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TQM-SD in Selecting Formwork Materials

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024448/00001

Material Information

Title: TQM-SD in Selecting Formwork Materials
Physical Description: 1 online resource (89 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Patel, Priya
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: formwork, sd, tqm
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Total Quality Management is a management style that has three main components: customer satisfaction, involvement of everyone, and continuous improvement. Sustainable Development is meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. By synergizing the two concepts a new and improved management style can exist: TQM-SD. When implementing any new management style at a construction company, one of the first obstacles that must be overcome is lack of commitment by top management. Only after this step TQM-SD may be fully utilized. This thesis studies discussions held with managers at three different construction companies. The process of formwork material selection is chosen as the topic of study. Discussions held with the managers serve as case studies in which various TQM-SD are reviewed. Feedback given by the managers shows possible management commitment and the overall potential of using TQM-SD in their companies. Though only one process is studied, the principles studied in this research can apply to many processes that are executed by those in the construction industry.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Priya Patel.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Obonyo, Esther.
Local: Co-adviser: Issa, R. Raymond.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024448:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024448/00001

Material Information

Title: TQM-SD in Selecting Formwork Materials
Physical Description: 1 online resource (89 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Patel, Priya
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: formwork, sd, tqm
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Total Quality Management is a management style that has three main components: customer satisfaction, involvement of everyone, and continuous improvement. Sustainable Development is meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. By synergizing the two concepts a new and improved management style can exist: TQM-SD. When implementing any new management style at a construction company, one of the first obstacles that must be overcome is lack of commitment by top management. Only after this step TQM-SD may be fully utilized. This thesis studies discussions held with managers at three different construction companies. The process of formwork material selection is chosen as the topic of study. Discussions held with the managers serve as case studies in which various TQM-SD are reviewed. Feedback given by the managers shows possible management commitment and the overall potential of using TQM-SD in their companies. Though only one process is studied, the principles studied in this research can apply to many processes that are executed by those in the construction industry.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Priya Patel.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Obonyo, Esther.
Local: Co-adviser: Issa, R. Raymond.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024448:00001


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1 TQM SD MANAGEMENT IN SELECTING FORMWORK MATERIALS By PRIYA M. PATEL A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009

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2 2009 Priya M. Patel

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3 To my Mom and Dad

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my family for always believing in me and my friends for always being there for me I t hank Dr. Esther Obonyo for guiding me through this thesis.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................8 LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................9 A B S T R A C T ...................................................................................................................................10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................11 1.1 Background ...................................................................................................................11 1.2 Statement of the Problem ..............................................................................................12 1.3 Objectives of the Study .................................................................................................12 1.4 Relevance of the Stu dy ..................................................................................................13 1.5 Data Sources ..................................................................................................................13 1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study ................................................................................14 1.7 Organization of the Thesis ............................................................................................14 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................................15 2.1 Total Quality Management ............................................................................................15 2.1.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................15 2.1.2 History ...............................................................................................................15 2.1.3 The Three Major Components of TQ M ............................................................16 2.1.4 Barriers and Benefits .........................................................................................19 2.1.5 Implementation ..................................................................................................23 2.1.6 Measurement .....................................................................................................25 2.2 Sustainable Development ..............................................................................................26 2.2.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................26 2.2.2 Corporate Sustainability and the Triple Bottom Line .......................................27 2.2.3 The Dow Jones Sustainability Index .................................................................28 2.2.4 Barr iers and Benefits .........................................................................................30 2.2.5 Implementation within the Construction Industry ............................................32 2.3 TQM SD: A New Management Approach ...................................................................35 2.3.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................35 2.3.2 Strategies and Guidelines ..................................................................................36 2.3.3 Measurement .....................................................................................................39 2.4 Formworking .................................................................................................................40 2.4.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................40 2.4.2 Material Selection: Wood a nd Steel ..................................................................40 2.4.3 Effects of Poor Reuse ........................................................................................43 2.4.4 Factors that Affect Reuse ..................................................................................44

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6 2.5 Conclusion .....................................................................................................................47 3 METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................49 3.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................49 3.2 Justification of the Methodology ...................................................................................49 3.3 Criteria for Case Selection ............................................................................................50 3.4 Case Study Procedures ..................................................................................................51 3.5 Limitations of Case St udy Research .............................................................................52 3.6 Ethical Considerations ...................................................................................................53 3.7 Conclusion .....................................................................................................................53 4 ANALYSIS OF DATA ..........................................................................................................54 4.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................54 4.2 Description of the Cases ................................................................................................54 4.2.1 Company A .......................................................................................................54 4.2.1.1 Background .........................................................................................54 4.2.1.2 Formwork Selection and other Current Practices ...............................55 4.2.2 Company B ........................................................................................................56 4.2.2.1 Background .........................................................................................56 4.2.2.2 Formwork Selection and o ther Current Practices ...............................57 4.2.3 Company C ........................................................................................................58 4.2.3.1 Background .........................................................................................58 4.2.3.2 Formwork Selection and other Current Practices ...............................59 4.3 TQM SD Recommendations .........................................................................................62 4.3.1 BEES simulations ..............................................................................................62 4.3.1.1 Company A .........................................................................................63 4.3.1.2 Company B .........................................................................................64 4.3.1.3 Company C .........................................................................................66 4.3.2 Maximum Reusability .......................................................................................68 4.3.2.1 Pre construction planning/ Quality Control ........................................69 4.3.2.2 Worker meetings .................................................................................69 4.3.2.3 Worker Observation/S upervision .......................................................70 4.3.2.4 Site Planning .......................................................................................70 4.4 Feedback on Recommendations ....................................................................................71 4.4.1 Company A .......................................................................................................71 4.4.2 Company B ........................................................................................................72 4.4.3 Company C ........................................................................................................73 4.5 Conclusion .....................................................................................................................73 5 CONCLUSIONS AND I MPLICATIONS .............................................................................75 5.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................75 5.2 Conclusions about the Research Problem .....................................................................75 5.3 Implications ...................................................................................................................76 5.4 Limitations ....................................................................................................................76

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7 5.5 Suggestions for Further Research .................................................................................77 APPENDIX A Company A B EES Results .....................................................................................................78 B Company B BEES Results ......................................................................................................81 C Company C B E ES R esults ......................................................................................................84 LIST OF REFERENCES ...............................................................................................................87 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .........................................................................................................89

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 21 Ranking of management r esponses to TQM (Haupt and Whitemen 2004) .......................20 22 Criteria investigated by the SAM group and Dow Jones (Dow Jones 2006) ...................29 23 Four pillars of Sustainable Development (Hill and Bowen 1997) .....................................34 24 Critical f actors of TQM SD (Zairi 2002) ...........................................................................38

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 11 TQM Continuous Impr ovement Cycle ..............................................................................18 41 Company A BEES simulation s creenshots ........................................................................63 42 Company A BEES simulation s creenshots ........................................................................64 43 Company B BEES simulation s creenshots ........................................................................65 44 Company B BEES simulation s creenshots ........................................................................66 45 Company C BEES simulation s creenshots ........................................................................67 46 Company C BEES simulation screenshot ..........................................................................67 47 Company C BEES simulation screenshots ........................................................................68 A 1 Company A BEES simulation results: Overall Performance ............................................78 A 2 Company A BEES s imulation results : Environmental Performance .................................78 A 3 Company A BEES simulation results: Environmental Performance .................................79 A 4 Company A BEES simulation results : Economic Performance ........................................79 A 5 Company A BEES simulation results : Embodied Energy by Fuel Renewability .............80 B 1 Company B BEES simulation results : Overall Performance .............................................81 B 2 Company B BEES simulation results : Environmental Performance .................................81 B 3 Company B BEES simulation results : Environmental Performance .................................82 B 4 Company B BEES simulation results : Economic Performance ........................................82 B 5 Company B BEES simulation results : Embodied Energy by Fuel Renewability ..............83 C 1 Company C BEES simulation results : Overall Performance .............................................84 C 2 Company C BEES simulation results : Environmental Performance .................................84 C 3 Company C BEES simulation results : Environmental Performance .................................85 C 4 Company C BEES simulation results : Economic Performance ........................................85 C 5 Company C BEES simulation results : Embodied Energy by Fuel Renewability ..............86

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10 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction TQM SD MANAGEMENT IN SELECTING FORMWORK MATERIALS By Priya M. Patel May 2009 Chair: Esther Obonyo Co chair: R. Raymond Issa Major: Build ing Construction Total Quality Management is a management style that has three main components: customer satisfaction, involvement of everyone, and continuous improvement. Sustainable Development is meeting the needs of the present without compromising t he ability of future generations to meet their own needs By synergizing the two concepts a new and improved management style can exist: TQM SD. When implementing any new management style at a construction company, one of the first obstacles that must b e overcome is lack of commitment by top management. Only after this step TQM SD may be fully utilized. This thesis studies discussions held with managers at three different construction companies. The process of formwork material selection is chosen as the topic of study. Discussions held with the managers serve as case studies in which various TQM SD are reviewed. Feedback given by the managers shows possible management commitment and the overall potential of using TQM SD in their companies. Though o nly one process is studied, the principles studied in this research can apply to many processes that are executed by those in the construction industry.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background I nnovation has become a critical success factor for all organiza tions. K eeping up with emerging trends an d new techniques of executing daily operations give companies leverage above it s competition. Innovation is a key aspect of progress in al l types of industries. It could take the form of a new technology in the au tomotive industry that makes vehicles safer to drive or a new process that enhances the effectiveness of a dr ug in the healthcare industry. Innovation can come in the form of newer types of equipment o r new management styles that affect how a whole compan y operates This thesis discusses innovation within a construction companys management style. Specifically, it investigates the potential for using TQM SD. The TQM concept has been used in America since the 1980s. TQM, like many advanced paradigms, had a slow start as it was not easily accepted by top management. Companies were hesitant in implementin g this management technique because it was something new that broke away from tradition. Strong ties to tradition are found very often in the constructio n industry. However, presently many companies use TQM or at least some concepts borrowed from it. In fact, TQM is becoming so common that companies cannot realize the sam e competitive benefits that were first realized by the pioneers It is for this reas on that companies must, again, break away from the now traditional style of TQM and begin to use TQM with augmented contemporary initiatives. With an increased number of goals aimed at achieving green and high performance buildings, Sustainable Developmen t is an ideal concept to introduce into TQM. Recently, various corporations have been using Sustainable Development as a means to attain investor interest and thus, increase profit. This notion is also referred to as corporate sustainability

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12 By sy nergizing Total Quality Management and Sustainable Development (TQM SD), companies can implement a management style that will satisfy the customer and will allow the company to be economically, environmentally, and sociall y responsible. Additionally cons truction companies will see increased profits that will lead to the companys success over others in the industry. 1.2 Statement of the Problem As with the first introduction of both Total Quality Management and Corporate Sustainability, TQM SD will not b e easily accepted or implemented within construction companies. Before a management style like TQM SD can be used by an organization, one issue a company might come across is lack of commitment by the management. When management is not dedicated to worki ng with new objectives, it is difficult for the rest of the employees to do so. For this reason, it is imperative to obtain the opinions of various managers from different companies. 1.3 Objectives of the Study One process has been chosen as the focus of this thesis formwork material selection. This process is ideal and interesting to analyze because it is affected by and affects many factors. Many of the outcomes of the formworking process are based on decisions that are made by management. With T QM SD, management has the measures to reduce impacts and improve the quality of the building. As an initial step, it is vital to obtain the opinions of large companies that include formworking in their services. Potential benefits must be explained and r ecommendations must be made of how to implement such a management style. Doing so will allow for another objective to be achieved. This objective is to determine whether or not TQM SD is feasible for each case study.

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13 1.4 Relevance of the Study The stud y is significant to construction companies that are trying to gain a competitive edge by creating new goals. Up until now, studies have been done on the theoretical concepts of TQM SD. However, no studies have been done on the actual implementation of th ese concepts within the organization of any construction companies. By reviewing the literature managers of construction companies may gain an understanding of the concepts behind TQM SD. The study following the literature review provides insight into t hree case s through an in depth TQM SD discussion. Reflecting on the opinions of these managers will provide construction companies a basis upon which to form their own thoughts on the potential for use of TQM SD. For companies that are interested in impl ementing TQM SD, this thesis provide s examples of steps that must be taken to do this Alt hough the thesis focuses on formwork m aterial selection, the emerging principles can be applied to different processes within a construction company. 1.5 Data S ources Three large construction companies were chosen as case studies for this thesis. They represented three different types of construction companies that handle formwork in one or more of their major processes. The types include general contractors, formwork manufactur ers, and specialty con tractors. A manager fro m each company was contacted for a discussion on TQM SD concepts The informal discussions reviewed each companys current quality control and sustainable practices. Specific recommendations were made to each manager regarding techniques for the measurement, improve ment of quality and reduc tion of waste. Feedback was provided by each manager and acceptance of TQM SD was determined for each company.

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14 1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study TQM SD as management technique can be applied to many construction processes. A comprehensive review of its use in all the construction processes is beyond the scope of this thesis, which is aimed at assessing its potential using selected case studies. To achie ve this goal three case studies were used Although the companies may not necessarily represent a larger sample of construction companies, it was critical to deeply and qualitative ly examine their operations For the subject matter presented in this thes is, surveys would not have provided a sufficient medium for this in depth analysis. 1.7 Organization of the Thesis This thesis is organized into five chapters. Following this introductory chapter is the literature review. This second chapter reviews e xisting information on Total Quality Management, Sustainable Development, TQM SD and formwork material selection factors. The methodology is presented in third chapter It explains how the case studies were selected and how the information about each cas e was obtained. The fourth chapter analyzes the data obtained from the case studies Chapter 5 is the conclusion. It summarizes the objectives and findings of this thesis.

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15 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Total Quality Management 2.1.1 Introduction In todays ever changing economy, it is important for different industries in the country to keep up with current trends. Companies within a given industry may implement several techniques to maximize revenues. Many companies have overlooked the idea of improvement in productivity as a way to increase revenues as well as quality. According to James Adrian, productivity is the dollars of output divided by the person hours of labor input (Adrian 2004) Whereas some sectors of the country, such as the manu facturing industry, have continuously mastered productivity management through studies and use of repetitive processes, the construction industry has lagged behind. The delay in applying this idea to the construction is largely due to two reasons: uniquen ess of individual building projects and short duration of projects. Considering this, the construction industry must apply a management philosophy that does not work just temporarily, but creates a working culture that will improve productivity more perman ently in the long run. Total Quality Management, or TQM, is an example of a management philosophy that will achieve this goal. This literature review will explain the ideas behind TQM. It will describe the barriers a construction company might face when implementing this program, as well as benefits that it can gain by using it. By examining the history and individual case studies of TQM, this review will explain how the management system can raise both quality and productivity within the construction i ndustry. 2.1.2 History Total quality management is often termed a journey, not a destination (Pheng and Teo 2004) TQM is a unique method that places power in the hands of the employees in a

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16 construction firm. It stresses teamwork, pride in workmanship, and quality of performance (Miller 2007) This management system also enables a construction company to produce a product, process, or service that meets or exceeds the clients established requirements (Miller 2007) TQM began with the work of W alter A. Shewhart (Adrian 2004) He created a Plan Do Check Act cycle that focused on improving quality. The thirteen steps of this program allowed for a systematic way for companies to gather data, develop a plan, measure performance benefits, and sta ndardize the new change in planning if it was successful during the check phase. As late as the 1960s, the American industry had minimal interest in this approach Instead, the focus was shifted to maximization of output and the monitoring of results through inspection and work incentives (Adrian 2004) W.E Deming, Shewhart s colleague began to implement quality control techniques in Japan. Demings methods were embraced by Japan and yet still unwanted by the American industry. After Deming, anoth er expert, J. Juran, came up with the total quality control approach. This method focused on the customer s and their needs. With the help of others, such as Abraham Maslow and David McGregor, the TQM method was established and used in Japan. During th e 1980's, Americas interest in TQM began to escalate. American companies found that their employees were not willing to focus solely on customer satisfaction. Consequently Phillip Crosby integrated workers more into the p rocess by giving the workers a bility to focus on a defect and continually measure the improvement of the defect (Adrian 2004) This approach was institutionalized as Total Quality Management that is used today. 2.1.3 The Three Major Components of TQM The idea of Total Quality Management is based on three main components: customer satisfaction, involvement of everyone, and continuous improvement (Adrian 2004) It is easy for

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17 large corporations to forget the needs of a single client. In the past and even today, many industries indire ctly focus on the satisfaction of the employees. Companies often make a mistake when they assume that what their clients want is a cheap and quickly made product. This mentality is perpetuated by customers who seek companies that will provide them with a less expensive product or service. In the construction field, offering the customer a quality building will help them see that a little more time spent on production will lead to many long run benefits. These benefits will be discussed later in the paper Another key component of using TQM is the involvement of everyone in the company. It is not unusual for the power of major companies to lie in the hands of upper management. While they create standards, the employees that must abide by these rules ha ve no say in the matter. Employee satisfaction not optimized in such a case and because of this, productivity decreases. Many consequences can occur when the employees that deal with problems within the company first hand do not lend to the decision maki ng process. Total Quality Management engages the employees by organizing them into Corrective Action Teams (CAT) or Quality Improvement Teams (QIT) (Adrian 2004) These teams give employees a forum for working collaboratively and discussing goals with on e another, which enhances worker motivation. In a construction company, a team may consist of a superintendent, a craftsman, someone from the estimating department, a clerical worker in the office or at the job site, and even an outside vendor (Adrian 2004) Again, the idea of involving employees in the decision making process will lead to greater benefits for the company and the industry as a whole. The last main component of Total Quality Management is the most important continuous improvement. Unlik e traditional methods that are linear in nature, continuous improvement is a cycle. Adrian describes six steps that make up the cycle. The first step is to identify a problem

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18 that currently exists within the company. In step two, the problem is assigned t o a CAT or QIT. The third step is to measure and analyze the problem. Once this is done, the team can come up with solutions that will possibly alleviate the issues. In step five, a solution is chosen and implemented within the company. Step six requir es the team to evaluate the effectiveness of the solution and assess whether or not the initial problem has been fixed. With a linear system, the improvement process would end with step six. However, with continuous improvement, the team may decide to go back to step three if the solution implemented is not sufficient enough for substantial improvement. The team will then complete the cycle and if needed repeat it again a beneficial solution is found. Figure 11 shows a generic continuous improvement cy cle of TQM: Figure 11. TQM Continuous Improvement Cycle Although this cycle involves fixing an existing problem, it should be noted that an important part of TQM is identifying a problem or an issue before it occurs. It is also important to fix proble ms in the long run, rather than just temporarily. TQM focuses on obtaining continuous improvement by addressing the cause of a problem more than focusing only on monitoring the results of a process or production process (Adrian 2004) This continuous

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19 m ethod requires a new type of work culture for a company. The organizational structure of a company that uses TQM will further be discussed in a subsequent section. 2.1.4 Barriers and Benefits Total Quality Management has already helped the manufacturing and service industries to excel through improved productivity. Customers are pleased with high quality products and services. As a result, higher revenues have come into the industries. In addition, employees of these companies are more content because they can influence the work being performed and the associated outcomes. This management system is relatively easier to apply to the previously mentioned industries than to the construction industry. The construction industry faces many obstacles when i nitiating the implementation of TQM. This has resulted in many construction companies being hesitant to adopt Total Quality Management. One main difference between the construction industry and other sectors holds to other companies is the uniqueness of each product, or each building, that is made (Pheng and Teo 2004) Manufacturing companies, for instance, can learn how to improve productivity through the repetition of processes. They can observe a problem within a product, make a change, and see the r esults in the next product in the assembly line. With construction, however, there are hardly any opportunities to directly apply solutions from one building project to another. Another reason why construction management resists using TQM is the transie nt nature of the workforce on construction sites (Haupt and Whitemen 2004) While the manufacturing and services industries have employees on a more permanent basis, it is likely that the workers on building projects are there only until the completion of that specific project. In addition, many on site employees do not work directly for the general contracting company. Therefore, they may choose not to work on another project for the same general contractor because the new job

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20 site is too far or for oth er reasons. It is also difficult to get construction workers feel like they are part of the firm, rather than just part of the job. The workers may be disinterested in the economic and productive progression and well being of the company. One survey sta ted a large proportion of respondents (79 percent of the sample) indicated that workers on construction regarded TQM as irrelevant to their performance (Hau pt and Whitemen 2004) TQM will only be beneficial if everyone in the company and job is motiva ted and willing to change their working habits. The on site workers are not the only ones who feel that the use of TQM is pointless. Contractors often think of TQM as being a waste of time and money. It is not likely that a method like TQM will be used without the commitment of upper management. Table 2 1 shows the ranking of management responses to TQM implementation. Table 2 1. Ranking of Management Responses to TQM (Haupt and Whitemen 2004) Rank Criteria Mean SD CV(%) 1 Too much Paperwork 3.44 1 .26 36.6 2 Subcontractors and suppliers not interested 3.39 1.24 36.6 3 Low bid subcontracting 3.39 1.29 38.1 4 Difficulty in measuring results 3.35 1.33 39.7 5 Field employees regard TQM as irrelevant 3.31 1.20 36.3 6 Transient work force 3.28 1.21 36.9 7 Low education level of field forces 3.13 1.28 40.9 8 Focus on short term cost savings 3.05 1.29 45.0 9 Tight scheduling 3.02 1.36 45.9 10 Unique nature of construction 2.81 1.31 46.0 Scale used: 1 (totally disagree) to 5 (totally agree) As show n in the table many construction managers feel as if they are wasting time with extra paperwork. With documents such as voluminous contract documents, records of plans and amendments, architects instructions, change orders, and delivery and movement of material, managers are reluctant to try a program that adds even more paper work to their load (Haupt and

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21 Whitemen 2004) TQM is such a program because it requires managers to explore different options then weigh and measure them against each other. Corporate leaders may be wary of trying TQM because it requires training programs for workers, which to some managers constitutes time that should be used to work on a building. The type of reorganization and training required will be discussed later in this review. Money is the main inhibiting factor for managers to the use of TQM. Contractors often perceive TQM as an extra cost, but they do not realize that it is not the quality that costs but rather the non conformance to quality that is expensive (Pheng and Teo 2004) It is easy to combine costs associated with conformance to requirement with costs associated with nonconfo rmance to requirements (Pheng and Teo 2004) However when considering cost of quality, these two costs must be considered as s eparate entities. Managers are hesitant to attribute a large part of the costs to poor quality or nonconformance. These costs may be due to rework, correcting error, reacting to customer complaints, having deficient project budgets due to poor planning, and missing deadlines (Pheng and Teo 2004) According to Pheng and Teo (2004), these costs alone can accumulate to 12% of a total project cost. Because the construction industry is seen as being made up of short term projects, contractors may think tha t TQM strategies are futile or a misdirection of resources (Pheng and Teo 2004) It may take several years to see any payoffs. It may be difficult to realize benefits that may be more long term in nature (Adrian 2004) Another key reason why mana gement in the construction industry has been timid in implementing TQM is largely due to tradition. Construction managers have rarely considered the needs of the customer or end user of the project (Adrian 2004) Because of this, the mentality is to ge t the building constructed in the shortest amount of time for the lowest cost

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22 possible. Construction managers usually do not capitalize on the knowledge of all project entities (Adrian 2004) Though there are now many design build companies in which the designers and contractors work closely together, it is still common for each party to remain somewhat separated from the other. If contractors do not learn from other entities from the beginning, miscommunication can lead to rework and other nonconformi ng costs. It is also be wise for construction managers to implement measurement techniques that find and solve problems before they occur. Again, using these techniques constitutes something that managers are not accustomed to. Construction managers are not likely to take measurements or obtain samples because it is something new that they have not done in the past. It would be difficult for contractors used to operating in a certain way to consider long term benefits rather than gravitating to quick fi x solutions to solve a short term problem a problem that may keep reoccurring if the root cause is not found and measured. If a company is willing to work through the few barriers, it will most likely realize many benefits in the long run. According to Jack Miller (2007), TQM enables companies to increase client satisfaction and job security for everyone and improve performance, reputation, profitability, quality of work life, employee morale, pride of workmanship, safety, and cash flow. Because worke r morale is increased, there is a reduction in employee turnover, absenteeism and stress. This is likely to increase productivity and therefore increase profits. TQM results in the identification of causes of. These can then be alleviated before the pro blems occur. Thus, re curring mistakes are eliminated and employees can achieve job satisfaction as they do not have to attend to defects or complaints from clients (Pheng and Teo 2004) TQM can also have substantial benefits to Sustainable Development Sustainable Development (SD), as well as synergies between TQM and SD, will be further discussed later in this review.

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23 2.1.5 Implementation Implementing Total Quality Management within a construction company requires some restructuring in management and employee organization. The first step to implementing the method is to get the commitment of upper management. Without this, TQM is not likely to supported throughout the company. Management must be willing to view TQM as a process rather than functio n (Pheng and Teo 2004) Other than commitment, upper management should provide three other elements: recognition of all involved in the process, drive out fear such that all employees are willing to give new ideas and employees will not be threatened fo r giving new ideas, and delegate and drive decision making and problem solving to the lowest practical level (Adrian 2004) The company should function as an organization with horizontal coordination (Pheng and Teo 2004) This coordination makes statu s distinctions less severe and gives employees at all levels to have as much power as upper management when it comes to decision making. Total Quality Management will be more successful if employees are trained and shown how to reallocate their time and energy to studying their processes in teams, searching for causes of problems, and correcting the causes, not the symptoms, once and for all ( Pheng and Teo 2004) As stated before, CATs and QITs should be formed to not only instill continuous improvemen t in the minds of the employees but also to create and emphasize error free performance. The focus of the work being done should be shifted from internal success to customer satisfaction. By considering the user of the product, companies will see an imp rovement in their reputation and will be likely to receive more business. Considering the needs of the customer also contributes to sustainable practices, which will be discussed later.

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24 Another practice that contractors are not been accustomed to doing is involving suppliers in the TQM building process. Both the construction companies and their suppliers should seek to improve quality and work toward the intention of forming long term relationships ( Pheng and Teo 2004) By involving the supplier, a construction company can learn more about the products they are building with. The company can also be assured that they are working with a dependable product and product source. This guarantees maximum quality for a building before the construction phas e. According to Pheng and Teo ( 2004), construction companies should move away from the usual practice of awarding tenders to the lowest price and advocate rewarding the best designers and supplier who could provide the best service. Contractors should also get the client more involved in their work. The company can do something as simple as asking the client to attend monthly progress meetings. This way, the company is confident that the customer is satisfied. The client can be given a periodic satis faction survey, allowing the company to improve upon areas that may not have been brought to its attention before. One company that Pheng and Teo (2004) reviewed set an objective that there should not be more than six complaints from the client within six months. In the past, onsite workers were rarely involved in planning and solving processes. Construction companies should learn to engage these workers by holding team building sessions. Quality meeting [may be] held on site everyday to allow staff to highlight problem areas on site and to make sure that these are rectified immediately (Pheng and Teo 2004) It would be beneficial for upper management to sit in on these meetings from time to time so that they may have a better idea of the progress o n site as well as overall worker attitude. Rewards should be given to those workers who contribute ideas for improved quality.

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25 Pheng and Teo ( 2004 ) summarize the implementation process into seven steps: (1) Obtain the commitment of the client to qualit y; (2) generate awareness, educate, and change the attitudes of staff; (3) develop a process approach toward TQM; (4) prepare project quality plans for all levels of work; (5) institute continuous improvement; (6) promote staff participation and contributi on using quality control circles and motivation programs; and (7) review quality plans and measure performance. 2.1.6 Measurement A key aspect of Total Quality Management that a construction firm should get accustomed to is regular measurement of the bui lding process. This has been a barrier in the past because construction managers are unwilling to invest time in recording and analyzing measurements. Such managers do not realize that measuring performance will benefit the company in the long run. One w ay of measuring performance, as previously discussed, was by giving surveys to clients. Other characteristics that can be measured qualitatively include: top management commitment, employee involvement and empowerment, and customer supplier relationships (Pheng and Teo 2004) Managers can use tools such as the National Quality Housing Programs Total Quality Self Assessment to measure their own company (National Association of Home Bui lders Research Center 2000). The tool asks the contractor to measure t he company based on several criteria including leadership, strategic planning, customer satisfaction, performance management, human resources, construction quality, and supplier partnerships. Ratings are based on 37 criteria and are based on five levels w ith the first being unsatisfactory and the fifth being excellent. Along with these qualitative assessments, construction companies should measure quantitative elements. These include costs such as nonbillable repairs and rework, complaint

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26 reconciliation of amount due, downtime of people or machinery, callbacks, theft, returns, shortages, reinspection, retesting, redoing work, complaint resolution and warranty work (Miller 2007) In some cases, companies develop a cost index that they compare with projec t costs. If a construction company observes that they are over the cost index, they become aware of defects that took place and can brainstorm on how to resolve these defects for the next project. It takes time to develop a culture within the office and to fully realize the benefits that TQM can provide. However, if the company office is successful in doing so, they can begin to expand into other areas of improvement, such as Sustainable Development To do so, construction companies must have a full und erstanding of what Sustainable Development is. 2.2 Sustainable Development 2.2.1 Introduction As humans become aware of their impacts on the environment, the concept of sustainability is becoming increasingly prevalent in todays society. In the past, s ustainability has taken place primarily through efforts at the local level directed at conserving the environment. Attempts were made to change personal lifestyles by reducing waste and reducing energy consumption. With surfacing environmental issues bei ng increasingly discovered every day, sustainability is not only becoming widespread on a domestic level but on a corporate level, as well. It is at the corporate level that the term Sustainable Development can be applied to in order to reach its full p otential. The idea of Sustainable Development (SD) began in 1972 when the Club of Rome, an international think tank, recognized that depletion of the Earths natural resources at the current rate would, eventually, lead to severe economic fallout (Grayso n et al. 2008) It was not until 1983 that the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), led by the Norwegian Prime Minis ter Gro Harlem Brundtland, formally defined Sustainable Development a term that had been coined to describe an eff ort for alleviating

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27 environmental impact (Khalfan 2006) Since then, Sustainable Development has been known as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Isaksson 2006) An increasin g number of corporations adopting Sustainable Development are finding that being sustainable not only creates environmental benefits, but also creates benefits that involve society and economy. This section of the literature review will illustrate how cor porations, including large construction companies, have been using the concepts of Sustainable Development to become more successful in their respective industries. The literature review will also describe how companies, specifically those in the construc tion industry, use corporate sustainability as a guideline to be measured and recognized by the Dow Jones Sustainability Index. Using this method will prove to be beneficial to the corporation and to society as a whole. 2.2.2 Corporate Sustainability a nd the Triple Bottom Line With the rise of sustainable thinking, large corporations are realizing that they have responsibilities that go beyond attaining maximum profits. Up until recently, focus was directed towards shareholders. The results of manufac turing or building a product in the quickest way possible for the lowest cost have created negative impacts for humans and the environment within the community. To maximize shareholder return, companies have created pollution and waste and have also used resources inefficiently. Consequentially, when the companys impacts are large enough, climate changes may occur within the area. The emphasis [on shareholder return] made it hard for executives to effect real change in areas that did not affect the sha re price, no matter how deeply they may have desired it (Grayson et al. 2008) After realizing how large their impact on the environment has been, more and more companies are integrating corporate sustainability strategies within their business process es. Corporate sustainability is a business approach that creates long term shareholder value by

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28 embracing opportunities and managing risks deriving from economic, environmental and social developments (Dow Jones 2006) Like Total Quality Management, co rporate sustainability develops a unique office culture. Therefore, it must also be desired by management and supported by all who are working for the company. Fortunately, many corporations are beginning to understand the importance of Sustainable Devel opment Before the company becomes committed to this idea, corporate sustainability should be viewed more as a journey than an end state (Grayson et al. 2008) Above all, companies should realize that business processes should not be geared towards achieving the financial bottom line, but towards achieving the triple bottom line. The triple bottom line (TBL), divides performance in the economic, environmental and social dimensions. The current view of Sustainable Development is that good economic p erformance is required to allow focus on environmental and social issues (Isaksson 2006) By embracing the triple bottom line, companies become more responsible within their community. Benefits that result from this responsibility outweigh the potential barriers of implementing corporate sustainability as a management technique. 2.2.3 The Dow Jones Sustainability Index One goal set forth by companies that adopt corporate sustainability is to be recognized by the Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI). T he DSJI provides a list of 300 companies from 24 countries that lead their industries in terms of corporate sustainability (Barkawi 2004) Industries that are included in the index are automobiles, banks, basic resources, chemicals, construction, cyclic al goods and services, energy, financial services, food and beverage, healthcare, industrial goods and services, insurance, media, non cyclical goods and services, retail, technology, telecommunications, and utilities (Barkawi 2004) Companies within each industry are assessed based on criteria assembled by the SAM group. A questionnaire is distributed to the CEOs of worldwide leading companies and serves as the primary measurement

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29 for the DJSI. The questionnaire is designed to ensure objectivity by lim iting qualitative answers through predefined multiple choice questions (Dow Jones 2006) Proof of the responses is provided by analyzing documents such as sustainability and annual financial reports. Press releases and articles are also reviewed. Compan ies are then personally interviewed to clarify open points arising from the analysis of the questionnaire and company documents (Dow Jones 2006) Table 2 2. Criteria investigated by the SAM group and Dow Jones (Dow Jones 2006) Dimension Criteria Economic (1/3 weight) Codes of Conduct/Compliance/Corruption and Bribery Corporate governance Customer relationship management Financial robustness Investor relations Risk and crisis management Scorecards/measuremen t systems Strategic planning Industry specific criteria Environment (1/3 weight) Environmental policy/management Environmental performance Environmental reporting Industry specific criteria Social (1/3 weight) Co rporate citizenship/philanthropy Stakeholder engagement Labor practice indications Human capital development Knowledge management/organizational learning Social reporting Talent attraction and retention Standards for supp liers Industry specific criteria

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30 2.2.4 Barriers and Benefits Like every innovative idea, corporate sustainability comes with barriers that the company must hurdle over before realizing benefits. Corporate sustainability is similar to Total Qua lity Management in that the main barrier is uncertainty. When top management is unsure of the benefits of corporate sustainability, it becomes very difficult for the rest of the company to become committed to the idea. Thus, uncertainty becomes the basis for many of the barriers that are involved in implementing corporate sustainability within the company (Grayson et al. 2008) Companies, specifically those in the construction industry, are likely to focus on short term profits. In a corporate sense, w hen companies do not focus on long term goals, they become vulnerable to market fluctuations. Instead of concentrating on fulfilling targets, the company should turn their attention to forming a new culture a culture that embraces Sustainable Development It is the companys culture that needs to change for the true potential of an integrated, systemic approach to sustainability to be unlocked ( Grayson et al. 2008 ) Corporate sustainability requires frequent measurement and standards to succeed. Man agement and employees may see these requirements as a waste of time. They do not realize that benefits will exceed the extra time spent on projects. If companies accept this new culture, they may come across additional barriers Though a company is read y and willing to analyze costs and other data a widely accepted measurement system for sustainability activities is yet to emerge ( Grayson et al. 2008) This may make it a little more difficult, but not impossible, for the company to get adjusted to the method of frequent measurement. Another barrier might be the community in which the company is situated. The community may provide environmental and social pr essures that are hard for the company to alleviate ( Grayson et al. 2008) In this situation the company has an extra obstacle. However, it is in these communities where becoming more sustainable becomes more significant.

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31 Added barriers are present in the construction industry. The unique characteristics that contribute to corporate sustaina bility obstacles are those that were cited as obstacles for Total Quality Management. By investing extra and money in implementing corporate sustainability, companies will realize many benefits. The benefits will not only contribute to the companys fin ancial well being, but also to addressing social, economic, and environmental issues present within the community. According to Dow Jones, Corporate sustainability leaders achieve long term shareholder value by gearing their strategies and management to harness the market's potential for sustainability products and services while at the same time successfully reducing and avoiding sustainability costs and risks (Dow Jones 2006) It is for this reason that large companies strive to be industry leaders in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index. Investors and clients are becoming more aware of the importance of being sustainable. Therefore, they are eager to buy shares from or hire companies that excel in implementing corporate sustainability. Ethics is a k ey factor for sustainable companies. Companies perceived to be ethical can recruit and retain the best workers and foster positive, long term relationships with vendors, customers, investors and stockholders (Lo and Sheu 2007) When employees work for companies that they believe to have high morals, they are more likely to be dedicated to their work. As a result, productivity is increased and profits are increased. Sustainable companies have a good reputation in the eyes of their employees and the com munity as a whole. Considering these benefits, sustainable companies not only benefit financially in the short term, but become stronger, better performing corporations in the long run. It is often regarded that c orporations are instruments of social p urpose, formed within society to accomplish useful social objectives (Griffiths 2003) Therefore, it becomes the

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32 responsibility of companies to reduce human influence on social, economic, and environmental aspects. The only way to achieve this is by having a company culture that embraces corporate sustainability. 2.2.5 Implementation within the Construction Industry To maximize the potential of corporate sustainability, companies must develop a unique culture and reach for specific sustainable goals. T his is especially true for companies in the construction industry. Before making any changes or setting new long term goals, all employees, including managers and workers, must be committed to the idea of sustainability. In most cases, the most difficult part of implementing a new program or culture is stepping away from traditional habits. Once corporate sustainability becomes accepted, there are general principles that the office should follow to succeed. The first thing a company should develop when starting a sustainable program is a mission statement. The mission statement will serve as inspiration for the employees. When the vision of the mission statement is accomplished for a given project, driven employees feel like they have excelled at their job and will most likely become more dedicated to Sustainable Development ( Grayson et al. 2008 ) Before beginning any project, the company should ask themselves several questions. These questions incorporate direction (what do we want to achieve?), a nalysis (what is our current situation?), choice (what options do we have?), and implementation (how are we going to make it happen?) ( Grayson et al. 2008) By setting aspirations for the project on a broad scale, the project team will be able to co ncentrate on the details of the processes involved in completing the project. The building, or project, must be analyzed through a life cycle framework (Hill and Bowen 1997) It is has been a habit of construction companies to focus on the impacts of th e building

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33 process. However, the company should investigate potential social, environmental, and economic impacts of the building after it is completed and throughout its functioning life cycle. According to Hill and Bowen ( 1997), it is important to timeo usly involve people potentially affected by proposed activities in the decision making process. Managers usually do not include workers in the planning process. Aside from the workers, the company should involve stakeholders such as suppliers, the archi tect, the owner, and perhaps even members from the respective community of the proposed project location in the planning and building processes. The construction company may try promoting interdisciplinary collaborations and multi stakeholder partnership s (Hill & Bowen 1997) By doing so, companies can learn about sustainable techniques from other companies that are successful in implementing the practice. Some construction companies may become competitive when they observe how others do business and w ill, therefore, strive to become more sustainable themselves ( Grayson et al. 2008) As with Total Quality Management, a team that takes charge in Sustainable Development initiatives should be formed within the company. The team may manage activities th rough the setting of targets, monitoring, evaluation, feedback, and self regulation of progress (Hill and Bowen 1997 ) A sustainable team can be made up of members from different divisions of the company and may serve as experts on corporate sustainabili ty. The construction industry creates significant impacts on the world. It is responsible for a large amount of waste, resource use, greenhouse gas emission, and health risks among other things. For this reason, it is important for companies in the indu stry to focus on the triple bottom line in order to sustain environmental, economic, and social aspects of the community. Hill and Bowen ( 1997) have outlined a set of principles that construction companies should follow. Instead of speaking of Sustainable Development in terms of the triple bottom line, they have

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34 divided sustainability in construction into four pillars. In Table 2 3, the principles are listed by the social, economic, and biophysical (environmental) pillars. An additional technical pillar is presented as a way to make the goals specific to construction. Table 2 3 Four Pillars of Sustainable Development (Hill and Bowen 1997) Four Pillars of Sustainable Development Pillar 1: Social Sustainability Make provisions for social self determination and cultural diversity in development planning Improve the quality of human life Protect and promote hum an health through a healthy and safe working environment Implement skills trai ning and capacity enhancement of disadvantages people Seek fair or equitable distribution of the social costs of construction Seek equitable distribution of the social benefits of construction Seek intergenerational equity Pillar 2 : Economic Sustainability Ensure financial affordability for intended beneficiaries Promote employment creation and labor intensive construction Use full cost accounting and real costs pricing to set prices and tariffs Enhance competiv eness in the market by adopting policies and practices that advance sustainability Choose environmentally responsible suppliers and contractors Invest some proceeds from use of non renewable resources in social and human made ca pital, to maintain the capacity to meet the needs of future generation Pillar 3: Biophysical Sustainability Extract fossil fuels and minerals and produce persistent substances foreign to nature, at rates which are not faster than thei r slow redeposit into the Earth's crust Reduce the use of the four generic resources use in construction, namely, energy water, materials and land Maximize resource reuse, and/or recycling Use renewable resources instead of non rene wable resources Minimize air, land and water pollution, at global and local levels Create a healthy, non toxic environment Maintain and restore the Earth's vitality and ecological diversity Minimize damage to sensitive landscapes, including scenic, cultural, historical and architectural

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35 Table 2 3. Continued Pillar 4: Technical Sustainability Construct durable, reliable, and functional structures Pursue quality in creating the built environment Use serviceability to promote sustainable construction Humanize larger buildings Infill and revitalize existing urban infrastructure with a focus on rebuilding mixed use pedestrian neighborhoods 2.3 TQM SD: A New Management Ap proach 2.3.1 Introduction Total Quality Management is a well known concept that has been adopted by many companies. By making the management technique the core of all business pro cesses, companies are realizing new benefits that they had not had before. Though its application in org anizations has not been apparent the same can be said of corporate sustainability or Sustainable Development Nonetheless, as people are realizing the severity of their impacts on the community, more corporations are strivin g to be more socially, environmentally, and economically sustainable. With the use of either strategy, companies have created better businesses that realize benefits such as worldwide recognition and increased profits. However, facing the intense press ure of global competition, organizations need to consider incorporating the idea of sustainability in TQM in order to sustain their competitive advantage and performance improvement. In addition the focus of maintaining competitiveness does not simply emp hasize the present time but also the future (Zairi 2002) This literature review has offered a background of both TQM and SD, allowing for synergies to be drawn from using the two concepts together. It can be inferred that there are obvious ways in w hich TQM can have an effect on SD and vice versa. Sustainable Development

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36 has had several impacts on quality management. Society, including people working as employees for certain corporations, recognizes the importance of being sustainable. When compan ies become more socially, economically, and environmentally responsible, society thinks the companies are ethical. Therefore, employees become more motivated when they believe that morals are incorporated into their work processes. The result is efficient processing and better quality, aspects that are key indicators of Total Quality Management. TQM has affected Sustainable Development in several ways. By incorporating the ideas of everyone in the company, management can discover better options in carryin g out a process. The chosen option may work in a way that causes both quality and efficiency to increase. The outcome is less rework and better use of materials, thus alleviating resource consumption and waste. By striving to be competitive in their res pective industry, the company is supporting the forming of a healthy economy. When construction companies explore more sustainable options and create buildings of high quality, they are benefiting society by decreasing greenhouse gases, carbon emissions, and other potential threats to the health of the community. As TQM has naturally evolved to meet the needs of the companys customers and shareholders, many organizations are realizing the importance of integrating sustainability into their management te chniques. Social responsibility of business organizations is not only a gesture, but rather a critical driver of corporate performance (Isaksson 2006) This section of the literature review will outline strategies that can be used to get the most out of synergizing TQM and SD. It will also outline a guideline for measurement of processes so that companies are sure that they are obtaining maximum benefits. 2.3.2 Strategies and Guidelines To succeed in implementing this management technique, the company must understand how quality processes are linked to performance measure or accountability of their organization.

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37 This includes understanding of financial based performance and customer based performance measure (Mohd and Zairi 2006) Employees should l earn about goals that must be reached as a group. It is important to unite a dispersed w orkforce such as the one found in the construction industry (Mohd and Zairi 2006 ) By allowing employees to have access to information that is usually only provided to management, employees have the potential to become value driven. Doing so allows the company to utilize high performance work practices to increase competitiveness by reducing employee turnover and increasing organizational effectiveness (Mohd & Zairi 2006) Once the need for the management technique is learned, the company should focus on TQM SD management as a holistic approach. This means that the company should achieve a balance between conformance to customer satisfaction and internal process i mprovement, without losing flexibility and creativity in business improvement (Mohd and Zairi 2006) Companies must establish policies for sustainable managemen t of buildings so that employees are following a standard of working (Hassan 2006 ) This wi ll allow the company to run efficiently. Companies should stay in close contact with their customers in order to quickly gain knowledge of changing customer desires. When the company is successful in staying on top of shifting values, innovation is facilitated and the company is regarded by potential clients as having state of the art management systems. However, the company must be careful not to gear their initiatives completely toward being customer or market oriented. Great strategies are based on lasting value propositions not transient value shifts (Mohd and Zairi 2006) The management strategies must work with the company goals to encourage growth. Quality management strategies should converge into high levels of synergy as conditions of grow th that

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38 can be transformed into transparent routes towards performance sustainability (Mohd and Zairi 2006) According to Hassan ( 2006), a management approach that incorporates Sustainable Development into Total Quality Management requires analysis of d ifferent components. These include non sustainable generating activities (inventory analysis), effects of these activities (impact analysis), and sustainable management options (improvement analysis). It is important to measure and compare various activi ties and options to ultimately choose the most suitable one for the project. Zairi ( 2002 ) illustrates critical factors of using TQM SD management. Here, the factors are separated into categories: leadership and top management commitment, strategic plannin g and policies, information analysis, customer resources, partnership and resources, people management, and process management. This thesis focuses on the application of the management system on the process of form working. Hence, Table 24 lists those c ritical factors specific to process management. Table 2 4 Critical Factors of TQM SD (Zairi 2002) Process Management Management of supplier performance Support service Scoring, customer satisfaction process evaluation improvement Design and introduction of product services Product service production delivery Reduce, waste and increase efficac y Use, benchmark information creativity Product service production delivery Transportation, improving supply management costs Team problem solving New advertising item development Management of process quality Quali ty management and benchmarking

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39 Table 2 4. Continued Process, thinking environment Supplier performance Evaluated against key requirements Processes are unproved using innovation Process ownership, standards of operation 2.3.3 Measurement Measurement is an essential process in TQM SD management. By measuring the effects of activities or uses of materials, a construction company can analyze their progress in achieving their goals for quality and sustainability. Many companies that have adopted Total Quality Management frequently use tools to measure customer satisfaction and financial outcome. Customer measures include relative customer retention, corporate image and new products success rate. Financial measures in clude relative profitability, sales growth, return on assets, and market share (Mohd and Zairi 2006) Quality impr ovement has been evaluated as performance measurement. It can be based on indicator s such as strength, continuity and durability of building products or materials. While this method seemed to have been sufficient in the past and can be tied into the Sustainable Development regime, there are other factors that must be measured for a company to assess whether or not they have achieved sustainab le goals. These factors include environmental and social impa cts such as indoor air quality and ozone depletion. Because there has been little attempt to perform such measurements for processes, such as selection of formwork material, it is this aspect o f the TQM SD approach that this thesis will investigate.

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40 2.4 Formworking 2.4.1 Introduction To obtain the maximum potential from implementing TQM SD management, construction companies must focus their attention to individual processes that are performed during the construction of a building. To provide an example for construction companies, this thesis will focus on the process of formworking. Formworking is an ideal construction aspect to investigate because it has high impacts on cost and quality. In fact, formwork costs may range anywhere from 35 to 60 percent of the cost of [a] concrete structure (Hurd 2005) As for quality, formwork has an effect on the size, shape and alignment of slabs, beams, and other concrete structura l elements which, in turn, affect the overall stability of the building (Hurd 2005) Along with cost and quality and regarding the recent interest in Sustainable Development environmental and social impacts created by the chosen materials embodied energy are now being take n into account. These sustainable factors are ones which management are finding difficult to measure and which this thesis has considered into its case studies. To provide a background of formwork, this literature review will discuss a couple of formwork material choices. It will also discuss dynamics that affect reuse as well as effects that inefficient reuse may create. 2.4.2 Material Selection: Wood and Steel Although there are several material choices for formworking, two of the most common options are wood (or plywood) and steel. Different projects may require the specific characteristics that each material has. In some cases, either material may be used for a given project. This is where a choice about which material to use must be made. Selec tion of materials suitable for formwork should be based on maximum economy to the contractor, consistent with safety and the quality required in the finished work (Hurd 2005)

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41 Practically all formwork jobs, regardless of the varied or exotic form materia ls that may be used, require some lumber (Hurd 2005 ) However, it is not simple to enough to choose wood as the appropriate material for formworking. There are a number of species, grades, and sizes to pick from. Because several of these might work for a certain building project, wood is often chosen based on local availability and cost (Hurd 2005) There is also the question of whether to use softwoods or hardwoods. Softwood, though light and easier to work with, is not as durable or strong as hardwo od. Plywood, a flat panel made of a number of thin sheets of wood is often used for forming large surface areas (Hurd 2005 ) Plywood sheets that contain standard waterproofing glues have an average of 5 to 10 reuses with proper care and treatment of form surfaces and panel edges (Hurd 2005 ) With special coatings, plywood can potentially be reused 50 or more times. What some formwork managers are beginning to consider in this selection process are the environmental aspects that are involved with manufacturing the lumber. As an effort to decrease costs and conserve forest resources, the production and use of reconstituted wood panels has increased. These wood particle products generally make more efficient use of trees than plywood does and they are made from younger or faster growing trees than those commonly used for plywood (Hurd 2005) However, the products may be le ss durable than treated plywood, unless they have been manufactured with edge sealing and surface treatment. Though there are several types of reconstituted wood materials, two of them are durable enough to serve as formwork materialwaferboard and oriented strandboard (OSB). A waferboard consists of large thin wafers cut along the grain of the wood (Hurd 2005) The manufact uring of this product result in strength, uniformity, and weather resistance levels that are comparable to exterior plywood and softwood lumber (Hurd 2005) There is a special grade of OSB (a panel

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42 product made of layers of thin wood strands cute in the direction of the grain) that can be used for form panel applications (Hurd 2005) Both waferboard and OSB are not the best options in term of strength and durability, but may function correctly if used and treated properly. Apart from wood, another mate rial that is available for formworking is steel. Steel members come in many forms including channels, angles, and I beams. These members are finding increasing use in framing or supporting of formwork, serving much the same purpose as wood members, but often permitting greater spans or heavier loads than would be possible with timber members (Hurd 2005) Steel formworking is often available as a prefabricated system of members that are built to have maximum durability. There are two types of prefabr icated steel that are used specifically for formworking ready made forms and custom made forms. Ready made forms consist of members that may be moved and that allow for different uses such as concrete forming or concrete joist construction. Custom made forms are built for very specific types of construction that may require a special shape or increased strength. Examples of such construction include tunnels, dams, and bridges (Hurd 2005) A major advantage of steel over wood is its durability. With reasonable care steel form framing members will last indefinitely and hence be suitable for many reuses (Hurd 2005) In this respect, steel is viewed as a better material to use for formworking. However, it must be kept in mind that steel systems have higher initial costs and require skilled labor workers that are comfortable with this type of industrial technology. Overall, there are many factors to keep in mind when choosing the appropriate formwork material for a project. In terms of cost, the plann er or manager should keep in mind that if a form material that costs twice as much lasts ten to twenty times as long, the per use cost will be

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43 only 1/5 to 1/10 as much as using the cheaper material (Hurd 2005) A form designed for maximum reuse can dec rease total form investment. In this case, steel would be the better option. However, with this option the contractor should take into account the time and cost of repairs and reconditioning between uses (Hurd 2005 ) Also, environmental impacts have n ot been considered in the production of this material. Embodied energy is one aspect to review with environmental performance. Embodied energy, according to Biggs ( 1999 ), is the indirect energy which is consumed in the production of materials, processing transportation, etc. While steel is better in terms of cost, the material has an embodied energy of 35 MJ/kg. In contrast, wood has a lower embodied energy of 5 MJ/kg. Depending on the construction company, this aspect may outweigh the importance of ec onomic performance causing an environmentally conscious company to choose wood over steel. 2.4.3 Effects of Poor Reuse Because it is generally accepted that steel formworking can be used indefinitely if handled correctly, this section, as well the one fol lowing it, will focus on the reuse of wood formworking. It is important to review lumber as a significant aspect of the formworking process considering that the waste of this material can be as high as 20% of the total materials used just on foundation works alone (Tam et al. 2007) In an environmental sense, large amounts of waste can lead to deforestation, the degradation of forests due to a significant loss of trees. Lumber wastes are not recycled often but, instead, are thrown into landfills or bur ned. In an economic sense, overall costs of the project can be reduced by reusing wood formworking from a pre existing project. If, in haste, non reusable material is used again as a means to decrease costs or reduce the schedule of the new project, alt ernative results will arise as a consequence. These consequences will have an effect on more than just the actual formworking material, but will also have a

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44 bearing on the concrete that is being formed. Poor formworking can cause concrete to warp, deflec t, or crack in ways that may make the building structurally unsuitable If the poorly performing concrete is left the way it is, the construction company runs the risk of a building collapse. On the other hand, if the structure is taken down and redone, the company contributes to wasted concrete and increases the general schedule and cost of the project. It is against this background that measures to increase the reuse of wood formworking must be taken. The next section lists factors that affect the potential reuse of wood or lumber formworking material. 2.4.4 Factors that Affect Reuse Many studies have been performed to gauge which factors contribute most wood formwork reuse. In one of the studies, Ling and L eo ( 2000 ) identify these factors: materia ls used to fabricate the formwork, workmen who work with the formwork, design of the completed structure, design, fabrication, and stripping of formwork, and site management issues. It is the contention of this paper that these factors are based on one c ore issue, which also happens to be the predominant topic of this literature review management. The first factor, material selection, is one that has already been discussed in this literature review. In wood or timber selection, management must make sur e that they are ordering formwork that that is sufficient enough for the structure by checking for certain characteristics. The wood should be easy to work with, hard enough to withstand damage, moist enough to not warp, and should not form hemicelluloses (wood sugars). It should also be light, stiff, stable, smooth, and uniformly colored (Ling and Leo 2000) By ordering materials that have these characteristics, construction managers and planners ensure that the formworking components are of the highest quality, thus allowing more reuse out of the wood material.

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45 Workmen handling the formwork material are a key factor to the number of reuses. In fact, Ling and L eo identified them as having the most significant effect on reuses. There are two ways in whi ch the workmen affect the reuse of the formworking material. One of these is their attitude. Often times workers will mistreat the material, not realizing that a rather dirty or concrete stained component, be it a piece of timber or plywood, can have some sort of value (Ling and Leo 2000) As a result, improper offloading or handling of the formwork can cause damage to the material. For example, while timber formwork could be laid on the ground carefully and lightly after stripping without being da maged, ignorant workers would usually toss it onto the ground. Such an action could result in the splitting of timber fiber both on the surface and at the edges which are usually the weakest parts of a formwork (Ling and Leo 2000) Another way in which workers affect reuses of wood formwork is by their efficiency. True economy comes from a smooth daily repetition of the same operation (Ling and Leo 2000) When workers are erecting and stripping the formwork in an uninterrupted fashion, the schedule of the process is likely to carry out with little or no delays. If this is the case, workers are not in a hurry to finish formworking activity and thus, are being more careful with the materials that they are working with. Management can lessen negative r esults by regularly meeting with workers and training them to treat materials as a valuable commodity. Another factor is the design of the structure during pre construction. An important concept to consider is standardization, which results in the mobi lity and flexibility of formwork (Ling and Leo 2000) An example of standardization is the planning of unvaryingly sized columns. If the same sized columns are used throughout a project, and even throughout multiple projects, the formwork construction c ompany may use the same forms numerous times.

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46 Design, fabrication and stripping of the formwork are other factors that impact the number of reuses. When considering design, it is important for management to consider erection methods and materials that will cause the least adherence to the concrete. Doing so will allow each material to stay intact and remain in better quality after its usage. With the erection process, the company should plan to use the least amount of nails as possible to prevent tea ring of the formworks wood fibers. Along with erection, it is imperative for the company to review the stripping process. Whenever possible, mechanical devices such as cable, ropes and wheeled supports should be employed (Ling and Leo 2000) Workers should not use metal stripping bars, pries or nailbars to strip any timber formwork sets (Ling and Leo 2000) If this is done, formwork is likely to be damaged and unavailable for reuse. After stripping, the material should be properly cleaned and maint ained by workers. This is, again, is something that management can require as a policy for allowing maximum reuse of the wood material. The final factor that Ling and L eo ( 2000) discuss is the issue of site management. Concerns that are involved with thi s topic include supervision on site, availability of space, co operation of other trades, and safety of workers during re fabrication. It is essential for managers to observe workers during formwork activities to ensure that the materials are being handle d properly. Also with supervision and observation, site managers should account for a suitable amount of space for working space. Working space on the ground allows contractors to clean and oil formworks if they are to be reused in the next concreting s tage (Ling and Leo 2000) The spaces should be large enough to allow formwork to be re fabricated. They should also be close enough to the structure so that transportation of the material does not offset the benefits of having a space to work in.

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47 As p reviously stated, the co operation of other trades influences the number of reuse of formworking material. The speed and efficiency of other trades are important attributes to consider. Examples of such trades include those that are involved with operat ions of excavation, drainlaying and laying of reinforcement bars (Ling and Leo 2000) If any of these trades were to be delayed, they will inevitably hold back the striking of formwork, its maintenance and its subsequent numbers of reuse (Ling and Leo 2 000) Thus, scheduling becomes something that all workers on the site should abide by in order to maximize reuse. The last thing that affects reuse in terms of site management is the safety of the work ers during re fabrication of the formwork. About 50% to 80% of formwork labor is material handling (Ling and Leo 2000) Therefore, it is vital to ensure safety on the construction site to avoid any injuries or lost time. When trying to provide a safe environment, contractors may not see it fit for re fabrication to be done on site and may be hesitant to have it done offsite. Instead, they may choose not to reuse the lumber and go with new material instead. As stated, there are many factors that facilitate the reuse of wood formwork. Though each fac tor may deal with a specific activity of the process, all of them are influenced by procedures implemented by the management of the company. Construction managers are able to maximize reuse throughout all phases of the building process from pre constructi on to post construction. It is for this core reason why the topic of reuse has been reviewed in this literature review. 2.5 Conclusion Total Quality Management has become a common concept in the construction industry through the years. Although many com panies may not have a formal management system with this name, they still derive and use components of TQM in their everyday activities. Sustainable Development has coursed its way into the industry with many construction companies becoming more aware of the environmental impacts of their processes or products. More recently,

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48 corporate sustainability has become more popular in industries such as construction as a means to create economic, environmental, and social benefits for the community. This has not only enabled the companies to run on ethical morals but has also increased the interest of potential investors. Although these two concepts have been used individually by a number of companies, future innovation will rely on a synergy of the two. By pr acticing a management style called TQM SD, construction companies will realize benefits beyond those realized by implementing just TQM or Sustainable Development As an example, this thesis focuses on material selection during the formwork process. The data will be collected through case studies focusing on the material choices and the number of potential reuses. This will provide a base for the Plan Do Act Measure notion of TQM; although in this instance it will also be used to address sustainability concerns. By using formworking or temporary structures as an exemplary model, construction companies may be able to draw ideas for improving their overall business performance through TQM SD.

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49 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction The objective of thi s thesis is to assess the potential of using TQM SD management style within construction companies. As with any new method or technique implemented within a company, success is only attainable if managers are interested and committed to change. Although the TQM SD management style can be applied to most, if not all, construction processes, the scope of this thesis will be restricted to one of these processes because of time and budgetary constraints For this reason, formwork material selection was chose n as the focus of the study. To refine the goals of the thesis, a literature review was formed. By having a detailed background of TQM SD, companies that want to implement the management style can have a full understanding previous to forming any opinion s. Supporting the literature review are three case studies of various construction companies that handle formworking materials. Simulations for each company were run throug h BEES, a computer software program, which compares the environmental and economic performance of construction materials and their alternatives. Before analyzing the case studies and their corresponding simulations, a methodology of the study is provided in this chapter The subsequent sections discuss the justification for the metho dology, case study selection and proce dures, limitations of the study and ethical considerations. 3.2 Justification of the Methodology Implementation of TQM SD is a viable topic for research as there have not been many studies on it. Although several pap ers and articles recommend its use as a management style, the literature review did not reveal examples of companies actually implementing it. It is not likely that TQM SD will ever be adopted by construction companies if the only explorations made

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50 have b een about theoretical models. This thesis attempted to bring TQM SD from theory to reality by obtaining the opinions of s elected construction companies using the case study methodology. Although only three companies were investigated, they actually repre sent three different types of construction companies: general contractors, system/product manufacturers and specialty contractors. The advantage of examini ng three case studies was that it allowed for more qualitative and in depth information. It would n ot have been feasible to obtain the desired results using short answer surveys. In addition, the case study methodology was necessary for executing the research in phases Thus, when one company was willing to give more information, more suggestions for TQM SD implementation were made and additional feedback through follow up discussions was obtained. By reviewing the discussion held with managers, companies in the construction industry can form an opinion and may choose to implement TQM SD. If they are successful in doing so, the companies will ultimately realize the potential benefits from using the management style. 3.3 Criteria for Case Selection Selection of the case studies was facilitated by a professor at the Rinker School of Building Constructio n. Managers from each company had already been in contact with the professor for curriculum development for the formwork design course she teaches The companies were chosen because they were all large companies specializing in a different aspect of the f ormworking in the construction industry. Collectively, the case study companies represent of general contractors, manufacturers, and specialty contractors. A manager from each company was contacted via telephone and was asked for consent to participate a s a case study in this thesis. The managers agreed to take part in a discussion on the use of quality control and sustainability in choosing formwork material. Once valuable case studies were found, a detailed literature review was written

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51 3.4 Case Stu dy Procedures After agreeing to give information and opinions regarding their companies, the managers were contacted and a telephone appointment was set up. A list of topics was formulated to serve as cues for discussion. During the telephone discussion s no specific questions were asked. Therefore, the study was not characteriz ed as a survey, but rather as a series of informal discussion s that provided enough information this thesis. The semi structured conversations included various open ended question s by both the author and the manager s of the case study compan ies Information about Company A was attained through discussions with a senior project manager from Orlando, Florida. Data about Company B was given by the regional manager f rom the south eas t United States, while data about Company Cs was given by a district operations manager from Orlando, Florida. Each manager was asked to provide some background information on their company. Most of the information divulged was already available on the company website. The objective of the thesis was then explained to the managers. The managers gave their input on where t hey thought TQM SD elements could be found within the company. This included any quality control or sustainable methods that were be ing employed at the time of the study The discussions went further into formworking and how each manager selected material for use in this process. The managers were specifically asked to identify the considerations made when choosing between wood and steel for formworking. After obtaining enough information about each comp any, the managers were asked to provide exemplary inputs needed to run t he software Building for Economic and Environmental Sustainability (BEES) tool. This simulation tool provided comparisons of environmental and economic performance for wood and steel materials. Managers were given recommendations on how to maximize reuse of formworking material. It was critical to make these two types of

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52 suggestions as they have impacts on overa ll quality of the project and on sustainability of the company. The managers from each company then provided feedback on the authors suggestions. This data was used to qualitatively assess their receptiveness to the new management style. Company C showe d the most enthusiasm for the subject and had more quality control and maximum reuse programs in place before the study. Thus, a deeper study was conducted of Company C. A second discussion was held with another manager from the same company. Furthermor e, additional information was given by the first manager via e mail. The extra feedback from both managers provided grounds for an in depth analysis. The analysis will be reviewed in the following chapter. 3.5 Limitations of Case Study Research Although the topic of the thesis has given justification to the m ethod of research, the author i s aware of the limitations present during the study. Case study methodology does not result in data that fully represent s a large sample of construction companies. In this study, an attempt was made to capture information from three companies representing 3 different types of construction companies Another limitation was the scope of the subject. The implementation techniques for Total Quality Management and Sustain able Development may be discussed endlessly The mere restriction of their implementation within the construction industry would still constitute an extensive research that would be beyond the scope of this thesis This thesis is restricted to investigat ing the potential of using TQM SD using the selection of materials used for formworking as an example. Before the concept is widely adopted each company will need to test the viability of a pply ing the guidelines to other construction processes.

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53 3.6 Eth ical Considerations Ethical c onsiderations were during discussions with each manager. The author did not ask the managers for any personal or intrusive information. The participants were also guarantees anonymity In addition, they were assured that neg ative thoughts towards the subject matter would not be interpreted as indicators of a poorly run company. 3.7 Conclusion To test the viability of using TQM SD within construction companies, it was necessary focus in on one construction process form work material selection. A rigorous literature review was the first step of research. It was then necessary to find three different types of large construction companies that handled formwork materials. Discussions were held with managers from each comp any. Recommendations were made and managers gave additional feedback on the se suggestions. Alt hough limitations were present, the case studies served as valuable data sets for the area of study. Care was taken in making ethical consideration during conv ersations with each manager. This methodology has explained how information was obtained. In the following chapter, the data collected from each company will be reviewed in detail.

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54 CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF DATA 4.1 Introduction As explained in the Method ology chapter of this thesis, information was gathered from three companies. The information included basic background information on each company and their current formwork selection and reuse practices. Recommendations were given regarding two differen t concepts. One set of recommendations was based on measuring environmental and economic performance of wood and steel through computer software simulations. The other set involved maximizing formwork material reuse with certain management techniques. B oth sets of recommendations contained steps towards implementing TQM SD in the formworking process. An important initiative of implementing any new program is management commitment. Therefore, it was critical to obtain opinions about the recommendations from the managers at each company. The feedback is assumed to depict a representation of the opinions held by three different types of companies found in the construction industry. By analyzing the three case studies, other construction companies may be able to learn about ways to implement TQM SD within their own organization. 4.2 Description of the Cases 4.2.1 Company A 4.2.1.1 Background Company A provides general contr acting, construction management and design/build services. It specializes in vario us types of projects including those used for healthcare, industrial, office, institutional, retail, education, and water treatment purposes. Projects are located mostly in the S outh E ast region of the United States. The company was established in 1964 a nd is currently responsible for $2 billion worth of work. Company A consists of 3200 employees and

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55 1500 field employees. Offices for this company are located in Atlanta, Georgia, Orlando, Florida, Raleigh, North Carolina, Nashville, Tennessee, and Jackso nville, Florida. The companys main vision is to be a conscientious, construction industry and business leader that focuses on the needs of their clients, communities, and employees. Company A was chosen as a case study because it is a large construction corporation that provides general contracting services that include self performing the erecting temporary structures and formwork systems Information about Company A was attained through discussions with a senior project manager from the Orlando, Florid a office. 4.2.1.2 Formwork Selection and other Current Practices When material selection for formworking was addressed, the project manager for Company A stated that materials are selected based on economic factors. He also stated that materials that were better suited for long term projects are preferred and that feasibility is the most important issue to analyze. Although the company construct s buildings that earn LEED certifications, there is currently no method for incorporating sustainable constructi on practices when choosing an appropriate formwork material. An important topic to address when involving TQM SD management into formwork material selection is number of reuses of the material. While steel may be reused an infinite number of times if pr operly handled, wood requires additional care to maximize reuse. According to the manager, Company A currently uses a variety of oils to treat wood formworking. This is performed as an effort to prevent the materials from sticking to the concrete they ar e forming. The low cost petroleum based organic oils are purchased from a construction chemical company. The type that is used is dependent on whether the form work is composed of steel, wood or plastic. T he oils used by Company A acts as a releasing agen t that maintains the quality of the concrete. They also affect the quality of the formwork that they are

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56 applied to. Using the oils allows the formwork to stay intact. This is a factor that accounts for a higher number of reuse. Another factor to cons ider when selecting formwo rk material is the distance over which the material is transported. Company A has its plywood formwork transported from Louisiana, Wisconsin and Oregon to the job sites A long transportation distance means that the formworking process has less potential for being sustainable. However, because shipments of plywood are received in large amounts, the lack of one sus tainability factor may not affect a companys goal of creating green buildings. Unlike wood, steel is usually attaine d in state. If this is not the case, steel is likely attained from a neighboring state. For Florida projects, steel is shipped from Georgia. The project manager from Company A showed no interest in choosing formwork material based on its environmental pe rformance. The manager felt that choosing formwork based on this criterion is not feasible at this point in time. According to him, formwork should be chosen according to the complexity of the project. The manager stated that choosing materials may be based on desired quality of the project at this time. However, concerns regarding environmental performance of temporary structures would probably not be a key determining factor for another 15 to 20 years. 4.2.2 Company B 4.2.2.1 Background Company B is a manufacturer of concrete formwork and scaffolding producing 35 to 40 different systems. These include shoring, scaffolding for industrial projects, for mwork for slabs beams and walls and specialized f ormworking for bridges, tunnels and high rises. T hough Company Bs main manufacturing plant is located in Germany, its customers projects are located in 60 different countries all over the world. The company was established 40 years ago

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57 and is currently responsible for 85 million dollars worth of work in the U.S. alone. Company B is made up of more than 100 offices worldwide and has annual revenue of 1.2 billion euros. The companys main vision is to improve competitiveness through innovation while meeting customer expectation with high quality and pe rformance. Company B was chosen as a case study because they are a large construction corporation that manufactures formwork products to companies that make material selection choices. Information about Company B was attained through discussions wi th a re gional manager from the S outh E ast region of the United States. 4.2.2.2 Formwork Selection and other Current Practices Because Company B does not select the formwork to be used on a project, the manager spoke about purchases that are made by their clients According to the manager, the company has not lost any bids because the customer did not see efforts for environmental impact reduction. The regional manager stated that even in Germany, where many innovative environmental standards have been formed, t here are currently no means to measure environmental performance. Similar to a statement made by the manager from Company A, the feelings of the manager from Company B are that incorporating environmental assessments when choosing between wood and steel w ill not happen for another 10 to 15 years. The manager stated that clients are not likely to choose between wood and steel formwork based on their environmental performance. However, the manager did state that Company B, as the manufacturer, does provide sustainable products. The companys wood products are produced without toxic or harmful substances. Efforts are made to reduce raw material usage and energy requirements by recycling wood products at the end of their use. Steel products manufactured by Company B are composed of recyclable alloys. The company uses corrosion protection measures for long term durability. Non reusable materials are sorted and used in the

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58 next cycle of production instead of being wasted. Company B also manufactures release agents that are made with high purity oils that are rapidly biodegradable. One aspect of their business where concepts of TQM SD management feature is Company Bs procurement of materials. As a part of quality management, an inspector checks the criteria for each material that is procured. If sustainable materials are obtainable, the n C ompany B is likely to use that supplier For example, wood materials at Company B are procured from certain areas in Norway, Sweden and Finland where forests are replanted so that new wood may replace the amount that is harvested. Company B also incorporates sustainability assessment/principles in their method of production. In 2007, the company began a process of extracting energy from wood chips at a biomass power statio n in Germany. The wood is actually leftover materials from formwork assemblies. When extra energy is produced, the company feeds it into the areas power grid. Alt hough these methods may not directly improve reuse of the material once it is in the hand s of the consumers, their sustainable characteristics fulfill some of the overall recommendations that may be made to implement TQM SD in the company. 4.2.3 Company C 4.2.3.1 Background Company C is large builder of concrete structures specializing in a variety of project types including healthcare, institutional, commercial/ retail, residential, education and entertainment. The p rojects are located in several areas of the United States, ranging from Washington, DC to New Mexico. The company was establ ished in 1985 and is responsible for 240 million dollars worth of concrete work annually. Company B consists of over 2,400 employees. Offices for this company are located in Austell GA, Atlanta, GA, Orlando, FL, Fort Lauderdale, FL, Pensacola, FL, Ralei gh, NC, and Austin, TX The companys mission is to maintain a reputation for

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59 providing the very best in concrete construction. Company C is determined to maintain a safe work environment by hiring only qualified workmen. This company was chosen as a ca se study because a large percentage of its work is concrete formworking. Information about Company C was attained through discussions with a district operations manager from the Orlando, Florida office. 4.2.3.2 Formwork Selection and other Current Practi ces Like Company A, Company C s formwork options amount to a choice between wood and steel The manager stated that there are some considerations to be made regarding the reuse of each material. He said that steel is more desirable because it has almost an infinite number of reuses. However, there are specific types of high density wood that, when treated properly, can yield a very high number of reuse. Company C is currently employing methods that increase the reusability of wood formworking. Meetin gs are held with management and workers regarding two main concepts of TQM SD in formworking activities quality control and material handling. Quality control meetings are attended by employees at different levels of the organizations structure Examp les of those who attend the meetings include the superintendant, layout m anager, district superintendant and construction manager. At least three of these meetings take place before each project. Execution of the project is covered in depth during this t ime. The meetings review the methods that may improve both quality and productivity. Questions regarding several topics are answered by management during Company Cs quality control meetin gs. For example, the following topics are discussed when assessin g wall and column formworking: 19.00 Section 19~ Wall Forms 19.01 What system will be utilized in forming the walls? 19.02 Will we be renting any of the system? 19.03 Who is the point of contact with the supplier? 19.04 Does the project require stamped shop drawings for the forming system? Do the

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60 concrete mix designs contain admixtures that may affect the pour rate and/or pressures? 19.05 What class of finish are we contracted to deliver? 19.06 Wi ll the proposed system deliver the contracted finish? 19.07 Who will give the layout for the walls? 19.08 Are there any blockouts or embeds in the walls? 19.09 What type of finish or covering will be applied? Will the use of lith ium grease on the stripping corners be a problem with applying the finish? 19.10 Can point and patch be executed from this system? (elevators, stair wells, and walls in shear) 19.11 Is chamfer required? 19.12 Is there any CMU c onnecting? What type of device will be used to secure the CMU? 19.13 Is there a written/approved plan for setting, pouring, stripping, and moving this system? Has the crew been trained in this method? Is there documentation of the training? 19.14 How will you establish and maintain control of any elevator or stairwell form systems? NOTE: See UFI Standards and Policies 19.15 Who will establish grade for the vertical pours? How will this be verified prior to placing concret e? 19.16 Is the necessary safety equipment on site and available for placing these forms? 19.17 Does the structure have any one -sided and/or cantilevered walls? 19.18 Will the formwork system accommodate concrete placement? 19.19 For shafts, does the system have a means and method for: squaring, struts for dimensions at the top, struts for securing the bottom to the prior placed concrete 19.20 For shafts, at what stage will the trailing/working platform be ins talled. Will there be a platform at the top of the system to ensure the safety of ALL workers? 20.00 Section 20 ~ Column Forms 20.01 What system will be utilized in forming the columns? 20.02 Will we be renting any of the system? 20.03 Who is the point of contact with the supplier? 20.04 Do the concrete mix designs contain admixtures that may affect the pour rate and/or pressures? 20.05 What class of finish are contracted to de liver? 20.06 Will the proposed system deliver the contracted finish? 20.07 Are there any odd sizes or shapes of columns? 20.08 Will columns require chamfer? Do the columns require reveals? 20.09 How will the pour elevat ion for each column be established, marked, and verified before concrete is placed? 20.10 Is there any CMU attached to the columns? By what means will the CMU be attached? 20.11 Are there any embeds in the columns? How will they be mounted to the formwork system selected? 20.12 How will the alignment of the bottom of the column and the top of the beam/slab edge be controlled for exposed elevations? 20.13 Has a plan been developed to account for varying clear story el evations in the formwork systems? Will the formwork system accommodate varying clear story

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61 heights? 20.14 What is the pour rate for this system? 20.15 Is UFI placing the vertical concrete? 20.16 Has a consolidation procedure be en developed? 20.17 What member of the project team will supervise the placement of concrete in vertical formwork to ensure that that concrete is consolidated properly and placed to the correct height? A simila r but more informal meeting is held with field workers. Prior to starting any project, each superintendent discusses how to attain the maximum use of each product. Plans for installing the materials are also reviewed during this meeting The discussions i nclude reviewing with the employees the specific details for executing each activity. In the case of wood materials, superintendents will emphasize on the handling of the materials and also identifying the wood to be cut and that which should not be cut. According to the district operations manager, workers can actually have a very positive input early in the project and throughout the process on efficient uses of materials. The manager concurred that it is important for workers to know that they are wor king with a valuable resource. By educating employees that are working directly with the formwork and concrete, management ensures that the quality of both st ructural materials is optimal. The manager also reviewed how certain oils can affect reuse. Com pany C uses biodegradable oils as a release agent for wood formworking. The oils are environmentally friendly as they are made from animal fat. In a comparison test between petroleum based oils and biodegradable oils, the company found the bio oils prote cted the wood better. Therefore, Company C increased the number of reuses of treated wood formwor k by using biodegradable oils.

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62 4.3 TQM SD Recommendations In the discussions with each manager, suggestions were made of how to implement major concepts of TQM SD into formwork selection. The first concept dealt with comparing the measurements of each materials environmental and economic performances. The second set of recommendations involved maximizing reuse. 4.3.1 BEES simulations The Building for E conomic and Environmental Sustainability (BEES) tool is a software program developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It provides a rational, systematic technique for selecting environmentally friendly and costeffective buil ding products. The tool was designed using consensus standards and was developed with practicality, flexibility and transparency intended for all users. (bees info site) BEES measures the environmental performance of building products by analyzing stage s in the projects life cycle. Eco nomic performance is measured on analyzing the costs of initial investment, replacement, operation, maintenance and repair, and disposal. As an effort to combine the Plan Do Act Check concept of TQM with sustainable c oncerns, BEES can be used to measure and compare economic and environmental performance of certain materials. In this thesis, wood and steel formworking are compared and contrasted to find the most optimum choice for each company. Measurements are based on criteria derived from the managers opinion. These include importance of environmental versus economic performance, weigh t ing of twelve environmental impacts and desired discount rate. Another input that is needed is the transportation distance betwee n the place of manufacture and where forms are used Formwork is not currently available as a building component within the program. This may be be cause formworking is temporary structure used during the building process and not a permanent element of th e resulting structure. However, formwork must still be

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63 measured as it is a construction material that is consumed and wasted at some point. As an alternative to formwork, comparisons were made for steel and wood framing. Framing was chosen as the substi tution because it s structural function is identical to formwork elements. Using an alternative is suitable for these case studies as this thesis focuses on the initial ventures that must be made to implement TQM SD. 4.3.1.1 Company A When asked for Compa ny As preference for environmental versus economic performance of formwork, the manager stated that the company currently does not assess environmental performance of the material. Thus, the manager gave 0% importance for environmental performance and 100% for economic performance. Because this input is not accepted by BEES, hypothetical percentages of 1% and 99% were used instead. The manager stated that the company would not assign any importance to any one environmental impact. Therefore, weights we re set to be equal. A default discount rate of 3% was input. After this step, framing materials were chosen from a set of alternatives. Figure 41. Company A BEES s imulation s creenshots A) A nalysis P arameter s B) Building Element for Compar ison B A

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64 The manager provided average transportation distances for each material. For Florida projects constructed by Company As Orlando office, steel is generally delivered 500 miles from Georgia. Wood, on the other hand, is procured in large amounts fro m Louisiana Figure 42. Company A BEES s imulation s creenshots A) Transportation distance for steel. B) Transportation distance for wood. The calculated results were completed and several reports were made available. The results of Company As simulation can be found in Appendix A of this thesis. The reports shown in this thesis summarize all the others into four charts. These charts show overall performance, environmental performance, economic performance, and fuel renewability. Accordin g to BEES, the lower value shown is the better one. Therefore, if Company A were to base material selection on environmental and economic performance, wood would be the preferable choice for the formworking process. Coincidentally, this is the material t hat the company currently uses more. 4.3.1.2 Company B When the BEES simulation was run, the manager of Company B was asked to give a percentage of importance for both environmental and economic performance. While the company B A

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65 manufactures products at a s ustainable level, the manager thought that those selecting formwork materials did little to focus on sustainable impacts. For this reason, a percentage of 10% was given to environmental performance and 90% was given to economic performance. As with Company A, Company B had equally weighted environmental impacts for this assessment. The manager did not believe that Company Bs clients placed importance on any of these criteria when choosing formwork material. Again, a default discount rate of 3% was input Once more, framing was chosen for Company Bs simulation. Figure 43. Company B BEES s imulation s creenshots A) Analysis Parameters. B) Building Element for Comparison. Company B transports their products all over the world predominantly from th eir power plant in Germany. An average distance of 1000 miles was used for both materials. Again, the results of simulations are charts showing overall performance, environmental performance, economic performance, and fuel renewability. The results of C ompany Bs simulation can be found in Appendix B of this thesis. If Company Bs clients were to base material selection on environmental and economic performance, wood would be the preferable choice for the A B

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66 formworking process. Currently, the company manufactures and supplies more steel products to various construction companies. Figure 44. Company B BEES s imulation s creenshots A) Transportation distance for steel. B) Transportation distance for wood. 4.3.1.3 Company C Company Cs BEES simulatio n results were different from those of Company A and Company B. This was because Company C is more optimistic about implementing this element of TQM SD into their formwork selection process. When asked to give a percentage of importance to environmental and economic performances, the manager s pecified 40% and 60%, respectively. The manager was then asked to rate the importance of twelve enviro nmental impacts. These included global warming, acidification, eutrophication, fossil fuel depletion, indoor air quality, habitat alteration, water intake, criteria air pollutants, smog, ecological toxicity, ozone depletion, and human health. T he simulation process for Company C is shown below. A B

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67 Figure 45. Company C BEES s imulation s creenshots A) Analysis Pa rameters. B) Environmental Impact Category Weights. The manager believed that it was important to weight different environmental impacts. Therefore, unlike with Company A and Company B, equal weights were not set. The manager from Company C thought that fossil fuel consumption should have the highest rating and acidification should have the lowest. All the other criteria were set to have equal rat ing s A fter this step, alternative materials were chosen. The same framing materials selected for Company A and Company B were chosen. Figure 46. Company C BEES s imulation s creenshot For the distance from the manufacturer to the site, the manager explained that most steel used in projects near the Orlando office come from Tampa, Florida. Thus, a tr ansportation distance of A B

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68 100 miles was used. The wood material was from the southern part of Georgia. A transportation distance of 300 miles was used for this material. Figure 47. Company C BEES s imulation s creenshots A) Transportation di stance for steel. B) Transpor t ation distance for wood. According to the results of the simulation, Company C should use wood if they were to compare its environmental and economical performances to those of steel. The results for Company C can be found in Appendix C of this thesis. 4.3.2 Maximum Reusability Although wood was found to be the better material alternative in the BEES simulations, other issues should be considered to truly justify its use. One major consideration is the issue of reuse. Each manager agreed that while steel had a higher initial cost than wood, it also had a much higher number of reuse. Therefore, it is necessary to make recommendations on how management can increase the reusability of wood formworking. The recommendations in the subsequent subsections are largely based on a synthesis of the literature review and Company Cs current practices. A B

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69 4.3.2.1 Pre construction planning/ Quality Control Top m anagement should be involved in pre construction processes such as the selection of material. By selecting wood materials that a re structurally sound for formworking managers can guarantee maximum quality of the finished product. The formwork materials will also last longer and through more uses. Management should also work with t he architect prior to the construction phase. During this time, the contractor and architect should design columns and footings are generally uniform in size. Doing so will allow for forms to be used over and over again just for one project. Holding q uality control meetings are also a good practice The meetings can improve project operations because responsibilities are assigned and specific activities are reviewed. prior to commencing work on site. This minimizes chance of errors occur ring on the s ite. A robust q uality control system ensures use of the least formwork amount It also minimizes damage during handling this ensuring that formwork remain s intact which implies yielding maximum number of reuses. 4.3.2.2 Worker meetings Workers are th e ones who predominantly handle the formwork material. Because the material is in their possession during most of the formworking process, it is important for the workers to know how to handle the formwork. A recommendation made to the managers was to ho ld meetings with workers before each project. During the meetings, several issues should be covered. One important issue is the handling of the formwork. Studies presented in the literature review showed that many workers treated wood formwork as a chea p material. It was suggested that managers go over the value of the material so that workers do not mistreat/mishandle the formwork. An example of such mistreatment is exhibited by workers

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70 throw uing material to the side after stripping it from the concre te. This type of treatment can decrease the quality of the wood and consequentially decrease its reusability. It is critical to get the workers fully involved in the meetings. The managers must listen to workers opinions and ideas. Because the worker s are the most familiar with the site and handling of the material, it is important for managers to get some of their input when planning for a project. Of the three companies, Company C had already implemented this concept, and it is now apparent to t hem that meet ing with workers to discuss how a project will be run is beneficial By including workers in th e planning of the project and teaching them the value of the material they work with, the formworking process is more likely to run smoothly. 4.3.2.3 W orker Observation /Supervision I t is also beneficial to review project plans and reusability with the sites superintendant. As the manager of the work being done on site, it is important for the superintendant to make sure that there is optimum quality. T he superintendent should monitor how wood material is treated during the assembly and stripping of formwork. It should be the job of superintendent to make sure that everything possible is being done to maximize the reuse of the wood formwork. This recommendation enforces issues reviewed during the worker meetings by making sure that workers are treating formwork material correctly. 4.3.2.4 Site Planning Site planning focuses on providing sufficient space for each trade to work and for the storing unused formwork. Having adequate space prevents other trades from interfering with formwork processes. This alone saves the material a great amount of wear and tear. More importantly, it was recommended that there be sufficient space on site to store fo rmwork material when it is not in use. Having a space for wood formwork allows for the material to be

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71 stored in an organized manner. Again, this will prevent the material from degrading and more reuses will become available. 4.4 Feedback on Recommenda tions After making various recommendations, the managers were asked for their feedback. They were asked for their opinion of the TQM SD management style and if it could work for construction companies. When implementing any type of new p aradig m such as t he TQM SD, the first obstacle a construction company will have overcome is the lack of commitment from top management. For this reason, it was important for the opinions of the managers to be gathered. This served as a useful first step in the eventual i mplementation of TQM SD in construction companies. Again, the feedback concerned implementation of the management style within the formwork selection process. While the managers from Company A and B were relatively doubtful that TQM SD would be used for this process, the manager from Company C showed enthusiasm on the subject. 4.4.1 Company A Company As manager stated that the implementation of TQM SD could be beneficial in certain processes of construction generally speaking. In formwork material sele ction, his opinion was that TQM SD would probably not be used for another 15 to 20 years. The managers reasoning was that certain types of complex formwork systems are needed on certain types of building projects. For example, i t would not be feasible t o use wood formwork for a high rise heavy concrete structure. He also pointed out that Company As clients did not award bids to companies using sustainable formworking processes. Since environmental performance of wood and steel formwork was not a conce rn for building owners, it was not a concern for the general contractor.

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72 Although the BEES simulations did not appear not useful to the manager, some of the reuse recommendations were valued. The manager found it important to form quality control teams. However, the use of worker meetings was not thought to be constructive. The manager felt that worker meetings regarding reuse would be a cause of lost time as they would not affect worker attitude. 4.4.2 Company B The manager from Company B commented on formwork selection by the companys clients. As a manufacturer, Company B has not lost any bids because the client chose a formwork material that had less environmental impacts. The manager felt that TQM SD was not feasible at the time of the discussion. Although many environmental standards had been formed, the manager thought that these standards would not apply to temporary structures for another 10 years, even in an innovative country like Germany. The manager spoke about factors that affected mate rial selection. As with Company A, the first factor was the type of the project. Certain types of formwork systems needed to be used for structures like bridges, tunnels, and high rises. In these cases, using wood is not an option Another factor that affected material selection was the amount of skilled labor available. The manager explained how some of their clients had mostly unskilled labor. Although steel systems were quickly put up, they required knowledge that the labor did not ha ve. Therefore wood was selected as the easiest and cheapest formwork to construct and strip. Wood was also preferred when companies planned the schedule of a project poorly. In these cases, improvisation was needed. At these times, wood was chosen as a flexible sys tem that did not have many limitations. As a formwork manufacturer, the manager of Company B did not find it useful to implement the BEES simulations. No opinions were held regarding the quality control and

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73 worker meetings as the manager felt that these opinions would be different for each of Company Bs clients. 4.4.3 Company C Company C was the newest of the three case studies examined. The company had only recently b egun its sustainability and quality control endeavors. The company showed the most potential for adapt ation to innovative management practices The manager showed substantial interest in the use of TQM SD in formwork selection. Company C had already used of the two sets of recommendations made. It used quality control meetings to guara ntee that every activity of the project was executed correctly. The meetings included planning of on site space and assigning of superintendant responsibilities. The company also held worker meetings where issues of reuse were discussed. The manager was very interested in learning about the BEES analysis. He was shown how the analysis was user friendly as the simulation was fairly easy to run. The manager felt that the inputs needed were minimal and that using such a program would definitely be benefic ial to the company. It seemed likely that the company would potentially use TQM SD concepts in selecting formwork when the choice was possible 4.5 Conclusion This analysis reviewed the discussions held with a manager from three different companies. The companies represented three different types of construction organizations. These types included general contractors, formwork manufacturers, and specialty contractors. Background information and current practices provided insight into each company. Thi s was important because they were assumed to represent a small sample of the companies found in construction industry. It was critical to not only ask what the managers thought of TQM SD but to also find out what they thought about specific recommendation s. Although the conversations held were restricted to formwork material selection, the same principles can be applied to other

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74 construction processes. Two sets of recommendations were made. The first set involved using a type of measurement tool to asse ss environmental and economic performance of different material alternatives. The second set involved using management to maximize product quality and reduce material waste. These are recommendations that can easily be applied to processes other than for mwork material selection. Of the three companies, all of them showed an interest towards achieving optimum quality and sustainability. Two of the companies found that involving management in quality improvement and waste reduction was imperative. One company, the newest of the three, found that measurement could play an important role in selecting formwork. The enthusiasm shown by Company C may be because they deal primarily with formwork. Thus, they are able to better appreciate the pros and cons of different formwork systems. This may not be the case for Company A, which encompasses many trades. This may not also be true for Company B, a supplier and not an end user.

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75 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPL ICATIONS 5.1 Introduction There is a potential of implementing Total Quality Management and Sustainable Development ( TQM SD ) within construction companies. Top management commitment and feasibility are two criteria needed to successfully utilize this management style. Out of the three cases studied, tw o of the managers stated that maximizing reusability would be a beneficial concept TQM SD in formwork selection. However, they felt that the TQM SD management style would not be fully implemented for at least another ten years. Company C, on the other ha nd, already had some of the recommendations in place and was eager to learn about other TQM SD techniques. They felt that it could be very beneficial as it would allow the company to gain competitive advantage It can be concluded that because two senior manager s were committed to experimenting with new management style s TQM SD could be successfully implemented by Company C. 5.2 Conclusions about the Research Problem This research topic is important because it discusses a management style that incorpora tes two popular co ncepts: TQM and S D. Using the two concepts, companies have become more innovative than their competition. C onstruction companies using TQM and SD are more responsive to the needs of the ir clients and the community. By combining the two concepts these benefits can be multiplied. A comprehensive literature review was conducted. There appears to be a strong theoretical basis from this position. However, there are no examples discussing the actual implementation of TQM SD within a company. The existing literature describes conceptual models. This thesis is directed at advancing such models by engaging senior management in discussion revolving around implementation challenges. To achieve this

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76 goal, the opinions of senior managers from t hree leading construction companies were solicited. By analyzing their view s on the proposed management style, the viability of TQM SD in the construction industry can be determined. This study serves as the first step towards implementation of a potenti ally successful management style. 5.3 Implications A large number of people can benefit from the information in this thesi s. However, those that will benefit the most will be the companies that choose to implement elements of TQM SD in their infrastructu re. For the research community, this thesis provides preliminary information on the potential of using TQM SD in the real world It studies the first step in its implementation. R esearchers may look at specific principles or apply TQM SD to more general processes or operations. For construction students it provides insight into a potentially new management style. When students graduate they may find themselves working in a company that has i mplemented TQM SD. If not, the new graduates could use it to improve the existing management organization. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) can use the data in this thesis to improve the BEES software. For example not all m aterial choices are available within the program in its curren t format NIST may choose to add materials and processes to the software based on the results of this study. 5.4 Limitations Certain boundaries were applied to this thesis because of time and budgetary constraints First, only one process was studied. It was necessary to go into detail with one aspect of construction. Analyzing all processes executed by a construction company would have provided

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77 more in terms of quantity but not necessarily in terms of depth Moreover the principles used to asse ss formwork material selection can be applied to most, if not all, construction activities. The other limitation was the use of three case studies. Alt hough a large number of companies could have been target ed through surveys, questionnaires would not hav e provided sufficient infor mation for this subject; n or would they have allow ed for two way conversation s with the additional feedback obtained through a series of follow up dialogues The case studies provided a good strategy for in depth study of the re search issue s 5.5 Suggestions for Further Research As stated in a previous section of this chapter, this thesis will be beneficial to the research community. Because this study was based on the preliminary steps needed to imple ment TQM SD, researchers h ave the opportunity to build upon the initial findings. Further research may be done on the use of TQM SD concepts for other construction processes The s tudies could also use a larger number of companies. More research can be conducted using other simu lation tools such as the Impact Estimator by the Athena Institute Global E mission M odel for I ntegrated S ystems (GEMIS ) and other programs that assess environmental and economic performance.

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78 APPENDIX A COMPANY A BEES RESUL TS Figure A 1. Company A BEE S simulation r esults: Overall Performance F i gure A 2. Company A BEES simulation r esults: Environmental Performance

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79 Figure A 3. Company A BEES simulation r esults: Environmental Performance Figure A 4. Company A BEES simulation r esults: Economic P erformance

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80 Figure A 5. Compa ny A BEES s imulation r esults: Embodied Energy by Fuel Renewability

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81 APPENDIX B COMPANY B BEES RESUL TS Figure B 1. Co mpany B BEES simulation r esults: Overall Performance Figure B 2. Company B BEES simulation r esults: Environmental Performance

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82 Figure B 3. Company B BEES simulation r esults: Environmental Performance Figure B 4. Company B BEES simulation r esults: Economic Performance

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83 Figure B 5. Company B BEES simulation r esults: Embodied Energy by Fuel Renewability

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84 APPENDIX C COMPANY C BEES RESUL TS Figure C 1. Company C BEES simulation r esults: Overall Performance Figure C 2. Co mpany C BEES simulation r esults: Environmental Performance

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85 Figure C 3. Company C BEES simulation r esults: Environmental Performance Figure C 4. Company C BEES simulation r esults: Economic Performance

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86 Figure C 5. Company C BEES s imulation r esults: Embodied Energy by Fuel Renewability

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87 LIST OF REFERENCES Adrian, J. (2004). Construction Productivity: M easureme nt and Improvement S ti pes P ublishing Champaign. Barkawi, A. (2004). DJSI Identifies World Leaders in Sustainability. Business and the Environment 8. Biggs, B. (1999). Building for a Sustainable Future: Construction without Depletion, SETO London Dow Jones. (2006). Corporate Sustainability Retrieved January 4, 2009, from Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes: http://www.sustainability indexes.com/07_htmle/sustainability/corpsustainability.html Gr ayson, D., Jin, Z., Lemon, M., Rodriguez, M., Slaughter, S., and Tay, S. (2008). A New Mindset for Corporate Sustainability British Telecommunications London Griffiths, A. (2003). Building Corporate Sustainability. ECOfutures 1920. Hassan, O. (2006). An Integrated Management Approach to Designing Sustainable Buildings. Journal of Environment Assessment Policy and Management 223251. Haupt, T., and Whitemen, D. (2004). Inhibiting Factors of Implementing Total Quality Management on Constructio n Sites. The TQM Magazine 166173. Hill, R., and Bowen, P. (1997). Sustainable Construction: Principles and a Framework for Attainment. Construction Management and Economics 223239. Hurd, M. (2005). Formwork for Concrete American Concrete Instit ute, Farmingtion Hills: Isaksson, R. (2006). Total Quality Management for Sustainable Development. Business Process Management Journal 632645. Khalfan, M. (2006). Managing Sustinability within Construction Projects. Journal of Environmental Assess ment Policy and Management 4160. Ling, Y., and Leo, K. (2000). Reusing Timber Formwork: Importance of Workmen's Efficiency and Attitude. Building and Environment 135143. Lo, S., and Sheu, H. (2007). Is Corporate Sustainability a Value Increasing Strategy for Business? Corporate Governance: An International Review 345358. Miller, J. (2007). Reap the Benefits of Total Quality Management. Contractor's Business Management Report 111.

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88 Mohd, A., and Zairi, M. (2006). Sustaining TQM: A Synth esis of Literature and Proposed Research Framework. Total Quality Management 12451260. National Association of Home Builders Research Center. (2000). Total Quality Self Assessment, NAHB, Washington, D.C. Pheng, L., and Teo, J. (2004). Implementing T otal Quality Management in Construction Firms. Journal of Management in Engineering 815. Tam, V., Shen, L., and Tam, C. (2007). Assessing the Levels of Materal Wastage Affected by Sub contracting Relationships and Projects Types with their Correlatio ns. Building and Environment 1471 1477. Zairi, M. (2002). Beyond TQM Implementation: the New Paradigm of TQM Sustainability. Total Quality Management 11611172.

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89 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Priya Patel is from Naples, Florida. She received a bach elors degree in architecture from the University of Florida in 2003.