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1 HOW TECHNOLOGY IS CHANGING THIRD SPACES: AN EXAMINATION OF THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN COFFEE SHOPS By Jason Travis Johnson A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009
2 2009 Jason Travis Johnson
3 To my Family
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Special thanks goes to the owners of Volta, Maude s Classic Cafe, Coffee Culture, and the Christian Study Center and Pascal s Coffee H ouse for allowing me to conduct research in their coffee shops. Thanks to Dr. Ruth Steiner and Dr. Ilir Bejleri for serving on my committee and putting up with all of my questions. Thanks to Jake Petrosky, Emily Stallings, David Kanerack and Laura Abernath y for helping me through this process.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................................... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................................ 7 LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................................. 8 ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................................... 9 CH P A T E R 1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 11 2 BACKGROUND ......................................................................................................................... 15 Three Realms ............................................................................................................................... 15 Third Place or Third Space ......................................................................................................... 15 Qualities of a Third Place or Third Space ................................................................................. 16 Design .......................................................................................................................................... 18 Types of Capital .......................................................................................................................... 19 Digital Communit ies ................................................................................................................... 24 Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 30 3 LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................................... 31 Urban Design ............................................................................................................................... 31 Technology and Design .............................................................................................................. 34 Third Spaces ................................................................................................................................ 35 Social Capital ............................................................................................................................... 36 New Urbanism and Sprawl ......................................................................................................... 38 Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 41 4 METHODOLOGY ...................................................................................................................... 42 Observations ................................................................................................................................ 42 Survey .......................................................................................................................................... 45 Case Study Selection ................................................................................................................... 47 Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 48 5 RESULTS .................................................................................................................................... 49 Maudes Classic Caf .................................................................................................................. 49 Christian Study Center and Pascals Coffee .............................................................................. 54 Volta ............................................................................................................................................. 59 Starbucks ...................................................................................................................................... 63
6 Coffee Culture ............................................................................................................................. 67 Overall Data ................................................................................................................................. 72 Laptop users ................................................................................................................................. 75 6 DISCUSSION .............................................................................................................................. 93 Age Groups .................................................................................................................................. 93 Pseudo Public Space Vs. Public Space ...................................................................................... 94 Technology Ownership ............................................................................................................... 94 Comfort with Technology ........................................................................................................... 95 Design o f Locations .................................................................................................................... 96 Sociability .................................................................................................................................... 98 Planning ....................................................................................................................................... 99 Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 99 Future Studies ............................................................................................................................ 100 7 CONCLUSION ......................................................................................................................... 102 8 RECOMMENDATIONS .......................................................................................................... 105 APPENDIX A S URVEY ................................................................................................................................... 106 B COFFEE SHOP EVALUATION FORMS .............................................................................. 112 Ma udes Classic Caf (Maudes) ............................................................................................. 112 Starbucks .................................................................................................................................... 114 Volta ........................................................................................................................................... 117 Coffee Culture ........................................................................................................................... 119 Christian Study Center and Pascals Coffee ............................................................................. 122 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................................................................................................. 125 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........................................................................................................... 127
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 5 1 Coffee Shop Evaluation Summaries ..................................................................................... 88 5 2 Survey Results Summary ....................................................................................................... 90
8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 5 1 Age Groups Surveyed in all 5 coffee shops. ........................................................................ 77 5 2 Comfort Level with Technology. .......................................................................................... 77 5 3 Technology Ownership .......................................................................................................... 77 5 4 Types of activities performed on a laptop in a coffee shop. ................................................ 78 5 5 People who use public WiFi compared to those willing to pay for WiFi access. .............. 78 5 6 Time spent when there is or is not WiFi access in a coffee shop. ....................................... 79 5 7 Customers willing to talk to technology device users in a coffee shop. ............................. 79 5 8 Comfort meeting new people in groups compared to comfort of meeting new people while in a group. ..................................................................................................................... 80 5 9 Maudes Classic Cafe: Layout ............................................................................................... 81 5 10 Starbucks: La yout ................................................................................................................... 82 5 11 Coffee Culture: Layout .......................................................................................................... 83 5 12 Christian Study Center: 1st Floor Layout ............................................................................. 84 5 13 Christian Study Center: 2nd Floor Layout ............................................................................ 85 5 14 Volta: Layout .......................................................................................................................... 86 5 15 Map of coffee shop Locations. .............................................................................................. 87
9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning HOW TECHNOLOGY IS CH ANGING THIRD SPACES: AN EXAMINATION OF THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN COFFEE SHOPS By Jason Travis Johnson May 2009 Chair: Ruth Steiner Cochair: Ilir Bejleri Major: Urban and Regional Planning Third spaces are the important gathering spaces in of our communities. They are places for communities to go before and after work where community members can unwind with friends or prepare for the day with friends. Communities can be held to the highest standards of design but i f they do not offer a place to go then the streets will be beautiful and empty. Third spaces provide the place to go. As technology becomes more portable the types of activities that can be accomplished in third spaces is changing. Third spaces and their uses are changing with technology. Portable technology creates opportunities for people to stay connected to networks of people that are not based in space or time. Several questions relate to how technology affects what people do in third spaces, how people interact in third spaces, how long do people stay in third spaces, and what design elements improve conditions for customers? Surveys and observations were completed to understand how technology affects the way coffee shops are used today. Coffee shops were chosen as the example of third spaces because they are inclusive, affordable, are open long periods of time, and allow customers to linger. The
10 survey was administered randomly to coffee shop customers. A minimum of 20 surveys was completed at 5 resea rch sites. Over 100 surveys were completed. Observations were made of where certain people sit depending on what technology device they used. Technology does have an effect on where people go and what they do in a third space. Laptop, MP3 player, cell phone, and smart phone users all interact with the space around them in unique ways. When it comes to social activities laptops are seen as less threatening than other tech device. Laptop users will also stay for the longest period of time and accomplish a va riety of tasks oth er than just socializing. WiFi a ccess helps tech users to accomplish many tasks in one place. Coffee shop customers will actively seek out locations that offer free WiFi. Also if there is free WiFi customers will stay in a coffee shop l onger then if there is not. Technology has changed third spaces. The Internet has allowed customers to accomplish many tasks, build social capital, and connect to people who are not in the physical space. Laptops and social networking sites allow people in third spaces to stay connec ted to multiple networks while not requiring them to be in the same location. Third spaces need to take into consideration the needs of technology users. Taking into account the needs of a tech user encourages them to stay in pseudo public places. When people linger in places it keeps the streets active.
11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION At the center of any strong community beats the heart of a successful third space. What is a third space? A third space can be the local barbershop, coffee shop, pub, or any place where people spend time together outside of their homes and work. They act l ike homes away from homes. A place where people can relax and put their feet up. It is where, as the TV show Cheers put it, Everyone knows your name and they are always glad you came. Good communities are places that people can live, work, and play These communities are walkable, pedestrian friendly, dense, and are designed well. They incorporate plazas and public spaces. Public spaces provide opportunities for people to gather. Plazas and public spaces are places for the community to spend time wi th each other outside of the home and work. Social capital is created in public places because they are inclusive, offer opportunities to be social and allow people to spend long periods of time. Social capital is what creates active communities. When citi zens care what happens in their community they feel a sense of ownership. There needs to be a reason to be in plazas besides it looks nice. A well -designed square is not going to benefit anyone if no one is there. People walk in the streets and linger in plazas not only because they are appealing but also because there is somewhere to go. That somewhere to go is a third space. Third places are pseudo public places. It is a place that provides food and drink (Sucher, 2003). They are places that allow people to bump into each other (Sucher, 2003). A third place is where a local goes to spend time with friends before or after work. It allows them to catch up on what their friends have been up to and the news in their community. It is where thick trusts and/o r thin trusts are developed (Putnam, 2000). Thick trust is trust embedded in personal relations that are strong, frequent and centered in wider networks (Putnam, 2000). Thin trust allows the radius of trust to be extended beyond the people who we can know
12 personally (Putnam, 2000). This trust network builds communities that know what is going on around them. Strong communities have active citizens. When citizens are active in their community neighborhoods are safer. They benefit from the extra eyes on the s treet. Citizens in these communities tend to be more active in the community instead of staying at home. Third places provide distinct locations that are unique to the community in which they exist. They meet the needs of the community by providing a pla ce for people to go (Oldenburg, 1999). Third place demonstrate how to interact while still providing a casual environment (Oldenburg, 1999). As Oldenburg puts it, Third space settings are really no more than a physical manifestation of peoples desire to associate with those in a area once they get to know them (Oldenburg, 1999). Commercial centers need a mix of retail, office, residential, and commercial space (Calthorpe, 1993). Commercial centers need to be walkable, safe, and have residential structure s on top of retail (Calthrope, 1993). Providing dense communities puts people together. Density creates opportunities to bump into each other. Living close together lets people walk and bike instead of driving where they need to go. However following this doesnt always provide someone with a place to go. If there is nowhere to go even the best -designed streets will be vacant. The Project for Public Spaces (PPS) has a set of elements that make good public space. Good public places have good sociability, access and linkages, comfort and image, and uses and activities (PPS). These elements are part of good third spaces. However good third spaces must also incorporate all of these elements and include affordability, connection to technology, and the ability to linger (Oldenburg, 1999).
13 Sociability is achieved in public space when there is a strong street life with good social networks (PPS). Places where you see friends meeting up on a regular basis (PPS). Constant pedestrian traffic creates strong street life. Uses and activities is when a public space provides a unique experience (PPS). This uniqueness comes from enjoying a local product that can only be bought in a few locations. Comfort and image is providing safe and clean walkable areas where people want to be (PPS). They can be historic places that are charming and attractive (PPS). Access and linkages is when pedestrian activity can come and go easily (PPS). Connection to transportation nodes such as bus and/or rail stops provides multiple forms of access to a space (PPS). Affordability is achieved when a place does not make it more costly to go out instead of staying home (Oldenburg, 1999). Places that are perceived to cost too much can be a major deterrent from spending time out with friend (Putnam 2000). When someone chooses to go out they need places that allow them to spend as much as they would have if they stayed in (Oldenburg, 1999). Connection to technology is defined as providing power outlets for laptops, wireless Internet access (WiFi), a nd having computers for public use. Social networking sites let people stay connected without having to be in the same place at the same time. The ability to linger is providing a place for customers to sit even when not purchasing food and drink. All of t hese elements can be provided in many different ways. The elements of public spaces and third spaces help create good spaces but these spaces can happen anywhere even if not all elements are met. Evaluating these elements is accomplished with observation s and surveys. Observations are done at five research sites. Sites are selected based upon location and WiFi access. Observations will be done to see how people interact with each other and technology. Where people sit inside the space, how people interact with each other while using a tech device, and
14 activities done in the space will be observed to see what physical features encourage or discourage specific behaviors. This information gives examples of what people do in third spaces. It provides statistic al data on what people choose to do while being in the pseudo public space of a third space. This data answers the question of what affect technology has on third spaces. The survey is administered to a minimum of 20 people at each location. Participants are selected randomly. Through the survey patterns in genders, age, tech usage, and sociability will be noted. A copy of the survey is located at Appendix A. For the purpose of this study the author define third spaces as coffee shops. This is done to focu s on one form of a third places that fits most of the elements that make strong third spaces. Coffee shops are good third places because they provide food and drink with a low cost of admission. A cup of coffee is affordable to everyone. Coffee shops encourage people to stay by providing a space to meet and talk without feeling rushed. Chance encounters, spirited debates, and discussions over the daily news are all encouraged. Coffee shops are places that are not age restrictive. They create an inclusive en vironment by catering to families, retirees, students, and young professionals. In the following chapters we look at what makes a third spaces and why they ar e important to communities. In C hapter 2 we look at literature that provide a deeper understandi ng of the culture of third spaces, what social capital can do, and why traditional com munities need third spaces. In C hapter 3 we look at technology and what it offers to communities. Chapter 4 describes the methodology used in this research that evaluates the data from observations and surveys and see what impact tech nology has on third spaces. In C hapter 5 recommendations and conclusions are made to encourage specific activities in third spaces.
15 CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND Three Realms In our daily lives we live in three realms that form the tripod of existence (Oldenburg, 1999,p.15). The first is the domestic world (Oldenburg, 1999,p.15). This is our home, apartment, condo, mothers basement, or anywhere that we call home. This place is important be cause it is where we can relax. The domestic life is relaxing because it is regular and pr edictable (Oldenburg, 1999). Its a place to unwind after a day at work. The second realm is th at of work (Oldenburg, 1999). This is the place where we are productive (Oldenburg, 1999). The second place is where we foster competition and have structure (Oldenburg, 1999). Second place can be at an office, a spare bedroom, a cubicle or any place of employment. The third realm, or Third Place, is the soda fountains, malt shops, bars, pubs, and coffee shops of the world (Oldenburg, 1999). It is a generic term for a great variety of places that have regular, voluntary, informal and a variety of gatherings (Oldenburg, 1999). Third places exist beyond the time spent at work at home (Oldenburg, 1999). They serve as a way to relieve stress, loneliness, and alienation (Oldenburg, 1999) Even though they are typically watering holes they can be public or priva te spaces (Oldenburg, 1999). These spaces bring together people who are no t familiar with each other (Jacobs, 1961). Third Place or Third Space At one time third places were the most important parts of a village. They existed as the largest structures in the village (Oldenburg, 1999). They were places like the Agora o r the Foru m (Oldenburg, 1999) Places that drew people from the community together. This prominence has disappeared over time (Oldenburg, 1999) Third spaces that exist today do so without much of the same prominence or elegance (Oldenburg, 1999 ). They still hold the same importance.
16 Third places now exist without much attention drawn to them. They often have a l ow profile (Oldenburg, 1999). Some see this lower profile as a way to protect the space from outsiders (Oldenburg, 1999). Third places are not places that ar e heavily visited by a large number of strangers or transient customers (Oldenburg, 1999). That is not to say that they are not welcome. They are harder for an outsider to discover them because they do not stand out. These places are usually not franchise establishments or corporate stores. Corporate stores emphasize high volumes of customers with fas t turnovers (Oldenburg, 2001). This presents an institutionalized feeling ( Oldenburg, 2001). Seating in corporate establishments are uncomfortable and customer s in line are treated less like people (Oldenburg, 2001). The best third places are locally owned, independent and operate at a small scale (Oldenburg, 2001). Local places have the ability to adapt to the needs of the community (Oldenburg, 1999). In third places being social serves as the main goal (Oldenburg, 1999). They are usually noisy. Not noisy with music but with music but with the sounds of conversation. Well -designed places are usually the haven of a good third space. These havens usually take the form of urban villages. Qualities of a Third Place or Third Space Qualities of a third places are they are accessible by a variety of transportation methods and accommodate a wide range of people (Oldenburg, 1999). They can be enjoyed throughout the day (Oldenburg, 1999). They add to the community by providing a public life (Jacobs, 1961). They contribute to the community they are in by providing a place for members of the community to hang out. Residents in the community have an easy time accessing the s pace (Oldenburg, 1999). A resident can stop by on their way to and from work without having to make a special trip to do so. They are in urban settings or places that make it easy to be reached (Oldenburg, 1999). Being open for long hours they can serve a variety of customers with different needs. They are also availa ble to all (Oldenburg, 1999 ). By not being restrictive they
17 serve the community instead of certain groups. Like old English coffee houses they serve as a leveler in the community (Oldenburg, 19 99). A leveler means that the CEO of a comp any is on the same ground as a j anitor for the same company. People are treated equally. Rich associations are produced here from the variety of people that meet on neutral ground (Oldenburg, 1999) A successful place has four key qualities (PPS, 2003). They are accessible to many types of people; the people in the space are involved in a variety of activities; the space provides elements that make customers feel comfortable and able to talk; and it is a place whe re social activity is king (PPS, 2003). Access to the surrounding community both visually and physically is important (PPS, 2003). The space needs to be viewable from a distance and connected with multiple modes of transportation (PPS, 2003). A good plac e has a comfortable setting and looks well kept (PPS, 2003). Comfort includes comfortable furniture that is inviting and lets people sit where they want (PPS, p2). Also these places have the image of being safe (PPS, 2003). A variety of uses and activities are usually taking place (PPS, 2003). Activities give reasons for people to come back (PPS, 2003). These activities are inclusive and encourage multiple groups to participate (PPS, 2003). A variety of tasks allow the location to cater to whoever is using this space (PPS, 2003). Examples of activities are reading, playing chess, or a debate over politics. Sociability is the element achieved when people want to be in the space created (PPS, 2003). This is when people come to see friends and choose to be in this spa ce on a regular basis (PPS, 2003) When people actively seek out a place people are more likely to linger (PPS, 2003). Sociability is improved by a wide variety of people and age groups inhabiting the space (PPS, 2003).
18 Design Relationship with the space is a two way process (Carmona et al., 20 03). People create and modify the space they are in while still being influenced by how the space is s et up (Carmona et al., 2003). Social interaction can be created and controlled by the design of s pace (Carmona et al., 2003 ). Shaping the built environment influences human activity and social life (Carmona et al., 2003). There are five key aspects of design and s pace (Carmona, et al., 2003). The relationships between people and the space they are using ( Carmona et al., 2003). Public realms and the affects it has on public life (Carmona et al., 2003). Where a neighborhood is located in a comm unity (Carmona et al., 2003). The space needs to be safe and offer secu rity (Carmona, et al., 2003). There needs to be accessibility for all members of the community and various methods of transportation (Carmona et al., 2003). What happens in a space depends on who is in it and what they feel comfortable d oing (Carmona et al., 2003). Urban designers cannot make a place work but they can create places that have the potential to develop into good pla ces (Carmona, et al., 2003 ). Communities need places to spend time with friends, family, and their neighbors. Places to hangout where a customer feels at home when they ar e not actual ly at home (Oldenburg, 1999). These places are important to building strong communities. In active communities citizens care about whats going on. It offers novelty to the people there (Oldenburg, 1999). Novelty is achieved by providing divers e populations, escape from the mundane, and having the ability to assemble and create it (Oldenburg, 1999). Diverse populations mean a variety of people outside the normal circles of friends that are formed at home or work (Ol denburg, 1999). People from ma ny different walks of life allow someone to escape the mundane while making them part of the community (Oldenburg, 1999). The doctor, lawyer, receptionist, and writer are all here. It is because of this mixture of people that mutual stimulati on happens (Ol denburg, 1999) Third
19 spaces provides an opportunity to assemble. The mixture of people invites social and active participation with those a round them (Oldenburg, 1999). The need for physical place and human interaction is not goi ng to go away (Horan, 2000) Third places provide perspective in our lives (Oldenburg, 1999). It provides a strong network of people to form connections with others (Oldenburg, 1999). In third places we can find the connections that are important to having strong socia l networks (Ol denburg, 1999). This creates opportunities to build social capital with those in our community by having space to create it. The third place provides a variety of perspectives because of the wide variety of wisdom fr om members (Oldenburg, 1999). It is a pl ace where humor is an outlet for letting go of problems experience in the day (Oldenburg, 1999). A spiritual tonic is also achieved in a T hird Place (Oldenburg, 1999 ). It raises someone's sprits and prepares them for whatever the day m ight offer (Oldenbu rg, 1999 ). This is done through the morning social group that gets a cup of coffee before the day starts (Oldenburg, 1999). It is associations like these that create a defense against problems that its members feel duri ng the day (Oldenburg, 1999). They r emain upbeat due to the rationing of time s pent there (Oldenburg, 1999). They provide a place to build social capital in the community. Types of Capital There are three types of capital o ne can obtain physical capital, human capital, and s ocial capital (Putnam, 2000). Physical capital is things that you can hold (Putnam, 2000). These are physical items like a TV, a screwdriver, or a computer. Human capital is things that benef its ones mind (Putnam, 2000). This is training such as a college degree or lear ning how to weld. Social capital is connections among people (Putnam, 2000). These are built between people in the many different realms of living. Social capital helps one get jobs through networking but that is not to say that social capital is human cap ital (Putnam, 2000). Social capital results in reciprocity
2 0 (Putnam, 2000). Reciprocity is to do something for you because by doing something for you now means youll have to do something f or them later (Putnam, 2000). This capital is the result of trusts t hat is gained from third spaces (Jacobs, 1961). In informal settings, like third spaces, there are machers and schmozers (Putnam, 2000). Machers are people make things happen i n a community (Putnam, 2000). They are the movers and shakers. They are the one s that follow current events, attend church, volunteer, and work on commu nity projects (Putnam, 2000 ). Schmozers are the people who spend long periods of time in informal conversations (Putnam, 2000). They have an active social life but in contrast to mach ers their purpose and engagement is l ess organized (Putnam, 2000 ). These two types do mix. Good machers are usually good schmoozers and vice versa (Putn am, 2000). Informal connections are important in keeping social networks (Putnam, 2000). These social ne tworks are critical to forming crucial social s upport groups (Putnam, 2000). These support networks keep citizens involved in the community. Social capital exists in four types (Wutnow, 2002). They are associations, trust, civic participation, and volunte ering (Wutnow, 2002). Associations are groups like parent teacher groups, fraternal orders, a nd book clubs (Wutnow, 2002). Associations are organizations that have a variety of power and definitions of wha t members are (Wutnow, 2002). In associations trust in people and institutions are developed (Wutnow, 2002). Trust is the willingness of people to put their future in the hands of the people (Wutnow, 2002). Civic participation is directed at activities that are involved directly in the poli tical process (Wutnow, 2002). These activities include politics, getting involved in campaigns, or joining protests (Wutnow, 2002). Volunteering overlaps with associations because usually volunteering is done for some type of association (Wutnow, 2002). This behavior is usually unpaid and generally not done for strictly
21 political purposes (Wutnow, 2002). Associations need informal settings like third spaces to hold a meeting at. The more involved people are in the community the more likely they are to participate in th e community, donate time, and m oney into it (Putnam, 2000 ). The bonds we form with acquaintances from the coffee shop are crucial for keeping soc ial networks (Putnam, 2000). It is because of these connections that people get involved in their community. Th e most common reason anyone gets involved is, Because someone asked them (Putnam, 2000,p.121). Third spaces harbor altruism and volunteerism because they provide spaces for people to be asked to participate. Social capital is what separates a safe and o rganized city from an unsafe and disorganized one (Putnam, 2000). These areas are also less likely to decli ne over time (Putnam, 2000). Higher levels of social capital results in lower levels of crime in th at community (Putnam, 2000). There is some concern that social capital is in decline. Americans are starting to prefer staying home by a factor of two to one (Putnam, 2000). The amount of time Americans went to places such as bars, taverns and similar places has decline by 40 50 % over the last two de cades (Putnam, 2000). These trends make the TV show Cheers more of a period piece instead of somethi ng to expect (Putnam, 2000). Being active and involved in culture has gone down while the act of consuming has gone up (Putnam, 2000). With this raise in consumption concerns over financial standing have grown (Putnam, 2000). Concerns about financial standings reduce community involvement (Putnam, 2000). It is financial anxiety not actual low income that reduces involvement in community (Putnam, 2000). Decl ining involvement is among the affluent, poor, and middle class (Putnam, 2000).
22 Communities that are spread out increase commute times (Putnam, 2000). This adds to a reduction in community involvement (Putnam, 2000). For every additional 10 minutes of co mmute time involvement in the community goes down by 10% (Putnam, 2000). Increased commuting time among members of a community also has negative effect on the civic involvement of the non-commuters in the same community (Putnam, 2000). Membership in associations has declined the most noticeably (Wutnow, 2002). Social capital is declining but there is some question to what levels. Studies show certain forms are going down the question is at what is the level of absolute threshold for social capital (Wuthnow, 2002). It is a possibility that social capital isnt ne cessarily in a decline but that social capital is just adjusting to a sustainable level (Wutnow, 2002). Surveys on the topic might not be measuring the full complexity of how people think about involvement with clubs or even trust (Wuthnow, 2002). Earlie r studies did not include questions about support groups, internet groups, or social networks that involve technology because they did not exists when social capital was first being studied (Wuthnow, 2002). Unions have seen a decline in membership however they are also seeing a decline in manufacturing jobs (Wutnow, 2002). Volunteering in soup kitchens or in building houses for low income familys has increased (Wutnow, 2002). So what do good third spaces look like? They are small and walkable. Third place s find an easier existence in urban villages because these places connect them to the community. An urban village is created following three rules ( Sucher 2003). Rule 1. Building to the road to create a strong street wall for a building to meet the sidewa lk ( Sucher 2003). It must be easy to move from the outside to the inside level of the building ( Sucher 2003). Building to the sidewalk brings communities together ( Sucher 2003). Rule 2. Make the building front permeable so
23 people can see i nside and out ( Sucher 2003). Prevent mirrored glass to allow people to se e in and out ( Sucher 2003). By allowing people to see inside spaces it encourages people to enter and interact ( Sucher 2003). Life has a way of attra cting others ( Sucher 2003). Rule 3. Prohibit parking in the front of the buildings except for light s treet parking ( Sucher 2003). Parking places are not places you want t o spend time ( Sucher 2003). The fronts of buildings should be kept interesting for peo ple not cars ( Sucher 2003). Some parking has to be allowed in front. This parking should be limited to street parking or stop and go parking ( Sucher 2003). Well -designed third places allow for people to bump into one another ( Sucher 2003). Anywhere people want to spend time and feel comfortab le can become strong third places. It is important that there are places to sit without concern for the wrong people showing up (Sucher 2003,p.26). Letting people purchase food and drink can be the difference between a vibrant place and a beautiful empt y plaza ( Sucher 2003). Eating or drinking together connects us (Sucher 2003). Third spaces need to provide activities that allow people to get to know each other ( Sucher 2003). A variety of activities encourage strangers to sit together (Sucher, 2003). It is in these places that we bridge the gap between loneliness and casual conversation ( Sucher 2003). Third spaces need to allow conversations to grow by using sound to permit conversations (Sucher 2003). Providing white noise lets people block out stre et noises ( Sucher 2003). Moveable chairs should also be present to allow the user to adjust the space to the their need (Sucher 2003). This can benefit a group and let them create a space of their own when needed (Sucher 2003). Places need to let the us er sip and read or sip and surf the web ( Sucher 2003). By allowing people to stay for long periods of time it increases the likelihood of chance encounters. Little comforts like public toilets let people stay for long period of time ( Sucher
24 2000) How lon g people use a space, how many people use a place, and what kind of activities taking place are encouraged by design (Carmona et al.,2003). Digital Communities Digital downtowns will evolve to incorporate concerns of the third space. Technology will be a larger part of our lives the importance of access to technology continues to increase in third spaces. A new emphasis on digital connections will need to be considered when designing third spaces. Social networking still r equires social capital as a pre requirement (Putnam, 2000) No sector of our society will be as important i n preserving social capital as electronic mass media and the internet (Putnam, 2000). New forms of social capital have come that make it easier for people to participate when people move from one community to another (Wuthnow, 2002). Currently devices such as laptops, cell phones, smart -phones, and MP3 players have become common in third places. Laptops let employees work from almost any locatio n. They are no longer restricted to a n office desk to do work. With WiFi availability it is easier to accomplish work and to socialize at the same time. The speed at which the Internet has been accepted is greater than almost any other consumer technology in history (Putnam, 2000). It took li ttle more than 7 years to reach 75% of the market (Putnam, 2000). The Internet substantially enhances our ability to communicate (Putnam, 2000). Through social networking websites, e -mails, and chat programs restrictions on time and place are no longer a r equirement for communication. Social capital is about networks and the Internet is the network to end all networks (Putnam, 2000,p.171). Michael Strangelove wrote, The Internet is not about technology, it is not about information, it is about communication people talking with each other, people exchanging e -mail... The Internet is mass participation in fully bidirectional, uncensored mass communication.
25 Communication is the basis, the foundation, the radical grounds and root upon which all co mmunity stands, grows, and thrives. The internet is a community of chronic communicators. (Micheal Strangelove,The Internet, Electric Gaia and the Rise of the Uncensored self, Computer Mediated communication Magazine 1 (September 1994), 11.) Virtual communities are becoming an influence in our real communities. (Putnam, 2000). Technology has always favored schmoozing with old friend instead of creating new ones (Putnam, 2000). Information on the web is shared at virtually no cost (Putnam, 2000). Comm unities can form based upon shared interests rather than shared spaces (Putnam, 2000). Virtual communities can form as physically based virtual communities (Blanchard and Horan, 1998). This happens when a city hall, library, or other physical places enter the virtual world (Blanchard and Horan, 1998). Then there are virtual communities of interests (Blanchard and Horan, 1998). These are places built on ideas or interests and not on location (Blanchard and Horan, 1998). An example of these communities woul d be a yahoo chat group or a blog based on those who build computers and not based on one specific location (Blachard and Horan, 1998). When you put an electronic community directly on top of a physical community, they create a very powerful tool to appl y pressure for people to be civil (Putnam, 2000). Computer and Internet usage will compliment face to face communications not replace it (Putnam, 2000). Virtual communities may be stronger when they are both online and face to -face (Blanchard and Horan, 1998). Internet technology can reinforce rather than take away faceto -face communications (Putnam, 2000). Unlike televisions or radios the Internet serves as an interactive tool. It allows multiple tasks to take place at the same time. When in cyberspace a user can make comments about a news article, comment on a friends picture, or leaving a note for a friend to read after work without having to get up. Communities are developing over computer communications such as e -mails, chat rooms, and social netwo rking sites (Blanchard and Horan, 1998). Recently social networking sites have
26 made a large jump into our digital communities as their membership reach in the millions. This raises the question, will virtual communities remove the need for the public realm (Horan, 2000). We should not expect to be able to remove ourselves from the physical world (Horan, 2000). Communities can adapt to our needs by offering places like coffee shops that can adapt to our digital needs (Horan, 2000). Places like coffee shops become our favorite spots, which become important to us (Horan, 2000). Connected places in our community enhance a local network by connecting different places to each other (Horan, 2000). The mixing of technology and physical environment help build a sen se of community not destroy it (Horan, 2000). The physical design of a place needs to be mixed with that of a digital community to connect home, work and the community (Horan, 2000). To create these places we need the best combination of space and place (H oran, 2000). Meaningful places embody the need of a community to design places in a manner that fits the needs of function while including access to the digital world (Horan, 2000). They need to exist in a combination of physical places and cyberspace (Hor an, 2000). This is accomplished through threshold connections, which is a focus on design between physical and virtual spaces (Horan, 2000). This practice does not destroy the need for human interaction (Horan, 2000). While virtual and electronic spaces ar e growing the role that a good physical place offers is not going away but changing (Horan, 2000). Digital communities cannot fully replace what people experience in a physical place (Horan, 2000). The value of a physical place is not going to disappear instead it evolves to fit the demands of a community (Horan, 2000). When people are involved in the community they are experiencing it through an informal social exchange (Horan, 2000). For this to happen we need somewhere to hangout for this to occur (Horan, 2000). With the combination of technology with these physical elements new experiences can happen. Every place is affected by the mobility
27 provided by portable and wireless technologies (Horan, 2000). Technology offers the ability to reshape our world in a manner that provides choices in how and where people experience their day, work, and do activities for fun (Horan, 2000). Public places can be adapted to incorporate developing electronic spaces to aid in the social processes experienced there (Horan 2000). Digital communities add a new dimension to public space that supports, not hurt, the physical realm (Horan, 2000). Technology should be used to build connections within local communities (Horan, 2000). An example of a technology that builds conn ections is social networking websites such as myspace and facebook. Social networking sites are small webpage that are dedicated to the member who created it. It provides information about the member such as pictures, clubs, create events, and comment on other members profile. These websites let member know what other members are doing, thinking, and planning on doing in the future. In each of these websites members can make posts on other members profile pages. When a member posts pictures other members can comment on those photos. When a member wants to start a club they can invite anyone who uses the site to join. Club specific messages can be sent out along with information for meeting times and events the club plans to do. Social networking sites provi de a virtual public space. Public spaces both physical and virtual provide a functional meeting ground for friends and strangers alike (Horan, 2000). Social networking sites provide a virtual meeting ground where people can catch up with their friends with out time or place being a concern. Someone can post pictures from their vacation and anyone who is listed as a friend can view and comment on them. In the physical world all members would need to be present for this to happen. On social networking sites pe ople can come and go as they please from anywhere that has computer and Internet access.
28 However a Third Space is defined it is important to remember the elements that make a good space might stay the same but the physical characteristics will change. Third Space settings are a physical representation of the desire of people to be with those in the same area (Oldenburg, 1999). It is in this casual environment that people can choose the level of involvement they want in their community without being pressured (Oldenburg, 1999). It is in these environments that people get what social aspects they need from life without realizing it (Oldenburg, 1999). Zoning policies that restrict multiple uses hurt third spaces Zoning policies have excluded third spaces ( Putnam, 2000). Zoning polices have encouraged communities to sprawl out (Duany et al., 2000). Malls are replacing public spaces for citizens to shop and be with others (Putnam, 2000). The difference between a public space and a mall is that the mall space has specific one intention, to encourage the consumer to buy and not socialize (Putnam, 2000). Shopping centers add to sprawl by providing locations that are easier to reach by car than by walking or biking. Master planned communities provide an opportunity to develop communities with access centers in a way that provide electronic as well as physical third places for residents who live and work in the same area (Horan, 2000). The unifying connections of the real and virtual world can transform a sense of place into a sense of com munity (Horan, 2000 ). It is hard to create a sense of place where communities are sprawled out. One type of planned community is referred to as a traditional neighborhood. Traditional communities have six fundamental rules that distinguish it from communities of sprawl that have been created from poor zoning practices (Duany et al.,2000,p.14). Neighborhoods need clear centers that easy to find (Duany et al.,2000,p.14). Most locations need to be a five minute walk
29 from anywhere (D uany et al., 2 000,p.14). Streets need to be part of a network to make it easy to get around on (Duany et al., 2000,p.15). The street network needs to have narrow and versatile streets that meet the need of bikers, pedestrians, and cars (Duany et al., 2000, p.15). Buildings have a mixture of uses putting housing on top of stores (Duany et al., 2000,p.16). Special sites need to be set aside for plazas and preservation of historical places (Duany et al., 2000,p.17). The second type of planned community is transit oriented developments (Calthorpe, 1993). They emphasize a mixture of uses to create active communities (Calthorpe, 1993). Retail, housing and public uses are needed in TOD developments (Calthorpe, 1993). A minimum mixture of uses is required to stimul ate street activity (Calthorpe, 1993). The mixture of a neighborhood TOD requires 10 15% land for public space, 10 40% of land is s et aside for employment, and 50 80% for housing (Calthorpe, 1993,p.63). Urban TOD need 5 15% public space, 30 70% set aside for employment and 20 60% set aside for housing (Calthorpe, 1993,p.63). Vertical buildings and density contribute to a healthy pedestrian environment (Calthorpe, 1993). A variety of uses in TOD s will encourage pedestrian activity (Calthorpe, 1993). When a neighborhood has local destinations that are covenant to walk to residents are far more likely to walk and bike to these locations (Calthorpe, 1993). Streets must be pedestrian friendly (Calthorpe, 1993). This is achieved with sidewalks, stre et trees, and parallel parking on the street (Calthorpe, 1993). Streets need to converge at common de stinations (Calthorpe, 1993). Buildings on the street should face the street with entries that connect to the sidewalk (Calthorpe, 1993 ). This brings activ ities and visually interesting things closer to the streets (Calthorpe, 1993). Bringing peoples attention to the streets makes them safer and encourages people to li nger there (Calthorpe, 1993). When people are
30 interested in their surroundings, feel safe w alking places, and have places to go third spaces can thrive. Good design, urban villages, and new urbanism communitys let public spaces, pseudo public spaces, and third spaces to thrive. Third spaces benefit communities by providing a active street life, social activities, places to accomplish work, and a place to unwind. TOD and traditional communities have strong design elements but without a strong third space will remain empty. Good Designed places encourage people to linger in a space and a third spa ce provides a reason to be in that space. Summary We exist in three realms. The first realm is home, the second is work, and the third is in our third spaces. Third spaces provide the place to go in a city. They provide novelty from our daily routines. Th ey incorporate elements of design and social interaction to provide the important gathering places in our communities. Their design encourages customers to spend time and feel comfortable. It is in these locations that social capital is built. Social capital is built through associations and friend networks. As technology becomes more mobile third spaces will have to change to accommodate the digital communities this will create Third spaces no long er only serve the needs of the third realm of life. They accommodate accomplishing work as much as hosting friends and building social capital Mobile technology has allowed the three realms of life to merge into one.
31 CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW To understand how technology is changing third space we must review literature in urban design, third spaces, social capital, and new urbanism. Urban design literature is reviewed to understand what makes good commercial spaces, plazas, and public space. T hird spaces are a specific aspect of urban design where people come together as a community. Social capital is reviewed to understand the importance it has on a community and how its formed in third spaces. Finally we look at new development patterns like traditional neighborhood design and transit -oriented developments to understand how development can be done in a way that can fight sprawl and make good places for third places to thrive. Urban Design To understand good third spaces one must understand what makes a good space. To accomplish this City Comforts: How to Build an Urban Village by David Sucher offers a guide to creating urban villages. The solutions presented are rules that can be applied on a. This book focuses on the three rules of urban de sign (Sucher, 2003). First, build to the sidewalk (Sucher, 2003). Building to the sidewalk creates strong street -walk opportunities (Sucher, 2003). Street walk opportunities are when people travel up and down a street and shop or run into people they know. Second, make the building front permeable to connect the street to the inside of stores (Sucher, 2003). Making them permeable breaks down a visual barrier between the outside and the inside making t he space more inviting. Third, prohibit the parking lots in front of the buildings ( Sucher 2003). Parking should be limited to below behind, or next to buildings instead of creating sea of parking lots in front of the building (Sucher, 2003). When you build a parking lot in front of a building it can be seen as a deterrent to people to people using the space.
32 Observations of these elements working in other cities were used to help the reader understand what affect each element has on a community (Sucher, 2003). The techniques proposed build upon previous design techniques. Photos are used to demonstrate how the rules work and why they are important (Sucher, 2003). The author should have been more critical of the ideas he presented in the book. Alternative perspectives were not offered. In response to problems i n cities Sucher offers psychological response to breaking barriers between private and public spaces (Sucher, 2003). Breaking down these barriers provides opportunities for people to socialize (Sucher, 2003). Providing seating or places for people to eat a nd drink lets people spend time with one another (Sucher, 2003). Sucher relied heavily on observations and literature review to come to conclusions (Sucher, 2003). By not challenge views the conclusions made are limited. Due to research methods used future studies might find different outcomes because there was not repeatable research. Suchers is written for popular readership. Writing a book in this manner relies heavily on opinions and less on repeatable scientific methods. Sucher appeals to the emotio n of the reader. He argues that the steps presented are not expensive and can be accomplished with some simple design and policy changes in local government (Sucher, 2003). Public Places Urban Spaces written by Matthew Carmona, Tim Heath Tanner Oc, and Steve Tiesdell (2003) offers a summary of design principles for cities that can be applied on a neighborhood scale. Elements of urban design are reviewed offering many different perspectives on what it takes to make good places. A regional perspective is used instead of a focusing on the smaller elements that City Comforts focused on. This book focuses on the elements of design as a whole (Carmona et la., 2003). Guidelines for development patterns offered and examples of successful models are presented (Car mona et la., 2003). The authors focused on the elements that
33 make a well designed space and cover conditions a planner would experience. Topics discussed in this book focus on concepts. This book used examples from recent data and historical examples to inform the reader why specific design methods are used (Carmona et la., 2003). Each style was presented in a instructive tone that showed the steps that made a principle successful (Carmona et la., 2003). Cities should be designed for a mixture of uses, m ultiple modes of transportation, and keeping streets safe (Carmona et la., 2003). Designing spaces contributes to what happens in a space (Carmona et la., 2003. Good places have density and fight sprawl (Carmona et la., 2003). Building good cities involves building safe, clean, and interesting downtowns, plazas, and public spaces (Carmona et la., 2003). Project for Public Spaces (PPS) wrote a set of elements that provide a guideline for evaluating great public spaces. These elements are presented in a man ner that is easy to understand and read. Evaluation questions are offered to for the reader to use for evaluation of public spaces. To achieve a successful place PPS recommends that: they are accessible; people are engaged in activities; the space is comfo rtable; and that it is a sociable place (PPS, 2003). They make recommendations for each category and use images to support each perspective. In each of the design sources they focus on what elements make a person want to be in a space. They offer good rec ommendations on what encourages or discourages activities. However they do not address how technology has affected these spaces. Technology has become more portable than it was 10 years ago and even more portable then it was 3 years ago. Technology will co ntinue to be a growing influence in third spaces and it should be considered when designing good spaces.
34 Technology and Design Digital Places: Building Our City of Bits written by Thomas Horan focus on bringing technology into our design vocabulary. Desi gning for physical places and technology is a method known as recombinant urban design (Horan, 2000). Recombinant design is used to include technology in homes, offices, and third spaces in flow that is uninterrupted (Horan, 2000). City design will change as technology continues to add comforts. Places that integrate technology and have strong social networks are places that third spaces can thrive. An example of this is the ability to not only work from home but also anywhere that has access to the interne t (Horan, 2000). Dynamic city designs are required to cater to the working population (Horan, 2000). Technology frees workers from their desks and offices and allows them to work from anywhere (Horan, 2000). New technologies will have to be addressed with new design techniques (Horan, 2000). This research is built upon the work of others but does analyze each opinion he has formed. The author considers information that not only supports the hypothesis but alternative perspectives as well. The author uses e xamples to make his point, however, the intention of this book is for popular readership. Cities and technology must merge to aid in the flow of communities (Horan, 2000). This hypothesis is supported with examples of when technology had been utilized tech nology to create stronger networks (Horan, 2000). Telecommunications and Urban Design written by Scot Page and Brian Phillips is an article that discusses technology, design, and how it was applied to Jersey City in New York. This paper was an in -depth l ook into how telecommunications and urban design has been used by Jersey City. Including technology concerns in urban design helps guide a citys design for the future (Page and Phillips, 2003). The scope and clarity of their problem is established with the use of examples from the case example of Jersey City. The case example of Jersey City is used
35 to demonstrate the effects of investing in a strong telecommunication network to connect physical and electronic communities (Page and Phillips, 2003). The authors use references that support and reject their hypothesis. Some of the data included is still too new to have a clear understanding of its affects. However networked communities have had a affect on development patterns in Jersey City (Page and Phillips, 2003). Communities that invest in connecting citizens with places while utilizing technology can increase social capital (Page and Phillips, 2003). If this study was done in a different city the measurement methods could be applied. The results would cha nge if the selected city were not so close to New York City. The literature reviewed in the article supports opinions formed in the paper. Conclusions are based upon data collected on the cities growth patterns before and after the technology info structur e had been installed. Technology should be addressed in the elements of design. Design, planning, and technology are not separate categories to be handled independently. They are elements that must work together to make places that people want to be. Plac es like third places. Third Spaces A third space is a term credited to Ray Oldenburg. In his book The Great Good Places: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Bookstores, Bars, Hair Salons and other hangouts at the heart of a community the elements of great third spaces is evaluated (Oldenburg, 1999). Third spaces are not specific places but contain similar elements (Oldenburg, 1999). It is a place that people feel ownership, feel at home, and can spend time for extended periods (Oldenburg, 1999) The a uthors results wou ld change if the data collection method were a scientific approach to the way third places exist. This being said, the results accomplished demonstrating the importance of having places to hang out (Oldenburg, 1999). Conclusions came from observations, int erviews, and historical information of what third spaces are and mean to communities (Oldenburg, 1999).
36 The book is intended for use in places trying to become third places. It is intended for popular readership. This book connects the importance of thir d spaces in planning as a tool for not only creating good places and active streets but for places where social capital is created. In a follow up book to the Great Good Place Oldenburg edited a collection of stories of great good places across America. This collection of stories was called Celebrating the Third Place. This book is collection of stories written by people who want to share their story of their own good third places. It shows the many examples of good third spaces and how any space can be t ransformed into a third space as long as it has the right elements. Each writer wrote about their third space after being inspired by Oldenburgs book and wanted to share with him their own great third space. This book gives examples of what makes a good t hird place work. There is not a specific method recommended but through evaluation of the examples the reader can interpret important elements. Examples of strong third spaces presented in this book give the reader a outline of what it takes for a third pl ace to succeed. When successful third spaces offer safe active streets, places where people feel ownership, and places to build Social Capital. Social Capital Robert Putnam evaluates social c apital in his book Bowling Alone This book looks at how social capital is changing in America. Current generations of Americans are loosing touch with their communities (Putnam, 2000). This lack of involvement is resulting in less membership in social groups (Putnam, 2000). Examples of this are the reduction of group memberships and general opinions on trust (Putnam, 2000). Memberships in social groups continue to dwindle without a clear reason (Putnam, 2000). This book looks at the numbers of Americans who participate with fraternal org anizations, parent teacher groups, and other social clubs. Theoretical opinions are combined with data to evaluate possible reasons for changes in social capital. This opinion is challenged throughout the book.
37 The study design is easy to follow. It guid es the reader through a series of possible reasons for the current state of social capital. Analysis of the data collected appears to be reasonable. An overlooked variable in the data is that it does not take into account newer forms of social groups. The book does not try to only try to prove an opinion but also allows the reader to come to their own conclusions. This book is intended for popular readership. It utilizes survey information to form opinions addressed in the book. Social capital is a very va luable commodity. If group memberships dwindle places where social capital is built, such as third places, will become more important for creating social bonds. Democracies in Flux edited by Robert Putnam is a collection of articles on social capital thr ough the world. Chapter 2 The United States: Bridging the Privileged and the Marginalized? Is written by Robert Wuthnow. In this essay Wuthno w focuses on the importance of social c apital as a commodity. In his essay he challenges some of the conclusions Putnam came to in Bowling Alone Conclusions made by Putnam are challenged due to errors in data collection methods (Wuthnow, 2002). Wuthnow hypothesis is that social capital may not be disappearing as significantly as Putnam assumed in Bowling Alone (Wutnow 2002). Changes in the way society views memberships and the ways in which people gain the benefits of membership are changing (Wutnow, 2002). Measurement methods used by Putnam will be flawed because what people have perceived as group membership has cha nged since the data started being collected (Wutnow, 2002). There has been a change in social capital however the way in which it has been evaluated might not have been corrected for all of the changes. Social capital isnt disappearing as bad as once th ought (Wutnow, 2002). The ways communities receive the
38 benefits are changing. They are changing to accommodate physical communities and virtual ones. Virtual Communities and Social Capital is a journal article written by Anita Blanchard and Tom Horan. This article challenges the idea that technology is a negative influence on building social capital (Blanchard and Horan, 1998). Social capital can benefit from a combination of face to -face communications and electronic communications (Blanchard and Horan, 1998). Virtual communities can create social capital instead of hurt them when it is used in a combination of face to face interactions. The information is presented in a way that is easy for the reader to follow the research along to understand how they r eached their conclusion. This article argues that a mixing of technology and good design can create greater opportunities for building social capital in third spaces. New Urbanism and Sprawl Transit oriented developments is a type of development that encourages multiple modes of transportation, walkable communities, and density. In The Next American Metropolis Peter Calthorpe focuses on transit oriented developments to combat the sprawling pat terns of communities (Calthorpe, 1993). We are losing what makes cities strong by allowing them to sprawl. With sprawl public spaces and common areas suffer (Calthorpe, 1993). Through proper design, gaps that keep communities apart can be bridged. To crea te communities to combat sprawl cities must focus on a mixture of uses and densities (Calthorpe, 1993). Examples of designs and case examples are used to demonstrate the benefits of transit oriented developments. Guidelines are presented in a way that anyo ne involved in making decisions about the built environment could follow. The literature reviewed is comprised of case examples. These examples focus on projects that have used the guidelines presented in this book. Sprawling communities have a negative af fect on the community as a
39 whole (Calthorpe, 1993). By making these changes to the way cities are build public spaces, walkable communities, and pla ces people care about can be re created (Calthorpe, 1993). Commercial centers, streets, public spaces, and pl azas should be placed in central locations that are accessible (Calthorpe, 1993). Communities that have are walkable benefit from having a place to be. Walkable streets are great but if there is not a place to go on them, like a third place, then they will sit underutilized. Suburban Nation was written by Andres Duany, Eliz abeth Plater Zyberk, and Jeff Speck. Suburban nation focus on the effects sprawl has had on our communities. Traditional neighborhoods are the best way to combat these trends. Tradition al neighborhoods are walkable, safe, understand importance of place, and dense (Duany et al., 2000). This version of new urbanism is focused on bringing communities back to the traditional style of development unlike Calthrope who focuses on transit orient ed developments. The culprit for the loss of community facing our cities is sprawl (Duany et al., 2000). Sprawl is the reason why people can live next door to a shopping mall but have to drive to get there (Duany et al., 2000). Interpretive research is us ed with observations and a review of literature to form their support of traditional communities. Current development patterns are compared to sprawling communities. Guidelines are outlined that are useful in preventing a community from being one dominated by sprawl. Building communities where people have opportunities to relate to one another builds social capital. To combat sprawl there are six fundamental rules to follow (Duany et al., 2000). First each community needs a clear center (Duany et al., 2000) Second places should be on average a five-minute walk from everywhere (Duany et al., 2000). Third the streets need to be connected by networks (Duany et al., 2000). Fourth the streets should form narrow versatile streets (Duany et al., 2000). Fifth downt owns
40 need to include a mixture of uses (Duany et al., 2000). Sixth cities need to set aside special sites for special buildings for events (Duany et al., 2000). Sprawling communities is a problem that planners must combat if they want better cities (Duan y et al., 2000). Problems associated with travel times can be altered if the places we need to go are connected to multiple transportation methods (Duany et al., 2000). Having strong downtowns with a mixture of uses provides opportunities for communities t o develop (Duany et al., 2000). Communities develop around plazas, squares, public space, and third spaces. Without third spaces plazas, squares, and other public spaces will remain empty (Jacobs, 1961). The definition of a third space is a space where people can spend time with friends and family, meet new people, and catch up on whats going on in their community. (Oldenburg, 1999). What is accomplished in a third space is similar in every setting however the physical presence of a third space can change depending on where it is (Oldenburg, 1999). Examples of these places are diners, pharmacy soda fountains, and pubs.. Sometimes places you would least expect become third spaces. A cracker barrel and a front porch at one time satisfied the same needs as a p ub or coffee shop (Oldenburg, 1999). However as Oldenburg notes third spaces have gone through a change. Some researchers are under the impression that third spaces are disappearing (Oldenburg, 1999). One could argue that the needs they satisfy in building social networks and social capital are all still accomplished. In coffee shops technology has been able to bridge the gap between physical and virtual spaces. The Internet and more specifically social networking sites such as facebook or myspace allow p eople to stay connected with friends where space and time are of no concern. However face -to -face interactions are still the most desired forms of interaction (Horan, 2000). Good places are places that mix physical place with virtual space (Horan, 2000).
41 Summary This literature demonstrates how design, technology and space all connect together to build a place. Good spaces are places that take into consideration design and purpose of the space. Design must incorporate the physical world and the digital wo rld. Technology now connects us beyond the physical boundaries of our space and it is those types of spaces tha t are highly desired. Spaces that find ways to incorporate the elements of good spaces are usually also good third spaces. In third spaces social capital is built and maintained. To create more opportunities to have third spaces and build social capital new third spaces need to locate in urban areas Sprawl is the anti third space and works against many of t he elements that make a third space so important.
42 CHAPTER 4 M ETHODOLOGY To understand how people interact with each other and technology in coffee shops two research methods have been chosen. Case studies are selected and two forms of data collection ar e completed. Observations and surveys at five coffee shops in Gainesville, Florida are selected as case studies. Observations and surveys have been chosen as an efficient way to gauge interactions between people and technology in coffee shops. Each location will be evaluated for meeting the conditions of strong third spaces. Variables that will be evaluated are type of internet offered, location, sociability of customers, technology ownership, and setting. These evaluations will be followed by observations recorded. Each location will have a minimum of twenty surveys completed. Each set of questions will be explained later in this chapter to help the reader understand what the author hopes to find out with each question group. The results will be shared in t he following chapter. Observations The steps used for this research project was to first evaluate each coffee shop for how they m et the elements that make good third spaces. These are sociability, uses and activities, access and linkages, comfort and im age, affordability, ability to linger, and connection to technology (PPS, 2003). Using these criteria the author evaluat ed five sites to see how they m et these categories. Each location was observed for interactions of people with people, people with techn ology, people using technology interacting with people not using technology, and how people using technology interact with other people using technology. Technology is defined as Wireless Internet (WiFi), cell phones, smart phones, MP3 players, and laptops Participant observations an d non -participant observations are used in this study. First participant observations are observations of people without them knowing they are being
43 observed. These were done to witness what people did without any form of int erference. Second n on-participant observations were used so the researcher could remain a passive observer of activities taking place. Observations looked for connections between customers and technology. Observations allow the author to understand the u sers thoughts on activities that cant be observed. An example of this would be that a customer at a coffee shop might be using their laptop and not talking to anyone. However this could be because no one has approached them to start a conversation in stea d of them trying to be anti -social. Another example is that person on the laptop could be talking to friends and family in chat rooms. This would mean that they are being very social just not with talking with those around them. The participants in this project are considered to be customers, storeowners, employees, city planners, and anyone seeking to develop active communities and social capital. Customers would care about this research to understand the habits of themselves and others who populate the space they use. Storeowners would want to know what activities are done in their space and ways to manage types of activities happen there. Staff would want to know where certain users sit, what times they are there, and why customers visit to better serve those customers. Planners would want to know the results of this study to incorporate successful elements into public spaces and policies in the community. Members of the community who wish to develop social capital could read this study to learn what act ivities to expect to better prepare themselves for the culture they are about to enter. Those observed are broken into the following categories: Light technology user, medium technology user, and heavy technology user. Light technology users are people w ith minimal interactions with technology. These are people who dont use tech devices or if they do use does not go above casual use. Casual is defined as slightly glancing or passively responding to their
44 tech devices in a public setting. These people als o remain very social even if they do use technology. A medium user is someone who uses technology for doing work but still remains somewhat social. These people are usually using their device enough to focus on what they are doing more than a light user th erefore missing events going on around them. Heavy technology users are defined as people who have little to no interaction with others around them. They spend most of their time focusing on their tech devices. They appear to be using the space for a works pace and not a place to be social. Information on where each type of users sits inside each location is also recorded. Information on where users sit will identify any trends among where types of users sit inside coffee shop. For example do heavy users s it by themselves to focus on their work or does the purpose of visit have no affect on where they choose to sit. Through observations the author has been able to make certain predications about habits inside coffee shops that are discussed in the results c hapter. Observations focused on types of technology being used. How did customers use the space and was that use the intended use. Did the ownership of technology affect interactions in the space? What the affects location had on activities taking place. What time of day did to activities occurring? How the number of people changed throughout the day. Which age groups a nd genders did what activities? Location, design, and layout of seating at each location will be studied to see what interactions are occu rring. This will assist in finding if definite habits of where people sit and what activities do they do in each location. For example if a customer prefers using a laptop next to larger surfaces with outlets then public spaces could include more outlets or flat larger tables to encourage use. Location of coffee shop will be considered. Coffee shops at an urban center
45 like Maudes or Starbucks will offer a different experience than Coffee Culture that is accessible easiest by car. This alteration of spaces might be linked to encourage a different uses and different experiences. The availability and type of WiFi each location offers will be evaluated to see if WiFi access changes the type of activities that occurs in the space. For example, does Internet access that requires a password discourage Internet usage more than free non password internet. This will aide in evaluation of technology users who go to coffee shops because of Internet access and if that use is affected if there are hurdles to gaining ac cess to the internet. Survey A survey has been created to evaluate what technology is owned and used by people in third space. The results of the survey is presented in the results chapter and reviewed in the conclusion chapter. Each group of questions wi ll be reviewed in the following section to help the reader understand what the author hopes to accomplish. The following sections explain what type of questions can be found in each section of the survey. The introductory questions are to cover the gende r, age, and location of each participant. This information will be used to normalize data for location, gender, and access to WiFi. To minimize errors the interviewer completed this information. The first section, Section A is referred to as the background information. This is to evaluate what age group the participant belongs to, how comfortable they are with technology, what technology they use, how often they come to the establishment, and their employment status. What technology the participant owns will allow the author to un derstand technology ownership patterns of people in coffee shops. If a participant doesn't have a laptop then the availability of free WiFi might not be as important to them. Also if they have a smart phone they might not care about Internet access because their phone is capable of accessing the Internet
46 through cell phone networks. Age and comfort with technology will be recorded to find patterns for when participants were born. Eighteen to twenty -five year olds grew up in a world that had home computers and they probably even had one in their home. However a thirty-six to fifty -five year old might not be as comfortable with technology because they did not have one at home. Sections B, C, D, E, and F contain qu estions evaluating technology usage in coffee shops. These include questions about comfort using different devices in coffee shops, use of certain devices based upon access to internet, and comfort interacting with others while using tech devices. These q uestions will indicate what people are doing during their time at coffee shops and how comfortable they are doing different tasks. Not all questions in this section will be asked to all participants. They will only be asked questions about the technology devices they own and use. Section G is the social interaction section. This section is to evaluate how comfortable each participant is in different social setting. This section includes questions concerning comfort of meeting new people and new groups, how often they come with friends and in groups, what genders they feel more comfortable with meeting, and do they have chance encounters with friends. This information will be compared to see if there are connections between people who are comfortable with t alking to new people and types of interactions they share with others in coffee shops. This survey will be administered randomly to people at each research site. If the person chosen does not wish to participate or is in capable of participating then the survey will be given to the next person at the location. This survey will be given at different times of day. This should cover a wide variety of people at each location.
47 Each participant was chosen at random of those in the space. Each person selected w as a customer of the coffee shop. The researcher looked for some kind of food or beverage to signify that the person was indeed a customer. Case Study Selection Case studies are selected based upon location, type of shop, and access to technology. The case study sites selected are Maudes, Christian Study Center, Volta, Starbucks, and Coffee Culture All locations except for Starbucks are independently owned. Starbucks is owned by a corporation and is required to foll ow rules set by their parent organization. Maudes was selected because it is located in downtown Gainesville and offers free WiFi, movies, board games, and a variety of small food items. Maudes also has the connotation of being a n unwelcoming place that discourages certain types of customers. Christian Study Center was selected because it is located across the street from the University of Florida and offers free WiFi access that requires a password, books, lectures, and small food items. Christian Study Center also has the connotation of being religious oriented and that discourages certain customers. Volta was selected because is located on the on outer rim of downtown Gainesville and it offers free WiFi, newspapers, and coffee tasting events. Volta has a connotation of being a n upper class establishment that discourages certain customers. Starbucks does not offer free WiFi however is in downtown that is connected to a free WiFi service. Starbucks does not offer any additional events. Starbucks is a corporate store that discourages certain customers. Coffee Culture located north of the University of Florida campus and is mainly accessed by automobile It offers free WiFi to customers by providing the password to those who make a purchase. Coffee culture h as a connotation of being far away and that discourages certain customers.
48 Summary Coffee shops make strong third spaces. They are inclusive, allow people to linger, and are affordable. To understand what happens in these spaces observations and surveys we re completed. Observations are used to understand how people interact with the space and the people. Surveys are used to understand what who uses the space, how they use it, what technology is owned by customers, and how that technology is used. Case studi es were selected at 5 locations in Gainesville Florida. These sites we re selected based upon location, type of ownership, and access to WiFi. This information will form a profile of who uses these spaces and why they use them.
49 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS The survey was administered at Maudes Classic Cafe, Starbucks, Coffee Culture, Christian Study Center and Pascals Coffee, and Volta. Candidates for the survey were chosen randomly. A map of where each site is lo cated can be found at F igure 5 15. Each lo cation had a minimum of 20 surveys completed with Starbucks and Maudes having 21 completed. In the study 102 surveys were completed. Women completed 53 surveys and men completed 49. In this study 18 to 25 year olds completed 58 surveys, 26 to 35 year olds completed 31 surveys, 36 to 55 year olds completed 10 surveys, and 55 and over were completed by 3 participants. During the survey process each location was evaluated for location, access & linkages, affordability, technology, sociability, and uses and activities. Each location was also observed for how people interacted with the space, where technology use happened, and how people communicated with each other. Table 5 1 gives a summary of this data. The following are the results of this study. Maudes Classic Caf Maudes Classic Cafe is an independently owned coffee shop loc ated in downtown Gainesville, FL It located next to the Hippodrome Theater, Starbucks, and is part of a collection of stores referred to as the Sun Center. There is bike parking i n the front of the store and parking for automobiles is located on the streets leading to the store. There is additional parking behind the building in the Sun Center in the parking lot. There is no traffic allowed in front of Maudes because that area has been turned into a pedestrian only area. There are three separate rooms. First is the main room that provides an order counter. Here they display their menu. They offer a variety of teas, beers, wines, and coffees. In this room they offer a collection of board games for customers to use. Next to this room is the main indoor room that is filled with tables and chairs.
50 These chairs and tables are shown in Figure 5 9 On the wall is a screen that allows them to play movies at nights. Outside is a front porch seating area. This area is not covered but offers ample seating for customers. This area is fenced in with a metal fence but people inside and out can still look at people walking by. They do not have a website. They do have a myspace page that is used to keep customers up to date with events, share information about the store, share pictures, share videos, and allow its customers to post comments. Maudes has free WiFi offered by the City of Gainesville. Their website is ht tp://profile.myspace.com/index.cf m?fuseaction=user.viewProfile&friendID=207415210 At Maudes Classic Cafe 21 surveys were completed. At this location 12 Women and 9 Men were surveyed. The age groups are 61.9% are 18 to 2 5, 14.3% of those surveyed are 26 to 35 and 23.8% of those surveyed are 36 to 55. Results showed that 57.1% of those surveyed said they felt very comfortable with technology, 33.3% said they felt comfortable, and 9.5% said they felt Neutral with technology. Of those surveyed 76.2% owned a laptop, 66.7% owned an MP3 Playe r, 57.1% of those surveyed owned a cell phone and 33.3% owned a smart phone PDA. Participants came to Maudes 28.6% less than once a month. 28.6% came once a month, 9.5% came once a week, 2 3.8% came more than once a week, and 9.5% of those surveyed came e very day. Of those surveyed 42.9% considered themselves regulars. The employment status of those surveyed was 61.9% student, 23.8% Part time, and 28.6% full time. Out of those who were employed part time or full time 90% worked for someone else. Laptops are used by 76.2% of the time in coffee shops. When using a laptop in public 76.2% use the internet, 66.7% use social networking sites, 19% use instant messaging programs, 19% use Chat rooms, 47.6% do work related tasks, 71.4% do school related tasks, and 28.6% of
51 those surveyed use thei r laptop to watch and listen to media. Social networking sites are used 76.2%. Participants use social networking sites 47.6% multiples times a day, 9.5% once a day, and 9.5% use these sites multiple times a week. Instant message programs are used 28.6%. W hen using chat programs 4.8% use them more than once a day, 4.8% use them more than once a week, and 19% use them at least once a week. While in a coffee shop 66.7% of those surveyed are willing to talk and socialize with while using a laptop. MP3 player s are used 9.5% of the time by participants at Maudes MP3 players are used for listening to music 9.5% of the time and 4.8% use it to listen to podcasts. Those who use MP3 players in coffee shops use them 100% of the time to block out outside noises. MP3 player users are willing to talk and be social with people while they are using an MP3 4.8 % of the time P ar ticipants at Maudes use their cell p hone 47.6% in coffee shops. Participants are 28.6% willing to talk and socialize with people around them while they are using a cell phone. Text messages are sent by 42.9% of participants use their cell phone while in coffee shops. Of those surveyed 33.3% use a smart phone in coffee shops. Smart phones are used 9.5% for the Internet, 4.8% uses it for social networking sites, 28.8% use it for text messaging. 14.3% use it for work related tasks, 9.5% use it for school related tasks, 4.8% watch and l isten to media on a smart phone, and 19% use a smart phone for sending and receiving e -mail. Those surveyed reported that 28.6% are willing to talk and socialize with people around them while using a smart phone. Public WiFi is used by 71.5% of those surveyed. Only 9.5% of those surveyed are willing to pay for public WiFi while 61.9% are not willing t o pay for public WiFi access. Free WiFi is actively sought out by 61.9% to use tech devices. The availability of WiFi makes customers at Maudes 4.8% more likely to use a cell phone, 9.5% more likely to use a cell phone, 14.3% more
52 likely to use a smart pho ne/PDA and 66.7% more likely to use a laptop. If free WiFi was not available 47.6% would leave a coffee shop to go to one with free WiFi. If there is free WiFi 19% will stay 1 60 minuets, 23.8% will stay 1 3 hours, 19% will stay 3 5 hours, and 9.5% w ill stay 5 or more hours. If there is not free WiFi 47.6% will stay 1 60 minutes, 19% will stay 1 3 hours, 0% will stay 3 5 hours and 4.8% will stay 5 or more hours. When people interact at Maudes using a tech device 9.5% feel very comfortable, 52 .4% feel comfortable, 33.3% feel neutral, and 4.8% feel uncomfortable. Another 38.1% of people at Maudes are willing to talk to people they dont know in coffee shops. When talking to people they dont know 19% of participants at Maudes feel very comfortable talking to new people in coffee shops. In general 4.8% talk to people using MP3 players, 9.5% talk to people using cell phones, 9.5% talk to people using smart phones, and 42.9% talk to people using lapt ops in coffee shops. At Maudes 33.3% feel comfortable about their experience talking to people using MP3 players, cell ph ones, smart phones, and laptops, 28.6% feel neutral, and 38.1% feel uncomfortable about the experience. On average 38.1% of people at Maudes meet up with people they know 0 2 times a month, 33.3% meet up 3 5 times a month, 9.5% meet up 6 9 times a month, and 19% meet up 10 or more times a month. When meeting new people that are in a group 47.6% of participants are comfortable. On average 81% of participants meet 0 2 new peo ple in coffee shops each month, 14.3% meet 3 5 people, and 4.8% meet 6 9 new people in coffee shops every month. When meeting new people when the participant is in a group of people they know 95.2% feel com fortable. When meeting new people 19% of participants feel more comfortable talking to an individual man, 4.8% feel more comfortable talking to an individual woman, and 76.2% feel comfortable talking to a n individual man or woman. When meeting groups 9.5% feel more comfortable talking to groups of men, 23.8% feel more
53 comfortable talking to groups of women, and 71.4% feel comfortable talking to groups of men or groups of women. Of those surveyed 33.3% were at Maudes alone and 66. 7% were there with 1 3 pe ople. Only 9.5% of participants were waiting on people to meet them at Maudesand 9.5% were waiting on a group of 1 3 people. Customers sitting outside were using laptops, talking, using cell phones and playing board games. Board games were played out side on the porch area more than they were played inside. People used their laptops outside and inside. If used outside they did not stay as long as the laptop users who were inside. Some laptop users who sat outside would eventually go inside if they need ed to plug in their laptop or if weather changed. Laptop users spent most of their time indoors next to power outlets. Inside people spent time talking, reading, writing, listening to MP3 players, and working. Groups would sit inside and outside. Most groups that spent most of their time talking would sit outside. Inside the talking was kept quiet until one group started talking at regular volume levels. Once someone started talking louder other groups would start talking louder. Those who brought laptops usually sat alone or small groups. Light laptop users sat anywhere and would continue to be social while randomly using their laptop. Medium users usually sat at tables that were close to the wall for access to plugs. A few medium laptop users would sit a t tables away from the wall but they would still be close enough to attach a power cord. Heavy users would spend time to find a seat directly next to an outlet and would search for the outlet before even sitting down. They would use headphones to block out those around them. Those using headphones would remove them if asked questions but the headphones would be replaced when the question was answered. Headphone users would not start talking to people around them if the conversation was audible. Laptop users would use tables for their laptops
54 instead of resting them on their laps. Laptop users in groups talked less than those not using technology devices. Laptop users did talk and make comments to one another about what they were working on. If there were onl y one laptop in a group the laptop would be shared with everyone at the table. MP3 players, cell phones, and smart phones users did not spend time finding places to sit. They would sit anywhere without concern for access to power. Most MP3 users did show up alone and would use their MP3 player while doing work, reading, or other tasks. MP3 player users would not sit in public and only use the MP3 player. Those using cell phones and smart phones would do so very little. Most people who received calls on th ese devices would turn away from the group or walk outside to use the device. Cell phones or smart phones users did not mov e their location when it appeared like other people at the table knew who was on the other line. When this happened other people in t he group would make comments for the person using the cell phone to transfer to the person on the other side. Most light users sat at tables away from the wall or outside. Medium users would sit next to an outlet when available but did not actively seek power outlets before sitting. Heavy users sat at tables close to outlets and would look for outlets before sitting down. The Seating is comfortable enough to sit for more than an hour without feeling a need to move. Power outlets were located next to table s along the wall. Board game users and people who are there to socialize usually sit at tables in the center or outside. Christian Study Center and Pascals Coffee Christian Study Center and Pascals Coffee House (CSC) is owned by a religious organizatio n. It is located close to the University of Florida on 112 NW 16th street in Gainesville, FL. This is a stand alone structure in an area in Gainesville refereed to as the College Ghetto. There is bike parking in front and parking lot for cars on site. Ca rs can also
55 park in the street during certain hours. There are two main floors with large rooms dedicated to CSC patrons. In the back of the coffee shop there are offices and other smaller rooms that are for clubs and other groups affiliated with the CSC. On the front of the building is a small front porch area. In the main room on the bottom floor there is a fireplace in the center surrounded by chairs and tables. As you enter you pass by the main counter, which is where coffee, tea, and food is sold. Ther e is also a self -help coffee section where people can buy a large or small regular coffee at a slightly discounted rate. Payments for the self -service are received in a box with a small opening at the top to insert money. The second floor is open in the ce nter that allows people from above to see what is going on down stairs. On the second floor there are a variety of chairs, tables, couches, and bookshelves that are available for use. The bookshelves are filled with various books however most of them are r eligious in nature. A layout of this floor i s located at Fig. 5 12 and Fig. 5 13. On the front porch there are a few chairs and tables providing an outdoor seating option for customers. They do have a website. On their website you can find information abou t events they are having, information about the coffee house, hours of operation, general information, and a way to donate to their causes. They do offer free WiFi however you must get the password from the cashier. Their website is http://christianstudyce nter.org/ At the Christian Study Center (CSC) and Pascals Coffee 20 customers were surveyed. Men completed 8 surveys and women completed 12. Of those surveyed 90% are 18 to 25 and 10% are 26 to 35. Of those surveyed 60% felt v ery comfortable with technology, 35% felt comfortable and 5% felt neutral with technology. Laptops are owned by 100% of participants, 90% own MP3 players, 80% own cell phones, and 20% own smart phones. Of those surveyed 10% came to CSC less than once a month, 5% came once a mon th, 35% came once a week, and 50% came more than once a week. Regulars consisted of 75% of those surveyed Employment
56 status of those surveyed is 85% students, 30% worked part time, 5% worked full time, and 5% were unemployed. 100% of those employed worked for someone else. Laptops are used by 75% of participants in coffee shops. When using Laptops 75% used the Internet 55% used social networking sites, 10% used instant message programs, 10% used chat rooms, 25% did work related tasks, 70% did school rel ated tasks, and 45 % watched and listened to media. S ocial networking sites are used by 45% multiple times a day, 25% use them once a day, 5% use them once a week, and 5% use them multiple times a month. Instant message programs are used by 30% of participa nts. Instant message programs are used by 5% multiple times a day, 5% use them more than once a week, 5% use them once a week, and 15% use them once a month. Of those surveyed 70% are willing to talk and social with people in a coffee shop while using a la ptop. MP3 players are used by 60% of customers at CSC. A MP3 player is used 60% for music, 15% use an MP3 player for podcasts, 10% use an MP3 player for lectures, 5% use an MP3 player for audio books. MP3 players are used by 55% of participants to block out outside noises. Participants were 25% willing to talk and socialize with people around them while using an MP3 player. Cell phones are used by 70% of participants. While using a cell phone 20% are willing to talk and socialize with people in coffee s hops. Text messages are sent by 70% of participants on a cell phone while in a coffee shop. Smart phones are used by 20% of participants Smart phones are used by 1 5% for the Internet, 15% for so cial networking sites, 10% for instant messaging, 5% for work, 5% for school related tasks, and 15% for e -mail. When using a smart phone 20% are willing to talk and socialize with people in a coffee shop while using their smart phone
57 Public WiFi is used by 90% of participants. Only 10% are willing to pay for WiFi access when in coffee shops. Free WiFi is sought out by 70% of participants to use their tech devices. If there is free WiFi 20% are more likely to use an MP3 player, 10% are more likely to use a cell phone, 20% are more likely to use a smart phone, a nd 85% are more likely to use a laptop. If there is not free WiFi 75% of participants were willing to leave a coffee shop without free WiFi to go to one with free WiFi. If there is free WiFi 20% stay 1 60 minutes, 65% stay 1 3 hours, and 5% stay 3 5 hours. If there is not free WiFi 80% will stay 1 60 minutes and 10% will stay 1 3 hours. When people interact the participant while they are using a tech device 10% said they felt very comfortable, 55% felt comfortable, and 35% felt neutral. Around 5 5% do not talk to people that they do not know in coffee shops. When talking to new people 20% of the par ticipants were very comfortable, 40% were comfortable and 40% were neutral talking to new people. When people are using technology devices 25% were wi ll to talk to people using MP3 players, 35% were willing to talk to cell phones users 30% talk to people using smart phones, and 60% of people talk to laptop users in coffee shops. When talking to new people in coffee shops who are using tech devices 25% felt comfortable, 55% felt neutral, and 20% felt uncomfortable. On average 25% of participants met up with people they knew 0 2 times a month, 40% met up 3 5 times a m onth, 20% met up 6 9 times a month, and 15% met up with 10 or more people they knew each month. When participants meet new people in coffee shops that are in groups 55% felt comfortable. On average 65% met with 0 2 people they knew in coffee shops every month. 35% met up with people they knew 3 5 times a month. When participants are i n a group of people they knew 100% felt comfortable When talking to new people 5% were more comfortabl e talking to an individual man, 30% were more comfortable talking to an individual
58 woman, 65% were comfortable talking to an individual man or woman. Whe n participants talked to groups 5% were more comfo rtable talking to groups of men, 20% were comforta ble talking to groups of woman, and 80% were comfortable talking to groups with men and women. Those surveyed at the CSC were by themselves 70% 25% w ere in a group of 1 3 people, and 5% were in groups of 4 6. Around 25% were waiting on others to meet them there. Around 10% were waiting on groups of 1 3 and 10% were waiting on groups of 4 6. 5% were waiting on groups of 8 or more. There are tw o main floors at the CSC. On the first floor people spent most of their time being social. The tables on the wall were populated with people using laptops on the first floor and the second floor. Tables located in the middle were used for group meetings and socializing. Laptop users used tables that were located against the wall. Laptop users were by themselves more than they were in groups. When one person in a group had a laptop usually all members had a laptop. On the second floor most customers were doi ng work related tasks. The customers who sat on the couches in the center of the room would mostly read or socialize. People appeared to feel comfortable with their surrounding and were encouraged by the staff to open windows if the heater or air condition er were not on. Those using MP3 players sat alone. They were usually writing or reading. No one sat by themselves using a MP3 player. People using cell phones did so quietly. Cell phone users were less likely to go outside to use their cell phone than at other locations. Customers would send text messages on their phone while they were interacting with others. Not all people in the space bought food or drink. They get a free glass of water from the self help table and start doing work or meet up with an other group already there. People felt at home in this space and on occasion people would take off their shoes as if they were home.
59 Some customers would sleep on couches. The employees talked to the customers as if they knew some of the customers who came in by name. Groups would meet in on the bottom floor on a regular basis. They would move the furniture to suit their needs by rearranging chairs and tables. The staff did not complain or attempt to interact with the group while they did this. Volta Vol ta Coffee, Tea, and C hocolate is loc ated in downtown Gainesville, FL on SW 2nd Street. They are located across the street from Market Street P ub and are on the bottom floor of a parking garage. They offer street parking and parking in the garage. Bike park ing is also available in front of the building and the parking garage. Their menu consists of coffees, teas, chocolates, and baked goods. There is outdoor seating and one main large room with the main counter and various chairs and seats. The layout of the din ning room is located at Fig. 5 14. The outside dinning area is not fenced in. Volta has a website. This website is used to update customers about products, hours of operation, and other store info. Also Volta uses facebook, myspace, twitter, and a blog to allow customers to keep track of whats going on in the shop. They also have free access WiFi. Their website is http://www.voltacoffee.com/ At Volta 20 surveys were completed. Men completed 9 surveys and wom en completed 11. Age groups consisted of 50% 18 to 25 years old, 45% 26 to 35, and 5% 36 to 55. When using technology 60% feel ve ry comfortable using technology, 25% are comfortable, 10% are neutral, and 5% are uncomfortable. Around 95% of customers owned a laptop, 95% owned an MP3 player, 90% owned a cell phone and 10% owned a smart phone. Of those surveyed 20% of custo mers came less than once a month, 15% came once a month, 15% came once and week, 45% came more than once a week and 5% came everyday. When asked if customers considered themselves regulars 60% said yes The employment status o f customers at this location is 70% students, 20% employed part time, 25% employed full time and 5% were unemployed.
60 Laptops are used by 90% of participants in c offee shops. Laptops are used by 70% for the Internet 40% for social networking sites, 15% for instant messaging program s, 5% for chat rooms, 60% for work related tasks, 60% for school related tasks, and 30% for watching and listening to media. Social net working sites were used by 75% of participants. Social networking sites are used by 35% of participants multiple times a day, 10% used them once a day, 10% used them multiple times a week, 5% used them once a week, 5% used them multiple times a month, 5% u sed them once a month, and 5% used them less than once a month. Instant messaging programs are used by 35% of participants. Instant messaging programs are used by 10% multiple times a day, 10% used them more than once a week, 10% used them once a week, and 5% used them multiple times a month. While using a laptop 85% of participants are willing to talk and social with people in a coffee. MP3 players are used by 45% of participants. MP3 players are used by 45% of participants to listen to music, 10% to lis ten to podcasts, 5% to listen to lectures, and 10% to listen to audio books. MP3 players were used by 30% of participants to block outside noises. While using a n MP3 player 10% are willing to talk and socialize with people in a coffee shop. Cell phones are used by 75% of participants. While using a cell phone 25% are willing to talk and socialize with people in a coffee shop Around 45% are willing to text message in a coffee shop. Smart phones are used by 10% of participants Smart phones are used 10% for the Internet, 5% for social networking sites, 5% for text messaging, 5% for work related tasks, 5% for school related tasks, 5% for watch ing and listen ing to media, and 10% for e -mail. While using a smart phone 10% are willing to talk and socialize in a coffee shop
61 Public WiFi is used by 90% of participants. In coffee shops 0% are willing to pay for WiFi access Coffee shops with free WiFi are actively sought out by 75% of participants to use their tech devices. If there is free WiFi 5% are more l ikely to use an MP3 player, 5% are more likely to use a cell phone, 10% are more likely to use a smart phone, and 80% are more likely to use a laptop. Without free WiFi 50% would leave to go to one with free WiFi. If there is free WiFi 30% would stay 1 6 0 min, 50% would stay 1 3 hours, and 10% would stay 3 5 hours. If there is not free WiFi 55% would stay 1 60 minutes, 25% would stay 1 3 hours, and 10% would stay 3 5 hours. When customers interact with the participants while using a tech devices 20% said they feel very comfortable with the experience, 25% said they feel comfortable, 40% said they feel neutral, and 15% said they feel uncomfortable. Around 50% of participants t alk to people they dont know in coffee shops. When talking to new people 15% feel very comfortable 50% feel comfortable, 25% feel neutr al, and 10% feel uncomfortable. When someone is using a tech device 10% talk to people using MP3 players, 20% talk to p eople using cell phones, 15% talk to people using smart phones, and 50% talk to people using laptops in coffee shops. While someone is using a technology device in a coffee shop 5% feel very comfortable, 35% feel comfortable, 30% feel neutral, and 30% feel uncomfortable talking with that person On average 30% of participants met up with people they knew 0 2 times a month, 35% met up w ith people 3 5 times a month, 10% met up 6 9 times a month, and 25% met up 10 or more times a month. When meeting new people 55% of participants are comfortable meeting new people in coffee shops when the people they meet are in groups. Each month 80% of participants meet 0 2 new people, 15% meet 3 5 new people, 5% meet 10 or more in coffee shops When meeting new peo ple while the participant is in a group of people they know 90% of participants feel
62 comfortable. When meeting a new person 5% feel more comfortab le talking to an individual man, 10% feel more comfortable talking to an individual woman, and 85% feel comfortable talking to an individual man or woman. When meeting a group of people 5% feel more comfortable talking to groups of men, 20% feel more comfortable talking to groups of woman, and 80% feel more comfortable talking to groups of men and women. At Volta 70% were alone and 30% were in a group of 1 3 people. Volta is located on the edge of downtown Gainesville. It is on the lower level of a parking garage. There is parking located on the street, in the parking garage. Bike parking is ava ilable in front and the sidewalk is safe and used often. They sell coffee, tea, chocolate, baked goods, and small food items. The space is clean and has rotating art that is produced by local artists. They have free WiFi that does not require a password. A cup of coffee is around $3. Outside there are four tables on the sidewalk and one main room. In the main room there were some tables on the center, a few tables and chairs against the wall. In the main room the tables next to outlets were populated with p eople using laptops. A majority of those people stayed only at the tables against the wall that was also close to an outlet. There are 3 big chairs that were usually filled with people reading or socializing. Groups mainly used the tables not close to powe r outlets. Light tech users would also use tables not next to power outlets. Medium users used tables next to outlets and not. Heavy users located in the back corner of the coffee shop. They would stay there and not socialize with others in the space. Light music was played but it never drowned out conversations. Medium and light tech users would use the patio.. This space was mainly used in the daytime. One or two people would be outside during the lunch hours or early in the evening. At night the use of t he patio went down.
63 MP3 player usage was limited. People using these devices would not specifically stay in one location. They would not interact with their surroundings unless someone they knew showed up. Cell phone and smart phone users would use their phone inside the coffee shop. A limited number would step outside. Laptop users who received or made calls on their cell phones would not leave their computer to use a cell phone. Employees appeared to know customers on a first name basis and were able to remember what customers usually ordered. They would have conversations with customers if they had not seen them in a while and remind them about events they were having that they thought the customer might be interested in. People in groups felt comfort able and would talk at regular levels. In general people felt comfortable in the space and appeared to relax. Starbucks Starbucks is a chain coffee shop located across the street from Maudes. It is loc ated in downtown Gainesville, FL It has on the stree t parking located in front and the side streets of the store. This location offers one main room and sidewalk seating. Their store is located in a mixed use building that has office and apartments above it. Their menu includes food, coffee, and tea. Inside this room there are a variety of tables and chairs set up for customers. The layout for th ese tables is located on Fig. 5 10. Outside there is a row of seats and tables with umbrellas. This seating is not fenced or block in any way. They do have a website however it is not store specific. The main Starbucks website goes over information about the business, online store, and allows you to find other Starbucks in your area. Starbucks has free WiFi provided by the City of Gainesville. Starbucks charges for Wi Fi access at locations that do not offer it for free from another source. Their website is http://www.starbucks.com/ At Starbucks, 21 surveys were compl eted with 13 men and 8 women completing the surveys. The age ranged from 28.8% being 18 to 25 years old 52.4% being 26 to 35 years old,
64 14.3% being 36 to 55 years old, and 9.5% being 55 years old or older. When de aling with technology 57.1% feel very comfortable, 23.8% feel comfortable, 14.3% feel neutral, and 4.8% feel uncomfortable. Laptops are owned by 85.7% of participants MP3 players are owned by 47.6% of participants Cell phones are owned by 81% and smart phones are owned by 14.3%. Customers would visit this location less than once a month 9.5%, 14.3% came once a month, 4.8% came once a week, 42.9% came more than once a week, and 28.6% came everyday. Around 66.7% considered themselves a regular. Those employed consisted of 42.9% students. 19% part time, 33.3% full time, 14.3% were unemployed, and 4.8% were retired. Of those surveyed 23.8% worked for themselves and 23.8% were employed by someone else. Laptops are used by 57.1% of participants in coffee shops. While in coffee shops 57.1% use the Internet, 42.9% use social networking sites, 23.8% use instant messaging programs, 9.5% use chat rooms, 33. 3% do work related tasks, 47.6% do school related tasks, and 23.8% watch and listen to media on a laptop. Social networking sites were used by 28.6% multiple times a day, 4.8% once a day, 4.8% once a week, and 4.8% use them multiple times a month. Instant messaging programs are used by 33.3%. Instant messaging programs are used by 4.8% more than once a day, 9.5% once a day, 4.8% more than once a week, 4.8% once a week, and 9.5% less than once a month. While using a laptop 42.9% are willing to talk and socia lize with other people in a coffee shop. MP3 players are used by 19% in coffee shops. MP3 players are used by 19% to listen to music, 4.8% listen to podcasts, 9.5% listen to audio books, and 4.8% watch videos. MP3 players are used by 14.3% to block out o utside noises. While using a n MP3 player 14.3% of participants are willing to talk and socialize with people around them.
65 Cell phones are used by 71.4% of participants in coffee shops. While using a cell phone 28.6% are willing to talk and socialize in c offee shops In coffee shops 47.6% text message on a cell phone Smart phones are used by 14.3 % in coffee shops. Smart phones are used by 9.5% use for Internet access, 4.8% for text messaging, and 4.8% for work related tasks. While using a smart phone 14.3% are willing to talk and socialize with people in a coffee shop Public WiFi is used by 66.7% of participants at Starbucks. In a coffee shop 4.8% are willing to pay for WiFi access. Free WiFi is actively sought out bye 38.1% to use their tech devices. The availability of free WiFi makes participants 14.3% more likely to use a smart phone and 57.1% more likely to use their laptop. If there is not free WiFi 47.6% would leave a coffee shop to go to one with Free WiFi. If there is free WiFi 9.5% will stay 1 60 minutes, 47.6% will stay 1 3 hours, and 9.5% will stay 3 5 hours. If there is not free WiFi 42.9% will stay 1 60 minutes, 19% will stay 1 3 hours, and 4.8% will stay 3 5 hours. When people interact with the participants of the survey whi le they use tech devices 14.3% feel very comfortable, 33.3% feel comfortable, 38.1% feel neutral, 9.5% feel uncomfortable, and 4.8% feel very uncomfortable. In general 52.4% talk to people they dont know in coffee shops. When talking to new people in coff ee shops 47.6% feel very comfortable, 19% are comfortable, 23.8% are neutral, 4.8% are uncomfortable, and 4.8% are very uncomfortable. In general at coffee shops 14.3% of participants talk to people using MP3 players, 19% talk to people using cell phones, 14.3% talk to people using smart phones, and 42.9% talk to people using laptops. When talking to someone using a tech device 14.3% feel very comfortable, 14.3% feel comfortable, 33.3% feel neutral, 28.6% feel uncomfortable, and 9.5% feel very uncomfortable. Each month 42.9% of customers met up with people they knew 0
66 2 times, 29.6% met up 3 5 times, 19% met up 6 9 times, and 9.5% met up with 10 or more people. 66.7% feel comfortable meeting new people in coffee shops when the people they meet are in groups. Each month 81% of participants at Starbucks meet 0 2 people in coffee shops. 14.3% meet 3 5 and 4.8% meet 10 or more. When the customer is in a group of people they know 90.5% are comfortable meeti ng new people in coffee shops. When talking to a individual person 9.5% are comfortable talking to an individual man, 4.8% are more comfortable talking to a individual woman, and 85.7% are comfortable with a individual man or a individual woman. When meeti ng a group 19% are comfortable talking to groups of men, 33.3% are comfortable talking to groups of woman, 61.9% are comfortable talking to groups of men and women, and 4.8% are not comfortable talking to any group. At Starbucks 47.6% were by themselves and 52.4% were there with 1 3 people. 14.3% were waiting on a group of 1 3 to meet them. Starbucks has two main rooms. Inside there are chairs and tables. Outside they have a patio area with tables for customers to sit. Inside most customers use lapto ps or are working on projects. They play music in the background but it does not play to loud. The furniture is not comfortable for extended periods of time. Outside there are metal tables and chairs that are used by the homeless, people from other stores, and Starbucks customers. Groups use these tables without buying from Starbucks. Most customers inside are heavy to medium tech users. They are there with the intention to accomplish work. Laptop users move furniture and locate themselves close to power ou tlets. Those who choose to socialize do so in a limited basis. MP3 players are used inside and out. Those using MP3 players do not socialize to often with those around them. Cell phone users and smart phone users go outside to use their cell phone. Most people do not appear to feel comfortable with their surrounds. Cell phone and Smart phone users will send text messages inside, outside, and while in groups. There is limited
67 socializing while work is being accomplished. The staff does not appear to know many of the customers. The employees appear to socialize with other employees more than with the customers. Starbucks is a corporate coffee shop. This limits what they can or cannot do at this location because decisions about changes have to be made at a regional level. There are limited activities happening in this space. Most customers are working on a laptop or project and not interacting with those around them. The homeless for spare change harass customers who sit outside. This makes customers feel uncomfortable. Also customers sitting outside were the least likely to want to answer surveys compared to all other location. Only 1 survey was refused at all other locations. At Starbucks 8 customers chose to not participate in the survey. Coffee Culture Coffee Culture is an independently owned coffee shop with two locations. The l ocation being researched is on N o rth 13th Avenue in Gainesville, FL This is a stand alone building and has dedicated bike and car parking for the facility. Inside there are tw o separate rooms. The first room has the menu along with a display case with the type of pastries, coffee, and teas offered. The layout of the first room is chairs, tables, and a booth. The layout is at Fig 5 11. The second room is for quiet study. They do not have a website but have a profile on myspace.com. The establishment provides WiFi however it requires a password provided by the cashier. Their website is http://www.myspace.com/coffeeculturegvl At Coffee Culture 20 surveys were completed. Men compl eted 9 and women completed 11 surveys. Age ranges were 60% 18 to 25 years old, 30% 26 to 35 years old 5% 36 to 55 years old, and 5% were 55 and over. When using technology 75% responded that they feel very comfortable 15% responded they feel comfortable, 5% responded that they felt neutral, and 5% felt uncomfortable. Around 85% owned laptops, 70% owned MP3 players, 75% own ed cell
68 phones, and 20% of those surveyed owned smart phones. Participants came to this location 5% l ess than once a month, 20% came once a month, 25% came once a week, 45% ca me more than once a week, and 5% ca me everyday. Around 75% feel as if that they are regulars. The employment status of participants was 75% students, 45% employed part time, 25% employed full time, 5% unemployed, and 5% were retired. Laptops are used by 85% in coffee shops. Laptops are used by 85% for the Inter net, 65% for social networking sites, 30% for instant message programs, 10% for chat rooms, 65% for work related tasks, 70% for school related tasks, and 50% for watching and listening to media. Social networking sites are used by 70% of participants. Social networking sites were used by 45% multiple times a day, 10% once a day, and 15% multiple times a week. Instant messaging programs are used by 40%. Instant messaging programs are used by 10% more than once a day, 15% once a day and 15% more than once a week. While using a laptop 70% were willing to talk and socialize with people around them. MP3 players are used by 30% of participants in coffee shops. MP3 players are used by 30% listen to music, 5% listen to lectures, and 10% watch videos on an MP3 players. Around 30% use an MP3 player to block out outside noises. While using a n MP3 player 5% were willing to talk and socialize with people in a coffee shop. Cell phones are used by 65% in coffee shops. While using a cell phone 20% are willing to talk and socialize with people around them. While in a coffee shop 55% send text messages on a cell phone. Smart phones are used by 20% of participants at coffee c ulture. Smart phones are used by 10% for the Internet, 10% for social networking sites, 10% for text messaging, 10% for work related tasks, 5% for school related tasks, 10% for watch ing and listen ing to media, and 10% for
69 send ing e -mails in coffee shops. While using a Smart phone 15% are willing to talk and socialize in a coffee shop. At coffee culture 90% of the participants in the survey use public WiFi. While in a coffee shop 10% said they were willing to pay for WiFi access. Free WiFi is actively sou ght out by 70% to use their tech devices. The availability of free WiFi makes participants 10% more likely to use a n MP3 player, 10% more likely to use a cell phone, 10% more likely to use a smart phone, and 75% more likely to use a laptop. If there was no t free WiFi 50% were willing to leave a coffee shop to go to one with free WiFi. If there is free WiFi 5% stay 1 60 minutes, 55% stay 1 3 hours, and 30% stay 3 5 hours. If there is not free WiFi 70% stay 1 60 minutes, 15% stay 1 3 hours, and 5% s tay 3 5 hours. When people interact with participants while using one of the previously mentioned devices 10% feel very comfortable, 35% feel comfortable, and 55% feel neutral about the experience. In -general 75% t alk to people they dont know in coffee shops. When meeting new people in coffee shops 60% feel very comfortable. When in coffee shops 35% were willing to talk too MP3 users, 25% were willing to talk to cell phone users, 35% were willing to talk to smart phone users, and 70% were willing to t alk to people using laptops. When people were using these types of devices 15% felt very comfortable, 20% felt comfortable, 45% felt neutral, and 25% felt uncomfortable talking to people using these devices. Each month 35% met up with 0 2 time s a month w ith people they knew, 35% met 3 5 times a month, 15% met 6 9 times and 15% met 10 or more times a month. When meeting new people that are in groups 70% felt comfortable. Around 60% of participants met 0 2 peop le in coffee shops every month, 35% met 3 5 people and 5% met 10 or more people each month. When participants were in a group of people they knew 95% of participants felt comfortable. When meeting a individual person 10%
70 were comfortable meeting individual woman and 90% felt comfortable meetin g an individual man or individual woman. When meeting a group 15% were comfortable talking to groups of men, 30% felt comfortable talking to groups of women, and 75% felt comfortable talking to groups of men and women. At Coffee culture 75% of those survey ed alone and 25% were in groups of 1 3 people with 10% waiting on a group of 1 3. Coffee Culture offer s free WiFi access and was one of the first places to do so in Gainesville This access is protected by a password that is only given to paying custo mers. They offer 3 computers for public use. There does not appear to be a time limit attached to their use. Coffee Culture has a small outdoor patio and two main rooms inside. During the observation per iod the second room was closed throughout the durati on of the study. In the main room there is a collection of tables, chairs, and a few computers for public use. A large number of tables are close together providing access to power outlets. Most users in this setting were medium to heavy tech users. Most people in the main room were using laptops or had papers out to work on. Most laptop users used tables located against the wall. Heavy users would only interact with people against the first wall by asking them to plug in their laptop. A small number of people were being social and talking at normal levels. When entering this space a majority of the time the only ones talking were the employees. Customers did not usually talk until someone entered the space and started talking at normal levels. When this happened more people would start talking at normal levels. There was music playing in the background but it was usually drowned out by the sound of the drive through. MP3 users, Cell phone, and Smart phone users did use primarily the main room. Cell phone and smart phone users usually stepped outside to make voice calls. Those who used their
71 cell phones for text messaging usually did so without leaving the space. On occasion noises from text messages and noises from people receiving tex t messages could be heard. Customers using the tables outside were usually smoking or talking on their cell phone. They would also sit outside when the weather was comfortable and talk about their days and joke around with other customers. Some people do talk to each other however most people are focusing on a task. Those working on laptops that are in groups will stop from time to time to talk to other people at the table they are at. The light conversations are usually reserved for the center tables. The employees do engage the customers in conversation while they are ordering. People seem to be happy in the space and feel comfortable. Most customers do not make eye contact a person entering the space. People randomly meet up with people they know in this space. They make comments such as, What are you doing here? or Do you ever leave. Most customers use the main room with limited numbers going out into the patio area. Customers have the option of using a chessboard, eating, drinking, talking, us ing WiFi, public computers, or working on a project they brought with them. The most prevalent activity is people working on what appears to be work or homework. A majority of those doing these tasks are doing so with their laptops. The c offee shop looks like a converted fast food restaurant. The building is well kept. Customers appear to take ownership of the space. Customers showed ownership of the coffee shop by making comments such as, I cant believe that guy threw his cigarette but on the ground. Y ou dont do that here. This place is like my home and you dont throw cigarette butts in my house. The inside is mostly clean and was recently redone with a new floor. The space feels safe and most customers will leave their bags at the table as they get up to order.
72 Customers can spend time in the space without buying anything however they are not given access to the WiFi. There are public restrooms for customers. The furniture is comfortable. After a few hours the chairs dont loose their comfort. Over all the space feels inviting even if it is quiet at times. Overall Data All five coffee shop locations resulted in 102 completed surveys. These surveys were collected at different times and the participants were randomly selected. Age groups are 56.89% are 18 to 25 years old, 30.39% are 26 to 35 years old, 9.8% are 36 to 55 years old, and 2.94% are 55 or older. This data is demonstrated in Figure 5 1. In figure 5 2 we see that p articipants are 61.76% ve ry comfortable using technology, 26.47% comfortable 8.82% neutral, and 2.94% uncomfortable with technology In F igure 5 3 we see that l aptops are owned by 88.24% of participants, 73.53% own an MP3 player, 76.47% own a cell phone, and 19.61% own a smart phone. Customers came to this location 14.71% less th an once a month, 16.67% once a month, 17.65% once a week, 41.18% more than once a week, and 9.8% came every day Around 63.73% of those surveyed considered themselves a regular at their coffee shop. The employment status of participants is 66.67% student, 27.45% work part time, 23.53% work full time, 5.8% are unemployed, and 1.96% are retired Laptops are used by 76.47% in coffee shops. Laptops are used by 72.55% for the Internet, 53.92% for social networking sites, 19.61% for instant messaging programs, 10.78% for chat rooms, 45.08% for worked related tasks, 63.73% for school related tasks, and 35.39% for watching and listening to media on a laptop while in a coffee shop. Laptop uses are illustrated in figure 5 4. Social networking sites are used by 67.65% of those surveyed. Social networking sites are used by 40.20% more than once a day, 11.76% once a day, 6.86% multiple times a week, 4.90% once a week, 2.94% multiple times a month, .98% once a month, and .98% less
73 than once a month. Instant messaging pro grams is used by 33.33%. They are used by 6.86% multiple times a day, 4.90% once a day, 7.84% more than once a week, 7.84% once a week, .98% multiple times a month, .94% once a month, and 1.96% less than once a month. While using a laptop 66.67% of those s urveyed are willing to talk and socialize with people in a coffee shop. MP3 players are used by 32.35% in coffee shops. MP3 players are used by 32.35% to listen to music, 6.86% to listen to podcasts, 3.92% to listen to lectures, 4.90% to listen to audio books, and 2.94% to watch videos. MP3 players are used by 27.45% to block out outside noises. While using an MP3 player 11.76% are willing to talk and socialize with people in a coffee shop. Cell phones are used by 65.69% in coffee shops. While using a cell phone 24.51% are willing to talk and socialize in a coffee shop. Text messages are sent by 51.96% on a cell phone in a coffee shop. Smart phones are used by 19.61% in coffee shops. Smart phones are used by 10.78% for the Internet, 6.86% for social networking sites, 10.78% for s end ing text messages, 7.84% for wor k related tasks, 4.90% for school related tasks, 3.92% for watch ing and listen ing to media, and 10.78% for send ing e -mails. While using a Smart phone 17.65% are willing to talk a nd socialize in a coffee shop. Public WiFi is used by 81.37%. In coffee shops 6.86% are willing to pay for WiFi access. This comparison is illustrated in figure 5 5. Free WiFi is actively sought out by 62.75% to use tech devices. The availability of free WiFi makes 7.84% more likely to use an MP3 player, 6.86% more likely to use a cell phone, 13.73% more likely to use a smart phone, and 72.55% more likely to use a laptop in a coffee shop. 53.92% of participants would leave a coffee shop without free WiFi to go to one with free WiFi. If there is free WiFi 16.67% stay for 1 60 min,
74 48.04% stay 1 3 hours, 14.71% stay for 3 5 hours, and 1.96% stay for more than 5 hours. If there is not free WiFi 58.82% stay for 1 60 minutes, 17.65% stay for 1 3 hours 3.92% stay for 3 5 hours, and .98% stay for 5 or more hours. This comparison is illustrated in figure 5 7. When customers interact with those surveyed using tech devices 12.75% feel very comfortable, 40.20% feel comfortable, 40.20% feel neutral, 5.88% feel uncomfortable, and .98% feel very uncomfortable about the experience. Around 51.96% talk to people they dont know in coffee shops. When talking to new people in coffee shops 32.35% feel very comfortable, 39.2% feel comfortable, 22.55% feel neutral, 4.90% feel uncomfortable, and .98% feel very uncomfortable. When in coffee shops 17.65% talk to MP3 users, 21.57% talk to cell phone users, 20.59% talk to smart phone users, and 52.94% talk to laptop users. In general, participants feel 6.86% very comfort able, 25.49% feel comfortable, 37.25% feel neutral, 28.43% feel uncomfortable and 1.96% feel very uncomfortable talking to someone using tech devices. On average 34.31% participants met with 0 2 times, 34.31% met 3 5 times, 14.71% met with people 6 9 times, and 16.67% met 10 or more times a month. When meeting new people in coffee shops 58.82% feel comfortable. In coffee shops 73.53% meet 0 2 pe ople every month, 22.55% meet 3 5 people, .98% meet 6 9 people, and 2.94% meet 10 or more people. When in a group of people the participant knows 94.12% feel comfortable. In figure 5 8 customers meeting new people in a group is compared to customers meeting an individual. When meeting new people 7.4% feel more com fortable meeting an individual man, 11.76% feel more comfo rtable with an individual woman, and 80.39% feel comfortable with an individual man or an individual woman. When meeting a group of people 10.78% feel more comfortable meeting groups of men, 25.49% feel more comfortable meeting grou ps of women and 73.53% feel more comfortable with men and women in the same groups. Participants are by themselves 58.82%,
75 40.20% are in groups of 1 3, .98% are in groups of 4 6. 9.8% were waiting on people to meet them at the coffee shop they were at 8.82% were waiting on 1 3 people, 1.96% were waiting on groups of 4 6, and .98% were waiting on 8 or more people. Laptop users Out of those surveyed, 90 owned laptops. Laptops are owned by 58.89% 18 to 25 years old, 32.22% were 26 to 35 years old, 6.67% were 36 to 55, and 2.22% were 55 or older. Laptops are used by 85.56% in coffee shops. Around 81.11% use their laptop for internet, 60% use social networking sites, 22.22% use instant message programs, 52.22% do work related tasks, 71.11% do school r elated tasks, and 40% watch and listen to media on their laptops in coffee shops. Social networking sites are used by 74.44% of people who own laptops. Social networking sites are used by 44.44% multiple times a day, 12.22% once a day, 7.78% multiple times a week, 5.56% once a week, 3.33% multiple times a month, 1.11% once a month, and 1.11% less than once a month. Instant messaging programs are used by 37.78% of participants. Instant messaging programs are used by 7.78% more than once a day, 5.56% use them once a day, 8.89% use them more than once a week, 8.89% use them once a week, 1.11% use them multiple times a month, 3.33% use them once a month, and 2.22% use them less than once a month. In a coffee shop 74.44% of participants who own a laptop were will ing to talk and socialize with people while using their laptop. Public WiFi is used by 90% of l aptops owners. Around 5.56% of participants who own laptops are willing to pay for WiFi access. Free WiFi is actively sought out by 70% of participants. If the re is not free WiFI 60% of participants were wiling to leave a coffee shop to go to one with free WiFi. If there is free WiFi 18.89% stay 1 60 minutes, 53.33% stay 1 3 hours, 16.67% stay 3 5 hours and 1.11% stay for more than 5 hours. If there is not free WiFi
76 65.56% stay for 1 60 minutes, 20% will stay for 1 3 hours, and 4.44% will stay from 3 5 hours.
77 Figure 5 1. Age Groups Surveyed in all 5 coffee shops Figure 5 2. Comfort Level with Technology. Figure 5 3. Technology Ownership 18 25 Years old 26 35 Years old 36 55 Years old 55 + Years old 0 50 100 Laptop MP3 Player Cell Phone Smart Phone Technology Ownership Very Comfortable Comfortable Neutral Uncomfortable Very Uncomfortable
78 Figure 5 4. Types of activities performed on a laptop in a coffee shop. Figure 5 5. People who use public WiFi compared to those willing to pay for WiFi access. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Laptop Activities 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Use public WiFi Pay for WiFi access when in coffee shops WiFi Use
79 Figure 5 6. Time spent when there is or is not WiFi access i n a coffee shop. Figure 5 7. Customers willing to talk to technology device users in a coffee shop. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 60 min. 1 3 hrs 3 5 hrs 5 or more hrs. WiFi No WiFi 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 MP3 Player Cell Phone Smart Phone Laptop Willing to talk Not willing to talk
80 Figure 5 8. Comfort meeting new people in groups compared to comfort of meeting new people while in a group. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Meeting new people that are in a group. Meeting a new person while in a group. Comfortable Not Comfortable
81 Figure 5 9. Maudes Classic Cafe: Layout
82 Figure 5 10. Starbucks: Layout
83 Figure 5 11. Coffee Culture: Layout
84 Figure 5 12. Christian Study Center: 1st Floor Layout
85 Figure 5 13. Christian Study Center: 2nd Floor Layout
86 Figure 5 14. Volta: Layout
87 Figure 5 15. Map of coffee s hop Locations.
88 Table 5 1. Coffee Shop Evaluation Summaries Coffee Shop Evaluation Summaries Maudes Starbucks Volta Coffee Culture CSC Type of Structure Shopping center Mixed use building Mixed use building Stand alone structure Stand alone structure Access & Linkage Parking onsite; Bike, Car, and scooter Parking available; pedestrian accessible; Sidewalks; bus stop accessible; Pedestrian accessible; Handicap accessible. Street Parking; close to bus stop; Pedestrian accessible; Located on sidewalk; limited bike parking; Handicap accessible. Parking in garage; Pedestrian accessible; Located on sidewalk; Ample bike parking; Handicap Accessible. Parking on site; Limited bike parking; Located close to bus stop; located on sidewalk; handicap accessible Parking on site; limited bike parking; Located close to bus stop; Located on sidewalk; Handicap accessible; Affordability Yes. Cup of coffee around $2 dollars Yes. Cup of coffee around $2 dollars Yes. Cup of coffee around $3 dollars Yes. Cup of coffee around $2 dollars Yes. Cup of coffee around $1 dollar Technology Free WiFi; No password Free WiFi not given by Starbucks; Access to free WiFi; No password Free WiFi; No password Free WiFi with Purchase; Password required. Free Wifi; Pa ssword needs to be requested. Sociability Group meetings; people seem happy and smiling; Customers are meeting friends or running into them; Customers make eye contact; There is light music. People in groups talk occasionally; People seem focused on tasks; Customers run into friends; Customers seem unhappy; customers are more social outside than inside; There is light music. Group meetings take place; Variety of activities taking place; Customers are meeting friends or running into them; Customers make eye contact; Employees know customers by name; There is light music. Group meetings; Quiet; Customers in space seem happy; Customers appear to know each other by face; Customers focus on laptops or work; Customers make eye contact with people as they ent er the space. Group meetings; Active customers; Customers know each other by face and name; employees greet people as they enter the space; People make eye contact with others; Light music is played. Uses & Activities Outside is used more than inside; Ac tivities include listening to music, watching movies, playing board games, eating, drinking, socializing, and doing work. Outside is used less than inside; Activities include listening to music, eating, drinking, socializing, reading, doing work. Outside i s used less than inside; Activities include coffee tasting, eating, drinking, reading, socializing, and work; Inside is used more than outside; Activities include eating, drinking, working, using public computers, chess, reading, and socializing Inside is used more than outside; Activities include group meetings, reading, socializing, napping, school related tasks, and special events.
89 Table 5 1. Continued Coffee Shop Evaluation Summaries Maudes Starbucks Volta Coffee Culture CSC Comfort & Image Plenty of seating; seats are comfortable; furniture is movable; feels safe; moderately clean; Pedestrians dominate space. Clean; Plenty of seating; Inside and outside seating; Seating is moderately comfortable; Pedestrians dominate space; Furniture is moveable. Clean; Medium amount of seating; Seating is comfortable; Furniture is moveable; Pedestrians dominate space. Clean; Recently upgraded interior; Plenty of seating; Furniture is moveable; Cars dominate the space around the Coffee shop. Clean; Local art on w alls; Cars and Pedestrians share the space around the building; Seating is comfortable; Plenty of seating inside and limited seating outside; Furniture is moveable. Ability to linger Customers have free access to WiFi and board games; Access to restrooms. Customers outside can stay longer than customers inside; No free items provided; Access to restrooms Customers have free access to WiFi; Magazines and newspapers for reading; Access to restrooms. Customers must purchase something for access to WiFi; Publi c computers are provided; Access to restrooms Customers must ask for access to the internet; Books, magazines, pamphlets, and special events are offered free of charge; Access to restrooms.
90 Table 5 2. Survey Results Summary Survey Results Summary Maudes CSC Volta Starbucks Coffee Culture Overall Age: 18 25 62% 90% 50% 24% 60% 57% Age: 26 35 14% 10% 45% 52% 30% 30% Age: 36 55 24% 0% 5% 14% 5% 10% Age 55 + 0% 0% 0% 10% 5% 3% Consider themselves a regular 43% 75% 60% 67% 75% 64% Employment: Student 62% 85% 70% 43% 75% 67% Employment: Part Time 24% 30% 20% 19% 45% 27% Employment: Full Time 29% 5% 25% 33% 25% 24% Employment: Unemployed 0% 5% 5% 14% 5% 6% Employment: Retired 0% 0% 0% 5% 5% 2% Own Laptop 76% 100% 95% 86% 85% 88% Own MP3 Player 67% 90% 95% 48% 70% 74% Own Cell Phone 57% 80% 90% 81% 75% 76% Own Smart Phone 33% 20% 10% 14% 20% 20%
91 Table 5 2. Continued Survey Results Summary Maudes CSC Volta Starbucks Coffee Culture Overall Use a Laptop in a coffee shop 76% 75% 90% 57% 85% 76% Use a MP3 Player in a coffee shop 10% 60% 45% 19% 30% 32% Use a Cell Phone in a coffee shop 48% 70% 75% 71% 65% 66% Use a Smart Phone in a coffee shop 33% 20% 10% 14% 20% 20% Use public WiFi 71% 90% 90% 67% 90% 81% Willing to pay for WiFi access 10% 10% 0% 5% 10% 7% Actively seek out free WiFi 62% 70% 75% 38% 70% 63% Would leave a coffee shop without free WiFi to go to one with free WiFi 48% 75% 50% 48% 50% 54% Free WiFi: Stay 1 60 minutes 19% 20% 30% 10% 5% 17% Free WiFi: Stay 1 3 hours 24% 65% 50% 48% 55% 48% Free WiFi: Stay 3 5 hours 19% 5% 10% 10% 30% 15% Free WiFi: Stay 5 or more hours 10% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2%
92 Table 5 2. Continued Survey Results Summary Maudes CSC Volta Starbucks Coffee Culture Overall Not free WiFi: Stay 1 60 minutes 48% 80% 55% 43% 70% 59% Not free WiFi: Stay 1 3 hours 19% 10% 25% 19% 15% 18% Not free WiFi: Stay 3 5 hours 0% 0% 10% 5% 5% 4% Not free WiFi: 5 or more hours 5% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% In general talk to people they dont know in coffee shops 38% 45% 50% 52% 75% 52% Comfortable meeting new people in a coffee shop when the new person is in a group 48% 55% 55% 67% 70% 59% Comfortable meeting new people in a coffee shop when theyre in a group of people they know 95% 100% 90% 91% 95% 94%
93 CHAPTER 6 D ISCUSSION Technology has had an impact on how third spaces are used. Surveys and observations show that there are connections between what people do in third spaces based on technology, layout, location, and setting. Each element has an affect on what the space is u sed for and who uses the space. The shape of the built environment influences patterns of activity and social life (Carmona, et al., 2003,p.106). Age Groups In this study, 56.86% of participants who go to coffee shops in Gainesville, Florida are 18 25 years old, 30.39% are 26 35 years old, 9.8% are 36 55 years old, and 2.94% are 55 years old or older. It is important to note that since Gainesville is a college town the age range is not surprising that there is a high number of college age students i n the study A majority of coffee shop users are 18 25 years old but all age groups in this study have similar percentages of laptop ownership. Including all ages 70% of participants own at least one tech device. With so many people owning tech devices m ost coffee shop customers are familiar with some form of technology. Affordability will increase the amount of technology owned by coffee shop users should increase. As portability increases usage in coffee shop s should also go up as well Regulars cons isted of 63.73% at the coffee shops A large number of participants feel as if they are regulars because they have a lot of time to spend in third spaces. They can spend extended time in coffee shops because a laptop allows a coffee shop to be transform ed into a workspace when there is access to WiFi. Employment levels are 66.7% student, 27.45% part time, 23.53% full time, 5.88% unemployed, and 1.96 retired. It could also be said that a large amount of regulars is not as surprising when the largest employme nt group is students. Students have a more time then those employed to spend time in places like coffee shops. Also students
94 can accomplish work from almost any location if they have a laptop and WiFi access. Around 9.8% of participants go to coffee shops everyday, 41.18% go multiple times a week, 17.65% going once a week, 16.67% going once a month, and 14.71% going less than once a month. Over 50% go to coffee shops more than once a week. Pseudo Public Space Vs. Public Space Coffee shops serve as a gatheri ng point in a community. They do so in a way that blurs the line between public space and pseudo public space. A pseudo public space is a space like a coffee shop that is set up to be used like a public space but is privately owned. Public spaces are place s that people gather in a community to build a sense of community but dont have to commit to making a profit. Building a community is achieved equally in both spaces I n a coffee shop it is important to remember that those using the space should understan d that the coffee shop needs to make a profit. The benefit to pseudo public spaces for allowing people to linger is that when people feel ownership in the space they feel more obligated to the place they are at. This means they are more likely to clean up after themselves and purchase more items. Business could gently nudge customers to remember this by having reminders on the wall or having their website come up on their laptops when they log into the WiFi. This kind of site is referred to as a Splash Page and serves as a starting point to entering the web. If this page refreshes every half hour reminding people that if they like the space they should support it and purchase more. This would allow customers to still feel comfortable in the space without feeling pushed out the door if they arent buying. Technology Owner shi p Ownership of mobile tech devices is high. Those surveyed reported that 88.24% own laptops, 73.53% own MP3 players, 76.47% own cell phones, and 19.61% own smart phones. Cell phones and smart phones are both phones. When they are added together we see that 96% of
95 participants at least own one type of cell phone. These statistics show that 73.54% of coffee shop users own some form of technology. Certain devices are used more than others. Laptops are used by 76.47%, MP3 players are used by 32.35%, cell ph ones are used by 65.59% and smart phones are used by 19.61% in coffee shops. This data shows that third spaces should expect to see people using laptops and cell phones by a majority of their customers. Price of technology has gone down in recent years. A laptop can be bought for around $200 dollars and cell phones are given out for free with contracts. Affordability will increase the amount of technology owned by coffee shop users. Also technology has become more portable in recent years. P ortability incr eases usage and should also increase usage in third spaces Cell phones and smart phones do not require specific seating or tables to encourage or discourage use. Laptop usage is encouraged with tables that are close to the wall and located near a power o utlet. Coffee shops and other third spaces can alter the use of space by offering more or less power outlets for customers to use. Laptop use shouldnt be restricted completely because it encourages people to stay longer. However there needs to be a happy balance of laptop use and other uses. Comfort with Technology Comfort with technology is high. More than 85% of those surveyed feel either very comfortable or comfortable using technology. Only 2.4% felt uncomfortable with using technology while the rest felt neutral. A high level of comfort means that a lot of people have experience with technology and tech devices The number of people using a cell phone or a laptop demonstrates this trend. With tech usage so high third places need to design places that allow people to use technology. Allowing people to use these devices encourage people to linger. When people linger they buy more and encourage others to joint them. There needs to be a balance of uses though that incorporates technology and social intera ctions.
96 Design of Locations When designing third spaces technology users and social users need to find a happy medium. Ways to encourage technology users is to offer tables that are close to power outlets. Most laptop users would use tables close to powe r outlets. Heavy tech users seek out tables next to power outlets. Medium users would always look for a power outlet after t hey started using their laptop. Offering to much seating next to outlets though might result in having customers spend to much time working and not enough time making the space lively. Offering moveable tables to encourage customers to sit together increases social interaction By allowing tables to be movable tables can be joined together to form l arger tables allow customers to int eract with people in their group and strangers. Also moveable tables can be then broken apart to allow customers to sit by themselves. Tables need to be light enough to be moved by customers to seat multiple people to encourage groups. Spaces that allowed tables and chairs to be moved offer a wider variety of activities than those that are restrictive. Customers should be able to linger and encouraged to linger. The longer a person is in a space the more chances they have for random encounters or meeting new people. Coffee shops are very affordable third spaces. The cost of admission is around 2 3 dollars for a cup of coffee. Plazas can offer drinks from carts if spaces are not over regulated. Also public restrooms are important for making it comfortable to stay for long periods of time. Third spaces need to offer a variety of experiences (Oldenburg, 1999). Having a variety of tasks that can be done encourages use. Offering activities such as board games, special events, and offering things to read gives users different reasons to come back to a space. Maudes offered board games for its customers to use. Maudes also was the only coffee shop where customers used board games. Customers would come specifically for this reason. In the evening the patio was filled with customers using the space playing games. By allowing the customers to
97 play game it helped to fill the space with conversation. All public spaces cant offer board games but they can increase the likelihood of games to happen by allowing people to linger. Design should also incorporate reminders that the space is not public. Gentle reminders such as small signs to remind customers that they should get that second cup of coffee, are important because coffee shops and most third spaces need to turn a profit Public spaces can aid third spaces by providing additional tables chairs, and space for customers to migrate to. This can be done through creating plazas in urban areas that have extra seating for anyone who wishes to use them. This wou ld allow the business to still benefit from having lots of people there but then not be responsible for providing seating for everyone. Third spaces should offer WiFi access. Coffee shop customers will actively seek out locations with free WiFi. WiFi acc ess encourages people to move locations and stay in one spot longer. 53.92% of participants are willing to leave a coffee shop without free WiFi to go to one with free WiFi. When there is free WiFi 16.67% stay for 1 60 minutes, 48.04% stay for 1 3 hour s, 14.71% stay for 3 5 hours, and 1.96% stayed for more than 5 hours. However when you remove free WiFi 58.82% stay for 1 60 minutes, 17.65% stay for 1 3 hours, 3.92% stay for 3 5 hours, and .98% stay for 5 hours or more. If you remove free WiFi pe ople will not stay nearly as long as if it is free. Even when comparing free WiFi without passwords and free WiFi with passwords use of WiFi stays about the same. Free WiFi also increases usage of laptops. If there is free WiFi 72.55% are more likely to u se a laptop when there is free WiFi. Most people feel comfortable being interacted with while using tech devices with around 52% feeling very comfortable or comfortable with the experience. Tech devices do reduce the amount of interactions people using the devices receives. Laptops are reduced the least as 52.94% of people still willing to talk to laptop users while they
98 are using laptops in coffee shops. Around 67% feel neutral, comfortable, or very comfortable with their experiences talking to people using tech devices. People are willing to talk to those using laptops more than they are willing to talk to new people in coffee shops. Around 51.96% of coffee shop customers willing to talk to new people in coffee shops compared to the 52.94% who talk to lapt op users. Sociability Most people are comfortable talking to new people in coffee shops. When talking to new people 32.35% are very comfortable, 39.22% are comfortable, 22.55% are neutral, 4.9% are uncomfortable, and 1 % are very uncomfortable talking to new people in coffee shops. This shows that around 70% of people at coffee shops are comfortable or very comfortable talking with new people in coffee shops. People are more comfortable meeting new people in coffee shops when they are groups. When people ar e in groups 94.12% are comfortable meeting new people. However when the new people are in groups the comfort drops to 58.82%. These percentages show that people in groups feel more comfortable meeting new people while they are in groups rather than meetin g new people while not being in groups. More than half of people surveyed are comfortable talking to new people in coffee shops. Whenin coffee shops 51.96% talk to people they dont know. Even with technology being a large part of coffee shops people are r emaining social. Customers are also being social with friends outside of coffee shops while in coffee shops thanks to technology Social networking websites allow customers to talk to people they know who are not there at the time. Social networks are used by 67.65%. Around 50% of those who use social networking sites use them once a day if not more. This means that the actual amount of social activity taking place is higher than recorded. This access to being social without concern for place or time did nt exist before WiFi and the Internet.
99 Planning WiFi alter s where people go and how long they stay in a space If planners want to encourage people to be in a certain location free WiFi and spaces to use tech devices can encourage use of the space. Spaces t o use tech devi ces are tables that offer shade and protection from changing weather conditi ons. C offee shop customers will move to a new location for free WiFi when it is not available demonstrating a desire for access. When there is free WiFi we see that most people will stay 1 3 hours but if you take away free WiFi the number drops to 1 60 minutes. WiFi can be used to encourage people to be in a specific place. When planning public spaces free WiFi and places f or people to use technology should be off ered. Offering these elements will encourage people to stay in a space longer This is an important element to add into new town squares or plazas. An example of planning that could benefit from this information is pl aces that follow design principles such as transit oriented develops or traditional communities These types of developments encourage density to increase community by allowing people to live, work, and play in the same location. However they are not meeting the desires of people by not als o emphasizing connectivity between home, work, and third spaces Connectivity can be achieved through virtual communities. Mixing virtual communities with real communities will increase awareness of what is going on in the community. Summar y In summary technology has become an important part of our lives. WiFi access encourages people stay for extended periods of time, go to specific locations, and use technology. The amount of time people spend in third spaces goes up when free WiFi is available. More p eople are willing to talk to people using laptops then they are willing to talk to new people showing that laptops arent as big of a deterrent to interaction as perceived People
100 using laptops can also use social networking sites that connect them to a mu ch broader group of friends to increase social capital. Heavy and medium tech users will seek a power outlet at some point during their time in third spaces. It is important to find a healthy balance between heavy, medium, and light tech nology users to add a variety of activities to the space. To increase the likelihood of communication while in third spaces seating needs to be able to be moved to allow for groups to sit together When people are in groups they more likely to talk to new people. Future Studie s Time and resources for this study were limited for the a uthor. Future studies on this subject should look into different types of third spaces, a larger selection of third spaces, altering technology access, local interactive web -spaces, and alter ing layouts of locations. Different types of third spaces should be considered in future studies. This study focused on coffee shops because they had many of the elements that make a good third space. This study does not include what happens in all third spaces because third spaces are not constrained by size, type, and uses. Pubs, bars, hookah bars, and super markets can all be good third spaces if the elements are present. If studies were performed at these locations results could change. A larger sele ction of third spaces over a greater distance needs to be used in future studies. This study was constrained to the City of Gainesville. Gainesville has a unique population compared to cities without a major university inside the city limits. Third spaces over different regions would help to reduce data from getting changed due to an abnormally high age group in one location. Altering technology access could be used to witness if things like WiFi access encourage or discourage communication habits. WiFi a ccess could be turned off to see if customers talk
101 more than if it was available. Also level of access could be adjusted to see if really fast Internet attracts more people than really slow Internet. Websites could be created at each location that offere d local functions like chat rooms to see if people were more likely to talk to each other if they could do so first in a safe area. Also these websites could provide a web cam to see if the amount of people in the space changes if someone can check the spa ce for people before they go there. Another use would be that w ebsites could also be used to have theme interest nights to see if people are more talkative if they know everyone shares a specific interest. Layouts at locations could be altered to see whe re specific users sit when layout changes. Furniture could be replaced with new furniture that could be moved, could not be moved, and positioned in different locations. Also furniture could be exchanged for different types to see which furniture is the most desirable and for what activities are they the most desirable for.
102 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION Third spaces can develop anywhere. They are not confined by one specific place. They exist as l ong as the elements of a good place are present. By following the recommendati ons below a third spaces will increase its chances of being successful. Third spaces need to allow people to linger in a space. By allowing people to linger it increases the likelihood of social interaction. The lo nger a person is in a specific place the more likely they are to have chance encounters with friends or meet new people. This activity adds life to a city. Free WiFi should be offered anywhere in the city you want people to hangout. As we see in this surv ey if there is free WiFi most people will stay in a coffee shop 1 3 hours. If you take that access away the average amount of time spent changes to 1 60 minutes. C offee shop customers desire free WiFi enough to leave a location with out free WiFi to go to one wit h free WiFi. Power outlets should be offered for tech users. However access should be limited. Third s paces are active w hen there is a variety of uses and users. If there are to many power outlets then computer users will dominate the space. If there are no power outlets it will limit the types of work and access a person can have in the space. For third spaces to accommodate the needs of all users a balance between the types of uses must be achieved. Outdoor seating should provide cover from th e elements. Most technology devices, such as laptops and cell phones, can be damaged by weather conditions such as rain. Protection from the elements needs to be provided to encourage technology device to be used outside along with inside space
103 There sho uld be few restrictions placed on the types of activities allowed to take place in a space. Third spaces flourish when their regulars are allowed to adapt the space to their needs. A third space can change to a meeting space, a workspace or board game nig ht with friends. Limiting the types of uses discourages customers from treating the space as their own A variety of parking needs to be offered to accommodate mu ltiple modes of transportation. Offering bike, scooter, and car parking allows for a variety of customers to come and go as they please. This increases traffic and activity. Incentives should be offered for locating in urban locations. By locating in urban locations density is encouraged Increas ed density benefits not only that third space but also any space that is around it by adding to the street life. An active street life makes streets safer by adding eyes on the street It also provides novelty by having a variety of people using the space. Incentives should be offered th at benefit local business over chain stores. Chain stores cannot adapt to the local community. They are concerned with offering a specific experience for every customer. Spaces that are independently owned can adapt to the community and add a sense of plac e. Third spaces need to be pedestri an oriented. Pedestrian friendly spaces all ow people to feel safe moving around the l ocation. When it is safe for pedestrians they are more likely to walk to other locations on side walks. Furniture provided should be comfortable. Comfortable furniture encourages people to stay in a space longer. This furniture also needs to also be light enough to move Making the furniture mobile allows it to be changed to accommodate many uses. Also furni ture needs to be allowed on the sidewalk. Furniture on the sidewalk, such as chairs and tables, adds to street life and encourages the likelihood of chance encounters.
104 White noise should be used to encourage conversations. White noise provides a buffer fr om what is going on around them. This makes the space more conducive to conversation. White noise can come in the form of light music to a water fountain. These methods used properly, will improve the conditions of third space s Good third spaces are the places to go in our communities. No matter how beautiful a city is if there is nowhere to go the streets will remain empty. Third spaces provide the pla ce to go before and after work. They serve as informal meeting place. Third spaces are the places tha t communities are formed around. As technology continues to change cities and third spaces will have to meet these ne w needs. This can be achieved today by providing free WiFi to encourage people to spend time. Also limiting the amount of restrictions a sp ace has allows for more uses When people are allowed to manipulate a space to their needs they eventually feel ownership of the place they are in When people in the space feel ownership of their surroundings they become what is referred to as regulars. T hrough the method s presented in this thesis third spaces can continue to be important places in our local community.
105 CHAPTER 8 RECOMMENDATIONS Allow people t o linger to increase social opportunities Offer free WiFi at locations you want people to go to Offer a limited number of p ower outlets for tech nology users Provide cover outside to protect technology users from changing weather conditions Offer and a llow many types of activities to take place in the space Provide parki ng for bike s scooters, and ca rs Offer incentives for locating in urban locations Offer incentives for local business owners Make the space pedestrian oriented Offer a variety of seati ng options that are comfortable Allow people to move furniture to fit their needs Allow sidewalk seating to increase chance encounters Provide white noise to encourage conversation
106 APPENDIX A SURVEY Interviewer Statement Greetings, my name is Travis Johnson and Im a graduate student at the University of Florida. I am currently conducting research for my thesis. Through the collection of information on technology usage and communication habits in coffee shops, I hope to understand whether technology is changing the way coffee shops are used. Would you be willing to answer a few questions ab out your habits inside coffee shops? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No Are you 18 years or older? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No If No, Thank you for your time. If Yes, Thank you for participating in the survey. If at any time during the interview you do not wish to respond to questions, please let the interviewer know. We will skip to the next question. If at anytime you wish to stop your participation in this survey please let the interviewer know and the survey will be stopped. The information being collected is to be used for academic purposes only. All responses will be kept confidential. Your assistance is greatly appreciated. (I will administer the survey by asking the questions in the attached survey to the participant. Participants will be randomly selected from patrons of the coffee shop.) Date__________ (Completed by Interviewer) Time__________ (Completed by Interviewer) Name of Establishment (Completed by Interviewer) _____________________________ Does the establishment have WiFi? (Completed by Interviewer) __ 1) Yes __ 2) No If yes, what kind? (Completed by Interviewer) __ 1) Free WiFi __ 2) Subscription WiFi __ 3) Pay for WiFi __ 4) Password WiFi __ 5) Membership WiFi Gender (Completed by Interviewer) __ 1) Male __ 2) Female Survey A. Background Information 1 Please tell me in which age group you belong. Once I reach the age group you feel best describes you please tell me to stop. Are you?) __ 1) Under 18 (Terminate Research) __ 2) 18 25 __ 3) 26 35 __ 4) 36 55
107 __ 5) 55+ 2 How comfortable do you feel with using technology? __ 1) Very comfortable __ 2) Comfortable __ 3) Neutral __ 4) Uncomfortable __ 5) Very uncomfortable 3 Which of the following tech devices do you own? __ 1) La ptop __ 2) MP3 player (I Pod/other device to listen to music) __ 3) Cell phone (Basic cell phone with only call functions and text messages) __ 4) Smart phone/PDA (Phones with internet, multimedia messages, e -mail, GPS, or qwerty keyboard) 4 How often do you come to this establishment? __ 1) Less than once a month __ 2) Once a month __ 3) Once a week __ 4) More than once a week __ 5) Everyday 5 Would you consider yourself a regular? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No 6a What is your employment status? (Check all t hat apply) __ 1) Student __ 2) Part time __ 3) Full time __ 4) Unemployed __ 5) Retired 6b (If employed) Do you work for yourself or for someone else? __ 1) Self __ 2) Someone else B. Laptop __ (Doesnt Own) 1 Do you use your laptop in a coffee shop? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No 2 What do you do on your laptop in a coffee shop? (Check all that apply) __ 1) Internet __ 2) Social networking sites (MySpace, Facebook) __ 3) Instant message __ 4) Chat room (Text or Avatar) __ 5) Work __ 6) School related __ 7) Wa tch / Listen to media 3a Do you use social networking sites (MySpace, Facebook)? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No 3b If yes, in general how often? __ 1) Multiple times a day
108 __ 2) Once a Day __ 3) Multiple times a week __ 4) Once a week __ 5) Multiple times a month __ 6) Once a month __ 7) Less than once a month 4a Do you use instant message programs? (I Chat, Google Chat, Yahoo Messenger) __ 1) Yes __ 2) No 4b If yes, in general how often? __ 1) More than once a day __ 2) Once a day __ 3) More than once a week __ 4) Once a week __ 5) Multiple times a month __ 6) Once a month __ 7) Less than once a month 5 Are you willing to talk and socialize with people in a coffee shop while youre using your laptop? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No C. MP3 Player __ (Doesnt Own) 1 Do you use your MP3 player in coffee shops? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No 2 What do you listen to / watch on your MP3 player? __ 1) Music __ 2) Podcasts __ 3) Lectures __ 4) Audio books __ 5) Videos 3 Do you use your MP3 player to block out outside noises? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No 4 Are you willing to talk and socialize with people in a coffee shop while youre using your MP3 player? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No D. Cell phone __ (Doesnt Own) 1 Do you use your cell phone in a coffee shop? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No 2 Are you willing to talk and socialize with people in a coffee shop while youre using your cell phone? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No 3 Do you text message on your cell phone in a coffee shop? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No E. Smart Phone/PDA __ (Doesnt Own) 1 Do you use your PDA/Sm art Phone in a coffee shop? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No
109 2 What do you use your PDA/Smart Phone for? (Check all that apply) __ 1) Internet __ 2) Social networking sites (Myspace, Facebook) __ 3) Instant message/text messaging __ 4) Work __ 5) School related __ 6) Watch / Listen to media __ 7) Email 3 Are you willing to talk and socialize with people in a coffee shop while youre using your PDA/Smart Phone? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No F. WiFi 1 Do you use public WiFi? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No 2 Are you willing to pay for Wi Fi access when in coffee shops? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No 3 Do you actively seek out coffee shops with free WiFi to use your technology devices? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No 4 Does the availability of free WiFi make you more likely to use tech devices? a. MP3 Player 1) Yes __ 2) No b. Cell Phone __ 1) Yes __ 2) No c. Smart Phone/PDA __ 1) Yes __ 2) No d. Laptop __ 1) Yes __ 2) No 5 Would you leave a coffee shop without free WiFi to go to one with free WiFi? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No 6 If there is free WiFi available, how long, on average, will you stay in a coffee shop? __ 1) 1 60 min __ 2) 1 3 hours __ 3) 3 5 hours __ 4) 5 or more hours 7 If there is not free WiFi available, how long, on average, do you stay in a coffee sh op? __ 1) 1 60 min __ 2) 1 3 Hours __ 3) 3 5 Hours __ 4) 5 or more Hours G. Social Interaction 1 When people interact with you while youre using any of the previously mentioned devices, how does it make you feel? __ 1) Very Comfortable __ 2) Com fortable __ 3) Neutral __ 4) Uncomfortable
110 __ 5) Very Uncomfortable 2 In general do you talk with people that you dont know in a coffee shop? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No 3 In general how comfortable are you talking with new people in coffee shops? __ 1) Very comfortable __ 2) Comfortable __ 3) Neutral __ 4) Uncomfortable __ 5) Very uncomfortable 4 In general do you talk to people who are using the following devices in coffee shops? a. MP3 player __ 1) Yes __ 2) No b. Cell phone __ 1) Yes __ 2) No c. Smart phone / PDA __ 1) Yes __ 2) No d. Laptop __ 1) Yes __ 2) No 5 In general how do you feel about the experience of talking to someone using these devices in a coffee shop? __ 1) Very comfortable __ 2) Comfortable __ 3) Neutral __ 4) Uncomfortable __ 5) Ve ry uncomfortable 6 On average how many times a month do you meet up with people you know in a coffee shop? __ 1) 0 2 times __ 2) 3 5 times __ 3) 6 9 times __ 4) 10 more 7a Are you comfortable meeting new people in a coffee shop when they are in groups? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No 7b If yes, how comfortable? __ 6) (If No, Check) __ 1) Very Comfortable __ 2) Comfortable __ 3) Neutral __ 4) Uncomfortable __ 5) Very Uncomfortable 8 On average how many new people do you meet in coffee shops every month? __ 1) 0 2 people __ 2) 3 5 people __ 3) 6 9 people __ 4) 10 more people 9a Are you comfortable meeting new people in a coffee shop when youre in a group of people you know? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No
111 9b If yes, how comfortable? __ 6) (If No, Check) __ 1) Very Comfortable __ 2) Comfortable __ 3) Neutral __ 4) Uncomfortable __ 5) Very Uncomfortable 10 Are you more comfortable talking to an individual man, woma n or both? __ 1) Man __ 2) Woman __ 3) Both __ 4) Neither 11 Are you more comfortable talking to groups of men, women, or both (coed)? __ 1) Men __ 2) Women __ 3) Both (Coed) __ 4) Neither 12 How many people are you here with today? __ 1) 0 __ 2) 1 3 __ 3) 4 6 __ 4) 7 8 __ 5) 8 + 13 If youre here with people, are they Male, Female, or Both? __ 1) Male __ 2) Female __ 3) Both __ 4) Not in a Group 14a Are you waiting on people to meet you here? __ 1) Yes __ 2) No 14b If yes, How many? __ 6) (If No, Check) __ 1) 0 __ 2) 1 3 __ 3) 4 6 __ 4) 7 8 __ 5) 8 +
112 APPENDIX B COFFEE SHOP EVALUATION FORMS Maudes Classic Caf (Maudes) Name of Coffee Shop ______Maudes Classic Cafe ______ Hours of Operation ____M Th 7am 11pm F 7am 1am Sat 9am 1 am Sun 10am 11pm_ Location ______101 SE 2nd Place____________ Does the building stand by itself or is it part of another building __Part of Sun Center __ Is the building in an Urban Area ____Yes, it is downtown __________ What is around the building ______The Hippodrome, Starbucks, Quiznos, and other restaurants______ Access & linkages Is there parking onsite _Yes___ If yes, Types of parking ____Car parking is located in the general Sun Center parking. There is also street parking for cars. Bikes can use bike racks in front of the store_____ If no, what parking is available off site _____________________________________ Is there a bus stop close by _yes_ If, yes, how far (estimate) __Within mile__ Is there bike parking _Yes_ If yes, How much _Parking in front along with on sidewalks leading to Coffee shop___ If no, where is the closest place ____________ Are there side walks __ Yes __ Do the roads and paths take people where they want to go ___Yes, in downtown Gainesville the streets and sidewalks are on grids__________ Can people easily walk to the place _______Yes, pedestrians can walk easily and safely on the sidewalks ____ Does the space function for people with special needs _____Yes, there are ramps and tables can be used with wheelchairs_ ________ Affordability
113 Cost of Cheapest Item __ Cookies were around $1. A cup of coffee is around $2. Types of products offered _____Coffee, tea, beer, wine, food, and various other small food items__ Technology Type of WiFi access _____Free with No Password____ Are there computers for public use 0 __, If yes, How many ___________ Is there a time limit for usage _____________________ Sociability Are people in groups talking to each other ____Yes, most groups locate outside ___ Does t he mix of ages and ethnic groups reflect the community at large _Yes Are people smiling __People seem happy and are smiling _____ Are people meeting friends or running into them ___Both_ __ Do people seem to know each other by face or name __ Yes, groups app ear to be social with other groups__ Do people appear to make eye contact Yes, people make eye contact with you as you go outside or enter the main room___ Is there music Yes, If yes is it soft enough for people to talk easily _Yes Uses & activities What space are people using more _When the weather is comfortable people tend to be outside more than inside___ What are the choices of things to do __ Talk, socialize, work, listen to music, watch movies, play board games, eat, and drink__ Is it used by p eople of different ages There appears to be a wide range of customers ___ What types of activities are going on __Playing board games, using laptops, talking, meeting friends, eating, drinking, listening to MP3 players, sending text messages, talking on ce ll phones, watching videos, watching movies, listening to music, doing work, and reading
114 Comfort & image What does the inside look like? __Inside there is a collection of tables and chairs. There is a screen for watching movies against the back wall. Most tables are for 2 people but can seat up to 4. Most of the furniture is older. What does the building look like __The Sun Center looks re latively clean and appears to be well kept. It looks like a strip mall without parking in front. Are there enough places to sit __ Yes ___ Is there places to sit outside in the sun Yes___ shade No Does it feel safe __ Yes_______ Do vehicles or pedestria ns dominate the space __ Pedestrians________ Is the space clean ____It is moderately clean _____ Is there seating next to power outlets __Yes ___, If yes how much __most seats along the wall have access to power outlets__ Ability to linger Can people use th e space without buying an Item __ Yes_ ____ Does it appear that customers are encouraged to leave after buying an item _____No, Customers appear to be encourage to linger because they offer board games and free water____ Is the furniture comfortable _____It is comfortable for at least a hour______ Is there access to restrooms _______Yes, but the key is located next to the register_______ Starbucks Name of Coffee Shop _______Starbucks________ Hours of Operation ______________________________________________________ Location ______Downtown Gainesville ___ Does the building stand by itself or is it part of another building __Part of a mix use building ___ Is the building in an Urban Area ____Yes____ What is around t he building ___Maudes Classic Caf, Drangon fly, Quiznos, and the Hippodrome theater.
115 Access & linkages Is there parking onsite __No If yes, Types of parking ___________________________________________________________________ If no, what parking is available off site ___ Street parking_____ Is there a bus stop close by Yes If, yes, how far (estimate) ___1/2 mile__ Is there bike parking Yes If yes, How much _Limited bike parking on sidewalks __ If no, where is the closest place ____________ Are the re sidewalks? Yes Do the roads and paths take people where they want to go _____Yes, they are in a grid pattern and connect all of downtown __________ Can people easily walk to the place _______________Yes, The sidewalk is large and safe_______ Does the space function for people with special needs ________Yes, The tables are wheel chair accessible and there are not stairs to enter or leave the location______ Affordability Cost of Cheapest Item _$1.75 cup of coffee_ _______ Types of products offered __pastries, coffee, tea, hot chocolate, coffee cups, bags of coffee, water, cds, newspapers, sandwiches, and salads___ Technology Type of WiFi access ___Pay WiFi__ ___ Are there computers for public use __No __, If yes, How many ___________ Is there a time li mit for usage _____________________ Sociability Are people in groups talking to each other ______on a limited basis _____ Does the mix of ages and ethnic groups reflect the community at large __Yes Are people smiling __People appear focused on doing work and other tasks. They appear to not
116 be that social or happy while in the space____ Are people meeting friends or running into them __ Yes ___ Do people seem to know each other by face or name __ Customers know other customers __ Do people appear to make eye co ntact __ No, most customers focus on completing tasks__ Is there music Yes _, If yes is it soft enough for people to talk easily _Yes __ Uses & activities What space are people using more _____ Inside_____________________________ What are the choices of thin gs to do work, laptops, talk, eat, drink, and be social _____ Is it used by people of different ages __Yes, multiple age groups use this location __ What types of activities are going on ___People are talk, working on a project, doing homework, doing work, reading, using laptops, and using MP3 players Comfort & image What does the inside look like ____ The inside looks very modern and clean. Starbucks dcor looks similar at every location ___ What does the building look like ____The building is a mix use structure with stores on the bottom floor and apartments on top __ Are there enough places to sit Yes __ Is there places to sit outside in the sun Yes shade Yes ___ Does it feel safe Yes Do vehicles or pedestrians dominate the space Pedestrians dominate the space __ Is the space clean ___ The space is clean and well kept ___ Is there seating next to power outlets Yes __, If yes how much __seating along the wall __ Ability to linger Can people use the space without buying an Item __ On the Patio they can ___ Does it appear that customers are encouraged to leave after buying an item _____there are not many free items for customers to use encouraging people to leave _____ Is the furniture comfortable ____furniture is not comfortable after long periods of time ____
117 Is there access to restrooms ____Yes____ Volta Name of Coffee Shop ______Volta___ _________ Hours of Operation ____M F 8am 11pm Sat 9am 11pm Sun 9am 7pm __ Location _____48 SW 2nd Street. ______________ Does the building stand by itself or is it pa rt of another building __It is on the bottom floor of a parking garage __ Is the building in an Urban Area ___ Yes_ ____ What is around the building ________ The building is located inside a parking garage, next to decadence, a convenience store, and market street pub.______ Access & linkages Is there parking onsite _Yes__ If yes, Types of parking ____In the parking garage and on the street .____ If no, what parking is available off site _____________________________________ Is there a bus stop close by Yes If, yes, how far (estimate) __1/2 mile___ Is there bike parking _Yes __ If yes, How much _In front and in the parking garage __ If no, where is the closest place ____________ Are there side walks __ Yes Do the roads and paths take people where they want to go ___Yes. The roads and sidewalks are connected _____ Can people easily walk to the place ________Yes, the sidewalks are wide and connect to housing _____________ Does the space function for people wit h special needs ______Yes, Tables can be used by those in wheel chairs and there are no stairs _______ Affordability Cost of Cheapest Item __$1.20 croissant and $2.75 cup of coffee__ Types of products offered ____Coffee, tea, chocolate, soups, and variou s small snacks ___
118 Technology Type of WiFi access ___ Free with no password Are there computers for public use no _, If yes, How many ___________ Is there a time limit for usage _____________________ Sociability Are people in groups talking to each other Yes, most groups are having conversations ____ Does the mix of ages and ethnic groups reflect the community at large _Yes Are people smiling __People appear to be happy and enjoying their time in the space ______ Are people meeting friends or running into them People seem to be randomly encountering friends and meeting up with people in this space___ Do people seem to know each other by face or name __ Customers seem to know each other by name and some of the staff know their customers by name___ Do people appear to make eye contact _____Yes, when you enter the space people look up to see who is coming in____ Is there music Yes _, If yes is it soft enough for people to talk easily _Yes __ Uses & activities What space are people using more _____ People use the space inside more than outside ___ What are the choices of things to do __ coffee tasting, eating, drinking, using wifi, reading newspapers, and socializing ___ Is it used by people of different ages __A variety of ages use this space ___ What types of ac tivities are going on ___laptops, school work, work, phone calls, eating, drinking, coffee tasting, reading, and group meetings __ Comfort & image What does the inside look like ____ The inside is filled with local art. It is clean and a minimalist design. Tables and chairs are simple and there are some soft leather chairs against the wall __ What does the building look like
119 __The building is clean and new. There is not much inside the building besides the coffee shop and the convenience store. The parking ga rage takes up most of the building.___ Are there enough places to sit __ Yes __ Is there places to sit outside in the sun Yes shade _No Does it feel safe __ Ye s__ Do vehicles or pedestrians dominate the space _____Pedestrians are dominate in this space ___ Is the space clean _____The space is very clean and well kept ____ Is there seating next to power outlets _Yes__, If yes how much _There is limited seating in the back right corner_ Ability to linger Can people use the space without buying an Item Ye s_ __ Does it appear that customers are encouraged to leave after buying an item ___No, customers are not encouraged to leave and are provided free internet, newspapers, and magazine to encourage them to stay______ Is the furniture comfortable __Yes, the 3 leather chairs against the wall are very comfortable ___ Is there access to restrooms ____Yes_ __ Coffee Culture Name of Coffee Shop _______Coffee Culture ______ Hours of Operation _____M F 6am 12am Sat 7am 12am Sun 7am 10pm Location ____2020 NW. 13th Street _______ Does the building stand by itself or is it part of another building _Stand alone structure ___ Is the building in an Urban Area __ No ______ What is around the building ____The building is a stand alone structure. Gainesville highschool is close by ___ Access & linkages Is there parking onsite __Yes __ If yes, Types of parking _____There is a small parking lot located on site_ _______
120 If no, what parking is available off site _____________________________________ Is there a bus stop close by Yes If, yes, how far (estimate) Within a mile __ Is there bike parking Yes If yes, How much __limited bike racks ____ If no, where is the closest place ____________ Are there side walks __ Yes but they are not heavily used Do the roads and paths take peo ple where they want to go ____No. There is not much to walk to. Most customers have to drive to this location ______ Can people easily walk to the place _____No. The sidewalk is not wide and it is not easy to cross the road ______ Does the space function for people with special needs ________Yes. Tables can be moved and are accessible to those in wheelchairs _________ Affordability Cost of Cheapest Item __$1.75 cup of coffee Types of products offered ___Coffee, tea, baked goods, and other drinks are offered ___ Technology Type of WiFi access __ Password WiFi for customers only Are there computers for public use Yes __, If yes, How many __3 ___ Is there a time limit for usage ___ No. People can use them as long as they need ___ Sociability Are people in groups talking to each other ___People talking in groups do so quietly ___ Does the mix of ages and ethnic groups reflect the community at large __Yes_ Are people smiling ___People in this space seem happy __ Are people meeting friends or running into them __It appears that most people are meeting with friends in this space __ Do people seem to know each other by face or name __ people appear to know each other by face Do people appear to make eye contact people make contact with others as they enter the spa ce__ Is there music Yes _, If yes is it soft enough for people to talk easily _Yes
121 Uses & activities What space are people using more ____ People spend most of their time inside ___ What are the choices of things to do __ Eat, Drink, work, use WiFi, use pu blic computers, play chess, read, and socialize_ Is it used by people of different ages __Yes there are a variety of ages What types of activities are going on __most people are talking, working on laptops, working on computers, reading, eating, and drinking Comfort & image What does the inside look like ___ The inside was recently redone. It is clean and bright with lots of chairs and small tables __ What does the building look like ___ The building look like a converted fast food restaurant. It has a drive thru on one side.____ Are there enough places to sit Yes __ Is there places to sit outside in the sun Yes_ shade _No_ Does it feel safe Yes Do vehicles or pedestrians dominate the space __Vehicles __ Is the space clean The space is clean and recen tly replaced __ Is there seating next to power outlets __Yes _, If yes how much _Around 8 tables have access to power outlets __ Ability to linger Can people use the space without buying an Item __ Yes, but WiFi is saved for customers __ Does it appear that c ustomers are encouraged to leave after buying an item ___No, they encourage people to spend time____ Is the furniture comfortable __The furniture is comfortable for around a hour ____ Is there access to restrooms __ Yes ____
122 Christian Study Center and Pascal s Coffee Name of Coffee Shop _Christian Study Center and Pascals Coffee ______ Hours of Operation ________M F 8:00am 6:00pm______________ Location _____College Ghetto across from UF _______ Does the building stand by itself or is it part of another building __ Stand by itself____ What is around the building _________The building is in a residential community. Houses, apartments, and small businesses surround it. Access & linkages Is there parking onsite __yes __ If yes, Types of parking ___There is a parking lot and street parking_ _____ If no, what parking is available off site _____________________________________ Is there a bus stop close by Yes If, yes, how far (estimate) _Within a mile__ Is there bike parking Yes If yes, How much __One bike rack ___ If no, where is the closest place ____________ Are there side walks Yes __ Do the roads and paths take people where they want to go ___Yes, roads and sidewalks are on a grid pattern like they are downtown_ ___ Can people easily walk to the place ____Pedestrians can easily walk to the location. It is located inside of a residential community ___ Does the space function for people with special needs ____Yes there is wheelchair access for the first floor, However there is not access to the 2nd floor_ __ Affordability Cost of Cheapest Item __$1.00 for a cup of coffee ___ Types of products offered ___They offer coffee, tea, drinks, and small food items ___ Technology Type of WiFi access _Free password WiFi___
123 Are there computers for public use No _, If yes, How many ___________ Is there a time limit for usage _____________________ Sociability Are people in groups talking to each other __Yes, lots of groups use this space to meet ___ Does the mix of ages and ethnic groups reflect the community at large They cater mostly to the University Are people smiling ___In general people seem to be happy and enjoying themselves ____ Are people meeting friends or running into them ____Both __ Do people seem to know each other by face or name __ A lot of customers se em to know each other by face and name and greet people as they enter the space ___ Do people appear to make eye contact __ Yes __ Is there music Yes _, If yes is it soft enough for people to talk easily _Yes_ __ Uses & activities What space are people using more the first floor is used more for group meetings and the second floor is used more by people using laptops What are the choices of things to do read, use wifi, hold meetings, attend classes, eat, drink, and socialize Is it used by people of diffe rent ages __ Most people seem to be young __ What types of activities are going on __reading, doing homework, napping, talking, using laptops, holding group meetings, eating, and drinking __ Comfort & image What does the inside look like __The inside is cl ean and well kept. There is local art on the wall that is for sale. There are bookshelves which are filled with books of a religious nature. The space has lots of windows which keeps the space very bright. __ What does the building look like The building looks like a retrofitted house ___
124 Are there enough places to sit Yes Is there places to sit outside in the sun Yes shade _Yes Does it feel safe Yes ___ Do vehicles or pedestrians dominate the space ____Pedestrians _____ Is the space clean _____Yes, Clean and well kept _______ Is there seating next to power outlets Yes __, If yes how much __Most seats can reach a power outlet if their laptop has a regular size power cord__ Ability to linger Can people use the space without buying an Item __ Yes_ ____ D oes it appear that customers are encouraged to leave after buying an item ____No, customers are encouraged to sit and talk. ______ Is the furniture comfortable ___Yes, there is a variety of seating options which offer different places to sit which are comf ortable Is there access to restrooms ___Yes ____
125 LIST OF REFERENCES Blanchard, Anita and Horan, Tom (1998). Virtual Communities and Social Capital. Social Science Computer Review 1998, 16, 293 307. Doi:10.1177/089443939801600306. Blow ers, A. (1993). The City as a Social System: Unity 7: The Neighbourhood: Exploration of a concept, Milton Keynes, UK: Open University. Calthorpe, Peter (1993). The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community, and the American Dream. New York, NY: Princeto n Architectural Press. Carmona, Matthew., Heath, Tim., Oc, Taner., Tiesdell, Steve (2007). Public Places Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Ltd. Carr, S., Francis, M., Rivlin, L.G. and Stone, A.M. (1992) Public Space. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Duany, Andres;Plater -Zyberk, Elizabeth; Speck, Jeff (2000). Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. Union Square West, NY: North Point Press. Hinshaw, Mark (2008, January). Great Neighborhoods: Places that stand out for their character, livability, and positive community feeling. Planning, January 2008, 6 11. Horan, Thomas A. (2000) Digital Places: Building Our City of Bits. Washington, D.C.: ULI the Urban Land Institute. Jacobs, Jane (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Vintage Books Edition. New York: Random House, Inc. Loukaitou Sideris, A. and Banerjee, T (1998). Urban Design Downtown: Poetics and Politics of Form. Berkeley, CA: Uni versity of California Press. Oldenburg, Ray (1999). The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Bookstores, Bars, Hair Salons, and Other Hangout at the Heart of a Community. New York, NY: Marlowe & Company. Oldenburg, Ray (2001). Celebrating the Third Plac e: Inspiring stories about the Great Good Places at the heart of our communities. New York, NY: Marlowe & Company. Page, Scott and Phillips, Brian (2003). Telecommunications and urban design: Representing Jersey City. Taylor and Francis Ltd. 7(1). 73 9 4. Doi: 10.1080/13600481032000095288 Project for Public Spaces (PPS) (2008). What Makes a Successful Place? Retrieved on January 7, 2009 from Project for Public Spaces Website: http//www.pps.org/topics/gps/gr_place_feat
126 Putnam, Robert (2000). Bowling Alone : The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. Sirianni, C., & Friedland, L. (N.D.) Civic Dictionary. Retrieved Jan 5, 2009, From Civic Practices Network: http://www.cpn.org/tools/dictionary/captial.html Sucher, David (2003). City Comforts: How to Build an Urban Village. Seattle, WA: City Comforts Inc. Tuters, M. (2004, May). The Locative Commons: Situating Location Based Media in Uran Public Space Retrieved 01 05, 2009, From Futuresonic: http:www.futuresonic.com/futuresonic/pdf/Locative_Commons.pdf Wuthnow, Robert (2002). Bridging the Privileged and the Marginalized? In R. Putnam (Ed.) Democracies in Flux: The Evolution of Social Capital in Contem porary Society (pp. 59 102) Oxford University Press, Inc.: New York, NY.
127 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH J. Travis Johnson was born in Winter Park, Florida and grew up in Inverness Florida. After g raduating from Citrus High School he attended Central Florida Com munity College where he was awarded an Associate of Arts d egree. After CFCC, he transferred to the University of Central Florida and receive d a Bachelor of Arts degree in public administration with a minor in digital m edia. After graduation, he applied and was accepted into the University of Florid a where he completed his Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning.
HOW TECHNOLOGY IS CHANGING THIRD SPACES : AN E XAMINATION OF THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN COFFEE SHOPS. Jason Travis Johnson 3522124651 Urban and Regional Planning Ruth Steiner Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning March 2009 Third spaces are the important gathering spaces in of our communities. They are places for communities to go before and after work. As technology becomes mor e portable the types of activities that can be accomplished in third spaces is changing. Third spaces and their uses are changing with technology. Portable technology creates opportunities for people to stay connected to networks of people that are not ba sed in space or time. Coffee shops were chosen as the example of third spaces because they are inclusive, affordable, and allow customers to linger. Surveys and observations were completed to understand habits inside coffee shops. Technology has changed third spaces. WiFi has allowed customers to accomplish many tasks, build social capital, and connect to people who are not in the physical space. This study shows how technology and specifically WiFi can alter the use of a Third space.