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BIM Software Evaluation Model for General Contractors

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024456/00001

Material Information

Title: BIM Software Evaluation Model for General Contractors
Physical Description: 1 online resource (115 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Ruiz, Jose
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: bim, company, contractors, evaluation, general, needs, software
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the most recent trend in information technology in the construction industry. With different case studies showing that the proper implementation of BIM technology can add value to the project, reducing costs, schedule, and preventing errors; more and more companies are starting to implement BIM software as a tool in their project workflow. Although, some companies use an appropriate implementation process, other companies tend to just respond to the market trend and implement the software package that is more popular in the industry without looking at the real company needs or software features. This study looked at the different BIM user expectations and available software features to develop a BIM Software Evaluation Model for General Contractors (BIMSEM-GC) which based on the company needs recommends the top five software packages that best fit those needs. The BIMSEM-GC should not be used alone when starting to implement BIM in any company, but it should be used as part of a structured implementation process, looking at all the changes in the company that an implementation of this kind will require. The BIMSEM-GC looked at 11 BIM software developing companies to determine a list of 33 different software packages that can be used for the general contractor during the preconstruction, construction and post construction phases of the project. To determine the user s needs and expectations regarding to BIM a study of the results from two major public surveys was used. Finally the combination of the available software features and the users needs and expectations were used to create the BIMSEM-GC questionnaire using a 5-point Likert scale. By taking into consideration the standard deviation and coefficient of variation at a 95% confidence level for the obtained results, the model is able to recommend the top 5 BIM software packages that best fit the company s needs. In conclusion, the BIMSEM-GC also shows the degree of involvement that the company has in three different construction phases: preconstruction, construction and post construction, thus allowing the company to detect gaps from one phase to the other one when implementing BIM.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jose Ruiz.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Issa, R. Raymond.
Local: Co-adviser: Olbina, Svetlana.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2009-11-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024456:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024456/00001

Material Information

Title: BIM Software Evaluation Model for General Contractors
Physical Description: 1 online resource (115 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Ruiz, Jose
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: bim, company, contractors, evaluation, general, needs, software
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the most recent trend in information technology in the construction industry. With different case studies showing that the proper implementation of BIM technology can add value to the project, reducing costs, schedule, and preventing errors; more and more companies are starting to implement BIM software as a tool in their project workflow. Although, some companies use an appropriate implementation process, other companies tend to just respond to the market trend and implement the software package that is more popular in the industry without looking at the real company needs or software features. This study looked at the different BIM user expectations and available software features to develop a BIM Software Evaluation Model for General Contractors (BIMSEM-GC) which based on the company needs recommends the top five software packages that best fit those needs. The BIMSEM-GC should not be used alone when starting to implement BIM in any company, but it should be used as part of a structured implementation process, looking at all the changes in the company that an implementation of this kind will require. The BIMSEM-GC looked at 11 BIM software developing companies to determine a list of 33 different software packages that can be used for the general contractor during the preconstruction, construction and post construction phases of the project. To determine the user s needs and expectations regarding to BIM a study of the results from two major public surveys was used. Finally the combination of the available software features and the users needs and expectations were used to create the BIMSEM-GC questionnaire using a 5-point Likert scale. By taking into consideration the standard deviation and coefficient of variation at a 95% confidence level for the obtained results, the model is able to recommend the top 5 BIM software packages that best fit the company s needs. In conclusion, the BIMSEM-GC also shows the degree of involvement that the company has in three different construction phases: preconstruction, construction and post construction, thus allowing the company to detect gaps from one phase to the other one when implementing BIM.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jose Ruiz.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Issa, R. Raymond.
Local: Co-adviser: Olbina, Svetlana.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2009-11-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024456:00001


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1 BIM SOFTWARE EVALUATION MODEL FOR GENERAL CONTRACTORS By JOSE MAURICIO RUIZ A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCI ENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009

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2 Jose Mauricio Ruiz

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3 To my family and friends, for all their support and guidance throughout this entire process

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4 ACKNOWLEDGME NTS I would like to thank Dr. R. Raymond Issa, who has been a great advisor and mentor throughout my studies at the University of Florida. His knowledge as well as enthusiasm toward my studies was extremely helpful in accomplishing my thesis. I would also like to thank Dr. Svetlana Olbina for her direction during the preparation of my thesis, it was crucial to my research objectives. I would also like to thank Dr. Ian Flood for his contributions to this study. I thank my family and friends for their support and guidance throughout the entire time I was in school. I would like to specifically thank my parents and brothers. Without their encouragement, I would not have been able to complete my studies at the University of Florida.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................7 LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................8 ABSTRACT .....................................................................................................................................9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................11 Statement of the Problem ........................................................................................................11 Research Objectives ................................................................................................................13 Scope and Limitations ............................................................................................................13 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................................15 BIM History ............................................................................................................................15 BIM Software Developers ......................................................................................................18 Autodesk ..........................................................................................................................19 Bentley Systems ..............................................................................................................20 Nemetschek AG ...............................................................................................................21 Innovaya ..........................................................................................................................21 Synchro Ltd. ....................................................................................................................22 VICO Software ................................................................................................................22 Gehry Technologies .........................................................................................................22 Tekla C orporation ............................................................................................................23 Onuma .............................................................................................................................23 Solibri ..............................................................................................................................24 Project Blueprint Ltd .......................................................................................................24 General Contractors Needs and Expectations .........................................................................24 Software Evaluation and Weighted Criteria ...........................................................................26 3 METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................32 4 SOFTWARE PACKAGES KEY FEATURES AND USER NEEDS ...................................35 5 BIM SOFTWARE EVALUATION MODEL ........................................................................72 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................88 7 FUTURE DIRECTION ..........................................................................................................90

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6 APPENDIX: PROGRAMMING OF THE BIM SOFTWARE EVALUATION MODEL FOR GENERAL CONTRACTORS IN MS VISUAL BASIC ..............................................92 LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................111 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................115

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 21 Major BIM Software Developers .......................................................................................31 41 BIM software packages and key feature ............................................................................41 42 Summary of User Needs and Expectations of BIM based in the Surveys .........................51 43 Summary of Available Key Features from software packages ..........................................52 44 BIM Software Evaluation Criteria .....................................................................................55 45 Description of the BIM Software Evaluation Criteria for the preconstruction phase ........60 46 Description of the BIM Software Evaluation Criteria for the Construction Phase ............64 47 Description of the BIM Software Evaluation Criteria for the Post Construction Phase ....68 48 Description of the BIM Software Evaluation Criteria for the General Requirements .......71

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 21 B Rep Approach ................................................................................................................30 22 CSG Approach (Source: OpenGL 1996) ..........................................................................30 31 Methodology Process ........................................................................................................34 41 Evaluation Results for the software packages for the preconstruction phase ....................38 42 Evaluation Result of the BIM Software Packages for the Construction Phase .................39 43 Evaluation Result of the BIM Software Packages for t he Post Construction Phase .........40 51 BIMSEM GC Screen capture: Importance selection of the different criteria. ..................76 52 BIMSEM GC Scr een capture: Before clicking the recommendation button ....................77 53 BIMSEM GC Screen capture: Preconstruction top five recommendations ......................78 54 BIMSEM GC Screen capture: Preconstruction subtotal scores ........................................79 55 BIMSEM GC Screen capture: Construction top five recommendations ...........................80 56 BIMSEM GC Screen capture: Post Construction top five recommendations ...................81 57 Combination performance of the different top recommended software ............................82 58 Companys Real BIM model compared with perceived BIM model ................................83 59 Recommended and Companys subtotal behavior for Preconstruction .............................84 510 Recommended and Companys subtotal behavior for Construction .................................85 511 Recommended and Companys subtotal behavior for Post Construction .........................86 512 Recommended and Companys subtotal behavior for the General Criteria ......................87

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction BIM SOFTWARE EVALUATION MODEL FOR GENERAL CONTRACTORS By J ose M auricio R uiz May 2009 Chair: Dr. R. Raymond Issa Co chair: Dr. Svetlana Olbina M ajor: Building Construction Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the most recent trend in information technology in the construction industry. With different case studies showing that the proper implementation of BIM technology can add value to the project, reducing costs, schedule, and preventing errors; more and more companies are starting to implement BIM software as a tool in their project workflow. Although, some companies use an appropriate implementation process, other companies tend to just respond to the market trend and implement the software package that is more popular in the industry without looking at the real company needs or software features. This study looked at the different BIM user expectations and available software features to develop a BIM Software Evaluation Model for General Contractors (BIMSEM GC) which based on the company needs recommends the top five software packages that best fit those needs. The BIMSEMGC should not be used alone when starting to implement BIM in any company, but it should be used as part of a structured implementation process, looking at all the changes in the company that an implementation of this kind will require. The BIMSEM GC looked at 11 BIM software developing companies to determine a list of 33 different software packages that can be used for the general contractor during the

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10 preconstruction, construction and post construction phases of the project. To determine the users needs and expectations regarding to BIM a study of the results from two major public surveys was used. Finally the combination of the available software features and the users needs and expectations were used to create the BIMSEMGC questionnaire using a 5point Likert scale. By taking into consideration the standard deviation and coefficient of variation at a 95% confidence level for the obtained results, the model is able to recommend the top 5 BIM software packages that best fit the company s needs. In conclusion, the BIMSEM GC also shows the degree of involvement that the company has in three different construction phases: preconstruction, construction and post construction, thus allowing the company to detect gaps from one phase to the other one when implementing BIM.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Construction companies are starting to implement Building Information Modeling (BIM) capabilities into their everyday tasks. In order to implement their BIM capabilities needs, companies are also facing a market full of options by the software vendors, promoting software packages that promised to fill all their needs and beyond. With this overwhelming market, most companies are starting to implement software packages that they are familiar with, without making a proper analysis to determine the best option for the companys needs. Jack Micklovich, director of software management consulting at Corporate Software, Norwood, Mass, mentioned in an article for ENR that companies are losing money because of uncoordinated software purchases and a lack of understanding of what they have and how they are using the programs (ref). Th e goal of this study is to create a model to be used for general contractors to determine which BIM software package is the one that best fits their companys needs. The creation of the model allow s companies to establish their real BIM needs, and serve s as a negotiation tool when acquiring the software. Statement of the Problem General contractors are changing the way they do businesses. BIM is the new construction technology trend in United States, with an increase in the number of companies trying to implement it. Nowadays, contractors are using technology more than ever and e specially BIM tools, based on the proven fact that a well implemented technology can increase productivity, improve quality, safety, reduce dela ys and reduce cost. Moreover, some of these companies may be contemplating m aking the decision to adopt a BIM software package based

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12 on marketing campaigns by the software vendor instead of using a ratio n al analysis of the ir companys needs. Contractors ar e starting to realize the major advantages of using BIM and the importance of creating an accurate building information model for use in a virtual construction process. The ability to visualize the entire project and be able to use those parameters to prod uce value during its construction makes the contractors to look closely at the BIM capabilities and the prompt implementation of these tools into the company. Contractors expect to see the greatest increase in BIM usage in 2009. Thirty eight percent will b e heavy users, up from 23% in 2008. Twelve percent expect light use of BIM, compared to 45% the previous year (McGraw Hill Construction 2008). As the use of BIM becomes more prevalent, general contractors are being bombarded with different software package s and new companies are emerging almost every year, with new BIM solutions. The plethora of packages and lack of knowledge lead construction companies to making their buying decisions based on marketing campaigns or popularity, instead of the selection of the software that offers the best solution for the contractors needs. I n some cases the company may not even be aware of the other solutions that the market is offering, making the contractor spend money on a software package that may not fill all the comp anys needs or overpaying for a software package that does more than the company is ever going to need. In conclusion, it is important to note the fact that more contractors are starting to use BIM tools in their every day tasks This usage establishes the need for an optimal implementation to take maximum advantage of BIM capabilities and to assure the buyers that the selected software will produce all that it promises. This research aims to create a model to be used as part of that

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13 implementation strategy allowing the contractor to have a better understanding of their needs when acquiring BIM software. Research Objectives The objective of this study is to analyze the needs of general contractors in the industry when using BIM, and to create an evaluation model to determine the most useful software to implement according to the companys needs. In addition, t wo BIM evaluation tools were also developed, one from the user point of view and the other based on the software features available from the different software vendors. Scope and Limitations The study produced an evaluation model for different BIM software, looking at the different needs of general contractors. The scope of those needs was determined by trying to answer the following questions: What are the general requirements for a general contractor when buying any computer software? What are the necessary features for a general contractor during the preconstruction phase? What are the necessary features for a general contractor during the constructi on phase? What are the necessary features for a general contractor during the post construction phase? What is the optimal evaluation technique when determine the best software for a company? This study took the most common needs and available features required by general contractors and provided by software vendors, and put those needs into evaluation criteria to allow any company to measure the best option when buying BIM software. Finally, the evaluation model looked at the companys needs and according to their ranking in importance recommended five different software packages that fill those needs The

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14 needs analyzed and taken into consideration covered the involvement of the company in the different areas of preconstruction, construction, and post const ruction. This study was conducted as an academic exercise to create a starting point for companies looking to implement BIM software. The model did not determine the best software in the market, but the software that best fits a specific company needs. The created model is not fixed and it should be adapted to every companys reality or variation. The model is also only useful for a short period of time due to the frequent improvements and new capabilities that the software vendors offer. Therefore, the model should be updated after a certain period of time. The evaluation model was developed considering that general contractors will have to convert the design into a 3D model. Although more and more design firms are designing using 3D design software, in the future there would be no conversion from 2D to 3D and the contractors ability to start using the model is immediate and much less expensive than with this consideration.

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15 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This literature review is divided into four sections. Each section addresses one of the following characteristics: BIM history, developers of the most used BIM software, the actual needs and expectations of BIM users and the different techniques for the general software evaluation and weighted criteria regarding BIM. The first section starts with a brief definition of the BIM concept for the purposes of this thesis and continues with a summary of the evolution of object based parametric modeling along the years to what is actually known as BIM. The second se ction develops a review of the most used BIM software developers in the market, determining the level of BIM involvement of the BIM developer. The third section of this literature review explor e s the different needs and expectations of BIM users, separatin g these needs into the different project phases: preconstruction, construction and post construction. This section also covers the importance and most used applications specifically for contractors trying to identify what the minimum BIM software features would be for a contractor trying to implement this technology in their everyday workflow. Finally, the last section of this literature review covers research about the different weighted and evaluation models used to evaluate software packages and BIM, looking at the Interactive BIM Maturity Model as a reference to create the BIM Software Evaluation Model for General Contractors (BIMSEM GC). BIM History Since the beginning of history, mankind has been interested in building construction; from the Egyptians to the modern civilizations they all looked into ways to improve the processes of construction. One of the methods that proved to be very efficient was to develop a

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16 model of the new building to be constructed. In construction the master builder would creat e a mockup of the building or what is called in other industries a prototype. Although, this process was very popular for the manufacturing and other industries, it was not so feasible to develop something like that in the construction industry. This is ba sically because the buildings are built only once, therefore, there is no room to create a prototype S ometimes the mockup was only a visual representation, a 3D model of the building in real life with the objective to sell the idea of the building and never to be used as part of the construction management workflow. Looking at the advances of other industries using digital tools the construction industry started to look for ways to develop their own solutions and answers to the question of how to create a prototype of a building that needs to be build only one time? A response that seems to be very obvious nowadays is to create a virtual project, but this answer involves more than just the ability to draw the project in 2D or 3D, it also involves looking for ways to assign properties to every line and every part of the project. Properties and elements that represent the reality of that particular project, allow all the parties involved in the project to feed the model and finally have an accurate virtual pro ject. This desire has evolved into what is now know as part of the Building Information Model (BIM) technology, where the designers are no longer just making drawings, but making models of the building, models with assigned properties that can be use to vi rtually build the project. The introduction of the BIM capabilities into the construction industry has opened a window for designers, contractors, and owners to start looking at those desires again. Nowadays it is possible to simulate the construction of the building at a certain level of detail, reducing risk and creating better perspectives for the management of the construction.

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17 BIM has its beginnings in research conducted decades ago in the field of computer aided design. Moreover, there is no widely accepted definition for the term. For the purposes of this thesis BIM was define d as the development and use of a computer software model to simulate the construction and operation of a facility. The resulting model, a Building Information Model, is a data rich object oriented, intelligent and parametric digital representation of the facility, from which views and data appropriate to various users needs can be extracted and analyzed to generate information that can be used to make decisions and improve the progress of delivering the facility (AGC, The Contractors Guide to BIM 2007). BIM or object based parametric modeling (previous name) was originally developed in the 1980s. During the previous years, in 1973, efforts made by three groups, Ian Braid at Ca mbridge University, Bruce Baumgart at Stanford, and Ari Requicha and Herb Voelcker at the University of Rochester (Eastman 1999); produced two forms of solid modeling, the boundary representation approach (B rep) and the constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) that latter on merged into one approach (See Figures 21 and 2 2). This first generation of tools supported 3D facetted and cylindrical object modeling with associated attributes, which allowed objects to compose into engineering assemblies, such as engines, process plants, or buildings (Eastman 1975, Requicha 1980). This merged approach to modeling was an important precursor to modern parametric modeling ( Eastman et al. 2008 ). Building modeling based on 3D solid modeling was first developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. CAD systems, such as RUCAPS, TriCad, Calma, GDS (Day 2002), and University research based systems at CarnegieMellon University and University of Michigan developed their basic capabilities ( Eastman et al. 2008). These solid modeling CAD systems were functionally powerful but often overwhelmed the available computing power. This is w hy the

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18 construction industry decide d to adopt architectural drawing software packages, such as AutoCAD, and Microstation that augmented the then current methods of working and supported the digital generation of conventional 2D construction documents ( Eastman et al. 2008). Object Based Parametric Modeling : The current generation of BIM architectural design tools grew out of the object based parametric modeling capabilities developed for mechanical systems design. These concepts emerged as an extension of CSG and B rep technologies, a mixture of university research and intense industrial development, particularly by Parametric Technologies Corporation (PTC) in the 1980s. The basic idea is that shape instances and other properties can be defined and controlled according to a hierarchy of parameters at the assembly and subassembly levels, as well as an individual object level. Some of the parameters depend on user d efined values. Others depend on fixed values, and still others are taken from or relative to other shapes. The shapes can be 2D or 3D (Eastman et al. 2008). The difference in parametric design is that the designer defines a model family or element class, w hich is a set of relations and rules to control the parameters by which elements instances can be generated and each vary according to their context, while the typical design approach is to design an instance of a building element like a wall or door. The parameters used can be distances, angles, and a different set of rules like parallel to, or distance from. These relations allow the creation of rich data models than can be used later on the next phases of design, construction and/or operation of the proj ect. BIM Software Developers Several CAD systems available today, do not offer BIM capabilities, using the old B rep and CSG drawing standards instead of the object based parametric modeling. Nowadays more companies are emerging with new solutions incorpor ating BIM tools as part of their software,

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19 and also opening the market for a new type of consultant company, providing BIM solutions as a third party developer with add on applications for the tool. Four sources of information were looked at as part of thi s section for the literature review, trying to identify the major software developers for the construction industry: BIM Wiki (BIM W i ki 2009), BIM Handbook (E a stman et al. 2008), AGC BIM Guide (AGC of America 2007), and a survey by AECbytes (Khemlani 2007) Eleven software developers were identified as shown in Table 21. While some of the potential value of a contractors knowledge contribution is lost if the contractor is not consulted until after the design phase is completed, significant benefits to the contractor and the project team can still be realized by using a building model to support a variety of construction work processes (Eastman et al. 2008). There are many software packages in the market that address one or various necessities for a contra ctor to fill by using BIM. The following list mentioned the most popular software developers and their main focus in the construction industry. Autodesk Autodesk is an American multinational corporation that focuses on 2D and 3D design software for use in architecture, engineering and building construction, manufacturing, and media and entertainment. It was founded in 1982 and it became popular due to its software AutoCAD that was and is still wildly used in the construction industry. Nowadays, Autodesk has developed a broad portfolio of digital solutions to help users visualize, simulate and analyze real world performance. The most known software packages from Autodesk using BIM in the building construction sector are:

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20 Autodesk 3ds Max Design Autodesk D esign Review Autodesk Navisworks Revit Architecture Revit Structure Revit MEP These software packages offer different types of features that go from drafting and modeling capabilities of blending different types of models and to developing clash detection analysis allowing for a better understanding of the building before it is built. Bentley Systems Bentley Systems is another important software developer in the market, providing solutions for the building, plant, civil and geospatial vertical markets in t he area of architecture, engineering, construction (AEC) and operations. The company was found ed in 1984 and its most popular software solution for the building construction is Microstation which is an important competitor for AutoCAD. Nowadays the companys solutions are evolving thro ugh BIM and the company just released a new line of packages that are object based parametric. The most used software packages for the building construction include: Bentley Architecture V8i Bentley Structural V8i Bentley Buil ding Electrical Systems V8i Bentley Building Mechanical System V8i ProjectWise Navigator (Incorporated Project 4D from CommonPoint) ConstructSim (Previously part of CommonPoint) The company is still offering their Microstation software, but is trying to m oving forward with the market trends implementing BIM tools into their solutions. The previously listed software packages offer tools from drawing and modeling capacity to design rules reviews and bidirectional capabilities with power and lighting analysis software. The new addition to the

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21 Bentley team of Common Point allows them to offer 5D solutions as part of their portfolio and they are making changes into ConstructSim to upgrade its capabilities. Nemetschek AG Nemetschek AG has been developing CAD sof tware for the architecture, engineering, and construction; entertainment; landscape design; and manufacturing fields since 1985 and in the past years the company started to implement BIM technology into their software. The Vectorworks product line is one of their top solutions A lthough it is a great drawing and modeling tool it is not the top companys BIM solution. Graphisoft was recently bought by Nemetschek and became the companys best BIM solution. Graphisoft is based in Hungary and they claim that they were the fi r st software in the market that implemented BIM technologies. Nowadays the company only offers one main software: Archicad 12, offering upgrades for different solutions like MEP Archicad allowing making clash detection analysis within the models. Innovaya Innovaya is one of the new companies that emerged during the BIM boom. The company focuses its solutions on the BIM environment and specifically to the building construction. It also looks at interoperability issues between the Autodesk s olutions and other construction management software like Timberline, Primavera or MS Project. The list of software solutions that Innovaya offers are: Innovaya Visual BIM Innovaya Visual Quantity Take off Innovaya Visual Estimating Innovaya Design Estimati ng Innovaya Visual Simulation

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22 Synchro Ltd. Synchro is another company that has emerged during this BIM revolution in the latest years. Synchro focus its solutions to the project management area and specifically to project schedule, linking the geometry of the project to more than 15 scheduling software allowing the simulation of the project as well as resource management. Their basic software is called Synchro Project Construction and the company also offers add on applications with their Synchro professi onal, Synchro Express, Synchro Server, and Synchro Workgroup. VICO Software VICO Software is another new company in the CAD Design world, but in this case VICO was formed through the acquisition of assests from Graphisoft company. They are basically the previous solutions from Graphisoft that now work as an independent company. The company offers a very complete set of programs that linked the design of the project with the construction phase offering programs that allow to create the model from scratch a nd simulate construction process inputting cost, creating earn value analysis and what if scenarios. Their line of solutions included: Vico Constructor Vico Estimator Vico Control Vico 5D Presenter Vico Cost Explorer Vico Change Manager Gehry Technologi es Gehry Technologies (GT) provides technology and services to owners, developers, architects, engineers, general contractors, fabricators, and other building industry professionals. I t was founded in 2002 and since then it has provided BIM solutions. Its main software is the Digital Project Software that as its basic level allows to design and view 2D

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23 and 3D models, but it counts with a number of add on creating Primavera Integration, MEP Systems Routing, Photo Studio, etc. Tekla Corporation Tekla Corpor ation was established in 1966 in Espoo, Findland. It started as a structural design software company but it adapts its solutions to the BIM environment. Nowadays Tekla offers a division of Building and Construction where it looks at the model based design of steel and concrete structures as well as the management of fabrication and construction. Tekla building and construction mainly serves these customer segments: Tekla Structures, Full Detailing Tekla Structures, Construction Management Tekla Structures, Steel detailing Tekla Structures, Precast Concrete Detailing Tekla Structures, Reinforced Concrete Detailing Tekla Structures, Engineering Onuma Onuma has been servicing the Architectural community since 1972 and it started offering services through the world wide web in 1995. Nowadays it offers the Onuma Planning System (OPS) an internet server model where the various users are able to interact during the creation and construction of the model. A unique characteristic of the Onuma solution is that it a llows different users to keep using their favorite software and put the models together in the OPS application. The OPS by itself is more a design tool than a construction used tool, but the capacity to bring models and update these models in real time all ows the user to implement the OPS during the entire process of the project, including operations and maintenance.

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24 Solibri Solibri was founded in 1999 to develop and market solutions that improve the quality of BIM and making the design process more effect ive. With this in mind they offer the following software packages: Solibri Model Chacker Solibri Issue Locator Solibri Model Viewer Solibri IFC Optimizer With the goal of optimizing BIM processes the different Solibri solutions allow the user to analyze t he models for integrity, quality and physical security. It also allows the checking for clash detections and code verification, with a function locating the error on the original model. Solibri also allows the user to see models from any IFC standard and t o combine them as one model using an IFC optimizer eliminating any redundant information. Project Blueprint Ltd Project Blueprint is a company based in Australia that provides construction consultancy and software development services. Their most popular software package is called Zero Defects and it represents an Internet accessible database and tracking tool for reviewing a project. General Contractors Needs and Expectations Contractors are starting to recognize the benefits of BIM technology in their projects. BIM allows for a smoother and better planned construction process that saves time and money and reduces the potential for errors and conflicts ( Eastman et al. 2008). More important, to obtain the most possible benefits from the used of this technology, contractors must seek for an early involvement in the project and push their subcontractors and all the parties involved in the project to maximize the use of the tool.

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25 An early involvement from the contractor into the project will allow for a smo other transition of the information and reduce the wasted information value from one phase to the other While some of the potential value of a contractors knowledge is lost after the design phase is complete, significant benefits to the contractor and th e project team can still be realized by using a building model to support a variety of construction work processes ( Eastman et al. 2008). Another consideration when applying BIM technology in the construction process is to determine the level of detail of the information in model in order to determine the different usages for the model. A contractor looking to utilize the model for scheduling will not need a very detail model comparing to the one that a contractor will require to develop the estimate for t he same project. Looking into the direct benefits of BIM technology for contractors there is a list of applications that apply to most of them. Contractors are using different BIM applications as part as their workflow: clash detection, quantity take off and cost estimating, construction analysis and management, integration with cost and schedule control and other management functions, offsite fabrication, and verification guidance, and tracking of construction activities ( Eastman et al. 2008). Gilligan a nd Kunz (2007) identified in their survey typical uses of BIM and Virtual Design and Construction (VDC): 3D Clash detection, present architectural design, space utilization, 4D clash detection, engage neighbors, present 4D schedule, cost estimation, enhanc e submittals process, structural analysis, safety analysis, enhance shop drawing process, energy analysis, drive shop fabrication equipment and others. AECbytes in a special report (2007) showed that the most important criteria when looking at BIM software were: 1) Full support for producing construction documents so that no other applications will be needed;. 2) Smart

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26 objects, which maintain associativity, connectivity, and relationships with other objects; 3) Availability of object libraries; 4) Ability to support distributed work processes, with multiple team members working on the same project; and 5) Quality of help and supporting documentation, tutorials and other learning results. Overall, there is a general set of expectations and needs from BIM users in the construction industry, and software developers are looking at those expectations to come up with new solutions with add on capabilities to their software packages or completely new versions of the software. Software Evaluation and Weighted Criter ia By definition, to evaluate is to assign value to something, or to judge something. We can improve this definition by considering why we evaluate; essentially we evaluate in order to decide, that is to choose between different possibilities (Carney and Wallnau 1998). Evaluating and selecting software packages that meet the companys needs is not an easy process. A number of different criteria should be consider ed to make sure that all the companys needs are being fulfill ed at the time to recommend the software. Little research has been done about evaluation methodology when selecting BIM software T he National Building Information Modeling Standard (NBIS) committee published in 2007 the Interactive Capability Maturity Model (I CMM), but this was with th e intent to provide a baseline for the minimum standard criteria for a design to be consider ed a true BIM. Some software companies also offer evaluation check lists that instead of being an evaluation of the market features are more like a bullet point des cription of their software biasing the final result to selecting their software. Additionally, magazines showed evaluation articles of specific software packages where the evaluations sometimes were the authors criteria instead of representing a compariso n of a set of general criteria with the needs of a specific company.

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27 Due to very little information being available about software evaluation models, evaluation methodologies for general software, and evaluation criteria to buy educational software packag es were used as a baseline to generate the BIM Software Evaluation Model for General Contractors (BIMSEM GC). Northwest Educational Technology (NETC) published in an article called Seven Steps for Responsible Software Selection (1995) In this article NETC mentioned that a software selection should be the result of a process where an analysis of the needs and goals of the final user should be considered as well as specific requirements. The next steps should be to identify promising software, find reviews, try previews about the software and then make the recommendations. The previous methodology applied to the objectives of this study except for the part that the BIMSEM GC assumed that the user has no knowledge about any software in the market and only knows what the company needs are. The methodology is not intended as rigid structure that must be followed without any deviation, it is intended as guideline and an aid that can be adapted according to the requirements of the individual organization (Patel an d Hlupic 2002). This is why the BIMSEM GC should be able to interact with the individual organization, allowing the organization to define the interest in certain areas of the BIM technologies. Carney and Wallnau (1998) state in their research to create a basis for evaluation of commercial software that seem to be three steeps that precede the actual selection and that make it possible: 1) Identifiable alternative courses of action are identified. 2) Criteria are defined for assigning a measure of merit a nd 3) Measure of merit is assigned to selected alternatives. This approach seemed to fit more the requirements of a possible BIM software evaluation model, where the first step would be to identify the possible software packages in the market, then

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28 define the evaluation criteria and finally assign merit to those criteria, recommending the software packages that fit companys criteria the most. Jadhav and Sonar (2009) proposed in their study a generic stage based methodology for selection of any software pa ckage which consist of following seven stages: Determine the need for purchasing the system and preliminary investigation of the availability of packaged software that might be a suitable candidate, including high level investigation of software features and capabilities provided by vendor. Short listing of candidate packages Eliminating most candidate package that do not have required feature or do not work with the existing hardware, operating system and database management software or network. Using an e valuation technique to evaluate remaining packages and obtain a score or overall ranking of them. Doing further scrutiny by obtaining trial copy of top software packages and conducting an empirical evaluation. Pilot testing the tool in an appropriate environment. Negotiating a contract specifying software price, number of licenses, payment schedule, functional specification, repair and maintenance responsibilities, time table for delivery, and options to terminate any agreement. Purchasing and implementing most appropriate software package. Although the Jadhav and Sonar (2009) methodology covered more steps than the intended for this research it is also a great baseline to consider when creating the BIMSEM GC. For the three steps this study assumed that the general contractor does not count with the time or does not have the knowledge to define which may be the list of software candidates, therefore the model should be able to perform this tasks for them. For the fourth step of the Jadhav and Sonar (2009) met hodology, the model should be able to compare the companys needs with the software features, ranking them accordingly. The next fifth, sixth and seventh steps are not part of this research, but are valuable recommendations for any BIM implementation proce ss by a general contractor.

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29 With a possible methodology from the literature, the next step was to look at the best way to evaluate the software packages. For this purpose the I CMM weighted criteria was taken as a baseline, where the different BIM levels w ere considered and are weighted by the designer according to the characteristic of the project, giving a final score that is compared with the minimum BIM score. Similarly weighted criteria was used for the BIMSEMGC where the general contractor will rank the importance of certain criteria to finally compare the score with the different software packages score and recommend the top solutions.

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30 Figure 21. B Rep Approach Figure 22. CSG Approac h (Source: OpenGL 1996)

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31 Table 2 1. Major BIM Software Developers Major BIM software developers BIM handbook AGC BIM guide Autodesk Autodesk Bentley Systems Bentley Systems Graphisoft (Bought by Nemetschek AG) Graphisoft (B ought by Nemetschek AG) Common Point Inc (Bought by Bentley Systems) Nemetschek VectorWorks Innovaya Synchro ltd. VICO Software AECbytes survey BIM wiki Autodesk Autodesk Bentley Systems Bentley Systems Graphisoft (Bought by Nemetschek AG) Gr aphisoft (Bought by Nemetschek AG) Gehry Technologies Nemetschek SCIA Tekla Corporation Onuma Nemetschek Solibri Tekla Corporation Project Blueprint ltd VICO Software Gehry Technologies

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32 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This study looked at the creati on of an evaluation model to be used by general contractors as part of their implementation BIM process. To create the evaluation model 11 different software developers and 33 software packages were used to recognize all the market offer ings and the result s from two public surveys w ere used to recognize the user needs and expectations from BIM. The results from the analysis of the offer and demand regarding to BIM were summarized for the different phases of the project were the general contractor may be in volved: preconstruction, construction and post construction. From this summary a questionnaire was created to be answer ed by the general contractor using the model as part of the evaluation model, trying to identify the companys needs and involvement at t he time of implementing certain software. Followed is a detail explanation of the followed methodology to come up with the BIM Evaluation Model (See Figure 3 1). The first phase was to conduct a literature review about the history and evolution of BIM, starting by setting the BIM concept to be used during the elaboration of this thesis. The AGC definition was the most appropriate, filling the essence of the concept and trying to explain what BIM is? from the contractors point of view. The analysis of the history of BIM covered its beginnings as a parametric object oriented technology and some of the obstacles that the people pushing this technology suffer from during its development. The next step of the literature review was to identify the major BIM softw are developers in the U S market, were four different sources of information were looked at including books, surveys, web pages, and associations reports regarding to BIM. From these four sources of information 11 software developers were identified and a detailed description of the company was developed during the literature review. Next in the literature review, two major public surveys results were analyze to identify the general contractors needs and expectations regarding to BIM. Finally as part of the literature review, a research about the different methods to evaluate different software packages was done by looking at journal papers and published books about the topic. The second phase was to create both check lists: one for the available features f rom the different BIM software packages in the market that can be used by the general contractor and the other check list where the user needs were identified. To develop the first list, 33

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33 software packages were analyze from the 11 companies identified in the literature review phase. During the selection of the programs to be analyze d the main criteria was to look at software packages that could be used by the general contractor during the preconstruction, construction and post construction phase. On the other hand, to create the user expectations check list, the two surveys analyzed during the literature review phase were summarized to identify the main expectations and needs when using BIM. The next phase after the creation of both check lists was to create the evaluation model The evaluation criteria w ere developed taking into consideration item s from both check lists and looking at the contractor needs during the preconstruction, construction, post construction and general consideration when buying any software package. A 5 point Liker t scale was selected to rank the importance of the different questions that the model asked to the contractor giving a final score for every area of the project. After the questionnaire and the Likert scale were applied, th e next step of this phase was to rank the 33 software packages with the questioner and the developed knowledge T his ranking was used after the programming step to compare and recommend the top five software packages that fit the best the companys needs. For the comparison and recommendation of the top five software a measure of dispersion and variation between the answers from the company and the different companys needs was used. The answers were compared by c alculating the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation at 95% confidence for all the 33 software packages and the companys needs. Visual Basic due its the automated link with Microsoft Excel was used to write the program that generates the calculations automatically once the user of the model has input all their evaluation criteria The last phase was to analyze the different possible results from the model at the time of its implementation giving future directions, recommendations and conclusions.

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34 Figure 31. Methodology Process

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35 CHAPTER 4 SOFTWARE PACKAGES KEY FEATURES AND USER NEEDS Evaluating any kind of software is a complex process, as discussed in the literature review there is no formal evaluation model for BIM related software. Although, there is a list of major BIM softwa re developers in the United States and a couple surveys trying to identify the needs and expectations from BIM users. Also from the literature review, a basic methodology that can be applied to the evaluate software in general was discovered Using the concepts and methodologies discovered during the literature review the BIM Software Evaluation Model for General Contractors (BIMSEM GC) was created This chapter cover s the results from the analysis of the different software packages and the user needs and e xpectations regarding BIM T he final result of the analysis was the creation of a list of 40 different criteria to identify the companys needs during the preconstruction, construction, and post construction phases of the project as well as a list of 10 cr iteria to evaluate the general requirements of the company when acquiring any software. Also a scoring of the analyzed software packages was obtained during this phase to be used by the BIMSEM GC. Eleven BIM software developers were analyzed during the lit erature review The major BIM software packages were consider ed for further analysis using two selection criteria: 1)it must be a software with BIM capabilities, and 2) those capabilities must help the general contractor in performing the basic needs of a building construction project for any of the preconstruction, construction and post construction phases. A list of 33 software packages was identified from the previous selecting criteria. An analysis of the key features these solutions offered to the use r was developed trying to identify the market available features, Table 4 1 show s a list of the different software packages and the basic key features found during the evaluation.

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36 A similar analysis was done with the results from the AECbytes (2007) and G illigan and Kunz (2007) surveys studied during the literature review, but in this case the results were categorized by the modeling capability, building analysis capability, functions for the estimating and project schedule, and finally functions for the project management. Table 4 2 show s the results from this categorization. The same categorization done for the user needs and expectations was made for the 33 software packages key features that were identified in Table 4 1, Table 4 3 shows the categorizati on of these key features To perform this categorization a n indepth analysis of the key features was done to make sure that all the different features available in the market were included and eliminating those features that were repeated from one softwar e to other. Once both lists were finished, one with the BIM user needs and expectations and another with the available features, a unified list was done including both criteria. This unified list showed 40 baseline questions than were adapted for the diffe rent phases of any construction project (preconstruction, construction, and post construction) w here every phase should include the basic duties that the general contractors perform during any project; preconstruction refers to the bidding process and preparation process before the physical work starts, construction refers to the activity of building the project, and post construction to the analysis and deliverables that the general contractor does after the project is done. This adapted list of 120 questi ons including the three phases of the project and then 10 questions covering the general criteria for acquiring any software represented the foundation for the BIMSEM GC as showed in Table 4 4. With the evaluation criteria done, a description of every crit eria was required to allow the company using the model to know the same considerations used during the creation of the

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37 model. Tables 45 through 48 show the description of every criteria and the application of the concept for every phase during the follow ing analysis. The next step in the analysis was to score the 33 software packages with the BIM software evaluation criteria shown in Table 4 4. The software packages were scored according to the authors knowledge and the analysis of the key features for e very package. From the final scores for every phase for the different software an important set of results was obtained. The average score for the 33 software packages in the preconstruction phase was 119.4 point out of 200 (or 59.7% ) The average score fo r the construction phase was 115.9 out of 200 (or 57.9% ) For the post construction phase the average score was 113.2 out of 200 (or 56.6% ) showing that there is still lots of room for improved the BIM technology and more important, that the user needs and expectations may not yet have been fulfilled. Figures 41 through 4 3 show the scores for every software package considered during the evaluation process. It should be noted that more than half of the software packages evaluated are below the average line as shown in Figures 41 through 43. This may be due to the fact that some of the evaluated software is part of an integrated solution and the individual program performance is not as good when analyzing if for use on an entire construction project.

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38 Figure 41. Evaluation Results for the software packages for the preconstruction phase

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39 Figure 42. Evaluation Result of the BIM Software Packages for the Construction Phase

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40 Figure 43. Evaluation Result of the BIM Software Packages for the Post Construction Phase

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41 Table 4 1. BIM software packages and key feature BIM software developers building construction Company Products Webpage BIM key features Cost per seat Autodesk Autodesk 3Ds Max Design http://usa.autod esk.com /adsk/s ervlet/index?sit eID=123112&i d=10326929 Friendly User Interface $3,990 Drawing and Modeling Capability File Management Utilities Interoperability Parametric Modeling in 2D or 3D Ready to use geometry libraries Polygon Modeling and Texturing Subdivision Surfaces and Polygonal Smoothing High rendering and animation features Autodesk Design Review Publish, Share, and view drawings and models from any Autodesk application n/a Mar k Up and Annotate Track and Import Changes Autodesk Navisworks Interference detection $9,140 Point/Line Based Clashing Track status of clashes as they are fou nd and resolved Export Reports XML import/export 4D Simulation Schedule linking from other project management software Set up planned and actual times to visualize deviations from the project schedule Export 4D simulations into a prerecorded .AVI animation Create project presentations Rendering capability Interoperability

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42 Table 4 1. Continued Revit Architecture Modeling Capability $6,190 Bidirectional Associability Schedules Creation Curtin Wall Modeling Parametric Components Develop a study of multiple simultaneous design alternatives Ready to use geometry libraries Material Takeoff Rendering capability Interference detection 2D and 3D dwf Integration Interoperability Revit Structure Single model for Both structural analysis and documentation $5,990 Bidirectional Associability Automates Construction documents Create struct ural details Interoperability Bidirectional Links with structural packages Ready to use material libraries Parametric Components Multiuser Work sharing Revit MEP Integrated heating and cooling loads analysis to ols to help perform energy analysis. $6,420 Supports green building mark up language (gbXML) Duct and Pipe Sizing/Pressure calculations Duct and pipe System Modeling HVAC/Electrical Space Design System Inspector Auto Route Duct Lighting and Power Circuitry Auto wire circuits Create Panel Schedules Lighting calculations Voltage Drops and Derating Factors Plumbing System Modeling Sloped pipe and invert ele vations Fire protection system modeling Interference detection

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43 Table 4 1. Continued Bidirectional Associability Parametric Components MEP Construction Documentation Work sharing Rendering capability Publish capability Interoperability Bentley Systems Bentley Architecture V8i http://www.ben tley.com/en US/ Friendly User Interface $ 1495 $ 6290 w/Micro station Drawing and Modeling Capability Ready to use material librarie s Parametric Components Relationships and associability between architectural elements for rapid design changes Terrain modeling, roof and stair builder tools Support for international steel section tables Powerful solid modeling for easy creation of virtually any form 2D and 3D dwf Integration Export to SLT to support rapid model making and prototyping with 3D printers, laser cutters, and stereo lithography machines. Support of 3D with Adobe PDF Import export of IFC 2x Full integration with Bentley Systems gbXML export/import Bentley Structural User Friendly Interface $ 2,750 $$ 7,545 w/Micro station Drawing and Modeling Capability Ready to use mater ial libraries Parametric Components Structural design and construction documentation for structures in steel, concrete, and timber. Integrated analytical model with finite elements, nodes, boundary conditions and member releases, lo ads and load combinations. Support for a large variety of cross sections, straight, curved, B Spline. Allow elements modifications. Dimension driven creation and modification of structural components

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44 Table 4 1. Continued S upport for all major metric and imperial steel section tables. Multiple filtering options. Supports DGN, DWG, DXF, PDF, STEP, IGES, IFC 2x Integration with Bentley's STAAD.Pro and RAM International Products Integration with GT STRUDL, ROBOT, MIDAS/GENw and SFRAME Design history to review changes Export import of industry standards CIMsteel CIS/2 for analysis, steel detail and fabrication. Bentley Building Electrical Systems V8i Professional electrical d esign solution $ 3,950 $ 8,745 w/Micros tation 2D/3D design and modeling Ready to use libraries Bidirectional interfaces to power analysis (EDSA, AMTECH Prodesign, elcoPower) Bidirectional links to third party Lighting Analys is programs (Lumen Designer, DIALux, Relux) Electrical raceway design Import/Export of IFC 2x Support of 3D within Adobe PDF Bentley Building Mechanical System V8i Design and construction documentation of air handling piping /plumbing systems $ 1 495 Friendly User Interface Drawing and Modeling Capability Ready to use material libraries Parametric Components Supports DGN, DWG, DXF, PDF, STEP, IGES, IFC 2x gbXML export/import Co nstructSim Material Takeoff n/a (more for industrial) Generation and sequencing of optimal weekly work plans at a crew level Visualization of project status against project schedule Ability to create reports for: Bill of materials work steps for construction, shortage lists, progress and status reports Schedule simulation

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45 Table 4 1. Continued Simulation of different schedule scenarios to find the most efficient and effective schedules ProjectWise Navigator htt p://www.ben tley.com/en US/Products/Pr ojectWise+Navi gator/ Design Review and manipulation $360 Photorealistic visualization Schedule simulation Clash detection Export Reports Interoperability: IFC, DGN, DWG, DXF, SKP, PDF, IGES, STEP, etc History tracking Database repository Innovaya Innovaya visual BIM http://www.inn ovaya.com/ Interactive 3D visualization from architectural desktop or Revit Incorporated visibility controls to adjust transp arency of the objects Mark Up and Annotate E mail tools Innovaya visual quantity take off Material Takeoff Visual review of the takeoff Allow quantities organization in CSI or Uniformat Color codes confirmatio n for quantity takeoff in the building Associability with Sage Timberline Assembly Intelligent change management Export reports to MS Excel Email tools Innovaya visual estimating Material Takeoff Visual revie w of the takeoff Allow quantities organization in CSI or Uniformat Color codes confirmation for quantity takeoff in the building Bidirectional link with Sage Timberline Assembly Intelligent change management Export reports to MS Excel Allow the use of MC2 ICE or Timberline database Innovaya design estimating Automatic estimation with RS Means assemblies Export reports in CSI, Uniformat or WBS

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46 Table 4 1. Continued Intelligent change m anagement Color codes confirmation for quantity takeoff in the building Bidirectional link with Sage Timberline Assembly Email tools Innovaya visual simulation Bidirectional link with MS Project and Primavera Sch edule Simulation Color codes confirmation for schedule tracking Ability to simulate different schedule to develop "what if" analysis Mark Up and Annotate Export reports in MS Word E mail tools Synchro Ltd Syn chro Project Professional http://www.syn chroltd.com/ "What if" scenario with side by side comparative analysis Resource management Multiple baselines capability to compare actual performance against planned Progress tracking Rescheduling options Critical path planning and analysis Synchronization with MS Project and Primavera Ability to update the model Mark Up and Annotate E mail tools Earn value analysis reports Resource and task usage reports Line of balance view VICO Software VICO Constructor http://www.vic osoftware.com/ Modeling Capability Ready to use libraries Curtain Wall Modeling Ready to use libraries Stru ctural and MEP modeling capability David: david.wilkinson @vicosoftware. com Virtual trace capability to coordinate model with drawings Mark Up and Annotate Material Takeoff

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47 Table 4 1. Continued Interactive model checker to identify missing quantities WBS of your project Estimating and scheduling integration Non destructive element split (isolate zones and analyze quantities and schedule) Vico Control integration Data exchange with Prima vera and MS Project Ability to place site surveying and benchmark VICO Estimator Recipe based estimating Cost variances tracking Customizable estimating and scheduling system Ability to split the project in phases Ability to input data manually Ability to separate bid packages Comparison functionality to compare subcontractors quotes History tracking Integration with VICO cost manager Cost tracking capability to perform e arn value analysis VICO Control Ability to input schedule in Gantt or linear format Location breakdown structure Visual dependency network Ability to create quantity based schedules to see bill of quantities Resou rce histogram Control chart color coding Schedule forecast according to real progress inputs Link multiple projects Monte Carlo Risk analysis simulation Prerequisites check capability (For the procurement) Micromanagement capability Cost and cash flow capability Look ahead reporting capability Integration with MS Project and Primavera VICO 5D Presenter 3D, 4D and 5D Views Ability to present isolated zones Constructability reviews EV analysis

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48 Table 4 1. Continued Record simulation Filtering capability Movie recording capability VICO Cost Explorer Graphical cost explorer Target costs capability, comparin g actual cost with budget Costs changes tracking capability Side by side comparison What if scenarios Mark Up and Annotate VICO Change Manager Full compatibility with DWG drawings DWG Comparison PDF Comparison Side by side comparison Comparison results panel RFI Management History tracking Highlighted changes Nemetschek Vectorworks http://www.ne metschek.net/ Modeling Capability Bidirectional Database Associability HVAC, Plumbing and electrical modeling Parametric Components GSA compatible space planning object Ready to use geometry libraries Cost and Material tracking Rendering capability Digital terrain modeling 2D and 3D dwf Integration Interoperability Archicad http://www.gra phisoft.com/ Modeling Capability Bidirectional Database Associability MEP modeling Parametric Components Clash detection Ready to use geometry libraries Cost and Material tracking Rendering capability Digital terrain modeling

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49 Table 4 1. Continued 2D and 3D dwf Integration Interoperability Gehry Technologi es Digital Project http://www.geh rytechnologies. com/ Design Review and manipulation 4D Planning and coordination Photorealistic visualization 3D 2D viewer Primavera integration Modeling Capability MEP s ystem routing Knowledgeware integration (capture, reuse, and share organizational knowledge and skills) Project team collaboration tools Clash detection RFI Management Tekla Corporation Tekla Structures, Construction Management http://www.tekl a.com/internati onal/solutions/b uilding construction /Pages/Default. aspx View Tekla models Create erection sequences 4D Simulation Assign and manage construction schedule Interoperability: IFC, DWG, DXF, DGN Clash detection Multiple reports Multiuser Work sharing Internet browser viewer Exchange data with MIS systems Material Takeoff Onuma ONUMA Planning System http://www.onu ma.com/ Interne t database capability Update cost, bids, planned information in real time Collaboration in real time Model server capability Ability to divide the project in phases Ability to be use in facilities management GIS integration Interoperability IFC open standard

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50 Table 4 1. Continued Each user can used their own tool Bobble diagramming of spaces Material Takeoff Estimating capability Multiuser Wo rk sharing History tracking XML Export/Import Solibri Solibri Model Checker http://www.soli bri.com/ Integrity, quality and physical safety analysis Clash detection Code compliance analysis Material takeoff Integration with cost estimation systems Multiple reports IFC Support Best practices guide analysis Interoperability Solibri Issue Locator Design issues locator in the BIM original tool Solibri Model V iewer Open standard IFC viewer Project Blueprint Ltd. Zero Defects http://www.proj ectblueprint.co m/home.html Single database updated in the internet History tracking Data base of onsite defects Defect costing reports List of most common defects

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51 Table 4 2. Summary of User Needs and Expectations of BIM based in the Surveys U ser needs and expectations of key features Model creation Building analysis Estimate and schedule Project manage ment Automated Setup, management, and coordination, reducing traditional CAD management tasks Direct integration with structural analysis applications Direct integration with cost estimating applications Direct integration with project management applica tions Ability to work on large projects Direct integration with energy analysis applications Support for construction related task such as quantity take off, estimating, and 4D scheduling Ability to support distributed work processes, with multiple tea m members working on the same project Safety analysis or management 4D Clash detection and interference management IFC Compatibility Multidisciplinary capability that serves architecture, structural engineering, and MEP Energy analysis or management Prese nt schedule as 4D automation Market share leadership position of the vendor offering the BIM solution Ability to support preliminary conceptual design modeling Structural Analysis Extensibility and customization of the solution Full support for produci ng construction documents so that another drafting application need not to be used Quality of help and supporting documentation, tutorials and other learning resources Built in ability to generate highly photorealistic renderings and animations 3D Cl ash detection and interference management Smart objects, which maintain associability, connectivity, and relationships with other objects Engage neighbors or users in understanding construction process Availability of object libraries Enhance submitt al/shop drawings review Extensibility and customization of the solution Enhance shop fabrication process High level of detail to model architectural design Drive shop fabrication equipment Ability to define space utilization

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52 Table 4 3. Summary of Available Key Features from software packages Software packages summary of key features Model creation Building analysis Estimate and schedule Project management Drawing and Parametric Modeling Capability in 2D or 3D Bidi rectional Links with structural packages 4D Simulation IFC Compliance File Management Utilities Integrated heating and cooling loads analysis tools to help perform energy analysis. Schedule linking from other project management software Publish, Share, an d view drawings and models from different application Ready to use geometry libraries Duct and Pipe Sizing/Pressure calculations Set up planned and actual times to visualize deviations from the project schedule Mark Up and Annotate comments High renderin g and animation features Lighting calculations Material Takeoff Track and Import Changes Develop a study of multiple simultaneous design alternatives Voltage Drops and Derating Factors Generation and sequencing of optimal weekly work plans at a crew level Clash detection 2D and 3D dwf Integration Integration with Bentley's STAAD.Pro and RAM International Products Ability to create reports for: Bill of materials, work steps for construction, shortage lists, progress and status reports Track status of clash es as they are found and resolved Multiapplications in Structural and MEP capabilities Integration with GT STRUDL, ROBOT, MIDAS/GENw and SFRAME Simulation of different schedule scenarios to find the most efficient and effective schedules Export Reports an d create presentations Automates Construction documents Bidirectional interfaces to power analysis (EDSA, AMTECH Prodesign, elcoPower) Incorporated visibility controls to adjust transparency of the objects XML import/export Create structural details Bidi rectional links to third party Lighting Analysis programs (Lumen Designer, DIALux, Relux) Visual review of the takeoff Multiuser Work sharing Ready to use material libraries Allow quantities organization in CSI or Uniformat Supports green building mark up language (gbXML) Duct and pipe System Modeling Intelligent change management Data base of on site defects HVAC/Electrical Space Design Export reports to MS Excel Defect costing reports System Inspector Bidirectional linking with other estimating s oftware List of most common defects Auto Route Duct Automatic estimation with RS Means assemblies Best practices guide analysis Lighting and Power Circuitry Export reports in CSI, Uniformat or WBS Design issues locator in the BIM original tool

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53 Tabl e 4 3. Continued Auto wire circuits Color codes confirmation for schedule tracking Export to SLT to support rapid model making and prototyping with 3D printers, laser cutters, and stereo lithography machines. Create Panel Schedules Export reports in MS Word Supports DGN, DWG, DXF, PDF, STEP, IGES, IFC 2x Plumbing System Modeling "What if" scenario with side by side comparative analysis Design history to review changes Sloped pipe and invert elevations Resource management Export import of industry sta ndards CIMsteel CIS/2 for analysis, steel detail and fabrication. Fire protection system modeling Rescheduling options Design Review and manipulation Relationships and associability between architectural elements for rapid design changes Critical path planning and analysis Database repository Terrain modeling, roof and stair builder tools Ability to update the model E mail tools Integrated analytical model with finite elements, nodes, boundary conditions and member releases, loads and load combinatio ns. Earn value analysis reports Bidirectional Database Associability Dimension driven creation and modification of structural components Resource and task usage reports GSA compatible space planning object Support for all major metric and imperial stee l section tables. Line of balance view Knowledgeware integration (capture, reuse, and share organizational knowledge and skills) Multiple filtering options. Non destructive element split (isolate zones and analyze quantities and schedule) Project team c ollaboration tools Professional electrical design solution Ability to place site surveying and benchmark Internet browser viewer Electrical raceway design Cost variances tracking Exchange data with Management Information Systems (MIS) Design and const ruction documentation of air handling piping/plumbing systems Ability to split the project in phases Internet database capability

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54 Table 4 3. Continued Curtain Wall Modeling Ability to input data manually Integrity, quality and physical safety analysis Virtual trace capability to coordinate model with drawings Ability to separate bid packages Code compliance analysis Comparison functionality to compare subcontractors quotes Ability to input schedule in Gantt or linear format Location brea kdown structure Visual dependency network Resource histogram Control chart color coding Schedule forecast according to real progress inputs Link multiple projects Monte Carlo Risk analysis simulation Prerequisites check capabili ty (For the procurement) Look ahead reporting capability Side by side geometric comparison Comparison results panel RFI Management Create erection sequences

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55 Table 4 4. BIM Software Evaluation Criteria S oftware evaluation model for GC Date: 26 Feb 09 Company: C1 Criteria Company's Needs 30% Preconstruction criteria Model creation Ability to Automated Setup, management, and coordination Drawing and Modeling Capability Parametric Modeling capability in 2D & 3D Ready to use libraries Built in ability to generate photorealistic renderings and animations Smart objects, which maintain associability, connectivity, and relationships with other objects Ability to publi sh, share and view drawings and models Ability to track history to review changes Multiuser work sharing capability Ability to work on large projects Multidisciplinary capability that serves architecture, structural engineering, and ME P Ability to support preliminary conceptual design modeling High level of detail to model architectural design Full support for producing construction documents so that another drafting application need not to be used Building Analysis Direct integration with structural analysis applications Direct integration with energy analysis applications Ability to define space utilization Structural Analysis Safety analysis or management Energy analysis or management 3D Clash detection and interference management Estimate and schedule Direct integration with cost estimating applications Direct integration with project schedule applications Ability to create quantity take off Ability to create estimates 4D Clash detection and interference management 5D Analysis or management

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56 Table 4 4. Continued Present schedule as 4D automation Project management "What if" analysis or management Built in ability or direct integratio n with any team collaboration software. Enhance submittal drawings preparation Ability to develop temporary construction analysis Enhance shop fabrication process Resource Management Capability XML Import/Export IFC Compatibil ity Bidirectional Associability with other software Supports DGN, DWG, DXF, PDF, STEP, IGES, IFC 2x Enhance precast elements coordination Drive shop fabrication equipment Subtotal: 0 30% Construction Criteria Model creation Ability to Automated Setup, management, and coordination Capability to update drawings Capability to update the Parametric Model in 2D & 3D Ability to edit libraries Ability to compare photorealistic renderings and animations with const ruction progress Smart objects, which maintain associability, connectivity, and relationships with other objects Ability to publish, share and view drawings and models as part of the construction reports Ability to track construction histor y to review changes Multiuser work sharing capability Ability to work the project in phases Multidisciplinary capability that serves architecture, structural engineering, and MEP Ability to support temporary construction design modeling Full support for producing as built documents so that another drafting application need not to be used High level of detail to model architectural design

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57 Table 4 4. Continued Building analysis Direct integration with structural analysis applications Direct integration with energy analysis applications Ability to manage updates in the space utilization Structural analysis or management Energy analysis or management Safety analysis or management 3D Clash detec tion and interference management with real progress Estimate and schedule Direct integration with cost estimating applications Direct integration with project schedule applications Ability to update quantity take off Ability to keep track of budget 4D Clash detection and interference management with real progress 5D Analysis or management with real progress Update schedule as 4D automation Project management "What if" analysis or management Built in ability or direct integration with any team collaboration software. Tracking of submittal drawings status Ability to update temporary construction progress Update shop fabrication process Resource Tracking Capability XML Import/Export IFC Compatibility Bidirectional Associability with other software Supports DGN, DWG, DXF, PDF, STEP, IGES, IFC 2x Enhance precast elements installation Drive shop fabrication equipment Sub Total: 0 30% Post construction criteria Model creation Ability to Automated Setup, management, and coordination Capability to create as built drawings Capability to create as built Parametric Model in 2D & 3D

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58 Table 4 4. Continued Ability to add used or created libraries to the software for future reference Ability to compare photorealistic renderings and animations with final outcome as part of the post construction analysis Smart objects, which maintain associability, connectivity, and relationships with other ob jects Ability to publish, share and view drawings and models as part of the final construction report Ability to present construction history as part of the building manual to the owner Multiuser work sharing capability Ability to pres ent the project phases as separated elements for future reference Multidisciplinary capability that serves architecture, structural engineering, and MEP Ability to analyze temporary construction for future improvements Full support for producing as built documents so that another drafting application need not to be used High level of detail to model architectural design Building analysis Direct integration with structural analysis applications Direct integration with energy analysis applications Ability to manage updates in the space utilization Structural analysis or management Energy analysis or management Safety analysis or management Ability to present history of 3D Clash detection and interferenc e management for future references Estimate and schedule Direct integration with cost estimating applications Direct integration with project schedule applications Ability present final quantity take off report Ability to present fin al costs of the project 4D projected schedule with final real schedule for future improvements Ability to compare 5D planned project with 5D final project Ability to present final 4D schedule for future improvements

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59 Table 4 4. Continued Project management Ability to compare all the "What if" analysis for future improvements Built in ability or direct integration with any team collaboration software. Ability to present final submittal to present as part of the owner report Ability to present all real temporary construction progress for future improvements Present as built shop fabrication process for future improvements Ability to present Resource Utilization history for future improvements XML Import/Expo rt IFC Compatibility Bidirectional Associability with other software Supports DGN, DWG, DXF, PDF, STEP, IGES, IFC 2x Ability to analyze precast elements installation for future improvements Ability to present shop fabrication equip ment production rate for future improvements Sub Total: 0 10% General criteria Market share leadership position of the vendor offering the BIM solution Quality of help and supporting documentation, tutorials and other learning resources Extensibility and customization of the solution Engage neighbors or users in understanding construction process Cost of the implementation Recovery mechanism ensures data integrity to the business function level. Operates in preferred o perating environment (e.g., Windows, UNIX). Necessary upgrades to the company's system Ownership of components clearly define Number of third party developers developing add on applications for the tool Sub Total: 0

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60 Table 4 5. Description of the BIM Software Evaluation Criteria for the preconstruction phase Description of the software evaluation model for GC Preconstruction criteria Model Creation Description Ability to Automated Setup, management, and coordination Th e se criteria covers the ability to manage different files related to the preconstruction phase Drawing and Modeling Capability Includes the ability to create drawings and models of the building Parametric Modeling capability in 2D & 3D Inc ludes the ability to work as the parametric model engine for 2D and 3D models Ready to use libraries Th e s e criteria include d predetermine libraries with elements to create the model during the preconstruction phase. Elements like windows, doors, etc Bui lt in ability to generate photorealistic renderings and animations Th e se criteria evaluated the built in capacity of the software to generate renderings, animations or avi. Movies. Smart objects, which maintain associability, connectivity, and relationshi ps with other objects Th e s e criteria looked at the software ability to maintain associability, connectivity, and relationships for all the model objects. Ability to publish, share and view drawings and models The built in ability to produce reports. Abi lity to track history to review changes The ability to identify any changes in the drawings. Multiuser work sharing capability The ability to allow different people to work in the same model at the same time during the preconstruction phase.

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61 Table 4 5. Continued Ability to work on large projects The software functionality on large projects and different types of projects. Multidisciplinary capability that serves architecture, structural engineering, and MEP The multi modeling capability of the model engine tool during the preconstruction phase. Ability to support preliminary conceptual design modeling The ability to analyze preliminary design allowing the general contractor an early involvement in the project. High level of detail to model architectural design The software ability to create models with high level of detail to be use d in other phases. Full support for producing construction documents so that another drafting application need not to be used The software ability to generate all the necess ary construction documents to built the facility. Building analysis Description Direct integration with structural analysis applications The software unidirectional link with other structural analysis packages to revise part of the bid documents. Direct integration with energy analysis applications The software unidirectional link with other energy analysis packages to revise any owner requirements with the proposed by the contractor. Ability to define space utilization The software ability to help in d efine site utilization layout. Structural Analysis The built in ability to perform structural analyses on any kind Safety analysis or management The built in ability to perform any kind of safety analysis. Energy analysis or management The built in abil ity to perform any kind of energy analysis. 3D Clash detection and interference management The built in ability to perform 3D clash detections.

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62 Table 4 5. Continued Estimate and schedule Description Direct integration with cost estimating applications The software unidirectional link with other estimating packages like Sage Timberline, MS Excel or MC2. Direct integration with project schedule applications The software unidirectional link with other project schedule packages like Primavera or MS Project Ability to create quantity take off The built in ability to perform quantity take off. Ability to create estimates The built in ability to assign cost to the different quantities in the model. 4D Clash detection and interference management The built i n ability to show any clash detection during the simulation process. 5D Analysis or management The ability to analysis cost expected cost during the simulation of the project. Present schedule as 4D automation The built in capability to perform schedule simulations Project management Description "What if" analysis or management The ability to perform "what if" analysis for design. Built in ability or direct integration with any team collaboration software. The ability to communicate any changes in the model with the rest of the team. Like email, internet server, etc. Enhance submittal drawings preparation The ability to facilitate submittals preparation. Ability to develop temporary construction analysis The ability to develop temporary construction a nalysis like cranes position, elevators position, etc.

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63 Table 4 5. Continued Enhance shop fabrication process The ability to facilitate shop drawings preparation. Resource Management Capability The ability to perform resource management analyses. XML Im port/Export The ability to import/export to any kind of XML format. IFC Compatibility The ability to work as an IFC standard Bidirectional Associability with other software The software bidirectional link with other software not mentioned before. Suppor ts DGN, DWG, DXF, PDF, STEP, IGES, IFC 2x The ability to import several CAD formats into the software. Enhance precast elements coordination The ability to propose erection sequences. Drive shop fabrication equipment The ability to link the model with fa brication equipments.

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64 Table 4 6. Description of the BIM Software Evaluation Criteria for the Construction Phase Description of the software evaluation model for GC Construction criteria Model Creation Description Ability to Automated Setup, management, and coordination Th e se criteria covers the ability to manage different files related to the construction phase Capability to update drawings Includes the ability to update drawings and models with new information during the construction phase. Capability to update the Parametric Model in 2D & 3D Includes the ability to update not only the model and drawings but the parameters and smart data behind those. Ability to edit libraries Th e se criteria looks for the ability to cre ate new libraries or make changes to the existing ones. Bring manufactures libraries. Ability to compare photorealistic renderings and animations with construction progress Ability to create report comparing the updated rendering with real time pictures o r avi. Movies. Smart objects, which maintain associability, connectivity, and relationships with other objects Th e se criteria looked at the software ability to maintain associability, connectivity, and relationships for all the model objects. Ability to publish, share and view drawings and models as part of the construction reports The built in ability to produce reports from the model to be used on site by the superintendent and other parties. Ability to track construction history to review changes The ability to keep track of all the changes found and status of RFI. Multiuser work sharing capability The ability to allow different people to work in the same model at the same time during the construction phase. Ability to work the project in phases The software functionality on large projects and different types of projects.

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65 Table 4 6. Continued Multidisciplinary capability that serves architecture, structural engineering, and MEP The multi modeling capability of the model engine tool during the const ruction phase. Ability to support temporary construction design modeling The ability to input temporary construction elements into the model to optimize construction process. Full support for producing as built documents so that another drafting applicat ion need not to be used The software ability to keep updated all the necessary construction documents. High level of detail to model architectural design The software ability to create models with high level of detail to be use in other phases. Building analysis Description Direct integration with structural analysis applications The software bidirectional link with other structural analysis packages to revise part of the construction documents. Direct integration with energy analysis applications The s oftware bidirectional link with other energy analysis packages to revise any owner requirements with the proposed by the contractor. Ability to manage updates in the space utilization The software ability to keep the site utilization layout updated allowi ng the contractor to visualize available areas. Structural analysis or management The built in ability to perform structural analyses of any changes during the project Energy analysis or management The built in ability to perform any kind of energy analy sis. Safety analysis or management The built in ability to perform any kind of safety analysis. 3D Clash detection and interference management with real progress The built in ability to perform 3D clash detections comparing the real process. Estimate an d schedule Description Direct integration with cost estimating applications The software bidirectional link with other estimating packages like Sage Timberline, MS Excel or MC2. Direct integration with project schedule applications The software bidirecti onal link with other project schedule packages like Primavera or MS Project.

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66 Table 4 6. Continued Ability to update quantity take off The built in ability up date quantity take offs automatically from any update made to the model. Ability to keep track of budget The built in ability to keep track of the cost of the project with bill of materials, or any other control tool. 4D Clash detection and interference management with real progress The built in ability to show alarms by clash detected from changes made to the model during the construction process. 5D Analysis or management with real progress The ability to perform earn value analysis. Update schedule as 4D automation The built in ability to simulate the planned performance with the real performan ce to analyze any variation to come. Project management Description "What if" analysis or management Ab i lity to perform "what if" analysis to propose value engineering. Built in ability or direct integration with any team collaboration software. The abi lity to communicate any changes in the model with the rest of the team. Like email, internet server, etc. Tracking of submittal drawings status The ability to track submittals status. Ability to update temporary construction progress The ability to devel op update any temporary construction analysis with changes during the construction. Update shop fabrication process The ability to track shop drawings status. Resource Tracking Capability The ability to track resource utilization, and present look ahead reports. XML Import/Export The ability to import/export to any kind of XML format. IFC Compatibility The ability to work as an IFC standard

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67 Table 4 6. Continued Bidirectional Associability with other software The software bidirectional link with other software not mentioned before. Supports DGN, DWG, DXF, PDF, STEP, IGES, IFC 2x The ability to import several CAD formats into the software. Enhance precast elements installation The ability to optimize erection sequences. Drive shop fabrication equipment The ability to change any fabrication order during the construction process as a change order.

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68 Table 4 7. Description of the BIM Software Evaluation Criteria for the Post Construction Phase Description of the software eval uation model for GC Post construction criteria Model creation Description Ability to Automated Setup, management, and coordination Th e se criteria covers the ability to manage different files related to the post construction phase Capability to create a s built drawings Includes the ability to keep a set of the different updates to create the as built drawings and model. Capability to create as built Parametric Model in 2D & 3D Includes the ability to keep all the smart data of the model updated to deliv er an us built set of parameters to the owner. Ability to add used or created libraries to the software for future reference The ability to store the created elements during the project to be used as part of the libraries in future projects. Ability to c ompare photorealistic renderings and animations with final outcome as part of the post construction analysis Ability to create a final report comparing the initial renders with the final product. Smart objects, which maintain a ssociability, connectivity, and relationships with other objects Th e se criteria looked at the software ability to maintain associability, connectivity, and relationships for all the model objects. Ability to publish, share and view drawings and models as part of the final constructi on report The ability to store all the reports and present a summary at the end of the project. Ability to present construction history as part of the building manual to the owner The ability to keep a history schema of the changes and RFI found in the p roject for future reference. Multiuser work sharing capability The ability to allow different people to work in the same model at the same time during the post construction phase. Ability to present the project phases as separated elements for future ref erence The software functionality on large projects and different types of projects. Multidisciplinary capability that serves architecture, structural engineering, and MEP The multi modeling capability of the model engine tool during the post construction phase.

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69 Table 4 7. Continued Ability to analyze temporary construction for future improvements The ability to analyze the performance of temporary construction for future improvements. Full support for producing as built documents so that another drafti ng application need not to be used The software ability to generate all the as built documents of the facility. High level of detail to model architectural design The software ability to create models with high level of detail to be use in other phases. Building analysis Description Direct integration with structural analysis applications The software bidirectional link with other structural analysis packages present a final report of the evolution of the project. Direct integration with energy analysis applications The software bidirectional link with other energy analysis packages to present a final report to be use as part of any further certification for the building. Ability to manage updates in the space utilization The ability to present the fina l site utilization process for review and improvements in future projects. Structural analysis or management The ability to present a report of the structural analyses during the project. Energy analysis or management The built in ability to perform any kind of energy analysis. Safety analysis or management The built in ability to perform any kind of safety analysis. Ability to present history of 3D Clash detection and interference management for future references The ability to create a histogram of th e evolution for the different 3D clash detections made during the project. Estimate and schedule Description Direct integration with cost estimating applications T he software bidirectional link with other estimating packages like Sage Timberline, MS Exce l or MC2 to present final cost reports. Direct integration with project schedule applications The software bidirectional link with other project schedule packages like Primavera or MS Project to present final schedule analysis. Ability present final quan tity take off report The built in ability present an analysis comparing the estimated quantities with the used quantities. Ability to present final costs of the project The built in ability to present a comparison analysis of the estimated budget and final cost of the project.

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70 Table 4 7. Continued 4D projected schedule with final real schedule for future improvements T he built in ability to compare planned schedule with final real schedule to perform a lessons learned analysis Ability to compare 5D plan ned project with 5D final project The ability to present a cost histogram to analyze where the variations occurred. Ability to present final 4D schedule for future improvements T he built in ability to simulate the planned performance with the real perform ance to correct any variation in future projects. Project management Description Ability to compare all the "What if" analysis for future improvements Ability to compare all the proposed "what if" scenarios with final product for future improvements. Bu ilt in ability or direct integration with any team collaboration software. T he ability to communicate any changes in the model with the rest of the team. Like email, I nternet server, etc. Ability to present final submittal to present as part of the owner report The ability to present a final submittals report to present to the owner as part of the operations manual. Ability to present all real temporary construction progress for future improvements The ability to present a final real temporary constructio n process for future improvements. Present as built shop fabrication process for future improvements The ability to present a final shop drawings report to present to the owner as part of the operations manual. Ability to present Resource Utilization his tory for future improvements The ability to create a resource histogram to analyze future improvements. XML Import/Export The ability to import/export to any kind of XML format. IFC Compatibility The ability to work as an IFC standard Bidirectional Asso ciability with other software The software bidirectional link with other software not mentioned before. Supports DGN, DWG, DXF, PDF, STEP, IGES, IFC 2x The ability to import several CAD formats into the software. Ability to analyze precast elements insta llation for future improvements The ability to analyze real erection sequences for future improvements. Ability to present shop fabrication equipment production rate for future improvements The ability to keep track of off site fabrication production rate equipment for future improvements.

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71 Table 4 8. Description of the BIM Software Evaluation Criteria for the General Requirements Description of the software evaluation model for GC General criteria Description Market share leadership position of the vendor offering the BIM solution Th ese criteria looked at the software vendor experience and how the rest of the market perceived its history in BIM. Quality of help and supporting documentation, tutorials and other learning re sources Th ese criteria looked at the quality of the supporting documentation that the software developer offers to accelerate the learning period. Extensibility and customization of the solution Th ese criteria looked at the ability to request custom made applications. Engage neighbors or users in understanding construction process The software ability to present the result in a manner that not technical people could understand and get involved in the process. Cost of the implementation The cost to buy th e software with the required license. Recovery mechanism ensures data integrity to the business function level. The built in ability in the software to maintain a recovery mechanism in to prevent loss of information. Operates in preferred operating envir onment (e.g., Windows, UNIX). The software ability to function in different operating environments or just one. Necessary upgrades to the company's system The maturity of the software in the market. It compared if the software is in a beta or a finish ver sion. Ownership of components clearly define Th ese criteria looked at the software ability to assigned ownership to the different models and areas of the model. Number of third party developers developing add on applications for the tool The number of co mpanies beside the software developer, designing add on applications for the main package.

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72 CHAPTER 5 BIM SOFTWARE EVALUAT ION MODEL Once the baseline of the model was created the next step was to create the evaluation criteria to recommend the top five software packages according to the companys responses to the created criteria. This chapter presents a detailed explanation of how the BIM Software Evaluation Model for General Contractors (BIMSEM GC) works taking into consideration the steps involved in using the model and the required programming language to make the model work. The model needed to be a simple and easy to use and also take into consideration that when a contractor is using the BIMSEM GC as part of the implementation process, the contrac tor is starting to acquire knowledge in the subject. This is why MS Excel was selected as the platform to develop the BIMSEM GC and also the fact that almost every contractor uses MS Excel nowadays as part of their operations was taken into consideration. The BIMSEM GC consists of one main spread sheet called model where the selection criteria questions will appear in blank to be filled out by the contractor. The questions are filled out using the same 5point Likert scale that was used to score the 33 s oftware packages as show n in Figure 5 1. By clicking in the cell the 5 point Likert scale will appear for every question of the evaluation criteria for every phase The BIMSEM GC will only display the specified values from 1 to 5 with 1 being the least important and 5 the most important. The model will also display a warning message if the user inputs a value out of the range and will not allow the user to continue with the evaluation until the value is changed. Once the contractor has answered every quest ion for the preconstruction, construction, post construction, and general criteria the next step is to click the button called Recommendation shown in Figure 52. By clicking that button the model will start with the

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73 calculation process analyzing the com pany responses and trying to match those responses with the most appropriate software for those needs. The BIMSEM GC will display the top five solutions for every phase, preconstruction, construction, post construction, and general criteria. Figures 53 through 56 show the name of the most appropriate software package and the given scores for all criteria used by the author, therefore the user will be able to compare every individual score for every recommendation. The recommended software packages for eve ry phase are listed from left to right, with the first one being the one that best fits the companys needs and the last one is the fifth recommendation form the 33 software packages that the model evaluated. Additionally, the BIMSEM will also display a g raph showing the companys performance according to the responses for the criteria and its performance on the combination of the recommendations as shown in Figure 57. This will allow the user to determine how well the recommendation is adapted to the companys needs, supporting even more the final selection of the BIM software. Figure 58, shows companys BIM software needs according to the user of the model responses. T he BIM model will compare the companys results with the maximum possible scores, also showing if there is a deficiency in any area when implementing BIM. The model should be as balanced as possible, assuming that the company is trying to implement BIM in all the phases of the project I f the company is only implementing BIM in one specifi c area then the model graph should bias the results to that area, allowing the company to see if any effort is being wasted in any other area where the implementation is not desire d. The final results (See Figure s 59 to 512) shows the recommended softwa re packages and the companys assessment of its level of need by the subtotal score for every evaluation

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74 phase. At this point the user will be able to compare the subtotal score of every package with the subtotal score for the company, supporting one more time the final decision when implementing the software. The results from testing the BIMSEMGC model for different possible scenarios determines that there is no single software package that satisfies the needs of a random company for every phase of the project. Most of the times the results will vary from phase to phase and no software package will completely satisfy all the companys needs, there is always a deficiency for some area or some phase of the project. This supports the idea that the best optio n when implementing BIM in all the project processes is it to consider the implementation of a suite of products that together will cover the most areas of the project workflow. How does the M odel Work? : Thus far the data required to develop the model and to use the model have been explained. Next the description of the process of how the BIMSEM GC is able to recommend the most appropriate software for every phase while trying to consider every company needs is discussed. The evaluation process for in the model is as follows: First the individual software packages scores and the companys needs score are compiled by looking at the subtotal for every phase. The software packages and the companys subtotal are l isted in column to then calculate the difference between every software subtotal to the company subtotal for every phase. The next step is to calculate the absolute value of every difference and sort the software packages list by the smallest to the largest difference allowing to identify the closest so ftware packages to the companys needs. The coefficient of variation at the 95% confidence level is then calculated for every software package and then the companys coefficient of variation is also calculated Then the difference between the companys needs coefficient of variation and every software packages coefficient of variation is calculated. This will allow the model to select the solution with the most similar behavior according to the companys needs. The final process was to sort the software pa ckages list ed by the smallest to the largest absolute difference for the coefficient of variation. Then the top five names for every phase are recommended in the model spread sheet.

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75 This whole process was programmed by using MS Visual Basic to facilitat e the use of the BIMSEM GC and the program coding is shown in Appendix A.

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76 Figure 51. BIMSEM GC Screen capture: Importance selection of the different criteria.

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77 Figure 52. BIMSEM GC Screen captu re: Before clicking the recommendation button

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78 Figure 53. BIMSEM GC Screen capture: Preconstruction top five recommendations

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79 Figure 54. BIMSEM GC Screen capture: Preconstruction subtotal scores

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80 Figure 55. BIMSEM GC Scr een capture: Construction top five recommendations

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81 Figure 56. BIMSEM GC Screen capture: Post Construction top five recommendations

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82 Figure 57. Combination performance of the different top recommended software

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83 Figure 58. Companys Real BIM model compared with perceived BIM model

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84 Figure 59. Recommended and Companys subtotal behavior for Preconstruction

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85 Figure 510. Recommended and Companys subtotal behavior for Construction

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86 Figure 511. Recommended and Companys subtotal behavior for Pos t Construction

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87 Figure 512. Recommended and Companys subtotal behavior for the General Criteria

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88 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Building Information Modeling technology is being used more and more by general contractors, the need to optimize processes, cost, quality, and safety in the industry creates the perfect conditions to guarantee that BIM is going to be around from this point on. BIM technology will continue to evolve offering unthinkable solutions nowadays for the construction industr y and bringing more applications to a market that today seems to be full of applications. This study looked at 33 different software packages ranking them by the authors criteria and acquired knowledge during the preparation of the study, creating the bas eline for an interactive evaluation model. The proposed model should be continuously updated and fed constantly with other BIM Packages and new solutions from companies, perhaps incorporating more evaluation criteria or changing some of them according to t heir needs. The model created during this study looked at the companys needs to recommend the five software packages that come closest to satisfying those needs. The model will not recommend the best software in the market, but the software packages that fit the best the companys needs. It is recommended for future models to consider suggesting not only the software that comes closest to meeting the GC needs but also those that exceed them in order to allow the company to consider any future grow. From the initial evaluation of the 33 software packages it was noticed that the average performance was not as good as expected when looking at the individual solution, but is can be expected that the performance will be improved when using a suit of solutions for certain project. Also from the evaluation of the 33 software solutions looked at in this research, one conclusion was that there is no individual package that satisfies all the possible companys needs looked at as part of this study. The sum or the co mbination of different packages for different

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89 phases of the project would be the best option for a company looking to implement BIM technology during all the construction process. The proposed use of different software packages for every phase of construc tion highlights the importance of interoperable programs, where no matter what software is being used during the project, the product of that particular software will be recognize entirely by the rest of the software packages. An analysis of the integratio n of different software packages would be recommended to determine which combination fulfills the most companys needs when applied to the different phases of the project for a general contractor. Looking at the study of the individual solutions, a set of common applications were found. Applications like parametric modeling, quantity take off, clash detections, 4D simulations and interoperable application can be consider the minimum standard for a BIM implementation from a general contractor. Considering t he great number of software developers that offer this in one or all of their software packages. Also a number of more specific applications were identified; applications that in most of the cases applied more for the general contractor needs, but are stil l in the development phase and which are not standard in every software package These solutions were: 5D analyses, bill of materials, earned value analysis, collaboration tools, bidirectional links with fabrication equipment, micromanagement capabilities, resource management, Monte Carlo risk analysis, code compliance, etc. It is important to remember that this study should be used as a complement to a structured implementation process from the general contractor. Once the model is used and the preferred software is selected, a trial period of the preferred software should be implemented to optimize the benefits at the time of the full implementation.

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90 CHAPTER 7 FUTURE DIRECTION Building Information Modeling (BIM) is going to continue evolving and new software packages will appear with more solutions for contractors. These new software packages will add to the already great number of choices that general contractors already have increasing the importance of having a software evaluation model tool, but not only that, it will also require a tool that monitors how well the implemented software is being used. The following section was divided in 2 parts, the first one discusses the evolution that the BIM software packages may have and new opportunities on t he horizon and the second part discusses the necessary improvements to software evaluation techniques. BIM software developers are going to start selling integrated solution considering that the performance of every individual package is limited. Nowadays the industry is looking for more integration of processes forcing the software developers to evolve and offer packages with a group of solutions that satisfy more areas of the entire project than a solution that will only fulfill the needs of one area. A nother application that the software developers may put to work in their packages is the ability to check required codes. These codes can go from building codes, environmental codes, structural codes, or a set of best design criteria, so far only Solibri M odel Checker offers a limited capacity to develop code checking, but is it is an application that the market will start asking more and more for. Laser scanning is an application that none of the studied software offered, but it may bring big advantages t o the contractor to be able to maintain a laser scan working during the construction process to be able to track the process in real time and to automatically update the model

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91 It is important to analyze the legal procedure once the selection decision is done; there are some baselines for the legal requirements to look at when buying BIM software, specifically requirements for the software vendors. These requirements can go from minimum performance standards to maintenance and technical support expectations. Another area where software evaluation needs to pay more attention is in keeping a performance score of the software analyzed to monitor whether the selected software was the best decision and to allow the user to understand much better their real need s.

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92 AP P ENDIX PROGRAMMING OF THE BIM SOFTWARE EVALUATI ON MODEL FOR GENERAL CONTRACTORS IN MS VI SUAL BASIC Sub Delete() Delete Macro Range("D5:H521").Select Selection.ClearContents Selection.Borders(xlDiagonalDown).LineStyle = xlNone Se lection.Borders(xlDiagonalUp).LineStyle = xlNone Selection.Borders(xlEdgeLeft).LineStyle = xlNone Selection.Borders(xlEdgeTop).LineStyle = xlNone Selection.Borders(xlEdgeBottom).LineStyle = xlNone Selection.Borders(xlEdgeRight).LineStyle = xlNone Selection.Borders(xlInsideVertical).LineStyle = xlNone Selection.Borders(xlInsideHorizontal).LineStyle = xlNone Range("A5:C158").Select Range("C5").Activate Selection.Borders(xlDiagonalDown).LineStyle = xlNone Selection.Borde rs(xlDiagonalUp).LineStyle = xlNone With Selection.Borders(xlEdgeLeft) .LineStyle = xlContinuous .ColorIndex = 0 .TintAndShade = 0 .Weight = xlMedium End With With Selection.Borders(xlEdgeTop) .LineStyle = xlContinuous .ColorIndex = 0 .TintAndShade = 0 .Weight = xlMedium End With With Selection.Borders(xlEdgeBottom) .LineStyle = xlContinuous .ColorIndex = 0 .TintAndShade = 0 .Weight = xlMedium End With With Selection.Borders(xlEdgeRight) .LineStyle = xlContinuous .ColorIndex = 0 .TintAndShade = 0 .Weight = xlMedium End With Range("C8:C50").Select

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93 Selection.ClearContents ActiveWindow.SmallS croll Down:=45 Range("C55:C97").Select Selection.ClearContents ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=48 Range("C102:C144").Select Selection.ClearContents ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=54 Range("C148:C157").Select Selection.ClearCo ntents Range("D153").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:= 183 Sheets("PCS").Select Range("A3:D35").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:= 60 Range("B3:B36").Select Range("B36").Activate ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=18 Range("C27").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:= 81 Range("A3").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "Rank With ActiveCell.Characters(Start:=1, Length:=6).Font .Name = "Arial" .FontStyle = "Regular" .Size = 10 .Strikethrough = False .Superscript = False .Subscript = False .OutlineFont = False .Shadow = False .Underline = xlUnderlineStyleNone .ColorIndex = xlAutomatic .TintAndShade = 0 .ThemeFont = xlThemeFontNone End With Range("B3").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "Software" With ActiveCell.Characters(Start:=1, Length:=8).Font .Name = "Arial" .FontStyle = "Regular" .Size = 10 .Strikethrough = Fals e .Superscript = False .Subscript = False .OutlineFont = False

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94 .Shadow = False .Underline = xlUnderlineStyleNone .ColorIndex = xlAutomatic .TintAndShade = 0 .ThemeFont = xlThemeFontNone En d With Range("C3").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "Company Score" With ActiveCell.Characters(Start:=1, Length:=13).Font .Name = "Arial" .FontStyle = "Regular" .Size = 10 .Strikethrough = False .Superscri pt = False .Subscript = False .OutlineFont = False .Shadow = False .Underline = xlUnderlineStyleNone .ColorIndex = xlAutomatic .TintAndShade = 0 .ThemeFont = xlThemeFontNone End With Range("D3 ").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "Software Score" With ActiveCell.Characters(Start:=1, Length:=14).Font .Name = "Arial" .FontStyle = "Regular" .Size = 10 .Strikethrough = False .Superscript = False .Subscript = False .OutlineFont = False .Shadow = False .Underline = xlUnderlineStyleNone .ColorIndex = xlAutomatic .TintAndShade = 0 .ThemeFont = xlThemeFontNone End With Range("E3").Select Activ eCell.FormulaR1C1 = "Dif." With ActiveCell.Characters(Start:=1, Length:=4).Font .Name = "Arial" .FontStyle = "Regular" .Size = 10 .Strikethrough = False .Superscript = False

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95 .Subscript = False .Ou tlineFont = False .Shadow = False .Underline = xlUnderlineStyleNone .ColorIndex = xlAutomatic .TintAndShade = 0 .ThemeFont = xlThemeFontNone End With Range("F3").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "Abs" With ActiveCell.Characters(Start:=1, Length:=3).Font .Name = "Arial" .FontStyle = "Regular" .Size = 10 .Strikethrough = False .Superscript = False .Subscript = False .OutlineFont = False .Shadow = False .Underline = xlUnderlineStyleNone .ColorIndex = xlAutomatic .TintAndShade = 0 .ThemeFont = xlThemeFontNone End With Range("G3").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "Comp. C.V 95%" With ActiveCell.Chara cters(Start:=1, Length:=13).Font .Name = "Arial" .FontStyle = "Regular" .Size = 10 .Strikethrough = False .Superscript = False .Subscript = False .OutlineFont = False .Shadow = False .Underline = xlUnderlineStyleNone .ColorIndex = xlAutomatic .TintAndShade = 0 .ThemeFont = xlThemeFontNone End With Range("H3").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "Soft. C.V 95%" With ActiveCell.Characters(Start:=1, Leng th:=13).Font .Name = "Arial" .FontStyle = "Regular" .Size = 10

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96 .Strikethrough = False .Superscript = False .Subscript = False .OutlineFont = False .Shadow = False .Underline = xlUnderl ineStyleNone .ColorIndex = xlAutomatic .TintAndShade = 0 .ThemeFont = xlThemeFontNone End With Range("I3").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "Dif." With ActiveCell.Characters(Start:=1, Length:=4).Font .Name = Arial" .FontStyle = "Regular" .Size = 10 .Strikethrough = False .Superscript = False .Subscript = False .OutlineFont = False .Shadow = False .Underline = xlUnderlineStyleNone .ColorIndex = xlAutomatic .TintAndShade = 0 .ThemeFont = xlThemeFontNone End With Range("J3").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "Abs" With ActiveCell.Characters(Start:=1, Length:=3).Font .Name = "Arial" .FontStyle = "Re gular" .Size = 10 .Strikethrough = False .Superscript = False .Subscript = False .OutlineFont = False .Shadow = False .Underline = xlUnderlineStyleNone .ColorIndex = xlAutomatic .TintA ndShade = 0 .ThemeFont = xlThemeFontNone End With Range("A4:D36").Select Selection.ClearContents Range("E4:F4").Select Selection.Copy

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97 Range("E5:F36").Select ActiveSheet.Paste Application.CutCopyMode = False Range ("G4:H36").Select Selection.ClearContents Range("I4:J4").Select Selection.Copy Range("I5:J36").Select ActiveSheet.Paste Application.CutCopyMode = False Range("A3:J36").Select Range("J36").Activate Selection.Copy Shee ts("CS").Select Range("A3").Select ActiveSheet.Paste ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:= 48 Sheets("PoCS").Select Range("A3").Select ActiveSheet.Paste Sheets("GCS").Select Range("A3").Select ActiveSheet.Paste Range("E14: J36").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Range("A1").Select Sheets("Model").Select End Sub Sub Recommend() Recommend Macro Sheets("Rank").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:= 879 Range("C4:AI4").Select Selection.C opy Sheets("PCS").Select Range("B4").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=True ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:= 6 Sheets("CS").Select Range("B4").Select S election.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks

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98 :=False, Transpose:=True Sheets("PoCS").Select Range("B4").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=True Sheets("GCS").Select Range("B4").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=True Sheets("Rank").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:= 20 Active Window.LargeScroll ToRight:= 3 ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:= 2 ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=36 Range("C50:AI50").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Sheets("PCS").Select Range("D4").Select Selection. PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=True ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:= 15 Sheets("Rank").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:= 30 ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=48 Range(" C97:AI97").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Sheets("CS").Select Range("D4").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=True ActiveWindow.Small Scroll Down:= 54 Sheets("Rank").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:= 30 ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=51 Range("C144:AI144").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Sheets("PoCS").Select Range("D4").Selec t Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=True Sheets("Rank").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:= 29 ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=9

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99 Range("C157:AI157").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Sheets("GCS").Select Range("D4").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=True ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:= 33 Sheets("Rank").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:= 3 ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:= 30 ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=9 Range("C169:AI169").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Sheets("PCS").Select Ra nge("H4").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=True ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:= 6 Sheets("Rank").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:= 2 ActiveWindow.Sma llScroll Down:= 3 ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:= 28 ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=12 Range("C180:AI180").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Sheets("CS").Select Range("H4").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=True Sheets("Rank").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:= 29 ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=12 Range("C191:AI191").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Sheets("PoCS").Select Range("H4").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=True Sheets("Rank").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:= 29 ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=6 Range("C202:AI202").Select

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100 Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Sheets("GCS").Select Range("H4").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=True ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:= 15 Sheets("PCS").Select Range("C4").Select Sheets("Model").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=30 Range("C51").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.C opy Sheets("PCS").Select Range("C4").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=False Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Range("C5:C36").Select Sel ection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=False Sheets("Model").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=51 Range("C98").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Sheets("CS").Select Range("C4").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=False Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Range("C5:C36").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=False Sheets("Model").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=57 Range("C145").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Sheets(" PoCS").Select Range("C4").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=True

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101 Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Range("C5:C36").Select Selection.PasteSpec ial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=False Sheets("Model").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=12 Range("C158").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Sheets("GCS").S elect Range("C4").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=False Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Range("C5:C36").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=False Sheets("Model").Select Range("C170").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Sheets("PCS").Select Range("G4").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=False Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Range("G5:G36").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=False Sheets("Model").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=12 Range("C181").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Sheets("CS").Select Range("G4").Select Selection.PasteSpeci al Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=False Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Range("G5:G36").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=False

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102 Sheets("Model").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=15 Range("C192").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Sheets("PoCS").Select Range("G4").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=False Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Range("G5:G36").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=False Sheets("Model").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=9 Range("C203").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Sheets("GCS").Select Range("G4").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPa steValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=False Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy Range("G5:G36").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=False Sheets("PCS").Select Range("A5").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("PCS").Sort.SortFields.Clear ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("PCS").Sort.SortFields.Add Key:=Range("F3:F36"), SortOn :=xlSortOnValues, Order:=xlAscending, DataOption:=xlSortNormal With ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("PCS").Sort .SetRange Range("A2:J36") .Header = xlYes .MatchCase = False .Orientation = xlTopToBottom .SortMethod = xl PinYin .Apply End With ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("PCS").Sort.SortFields.Clear ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("PCS").Sort.SortFields.Add Key:=Range("J3:J36"), SortOn:=xlSortOnValues, Order:=xlAscending, DataOption:=xlSortNormal With ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("PCS").Sort

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103 .SetRange Range("A2:J36") .Header = xlYes .MatchCase = False .Orientation = xlTopToBottom .SortMethod = xlPinYin .Apply End With ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Dow n:= 21 Range("A3").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "1" Range("A4").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "2" Range("A5").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "3" Range("A6").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "4" Range("A7").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "5" Range("B4:B8").Select Selection.Copy Sheets("Model").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:= 372 Range("D5").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks : =False, Transpose:=True Columns("D:D").EntireColumn.AutoFit Columns("E:E").EntireColumn.AutoFit Columns("F:F").EntireColumn.AutoFit ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:=2 Columns("G:G").EntireColumn.AutoFit Columns("H:H").EntireColumn. AutoFit ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:= 2 Range("C7:C51").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:= 42 Range("D7:H51").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteFormats, Operation :=xlNone, SkipBlanks:=False, Transpose:=False Application.CutCopyMode = False Range("C5").Select Selection.Copy Range("D5:H5").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteFormats, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks:=False Transpose:=False Application.CutCopyMode = False

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104 Columns("D:D").EntireColumn.AutoFit Columns("E:E").EntireColumn.AutoFit Columns("F:F").ColumnWidth = 9.29 Columns("F:F").EntireColumn.AutoFit Columns("G:G").EntireColumn.AutoFit ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:=2 Columns("H:H").EntireColumn.AutoFit ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:= 3 ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:= 2 Sheets("CS").Select Range("B4").Select ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("CS").Sort.SortFields.C lear ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("CS").Sort.SortFields.Add Key:=Range("F3:F36"), SortOn:=xlSortOnValues, Order:=xlAscending, DataOption:=xlSortNormal With ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("CS").Sort .SetRange Range("A2:J36") .Heade r = xlYes .MatchCase = False .Orientation = xlTopToBottom .SortMethod = xlPinYin .Apply End With ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("CS").Sort.SortFields.Clear ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("CS").Sort.SortFields.Add Key:=Range("J3:J36"), SortOn:=xlSortOnValues, Order:=xlAscending, DataOption:=xlSortNormal With ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("CS").Sort .SetRange Range("A2:J36") .Header = xlYes .MatchCase = False .Orientation = xlTopToBot tom .SortMethod = xlPinYin .Apply End With Range("A3").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "1" Range("A4").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "2" Range("A5").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "3" Range("A6").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "4" Range("A7").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "5" Range("B4:B8").Select Selection.Copy Sheets("Model").Select

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105 ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=45 Range("D53").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=x lPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=True Range("D5:H51").Select Range("D51").Activate Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:= 3 ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=42 Range("D53:H98").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteFormats, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks:=False, Transpose:=False Application.CutCopyMode = False ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=48 Sheets("PoCS").Select Range("F4").Select ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("PoCS").Sort.SortFields.Clear ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("PoCS").Sort.SortFields.Add Key:=Range("F3:F36"), SortOn:=xlSortOnValues, Order:=xlAscending, DataOption:=xlSortNormal With ActiveWo rkbook.Worksheets("PoCS").Sort .SetRange Range("A2:J36") .Header = xlYes .MatchCase = False .Orientation = xlTopToBottom .SortMethod = xlPinYin .Apply End With ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("PoCS").Sort.S ortFields.Clear ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("PoCS").Sort.SortFields.Add Key:=Range("J3:J36"), SortOn:=xlSortOnValues, Order:=xlAscending, DataOption:=xlSortNormal With ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("PoCS").Sort .SetRange Range("A2:J36") .Header = xlYes .MatchCase = False .Orientation = xlTopToBottom .SortMethod = xlPinYin .Apply End With ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:= 42 Range("A3").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "1" Range("A4 ").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "2" Range("A5").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "3"

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106 Range("A6").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "4" Range("A7").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "5" Range("B4:B8").Select Selection.Copy Sheets("Model").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:= 3 ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:= 2 Range("D98:H98").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Borders(xlDiagonalDown).LineStyle = xlNone Selection.Borders(xlDiago nalUp).LineStyle = xlNone With Selection.Borders(xlEdgeLeft) .LineStyle = xlContinuous .ColorIndex = 0 .TintAndShade = 0 .Weight = xlMedium End With With Selection.Borders(xlEdgeTop) .LineStyle = xlContinuous .ColorIndex = 0 .TintAndShade = 0 .Weight = xlMedium End With With Selection.Borders(xlEdgeBottom) .LineStyle = xlContinuous .ColorIndex = 0 .TintAndShade = 0 .Weight = xlMedium End W ith With Selection.Borders(xlEdgeRight) .LineStyle = xlContinuous .ColorIndex = 0 .TintAndShade = 0 .Weight = xlMedium End With Selection.Borders(xlInsideHorizontal).LineStyle = xlNone ActiveWindow.SmallScrol l ToRight:= 2 Range("D100").Select Sheets("PoCS").Select Selection.Copy Sheets("Model").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=True ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Do wn:= 39

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107 Range("D53:H98").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=15 Range("D100:H145").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteFormats, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks:=False, Transpose:=False Application.CutCopyMode = False ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=48 Range("H148").Select ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:= 2 Sheets("GCS").Select Range("D5").Select ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("GCS").Sort.SortFiel ds.Clear ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("GCS").Sort.SortFields.Add Key:=Range("F3:F36"), SortOn:=xlSortOnValues, Order:=xlAscending, DataOption:=xlSortNormal With ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("GCS").Sort .SetRange Range("A2:J36") .Header = xlYes .MatchCase = False .Orientation = xlTopToBottom .SortMethod = xlPinYin .Apply End With ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("GCS").Sort.SortFields.Clear ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("GCS").Sort.SortFields.Add K ey:=Range("J3:J36"), SortOn:=xlSortOnValues, Order:=xlAscending, DataOption:=xlSortNormal With ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets("GCS").Sort .SetRange Range("A2:J36") .Header = xlYes .MatchCase = False .Orientation = x lTopToBottom .SortMethod = xlPinYin .Apply End With Range("A3").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "1" Range("A4").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "2" Range("A5").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "3" Range("A6"). Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "4" Range("A7").Select ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = "5" Range("B4:B8").Select

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108 Selection.Copy Sheets("Model").Select Range("D147").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteValues, Operation:=xlN one, SkipBlanks :=False, Transpose:=True ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:= 45 Range("D100:H100").Select Application.CutCopyMode = False Selection.Copy ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:=51 Range("D147:H147").Select Selection .PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteFormats, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks:=False, Transpose:=False Application.CutCopyMode = False Range("C148:C158").Select Selection.Copy Range("D148:H158").Select Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlPasteFormats, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks:=False, Transpose:=False Application.CutCopyMode = False Range("E154").Select Columns("D:D").EntireColumn.AutoFit Columns("E:E").EntireColumn.AutoFit ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:=3 Columns("E:E").EntireColumn.AutoFit Columns("F:F").EntireColumn.AutoFit Columns("G:G").EntireColumn.AutoFit Columns("H:H").EntireColumn.AutoFit ActiveWindow.SmallScroll Down:= 336 ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:= 1 ActiveWind ow.SmallScroll Down:= 3 ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight:= 2 Sheets("Results").Select Range("C5").Select Sheets("Model").Select Dim i, j, n, c As Integer c = 3 j = 1 For n = 1 To 5 Do While j = 1 If Sheet4.Cells(5, n + 3) = Sheet3.Cells(4, c) Then For i = 7 To 51 Sheet4.Cells(i, n + 3) = Sheet3.Cells(i 1, c) Next i j = 0 Else: c = c + 1

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109 End If Loop j = 1 c = 3 Next n Dim o, p, q, r As Integer r = 3 p = 1 For q = 1 To 5 Do While p = 1 If Sheet4.Cells(53, q + 3) = Sheet3.Cells(4, r) Then For o = 54 To 98 Sheet4.Cells(o, q + 3) = Sheet3.Cells(o 1, r) Next o p = 0 Else: r = r + 1 End If Loop p = 1 r = 3 Next q Di m s, t, u, v As Integer v = 3 t = 1 For u = 1 To 5 Do While t = 1 If Sheet4.Cells(100, u + 3) = Sheet3.Cells(4, v) Then For s = 101 To 145 Sheet4.Cells(s, u + 3) = Sheet3.Cells(s 1, v) Next s t = 0 Else: v = v + 1 End If Loop t = 1 v = 3 Next u Dim w, x, y, z As Integer z = 3 x = 1 For y = 1 To 5 Do While x = 1 If Sheet4.Cells(147, y + 3) = Sheet3.Cells(4, z) Then For w = 148 To 158 Sheet4.Cells(w, y + 3) = Sheet3.Cells(w 1, z) Next w

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110 x = 0 Else: z = z + 1 End If Loop x = 1 z = 3 Next y End Sub

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111 LIST OF REFERENCES Autodesk, Inc. Site. 2009. AutodeskAutodesk Navisworks Features. Jan 28, 2009. < http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/index?siteID=123112&id=10726113 > Autodesk, Inc. Site. 2009. AutodeskDesign Review Detailed Features. J an 28, 2009. < http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/index?si teID=123112&id=4086277 > Autodesk, Inc. Site. 2009. AutodeskRevit Architecture Features. Jan 28, 2009. < http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/index?siteID=123112&id=8479974 > Autodesk, Inc. Site. 2009. AutodeskRevit MEP Features. Jan 28, 2009. < http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/index?siteID=123112&id=8529989 > Autodesk, Inc. Site. 2009. AutodeskRevit Structure Features. Jan 28, 2009. < http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/index?siteID=123112&id=8447072 > Autodesk, Inc. Site. 2009. AutodeskAutodesk 3ds Max DesignDetailed Features. J an 28, 2009. < http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/index?siteID =123112&id=10370942 > Bentley Systems, Incorporated Site. 2008. CP: ConstructSim Jan 28, 2009. < http://www.commonpointinc.com/products/constructsim/constructsim pipe.asp> Bentley Systems, Incorporated Site. 2009. BBES Features list Jan 28, 2009 < http://bentley.com/en US/Products/Bentley+Building+Electrical+Systems/Features list.htm > Bentley Systems, Incorporated Site. 2009. Bentley Architecture Features Jan 28, 2009. < http://bentley.com/en US/Products/Bentley+Architecture/Featu res list.htm > Bentley Systems, Incorporated Site. 2009. Bentley Project Wise Project Team Collaboration Software Products J an 28, 2009. < http://bentley.com/en US/Products/ProjectWise+Project+Team+Collaboration/Features list.htm > Bentley Systems, Incorporated Site. 2009. Bentley Structural Features list. Jan 28, 2009. < http://bentley. com/en US/Products/Bentley+Structural/Features list.htm > Bentley Systems, Incorporated Site. 2009. Features list for Bentley Building Mechanical Systems. J an 28, 2009. < http://bentley.com/en US/Products/Bentley+Building+Mechanical+Systems/Featureslist.htm > Crney, D., and Wallnau, K. (1998). A basis for evaluation of commercial software. Information and Software Technology, 40 (1998), 851860 Eastman, C. M. (2008). BIM handbook: A guide to building information modeling for owners, managers, designers, engineers, and contractors Wiley Hoboken, N.J.

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112 Ernstrom, J.W. (2006). The contractors' guide to BIM, Associated General Contractors of America, Arlington, Virginia. Gehry Technologies. 2009. Gehry Technologies Digital ProjectProducts J an 28, 2009. < http://www.gehrytechnologies.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=97& Itemid=211 > Goldberg, Edward H. (2004). The Building Information Model. CADalyst, 21(11), 56. Graphisoft R&D Zrt. 2009. Freedom to Design ArchiCAD Supports Your S tyle J an 28, 2009. < http://www.graphisoft.com/products/virtual_bilding/optimized_for_design/?printable=1z erodefects.htm > Innovaya LLC Site. 2008. Innovaya Visual BIM Jan 28, 2009. < http://www.innovaya.com/prod_vb.htm > Innovaya LLC Site. 2008. Innovaya Visual Estimating. Jan 28, 2009. < http://www.innovaya.com/prod_de.htm > Innovaya LLC Site. 2008. Innovaya Visual Estimating. Jan 28, 2009. < http://www.innovaya.com/prod_ve.htm > Innovaya LLC Site. 2008. Innovaya Visual Quantification Jan 28, 2009. < ht tp://www.innovaya.com/prod_vq.htm > Innovaya LLC Site. 2008. Innovaya Visual Quantification Jan 28, 2009. < http://www.innovaya.com/prod_vs.htm > Jadhav, A., and Sonar, R. (2009). E valuating and Selecting Software Packages: A Review. Information and Software Technology, 51 (2009), 555563. Kennett, E. 2005. Charter for the National Building Information Model (BIM) Standard. NIBS FIC website. < http://www.facilityinformationcouncil.org/bim/pdfs/NBIMS_Charter.pdf > (October 1, 2007). Khemlani, Lachmi 2007 Top Criteria for BIM Solutions: AECbytes Survey Results. J an 12, 2009. < http://www.aecbytes.com/feature/2007/BIMSurveyReport.html > Kunz, J., and Gilligan, B. (2007). Value from VDC/BIM Use: Survey Results November 2007. CIFE/CURT/GSA Nemetscheck Vectorworks. (2008) Vectorworks Architect 2009Features List Nemetcheck North America, Inc. ONUMA Site. 2008. Introduction to OPS Jan 28, 2009. < http://onuma.com/video.php?v=IntroToOPSsmB >

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113 Project Blue Print Site 2 0052010. Project Blue Print Zero Defects. J an 28, 2009. < http://www.projectblueprint.com/zerodefects.htm > Roman, S. (1999). Writing Excel Macros, 1st Edition., OReilly, California S martTech Site. 2008. BIM Past, BIM Future F eb 18, 2009. < http://smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/22439> Solibri, Inc. Site. 2009. Business BenefitsSolibri Jan 28, 2009. < http://www.solibri.com/solibri model checker/business benefits.html > Solibri, Inc. Site. 2009. Functionality Highlights Solibri Jan 2 8, 2009. < http://www.solibri.com model checker/functionalityhighlights.html > Solibri, Inc. Site. 2009. IFC Support Solibri. Jan 28, 2009. < http://www.solibri.com model checker/ifcsupport.html > Solibri, Inc. Site. 2009. Overview Solibri Jan 28, 2009. < http://www.solib ri.com model checker.html > Solibri, Inc. Site. 2009. Solibri Issue Locator Solibri. Jan 28, 2009. < http://www.solibri.com/solibriissue locator.html > Solibri, Inc. Site. 2009. Solibri Model Viewer Solibri Jan 28, 2009. < http://www.solibri.com/solibrimodel viewer.html> Suerman, P., Is sa, R., and McCuen, T. (2008). Validation of the U.S. National Building Information Modeling Standard Interactive Capability Maturity Model. Proceedings, 12th International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering & 2008 International Co nference on Information Technology in Construction, ICCBE, Beijing, China. Synchro Limited Site. 20002008. SynchroSynchro Professional Jan 28, 2009. < http://www.synchroltd.com/shop/synchroprofessional_synchropro.htm > Tekla Site. 2 009. Tekla Construction Management Jan 28, 2009. < http://www.tekla.com/in ternational/products/tekla structures/construction management/Pages/Default.aspx > Teran, J. (2008). Building Modeling From Antiquity to Our Day. Journal of Building Information Modeling. Vico Software Site. A pr 16, 2008. 5D Presenter Features & Benefits. Jan 28, 2009. < http://www.vicosoftware.com/ > Vico Software Site. A pr 16, 2008. Change Manager Features & Benefits. Jan 28, 2009. < http://www.vicosoftware.com/ >

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115 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jose Mauricio Ruiz earned his masters degree from th e M.E. Rinker, Sr. School of Building Construction at the University of Florida in Gainesville. While pursuing his masters degree in building c onstruction, he worked for the Shimberg Center for Housing Studies as a data analyst. Prior to earning his maste rs degree, he attended the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica, where he earned a bachelors of c onstruction e ngineering. During this time, he worked as an assistant project manager at a c onstruction m anagement firm in Costa Rica, working for international and national clients, where he gained the background and experience with various large scale urban projects. Mauricios research interests are in the areas of design and construction technology, with emphasis on the implementation of technologies in the building industry. He is also interested in data management technology and virtual design and construction.