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Secretary's Commission for the Achievement of Necessary Skills (SCANS) Competencies within 4-H Curricula

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024670/00001

Material Information

Title: Secretary's Commission for the Achievement of Necessary Skills (SCANS) Competencies within 4-H Curricula
Physical Description: 1 online resource (95 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Mashburn, Diane
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: 4h, career, competencies, curricula, curriculum, development, florida, scans, youth
Agricultural Education and Communication -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agricultural Education and Communication thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: SECRETARY S COMMISSION FOR THE ACHIEVEMENT OF NECESSARY SKILLS (SCANS) COMPETENCIES WITHIN 4-H CURRICULA By Diane Elizabeth Mashburn August 2009 Chair: Name Amy Harder Major: Agricultural Education & Communication The United States faces a challenge with the decrease of students interest in various career fields, such as science, engineering, and technology. As the need increased for youth to possess workforce competencies, a need also emerged to examine the activities used to promote these competencies along with life skills. 4-H curricula have not historically been successful in including career competencies. Recent attention has been brought to the areas of science, engineering, and technology within 4-H programming, thus allowing for 4-H to assist in addressing the challenge of preparing students to enter into these career fields. As one avenue for developing career competencies, 4-H curricula should be analyzed in order to determine if career competencies are now being included. The purpose of this study was to analyze 4-H curricula utilized by Florida 4-H to determine if 4-H curricula utilized SCANS competencies. In order to achieve the study objectives, a basic qualitative study was undertaken utilizing a content analysis methodology. The SCANS competencies served as the coding categories during the content analysis. The data sources for this study were the 4-H curricula utilized by Florida 4-H Youth Development. Each curriculum s objectives/outcomes were coded accordingly and thick descriptions for the SCANS competencies were reported. Steps were taken to ensure trustworthiness and its four components, credibility, dependability, transferability, and confirmability. The main steps taken were the undertaking of an inquiry audit, peer debriefing, thick descriptions, and an audit trail. It was found that the Career Development curricula were at a higher quality than the popular project curricula. The standard for quality within the study was the inclusion of SCANS competencies, which the Career Development curricula included all 20 competencies and at a higher frequency. The popular project curricula lacked many of the SCANS competencies that would have been assumed to be included within 4-H project curricula, such as interpersonal. Curriculum developers should increase the inclusion of SCANS competencies in 4-H curricula. Curriculum developers should also ensure the objectives and outcomes reflect those competencies and skills developed within the curricula s activities. Research should be conducted to examine the inclusion of SCANS competencies within the activities and lessons outlined within 4-H curricula.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Diane Mashburn.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Harder, Amy Marie.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024670:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024670/00001

Material Information

Title: Secretary's Commission for the Achievement of Necessary Skills (SCANS) Competencies within 4-H Curricula
Physical Description: 1 online resource (95 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Mashburn, Diane
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: 4h, career, competencies, curricula, curriculum, development, florida, scans, youth
Agricultural Education and Communication -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agricultural Education and Communication thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: SECRETARY S COMMISSION FOR THE ACHIEVEMENT OF NECESSARY SKILLS (SCANS) COMPETENCIES WITHIN 4-H CURRICULA By Diane Elizabeth Mashburn August 2009 Chair: Name Amy Harder Major: Agricultural Education & Communication The United States faces a challenge with the decrease of students interest in various career fields, such as science, engineering, and technology. As the need increased for youth to possess workforce competencies, a need also emerged to examine the activities used to promote these competencies along with life skills. 4-H curricula have not historically been successful in including career competencies. Recent attention has been brought to the areas of science, engineering, and technology within 4-H programming, thus allowing for 4-H to assist in addressing the challenge of preparing students to enter into these career fields. As one avenue for developing career competencies, 4-H curricula should be analyzed in order to determine if career competencies are now being included. The purpose of this study was to analyze 4-H curricula utilized by Florida 4-H to determine if 4-H curricula utilized SCANS competencies. In order to achieve the study objectives, a basic qualitative study was undertaken utilizing a content analysis methodology. The SCANS competencies served as the coding categories during the content analysis. The data sources for this study were the 4-H curricula utilized by Florida 4-H Youth Development. Each curriculum s objectives/outcomes were coded accordingly and thick descriptions for the SCANS competencies were reported. Steps were taken to ensure trustworthiness and its four components, credibility, dependability, transferability, and confirmability. The main steps taken were the undertaking of an inquiry audit, peer debriefing, thick descriptions, and an audit trail. It was found that the Career Development curricula were at a higher quality than the popular project curricula. The standard for quality within the study was the inclusion of SCANS competencies, which the Career Development curricula included all 20 competencies and at a higher frequency. The popular project curricula lacked many of the SCANS competencies that would have been assumed to be included within 4-H project curricula, such as interpersonal. Curriculum developers should increase the inclusion of SCANS competencies in 4-H curricula. Curriculum developers should also ensure the objectives and outcomes reflect those competencies and skills developed within the curricula s activities. Research should be conducted to examine the inclusion of SCANS competencies within the activities and lessons outlined within 4-H curricula.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Diane Mashburn.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Harder, Amy Marie.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024670:00001


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1 SECRETARYS COMMISSION FOR THE ACHIEVEMENT OF NECESSARY SKILLS (SCANS) COMPETENCIES WITHIN 4 H CURRICULA By DIANE ELIZABETH MASHBURN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009

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2 2009 Diane Elizabeth Mashburn

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3 To my loving family, who no matter where life took me, was always there to support me

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to acknowledge all those who have supported me througho ut this journey to complete my masters degree. I would not have succeeded in making it through the last two years if it had not been for all the people God put in my life. He definitely knew what He was doing when I decided to come to Florida for school. First thanks to my chair and advisor, Dr. Amy Harder, who helped to guide me i n this long process to completion and graduation. She assisted in giving me so much freedom to explore my own interests and passions along the way. Despite all the speed bumps along the way, she kept working with me and encouraging me to continue along. Dr. Harder helped me to see where I could go with the efforts and work I completed now, which helped me continue even in the rough points. I would also like to acknowledge the other half of my committee, Dr. Nicole Stedman, who had no clue what she was get ting into when she agreed to be on my committee. Thank you for the other perspective you gave to the process and the ideas that lead to improvement of not only my thesis, but of my overall experience. I would like to also thank the great faculty at the Uni versity of Florida for all the knowledge they imparted and the support they showed, not only for me but all the grad students. To my friends here at the University of Florida that made these last two years a great experience for me. Thanks to those in the AEC department that supported, encourages, prodded, teased, and were overall great people to have around me during the entire process. Thanks to my mentor, Dr. Roslynn Brain, who was there in her own way to support me. I would also like to thank Audrey Vai l, Dr. Ann De Lay, Andrew Thoron, Alexa Lamm, Debbie Nistler, Rochelle Strickland, Lauren Dillard, Robert Strong, Crystal Mathews, Lauri Baker, Allison Eckhardt, Sabastian Galindo -Gonzalez, Lisa Hightower, Mark Mauldin, Charlie Nealis, Tre Easterly, Mary Rodriguez, and Richard Franta for the friendship and support during these last two years. Special

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5 t hanks to Anna Warner, Christy Windham, and Matt Benge, who began this whole crazy journey with me and we have all supported each other al ong the way. I would also like to acknowledge the amazing support and friendship from my friends from St. Augustines Catholic Student Center. To my supports back in Texas without your encouragement (and threats to not come back until I was done) I would not have been able to make it through as well. Thank you to those who helped me start down this academic path back at Texas Tech University, including Dr. Matt Baker, Dr. David Doerfert, and Dr. Scott Burris. Thanks to those back home who helped me to see 4 H is my passion, especially Tommy Phillips. And finally, my loving family who encouraged me to always follow my dreams, even if that meant I would be almost 1000 miles from home. To my loving parents, Bruce and Maureen, who always wanted the best for their children. To them education is one of the most important things for us to engage in and college was never an option. They were there to move me into Lubbock and again to move me all the way out to Gainesville. Despite their own sadness for leaving me there, I always knew they were proud of what I did at school while they were back home. To my siblings, Stephanie, Nicholas, Joshua, Jacob, and Sara, who I missed dearly while at school and always loved talking to on the phone to get away from school for a while. They ar e all supportive to me in their own ways, from emails from Steph to postcards and pictures from Sara. I would never trade my family for anything in the world.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................................... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................................ 9 LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................................ 10 ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................................................ 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 13 Frameworks for 4 H Youth Development ................................................................................. 14 Targeting Life Skills Model ................................................................................................ 14 4 H Experiential Learning Process ..................................................................................... 16 SCANS Relevance ...................................................................................................................... 18 Statement of the Problem ............................................................................................................ 19 Purpose and Objectives ............................................................................................................... 20 Definition of Terms ..................................................................................................................... 21 Limitations ................................................................................................................................... 22 Assumptions ................................................................................................................................ 22 Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 23 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................................... 24 Theoretical Framework ............................................................................................................... 24 Conceptual Framework ............................................................................................................... 26 Elements of Work ........................................................................................................................ 27 Secretarys Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills ................................................. 28 Relevance of SCANS incorporation ........................................................................... 30 Impact of SCANS incorporation ................................................................................. 32 Work Preparation Education ............................................................................................... 36 4 H & Bobbitts Play -Work Interaction Model ........................................................................ 36 The Fruits of 4 H Labor ...................................................................................................... 36 State and national impact studies ................................................................................ 38 General 4 H and youth organization impacts ............................................................. 39 Play -Level Activities in 4 -H ............................................................................................... 41 Work Level Activities in 4 H ............................................................................................. 42 Developmental Results of 4H ............................................................................................ 43 Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 44

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7 3 METHODOLOGY ...................................................................................................................... 45 Research Design .......................................................................................................................... 45 Selection of Data Sources ........................................................................................................... 46 Data Analysis ............................................................................................................................... 48 Content Analysis .................................................................................................................. 48 Trustworthiness ........................................................................................................................... 50 Credibility ............................................................................................................................. 50 Transferability ...................................................................................................................... 51 Dependability ....................................................................................................................... 52 Confirmability ...................................................................................................................... 52 Researcher Bias Statement .................................................................................................. 53 Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 53 4 RESEARCH FINDINGS ............................................................................................................ 54 Objective 1. Describe the Inclusion of SCANS Competencies ................................................ 54 Objective 2. D escribe the Frequencies of SCANS Competencies Within Each Project Area Curricula ......................................................................................................................... 55 Workforce Development Project ........................................................................................ 57 Swine Project ....................................................................................................................... 58 Horse Project ........................................................................................................................ 60 Outdoor Education Project .................................................................................................. 62 Community Service/Development Project ......................................................................... 65 Leisure Arts Project ............................................................................................................. 67 Objective 3. Compare the quality of the 4 H career development project curricula and the five top project curricula, as determined by the presence of SCANS competencies .... 69 Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 69 5 CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, & RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................... 71 Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 71 Objective 1. Describe th e Inclusion of SCANS Competencies Within 4 H Curricula ........... 72 Implications .......................................................................................................................... 72 Recommendations for P ractice ........................................................................................... 73 Recommendations for R esearch ......................................................................................... 74 Obje ctive 2. Describe the Inclusion of SCANS Competencies Within Each 4 H Project Area Curricula ......................................................................................................................... 74 Implications .......................................................................................................................... 74 Recommendations for P ractice ........................................................................................... 75 Recommendations for R esearch ......................................................................................... 75 Obje ctive 3. Compare the quality of the 4 H career development project curricula and the five top project curricula, as determined by the presence of SCANS competencies .... 75 Implications .......................................................................................................................... 76 Recommendations for P ractice ........................................................................................... 77 Recommendations for R esearch ......................................................................................... 77

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8 Over all Implications & Recommendations ............................................................................... 77 Recommendations for Practice ........................................................................................... 77 Recommendations for Research ......................................................................................... 77 APPENDIX A FLORIDA 4 H PROJECT AREAS SORTED BY 2007 ENROLLMENT FIGURES .......... 79 B CURRICULA UTILIZED IN CONTENT ANALYSIS .......................................................... 81 C CURRICULA OMITTED FROM CONTENT ANALYSIS ................................................... 83 D CODING SHEET ........................................................................................................................ 84 E SCANS COMPETENCIES CODING CATEGORIES ............................................................ 86 F EXPERT PANEL & THESIS COMMITTEE ........................................................................... 88 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................... 89 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................................................................................. 9 5

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9 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Characteristics of Curricula Included in the Content Analysis ........................................... 47 3 2 SCANS Five Competencies ................................................................................................... 49 4 1 SCANS Frequencies within the 4 -H Project Area Curricula .............................................. 56 4 2 Average SCANS Competency Frequencies per Category and Project ............................... 56 4 3 SCANS Frequencies within the 4 -H Workforce Development Project Curricula ............. 57 4 4 Total Frequencies and Competencies Present within the Workforce Development Project Curricula .................................................................................................................... 58 4 5 SCANS Frequencies within the 4 -H Swine Project Curricula ............................................ 59 4 6 Total Frequencies and Competencies Present within the Swine Project Curricula ........... 60 4 7 SCANS Frequencies within the 4 -H Horse Project Curricula ............................................. 61 4 8 Total Frequencies and Competencies Present within the Horse Project Curricula ............ 62 4 9 SCANS Frequencies within the 4 -H Outdoor Education Project Curricula ....................... 63 4 10 Total Frequencies and Competencies Present within the Outdoor Education Project Curricula ................................................................................................................................. 65 4 11 SCANS Frequencies within the 4 -H Commun ity Service/Development Project Curricula ................................................................................................................................. 66 4 12 Total Frequencies and Competencies Present within the Community Service/Development Project Curricula ............................................................................... 66 4 13 SCANS Frequencies within the 4 -H Leisure Arts Project Curricula .................................. 68 4 14 Total Frequencies and Competencies Present within the Leisure Arts Project Curricula ................................................................................................................................. 67 4 15 Comparison Between Career Development and Popular Project Curricula ....................... 69

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10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 2 Targeting Life Skills Model (Hendricks, 2006) ................................................................... 15 1 3 4 H Experiential Learning Process (Pfeiffer & Jones, 1983) .............................................. 17 2 1 Bobbitts (1918) PlayWork Interaction Model ................................................................... 25 2 2 4 H Play -Work Development Model .................................................................................... 26 2 3 SCANS Five Competencies ................................................................................................... 29

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11 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science SECRETARYS COMMISSION FOR THE ACHIEVEMENT OF NECESSARY SKILLS (SCANS) COMPETENCIES WITHIN 4 H CURRICULA By Diane Elizabeth Mashburn August 2009 Chair: Name Amy Harder Major: Agricultural Education & Communication The United States faces a challenge with the decrease of students interest in various career fields, such as science, engineering, and technology. As the need increased for youth to possess workforce competencies, a need also emerged to examine the activities used to promote these competencies along with life skills. 4 H curricula have not historically been successful in including career competencie s. Recent attention has been brought to the areas of science, engineering, and technology within 4 H programming, thus allowing for 4 -H to assist in addressing the challenge of preparing students to enter into these career fields. As one avenue for develop ing career competencies, 4 H curricula should be analyzed in order to determine if career competencies are now being included. The purpose of this study was to analyze 4H curricula utilized by Florida 4 H to determine if 4 H curricula utilized SCANS compe tencies. In order to achieve the study objectives, a basic qualitative study was undertaken utilizing a content analysis methodology. The SCANS competencies served as the coding categories during the content analysis. The data sources for this study were the 4 H curricula utilized by Florida 4 H Youth Development. Each curriculums objectives/outcomes were coded accordingly and thick descriptions for the SCANS competencies were reported. Steps were taken to ensure trustworthiness and its four components, c redibility, dependability, transferability, and

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12 confirmability. The main steps taken were the undertaking of an inquiry audit, peer debriefing, thick descriptions, and an audit trail. It was found that the Career Development curricula were at a higher qua lity than the popular project curricula. The standard for quality within the study was the inclusion of SCANS competencies, which the Career Development curricula included all 20 competencies and at a higher frequency. The popular project curricula lacked many of the SCANS competencies that would have been assumed to be included within 4 H project curricula, such as interpersonal. Curriculum developers should increase the inclusion of SCANS competencies in 4 H curricula. Curriculum developers should also ensure the objectives and outcomes reflect those competencies and skills developed within the curriculas activities. Research sho uld be conducted to examine the inclusion of SCANS competencies within the activities and lessons outlined within 4 H curricula.

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Over 100 years ago in America, the beginnings of 4 H started within rural youth programs (National 4 H Council, 2008). 4H has now evolved into the largest government funded youth organization through the combined assistance of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Cooperative Extension educators, lan d -grant universities, 4 H foundations, councils, and associations, volunteers, and special congressional appropriations (National 4-H Council, 2008: May, 2007). The Morrill Act of 1862 created the land-grant university system in the United States, establis hing a university in every state (Morrill Act, 1862). These universities concentrated on education in the areas of agriculture and engineering. In order to create useful research and to work with the land -grant universities, the Hatch Act of 1887 created t he agricultural experiment stations. Stemming from the stations created, the Cooperative Extension Service was founded with the passing of the Smith Lever Act to create a partnership between the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the land grant universities, and the consumers (Smith-Lever Act, 1914). The goal of the Cooperative Extension Service is to provide useful, practical, and research based information to agricultural producers, small business owners, youth, consumers, and others in rural areas and comm unities of all sizes (Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, 2008a, 1). Cooperative Extension Service is located in every state and U.S. territory, and each has a network of local and regional offices. Youth programs developed wit hin the Cooperative Extension Service were a n avenue for introducing agricultural technology to rural Americans (National 4-H Council, 2007). Since 4 Hs creation at the turn of the century, the organization has grown and adapted to meet the needs of the constantly changing youth of the United States. 4 H presently has over 6.5 million

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14 youth members in all 50 states; Washington, DC ; American Samoa ; Guam ; Northern Mariana Islands ; Puerto Rico ; and the U.S. Virgin Islands, as well as youth in U.S. Army a nd Air Force installations worldwide (National 4 H Council, 2007) The mission of 4 H is to empower youth to reach their full potential, working and learning in partnership with caring adults (National 4 H Council, 2007, 1). 4H teaches its members leadership, citizenship, and life skills through participation in over 1,000 project areas, including nutrition, aerospace, small engines, robotics, communications, and numerous others (National 4 H Council, 2007). Youth have opportunities to become involved in the Learning by Doing 4 H philosophy through traditional 4 H clubs, 4H camps, and school -based or after school 4 H programs (National 4 H Council, 2006). Frameworks for 4-H Youth Development In alignment with the mission of 4 H to empower youth to re ach their full potential, working and learning in partnership with caring adults, 4 H has created frameworks in which to develop and carry out programs (National 4 H Council, 2007, 1). 4H teaches its members leadership, citizenship, and life skills through the use of over 1,000 project areas (National 4 H Council, 2007). This learning takes place within opportunities for youth to become involved in the Learning by Doing 4 H philosophy which is conveyed through the 4 -H Experiential Learning model (Diem, 2004 ). Targeting Life Skills Model The Targeting Life Skills (TSL) Model was created by Iowa State University Extension to guide the efforts of 4 H programming as an all inclusive model of the life skills youth should acquire (Hendricks, 1998). This mode l, shown in Figure 1 2 has been widely used in Extension throughout the country to show the life skills youth should learn through 4 -H. The purpose of the TSL model was to provide a way to simplify coordination of life skill development with ages

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15 a nd sta ges tasks so programs [would] be developmentally appropriate and more effective in achieving identified outcomes ( Hendricks, 1998, p. 4). The skills are divided out according to the four Hs of 4 H, hands, heart, head, and health, and each section of the model contains between seven and ten individual skills. The TSL model reflects the life skills 4 H promotes in its programming. Figure 1 2. Targeting Life Skills Model (Hendricks, 1996) Experiences teaching or reinforcing the skills within the TSL model must be offered because skills are mastered through opportunities to try, make mistakes, and try again (Norman & Jordan, n.d.). The process of trying over and over reflects the 4 H Experiential Learning model 4 H utilizes within its p rogramming (Diem, 2004 ). The 4 H life skills included in the TSL model align closely with the skills and competencies outlined in the Secretarys Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) report (1991), making these skills and competencies very rele vant to the creation and evaluation of 4 H programming materials, including curricula. The

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16 TSL model is utilized by many state, regional, and local 4 H programs as a tool to guide program and material development and implementation (Hendricks, 1998). 4 -H E xperiential Learning Process 4 H has utilized the 4 H Experiential Learning Process to impart knowledge and skills to youth through the 4 H Learn by Doing motto. The model utilized by 4 H today was based upon the work of Dewey and Kolb. Deweys theory st ated genuine education comes through experience (Dewey, 1938, p. 24) and from this basic theory Kolb later developed the Experiential Learning Theory and subsequent model (Kolb, 1984). Dewey built his learning theories upon the belief of experience gener ating genuine knowledge along with the belief that experiences build upon each other (Dewey, 1938). Learning according to the Experiential Learning Theory is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experiences and knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience (Kolb, 1984, p. 41). The Experiential Learning Model has since been adopted for use within 4 H to better depict the learn by doing process 4 H employs (Diem, 2004 ). In the 4 H Experi ential Learning Process, the four stages of Kolbs Experient ial Learning Model have been ada pted into five steps: experience, share, process, generalize, and apply (Diem, 2004 ). The following are descriptions of the five steps (Enfield, 2001). Experience youth actively participate in an activity or experience before being told or shown how Share youth describe the experience and their reactions and observations Process youth process the experience by discussing specific patterns and dynamics; they analyz e and reflect Generalize youth generalize to connect the experience to real -world examples Apply youth apply what was learned to a similar or different situation; practice.

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17 The Experiential Learning Process, seen in Figure 2 5, has been used in 4 H youth development because of its ability to present youth with a question, problem, situation, or activity which they must make sense of for themselves instead of being told the answers (Diem, 2004 p. 447). Figure 1 3. 4 H Experiential Learning Process (Pfeiffer & Jones, 1983) Note: Reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. By incorporating the 4 H Experiential Learning Process, youth go beyond the simple learning by doing and delve into experiential learning with the addition of the reflec tive portions of the process. Enfield (2001) stated 4 H has functioned under the belief youth gain the most from educational experiences when guided through meaningful activities followed by guided reflective activities related to the activities. T he refle ction component of the model encourages youth to think and reflect upon their present experiences and make connections with previous experiences and knowledge in order to guide their action in the future (Enfield, 2001). The 4 H Experiential Learning Proce ss is used in curriculum development in conjunction with the Targeting Life Skills Model (Hendricks, 1996).

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18 SCANS Relevance Since the SCANS reports publication in 1991, workplace atmosphere and job expectations have changed drastically, including new ski lls, new tasks, and new ways to work (North & Worth, 2004). North and Worth found trends in relation to the SCANS competencies and skills from 1992 to 2002 that showed SCANS are still important in the workplace years later. 4H can help develop those compe tencies and skills through youth development efforts aligning with their own Targeting Life Skills Model (Hendricks, 1998). Identifying the SCANS competencies and skills incorporated into 4 H curricula can assist in analyzing the trends in 4 H curriculum d evelopment. Curriculum development and analysis has become a more pressing issue for educators recently (Finch & Crunkilton, 1999; Oliva, 2005; Ornstein & Hunkins 2004). Cooperative Extension and 4 H have not been an exception to this trend. With budge tary cuts in many states, various aspects of Cooperative Extension have come under scrutiny to ensure effectiveness. As educators, Extension faculty have to realize the importance of analyzing 4 H curricula to find the value of the curriculum material they use (Finch & Crunkilton, 1999). Analyzing curriculum can take on many appearances, from the analysis of the outcomes of curriculum implementation, the process within curriculum implementation, or the curricula themselves (Finch & Crunkilton, 1999). Within this study, the curriculum analysis concentrated upon the 4H curricula This need for analysis and evaluation of 4 H curricula has also been indicated in the National Research Agenda: Agricultural Education and Communication (Osborne et al. 2007) in the Extension research priority area which called for researchers and professionals to identify and use evaluation systems to assess program impact (p. 15). This study assisted in assessing the curricula in hopes of enhancing the quality of these agricultural and extension education programs (Osborne et al. 2007, p. 15).

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19 Statement of the Problem Impact studies have been performed on 4 H members in the last 25 years, but the results since the mid 1990s have been more positive than previous studies El S awi (1997) described earlier studies as indicat ing inconclusive evidence of 4-Hs impact on the development of life skills within 4 H members (Ladewig & Thomas, 1987; Miller & Bowen 1991; Schlutt, 1987; Waguespack, 1988). With 4 H promoting itself as a community of youth learning life and career development skills, these studies did not reflect p ositively on achieving the mission of 4 H. Recent studies have been able to show more conclusive evidence of 4Hs impact on its members. In 2001, National 4 H H eadquarters started an imp act assessment project which served as a catalyst for states to perform their own impact assessments. The initial project report outlined a few of the positive impact studies started or already undertaken at that time. Those state s which took the initiative and performed their own impact studies includ ed Colorado (Goodwin, Carroll, & Oliver, 2007), Idaho (Goodwin et al. 2005), Maine (Fitzpatrick, Gagne, Jones, Lobley, & Phelps, 2005), Montana (Astroth & Haynes, 2002), New York (Ro driguez, Hirschle, Mead, & Goggin, 1999), and Oklahoma (Maass, Wilken, Jordan, Culen, & Place, 2006). These studies showed a positive correlation between 4 H participation and life skills development, along with other positive outcomes from participation. Studies on 4 H curricula have also been performed in the past with either inconclusive or negative findings (El Sawi, 1994; Smith, 1986). Using the SCANS (1991) competency and skill areas as a standard of quality El Sawi (1997) analyzed state 4 H curricul a to determine if targeted skills and competencies were included and found that 4 H curricula lacked the life skills promoted by 4 -H as key elements of the program. 4 H curricula have undergone changes and revisions since El Sawis study in 1997. Nationally a jury review process for all National 4 -H curricu la has been created (National 4 H

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20 Curriculum 2008). Most state 4 H curricula also undergo a review process before being published for public use. National 4 H has also begun to promote the 4 H Science Engineering, and Technology (SET) Mission Mandate (National 4 H Headquarters, 2008). The SET Mandate works to promote youth development and career development in the areas of science, engineering, and technology. With the SET Mandate focus 4 Hs efforts can lead to stronger and more effective youth programs, staff and volunteer development, evaluation, and financial and human resource support (National 4 H Headquarters, 2008, 2). With the growing need for professionals in these and other areas, 4 H c urricula can promote the competencies needed to succeed in the workplace. Due to the changes in curricula and the SET Mandate focus inclusion of life and career skills and competencies may have also changed. Mulroy and Kraimer -Rickaby (2006) examined reco mmendations within 4 H involvement studies and found an interest in continued research in the area of personal life and career application of specific life skills learned in 4 H (p. v). Mulroy and Kraimer Rickaby echo ed the need for a new assessment to d etermine to what extent 4 H curricula now include life and career skills promoted as elements of the program. The need for improved education in the area of career development was also indicated in the National Research Agenda (Osborne et al. 2007). Osb orne et al. determined a need for programs to assist in preparing youth for career success in a competitive world marketplace, including identifying workforce needs and establishing curriculum standards (p. 19). Purpose and Objectives The purpose of thi s study was to analyze national and state 4 H curricula utilized by Florida 4 H to determine the extent to which 4 H curricula included SCANS competencies. The objectives for this study were to:

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21 1 d escribe the inclusion of SCANS competencies within 4 H curricula, 2 d escribe the inclusion of SCANS competencies within each 4 H project area curricula and 3 c ompare the quality of the 4 H career development project curricula and the five top project curricula as determined by the presence of SCANS competencies. Definition of Terms 4 H This study utilized the definition given by the National 4 H Council (2007) that 4 H is a community of more than 6.5 million young people across America learning leadership, citizenship and life skills. The 4 H community also i ncludes 3,500 staff, 538,000 volunteers and 60 million alumni. 4 Hers participate in fun, hands -on learning activities supported by the latest research of land grant universities that are focused on three areas: healthy living, citizenship, and science, en gineering and technology (Frequently Asked Questions, 2 3). 4 H is the only informal educational program with a direct connection to United States land -grant universities and colleges (National 4 H Curriculum, 2008, p. 2). 4 H project areas For thi s study, 4 H project areas referred to the over 100 project areas youth can participate in as a 4 H member (Enfield, 2001). A few of the 4 H project areas include aerospace science, computer, food and nutrition, citizenship, leadership, photography, and animal science. Competencies Within this study, competencies are defined by the 20 competencies outlined by the SCANS report, What Work Requires of Schools: A SCANS Report for America 2000 (SCANS, 1991). Cooperative Extension Service According to the U. S. Department of Agriculture, the Cooperative Extension Service is an extension of the land-grant university systems (USDA, 2008). The land-grant university offers non -formal, non-credit programs to solve public needs with college or university resourc es (USDA, 2008, 1). These programs are mainly delivered through local and regional Extension offices (USDA, 2008). Life skills Skills outlined by various models, including the Targeting Life Skills Model (Hendricks, 1996), as being important for youth to gain. These life skills vary between the model and study being analyzed. National 4 H Curricula The national curricula analyzed for this study focus on 4 Hs three primary mission mandates: science, engineering and technology; healthy living; and citizenship. Youth activity guides are filled with fun, engaging experiences that cultivate abilities youth need for everyday living as

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22 they progressively ga in knowledge about subjects that interest them (National 4 H Curriculum, 2008, p. 2). For the purpose of thi s study, National 4 H curricula designated curricula reviewed and recommended by the National 4 H Curriculum Jury Review process (National 4 H Curriculum, 2008, p. 2). Secretarys Committee on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) SCANS was the commission appointed by the Secretary of Labor to determine the skills our young people need to succeed in the world of work and later published in the America 2000 report (SCANS Web site, 2006, 1). In this study, SCANS referred to the specific competencies outlined in What Work Requires of Schools: A SCANS Report for America 2000 (SCANS, 1991). State 4 H Curricula The state curricula analyzed for t his study are materials created on the state level for 4 H project/subject areas. For the purpose of this study, the state 4H curriculum is limited to the curricula utilized by Florida 4 H. Limitations This study only analyzed the curricula available to C ooperative Extension Service faculty and volunteers, may not be representative of what is actually being taught within the entire 4 -H program. The curricula analyzed are limited to the most current editions of curricula available for use. Assumptions In this study, SCANS competencies are assumed to be life skills youth should possess and 4 H should include these competencies within its proramming Also, since all Florida 4 H curricula undergo a similar review process, it is assumed the remaining Florida cur ricula are similar to those analyzed within this study. In the study, it was assumed the skills within the learning objectives/outcomes reflect the skills within the educational activities. It is also assumed Florida 4 H Youth Development Extension Agents utilize curricula within their own counties.

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23 Summary This chapter displayed the need for and provided the background for analyzing national and state 4 H curricula. In finding the SCANS frequencies within 4 H curricula, gaps in competencies can be identif ied and trends can be found and compared to previous studies to find if 4 -H curricula have changed. This chapter described the relationship between 4 H curriculum goals and the Secretarys Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills competencies. Additionally this chapter outlined the purpose and objectives for this study.

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24 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW As the need increased for youth to possess workforce competencies a need also emerged to examine the activities used to promote these competencies along with life skills. Because 4 H promot es itself as a community of youth learning life and career development skills, activities used within the program should also be studied. The purpose of this study was to analyze 4 H curricula utilized by Florida 4 H to determine if 4 H curricula utilized SCANS competencies. This chapter gave an outline of the theoretical models within workforce skill development and 4 H youth development. The content of this chapter gave insight into the background of this study, including the setting in which the curricula analyzed is used, the current need for career development, and the development of the studys conceptual framework. Theoretical Framework Educational experiences can take on many different appearances and a pproaches. Some may not even have the outward appearance of being an educational experience. In 1918, Bobbitt divided out educational experiences into two levels, the play level and the work level, in The Curriculum. The play level serves the purpose of layi ng the foundation to competencies gained in the work level leading to the end product which Bobbitt describes as the fruits of labor (p. 19). The Play -Work Interaction Model is depicted in Figure 2 1. Both levels of educational experiences work towards t he same end as seen within the model, but the difference lies w here the person performing the activities is focused upon, the present or the future. The play level is not concerned with the end product of the activities or work performed. Usually the play level occurs in childhood and assists in youth gaining foundational skills which later assist in the development of work level competencies. Some of the foundational skills gained in the play level are social aptitude, curiosity, and lifelong learning. In this level

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25 Figure 2 1. Bobbitts (1918) Play-Work Interaction Model spontaneity is key, as greater the spontaneity, other things equal, the greater the values (Bobbitt, 1918, p. 16). The work level is focused upon the fruits of labor. Bobbitt explained fruits of labor as the ultimate results of work level activities. An example of fruits of labor would be the completion of a project or graduating at the end of four years. Work level activities show a need for clear objectives as the se become the focus of the work performed These objectives can either be concentrated upon the developmental results or fruits of labor, either way the work and concentration of that activity is towards the objective or objectives (Bobbitt, 1918) Tru e work level activities include a sense of responsibility when putting ones power to work ( Bobbitt, 1918, p. 19). Work level activities should not be something like work; it must be actual work, which means there should be purpose behind the activitie s performed to be true work -level activities ( Bobbitt, 1918, p. 20). Bobbitt described the need for true work level activities as the only possible normal method of preparing for the work of the world ( Bobbitt, 1918, p. 20). No other works or research we re found to have expanded upon Bobbitts work and the Play -Work Interaction Model. Despite the age of the model, this model lends itself to be used in the analysis of the 4 H program, and in this study, the 4 H curricula.

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26 In connection with Bobbitts (1918) model of the PlayWork Interaction Model, 4 H has a similar interaction by guiding youth towards the Fruits of Labor. Activities within the 4H program include components of both play and work as defined by Bobbitt, as youth are involved in an entire spe ctrum of activities from the exercising of power all the way to enjoying the fruits of their labor through 4 H. The objectives and outcomes outlined in 4 H curricula correspond with Bobbitts Developmental Results section of the model. The impacts of the 4 H program then reflect the Fruits of Labor Bobbitt (1918) outlines within the model. Conceptual Framework In c onnection with Bobbitts (1918) Play -Work Interaction Model, 4-H has a similar interaction with guiding youth towards the fruits of labor. This interaction has been represented visual ly in Figure 2 2 Figure 2 2 4 H Play Work Development Model Through projects, curricula, and other 4H activities research has shown youth develop the competencies and skills Bobbitt has shown to lead to the frui ts of labor. The Play -Level activities in 4 H comprise of activities such as the Cloverbud program (Ferrari, Hogue, & Scheer, 2004), 4 H camps (Arnold, Bourdeau, & Nagele, 2005), and ice breakers/games. Work Level 4 -H

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27 activities include leadership position s and opportunities (Ladewig & Thomas, 1989; Thomas, 2004; Boyd, Herring, & Briers, 1992) and 4 H projects (Ward, 1996). These various means serve as play and work as defined by Bobbitt (1918). In this study the 4 H curriculas objectives and outcomes (Dev elopmental Results) were examined to describe the level of inclusion of the SCANS competencies that lead to the completion of projects and the acquisition of competencies (the Fruits of Labor) at the 4 H Play -Work Development Model. Elements of Work Emplo yers seek highly trained employees with honed competencies but not always in their specific technical areas. In a meta analysis of career preparation literature, Rateau and Kaufman (2009) found a common theme of the need for improved employability skills. Though the definition of those skills was not consistent, the need was clear. Knight and York (2002) stated skills were a requirement in a knowledge driven economy with a strong connection between economic success of society and education of the workforc e (as cited in Rateau & Kaufman, 2009). The skills outlined within the study were divided into basic knowledge/skills and applied skills. Basic knowledge/skills encompassed basic school subject skills, including English, mathematics, history, and others. The applied skills included such areas such as critical thinking, teamwork/collaboration, diversity, and leadership. The areas included in the study were very similar to those outlined by the Secretarys Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills report by t he United States Department of Labor (1991). Not only are employers seeking skilled employees, but students have indicated a need for a full spectrum of competencies, skills and abilities in order to feel prepared for the workforce (Kline & Williams, 2007 ). Forty -six percent of high school graduates felt they lacked what they need to succeed. Furthermore, four in ten students surveyed conveyed feeling unprepared for the workplace. When American manufacturing companies were asked about the preparedness of

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28 s tudents for the workplace, 84% indicated they were lacking (Kline & Williams, 2007). When asked what employability skills were deficient in their employees most [cited] basic employability skills such as attendance, timeliness, and work ethic as the speci fic deficiencies (Kline & Williams, 2007, p. 2). Secretarys Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills In 1991, the United States Department of Labor released a report entitled What Work Requires of Schools: A Report for America 2000. This report was the result of the combined efforts of a committee consisting of members of industry, academia, and the government (SCANS, 1993). In 1990, the U.S. Secretary of Labor, Lynn Martin, created the commission to assess the demands of the workplace and to examine whether youth we re being prepared for those demands. The committee was named the Secretarys Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS). The acronym SCANS became synonymous with the results of the commissions reports. The Secretarys Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) was formed, and its staff and members distinguished representatives fr om education, business, labor, and government labored mightily to accomplish their mission to encourage a high performance economy characterized by high -skills, high -wage employment (SCANS, 1992, p. 5). One of the areas the Commission emphasized was th e need for learning of competencies and skills in similar contexts outlined in Bobbitts (1918) Play -Work Model. Competencies and skills should be seen as applicable to the students and the objectives created should be set up beyond the theoretical and abs tract (SCANS, 1991). This initial report introduced the concept of workplace know -how and the competencies and skills needed by youth to succeed in the workplace in the future (p. viii). Five competency areas (see Figure 2 3 ) were identified as important areas youth need to have education on within schools: resources, interpersonal, information, systems, and technology. These competencies were utilized within this study. Skills

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29 Resources: Identifies, organizes, plans, and allocates resources A Time Selects goal relevant activities, ranks them, allocates time, and prepares and follows schedules B. MoneyUses or prepares budgets, makes forecasts, keeps records, and makes adjustments to meet objectives C. Material and Facilities Acquires, stores, allocates, and uses materials or space efficiently D Human Resources Assesses skills and distributes work accordingly, evaluates performance and provides feedback Interpersonal: Works with others A Participates as a Member of a Team contributes to group effort B. Teachers Others New Skills C. Serves Clients/Customers works to satisfy customers expectations D Exercises Leadership communicates ideas to justify position, persuades and convinces others, responsibly challenges existing procedures and policies E Negotiates works towards agreements involving exchange of resources, resolves divergent interests F Works with Diversity works well with men and women from diverse backgrounds Information: Acquires and uses information A Acquires and Evaluates Information B. Organizes and Maintains Information C. Interprets and Communicates Information D Uses Computers to Process Information Systems: Understands complex inter -relationships A Understands Systems knows how social, organizational, and technological systems work and operates effecti vely with them B. Monitors and Corrects Performance distinguishes trends, predicts impacts on system operations, diagnoses deviations in systems performance and corrects malfunctions C. Improves or Designs Systems suggests modifications to existing systems and develops new or alternative systems to improve performance Technology: Works with a variety of technologies A Selects Technology chooses procedures, tools or equipment including computers and related technologies B. Applies Technology to Task Understands o verall intent and proper procedures for setup and operation of equipment C. Maintains and Troubleshoots Equipment Prevents, identifies, or solves problems with equipment including computers and other technologies. Figure 2 3 SCANS Five Competencies Note From What Work Requires of Schools: A SCANS Report for America 2000, by Secretarys Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills, 1991, U.S. Department of Labor, p. x.

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30 outlined within the study can also be placed into one of three foundation parts: basics skills (reading, writing, math, etc.), thinking skills (creative thinking, problem solving, decision making, etc.), and personal qualities (responsibility, self -esteem, sociability, etc.). A high performance workplace requires workers who have a solid fou ndation in the basic literacy and computational skills, in the thinking skills necessary to put knowledge to work, and in the personal qualities that make workers dedicated and trustworthy. But a solid foundation is not enough. High performance workplaces also require competencies: the ability to manage resources, to work amicably and productively with others to acquire and use information, to master complex systems, and to work with a variety of technologies (SCANS, 1992, p. xiii). SCANS competencies reflect what the workforce required of employees and still requires, as shown in subsequent studies. Just as the 4 H utilizes the Learning to Do motto, SCANS Learning a Living report (1992) outlined the same mantra. SCANSs (1992) primary message is this: look beyond the schoolhouse to the roles students will play when they leave to become workers, parents, and citizens (p. xiii). This again goes back to Bobbitt and Kolbs theories of the development and application of competencies, skills and knowl edge in a meaningful and applicable context. The SCANS report went on to explain teaching should be offered in context, that is, students should learn content while solving realistic problems. Learning in order to know should not be separated from le arning in order to do (SCANS, 1992, p. xvi). Relevance of SCANS incorporation In Developing Youth Curriculum Utilizing the Targeting Life Skills Model, Hendricks (1998) pointed out the connections between TSL and SCANS. Within the TSL model, SCANS compet encies are incorporated mainly in the marketable skills, but there are other areas of overlap between the two. Nineteen of the skills within the TSL model are also incorporated into the SCANS competencies and skills. The SCANS competencies and skills all ow for a greater

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31 focus on the preparation of youth for the workforce and as such can be used as life skills in the application of learning content (Hendricks, 1998, p. 76). The drive to encourage students to pursue college degrees has grown and will cont inue to grow into the future (Hull, 2005). Meeder and Couch (Hull, 2005) noted the drive has not been completely due to the need for the content gained in a college education, but for the attainment of knowledge, skills, and competencies students do not us ually gain from a high school education. Teamwork oral and written communication, problem -solving, and the use of personal computers are a few competencies expanded upon within college settings. Meeder and Couch (Hull, 2005) stated it is possible for more weight to be put upon a high school education if the quality of learning and acquisition of the aforementioned competencies and skills both increase. The time when a high school diploma was a sure ticket to a job is within the memory of workers who have not yet retired; yet in many places today a high school diploma is little more than a certificate of attendance (SCANS, 1992, p. xiv), which only reinforces the need for the development of employability competencies Meeder and Couch (Hull, 2005) outline d. SCANS (1992) noted workers with more know -how command a higher wage on average, 58 percent, or $11,200 a year, higher (p. xv). This lends itself to the incorporation of skills and competency sets such as those within SCANS in order to improve the qualit y and value placed upon a secondary education. The lack of weight placed on a high school education was seen again in a study conducted by the Conference Board (2006). Employers indicated high school graduates did not excel in any basic knowledge or skill s and only 10% of employers indicated excellence in two applied skills. Ten basic and applied skills were placed in the deficient category by over 50% of employers in the study. Four -year college graduates fared better but still did not have over 50% of em ployers

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32 indicating excellence in any skills. One skill employers indicated at every level as being deficient was written communications. Other SCANS competencies indicated as deficient in the study included problem solving, oral communication, teamwork/col laboration, and diversity, as well as leadership at the four year college level. Overall, it was found 42.4% of employers in the study indicated high school graduates were deficient in the skills needed to succeed in the workplace. The lack of preparedness of high school students showed a need for educational standards to reflect the needs of students to succeed in the workplace, as well as in higher education. SCANS or workforce related competencies and skills have not been adopted into educational standar ds and assessments on a state level in a majority of the United States (Ananda, 2002). The few states who have incorporated workforce competencies and skills into their academic standards and assessments include California, Kentucky, Maryland, and Virginia Some of the reasons seemed to be the perceived need to increase student learning in relation to academic standards, but lack of perceived need for workforce readiness from the general public; and the possibility of an increased strain upon state assessme nts (Ananda, 2002). In relation to the perceived needs, the general public has not voiced a concern, but employers have been voicing concerns about the lack of preparedness of students in the competencies and skills required by the changing workplace. As f or the state assessments, it would take a substantial amount of time before new standards could be incorporated into assessments and be measured adequately. Ananda pointed out the hindrances can be overcome in order to assist youth in meeting the need expr essed by employers. Impact of SCANS incorporation One program that successfully incorporated SCANS occurred in Baltimore and the impact was examined by Blassingame (2000). The schools had high dropout rates and low test scores, but after implementing SCANS both positively changed. The high schools incorporated curricula

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33 developed by the SCANS 2000 Center out of Johns Hopkins University. By 1999, student grade point averages raised, attendance rates increased, and dropout rates decreased (Blassingame, 2000) When students were given a set of tests as part of the Maryland School Performance and Assessment Program, an improvement was shown in this area as well. Blassingame pointed out the incorporation of SCANS will not be the same in every program or school an d it is the ability to adapt the incorporation which has allowed SCANS to be so successful both in and out of the classroom. Former SCANS commission executive director, Arnold Packer, said SCANS has been one of the reports more integrated into curriculum than any other (as cited in Blassingame, 2000, p. 34). In 2000, Overtoom created an update on employability competencies and skills, including those in the SCANS reports. SCANS faced many misconceptions in the beginning of its implementation, including: SCANS skills and competencies are related only to entrylevel employment while SCANS apply to all career and education levels, SCANS only cover soft skills instead of the broad categories of competencies in the report, and SCANS conflict with rigorous academic work when SCANS can apply to all levels of education (Overtoom, 2000, p. 3). SCANS not only applies in all these instances but when taught and learned are consistent with the emerging needs of a world economy in a high-performance work environment and contribute to optimal learning for youth (p. 3). Overtoom also indicated studies conducted in Nevada and Canada validated employability skills and competencies over time. Extension y outh work readiness programs recognized the need to utiliz e SCANS skills and competencies. Blalock, Strieter, and Hughes (2006) developed an assessment tool for evaluating SCANS in work readiness programs. The authors found successful work force development

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34 programs incorporated activities which include d opportuni ties for youth to gain and apply the competencies and skills outlined in the SCANS report. In a longitudinal study, North and Worth (2004) identified trends in technology, interpersonal, and basic communication competencies and skills required in entry le vel positions between 1992 and 2002. These competencies and skills were defined according to SCANS (1991) definitions. To find trends, North and Worth analyzed classified ads from the eleven year period to find the SCANS competencies and skills included in the job descriptions. Over the 11 years, it was found interpersonal and technology competencies were important in the workplace. Technology was consistently listed in over two thirds of the classified ads analyzed indicating technology competencies remai n important in todays job market (North & Worth, 2004, p. 68). North and Worth concluded todays workplace continues to demand a changing mix of competencies and skills including those within SCANS (p. 68). SCAN S competencies will remain an important s et for employees to possess as employers consider skills that transfer to be far more important in the workplace because domains of knowledge change rapidly (North & Worth, p. 60). In a similar study conducted in the United Kingdom, Bennett (2002) analyz ed over 1,000 job advertisements to discern the top skill requirements for careers in the areas of marketing, finance, and human resource management. Of the top ten skill requirements, the top five w ere reflected in SCANS competencies : communication, IT, o rganization, teamwork, and interperson al skills. When examining those skills which appeared more than ten times in the sample, presentation (communication of information) and leadership were also included. Bennett found a correlation between salary and ski lls required for the career. Skills such as IT, analytical, and organization were found to be correlated with those careers with the highest salary scales.

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35 Coll and Zegwaard (2006) compiled a list of the competencies and skills needed in both the business sector and the science and technology sector. The importance of 24 competencies was rated by employers, students, graduates, and faculty within both sectors. The competencies ranked among the top half for all four groups were teamwork and cooperation, abi lity and willingness to learn, and personal planning and organizational skills. Employers added eight more competencies for both sectors: flexibility, computer literacy, conceptual thinking, initiative, written communication, information seeking, and achie vement orientation. Of all the competencies ranked in the top half by employers, six corresponded with SCANS competencies. Coll and Zegwood pointed out the competencies and skills needed in today and tomorrows workplace may not all be cultivated within a purely classroom -based instruction (p. 51). This can lend to the conclusion that youth development organizations, such as 4 -H, can assist in providing opportunities for youth to develop the competencies and skills needed to succeed in the workplace as th ey can work in settings classroom education may not be able to utilize. Packer and Sharrar (2003) discussed the future of human resource development in the face of the changing workplace North and West alluded to in their conclusions. Through a case study and discussion of previous research, the authors found lifelong learning and competencies such as those outlined in SCANS, were still applicable and needed in new hires. Packer and Sharrar stated the output of SCANS included identifying five problem -solving domains that are crucial to adapting to the changing nature of work (p. 334). Despite the changes in the workplace in the thirteen years between the study and the creation of SCANS, the problem -solving comptencies can assist in creating prepared emplo yees in tomorrows workforce. There is still room for improvement on the relationship between industry and schools in regard to preparing students for future employment.

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36 Work Preparation Education Hall and Raffo (2004) found work related learning does not have many benefits within school settings and does not lend itself to improved motivation or attainment within schools. Within a school setting the researchers examined the work -based program and found it distracted from school efforts both in the classro om itself and on standardized tests. One of the factors positively affecting the youths attitude towards school and subsequent behaviors was the positive interaction with adults within the program. Hall and Raffos findings enforce the reasoning behind ha ving a youth organization, such as 4 H, take up career learning as there are no grades or tests tied in with the knowledge and skills gained within the 4 -H program. Also within the 4 H program, youth have ample opportunity to have the positive interactions with adults as Hall and Raffo concluded can improve attitudes towards school and their behaviors. 4 -H & Bobbitts Play Work Interaction Model The activities, objectives and outcomes, and impacts of the 4 H program correspond with the sections of Bobbitts (1918) PlayWork Interaction Model. 4 H activities can be divided into the two levels, Play Level and Work Level. The objectives and outcomes outlined in 4 H curricula correspond with the Developmental Results section of the Play-Work Interaction Model. T he impacts of the 4 H program reflect the f ruits of l abor Bobbitt (1918) outline d within the model. Beginning with the Fruits of Labor, each section of the model was examined in relation to the 4 H program The Fruits of 4 -H Labor Impact studies of the 4 H program have yielded inconsistent results in the past, but have consistently indicated a positive development of skills and competencies in youth members ( El Sawi, 1997; National 4 H Headquarters, 2001). Impact studies of the ability of 4 H to develop le adership and life skills in members were inconclusive in their findings prior to 1995 (El Sawi

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37 & Smith, 1997; Miller & Bow e n, 1993). Though positive findings pertaining to skill attainment was found, equally unclear and potentially negative findings were a lso found (Miller & Bowen, 1993). Beginning in the mid1990s, impact studies became more conclusive and positive in their findings of the impacts of the 4 H program. In a 1989 national study, Ladewig and Thomas compared former 4H members, former youth organization members, and non youth organization members in order to determine the perceived impact of 4 H and other youth organizations. Ladewig and Thomas found 4 H did affect the perceived life skills gained by alumni, yet there was a lack of satisfactio n with the leadership opportunities and skills gained from 4 H involvement. 4 H was found to be limiting in youths access to the development of leadership skills. Fifty three percent of alumni involved with other organizations in addition to 4 H indicated they gained more leadership skills and responsibility in those other organizations. In 1993, Miller and Bowen conducted an ex post facto survey study of all Ohio public school students to determine if there were differences between 4 H and non 4H members competency, coping, and contributory life skills. Miller and Bowen found there were no significant differences between 4 H and non 4 H members self -perceived life skill development. Despite finding no significant difference between the two groups, Mille r and Bowen concluded 4 H ha d an impact upon the life skill development in youth, again displaying the discrepancies found in early impact studies. Cantrell, Heinsoh, and Doebler (1989) conducted a Pennsylvania 4H impact study of teen 4 H members. The relationships between life skill development and various 4H experiences were examined. The findings indicated 4H contributed to the youths life skill development, but mainly for those activities above the club level. Impact being concentrated above the local level

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38 can be an issue for 4 H and can greatly limit the potential impact on youth as many of the youth only participat e at the local level (especially after -school program participants). Matulis, Hedges, Barrick, and Smith (1988) examined career skills gained by 4 H members and found 4 H only did a mediocre job at preparing youth for choosing a career and securing a job. Matulis et al. found 4 H had a positive impact upon self awareness and basic skill acquisition, but lacked impact upon skills required to secure a position (i.e. job interviewing, applying for jobs, and preparing a resume). They also reported low support in career planning on the part of 4 H leaders, 4 H agent, and other 4 H members. Matulis et al. recommended continued and expanded care er awareness for nine to twelve year olds and career exploration for teens within the 4 H program. Matulis et al. also recommended those efforts should continue and even a greater emphasis placed in the areas of work competency and skill development. Stat e and national impact studies The National 4 H Headquarters issued a call in 2001 to states to conduct impact studies in order to answer the question What positive outcomes in youth result from the presence of critical elements in a 4 H experience? on a state and national level (2001, p. 6). National 4 H desired to gain data from each state and gain a national view of the impacts of 4 H. When the call was issued, five states had completed or were in the process of conducting a formal impact study followin g the guidelines that National 4 H was advocating. Arizona and Kansas were in the beginning stages of the process and were developing their evaluation instruments and procedures. Missouri Montana, and South Dakota gathered partial data and reported 4 H members gain ed positive outcomes from their 4 H involvement (National 4 -H Headquarters, 2001). Missouri reported 4H assisted members in learning new things, in planning, goal, setting and decision-making ( National 4 H Headquarters, 2001, p. 35). Clague (n .d., as cited in National 4 H Headquarters, 2001) found 4 H in South Dakota gave members the opportunity to

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39 value and practice service for others as well as opportunities for engagement in learning (p. 35). Montana conducted an impact study modeled af ter the National 4 H evaluation process (Astroth, 2001). Astroth found 4 Hs impact was far reaching. The areas with the greatest impacts were confidence, connectedness, competence, care and compassion. 4H reached youth of all backgrounds in the program. 4 H impact studies in Florida found positive correlations between involvement and life skill development (Thomas, 2004; UF/IFAS Extension, 2007). Thomas (2004) found positive correlations between 4 H involvement and the constructs of belonging, service and leadership, self development, and positive identity. Fitzpatrick, Gagne, Jones, Lobley, and Phelps (2005) conducted an impact study within Maine and examined alumni of the 4 H program along with volunteers of the program. It was found alumni felt 4 H had played an import role in their life skill development. Colorados impact study found a similar trend; 4 H members were less likely to be involved with at risk behaviors (Goodwin, Carroll, & Oliver, 2007). 4H members had a positive outlook on life and th e world. 4 H members succeeded in school and received more As than any other students. The impact study conducted in Idaho found involvement within the 4 H program decreased the likelihood of youth participating in at risk behavior (Goodwin, Barnett, Pi ke, Peutz, Lanting, & Ward, 2005). Other areas were found to be positively influenced by the 4 H program including higher grades, increased community involvement, and more school leadership positions. Goodwin et al stated the bottom line observation by t he investigators is that 4 H does make a difference in the lives of young people ( 35). General 4 -H and youth organization impacts Significant differences have been found in comparative studies between 4 H members and non 4 H members. Boyd, Herring, and Briers (1992) compared the leadership skill development

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40 between 4 H and non 4 H members and found 4 H members had significantly higher perceptions of their own development in five leadership life skill areas. Taking into account the level of participation in 4 H, the only leadership life skill area that participation affected was leadership, which can be tied to the amount of leadership experience members have within 4 H Another comparative study was conducted examining life skill development within 4 H and other youth development organizations (Maass, Wilken, Jordan, Culen, & Place, 2006). Alumni rated 4 H significantly higher on overall life skill development than other youth development organizations. The areas with the greatest perceived influence fro m 4 H were public speaking, record keeping, healthy lifestyle choices, learning to learn, and leadership. Tufts University has conducted a longitudinal study of the impacts of out of -school time (OST) activities, including 4 -H, upon positive youth development (Lerner, Lerner, & Phelps, 2007). The study included data from 4404 youth from 34 states over a four year period. The study examined the ability of the youth to select positive life goals, optimize what he or she needs to achieve these goals, and compensate for obstacles that stood in the way, which created an index score (Lerner, Lerner, & Phelps, p. 9) Lerner et al. found a combination of sports and youth development programs, including 4 H, promoted positive development and [prevent ed] problems (p. 11). Lerner et al. found trends which indicated those involved within 4 H for at least one year between their fifth and eighth grade years had an overall higher positive youth development than those who were not. In comparison, 4 H members had significant differences with youth involved in other extracurricular activities. In relation to college aspi rations, 4 H members were 1.6 times more likely to indicate plans to attend college. When examining the long -term trajectories for positive youth development and contribution, 4 H members were 1.5 and 3.5 times, respectively, more likely to be in the highe st trajectory for

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41 each. For depressive symptoms and risk behavior trajectories, 4 H members were 1.3 times more likely to be in the lowest trajectory in comparison to their peers. Overall, Lerner et al. found 4 H had a large impact upon the development of youth involved in the program outside of basic skill acquisition. Life skill development as perceived by alumni was also examined by Fox, Schroeder, and Lodl (2003). Focus groups comprised of Nebraska 4 H alumni from 17 counties were utilized in analyzing their perceptions of the impact of their participation in 4 H clubs. Alumni indicated involvement in 4 H clubs greatly or somewhat influenced the development of all 32 life skills examined in the study (Fox, Schroeder, & Lodl, 2003). The areas alumni indic ated 4 H had the greatest influence were responsibility (58.8% of respondents), product production skills (54.2%), ability to handle competition (53.8%), and ability to meet new people (50.3%). In addition to t hese areas, alumni indicated 4 H had an influe nce on the development of other skills, including technical, communication, leadership, personal and social, and relationship skills. Mulroy and Kraimer Rickaby (2006) identified themes in the development of life skills in members and factors contributing to general 4 H involvement utilizing 49 studies pertaining to the impact of the 4 H program. Sustained involvement within the 4 H program was found to be a critical component to the development of life skills. L eadership roles contributed the most to the acquisition of the most life skills (Mulroy & Kraimer Rickaby, 2006). Mulroy and Kraimer Rickaby found the higher the level of participation or leadership the more likely 4-H members were to indicate 4 H was an important piece in the development of life a nd leadership skills. Play -Level Activities in 4 -H Activities such as 4 H camps, the Cloverbud program, and icebreakers can be categorized under the PlayLevel section of Bobbitts (1918) Play-Work Interaction Model as these activities do not often have t he developmental objectives as the focus, if there are any objectives set forth.

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42 Arnold, Bourdeau, and Nagele (2005) examined the impact of 4-H camping programs in Oregon and found the camp setting created an environment to foster life skills development a nd social growth, as well as allowing youth to experience nature. Of the eight skills examined, youth strongly indicated their camp experience had an impact upon developing those skills, including cooperating with others, talking with others, working withi n a team, and responsibility. The impact of the 4 H program has not been limited to those who are regular members, which is generally third to twelfth grade age youth, but can begin even earlier. With the Cloverbud program, children are able to participa te in 4 H on a limited basis and still gain life skills at an early age. Ferrari, Hogue, and Scheer (2004) examined the perceptions of life skill development by parents of Cloverbud members and found there was a positive perception of the program overall a nd of the skills gained by their children. The skills highlighted were in the areas of social interaction, learning to learn, self -confidence, self -care, and self -direction (Ferrari, Hogue, & Scheer, 2004). Parents felt the activities within the Cloverbud 4 H program were fun, but [Cloverbuds] are learning while having fun and fit the needs of the children (Ferrari, Hogue, & Scheer, 16). Programs such as these can be placed within Bobbitts (1918) play-level within the Play -Work Interaction Model (1918) as the Cloverbud program lays the groundwork for subsequent 4 H activities within the work -level. Work Level Activities in 4 -H 4 H projects and leadership opportunities serve as Work Level Activities as they have purposes, goals and objectives in mind when carrying out the activities or responsibilities within each. 4 -H project areas have proven to be important in the development of life skills for 4 H members. Ward (1996) found the 4 H animal science project area positively impacted the development of li fe skills, such as responsibility, relating to others, and public speaking. When asked which activities influenced life skill development 4H members indicated shows or

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43 exhibitions and judging events as the highest in development. Activities out side of the 4 H club had influence upon the life skill development of youth members. Other activities outside of b asic 4 H project work have shown to have positive impacts upon various aspects of youth development. Another experience not within basic projects is serv ice as an officer. A study of State 4 H Council members found members gained experiences and skills within areas such as decision making, teamwork, relationships, and communications (Bruce, Boyd, & Dooley, 2004). State 4H Council members expressed the abi lity to experience self -growth and self -discovery through their service on the council. Developmental Results of 4 -H Skills to be taught to youth come in a multitude of modes, from curricula to informal conversations to self -discovery. Within the confines of this study, curricula were analyzed for the inclusion of the skills needed by youth to succeed in the workplace. Curriculum assessment in 4 H materials and in SCANS implementation has been conducted on a limited basis. Prior to the creation of the Ta rgeting Life Skills model (Hendricks, 2006), El Sawi and Smith (1997) performed an analysis of 4 H curricula to examine the inclusion of SCANS competencies and skills in both the curriculums objectives and the activities, as well as the cognitive level at which the competencies and skills appeared in the curricula. Through a content analysis, El Sawi and Smith found 4 H was lacking or inconsistent in the inclusion of SCANS competencies and skills in the 4 H curricula. In regards to SCANS, many competencies and skills were not found very frequently through the curricula The cognitive levels for the majority of the materials were not within the top three levels of Blooms Taxonomy. Another finding was the discrepancy between those competencies and skills out lined in the objectives of the curricula and the actual activities within the curricula. Not having the SCANS competencies and skills within the 4 H curricula materials created a problem for youth and the 4 H program as SCANS

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44 competencies cannot be widely taught unless teachers have instructional materials (SCANS, 1992, p. xvii) which can also be said about agents and volunteers have the proper materials In 2007, National 4H held the National 4 H Curriculum Summit where different aspects of the national curricula w ere examined, including a report of the results of the National 4 H Curriculum Survey. Astroth (2007) and Schaff (2007) outlined the strengths and concerns curricula stakeholders expressed about National 4 H curricula through the survey. One common positive theme within the responses about the national 4 H curricula was the successful emphasis of life skills within the materials. This was rated as the greatest strength of the curricula by 59.2% of respondents and 86% indicated this should be a n assumed component of all national 4 H curricula (Astroth, 2007). Astroth found the changes respondents demanded to increase the helpfulness of the curricula included updating the material as well as make curricula more relevant. With 4 Hs strength and documented impact in skill development, studies looking into the relevance of the competencies and skills included should be conducted. Summary An overview of the theory of Bobbitt (1918) has shown how play and work activities, such as those within the 4 H program, can develop the ability for youth to eventually reap the fruits of labor. Connecting Bobbitt with the SCANS competencies, Targeting Life Skills Model, and the Experiential Learning Model has shown the potential for 4 H to assist in the developme nt of life skills in youth members. Through many impact studies of the 4 H program, findings have shown 4 H does develop life skills in youth participants.

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45 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This study examined the inclusion of SCANS competencies within 4-H curr icula The inclusion of SCANS in the career development and popular project curricula was examined and compared between the career development and popular project curriculum groups. The United States faces a challenge with the decrease of students interest in various career fields, such as science, engineering, and technology. 4 H curricula have not historically been successful in including career competencies. Recent attention has been brought to the areas of science, engineering, and technology within 4 H programming, thus allowing for 4 H to assist in addressing the challenge of preparing students to enter into these career fields. As one avenue for developing career competencies, 4 H curricula should be analyzed in order to determine if career competen cies are now being included. This chapter gives an outline of the methodology used to analyze 4 H curricula for the inclusion of SCANS. A basic interpretive qualitative approach was taken in this study, utilizing content analysis to describe and discover t he extent 4 H curricula include d SCANS (Ary, Jacobs, Razavieh, & Sorensen, 2006; Dooley, 2007; Merriam, 1998). Research Design In basic interpretive qualitative research, the researcher includes description, interpretation, and understanding in the form o f recurrent patterns, themes or categories (Ary, Jacobs, Razavieh, & Sorensen, 2006; Dooley, 2007; Merriam, 1998). In the use of basic interpretive qualitative research, the researcher was able to create an overall view of the career preparation content within 4 H curricula through the use of content analysis utilizing the SCANS competencies as coding categories. Ary et al. (2006) described the use of a basic interpretive qualitat ive research design as allowing the researcher to examine a particular point of view of the context to be

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46 examined (p. 463). The researcher is also able to interpret the data through his or her own disciplinary lens (p. 464), which allows for the examination of the 4 H curricula objectives and outcomes utilizing the SCANS competencies. Selection of Data Sources This study examined 4 H curricula utilized by members and Extension Agents within Florida 4 H Youth Development A purposive sample of curricula was conducted. According to Merriam (1998), purposive sampling is used when the investigator wants to discover, understand, and gain insight (p. 61). These were the objectives of the researcher in examining the 4 H curricul a, thus making a purposive sample appropriate for this study. The researcher examined the 4 H career development curricula as well as the curricula of the five project areas with the highest enrollments within the Florida 4 H program. The highest enrolled projects were utilized because of the vast number of youth involved in each project area. Florida 4 H curricula undergo the same development and approval process thus allowing for the use and application of the findings to those of other Florida 4 H curric ula. The same goes for 4 H curricula developed by the Cooperative Curriculum Service, Inc. The curricula utilized in the study were identified by the Florida 4 H Project Enrollment Guide W eb site (Florida 4 H Youth Development, 2008). There were four 4H career development curricula used in this study. The 2007 Florida 4 H ES 237 was utilized to determine the five project areas with the highest enrollment. The ES 237 is a report on 4-H members and volunteers required of every county and state 4 H program a nd is collected annually by the National 4 H Headquarters along with each state 4 H program (National 4 H Headquarters, 2009). The data in the ES 237 includes information such as 4 -H members and volunteers gender, residence, ethnicity, age, and 4-H proje cts in which the member is involved. The five most popular project areas identified were swine ( n = 3283), horse ( n = 2989), leisure arts

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47 (n = 2570), outdoor education ( n = 1966), and community development and service ( n = 1847) (Florida 4 -H, 2007). A complete list of projects and enrollment figures can be found in Appendix A. There were 24 4 H curricula used for the top Florida 4 H projects and four for the career development project. The curricula utilized in this study are listed in Appendix B. Twenty -eight 4 H cu rricula were analyzed in the study (see Table 3 1 ). Table 3 1. Characteristics of Curricula Included in the Content Analysis Characteristic f Percentage PUBLICATION ORGANIZATION National 4 H Cooperative Curriculum Service 21 75.0% University of Florida/IFAS Extension 7 25.0% 4 H PROJECT Career Development 4 14.3% Swine 3 10.7% Horse 5 17.9% Outdoor Education 8 28.6% Leisure Arts 5 17.9% Community Service/Development 3 10.7% INTENDED USER Member/Participant 23 82.1% Volunteer/Leader 7 25.0% INTENDED AGE GROUP Junior (8 10 years) 7 25.0% Intermediate (11 13 years) 11 39.3% Senior (14 18 years) 9 32.1% No Specified Age Group 5 17.9% Of the curricula analyzed in the study, 75% ( n =21) were published by the National 4 H Cooperative Curriculum Service (CCS) and 25% (n =7) were published by the University of Florida/IFAS Extension (UF/IFAS Extension). Of the 4 H curricula, outdoor education constituted 28.6% of the curricula ( n =8). Swine and Community Service/Development cur ricula were 10.7% ( n =3) each. The majority of the curricula were created for use by 4 H members/participants ( n =23). The curriculas intended age groups were divided into three main groups: junior (3 5th grade), intermediate (6 8th grade), and senior (9 12th grade). There was also a no specified age group. The i ntermediate level constituted 39.3% ( n =11) of the curricula

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48 analyzed in the study. There were seven curricula omitted from the study for lack of clear objectives and/or outcomes for the materials (see Appendix C). Data Analysis Content Analysis Content analysis is a research method applied to written or visual materials for the purpose of identifying specified characteristics of the material (Ary, Jacobs, Razavieh, & Sorensen, 2006, pg. 464). Ary et al. identified numerous purposes for the use of content analysis. For the purpose of this study content analysis w as used to describe prevailing practices and to discover the relative importance of certain topics in relation to the inclusion of SCANS competencies in 4 H curricula (Ary, Jacobs, Razavieh, & Sorensen, 2006, p. 464). This study utilized a coding sheet for each curriculum material to guide the content analysis process (see Appendix D). The coding sheet included the coding categories, which were the SCANS competencies, along with general information about each curriculum. The general information gathered from each curriculum included: (a) title (b) author (c) publication organization or company, (d) career preparation or popular project (e) project area (f) use by member or volunteer and (g) intended age group. To ensure credibility, the codin g sheet was reviewed by a panel of experts. This was done to ensure credibility (face validity) by gathering information that was accurate and adequate to address the research ob jectives, which then contributed to the trustworthiness of the study (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Upon the completion of the coding sheet, each curriculum material was analyzed individually by the researcher. First, the general information was recorded for each piece on the coding sheet. The objectives of each curriculum piece were then coded for the inclusion of t he

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49 SCANS competencies according to the descriptions given by What Work Requires of Schools report (SCANS, 1991) see Table 3 2 Table 3 2 SCANS Five Competencies Coding categories I. Resources A Time B Money C Material and Facilities D Human Resources II. Interpersonal A Participates as a Member of a Team B Teachers Others New Skills C Serves Clients/Customers D Exercises Leadership E Negotiates F Works with Diversity III. Information A Acquires and Evaluates Information B Organizes and Maintains Information C Interprets and Communicates Information D Uses Computers to Process Information IV. Systems A Understands Systems B Monitors and Corrects Performance C Improves or Designs Systems V. Technology A Selects Technology B Applies Technology to Task C Maintains and Troubleshoots Equipment Note From What Work Requires of Schools: A SCANS Report for America 2000, by Secretarys Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills, 1991, U.S. Department of Labor, p. x. The SCANS compet encies served as clear, concise coding categories, which ensured greater reliability. Riffe, Lacy, and Fico (2005) stated reliability in content analysis starts with the category and subcategory definitions (p. 123). Utilizing the descriptions provided b y the SCANS report (1991) reliability also [was] easier to achieve when a concept is more, rather than less, manifest because coders will more easily recognize the concepts in the content (Riffe,

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50 Lacy, & Fico, 2005, p. 125). Berelson (1952) added content analysis stands or falls by its categories (p. 147). Once the curricula had been analyzed, the data w ere entered into Windows Excel for general analysis and the discovery of themes. The f requencies and percentages of the SCANS competencies were found in order to assist in finding the overarching themes within the data. Trustworthiness Within qualitative research, trustworthiness outlines the degree of confidence that the findings of the study represent the respondents and their context (D ooley, 2007, 31). Components of trustworthiness include credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. Credibility The equivalent of quantitative researchs internal validity within qualitative research is credibility. Lincoln and Guba (1985) stated credibility is to carry out the inquiry in such a way that the probability that the findings will be found to be credible (p. 296). The methods for ensuring credibility include activities that make it more likely that credibility findings and interpretations will be produced and an activity that provides an external check on the inquiry process (Lincoln & Guba, p. 301). To ensure credibility prolonged engagement, triangulation, and peer debriefing (Lincoln & Guba, p. 301) were car ried out throughout the research process. A thorough literature review of the relationship between the SCANS reports and recommendations (SCANS, 1991; 1992; 1993) and the 4 H Targeting Life Skills Model (1998) was conducted prior to the beginning of data c ollection which served as prolonged engagement. The literature review served t o learn the culture ( Lincoln & Guba p. 301) or the context in which the subjects lie The literature review established an understanding of the context, the 4 H program, and the SCANS competencies observed during data collection.

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51 Triangulation and peer debriefing w ere carried out through an expert panel analysis of select curricula and an accompanied meeting to discuss and compare the analysis by the researcher and the expert panel. Triangulation in this manner served to add to the probability that findings will be found to be credible (Lincoln & Guba, p. 307). These activities also served as peer debriefing as they allowed the researcher to expose herself to a disintereste d peer in a manner paralleling an analytic session and for the purpose of exploring aspects of the inquiry that might otherwise remain only implicit in the inquirers mind (Lincoln & Guba, p. 308). Through the meetings, discussions would center around cla rifying results found and ensuring the researcher was remaining concentrated upon the inquiry. Differences in analysis were also discussed and the descriptions for each coding category were amended as the need arose. Transferability The applicability of th e study to other situations or contexts is the transferability in qualitative research (Dooley, 2007). The term most closely related within quantitative research is external validity. Within qualitative research, the context in which the observations and a nalysis take place does not always allow for transferability as the observations and analysis made are limited to the time and context in which they were found (Lincoln & Guba, 1985, p. 316). Lincoln and Guba indicated it is not the [researchers] task to provide an index of transferability; it is his or her responsibility to provide the data base that makes transferability judgments possible on the part of potential appliers (p. 316). In order to build the data base necessary for application to other contexts or settings, thick descriptions of the observed SCANS competencies within the 4 H curricula were recorded and reported. Examples of objectives and outcomes we re provided for each SCANS competency category.

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52 Depen dability Dependability is the consistency of the study as well as the reliability. Dependability is strongly tied with credibility and thus the steps taken to ensure credibility built the foundation for dependability in the study (Lincoln & Guba, 1985, p. 316). In addition to the prolonged engagement, triangulation, and peer debriefing, an inquiry audit was conducted to examine the process, attest to the dependability, and examine the product of the research (Lincoln & Guba, p. 318). The components of the inquiry audit were established through the expert panel meetings outlined previously along with thesis committee meetings, the final thesis submission, and the presentation of the research findings in a thesis defense. Prior to data collection, the methodology and data collection forms were examined and discussed to ensure the proper steps would be taken to measure the objectives set forth for the research. The members of the expert panel and the thesis committee served as the auditors of the process, dependability, and final product of the entire research process. Confirmability Confirmability ensures the data base, as well as conclusions, interpretations, and recommendations, can be traced back to their sources ( Dooley, 2007; Lincoln & Guba, 1985). The inquiry audit served as one method to establish confirmability of the study (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). The other method employed was an audit trail. The audit trail served as a record of steps taken throughout the research process. Materials serving as pieces of the audit trail include preliminary research proposal drafts, coding sheet drafts (including edits), notes from expert panel and thesis committee meetings, personal notes taken during analysis, and completed coding sheets. These materials serve a s a means to trace observations, conclusions, interpretations, and recommendations back to their source, thus confirming the research completed.

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53 Researcher Bias Statement The researcher first gained experience within the 4 H program in 2000 as a member of the Van Zandt County 4 H Program. Through the program, she was involved on the local, county, district, and state levels. The program areas the researcher was engaged in were sheep, leadership, horticulture, and horse. During her undergraduate career at Te xas Tech University and her graduate career at the University of Florida, she was involved with the Collegiate 4 H program both as a member and a graduate advisor. Within the Extension Education specialization in the Agricultural Education and Communicatio n Master of Science program, the researcher gained knowledge of the 4 H program through formal coursework, which included topics such as Cooperative Extension history, curriculum development, program development, and formal and nonformal teaching methods. Knowledge of curriculum development was developed mainly in the undergraduate education gained at Texas Tech University within the Interdisciplinary Agriculture Bachelors program within the Agricultural Education and Communication (AEC) department. Basic education coursework within the AEC department and the College of Education gave the researcher a fundamental knowledge of curricula selection and development. Summary This chapter gave an overview of the basic qualitative methodology employed in analyzin g 4 H curricula Content analysis was conducted upon the curricula, utilizing the SCANS competencies as the coding categories. Measures were taken to ensure trustworthiness within the study, including credibility, transferability, dependability, and confir mability. The d ata w ere then combined and analyzed to find overarching themes in relation to SCANS.

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54 CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH FINDINGS With the challenge of increasing American students interests in various career fields, there is a need for 4 H to assis t in addressing this challenge. 4 H curricula have not historically been successful in including career competencies. Recent attention has been brought to the areas of science, engineering, and technology within 4 H programming, thus reinforcing the need t o examine the efforts of 4 -H in preparing youth for careers in these areas. This study examined the inclusion of SCANS competencies within 4 -H curricula The inclusion of SCANS in the career development and popular project curricula was examined and compar ed between the career development and popular project curriculum groups through a content analysis. This chapter details the findings observed thro ugh the content analysis of 4 H curricula Within this chapter, the use of the word curricula implies a group of individual curriculum materials, while curriculum indicates an individual curriculum material. Objective 1. Describe the Inclusion of SCANS Competencies In the content analysis process, the frequency of the occurrence of SCANS competencies within the learning objectives/outcomes were recorded. All 20 SCANS competencies were observed within the 28 curricula analyzed. The information competency category includes competencies in which one acquires and uses information (SCANS, 1991, p. x). Objectives observed within this category included critical thinking, problem solving, learning to learn, public communication, communicating with others, organizing and interpreting information, evaluation skills, and presentation skills. The frequ ency of the information competencies was 435. The resources competency category contains competencies in which one identifies, organizes, plans, and allocates resources (SCANS, 1991, p. x). Examples of the type of

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55 objectives found within the resourc es competency category included goal setting, wise use of resources, planning and organizing, evaluate what resources they will need to start their business, and calculate a financial goal. The overall frequency of the resources competencies w as 342. The interpersonal competency category is comprised of competencies in which one works with others (SCANS, 1991, p. x). Objectives commonly observed within the interpersonal competency category included understanding perspectives on an issue, teamwork, leading self and others, contributing to a group effort, and teaching others. The total frequency of interpersonal competencies was 97. The technology competency category consists of competencies in which one works with a variety of technologies (SCANS, 1991, p. x). Objectives commonly found within this category included understand the importance of tool maintenance, describe how, why, and in what circumstances tools are used, and selecting personal gear for base camping. Th e overall frequency of the technology competencies was 52. The systems competency category contains competencies in which one understands complex inter relationships (SCANS, 1991, p. x). Objectives commonly observed within the systems competency ca tegory included identify the different costs associated with running a business, learning about market forces and how they affect what you can charge/earn, and describe the effects of competition. The total frequency of the systems competency categ ory was 43. Objective 2. Describe the Frequencies of SCANS Competencies Within Each Project Area Curricula The project area with the highest frequ ency of SCANS competencies was Workforce Development ( f =339). T he lowest frequency of SCANS competencies was f ound in the Swine

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56 project area ( f =76). The highest average frequency of competencies per curriculum was in Workforce Development ( f =84.75) and lowest in Outdoor Education ( f =19.25). The competency category observed most frequently was information ( f =435) while the least frequent category observed was systems ( f =33) as seen in Table 4 1 Table 4 1 SCANS Frequencies within the 4 H Project Area Curricula f Competency Category Workforce Development Swine Horse Outdoor Education Community Service/ Development Leisure Arts Total f Resources 101 29 43 93 30 46 342 Interpersonal 41 6 10 12 4 24 97 Information 143 41 86 41 56 68 435 Systems 37 0 5 0 1 0 43 Technology 37 0 3 8 0 4 52 Total 339 76 147 154 91 142 949 The average frequency per individual competency within each competency area for each project is presented in Table 4 2 Within all project areas, except for Outdoor Education, the information competency category had the highest average frequency within the curricula analyzed with a range of 1 0.2535.75. For Outdoor Education, the resources competency category was highest ( m =23.25). The lowest frequency categories varied among individual project areas. Table 4 2 Average SCANS Competency Frequencies per Category and Project Competency Category Workforce Development Swine Horse Outdoor Education Community Service/ Development Leisure Arts Resources 25.25 7.25 10.75 23.25 7.50 11.50 Interpersonal 6.83 0.00 1.67 2.00 0.67 4.00 Information 35.75 10.25 21.50 10.25 14.00 17.00 Systems 9.00 0.00 1.67 0.00 0.33 0.00 Technology 9.00 0.00 1.00 2.67 0.00 1.33

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57 Workforce Development Project Four curricula were analyzed within the 4 H workforce development project area, as seen in Table 4 3 The competencies with the highest frequencies in this area were information acquires and evaluates information ( f =76), informationinterprets and communicates information ( f =49), and resources -money ( f =38). The competencies with the lowest frequencies were interpersonal -works with diversity ( f =1), informationuses computers to process information ( f =2), and systems improves or designs systems ( f =2). Table 4 3 SCANS Frequencies within the 4 H Workforce Development Project Curricula f Competency Mow for Money Get in the Act Lift Off Be the "e" Total f RESOURCES Time 10 1 1 11 23 Money 18 0 0 20 38 Materials & Facilities 9 0 0 10 19 Human Resources 4 0 1 16 21 INTERPERSONAL Team 4 2 0 3 9 Teaches Others 2 0 0 2 4 Serves Clients 6 0 0 4 10 Exercises Leadership 6 0 0 6 12 Negotiates 5 0 0 0 5 Works with Diversity 0 0 0 1 1 INFORMATION Acquires & Evaluates Information 55 2 2 17 76 Organizes & Maintains Information 9 0 2 5 16 Interprets & Communicates Information 26 2 0 21 49 Uses Computers to Process Information 0 0 0 2 2 SYSTEMS Understands Systems 7 0 1 7 15 Monitors & Corrects Performance 9 0 0 1 10 Improves or Designs Systems 0 0 0 2 2 TECHNOLOGY Selects Technology 5 0 0 0 5 Applies Technology 10 0 0 0 10 Maintains & Troubleshoots 12 0 0 0 12

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58 The competency category with the highest average frequency per competency was information ( f =35.8). The categories with the lowest average frequency per competency was systems and technology with f =9.0 each. The Mow for Money curriculum included the highest frequency of competencies ( f =197) as well as the highest number of individual competencies present ( n =18), as seen in Table 4 4 The lowest frequency of individual competencies was found in the Get in the Act and L ift Off curricula ( f =7). The curriculum with the lowest number of individual competencies present was Get in the Act ( n =4). Overall, the Workforce Development project curricula had a frequency of 339 occurrences of competencies within the objectives and all 20 SCANS competencies present. Table 4 4 Total Frequencies and Competencies Present within the Workforce Development Project Curricula Curriculum Total f Competencies Present Mow for Money 197 18 Be the "E" 128 16 Get in the Act 7 4 Lift Off 7 5 Total 339 20 Objectives commonly found within the Workforce Development project curricula included developing teamwork, goal setting, calculate a financial goal, Describe how, why, and in what circumstances tools are used decision making, describe the effects of competition, and identify the different costs of running a business. Swine Project There were three curricula analyzed for the 4 H Swine project, as seen in Table 4 5 The competencies with the highest freque ncies were information interprets and communicates information (f=22) and informationacquires and evaluates information (f=14). Ten competencies were completely absent from the swine project, including the entire systems and

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59 technology categorie s, three interpersonal competencies, and one information competency. Table 4 5 SCANS Frequencies within the 4 H Swine Project Curricula f Competency The Incredible Pig Putting the Oink in Pig Going Whole Hog Total f RESOURCES Time 3 2 1 6 Money 4 2 1 7 Materials & Facilities 4 3 2 9 Human Resources 3 3 1 7 INTERPERSONAL Team 0 0 2 2 Teaches Others 0 0 1 1 Serves Clients 1 1 1 3 Exercises Leadership 0 0 0 0 Negotiates 0 0 0 0 Works with Diversity 0 0 0 0 INFORMATION Acquires & Evaluates Information 5 8 1 14 Organizes & Maintains Information 2 3 0 5 Interprets & Communicates Information 7 7 8 22 Uses Computers to Process Information 0 0 0 0 SYSTEMS Understands Systems 0 0 0 0 Monitors & Corrects Performance 0 0 0 0 Improves or Designs Systems 0 0 0 0 TECHNOLOGY Selects Technology 0 0 0 0 Applies Technology 0 0 0 0 Maintains & Troubleshoots 0 0 0 0 The competency category with the highest average frequency per competency was information ( m =10.5). In Table 4 6 The Incredible Pig and Putting the Oink Back in Pig are shown as having the highest frequency of SCANS competencies with 29 occurrences each, but the lowest number

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60 of individual competencies ( n =8). Going Whole Hog had the lowest frequency of competencies ( f =18), yet had the highest number of individual competencies ( n =9). Overall, the Swine project curricula had 10 individual competencies presented 76 times. Table 4 6 Total Frequencies and Compete ncies Present within the Swine Project Curricula Curriculum Total f Competencies Present The Incredible Pig 29 8 Putting the Oink in Pig 29 8 Going Whole Hog 18 9 Total 76 10 Curricula objectives observed within the Swine project included communicating with others, plan a facility to keep swine safe and healthy, recognizing differences, learning to learn through games, planning and organizing, problem solving, and relating to others. Horse Project In the Horse project curricul a, five curricula were analyzed (see Table 4 7 ). The competencies with the highest frequencies were information interprets and communicates information (f=40) and informationacquire and evaluates information (f=33). The competencies absent from the horse project curricula were interpersonal serves clients, interpersonal negotiates, interpersonal works with diversity, information uses computers to process information, and technology maintains and troubleshoots. The competency category with the highest average frequency per competency was information (m=21.5). The lowest average frequency per competency was technology with only one occurrence. Within the horse project curricula, Head, Heart, & Hoofs had the highest frequency of competencies ( f =38). The lowest frequency of competencies was Riding the Range ( f =18). The curriculum piece with the greatest number of individual competencies was Stable

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61 Table 4 7 SCANS Frequencies within the 4 H Horse Project Curricula f Competency Giddy Up & Go Head, Heart, & Hoofs Stable Relationships Riding the Range Jumping to New Heights Total f RESOURCES Time 0 2 2 3 5 12 Money 0 2 5 0 3 10 Materials & Facilities 0 3 5 0 3 11 Human Resources 3 2 2 0 3 10 INTERPERSONAL Team 1 0 0 0 0 1 Teaches Others 1 0 1 1 2 5 Serves Clients 0 0 0 0 0 0 Exercises Leadership 0 0 0 0 4 4 Negotiates 0 0 0 0 0 0 Works with Diversity 0 0 0 0 0 0 INFORMATION Acquires & Evaluates Info 10 11 4 4 4 33 Organizes & Maintains Information 2 4 2 2 3 13 Interprets & Communicates Information 8 13 7 5 7 40 Uses Computers to Process Information 0 0 0 0 0 0 SYSTEMS Understands Systems 0 0 1 0 0 1 Monitors & Corrects Performance 0 0 3 0 0 3 Improves or Designs Systems 0 0 0 1 0 1 TECHNOLOGY Selects Technology 0 1 0 0 0 1 Applies Technology 0 0 0 2 0 2 Maintains & Troubleshoots 0 0 0 0 0 0

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62 Relationships ( n =10), while the lowest was Giddy Up & Go ( n =6). Overall, the horse project curricula had a frequency of f =147 and 15 individual competencies present as seen in Table 4 8 Table 4 8 Total Frequencies and Competencies Present within the Horse Project Curricula Total f Competencies Present Head, Heart, & Hoofs 38 8 Jumping to New Heights 34 9 Stable Relationships 32 10 Giddy Up & Go 25 6 Riding the Range 18 7 Total 147 15 Commonly observed objectives within the Horse project curricula included judging horses, communication, learning to learn, problem solving, making decisions, evaluating factors involved with breeding, critical thinking, taking data, organi zing and interpreting data, and leading self and others. Outdoor Education Project There were eight curricula analyzed within the outdoor education project (Table 4 9 ). The competencies with the highest frequencies are resources materials and facilit ies ( f =70) and information interprets and communicates information ( f =30). The competencies that did not appear in the outdoor education curricula were the entire systems category, three interpersonal competencies, two information competencies, a nd one technology competency. The competency category with the highest average frequency per competency was resources ( f =23.25). Hiking Trails and Backpacking Expeditions had the highest frequency of competencies ( f =27) of the curricula within the Outdoor Education project. The curriculum with the lowest frequency of competencies was Shotgun Discipline ( f =1), which along with

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63 Table 4 9 SCANS Frequencies within the 4 H Outdoor Education Project Curricula f Competency Hiking Trails Camping Adventures Backpacking Expeditions Muzzleloading Discipline RESOURCES Time 3 2 4 0 Money 3 2 2 0 Materials & Facilities 7 3 6 12 Human Resources 3 2 2 0 INTERPERSONAL Team 0 1 2 0 Teaches Others 0 2 0 0 Serves Clients 0 0 0 0 Exercises Leadership 0 0 0 0 Negotiates 0 0 0 0 Works with Diversity 0 0 0 0 INFORMATION Acquires & Evaluates Information 1 2 4 0 Organizes & Maintains Information 0 0 0 0 Interprets & Communicates Information 8 8 7 0 Uses Computers to Process Information 0 0 0 0 SYSTEMS Understands Systems 0 0 0 0 Monitors & Corrects Performance 0 0 0 0 Improves or Designs Systems 0 0 0 0 TECHNOLOGY Selects Technology 2 4 0 0 Applies Technology 0 0 0 0 Maintains & Troubleshoots 0 0 0 0

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64 Table 4 9 Continued f Competency Hunting Lesson Plans Archery Discipline Shotgun Discipline Basic Rifle Shooting Total f RESOURCES Time 0 0 0 0 9 Money 0 0 0 0 7 Materials & Facilities 0 15 11 16 70 Human Resources 0 0 0 0 7 INTERPERSONAL Team 0 0 0 0 3 Teaches Others 0 3 0 3 8 Serves Clients 0 0 0 0 0 Exercises Leadership 0 0 0 0 0 Negotiates 1 0 0 0 1 Works with Diversity 0 0 0 0 0 INFORMATION Acquires & Evaluates Information 4 0 0 0 11 Organizes & Maintains Information 0 0 0 0 0 Interprets & Communicates Information 7 0 0 0 30 Uses Computers to Process Information 0 0 0 0 0 SYSTEMS Understands Systems 0 0 0 0 0 Monitors & Corrects Performance 0 0 0 0 0 Improves or Designs Systems 0 0 0 0 0 TECHNOLOGY Selects Technology 0 0 0 0 6 Applies Technology 2 0 0 0 2 Maintains & Troubleshoots 0 0 0 0 0

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65 Muzzleloading Discipline, had the lowest frequency of individual competencies ( n =1). Camping Adventures had the highest frequency of individual competencies ( n =9) see Table 4 10. Table 4 1 0 Total Frequencies and Competencies Present w ithin the Outdoor Education Project Curricula Curriculum Total f Competencies Present Hiking Trails 27 7 Backpacking Expeditions 27 7 Camping Adventures 26 9 Basic Rifle Shooting 19 2 Archery Discipline 18 2 Hunting Lesson Plans 14 4 Muzzleloading Discipline 12 1 Shotgun Discipline 11 1 Total 154 11 Objectives commonly found in the curricula for the Outdoor Education project included choosing the correct tools, planning and organizing, making decisions, teamwork and cooperation, critical thinking, selecting personal gear for base camping, research skills, and goal setting. Community Service/Development Project Three curricula were analyzed for the community service/development project as shown in Table 4 1 1 The competenci es with the highest frequencies were information -interprets and communicates information ( f =32), informationacquires and evaluates information ( f =15), and resources time ( f =12). The competencies absent from the community service/development project were the entire technology competency category, four interpersonal competencies, two systems competencies, and information uses computers to process information. The competency category with the highest average frequency per competency was inform ation ( m =14.0).

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66 Table 4 1 1 SCANS Frequencies within the 4 H Community Service/Development Project Curricula f Competency Public Adventures Agents of Change Raise Your Voice Total f RESOURCES Time 0 4 8 12 Money 0 2 3 5 Materials & Facilities 0 2 3 5 Human Resources 0 3 5 8 INTERPERSONAL Team 3 0 0 3 Teaches Others 0 0 0 0 Serves Clients 0 0 0 0 Exercises Leadership 0 0 0 0 Negotiates 0 0 0 0 Works with Diversity 0 0 1 1 INFORMATION Acquires & Evaluates Information 1 9 5 15 Organizes & Maintains Information 0 6 3 9 Interprets & Communicates Information 3 15 14 32 Uses Computers to Process Information 0 0 0 0 SYSTEMS Understands Systems 0 0 0 0 Monitors & Corrects Performance 0 1 0 1 Improves or Designs Systems 0 0 0 0 TECHNOLOGY Selects Technology 0 0 0 0 Applies Technology 0 0 0 0 Maintains & Troubleshoots 0 0 0 0 When divided out by individual curriculum, the curriculum with the lowest competency frequency was Public Adventures (f=7), which also had the least individual competencies present ( n =3) as displayed in Table 4 12. Within the community service/development curricula the total frequency of competencies was f=91 and there were 10 individual competencies present. Table 4 1 2 Total Frequencies and Competencies Present within the Community Service/Development Project Curricula Curriculum Total f Competencies Present Public Adventures 7 3 Agents of Change 42 8 Raise Your Voice 42 8 Total 91 10

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67 Common objectives found within the Community Service/Development project curricula included critical thinking, understanding others, contributing to a group effort, selecting a mission, decision making, communication, planning and organizing, and documenting the service learning experience. Leisure Arts Project Five curricula were analyzed in the leisure arts project (see Table 4 1 3 ). The competencies with the highest f requencies were information -interprets and communicates information (f=37), interpersonal -works with diversity (f=20), and resources -materials and facilities (f=19). Nine competencies were completely absent from the leisure arts project curricula. T he competency category with the highest average frequency per competency was information ( m =17.0). In the Leisure Arts project, the curriculum with the highest frequency of competencies was Making the Cut ( f =36), as seen in Table 4 14. The curriculum w ith the lowest frequency was Measuring Up ( f =18). The greatest number of individual competencies were found in Finishing Up ( n =8). The curriculum with the lowest number of individual competencies present was Qu rico! La cultura ( n =3). In the entire Leisure Arts project curricula, the total frequency of SCANS competencies was 142. Eleven individual competencies were found within the Leisure Arts project curricula. Table 4 14. Total Frequencies and Competencies Present within the Leisure Arts Project Curricula Curriculum Total f Competencies Present Making the Cut 36 7 Finishing Up 33 8 Nailing It Together 28 7 Qu rico! La cultura 27 3 Measuring Up 18 6 Total 142 11

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68 Table 4 1 3 SCANS Frequencies within the 4 H Leisure Arts Project Curricula f Competency Qu rico! La cultura Measuring Up Making the Cut Nailing It Together Finishing Up Total f RESOURCES Time 0 1 3 3 2 9 Money 0 1 3 3 2 9 Materials & Facilities 0 3 5 6 5 19 Human Resources 0 1 3 3 2 9 INTERPERSONAL Team 4 0 0 0 0 4 Teaches others 0 0 0 0 0 0 Serves clients 0 0 0 0 0 0 Exercises Leadership 0 0 0 0 0 0 Negotiates 0 0 0 0 0 0 Works with Diversity 20 0 0 0 0 20 INFORMATION Acquires & Evaluates Information 0 0 3 5 7 15 Organizes & Maintains Information 0 0 6 7 3 16 Interprets & Communicates Information 3 11 13 0 10 37 Uses Computers to Process Information 0 0 0 0 0 0 SYSTEMS Understands Systems 0 0 0 0 0 0 Monitors & Corrects Performance 0 0 0 0 0 0 Improves or Designs Systems 0 0 0 0 0 0 TECHNOLOGY Selects Technology 0 0 0 0 0 0 Applies Technology 0 1 0 0 2 3 Maintains & Troubleshoots 0 0 0 1 0 1

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69 Objectives observed within the Leisure Arts project curricula included identify woodworking tools, accepting differences, decision making, responsibility, learning to learn, learning to learn by recognizing differences, planning and organizing, compar ing alternatives, solving problems, implementing a plan, and gathering information to solve problems. Objective 3. Compare the quality of the 4 -H career development project curricula and the five top project curricula as determined by the presence of SCANS competencies In comparing the frequencies of SCANS competencies between the 4 H project areas, career development had higher frequencies overall as seen in Table 4 1 5 The career development curricula contained all 20 SCANS competencies, while the popular projects ranged from 10 15 SCANS competencies. The average number of competencies per popular project w as 11.4. The overall competency frequency was over two times higher for career development (f =339) than in the popular projects ( f =122). When comparing the average competencies per curriculum, career development contained an average of 84.8, while popular projects contained an average of 26.5 competencies. Table 4 15. Comparison Between Career Development and Popular Project Curricula Career Development Popular Project Competencies Present a 20.0 11.4 Frequency 339.0 122.0 Average Competencies per Curriculum 84.8 26.5 Note: a Competencies present within the popular projects is a mean of all five projects. Summary This chapter gave a detailed report of the results of the content analysis conducted upon 28 4 H curricula Descriptive characteristics were given for both the career development and popular project curricula. The frequencies for each competency were prese nted for each project

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70 curricula. Comparisons between the 4-H career development project curricula and the five top project curricula were conducted and displayed within the chapter.

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71 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICA TIONS, & RECOMMENDAT ION S This chapter summarizes the study as well as outlines the conclusions, implications, and recommendations stemming from the findings made within the study. Summary With an increased need for youth to be prepared for the workplace youth development organiz ations have utilized skill and competency sets, such at the Secretarys Commission for the Achievement of Necessary Skills (SCANS), within their programs. The purpose of this study was to analyze 4 H curricula utilized by Florida 4 H to determine if 4 H cu rricula utilized SCANS competencies. The objectives for this study were to: 1 Describe the inclusion of SCANS competencies within 4 H curricula. 2 Describe the frequencies of SCANS competencies within each project area curricula. 3 Compare the quality of the 4H career development project curricula and the five top project curricula, as determined by the presence of SCANS competencies The data sources for this study were the 4 H curricula utilized by Florida 4 -H Youth Development. The data sources included the C areer Development project curricula and the curricula utilized for the five project areas with the highest enrollments within the Florida 4 H program : swine, horse, leisure arts, outdoor education, and community development and service. In order to achieve the study objectives, a basic qualitative study was undertaken utilizing a content analysis methodology. The SCANS competencies served as the coding categories during the content analysis. Each curriculums objectives/outcomes were coded accordingly and t he frequencies were tabulated using Microsoft Excel. Thick descriptions for the SCANS competencies were also reported.

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72 Objective 1. Describe the Inclusion of SCANS Competencies Within 4 H Curricula Across the curricula observed and described within the st udy, all 20 SCANS competencies were incorporated into the objectives/outcomes but at varying frequency levels. There were competency categories 4 H covered well within the curricula, while obvious gaps were observed. 4 H curricula successfully included com petencies from the information competency category as this was the category observed most frequently ( f =435). This coincided with El Sawis (1994) findings, who attributed this to the successful implementation of the Experiential Learning Model by the 4 H Youth Development program. Objectives were observed as lacking in the interpersonal, systems, and technology competencies overall. The lack of interpers onal competencies was also observed within the El Sawi (1994) study. 4 H programming promotes interactions of an interpersonal nature as was seen in steps of the Experiential Learning Process (Diem, 2004 ; Enfield, 2001) and within the skills outlined in the Targeting Life Skills Model (Hendricks, 1997). Competencies within the interpersonal category are reflected in steps of the Experiential Learning Process and the skills in the TSL Model. Given this interactivity, it was expected that interpersonal competencies would not be one of the areas lacking within the 4-H curricula Implications The high inclusion of the information competencies (i.e. acquires, evaluates, organizes and interprets information) could be attributed to the successful use of the Experiential Learning Process (Diem, 2004 ; Enfield, 2001) within the project curricula. A t the same time there seems to be a disconnect with the competencies which would have been assumed to be obtained from the use of the Experiential Learning Process. T he lack of interpersonal and technology competencies may create problems for youth when looking for employment. According to North and Worths (2002) findings, these two areas are in high demand by employers. Also with the

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73 interactivity of 4 H programm ing, the lack of interpersonal competencies does not reflect previous studies (Boyd, Herring, & Briers, 1992; Fox, Schroeder, & Lodl, 2003;Lerner, Lerner, & Phelps, 2007; Maass, Wilken, Jordan, Culen, & Place, 2006; & Mulroy & Kraimer -Rickaby, 2006). In terpersonal competencies are also displayed in the Targeting Life Skills Model (Hendricks, 1996). Within the Targeting Life Skills model there are many skills that correspond with those interpersonal competencies within SCANS. The lack of competencies within the projects with the highest enrollments may equate to less acquisition of SCANS competencies by 4 H members. It should be noted 4 H is comprised of more than curricula so youth may be acquiring the competencies through other venues. At the same t ime it is necessary to begin the overall evaluation with the objectives set forth for t he 4 -H project areas (Tyler, 194 9). Bobbitts (1918) Play Work Interaction Model shows the interactions of the learning objectives with the acquisition of competencies in both play level and work -level activities. If competencies are lacking within the objectives and outcomes, then 4-H activities may also be lacking in those competencies. Without competencies laid out in the objectives and outcomes, 4H members and leade rs may not achieve the attainment of the workforce competencies within the activities (Bobbitt, 1918). H aving th e SCANS competencies laid out as objectives allows youth to move from the play-level to the work level and help s them to attain those fruits of labor or workforce competencies. Recommendations for practice 1 Florida 4 H should continue the inclusion of the information competencies as these coincide with the Experiential Learning Model and assist in the development of youth as lifelong learners. 2 Increased incorporation of interpersonal competencies should be concentrated upon. If the curricula already include these competencies, then the objectives/outcomes should reflect those competencies.

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74 3 4 H curricula objectives and outcomes should be writte n to reflect all competencies and skills gained within the curriculas activities. Recommendations for research 1 Continued study should be conducted to identify the competencies necessary for youth to gain within 4 H projects and the most effective means of acquiring those competencies. Objective 2. Describe the Inclusion of SCANS Competencies Within Each 4 -H Project Area Curricula The frequency of SCANS competencies in the curricula analyzed varied widely between each project area, ranging from f =84.75 in Workforce Development to f =19.25 in Outdoor Education. Outside of the Workforce Development curricula many competencies were absent from project curricula. This leaves gaps within each of the 4 -H projects. As was pointed out in Objective 1, the info rmation category had the highest average frequency within five of the six projects curricula. Implications With the disparity between the competencies contained in each of the project areas, 4 -H may not be fully empowering youth to reach their full pot ential as the 4 H Mission states (National 4 H Council, 2007, 1). Though 4 H may enable youth to gain SCANS competencies in other areas of the program, as learning objectives and outcomes lay the foundation for the fruits of labor that come out of the p rograms activities (Bobbitt,1918) 4 H utilizes projects as the main mode for the development of career competencies and life skills within the overall program. Some project areas may lend themselves to the acquisition of particular competencies more rea dily than other project areas. 4 H members enrolled in certain projects, such as the Workforce Development project, may acquire a more complete set of competencies than a member enrolled in a project area such as Outdoor Education. This may be due to the direct emphasis of the

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75 Workforce Development project on career competencies, yet 4 H still promotes itself as an overall youth development program. Since over 12,000 Florida 4 -H members are enrolled in those popular project areas observed to lack the SCANS competencies, this serves as an indicator that Florida 4 H members enrolled only in the popular projects may not be acquiring a complete set of competencies. 4 H members need to be equipped with a more complete set of competencies in order to succeed beyond the 4 H program. Recommendations for practice 1 Increase the incorporation of SCANS competencies within 4 H curricula, both in the objectives/outcomes and the content. 2 4 H educators should examine the SCANS competencies to ensure the proper competencies are incorporated into the various projects. Recommendations for research 1 Studies should be conducted to dete rmine which competencies are the most appropriate to be acquired in each project area. 2 Needs assessments should be conducted to gauge which SCANS competencies are truly lacking within each project area and which competencies need to have a greater emphasis placed upon them. 3 Continued research should be conducted to determine if the educational objectives/outcomes within each curriculum reflect the competencies contained within the lessons and activities. As seen within the El Sawi and Smith (1997) study, the objectives/outcomes are not always reflective of the lessons and activities. Objective 3. Compare the quality of the 4 -H career development project curricula and the five top project curricula as determined by the presence of SCANS competencies On avera ge the Career Development curricula contains more SCANS competencies than the top project curricula. All 20 of the SCANS competencies were found within the Career D evelopment curricula, while the popular projects vary in inclusion of SCANS competencies fro m 10 to 15 competencies. While it should be expected for the Career Development curricula to be more comprehensive in the SCANS competency inclusion, there are major gaps within the objectives/outcomes of the projects with the highest enrollments in Florid a. This was also seen in

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76 the average frequency of competencies observed per curriculum as the Career Development curricula contained an average of 84.8 per curriculum, while the popular projects contained an average of 26.5 competencies per curriculum Thi s again highlights the gaps within the popular project curricula As the standard of quality for this study was the inclusion of SCANS competencies, the Career Development curricula was observed to be a higher quality Implications When examining the enrol lment numbers in Appendix A, only 67 4 H members within Florida we re enrolled in the Career Development project, while over 1800 we re enrolled each of the top project areas in 2007. These numbers combined with the observations made in the study show how 4 H members outside of the Career Development project may not be gain ing the workforce competencies needed to succeed beyond their 4H membership. The Career Development curricula may be a higher quality but only 0.26% ( n =67) of the 26, 063 Florida 4-H club m embers take advantage of this project (Florida 4 H Youth Development, 2007). The lack of SCANS competencies found in popular projects coupled with the fact that a majority of 4 H members are enrolled in these projects indicate a disparity within the Flori da 4 H program. With such a small number of Florida 4 H members enrolled in the Career Developmen t project, the competencies found within these curricula are only being gained by a few. The Cooperative Research, Education, and Extension Service (2006), the agency within USDA which houses the National 4 H program, indicated one of the tasks 4 H must take on is the need to develop the increasing professionalism of youth workers through their programming (p. 230). At this point in time, the findings are i ndicating a lack of achievement in this area on the part of the 4 H curricula utilized in the 4 H programs. With the ever expanding need for youth to increase the ir workforce competencies 4 H cannot neglect to incorporate these competencies into not only their curricula, but the entire 4 H programming efforts.

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77 Recommendations for practice 1 With the large disparity between the two groups of curriculum, there is a need to incorporate more SCANS competencies within the popular projects. Competencies would be taught to more youth within the Florida 4 H program when placed in the projects with higher enrollment rather than just in the Career Development project. 2 The Career Development 4 H curricula should be promoted more greatly to incorporate increased levels of competencies into 4 H members experiences. Recommendations for research 1 Research should be conducted to analyze and compare the competencies gained by 4 H members in th e Career Development project to those in the more popular projects. Overall Implic ations & Recommendations The 4 H curricula utilized by Florida 4 H have both strengths and weaknesses. There is a great deal of room for improvement in how the objectives/outcomes are presented within the curricula. The researcher acknowledges the 4H prog ram consists of more than the material included in 4 H curricula. Just as the conceptual framework displayed in Figure 2 6 and Bobbitts Play Work Interaction Model (1918) described, the acquisition of SCANS and other workforce competencies may occur withi n many different contexts. Recommendations for Practice 1 All 4 H curricula should be updated to contain clear educational objectives and/or outcomes and educational standards. This inhibited the ability of the researcher to analyze all curricula in each pr oject for lack of clear objectives. The inclusion of the clear objectives can also assist Extension Agents, 4 H leaders, and 4 H volunteers in selecting the most appropriate curricula for the selected project. 2 There is a need for continuing collaboration between educators (whether formal or nonformal) and industry in order to ensure student s gain the competencies and skills necessary for success in the workplace. This aligns with North and Worth (2004) who recommended collaboration and communication betwee n these two entities, as well as assessment to ensure the training of youth. Recommendations for Research 1 Replication of this study should be conducted to ensure a higher degree of trustworthiness. Additional studies could include a larger sample size, additional

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78 curricula from other Cooperative Extension Services, additional program areas, and additional rate rs. 2 Continued research should be conducted to ensure the most upto -date competencies and skills are being addressed from the employers, educators, and youths aspects. 3 SCANS competencies should be revisited and revised according to the needs of the wor kplace and the youth. The relevance of the current competencies should be examined to ensure the necessary competencies are included and outdated competencies are removed or updated. 4 Evaluation of 4 H curricula should be conducted to ensure the content of the materials are the most up to date and relevant for the 4 H members utilizing the materials. The publication and revision dates for the curricula varied from 1997 to 2005. 5 Continued research on 4 H curriculas content should be conducted to ensure 4 H members are gaining the knowledge competencies, and skills 4 H promotes in the mission. 6 Additional studies should be performed to describe and/or analyze the inclusion of SCANS competencies outside of the context of the 4 H curricula These can include club meetings, competitions, and leadership roles. 7 Research should be conducted to determine the extent Extension Agents are utilizing 4 H curricula in their county programs. 8 SCANS competencies should be examined to ensure each competency only covers one competency and not multiple within one heading. For example, the researcher encountered issues with the information interprets and communicates information. This competency covered objectives ranging from decision making to communication, which in so me cases may not be as close as the one heading implies.

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79 APPENDIX A FLORIDA 4 H PROJECT AREAS SORT ED BY 2007 ENROLLMEN T FIGURES Project Area Enrollment Swine 3283 Horse 2989 Leisure Arts 2570 Outdoor Education 1966 Community Development/Service 1847 Beef 1760 Exploring 4 H 1734 Poultry & Embryology 1562 Rabbits 1524 Citizenship 1339 Food & Nutrition 1191 Gardening 1167 Media/Visual Arts 1067 Leadership Development 1056 Aquatic/Marine 1022 Plant Sciences 912 Wildlife 792 Clothing Construction 732 Animal Science 654 Food Preparation 634 Performing Arts 545 Public Presentation Skills (w/o Tropicana) 465 Communication Arts 413 Volunteerism 410 Pets/Small Animals 356 Clothing & Textiles 339 Agriculture General 282 Aerospace 262 Veterinary Science 249 Sheep 231 Consumer Education 220 Water Wise Guys 203 Science & Technology 173 Money Management 171 Cultural Education 132 Safety 131

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80 Project Area Enrollment Computer Technology 127 Personal Development 114 Clothing Selection 93 Water Quality/Conservation 92 Workforce Preparation/Career Development 67 Meat Science 65 Child Development 59 Bicycle 58 Small Engines 56 Astronomy 51 Character Education 39 Wings 35 Llamas & Alpacas 17 Automotive 11 Weather & Climate 9

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81 APPENDIX B CURRICULA UTILIZED IN CONTENT ANALYSIS Qu rico! La cultura (CCS Publication No. 4HCCS BU 08180). (2005). Chevy Chase, MD; National 4 H Cooperative Curriculum System, Inc. 4 -H shooting sports: Hunting lesson plans (Available from Florida 4 H Youth Development, PO Box 110225, Gainesville, FL 32611). (n.d.). Gainesville, FL; University of Florida/IFAS Cooperative Extension Service. Backpacking expeditions (CCS Publication No. 4HCCS BU 08045). (2004). Chevy Chase, MD; National 4 H Cooperative Curriculum System, Inc. Bass, M. (1999). Citizenship Public adventures guides handbook (W. Brabender, ed.) (CCS Publication No. BU 07330 2001). Chevy Chase, MD; National 4 H Cooperative Curriculum System, Inc Bennett, D. L. (n.d.). Florida 4 -H shooting sports: Archery discipline (Available from Florida 4 H Youth Development, PO Box 110225, Gainesville, FL 32611). Gainesville, FL; University of Florida/IFAS Cooperative Extension Service. Camping adventures (CCS Publication No. 4HCCS BU 08044). (2004). Chevy Chase, MD; National 4 H Cooperative Curriculum System, Inc. Florida 4 -H shooting sports: Muzzleloading discipline (Available from Florida 4 H Youth Development, PO Box 110225, Gainesville, FL 32611). (n.d. ). Gainesville, FL; University of Florida/IFAS Cooperative Extension Service. Florida 4 -H shooting sports: Shotgun discipline (Available from Florida 4 -H Youth Development, PO Box 110225, Gainesville, FL 32611). (n.d.). Gainesville, FL; University of Flor ida/IFAS Cooperative Extension Service. Fuller, A. (2004). Basic rifle shooting (Available from Florida 4 H Youth Development, PO Box 110225, Gainesville, FL 32611). Gainesville, FL; University of Florida/IFAS Cooperative Extension Service. Get in the act Youth guide (CCS Publication No. 4HCCS BU 08191). (2004). Chevy Chase, MD; National 4 H Cooperative Curriculum System, Inc. Going whole hog (CCS Publication No. 4HCCS BU 08067). (2004). Chevy Chase, MD; National 4 H Cooperative Curriculum System, Inc. Hi king trails (CCS Publication No. 4HCCS BU 08043). (2004). Chevy Chase, MD; National 4 H Cooperative Curriculum System, Inc.. Jordan, J. C. & Shaffer, A. (n.d.). Countdown to careers: Lift off!!: A 4-H career development project: Unit 1 (Florida 4 H Public ation No. 4HWPM10). Gainesville, FL; University of Florida/IFAS Cooperative Extension Service.

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82 Mowing for money (Florida 4 H Publication No. SPPSL40.1). Gainesville, FL: University of Florida/IFAS Cooperative Extension Service. Putting the oink in pig (CCS Publication No. 4HCCS BU 08066). (2004). Chevy Chase, MD. National 4 H Cooperative Curriculum System, Inc. Stephens, C. T. (1997). Mowing for money: A dollar and sense guide to lawn care workbook (Florida 4 -H Publication No. 4HPSM30). Gainesville, FL; Uni versity of Florida/IFAS Cooperative Extension Service. The incredible pig (CCS Publication No. 4HCCS BU 08065). (2004). Chevy Chase, MD; National 4 H Cooperative Curriculum System, Inc.

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83 APPENDIX C CURRICULA OMITTED FROM CONTENT ANALYSIS Anderson, C. (1996). Collectibles: The art & science of collecting Columbus, OH; The Ohio State University Extension. Bennett, D. L., Fuller, A. E., & Hill, W. E. (n.d.) Florida 4 H shooting sports: Skills and concepts for life. (Available from F lorida 4 H Youth Development, PO Box 110225, Gainesville, FL 32611). Gainesville, FL; University of Florida/IFAS Cooperative Extension Service. Florida 4 -H horse member advancement program Level I (Florida 4 H Publication No. 4HHSM50). (2002). Gainesville, FL; University of Florida/IFAS Cooperative Extension Service. Florida 4 -H horse member advancement program Level II (Florida 4 H Publication No. 4HHSM51). (2002). Gainesville, FL; University of Florida/IFAS Cooperative Extension Service. Florida 4 -H horse member advancement program Level III (Florida 4 -H Publication No. 4HHSM52). (2002). Gainesville, FL; University of Florida/IFAS Cooperative Extension Service. Florida 4 -H horse member advancement program Level IV (Florida 4 H Publication No. 4HHSM53). (2002). Gainesville, FL; University of Florida/IFAS Cooperative Extension Service. Love a horse members guide: Project I and II (Florida 4 H Publication No. 4HHSM 30). (1990). Gainesville, FL: University of Florida/IFAS Cooperative Extension Service.

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84 APPENDIX D CODING SHEET Florida 4 H Curriculum Analysis Information & Record Sheet Date Curriculum Material Title Curriculum Author(s)/Editor(s) Publication Company/Organization Publication Date 4 H Project Area Popular Project Career Preparation For use by Member/Participant Volunteer/Leader Intended Age Group if for member use Junior (8 10) Intermediate (11 13) Senior (1418) Other No specified age group Total Number of Objectives/Intended Outcomes within Curriculum:

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85 Skill/Competency Occurrence in Objectives/Intended Outcomes (Tally) Total Occurrences (Numerically) 1. Resources a Time b Money c Material & facilities d Human Resources 2. Interpersonal a Participates as a Member of a Team b Teaches Others New Skills c Serves Clients/Customers d Exercises Leadership e Negotiates f Works with Diversity 3. Information a Acquires and Evaluates Information b Organizes and Maintains Information c Interprets and Communicates Information d Uses Computers to Process Information 4. Systems a Understands Systems b Monitors and Corrects Performance c Improves or Designs Systems 5. Technology a Selects Technology b Applies Technology to Task c Maintains and Troubleshoots Equipment TOTALS Total Number of Skills & Competencies Present % of Skills & Competencies Present

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86 APPENDIX E SCANS COMPETENCIES CODING CATEGORIES I. Resources: Identifies, organizes, plans, and allocates resources A Time & Selects goal -relevant activities, ranks them, allocates time, and prepares and follows schedules B. Money & Uses or prepares budgets, makes forecasts, keeps records, and makes adjustments to meet objectives C. Material and Facilities & Acquires, stores, allocates, and uses materials or space efficiently D Human Resources & Assesses skills and distributes work accordingly, evaluates performance and provides feedback II. Interpersonal: Works with others A Participates as a Member of a Team & contributes to group effort B. Teaches Others New Skills C. Serves Clients/Customers & works to satisfy customers expectations D Exercises Leadership & communicates ideas to justify position, persuades and convinces others, responsibly challenges existing procedures and polici es E Negotiates & works toward agreements involving exchange of resources, resolves divergent interests F Works with Diversity & works well with men and women from diverse backgrounds III. Information: Acquires and uses information A Acquires and Evaluates Informatio n evaluating; non -conclusive B. Organizes and Maintains Information C. Interprets and Communicates Information make decision; conclusive D Uses Computers to Process Information IV Systems: Understands complex inter -relationships A Understands Systems & knows how soci al, organizational, and technological systems work and operates effectively with them B. Monitors and Corrects Performance & distinguishes trends, predicts impacts on system operations, diagnoses deviations in systems performance and corrects malfunctions C. Im proves or Designs Systems & suggests modifications to existing systems and develops new or alternative systems to improve performance

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87 V Technology: Works with a variety of technologies A Selects Technology & chooses procedures, tools or equipment including com puters and related technologies B. Applies Technology to Task & Understands overall intent and proper procedures for setup and operation of equipment C. Maintains and Troubleshoots Equipment & Prevents, identifies, or solves problems with equipment, including computers and other technologies.

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88 APPENDIX F EXPERT PANEL & THESIS COMMITTEE Dr. Amy Harder Assistant Professor, Extension Education Agricultural Education & Communication Department, University of Florida Former Colorado 4 H & Youth Development E xtension Agent Cooperative Curriculum System Design Team member Dr. Nicole Stedman Assistant Professor, Leadership Development Agricultural Education & Communication Department, University of Florida Alexa Lamm Graduate Student, Extension Education Agric ultural Education & Communication Department, University of Florida Former Colorado 4 H & Youth Development Extension Agent Cooperative Curriculum System Design Team member

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89 REFERENCES Ananda, S. (2002). Supporting high school students through the assessment of academic and industry-valued skills: What have we learned? (ERIC document no. ED 472605). San Francisco: WestEd. Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Razavieh, A., & Sorensen, C. (2006). Introduction to research in education. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Arnol d, M. E., Bourdeau, V. D., & Nagel, J. (2005). Fun and friendship in the natural world: The impact of Oregon 4 H residential camping programs on girl and boy campers. Journal of Extension, 43(6). Retrieved on July 7, 2008, from http://www.joe.org/joe/2005d ecember/rb1.shtml Astroth, K. A. (2001). Research findings show the impact of 4H: Montana 4 H research summary. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University Extension Service. Astroth, K. A. (2007, June). National 4 H curriculum survey. In Lessons learned: Data from stakeholders. Session conducted at the National 4 H Curriculum Summit, Chevy Chase, MD. Bennett, R. (2002). Employers demands for personal transferable skills in graduates: A content analysis of 1000 job advertisements and an a ssociated empirical study. Journal of Vocational Education & Training 54(4), 457476. Berelson, B. (1952). Content analysis in communication research. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press. Blalock, L. B., Strieter, L., & Hughers, L. (2006). The SCANS skills and competencies checklist: An assessment tool for youth work readiness programs. Journal of Youth Development, 1 (1). Blassingame, K. M. (2000). SCANS success story. Techniques, 75(1), 3234. Bobbitt, F. (1918). The curriculum. Cambridge, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. Boyd, B. L., Herring, D. R., & Briers, G. E. (1992). Developing life skills in youth. Journal of Extension, 30(4). Retrieved on June 2, 2008, from http://www.joe.org/joe/1992winter/a4.html Bruce, J. A., Boyd, B. L., & Dooley, K. E. (2004). Leadership life skills demonstrated by state 4 H council members. Journal of Extension, 42(5). Retrieved on July 2, 2008, from http://www.joe.org/joe/2004october/a6.php Cantrell, J., Heinsohn, A. L., & Doebler, M. K. (1989). Is it worth the costs? Journal of Extension. 27(1). Retrieved on July 2, 2008, from http://www.joe.org/joe/1989spring/a4h.html

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90 Coll, R. K. & Zegwaard, K. E. (2006). Perceptions of desirable graduate competencies for scienc and technology new graduates. Research in Science & Technological Education. 24(1), 2958. Conference Board. (2006). Are they really ready to work? Employers perspectives on the basic knowledge and applied skills of new entrants to the 21st century U.S. workforce Retrieved February 10, 2009, from htt p://www.21stcenturyskills.org/documents/FINAL_REPORT_PDF09 29-06.pdf Cooperative Research, Education, and Extension Service (2008a). About us: Cooperative Extension System offices. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved March 15, 2008, from Uni ted States Department of Agriculture Web site: http://www.csrees.usda.gov/Extension/ Cooperative Research, Education, and Extension Service (2008b). About us: Extension. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved March 15, 2008, from United States Department of Agriculture Web site: http://www.csrees.usda.gov/qlinks/extension.html Dewey, J. (1938). Experience & education New York: Simon & Schuster. Diem, K. G. (2004). The learn-by-doing approach to life skill development. Rutgers Cooperative Resea rch & Extension, New Brunswick: Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. Dooley, K. E. (2007). Viewing agricultural education research through a qualitative lens. Journal of Agricultural Education. 48 (4). 32 42. El Sawi, G. & Smith, M. F. (1997). Skill s and competencies in 4 H curriculum materials. Journal of Extension, 35(2). Retrieved on May 19, 2008, from http://www.joe.org/joe/1997april/a1.html El Sawi, G. W. (1994). Work force related skills and competencies in 4 H curriculum materials (Doctoral d issertation, University of Maryland College Park, 1994). ProQuest Dissertations And Theses, Publication number AAT 9526203 Enfield, R. P. (2001, Winter). Connections between 4 H and John Deweys philosophy of education. 4 H Center for Youth Development FOC US. The University of California, Davis. Ferrari, T. M., Hogue, C. A., & Scheer, S. D. (2004). Parents perceptions of life skills development in the 4 H Cloverbud program. Journal of Extension, 42(3). Retrieved on July 7, 2008, from http://www.joe.org/joe/2004june/rb6.shtml Finch, C. R. & Crunkilton, J. R. (1999). Curriculum development in vocational and technical education: Planning, content, and implementation (5th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

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91 Fitzpatrick, C., Gagne, K. H., Jones, R., Loble y, J., & Phelps, L. (2005). Life skills development in youth: Impact research in action. Journal of Extension, 43(3). Retrieved on May 25, 2008, from http://www.joe.org/joe/2005june/rb1p.shtml Florida 4 H Youth Development. (2008). Florida 4 H project enro llment guide. Retrieved on August 25, 2008, from the Florida 4-H Youth Development web site: http://florida4h.org/projects/index.shtml Florida 4 H Youth Development (2007). Florida 2007 ES237 State 4H Enrollment Report. University of Florida/IFAS Extensio n: Gainesville, FL. Retrieved on July 30, 2008 from http://4h.ifas.ufl.edu/FacultyStaffOnly/Reports_ES 237/FY2007/FLbycopdfs2007/Florida_ES237_FY07.pdf Fox, J., Schroeder, D., & Lodl, K. (2003). Life skill development through 4-H clubs: The perspective of 4 H alumni. Journal of Extension, 41(6). Retrieved on June 2, 2008, from http://www.joe.org/joe/2003december/rb2.shtml Goodwin, Barnett, Pike, Peutz, Landting, & Ward, (2005). Idaho 4 H impact study. Journal of Extension, 43(4). Retrieved on May 25, 2008, from http://www.joe.org/joe/2005august/a4p.shtml Goodwin, Carroll, & Oliver, (2007). Accentuating the positive: Colorado 4 -H impact report. Journal of Extension, 45(5). Retrieved on June 3, 2008, from http://www.joe.org/joe/2007october/rb8.shtml Hall, D. & Raffo, C. (2004). Re -engaging 14 16-year -olds with their schooling through work related learning. Journal of Vocational Education 56(1), 69 80. Hatch Act of 1887; (1) ch. 314, 24 stat. 440, 7 U.S. C.361a et. seq. Hendricks, P. A. (1996). Developing youth curriculum, using the Targeting Life Skills Model (4H 137A). Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University, Iowa State University Extension Hendricks, P. A. (1998). Targeting Life Skills Model. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Extension Hull, D. M. (2005). Career pat hways: Education with a purpose Waco, TX: CORD Communications. Kline, C. & Williams, E. (2007, October). Transitioning out of high school: A quick stats fact sheet Location, State: National High School Center. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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92 Kolb, D. A., Boyatzis, R. E., & Mainemelis, C. (2001). Experiential learning theory: Previous research and new directions. In R. J. Sternberg & L. Zhang (Eds.) Perspectives on thinking, learning, & cognitive styles. (pp. 227248). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Ladewig, H. & Thomas, J. K. (1987). Assessing the impact of 4 H on former members: The 4 H alumni study. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University, T exas Agricultural Experiment Station. Lerner, R. M., Lerner, J. V., & Phelps, E. (2007). The positive development of youth. Medford, MA: Tufts University. Lincoln, Y., & Guba, E. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. New York: Sage. Maass, Wilken, Jordan, Culen, & Place, (2006). A comparison of 4 H and other youth development organizations in the development of life skills. Journal of Extension, 44(5). Retrieved on June 2, 2008, from http://www.joe.org/joe/2006october/rb2p.shtml Matulis, J. K., Hedges, L. E., Barri ck, K., & Smith, K. L. (1988). 4 -H strikes a positive note. Journal of Extension, 26(1). Retrieved on June 5, 2008, from http://www.joe.org/joe/1988spring/a5.html May, C. M. (2007). 4 H participation helps develop life skills in youth Mt. Vernon, IN: Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service. Retrieved on January 20, 2009, from http://www.ces.purdue.edu/Posey/posey%20county%204 h/4 H%20Alumni%20Study%20Summary.pdf Merriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. S an Francisco: Jossey -Bass. Miller, J. P. & Bowen, B. E. (1993). Competency, coping, and contributory life skills development of early adolescents. Journal of Agricultural Education 34(1), 68 76. Morrill Act of 1862; ch 130, 12 stat.503,7 U.S.C.301 et. seq. Mulroy, M. T. & Kraimer -Rickaby, L. (2006). The impact and sustainability of 4 H Youth Development programs. Center for Applied Research. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut. National 4 H Council (2008). About Council. Retrieved March 10, 2008, from the National 4 H Council Web site: http://www.fourhcouncil.edu/about.aspx National 4 H Council. (2006). Frequently asked questions about 4H.Retrieved March 10, 2008, from the National 4 H Council Web site: http://www.fourhcouncil.edu/uploadedFiles/News/4H_FAQS.pdf

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93 National 4 H Council. (2007). 4H youth development: An overview. Retrieved March 10, 2008, from the National 4 H Council Web site: http://www.fourhcouncil.edu/uploadedFiles/About/4 H%20Fact%20Sheet_0907.pdf National 4 H C urriculum (2008). Nat ional 4 H Curriculum: 2008 product catalog. Chevy Chase, MD. National 4 H Headquarters. (2001). Prepared and engaged youth serving American communities: National 4 H Impact Assessment Project Chevy Chase, MD. National 4 H Headquarters. (2008). 4 H SET Mis sion Mandate: Fall 2008 Update Chevy Chase, MD. National 4 H Headquarters. (2009). Enrollment statistics Chevy Chase, MD. Retrieved on February 20, 2009, from http://www.national4-hheadquarters.gov/library/4h_stats.htm Norman, M. N. & Jordan, J. C. (n.d. ) Targeting life skills in 4 H (EDIS Document No. 4H FS 101.9). Gainesville, FL: University of Florida/IFAS Extension. North, A. B. & Worth, W. E. (2004). Trends in selected entrylevel technology, interpersonal, and basic communication SCANS skills: 19922002. Journal of Employment Counseling. 41, 60 70. Oliva, P. F. (2005). Developing the curriculum (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Ornstein, A. C. & Hunkins, F. P. (2004). Curriculum -foundations, principles, and issues (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Overtoom, C. (2000). Employability skills: An update (ERIC Document No. ED445236). ERIC Digests, 220. Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education. Packer, A. H. & Sharrar, G. K. (2003). Linking lifelong learning, corporate soc ial responsibility, and the changing nature of work. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 5 332341. Pfeiffer, J. W. & Jones, J. E. (1983). Reference guide to handbooks and annuals Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rateau, R. J. & Kaufman, E. K. (2 009, January). Are they ready for work? Understanding the employability of college graduates for success in the workplace. Proceedings of the Southern RegionAmerican Association of Agricultural Educators Atlanta, GA, 431 445. Riffe, D., Lacy, S., & Fic o, F. G. (2005). Analyzing media messages: Using quantitative content analysis in research (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

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94 Rodriguez, E., Hirschle, T. A., Mead, J. P., & Goggin, S. E. (1999). Understanding the difference 4 H clubs make in the lives of New York youth: How 4 H contributes to positive youth development Ithaca, NY: Cornell Cooperative Extension. Schaff, N. D. (2007, June). Voices from the field. In Lessons learned: Data from stakeholders. Session conducted at th e National 4 H Curriculum Summit, Chevy Chase, MD. Schlutt, E. F. (1987). Impact of youth program membership on youth program life skills development, youth program experiences, adult community participation, and personal characteristics related to 4 H vo lunteerism Dissertation. Texas A&M University. Secretarys Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills. (1991). What work requires of schools: A SCANS report for America 2000 Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor: Secretarys Commission on Achieving Ne cessary Skills. Secretarys Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills. (1992). Learning a living: A blueprint for high performance Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor: Secretarys Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills. Secretarys Commission on A chieving Necessary Skills. (1993). Teaching the SCANS competencies Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor: Secretarys Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills. Smith. M. F. (1986). Evaluability assessment of the Maryland 4 H Youth Program Complete u npublished report. College Park, MD: Maryland Cooperative Extension Service, University of Maryland. Smith Lever Act of 1914; 7 U.S. C. 341 et. seq. Thomas, S. Z. (2004). Positive youth-development outcomes among Florida 4H members. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville. Tyler, R. W. (1949). Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Waguespack, B.G. (1988). Development of life skills of 4 H club members in Louisiana Unpublished master' s thesis. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University. Ward, C. K. (1996). Life skill development related to participation in 4 H animal science projects. Journal of Extension, 34(2). Retrieved on June, 3, 2008, from http://www.joe.org/joe/1996april/rb2.html

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95 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Diane Elizabeth Mashburn was born in Bakersfield, California, and has since lived in Edom, Texas. Throughout school, Diane was involved with 4 H and FFA, along with raising animals at her familys home. These early beginnings in agriculture stemmed a passion for the field which joined with a love for teaching youth in her higher education fields. Diane attended Texas Tech University for h er Bachelor of Science Interdisciplinary Agriculture, where she concentrated on teacher cer tification. She continued to be involved with 4 H by taking on leadership roles within the Texas Tech Collegiate 4 H club. During her undergraduate education, she was given the opportunity to conduct research with professors in the Agricultural Education & Communication Department at Texas Tech University and present research at conferences, such as the Association of International Agricultural and Extension Educators and the Association of Leadership Educators conferences. She finished her education at Tex as Tech by completing her student teaching at Lubbock Cooper High School in Lubbock, Texas. The interest in youth, agriculture, and research developed into an interest in continuing her education to the masters level at the University of Florida. 4 H invo lvement followed her to UF as she took on a graduate advisor position with Collegiate 4 H and has volunteered with Florida 4 H. Upon graduation Diane will be taking a position within agricultural and extension education.