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Edible Plants of the Chinantla, Oaxaca, Mexico with an Emphasis on the Participatory Domestication Prospects of Persea S...

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024534/00001

Material Information

Title: Edible Plants of the Chinantla, Oaxaca, Mexico with an Emphasis on the Participatory Domestication Prospects of Persea Schiedeana
Physical Description: 1 online resource (113 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bost, Jay
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: chinantla, domestication, ethnobotany, oaxaca, participatory, persea
Interdisciplinary Ecology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Interdisciplinary Ecology thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis examines the edible plants in the Chinantla area of Oaxaca, Mexico. An inventory of the edible plants was compiled using interviews, surveys in the various agroecosystems, and by participant observation. A full list of the plants is presented. This work set out to search for 'Cinderella species', species that are locally important but that are understudied and have under-exploited potential. Various species were identified, including a number of quelites (edible greens), two little studied species of Myrsinaceae, Ardisia compresa and Parathesis psychotrioides, a relative of cacao (Theobroma bicolor) and two relatives of avocado, Beilschmiedia anay and Persea schiedeana. Persea schiedeana (chinene) was identified as warranting more investigation by the researcher and local communities. This species has high potential to play an expanded role as an agroforestry tree product (AFTP) in the Chinantla. It is also recommended for experimentation in other parts of the tropics. An interview inquiring into the ethnobotanical knowledge and local management practices of Persea schiedeana was administered. A survey of all the fruiting Persea schiedeana trees found in each of the six villages of CORENCHI (Regional Council on Natural Resources of the Chinantla, an indigenous Chinantec organization) was carried out using participatory research techniques to determine in which agroecosystems and ecological conditions these trees are encountered and to document and analyze the morphological diversity of the fruits. As this species is in the process of domestication, the hypothesis was tested that the purposely-planted trees (i.e. selected) should be superior in the characters listed by residents as desirable when compared to wild and/or feral individuals. This is proven true in the analysis of data. A community project was undertaken in conjunction with the research. 'Chinene Fairs' were held in each village, involving residents in the identification of superior fruited trees. The information generated in these fairs and in fruit morphological data collection was used to collectively select those trees deemed to produce the best fruits. These trees are being used to supply scions to graft onto rootstock planted during the research. A workshop was organized to teach grafting techniques to interested residents.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jay Bost.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Popenoe, Hugh L.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024534:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024534/00001

Material Information

Title: Edible Plants of the Chinantla, Oaxaca, Mexico with an Emphasis on the Participatory Domestication Prospects of Persea Schiedeana
Physical Description: 1 online resource (113 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bost, Jay
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: chinantla, domestication, ethnobotany, oaxaca, participatory, persea
Interdisciplinary Ecology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Interdisciplinary Ecology thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis examines the edible plants in the Chinantla area of Oaxaca, Mexico. An inventory of the edible plants was compiled using interviews, surveys in the various agroecosystems, and by participant observation. A full list of the plants is presented. This work set out to search for 'Cinderella species', species that are locally important but that are understudied and have under-exploited potential. Various species were identified, including a number of quelites (edible greens), two little studied species of Myrsinaceae, Ardisia compresa and Parathesis psychotrioides, a relative of cacao (Theobroma bicolor) and two relatives of avocado, Beilschmiedia anay and Persea schiedeana. Persea schiedeana (chinene) was identified as warranting more investigation by the researcher and local communities. This species has high potential to play an expanded role as an agroforestry tree product (AFTP) in the Chinantla. It is also recommended for experimentation in other parts of the tropics. An interview inquiring into the ethnobotanical knowledge and local management practices of Persea schiedeana was administered. A survey of all the fruiting Persea schiedeana trees found in each of the six villages of CORENCHI (Regional Council on Natural Resources of the Chinantla, an indigenous Chinantec organization) was carried out using participatory research techniques to determine in which agroecosystems and ecological conditions these trees are encountered and to document and analyze the morphological diversity of the fruits. As this species is in the process of domestication, the hypothesis was tested that the purposely-planted trees (i.e. selected) should be superior in the characters listed by residents as desirable when compared to wild and/or feral individuals. This is proven true in the analysis of data. A community project was undertaken in conjunction with the research. 'Chinene Fairs' were held in each village, involving residents in the identification of superior fruited trees. The information generated in these fairs and in fruit morphological data collection was used to collectively select those trees deemed to produce the best fruits. These trees are being used to supply scions to graft onto rootstock planted during the research. A workshop was organized to teach grafting techniques to interested residents.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jay Bost.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Popenoe, Hugh L.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024534:00001


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1 EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE CHINANTLA, OAXACA, MEXICO WITH AN EMPHASIS ON THE PARTICIPATORY DOMESTICATION PROSPECTS OF PERSEA SCHIEDEANA By JAY BENJAMIN BOST A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009

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2 2009 Jay Benjamin Bost

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3 To the fruits of the past and future

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my par ents and grandparents for their support and encouragement. My American, French, and Mexican friends and families have both been inspiring and distracting, I thank them for both. Great acknowledgements to the wonderful faculty members at the University of Florida who have guided my thinking, especially Dr. Hugh Popenoe, Dr. Nigel Smith, Dr. Walter Judd, Dr. P.K. Nair, and Dr. Jonathan Crane. Dr. Richard Campbell at Fairchild Botanical Garden encouraged a focus on Persea schi e deana. Thanks to the Ethnoeco logy Society and the Ethnoecology Garden group for fun and inspiration. Thanks to Dr. Juan Guillermo Cruz Castillo for his inspiration and collaboration and Juan Jose Fernandez for his grafting help. Also to GDF Mesoamerica: Carlos, Claudia, Ana and Megan for their aid and inspiring hard work. I am indebted to the communities in the Chinantla who have shared their lands, fruits, foods, and knowledge with me. And thanks t o Nora Rodli for playing, gardening, traveling, and learning with me during these yea rs.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................................... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................................ 7 LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................................. 8 ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................................... 9 CHAPTER 1 CONTEXT: THE CHINANTLA, OAXACA ........................................................................... 11 The Geography of the Chinantla ................................................................................................ 11 Ecology ........................................................................................................................................ 13 Culture .......................................................................................................................................... 15 Study Sites ................................................................................................................................... 18 San Mateo Yetla ................................................................................................................... 19 Consejo Regional de Recursos de la Chinantla (CORENCHI) ........................................ 19 Context of Research .................................................................................................................... 20 2 AGROFORESTRY, NTFPs/AFTPs AND CINDERELLA SPECIES ................................ 22 3 EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE CHINANTLA .............................................................................. 32 Freelists ........................................................................................................................................ 32 Inventories ................................................................................................................................... 36 Agroecosystems ................................................................................................................... 36 Edible Species Catago ries ................................................................................................... 39 Cinderella Species of the Chinantla .................................................................................... 41 4 PERSEA SCHIEDEANA (CHINENE): ETHNOBOTANY, LOCAL MANAGEMENT, AND MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERS ITY ................................................. 45 Methods ....................................................................................................................................... 57 Interviews ............................................................................................................................. 57 Fruit Morphology and Diversity ......................................................................................... 57 Results .......................................................................................................................................... 59 Interviews ............................................................................................................................. 59 Ethnoecology and m anagement .................................................................................. 59 Local i mportance .......................................................................................................... 59 Management ................................................................................................................. 60 Diversity of f ruit c haracters ......................................................................................... 61 Management ................................................................................................................. 62 Phenology/e cology ....................................................................................................... 63

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6 Ecological and Morphological Field Observations ........................................................... 64 Discussion .................................................................................................................................... 74 5 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................... 78 APPENDIX A COMPLETE FREE LIST OF FRUITS .................................................................................. 80 B SPECIES INVENTORY OF SAN MATEO YETLA, OAXACA .......................................... 82 C PERCENT PRESENSE OF EACH SPECIES IN EACH AGROECOSYSTEM ................... 87 D NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS OF EACH SPECIES ENCOUNTERED BY AGROECOSYSTEM ................................................................................................................. 92 E ETHNOECOLOGY/MANAGEMENT INTERVIEW ............................................................. 98 F TREE/FRUIT DATA SHEETS ................................................................................................ 102 LITERATURE CITED ..................................................................................................................... 103 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........................................................................................................... 113

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 M ost frequently mentioned fruits .......................................................................................... 34 3 2 Quelites mentioned during free listing .................................................................................. 35 3 3 Economically important species ............................................................................................ 36 3 4 Fruits encountered in inventory in order of abundance ....................................................... 39 3 5 Quelites encountered in inventory in order of abundance ................................................... 40 4 1 Summary of local importance data ....................................................................................... 60 4 2 Percent respondents reporting P. schiede ana in ecosystem ................................................ 60 4 3 Animal species mentioned in interviews to distribute P. schiedeana seeds ....................... 61 4 4 Characters elicited in intervi ews as defining the best P. schiedeana fruits ........................ 62 4 5 Criteria listed as selective basis for deciding what seed of P. schiedeana to plant ........... 62 4 6 Summary of tree data ............................................................................................................. 65 4 7 Ecological characteristics of sites where P. schiedeana were encountered ....................... 66 4 8 Quantitative fru it characters of the Chinantla ...................................................................... 67 4 9 Qualitative fruit characters .................................................................................................... 68 4 10 Data on quantitative characters of fruits from various muni cipalities in Veracruz, Mexico .................................................................................................................................... 69 4. 11 Comparison of planted and self sown fruits ......................................................................... 7 2 4 12 Fruits from b est trees selected during Chinene Fairs compared to all others ............. 73 A 1 Fruits listed in freelists exercise. ........................................................................................... 80 B1 Species inventory ................................................................................................................... 83 C1 Species presense in agroecosystems ..................................................................................... 88 D 1 Species inventory numbers .................................................................................................... 93

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Map of the Papaloapan Watershed ........................................................................................ 11 1 2 Map of the Chinantla Region ................................................................................................ 13 1 3 Map of study area ................................................................................................................... 18 4 1 Phylogenetic analysis of Neotropical Persea ....................................................................... 46 4 2 Results of molecular analysis ................................................................................................ 49 4 3 Flowers of Persea schiedeana ............................................................................................... 54 4 4 Photos of fruits of Persea schiedeana .................................................................................. 55 4 5 Photos of Persea schiedeana as typically eaten ................................................................... 55 4 6 Percentage of all P. schiedeana trees found in each agroecosystem .................................. 65 4 7 Percentages of planted and self -sown trees found in each agroecosystem ......................... 70 4 8 Ideotype of Chinene ............................................................................................................... 75

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE CHINANTLA, OAXACA MEXICO WITH AN EMPHASIS ON THE PARTICIPATORY DOMESTICATION PROSPECTS OF PERSEA SCHIEDEANA By Jay Benjamin Bost May 2009 Chair: Hugh L. Popenoe Major: Interdisciplinary Ecology This thesis examines the edible plants in the Chinantla area of Oaxaca, Mexico. An inventory of the edible plants was compiled using interviews, surveys in the various agro ecosystems, and by participant observation. A full list of the plants is presented. This work set out to search for Cinderella species, species that are locally important but that are understudied and have under -exploited potential. Various species wer e identified, including a number of quelites (edible greens), two little studied species of Myrsinaceae, Ardisia compresa and Parathesis psychotrioides a relative of cacao ( Theobroma bicolor ) and two relatives of avocado, Beilschmiedia anay and Persea sch iedeana. Persea schiedeana (chinene) was identified as warranting more investigation by the researcher and local communities. This species has high potential to play an expanded role as an agroforestry tree product (AFTP) in the Chinantla. It is also rec ommended for experimentation in other parts of the tropics. An interview inquiring into the ethnobotanical knowledge and local management practices of Persea schiedeana was administered. A survey of all the fruiting Persea schi e deana trees found in each of the six villages of CORENCHI (Regional Cou n cil on Natural Resources of

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10 the Chinantla an indigenous Chinantec organization) was carried out using participatory research techniques to determine in which agroecosystems and ecological conditions these tree s are encountered and to document and analyze the morphological diversity of the fruits. As this species is in the process of domestication, the hypothesis was tested that the purposely-planted trees (i.e. selected) should be superior in the characters li sted by residents as desirable when compared to wild and/or feral individuals This is proven true in the analysis of data. A community project was undertaken in conjunction with the research. Chinene Fairs were held in each village, involving resident s in the identification of superior fruited trees. The information generated in these fairs and in fruit morphological data collection was used to collectively select those trees deemed to produce the best fruits. These trees are being used to supply sci ons to graft onto rootstock planted during the research. A workshop was organized to teach grafting techniques to interested residents.

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11 CHAPTER 1 CONTEXT: THE CHINANT LA, OAXACA The Geography of the Chinantla The Chinantla is a well reco gnized, though var iably defined ecological and cultural zone in the Sierra Norte (or Sierra de Juarez) of Oaxaca, Mexico and along the Gulf -facing slopes of these mountains, which form part of the Sierra Madre Sur. Though not exclusively, the Chinantla area includes a very large part of the watershed of the Papaloapan, Mexicos second largest watershed, whose terminus is in the Gulf of Mexico (Poleman 1964) Figure 1 1. Map of the Papaloapan Watershed (Wikipedia 2009) Most authorities define the Chinantla broadly as that territory currently inhabited by the people identifying themselves as Chinantecos who recognize a common origin and have a strong linguistic and territorial cohesion (Beltran 2000) Meave et al. (2006) defined La Chinantla

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12 sensu latu as 17 221812N and 9543 9658W, which roughly corresponds to the geographical distribution of the Chinantec ethnic group. The word Chinantla is believed to derive from the word chinamitl, a Nahuatl word meaning enclosed space, a reference to the many tight valleys in this mountainous region (Schultes 1941b) Schultes observed that in the Relacion de Chinantla, written in 1579, Chinantla is explained vari ously as the name of an old town, a new town, a river, and a region. The Relacion reads, The town of Chinantla is called Chinantla because it is surrounded by towns and mountains, and the natives call any kind of enclosed space chinamitl... as well as b ecause it lies on the banks of a swift -flowing river named Chinantla [now called the Rio Valle Nacional], rising eleven leagues from the town in a hill where was formerly situated a village named Chinantla, abandoned as the results of wars, and (finally) b ecause the site was similar they called it, (the new town), Chinantla (Bevan 1938) Schultes insists, however, that the proper use of the term Chinantla is much more limited in scope and refers to the south, southeastern part of the area more broadly referred to as the Chinantla, and calls for a more restricted use of the term to refe r to a more concise ecological area (Schultes 1941b). Despite Schultes admonishments, the sensu latu definition appears, both popularly and in academia, to have prevailed (Meave et al. 2006) The city of Tuxtepec is the de facto capital of t he Chinantla, and Oaxacas second largest city. Other important centers of transportation and commerce, providing goods and services to those who live in the surrounding villages (some accessible and some inaccessible by road), are Valle Nacional, Ojitlan and Usila.

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13 Figure 1 2. Map of the Chinantla Region Ecology Ecologically, the Chinantla is recognized for its complexity and very high levels of diversity, owing to the extreme topography and the mingling of numerous bioregions (Martin 1996, Meave et al. 2006, Bray et al. 2008) It is considered the most ecologically complex part of the state of Oaxaca, which itself is recognized as the most diverse state of Mexico (Oviedo 2002, Garca -Mendoza et al. 2004) harboring nearly half of the plant species of Mexico with the states heterogeneous territory (Ov iedo 2002). Diverse forest formations are found in altitudinal bands as one leaves the Gulf Coastal Plain near sea level and ascends to the crest of the Sierra Norte, one hundred and twenty of whose peaks are higher than 2500m (Meave et al. 2006). Within less than 30km heading southwest from Valle Nacional at 65m one ascends to Humo Chico peak, the highest point of the Sierra Norte at around 3200m. Owing to these rapid changes

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14 in altitude, steep slopes characterize the area. Ortiz -Perez et al. (2004) have studied the topography of the area and present the following frequencies of slope angles; with 17.3% of slopes betwee n 0 6 degrees, 38.3% between 6 18 degrees, 43.3% between 1845 degrees, and 1% greater than 45 degrees. Tropical Evergreen Forest is found from 100m to 1200m, Montane Cloud Forest at 1200m to 2250m (often referred to as Bosque Mesofilio), Evergreen Conife r Forest from 2750m to 3400m, and Pine Oak Forest from 1000m to 2750m (Martin 1996). Due to its high levels of diversity and the fact that it contains the most intact tracts of Montane tropical forest and Cloud Forest in Mesoamerica, the WWF has declared the Chinantla/Sierra Norte as one of the 200 Priority Conservation areas (Oviedo 2002) and the National Commission for Biodiversity Conservation of Mexico has declared it as a priority area (2000) The Chinantla is home to many endemic species, particularly in the Cenozoic relict forest of Engelhardtia (Oreomunnea ) first described by Rzedowski and Palacios Chavez (1977) The geology of the Chinantla is complex, with a long history of uplift reported, and predominately metamorphic parent material, consisting of chlorite and mica shales, with minor inclusions of quartzite (lvarez Arteaga and Garca Caldern 2008) The soils of the Chinantla are not well studied, though most are derived from metamorphic parent material (lvarez Arteaga and Garca Caldern 2008) are shallow, and are referred to as lithosols (leptosols) (A lfaro -Sanchez and Briones -Salas 2004) Pockets of well developed soils with high amounts of organic matter, N and P at lower elevations (below1600m) are reported, as are the wide occurrence of Oxisols, while above 1600m soils are predominantly spodosols with a transition zone of podzolic soils found in intermediate altitudes (van der Wal 1996) Recent

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15 work describes the soils of the Montane Forest zone (lvarez Arteaga and Garca Caldern 2008) Climatically, the Chinantla is recognized as hyper -humid with 20005500mm of rainfall reported, depending upon elevations, including some of the wettest areas in all of Mexico (Meave et al. 2006). The high precipitation is the result of the movement of moist air off the Gulf and its subsequent adiabatic cooling as it rises up the slopes of the Sierra Juarez, with the highest precipitation at middle elevation around 1500m (Meave et al. 2006). Most precipitation occurs from May through February, though the dry period of March and April, experienced elsewhere in Mexico is here relieved by cool, wet northern fronts, nortes Temperature regimes are also affected by altitude. Zones of Tropical Evergreen Forest between 100m and 1200m typically experience lows between 15 and 21 centigrade and highs between 27 and 30 centigrade. These temperatures, along with the high levels of precipitation, result in the classification of these zones as hot and humid, Af in the Koppen system (Martin 1996). The Montane Cloud Forest experiences cooler temperatures, with lows between 12 and 15 centigrade and highs between 21 and 26 centigrade, and higher precipitation, resulting in its classification as humid montane, Cf in the Koppen system (Martin 1996). Pine -oak forest, and oak forests in particular, are much more variable in their altitudinal distribution (typically from 1000m to 2750m, but sometimes as low as 700m on specific truncated oxisols) and can be variably classified as temperat e or tropical and humid to sub -humid in the Chinantla (Meave et al. 2006, van der Wal 1996). Culture The Chinantec people inhabit the Chinantla area. They are speakers of various dialects of Chinanteco, a member of the Otomanguean language family. This l anguage family appears to have ancient roots in and around the area currently inhabited by its speakers, including adjacent

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16 areas of Puebla, such as Tehuacan, where some of the earliest signs of agriculture in Mesoamerica are found (MacNeish 1967) Parts of the Chinantla are tho ught to have been inhabited since at least 500 B.C., though most likely even earlier by cultures part of (or in contact with) the Olmec who were flourishing on the coastal plains and Gulf coast (Martin 1996). While the first settlements appear to have bee n in the lowlands, it is thought that by around 500 B.C. settlement by Chinantec speakers was occurring in the mountains (Winter 1989) Little archaeological work has been carried out in the Chinantla, partly owing to hyp er humid conditions, which provide poor conditions for archaeological work and preservation of archaeological remains. However, ceramic and gold artifacts found demonstrate that during the reign of the Aztec, interaction in the form of control or trade was occurring between the Chinantla and Tenochitlan, the Aztec capital (Martin 1996). In the Codice Mendocino tribute goods sent from the Chinantla to Moctezuma are enumerated, including garments and fabric made from cotton, Liquidambar balsam, cacao, vanil la, and rubber from Castilla elastica (Beva n 1938). The various Relaciones written by early Spanish in the Chinantla, provide insight into early colonial Chinantla and suggest that by the time of the arrival of the Spanish, the Chinantla was slipping out of control of the Aztec (Bevan 1938). Much remains to be learned in regards to pre Colombian history of the Chinantla. Within the area of fieldwork for this study, numerous as of yet unstudied structures were pointed out by local inhabitants, who have als o encountered ceramics, sculptures, obsidian, and jade in agricultural and dwelling areas. From the available scant evidence, it would appear that the middle to upper elevations of the Chinantla have been inhabited at least for 1000 years and probably much longer (Bray et al. 2008, Martin 1996). The history of the Conquest in the Chinantla is also poorly documented. Owing to the well -watered and relatively fertile lowlands, agricultural production under the encomienda

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17 system expanded into the lower areas a nd focused upon sugar cane and cotton. Meanwhile, less accessible areas in the mountains, continued to focus their agriculture on subsistence crops. In the modern era, a number of phenomena have left their mark on the Chinantla, many of them part of the e fforts of the Mexican federal government to develop the area, through the Papaloapan Project (Poleman1964). The first was the expansion of coffee cultivation in the area in the 1960s by the Mexican coffee institute, INMECAFE ( Beltran 2000). Although cof fee was grown previously, it was in this era that it became a corner stone of the economy of the Chinantla and growers became accustomed to the set prices, guaranteed market, transportation of goods and assistance provided by INMECAFE. The second event wa s the construction of two large dams in the Papaloapan river basin in the middle of the 20th century, which displaced thousands of Chinatec and Mazatec people and, affecting most of the villages in this study, permanently disrupted migration patterns of aquatic species, thus robbing many villages of important, traditional sources of protein. The large reservoirs created are visible in Firgure 1 1. and Figure 1 2. The third event was the leasing of enormous tracts of the Sierra Norte by the federal governm ent (although the lands are titled to indigenous communities) to FAPATUX, a timber and paper mill operation in Tuxtepec. FAPATUX began road building in the Sierra, which resulted in the opening of parts the Chinantla, formerly extremely isolated, to motor ized transportation. This effort continues today in the study area, where only one of the six villages of CORENCHI is presently accessed by road, though two others will be by 2010. Indigenous communities resisted the renewal of the leases of their forests to FAPATUX and have since

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18 begun remarkable community forestry enterprises and community conservation strategies (Bray et al. 2008). Study Sites Field work for this thesis was conducted in the village of San Mateo Yetla (located near Valle Nacional) and in the six villages composing CORENCHI (Consejo Regional de Recursos Naturales de la Chinantla, Regional Coucil on Natural Resources of the Chinantla); Analco, Nopalera del Rosario, Santiago Tlatepuso, San Pedro Tlatepusco, Santa Cruz Tepetotutla, and San Antonio del Barrio. All are inhabited by Chinatec speaking Chinantec indigenous people, with dialects varying between villages. Figure 1 3. Map of study area Initial work was largely carried out in San Mateo Yetla, owing to its ease of access and the c ongenial relationship formed with a number of inhabitants. An introduction into the edible

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19 plants and agroecosystems of the area was achieved here. An initial ten -day trip through three of the CORENCHI villages was made in March 2008, followed by five wee ks passed among all six villages in June and July during the harvest of Persea schiedeana and follow up work in November 2008 and January 2009. San Mateo Yetla San Mateo Yetla sits on the main highway (175) linking Oaxaca city to Tuxtepec, the de facto ca pital of the Chinantla, and Oaxacas 2nd largest city. San Mateo Yetla is located at an altitude of 120m and has a population of near 700. San Mateo Yetla straddles modern and traditional, with easy road access from the village to Valle Nacional and its shops, schools, and modest medical facilities. At the same time, most members of older generations (and some, though proportionally fewer, young people) work in the campo a fifteen minute to two or three hour walk, where milpas for growing maize, beans, squash, and other crops are cleared and coffee groves are managed with machete. All harvests and firewood are hauled out on back, as there are no secondary roads emanating from the village. Subsistence agriculture is still the most important agricultura l activity in the area, accompanied by the production of coffee, limited cacao production, and a growing involvement with cattle. Consejo Regional de Recursos de la Chinantla ( CORENCHI) The villages of CORENCHI collectively have a population of 2,039 and o ccupy 33,921 ha of rugged forested land stretching from 200m to 2900m. The villages of CORENCHI are each internally governed according to traditional governing forms as recognized by the state government of Oaxaca in the Law of Traditions and Customs (Eisenstadt 2007) The six villages have voluntarily formed a larger regional organization (CORENCHI) to enable them to more effectively interact with NGOs, governmental organizations, and to coordinate their activities, both commercial and cultural, most specifically those activities geared towards conservation and

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20 payments for ecological services. Four of the villages now have around 20,000 hecta res declared community conservation areas and certified as such (Camacho et al. 2007) with the other two communi ties in the process of gaining such certification. 7,860 hectares have been receiving payment for hydrological services from the Mexican forestry service (CONAFROR) and are slated to renew the payments from 2009 until 2014 for a total of 1.5 million dolla rs (Bray et al. 2008). Additional ways to make conservation pay are being explored, including carbon credits, ecotourism, and scientific tourism. Context o f Research As remarkable as the conservation achievements and the securing of temporary payments for environmental services by CORENCHI are, the fact remains that income generation within the villages is problematic. Since the 1960s coffee has been the main income source in the area, with most other agriculture aimed at subsistence. The coffee crisi s of recent decades has resulted in considerable economic instability in these villages, first because of the dissolution of INMECAFE which had provided a stable market and price, and secondly because of gluts of coffee on the global market. The result of this instability has been some abandonment of coffee groves and a considerable spike in out migration from villages in the Chinantla to Oaxaca, Mexico City, and the United States. The culture of coffee production remains strong in these villages (though it is declining). The coffee groves are in many cases in need of attention and await improvement and enrichment. In contrast to some other land use alternatives, i.e. cattle ranching, coffee groves are relatively ecological benign and contribute to nutr itional security through their high diversity of edible plants. In informal discussions with residents during preliminary visits in 2007, local people noted two crucial steps necessary to make the coffee groves more profitable. The f irst step is securing a higher percentage of the price that the consumer ultimately pays through more direct

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21 marketing. Second, producing and marketing other products from the coffee groves, as shade trees and crops in the shade. This thesis focuses upon the second point, see king to identify products that are produced in coffee groves (and/or in other agroecosystems) that could, with improved management and selection produce a marketable product, in the coffee growing system. This research further seeks to contribute to the k nowledge of one such species in particular, Persea schiedeana which is a candidate for enriching coffee groves in the Chinantla, and a candidate for introduction in other coffee growing areas of the world with similar conditions.

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22 CHAPTER 2 AGROFORESTRY, NTFPS/AFTPS AND CIN DERELLA SPECIES The important role that agroforestry has to play in conservation and in poverty alleviation is increasingly recognized and has fueled a burgeoning literature (Anderson 1990, Nai r 1998, Garrity et al. 2006, Schreckenberg et al. 2006) The ideal is that it is possible to achieve simultaneous use and conservation of the rain forest ( Anderson 1990). It is also recognized that there are numerous benefits in terms of nutrient cycl ing, disease repression, and shade crop quality improvement to be had in multistrata agroforestry systems (Ewel 1986, Muschler 1997). The key role that indigenous fruit trees have to play as potentially important non timber forest products (NTFP) in such endeavors has been widely discussed (Leakey and Newton 1994, Prance 1994, Leakey et al. 1996, Leakey and Simons 1997, Schreckenberg et al. 2006, Akinnifesi et al. 2008) While some such NTFP species are principall y wild harvested (such as Brazil nuts, Bertholletia excelsa ), many have long been part of traditional agroforestry systems, involving various forms and intensities of management and selective pressure. Other species, such as camu -camu ( Myrciaria dubia) in the Peruvian Amazon (Penn 2008, Clement et al. 2008) which were once only wild harvested, have recently been brought into cultivation due to over harvesting, a low natural population, and/or success in the marketplace. Simmons & Leakey (2004) propose the term Agroforestry Tree Product (AFTP) to distingu ish species produced under more intensive management in agroforestry settings versus those species that are principally wild harvested (NTFPs). Many indigenous fruit trees are locally important, but remain unknown outside of local subsistence settings or regional markets, though they are thought to have a high potential for further development. Such species have been coined Cinderella species (Leakey and Newton 1994) a phrase applica ble to traditionally important indigenous species that have been

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23 overlooked by science for agroforestry and forestry (Leakey and Simons 1997) Most of these Cinderella species have long been integrated into local agroforestr y systems, such as home gardens and coffee or cacao groves and are important in local diets and/or very regionalized markets (Haq et al. 2008, Wiersum 2008) However, due to variable quality, unpredictable supply, lack of market access and/o r experience, transportation issues, and/or lack of consumer familiarity with these products, the full potential of these fruit species both for local nutritional security and for income generation by accessing extra local markets is frequently not achieve d, and many fruits are either left un -harvested or suffer high rates of post harvest loss (Haq et al. 2008). Most indigenous fruit trees, while having a long history of wild harvest, management, and/or cultivation, have out crossing pollination strategies and are seed propagated and thus highly variable in a number of characteristics (Wiersum 2008). Models of the important steps in further improvement of indigenous fruit trees have been proposed, with one of the most important aspects being to identify superior individuals and the development of vegetative propagation to capture and spread these superior, marketable genotypes (Leakey and Akinnifesi 2008) While long recognized as key to improving tropical fruit culture (Popenoe 1952) most indigenous fruit trees have not been exploited in this fashion, except for those few that have become plantation crops such as avocado, mango, and litchi. The succ ess of these commercially viable fruit crops without really any breeding per se, but rather a focus on the clonal propagation of superior individuals, bodes well for the potential held by Cinderella species. Recently, new work along these very lines is be ing carried out with indigenous fruit species, in the most focused fashion in work carried out in West and South Africa, as well as Australasia (Leakey et al. 2004, Franzel et al. 2008, Leakey et al. 2008) Both t he International Centre for Underutilized

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24 Crops (ICUC) and the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) have become increasingly involved in promoting projects aimed at better utilizing indigenous fruit tree species. At the same time that the importance of promot ing indigenous fruits is being recognized, it is being recognized that the most appropriate avenue for improving these Cinderella species is through participatory domestication projects (Akinnifesi et al. 2008) As Clement et al. (2008) summarize, The basic premise of participatory plant breeding is that by involving farmers in such a way that they can express their preferences and their local knowledge can be effectively used the relevance of research projects to the needs of small farmers will be increased (emphasis mine). Thus, though infrequently explicitly recognized by its practioners, participatory domestication sits at the exciting crossroads of horticulture, breeding, and ethnoecology/ethnobotany. At its best, it represents a true sharing between scientists and experienced rural people, with both acknowledging that they have much to learn from each other. Most Cinderella species will not become international trade items, such as acai ( Euterpe oleracea ) and camu camu ( Myrciaria dubia) have become (Penn 2008) though some may, but the ability of local and regional markets to generate income for small holders is increasingly acknowledged and, importantly, is recognized as more stable than export markets (Shackleton et al. 2007) The Domestication Continuum : Cinderella species range from wild to domesticated along the variou s models of plant management intensity. And the species are found in varying agroecosystems, which themselves can be regarded as wild, in the case of unmanaged or little managed forest stands, to systems of intermediate management intensity such as coff ee and cacao groves, to the domesticated agroecosystem of home gardens.

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25 Before proceeding into further discussion of the work of this thesis on the edible plants in the Chinantla, specifically its Cinderella species, and in particular Persea schiedeana it is worth reviewing some ideas on plant domestication and some reflections on the fuzzy zone between wild ecosystem and domesticated ecosystem where many of the species of interest, including Persea schiedeana are encountered in the Chinantla. Various authors have pointed out that not only does the biology and genetics of the particular plant species in the process of domestication need to be considered but also the agroecological setting within which plant management changes (Clement 1999, Wiersum 2008) As Wiersum (2008) states, In a more comprehensive sense, the concept of domestication refers to processes operating at both species and agroecosystem level. In this interpretation the concept refers to the ch anges in the plants morphological and genetic properties brought about by changes in exploitation and management practices. Concomitant with changes in the biological properties, changes in a plants growing environment occur as well as a gradual intensi fication in cultivation practices. Thus, in its comprehensive sense, domestication is considered as a multidimensional process in which a progressively closer interaction between people and plant resources take place. The process of domestication can be considered as an evolutionary process from gathering to breeding, during which changes at the level of both the production system and the plant species occur. Wiersum (2008) further elaborated, The dichotomy between wild and domesticated species has a lon g history. In the past, this dichotomy has often been used by archaeologists, anthropologists, and historians to denote a state of being. However, since the 19th century, biologists have started to use the term domestication as a dynamic term referring t o a process rather than a state of existence. At present this dynamic interpretation of domestication is scientifically generally accepted. Many of the plants encountered during field work, in particular the Cinderella species, force one to look beyond a dichotomy of wild versus domesticated, as they are used, managed, manipulated, and presumably genetically affected by human influence, yet all of these influences

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26 are subtle enough and/or off -set by the near presence of wild or unmanaged populations so that the species cannot be truly regarded as domesticated. They are certainly not dependent upon human intervention for their success, as the case with a highly domesticated species such as Zea mays. They are however, in the incipient stages of domesticatio n, frequently having been subjected to truncated selection (Leakey et al. 2004) Truncated selection takes place when in each generation the most desirable individuals of a species are promoted (and the less desirable ones eliminated). Thus, in each generation the superior selections cross with each other and the frequency of desirable traits is increased and the frequency of the less desirable traits is reduced. In various studies of the incipient domestication of economic species, morphological and genetic changes are de tectable as a result of human selection through this process (Lovett and Haq 2000, Leakey et al. 2004, Casas et al. 2007) Clement (1999) proposed a useful model addressing the pertinent categories of stages along the continuum between wild and domesticated, pointing out domestication is a continuum of human investment in selection and environmental manipulation, so its subcategories are merely constructs that imperfectly reflect the real world. In his model Clement (1999) presents the following categories with explanation: WILD. A naturally evolved population whose genotypes and phenotypes have not been modified by human intervention. INCIDENTALLY CO-EVOLVED. A population that volunteers and adapts in a human disturbed environment, possibly undergoing genetic change, but without human selection. This definition corresponds approximately to Rindos (1984) incidental domestication. Many weeds are examples of incidentally co -evolved species, which can also enter the domestication process if humans start to select for their useful traits and start to manage or cultivate them (Harlan 1992) INCIPIENTLY DOMESTICATED. A population that has been modified by human selection and intervention (at the very least being promoted), but whose average phenotype is still within the range of variation found in the wild population for the trait(s) subject to selection. The variance of this average is probably smaller than that of the original wild population,

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27 however, as selec tion has started to reduce genetic variability. This definition corresponds roughly to Rindos (1984) specialized domestication. SEMIDOMESTICATED. A population that is significantly modified by human selection and intervention (at the very least being m anaged) so that the average phenotype may diverge from the range of variation found in the wild population for the trait(s) subject to selection. The variance of this phenotypic average may be larger than that of the wild population, because the phenotypic variation now includes both types that are common in the wild population and types that are novel. Underlying genetic variability [e.g., isozyme variation (Doebley 1989) ], however, continues to decrease because fewer individuals meet the selection criteria and are therefore included in the next generation. The plants retain sufficient ecological adaptability to survive in the wild if human intervention ceases, but the phenotypic variation selected for by humans will gradually disappear in the natural environment. DOMESTICATED. A plant population similar to (4) but whose ecological adaptability has been reduced to the point that it can only survive in human -created environments, specifically in cultivated landscapes (Harlan 1992). Genetic variability is generally less than in (4) because o f increased selection pressure and loss of ecological adaptation. If human intervention ceases, the population dies out in short order, depending upon its life history, stature and the type of vegetation that invades the abandoned area. In clonally propaga ted crops, a single genotype may be the domesticate, but also is lost soon after it is abandoned. (Clement 1999) Both Clement (1999) and Wiersum (2008), in addition to other authors (Harris 1989, Harlan 1992) stress the importance of regarding the domestication as a co -evolutionary process involving both the plants and the agroecosystems in which they are manipulated. Wiersum (1997) has designed the following figure (Figure 2 1), specifically in reference to tree crops, illustrating the various agroecosystem settings in which differing degrees of plant management and plant domestication can be identified:

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28 Figure 2 1. Wiersums stages in forest management Cl ement (1999), also addressed the varying intensities of ecosystem management, distinguishing, in order of intensity: 1)Pristine 2)Promoted 3)Managed 4)Cultivated: 4a)Swidden/Fallow, 4b)Monoculture. Both the models as applied to plants and to ecosystems wil l prove useful in discussions on the edible plants listed below, particularly Persea schiedeana Within Mesoamerica, owing to the high diversity of plants in general, and economic plants in particular, estimated to be between 5000 7000 species (Casas et al. 2007) coupled with the high cultural diversity of the area (and rela tively intact agricultural/ethnobotanical traditions), domestication has been and continues to be a prevalent theme in plant -human interactions.

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29 Casas et al. (2007) noted that in Mesoamerica, Domestication is a continuous ongoing evolutionary process, ac ting on incipient and semi -domesticated plants as well as on fully domesticated plants. They and other authors (Caballero et al. 1998) speculated that around 600700 species are currently managed in forms that fall in the middle ground between wild and cultivate d and allow researchers a unique opportunity to observe incipient domestication in process. These authors articulated the following categories for these plants that they considered to be managed in situ that is the plants are being subjected to management and selection within their natural setting, not in highly domesticated agroecosystems. The first category is similar to that of Wiersum and other authors on the topics, wild gathering, or systematic gathering as they phrased it. They estimated that th e management of 93% of all economic plant species in Mesoamerica is restricted to this low intensity/low selective pressure category. Secondly, they defined let standing, the selective sparing of desired species (or phenotypes of a species) while cleari ng or burning an agroecosystem. Thirdly, they defined encouraging growing, that is the intentional manipulation of an ecosystem to favor a species and/or the purposeful distribution of seeds or vegetative propagules to increase population density. Four thly, they defined protection, as the deliberate elimination of competitors and predators of useful plants (Casas et al. 2007) All of the above mentioned management techniques occur in situ and would fall within the incipient cultivation category of Wiersum and between the categories of promoted and managed of Clem ent. Casas et al. (2007) reviewed the evidence that these subtler forms of selection and management increase the phenotypic and genetic frequency of desired traits and suggest that in situ domestication may be a critical part of the plant domestication pu zzle. Other work along these lines (Leakey et al. 2004) corroborated their conclusions, and demonstrated what may be somewhat obvious; that humans through varying

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30 forms of management and various selective pressures affect the plants that hold interest for them, increasing the frequency of the desired traits. In the case of out crossing fruit trees, propagated by seed, this is referred to as truncated selection. Its important principles were well explained by Leakey et al. (2004): Typically, trees are out -breeding and gene tically very diverse due to the contribution of large numbers of individuals to a shared genepool and the free segregation of alleles during meiosis (Zobel and Talbert 1984) Consequent ly, the means of different wild subpopulations for any given trait can differ signi pressures or if these pressures are weak in the absence of gene in these sub -populations overlaps. In pla nt breeding, cycles of selecting and crossing between only the best individuals in the population (truncated selection), results in new progenies, which outperform their parents in the selected trait (Futuyma 1998) The degree of improvement depends on the narrow sense heritability (Stearns and Hockstra 2000) The domestication of a species must therefore result in changes in the frequency distribution of the values of the selected trait among the members of the population. During the course of several generations of truncated selection, the frequency distribution of the trait can be expected to change through a progression of stages that ultimately lead to the formation of a variety. It is the truncated selection (quite similar in practice to recurrent selection) already carried out upon many Cinderella species by smallholder farmers during hundreds and thousands of years that the potenti al of participatory domestication rests upon. Excitingly, the promise of participatory is based upon a marriage of small farmer knowledge (which has historically been marginalized) accessed through ethnobotanical investigations and participatory technique s, and modern horticultural and breeding science. In the next chapters, the themes, introduced above, of the varying stages of domestication of plants and ecosystems will be applied to the edible species in the Chinantla, Oaxaca, and particularly to the c ase of Persea schiedeana One last note in regards to the discussion of domestication need be addressed, for in the case of the Americas, it adds an additional twist on the wild -domesticated continuum of plants and landscapes. While typically thought of as a more or less linear process through time,

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31 beginning with human manipulation of a particular plant and ecosystem in the past with selective pressure increasing through time, progressing to the present where we encounter the plant at its current position along the trajectory of domestication and can attempt to retrace its journey, it is now apparent that much of the domestication of plant species and ecosystems was enormously altered upon the collapse of the human populations carrying out this management following the Conquest (Clement 1999, Lentz 2000, Mann 2005) There are numerous examples now of wild plants which appear in fact to be naturalized populations of past semi -domesticated species, and wild fore sts that are in fact living anthropogenic artifacts (Gmez Pompa 1987, Gomez -Pompa et al. 1987, Gomez -Pompa et al. 1990, Clement 1999, Anderson 2003a, b) The road, particularly in the New World, of domestication i s thus full of strange U turns, cul -de -sacs, and start and stops.

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32 CHAPTER 3 EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE CHINANTLA In order to identify potential Cinderella species it was necessary to make an inventory of the edible plants of the study area. The information collected contributes to the incomplete ethnobotany of the area. Though numerous studies have been carried out in the Chinantla (Schultes 1941a, Lipp 1971, Martin and de Avila 1990, Martin 1996, Ticktin and Johns 2002, Caballero et al. 2004) much still remains to be documented in the area. Ethnobotanical work in the Chinantla serves to deepen our understanding of larger macro ethnobotanical patterns of use, as the Chinantla is embedded in a greater area of high bi ological and cultural diversity, southeastern Mexico, that shares biogeographical (Alcantara et al. 200 2) and cultural/agricultural histories (Hernandez Xolocotzi 1953) with the Chinantla. These adjacent areas, the Sierra Norte of Puebla, the flanks of Orizaba, the Chimalapas, and the cloud forests in the highlands of Chiapas (which in turn link with cloud fores ts and tropical montane forests of Central America) share present ecological conditions with the Chinantla, specifically abrupt mountains facing the warm and wet air masses coming off the Gulf of Mexico/Atlantic (Martin 1996; Bandeira et al. 2005). The Chi nantla is biologically and culturally a bridge between these belts of forests to the north and south of it and shares many species (both wild species and those with histories of interaction with humans) and agricultural systems with these areas. Hernande z Xolocotzi (1953) coined this macro area as the eastern escarpment agricultural region. F reelists The first method used to elicit information in regards to edible plants was through free lists, a technique widely employed in anthropology and ethnobotany t o determine the domain that one is researching (Bernard 1994, Castaneda and Stepp 2008) Initially attempts were made to elicit free lists with the question What are the edible plants that grow here? It soon became

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33 apparent, however, that plant, or plantas in Spanish was not a neutral word as in English but referred specifically to edible greens. After being unsuccessful at finding a way to elicit all edible plant types at once, two free list exercises were settled upon, focused upon two of the plant categories of most interest and importance, f ruits and quelites (edible greens). The first free list exercise asked the question, What fruits grow here? and the second, What quelites grow here? (Cuales frutas se dan aca? Cuales quelites se dan aca?). In response to the question of What fruits g row here? sixty three fruit species were mentioned by the fifteen respondents. Table 3 1 shows the 25 most frequently mentioned fruits and Appendix A shows the entire free list of elicited fruits. Sixteen of the top twenty-five mentioned fruits listed are either of local origin or according to botanical studies appear to have been present in the region for a considerable time previous to the Conquest. Notably, avocado appeared with the forth-highest frequency, with 93% of the respondents listing it and chinene ( Persea schiedeana ) with the 6th highest frequency, with 80% of respondents mentioning it. These two Persea were the highest listed native fruit species, demonstrating the importance of them both in the cognitive domain of fruit in the Chinantl a. In terms of quelites, the response to the question of What quelites produce here? elicited a list of twenty edible greens from thirteen respondents, with the top six being mentioned by five or more informants. Hierba mora Huele de noche Quelite d e Venado, and Quintonil are especially important in the cognitive domain of quelites. Table 3 2 lists the top nine quelites elicited in the free listing.

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34 Table 3 1. Most frequently mentioned fruits* Common Name Spanish Common Name English Taxonomic nomenclature Response Freq. % Smith's S Naranja Orange Citrus x aurantium (sweet orange group) 15 100 0.93 Platano Banana/Plantain Musa acuminata & M. acuminata x M. balbisiana. 14 93 0.71 Mango Mango Mangifera indica 13 87 0.65 Aguacate Avocado Persea americana 14 93 0.59 Chinene Chinene Persea schiedeana 12 80 0.48 Mamey Mamey Sapote Pouteria sapota 12 80 0.41 Coco Coconut Cocos nucifera 11 73 0.40 Jinicuile Ice Cream Bean Inga jinicuil 11 73 0.37 Nance Nance Byrsonima crassifolia 12 80 0.36 Cac ao Cacao Theobroma cacao 13 87 0.35 Papaya Papaya Carica papaya 9 60 0.34 Guanabana Soursop Annona muricata 9 60 0.33 Guayaba Guava Psidium guajava 10 67 0.31 Anona Custard Apple Annona reticulata 11 73 0.30 Limon Dulce Lemon Citrus limon 5 33 0.24 M andarina Mandarine Citrus reticulata 4 27 0.20 Limon Lime Citrus aurantifolia 5 33 0.19 Chico Sapote Sapodilla Manilkara sapota 8 53 0.19 Yuca Manioc Manihot esculenta 4 27 0.16 Camote Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas 4 27 0.16 Guaye Leucaena Lueceana esc ulenta 5 33 0.14 Ilama Illama Annona diversifolia 5 33 0.13 Ciruela Hogplum Spondias purperea 4 27 0.12 Carambola Star Fruit Averrhoa carambola 6 40 0.11 Cacao Blanco Tiger Cacao Theobroma bicolor 5 33 0.07 *Smiths S is a measurement that combines th e frequency with which an item is listed with its average ranking in the lists (Bernard 1994, Castaneda and Stepp 2008)

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35 Table 3 2. Quelites mentioned during free listing Common Name Spanish Common Name English Taxonomic nomenclature # of times listed % of informants to list Smith's S Hierba Mora Nig htshade Solanum nigrescens & S. americanum 13 100 0.90 Huele de Noche Night blooming Jessamine Cestrum nocturnum 11 85 0.55 Quelite de Venado Morning glory Ipomea sp. 8 62 0.44 Quintonil Amaranth, Pigweed Amaranthus hybridus 8 62 0.39 Guia de Calabaza Squash Vine Cucurbita spp. 6 46 0.19 Guia de Chayote Chayote Vine Sechium edule 5 38 0.12 Verdolaga Purslane Portulaca oleracea 3 23 0.11 Nopal Prickly Pear Nopalea cochenillifera 3 23 0.09 Papalo Quelite Quilquena Porophyllum ruderale 2 15 0.04

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36 A third free list was generated on a small scale (8 respondants) in regards to the most economically important edible plant species. Table 3 3 shows those species listed. Table 3 3. Economically important species Common Name # of times listed % of info rmants to list Smith's S Coffee 5 63 0.63 Maize 4 50 0.33 Chocolate 4 50 0.46 Banana 4 50 0.27 Orange 2 25 0.18 The top species listed, not surprisingly, is coffee, while the 3rd species, less expectedly, was cacao. Although it did not show up on t he limited free lists of income, a relative of cacao appears to be of increasing importance it terms of income generation, Theobroma bicolor (see discussion below). I nventories Agroecosystems To gain further understanding of the edible species in the reg ion, and where they are found, fifty inventories were made in the various agroecosytems of the area. Through casual conversation and observation, the following five major agroecosystems were delineated: home garden, coffee grove, cacao grove, pasture/ranc h, milpa (swidden corn patch). The home gardens are multistrata systems surrounding the dwelling area and are frequently composed of almost exclusively edible (or otherwise economic) plants. Plants in the home gardens are sometimes purposely sown or tra nsplanted, while other times they arise spontaneously from discarded seeds and are subsequently tolerated and/or encouraged. The main management that occurs in the home gardens is frequent clearing and weeding of unwanted vegetation. This vegetation alon g with raked leaves and fallen branches of the desired species

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37 are then burned. The ash is generally not spread intentionally but through traffic of animals and humans gets locally distributed and is later utilized as a planting area. Animals, especially chicken and turkeys are frequently free roaming in the home gardens, although there are efforts by NGOs and governmental health agency to encourage people to keep their poultry confined for sanitary purposes. The coffee groves are located sporadically i n first and second growth forest, beginning at the edge of the village and to a distance of a three hour walk away. Coffee bushes are frequently transplanted into older second growth forest that is selectively thinned to maintain shade trees that are desi rable for their nutrient inputs (especially two species of Inga ), for their edible fruits (such as Persea schiedeana and Pouteria sapota), or for the firewood or timber they will provide (such as Cedrela odorata ). As the coffee grove matures, further mani pulation of the shade strata is carried out through the introduction of more economic species by transplant or seed and by continued selective thinning of both juvenile and older trees. The lower canopy is managed in the same way, through transplanting or seeding desired shade tolerant species, and/or leaving spontaneously arising individuals while cleaning of the under story is carried out. In the coffee groves, we thus see a number of plant management techniques being carried out: cultivation, let stand ing, protection, and enrichment. Only one cacao grove was encountered, its architecture was similar to that of the coffee grove. Numerous studies have been carried out documenting the shade species utilized in Mesoamerican coffee groves (Moguel and Toledo 1999, Bandeira et al. 2005, Martnez et al. 2007, Soto-Pinto et al. 2007) while other studies have demonstrated that while not necessarily as ideal as natural forests, coffee groves do host considerable amounts of biodiversity and when managed so as to have a high diversity of shade species, can serve both the function of conservation and income generation (Gordon et al. 2007)

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38 The agroecosystems of pasture and rancho were combined as they are frequently inseparable in the field. The rancho is an area within the pasture where more intensive cultivation of economic species is carried out, sometimes in an area from which cattle are excluded by fencing. The rancho then bleeds into the actual pasture as the fence lines of the larger pasture are generally planted with economic species, sometimes serving as living fence posts. Other trees serve as shade for livestock. As in the coffee groves, when an area is cleared for pasture/rancho, a selective thinning takes places so that desirable trees are left standing. Later both transplanting and seeding occur with the pasture and rancho proper. The milpa is that area where annual crops, principally maize, beans, squash, quelites, tomatoes, and gourds are planted and/or tolerated. The area in which milpa is to be planted is generally cleared completely of tree cover which is then burned, typical of the system of slash and burn (or roza, tumba, qema). However, some trees are left that are deemed valuable enough to spare (as was repo rted with Persea schiedeana ). Such spared trees are protected so that the fire does not burn too near them by creating a firebreak around the trees. As the milpa is planted with maize, its principal crop, other seeds are sown (such as beans, squash, gour ds), while others are cast (such as tomatoes and quelites). As the milpa develops selective weeding occurs (with machete and now in some instances with herbicide). The desired species that were sown (and those which arise spontaneously from the seed bank, as many quelites are reported to do) are protected from competition with weeds. Again, in the milpa we see the concurrent execution of various management techniques, from let standing to tolerated, enriched, protected, and cultivated. Two cycles of mil pa are planted in the Chinantla, the main planting, the temporal, lasting from June November, and a se cond, sporadically planted crop the tonamil from

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39 December to May. Typically fields are planted only once and then left fallow for five to ten year s (Bevan 1938, van der Wal et al. 2006) Edible Species Categories The edible species were divided into the following categories; fruit, quelite, condiment, non leafy veget able, grain, tuber, beverage, and utensil. Even though many species fulfill more than one of the roles, each species was listed once in what seemed the dominant use category. Around ninety species in total were encountered Table 3 4 shows the fruits en countered listed in descending order of abundance, a 0 signifies that the species was not seen during the inventories, but spotted casually at another time in the area. Table 3 5 show the quelites most frequently encountered. Appendix B shows all speci es encountered, Appendix C the percentage of each agroecosystem containing the species, and Appendix D the number of individuals of each species encountered in each agroecosystem. Table 3 4. Fruits encountered in inventory in order of abundance Genus spec ies Common name Spanish Total # Citrus x aurantium (sweet orange group) Citrus 219 Musa acuminata/balbisiana. Platano 196 Attalea cohune Coyol 87 Cocos nucifera Coconut 77 Mangifera indica Mango 73 Persea americana Aguacate 67 Ardisia compressa Uvit a 49 Inga jinicuil Jinicuile 49 Byrsonima crassifolia Nance 38 Psidium guajava Guayaba 29 Annona muricata Guanabana 27 Pouteria sapota SapoteMamey 27 Annona diversifolia Illama 22 Carica papaya Papaya 22

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40 Table 3 4. Continued Ananas cosmosus Pin a 20 Annona reticulata Annona 19 Persea schiedeana Chinene 16 Atrocarpus heterophyllus Castana 10 Tamarindus indica Tamarindo 9 Litchi chinensis Litchi 7 Manilkara sapota Chico sapote 7 Eriobotrya japonica Nispero 4 Persea americana (Mexican race) Aguacatillo 4 Vitus sp. uva 4 Couepia polyandra caca de nino 3 Muntingia calabura Capulin 3 Spondias purpurea Ciruela 3 Terminalia catalpa Almendra 2 Parathesis psychotrioides Uvita (longer leaf) 1 Acrocomia aculeata Coyol de espina 1 Averrhoa cara mbola Carambola 1 Beilschmedia anay Aguacate dulce 1 Morinda citrifolia Noni 1 Passiflora edulis Palao 1 Diospyros digyna Sapote negro 0 Punica granatum Granada 0 Syzygium jambos Poma rosa 0 Table 3 5. Quelites encountered in inventory in order of abundance Taxonomic name Spanish common name Total # Cestrum nocturnum Huele de noche 177 Solanum americanum & S. nigrescens. Hierba mora 63 Phytolacca icosandra ?? 7 Amaranthus hybridus Quintonil, quelite blanco 5 Ipomea sp. Quelite de venado 5 Er ythrina sp. Coraline, quelite boracho 1 Crotalaria sp. Chipil 1 Portulaca oleracea Verdolaga 0

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41 Cinderella Species of the Chinantla Of interest in this study, are those indigenous species, especially fruits, found in relatively high numbers, specifical ly in home gardens and in coffee/cacao groves. Those species that are important locally but are little known outside of the region, are Cinderella species, which are worthy of further study and potential candidates for participatory breeding projects. A f ew of the indigenous fruits encountered in highest numbers were identified as especially of interest and are discussed below. Due to community and researcher interest in Persea schiedeana it was singled out for further research and is discussed in detail in the next chapter. Sixteen Persea schiedeana trees were encountered during the inventories; 75% of these were in coffee groves, 19% in home gardens 6% in rancho/pasture, while it was absent in milpas. Thirty six percent of the total coffee groves sur veyed were found to have at least one chinene. This demonstrates that Persea schiedeana is an important shade tree species in the Chinantla, as it is also in Chiapas (Soto Pinto et al. 2007) and Puebla (Martnez et al. 2007) As demonstrated in free lists (as the second most frequently mentioned native species after P. americana), this species is important in the cognitive domain of fruits. Two species of Myrsinaceae Ardisia compressa and Parathesis psychotrioides which were respectively found in 31% and 8% of the home gardens, are of interest owing to the phytochemicals found in other members of the genus Ardisia and the wide medicinal use of species in this genus (Kobayashi and de Mejia 2005) Typically considered a childrens food in the Chinantla, these fruits are commercialized locally in neighboring Veracruz. Further study of the taxonomy, production, and the chemistry of these species, along with appropriate marketing

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42 could create a marketable export nutraceutical type fruit pulp product, as acai has become in Brazil and camu camu in Peru (Penn 2008). Cacao blanco ( Theobroma bicolor ) was one of indigenous species encountered in highest numbers. It was found in 69% of home gardens (equally as frequently as T. cacao ) but at a higher frequency than T. cacao in coffee groves (43% frequency vs. 7% for T. cacao ). Given the recent interest in specialty cho colates this species could be promoted more. The beginning stages of such work have been initiated and an artisanal chocolate producer in Toronto, Chocosol, has begun to import Theobroma bicolor from a village in the Chinantla located near the villages of this study. Locally and regionally, Theobroma bicolor is already important. A mixture of Theobroma cacao and Theobroma bicolor (called cacao blanco, cacao cimmaron, or cacao de tigre) along with Zea mays and the masticated shoot tips of a saponin contain ing Smilax sp. are made into the regionally important drink, Popo. As the drink has become less ritualized and consumed more frequently, demand for Theobroma bicolor has risen such that in March to July 2008 prices for cacao blanco were 35 60 pesos/kilo ( $3.50$6 USD) while for cacao they were 1030 pesos/kilo ($1$3 USD). Theobroma bicolor is also sent to the central valley of Oaxaca where it is utilized in other regional drinks, one called tejate (which contains maize, T. cacao T.bicolor the seeds of Pouteria sapota, and the flowers of Quararibea funebris ), the other chocolate atole or chocolate espumita (which contains T. bicolor T. cacao wheat, and cinnamon) (Soleri and Cleveland 2007) Local and regional markets for Theobroma bicolor are enticing enough for small holders to have begun planting more trees. Given the recent interest in export markets for fine and special chocolates, it would seem t hat integrating the story and flavor of Theobroma bicolor could be promising.

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43 Further research into the genetic and morphological diversity of local cacao ( T. cacao ) varieties is of great interest as well. Should any prove to be old, pre Hispanic crillo cultivars, specialty marketing of such beans and/or processed products could prove lucrative. The interest in and price for single origin, cri o llo cacao beans appears poised to continue growing (Rosenblum 2005) The importance of quelites suggested in the free list interviews is further corroborated by the high levels of occurrence in the inventories, particularly in the milpa, 100% of which contained them, and in the home gardens in 92% of which they were found. The most abundant species in the inventories were those mentioned most frequently in the free lists, i.e. Amaranthus hybridus Solanum americanum Solanum nigrescens and Cestrum nocturnum These and ca. 20 other species that were reported in the free lists to be utilized for the edible greens were reported by residents to be an extremely important part of the local diet, both as an easily obtainable food to accompany tortillas when other food is scarce, and for the nutri tional/medicinal qualities they are believed to possess. Informants frequently attributed the longevity and health of older generations to their high consumption of quelites. Quelites have been studied elsewhere in Mexico and are promising in regards to t heir role in nutritional security and potentially as an income generator, as they are easily grown, nutrient rich (Ovando et al. 2003) and well adapted companion crops in milpas, coffee groves, and home gardens (Bye Jr 1981, Pico and Nuez 2000, Vazquez Garcia et a l. 2004, Casas et al. 2007) It is interesting to contemplate where quelites fit on the wild to domesticated continuum. They are essentially weeds, and thus could be called incidentally co -evolved in Clements scheme (Clement 1999). However, all of t he management techniques of Casas et al. (2007) are applicable to these species, let standing, encourage growing, and protection. Seemingly, human management and selection for the

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44 more palatable genotypes has influenced these species. Interestingly at times seeds are strewn into milpas, or in the case of Cestrum nocturnum cuttings are inserted into the ground, and yet at other times, plants emerge spontaneously from the seed bank, thus straddling the categories tolerated/protected and cultivated/e ncouraged. While marketed widely throughout Mexico, the villages in the study do not market their quelites, though nearby markets are worth investigating. Owing to the information of its place on free lists of fruits from the region and its position in in ventories, as well as discussions with local residents, it appears accurate to regard Persea schiedeana as a Cinderella species and to regard it as warranting further investigation. This, along with community and researcher interest, resulted in the com mencement of a participatory domestication project and the documentation of the resources of Persea schiedeana in the region. One of the necessary steps for underutilized fruit crops like Persea schiedeana to be brought into wider cultivation is to promot e the use of superior selections through grafting (Popenoe 1952, Akinnifesi et al. 2008) Popenoe wrote, ..with regards to numerous species, particularly native ones, man has failed to take advantage of the simplest means at his command for improving them. That is to say, he has not had recourse to vegetative propagation(Popenoe 1952). In addition to allowing for the propagation of superior varieties, grafting has the additional advantage of greatly reducing the juvenility period, thus reducing the time before the harvesting of fruit can commence.

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45 CHAPTER 4 PERSEA SCHIEDEANA ( CHINENE): ETHNOBOTANY, LOCAL MANAGEMENT, AND MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY Persea schiedeana is a member of Lauraceae, a large, magnoliid family, widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics, with around 50 genera and 2550 species (Mabberly 2008). The genus Persea is typically described as a large, heterogeneous genus of ca. 200 species found mostly in the northern hemisphere (Mabberley 2008) in the Asian tropics and subtropics, the Neotropics and the Canary Islands (1 species) (van der Werff 2002) The taxonomy of the genus is in constant debate and revision. The Neotropical Persea were divided by Kopp (1966) into two groups, i.e. sub genus Persea (referred to as avocados) and subgenus Eriodaphne (referred to as aguacatillos), which are sexually incompatible. Many still recognize these two groups (Scora et al. 2002). In the work of van der Werff (2002), using morphological traits (but not cladistic analysis) to group all of the Central American spe cies, both wild and cultivated, of Persea he recognized the two sub generic groups of Kopp, but added two other groups for various species not conforming to the delineations of sub. Persea and sub. Eriodaphne commenting the seemingly clear division of N e otropical Persea into two sub genera can no longer be maintained (van der Werff 2002). Thus in van der Werffs work we are left with four sub -genera. In recent phylogenetic work (using cladisiti c analysis based on morphological traits of a restricted num ber of species), it was proposed that Neotropical Persea is not a monophyletic group and that while the clades sub. Eriodaphne and sub. Persea exist they are more distantly related than previously supposed and that they should be recognized as separate genera (Rojas et al. 2007). They proposed that a constricted Persea clade appears more closely related to genera Nectandra and Ocotea than Eriodaphne (Rojas et al. 2007). The proposed genus Persea sensu stricto includes Persea schiedeana along with the Wes t Indian race of avocado ( Persea

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46 americana), Mexican race of avocado ( P. drymifolia ) and the Guatemalan race of avocado ( P. guatamalensis ) and wild relatives (Rojas et al. 2007) Figure 4 1. Phylogenetic analysis of Neotropical Persea from Rojas et al., 2007: Strict consensus of the five equally parsimonious trees for Persea taxa based on morphological characters. Length = 181,consistency index = 39 and retention index = 60. Synapomorphies are black circles and homoplasies are open circles. Bootstrap/jackknife percentages are given below branches Despite nearly one hundred years of avocado exploration and research, beginning with the works of Wilson Popenoe (1920, 1935) followed by Standley (1961) Kopp (1966), Smith (1966, 1969) ,Williams (1977) Schieber and Zentmeyer (1977) and continued into the present, utilizing modern phylogenetic (Rojas et al. 2007) and molecular techniques (Ashworth and Clegg 2003, Borrone et al. 2007) the exact delineations of Persea and its component species and their relationships among one another remain murky and constantly shifting. The family Lauraceae and the genus Persea are regarded as difficult to classify, a fact which has been further complicated by the long history of human interaction with a number of species of Persea

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47 (Lorea Hernndez 2002, Scora et al. 2002, GalindoTovar et a l. 2008) Multiple authors have noted that much of the morphological diversity within a broadly defined Persea americana is due to human influence (Popenoe, 1935; van der Werff, 2002), this is likely true of related species as well (Brcher 1989) Long recognized, if not perfectly understood or delineated are the three cultivated groups, varyingly referred to as varieties, races, species, or subspecie s (depending on the source and classification) of avocado; the Mexican variety, the Guatemalan variety, and the West Indian variety (Popenoe 1920). Indeed, these three types of avocado appear to have been recognized in pre Colombian times, being named dif ferently as ahuacatl or ahuacacuahuitl tlacazolahuacatl and quilahuacatl (Sahagn and Temprano 2000) The different races and their differing geographies were also were also reco gnized by early Spanish chroniclers, including Friar Bernabe Cobo (Cobo 189095) A number of thorough descriptions of the traits defining these groups and speculations on their respective places of origin are available, including the following compiled using various sources by avocadosource.com (2009): MEXICAN RACE. Leaves anise-scented; under -surfaces more glaucous (whitened with a bloom). Flowe rs generally more pubescent (hairy); bloom earliest in the season. Fruit small. Fruit skin thin to membranous, rarely over 0.75 mm. Seed relatively large to very large, and often loose. Fruit pulp commonly rich to strong in flavor, sometimes with anise aroma; often fibrous. About six months from flowering the fruit reaches maturity. The most cold hardy of the avocado races; also more resistant to heat and low humidity. The least tolerant to soil salinity. Rarely does well in coastal environment. WEST INDIA N RACE. No anise leaf scent. Fruit small to large. Fruit skin leathery, seldom over 1.5 mm. Seed relatively large; sometimes loose in its cavity. Pulp milk to watery in flavor; lower oil content than other two races. About six months from flowering to frui t maturity. The least hardy of the three races to cold and to low humidity, not adapted to anywhere in California. The most tolerant to soil salinity, as either rootstock or top. At point of fruit attachment, the pedicels have a unique nail head configurat ion. GUATEMALAN RACE. No anise leaf scent. Young foliage more commonly reddish. Fruits small to large. In adaptation and tolerance to soil and climate, intermediate between the above two

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48 races. The fruit skin is usually thick and leathery to woody, someti mes over 6 mm. Seed almost never loose in its cavity. Fruit may require a year from bloom to maturity. Confusingly, the relationships among these three races and to allied wild species remain unclear. The current consensus seems to be that the three cult ivated races (var. americana Mill. West Indian, var. guatemalensis Williams Guatemalan, var. drymifolia (Schlecht. and Cham.) Blake Mexican (Scora et al. 2002, Scora and Bergh 1990) along with the wild ecotypes, var. floccosa Mez, var. steyermarkii Allen, var. tolimanensis var. zentmyerii and var. nubigena (Williams) Kopp. are all varieties of a broadly defined Persea america na (Litz et al. 2005, Borrone et al. 2007) However, the late st phylogenetic work proposes that the above -mentioned cultivated races and wild varieties can be recognized on the basis of morphological traits as distinct species and form a clade, which is sister to Persea schiedeana (Rojas et al. 2007) The relationships among these species (or races or varieties) are not clear and the decision of how to define each of these groups, as species or varieties may ultimately come down to ones taxonomic philosophy, species concept, and purpose. That the groupings exist in nature is supported by morphological as well as molecular data and is not contested, rather how to name them or rank them is of contention and their exact relationship to one another. Recent molecular work has not clarified the situation, but shows three clusters, representing the three races of avocado and numerous inter racial hybrids (Ashworth and Clegg 2003) (See Figure 4 2 below).

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49 Figure 4 2 Results of molecular analysis by Ashworth and Clegg (2003): Neighbor joining consensus tree of 1,000 bootstrap replicates generated from allele frequencies at 25 microsatellite loci for 33 avocado genotypes. Many bootstrap values are low, reflecting t he large number of hybrid cultivars in the data set. Dotted lines surround genotype assemblages belonging to the three botanical races of avocado Guatemalan, Mexican, and West Indian. The West Indian cluster is assigned based on cv. Arue, whose ancestry is presumed to be West Indian. Intermediate clusters unite genotypes of various hybrid origins. This study is far from perfect, utilizing too few samples and known hybrids. The tree produced is unclear because it is unrooted. However, is does appear to sh ow the molecular basis for the three cultivated groups and to also demonstrate that both among the three cultivated races and Persea schiedeana hybridization has occurred in the past and continues to occur, whether owing to natural overlap and/or human manipulation. The history of the domestication of in avocados is, thus, very difficult to elucidate. In fact, it may be artificial to divide a very broadly defined Persea americana into varieties, sub species, or separate species. They may be ecotypes and/or biological artifacts of human selection, as seems to perhaps be the case with a number of semi -domesticated Neotropical fruit species (GalindoTovar et al. 2008) It is important to keep in mind that the evolution of these species is a dynamic process and any attempt to classify them

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50 can only provide a snap shot of the present. Suffice it to sa y, for the purposes of this paper that Persea schi e deana is very closely related to Persea americana with which it can and has hybridized, as seen in the rootstock Martin Grande G755a and documented by (Ellstrand et al.1986) and is an important Neotropical fruit in its own right. It is also an important species in the biological and cultural history (and future) of the edible avoca dos. In addition to the avocado, which has been and continues to be an important food source in the Neotropics (and now throughout the world), numerous of its relatives are collected from the wild and eaten locally in the Neotropics (Smith et al. 1992, Caballero et al. 2004) The chinene (Per sea schiedeana), also known as yas or coyo is one of the most widespread and significant of these, and yet remains an under recognized and under -studied fruit whose genetic and commercial potentials have yet to be exploited fully. In the Chinantla, some of the wild avocado relatives that are eaten are wild harvested from forested areas, others such as Beilschmiedia anay (anay escalan ) (Borys et al. 1 993) and Persea americana are only found in cultivation. Meanwhile, throughout its range in the Neotropics chinene is both wild harvested from forested areas and cultivated/semi -cultivated in home gardens and in shaded coffee and cacao plantings (Popenoe 1920, Popenoe 1935, Stanley and Steyermark 1946, Williams 1977, Brcher 1989, Smith et al. 1992, Cruz Castillo et al. 2004b, Bandeira et al. 2005, Martnez et al. 2007, Tenorio et al. 2008) Occurring chiefly alo ng the Gulf facing slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental from Tamaulipas to Chiapas in Mexico, the range of Persea schiedeana continues southwards with confirmed records from Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia (Kopp 1966, Barrientos Priego and Lpez Lpez 2000) and reports from the Ecuador -Colombia border. Throughout its range, which is typically from 90m to 2000m (Martinez et al. 2007)

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51 Persea schiedeana is named, eaten, and semi cultivated in home gardens and in coffee and cacao plantings by campesinos, as it is in Mexico. Lists of the numerous native names are given in Morton (1987) and more thoroughly in Smith et al. (1992). A recent revision of the floras of Mesoamerica and Central America, show it listed in Mexico (Standley 1961) G uatemala (Standley and Steyermark 1946), the Lancetilla Valley of Honduras (Standley 1931) Costa Rica (Standley 1938, Hammel 2003) and Panama (Correa A. et al. 2004) Standley and Steyermark (1946) write, reflecti ve of many of the entries in floras: Called yas in Costa Rica, chuti in Honduras, and chinini in southern Mexico. The tree is common in the mountain forests of various parts of Guatemala, but especially in the mountains of Alta Verapaz. The trees l ose their leaves during the dry season. They usually are left when forest is cleared and often are plentiful in pastures. The fruit varies greatly in quality, that of most wild trees being unpleasantly fibrous and having scant flesh. However, the flavor is so good that the fruit is much appreciated, and it is sold commonly in the markets during its relatively brief season. Some trees have large fruits in which the fiber is not conspicuous. Occasionally the trees are planted in fincas but most of the fr uit is harvested from wild trees. Despite its widespread use among rural populations, and the localized commerce of it in these areas, where it is highly regarded and sometimes preferred over other avocados, at times fetching prices equal to or greater tha n avocados in local markets (Smith et al. 1992, Cruz Castillo et al. 2007b) this species has largely been ignored as a potential fruit for more widespread production and improvement (Cruz Castillo et al. 2004a) Whereas avocados are now found throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world and are a major agricultural commodity, chinene is unknown outside of its native range. Perplexingly, as a fruit crop in its own right it has been overlooked or dismissed. Jorge Leon, in Botanica de los Cultivos Tropicales, after four pages about avocado, comments on ly that the mesocarp of P. schiedeana is thinner than that of P. americana, the seed larger, and the flavor of the pulp less pleasant (Len 2000). Julia Morton offers it a bit more consideration, commenting, ..the flesh is oily with a

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52 milky juice, few to many coarse fibers, but a very appealing avocado-coconut flavor. The seed is very large.(Morton 1987). Smith et al.(1992) offer it the most attention yet given in English, recognizing its importance in local diets and markets and noting, This minor crop could become more important if selections were made for large, high -yielding and good-tasting fruits that travel well. Most of the attention Persea schiedeana has received has been as a source for resistance to root rot ( Phytophthora cinnamomi ) in breeding programs for P. americana or for its potential as a root stock for this species with Phytophtora resistance and tolerance of heavy, wet soi ls (Coffey 1987) Root rot is currently the single most significant threat to avocado cultivation globally (Litz et al. 2005) The cultivar Martin Grande or G755a, collected in Coban, Guatemala in 1977, appears to be of hybrid origin between a Guatemalan race avocado and P. schiedeana (Ellstrand et al. 1986) and appears to possess as much resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi as any compatible line known (Lahav and Lavi 2002) However, initial hopes for this rootstock have not been borne out, as the yields of commercial varieties grafted on to it have proven to be too low for commercial production (Lahav and Lavi 2002). Experiences contrary to this, however, were repo rted from South Africa (Schroeder 1974) New work with P. schiedeana as a rootstock for Hass avocado is currently taking place in Veracruz, Mexico where it is thought that the tolerance of P. schiedeana to heavy clay soils will be advantageous (Fernandez per. comm. 2009). Recently, work on Persea schi e deana has been undertaken in Mexico to survey the ecophytogeography of the species and to characterize the diversity of fruit forms found in Veracruz and Tabasco (Cruz Castillo et al. 2004a, Cruz Castillo et al. 2007a, Cruz -Castillo et al. 2007b, Martinez et al 2007, Tenorio et al. 2008) Work has also been undertaken to determine

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53 the oil contents and components of chinene (Cruz Castillo et al. 2007a, Martinez et al. 2007) This work contributes to the beginning stages of an effort to improve/further domesticate chine ne (Cruz Castillo et al. 2007b) Much that was written in the early to middle 20th century in regards to avocado is applicable to the present situation of Persea schiedeana such as high variability, almost exclu sive seed propagation, lack of named varieties, incomplete understanding of phenology and biology, and lack of recognition outside of regions in which it is produced for self consumption or at best sale to local markets (Popenoe 1920). The confounding rol e of past human selection and movement likewise applies to P. schiedeana as it does to P. americana. Williams (1977) writes: The tree has undoubtedly been in cultivation, or semi -cultivation, for a long period of time. The fruits are large and much used fo r food although inferior to true avocados. The variations in the fruits, in the vegetative structure and in the tree itself are rather great as might be expected in a seedling plant that has been selected for superior fruits over a long period of timeHow much of [its] range is natural and how much due to man is impossible to say. The tree is capable of invading a forest situation and does well on open slopes or in old fields. The altitudinal range in which it does well is rather great, from near sea leve l to nearly 2,000m. Later, Brucher (1989) comments, Its present dispersal from MexicoGuatemala to Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia may have been influenced by migrating Indians in early times. Persea schiedeana is regarded as the most easily recognizable species in the genus Persea (Williams 1977). It is distinguished by its large, pubescent leaves (to 20cm wide) and ferruginous pubescent twigs. It is also recognized for its large scarious margined bud scales (Williams 1977, van der Werff 2002). In flora l characters, van der Werff distinguishes P. schiedeana by its large flowers (tepals 6 8mm long) and long pedicels (10-25mm) and densely pubescent pistil (van der Werff 2002). It is also noted for meatier and round tipped nectaries in the flowers (as opposed to the more pointed nectaries in P. americana) and for its

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54 perianth and stamens that turn red with age. Like P. americana, it has protogyneous flowers, but in contrast to P. americana, the flowers do not close during the evening following floral a nthesis. T hus though the flowers exhibit protogynous diurnally synchronous dichogomy like avocado, the female and male phases are not separated by floral closure and reanthesis, but rather a stand by during which the flowers remain open but are not acti vely in either sexual phase (Tenorio et al. 2008) The importance of out crossing versus s elfing is not known exactly for Persea schiedeana It is assumed to be predominately an out crosser, but it is hypothesized that as with P. americana, greater selfing may occur at higher elevations and/or latitudes due to cool temperatures that disrupt th e dichogomy mechanisms (Tenorio et al. 2008). Figure 4 3. Flowers of Persea schiedeana The fruit often appears superficially quite similar to the avocado (pyriform) while at other times a long neck distinguishes it from the majority of avocado cultivars (although some West Indian cultivars share this trait). The white to cream pulp color normally easily distinguishes chinene from avocado which is normally green to yellow. Researchers in Veracruz have noted the color of the skin of the fruit to vary from green to black, brown, and purple (Martinez et al.

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55 2007) The flavor has been described to resemble that of coconut (Popenoe 1920), while personal experience by the author, noted a flavor similar to that of a Hass avocado but with a slight hint of raw onion. In Mexico, chinene is typically eaten by halving the fruit, removing the seed, and filling the seed hole with a salsa of dry roasted red chiles, salt and raw garlic. The salsa and chinene pulp are then mashed together to form something resembling guacamole, which is then eaten inside of a tortilla. Owing to its softer texture than avocados, chinene cannot be cut and removed f rom the shell in pieces as one may do with P. americana cultivars. Figure 4 4. Photos of fruits of Persea schiedeana Figure 4 5. Photos of Persea schiedeana as typically eaten

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56 That the chinene is an important contributor to local diets, just as avocado, has been noted. However, the oil and nutritional contents have only recently been determined (Cruz Castillo et al. 2007a, Martinez et al. 2007) In their study of chinene in Las Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico, researchers found significant morphological divers ity in fruits in terms of size and form, as well as in regards to skin color (Martinez et al. 2007). An analysis of the oil content was also carried out, with the studied chinene having 24.7 36% fatty acid, much higher compared to the 4 to 7% common for W est Indian race avocados grown in similar climates and nearly equal with Mexican and Mexican x Guatemalan hybrids. The dominant monounsaturated oil type is oleic acid, the same oil found in olive oil, and widely regarded as having healthy attributes. Other fatty acids detected in significant levels were palmitic with 24.4 34.4%, palmitoleic with 7.2 14.4%, and linoleic (omega 3) with 6.3 9.9% (Martinez et al. 2007). Their results demonstrate quantitatively what has previously been known anecdotally, that significant variation exists in chinene in regards to both its fruit morphology and its oil content and that it is indeed a quite nutritious food source. Other works have demonstrated variation in important characters of chinene, including shape, size, se ed to pulp ratio, and pulp fiber content (Cruz Castillo et al. 2004a, Cruz Castillo et al. 2007a) Part of the purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the growing body of knowledge regarding Persea schiedeana by presenting inf ormation about Persea schiedeana in the Chinantla area of Oaxaca, which is adjacent to southern Veracruz and Tabasco, the two areas where the most research has been carried out thus far. The research presents data specifically regarding fruit morphology, tree habitat, management techniques, ethnobotanical knowledge, and selection pressures.

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57 Methods Between February and July 2008, both ethnoecological -management data and morphological data were collected on Persea schiedeana in the Chinantla, specifically i n the village of San Mateo Yetla and the six villages compromising CORENCHI. Interviews To obtain information on the ethnoecology and management of Persea schiedeana an interview was elaborated and administered to a total of 34 people, of varying ages, both male and female, from all seven villages ( see Appendix E for full interview). The interview was partly inspired by similar work on another Mesoamerican semi -domesticate, Sideroxylon palmeri (Gonzlez -Soberanis and Casas 2004) The purpose of the interview was to elicit information about how the diversity of P ersea schiedeana is perceived and managed, as well as local knowledge of its ecology and ecological interactions. In a participatory domestication program, the local knowledge of the species in question is regarded as one of the most important fonts of in formation in regards to local diversity, ecological preferences, superior individuals, and, obviously, usage (Leakey and Akinnifesi 2008) The answers to many of the questions were subsequently coded numerically and percentages of each answer calculated. Other answers were used as free list data to analyze in the program ANTHROPAC (Borgatti 1996) Fruit Morphology and Diversity In each of the villages of CORENCHI, data was collected on trees and fruits during late May an d June 2008, the early and middle part of harvest season of chinene in the Chinantla. Local research assistants were trained in each village prior to data collection to aid in the collection of data and to help in interaction with the communities. The tr aining of research

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58 assistants and their paid assistance was a stipulation by the communities to research in their villages and territory, so that resources, both intellectual and monetary are accrued by the communities. Information on the tree and its loca tion was collected in the field, including GPS coordinates, estimated level of sunlight reaching canopy, estimated humidity of site, estimated yield, type of agroecosystem, whether the tree was planted or spontaneously arose, soil type, etc. Fruits were either collected from the ground (if present) or retrieved from the tree by various means, such as climbing, rock and stick throwing, branch shaking, and/or sling shot shooting, all typical ways that locals harvest the fruits. An attempt to collect five fr uits from each tree was made though it did not always prove possible. Upon return to the village data was recorded on the fruit exterior, i.e. color, skin texture, shape, weight, dimensions, etc. If the fruit was ripe, the fruit was cut open and data was recorded on the interior of the fruits. More typically, however, the fruit was not ripe and 2 to 3 days later, data was recorded on the interior part of the fruit. As part of this process of data collection on the interior of the fruit or immediately aft erwards, Chinene Fairs were held in each of the villages, during which the fruits were publicly displayed and villagers were encouraged to examine and try the fruits and voice their opinions concerning which were superior. The success of these fairs was mixed, in some villages serving quite well, in others only moderately well. In the best cases, collectively participants decided upon the best fruits of the village. In other cases, the researcher, along with research assistants made the subjective dete rmination as to the best fruits. Appendix F is the information sheet that was used with each tree.

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59 R esults Interviews Ethnoecology and m anagement T he information gathered during the interview process is substantial and to the knowledge of the researcher p rovides the first systematic study of the ethnocological knowledge pertaining to Persea schiedeana and its management. A good deal of information useful in the participatory breeding project undertaken was generated. Local i mportance D uring earlier visi ts to the area, it was anecdotally reported that Persea schiedeana is an important indigenous fruit crops in the area. A number of questions were included in the interview that attempted to further explore the role of Persea schiedeana in the Chinantla. 79% of respondents reported that they harvest the fruits of P. schiedeana. Of these 32% report that they harvest the fruit by climbing the trees and cutting the fruit, while 29% report more casually looking for the fallen fruits under the trees, and 39% report utilizing both of the strategies to obtain the fruits. Climbing the tree is no easy feat, as it is frequently higher than 20m with the lowest branches well out of climbing reach. Both shimmying and especially the use of ropes to climb trees were reported. The danger of such work was frequently noted and the height of the trees was the most frequently mentioned barrier to further exploitation of the species (and thus one of the primary local desires is for dwarfed trees). In terms of dietary role those interviewed reported that they eat on average 3 fruits per day during the harvest season (late May to early August, depending on altitude), which significantly falls during a time that maize supplies are diminishing from the last harvest and just p rior to the season of local avocado varieties (July to September), which is in turn followed by Beilshmiedia anay (late October December). Whereas, chinene is apparently an important subsistence item,

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60 only 32% of respondents reported to sell chinene, with the majority of those reporting to sell it within the village, at the average price of 3 pesos ($.30 USD) per fruit. In terms of other uses of the tree 56% reported that fallen branches or felled, old, unproductive trees are utilized as firewood. 29% rep orted that under similar circumstances timber is harvested from the tree. No reports were given of medicinal uses of any part of the tree, nor of culinary uses other than the fruit. Likewise, no reports were given of the tree being utilized for animal fo dder. Table 4 1. Summary of local importance data Average fruits eaten per day Other uses Sell fruits? 3 fruits +/ 2 29% Timber Yes 32% 56% Firewood 3 pesos/fruit Management In much of the scant literature on Persea sc hiedeana, it is reported to be wild harvested and occasionally cultivated (Popenoe 1920, Standley and Steyermark 1946, Cruz Castillo et al. 2004a, Cruz Castillo et al. 2007a, Martinez et al. 2007) In the interviews an attempt was made to determine to what extent the tree is regarded in the area as a wild tree and to what extent it is regarded as a cultivar associated with human activity. Other questions delved into the management techniques applied to the tree, first and foremost whether it i s intentionally managed or cultivated and if so what if any selective criteria are imposed. In regards to where P. schiedeana is found, 89% reported it is found in monte virgin (virgin forest), although of this 89%, 16% explicitly qualified the occurrenc e of chinene in the monte as being in areas where people worked or lived in the past. 97% percent of respondents reported that chinene is found in coffee groves and 85% in home gardens. Table 4 2. Percent respondents reporting P. schiedeana in ecosys tem Monte Coffee Grove Home Garden 89% 97% 86%

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61 In regards to whether chinene is cultivated, 85% of respondents reported having planted it from seed, 66% of these typically plant it directly as seed in the place where they desired to have the plant, while 15% reported starting the tree first in a home/nursery 85% reported to have planted chinene, 100% reported that chinene also frequently comes up on its own without being planted; se nace solo (it is born alone). While such trees are sometimes near the mother tree, the fruits and seeds are regarded to frequently be distributed by a number of animals. A list of ten animals and the number of times they were mentioned as a consumer of the fruits and/or a seed dispersal agent is in Table 4 3. Table 4 3. An imal species mentioned in interviews to distribute P. schiedeana seeds # of times mentioned: Spanish Name English Name Latin Name 22 Tepezcuintle Paca Cuniculus paca 13 Tejon, Coati White nosed coati Nasua narica 13 Serete Agouti Dasyprocta sp. 12 Ardi lla Squirel Sciurus deppei 9 Jabali, Pecar de collar Javalina Tayassu tajacu 3 Tlacuache Opposum Didelphis virginia 2 A rmadilla, Toche Armadilla Dasypus novemcinctus 1 M apache Racoon Procyon lotor 1 Perro Dog Canis lupus familiaris Diversity of fr uit c haracters I n terms of the perception of the diversity of fruit forms found locally, all respondents (100%) reported that fruit morphology does vary between trees, in regards to shape, color, and size. 97% reported that fruit quality among this divers ity is variable and that some trees produce superior fruit over others. In terms of flavor, 65% reported that it is variable between trees. The most frequent and salient of the responses to the question, How are the best chinene? generated the free lis t found in Table 4 -4

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62 Table 4 4. Characters elicited in interviews as defining the best P. schiedeana fruits Best Fruit Character (n=33) # of times listed % of informants to list Smith's S Large 14 42 0.40 Good Flavor 13 39 0.31 Long 9 27 0.2 Dark Skin Color 7 21 0.16 Low Fiber 10 30 0.15 Small Seed 10 30 0.15 High Pulp Content 8 24 0.14 Green Skin Color 5 15 0.12 Beyond merely observing that a large diversity of fruit types and qualities exist, the vast majority of respondents (91%) reported tha t selection is made according to these criteria when planting a seed. Table 4 5 shows the most frequent and salient responses as to the criteria utilized to decide which seed to plant. Table 4 5. Criteria listed as selective basis for deciding what seed of P. schiedeana to plant Selective Criteria (n=31) # of times listed % of informants to list Smith's S Best 18 58 0.58 Good Flavor 7 23 0.21 High Pulp Content 6 19 0.2 Large 4 13 0.12 Fruit diversity within a tree was acknowledged by 27%, whereas t he rest asserted that all fruits from a tree are the same. Those who reported variation cited principally variation in size as the only variable character. Management Although Persea schiedeana has been noted to be cultivated or semi cultivated, no examin ation as to the management of the trees receive has been made. In light of this respondents were asked about management applied to planted or spontaneous occurring seedlings. 80% reported that when a tree is encountered while clearing forest for milpa or

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63 pasture that P. schiedeana trees are spared. 30% reported that they are not only spared but also protected from burning by clearing firebreaks around them. The most important and widely executed management technique is protecting trees (both young and old from competition for light from other trees and, in the case of older trees, lianas). 94% of respondents reported this as a management practice employed with chinene, whereas 22% reported pruning or rather tipping of saplings being a management techni que employed to try to promote branching and dwarfed stature, and only 18% reported any irrigation of young trees. Phenology/e cology I n terms of the phenology and ecology of P. schi e deana, the average juvenility period reported was 9 years (+/ 3.6). 74% r eported that flowering and fruiting occurs at the same time for all trees, while the remainder indicated that some minor variation was to be found, principally owing to the conditions of the site. Likewise, 54% reported that the quantity of fruits that tr ees produce varies and 65% that the juvenility period can vary, both according to environmental conditions. Casually, it was frequently stated that the trees prefer moist sites of soils rich in organic matter. 97% of respondents reported that chinene is strongly biennial in its cropping pattern, though there were a few anecdotal reports of trees (especially in home gardens) that yield equally each year. 97% responded negatively to the question as to whether they felt that avocado and chinene can cross an d/or they have observed any trees of intergrading characteristics. Up to the present, propagation of chinene has been carried out by seed, a process that does not allow for a high retention of desired traits. However, limited encounters of grafting P. s chiedeana have been reported in Mexico and experimentation is currently successfully under

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6 4 way in Huatusco, Veracruz (Castillo Cruz pers c om 2008). In the Chinantla, 95% of respondents felt that it was possible to graft chinene though they are not famil iar with how to do so. In the study mentioned above, it was found that in Las Tuxtlas, Veracruz, the most widespread propagation technique is by seed (95%) with only 5% of trees being grafted (Martinez et al. 2007). Ecological and Morphological Field Ob servations Phenology of Persea schiedeana : Through the nearly two years of research on Persea schiedeana the follo wing phe nological cycle has been observed (with the dates varying considerably depending upon altitude, trees in hotter climates reach each phase earlier): Ja nuary March: Terminal bud break and flowering, followed by flush of new foliage. Fe bruary -March: Drop of old leaves, maturation of new leaves. May -August: Fruiting August December 2nd flush of foliage and sporadic re -flowering (reports of rare fruiting in February from this flowering). Best time for grafting: December -early January Root -stock can be generated from seed in June July to grafting size in January. A significant amount of data on the trees and fruits of Persea schiedeana was generated, in addition to interesting information suggesting that selection upon Persea schiedeana has been carried out successfully in the Chinantla. One hundred and twenty four individual trees were encountered among the six villages of CORENCHI. T he basic data on the altitude, age, height, and diameter at breast height of the trees is presented in Table 4 6.

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65 Table 4 6. Summary of tree data Age (n=117) Altitude (n=118) DBH (n=124) Height (n=34) Overall Mean 32.5 (+/ 22) 733m (+/ 235) 50cm (+/ 27) 21m (+/ 9) Maximum 100 years 1193m 153cm 45m Minimum 8 years 255m 15cm 5m The trees were found unequally among seven different agroecosystems. Figure 4 6 shows the percentage of trees found in each of the agroecosystems. It demonstrates that the agroecosystems with the most trees is the cafetal, which contained nearly half of all trees encountered. The remaining agroecosystems each contained considerably fewer trees, including the forest. This suggests that human -management, through planting, se lective clearing and protection has increased the densities of Persea schiedeana in coffee groves, as they are regarded as desirable because they provide both food and shade. Figure 4 6. Percentage of all P. schiedeana trees found in each agroecosystem Data on the ecological characteristics of the sites where the trees were found is presented in Table 4 7. The data corroborates the information from community members that Persea

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66 schiedeana prefers sites with medium to high moisture, rich soils, and sunli ght on the tree canopy. Table 4 7. Ecological characteristics of sites where P. schiedeana were encountered Characteristics of sites Soil Type (n=120) Abonoso Negro Medio Amarilla Arenosa Segunda Organic Black Medium Yellow Sand Second 29 % 53% 1% 6% 7% 5% Humidity of Site (n=123) Driest Dry Medium Humid Hyper -humid 0% 7% 39% 46% 7% Light of site (n=116) Shade Sun 21% 79% Both quantitative and qualitative data on the fruits of the trees was recorded. Table 4 8 pre sents the quantitative data of all fruits encountered Table 4 9 presents qualitative data on the same fruits. For comparison, Table 4 10 shows morphological data collected on Persea schiedeana elsewhere in Mexico.

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67 Table 4 8. Quantitative fruit chara cters of the Chinantla Quantitative Fruit Characters Fruit Length (n=487) Length Average Min/Max Length 14.24cm (+/ 3.6) 8cm 28cm Fruit Width (n=485) Width Average Min/Max Width 6.24cm (+/ 1) 9.5cm 3cm Fruit Weight (n=484) Weight Avera ge Min/Max Weight 297g (+/ 112) 90g 1000g Pulp/Skin Weight (n=195) Weight Average Min/Max Weight 211g (+/ 75) 80g 440g Seed Length (n=194) Length Average Min/Max Length 9cm (+/ 2) 3.4cm 16.6cm Seed Width (n=197) Width Average Min/Max W idth 4cm (+/ 1.3) 2cm 12.5cm Seed Weight (n=209) Weight Average Min/Max Weight 91g (+/ 43) 30g 240g Pulp:Seed Ratio (n=192) Ratio Average Min/Max Ratio 2.6 (+/ 1.4) .6 10

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68 Table 4 9. Qualitative fruit characters Qualitative Fruit Characte rs Fruit Form (n=90) Long neck Pyriform Ball Med. Neck Cucumber 20.0% 44.4% 12.2% 21.1% 2.2% Flavor (n=83) Best flavor(1) Good flavor(2) Ok(3) Poor flavor(4) Worst flavor(5) Mean 1.99 +/ 1.1 44.6% 24.1% 19.3% 12.0% 0.0% Fiber (n =86) None(1) Low(2) Medium(3) High(4) Extremely(5) Mean 2.33 +/ .9 15.1% 51.2% 20.9% 11.6% 1.2% Quality (n=83) Best(1) Good(2) Average(3) Poor(4) Bad(5) Mean 2.02 +/ .9 36.1% 36.1% 18.1% 8.4% 1.2% Fruit Pulp Texture (n=83) Watery Creamy F loury 20.5% 77.1% 2.4% Skin Color (n=97) Light Green Dark Green Purple Red 74.2% 18.6% 6.2% 1.0%

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69 Table 4 10. Data on quantitative characters of fruits from various municipalities in Veracruz, Mexico (Cruz Castillo et al. 2007a)

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70 The principal hypotheses of this thesis is that the fruits of Persea schiedeana from planted trees sho uld be statistically different than those of spontaneously arising trees in the characteristics that are subject to selection, which were elicited during interviews. A mechanism to explain this would be the effects of truncated selection, where through se lection for desired characters, the population of selected individuals begins to differentiate from the larger wild population (Leakey et al. 2004) Of the 124 trees encountered, 63 trees were reported as planted and 51 as spontaneous (the origins of 9 trees was not recor ded). Figure 4 5 shows the agroecosystems in which the planted and spontaneous trees were encountered. Significantly, the vast majority of the planted (selected) trees are in managed agroforestry systems, home gardens (20%) and coffee groves (nearly 70%). Even so, within both of these agroecosytems, especially coffee groves, spontaneous trees are found (nearly 50% of all spontaneous trees were in coffee groves). This shows that both cultivation and sparing/protection strategies are occurring in both home gardens and, especially, in coffee groves. Figure 4 7. Percentages of planted and self -sown trees found in each agroecosystem

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71 Table 4 11 shows the qualitative and quantitative characters of the planted versus spontaneous trees, along with the significa nce of difference obtained in independent T -tests using SPSS version 9 software. Of interest, a number of differences are notable between the planted and spontaneous populations in the Chinantla. Firstly, flavor and quality scores are significantly superi or for the planted trees. Fruit length, width, and weight are all significantly greater in the planted trees. All of these characters are characters that are selected for according to the interviews conducted (see above). Interestingly, another characte r selected for, high pulp is only achieved with over all greater fruit size, the planted trees do not have a superior pulp: seed ratio. The planted trees also have a higher diversity of skin colors.

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72 Table 4. 11. Comparison of planted and self sown fruit s Planted vs. Self Sown Planted Self sown Significanc e Skin Color (n=44,44) LG:61.4%,DG:25.0%,P:11.4%,R:2.3% LG:84.1%,DG:15.9%,P:0.0%,R:0.0% Pulp Texture (n=37,40) W:20.5%, Cr:77.1%, Fl:2.4% W:24.3%, Cr:73.0%,Fl:2.7% Flavor (n=36,41) 1.56 +/ .135 2.44 +/ .175 0.000 Fiber (n=38,42) 2.61 +/ .139 2.07+/ .138 0.008 Quality (n=37,41) 1.68 +/ .140 2.39+/ .160 0.001 Fruit Form (n=58,24) 1:20.7%,2:43.1%,3:12.1%,4:22.4%,5:1.7 % 1:20.8%,2:50.0%,3:16.7%,4:12.5%,5:0.0 % Fruit Length (n=225,224) 14.4 cm +/ .2 13. 7cm+/ .2 0.022 Fruit Width (n=224,223) 6.4cm +/ .07 6.1cm+/ .07 0.028 Fruit Weight (n=226,220) 313g+/ 8 280g+/ 7 0.002 Pulp/Skin Weight (n=123,54) 223g+/ 7 187g+/ 9 0.003 Seed Weight (n=123,62) 101g+/ 4 79g+/ 4 0.001 Pulp:Seed Ratio (n=121,53) 2.62g+/ .13 2.61g+/ .2 0.969 Best vs. Rest Best:15.6%, Rest:84.4% Best:8.0%, Rest:92.6% Skin Color: LG=light green, DG=dark green, P=purple/black,R=red; Pulp Texture: W=watery,Cr=creamy,Fl=Floury Fruit Form: 1=Long neck, 2=Pyriform, 3=Ball, 4=Medium neck, 5=Cucumber

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73 Table 4 12. Fruits from best trees selected during Chinene Fairs compared to all others Best vs. Rest Best Rest Significance Skin Color (n=26,73) LG:60.0%,DG:20.0% P:16.0%, R:4.0% LG:79.2%, DG:18.1%,P:2.8% Pulp Texture (n=26,57) W:4.2%, Cre amy 95.8% W:27.1%, C:69.5%, F:3.4% Flavor (n=26,57) 1.19+/ .079 2.35 +/ .143 0.000 Fiber (n=26,60) 2.65 +/ .2 2.18 +/ .108 .027 Quality (n=25,58) 1.32+/ .095 2.33 +/ .133 0.000 Fruit Form (n=25,65) 1:28.0%,2:40.0%,4:28.0%, 5:4.0% 1:16.9%,2:46.2%,3:16. 9%,4:18.5%,5:1.5% Fruit Length (n=122,365) 16.1cm +/ .34 13.6cm +/ .17 0.000 Fruit Width (n=122,363) 6.5cm +/ .09 6.2cm +/ .06 .005 Fruit Weight (n=119,365) 339g +/ 10.8 284g +/ 5.6 0.000 Pulp/Skin Weight (n=85,110) 229g+/ 9 198g+/ 6 .003 Seed Weight (n=96,113) 100g+/ 5 83+/ 3 .004 Pulp:Seed Ratio(n=85,107) 2.63g+/ /.176 2.64g+/ .119 .944 Site* graphed elsewhere F:14.8%, C:63.0%, SG: 0%, Cr:0%, HG:18.5%, P:3.7%, T:0% F:20.8%, C:42.7%, SG:4.2%, Cr:8.3%, HG:10.4%, T:7.3% Planted vs. Self Sown 70.8% Planted, 29.2% Self Sown 51.1% Planted, 48.9% Self Sown Site: F=Forest, C= Coffee grove, SG=Second Growth, Cr=Creek, HG= Home garden P=Pasture, T=Trail/Path

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74 During the Chinene Fair held in each village, the best trees were chosen in each village (except in Nopalera, where a fair was not held). Between the five villages 27 trees were identified as providing superior fruits, leaving 97 average trees. The differ ences between the fruits of the best trees and those of the average trees are even greater than the differences between the planted and the spontaneous trees, demonstrating the high variability that exists even among planted/selected trees due to out crossing and meiosis as well as among self sown trees. Table 4.12 (above) presents the data on best versus average fruits. Again, higher diversity of skin colors was found in the bests versus the average trees. Both flavor and quality were superior in the best trees, as was texture with 95.8% of the best trees having creamy texture, compared to 77% of the planted having creamy texture. Creamy texture suggests a higher fat content, which has been shown elsewhere to be a variable trait (Martinez et al. 2007). Again, as with planted trees, the best trees showed greater weight, length, and w idth than the average trees, but the same pulp: seed ratio. Significantly, of the twenty -seven best trees, 70.8% of them were planted trees, suggesting that the selection of superior quality seed stock according to the traits listed above is to a large ex tent successful. Discussion The data above provided useful background information with which to commence a participatory breeding program on Persea schiedeana It shows that as elsewhere with other fruits (Leakey et al. 2004) small holder selection on the plants has result ed in some differentiation between those planted and those wild plants. The selective criteria elicited D uring the interviews can aid in creating an ideotype of chinene (Leakey and Page 2006)

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75 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 flavor weight grams x100 quality fiber seed:pulp length cm x10 ideotype average planted self sown bests Figure 4 8. Ideotype of Chinene The image generated above shows in light blue ideo type (or ideal) of chinene based on interviews and compares the average of all chinene encountered in the study (red), the planted trees (yellow), the self sown trees (green), and those which were selected as bests during chinene fairs (purple) to the ideotype. Those fruits selected during the chinene fairs as the best are closest in general to the ideotype for the most important traits shown in the image, those being flavor and quality (1 being best), weight and length (increasing away from center), s eed: pulp ratio (better further from center). To truly improve upon the genetic base that exists in the Chinantla vegetative propagation of the best trees is necessary. While most of the best trees were planted not all were, showing that usable germplasm exists among wild trees as well.

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76 This research also illustrates that Persea schiedeana is managed according to a wide spectrum of intensities and in numerous different systems. The position of Persea schiedeana on the wild to cultivated spectrum seems cloudy in the Chinantla, whereas the other Lauraceae consumed; West Indian avocado P. americana var. americana and Mexican avocado P. americana var. drymifolia, and Beilshmiedia anay are unanimously regarded as cultivars found only in association with human activity. Observations of the researcher affirmed this is the case with the other edible Lauraceae in the zone. Persea schiedeana however is found in both wild and domesticate settings, in nearly all of the positions in Wiersums model (1997). Whe n applying the plant categories of Clement (1999), the categories wild and incipiently domesticated apply to Persea schiedeana in the Chinantla. The best trees certainly do appear to be incipiently domesticated as the research results here show. Whether any truly wild trees exist in the Chinantla or whether they are all the result of past human introduction and have since naturalized is a question that has plagued the research er and here no answer is provided. When applying the management types of Casas et al. (2007) a number of them are applicable to pra ctices surrounding chinene in the study area, from systematic gathering, let standing, encouraging growing, and protection. The evidence of the vast range of management techniques applied to Persea schiedeana and thus varying degrees of domesticate d status shown by Persea schiedeana in this study, demonstrate the important fact that frequently in traditional agroecosystems a single species simultaneously occupies many positions along the wild to domesticated continuum. In terms of conservation of genetic diversity in situ this is positive. However, in terms of producing reliable, marketable crops and enabling highly effective selective pressure to be applied to an outcrossing species, this could be regarded as a drawback.

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77 Intervention with vegetati ve propagation provides the opportunity to harness the best individuals, increasing their numbers, and in the short term creating large numbers of the best fruited individuals. In the long -term, it aids in creating a higher number of individuals with desir ed alleles, thus making selection for desired traits, theoretically more efficient. The additional benefits of grafting, such as reduced juvenility period and decreased stature, are simultaneously enjoyed. That said under present management systems and s election systems Persea schiedeana occupies a broad part along the domestication continuum and management intensity spectrum, and is as shown in this study to be quite variable in its fruit morphology characters in the study area.

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78 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION T his work has demonstrated the rich array of edible plants species in the Chinantla, the unequal distribution of these species amongst the various agroecosystems of the region, and the various levels of management intensity applied to the species and the ag roecosystems. A number of Cinderella species have been identified that merit further work, specifically on the prospects for participatory domestication projects applied to these species and on market potentials for products from these species. Persea schi edeana has been examined in detail. The base data here contributes to the small but growing documentation of the diversity in fruit morphology of the species. The ethnoecological and management information gathered in interviews is some of the very first information to be collected along these lines. Most of this information is highly applicable in the participatory domestication program that has been commenced. During Chinene Fairs, the best fruit from each village were identified. These fruits are sta tistically superior to the rest of the trees encountered in the traits elicited in interviews as selective criteria (bigger fruit, longer fruit, better flavor, better quality and higher pulp weight). These best trees, however, are not different from the a verage trees in pulp: seed ration, suggesting that selecting for bigger fruit results in frequently selecting for a larger seed as well. Though less so, when planted versus spontaneously arising trees were compared, again, the planted trees were superior in the traits mentioned above. This suggests that the selective pressure applied to Persea schiedeana in the Chinantla has been effective, through truncated selection mechanisms. The best fruits produced through this selection and the knowledge accumulated during the generations of Chinantecos interaction with this species are the highly valuable materials now being harnessed in the early stages of a participatory domestication

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79 program. Nurseries of rootstock were established in each village in June/July 2008. By January 2009 those that had received proper care (protection from poultry) were ideal size for grafting. A grafting workshop was arranged in San Antonio Analco from January 9th to Jan 11th. Juan Jose Fernandez, a field technician at Chapingo U niversitys research facility in Huatusco, Veracruz gave extensive instruction on the selection and preparation of scion wood, and the three grafting techniques most appropriate for Persea schiedeana modified cleft graft/tip graft ( pa terminal ), side gra ft ( pa lateral), side veneer graft (enchapada lateral). Thirty two members of CORECNHI attended the workshop and received materials enabling them to graft. During the course, extensive hands on practice took place and all participants grafted at least o ne Persea schiedeana Digital video was taken of the keys parts of the workshop and has been distributed each of the communities for re -enforcement of the principles learned in the workshop and as an aid for those who attended the workshop to teach others in their communities. Thus, the next stage of the participatory domestication project rests in the hands of those who attended the workshop and will be grafting the scion from the best trees upon the planted rootstock. How well the grafts take remains to be seen.

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80 APPENDIX A COMPLETE FREE LIST O F FRUITS Table A 1. Fruits listed in freelists exercise. Common Name Response Freq % Smith's S Naranja 15 100 0.927 Platano 14 93 0.712 Mango 13 87 0.648 Aguacate 14 93 0.59 Chinene 12 80 0.478 Mamey 12 80 0.407 Coco 11 73 0.398 Jinicuile 11 73 0.372 Nance 12 80 0.355 Cacao 13 87 0.35 Papaya 9 60 0.337 Guanabana 9 60 0.329 Guayaba 10 67 0.307 Anona 11 73 0.296 Limon Dulce 5 33 0.236 Mandarina 4 27 0.199 Limon 5 33 0.19 Chi co Sapote 8 53 0.187 Yuca 4 27 0.164 Camote 4 27 0.163 Pina 4 27 0.159 Tamarindo 4 27 0.155 Pomelo 4 27 0.148 Guaye 5 33 0.139 Toronja 3 20 0.133 Ilama 5 33 0.131 Ciruela 4 27 0.116 Carambola 6 40 0.108 Chayote 2 13 0.096 Castana 4 27 0.088 Li mon Agrio 2 13 0.081 Cafe 2 13 0.073 Calabaza 2 13 0.069 Cacao Blanco 5 33 0.067 Uva 1 7 0.067 Palao 4 27 0.065 Naranja China 1 7 0.063

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81 Table A 1. Continued Common Name Response Freq % Smith's S Lima 1 7 0.061 Caca de Nino 2 13 0.06 Maracuja 3 20 0.059 Sapote Negr o 3 20 0.058 Cana 2 13 0.058 Coyol 2 13 0.058 Uva de Monte 2 13 0.055 Melon 1 7 0.051 Maize 1 7 0.048 Anona Colorado 1 7 0.041 Tomatitos 1 7 0.033 Aguacate Grande 1 7 0.032 Chapulin 1 7 0.03 Aguacate Dulce 1 7 0.029 Jobo 3 20 0.027 Aguacatillo 1 7 0.024 Sandia 2 13 0.021 Tepijilote 1 7 0.02 Jicama 1 7 0.016 Litchi 1 7 0.011 Uva de Cerro 1 7 0.01 Uvita Agrio 1 7 0.009 Capulin 2 13 0.007 Uvita Dulce 1 7 0.006 Tepijiote 1 7 0.005 Cedro 1 7 0.002

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82 APPENDIX B SPECIES INVENTORY OF SAN MAT EO YETLA, OAXACA

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83 Table B 1. Species inventory Genus Species Common name Spanish Incipient Domesticates Total # encountered Fruits Acromia aculeata. Coyol de espina 1 Ananas cosmosus Pina 20 Annona diversifolia Illama 22 Annona muricata Gua nabana 27 Annona reticulata Annona 19 Ardisia compressa Uvita 49 Atrocarpus heterophyllus Castana 10 Attelea cohune Coyol 87 Averrhoa carambola Carambola 1 Beilschmedia anay Aguacate dulce 1 Byrsonima crassifolia Nanche 38 Carica papaya Papaya 22 Citrus spp. Citrus 219 Cocos nucifera Coconut 77 Couepia polyandra caca de nino 3 Diospyros digyna Sapote negro 0 Eriobotrya japonica Nispero 4 Inga jinicuil Jinicuil 49 Litchi chinensis Litchi 7 Mangifera indica Mango 73

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84 Table B 1. Continued Genus Species Common name Spanish Incipient Domesticates Total # encountered Morinda citrifolia Noni 1 Muntingia calabura Capulin 3 Musa acuminata/balbisiana Platano morado 196 Passiflora edulis Palao 1 Parathesis psychotrio ides Uvita longer leaf 1 Persea americana Aguacate 67 Persea americana Aguacatillo 4 Persea schiedeana Chinene 16 Pouteria sapota Sapote Mamey 27 Psidium guajava Guayaba 29 Punica granatum Granada 0 Spondias purpurea Ciruela 3 Syzygi um jambos Poma rosa 0 Tamaridus indica Tamarindo 9 Terminalia catalpa Almendra 2 Vitus sp. Uva 4 Quelite Amaranthus hybridus Quintonil, quelite blanco 5 Cestrum nocturnum Huele de noche 177 Erythrina sp. Coraline 1 Ipomea sp. Quelite ve nad o, quebra plato 5 Phytolacca icosandra 7 Portulaca oleracea Verdolaga 0 Solanum americanum/nigrescens. Hierba mora 63 Crotalaria sp. chipil 1

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85 Table B 1. Continued Genus Species Common name Spanish Incipient Domesticates Total # encountered Condiments Bixa orellana Achiote 1 Cinnamomum verum Canella 1 Coriandrum sativum Cilantro 3 Cymbopogon flexuosus Lemon grass 3 Dysphania ambrosioides Epazote 23 Eryngium foetidum Cilantro del monte/de torro 19 Lueceana esculenta Guaye 5 Mentha viridis Hierba buena 7 Ocimum basilicum Albaca 6 Ocimum sp. Oregano 8 Piper auritum Hoja santa, ocuyo silvestre 28 Plectranthus amboinicus Oregano orejon 4 Porophyllum ruderale Papalo 1 Renealmia alpinia Huasmole, Huele mole 47 Sacc harum officinarum Cana 7 Vanilla planifolia Vainilla 1 Vegetable Allium sp. Cebollin 26 Capsicum annuum Chile 27 Chameadora tepijilote Tepijilote 28 Cucurbita moschata Calabaza 20 Hylocereus undatus. Nopal tres lobos 1 Solanum lycopersic on Tomate 31 Opuntia ficus india Nopal 29 Physalis philadelphica Jitomate 9 Sechium edule Chayote 13

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86 Table B 1. Continued Genus Species Common name Spanish Incipient Domesticates Total # encountered Spathiphyllum sp. Cuna de Moises, Chile de Gat o 70 Grain 0 Phaseolus coccineus 0 Phaseolus vulgaris frijole 3 Vigna ungulata tripa de pollo 2 Zea mays maize 0 Tuber Colocasia esculenta malanga 35 Dioscorea esculenta yame 1 Ipomea batatas Camote 0 Manihot esculenta Yuca 155 Pachyrhizus erosus jicama 0 Xanthosoma sagittifolium malanga 15 Beverage Coffea arabica Caf 18 Coffea robusta Caf 4 Smilax sp. Popo, cocomecatl 19 Theobroma bicolor Cacao blanco, cimmaron 179 Theobroma cacao Cacao 17 Utensil Cala thea lutea Hoja de posole 32 Crescentia cujete Jicara 4 Lagenaria siceraria Chikal 18

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87 APPENDIX C PERCENT PRESENSE OF EACH SPECIES IN EACH AGROECOSYSTEM

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88 T able C 1. Species presence in agroecosystems Genus Species Common name Spanish % Homegarde n % Coffee Grove % Pasture/Rancho % Milpa n=13 n=14 n=14 n=8 Fruits 100% 100% 100% 75% Acromia aculeata. Coyol de espina 0% 0% 7% 0% Ananas cosmosus Pina 0% 0% 7% 0% Annona diversifolia Illama 23% 29% 29% 0% Annona muricata Guanabana 62% 7% 21% 25% Annona reticulata Annona 31% 7% 29% 0% Ardisia compressa Uvita 31% 0% 0% 0% Atrocarpus heterophyllus Castana 31% 14% 0% 0% Attalea cohune Coyol 23% 43% 29% 1% Averrhoa carambola Carambola 8% 0% 0% 0% Beilschmedia anay Aguacate dulce 8% 0% 0% 0% Byrsonima crassifolia Nanche 62% 21% 50% 0% Carica papaya Papaya 46% 0% 21% 0% Citrus spp. Citrus 92% 71% 100% 38% Cocos nucifera Coconut 77% 29% 29% 0% Couepia polyandra Caca de nino 15% 0% 0% 0% Diospyros digyna Sapote negro 0% 0% 0% 0% Eriobotrya japonica Nispero 0% 7% 7% 0% Inga jinicuil Jinicuil 85% 64% 36% 13% Litchi chinensis Litchi 23% 0% 7% 0% Mangifera indica Mango 85% 71% 21% 25% Manilkara sapota Chico sapote 31% 0% 7% 0% Morinda citrifolia Noni 8% 0% 0% 0% Muntingia calabura Capulin 23% 0% 0% 0% Musa acuminata/balbisiana Platano 77% 79% 29% 38%

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89 Table C 1. Continued Genus Species Common name Spanish % Homegarden % Coffee Grove % Pasture/Rancho % Milpa Parathesis psychotrioides Uvita longer leaf 8% 0% 0% 0% Persea americana A guacate 69% 79% 36% 25% Persea americana Aguacatillo 15% 0% 0% 13% Persea schiedeana Chinene 15% 36% 7% 0% Pouteria sapota Sapote Mamey 15% 50% 14% 0% Psidium guajava Guayaba 54% 7% 43% 0% Punica granatum Granada 0% 0% 0% 0% Spondias purpurea Ciruela 8% 0% 14% 0% Syzygium jambos Poma rosa 0% 0% 0% 0% Tamaridus indica Tamarindo 31% 14% 7% 0% Terminalia catalpa Almendra 15% 0% 0% 0% Vitus sp. uva 23% 0% 0% 0% Quelite 92% 50% 42% 100% Amaranthus hybridus Quintonil, quelite blanco 8% 0% 0% 38% Ce strum nocturnum Huele de noche 77% 43% 36% 75% Erythrina sp. Coraline 8% 0% 0% 0% Ipomea sp. Quelite venado, quelite blanco 0% 0% 0% 13% Phytolacca icosandra 0% 7% 0% 25% Portulaca oleracea Verdolaga 0% 0% 0% 0% Solanum americana/ nigrescens Hierba m ora 15% 0% 14% 88% Crotalaria sp. chipil 8% 0% 0% 0% Condiments 100% 36% 50% 50% Bixa orellana Achiote 8% 0% 0% 0% Cinnamomum verum Canella 8% 0% 0% 0% Coriandrum sativum Cilantro 15% 0% 0% 0%

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90 Table C 1. Continued Genus Species Common name Spani sh % Homegarden % Coffee Grove % Pasture/Rancho % Milpa Cymbopogon flexuosus Lemon grass 15% 0% 0% 13% Dysphania ambrosioides Epazote 38% 0% 0% 0% Eryngium foetidum Cilantro del monte/de torro 31% 0% 0% 0% Lueceana esculenta Guaye 31% 7% 0% 0% Menth a viridis Hierba buena 23% 0% 0% 0% Ocimum basilicum Albaca 23% 0% 0% 0% Ocimum sp. Oregano 31% 0% 0% 0% Piper auritum Hoja santa, ocuyo silvestre 69% 14% 21% 25% Plectranthus amboinicus Oregano orejon 31% 0% 0% 0% Porophyllum ruderale Papalo 0% 0% 7 % 0% Renealmia alpinia Huasmole, Huele mole 69% 14% 21% 13% Saccharum officinarum Cana 23% 0% 0% 25% Vanilla planifolia Vainilla 8% 0% 0% 0% Vegetable 92% 50% 29% 88% Allium sp. Cebollin 38% 0% 0% 13% Capsicum annuum Chile 62% 0% 21% 13% Chameadora tepijilote Tepijilote 8% 7% 0% 0% Cucurbita moschata Calabaza 23% 7% 0% 38% Hylocereus undatus. Nopal tres lobos 0% 0% 7% 0% Solanum lycopersicon Tomate 38% 0% 0% 38% Opuntia cochenillifera Nopal 54% 0% 14% 25% Physalis philadelphica Jitomate 0% 0 % 0% 38% Sechium edule Chayote 62% 0% 7% 13% Spathiphyllum sp. Cuna de Moises, Chile Gato 38% 50% 0% 0% Grain 15% 0% 0% 100 %

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91 Table C 1. Continued Genus Species Common name Spanish % Homegarden % Coffee Grove % Pasture/Rancho % Milpa Phaseolus coccineus 0% 0% 0% 0% Phaseolus vulgaris frijole 0% 0% 0% 0% Vigna ungulata tripa de pollo 15% 0% 0% 13% Zea mays maize 0% 0% 0% 100 % Tuber 23% 0% 29% 13% Colocasia esculenta malanga 8% 0% 0% 0% Dioscorea esculenta yame 8% 0% 0% 0% Ipomea batatas Camote 0% 0% 0% 0% Manihot esculenta Yuca 23% 0% 29% 13% Pachyrhizus erosus jicama 0% 0% 0% 0% Xanthosoma sagittifolium malanga 8% 0% 0% 0% Beverage 69% 100% 21% 25% Coffea arabica Caf 31% 100% 7% 25% Coffea robusta Caf 0% 7% 0% 0% Smilax sp. P opo, cocomelcate 31% 21% 0% 0% Theobroma bicolor Cacao blanco, cimmaron 69% 43% 14% 13% Theobroma cacao Cacao 69% 7% 14% 38% Utensil 62% 7% 14% 25% Calathea lutea Hoja de posole 38% 7% 0% 25% Crescentia cujete Jicara 23% 0% 7% 0% Lagenaria siceraria Chikal 0% 0% 7% 13%

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92 APPENDIX D NUMBER OF INDIVIDUAL S OF EACH SPECIES EN COUNTERED BY AGROECOSYSTEM

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93 Table D 1 Species inventory numbers Genus Species Common name Spanish # in Homegarden # in Coffee # in Pasture/Rancho # in Milpa Total # Fruits Acromia aculeata. Coyol de espina 0 0 1 0 1 Ananas cosmosus Pina 0 0 20 0 20 Annona diversifolia Illama 4 7 11 0 22 Annona muricata Guanabana 14 1 10 2 27 Annona reticulata Annona 5 1 13 0 19 Ardisia compressa Uvita 49 0 0 0 49 Parathesis psyc hotrioides Uvita longer leaf 1 0 0 0 1 Atrocarpus heterophyllus Castana 8 2 0 0 10 Attalea cohune Coyol 15 23 47 2 87 Averrhoa carambola Carambola 1 0 0 0 1 Beilschmedia anay Aguacate dulce 1 0 0 0 1 Byrsonima crassifolia Nanche 22 8 8 0 38 Carica papaya Papaya 11 0 11 0 22 Citrus spp. Citrus 67 59 89 4 219 Cocos nucifera Coconut 36 34 7 0 77 Couepia polyandra caca de nino 3 0 0 0 3 Diospyros digyna Sapote negro 0 0 0 0 0 Eriobotrya japonica Nispero 0 1 3 0 4 Inga jinicuil Jinicuil 22 19 7 1 49 Litchi chinensis Litchi 5 0 2 0 7 Mangifera indica Mango 34 30 7 2 73 Morinda citrifolia Noni 1 0 0 0 1 Muntingia calabura Capulin 3 0 0 0 3 Musa acuminata/balbisian a Platano 76 46 59 15 196

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94 Table D 1. Continued Genus Species Common name Spanish # in Homegarden # in Coffee # in Pasture/Rancho # in Milpa Total # Passiflora edulis Palao 0 0 1 0 1 Persea americana Aguacate 15 37 13 2 67 Persea americana Aguacatillo 2 0 0 2 4 Persea schiedeana Chinene 3 12 1 0 16 Pouteria sapota Sapote Mamey 3 1 7 7 0 27 Psidium guajava Guayaba 17 1 11 0 29 Punica granatum Granada 0 0 0 0 0 Spondias purpurea Ciruela 1 0 2 0 3 Syzygium jambos Poma rosa 0 0 0 0 0 Tamaridus indica Tamarindo 6 2 1 0 9 Terminalia catalpa Almendra 2 0 0 0 2 Vitus sp. uva 4 0 0 0 4 Quelite Amaranthus hybridus Quintonil, quelite blanco 1 0 0 4 5 Cestrum nocturnum Huele de noche 31 23 65 58 177 Erythrina sp. Coraline 1 0 0 0 1 Ipomoea sp. Quelite venado, quelite blanco 0 0 0 5 5 Phytolacca icosandra 0 1 0 6 7 Portulaca oleracea Verdolaga 0 0 0 0 0 Solanum americanum/ nigrescens Hierba mora 11 0 3 49 63 Crotalaria sp. chipil 1 0 0 0 1 Condiments 0

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95 Table D 1. Continued Genus Species Common name Spanish # in Homegarden # in Coffee # in Pasture/Rancho # in Mil pa Total # Coriandrum sativum Cilantro 3 0 0 0 3 Cymbopogon flexuosus Lemon grass 2 0 0 1 3 Dysphania ambrosioides Epazote 23 0 0 0 23 Eryngium foetidum Cilantro del monte/de torro 19 0 0 0 19 Lueceana esculenta Guaye 4 1 0 0 5 Mentha viridis Hierba buena 7 0 0 0 7 Ocimum basilicum Albaca 6 0 0 0 6 Ocimum sp. Oregano 8 0 0 0 8 Piper auritum Hoja santa, ocuyo silvestre 16 3 6 3 28 Plectranthus amboinicus Oregano orejon 4 0 0 0 4 Porophyllum ruderale Papalo 0 0 1 0 1 Renealmia alpinia Huasmole, Huele mole 27 8 8 4 47 Saccharum officinarum Cana 4 0 0 3 7 Vanilla planifolia Vainilla 1 0 0 0 1 0 Vegetable 0 Allium sp. Cebollin 21 0 0 5 26 Capsicum annuum Chile 18 0 6 3 27 Chamaedora tepijilote Tepijilote 25 3 0 0 28 Cucurbita mo schata Calabaza 5 5 0 10 20 Hylocereus undatus (?) Nopal tres lobos 0 0 1 0 1

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96 Table D 1. Continued Genus Species Common name Spanish # in Homegarden # in Coffee # in Pasture/Rancho # in Milpa Total # Solanum lycopersicum Tomate 11 0 0 20 31 Opuntia cochenillifera Nopal 17 0 10 2 29 Physalis philadelphica Jitomate 0 0 0 9 9 Sechium edule Chayote 11 0 1 1 13 Spathiphyllum sp. Cuna de Moises, Chile de Gato 47 23 0 0 70 Grain Phaseolus coccineus 0 0 0 0 0 Phaseolus vulgaris frijole 2 0 0 1 3 Vign a ungulata tripa de pollo 0 0 0 2 2 Zea mays maize 0 Tuber Colocasia esculenta malanga 35 0 0 0 35 Dioscorea esculenta yame 1 0 0 0 1 Ipomea batatas Camote 0 0 0 0 0 Manihot esculenta Yuca 10 0 144 1 155 Pachyrhizus erosus jicama 0 0 0 0 0 Xanthosoma sagittifolium malanga 15 0 0 0 15 Beverage Coffea arabica Caf 13 0 1 4 18 Coffea robusta Caf 0 4 0 0 4 Smilax sp. Popo, cocomelcate 11 8 0 0 19 Theobroma bicolor Cacao blanco,cacao cimmaron 84 88 6 1 179 Theobroma cacao Cacao 1 0 1 2 4 17

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97 Table D 1. Continued Genus Species Common name Spanish # in Homegarden # in Coffee # in Pasture/Rancho # in Milpa Total # Utensil Calathea lutea Hoja de posole 24 1 0 7 32 Crescentia cujete Jicara 3 0 1 0 4 Lagenaria siceraria Ch ikal 0 0 13 5 18

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98 APPENDIX E ETHNOECOLOGY/MANAGEM ENT INTERVIEW Proyecto Chinene Jay Bost 1 Se da chinene por aca? Does chinene grow here? 2 Tiene otros nombres? En dialecto? Does it have other names? 3 Donde hay arboles? Where are trees found? a.monte: fo rest b.cafetal: coffe groves c.solar: homegardens d.acahual: second growth 4 Son todos los arboles de chinene igual? Are all of the trees the same? a.hojas: leaves b.tiempo de brotear hojas nuevas: time to put on new leaves c.tiempo de aflorerar: flo wering time d.tiempo de dar fruta: fruiting time e.olor de hojas: odor of leaves f.la cantidad de fruta que se dan? Quantity to produce g.la edad cuando se empesan a dar? The age at which they start to bear 5 A que edad se empesan de dar los chinene? At w hat age do trees start to bear? 6 Son todos las frutas de chinene igual? Are the fruits all the same? a.color: color

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99 b.tamano: size c.forma: form d.cuantidad de pulpa: quantity of fruit e.textura de pulpa: pulp texture f.tamano de semilla: size of seed g.sabor: flavor h.cuantidad de fibra: quantity of fiber 7 Unos arboles dan mejores frutas de los ademas? Do some trees give better fruit than others? 8 Las frutas que se da un arbol son todos iguales? Are all the fruits from one tree the same? 9 Como son los mejores chinenes? How are the best chinene? 10. Donde se dan los mejores? Where are the best ones found? 11. Donde esta el mejor arbol que conoces? Where is the best tree you know of? 12. Usted cosechas chinene? Do you harvest chinenes? 13. De donde? From where? Donde tienes arboles? Where do you trees? Cuantes arboles tienes? How many trees do you have? Cuantos anos tienen? How old are they? 14. Como los cosechas? How do you harvest them? 15. Has sembrado unos chinenes? Have you planted trees? Como se sembra? How do you plant them? De semilla ou plantita? By direct seeding or transplanting? 16. Unos chinene se dan solos? Do some trees come up on their own?

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100 17. Los animales se mueven las frutas? Do animals move the fruits around? Cuales animales? Which animals? 18. Como se decide cual chinene a sembrar ou dejar crecer? How do you decide which seed to plant or which trees to let grow? 19. Se prefere de sembrar ou dejar plantitas de ciertos arboles? Do you prefer to plant certain seeds or leave particular trees? 20. Como se maneja un arbol de chinene? How do you manage a chinene tree? a.se poda: prune b.se arrega: irrigate c.se cuida de malezas y sombra: protect from weeds and shade d.fumigas: apply pesticide e.se recoje las frutas del arbole ou las dejas cajer: do you pick fru its or let them fall f.se puede hacer injerto de chinene: do you think it is possible to graft chinene g.la luna se hace influencia?: does the moon have any influence on tree growth? 21. Cuando se roza por milpa ou para hacer portrero se corta ou deja chinene? When clearing for milp do you cut or leave chinene trees? 22. Que cantidad se da un arbol grande? What quantity of fruit does a large tree give? 23. Un arbol se da igual cada ano? Does a single tree bear the same amount of fruit each year? 24. Durante la cosecha cuantas frutas se comen en la casa por semana? Por dia? During harvest time how many fruits do you eat weekly? Daily? 25. Como se come? How do you eat it? 26. Se usa otra parte del arbol? Do you use other part of the tree?

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101 a por condimento: condiment b por made ra: construction wood c lena? fire wood d medicina: medicine e por animales: animal feed f ornamento: ornamental 27. Cuando esta la cosecha aca? When is the harvest here? 28. Crees que chinene se puede hibridizar con aguacate? Do you think avocado and chinene can hybridize? Conoces unos arboles cuales se ven intermediarios? Have you seen trees that look intermediary? 29. Hay mas, menos, ou igual numero de arboles de chinene ahora comparado a antes? Porque? Are there more, fewer, or the same number of trees now as be fore? 30. Usted vendes chinene? Donde? A cuanto los vendes? Se cambia el precio durante la cosecha? Do you sell chinene? Where? How much? Does the price vary during the season?

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102 APPENDIX F TREE/FRUIT DATA SHEETS PROYECTO CHINENE: Fecha: Comunidad: Numero: Nombre: GPS: Sitio (Monte, cafetal, acahual, arroyo, solar, etc..): Dueno: Edad: DBH: (circumferencia a 1.3 metros/ 3.14) Vigor (1 debil 5 muy fuerte): Sembrado / Nacio solo: Tipo de suelo: Sombra / Sol Humedad de sitio (1 seco 5 muy hum edo): Cantidad de fruta que da arbol (1 poco 5 mucho) (estimacion en costales): Ano baja ou alta Fruta: Temporada de cosecha: Forma de fruta: Largo: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ancho: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pesa: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cascara: Lisa Medio Rugosa Color de cascara: Verde clara verde oscura caf morada rojo Amari llo Negro Pesa de semilla: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ancho de semilla: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Largo de semilla: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pesa de carne: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Color de carne cerca cascara: Crema Amarillo Caf Verde Morada Negro Color de carne cerca semilla: Crema Amarillo Caf Verde Morada Negr o Textura de carne: Aguada Cremosa Masa Arenosa Sabor (1 mejor 5 mal): Cantidad de fibra (1 nada 5 mucho): General (1 mejor 5 mal): Comentarios:

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103 LITERATURE CITED Akinnifesi, F. K., R. R. B. Leakey, O. C. Ajayi, G. S ileshi, Z. Tchoundjeu, P. Matakala, and F. R. Kwesiga. 2008. Indigenous fruit trees in the tropics: domestication, utilization and commercialization CAB International, Wallingford, UK. Alcantara, A. O., I. Luna, and A. Velaquez. 2002. Altitudinal distribution patterns of Mexican cloud forests based upon preferential characteristic genera. Plant Ecology 161:167174. Alfaro -Sanchez, G. and M. Briones -Salas. 2004. Suelos. Pages 5567 in A. J. Garca Mendoza, M. d. J. Ordez Daz, and M. Briones -Salas, editor s. Biodiversidad de Oaxa ca. UNAM, Instituto de Biologa Mexico. lvarez Arteaga, G. and N. E. Garca Caldern. 2008. Soil altitudinal sequence on base -poor parent material in a montane cloud forest in Sierra Jurez, Oaxaca. Geoderma 144:593 612. Anderson, A. B. 1990. Extraction and forest management by rural inhabitants in the Amazon estuary. Pages 6585 in A. B. Anderson, editor. Alternatives to Deforestation: Steps Toward Sustainable Use of the Amazon Rain Forest. Columbia University Press, New York. And erson, E. N. 2003a. Those who bring the flowers: Maya ethnobotany in Quintana Roo, Mexico. ECOSUR, San Cristobal, Chiapas. Anderson, E. N. 2003. Traditional knowledge of plant resources. Pages 533-550 in A. Gmez Pompa, M. F. Allen, S. L. Fedick and J. J. Jimnez Osornio editors. The Lowland Maya Area The Haworth Press New York. Arriaga, L., J. M. Espinoza, C. Aguilar, E. Martnez, L. Gmez, and E. Loa. 2000. Regiones terrestres prioritarias de Mxico. Mexico. Ashworth, V. and M. T. Clegg. 2003. Microsa tellite Markers in Avocado ( Persea americana Mill.): Genealogical Relationships Among Cultivated Avocado Genotypes. Journal of Heredity 94:407415. Avocado Source. 2009. Botany -Horticultural Races. (http://www.avocadosource.com/books/AvocadoHandbook/Hortic ulture_files/hort_races. pdf) Bandeira, F. P., C. Martorell, J. A. Meave, and J. Caballero. 2005. The role of rustic coffee plantations in the conservation of wild tree diversity in the Chinantec region of Mexico. Biodiversity and Conservation 14:12251240. Barrientos Priego, A. F. and L. Lp ez-Lpez. 2000. His toria y Genetica del Aguacate. Pages 33 51 in D. Tliz, editor. El aguacate y su manejo integrado. Ediciones Mundi Prensa, Mexico, D.F.

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104 Beltran, E. 2000. Oaxaca: Chinantecos Monograph. Comision Naciona l para el Desarrolo de los Pueblos Indigenas .( www.cdi.gob.mx/ini/perfiles/perfiles/chinantecos/00_summary.html ) Bergh, B. and N. Ellstrand. 1986. Taxonomy of the avocado. California Avocado Society Yearbook 70:135146. Bernard, H. R. 1994. Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA. Bevan, B. 1938. The Chinantec. Report on the Central and South -Eastern C hinantec Region. The Chinantecs and Their Habitat. Instituto Panamericano de Geografa e Historia, Mexico, D.F. Borgatti, S. 1996. Anthropac 4.0. Analytic Technologies, Natick, Massachusetts. Borrone, J. W., R. J. Schnell, H. A. Violi, and R. C. Ploetz. 20 07. Seventy microsatellite markers from Persea americana Miller (avocado) expressed sequence tags. Molecular Ecology Notes 7:439444. Borys, M. W., H. Leszczyska Borys, and S. R. Maraen. 1993. An Avocado Relative: Beilschmiedia anay (Blake) Kosterm. A Fr uit Sou rce. California Avocado Society Yearbook 125136. Bray, D., E. Duran, S. Anta, G. J. Martin, and F. Mondragn. 2008. A New Conservation and Development Frontier: Community Protected Areas in Oaxaca, Mexico. Current Conservation 2:7 9. Brcher, H. 1989. Useful plants of neotropical origin and their wild relatives. Springer -Verlag, Germany and New York, NY. Bye Jr, R. A. 1981. Quelites Ethnoecology of Edible Greens Past, Present, and Future. Journal of Ethnobiology 1:109125. Caballero, J., A. Casas, L Cortes, and C. Mapes. 1998. Patrones en el conocimiento, uso y 16:181196. Caballero, J., L. Cortes, M. A. Martinez -Alfaro, and L. Saade. 2004. Uso y manejo tradicional de l a diversidad vegetal. Pages 541564 i n A. J. Garca -Mendoza, M. d. J. Ordez Daz, and M. Briones -Salas, editors. Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. UNAM, Instituto de Biologa., Mexico. Camacho, I., C. del Campo, and G. J. Martin. 2007. Community Conserved Areas i n Northern Mesoamerica: A Review of Status and Needs. Global Diversity Foundation, Mesoamerica. Casas, A., A. Otero -Arnaiz, and E. Perez Negron. 2007. In situ Management and Domestication of Plants in Mesoamerica. Annals of Botany 100:11011115.

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105 Castaneda, H. and J. R. Stepp. 2008. Ethnoecological Importance Value (EIV) Methodology: Assessing the cultural importance of ecosystems as sources of useful plants for the Guaymi people of Costa Rica Ethnobotany Research & Applications 5:249-257. Clement, C. R. 19 99. 1492 and the loss of Amazonian crop genetic resources. I. The relation between domestication and human population decline. Economic Botany 53:188202. Clement, C. R., J. P. Cornelius, M. H. Pinedo -Panduro, and K. Yuyama. 2008. Native fruit tree improve ment in Amazonia: an overview. Pages 100120 in F. K. Akinnifesi, R. R. B. Leakey, O. C. Ajayi, G. Sileshi, Z. Tchoundjeu, P. Matakala, and F. R. Kwesiga, editors. Indigenous fruit trees in the tropics: domestication, utilization and commercialization CAB International, Wallingford, UK. Cobo, B. 189095. Histo ria del Nuevo mundo. Impresario de Espana. Rasco, Sevilla. Coffey, M. D. 1987. Phytophthora root rot of Avocado: An integrated approach to control in California. Plant Disease 71:10461052. Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames, and M. S. de Stapf. 2004. Catlogo de las plantas vasculares de Panam. ANAM, Panama. Cruz Castillo, J. G., M. S. Gil, J. de la Cruz Medina, N. P. Castellanos, F. R. Bracamontes, G. P. Espinoza, and L. Martinez. 2004a. El Chinene ( Pers ea schiedeana Nees): buscando su valoracion en Mexico contemporaneo. Aqui Centros Regionales 11:1 7. Cruz Castillo, J. G., M. S. M.S. Gil, J. de la Cruz Medina, N. P. Castellanos, F. R. Bracamontes, J. P. Espinoza, and M. L. 2004b. Caracteristicas Morfolog icas y Bioquimicas de Frutos de Chinene ( Persea schiedeana Nees.). Revista Chapingo Serie Horticultura 11:1 7. Cruz Castillo, O. D. Angel Coronel, J. d. l. Cruz -Medina, and M. Joaquin -Martinez. 2007a. Caracteristicas Morphologicas y Bioquimicas de Frutos de Chinene ( Persea schiedeana Nees.). Revista Chapingo Serie Horticultura 13:143147. Cruz Castillo, J. G., J. de la Cruz Medina, and O. del Angel Coronel. 2007b. El chinene ( Persea schiedeana Nees), buscando su valoracin en las regiones cafetaleras. Bolet n PROMECAFE (IICA). 111. Doebley, J. 1989. Isozymic evidence and the evolution of crop plants. Pages 165191 in D. E. Soltis and P. S. Soltis, editors. Isozymes in plant biology. Dioscorides Press, Portland, OR. Eisenstadt, T. A. 2007. Usos y Costumbres a nd Post -electo ral Conflicts in Oaxaca, Mexico: 19952004. Latin American Research Review 42:52 77. Ellstrand, N., J. Lee, B. Bergh, M. Coffey, and G. Zentmyer. 1986. Isozymes Confirm Hybri d Parentage for 'G755' Selections. California Avocado Society Yearb ook 70: 199203

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113 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jay Benjamin Bost was born in Tulsa, Oklahoma in 1976. In his youth, he learned to enjoy gardening from his mother and camping and hiking from his father. His grandparents infected him with considerable wanderlust. In high school he began studies of ecology and was first introduced to the tropi cs in Belize. He has been hooked ever since. His began his undergraduate work at Brown University and after exhausting its botanical and agricultural resources, transferred to Prescott College, where he enrolled in their Agroecology Program. He became in creasingly interested in conservation and exploration of plant genetic resources and was introduced to Mexico for the first time on his way to Belize to complete his undergraduate final project on Riparian Restoration through Agroforestry. After completi ng his undergraduate work, he spent numerous years working on organic vegetable, medicinal, and seed farms in the United States, France, and Mexico, while traveling, exploring, and working in Mexico during the winters. During these travels h e became enthralled by the cloud forests of eastern Mexico and the great variety of little known edible plants managed in this areas. As a student at the University of Florida, he has been active with the Ethnoecology Society and helped reinvigorate the Et hnoecology Garden, which has flourished into an oasis of botanical, ethnobotanical, and social resources on campus. He received his M.S. from the University of Florida in the spring of 2009. All things point to more time in the Neotropics among fruits.