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The Meaning Transfer between Country Personality and Brand Personality

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024619/00001

Material Information

Title: The Meaning Transfer between Country Personality and Brand Personality
Physical Description: 1 online resource (109 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bien, Yu-Shiang
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: country, image, meaning, transfer
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Brand personality has been regarded as an import source measuring brand image. It is believed by many researchers that brand personality can impact consumers' product evaluation. The formation of brand personality can be derived from many sources such as advertising messages, celebrity endorsers, and retailer?s images. Although there exists much research devoted to understanding the antecedents and consequences of brand personality, very few studies deal with the relationship between country personality and brand personality, even though country of origin has been considered powerful information influencing consumers? evaluation toward the brand. This study examined the meaning transfer process between country personality and brand personality. The country/product match and product involvement were employed as independent variables to examine if they exert influence on the meaning transfer process, brand attitude, and purchase intention. A total of 210 subjects participated in this study. After reading the product documents with combinations of brand origin and product, subjects were asked to complete the questionnaire regarding country/brand personality, brand attitude, purchase intention. The results showed that country personality and brand personality were associated. However, the meaning transfer process could be moderated by country/product match and product involvement. Country/product match and product involvement were also found to influence brand attitude and purchase intention.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Yu-Shiang Bien.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Sutherland, John C.
Local: Co-adviser: Villegas, Jorge.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024619:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024619/00001

Material Information

Title: The Meaning Transfer between Country Personality and Brand Personality
Physical Description: 1 online resource (109 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bien, Yu-Shiang
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: country, image, meaning, transfer
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Brand personality has been regarded as an import source measuring brand image. It is believed by many researchers that brand personality can impact consumers' product evaluation. The formation of brand personality can be derived from many sources such as advertising messages, celebrity endorsers, and retailer?s images. Although there exists much research devoted to understanding the antecedents and consequences of brand personality, very few studies deal with the relationship between country personality and brand personality, even though country of origin has been considered powerful information influencing consumers? evaluation toward the brand. This study examined the meaning transfer process between country personality and brand personality. The country/product match and product involvement were employed as independent variables to examine if they exert influence on the meaning transfer process, brand attitude, and purchase intention. A total of 210 subjects participated in this study. After reading the product documents with combinations of brand origin and product, subjects were asked to complete the questionnaire regarding country/brand personality, brand attitude, purchase intention. The results showed that country personality and brand personality were associated. However, the meaning transfer process could be moderated by country/product match and product involvement. Country/product match and product involvement were also found to influence brand attitude and purchase intention.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Yu-Shiang Bien.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Sutherland, John C.
Local: Co-adviser: Villegas, Jorge.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024619:00001


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1 THE MEANING TRANSFER B ETWEEN COUNTRY PERSONALITY AND BRAND PERSONALITY By YU-SHIANG BIEN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M ASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009

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2 2009 Yu Shiang Bien

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3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Pursuing a higher degree is tough, especially when you are pursuing it in a foreign country. There are m any people I would to like to thank. Without th em, I could not ge t through all these difficult obstacles I would like to give my first and most sincere acknowledgement to the chair of my thesis committee, Dr. John Sutherland. His expertise, patience, and kindness helped my thesis on the righ t track. My gratitude and appreciation goes to my committee member s Dr. Cynthia Morton and Dr. Jorge Villegas. It would be impossible to complete this thesis without their precious comments and suggestions. I would also like to devote my appreciation towa rds Dr. Marilyn Roberts Dr. Jon D. Morris, and Dr. Chang -Hoan Cho. T heir lecture s were very inspiring and useful for this thesis. I would like to thank Dr. F. W eigold for giving me the permission to recruit his students for my experiment sample, and for pr oviding valuable suggestions about sample collection. I am deeply indebted to my father. Without his support and encouragement I would have never known the bliss of completing this work I would like to say, y ou are the greatest dad F inally, I would lik e to devote the gratitude to my Fender Highway One (Made in U.S). Thanks for the great inspiration for this topic and the companion through all tho se countless nights.

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4 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................................... 3 LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................................ 6 LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................................. 7 ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................................... 8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 10 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................................... 15 Theoretical Fra meworks ............................................................................................................. 15 Meaning Transfer ................................................................................................................. 15 Social Identity Theory and Self -Categorization Theory ................................................... 16 Brand Equity ................................................................................................................................ 17 Brand Personality ........................................................................................................................ 21 Definition of Country Image ...................................................................................................... 22 Dimensions of Country Image ................................................................................................... 24 Country Personality ..................................................................................................................... 26 Hofstedes Cultural Dimension Score ................................................................................ 28 The GMI National Brands Index ........................................................................................ 30 The Revised NEO Personality Inventory ........................................................................... 30 Country Personality Scale ........................................................................................................... 31 Moderating Factors on the COO Effect ..................................................................................... 32 Product Familiarity .............................................................................................................. 32 Country Familiarity ............................................................................................................. 33 Product Involvement ............................................................................................................ 34 Product Category ................................................................................................................. 35 Brand Attitude ...................................................................................................................... 36 Research Hypothes e s .................................................................................................................. 37 The Meaning Transfer between Country Personality and B rand Personality .................. 37 Product Category ................................................................................................................. 38 Product Involvement ............................................................................................................ 38 Brand Attitude ...................................................................................................................... 39 Purchase Intention ............................................................................................................... 39 3 METHODOLOGY ...................................................................................................................... 40 Introduc tion ................................................................................................................................. 40 Manipulation Check and Country/Product Selection ................................................................ 40 Sampling ...................................................................................................................................... 42

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5 Measurement ............................................................................................................................... 43 Data Analysis ............................................................................................................................... 46 4 RESULTS .................................................................................................................................... 48 Introductio n ................................................................................................................................. 48 Reliability Test ............................................................................................................................ 48 Manipulation Check .................................................................................................................... 49 Subject Profile ............................................................................................................................. 49 Meaning Transfer Process between Country Personality and Brand Personality: Test of Hypothesis 1 ............................................................................................................................ 50 Effect of Country/Product Fit and Product Involvement on Meaning Transfer Process: Test of Hypotheses 2 and 3 ..................................................................................................... 51 Effect of Country/Product Fit and Product Involvement on Meaning Transfer Process: Test of Hypotheses 4 a nd 5 ..................................................................................................... 52 Effect of Country/Product Fit and Product Involvement on Purchase Intention: Test of Hypotheses 6 and 7 .................................................................................................................. 53 Summary of Re sults .................................................................................................................... 54 5 CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS .................................................. 61 Research Finding and Conclusions ............................................................................................ 61 Implications ................................................................................................................................. 62 Limitations and Future Research ................................................................................................ 64 APPENDIX: QUESTIONNAIRES ................................................................................................... 66 Questionnaire: Japan/Laptop ...................................................................................................... 66 Questionnaire: France/Perfume .................................................................................................. 72 Questionnaire: Japan /Perfume .................................................................................................... 78 Questionnaire: France/Laptop .................................................................................................... 84 Questionnaire: Control Group/Laptop ....................................................................................... 90 Questionnaire: Control Group/Perfume ..................................................................................... 94 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................................................................................................... 99 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........................................................................................................... 109

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6 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Experimental d esign ............................................................................................................... 43 3 2 Construct s and i ndicators of the measurement ..................................................................... 46 4 1 Reliability of measurement .................................................................................................... 56 4 2 Experimental manipulation check ......................................................................................... 57 4 3 Correlation c oefficients between c ountry p ersonality and b rand p ersonality .................... 57 4 4 Effect of f it/n onfit and i nvolvement on c ongruity ............................................................... 58 4 5 ANOVA for the e ffect of fit/ n on-fit and p roduct i nvolvement on c ongruity ..................... 59 4 6 Descriptive s tatistics of b rand a ttitude .................................................................................. 59 4 7 Effect of f it/n onfit and i nvolvement on b rand a ttitude ........................................................ 60 4 8 Effect of f it/n on-fit and i nvolvement on p urchase Intention ............................................... 60 4 9 ANOVA for the e ffect of fit/ n on-fit and p roduct i nvolvement on p urchase i ntention ...... 60

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7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3 1 Conceptual m odel of m eaning t ransfer between c ountry and b rand p ersonality ............... 37

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8 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising THE MEANING TRANSFER BETWEEN COUNTRY PERSONALITY AND BRAND PERSONALITY By Yu Shiang Bien August 2009 Chair: John Sutherland Major: Advertising Brand personality has been regarded as an import source measuring bran d image. It is believed by many researchers that brand personality can impact consumers product evaluation. The formation of brand personality can be derived from many sources such as advertising message s celebrity endorser s and retailer s image s Altho ugh there exists much research devoted to understanding the antecedents and consequences of brand personality, very few studies deal with the relationship between country pe rsonality and brand personality, even though country of origin (COO) has been consi dered powerful information influencing consumers evaluation toward the brand. This study examined the meaning transfer process between country personality and brand personality. The country/product match and product involvement were employed as independent variables to examine if they exert influence on the meaning transfer process, brand attitude, and purchase intention. A total of 210 subjects participated in this study. After reading the product documents with combinations of brand origin and product, s ubjects were asked to complete the questionnaire regarding country/brand personality, brand attitude, purchase intention. The r esult s showed that country personality and brand personality were associated. However, the meaning transfer process could be mode rated by country/product match and

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9 product involvement. Country/product match and product involvement were also found to influence brand attitude and purchase intentio n.

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10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION T he country -of -origin (COO) effect, which is defined by Roth & Romeo (1992, p. 477) as how consumers perceive products emanating from a particular country ha s been widely researched during the past several decades especially amid the growth in global markets and multi national sourcing strategies that are adopted with greater frequency and interest by many international corporations The importance of COO effect studies stems from the converging dynamics of global markets, affected by such factors as advances in transp ortation, communication technology as well as the trend of decreasing tariffs upon manufactured goods The s aturat ion of domestic market s, which has compelled owners of domestic corporate brands to expand in to foreign markets is also a contributing factor Starbucks is a classic example of brand expansion. W hile t his mega brand maintained only 281 stores outside of the United States in 1999, today, it maintains more than 1,200 br anches overseas, and this number continues to rise (Mueller, 2006) Regardless of t he ir nationality, mega brands such as McDonald s and Toyota generate more than half of their profits from the global market. In 1970, color television s made in the United States accounted for near ly 90 percent of the market shar e, but this figure plummeted dramatically within two decades. Japanese brands such as Sony and Panasonic now dominate the U.S ele ctronic s market s (Mueller, 2006) The globaliz ation of the economy is also reflect ed in w orld trade which, in 2007, increased eight percent while gross domestic product increased just 3.5 percent, a ccording to World Trade Organization (WTO) (International Trade Statistics, 2007) A nother consequence of convergence in the global market s has been the importing of many international brands from different regions of the world in which consumers now have

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11 dozens of choi ces to consider when purchasing simple products as soft drinks let alone the purchase of high involvement and technologically advanced products. Most importantly products within the same category often do not differ from each other in terms of functional attributes. Thus, marketers must tap into the symbolic meaning s attached to brand s to customize the ir un ique selling point For example, Starbucks coffee shops a re not just coffee suppliers they also provide locations in which consumers can experience an ambience that fits with their values and needs T herefore for consumers, the Starbucks name conjures an image of not only coffee, but also a pleasant and friendly place of experience (Gobe, 2001) Rolex, among other brand names also derives most of its brand value primarily from image instead of just utilitarian value. The country of origin (COO) image, along with price, warranty, store name, and other factors has been regarded as an important extrin sic cue used by consumers to establish and confirm their perceptions of product/service (Ahmed & d'Astous, 2008; Kotler & Gertner, 2002; Verlegh & Steenkamp, 1999a) Researchers also have found that the COO image has important applications in political and marketing issues such as shaping international policy decisions ; enhancing perception of a country as a travel destination, and most important of all, determining a countr y s economic performance, as consumers consistently carry men tal rep resentation s of national products. Several examples are discussed below that show how COO image can be used to improve international relationship s enhance nati onal brand association and equity, and attract tourists. After the 9 / 11 terrorist attack, Saudi Arab ia s image was severely damaged because of suspected ties to the Al Qaeda terrorist group and its resistance to a coalition -supported attack on Iraq. Responding to such widespread skepticism, Saudi Arab ia spent more than over $5 million restoring its d amaged image. G overnment tactics include d hiring prominent p ublic r elation s

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12 firms as consultant s who suggested broadcasting and publishing ad vertisements in electronic and print media in major international media market s Although this image repair campaig n was not totally successful, this event proves that countries are conscious of the power of the COO image and adopt strategies and tactics to enhance and shape it (Benoit & Zhang, 2003) National cultural images also serve to influence the COO effect. A French cosmetic manufacturer promoted its products by associating them with Fr a nc e' s national cultural; t he tagline of it s advertisement So French So rare suggested notions of a distinct Fren ch hedonistic spirit that were embod ied in these cosmetic s and thereby helped create a positive brand association (Papadopoulos, 1993) The Amazing Thailand campaign, supported by the Thai government, enjoyed much success in improving Thai lands image among travelers and attracting more than 12 million visitors to Thailand. This $ 65 millio n campaign effectively overcame negative images that had been created as a result of press reports about suicide bombings, tsunami s and unrest in the south ern part of the country. Likewise, Malaysia launched the successful Truly Asia campaign to bolster its national image as a travel destination. On the other hand, as the largest country in the Assoc iation of Southeast Asian Nations ( ASEAN ), Indonesia suffered from the consequence s of the 2004 tsunami and recent terrorist attacks because its government did not have concrete practices in place to mitigate the visibility of such negative image (Windiadana, 2005) T he country image constructs h a ve been interpreted differently in previous marketing literature. For example, country image has been conceptualized differently by many researchers as involving perceptions, associations and impressions, stereotypes, schemas, and beliefs (Roth & Diamantopoulos, 2008) All of these different inte rpretations are usually measured and related to consumer products (d'Astous & Boujbel, 2007) More generally, Nagashima (1970) defined

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13 country image as the picture, the reputation, the stereotype that businessman and consumers attach to p roducts of a specific country. He explained that country image is mostly derived from and is created by the variables such as representative products, national characteristics, economic and political background, history, and traditions (p. 68). A n ational character stereotype also has been defined as the shared perception of personality characteristics typical of citizens of a particular nation (McCrae & Terracciano, 2006, p. 156) Alt hough there has been criticism about the limitations of studies focusing on country image, with some researchers claiming that they are irrational, inaccurate, and over general ized most researchers believ e that a country can be described in term s of personal trait s (Peabody, 1985) A lthough t he idea of coun try branding has been addressed by many researchers (Anholt, 2005b; Kotler & Gertner, 2002; Papadopoulos & Heslop, 2002) few researchers have specifically investigated the correlation between country personality and brand personality Bra nd personality has been defined as the set of human characteristics associated with a brand (Aaker, 1997). Gene rally, brand personality consists of perceived personality traits a ssociat ed with the brand that are manifested through different promotion and marketing program s Brand personality has been demonstrated as an important element in forming brand image and f urther ing brand knowledge and brand equity (Keller, 1993). The marketing literature has suggested a relationship between country image and brand image. Han (1989) concurred that consume r s tend to use cou ntry image as a cue to infer product quality in what is known as the country image s halo effect. On the other hand, when consumers are not familiar with a country, they tend to abstract information from products to form a country image i n what is known as a summary construct. It has also been shown that a brand name pronounced or spelled in a foreign language can result in a change of brand attitude. For

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14 example, Leclerc, Schmitt, and Dube (1994) found that using a French brand n ame lead s to higher ratings for hedoni c products. Thus, it is supposed that there is a process in which meaning is transferred between country image and brand image, just as there is between a celebri ty endorser and brand being endorsed (McCracken, 1989) Th is st udy examin es the relationship between country personal ity and brand personality assum ing that a meani ng transfer mechanism exist between country person ality and brand personality. C ountry personality, like country image, affects consumer perception of the brand by leading to the creation of either a halo effect or a summary construct. Country image as a broad concept, has been conceptualized and operationalized in different ways in prior studies focusing on the COO effect. It is assumed that country per so nality might be an alternat e way measur ing country image in a more understandable and consistent way. The stu dy also analyzes the influence of moderating factors such as product category and product involvement, on the meaning transfer process between country personality and brand personality. Understanding the relationship between country personality and brand personality could be useful for governments as well as brands that hope to extend their brand line s to foreign markets and strengthen the positi oning of messages in their advertising or public relations campaigns The following chapter reviews the extant COO and brand image literature and illustrates how country image, country personality, and brand personality construct s ha ve been measured in pas t studies in order to yield the underlying research concept s for the current study

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15 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Theoretical Frameworks Meaning Transfer An important concept supporting the notion that country personality influence s brand image and persona lity is th e theory of meaning transfer which is based on the belief that consumers buy products by considering not only their utilitarian values but also their cultural meanings (McCracken, 1986, 1993) McCracken concluded that a brand serves as an important container of meanings that pertains to such f actors as gender, ethnicity, nationality and social status As Levy (1959) stated, modern goods are recognized as essentially psycholog ical things which are symbolic of personal attributes and goals and of social patterns and strivings (p.119). Cultural meanings can be invested into brands through observation of reference groups (Escalas & Bettman, 2005) and marketing efforts such as ad vertising (Meenaghan, 1995) Consumers also might borrow th ese meaning s to help constr uct, sustain, and reconstruct the social self (McCracken, 1993, p.127) through engaging in consumption rituals. The meaning transfer process can be divided into two main steps. In the first step, t he symbolic or cultural meaning s are invested into brands through advertising and other marketing efforts. Subsequently, consumers become aware of this meaning tra nsference and attempt to act (i.e. purchase) upon the meaning s contained in the brands Initially, t he concept of meaning transfer was primarily used to explain the relationships among celebrity endorsers, brands, and consumers. Celebrity endorsement is believed to have a more subtle, deep, and powerful impact upon consumers perceptions of branded products than does anonymous endorsement (McCracken, 19 89). However, not all cultural meanings associated with a celebrity endorser can be transferred to a product without any obstacles. The

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16 relevant literature has suggested that the matchup hypothesis should be met first In other words a congruency between celebrity endorsers and brands that would make marketing practices more effective initially should be achieved Generally, the greater of the degree of congruence between a celebrity spokesperson and a brand, the more attractive and believable will be the marketing practice (Kamins & Gupta, 1994) Fowles (1996) argued that th is concept applies to all forms of celebrity endorsement, explaining that en dorsements succeed only when consumers feel that meanings can shift along unimpeded paths from performer to product either because of an inherent affinity between the two or because of the ingenuity of the agencys creative team, or both (p. 131). By p la cing country image in the same context as that of celebrity endorsement, countries therefore, can be visualized as either brands or endorsers. Examining it from the endorser s perspective, a country can be come the largest endorser (physically) for one pro duct/brand. That is, along with other extrinsic cues as price, quality, and brand name, the COO image acts as an important information node associated with other nodes, including quality, performance, and reputation. Thus, cultural meanings can be transmit ted from nationality (country image) to a certain brand Social Identity Theory and Self -Categorization Theory Social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) is an important theoretical foundation for COO studies. Its main concept is the existence of a human tendency to distinguish between in group and out -group differences. In undertaking a process of comparison individual s attempt to manifest the positive image of in-group membership and thus develop in ter group bias. The concrete emb odiment of in -group bias in COO studies is consumer ethnocentrism (Shimp & Sharma, 1987) Shimp and Sharma (1987) developed the CETSCALE to measure the degree of appropriateness, tendency, and favoritism toward foreign -made products. Subsequent studies reveal ed that consumer ethnocentrism is moder ated by demographic variables such as education,

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17 income additional product information (Ueltschy, 1998) and economic development (Reardon, Miller, Vida, & Kim, 2005) Although social identity theory has suggested that in dividuals tend to strengthen a positive self -image through the comparison of in-group members and out -group members previous COO studies have suggested that out -group favoritism also exists, especially for low -esteem or low -status groups (Verl egh, 1999) Deriving from social identity theory self categorization theory further explores the dynamics of group behavior (Turner, 1987) Self categorization theory maintains that the social categorization of self and others into in -groups and out -groups accentuates the perceived similarity of th e target to the relevant in -group or out -group prototype (Hogg & Terry, 2000, p. 123) P erceived international differences are thereby based on prototypes that embody all attributes that characterize groups and distinguish them from other groups, including beliefs, feelings, and behaviors (pp. 123124) Brand Equity The origin of branding can be traced back more than four centuries. The Germa nic word brandr was first used to retrieve the identity control of inventory from retailers, usually by burning the goods with a hot iron rod. Although it was originally used only for consumer goods (Jevons, 2005) the idea has since been applied to other entities, including services, places, and eve n business -to -business fields. The American Mark eting Association (2008) define s a brand as a name, term, sign, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers and brand equity as the value of a brand Generally, brand equity can be divided into two categories : financial -based brand equity and consumer -based brand equity. F inancial based brand equity which concerns the financial value the brand possesses can be accurately assessed through examining the company s balance

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18 sheet. On the other hand, consumer -based brand equity, which concerns understanding the nature of consumer decision making and identifying the sources of a brands added value to improve the efficiency of marketi ng activities (Ming Huei, 2004, p. 30) also was defined by Keller (1993) as the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand (p. 1) Many concerns have arisen regarding the de finition and measurement of consumer -based brand equity. In general, brand equity is considered a multifaceted construct comprising several dimensions, including brand loyalty, brand association, brand awareness, and perceived quality (Keller, 1993). Kelle r argued that the three most important dimensions of brand equity are differential effect brand knowledge and consumer response to marketing He adopted the associative network memory model to explain how consumers retrieve and memorize brands thr ough the reticular semantic network which operates within the human memory structure. In other words, human s longterm memory is maintained by an inter -connected web of numerous nodes information storage points connected by numerous links, some of whic h are strong and others weak. Consumers tend to retrieve information through different associations produced by these links in an association process called spreading of activation (Hoyer & Maclnnis, 2007). In acknowledging the value of brand equity, c ontemporary market ers designing strategies that attempt to link brands with positive and favorable associations to increase b rand knowledge and enhance its equity. The concept of brand knowledge can be envisioned as a hierarchy upon which brand awareness and brand image are uppermost. Brand awareness consists of two sub-categories, brand recall and brand recognition whereas brand image consist s of different categories of brand association among other things, attributes, benefits and attitudes (Keller, 1993) Brand

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19 image is considered a complex concept based on varying personal experiences and associations with hard and soft product attributes, whether t hey are functional experiential or symbolic (Biel & Aaker, 1993; Keller, 1993) Brand image also is hard to develop in a short time (Yoo, Donthu, & Lee, 2000) The C oun try of origin (COO) effect, according to Kellers definition, belongs to a secondary category of association along with other aspects such as the company itself distribution channels, celebrity endorser s of the product or service, and promotion events. Vi osca, Bergiel, and Balsmeier (2005) reviewed previous definitions of brand equity and conclud ed that brand equity is a multi dimensional cue comprising three elements: brand value brand loyalty and brand image They also explained that consumers tend to use brand equity as an external cue to guide their att itude s toward specific products. Brand equity and brand image are confusing terms that have sometimes been interchange d Biel (1992) distinguished the concepts by defining brand equity as the value of a brand beyond the physical assets associated with its manufacturer or provision and brand image as a concept originated and owned by marketers and advertising specialists, the idea of a brand having an equity that exceeds its conventional asset value (p. 2 ). The brand and advertising literature concludes that brand image is an essential component and is a driving f orce of brand equity (Biel, 199 2 ; Keller, 1993). Faircloth, Capella and Alford (2001) suggested that brand image has a direct effect on brand equi ty, while brand attitude has an indirect effect on brand equity. Other studies have found that brand image and brand association are positively related to brand equity (Krishnan, 1996; Kwon, 1990; Lassar, Mittal, & S harma, 1995)

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20 Biel (1992) argued that brand image consists of three subimages: corporate image, user image, and product/service image. These sub images play different roles in contributing to the total brand image, depending on the product/service categ ories. Although marketers focus more often on utilitarian aspects such as physical attributes rather than emotional aspects, symbolic association and emotional appeal have been found to be more salient in the contemporary marketing environment. This is due to the fact different product categories often share similar physical attributes. Symbolic meaning and emotional appeals have also been found to have a more positive effect on products whose physical attributes are difficult to observe before purchase, su ch as cigarettes, beers, and services (BBDO, 1988; Mattila, 1999) COO image has also been found to be highly relat ed to brand equity. Yasin, No or, and Mohamad (2007) indicated that there are direct and indirect relationships between COO image and brand equity. The existence of an indirect relationship means that COO image influence s brand equity through different mediators such as brand distinctiveness brand loyalty and brand awareness/association. Brand distinctiveness which consists of indicators such as brand dynamism, technological a dvancement, innovativeness, sophistication, distinctiveness, excellence, and prestige has been found to account for a significant portion of the relationship between brand equity and COO image. Lin and Kao (2004) reviewed the COO and brand equity relationship using Kellers brand equity dimensions of brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, and brand loyalty assuming that COO effect was involve d in the formation of brand equity. However, several moderators including information accessibility, product familiarity, affective prejudice, product importance, and product complexity, a lso influence consumer perception s and indirectly change purchase action s and perceptions of brand equit y.

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21 Brand Personality Brand personality has long been regarded an important element of brand image and br and knowledge. Brand person ality reflects how consumers tend to endow brands with pe rsonalities and try to achieve a particular self image (act ual, ideal, or social ) through the consumption process (Sirgy, 1982) Such brand anthropomorph ism has been investigated by practitioners and academicians since emerg ing 30 years ago. Fournier (1998) pointed out there e xists a tendency for human beings to endow inanimate objects with specific meanings in order to facilitate the interactions with the non -material world (p.344). E mpirical studies have shown that brand personality has significant effects on product differ entiation (Biel & Aaker, 1993; Plummer, 2000) brand loyalty (Fournier, 1998) and brand relationships (Phau & Lau, 2001) Researchers al so indicated that brand personality might derive from various types of sources as distributional channel, symbol, nationality, price, and most important of all, advertising messages developed by marketers. According to McCracken (1993) adve rtising is a useful tool to capture the cultural meanings and to endow to inanimate objects. T ake Marlboro for example, the red and white package has been symbolized as an icon of resourcefulness, a yearn ing for freedom, masculinity, competence, and American ism. These meanings are imbued into Marlboro through advertising It should also be noted that not only advertising determine s the br and personality, but consumers also take up their roles in molding brand personality. Phau and Lau (2001) concluded that consumers themselves have significant influence on brand personality perception when they prefer a certain brand because they tend to use the preferred brand to project the self -image. Based on this im portant trait, most of the brand personality studies have been focused on investigating consumers self congruence with brand personality and its extended influence on brand loyalty and purchase intention (cf. Birdwell, 1968; Govers & Schoormans, 2005; Phau & Lau, 2000)

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22 N umerous studies over the past several decades have examined the consequences of brand personali ty However, no consensus has been reached on an operational scale to measure accurately and precisely the impact of brand personality. Aaker s Brand Personality Scale is the most frequently used tool in relevant studies. Asker (1997) defined brand personality as the set of human characteristics associated with a brand (p.347) and used fa ctor analysis to extract five factors and 15 facets from 114 personality traits. The brand personality dimensions include Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, Sophis tication, and Ruggedness. Although Aakers Brand Personality Scale has been demonstrated to have significant reliability, validity, and applicability to different cultures, Azoulay and Kapferer (2003) criticized the scale, arguing that it is conceptually loose, in clud es irrelevant items, and lack s appropriate definition of brand personality. Definition of Country Image Past COO studies mostly concentrated on analyzi ng how country image influence s consumers perception s and how consumers infer product quality from extrinsic and intrinsic cues. However they reached no agreement regarding the operationaliz ation and conceptualiz ation of COO image (Laroche, Papadopoulos, Heslop, & Mourali, 2005; Roth & Diamantopoulos, 2008) The concept s of country image and country branding ha ve been promoted in the international marketing domain for decades Most research has found that COO information does greatly influence a consumers cog nition processes and product judgment (Gaedeke, 1973; Han, 1988; Johansson, Douglas, & Nonaka, 1985; Nagashima, 1970, 1977; Reierson, 1966; Schooler, 1966) Despit e opposing research results, it is believed that consumers generally hold different ideas and attitudes toward different countr ies and their products.

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23 According to Nagashima (1970) the made in image comprises the picture, the reputation, and the stereotype that businessman and consumers attach to products of a specific country. This image is created by such variables as representative products, national char acteristics, economic and political background, history, and traditions (p.68). Th e country image definition therefore, is highly associated with the images of products coming from a particular country. Numerous studies have been conducted along the lin es of Nagashima s definition. In one such study, Bilkey and Nes (1982b) found tha t biases exist among people in different countries and that national stereotype s influence the evaluation of products from certain countries. They found that products from less developed-countries (LDC s ) will change the pattern of the p roduct l ife c ircle with counter cyclical effects. As a result p roducts from LDC s require additional expenditure s to compensate for this negative effect. Roth and Romeo (1992) concurred with Nagashima s (1970) definition of country image and furthe r defined country image as the overall perception consumers form of products from a particular country, based on their prior perceptions of the countrys production and marketing strengths and weaknesses (p. 480). Having found that country image percept ions are highly specific to product categories, Han (1989) defined country image as consumers general perceptions of quality for products made in a given country (p. 222). However, these research definitions more closely resemble the definition of produc t image than the definition of country image because the measures used concerned mostly product attributes rather than real attributes of country image. In contrast to the concept of product related image discussed earlier an other school of thought conc ludes that country image is not o nly derived from product image but also from other factors such as economical and technological development, culture, political environment,

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24 industrialization, and history. Verlegh and Steenkamp (1999a) defined country image as mental representations of a country s people, products, culture, and national symbols (p. 525). In the same manner Martin and Eroglu (1993) defined it as the total of all descriptive, inferential and informational beliefs one has about a particular country (p. 193). The third category in the country image concept is the product -country image which focuses on how country image affects consumer s reaction to products. Ma ny researchers in this field have proposed that country image and product image are two distinct (but related) concepts and country images affect the images of product from that country (Roth & Diamantopoulos, 2008, p. 2) Nebenzahl, Jaffe, and Usunier (2003) defined product -country image as consumers perceptions about the attri butes of products made in a certain country; emotions toward the country and resulted perceptions about the social desirability of owning products made -in the country (p. 388). Dimensions of Country Image Generally, dimensions of the COO construct ha ve ch anged over time. Initially it was regarded as a merely a product label, a single cue that determines consumers perception and evaluation. This changed when Gaedeke (1973) found that consumers evaluation of product quality dif fers widely according to the economic development of the country of manufacture Using student samples from two universities Reierson (1966) found that the COO effect does indeed infl uence the perception of product quality. Nebenzahl and Jaffe (1996) concluded that COO, compared to brand image, has more significant influence on consume rs evaluation of products. For example, one famous brand made in a developed country will be evaluated better than the same brand which is manufactured by a developing country.

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25 However, as more researchers have focused on this area, they have probed deepe r roots regarding how cou ntry image influences consumer evaluation and belief s about product -country image. Terpstra and Han (1988) found that the traditional COO effect can be divided into four categories in terms of the manufacture country of manufacturer and country of design Thus, one product can be foreign-made/ foreign brand ed U S branded/ foreign -made, foreign -branded/ U S -made, and U S Branded/ U S -made. They believed that while the branding and sourcing countr ies both influence consume rs perceptions toward products the sourcing country s stimuli are more import ant than brand name when consumers evaluate bi national products. Samiee (1994) indicated that there is another factor which influences consumers evaluation s and belief s toward products and the associated country. He proposed that co untry stereotyping effect (CSE) denotes any inf luence or bias resulting from CO and/or COM (p.583). Consumers might derive their CSE from real experience with the products and country, political propensity, real experience such as study and travel, and specific knowledge about a certain country. Phau and Predergast (2000) developed the country -of origin of brand (COB) concept to help clarify the discrete COO construct s. Th eir research indicated that consumers perception cant be changed or influenced by location of manufacturer, but by brand personality, origin cues, country ethnicity and brand names in products (p.167). The y conclu ded that what consumers are concerned about is if the brand personality and national characteristic of the brand can offer a meaningful accessible link with personal characteristics. In addition they predicted that negative country of manufacturer (COM ) image might be alleviated as more multinational companies adopt international sourc ing strategies in their product lines

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26 With the advent of international sourcing strategy the traditional single -cue dimension of the COO con struct had to be altered accordingly. Chao (1993) responded by expanding the single dimension of COO into a multifaceted concept that not only encompasses the countries that manufacturer the product but also the countries that design the products and suppl y the parts. This phenomenon is reflected in the trend of some Asian manufacturers asking European designers to incorporate the European outlook into their brands. For example, S o ny has promoted its Akiba high -definition television as a combination of Japa nese technology and Italian design. The COB concept can be also found in other studies. Lim and OCass (2001) suggest ed that consumers no longer use COO as an important cue to evaluate products. Instead, consumers tend to consider products or brands from a cultur al perspective because of the p roliferation of hybrid products Therefore consumers are more likely to use COB as an information source rather than traditional COO to infer product quality. Koubaa (2008) a greed, finding that consumers tend to classify brand origin automatically and thereby develop a special brand image perception Measurement of Country Image Nagashima (1970, 1977) used the following five dimensions to represent country image : price and value, service and engineering, advertising and reputation, design and style, and consumer profile. Country Personality The term country personality in this study does not refer to actual difference s among cultural gr oups but rather the cultural shared beliefs about probabilistic group differences (Lee, McCauley, & Draguns, 1999, p. 218) It must be noted that the p erceived personality differences among cultural or national groups sometimes are based on group stereotypes, not actual

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27 representations of true national characteristics. A stereotype is defined as a mental image or generalized set of beliefs that a perso n holds about most members of a particular social group (Oskamp & Schultz, 2004, p. 26 ). Country stereotypes, like other group stereotypes, are over generalizations that often adhere even in the face of contradictory evidence (Lee & Ottati, 1993, p. 298) The out -group stereotype is resistant to change (Kashima, 2000) because people tend to perceive out group as more homogeneous and less variable than their own group (Oskamp & Schultz, 2004, p. 29) Only recently have researcher addressed and rectified the critical limitations of studies involving stereotypes. As far back as the 1950s, scholars such as Cattel argued that research on national stereotype s and character was deemed as infantile, oversimplified, distorted, and lack ing of quantitative and scientific results (Peabody, 1985) W ith the longitudinal development of trait psychology research and large aggregate d sets of personality data, it is now possible t o compare the relationship between personality traits and cultures with a satisfactory degree of research rigor especially with concerns about validity and reliability (McCrae, 2001; Terracciano et al., 2005) Examining cultural stereotypes among consumers from a personality per spective is considered to be useful now and necessary to gain an understanding of how a company might prepare to e nter a foreign market and customize suitable culturally appropriate messages to attract consumers from different cultures Roth and Diamantop oulos (2008) suggested that using country personality to conceptualize country beliefs might be an attractive option as a consistent, compelling way of measuring country image. Despite the fact that country personality might be a persuasive means of measuring country image, the idea of incorporating country personality in COO research is re latively new and few researchers have used country personality scale s in their studies.

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28 Most country personality scales were developed for place marketing and tourism studies. For example, Ekincy and Hosany (2006) adapted Aaker s Brand Personality Scale t o their destination personality study and subsequently developed a destination personality scale, which divides destination image into the three constructs of sincerity, excitement, and conviviality. Michailidis and Chatzitheodoridis (2006) also derived their Destination Ima ge Scale from Aaker s Brand Personality Scale. Both of these two studies showed that a brand personality scale c ould not reflect and define with statistical rigor the characteristics of a destination, and thus the scale should be adjusted. d Astous and Bo ujbel (2007) were among the first schola rs who attempted to measure country image using a personality scale. Their rationaliz ation for using personality trait s to examine country image was based on several factors : 1) people usually represent countries in a human form; 2) the meaning derived from personality traits usually provides important ideas for predicting consistent beh aviors ; and 3) a personality perspective fits well with self -image congruency theory which implies that people tend to prefer countries that share similar personalit ies wit h them selves. Generally, the concept of culture is so broad and complex that it is near ly impossible to comprehensively defin e culture, let alone measure it. Still, s everal types of measures, all based on different dimensions of national/cultural brand equity or character, have been developed. Hofstede s Cultural Dimension Score From 1967 to 1973, Hofstede (1980) conducted a large-scale international attitudinal study of IBM employees from 66 countries that included the administration of more than 117,000 questionnaire s Based on his results, Hofstede developed a model to quantify the characteristics of national culture on the bas is of four dimensions : Indiv i dualism (IDV), Masculinity (MAS),

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29 Uncertainty Avoid ance (UAI), and Power Distance (PDI). He later added a fifth dimension to the original model termed Confucian d ynamism, or L ong-T erm O rientation (LTO) (Hofstede, 2005) Despite popular application especially within organizational management circl es, Hofstede s c ultural d imension s core s ha ve been criticized in terms of methodological and conceptual limitations. While Hofstede suggests that individuals think about national culture and individuals might even believe in it, they do not particularly th ink and act in terms of national culture. In his seminal study, the sample included only IBM employees and, it may necessarily not have been representative of the larger population Hofstede developed this model based on the assumption of national uniformi ty or a national central tenden cy. However, there likely are many subculture s within a country that sustain distinct cultural roots, beliefs, attitudes, and life styles In addition a nation is not always a stable political entity. It may fragment into se veral countries, as with Yugoslavia or it may coalesce or combine with other countries as did Hong Kong when it was returned back to m a i n land China, and then there are the nations which comprise European Union increasing coverging in terms of political, economic, and infrastructure policies Under such circumstances, it would be difficult to apply this model with any practical relevance to explain and analyze the cultural portfolios of many countries (McSweeney, 2002) Despite the criticism, Hofstedes c ultur al d imensions s core s ha ve been widely cited and used in international business and organizational cultur al studies. Kogut and Singh (1988) applied the cultural dimensions approach to develop a cultural distance formula measur ing the relative cultur al distance among countries. They found that cultural distance is a statistically significant variable i n determining the probability of corporations choosi ng a joint venture over an acquisition. Insch and Miller (2005) applied the cultural distance formula to measure the

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30 extent and influence of cultural similarity and dissimilarity upon the decision-making processes of multinational enterprises. T hey found that cultural distan ce influence s the selection of vendors and accentuates discrimina tion that might be shown toward foreign businesses such as manufacturer s wh ich export to the United St ates but may also have to spend more to offse t any compromising perceptions arising from beliefs that individuals carry about the country of origin. The GMI National Brands Index In addition to the Hofstede model and other approaches that incorporate measures of cultural distance, The Anholt Global Market Insite (GMI) National Brand Index is u sed to quantify the brand asset value of each country brand. Researchers sample d more than 10,000 consumers in 10 countries to measure their perceptions of 25 countries with regard to the six dimensions of tourism, exports, governance, investment, potentia l, cultural heritage and human assets The scores of the six dimensions then were summed to generate the total value of an individual national brand. The index scores reflect the appeal and power of country brands and showcase the character and personality of a national brand (Anholt, 2005a, 2005b) While the index incorporates a generally thorough set of dimension factors, the scores are more useful as a baseline tool in business investment projects and tourism stud ies than they are in trying to situate a precise country personality for the purposes of general consumer research The limitations are similar to those of Hofstede s model in that it is impossible to realize a central tendency measure of national personal ity given the variety of subcultures and regional differences within any nation. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory Other studies have sought to incorporate Hofstede s cultural dimensions into quantifiable personality measures. The Revised NEO Personali ty Inventory (NEO PI -R) measures five basic factors in terms of 30 specific traits. The se include n euroticism (N), e xtraversion (E), o penness

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31 to e xperience (O), a greeableness (A), and c onsciousness (C). T he survey instrument s reliability has been consistently tested as the inventory has been translated for use in more than 300 languages and has shown strong correlation with Hofstede s cultural dimensions. For example, Hofstede s power distance score is highly correlated with Neuroticism and Introversion. U ncer tainty Avoidance score while it is believed to be inversely related to O penness to experience was shown to be related to Neuroticism and inversely related to A greeableness; Individualism is associated wit h Extroversion and Openness to e xperience; whi le his dimension of masculinity was shown not to be related to any of the five NEO PR I factors (McCrae, 2001) Given its extensive translation us e in so many languages, NEO PI -R has been shown to be a valid tool for describing a culture and identifying similar personality trait patterns among culturally related and historically r elated cultures. However, the inventory scores also suggest that natio nal ch aracteristics of one country are perceived differently around the globe which suggests that a national stereotype is actually derived from social construction of reality (Berger & Luckmann 1966) S uch a stereotype then is transmitted through such channels as media, history, education, hearsay, word of mouth, and jokes rather than exclusively from accumulated observances (Terracciano et al., 2005) Country Personality Scale d Astous and Boujbel (2007) developed a 24-item c ountry personality scale with an e xploratory f actor a nalysis meas uring country personality according to the six dimensions of A gre e ableness, W ickedness, S nobbism, A ssiduousness, C onformity, and U nobtrusiveness. The y found that all six dimensions have statistically significant influence s on general and product specific country attitude. For th e travel destination, only A gre e ableness, Wickedness, and Conformity dimensions have statistically significant impact. Among the findings was the regression model for travel destinations which showed a lower d etermination of c oeffic ient (R2),

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32 which means that the country personality scale has less influence in determining a consumers evaluation of countries in terms of their personality match as a travel destination Nevertheless, t he country personality construct, according to Roth and Diamantopoulos (2008) is a stable measurement that can be used to describe diffe rent countries across a variety of product categories. Moderating Factors on the COO Effect Through past marketing literature, country image has been shown to have a significant influence on consumers perception and beliefs. However, the consequences of country image are conditional. Early studies indicated that the COO effect is more significant when o ther informational cues ( e.g. such as price, distribution channel, and retailer reputation) are absent. However, these studies regarded country of origin i nformation as the only cognitive cue and asked respondents to make their evaluation based upon the available COO information. T he emphasis on single cue operation alization has been criticized as being hardly representative of real decision -making environme nts and of exaggerating the magnitude of the effect R esearchers also found that the effect size of the country of orig in is relatively weaker in multi -cue design than in single cue design (Verlegh & Steenkamp, 1999a) Thus, consequent studies have been devoted to researching the country of origin effect in multi attribute setting (Usunier, 2006) Generally, the COO effect depends upon several moderating variables including, among other things, product familiarity, country familiar ity product involvement, and product category. Product Familiarity In addition to economic factors, product familiarity can affect attitude s and belief s toward a p roduct or brand of one country. Han (1989) indicated that there are two patterns the halo effect and the summary effect that can explain how product familiarity mediates betwee n country images and consumer judgments Han (1989) explained that:

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33 When consumers are not familia r with a countrys products, country image may serve as a halo from which consumers infer product attributes and it may indirectly affect their brand attitude through their inferential. In contrast, as consumers become more familiar with a countrys produc ts, country image may become a construct that summarizes consumers beliefs about product attributes and directly affects t heir brand attitude ( p.228). The concept s of halo and summary effect also have been supported by other researchers who found that product familiarity does mediat e consumers evaluatio ns of products and country image (Erickson, Johansson, & Chao, 1984) However, som e scholars disagree about the moderating effect of product familiarity For example, country image was found to have great influence on product beliefs and product evaluation under both conditions of high product familiarity and low product familiarity (Laroche et al., 2005) Country Familiarity Country fami liarity is believed to affect a consumer s evaluation of and intention to buy a product from a specific countr y in a manner similar to the proce ss by which product familiarity might mediate between product evaluation and country image. Roth and Romeo (1992) manipulated high and low familiarity countrie s into two groups and tested consumers attitude s toward and their int ention to buy products of certain countries. The y found that country familiarity is not significant ly correlat ed with product assessment. Baughn and Yaprak (1993) also found that country familiarity ( e.g. using tra vel experience as the indicator) does not always lead to positive product evaluation. F or example, consumers who have not visited Japan tend to have more positive attitudes toward Japanese electronic s and automotive products than do those who ha ve been to Japan. Based on conflicting findings regarding the idea that country familiarity moderates product evaluation s and purchase intention, Usunier and Cestre (2007) proposed that country familiarity influence s a consumer s way of processing cognitiv e information instead of purchase intention or product evaluation. T hey explained, Because a product category may be associated with

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34 different COOs, a given country with which consumers are familiar may be known to develop, manufacture, design, and/or bra nd different kinds of products, leading consumers to associate the country with these products (p. 38). Product Involvement Consumer involvement also has been found to exert significant influence upon consumer behavior s especially when consumers have var ious ways of being engaged with ad vertisements and product s (Belk & Clarke, 1978; Howard & Sheth, 1969; Hupfer & Gardner, 1971; Krugman, 1962, 1967; Zaichkowsky, 1985) The marketing literature argues that a consume r s involvement with a product influence s the way in which consumers differentiat e product attributes, brand importance, brand choice, and their psychological connection to a product (Chattalas, Kramer, & Takada, 20 08; Howard & Sheth, 1969; Zaichkowsky, 1985) Chattalas et al. (2008) adapted the elaboration likelihood model (Cacioppo & Petty, 1984) to explain that when involvement is high, consumers tend to evaluate products using analytical information processing rather than decision making short -cut s, such as COO stereotypes. Hoyer and MacInnis (2007) suggested that involvement as a psychological state in a consumer s mind, encompasses the degree of motivation to process information and make decision s Involvement can be categorized in to four types : enduring involvement situational involvement cognitive involveme nt and affective involvement Enduring i nvolvement refers to long -term consumer motivation whereas s ituational involvement refers to short term consumer motivation. Cognitive involvement is usually related to utilitarian motives while affective involvement mainly focuses on feeling s about a product or service (Hoyer & MacInnis, 2007; Park & Young, 1986) Past COO stud ies have suggested that the COO effect tends to influence consumers evaluation of high -involvement product s such as automobiles (Acharya & Elliott, ; Ahmed,

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35 1993) Their r esults have show n that for high involvement and complex products, the COO effect and the brand nam e are more likely to be used as cues to infer product attributes th an they are for low -involvement and simple products However, a few researchers have argued that low involvement products such as food s and beverages are also influenced by similar types of COO information that would i nfluence the purchase of high invo lv ement products (Ahmed et al., 2004) Product Category A variable that has been neglected in country -of -origin studies is the influence of product category. Although product category is regarded as an important moderating variable influencing the COO effect, few researchers have attempted to discover the relationship between product category and the COO effect (Manrai, Lascu, & Manrai, 1998) Product category has been shown to be an influential factor in consumer s perceptions of products. For example, consumers tend to associate France with perfume, Japan with home electronic appliances, Germany with automobiles, and Italy with food an d fashion products, and are more likely to positively evaluate products from the appropriate country. This type of country and product -category relationship exists within a taxonomic category in which even though category members share similar features, n ot every member is perceived to be an equally good category member (Hoyer & MacInnis, 2007) Product category also plays an important role in the consumer evaluation process. For example, consumers might have positive images of Japanese home appliances but negative images of Japanese food. Lin and Kao (2004) indicated that a country may stick to an exclusive reputation or stereotype in specific products in consumer minds. For example, perfume France, home appliances Japan, and wristwatch Swiss (p. 37). S ome scholars ha ve indicated that a

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36 consumer s evaluation varies with different product categories and attributes (Johansson et al., 1985; Samiee, 1994) Because product category has a dominant influence in moderating country image and other associated beliefs, many commercials try to associate a brand with a favorable cultural or country, even though the brand has no connection to the country or culture (O'Shaughnessy & O'Shaughnessy, 2000) In general, past COO studies has shown that consumers tend to associate a product category with certain countries, and develop specific attitudes toward a product category and its associated countries (Agarwal & Sikri, 1996; Bilkey & Nes 1982b; Roth & Romeo, 1992) Brand Attitude Some literature has suggested that brand attitude has a significant effect on consumers perceptions on brand attitude, purchase intention and product quality evaluations (Bilkey & Nes, 1982a; Peterson & Jolibert, 1995; Verlegh & Steenkamp, 1999b) Brand attitude is defined as consumers overall evaluations of a brand (Keller, 1993, p. 4) Along with associated benefits and attributes, brand attitude has been regarded as one of the salient elements of brand image. Han (1989) stated as m entioned earlier that brand attitude could be affected by country image through two different models : halo effect and summary construct. Hsieh, Pan and Setiono (2004) also su ggested that brand origin might trigger different attitudes toward the brand and further influence a consumer s subsequent behav iors such as purchase intention which is defined as the degree or likelihood consumers want to buy a specified product and brand in the future. Generally, purchase intention was found less susceptible to the COO effect when compared to product quality evaluation. In one study, t he finding s showed that .30 of the variance of the quality evaluation c ould be explained by the country o f origin effect while only .19 of the variance of purchase intention can be explained by

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37 COO effect (Pharr, 2005) Some researchers believe that price is the main factor influencing purchase intention while brand origin and made in labe ls mainly contribute to the perceptions of brand equity. More directly, the country of origin might not have direct effect on purchase intention. T hat is, consumers may perceive a product to be of high quality, and like it very much, but they may simply not be able to afford it (Verlegh & Steenkamp, 1999b, p. 530) Research Hypothese s Figure 31. Conceptual m odel of m eaning t ransfer between c ountry and b rand p ersonality The Meaning Transfer between Country Personality and Brand Personality Though no st udies so far examined the correlation between country personality and brand personality, marketing and country -of -origin studies have proved that country image indeed act as an important cue which exert great influence on consumers evaluation and attitude toward brand (Balabanis & Diamantopoulos, 2008; Laroche et al., 2005; Lee & Ganesh, 1999; Roth & Diamantopoulos, 2008; Roth & Romeo, 1992; Wang & Yang, 2008; Yasin et al., 2007) According to McCracken s meaning tr ansfer process (McCracken, 1989) celebrities contain specific cultural meanings, and these meanings can be transferred by using promotional strategies such as advertising into consumer goods and further into consumer themselves. In this

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38 case, countries act like celebrity endorsers, who instil l their cultural meaning into the brand, and finally activate consumers association network system to link the specific personality to the brand. Or, in terms of country branding concept, a country can be regarded as a gigantic brand. T hrough the co -branding process country brand forms a partnership with the product brand to gain the benefit from association with each other s features and strengths. Thus, it is hypothesized that: H1: Country personality is positively associated with brand personality. P roduct Category Several studies have focused on the relationship between product category and country-of origin image. Roth and Romeo (1992) stated that there exists a fitness relationship between country -of origin image and product category. The country-o f-origin effect is more salient only when the country image matches or is relevant to product characteristics. The other research also showed that product category is an influential factor affecting relationship between countryof origin image and consumer based brand equity (Pappu, Quester, & Cooksey, 2006) Since brand personality is an important element of consumer -based brand equity, it is hypothesized that: H2: The meaning transfer process between country personality a nd brand personality will be greater when the product category and country match Product Involvement Product involvement and country-of -origin image are deemed as two constructs that influence each other. It is found that product involvement has a positive relationship with COO image. T hat is, the higher the product involvement the more influence COO image exert on information search intention (Lin & Chen, 2006) Another study also suggested that when product involvement is low, other extrinsic cues such as price or brand will eclipse the country -

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39 of -origin effect in product evaluation and purchase intention (Ahmed et al., 2004) Therefore, the hypothesis was made, H3: The meaning transfer process between country personality and brand personality will be greater for high involvement product than for low involvement product. Brand Attitude It is believed that brand personality may evoke consumers specific feelings and emotions toward a brand (Keller, 1993) The feelings and emotions evoked by the brand, if any, can logically determine consumers attitude toward the brand. The similar implication and empirical evidence can be fou nd in brand equity relevant studies (Aaker, 1997; Chang & Chieng, 2006; Supphellen & Gronhaug, 2003) Since brand personality can be assumed as an important element molding brand attitude, it is hypothesized that: H4: Consumers brand attitude will be more positive when the country and product match H5: High involvement product will yield a more positive brand attitude than will low involvement product Purchase Intention T hough many researchers suggested that brand origin has less influence on consumers purchase intention compared to other non -product related attributes such as price, retailer image, and package, it is believed that country image has significant association with brand attitude and further indirectly influence consumers purchase intention. Therefore, it is hypothesized that: H6: Consumers purchase intention will be greater when country and product matched. H7: Consumers purchase intention will be greater for a high involvement product than for a l ow involvement product.

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40 CHAPTER 3 ME THODOLOGY Introduction A 2 x2 experimental design with two control group s was employed to test for the meaning transfer and the COO effect The experimental design tested two factors : p roduct i nvolvement and b rand o rigin The factor brand origin had two levels : Fra nce and Japa n Product involvement included two levels : Laptop and Perfume/ C ologn e. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four cells with di fferent experimental conditions : Japan/ l aptop, Japan/ c ologne, France/ l aptop, and France/ c ologne T wo control groups were exposed to one laptop and one perfume/cologne brand with no bra nd origin information revealed. Prior to answering the questionnaire s subjects were asked to review one product document for one minu te. Six versions of product statements were manipulated to be identical except for the diffe ring brand origin and product category The content of product statement s focus ed on the brand s capacity to indicate the high quality manufacturer of products and how these products could satisfy customer needs. No brand names real or fictitious, were used in this experiment. According to Boush (1993) real brand names could invoke the unnecessary attitude and belief l inks that could compromise the internal validity of the experiment al protocol On the other hand, in order to ensure that participants rated products exclusively upon brand origin information and not other ext rinsic cues, brand name was not identified in t he product document Manipulation Check and Country/Product Selection Because the experimental design involve d two factors, brand origin and country/product match ing the co untry and product selection s were structured to include all possible experimental co nditions ( e.g. matche d/ mismatched and high/low involvement product s for eac h country).

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41 Japan and France were selected because of the existing body of product -country image provided solid evidence about these two countries and their respective strong asso ciation with electronic and fashion products. For example, consumers are willing to perceive Japane se products as high quality especially in high -technology related product categories such as electronics, wrist watch es television s and automobiles (Agrawal & Kamakura, 1999; Damanpour, 1993) This country stere otype has been found not only to exist in the United States similar results were also found in Turkey (Kaynak & Kara, 2002) Bulgaria (Apil, 2006) Mexico, Spain, Israel, Australia, Hong Kong, Indonesia (Papadopoulos & Heslop, 2000) Canada, the United Kingdom France, Greece, Germany, Netherlands, and Hungary (Heslop & Papadopoulos, 1993; Papadopoulos, Heslop, & Bamossy, 1990; Papadopoulous, 1986) As for France, research liter ature suggests that the country enjoys a high reputation for perfume, fashion, and wine products while there are negative association s of reputation with cars, television s and other high technology products (Lampert & Jaffe, 1998) Leclerc et al. (1994) also found that brands with names spelled in French were preferred by consumers, especially for tho se hedonic products. The laptop and perfume product category were selected for their distinctions in terms of involvement. Laptop is regarded consistently as being representative of high involvement product s in many studies (Cochrane & Quester, 2005; Drossos, Giaglis, Lekakos, Kokkinaki, & Stavraki, 2007; Rahman & Rahaman, 2008) On the other hand, while high priced boutique perfumes necessarily would not be significantly different from laptops in terms of involvement, it is believed that more widely available lower -priced perfumes and cologne products, would be c onsidered a low involvement product. Based on previous justifications, the author concluded

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42 that the experime ntal conditions would be r epresented by these tw o countries (Japan and France) and these two products (laptop and low -priced perfume). Six different versions of the questionnaire were designed for each of the experimental conditions. Respondents were asked to provide their perceptions of brand personali ty based up on the experimental conditions to which they were assigned Other scales in the questionnaire include d product involvement, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention Sampling A convenience sample of students, enroll ed in introductory cl asses in the College of Jour nalism and Communications during the spring semester of 2009 at the University of Florida was asked to participa te in th is stud y In order to increase the response rate, participants who comp leted a valid questionnaire were abl e to earn extra credi ts for their pertinent course. College students were chosen as the sample population because they are believed to be more sensitive to country/brand image than as observed in other consumer segments. A student sample was also found to be more homogeneous in composition (Verlegh & Steenkamp, 1999a) Liefeld (1993) also revealed that student based samples have statistically similar eff ect sizes compared to consumer based experiments. Moreover, student groups are also easy to reach and relatively inexpensive when used in COO studies. Student volunteers were assigned randomly with equal chance to any of the six versions of the questionnai re that were available via limited access links at online survey website (http://www.surveymonkey.com ). Administering the experiment via online afforded several advantages including savings of labor and time as w ell as automatic coding which ensured that no data were entered inaccurately and that there were no missing data values in completed surveys (Sansone, Morf, & Panter, 2004)

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43 Tab le 3 1 Experimental d esign Brand Origin Product Category FIT Brand Origin 1 Non Fit Brand Origin 2 No Brand Origin (Control Groups) High Involvement Product Category 1 1 4 5 Low Involvement Product Category 2 2 3 6 Measurement S ubjec ts were asked to complete a multi -section questionnaire after reviewing the designated product statement. In the fir st section, subjects were asked to answer quest ion s about their involvement concerning the designated product Product involvement was defin ed as the feelings of interest and enthusiasm consumers hold toward product categories (Goldsmith & Emmert, 1991) Subjects were asked t o indicate their response on a set of five -point Likert s cales. The set of scale s include d : (1) In general I have a strong interest in this product category; (2) This product is very important to me; (3)The product categ ory matters a lot to me; (4) I get bored when other people talk to me about this product category (Bruner, Hensel, & James, 2005) The second section of the questionnaire s was used to measure the perceived brand personality. In consideration of the potential maturation effect, a short version of a personality scale was chosen for this study : Aake r s Brand Personality Scale (1997) to measure both country and brand personality Aaker s Brand Personality Scale (BPS) included six dimensions and 15 f acets, comprising a total of 42 items in total (Aaker, 1997) While this scale contained fewer items than other personality measur ing instruments, such as the Big Five a nd the NEO PI -R, subjects were asked to rate simultaneously country and brand personality in this experiment Und er typical circumstances subjects should have answered 84 items (e.g. 42 each for country

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44 and brand personality) but there was concern that experimental subjects would be burned out and maturation effects could threaten the desired level of internal validi ty (Davis, 1997) T herefore, the second section of the questionnaire was based on 15 brand personality facets for which respondents were asked to rate country and brand personality simultaneously The third section ask ed subjects to evaluate the country ima ge as measured by four bipolar semantic differen tial scales first used by Roth and Romeo (1992) Subjects were asked to provide ratings on four bipolar adjectives (innovative, design, prestige, and workmanship) according to their perception of the designated country. The fourth section of the questionnaire was designed to measure subject attitude s toward the brand as adopted from Putrevu and Lord s scale (1994) T he original scale comprises five statements : (1) The decis ion to buy this brand is foolish; (2) Buying this brand is a good decision; (3) I think this brand is a satisfactory brand; (4) I think the brand has a lot of beneficial characteristics; (5) I have a favorable opinion of this brand. However, the third stat ement I think the brand is a satisfactory brand, was excluded from the questionnaire because of its high degree of homogeneity relative to other items. T he score s of the four items w ere summed to represent subjects attitude s toward the brand. The fifth s ection measured subject willingness to purchas e a specific brand product in the future. The purchase intention scale was adapted again from Putrevu and Lord (1994) which comprised three items on a seven -point Likert s cale. S ubjects were asked to rate th eir responses on the following statement: (1) It is very likely that I will buy this brand; (2) I will purchase this brand the next time I need a ( laptop or perfume ); (3) I will defin itely try this brand. The score s of the three items were summed t o represent subjects likelihood of trying or buying the brand.

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45 The final section ask ed subjects to provide their demographic information including their gender, age, ethnicity, and citizenship. All items in the questionnaire were expressed in Likert Type Ind ices and s emantic d ifferential s cale. The Likert Type Index used to measure responses on an agree anddisagree continuum involves intervals between the agree and disagree extremes that are most commonly divided into five, seven, or nine points, but al so can incorporate any other even or odd number of intervals (Davis, 1997) In this study, subjects were asked to answer each item on a either five or seven point Likert s cale, with each item being scored along a continuum ranging from s trongly agree to s trongly disagree The semantic differential scale is used to measure attitude s and opinions by asking a respondent to rate a object on a number of itemized, seven -point rating scales bounded on each end by one of two bipolar adjectives (Davis, 1997, p. 285) In this study, semantic differential scale s intended to measure respondents on their perception of country image involved four bipolar scales The total country image score was calculated by summing the scores of the four bipolar sc ales

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46 Table 3 2 Construct s and i ndicators of the measurement Construct Indicators Brand & Country Personality (Sincerity 4 items) Down to Earth Honest Wholesome Cheerful Brand & Country Personality (Excitement 4 items) Daring Spirited Imaginative Up to date Brand & Country Personality (Competence 3 items) R eliable Intelligent Successful Brand & Country Personality (Sophistication2 items) Upper Class Charming Brand & Country Personality (Ruggedness 2 items) Outdoorsy Tough Indicators Product In volvement In general I have a strong interest in this product category This product category is very important to me This product category matters a lot to me I get bored when other people talk to me about this product category Indicators Country Image Innovative Design Prestige Workmanship Indicators Brand Attitude The decision to buy (brand) is foolish Buying (brand) is a good decision I think (brand) has a lot of beneficial characteristics I have a favorable opinion of (brand) I ndicators Purchase Intention It is very likely that I will buy (brand) I will purchase (brand) the next time I need a (product) I will definitely try (brand) Data Analysis To test H1, correlation analysis was employed to examine the relationship bet ween country personality and brand personality. T he purpose was to examine the degree of association between country personality and brand personality.

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47 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test H2 and H3, with t he independent variables being country/product fit and product involvement. T he purpose of the analysis was to investigate whether the two independent variables have significant effect s up on the personality transfer process between country and brand. The country/brand congruity score was compute d as follow s : CPi = Score of country personality along dimension i BPi= Score of brand personality along dimension i A similar analysis was employed to test H4 and H5 w ith the dependent variabl e being substituted with brand attitude. The purpose was to t est if there was any difference in brand attitude between fit/ non -fit and high/low involvement groups. Finally, a two -way ANOVA was used to test H6 and H7 with country/product fit and product involvement as the independent variable s and purchase intentio n as the dependent variable. The purpose was to investigate if there was a significant difference on purchase inte ntion between fit/non -fit and high/low product involvement groups

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48 CHAPTER 4 RESULT S Introduction This chapter presents the results of the hy pothesis test developed in the previous chapter and discusses the se research findings. The first part of this chapter reports on the reliability of the measurement scales. The second part provides the result s of the experimental manipulation check. The thi rd part reports the results of the tests of H ypothesis 1. T he fou rth part provides the result s for H ypothes e s 2 and 3, and examines the effect of country/product fit and product involvement on the meaning transfer process. T he f ifth part provides the resul t for H ypothes e s 4 and 5 and analyzes the effect of country/product fit and product involvement on brand attitude The sixth part presents the result of test for H ypothes e s 6 and 7 which concern ed with the effect of product/country fit on consumers purchase intention. The last part of this chapter provides the summary and important findings of this study. Reliability Test A r eliability test represents the degree of stability of a measurement, which examines if the measures yield consistent results after r epeated administration and are free from random error (Davis, 1997) C oefficient alpha was used to check the internal consistency of measures used in this research According to Churchill (1979, p. 68) coefficient alpha absolutely should be the first measure one calculates to assess the quality of the instrument Therefore, the six constructs measured by multiple items, ( specifically product involvement, purchase intention, country personality, brand personality, brand attitude, and country image ) were examined by Cronbach s (1951) alpha coefficient. Table 4 1 presents the Cronbach s alpha coefficients for the six maj or constructs in this study. Most of the constructs for this study had alpha coefficients beyond .60, which shows moderate internal consistency and stability. However, it is worth noting that the

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49 Sophistication and the Ruggedness dimension had very low alpha coefficient s. In order to guarantee the complete reliability of this study, these two personality dimensions would be excluded from further analysis. Manipulation Check Table 4 2 provides means and standard deviations for the manipulation check s for this study. A t test was used to determine if the laptop w as perceived as a high involvement product and perfume as a low involvement product. Mean scores found that laptop had a higher product involvement score th an did perfume (M=12.9, laptop; M=10.8, perfume; p < .05 ). Another experimental manipulation check was conducted for country/product fit which anticipated that Japan/laptop and France/perfume pairs would be considered more matched than Japan/perfume and France/laptop pairs respectively. The res ult s showed that a higher score for the Japan/laptop pair on country/product fit than did France/laptop pair ( M=2.60, Japan/laptop; M= 1.57, France/laptop, p <.05). Similarly the France/perfume pair had a higher score than did the Japan/perfume pair (M= 2. 51, France/perfume; M= 1.60, Japan/perfume, p <.05). Finally, to ensure that Japan and France have different country images a t -test was used to examine the country image score difference between these two countries. The result showed that France and Japan are different from each other on all country image dimensions except P restige In summary Japan had higher country image score than did France ( M= 22.44, Japan, M= 19.16, France, p <.05). Subject P r ofile A total of 210 participants participated in the e xperiment. Approximately 65.6% were female and 34.4% were male. Their age ranged from 18 32, but most was 1825. F or their ethnicity, most of them were White/ Caucasian (75.2% ); other ethnicities included Latino (9.6%), African American (8.6%), Asian (4.8%) and Others (1.4%).

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50 Meaning Transfer Process between Country Personality and Brand Personality: Test of Hypothesis 1 H1 proposed that there is a significant measurable process of meaning transfer between country personality and brand personality where th e country personality scores correlate with brand personality scores. The product -moment correlation was employed to test the direction and degree of association between the two variables, country personality and brand personality A s shown in Table 4 3, t he correlation coefficient between country personality and brand personality on the sincerity dimension for the Japan/ Japanese l aptop pair was .46, which suggests that there exists a moderate positive relationship between these two variables (p < .01) The correlation coefficient on the e xcitement dimension for Japan/ Japanese laptop pair was .61 suggesting that country exci tement and brand excitement are moderately associated (p <.01). The correlation coefficient on the c ompetence dimension for this group was .43, which implie s that country comp etence and brand competence are moderately associated (p <.05). T he correlation coefficient between country personality and brand personality on the s incerity dimension for Fr a nce/ French p erfume pair was .51, which d emonstrates a moderate positive correlation. The result showed that country sincerity is moderately associated with brand sincerity for this group, and it is statistically significant (p <.01). On the other hand, t he correlation coefficient on the e xciteme nt dimension for France/ French p erfume pair was 08 and statistically insignificant (p >.05) Such result show s that country excitement and brand excitement were weakly associated (p >.05). The correlation coefficient on competence dimension for France/ Fre nch perfume pair was .55, which implie s that country comp etence and brand competence are moderately associated (p <.01). T he correlation coefficient between country personality and brand personality on the s incerity dimension for Japan/ Japanese perfume pai r was .39, which show s a moderate positive

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51 correla tion (p <.05). The result show s that country sincerity is moderately associated with brand sincerity. The correlation coefficient on the competence dimension for Japan/ Japanese perfume pair was 1 0 Such result show s that there was no association between country excitement and brand excitement for this pair (p >.05). The correlation coefficient on the competence dimension for the Japan/Japanese perfume was .12, which implie s that country competence and brand competen ce are also non-correlated (p >.05). F inally, the correlation coefficient between country personality and brand personality on the sincerity dimension for the France/ French l aptop pair was .27, which show s there is no association between country personality and brand personality (p >.05). The correlation coefficient on the excitement dimension for the France/Laptop pair was .30. Such result implies that country excitement and brand excitement were moderately associated; however the result was not statistically significan t (p >.05). Hence, there is no correlation between country excitement and brand exc itement for this country/product combination. The correlation coefficient on the com petence dimension for the France/French Laptop was .41, which imp lie s that country competence an d brand competence are moderately associated (p <.05). Effect of Country/Product Fit and Product Involvement on Meaning Tra nsfer Process: Test of Hypothese s 2 and 3 H2 and H3 proposed that the meaning transfer between country personality and brand personality should be greater when the brand origin and the product match and when consumers are highly involved with the product. Based on H2, it was expected that the congruity index score between country personality and brand pers onality should be smaller when the country and the product match For the H3, it was expected that the congruity index score between country personal ity and brand personality should be smaller when consumers are highly involved with the product A two -way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with the country/product

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52 match and product involvement as independent variables to analyze the meaning transfer process between country personality and brand personality. As shown in Table s 4 4 and 4 5 the mean b rand congruity index score on the s incerity dimension between country personality and brand personality of fit and n on-fit group s were 2.86 and 4.93 respectively. The non-fit group tended to have a higher congruity index score than did the fit group, whic h implies that the fit group was more likely to associate brand sincerity with country sincerity than did the non -fit group. The difference was statistically significant (p < .05). However, it is worth noting that the significance of the corrected model of this test was i nsignificant (p >.05). For the e xcitement dimension, the result was very similar with the s incerity dimension. T he non-fit group had higher congruity index score then did the fit group, and the difference was significant (p <.05). Despite t he significant difference between the fit and non -fit group, the correct ed model of this test was also insignificant (p >.05). The main effect of product involvement and corrected model were found both insignificant for the sincerity and excitement persona lity dimension (p >.05). For the c ompetence dimension, the mean competence congruity index scores of fit and non -fit group s were 2.21 and 3.81. For high and low involvement product, the competence congruity scores were 2.29 and 3.74 respectively. Both mai n effects of country/product match and product involvement were statistically significant (p <.05). No interaction effect was found between the fit/non -fit and high/low groups (p >.05). T he corr ected model was statistically significant (p < .05) Effect of Country/Product Fit and Product Involvement on Meaning Tra nsfer Process: Test of Hypothese s 4 and 5 H4 and H5 proposed that a match between the brand origin and the product and highinvolvement products should lead consumers to have a higher brand attitude level than with

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53 mismatched pairs and low involvement products. Based on H4, it was expected that consumers would tend to have higher brand attitude levels toward the products with favorable brand origin (e.g. Japan/Laptop, France/Perfume) than toward the ir counterparts with relatively unfavorable origin s ( e.g. Japan/Perfume, France/Laptop). F or H5, it was expected that consumers brand attitude s toward the high -involvement product would be higher than toward the low involvement product. A two -way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with the fit/non -fit and high/low product involvement factors as the independent variables. Table s 4 6 and 4 7 summarize the ANOVA results including means, standard deviations, degree of freedom, and F -value As can be se en in Table 4 7 the fit/ non -fit between a product and a country was shown to affect the consumers brand attitude for the product. The results show that consumers had higher brand attitude toward the product with favorable origin s than the one with unfavorable origin s The effect of the fit and non-fit group s was statistically significant (p <.05). The effect of product involvement also influenced consumer s brand attitude where c onsumers tended to have higher brand attitude toward the high involvement pr oduct than toward the low involvement product. The mean score difference between high and low involvement product was statistically significant ( p < .05). No interaction effect was found between these two factors (p >.05). Thus, H4 and H5 were both support ed. Effect of Country/Product Fit and Product Involvement on Purch ase Intention: Test of Hypothese s 6 and 7 H6 and H7 proposed that a match between the brand origin and the product and hig h involvement product should lead consumers to have greater purchas e intention than did mismatched pairs and low invol vement products. Based on H6, it was expected that consumers purchase intention toward the products with favorable brand origin (Japan/Laptop, France/Perfume) would be stronger than toward the counterpar ts with relatively unfavorable

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54 origin ( e.g. Japan/ p erfume, France/ l aptop). F or H7, it was expected that consumers purchase intention toward the highinvolvement product would be higher than toward the low involvement product. A two-way analysis of varianc e (ANOVA) was performed with the country/product match and high/low product involvement factors as the independent variables. Table s 4 8 and 4 9 summarize the ANOVA results showing means, standa rd deviations, degree of freedom, and F -value As can be seen in Table 4 9 the results of the analysis support H6. Country/product match was shown to affect consumers purchase intention for the product. The results show that consumers were more likely to buy product s with a favorable origin than th ose with unfavora ble origin s The effect of the fit and non -fit group was statistically significant (p <.05). While the purchase intention of highinvolvement product was found to be higher than the low involvement product, the difference was not statistically significant (p >.05), and there was no interaction effect between these two factors (p >.05). Thus, H7 was not supported. Summary of Results Chapter 4 presented the results of hypotheses test s H1 was supported indicating that t he country perso nality and brand person ality w ere found to have a significantly positive association. The result s showed that all four groups had at least one transferred personality dimension. For H2, only the congruity score of the c ompetence personality dimension was fou nd to be moderated by country/product match Other two personality dimensions, sincerity and excitement, though the main effect of country/product match were both significant, the corrected model were both insignificant. T hus, H2 was only partially supported. It was shown that the total congruity score and the c ompetence personality dimension were moderated by product involvement However, for the other two personality dimensions in this study, sincerity and excitement, both corrected models and mean score differences were insi gnificant. Therefore, H3 was also partially supported.

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55 H4 and H5 were both strongly supported. Consumers tend to have more positive brand attitude when they are more involved with the product and when the product has favorable brand origin. H6 and H7 were also supported. The purchase intention was found to be stronger when the product has the right brand origin and is categorized as a high involvement product. Chapter 5 includes the discussion about the findings, limitations, implications, and the direction o f future research of this study

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56 Table 4 1 Reliability of m easurement Scale Alpha Coefficients Product Involvement Laptop .85 Perfume .84 T otal .86 C ountry Image Japan .85 France .80 T otal .82 Brand Attitude Laptop .81 Perfume .81 Total .8 1 Purchase Intention Laptop .83 Perfume .89 Total .87 Brand Personality (Sincerity) Laptop .66 Perfume .68 Total .69 Brand Personality (Excitement) Laptop .66 Perfume .61 Total .67 Brand Personality (Competence) Laptop .74 Perfume .74 T otal .79 Brand Personality (Sophistication) Laptop .37 Perfume .40 Total .41 Brand Personality (Ruggedness) Laptop .59 Perfume .39 Total .38 Country Personality (Sincerity) Japan .69 France .78 Total .73 Country Personality (Excitement) Jap an .73 France .78 Total .72 Country Personality (Competence) Japan .77 France .80 Total .79 Country Personality (Sophistication) Japan .23 France .73 Total .52 Country Personality (Ruggedness) Japan .16 France .84 Total .61

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57 Table 4 2 Experimental manipulation check N Mean Std. t value d.f p value Product Involvement Laptop 105 12.87 3.24 4.84* 208 .00 Perfume 105 10.80 2.97 Country/Product Fit Japan_Laptop 35 2.60 1.03 4.79* 61.53 .00 France_Laptop 35 1.57 .74 Countr y/Product Fit France_Perfume 35 2.51 1.07 3.97* 68 .00 Japan_Perfume 35 1.60 .85 Country Image (Innovativeness) Japan 70 5.94 1.14 8.41 138 .00 France 70 4.30 1.17 Country Image (Design) Japan 70 5.77 1.04 3.27* 126.739 .00 France 70 5.09 1.4 1 Country Image (Prestige) Japan 70 5.29 1.18 .26 138 .79 France 70 5.34 1.38 Country Image (Workmanship) Japan 70 5.44 1.06 5.40 138 .00 France 70 4.43 1.16 Country Image (Total) Japan 70 22.44 3.65 5.04 138 .00 France 70 19.16 4.01 p < .05 Table 4 3 Correlation c oefficients between c ountry p ersonality and b rand p ersonality Personality Dimensions Fit Non fit Japan/ Japanese Laptop France/ French Perfume Japan/ Japanese Perfume France/ French Laptop Sincerity .46** .51** .39** .27 Excitement .61** .08 .10 .30 Competence .43* .55** .12 .41* **p .01 *p .0

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58 Table 4 4 Effect of fit/ n onfit and i nvolvement on c ongruity Personality Dimension Fit / No n Fit group Product Category Mean Std. Deviation N Sincerity Fit High Involvement 2.63 3.50 35 Low Involvement 3.09 2.89 35 Total 2.86 3.19 70 No n Fit High Involvement 4.54 4.15 35 Low Involvement 5.31 7.82 35 Total 4.93 6.23 70 Total High Involvement 3.59 3.93 70 Low Involvement 4.20 5.96 70 Total 3.89 5.04 140 Excitement Fit High Involvement 2.54 2.67 35 Low Involvement 3 .57 4.00 35 Total 3.06 3.42 70 No n Fit High Involvement 4.71 6.11 35 Low Involvement 7.00 11.88 35 Total 5.86 9.45 70 Total High Involvement 3.63 4.81 70 Low Involvement 5.29 8.97 70 Total 4.46 7.22 140 Competence Fit High Involvement 2.03 2.19 35 Low Involvement 2.40 2.63 35 Total 2.21 2.41 70 No n Fit High Involvement 2.54 2.95 35 Low Involvement 5.09 7.37 35 Total 3.81 5.72 70 Total High Involvement 2.29 2.59 70 Low Involvement 3.74 5.66 70 Total 3.01 4.44 140

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59 Table 4 5 ANOVA for the e ffect of f it/n on-fit and p roduct i nvolvement on c ongruity Source Type III Sum of squares df Mean Square F S incerity Fit/Non Fit 150.18 1 150.18 6.07* Product Involvement 13.20 1 13.21 .53 Fit/Non Fit Product Involvement .86 1 .86 .04 Error 3367.14 136 24.76 Excitement Fit/Non Fit 274.40 1 274/40 5.44* Product Involvement 96.11 1 96.11 1.91 Fit/Non Fit Product Involvement 13.83 1 13.83 .27 Error 6860.40 136 50.44 C ompetence Fit/Non Fit 89.60 1 89.60 4.80* Product Involvement 74.31 1 74.31 3.98* Fit/Non Fit Product Involvement 41.26 1 41.26 2.21 Error 2540.80 136 18.68 Total Fit/Non Fit 5.21 1 5.21 .92 Product Involvement 40.18 1 40.18 7.11* Fit/Non Fit Product Involvement 23.21 1 23.21 4.11* Error 768.34 136 5.65 *p .0 5 Table 4 6 Descriptive s tatistics of b rand a ttitude Fit / No n Fit group Product Category Mean Std. Deviation N Fit High Involvement 14.77 1.50 35 Low Involvement 13.49 2.64 35 Total 14.13 2 .23 70 No n Fit High Involveme nt 12.51 2. 34 35 Low Involvement 12.17 2. 60 35 Total 12.34 2. 46 70 Total High Involvement 13.64 2. 26 70 Low Involvement 12.83 2. 68 70 Total 13.24 2. 50 140

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60 Table 4 7 Effect of fit/ n onfit and i nvolvement on b rand a ttitude Source Type III Sum of squares df Mean Square F Fit/Non Fit 111.61 1 111.61 20.83 Product Involvement 23.21 1 23.21 4.33* Fit/Non Fit_Product Involvement 7.78 1 7.78 1.45 Error 728.63 136 5. 36 *p .05 Table 4 8 Effect of fit/ n on -fit and i nvolvement on p urchase Intention Fit / No n Fit group Product Category Mean Std. Deviation N Fit High Involvement 8.66 1.71 35 Low Involvement 7.69 2.36 35 Total 8.17 2.10 70 No n Fit High Involvement 7.17 2. 42 35 Low Involvement 6.82 2.47 35 Total 7.00 2.43 70 Total High Involvement 7.91 2.21 70 Low Involvement 7.26 2.44 70 Total 7.59 2.34 140 Table 4 9 ANOVA for the e ffect of f it/n on-fit and p roduct i nvolvement on p urchase i ntention Source Typ e III Sum of squares df Mean Square F Fit/Non Fit 48.03 1 48.03 9.39* Product Involvement 15.11 1 15.11 2.96 Fit/Non Fit Product Involvement 3.46 1 3.46 .68 Error 695.37 136 5.11 *p .05

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61 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS, LIMITAT IONS, AND IMPLICATIONS Research Finding and Conclusions The primary purpose of this research was to examine the meaning transfer process between the country personality and brand p ersonality and its consequences with re gard to brand attitude and purchase intention. This study was focused on how the country/product match and product involvement influence the meaning transfer process as well as its further impact on brand attitude and purchase intention. One major finding of this study was that country personality and brand personality were moderately associated. G enerally, it was found that consumers are more likely to associate country personality with brand personality when the origin and product category are matched. F o r example, the combination of Japan/ Japanese l aptop had a stronger correlation than did the France/ French l aptop pair; and the combination of France/ French perfume had a stronger correlation between country personality and brand personality than did Japan/ Japanese p erfume pair. H owever, not all personality dimensions were transferred concomitantly. Some personality dimensions might not be transferred to the brand. In this study, it was found that the e xcitement personality dimension had a very weak correla tion between country personality and brand personality, even when subjects were aware of favorable brand origin s such as the France / French p erfume pair One surprising finding was that the combination of France/ French l aptop, though identified as a produc t with an unfavorable brand origin, had moderate and positive correla tion between country competence and brand competence This result could be explained by the fact that subjects might still co nsider France a technolog ically advanced country which has enj oyed a visible, public reputation in such industries as transportation aerospace, nuclear power, and weaponry industry (Rosenthal, 1999) Therefore, even though Japan outscored

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62 Franc e on the country image dimensions of i nnovative ness w orkmanship, and d esign, the practical differences did not appear large enough to consumers who might be expected to id e ntify France as a country not compatible with laptop s The results showed that a product with a favorable brand origin led consumers to have more positive brand attitude than with a product from an unfavorable origin. Consumers brand attitude toward Japan ese laptop and French perfume brands was found significantly higher than their attitude toward Japanese perfume and French laptop. On the other hand, product involvement exerts a potential influence up on brand attitude as a l aptop was found to have a highe r brand attitude than perfume. The influence of country/product match was also shown to affect consumers purchase intention as well T he results showed that consumers were more likely to buy the product with favorable origin. However, product involvement was also found not to interfere with consumer s' purchase intention as t he result showed that there was no sign ificant difference when compar ing consumers purchase intention of the highinvolvement product with that of the low involvement product. This re sult contrast s with findings in Piron s (2000) and Ahmed s (2004) finding which posited that product involvement moderates the COO effect. In thi s study, it was found that both product involvement and country/product match can influence brand attitude. Nevertheless, the only country/product match had influence on purchase intention. Implications T he findings of this study have some useful implicati ons for academic researcher s and marketing practitioners T he prior COO literature mostly measured country image using product related attributes. However, few studies used personality dimensions to measure consumers country perceptions. Using personality dimensions to measure country image would be an innovative and potentially consistent way to ward understand ing the complex relationship

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63 between countries and brands. The meaning transfer process was originally intended to assess the relationship between a celebrity endorser or event sponsorship and brands while the p resent study shows that national characteristics might be an alternative source forming brand personality. T he idea of national characteristics can be applied to congruity theory which was use d to examine the association between self -concept and brand personality. As t he present study shows that country personality and brand personality are moderately a ssociated i nternational ly based co rporations that want to expand to foreign markets shoul d acknowledge this association an d take advantage of it s dynamics When a new product is introduced to consumers in an i nternational market, personality dimensions of the origin country should be effectively communi cated to help consumers develop a sustain able product perception in their recall In a n industry market becoming increasing saturated with products that often share many attributes with their competitors making wise use of the meaning transfer process between country personality and brand person ality could lead to a critical essential solution for companies seeking to differentia te their brands from others Furthermore, the present study also showed that country/product match does exert measurable influence upon brand attitude and purchase intent ion Marketing practitioner s should be aware of the se consequences and should try to link their brand with favorable origins and avoid unfavorable ones. The findings of this study also indicate that not all personality dimensions would be transferrable Fo r e xample, counterintuitively the excitement personality dimension does not seem to be compatible with perfume/cologne products in this study, and the association between country and the product was relatively low. Therefore, m arke ting practitioners shoul d be careful about embracing the conventional wisdom concerning specific personality dimensions as they

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64 seek to take advantage of the national characteristics that become important in promot ing a product being introduced into a new foreign market Limitations and Future Research In spite of the findings in the present study the idea of meaning transfer between country perso nality and brand personality is relatively new and involves several limitations. First, some factors other than those examined in the s tudy may also be affect ing the meaning transfer proc ess. Due to the time limitation and concerns about the maturation effect, only product involvement and count ry/product fit were selected as the most relevant variables to examine in the current study However, other factors such as brand familiarity country familiarity and consumers prior experienc e with the country and product could influence the antecedents and consequences of the meaning transfer process. Future research should incorporate these vari ables to see how they moderate the meaning transfer process between country and brand. Second, both country personality and brand personality are broad concepts comprising different dimensions and items that reflect cultural dimensions uniquely rooted in each nation Using the same measurement protocol to rate country personality and brand personality may not reflect accurately and comprehensively the personality traits of a country or a brand. Future research should be focused on how to develop a more thorough measurement protocol that can be used to reflect realistically the characteristics of both country personality and brand personality and to do so in a feasibly compact form Third, the study was only concerned with two countries and two products, whi ch also may not truly reflect the real life buying situation. C onsumers undoubtedly will confront many products with many different brand origins throughout the ir life. In this study, both France and Japan were considered technology advanced countries Thu s, it might be difficult to investigate the effect of meaning transfer for products with real unfavorable origins. For future research

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65 more product categor ies with different brand origins should be employed to test the meaning transfer process especial ly with regard to counties that may be at different levels in their technological and industrial development. Fourth, the determination of products and countries used in this study was based upon intuition and prior literature Though the manipulation chec ks demonstrated that all experimental conditions were under control, the two countries and products employed in this study might not well -represent the two sides of the continuum that can fully reflect matched/mismatched country/product and high/low produc t involvement in consumers minds. T herefore, a pretest which includes more countries and products should be conducted prior main experiment to detect the suitable combinations of countries and products for similar studies. Fifth the study was administere d only in the United States and subjects consisted of Caucasian s mostly The s imilar stud ies and questionnaires should be administered in other countries to help establish a baseline for compar ing the differences. T he perceptions and myths of luxury brand s could also exist in E ast Asian countries and these aspects can contribute to the meaning transfer process between countries and brands. In addition, more diverse, demographically representative samples of consumers should be employed in future studies to get a realistic sense of how consumer markets function and respond to branding and advertising campaign in which the country of origin might be a significant factor to consider. Although student samples were found to be highly similar to real consumers (Verlegh & Steenkamp, 1999b) it would be ideal from a point of research validity and reliability, to incorporate more representative sample s in examin ing the COO effect in branding.

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66 APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRES Questionnaire: Japan/Laptop Dear Students, You are being asked t o participate in an academic research study. Please read the information below to determine if you wish to complete the survey. Your participation is entirely voluntary. You can refuse to participate without penalty or loss of benefits to which you are otherwise entitled. You may print a copy of this consent form for your records. I am a graduate student in the College of Journalism and Communications at the University of Florida. The research examines how people think about products and where they come fr om. I would appreciate your participation. While there is no financial compensation for completing the survey, you are contributing to worthwhile research. If you were recruited from an undergraduate class, at the end of the survey you will be asked to com plete information to receive extra credit for your participation. Survey Instructions: You will be asked to answer each question in this survey to the best of your knowledge. The survey should take you about 1015 minutes to complete. If you miss answering a question, you will be reminded to answer it before m oving on to the next section. Confidentiality and Privacy Protections: The data may be made available to other researchers in the future solely for research purposes not detailed within this consent form. In these cases, the data will contain no identifying information that could associate you with it, or your participation in any study. Be assured that you will not be contacted for any sales purposes nor will individual answers be released. Only gr oup or summary data will be reported. The goal is solely to determine how young adults think about products and the countries that they come from. If you have any questions or concerns about this study, please feel free to contact: Yu Shiang Bien Depart ment of Advertising University of Florida pantheon@ufl.edu If you have questions later, want additional information, or wish to withdraw your participation, please call the researchers conducting the study. If you have questions about your rights as a re search participant, complaints, concerns, or questions about the research please contact IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 326112250; phone 392 0433. I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily to participate i n the study and I have received a copy of this description. Yes

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67 No Product Document: Please read the document below. After reading it, please click "Next" to proceed to the next page A new Japanese laptop brand is launching a wide range of laptop produc ts. With years of experience and expertise in technology field, this new Japanese brand delivers technology and products remarkable for their innovation and artistry, contributing to a safer, more comfortable, more productive life. As a competitive brand in the pc market, this brand develops manufactures and markets cutting edge, reliable high -quality laptop products and value added professional services that provide customers around the world with smarter ways to be productive and competitive. This ne w brand brings together the spirit of innovation with the passion and conviction to shape the future. It also fosters close relationships, rooted in trust and respect, with the customers, business partners and communities around the world. Section 1: P lease indicate your involvement with the following product category. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers. 1 Regarding the Laptop, please indicate your agreem ent or disagreement with the statement below. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree I get bored when other people talk to me about this product In general I have a strong interest in this product This product is ve ry important to me This product matters a lot to me Section 2:

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68 The following question asks about a product as thought of as a person. What personality traits or human characteristics come to your mind when you think of this foreign product? Please rate each characteristic from 1 (Extremely Disagree) to 5 (extremely Agree). Generally, would you agree or disagree the characteristics listed below to describe Japan? Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Down to Earth Honest Wholesome Cheerful Daring Spirited Imaginative Up to date Reliable Intelligent Successful Upper Class Charming Outdoorsy Tough Generally, would you agree or disagree the characteristics listed below to describe the Japanese Laptop brand you were exposed to? Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Down to Earth Honest Wholesome Cheerful Daring Spirited Imaginative Up to date Reliable Intelligent Successful Upper Class Charming

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69 Outd oorsy Tough Section 3: For the Japanese products, would you agree or disagree the adjectives used to describe them. Please rate each item on following bipolar scales. For Japanese products, how do you perceive the innovativeness of their products, where innovativeness means use of new technology and engineering advances? Not Innovative Innovative For Japanese products, how do you perceive the design of their products, where design means appearance, style, colors and variety? Not Well Designed Well Designed For Japanese products, how do you perceive the prestige, of their products, where prestige means exclusivity, status, and brand name reputation? Not Prestigious Prestigious For Japanese products, how do you perceive the workmansh i p of their products, where workmanship means reliability, durability, craftsmanship, and manufacturing quality? Not Good Workmanship Good Workmanship Section 4: Please i ndicate your perception of the association between the referred product and country. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers. When I think of Japan, Laptop is one of the first products I think about Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Section 5: Please indicate your attitude toward the brand. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers.

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70 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strong ly Agree The decision to buy the Japanese laptop brand is foolish Buying the Japanese laptop brand is a good decision I think the Japanese laptop brand has a lot of beneficial characteristics I have a favorable opinion of Japanese laptop brand Section 6: Please indicate your purchase intention for the brand. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree I will purchase it the next time I need this product I will definitely try it It is very likely that I will buy it Section 7: Finally, to compare your answers with others, please provide the following information W hat is your gender? Male Female What is your age? 18 or below 1925 2632 33 or above What is your ethnicity? Asian Black/African American Hispanic/Latino Native American

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71 While/Caucasian Other What is your citizenship? ___________________________ Do you have any additional comment that you wish to include about the survey? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ If you are participating in this survey to receive extra credit, please use the drop down menu to indicate the course and instructor. Class Name Professor Name Class & Professor Please indicate your name to be given to the course instructor as proof of your participation. Your name will be used for no other purpose. ____________________________________ End of Survey! Thank you for the participation

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72 Questionnaire: France/Per fume Dear Students, You are being asked to participate in an academic research study. Please read the information below to determine if you wish to complete the survey. Your participation is entirely voluntary. You can refuse to participate without penalty or loss of benefits to which you are otherwise entitled. You may print a copy of this consent form for your records. I am a graduate student in the College of Journalism and Communications at the University of Florida. The research examines how people th ink about products and where they come from. I would appreciate your participation. While there is no financial compensation for completing the survey, you are contributing to worthwhile research. If you were recruited from an undergraduate class, at the end of the survey you will be asked to complete information to receive extra c redit for your participation. Survey Instructions: You will be asked to answer each question in this survey to the best of your knowledge. The survey should take you about 1015 minutes to complete. If you miss answering a question, you will be reminded to answer it before m oving on to the next section. Confidentiality and Privacy Protections: The data may be made available to other researchers in the future solely for research purposes not detailed within this consent form. In these cases, the data will contain no identifying information that could associate you with it, or your participation in any study. Be assured that you will not be contacted for any sales purposes nor wil l individual answers be released. Only group or summary data will be reported. The goal is solely to determine how young adults think about products and the countries that they come from. If you have any questions or concerns about this study, please fee l free to contact: Yu Shiang Bien Department of Advertising University of Florida pantheon@ufl.edu If you have questions later, want additional information, or wish to withdraw your participation, please call the researchers conducting the study. If you have questions about your rights as a research participant, complaints, concerns, or questions about the research please contact IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 326112250; phone 392 0433. I have read the procedure descri bed above. I voluntarily to participate in the study and I have received a copy of this description. Yes No

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73 Product Document: Please read the document below. After reading it, please click "Next" to proceed to the next page A new French cologne/ perfume brand is launching a wide range of discounted perfume and cologne for its valued customers with years of experience and expertise in making enchanting fragrance and perfumes. This new French brand is expanding its product range designer fragrances and per fumes, to enrich overall customer experience and offer them more wide alternatives while buying perfumes and colognes. This French cologne/perfume brand is proud to enhance the experience of its customers by advancing its vast product line up and providing consumers the best of perfumes and colognes they purchase or adapt. The range of perfume and cologne products provided by this brand can make your surrounding pleasant and mind relaxed. It helps to forget the unwanted memories and keeps cool and fresh. These perfumes help you to stimulate the emotions and attract the opposite sex by offering good smell. Today Perfume, fragrance discounted perfume and discounted fragrance were widely used by the customers in different flavors, ingredients since they are made up of essential oils, woods, fruits, vegetables, herbs, and from many other natural products. This is the main reason which intends people to use perfume and fragrance during different occasions. Section 1: Please indicate your involvement with the following product category. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers. 2 Regarding the perfume please indicate your agreement or disagreement with the statemen t below. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree I get bored when other people talk to me about this product In general I have a strong interest in this product This product is very important to me This pr oduct matters a lot to me Section 2:

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74 The following question asks about a product as thought of as a person. What personality traits or human characteristics come to your mind when you think of this foreign product? Please rate each characteris tic from 1 (Extremely Disagree) to 5 (extremely Agree). Generally, would you agree or disagree the characteristics listed below to describe France ? Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Down to Earth Honest Wholes ome Cheerful Daring Spirited Imaginative Up to date Reliable Intelligent Successful Upper Class Charming Outdoorsy Tough Generally, would you agree or disagree the characteristics listed below to describe the French perfume brand you were exposed to? Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Down to Earth Honest Wholesome Cheerful Daring Spirited Imaginative Up to date Reliable Intelligent Successful Upper Class Charming

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75 Outdoorsy Tough S ection 3: For the French products, would you agree or disagree the adjectives used to describe them. Please rate each item on following bipolar scales. For French products, how do you perceive the innovativeness of their products, where innovativeness mea ns use of new technology and engineering advances? Not Innovative Innovative For French products, how do you perceive the design of their products, where design means appearance, style, colors, and variety? Not Well Designed Well Designed For French products, how do you perceive the prestige, of their products, where prestige means exclusivity, status, and brand name reputation? Not Prestigious Prestigious For French products, how do you perceive the workmanshi p of their products, where workmanship means reliability, durabi lity, craftsmanship, and manufacturing quality? Not Good Workmanship Good Workmanship Section 4: Please indicate your perception of the association between the referred product and country. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers. When I think of France perfume is one of the first products I think about Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Section 5: Please indicate your attitude toward the brand. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers.

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76 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree The decision to buy the French perfume brand is foolish Buying the French perfume brand is a good decision I think the J French perfume brand has a lot of beneficial characteristics I have a favorable opinion of French perfume brand Section 6: Please indicate your pu rchase intention for the French perfume brand. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree I will purchas e it the next time I need this product I will definitely try it It is very likely that I will buy it Section 7: Finally, to compare your answers with others, please provide the following information W hat is your gender? Male Female What is your age? 18 or bel ow 1925 2632 33 or above What is your ethnicity? Asian Black/African American

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77 Hispanic/Latino Native American While/Caucasian Other What is your citizenship? ___________________________ Do you have any additional comment that you wish to include abou t the survey? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ If you are part icipating in this survey to receive extra credit, please use the drop down menu to indicate the course and instructor. Class Name Professor Name Class & Professor Please indicate your name to be given to the course instructor as proof of your partici pation. Your name will be used for no other purpose. ____________________________________ End of Survey! Thank you for the participation

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78 Questionnaire: Japan/Perfume Dear Students, You are being asked to participate in an academic research study. Please read the information below to determine if you wish to complete the survey. Your participation is entirely voluntary. You can refuse to participate without penalty or loss of benefits to which you are otherwise entitled. You may print a copy of this consent form for your records. I am a graduate student in the College of Journalism and Communications at the University of Florida. The research examines how people think about products and where they come from. I would appreciate your participation. While the re is no financial compensation for completing the survey, you are contributing to worthwhile research. If you were recruited from an undergraduate class, at the end of the survey you will be asked to complete information to receive extra c redit for your p articipation. Survey Instructions: You will be asked to answer each question in this survey to the best of your knowledge. The survey should take you about 1015 minutes to complete. If you miss answering a question, you will be reminded to answer it before m oving on to the next section. Confidentiality and Privacy Protections: The data may be made available to other researchers in the future solely for research purposes not detailed within this consent form. In these cases, the data will contain no iden tifying information that could associate you with it, or your participation in any study. Be assured that you will not be contacted for any sales purposes nor will individual answers be released. Only group or summary data will be reported. The goal is solely to determine how young adults think about products and the countries that they come from. If you have any questions or concerns about this study, please feel free to contact: Yu Shiang Bien Department of Advertising University of Florida pantheon@u fl.edu If you have questions later, want additional information, or wish to withdraw your participation, please call the researchers conducting the study. If you have questions about your rights as a research participant, complaints, concerns, or questio ns about the research please contact IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 326112250; phone 392 0433. I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily to participate in the study and I have received a copy of this descr iption. Yes No

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79 Product Document: Please read the document below. After reading it, please click "Next" to proceed to the next page A new Japanese cologne/ perfume brand is launching a wide range of discounted perfume and cologne for its valued customers with years of experience and expertise in making enchanting fragrance and perfumes. This new Japanese brand is expanding its product range designer fragrances and perfumes, to enrich overall customer experience and offer them more wide alternatives while buying perfumes and colognes. This Japanese cologne/perfume brand is proud to enhance the experience of its customers by advancing its vast product line up and providing consumers the best of perfumes and colognes they purchase or adapt. The range of perf ume and cologne products provided by this brand can make your surrounding pleasant and mind relaxed. It helps to forget the unwanted memories and keeps cool and fresh. These perfumes help you to stimulate the emotions and attract the opposite sex by offer ing good smell. Today Perfume, fragrance discounted perfume and discounted fragrance were widely used by the customers in different flavors, ingredients since they are made up of essential oils, woods, fruits, vegetables, herbs, and from many other natur al products. This is the main reason which intends people to use perfume and fragrance during different occasions. Section 1: Please indicate your involvement with the following product category. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to ex press your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers. Regarding perfume please indicate your agreement or disagreement with the statement below. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree I get bored when other p eople talk to me about this product In general I have a strong interest in this product This product is very important to me This product matters a lot to me Section 2:

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80 The following question asks about a produ ct as thought of as a person. What personality traits or human characteristics come to your mind when you think of this foreign product? Please rate each characteristic from 1 (Extremely Disagree) to 5 (extremely Agree). Generally, would you agree or disa gree the characteristics listed below to describe Japan? Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Down to Earth Honest Wholesome Cheerful Daring Spirited Imaginative Up to date Reliable Intelligent Successful Upper Class Charming Outdoorsy Tough Generally, would you agree or disagree the characteristics listed below to describe the Japanese perfume brand you were exposed to? Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Down to Earth Honest Wholesome Cheerful Daring Spirited Imaginative Up to date Reliable Intelligent Successful Upper Class Charming

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81 Out doorsy Tough Section 3: For the Japanese products, would you agree or disagree the adjectives used to describe them. Please rate each item on following bipolar scales. For Japanese products, how do you perceive the innovativeness of their products, where innovativeness means use of new technology and engineering advances? Not Innovative Innovative For Japanese products, how do you perceive the design of their products, where design means appearance, style, color s, and variety? Not Well Designed Well Designed For Japanese products, how do you perceive the prestige, of their products, where prestige means exclusivity, status, and brand name reputation? Not Prestigious Prestigious For Japanese products, how do you perceive the workmansh i p of their products, where workmanship means reliability, durability, craftsmanship, and manufacturing quality? Not Good Workmanship Good Workmanship Section 4: Please indicate your perception of the association between the referred product and country. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers. When I think of Japan, perfume i s one of the first products I think about Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Section 5: Please indicate your attitude toward the brand. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers.

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82 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Stron gly Agree The decision to buy the Japanese perfume brand is foolish Buying the Japanese perfume brand is a good decision I think the Japanese perfume brand has a lot of beneficial characteristics I have a favorable opinion of Japanese perfume brand Section 6: Please indicate your purchase intention for the Japanese perfume brand. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answer s. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree I will purchase it the next time I need this product I will definitely try it It is very likely that I will buy it Section 7: Finally, to compare your answers wi th others, please provide the following information W hat is your gender? Male Female What is your age? 18 or below 1925 2632 33 or above What is your ethnicity? Asian Black/African American

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83 Hispanic/Latino Native American While/Caucasian Other What i s your citizenship? ___________________________ Do you have any additional comment that you wish to include about the survey? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ If you are participating in this survey to receive extra credit, please use the drop down menu to indicate the course and instructor. Class Name Professor N ame Class & Professor Please indicate your name to be given to the course instructor as proof of your participation. Your name will be used for no other purpose. ____________________________________ End of Survey! Thank you for the participation

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84 Que stionnaire: France/Laptop Dear Students, You are being asked to participate in an academic research study. Please read the information below to determine if you wish to complete the survey. Your participation is entirely voluntary. You can refuse to partic ipate without penalty or loss of benefits to which you are otherwise entitled. You may print a copy of this consent form for your records. I am a graduate student in the College of Journalism and Communications at the University of Florida. The research examines how people think about products and where they come from. I would appreciate your participation. While there is no financial compensation for completing the survey, you are contributing to worthwhile research. If you were recruited from an undergra duate class, at the end of the survey you will be asked to complete information to receive extra c redit for your participation. Survey Instructions: You will be asked to answer each question in this survey to the best of your knowledge. The survey should take you about 1015 minutes to complete. If you miss answering a question, you will be reminded to answer it before m oving on to the next section. Confidentiality and Privacy Protections: The data may be made available to other researchers in the future solely for research purposes not detailed within this consent form. In these cases, the data will contain no identifying information that could associate you with it, or your participation in any study. Be assured that you will not be contacted for any s ales purposes nor will individual answers be released. Only group or summary data will be reported. The goal is solely to determine how young adults think about products and the countries that they come from. If you have any questions or concerns about t his study, please feel free to contact: Yu Shiang Bien Department of Advertising University of Florida pantheon@ufl.edu If you have questions later, want additional information, or wish to withdraw your participation, please call the researchers conduct ing the study. If you have questions about your rights as a research participant, complaints, concerns, or questions about the research please contact IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 326112250; phone 392 0433. I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily to participate in the study and I have received a copy of this description. Yes No

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85 Product Document: Please read the document below. After reading it, please click "Next" to proceed to the next page A new Fr ench laptop brand is launching a wide range of laptop products. With years of experience and expertise in technology field, this new French brand delivers technology and products remarkable for their innovation and artistry, contributing to a safer, more c omfortable, more productive life. As a competitive brand in the pc market, this brand develops manufactures and markets cutting edge, reliable high -quality laptop products and value added professional services that provide customers around the world wi th smarter ways to be productive and competitive. This new brand brings together the spirit of innovation with the passion and conviction to shape the future. It also fosters close relationships, rooted in trust and respect, with the customers, business p artners and communities around the world. Section 1: Please indicate your involvement with the following product category. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong a nswers. Regarding perfume please indicate your agreement or disagreement with the statement below. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree I get bored when other people talk to me about this product In general I have a strong interest in this product This product is very important to me This product matters a lot to me Section 2: The following question asks about a product as thought of as a person. What personality traits or human characteri stics come to your mind when you think of this foreign product? Please rate each characteristic from 1 (Extremely Disagree) to 5 (extremely Agree).

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86 Generally, would you agree or disagree the characteristics listed below to describe Japan? Strongly Disagr ee Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Down to Earth Honest Wholesome Cheerful Daring Spirited Imaginative Up to date Reliable Intelligent Successful Upper Class Charming Outdoorsy Tough Generally, would you agree or disagree the characteristics listed below to describe the Japanese perfume brand you were exposed to? Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Down to Earth Honest Wholesome Cheerful Daring Spirited Imaginative Up to date Reliable Intelligent Successful Upper Class Charming Out doorsy Tough Section 3:

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87 For the Japanese products, would you agree or disagree the adjectives used to describe them. Please rate each item on following bipolar scales. For Japanese products, how do you perceive the innovativeness of their products, where innovativeness means use of new technology and engineering advances? Not Innovative Innovative For Japanese products, how do you perceive the design of their products, where design means appearance, style, color s, and variety? Not Well Designed Well Designed For Japanese products, how do you perceive the prestige, of their products, where prestige means exclusivity, status, and brand name reputation? Not Prestigious Prestigious For Japanese products, how do you perceive the workmansh i p of their products, where workmanship means reliability, durability, craftsmanship, and manufacturing quality? Not Good Workmanship Good Workmanship Section 4: Please indicate your perception of the association between the referred product and country. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers. When I think of Japan, perfume i s one of the first products I think about Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Section 5: Please indicate your attitude toward the brand. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Stron gly Agree The decision to buy

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88 the Japanese perfume brand is foolish Buying the Japanese perfume brand is a good decision I think the Japanese perfume brand has a lot of beneficial characteristics I have a favorable opinion of Japanese perfume brand Section 6: Please indicate your purchase intention for the Japanese perfume brand. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answer s. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree I will purchase it the next time I need this product I will definitely try it It is very likely that I will buy it Section 7: Finally, to compare your answers wi th others, please provide the following information W hat is your gender? Male Female What is your age? 18 or below 1925 2632 33 or above What is your ethnicity? Asian Black/African American Hispanic/Latino Native American While/Caucasian Other

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89 What i s your citizenship? ___________________________ Do you have any additional comment that you wish to include about the survey? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ If you are participating in this survey to receive extra credit, please use the drop down menu to indicate the course and instructor. Class Name Professor N ame Class & Professor Please indicate your name to be given to the course instructor as proof of your participation. Your name will be used for no other purpose. ____________________________________ End of Survey! Thank you for the participation

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90 Que stionnaire: Control Group/Laptop Dear Students, You are being asked to participate in an academic research study. Please read the information below to determine if you wish to complete the survey. Your participation is entirely voluntary. You can refuse to participate without penalty or loss of benefits to which you are otherwise entitled. You may print a copy of this consent form for your records. I am a graduate student in the College of Journalism and Communications at the University of Florida. The res earch examines how people think about products and where they come from. I would appreciate your participation. While there is no financial compensation for completing the survey, you are contributing to worthwhile research. If you were recruited from an undergraduate class, at the end of the survey you will be asked to complete information to receive extra c redit for your participation. Survey Instructions: You will be asked to answer each question in this survey to the best of your knowledge. The survey should take you about 1015 minutes to complete. If you miss answering a question, you will be reminded to answer it before m oving on to the next section. Confidentiality and Privacy Protections: The data may be made available to other researchers in the future solely for research purposes not detailed within this consent form. In these cases, the data will contain no identifying information that could associate you with it, or your participation in any study. Be assured that you will not be contacted for any sales purposes nor will individual answers be released. Only group or summary data will be reported. The goal is solely to determine how young adults think about products and the countries that they come from. If you have any questions or concerns about this study, please feel free to contact: Yu Shiang Bien Department of Advertising University of Florida pantheon@ufl.edu If you have questions later, want additional information, or wish to withdraw your participation, please call the researchers conducting the study. If you have questions about your rights as a research participant, complaints, concerns, or questions about the research please contact IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 326112250; phone 392 0433. I ha ve read the procedure described above. I voluntarily to participate in the study and I have received a copy of this description. Yes No

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91 Product Document: Please read the document below. After reading it, please click "Next" to proceed to the next page A new laptop brand is launching a wide range of laptop products. With years of experience and expertise in technology field, this new brand delivers technology and products remarkable for their innovation and artistry, contributing to a safer, more comforta ble, more productive life. As a competitive brand in the pc market, this brand develops manufactures and markets cutting edge, reliable high -quality laptop products and value added professional services that provide customers around the world with smar ter ways to be productive and competitive. This new brand brings together the spirit of innovation with the passion and conviction to shape the future. It also fosters close relationships, rooted in trust and respect, with the customers, business partners and communities around the world. Section 1: Please indicate your involvement with the following product category. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers. Regarding laptop please indicate your agreement or disagreement with the statement below. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree I get bored when other people talk to me about this product In general I have a strong interest in this product This product is very important to me This product matters a lot to me Section 2: The following question asks about a product as thought of as a person. What personality traits or human characteristics come to your mind when you think of this foreign product? Please rate each characteristic from 1 (Extremely Disagree) to 5 (extremely Agree). Generally, would you agree or disagree the characteristics listed below to describe the laptop brand you were exposed to? Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Down to Earth Honest

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92 Wholesome Cheerful Daring Spirited Imaginative Up to date Reliable Intelligent Successful Upper Class Charming Outdoorsy Tough Section 3: Please indicate your attitude toward the brand. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers. Strongly Disag ree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree The decision to buy the laptop brand is foolish Buying the laptop brand is a good decision I think the laptop brand has a lot of beneficial characteristics I have a favorable opini on of this laptop brand Section 4: Please indicate your purchase intention for the laptop brand. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree I will purchase it the next time I need this product I will definitely try it

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93 It is very likely that I will buy it Section 5: Finally, to compare your answers with others, pl ease provide the following information W hat is your gender? Male Female What is your age? 18 or below 1925 2632 33 or above What is your ethnicity? Asian Black/African American Hispanic/Latino Native American While/Caucasian Other What is your citize nship? ___________________________ Do you have any additional comment that you wish to include about the survey? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ If you are participating in this survey to receive extra credit, please use the drop down menu to indicate the course and instructor. Class Name Professor Name Class & Professor Please indicate your name to be given to the course instructor as proof of your participation. Your name will be used for no other purpose. ____________________________________ End of Survey! Thank you for the participation

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94 Questionnaire: C ontrol Group/Perfume D ear Students, You are being asked to participate in an academic research study. Please read the information below to determine if you wish to complete the survey. Your participation is entirely voluntary. You can refuse to participate without penalty or loss of benefits to which you are otherwise entitled. You may print a copy of this consent form for your records. I am a graduate student in the College of Journalism and Communications at the University of Florida. The research examin es how people think about products and where they come from. I would appreciate your participation. While there is no financial compensation for completing the survey, you are contributing to worthwhile research. If you were recruited from an undergraduate class, at the end of the survey you will be asked to complete information to receive extra c redit for your participation. Survey Instructions: You will be asked to answer each question in this survey to the best of your knowledge. The survey should take you about 1015 minutes to complete. If you miss answering a question, you will be reminded to answer it before m oving on to the next section. Confidentiality and Privacy Protections: The data may be made available to other researchers in the future sole ly for research purposes not detailed within this consent form. In these cases, the data will contain no identifying information that could associate you with it, or your participation in any study. Be assured that you will not be contacted for any sales purposes nor will individual answers be released. Only group or summary data will be reported. The goal is solely to determine how young adults think about products and the countries that they come from. If you have any questions or concerns about this s tudy, please feel free to contact: Yu Shiang Bien Department of Advertising University of Florida pantheon@ufl.edu If you have questions later, want additional information, or wish to withdraw your participation, please call the researchers conducting t he study. If you have questions about your rights as a research participant, complaints, concerns, or questions about the research please contact IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 326112250; phone 392 0433. I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily to participate in the study and I have received a copy of this description. Yes No

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95 Product Document: Please read the document below. After reading it, please click "Next" to proceed to the next page A new cologne / perfume brand is launching a wide range of discounted perfume and cologne for its valued customers with years of experience and expertise in making enchanting fragrance and perfumes. This new brand is expanding its product range designer fragrances and p erfumes, to enrich overall customer experience and offer them more wide alternatives while buying perfumes and colognes. This cologne/perfume brand is proud to enhance the experience of its customers by advancing its vast product line up and providing con sumers the best of perfumes and colognes they purchase or adapt. The range of perfume and cologne products provided by this brand can make your surrounding pleasant and mind relaxed. It helps to forget the unwanted memories and keeps cool and fresh. These perfumes help you to stimulate the emotions and attract the opposite sex by offering good smell. Today Perfume, fragrance discounted perfume and discounted fragrance were widely used by the customers in different flavors, ingredients since they are made up of essential oils, woods, fruits, vegetables, herbs, and from many other natural products. This is the main reason which intends people to use perfume and fragrance during different occasions. Section 1: Please indicate your involvement with the follo wing product category. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers. Regarding perfume please indicate your agreement or disagreement with the statement below. St rongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree I get bored when other people talk to me about this product In general I have a strong interest in this product This product is very important to me This product matter s a lot to me Section 2: The following question asks about a product as thought of as a person. What personality traits or human characteristics come to your mind when you think of this foreign product? Please rate each characteristic from 1 ( Extremely Disagree) to 5 (extremely Agree). Generally, would you agree or disagree the characteristics listed below to describe the perfume brand you were exposed to?

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96 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Down to Earth Hones t Wholesome Cheerful Daring Spirited Imaginative Up to date Reliable Intelligent Successful Upper Class Charming Outdoorsy Tough Section 3: Please indicate your attitude toward the brand. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neu tral Agree Strongly Agree The decision to buy the perfume brand is foolish Buying the perfume brand is a good decision I think the perfume brand has a lot of beneficial characteristics I have a favorable opinion of the per fume brand Section 4: Please indicate your purchase intention for the perfume brand. Circle 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) to express your answer for the statements below. There are no right or wrong answers. Strongly Dis agree Neutral Agree Strongly

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97 Disagree Agree I will purchase it the next time I need this product I will definitely try it It is very likely that I will buy it Section 5: Finally, to compare your answers with others, please provide the following information W hat is your gender? Male Female What is your age? 18 or below 1925 2632 33 or above What is your ethnicity? Asian Black/African American Hispanic/Latino Native American While/Caucasian Other What is your citizenship? ___________________________ Do you have any additional comment that you wish to include about the survey? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ If you are participating in this survey to receive extra credit, please use the drop down menu to indicate the course and instructor. Class Name Professor Name Class & Professor Please indicate your name to be given to the course instructor as proof of your participation. Your name will be used for no other purpose. ____________________________________

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98 End of Survey! Thank you for the participation

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101 Cron bach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297334. d'Astous, A., & B oujbel, L. (2007). Positioning C ountries on P ersonality D imensions : Scale D evelopment and I mplications for Country M arketing. Journal of Business Research, 60(3), 231239. Damanpour, F. (1993). Temporal s hifts of d eveloped c ountry i mages: A 20 -y ear v iew. Product Country Images: Impact and Role in International Marketing, 357 378. Davis, J. (1997). Advertising r esearch: Theory and p ractice NJ: Prentice Hall. Drossos, D., Giaglis, G. M., Lekakos, G., Kokkinaki, F., & Stavraki, M. G. (2007). Determinants of e ffective SMS a dvertising: An e xperimental s tudy. Journal of interactive advertising, 7, 3038. Ekinci, Y., & Hosany, S. (2006). Desti nation Personality: An Application of Brand Personality to Tourism Destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 45(2), 127. Erickson, G. M., Johansson, J K., & Chao, P. (1984). Image v aria bles in m ulti a ttribute p roduct e valuations: Country of -o rigin e ffects Journal of Consumer Research, 11(2), 694699. Escalas, J. E., & Bettman, J. R. (2005). Self -c onstrual, r eference Groups, and b rand m eaning. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(3), 378389. Faircloth, J. B., Capella, L. M ., & Alford, B. L. (2001). The e ffect of b rand a ttitude and b rand i mage on b rand Equity. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 9(3), 61 -75. Four nier, S. (1998). Consumers and t heir b rands: d eveloping r elationship t heory in c onsumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4), 343373. F owles, J. (1996). Advertising and p opular c ulture : Thousands Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications Inc. Gaedeke, R. (1973). Consumer attitudes t oward p roducts m ade i n' d eveloping c ountries. Journal of Retailing, 49 (2), 13 24. Gobe, M. (2001). Emotional b randing: The n ew p aradigm for c onnecting b rands to p eople : Allworth Press. Goldsmith, R. E., & Emmert, J. (1991). Measuring product category involvement: A multitrait multimethod study. Journal of Business Research, 23(4), 363 371. Govers, P. C., & Schoormans, J. P. (2005). Product personality and its influence on consumer preference. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(4), 189. Han, C. (1988). Country-of o rigin Effects for u ni -n ational and b i -n ational p roducts. Journal of International Business Studies, 19(2), 2352 56.

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102 Han, C. (1989). Country i mage: h alo or s ummary c onstruct? Journal of Marketing Research (JMR), 26 (2), 222229. Heslop, L. A., & Papadopoulos, N. (1993). But w ho k nows w here or w hen: Reflections on the i mag es of c ountries and t heir p roducts. Product -Cou ntry Images: Impact and Role in International Marketing, 39 75. Hofstede. (2005). Cultures and o rganizations: Software for the m ind : McGraw Hill. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture's c onsequences: International d ifferences in w ork -r elated v alues : Thousands Oaks, Calif: Sage. Hogg, M. A., & Terry, D. J. (2000). Social i dentity and s elf -c ategorization p rocesses in o rganizational c ontexts. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 121140. Howard, J. A., & Sheth, J. N. (1969). The Theory of Buyer Behavior New York Hoye r, W. D., & MacInnis, D. J. (2007). Consumer Behaviour Boston, Mas s: Houghton Mifflin Company Hsieh, M. H., Pan, S. L., & Setiono, R. (2004). Product corporate -, and country-image dimensions and purchase behavior: A multi -country analysis. Journal of t he Academy of Marketing Science, 32 (3), 251 270. Hupfer, N. T., & Gardner, D. M. (1971). Differential i nvolvement with p roducts and i ssues: An e xploratory s tudy Insch, G. S., & Miller, S. R. (2005). Perception of foreignnes s: Benefit or l iability? Journal of Managerial Issues, 17(4), 423438. International Trade Statistic s. (2007). Retrieved Oct. 18 2008, from http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2007_e/its2007_e.pdf Jagre, E., Watson, J. J., & Watson, J. G. (2001). Sponsorship and c ongruity Theory: A t heoretical f ramework for e xplaining c onsumer a ttitude and r ecall or e vent s ponsorship. A dvances in Consumer Research, 28(1), 439445. Jevons, C. (2005). Names, brands, branding: beyond the signs, symbols, products and services. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 14(2), 117 118. Johansson, J. K., Douglas, S. P., & No naka, I. (1985). Assessing the i mpact of c ountry of o rigin on p rod uct e valuations: A n ew m ethodologica l p erspective. Journal of Marketing Research (JMR), 22 (4), 388396. Kamins, M. A., & Gupta, K. (1994). Congruence between s pokesperson and p roduct t ype: A m atchup h ypothesis p erspective. Psychology & Marketing, 11(6), 569586.

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109 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Yu Shiang Bien was born in Taipei, Republic of China After graduating from Chinese Culture University in 2002, he served the military service in army, Republic of China. After demobilization, Yu -Shiang Bien attended the Pittsburg St ate University, where he received a Master of Arts in communication in 2006. In fall 2007, Yu-Shiang Bien enrolled at the University of Florida pursuing for Master of Advertising. He received M. Adv. from the University of Florida in the summer of 2009. Af ter graduation, he will try to gain the practical working experience in advertising or marketing industry.