palatino themes The PAL typeface seemed to be the most popular w ith the majority of the comments being positive. One respondent mentioned that after viewing the ads featuring PAP and HEL typefaces, the PAL typeface seemed more professional. Anot her respondent mentioned the typeface of the copy is more streamlined and powerful, and matches the tone of the product. Other respondents mentioned the typeface is easier to r ead, clear and concis e, create[d] a more sophisticated persona, and it look[ed] more luxurious. Although less frequent than the positive comments, several respondent comments mentioned PAL did not necessarily f it with the product category. They stated that PAL didnt give off the arrogance of the products headline picture and font. Just as one respondent thought the typefaces professiona lism made it stand out, others though that the typeface made the ad look unprofessional. The message in the ad is that the car looks mean, so the typeface should somewhat reflect this . Similarly, respondents felt the typeface headline should have reflected the idea of mean, stating that the PAL ad variation didnt express emotion and that I was expecting a more noticeable change from the second ad to this one. Another respondent shared his personal feelings on the de sign choice of the ad by stating the headline should be perhaps a sans serif or even a novelty typeface. Contradictory comments for the same typeface show that there are particular preference s for typefaces, similar to considerations like color, layout, and other subj ective visual elements. Helvetica Neue 65 Medium themes As with the PAL typeface, several responde nts f elt the choice of HEL as a sans serif was a better choice. Respondents positive reactions to the typeface we re shown in comments that stated the font is different from the first. Its be tter! as well as the font is better and clearer.

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79 Positive comments concerning the HEL were not as frequent as the comments related to PAL but were more than the low number of positive comments toward the PAP typeface. With HEL, some respondents even saw this ad vari ation as being more professional with the cleaner looking font (compared to the previous one) [,] th e message of the copy was more clear and explicit. This statement, as with other previ ous statements, suggests that through comparison of the ads, they were able to deve lop a preference. Anothe r respondent thought that the ad appeared more modern with the use of this sans serif typeface. Similar to comments made for the PAL typeface, a similar proportion of negative responses stated that the HEL typeface did not give off meanness or arrogance feel, which suggests the pairing of the typeface and copy did not match the imagery. One respondent suggested that HEL is not bold or strong enough and de finitely does not connect with the slogan. Further comments stated that the font is too boring for the ad and exquisite car, the font of the saying was less enthusia stic, and even the font is plain, like a dictionary entry. Overall, the comments related to HEL highlight the respondents preferences for various typefaces, even though most of the comments provided no overriding theme of preference. Papyrus As with the previous two variations, the PAP ad generated both positive and negative responses. Although the positive responses were much less frequent for PAP, several of the respondents reacted positively. On respondent me ntioned that the font of the ad stood out because it had a little more char acter than the previous two typefaces. Another mentioned that the change in typefaces was a litt le more classy . which wor ks with the copy Classy but mean, which I like.

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80 Even though positive responses were mentioned, passionately negative comments were more often mentioned with the PAP typeface. Some of the respondents identified the typeface by name. A common theme amongst the negative co mments was the loss of the boldness of the car stating, it doesnt go with the message that the ad is going for and also the font of the words does not capture the persona lity of the car. Some of the more passionate respondents stated the font is terrible, it makes the car l ook weak. And [it] almost makes the car shape look weird. One respondent recognized the font a nd stated: the typeface! Papyrus? Really?? Automatic turn-off for me. These types of co mments seem to show a preexisting negative experience or feeling associated with the PAP typeface. Qualitative summary In reviewing the qualitative responses, ther e were no overriding them es that solidified emotions being associated with a typeface. Ba sed on these responses, th e responses seemed to have highlighted several uninten tional biases with the questionn aire. Furthermore, the data showed that typefaces had different respondent s depending on the respondent, product category, and context of the ad. Many of the respondents comments seem ed to support the quantitative data. Summary This sec tion reviewed the statistical tests fo r looking at emotional response to typeface variations. This section looked at the AdSAM data, the Descriptive Statistics, Factor Analysis and Reliability, Repeated Meas ures ANOVA, ANOVA, and the Qu alitative responses. The next section will discuss the results al ong with implications of the findings as well as suggestions for future study.

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81 Table 4-1. Descriptive statistics. PAL HEL PAP Measure & Subscale NMSDMSD M SD PAD Pleasure 3616.301.626.211.62 6.13 1.64 Arousal 3615.642.005.651.98 5.47 2.11 Dominance 3615.861.735.781.83 5.81 1.92 PANAS PA 347, 348, 35125.119.8424.7610.04 24.30 9.64 NA 344, 350, 34212.534.2912.924.80 12.81 4.88 Aad/Abr Aad 36113.723.7313.593.78 13.35 3.70 Abr 3612.641.132.631.18 2.56 1.15 This table highlights the descriptive statistics for the PAD, PANAS, and Aad/Abr measures for each of the independent variables. The number of respondents remained constant for the PAD and Aad/Abr measures. The PANAS measures had severa l incomplete responses, which resulted than a smaller sample population compared to the PAD. The superscripts denote a mean rank amongst the independent variables for each measure.

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82 Table 4-2. ANOVA tests and post-hoc analysis: Gender. ANOVA Post-hoc relationships IV DV MSig.Male (1)Female (2) PAL/Pleasure 6.30.0094267 PAL/Arousal 5.64.0094267 HEL/Pleasure 6.21.0094267 HEL/Arousal 5.65.0294267 PAP/Pleasure 6.13.0294267 PAP/Arousal 5.47.0294267 PAP/Dominance 5.81.0194267 PAL/Aad1 4.86.0194267 PAL/Aad2 4.50.0194267 HEL/Aad1 4.78.0194267 HEL/Aad2 4.39.0194267 PAP/Aad1 4.63.0094267 PAP/Aad2 4.39.0194267 PAL/PA 25.11.0088259 HEL/PA 24.76.0190258 Gender PAP/PA 24.30.0093258 This table shows the significant relationships between the independent (gender) and dependent variables with reported posthoc relationships. The post-hoc columns show the specific relationships between male and female. All tests f eatured were significant at p < .05. Statistically significant IV and DV with no repor ted post-hoc relationships were left out of this table. Scheffes test was used for the post-hoc analyses. Table 4-3. ANOVA tests and post-hoc Analysis: Age. ANOVA Post-hoc relationships IV DV MSig.Ages 18&19 (1) Age 21 (2) Age PAL/NA 12.53.01n/an/a This table shows the significant relationships between the independent (age) and dependent variables with reported posthoc relationships. The post-hoc columns show the specific relationships between the age groups. All tests f eatured were significant at p < .05. Statistically significant IV and DV with no repor ted post-hoc relationships were left out of this table. Scheffes test was used for the post-hoc analyses.

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83 Table 4-4. ANOVA tests and post-hoc analysis: Class. ANOVA Post-hoc relationships IV DV MSig.Class 2Class 3 Class PAP/NA 12.81.03n/an/a This table shows the significant relationships between the independent and dependent variables with reported post-hoc relations hips. The post-hoc columns show the specific relationships between the classes the respondents derived from. All tests featured were significant at p < .05. Statistically significant IV and DV with no reported post-hoc relations hips were left out of this table. Scheffes test was used for the post-hoc analyses. Table 4-5. ANOVA tests and post-hoc analysis: Survey. ANOVA Post-hoc relationships IV DV MSig.N1N2Survey Relationship PAL/Pleasure 6.30.00n/an/a3-2 PAL/Pleasure 6.30.00n/an/a 3-6 HEL/Pleasure 6.21.01n/an/a 2-4 PAP/Pleasure 6.13.01n/an/a 4-1 PAP/Dominance 5.81.02n/an/a 4-1 Survey PAL/PA 25.11.00n/an/a 3-6 This table shows the significant relationships between the independent (survey order) and dependent variables (typeface/response) with re ported post-hoc relationships. The post-hoc columns show the specific relationship between th e survey orders given to the respondents. All tests featured were significant at p < .05. Statistically significa nt IV and DV with no reported post-hoc relationships were left out of this table. Scheffes test was used for the post-hoc analyses.

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84 Figure 4-1. AdSAM Emotion Groups Palatino. This figure highlights the AdSAM Emotions Groups and the adjectives associated with the Palatino typeface. In each grouping, associated adjectives and a percentage fu rther highlight the responses verbally and numerically. The percentage represents the number of participants that fell within a particular cell.

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85 Figure 4-2. AdSAM Emotion Groups Helvetica 65 Neue Medium. This figure highlights the AdSAM Emotions Groups and the adje ctives associated with the Helvetica Neue 65 Medium typeface. In each grouping, associated adjectives and a percentage further highlight the responses ve rbally and numerically.

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86 Figure 4-3. AdSAM Emotion Groups Papyrus. This figure highlights the AdSAM Emotions Groups and the adjectives associated with the Papyrus typeface. In each grouping, associated adjectives and a percentage fu rther highlight the responses verbally and numerically.

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87 Figure 4-4. AdSAM Perceptual Map Total Sample Question Comparison. This figure highlights the mean results of the PAD mean scores from the independent variables along a Pleasure by Arousal graph. The size of the colored circle represents the level of Dominance reported.

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88 CHAPTER FIVE ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION Chapter 5 discusses the r esults in detail, beginning with a discussion of the statistical results of the experiment. Next, the limitations of the method are discussed. Finally, Chapter 5 concludes with recommendations for fu rther studies on this subject area. Analysis As the hypotheses were not supported, severa l im plications were found in this study. Previous research from Wehr a nd Wippich (2004) seemed to sugge st that an atypical or novelty typeface would have higher levels of recall. Th e result of this finding did not have the same result when eliciting an greater emotional response. Furthermore, the findings in Tantillo, Di Lorenzo-Aiss and Mathisen (1995) suggested that there would be a statistically significant difference between the sans serif and serif typefaces. The results did not find any statistically significant differences among the typefaces used. The following paragraphs analyze and discuss the results of this experiment. Overall, the results showed that varying the typeface alone did not elicit a statistically significant emotional response. Th ese findings cast doubt on the beli ef that a typeface alone can aid in eliciting an emotional response from an advertisement. The results show that typefaces may be one element amongst many that are needed to elicit an emotional response toward an ad. This idea is supported the findings of Brumberger (2004), which found that the perceptions of a document or ad are shaped by the interaction between severa l elements. Brumberger (2003a) found that personality of a typeface was clos ely tied to the copy, while Brumberger (2003b) tested the participants decision to match a typeface to a passage of copy. Pre-existing associations or pairings may have existed betw een the visuals, copy, and typeface in the current

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89 research. Further research is needed to furt her determine the degree the typefaces have in eliciting emoti onal response. Even though overall statistical significance wa s not found, an interesting result was derived from the contrast variables. PAL and PAP were commonly statistically significant amongst the PAD, PA (of PANAS), Aad, and Abr measures. PAL and PAP could be considered the two outermost typefaces along a continuum with HEL as an in between typeface. As statistical significance was found between these extremities, this could suggest that that typefaces used in this study were too similar and possibly too few in number. For future studies in this field, this result suggests a need for more and greater diversity of typefaces used to more accurately test for emotional response. In the AdSAM Emotion Groups analysis (Figures 4-1, 4-2, and 4-3), each typeface showed a high proportion of responses falli ng into the Interested /Excited (27-31%) and Ambivalent (30-33%) categories, accounting for a range of 57-64% of the sample population. The proportion of the respondents who fell within the Interested/Excited category seemed to have been interested/excited due to the nature of the visual or the copy. The typeface was not a factor, based on the percentage similarities betwee n the ad variations. The Ambivalent category suggested that a significant proportion felt sympathetic, stoic, sensitive, interested, nostalgic, haughty, but not excited. The AdSAM Perceptual Map (Figure 4-4) furthe r validated the trend of ambivalence toward the experimental stimuli. The typef ace means plotted on the graph showed close proximity to one another, which suggests a si milarity among the typefaces. Based on the overall PAD scores, this similarity was further vali dated by a lack of st atistical significance. Additionally, the qualitative respon ses highlighted the ambivalence toward the typeface featured

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90 in the ads. For example, with several of the typefaces, there seemed to both positive and negative comments about typefaces. This would seem to suggest that individual respondents have their own unique preferences for the particul ar typefaces used in the ads. In interpreting the ANOVA and post-hoc analyses, there were a large number of statistically significant gender variables. These findings support a possible gender bias in the study. There were 16 statistically significant fi ndings between gender and dependent variables. In comparing this finding to the qualitative re sults, female respondents commented on the maleoriented product bias and copy feat ured in the ad variations. This bias could have directed the respondents away from focusing on the typeface. The pre-test performed did not reveal any gender issues. In addition to the gender issues, the copy and pr oduct used in this study seemed to appeal to a different demographic. Rather than connect ing with the respondents us ed in the study, the ad was written to appeal to a much different audience. Using such a powerful image of a high involvement product could have caused the respondents focus to veer from the typeface focus and more toward liking or disliking the imager y, product category, or copy. Several participants commented that the car would not be affordable or necessary, further suggesting the liking or disliking claims. These responses highlight the need for future st udies to feature a neutral and bias-free image, f eaturing a low involvement product. ANOVA analysis showed 11 statis tically significant findings for the order of the surveys. This suggests that the order the respondents view ed the typeface could have caused a difference in emotional response. This finding was suppor ted by the qualitative comments mentioning the respondents preferences or distaste for a particular typeface based on the order. Future studies will have to take further consid eration into the order the type faces are shown. The participant

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91 wear-out caused the emotional response to dissip ate with each new typeface variation. Due to the observed participant wear-out in th is research, an alternate experi mental design would need to be used to elicit an immediate and accurate emotional res ponse for each typeface shown. The ANOVA test found statistical significance for age, the class the survey was given to, and ethnicity. For the age vari able there was statistical si gnificance found between the 18-19 year-olds (group 1) and 21 year-o lds (group 3). This finding may be significant due to a potential increased knowledge level associated with the older participants. Further, class demographic showed a difference between one of the gene ral advertising course s and an upper-division advertising course for the PAP/NA dependent variable. This si gnificant difference is possibly due to the differences in specia lization of coursework. Where gene ral advertising might not be as adept at viewing ads, the upper-division advertis ing students might be more inclined to have studied advertising and were possibly more familia r with the subject. Ethnicity was found to be significantly different for PAP/Pleasure and Helv etica/PA, but no post-hoc relationships were reported. This finding could be due to the nature of the students used in each class. While the vast majority of students used in this study we re undergraduates, the upper-division advertising class was specifically advertising majors. Th e finding of statistical significance for the PAP/NA could be due to the class ability to critically ev aluate ads. Further, as the PANAS scale measures mood, the mood of the courses could have been different due to a number of participant specific factors. The qualitative responses showed a strong support for the PAL typeface. HEL had an equal number of positive and negative comments found in the qualitative portion of the results. PAP did have several positive comments about the typeface, but the overriding response was negative.

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92 PAP was the only typeface that was named specifi cally by the respondents in various negative oriented comments. These results were the reverse of the stated hypothesis. Limitations of the method There are several lim itations of the research performed. The first limitation is the choice of experimental design. Next, the t ypefaces chosen for this experi ment are discussed, followed by the artificiality of this experiment and finally a discussion of bias. Experimental design One lim itation of the current research is th e within-subjects experi mental design. Seeing the same advertisement three times with a different typeface variation could have lessened the emotional impact of each ad, desensitizing the vi ewers emotional response. This participant fatigue or wear-out is one poten tial limitation of the within-subject design. As the participant views and responds to the ad variations, some respondents had reported wear-out and fatigue in the qualitative results. Seeing the first two ads of the experiment might affect the results of the third and final ad. The data showed few re spondents who neglected to respond to certain questions in the PANAS scale, further suggesting wear-out. Typeface decisions The num ber of typefaces used in this study is by no means exhaustive. There are numerous typefaces that could have been used for this experiment, but three typefaces that are representative of the re spective styles were chosen. Statistical significance was not found in the PAD results, suggesting that the typeface variations were too similar in style or that the typefaces did not elicit different emotional responses. Ta ntillo, Di Lorenzo-Aiss and Mathisen (1995) used six typefaces in their study. Future studies shoul d increase the number of typefaces studies.

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93 The advertisements visual may have been th e cause of the emotional response that was elicited rather than the typeface. With no statistical significance found, the qualitative results suggest that imagery could have pl ayed a major role in being the participants focus of attention. As stated previously the results showed the two outermost extremes of typefaces used in this study, PAL and PAP had statistically significant differences For future studies, a greater and more diverse range of typefaces is necessary to fully grasp the spectrum of emotional response. Artificiality Although this study furthers previous typogr aphy studies by creati ng a m ore realistic situation in which typefaces would be viewed, there is a leve l of artificiality. This study attempted to create an ad similar to an ad fo r a real product. Even t hough many steps were taken to increase the external validity of this study, mo st advertisements and typefaces are shown in a more natural environment, like a flipping through a magazine, newspaper or a seeing a billboard. The online survey environment was not a natural viewing mechanism for interacting with this type of ad, which might not have provided a true response to the ads shown. Furthermore, most ads are not shown to the viewer with three typeface variations. Eliciting emotions by using various styles of typefaces alone may not have elicited a true emotional response. A typeface can be used in an ironic way, used as a contradiction to the actual message, used in combination with other type faces or used as decoration, helping to elicit an emotional response. Many of the design decisions use a multitude of considerations to elicit an emotional response, and typeface alone may not be a major contributing factor. As stated in McCarthy and Mothersbaugh (2002) typography may be just one element amongst many that contributes to the overall aesthetic of visual communication. In the case study by Melewar,

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94 Hussey and Srivoravilai (2005) th e type was one of the consid erations in rebranding France Telecom, not the on ly consideration. Bias Often tim es, there is a pre-ex isting association of a typef ace with a product or service, giving the respondent a basis for which to associat e the typeface. Typefaces are used within the context of a larger integrated communicat ion campaign. Henderson, Giese and Cote (2004) suggest that type is a medium with its own me ssage (p.70), giving carefu l consideration to the use of a typeface and consistent use thr oughout other forms of communications for an organization. The preexisting association of a typeface is further supported by Neville Brody, who stated that when Helvetica is used to se ll jeans, you know its probably on sale at Gap (Hustwit, 2007, 40:50). The respondents may have had a pre-existing bias toward some of the particular typefaces based on previous exposure to the typefaces. The experimental stimuli in this study may have had pre-existing cultural bias for the product type. Several respondents commented on this issue, stating that the viewed typefaces did not match their perceptions of the typefaces that should be used. The use of particular typefaces will go in a nd out of popularity and so will the emotional responses to those typefaces. A typeface that is popular now, may not be popular in the future or have been fashionable in the past. Also, a type face that has been overused in popular cultural, may have a contrary reaction due to the overuse. A typeface like HEL is used heavily throughout the world. Will-Harris (2000) discusses the use of HEL as the typeface for IRS tax forms and how Americans could have unconscious negative f eelings toward the typeface. Further, there may be further unknown and even unconscious associa tions to particular ty pefaces that cannot be fully controlled, as many respondents had varying levels of knowledge and experience with typefaces. Having placed the typeface within the realm advertising helps to alleviate some of

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95 those varying associations, but may not have fully eliminated the possible unconscious association. An unexpected gender bias occurred toward the product featured in the ad. The results showed a bias by having the perception of app ealing toward the male respondents. Based on the statistically significant results of the ANOVA tests, gender seemed to be a factor in this experiment. The qualitative responses further validated this bias with the female respondents commenting on the male oriented imagery and copy. This may have affected the female respondents emotional response to viewing the ty peface variations within the advertisement. Further research would n eed to locate a product that was gender neutral. Further Research Future research on em otional response to typography will need to take careful consideration in choosing the inde pendent variables to test. Firs t a larger number and greater variety of typefaces would need to be gathered, utilizing the differing type styles outside of the commonly used varieties. Such styles like slab serif, script, as well as others with various typeface weights would need to be considered in furthering research into typeface emotions. Additionally, considerations to perceived typeface differences woul d need to be considered to ensure the independent variables are not stylistically similar. With copy, imagery, and typeface perceptions contributing to an overall emotional response, further study is needed to discover how these and other elem ents interact to generate an emotional response. Further study should research th e fit of various elements and their role in graphic design. As typeface alone did not elicit a statistically significant emotional response, looking at more criteria within gr aphic design would help to furt her develop this area of study. Further study in this field would need to cons ider the subject of the advertisement and the demographics it is created for, in addition to th e typefaces. Using the car ad as the experimental

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96 stimulus presented a gender bias, unknowingly ca using the respondents to feel like the ad was too masculine or macho. However, creating a multi tude of ad types may help to prevent such biases. Also consideration could be given to emotionally moderate or low emotionally stimulating imagery and copy. Neutralizing the em otional appeal of imag ery and the copy would allow the focus to rely solely on the typeface. In this current research, the copy and imagery seemed to be geared more toward a different demographic, based on the qualitative responses. A low involvement product would be more appropriate in future studies. Other studies into emotional response to type faces need be expanded to include different advertisements. Each typographi c consideration was very similar and based on some of the responses in the qualitative por tion of the questionnaire, some of the respondents were quite confused and often annoyed by having to view the same advertisement three times. A betweensubjects design would take away the effects of participant wear-out. A final consideration needs to be given to the number of questions shown to the respondents toward an ad to provide for more of a natural setting for the respondent. Typically, a respondent only views an ad for a relatively shor t amount of time and answering many questions increases the artificiality of this study and in creases participant wear-out. Utilizing a measure that captures emotions, feelings, or moods w ould allow the respondent to quickly, accurately, and more naturally provide their emotional reactions. Summary Researching em otional response to typogra phy has helped to further the field of typography in advertising and design This research found that emotions did not play as large of a role in eliciting an emotiona l response as once thought. These findings have lead to the possibility of other factors contri buting greater to the ove rall level of emotional response that an ad can elicit. In analyzing the data, this study ha s presented several topics for further research

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97 into the subject of typefaces and suggestions fo r new ways to test the emotional impact of typefaces used in advertising.

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102 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Kevin L. Guthrie born in Lakeland, Florida. The oldest of three boys, he grew up mostly in Sebring, Florida, gradua ting from Sebring High School in 1999, and South Florida Community College in 2001. He tran sferred to the Univer sity of Florida (U.F.) in 2001 to pursue a B.S. degree in business administration with a focus on marketing. During his studies at U.F., Kevin pursued creative outlets to supplement his business studies. After graduating in 2003, he r eceived the Rotary Ambassadoria l Scholarship from Rotary International. This prestigious scholarship prov ided funding for a full year of study in Graphic Design and Visual Communications at the Edin burgh College of Art in Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom (U.K.). This e xperience provided in-depth knowledge and application of graphic design techniques and overall creative pursui ts. While in Scotland, Kevin participated in many events through Rotary, including cultural ev ents and was a guest speaker at many Rotary meetings. Kevin also traveled around the U.K. and various areas of Europe during his scholarship year. Upon returning the United States, Kevin worked for the UF Career Resource Center (CRC) as the Assistant Director for Employer Relations while simultaneously pursuing a Master of Advertising (MADV). While at CRC, he was invol ved developing an online job search system, creating employer marketing materials, and co mmunications strategies. Furthermore, he presented at various statewid e career professionals conferen ces, with topics focusing on marketing and advertising in career services. In addition to full-time work and graduate studies, Kevin taught a Copywriting and Visu alization course for the UF Co llege of Journalism, focusing on the creative elements of advertising. In his spare time, he participates in freelance graphic design work for various organizations. Kevin has been act ively involved in the Rotary Scholars Seminar, a seminar and

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103 conference for outbound Rotary Scholars, providing the graphic design for the event materials, pre-conference planning, technical support, and general advice for the scholarship recipients. Furthermore, Kevin has helped local Gainesville organizations develop brand identities. All of his education, professional, and creative experi ence has focused on and around the creative areas of business. Upon graduation, Kevin will continue his position at the University of Florida and explore various employment opportunities. Kevin enjoys traveling, art, music, a nd films. One day he hopes to return to the U.K. to work for a sma ll advertising or graphic design firm, focusing on blending his business and creative skills.