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"Our Lady of the Rivers"

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024406/00001

Material Information

Title: "Our Lady of the Rivers" Marjorie Harris Carr, Science, Gender, and Environmental Activism
Physical Description: 1 online resource (351 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Macdonald, Margaret
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: action, activism, alachua, archie, army, audubon, barge, bass, biology, boom, campus, canal, carr, conservation, corps, county, cross, dam, deauthorization, deauthorize, defenders, depression, discrimination, ecology, economics, ecosystem, engineers, environment, environmental, environmentalism, everglades, fishery, florida, gainesville, gender, grassroots, great, harris, hatchery, hydrology, ichthyology, jetport, land, lawsuit, marion, marjorie, movement, national, nixon, ocklawaha, ornithology, planning, protection, regulation, reservoir, restoration, richard, river, rodman, rural, science, states, undeveloped, united, university, welaka, women, zoology
History -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: History thesis, Ph.D.
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract: Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy 'OUR LADY OF THE RIVERS': MARJORIE HARRIS CARR, SCIENCE, GENDER, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVISM By Margaret F. (Peggy) Macdonald May 2010 Chair: Louise Newman Major: History This dissertation is the first scholarly biography of Marjorie Harris Carr, who led one of the United States' most influential grassroots environmental movements beginning in 1962. For thirty-five years, Carr struggled to stop construction of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' 107-mile Cross Florida Barge Canal, which would have linked the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean, and to restore the dammed Ocklawaha River Valley to its pre-canal state. Her campaign coincided with the emergence of a national environmental movement that blended the science of ecology with a wave of potent environmental legislation signed into law by President Richard Nixon. Through Florida Defenders of the Environment (F.D.E.), a coalition of volunteer scientific, legal, and economic experts from the University of Florida and other institutions, Carr demonstrated that the barge canal represented the conservation ethos of a bygone era. Work on a cross-state ship canal first started in the 1930s as a means of providing economic relief during the Great Depression. Construction stopped when World War II commanded the nation's economic and military resources. The canal remained in a state of suspended animation after Congress officially authorized the project in 1942 but failed to appropriate funds for construction. The project was resurrected in the 1960s as a shallower barge canal that would follow the same path as the 1930s ship canal. Plans called for the completion of five locks and three dams, plus the dredging of a twelve-foot-deep channel across the center of the state. The Ocklawaha River would be dammed at two points, and the St. Johns and Withlacoochee Rivers would also be altered significantly. Carr and Florida Defenders of the Environment demonstrated that the canal was a pork-barrel project that was neither economically nor environmentally sound. Canal boosters maintained that the canal would foster improved economic activity along the canal route, but F.D.E.'s economists accused the Corps of Engineers of fabricating an unrealistic benefit-to-cost ratio based upon incomplete and inaccurate data. In addition to proving that there was no economic justification for the canal, F.D.E. challenged the Corps of Engineers' nineteenth-century conservation ethos, which viewed the environment as a collection of natural resources to be manipulated and exploited by humans for human benefit alone. The Ocklawaha River Valley, which lay in the path of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, merited preservation as a unique regional ecosystem that supported a diverse variety of native flora and fauna, F.D.E. maintained. The Corps of Engineers had failed to include the loss of this environmental asset in its economic calculations. F.D.E. sued the Corps of Engineers in U.S. District Court for violating the public interest. Using its groundbreaking environmental impact statement to bolster its case against the Corps, F.D.E. won a temporary injunction against construction of the canal in January 1971. Days later, President Nixon halted construction of the canal. Carr led F.D.E.'s ongoing battle to restore the Ocklawaha River Valley until her death in 1997. Carr's leadership of the campaign to save the Ocklawaha River Valley furthers our understanding of women's role as leaders of the nascent environmental movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Moreover, her biography, which begins in the early twentieth century and ends at the century's close, contributes to our appreciation of women scientists' struggle to combine career and family. A lifelong naturalist and zoologist, Carr battled discrimination in academia and professional science, ultimately turning to conservation and environmental activism as an outlet for her professional aspirations. This dissertation positions Carr as a reference point from which conclusions can be drawn regarding other women scientists' experiences between the Great Depression and the late twentieth century. This dissertation contributes to the historiography of women and science, taking a longer view of Carr's career as a scientist and environmental activist. Using primary sources previously unavailable to scholars, this dissertation reveals the complexities of Carr's thwarted career as a scientist in the mid twentieth century, which ultimately contributed to her successful leadership of one of the nation's most important environmental conflicts. This dissertation examines Carr's struggle to remain relevant as a female scientist in the midst of institutionalized discrimination in academic and professional science, and positions her at the center of the nation's burgeoning environmental movement, which was strengthened by the campaign to save the Ocklawaha River Valley and other battles over Florida's environment. Ultimately, the environmental struggles of the late twentieth century were informed by competing discourses over the best use of the nation's air, land, and water, as a new environmental ethos challenged manifest destiny, which Americans had used to justify their exploitation of the earth for centuries.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Newman, Louise M.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2012-04-30
Statement of Responsibility: by Margaret Macdonald.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0024406:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024406/00001

Material Information

Title: "Our Lady of the Rivers" Marjorie Harris Carr, Science, Gender, and Environmental Activism
Physical Description: 1 online resource (351 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Macdonald, Margaret
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: action, activism, alachua, archie, army, audubon, barge, bass, biology, boom, campus, canal, carr, conservation, corps, county, cross, dam, deauthorization, deauthorize, defenders, depression, discrimination, ecology, economics, ecosystem, engineers, environment, environmental, environmentalism, everglades, fishery, florida, gainesville, gender, grassroots, great, harris, hatchery, hydrology, ichthyology, jetport, land, lawsuit, marion, marjorie, movement, national, nixon, ocklawaha, ornithology, planning, protection, regulation, reservoir, restoration, richard, river, rodman, rural, science, states, undeveloped, united, university, welaka, women, zoology
History -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: History thesis, Ph.D.
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract: Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy 'OUR LADY OF THE RIVERS': MARJORIE HARRIS CARR, SCIENCE, GENDER, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVISM By Margaret F. (Peggy) Macdonald May 2010 Chair: Louise Newman Major: History This dissertation is the first scholarly biography of Marjorie Harris Carr, who led one of the United States' most influential grassroots environmental movements beginning in 1962. For thirty-five years, Carr struggled to stop construction of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' 107-mile Cross Florida Barge Canal, which would have linked the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean, and to restore the dammed Ocklawaha River Valley to its pre-canal state. Her campaign coincided with the emergence of a national environmental movement that blended the science of ecology with a wave of potent environmental legislation signed into law by President Richard Nixon. Through Florida Defenders of the Environment (F.D.E.), a coalition of volunteer scientific, legal, and economic experts from the University of Florida and other institutions, Carr demonstrated that the barge canal represented the conservation ethos of a bygone era. Work on a cross-state ship canal first started in the 1930s as a means of providing economic relief during the Great Depression. Construction stopped when World War II commanded the nation's economic and military resources. The canal remained in a state of suspended animation after Congress officially authorized the project in 1942 but failed to appropriate funds for construction. The project was resurrected in the 1960s as a shallower barge canal that would follow the same path as the 1930s ship canal. Plans called for the completion of five locks and three dams, plus the dredging of a twelve-foot-deep channel across the center of the state. The Ocklawaha River would be dammed at two points, and the St. Johns and Withlacoochee Rivers would also be altered significantly. Carr and Florida Defenders of the Environment demonstrated that the canal was a pork-barrel project that was neither economically nor environmentally sound. Canal boosters maintained that the canal would foster improved economic activity along the canal route, but F.D.E.'s economists accused the Corps of Engineers of fabricating an unrealistic benefit-to-cost ratio based upon incomplete and inaccurate data. In addition to proving that there was no economic justification for the canal, F.D.E. challenged the Corps of Engineers' nineteenth-century conservation ethos, which viewed the environment as a collection of natural resources to be manipulated and exploited by humans for human benefit alone. The Ocklawaha River Valley, which lay in the path of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, merited preservation as a unique regional ecosystem that supported a diverse variety of native flora and fauna, F.D.E. maintained. The Corps of Engineers had failed to include the loss of this environmental asset in its economic calculations. F.D.E. sued the Corps of Engineers in U.S. District Court for violating the public interest. Using its groundbreaking environmental impact statement to bolster its case against the Corps, F.D.E. won a temporary injunction against construction of the canal in January 1971. Days later, President Nixon halted construction of the canal. Carr led F.D.E.'s ongoing battle to restore the Ocklawaha River Valley until her death in 1997. Carr's leadership of the campaign to save the Ocklawaha River Valley furthers our understanding of women's role as leaders of the nascent environmental movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Moreover, her biography, which begins in the early twentieth century and ends at the century's close, contributes to our appreciation of women scientists' struggle to combine career and family. A lifelong naturalist and zoologist, Carr battled discrimination in academia and professional science, ultimately turning to conservation and environmental activism as an outlet for her professional aspirations. This dissertation positions Carr as a reference point from which conclusions can be drawn regarding other women scientists' experiences between the Great Depression and the late twentieth century. This dissertation contributes to the historiography of women and science, taking a longer view of Carr's career as a scientist and environmental activist. Using primary sources previously unavailable to scholars, this dissertation reveals the complexities of Carr's thwarted career as a scientist in the mid twentieth century, which ultimately contributed to her successful leadership of one of the nation's most important environmental conflicts. This dissertation examines Carr's struggle to remain relevant as a female scientist in the midst of institutionalized discrimination in academic and professional science, and positions her at the center of the nation's burgeoning environmental movement, which was strengthened by the campaign to save the Ocklawaha River Valley and other battles over Florida's environment. Ultimately, the environmental struggles of the late twentieth century were informed by competing discourses over the best use of the nation's air, land, and water, as a new environmental ethos challenged manifest destiny, which Americans had used to justify their exploitation of the earth for centuries.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Newman, Louise M.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2012-04-30
Statement of Responsibility: by Margaret Macdonald.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0024406:00001


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1 OUR LADY OF THE RIVERS: MARJORIE HARRIS CARR, SCIENCE, GENDER, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVISM By MARGARET F. (PEGGY) MACDONALD A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILL MENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 2010 Margaret F. (Peggy) Macdonald

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3 To my Canadian grandparents, Dorothy and Bill Macdonald, who made Florida their home in 1948; to my mother, Katheri ne Macdonald, who showed me how strong a woman can be; and to Mimi Carr, who made this dissertation possible

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS It has been a privilege to study under Dr. Louise Newman, who helped pave the way for gender history at the University of Florida. In 2003 she convinced the history department to introduce gender history as a minor field of study. Dr. Newman and two additional committee members, Dr. Sheryl Kroen and Dr. Angel KwolekFolland, were instrumental in shaping my understanding of gender history. Dr. Jack Davis provided generous feedback on the dissertation and contributed to my understanding of environmental history and Florida history. I also wish to thank the other me mbers of my Ph.D. committee: Dr. Sevan Terzian and Dr. Steven N oll. I am grateful to the members of the 2007 O. Ruth McQuown Award selection committee. The award was a great honor and provided substantial assistance toward the completion of this dissertation. I am also honored that my Ph.D. committee (including Dr. Robert Zieger, who substituted for Dr. Kwolek Folland in 2006 while she was in London) nominated me for the Daniel J. Koleos Award which provided me with much needed assistance at the start of this dissertation project Dr. Alan Petigny encouraged me to pursue a doctorate in history when I was his student in 2001 and made sure I stayed the course. My father, Dr. Bruce Walton, provided much needed emotional support. From the time my son, Richard Macdonald, was eight months old, my piles of books, journa ls, dusty letters, and papers to be graded have merged with a succession of baby toys, Hot Wheels, Thomas trains, Legos, and Bakugan balls. Richard still competes with the laptop for a spot next to me on the couch. Throughout the writing of this dissertat ion, my mother, Katherine Macdonald, served as a willing sounding board. A former member of Marjorie Harris Carrs Girl Scout troop, my mother ha s remained friends with Carr s daughter, Mimi Carr, for sixty years. Moreover, my mothers experiences as a p rofessional woman in the 1980s provided inspiration for my writing. Like the Carrs, my family attended First Presbyterian Church in Gainesville. In 1982, a male

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5 church volunteer asked my mother divorced since 1976 and raising three children to report her occupation for the church directory. My mother explained that she was a law student at the University of Florida, executive editor of the law review, and a clerk at a prominent local law firm to which the man replied, Oh, youre a homemaker. My mother never corrected him. After graduating that spring, she was hired as the law firms first female attorney. Leslie Kemp Poole and Everett Caudles interviews with Marjorie Harris Carr were indispensable to my research and writing. Dr. Bertram Wyatt Brown was a wonderful role model early in m y graduate career Always smiling and donning a bow tie, he and Dr. Bill Link, who suc ceeded him as the Richard J. Milbauer Chair at the University of Florida, provided generous financial support when I worked as the M ilbauer assistant. Nick Williams shared F.D.E.s resources with me at the start of this project and pointed me in the right direction. Rosalie Lep osky helped me gain access to a treasure trove of digitized oral history interviews Robert Ryals of the Mil dred & Claude Pepper Museum and Library showed great kindness and professionalism by opening the facility to me at night and during the weekend so that I could examine the Pepper papers. Dr. Jim Cusick, Carl Van Ness, and the staff of the P. K. Yonge Libr ary of Florida History at the University of Florida provided assistance with the Florid a Defenders of the Environment and Archie Car r collections. I had the pleasure of interviewing Marjorie and Archie Carrs lifelong friend, Dr. J. C. Dickinson, Jr., before his death January 21, 2009, at age 92. He also permitted me to examine his records at the Florida Museum of Natural History, which he directed from 1961 through 1979. These papers included earlier correspondence with the Carrs, some of Marjorie Carr s publication materials, and items pertaining to her museum work in the 1950s. Interviews with Dr. Tom Carr, Dr. Archie (Chuck) Carr III, Dr. David Anthony, Dr. Joe Little, Dr. Elizabeth

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6 Wing, David Godfrey, and David Gluckman furthered my understanding of Carrs personal and professional life Additional oral history material came from Darren Preston Lanes forthcoming documentary, From Waterway to Greenway: The History of the CrossFlorida Barge Canal Lane traveled across Florida to interview many of the key players from both sides of the battle over the Cross Florida Barge Canal His interviews provide fresh insights into the continuing debate over the barge canal and restoration of the Ocklawaha River. I express my deepest gratitude to Mimi Carr, wh o shared her memories of her mother and father over the course of several lengthy interviews between 2005 and 2009. She also shared origi nal photographs of the Carr family and entrusted me with treasured family books and papers, including her parents love letters from the fall of 1936 through the s ummer of 1937. It was a rare honor to read these private letters, many of which were encased in envelopes that had resealed with time and humidity. These letters and additional documents offer a m ore complete picture of Carrs life than the one that existed before this new information was made available.

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7 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................8 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................18 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................21 2 MARJORIE HARRIS CARR S GIRLHOOD: A YOUNG NATURALIST GROWING UP IN FLORIDA ....................................................................................................................39 3 BLENDING SCIENCE AND MARRIAGE IN THE NEW DEAL ERA .............................79 4 HONDURAS IN THE 1940s: A NATURALISTS PARADISE .......................................129 5 MARJORIE HARRIS CARRS EARLY CONSERVATION CAREER ............................170 6 PROTECTING PARADISE: MARJORIE HA RRIS CARR LAUNCHES THE CAMPAIGN TO SAVE THE OCKLAWAHA RIVER ......................................................219 7 FLORIDA DEFENDERS OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE DEATH OF THE CROSS FLORIDA BARGE CANAL ..................................................................................274 8 CONCLUSION .....................................................................................................................324 LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................337 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................350

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8 L IST OF FIGURES Figure page 21 Charles Ellsworth Harris. Courtesy of Mimi Carr. ...........................................................73 22 Clara (Haynes) Harris. Courte sy of Mimi Carr. ...............................................................73 23 Marjorie Harris (center) with childhood friend Ralph Maglathlin (1916). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. ..........................................................................................................................74 24 T wo year old Marjorie Harris in Boston, Mas sachusetts (1917). Courtesy of Archie Fairly Carr III. ....................................................................................................................74 25 Marjorie Harris examining seashells with her father, Charles Harris, at Sanibel Island, Florida, in 1919. Courtesy of Mimi Carr. .............................................................75 26 Nine year old Marjorie Harris (front row, second from right), Bonita Springs School, Lee County, Florida (1925). Courtesy of Archie Fairly Ca rr III. .....................................75 27 Marjorie Harriss childhood home in Bonita Springs (1920s). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. ...................................................................................................................................76 28 Marjorie Harris riding her horse, Chiquita (1920s). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. ..................76 29 Marjorie Harris (center) with alligator skin, Bonita Springs (1920s). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. ..........................................................................................................................77 210 Marjorie Harris, Fort Myers High School senior picture (1932). Courtesy of Archie Fairly Carr III. ....................................................................................................................77 211 Marjorie Harris in Florida State College for Wome n graduation regalia (1936). She was a member of the Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi honor societies. Courtesy of Mimi Carr. ..........................................................................................................................78 31 The Welaka National Fish Hatchery is located in Putnam County, which borders Alachua County (where Gainesville is located) and Marion County (where Ocala is located). The Ocklawaha and St. Johns Rivers cross Putnam County. ...........................124 32 Aerial view of the Wel aka National Fish Hatchery. ........................................................124 33 The aviary at the Welaka Fish Hatchery (1935). Courtesy of the Florida State Archives. ..........................................................................................................................125 34 Stewart Springer and Marjorie Harris Carr with snakes at Bass Zoological Research Supply Laboratory, Englewood, Florida (1937). Courtesy of Archie Carr III. ..............125

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9 35 Archie Carr and Marjor ie Harris Carrs troth pledging ceremony (June 11, 1937). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. ....................................................................................................126 36 The interior of the Bass Lab, where Marjorie and her colleagues prepared zoological specimens for university research. Courtesy of Mimi Carr. ...........................................126 37 Bass Lab manager Stewart Springer (second from left), owner Jack Bass (second from right) and two unidentified lab workers (1937). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. ..............127 38 The exterior of the rustic Bass Lab (1937). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. ..............................127 39 Thomas Barbour, director of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Natural History (late 1930s). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. .................................................................128 310 Marjorie Harris Carr on a collecting and research expedition at the River Styx near Gainesville (December 1937). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. .................................................128 41 The San Antonio mining town near El Zamorano, Honduras. Photo by Margaret Hogaboom. Courtesy of Mimi Carr. ...............................................................................163 42 The Carrs faculty villa at the Escuela Agrcola Panamericana in El Zamorano. Photo by Margaret Hogaboom. Courtesy of Mimi Carr. ................................................164 43 J. C. Dickinson, Jr. (who later became the director of the Florida Museum of Natural History) and Marjorie Carr prepare bird specimens after a collecting expedition. Dickinsons son, J. C. Dickinson, III., sits to the right of his father; Chuck and Mimi Carr sit beside their mother while she works. Courtesy of Mimi Carr. ..........................165 44 Archie (left) and Marjorie Carr (right) prepare for a ride through the Honduran rainforest (1945). Photo by Margaret Hogaboom. C ourtesy of Mimi Carr. ..................166 45 Mimi and Chuck Carr play with sea turtles (1946). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. .................166 46 The Carrs nanny Tina, feeds Chuck and Mimi by candlelight (1947). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. ........................................................................................................................167 47 Marjorie Carr (center) with colleagues on a collecting and research trip in Honduras (1948). Archie is thir d from the left, looking down. Courtesy of Mimi Carr. ...............167 48 In 1948, Marjorie and Archie Carrs growing family included Chuck (left), Tom, Mimi, and Steve. Courtesy of Mimi Carr. ......................................................................168 49 Marjorie Carr examines the massive trees of the Honduran cloud forest near El Zamorano (1947). Photo by Margaret Hogaboom. Courtesy of Archie Carr III. ..........168 410 Marjorie Carr with a toucan she killed to add to her tropical bird collection (1947). She donated more than 2,000 bird specimens to the Florida Museum of Natural History at the University of Florida, the American Museum of Natural History in

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10 New York, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard. Courtesy of Archie Carr III. ............................................................................................................................169 51 Like her parents before her, Marjorie Carr taught her children about Floridas flora and fauna. Marjorie and her five children Mimi (bottom left), Tom, David (center), Steve, and Chuck (bottom right) at Cedar Key (1953). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. .................................................................................................................................213 52 Marjorie Carr rescued historic downtown Micanopys live oaks by convincing town leaders to declare them wards of the town. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. ......................213 53 Wewa Pond on the Carr family homestead. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. .....................214 54 Cattle rest under live oak trees at the Carr family homestead. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. .......................................................................................................................215 55 An other view of Wewa Pond. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. ...........................................216 56 A tree lined section of Paynes Prairie State Park. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. ............217 57 Another view of Paynes Prairie State Park. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. ......................218 58 An alligator crosses Lake Alice at the University of Florida. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. .......................................................................................................................218 61 A 1965 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers map detailing the organizations active and planned civil works projects in Florida. The Cross Florida Barge Canal is identified with a thick, black line. Note Florida is severed, with the panhandle near Key West. Summary of Civil Works Projects Under Construction and Studies in Progress, December 1965, Mildred and Claude Pepper Library, Series 301, Box 29A, Folder 4. .267 62 The Ocklawaha River in the early 1960s, before construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal. Courtesy of the Florida State Archives. ....................................................268 63 An anhinga dries its wings after diving for fish. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. ..............269 64 The Silver River (pictured) carries the crystal clear waters of Silver Springs to the Ocklawaha River. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. .............................................................270 65 Like the Ocklawaha River, Silver Springs (pictured) lay in the proposed path of the Cross Florida Barge Canal. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. ...............................................271 66 Turtles bask in the sun to remove algae from their shells at Silver Springs, approximately nine miles from the Ocklawaha River. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. .....272 67 Construction of the U.S. 19 bridge over the Cross Florida Barge Canal in Inglis, Florida (late 1960s). Courtesy of the Florida State Archives. ........................................272

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11 68 Construction of the St. Johns Lock, late 1960s. Floridas terrain has been transformed beyond recognition. Courtesy of the Florida State Archives. .....................273 69 Florida Governor Claude Kirk presents Marjorie Carr with the Gove rnor's Award for Outstanding Conservation Leadership (1970). Archie Carr is at right. Courtesy of the Florida State Archives. ...............................................................................................273 71 A detail of the completed sections of the Cross Florida Barge Canal. Courtesy of the Florida State Archives. .....................................................................................................317 72 A completed section of the Cross Florida Barge Canal near Palatka on Floridas eastern coast. Photo by Peggy Macdonald ......................................................................318 73 A view of the U.S. 19 bridge over the Cross Florida Barge Canal at Inglis, near the Gulf of Mexico. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. ................................................................319 74 The Marjorie Harris Carr Cross Florida Greenway is an uninterrupted wilderness corridor located on the lands formerly designated as barge canal right of way. The state protects all flora and fauna in the greenway. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. ...........320 75 Marjorie and Archie Carr each won the New York Zoological Societys Gold Medal for achievement in biological conservation in 1978; in 1988 the society made her a Scientific Fellow. Courtesy of Mimi Carr. .....................................................................321 76 Rodman (now George Kirkpatrick) Dam and Reservoir continues to interrupt the natural flow of the Ocklawaha River. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. ...............................321 77 Trees killed when Rodman Reservoir flooded the Ocklawaha River Valley in 1968 still drift toward Rodman Dam. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. ........................................322 78 Anglers fish near Rodman Dam; the Ocklawaha River is seen in the distance. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. .......................................................................................................322 79 A great egret hunts along the banks of the Ocklawaha River near Rodman Dam. The egret co mpetes with anglers (pictured above) for fish that pass through the dam. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. ............................................................................................323

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12 CHRONOLOGY: THE LIFE OF MARJORIE HARRIS CARR 1915: On March 26, Marjorie Harris is born to Clara Louise (Haynes) Harris and Charles Ellsworth Harris in Boston, Massachusetts. 1918: The Harrises and seven other Boston families follow the Florida dream to rural Bonita Springs, where Charles Harris purchases a ten acre orange grove near the Imperial River. 1927: On January 21, President Calvin Coolidge signs the River and Harbor Act into law. Among other things, the act authorizes preliminary studies and surveys of a cross state ship and barge canal. 1928: The Harrises relocate to nearby Fort Myers, where Marj orie Harris attends high school. 1931: Charles Harris contracts pneumonia and dies. 1932: Marjorie Harris graduates from Fort Myers High School and enrolls in Florida State College for Women in Tallahassee, Florida, where she studies biology, ecology, botany, ornithology, and bacteriology. 1933: Harris spends the first of three consecutive summers working for the National Youth Administration, a New Deal agency. In return for leading a pioneering naturalist education program she designed for Lee County youth, she receives assistance with tuition, room, and board at Florida State College for Women. 1935: On August 30, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt authorizes five million dollars for construction of a thirty foot deep, sea level ship canal that is estimated to cost one hundred fortythree million dollars to complete. The ship canal is justified as a public works project that will provide Floridians with much needed relief during the Great Depression. The United States Army Corps of Engine ers was unable to recommend construction based upon the customary economic return basis, but Roosevelt was eager to create new jobs in the state. On September 19, a ceremony marks the official start of construction of the cross state ship canal. In December, President Roosevelt transfers the power to authorize grants for projects such as the ship canal to Congress. 1936: Harris graduates from Florida State College for Women with a B.S. in zoology. Her honors include membership in Phi Beta Kappa and t he science honor society Sigma Xi. She also becomes a charter member of the Florida Academy of Sciences.

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13 Cornell University and the University of North Carolina decline to admit Harris to graduate school, informing her that women are not welcome in her c hosen field of ornithology. Harris becomes the first female federal wildlife technician. Through her work as a biologist at the Welaka Fish Hatchery, she is introduced to the Ocklawaha River and her future husband, herpetologist Archie Fairly Carr, Jr. Michigan Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg challenges the cross state ship canal, observing that the project had never received Congressional authorization. Thirteen million cubic yards of material have been excavated, nearly 5,000 acres of right of way for the ship canal have been cleared, and four large bridge piers have been erected near Ocala. Because Construction funds for the crossstate ship canal are exhausted, however, construction comes to a stop. 1937: Marjorie Harris and Archie Carr elope and are married near the Everglades on New Years Day. Marjorie Harris Carr conceals her marriage while starting a new position as a laboratory technician and field collector at the Bass Zoological Research Laboratory in Englewood, Florida a six hour drive fr om her new husband, who is finishing his doctoral dissertation at the University of Florida in Gainesville. The couple corresponds daily during a separation that lasts for six months. Archie becomes the first student to receive a doctorate in biology at the University of Florida. Marjorie and Archie spend their first summer together in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where Archie studies turtles on a Thomas Barbour fellowship to the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard. Carr enters the graduate zoology program at the officially all male University of Florida, where Archie begins teaching biology in the fall. 1939: Marjorie and Archie lead students on the first of several research and collecting trips to Mexico. 1942: Carr graduates from the University of Florida with an M.S. in zoology. She publishes her masters thesis, The Breeding Habits, Embryology and Larval Development of the Large Mouthed Black Bass of Florida, in Proceedings of the New England Zoology Club The same issue features Notes on the Courtship of the Cottonmouth Moccasin, the first scientific paper Marjorie and Archie publish together. The United States Congress authorizes construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal along Route 13B, which crosses the Ocklawaha River Valley in North Central Florida.

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14 The estimated cost of the shallower barge canal is approximately forty four million dollars. 1943: On June 20, Marjorie and Archie welcome the birth of their first child, Marjorie (Mimi). 1945: On May 10, Archibald Fairly Carr III (Chuck) is born. The Carr family moves to Honduras, where Archie teaches biology at the Escuela Agrcola Panamericana. Marjorie and Archie explore the tropical rain forest s on daily excursions. Carr publishes her findings on the birds of Honduras in subsequent years (see below). Archie describes the Honduran ecosystemsincluding humans role within the ecosystem in High Jungles and Low (1953). 1946: On December 1, Stephen Carr is born. Writes Notes on the Breeding Habits of the Eastern Stumpknoc ker, Lepomis Punctatus Punctatus (Cuvier) for the Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 1948: On March 15, Thomas Carr is born. 1949: The Carr family returns to Florida. 1951: Writes The San Geronimo Swift in Honduras for the Wilso n Bulletin 1952: On January 1, David Carr is born. Volunteers as a Girl Scout leader in Gainesville (through 1954). 1954: Joins the Board of Associates of the Florida Museum of Natural History at the University of Florida. Her donation of thousands of scientific skins from Honduras including many species that were new to the museum improves the museums tropical ornithology collection. 1956: The Carrs move to Costa Rica, where Marjorie teaches biology and chemistry at the Escuela Metodista in San Jo se while Archie helps establish the biology department at the University of Costa Rica (through 1957). Marjorie assists Archie with his sea turtle research as he creates a research and conservation station at Tortuguero. 1957: Joins the Gainesville Garde n Club and begins work on the Paynes Prairie preservation campaign. She serves on the board of directors from 1958 through 1962. 1960: Cofounds the Alachua Audubon Society. She serves on the board of directors from 1960 through 68 and from 1972 through 1980.

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15 1962: On November 8, Carr and fellow Audubon officer David Anthony host a meeting on the effects of the proposed Cross Florida Barge Canal. The movement to save the Ocklawaha River Valley begins. 1964: On February 27, President Lyndon Johnson igni tes a ceremonial blast of dynamite near the Ocklawaha River, marking the official start of construction of the 107mile Cross Florida Barge Canal. 1965: Writes The Oklawaha River Wilderness in Florida Naturalist Awarded the Florida Audubon Societys Award of Merit. 1966: Hundreds of activists travel to the annual water resources development meeting in Tallahassee to request that the proposed barge canal be rerouted to preserve the natural beauty of the river valley. State officials decide to continue construction along the current route before the public hearing even begins. Construction of Rodman Dam and Reservoir in the Ocklawaha River Valley commences. 1967: Writes What Do Users Want? Wilderness! in the Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Section of the Society of American Foresters. 1968: At the start of the year, three of the barge canals five navigation locks are complete and another is under construction, and sixtyeight percent of the canal right of way has been purchased. By the fall, five hundred acres of Rodman Reservoir have been cleared, Rodman Dam and the St. Johns Lock are complete, and Eureka Dam is under construction. On September 30, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers closes Rodman Dam and floods the R odman Reservoir. Thousands of dead trees float to the top of the pool. Invasive water weeds proliferate in the shallow reservoir. 1969: Carr cofounds Florida Defenders of the Environment (F.D.E.), which partners with the Environmental Defense Fund in fi ling a lawsuit against the United States Army Corps of Engineers for violatin g the public interest. Carr and F.D.E. develop a coalition of scientific, economic, and legal experts who contribute research to its environmental impact statement on the barge canals effects on the Ocklawaha regional ecosystem. Carr spearheads the campaign to preserve Lake Alice on the University of Florida campus after the university and the Florida Department of Transportation announce plans to build a cross campus highway a nd twelve thousandcar garage that will destroy the lake.

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16 1970: Writes Modulated Reproductive Periodicity in Chelonia (with Arch ie ) for Ecology The article reports on evidence from fifteen years of tagging at a Chelonia mydas turtle nesting ground at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. Writes Recruitment and Remigration in a Green Turtle N esting Colony (with Archie ) for Conservation Biology Paynes Prairie State Park is created. Awarded the Florida Governor's Award for Outstanding Conservation Leadership. 1971: The Cross Florida Barge Canal is halted at the judicial and executive levels. Writes The Fight to Save the Ocklawaha at the Twelfth Biennial Sierra Club Wilderness Conference in Washington, D.C. Joins the board of directors for the Florida Conser vation Foundation, serving from 1971 through 1990. 1972: Writes Site Fixity in Caribbea n Green Turtles (with Archie) for Ecology 1973: Wins the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs Headline Award. 1974: Wins the Fairchild Tropical Gardens Thomas Barbour Award. Joins the board of directors of the Institute for Social Policy Studies, serving through 1978. 1976: Writes An Interim Report on the Cross Florida Barge Canal and the case history section for In Defense of R ivers, A Citizens Workbook: Impacts of Dam and Can al Projects, published by the Delaware Valley Conservation Association Awarded the National Wildlife Federations Conservation Service Award. 1978: Writes The Ecology and Migrations of Sea Turtles: The West Caribbean Green Turtle Colony (with Ar chie and Anne B. Meylan) for Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History Awarded the New York Zoological Societys Gold Medal for achievement in biological conservation. 1980: Establishes the Envi ronmental Service Center in Tallahassee with the goal of fostering cooperation between citizens, government, and business in developing sound environmental practices. The center closes in 1988.

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17 1984: Awarded the Florida Audubon Societys Conservationis t of the Year Award. 1986: The Cross Florida Barge Canal is officially deauthorized. 1987: On May 21, Archie Carr dies. 1988: Writes the preface to Florida: Images of the Landscape Becomes a scientific fellow of the New York Zoological Society. 1989: Writes the foreword to Ecosystems of Florida 1990: Writes the video script for the F.D.E. production Restoring the Ocklawaha River (with fellow Florida Defenders of the Environment officer Jack Kaufmann). Cowrites and edits "Restoring the Ockla waha River Ecosystem" (an F.D.E. publication). Awarded the Teddy Roosevelt Conservation Award. 1991: Edits re publications of Archies High Jungles and Low and Ulendo. Awarded the Alexander Calder Conservation Award for Special Achievement. Awarded the Unsung Hero Award by the Miami Hosting Committee of the United Nations Environmental Programs Global Assembly of Women and the Environment. 1992: Edits The Case for Restoring the FreeFlowing Ocklawaha River (with David Godfrey, Jack Kaufmann, and Jeanne Marie Zokovitch). 1994: Edits A Naturalist in Florida: A Celebration of Eden, a collection of Archies essays. 1995: Writes Notes on the Birds of Honduras for the Years 19451949, with Special Reference to the Yeguare River Valley, Depa rtment o f Francisco Morazan, for Ceiba 1996: Inducted into the Florida Womens Hall of Fame. 1997: Inducted into the Florida Wildlife Federations Conservation Hall of Fame. On October 10, Marjorie Harris Carr dies in Gainesville at age 82. 1998: The land formerly set aside for the Cross Florida Barge Canal is named the Marjorie Harris Carr Cross Florida Greenway. 2010: Florida Defenders of the Environment enters the fortieth year of its campaign to restore the Ocklawaha River Valley to its pre canal state.

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18 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy OUR LADY OF THE RIVERS: MARJORIE HARRIS CARR, SCIENCE, GENDER, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVISM By Margaret F. (Peggy) Macdonald May 2010 Chair: Louise Newman Major: H istory This dissertation is the first scholarly biography of Marjorie Harris Carr, who led one of the United States most influential grassroots environme ntal movements beginning in 1962. For thirty five years, Carr struggled to stop construction of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 107 mile Cross Florida Barge Canal which would have linked the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean and to restore the dammed Ocklawaha River Valley to its precanal state. Her campaign coincided with the emergence of a national environmental movement that blended the science of ecology with a wave of potent environmental legislation signed into law by President Richard Nixon. Through Florida Defenders of the Environment (F.D.E.) a coalition of volunteer scientific, legal, and economic experts from the University of Florida and other institutions Carr demonstrated that the barge canal represented the conservation ethos of a byg one era. Work on a cross state ship canal first started in the 1930s as a means of providing economic relief during the Great Depression. Construction stopped when World War II commanded the nations economic and military resources. The canal remained in a state of suspended animation after Congress officially authorized the project in 1942 but failed to appropriate funds for construction. The project was resurrected in the 1960s as a shallower barge

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19 canal that would follow the same path as the 1930s shi p canal. Plans called for the completion of five locks and three dams, plus the dredging of a twelve foot deep channel across the center of the state. The Ocklawaha River would be dammed at two points, and the St. Johns and Withlacoochee Rivers would als o be altered significantly. Carr and Florida Defenders of the Environment demonst rated that the canal was a porkbarrel project that was neither economically nor environmentally sound. Canal boosters maintained that the canal would foster improved economic activity along the canal route, but F.D.E.s economists accused the Corps of Engineers of fabricating an unrealistic benefit to cost ratio based upon incomplete and inaccurate data. In addition to proving that there was no economic justification for the canal, F.D.E. challenged the Corps of Engineers nineteenthcentury conservation ethos, which viewed the environment as a collection of natural resources to be manipulated and exploited by humans for human benefit alone. The Ocklawaha River Valley whic h lay in the path of the Cross Florida Barge Canal merited preservation as a unique regional ecosystem that supported a diverse variety of native flora and fauna, F.D.E. maintained. The Corps of Engineers had failed to include the loss of this environment al asset in its economic calculations. F.D.E. sued the Corps of Engineers in U.S. District Court for violating the public interest. Using its groundbreaking environmental impact statement to bolster its case against the Corps, F.D.E. won a temporary injunction against construction of the canal in January 1971. Days later, President Nixon halted construction of the canal. Carr led F.D.E.s ongoing battle to restore the Ocklawaha River Valley until her death in 1997. Carrs leadership of the campaign to s ave the Ocklawaha River Valley furthers our understanding of womens role as leaders of the nascent environmental movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Moreover, her biography which begins in the early twentieth century and ends at

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20 the centurys closecontribu tes to our appreciation of women scientists struggle to combi ne career and family A lifelong naturalist and zoologist, Carr battled discrimination in academia and professional science, ultimately turning to conservation and environmental activism as an outlet for her professional aspirations. This dissertation positions Carr as a reference point from which conclusions can be drawn regarding other women scient ists experiences between the Great Depression and the late twentieth century This dissertation contributes to the historiography of women and science, taking a longer view of Carrs career as a scientist and environmental activist. Using primary sources previously unavailable to scholars, this dissertation reveals the complexities of Carrs thwarted career as a scientist in the mid twentieth century, which ultimately contributed to her successful leadership of one of the nations most important environmental conflicts. This dissertation examines Carrs struggle to remain relevant as a female sci entist in the midst of institutionalized discrimination in academic and professional science and positions her at the center of the nations burgeoning environmental movement, which was strengthened by the campaign to save the Ocklawaha River Valley and ot her battles over Floridas environment. Ultimately, the environmental struggles of the late twentieth century were informed by competing discourses over the best use of the nations air, land, and water, as a new environmental ethos challenged manifest de stiny, which Americans had used to justify their exploitation of the earth for centuries.

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21 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The Ocklawaha is a wild, winding river that flows north toward the Atlantic Ocean (via the St. Johns River). As recently as the 1850s, Seminoles used this ancient river located in remote Central Florida for transportation. They camped along its banks, hunting black bear, panther, white tailed deer, and turkey. In 1936, when the twentyone year old scientist Marjorie Harris1 (19151997) first encountered the Ocklawaha, its abundant flora and fauna remained relatively unchanged. Because the river was removed from the coast and far from Floridas major cities, it remained largely undeveloped. Its expansive valley and varied habitats supported a diverse variety of native plants and animals. By sheer luck, the Ocklawaha lay mostly undisturbed for another three decades, dodging the massive development that accompanied the states postwar population boom of the 1940s and 1950s. This would al l change in 1962, when the United States Army Corps of Engineers reached the final stage of its plan to dam the river at two points. Damming the Ocklawaha River would be a crucial step in the construction of a 107mile canal that would enable massive barg es to travel across inland Florida from the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean.2 The Cross Florida Barge Canal captured the attention of the scientist who had visited the river twenty six years before. By the time she first heard about the Corps plan to dam the river, Marjorie Harris Carr was forty seven and the mother of five children. She had studied the 1 Throughout this dissertation, Marjorie Harris Carr is referred to by her maiden name (Harri s) or her married name (Carr), depending upon the context of the chapter. The first chapter refers to Marjorie Harris as Harris, whereas the other members of her family are identified by first name only. In the sections that examine Carrs life after m arriage, Marjorie Harris Carr is identified as Carr, while her husband (Archie Fairly Carr, Jr.) and children (Mimi, Chuck, Stephen, Tom, and David) are identified by their first name only. 2 Contemporary documents pertaining to the Cross Florida Barge C anal did not consistently hyphenate Cross Florida. The Marjorie Harris Carr Cross Florida Greenway is not hyphenated. Remaining consistent with the hyphenation of the Cross Florida Greenway, Cross Florida Barge Canal will not be hyphenated in this diss ertation. Additionally, this dissertation uses the modern spelling Ocklawaha with a c, which officially replaced Oklawaha in 1992.

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22 Ocklawaha River for decades, first coming to know the river through her work as a biologist at the Welaka Fish Hatchery near Palatka. Carr later visited the Ocklawaha routinely to conduct research on the rivers substantial population of large mouthed black bass, a species that was the subject of her masters thesis at the University of Florida in Gainesville in 1942. Nobody would demonstrate a gr eater commitment to the cause of saving the Ocklawaha River than Marjorie Harris Carr. Her campaign to save the Ocklawaha River Valley spanned four decades, garnered national media attention, and contributed to the development of an emerging environmental ethos that transformed the American consciousness in the late twent ieth century. Although Carr s successful fight to stop construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal has been the subject of several Florida studies, her role in this transformation has f ailed to achieve the scholarly attention it merits at the national level. This dissertation situates the campaign to save the Ocklawaha River at the forefront of the environmental revolution that swept the nation in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Marjo rie Harris Carr first fell in love with the Ocklawaha River as a new graduate of Florida State College for Women in Tallahassee. Her first choice was to start graduate school in the fall, but in the 1930s, women faced discrimination in the graduate admiss ions process especially in the sciences. The director of the University of North Carolinas ornithology department told her point blank that women were not welcome in the field. Fortunately, the New Deal created fresh op portunities for women. Carr start ed work as the nations first female federal wildlife technician at the Welaka Fish Hatchery. Through he r work at the hatchery, Carr was introduced to the two loves of her life: the Ocklawaha River and her future husband, Archibald (Archie) Fairly Carr, Jr. (19091987), who was finishing his doctoral dissertation in biology at the University of Florida They met when Carr who had studied ornithology and

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23 bacteriology as an undergraduate traveled to Gainesville to use the universitys well equipped laborat ory to determine what had sickened some quail at the Welaka Fish Hatcherys aviary. It was love at first sight. Despite tremendous financial difficulties, the two young scientists eloped and started a fifty year partnership that combined science, family, and conservation. Nathaniel Reed, who served as the assistant secretary of the Interior for Fish, Wildlife and National Parks during the Nixon and Ford administrations, once described Marjorie and Archie Carr as the dynamic duo. Marjorie Carr s work t o restore and preserve the Ocklawaha and other Florida rivers led Charles Lee of the Florida Audubon Society to give her the honorary title Our Lady of the Rivers. Marjorie Carrs story which cannot be told without also addressing the life of her husba nd, Archie bridges the gap between the conservation mindset of the early twentieth century and the nations growing environmental awareness of the late twentieth century. Her biography contributes to the historiography of women, the environment, and Flori da. Although environmental history and the history of women and gender have received national attention, Floridas role in the environmental revolution of the 1960s and 1970s like the role of women in environmental history has only recently begun to recei ve the scholarly attention it deserves. Jack E. Daviss An Everglades Providence: Marjory Stoneman Douglas and the American Environmental Century (published in 2009) emphasizes the importance of Douglas, the Florida suffragist, late blooming environmenta list, and author of The Everglades: River of Grass, to the preservation of one of Floridas greatest ecological treasures. Douglass involvement in the campaign to stop the construction of one of the worlds largest airports in the heart of the Everglade s was a key factor in the creation of national environmental legislation designed to slow the pace of the tremendous postwar growth that threatened Americas environment a

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24 process that was especially visible i n Florida, which was still very much a frontier state at the beginning of the twentieth century. In a series of essays and her forthcoming doctoral dissertation, Leslie Kemp Poole illuminates the role Florida women played in organizing a national campaign to prevent the plume trade from driving sever al species of birds to extinction.3 Frederick Rowe Daviss The Man Who Saved Sea Turtles: Archie Carr and the Origins of Conservation Biology (published in 2007) chronicles the Florida scientists rise to international prominence as the worlds top turtle expert. Davis also acknowledges Marjorie Carr s environmental campaigns and her contributions to Archies scholarly work. Each of these scholars places Florida at the center of an evolving national discourse concerning the future of human relationships with nature and emphasizes womens importance in shaping this discourse. It is not the primary goal of this dissertation to provide a comprehensive history of the Cross Florida Barge Canal. This impressive feat has already been accomplished by Steven Noll and David Tegeder, whose Ditch of Dreams: The Cross Florida Barge Canal and the Struggle for Floridas Future (published in 2009) traces the canal from its origins in the dreams of sixteenth century Spanish explorers to its demise at the hands of Richard Nixon in 1971. This dissertation will expand upon the work of Noll and Tegeder and other schol ars who have addressed Carrs leadership of the Ocklawaha campaign by examining the events and historical forces that shaped her life in the years that preceded her work to save the river. Carr is a central figure in Sallie Rowe Middletons Cutting through Paradise: A Political History of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, which acknowledges her background as a naturalist and scientist but 3 See Leslie Kemp Poole, The Women of the Early Florida Audubon Society: Agents of History in the Fight to Save Stat e Birds, Florida Historical Quarterly 85 (Winter 2007), 297323. Her forthcoming dissertation on Florida womens conservation in the twentieth century will further advance our knowledge of Florida womens efforts to preserve the states flora, fauna, and wilderness.

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25 depicts her primarily a s a housewife.4 In contrast, Lee Irbys 2003 and 2005 essays on the Cross Florida Barge Canal stress the importance of Carrs scientific background to her activism. Although tagged with the moniker The Housewife from Micanopy, Irby maintains, Carr upe nded gender stereotypes by pursuing a scientific approach to environmental activism.5 In Women Pioneers for the Environment Mary Joy Breton describes Carr as another Florida environmental matriarch of the twentieth century, likening her influence to th at of Marjory Stoneman Douglas.6 Scholarly treatments of Marjorie Harris Carr have been divided by an analytical phenomenon that historian Thomas Laqueur has described as an interpretive chasm. On one side of the divide is the scholarly depiction of Car r as a scientist. The other interpretation is that Carr was a housewife. This dissertation argues that the self described housewife label was a rhetorical device used by Carr and other women who functioned within the public sphere during a moment of poli tical and cultural transition for women in the United States and other Western countries.7 The housewife persona served as an effective shield as Carr pressed local, state, national, and military organizations for further information about the canal. She sometimes masked the true extent of her scientific knowledge in her dealings with lawmakers, the Corps of Engineers, 4 See Sallie Rowe Middleton, Cutting through Paradise: A Political History of the Cross Florida Barge Canal (E.T.D. Collection for Florida International University, 2001), paper AAI3006860, http://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/dissertations/AAI3006860 accessed February 7 2009. 5 See Lee Irby, A Passion for Wild Things: Marjorie Harris Carr and the Fight to Free a River, in Davis and Frederickson, Making Waves 177 196; quote on 193. See also Irby, The Big Ditch: The Rise and Fall of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, in Jack E. Davis and Raymond Arsenault, eds., Paradise Lost? The Environmental History of Florida (Gainesville, 2005), 375 397. 6 See Mar y Joy Breton, Thinking Like a River: Marjorie Carr Saves a Wilderness River, in Women Pioneers for the Environment 245250, quote on page 245. 7 See Thomas Laqueur, Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud (Cambridge: Harvard University P ress, 1990).

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26 and the media. David Anthony, Alachua Audubon Societys copresident (with Carr) and the second president of Florida Defenders of the Envi ronment, explained how Carr exploited peoples preconceived notions of her femininity: She would say, Im just a poor little housewife from Micanopy, but and then just devastate her opponents with her total command of the subject.8 At the dawn of the 1980s, womens presence still was not welcome in politics at the state or national levels. Women first broke into the political arena of the late twentieth century by presenting themselves as traditional women women who did not appear to challenge the ge ndered order that excluded them from the public realm while in reality, they posed a direct challenge to the political order as it then existed. The nonthreatening house wife strategy provided Carr and such contemporaries as Paula Hawkins, the first woman elected to a full term in the United States Senate, and Corazon Aquino, the first president of the Philippines with the moral authority of an earlier wave of female activists. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Progressive reformers ex panded the confines of the domestic sphere to encompass the larger community, thereby justifying their participation in social work, conservation, nursing, teaching, and other public activities that were new or had previously been the purview of men. In her essays, letters, public appearances, and telephone conversations with politicians, supporters, and opponents, Carr presented herself as a reasonable voice for environmental stewardship. Yet when it suited her cause, Carr downplayed her scientific background and played up the unassuming housewife from Micanopy.9 8 Gainesville Sun October 11, 1997. 9 Chapter five addresses the self described housewife status of Paula Hawkins and Corazon Aquino in greater detail.

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27 The women who first made inroads into the (male) political arena did not embrace feminism. By describing themselves as housewives, these women appeared to accept and endorse the traditiona l role of middle class women and the gendered order as a whole the very order that had barred womens participation since the dawn of the republic. They were seen as feminine not as feminists. Floridas former Republican Party chairman Tom Slade recalled that Hawkins was better looking than most people who ever ran for office. These women manipulated their feminine image to infiltrate the (male) political realm in order to achieve their respective political goals.10 This dissertation seeks to broaden cu rrent interpretations of womens leadership styles within the environmental movement to encompass the contributions of professional women such as Marjory Stoneman Douglas, whom Jack E. Davis describes as both a writer and philosopher; and Carr, a scientist and naturalist. In Forcing the Spring: The Transformation of the American Environmental Movement historian Robert Gottlieb differentiates between male and female leadership styles, contending that the male style is based upon facts and science, w hereas the female style stems from womens direct experiences as mothers and nurturers. The Love Canal activists of the 1970s are characteristic of this experiential form of female activism, in which women became environmental activists after they wit nessed their family members endure the toxic effects of industrial pollution in their homes and schools. Although Gottlieb acknowledges that the women who engaged in the Love Canal campaign and others like it were transformed from housewives who had previ ously functioned primarily within the private realm of the home, to politically active public figures, he overlooks the activities of female activists who do not fit into this mold. Women such as Carr and Douglas were not merely adopting 10 Florida Senator Paula Hawkins, billed as the housewife from Maitland, dies at 82, St Petersburg Times, December 5, 2009; She Wins Votes, He Wins Senate Wives Club, The Deseret News February 14, 1982.

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28 male leadership styles favoring facts over feelings. They formed single issue organizations dedicated to studying local environmental issues, used the media to educate the public, and recruited state and federal assistance to achieve their goals. In 1969, Carr cofounded Florida Defenders of the Environme nt (F.D.E.), which developed an environmental impact statement that functioned as the primary evidence in its legal case against the Corps of Engineers. The key to F.D.E.s success was the coalition of scientific, legal, and economic experts who volunteered their services to the organization. Carr was the glue that held this coalition together. She harnessed the power of the activist science of ecology to convince politicians, the media, and the public that a completed Cross Florida Barge Canal would be an economic fiasco and an environmental tragedy. After a series of disappointing setbacks at the state level, she took the campaign to save the Ocklawaha River Valley to the national arena, presenting the scientific and economic argument against the canal to President Richard Nixon, who ultimately killed the canal. This dissertation blends biography, cultural history, and environmental history in order to incorporate Marjorie Carrs story into the larger historiography of women and the environment. This dissertation builds upon a larger body of work that examines opposition to federal agencies such as the Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, whose manipulation of the land came under attack with increasing f requency in the mid to late twentieth century. This dissertation also builds upon more than three decades of critical inquiry into the subject of women and work that reveals that cultural views concerning womens biological differences from men justified both womens exclusion from the public sphere and their acceptance there within carefully prescribed feminine fields such as volunteer work, social work, teaching,

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29 nursing, and conservation. As womens presence in higher education and the work force inc reased, university and employer practices enforced cultural notions of gender difference. This dissertation uncovers the story of one of the nations unsung environmental heroes while also addressing the larger issue of how American women surmounted the obstacles placed in their path during their transition from political exclusion to inclusion in national politics in the late twentieth century. Through her strong convictions, firm command of the new science of ecology, university connections, and phenom enal perseverance, Marjorie Carr championed a pioneering legal battle that provided the environmental movement with a landmark victory that would have far reaching consequences for federal agencies, real estate developers, private industry, and state and n ational politics. This dissertation applies a double lens to Carrs life and work. The narrative moves back and forth between the details of her life and the larger story of the fight to stop construction of the barge canal. The biography begins in the final moments of Floridas frontier history, examining Carrs naturalist upbringing in rural Southwest Florida. It touches on central themes from the history of women and science in the 1930s, when institutionalized discrimination in academic and professi onal science kept Carr from realizing her dream of achieving a formal career in zoology. Chapter one analyzes Marjorie Harris Carrs youth in Bonita Springs, Florida, where she moved with her parents, Charles and Clara Harris, in 1918. Carr grew up in an undeveloped section of the Gulf Coast, where she learned to identify the states bounteous flora and fauna. She also witnessed the effects of unregulated hunting firsthand, at a time when plume hunters nearly drove several species of Floridas native bir ds to extinction. When Carr attended Florida State College for Women in the 1930s, women could choose between a feminized curriculum

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30 that trained them to fulfill the traditional duties of a wife and mother, or a liberal arts curriculum that prepared women to enter the professions. The discrepancies between these two paths were reflective of competing discourses in higher education. As a greater number of women participated in higher education and entered the professions in the early twentieth century, cu ltural tensions erupted over the nature of womens pr oper place in society. Carr followed a liberal arts path, studying ecology and other biological scien ces. Carr became a Phi Beta Kappa scholar, was inducted into the science honor society Sigma Xi, and was appointed as a charter member of the Florida Academy of Sciences. Nonetheless, she was denied admission to graduate programs in ornithology because of her gender. This chapte r traces the origins of Carr s later activism on behalf of Floridas enviro nment to her youth, when she studied Floridas landscapes from the perspectives of a naturalist and a scientist. Although institutionalized discrimination resulted in the postponement of her graduate studies, Carr attained a first class education through the states gender segregated system of higher education. Chapter t wo reveals that despite Carr s excellent training in the biological sciences, she would continue to suffer the same discrimination in professional science that she had in academia. Alth ough the New Deal opened up new opportunities for women, it did not eliminate entrenched biases concerning womens pr ofessional abilities. Carr was hired as the first female federal wildlife technician through the New Deals Resettlement Agency. Yet the opportunity proved to be short lived. Her supervisor was troubled by the agencys decision to hire a female biologist. Nonetheless, Carr s resettlement work resulted in her marriage to a fellow scientist, who would help her gain admission to the graduate zoology program at the officially all male University of Florida. This chapter illuminates the tensions that existed within a marriage between two scientists during a time when men were expected to be the sole breadwinner.

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31 Recently discovered letters reveal a side of Marjorie and Archie Carr that has heretofore remained obscured. The portrait that emerges depicts two aspiring scientists who struggled to balance their personal and professional lives. Archies inse curities ultimately led Carr to place he r husbands career before her own. Chapter three examines the connection between hunting and conservation during Marjorie and Archies four anda half year sojourn in Honduras, where they studied the native flora and fauna on daily horsebac k rides while se rvants cared for their growing family. Although Marjorie and Archie would later embrace an environmental ethos that condemned hunting for sport, in the 1940s they shot thousands of animals for natural history museum collections, research, and to eat. At the time it was considered necessary to kill animals in order to study them. Over the course of the 1950s and 1960s, however, the Carrs would come to realize how fragile the ecosystems of Central America were as they witnessed the rapid deforestation that accompanied the growth of commercial agriculture there. Marjorie Carr s letters to her mother, Clara Haynes Harris; friends Lucy and J. C. Dickinson; and others contribute to our understanding of the Carrs conservation ethos as it existed in the 1940s. This material, previously unexplored by most scholars, makes it possible to scrutinize the ways Carr s early scientific career laid the groundwork for her later activism. Carrs letters from Honduras depict an early Cold War lifestyle that was free of th e confines of domesticity. In Honduras Carr enjoyed an informal career in science at her husbands side while servants supervised their children She and Archie adopted more traditional gender roles upon their return to Florida in the fall of 1949, but Marjorie Carr remained engaged in science as much as possible. Throughout the 1950s, Carr continued to assist with her husbands turtle research. By the end of the decade, she was engaged in a variety of conservation projects through the

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32 Gainesville Gard en Club and the Alachua Audubon Society. Over the course of the 1960s, the focus of Carr s activism shifted from conservation to environmentalism. Rooted in the nineteenthcentury view that the earth is composed of natural resources that should be harnes sed by humans, conservation was espoused by the Corps of Engineers, which viewed the Ocklawaha River as a resource to be tamed and exploited for profit. Guided by the relatively new science of ecology, the environmental movement gained momentum at the sam e time that Carrs Ocklawaha campaign was at its peak. The consequences of the transformation from conservation to environmentalism were profound. Since the first moment European conquerors and colonists had arrived in the New World, they had viewed t he land as a commodity to be exploited for profit. This mindset still thrived in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when several species of Floridas native birds were hunted almost to extinction in order to fuel a thriving international m illinery industry that decorated womens hats with plumes and whole birds. Florida was in the vanguard of the environmental revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, when a developing environmental ethos transformed the nations consciousness and ushered in a wa ve of pioneering environmental legislation. Inspired at the national level by the 1962 publication of Rachel Carsons Silent Spring, and at the state level by a series of near environmental catastrophes that thrust a powerful contingent of citizen activists into the spotlight, the nascent environmental movement was led by a loose knit coalition of academics, writers, and citizen activists who used the science of ecology to foster a new brand of stewardship of the earth.11 11 For a thorough analysis of Americans commodification of nature and its effects on the environment, see William Cronon, Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England (New York: Hill and Wang, 1983). Florida womens leadership of the movement to stop the plume trade is discussed in greater detail in chapter one.

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33 Carr s family reports that she lef t behind no letters, journals, or other personal records to document her personal life after the familys return from Honduras. The Florida Defenders of the Environment records provide extensive documentation of the campaign to save the Ocklawaha and othe r environmental matters, but the only rem aining personal records Carr left behind are the ones utilized in the first three chapters. Consequently, chapters four through six focus more exclusively on her developing activist career than on her personal life C hapter four scrutinizes Carr s early conservation career, utilizing oral history interviews, archival material, and newspaper articles to uncover the details of her campaigns to restore and preserve Payne s Prairie and Lake Alice in Alachua County, Flor ida; her opposition to the proposed route of Interstate 75 which sliced through her familys homestead and divided Paynes Prairie; and her later efforts to stop construction of a proposed turnpike from Jacksonville to Tampa because of the threat the highw ays posed to environmentally sensitive lands in North Central Florida. Oral history helps flesh out some of the details of Carr s life from the 1950s through her death in 1997. The 1950s were a transitional period for Carr, who gave birth to her fifth child at the beginning of the decade and was ensconced in an activist career by its close. Many of her conservation projects involved local land preservation. As Floridas unchecked growth increasingly encroached upon the states remaining wild places, Carr and other activists realized that they needed to take action to protect large tracts of land that promoted biodiversity. By 1962 she was ready to take on a revolutionary campaign against the largest builder of dams, canals, channels, and reservoirs in t he nation. Chapter five begins to examine the politics of the controversy over the proposed Cross Florida Barge Canal in greater detail but also contends that Marjorie and Archie Carr represented a new breed of activist scientist, having discarded the con servation ethos of their younger days.

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34 Archies turtle studies led him to believe that scientists were ethically compelled to take action on behalf of the environment or there would be nothing left to stand up for. Carr helped her husband establish a sea turtle research and conservation station at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. In return, Archie supported all of his wife s conservation and environmental campaigns, writing letters to university officials and politicians to explain the ecological reasons that jus tified land preservation in Florida. Marjorie Carr would make the case that the barge canal was a dinosaur, a product of nineteenthcentury thinking that should not be built for economic and environmental reasons. Carrs campaign to save the Ocklawaha R iver officially started on November 8, 1962, when she and fellow activist David Anthony, a University of Florida biochemistry professor who cofounded the Alachua Audubon Society with Carr held a public meeting. They invited representatives of the state conservation board to discuss the effects of the proposed barge canal on the Ocklawaha River Valley. The audience was composed of many members of the University of Florida community, including professors who would later form the nucleus of F.D.E. The campaign to save the Ocklawaha River was centered in Alachua County, which stood to gain nothing from the canals construction. The threatened portion of the river was located primarily in neighboring Marion County, where government officials and businessmen touted the canals economic benefits. Historians Steven Noll and David Tegeder contend that Marion County, which lacked a university, had dreamed of becoming an inland port city for decades. From the perspective of canal proponents, the college town of G ainesville was filled with bird watchers and little old ladies in tennis shoes, the chosen epithets for Audubon Society activists and other conservationists and environmentalists. Canal boosters underestimated the threat posed by an environmental campaign backed by the intellectual

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35 resources of the University of Florida, which boasted an impressive number of experts in ecology, hydrology, geology, finance, and the law areas of expertise that would bolster F.D.E.s case against the completion of the bar ge canal. Construction of a cross state ship canal had first started during the Great Depression as a means of providing economic relief to Florida. Americas involvement in World War II halted construction of the canal before much had been accomplished. In 1942, the canal project received Congressional authorization this time in the form of a shallower barge canal. Yet Congress decided against appropriating funds for construction. Canal proponents pushed for funding for the next two decades. Construct ion along the Ocklawaha River started in 1964. By that point, Marjorie Carr had led a localized movement to reroute the canal around the Ocklawaha River Valley for more than a year. In a 1965 Florida Naturalist essay, Carr referred to this area as the Ocklawaha Regional Ecosystem. The essay laid the philosophical groundwork for the movements conversion from a regional movement that centered its efforts on lobbying state politicians, to a national environmental campaign that brought the little known rive r to the attention of the nation. Chapter five concludes with an analysis of the Ocklawaha campaigns transition from a conservation approach that emphasized the natural resources that would be lost if the canal were completed, to an environmental focus t hat emphasized the threat the barge canal posed to one of Floridas largest uninterrupted, ecologically rich areas of land. By the late 1960s, the Ocklawaha campaign had attracted the attention of the national media. The New York Times, Readers Digest and other major publications decried the rape of the Ocklawaha. After reading about the courtroom success of a new legal organization named the Environmental Defense Fund (E.D.F.) in Sports Illustrated, Carr contacted the national organizations leader s and convinced them to take on the campaign to save the O cklawaha.

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36 E.D.F. urged Carr and her allieswho were still operating under the auspices of the Alachua Audubon Society to form an independent, single issue organization dedicated to saving the Ockla waha. They dubbed their new organization Florida Defenders of the Environment (F.D.E. or E.D.F. reversed), and the two groups promptly started to develop the legal case against the Corps of Engineers. F.D.E.s first task was to complete an environmental i mpact statement, which contended that the barge canal should not be completed on economic grounds alone. In the space age, constructing a barge canal made no sense. The Interstate system facilitated cheaper, faster shipping via commercial trucking. More over, the economic benefits of the canal were exaggerated especially since the Corps of Engineers had never factored the environmental cost of losing the ecological value of the Ocklawaha River into their calculations when determining the canals benefit t o cost ratio. Finally, F.D.E.s environmental impact statement stressed the catastrophic environmental consequences the canal posed to the Floridan Aquifer, the states main source of fresh water. Despite the Corps of Engineers claims to the contrary, F .D.E.s hydrologists and geologists demonstrated that the porous aquifer which interacts with the surface water along the canal was vulnerable to saltwater intrusion and pollution from barge traffic. In 1962, at the beginning of the campaign to save the Oc klawaha, Carr and her fellow activists failed to incorporate the science of ecology into their cause. That same year, Rachel Carsons Silent Spring provided an alternative to the dominant discourse of conservation, which viewed nature as a collection of n atural resources designed to be harvested by humans. This prevailing discourse operated on the assumption that humans had the right to exploit the land through the indiscriminate use of pesticides, by damming rivers, by dredging and filling along

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37 the coas t to create new land for condominiums, and so on. Carson was instrumental in providing a counter discourse, while Carr excelled at putting it to use to mobilize her fellow scientists and the public to stop construction of an antiquated barge canal. Cars on set the stage for the environmental revolution of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Florida stood at the center of the momentous process that recast nature from a commodity to be exploited to something to be protected. In the early to mid twentieth cent ury, Carr had mastered an earlier form of ecology, which focused on single species within an ecosystem (primarily birds and fish in Carrs case). In the late twentieth century, she utilized the modern understanding of ecologywhich stressed humans role as either destroyers or stewards of the environment in her campaign to save the Ocklawaha. A combination of Nixons political aspirations and F.D.E.s sophisticated legal, economic, and ecological arguments against the Cross Florida Barge Canal led the President to order a halt to its construction in January 1971. This marked the beginning of F.D.E.s continuing efforts to restore the Ocklawaha River. In 2010, as the restoration campaign enters its fortieth year, the Ocklawaha remains dammed. Marjorie C arr died in 1997, before seeing the Ocklawaha run free. The following year, the Florida Legislature named the crossstate greenway that follows the path of the incomplete barge canal the Marjorie Harris Carr Cross Florida Greenway. Sadly, the marker that identifies the greenway on Interstate 75 is the most commonly recognized symbol of Carrs success. Carrs story, however, fits into the larger historiography of the environmental movement, which originated in the United States. Her successful campaign t o stop construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal was an important element of the emergence of the environmental movement in the late twentieth century. I have fashioned out of Carr s life a significance that she would not have foreseen, casting her as a heroine of not only the modern environmental movement, but of

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38 the larger struggle of twentieth century American women to work within the constraints placed upon their gender while simultaneously crafting a more satisfying professional life.

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39 CHAPTER 2 MARJORIE HARRIS CARRS GIRLHOOD: A YOUNG NATURALIST GROWING UP IN FLORIDA Marjorie Harris Carr was born in Boston, Massachusetts on March 26, 1915. Her father, Charles Ellsworth Harris, was a farmer at heart. Originally from New Hampshire, Charles aba ndoned a career in law to teach Italian immigrants children in Boston. Charles and his wife, Clara Louise (Haynes) Harris, were snowbirdsNortherners who wintered in Florida. In the early twentieth century, South Florida land speculators pitched the benefits of the states tropical climate to all who would listen, claiming that an industrious individual could retire after running a family orange grove for ten years. In 1918, when Harris was three years old, her father relocated the family to a ten acr e orange grove in remote Southwest Florida. The Harris family moved into a modest house three miles south of Bonita Springs (formerly known as Surveyors Creek), near the Imperial River. Charles and Claras decision to move to rural Bonita Springs would instill a love of natural Florida in their young daughter, who would later champion the cause of restoring and preserving the states wild and scenic rivers. The Harrises were joined by all of their female relatives and some family friends twelve families in allwho moved to Fort Myers and regions further south to grow oranges .1 These transplanted Bostonians attempted to create a small haven for New Englanders in sparsely populated Lee County, where Harris s father had purchased a house and approximately ten acres of orange groves on a small plot of land formerly occupied by the Calusa people. Massive shell mounds in nearby Estero provide evidence that the Calusa had inhabi t ed the region as early as twelve thousand yea rs ago. The parents of Harris s futu re husband, Archie Carr, 1 Authors interviews with Mimi Carr, November 1 1, 2005 and August 6, 2008. Marjorie Harris Carr recounts her fathers decision to purchase a small Florida orange grove in an April 24, 1989 interview with Everett Caudle, courtesy of the University of Florida Oral History Program.

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40 would purchase a small orange grove in Umatilla, Florida, about a decade later, providing Harris and Carr with a shared connection to rural Florida Yet very few small family citrus growers turned a profit in the early to mid twen tieth century. As the citrus industry consolidated, Florida and California farmers formed cooperatives, which left little room for family growers to compete.2 Although oranges are actually native to Southeast Asia, Florida promoters had used images of cit rus in subtropical Florida to lure tourists and permanent residents to the state since the late nineteenth century.3 Representing the clash between Floridas native plant life and the states agricultural industry, the citrus industry was responsible both for improving Americans health and permanently altering Floridas landscape and wildlife habitats. New World citrus was first planted in Hispaniola in 1493, during Columbuss second voyage to the Americas. It is believed that citrus was first introduced to Florida at St. Augustine in 1565. By 1774, when the naturalist William Bartram traveled up the St. Johns River, he reported finding wild orange groves scattered across the higher regions of land where he camped at night. Early promoters used images and narratives depicting Florida as a land of orange groves and Edenic gardens. The Harrises originally a farming family were drawn to the idea of escaping the big city lifestyle and retreating to a small patch of Florida orange groves. In reality, orange groves do not reach maturity for three to six years, and they seldom produce enough fruit to enable a small 2 The Calusa encounter ed Ponce de Leon in 1513 and 1521, in addition to Spanish and Cuban settlers. They vanished in the mid 1700s. See The History of Fort Myers, Greater Fort Myers Chamber of Commerce website ( www.fortmyers.org/fort myers history.htm ), accessed August 4, 2009. See also authors interviews with Mimi Carr, November 11, 2005 and August 6, 2008. 3 For more information on the spread of citrus from Asia to the Mediterranean and eventually to the Americas, see Raymond E. Crist, The Citrus Industry in Florida, American Journal of Economics and Sociology 15:1 (October, 1955), 1 12.

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41 farmer to turn a profit for about a decade, but promoters offered exaggerated visions of instant success.4 Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, who won the 1939 Pulitzer Prize for fiction for The Yearling made her home on a 72acre orange grove in North Central Florida in 1928. When her husband, Charles, later returned to New York Rawlings decided to remain in rural Cross Creek. Her writers retreat became the setting for several of her novels, including South Moon Under Cross Creek, Golden Apples and The Yearling. The reclusive writer captured the rugged lifestyle of the Florida Crackers and their environment, making the land itself a main character in her writing. In Cross Creek she described the allure of Florida citrus groves: To walk under the arched canopy of their jadelike leaves; to see the long aisles of lichened trunks stretch ahead in geometric rhythm; to feel the mystery of a seclusion that yet has shafts of light striking through it. This is the essence of an ancient and secret magic. It goes back, perhapsto an atavistic sense of safety and delight in an open forest.5 At the time the Harris clan settled in Lee County, Southwest Florida was a haven for small family citrus growers Considered a luxury item since ancient times, oranges attracted such great thinkers as Rawlings, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Thomas Edison, and Henry Ford to Florida. Stowe managed a profitable orange grove in Mandarin for almost two decades. John James Audubon sketched Florida birds on orange branches when he visited the state in 1831. Combining images of religion, art, and nature, Florida advertisements and literature tantalized Americans with the promise of par adise. Oranges were frequently at the heart of these imag es. 4 Helen L. Kohen, Perfume, Postcards, and Promises: The Orange in Art and Industry, The Journal of Decorative and P ropaganda Arts 23 (Florida Theme Issue, 1998), 33 47. 5 Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Cross Creek (New York: Touchstone Books, published by Simon and Schuster, 1996), 16. For further analysis of the role of the land in Rawlings writing, see Gordon E. Bigelo w, Frontier Eden: The Literary Career of Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1980).

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42 By 1894, Floridas citrus industry produced five million boxes of fruit per year. At the turn of the century, Florida postcards depicted families at work in their private orange groves, but la rger citrus operations became the norm as the twentieth century wore on. Large packing houses and citrus cooperatives had spread across the state by the 1920s.6 After a series of hard freezes in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the citru s industry relocated to Central and South Florida. Fort Myers was situated far enough to the South to provide excellent growing conditions for citrus. In 1895, Fort Myers was reported to be the southernmost point at which orange groves had been planted, but subsequent freezes later drove citrus growers farther to the South.7 Marjorie Harris s moth er, Clara had descended from Boston urbanites. Yet she and her husband Charles taught their only daughter to be close to the earth. Without a radio or telephone (and a long time before television was invented), the Harris family spent much of their free time reading about and exploring their newly adopted homeland. Charles, who was able to trace his lineage to Puritan farmers, was educated in law at Dartmouth College Yet he had planned to carry on the familys farming tradition. When Charless older brother, a beneficiary of primogeniture, inherited the New Hampshire family farm, Charles became a teacher in the Boston school system. This is where he met his future wife, Clara, and her sister Ruth, who were both teachers. In a time of massive urbanization in America the Harris and Haynes families bucked a trend toward urban life Charles Harriss decision to purchase a Florida orange grove 6 Kohen, Perfume, Postcards, and Promises. See also Allen H. Andrews, A Yank Pioneer in Florida: Recounting the Adventures of a City C hap Who Came to the Wilds of South Florida in the 1890s and Remained to Grow Up With the Country (Jacksonville, Florida: Press of the Douglas Printing Company, 1950), 239. 7 Floridas liquid gold would become less of a luxury item and more a daily part of Americans diet by World War II, which would coincide with increases in population growth that only experienced a significant period of decline in the twenty first century. Crist, The Citrus Industry in Florida. For an analysis of Floridas postwar po pulation growth, see Gary Mormino, Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams: A Social History of Modern Florida (Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 2005).

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43 reflected his lo nging to return to his farming roots. His dream was to e stablish a small farm, Marjorie Harris recalled. In those days this was back in 1918they felt that having ten acres of citrus would support a person.8 The Harris family followed the same Florid a dream that would lead millions of Americans to start a new life in the Sunshine State My father, Harris explained, who was really a New Hampshire man, always thought, Why should anybody stay up in New England where you can only be out of doors for a few months in the year, when there is Florida where you can be out of doors all year round? As Charless new bride, Claras decision to join her husband in Florida seems natural. What is more surprising is the fact that much of Claras family followe d them. Perhaps they needed to combine family resources in order to afford the opportunity. Or maybe Charles and Claras zeal was so infectious that the members of the Harris clan merely got caught up in the excitement of the adventure. What prompted Cl aras extended family to join her in Florida remains a mystery, but they were part of a growing contingent of Northerners who moved to Florida in order to test their luck in the profitable orange industry.9 Soon after moving to Bonita Springs however, Charles realized that his newly acquired orange groves would not provide sufficient income to support a family. Out of economic necessity, Charles continued to teach in Boston seasonally, while his wife and young daughter spent several winters in Florida wi thout him. Charles continued this practice until Harris was seven years old, when the family settled in Florida together permanently. As the only child within both her nuclear family and the extended network of New England friends and family members who had migrated to the region, Harris had a lonely childhood. She turned to nature 8 Everett Caudle interview with Marjorie Harris Carr. 9 Authors interviews with Mimi Carr November 11, 2005 and March 7, 2007.

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44 and literature for companionship, devouring Rudyard Kiplings Jungle Book stories and acting out scenes from the books outdoors. Unfortunately, the rest of the Harris clan wa s unable to cope with the grim realities of managing a small orange grove as readily as Charles had been. Unable to travel north for seasonal work like Charles, many of the other Boston families had no choice but to return to New England.10 Nonetheless, citrus remained a profitable crop even during the agricultural recession of the 1920s, when prices for citrus remained steady due to the lack of foreign competitors and the fruits special climate and temperature requirements. While many American farmers witnessed a dramatic fall in crop prices after World War I, citrus growers enjoyed a nearly twofold increase in orange prices between 1920 and 1929.11 However, family orange growers were less likely to reap the record profits that citrus cooperatives experi enced in the 1920s. Large packing houses proliferated in this period, making it possible for cooperatives to sell their crop across the country. Family growers roadside citrus stands could not compete with the cooperatives organized marketing and shipping apparatus. It was very common to have a house and a small grove and sell fruit, Marjorie and A rchie Carrs daughter, Mimi, explained. But nobody could make it. None of the families liked it. By 1930, the Depression contributed to a dramatic dec rease in the price of oranges. Most of Marjorie Harris s relatives returned to New England in the early 1920s after a series of unsuccessful harvests in Lee County Harris and her parents were among the only Boston families who stayed. The departure of the Harris familys 10 Ibid. See also Leslie Kemp Poole interview with Marjorie Harris Carr, October 18, 1990. 11 For a statistical analysis of the Florida citrus industry in the 1920s, see Elizabeth Hoffman and Gary D. Libecap, Institut ional Choice and the Development of U.S. Agricultural Policies in the 1920s, The Journal of Economic History 51:2 (June 1991), 397411.

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45 transplanted New England support network heightened their sense of isolation in Bonita Springs.12 In 1922, when Charles Harris stopped teaching in Boston and joined the Harris family year round in Bonita Springs, the tiny town was littl e more than a frontier outpost. Surrounded by wilderness, Bonita Springs was home to just 175 residents, according to 1920 census data. Its nearby beaches remained undeveloped, and many residents made their living off the sea. The majority of Bonita Spr ings townsfolk worked on family citrus and vegetable farms. The town had a general store, one hotel, a loan and lease business, and a school. Unlike Marjorie Harris who was an avid reader, very few of Bonita Springs school age children knew how to rea d and write. While most Bonita Springs residents were born in Florida, others hailed from regions as far away as Maine, Scotland, Germany, and Portugal. Except for two Hispanic families, all of Bonita Springs residents were white, reflecting the extremely segregated residential patterns in rural Florida.13 To the Harris family, Bonita Springs was a naturalist s paradise. As a girl, Harris would explore the creeks, rivers, and beaches near Fort Myers (which was still a small town in the 1920s) with Chiquita, whom she referred to as a Florida Cracker horse. Originally a wild mare descended from Span ish stock, Chiquita was Harriss main form of transportation for several years in grade school. Additiona lly, the horse provided Harris with the ability to interact with the Florida countryside particularly its beautiful beaches, which were still covered in Native American shell mounds. I could go to Bonita Beach to race along the hard, sandy edge of the Gulf, or go swimming on horseback, she recalled. I d take my saddle off and Chiquita and I 12 Authors interview with Mimi Carr, August 6, 2008. 13 1920 United States census, www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~flswphs/records/census/boni1920_full.htm (accessed August 4, 2009).

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46 would go and jump in the waves. Although Lee County made some of its beaches more accessible to tourists during the1920s boom time through the addition of toll bridges and paved roads, the southwestern coastal are as remained relatively undisturbed until developers and former GIs who had been stationed in the region descended upon South Florida after World War II.14 In the 1920s, Bonita Springs was almost like an island unto itself. Harris would later describe Sout h Florida as a naturalists dream, a place replete with diverse flora and fauna that were not found in North Florida.15 She would play alone outdoors for hours each day, relating to the wild boy character of Mowgli in Kiplings The Jungle Book as she explo red her own subtropical forest jungle. She encountered thousands of species of plants, trees, reptiles, mammals, birds, fish, and insects on her journeys through Southwest Florida. The Florida panther, Southern bald eagle, Eastern diamondback rattlesna ke, water moccasin, dolphin, Florida Black Bear, and prehistoric creatures such as the North American alligator, manatee, stingray, loggerhead sea turtle, and several varieties of shark rivaled the wild animals Mowgli befriended in The Jungle Book In addition to providing companionship on her adventures through wild Florida Chiquita helped Harris cope with the isolation she felt growing up in a remote coastal settlement. Riding a horse to school lent Harris a certain air of sophistication that she cherished as a Yankee outsider in rural Florida.16 14 Marjorie Harris Carr, Chiquita, (n.p., 1996), in the Private Collection of Mimi Carr. See also Leslie Kemp Poole interview with Marjorie Harris Carr, October 18, 1990; authors interview with Mimi Carr, August 6, 2008; Sand in Her Shoes, River in Her Blood, St. Petersburg Times November 18, 1996. For more information on Lee Countys beaches in the 1920s, see Town of Fort Myers Beach Florida Island History ( www.fortmyersbeachfl.gov/index.aspx?nid=60 ), accessed August 4, 2009. See Mormino, Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams for a detail ed analysis of the postwar population and development boom in Florida. 15 Marjorie Harris Carrs letters to Archie Carr, November 1936 through July 1937, in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 16 Ibid. See also Leslie Kemp Poole interview with Marjorie Harris Carr, October 18, 1990. For information on Lee Countys beaches in the 1920s, see Town of Fort Myers Beach Florida Island History

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47 Although Harris was proud of her New England heritage (especially her fathers New Hampshire background), her Yankee accent gave her peers at school cause to tease and ostracize her. The wounds of the Civil War were still felt d eeply in the South, and Harris and her New England kin were viewed as outsiders. Florida was a Jim Crow state. Endemic racial discrimination continued to plague African Americans, who lived in segregated neighborhoods or in separate small towns divided from nearby to wns populated by whites. Vagrancy laws defied c onstitutional protections against enslavement of African Americans, who were often forced to work without wages in Florida and other Southern states.17 The reemergence of the Ku Klux Klan following World War I was particularly strong in Florida, where some of the most violent acts of racism emerged. In the interest of maintaining white supremacy in the state, Klan members burned African Americans at the stake, hanged them and torched their houses, schools, and churches.18 The college town of Gainesville, Florida played host to a massive Klan rally and march on New Years Eve 1922, the night before the infamous Rosewood massacre. On New Years Day 1923, approximately 500 whites formed a lynch mob after Fanny Taylor, a white woman, claimed that she had been attacked by a black man. Scholars now contend Taylor was actually involved in a consensual extramarital affair with a white man, who had hit her in the face. T o conceal the affair, she fabricated a story about a black attacker. The target of the angry mobs wrath was the predominantly African American town of Rosewood, Florida, located about fifty ( www.fortmyersbeachfl.gov/index.aspx?nid=60 ), accessed A ugust 4, 2009. See Mormino, Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams for a detailed analysis of the postwar population and development boom in Florida. 17 In the early twentieth century, race relations in Florida resembled conditions in other Southern states. Se e Jerrell H. Shofner, The Legacy of Racial Slavery: Free Enterprise and Forced Labor in Florida in the 1940s, The Journal of Southern History 47:3 (August 1981), 411 426. 18 For more information on the Rosewood Massacre, see Richard Newman, Rosewood Rev isited, Transition 80 (1999), 32 39.

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48 miles southwest of Gainesville. The mob set fire to every residence, the school, the church, and the Masonic lodge and murdered many of Rosewoods black residents, including women and children. Those who survived abandoned their homes and created new lives elsewhere, burying the story of their tragic loss for generations. A specia l grand jury charged with investigating the Rosewood massacre determined that there was no evidence that would support criminal charges. The only house left standing in Rosewood belonged to a white man. Nobody was ever arrested for the crimes committed a t Rosewood. The state of Florida later sold the other Rosewood residents property to whites. Most of the Rosewood survivors feared that they would lose their lives if they shared their stories about the carnage. To this day, the Klan thrives near Rosew ood and in other parts of rural Florida. Justice for the survivors of Rosewood was finally served in 1993, when historians prepared A Documented History of the Incident Which Occurred at Rosewood, January, 1923 for the State Legislature. The following ye ar, Florida became the first state in the nation to pass legislation that would compensate victims of past racial violence.19 In the 1920s, Bonita Springs shared the same small town Florida racial philosophy that had produced the Rosewood massacre. Although she was the child of N ortherners, Marjorie Harris s upbringing in r ural Lee County made her a witness to the type of discriminatory behavior that occurred throughout Florida. As mentioned previously, Bonita Springs was an entirely white community, and the towns schools, churches, and businesses were all run by whites for the benefit of white patrons. Whether Charles and Clara Harris were cognizant of this fact before they moved to the region is unclear. Yet it is evident that the primary reason for the 19 Newman, Rosewood Revisited; R. Thomas Dye, The Rosewood Massacre: History and the Making of Public Policy, The Public Historian 19:3 (Summer 1997), 25 39; R. Thomas Dye, Larry E. Rivers, David R. Colburn, Willia m R. Rogers, and Maxine D. Jones, A Documented History of the Incident Which Occurred at Rosewood, Florida in January, 1923: A Report Submitted to the Florida Board of Regents, December 1993, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida.

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49 familys move to Bonita Springs was to resume the farming life Charles had cherished in his youth, and to raise their daughter in the natural surroundings of wild Florida.20 The Harris home was well stocked with field guides to the states flora and f auna, in addition to the works of New England nature writers such as Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson. Charless New Hampshire bred Puritan values molded Harris These early years shaped her sense of stewardship of the earth, which she believed was a distinctively New England, Puritan trait. My feeling is that a lot of the environmentalists here in Florida got their sense of environmental stewardship fromPuritanism and early settlers in New England, she said in the last decade of her life. An awful lot of people who are interested in the environmental movement originally came from New England.21 Environmental historians such as William Cronon have chronicled the Puritans manipulation of the land, which they viewed as property that belonge d to colonists who improved it by exploiting its natural resources, even if the land had been hunted for generations by Native Americans. Nonetheless, Puritan teachings stressed the importance of civic service. Charles Harris instilled the ethic of Puritan stewardship in his daughter, who maintained a firm belief in the Democratic process throughout her life and translated that stewardship into an environmental sensibility .22 20 1920 United S tates Census data for Bonita Springs, Florida. The 1920 Census describes all of its residents as white, including two Hispanic households. For more on the Harris familys relocation to Bonita Springs, see authors interviews with Mimi Carr, November 11 2005 and March 7, 2007; and Everett Caudle and Leslie Pooles interviews with Marjorie Harris Carr. 21 Marjorie Harris Carr elaborates upon her interpretation of Puritan stewardship in her October 18, 1990 interview with Leslie Kemp Poole. 22 Authors inte rviews with Mimi Carr, November 11, 2005 and March 7, 2007. William Cronon and other environmental historians paint an entirely different portrait of New Englanders, who treated the land as property to be improved upon for the benefit of protocapitalis t colonists. Yet Carrs interpretation of a Puritan sense of stewardship as expressed in her oral history interviews with Everett Caudle and Leslie Poole is inspired by her lifelong love of reading, including the works of Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Wal do Emerson, which she first read as a child. Carrs version of the Puritan ethic of stewardship was also shaped by the naturalist training she received from her New England born parents. For more information on Puritan stewardship, see Jere Cohen, Protestantism and Capitalism: The Mechanisms of Influence (Hawthorne, New York: Aldine de Gruyter), 2002.

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50 In addition, Charles and Clara Harris were naturalists who taught their daughte r how to study, describe, and classify thousands of plants, animals, minerals, and other natural objects. Charless appreciation for the natural environment bega n in childhood, when he studied birds and insects. He and Clara collected insects early in th eir marriage, and they shared their fascination with the outdoors with their daughter. Considering that the naturalists of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries laid the foundation for the specialist work of modern zoologists, botanists, biologists, and ecologi sts, it is fitting that Marjorie Harris s first scientific efforts were as a naturalist in Florida. She conducted informal field investigations with her parents and on her own throughout her childhood, preparing for her later career in the masculine field of zoology, which requires physical work, in the case of Harris, in subtropical and tropical heat. Moreover, the zoologists of the early to mid twentieth century, Harris among them, were comfortable killing animals for sport and specimen collec ting. Yet the same zoologists who readily combined science with hunting would also be the first to call attention to the degradation of animal habitats as the twentieth century wore on.23 The Harris family observed the effects of rampant, unregulated hunting close to their home near the banks of the Imperial River, where they canoed several times a week. Harris and her parents observed the tragic consequences of the plume trade, which nearly eradicated South Floridas egret and heron populations. I saw very few herons or waterfowl along the river banks, Harris later observed. People would come down and shoot anything that moved for sport. Sport was not the only motivation for bird hunting, however. The egret and other native birds were prized for their plumage, which was used to decorate womens hats in the United 23 Robert Elman, Americas Pioneering Naturalists: Their Lives and Times, Exploits and Adventures (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Winchester Press, 1982). Marjorie Har ris Carr reflects upon her naturalist heritage in an October 18, 1990 interview with Leslie Kemp Poole.

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51 States and Europe. The bird trade and the Florida land boom of the 1920s posed a substantial threat to Floridas avian population and w ildlife habitats during Harris s youth. Witnessing the carnage firsthand contributed to the formation of Harris s environmental ethos in the years to come, reinforcing her belief that once wilderness was gone, it was gone forever.24 Floridas second great land boom, which lasted from 1920 through 1925, had originally been centered along Floridas eastern coast between Palm Beach and Miami, but it soon stretched westward. Developers sold tracts of swampland for exorbitant amounts of money until late 1925, when the national press revealed scandal in landsal es practices and in government promotion schemes. Then a devastating hurricane hit Florida on September 19, 1926. That same year, a wave of hundreds of bank failures across the United States ensured the end of the Florida land boom of the 1920s. The boom has been characterized as the most prolific example of speculation in new real estateboth above water and below it, as a contemporary analyst remarked since land speculators took advantage of settlers moving to the West. Financing was no problem in t he prosperous twenties, and exaggerated newspaper and billboard advertisements touting Florida sunshine and the states lack of income and inheritance taxes drew buyers from the cold North and Midwest to purchase small lots from blueprints alone. Images o f Florida as both the final frontier and the fountain of youth tempted buyers to purchase waterfront property along freshly dredged canals and sandfilled mangrove swamps in South Florida. Although southwestern Florida was spared much of the overdevelopme nt of Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and Palm Beach during the great land boom, the effects of progress had begun to take a toll on Lee 24 The effects of the millinery industry on Floridas bird population are discussed in Leslie Kemp Poole, "The Women of the Early Florida Audubon Society: Agents of History in the Fight to Save State Birds," The Florida Historical Quarterly 85:3 (Winter 2007), 297 323. See also Jennifer Price, Flight Maps: Adventures with Nature in Modern America (New York: Basic Books, 1999); and Carolyn Merchant, Wom en of the Progressive Conservation Movement: 1900 1916, Environmental Review 8 (Spring 1984): 57 85. For more information on the connection between Marjorie Harris Carrs girlhood observations of the depletion of Floridas wildlife in Southwest Florida and her later activist career, see Everett Caudles interview with Carr.

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52 County as well. After the 1928 completion of an east west route (the Tamiami Trail/U.S. 41), traffic from South Florida starte d to make its way to the Gulf Coast, and greater numbers of tourists floc ked to the west coasts shell laden beaches. The 1920s ushered in a new wave of economic prosperity in St. Petersburg and Sarasota. Yet the bank failures of 1925 and 1926 turned new ly created subdivisions across South and Central Florida into ghost towns.25 Floridas second land boom took place before the advent of air conditioning and mosquito control, and unlike the resort towns of St. Petersburg and Miami, Lee County remained relatively rustic. Yet Florida was a leader in building roads to accommodate automobiles, which by the 1920s brought more tourists to the state than did railroads. Harris later recalled that paved roads were constructed from rolled oyster shells dug from the extensive Indian mounds along the Gulf Coast. Originally designed for horses and ox carts, the heavy sand trails were more common than shelled roads in the 1920s. They were more difficult to travel on than the shelled roads, which were introduced later and were designed f or automobile traffic. According to Harris, the oyster shell roads made excellent horse paths as well. Once the roads were washed clean by the rain, she explained, they became gleaming white.26 Although few Bonita Springs residents rode fo r pleasure at the time, Harris delighted in standing out from the crowd.27 This 25 Floridas first land boom lasted from 1782 to 1784, when the British Loyalists sought solace along Northeast Floridas coast, whose British population increased from 6,000 to 17,0 00. For more information on the second Florida land boom, see Homer B. Vanderblue, The Florida Land Boom, The Journal of Land & Public Utility Economics III:2 (May 1927), 113131. See also Gary Mormino, Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams: A Social Hist ory of Modern Florida (Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 2005), 45 62. Mormino chronicles the 1920s Florida land boom and its reemergence in the mid twentieth century (lasting from 1950 through the beginning of the twenty first century). Despite the lingering national recession of the twenty first century, the trend continues today throughout Florida. Unchecked development along U.S. 27, a highway dubbed the Orange Blossom Trail, has transformed miles of citrus groves into middle class bedroom communities of Orlando. The view from the Citrus Tower, constructed in 1956 to lure tourists with an elevated view of Central Floridas 17 million citrus trees, today reveals more houses, restaurants, and gas stations than citrus. (See Mormino, 2 05.) 26 Marjorie Harris Carr, Chiquita, 2. 27 Other Northerners who traveled to Lee County commented on Lee Countys unusual oyster shell roads. In 1916, construction was completed on a single track, shelled road that stretched from Fort Myers south to Na ples. The shell roads fared better in Floridas strong rainstorms than the unsurfaced roads characteristic of many parts of the

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53 gave me a certain prestige with my school mates, she remembered. Prestige that I needed since I was a Yankee, a girl and wore pants to school. In the 1920s, it was still the norm for middle class girls and women to wear long skirts or dresses and keep their hair long. But this style of dress did not blend with Carrs outdoor lifestyle, and she kept her hair c ropped short.28 Harris and Chiquita cantered past palmettos and through cypress and pine wood forests, observing southwest Floridas animal and plant life on daily rides. In time, she was able to classify thousands of species of flora and fauna. We l ived out in the woods, Harris recounted, and I had parents who could answer your questions about what is that bird, or what is that snake. I grew up with a great appreciation of the natural environment.29 She also witnessed the steady depletion of Southwest Floridas natural resources as promoters conducted contr olled burns to clear space for cattle ranching and the production of sugar and winter vegetables. The rich muck of the Everglades had been prized by commercial farmers since the nineteenth century. The United States government joined the state of Florida local developers, and academic thinkers in heralding the exploitation of the Everglades as the best option for the future of the state, describing the marshlands as an inhospitable and repulsive wilderness that could be transformed into a symbol for s uccess in reclaiming waste places of the earth for mans welfare and comfort.30 Since the turn of the century, the U.S. Department of Agricultures newly formed drainage bureau advocated draining the Everglades to free up millions of acres which have from time immemorial been regarded as irredeemable and a menace to the state. See Allen H. Andrews, A Yank Pioneer in Florida: Recounting the Adventures of a City Chap Who Came to the Wilds of Sou th Florida in the 1890s and Remained to Grow Up With the Country (Jacksonville: 1950). Much of South Florida was not navigable by car in the teens and twenties, when a popular pastime was to motor right into the heart of the Everglades in a Model T For d (Andrews, 84). 28 Marjorie Harris Carr, Chiquita, 4. 29 Everett Caudle interview with Marjorie Harris Carr. 30 Davis, An Everglades Providence, quote on 383.

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54 healthfulness of the State.31 In the 1920s, the erection of a levee around Lake Okeechobee and persistent dredging had manipulated the Everglades natural floodplain significantly. By th e 1940s, the same decade that Everglades National Park was established, Congress had been actively encouraging the development of commercial agriculture in the great wetland for a century. By the close of the twentieth century, the Everglades had been reduc ed to half its original size. The shrinking of the Everglades was palpable to the young Marjorie Harris Lee Countys prairie and forest land bordered the Everglades, which developers were clearing for agriculture. After drainage and exposure to the air, the soil would sometimes catch on fire. In the summers, Harris recalled, the sky would glow with the Everglades burning.32 Charles and Clara Harris considered Floridians tendency to clear land without reforesting to be both shortsighted and dangerou s to the states fragile ecosystems. I was brought up with a family that said, Isnt it a shame they dont replant any of this? Marjorie Harris remembered. When we would drive to Tampa or Tallahassee, the woods were not very pretty because they had been heavily timbered at that time, and there was no reforestation. There was no fence law, so there were cows. They burned a lot indiscriminate burning in order to get more [pasture]. And they had done turpentining, so from driving on it looked pretty bad.33 Harris s parents stimulated her intellect through direct observations of nature, field guides, and exposure to works of literature in which nature featured prominently. I read everything I could 31 The U.S. Department of Agricultures promotion of Everglades reclamation is detailed in Michael Grunwald, The Swamp: The Everglades, Florida, and the Politics of Paradise (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006), quote on 143; for a comprehensive history of the Everglades, see Jack E. Davis, An Everglades Providence: Marjory Stoneman Douglas and the Am erican Environmental Century (Athens and London: University of Georgia Press, 2009). 32 Everett Caudle interview. Mormino tracks the rise of Florida agriculture in Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams, 185228. 33 Everett Caudle interview.

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55 find out about the wild t hings I saw around me, Har ris recounted. Thornton Burgess was one of my favorite authors, and I could recite [Rudyard] Kiplings Jungle Books.34 Harris witnessed the effects of commercial exploitation of forests for turpentine production and agriculture. The Lee County town of LaBelle was considered the center of the states cattle ranching industry at the time. Timber companies logged Floridas native cypress trees to the brink of complete eradication and exploited native pines for timber and turpentine. Journalist Allen H. Andrews, who wrote about Floridas native and experimental horticulture for The American Eagle observed in 1950 that as a resident of southwest Florida for fifty years, he had seen the wholesale destruction of Floridas natural resources of timber, game, and marine life on a scale that was identical to that described by Harvard herpetologist Thomas Barbour in That Vanishing Eden. Andrews predicted that the Florida s flora and fauna would be lost if the state failed to enact aggressive conservation measu res.35 Northern firms first attempted to drain the Everglades in the 1880s, altering the land for agricultural purposes. The rich, dark muck of the Everglades was ideal for production of winter vegetables and sugar cane. By the time of the Harris familys arrival in Southwest Florida in the 1920s, thousands of acres of the Everglades had been transformed into farmland. Meanwhile, developers transformed Central Floridas pine forests into orange groves after a series of devastating freezes in North Florida .36 W itnessing this destruction at s uch a tender age shaped Harris s worldview, leading her to believe that wherever humans lived, they devastated the natural environment.37 34 Graham, Jr., Wha t Matters Most, 94. 35 Authors preface to Andrews, A Yank Pioneer in Florida 36 Jerrell H. Shofner, The Legacy of Racial Slavery: Free Enterprise and Forced Labor in Florida in the 1940s, The Journal of Southern History 47:3 (August 1981), 411 426. 37 Everett Caudle interview.

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56 In 1928, the Harris family left their small orange grove in Bonita Springs and move d to Fort Myers where Harris attended high school. Although Lee County was the largest county in Florida before it divided in the early 1920s, remote areas such as Bonita Springs lacked both the financial resources and the population base to establish a solid school system. The towns school stopped at the eighth grade. The move to Fort Myers necessitated a move for Chiqui ta as well. It would not have been practical to keep a horse in the (slightly) more urban setting of Fort Myers, so the Harris famil y found another home for Chiquita marking the symboli c end to a bucolic childhood. Harris would always consider her time spent with Chiquita to be one of my best childhood memories.38 In 1931, Harris s life changed instantly and dramatically when her fa ther d ied from pneumonia. Marjorie Harris was only fifteen years old. Compounding the difficulty surrounding her fathers prem ature death was the fact that Charles was just months shy of qualifying for a pension from his former Boston teaching career.39 A series of bank failures further diminished the familys savings. Left with no substa ntial means of support, Harris s mother first took a teaching position in a one room school house in remote Sanibel Island and later taught in Bonita Springs and Fort Mye rs Beach. Losing her father at the onset of the Great Depression toughened Harris. According to her daughter, Mimi, Harris internalized her problems and never talked about the challenges she and her mother faced aft er her fathers death. Harris refused to dwell on the past.40 She downplayed her familys financial difficulties in her high school and college years, attributing them to the Great Depression. Lot s of folks had to 38 Carr, C hiquita, 4. See also Andrews, A Yank Pioneer in Florida, 107108; and Everett Caudle interview. 39 Authors interview with Mimi Carr, August 6, 2008. 40 Authors interview wit h Mimi Carr, November 11, 2005.

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57 scrabble, Harris explained.41 She honed her ability to remain optimistic and focus on the task at hand, even in the face of seemingly insurmountable obstacles. Upon graduating from Fort Myers High School in 1932, Harris was ready to leave home. Mother wanted to go to college more than she wanted to live, Mimi recounted.42 Finding the financial resources needed to attend college was a major hurdle. We didnt have any money, Harris recalled, and a full year at the college cost about two hundred and fifty dollars, which was really beyond our means.43 An unexpected inheritance of $500.00 (considered a small fortune in the 1930s) from an aunt made it possible for her to matriculate at Florida State College for Women in 1932. Because of the familys financial hardship, it would have been difficult for Harris to finance an education at a private or public college outside of Florida.44 Indeed, mon ey was not the only obstacle Harris faced. As a female, her choice of schools was limited. Floridas public universities were segregated by gender and race. Just as Southern bathrooms were l abeled men, women, and colored through the 1960s, there were three state universities in 1932 when Carr started college: the University of Florida in Gainesville for white men; Florida State College for Women in Tallahassee, reserved for white women only; and the coeducational Negro Normal and Industrial School, which would later become Florida A & M Uni versity, also in Tallahassee. ( The states only public university for African Amer icans was always coeducational.) Single sex education for whites offered distinct advantages for both faculty and students, however. Since the 1870s, womens colleges presented women scientists with some opportunities for full time employment as instruc tors in their respective fields; 41 Everett Caud le interview. 42 Authors interview with Mimi Carr, March 7, 2007. 43 Graham, Jr., What Matters Most, 96. 44 Authors interview with Mimi Carr, August 6, 2008.

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58 whereas most coeducational institu tions in the Eastern United States would not hire women as faculty members especially not in the hard sciences. Female students benefited from a greater choice of majors than they would have been permitted to study at coeducational schools.45 Between 1900 and 1930, American men and women attended college in roughly equal numbers at the undergraduate level. Because school teaching was one of the most popular career choices available to women, however, the majority of women in higher education were enrolled in normal schools or other teacher training programs.46 When Harris started college, approximately five percent of women enrolled in private colleges attended the sevensister schools, and just over twenty percent of women undergraduates enrolled in wome ns colleges. The majority of women college students attended publicly funded institutions of higher education, and many of these were twoyear teaching colleges. During the Depression, however, the previously feminized profession of teaching established marriage bars, lowering the value of a teaching degree for women.47 Between 1929 and 1935, womens enrollment in teachers colleges decreased, while mens enrollment increased.48 Although both of Harris s parents and 45 Ibid. The 1905 Buckman Act abolished all the state schools, except for the Negro Normal and In dustrial School, which would later become Florida A & M University. At this point the state officially segregated white state universities by gender, prohibiting women from attending the formerly coeducational University of Florida, except during summer s chool. See also Rossiter, Women Scientists in America, Volume One 46 Mary C. McComb, Great Depression and the Middle Class: Experts, Collegiate Youth and Business Ideology, 1929 1941 (New York and London: Routledge, 2006). 47 Regarding the feminization of the field of school teaching, see John L. Rury, Education and Womens Work: Female Schooling and the Division of Labor in Urban America, 18701930 (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991). For a discussion of the development of science as an inherently masculine field, and the barriers that excluded women from science education and the scientific professions, see High Hopes, Broken Promises, and Persistence: Educating Women for Scientific Careers, in Women, Science, and Technology: A Reader in Feminist Science Studies Mary Wyer, Donna Giesman, Mary Barbercheck, Hatice Ozturk, and Marta Wayne, ed. (New York and London: Routledge, 2001), 178; Margaret W. Rossiter, Women Scientists in America, Volume One: Struggles and Strategies to 1940 (Baltimore and London, 1982); Janice Law Trecker, Sex, Science, and Education, in Women, Science, and Technology 88 98; and Sharon Lee Rich and Ariel Phillips, eds., Womens Experience and Education (Cambridge: Harvard Educational Review Reprint Serie s No. 17, 1985). 48 Claudia Goldin, Lawrence F. Katz, and Ilyana Kuziemko, The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap, Journal of Economic Perspectives 20:4 (Fall 2006), 133 156.

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59 an aunt had worked as school teachers, s he elected to study science, a less popular major for female students in t he 1930s. Fortunately, Harris was able to attend a college that emphasized the liberal arts tradition over vocational training.49 Florida State College for Women was founded in 1905, after the passage of the Buckman Act, which restructured the state school system and ensured that white men and women were educated separately in state controlled institutions of higher education. The curriculum of Florida State College for Women diffe red from those of the other Southern State Colleges for Women in Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Texas, and an outlying State College for Women in Oklahoma. Unlike its sister schools, Florida State College for Women was established as a liberal arts college. It was the only Southern State College that did not include technical and industrial training among its original purposes. The colleges mission was to teach the higher branches of education and the arts and sciences w hich were taught in similar institutions and which the governing boards might think necessary.50 The Florida State College for Women 19091910 catalog summarizes its purpose as follows: The college is not a normal and industrial school, but primarily a c ollege of Liberal Arts. With this is associated a normal school and schools of Art, Music, and Expression. The College of Liberal Arts includes courses in Home Economics,51 which count for a regular 49 Angel Kwolek Folland, Incorporati ng Women: A History of Women and Business in the United States (New York: Twayne, 1998). 50 T. H. Napier, The Southern State College for Women, Peabody Journal of Education 18:5 (March 1941), 268 275. The Southern State Colleges for Women were est ablis hed between 1885 and 1909. 51 In the early twentieth century, women scientists were increasingly restricted to a narrow range of feminized scientific fields. See Solomon, In the Company of Educated Women; Peril, College Girls ; Ruth Bordin, Women at Michiga n: The Dangerous Experiment, 1870s to the Present (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1999); Horowitz, Alma Mater ; and Saul D. Feldman, Escape from the Dolls House: Women in Graduate and Professional School Education (New York: McGrawHill 1974). Womens second option for employment in academic institutions was as assistants, which ranged from a teaching position that was lower in rank (and pay) than that of a lecturer, to that of someone who performed mundane tasks such as cataloguing or specimen preservation. See Rossiter, Women Scientists in America Volume I.

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60 degree.52 The field of home economics pioneered by Ellen Swallow Richards opened new opportunities for women in science while simultaneously prohibiting them from expanding them into mainstream science. In 1911, Cornell Universitys official policy was to appoint women to professorships solely in the field of home economics, and not in other academic departments. The university would not appoint a woman to an assistant professorship in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences until 1947, and women were barred from full professorships in the college until 1960. By the 1920s, Florida State College for Women offered training in teaching, secretarial work, accounting, music, dietetics (a subfield of home economics), journalism, nursing, pre medicine, and pre dentistry.53 Education was by far the most popular major at the college; women also graduated with degrees in chemistry, mathematics, physics, commerce, liberal arts, English, journalism, history, art, music, foreign languages, sociology, and home economics.54 During Harris s college years, American women were st ill struggling to free themselves from the constraints of nineteent hcentury cultural norms. P rofessional women were forced to contend with the remnants of a pervasive domestic ideology that held that a womans profession should never come before marriage and family life. A s an undergraduate student, Harris crafted a unique solution to the problem of whether to pursue a traditionally feminine path of study such as school teaching, nursing, or the feminized science of home economics, or to follow her 52 T. H. Napier, The Southern State College for Women, Peabody Journal of Education 18:5 (March 1941), 268 275. 53 Ibid. 54 See the Florida State College for Women annual, FLAST ACOWO XXI (Tallahassee, Florida: Florida State College for Women), 1934.

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61 dream of entering the masculine field of zoology.55 She chose to double major in zoology and secretarial science. Her original plan was to train in both fields and seek employment as a secretary at a univ ersity zoology department. Harris hoped that one day, when a (male) zoologist became injured in the field, the department would replace him with her, since she would be the only person in the office capable of completing his work. Harris s dream of entering professional zoology through the back door ende d when a dean advised her that it was not practical to major in zoology and secretarial science because they both had extensive lab requirements. Soon afterward she dropped the secretarial major and completed a rigorous course of study in the natural sciences, concentrating in zoology, botany, biology, bacteriology, and ornithology.56 Although Florida State College for Women offered a traditional liberal arts curriculum, the college had no organized graduate school. Advanced degrees for women were not included 55 Colleges and universities that had previously been reluctant to hire women as full professors welcomed women scientists into the new field of home economics, invented by Ellen Swall ow Richards, a Vassar graduate who became the first woman to earn a degree at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1873. Unable to find employment with a number of private chemical firms because of her gender, Richards became M.I.T.s first female faculty member in 1883. Her solution was to the problem of discrimination against women in the sciences was to form a separate branch of science that addressed the concerns of women in the domestic sphere. See Robert Clarke, Ellen Swallow: The Woman Wh o Founded Ecology (Chicago: Follett, 1973). Home economics also known as domestic science or euthenics applied a scientific approach to household management. See also Peril, College Girls 56 Special Voices: Two Florida Women, Miami: Florida Internat ional University Media Center 1985 (1 videocassette 57 minutes.) (One copy, Florida International University, North Campus; also one copy, Private Collection of Mimi Carr.); authors interview with Mimi Carr (January 30, 2009). Ruth Hubbard identifies cultural beliefs and the processes of professionalization as the cause of womens greater successes in certain scientific fields compared to others. She cites Margaret Rossiters research confirming that more women achieved success in botany than zoology, a stronomy rather than physics, statistics over mathematics, and anthropology instead of geology or paleontology. Within the sciences, certain professional organizations accepted women as full members, while others relegated them to associate status. Fewer opportunities for professional advancement were available to women in academic science, especially at prestigious universities. See Ruth Hubbard, The Politics of Womens Biology (New Brunswick and London: Rutgers University Press, 1990), 44. Since its in ception, science was conceived as a masculine activity. In the early twentieth century, the scientist as masculine explorer remained a popular image. See To Cherish the Life of the World: Selected Letters of Margaret Mead Ed. Margaret M. Caffrey and Pa tricia A. Francis (New York: Basic Books, 2006), 19. More information on Marjorie Harris Carrs studies at Florida State College for Women is available in authors interviews with Mimi Carr; Everett Caudle and Leslie Kemp Poole interviews with Marjorie H arris Carr; and Graham, Jr., What Matters Most.

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62 in the colleges mission; consequently, the college offered no courses leading to doctoral degrees. Just as the Florida Legislature had purposefully separated the instruction of white male and female undergraduate students ( in addition, the Florida Constitution barred the teaching of blacks and whites together) the purpose of womens education at Florida State College for Women was designated along gendered lines: (1) Preparation for home duties; (2) cultivation of formal gentility and grace for the ir social value through a variety of accomplishments; (3) discipline of the mental powers so that women might be ready for any emergency in life; and (4) more specific preparation for a variety of professional opportunities. Concurrent with all except t he last there has been (5) a constant emphasis on religious and Christian purpose.57 Florida State College for Womens official purpose might have appeared to conflict with the schools practice of offering its all female student body the opportunity to pursue nontraditional major s Although the schools education and home economics courses accounted for a significant portion of the total of classes offered, the college also taught many of the same courses offered at its all male counterpart, the University of Florida. Among these were courses in the hard sciences a nd mathematics. One of Harris s major professors, Herman Kurz, represented the new direction womens colleges had taken in the first decades of the twentieth century. Eschewing the former prac tice of hiring women professors who published less but were also paid substantially lower salaries than male professors, the womens colleges of the early twentieth century had started to hire more male instructors, whose research and publications could ra ise the schools stature. Kurz, a professor of botany, published regularly in scientific journals including Ecology The Science NewsLetter Botanical Gazette and The American Naturalist I n Kurzs field courses, Harris and her peers learned the fundam entals of ecology, 57 Jno. J. Tigert, Co ordination in Florida, The Journal of Higher Education 4:3 (March 1933), 138141.

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63 focusing on the relationships of different organisms and their habitats within an ecosystem.58 In keeping with her naturalist background, Harris made the unconventional decision to major in zoology early in her college career. It was no t a course that many women chose in those days, she admitted, but I had always been going in that direction.59 Harris blossomed in her first year at Florida State College for Women. She served as the circulation manager and a writer for The Distaff, Spi nner of Yarns the colleges quarterly literary magazine, whose main theme was life in Florida. Harris was also a member of the astronomy club. She lived on campus in a residence hall, which was supervised by two elderly matrons who monitored students behavior and enforced a curfew. Florida State College for Women was home to eighteen di fferent sororities, but Harris did not join one. The colleges 1934 annual featured a sororities section with an illustration of life under Confederate rule in Florida, featuring a plantation house, Southern belles, and a prominent Confederate flag.60 Campus life included athletics. Instead of competing against rival colleges for women, however, Florida State College for Women divided its students into two teams: the Ev ens and Odds. The teams had their own team colors, sporting events, and fans.61 58 Herman Kurz was well published in the fields of botany and ecology. His publications include: I nfluence of Sphagnum and Other Mosses on Bog Reactions, Ecology 9:1 (January 1928), 56 69; Cypress Buttresses and Knees in Relation to Water and Air, Ecology 15:1 (January 1934), 36 41; Factors in Cypress Dome Development, Ecology 34:1 (January 1953), 157164 (with Kenneth A. Wagner); Hydrogen Ion Concentration in Relation to Ecological Factors, Botanical Gazette 76:1 (September 1923), 129; Northern Aspect and Phenology of Tallahassee Red Hills Flora, Botanical Gazette 85:1 (March 1928), 8389; T he Relation of pH to Plant Distribution in Nature, The American Naturalist 64:693 (JulyAugust, 1930), 314 341; and Cypresses Change Shape According to Water Depth, The Science News Letter 21:562 (January 16, 1932), 37. 59 Graham, Jr., What Matters Most 96; Everett Caudle interview. 60 Floridas publicly funded colleges and universities played Dixie at sporting events well into the 1960s, provoking emotional responses among the fans in attendance. Moreover, students dressed up as Klan members at the University of Floridas homecoming parade and Gator Growl pep rally through the 1960s. Photographs of these events were included in the University of Floridas annual, The Seminole 61 Florida State College for Women annual, FLASTACOWO XXI (Tallahassee, Fl orida: Florida State College for Women), 1934.

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64 Harris was in her element at Florida State College for Women, but she did not know how she would be able to finance another three years of college away from home. Her small i nheritance had run out, a nd Clara Harris was un able to contribute to her daughters college expenses with her modest teachers salary. Then after my freshman year I found out about the National Youth Administration, Harris recounted. In return for wor king all summer, N.Y.A. would pay your tuition, room, and board all year, plus fifty dollars in cash for yourself. This was a big break.62 During her first sum mer with the N.Y.A. in 1933, Harris performed clerical work at a daycare center near Fort Myers. ( Most female N.Y.A. participants were restricted to clerical positions.) Hoping to avoid office work the following summer, she proposed an experimental naturalist education program that she would offer to preteens and teenagers in Lee County. Drawing u pon her knowledge of the countys flora and fauna, she taught the children how to collect species and appreciate the interconnected habitats of the regio n. The N.Y.A. sponsored Harris s program for two consecutive summers. I drove around in m y mothers old Ford, she remembered. I could live at home, and it worked beautifully. It was then that I became convinced that people will care for their environment if only they can learn a little bit about it.63 Harris later explained that these summer programs taught her that anyone could become an environmentalist, once they were presented with the facts. There is a potential for the public to be very good environmentalists, she maintained, if we would just give them the information.64 At Florida State C ollege for Women, Harris refined her understanding of the natural world. In addition to working with botanist Herman Kurz, she studied under zoologist and 62 Graham Jr., What Matters Most, 96. 63 Graham, Jr., What Matters Most, 96. 64 Everett Caudle interview.

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65 ornithologist Ezda Mae Deviney, Herbert Stoddard, and other early ecologists. It should be noted that the ecologists of the early twentieth century differed from those of the late twentieth century in their motivation. Although both groups studied the relationships between flora and fauna and their habitats, early ecologists were not averse to applying their studies to the more efficient manipulation and exploitation of the earth; whereas modern ecologists are more likely to use their research to fight exploitation. The science of ecology originated in the 1890s, but it did not come to the attention of the general public until Americans became more concerned about the environment in the 1960s, following the publication of Rachel Carsons best selling polemic Silent Spring, which alerted readers to the dangers of indiscriminate pesticide use. Ecology ha s traditionally involved the study of interactions between organisms and their environment, but the term ecology has come to be associated with concern for the environment. Although the science of ecology has remained constant through the years, the application of this science has changed dramatically. Whereas earlier ecological studies tended to focus primarily on individual species, by the 1950s biologists had started to place more emphasis on the fuller set of interactions between flora, fauna, and hab itat within an ecosystem. The acceptance of ecology into the academy in the mid twentieth century was accompanied by the rise of the activist scientist, who applied his or her ecological expertise to environmental problems caused by human manipulation a nd exploitation of the earth.65 Harris s courses at Florida State Coll ege for Women were comparable with the science offerings available at Floridas mens university. In fact, Florida State College for Women trumped the all male University of Florida by gaining the distinction of becoming the first 65 Peter J. Bowler, The Norton History of the Environmental Sciences (New York and London: W. W. Nort on & Company, 1993).

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66 Florida college or university to receive a Phi Beta Kappa charter.66 Her favorite courses were the ones that involved outdoor field trips. I wanted to work with whole, live animals, preferably birds, Harris ex plained, in their natural surroundings.67 Her professors were among the first to study Floridas forest ecosystems, including the relationship of controlled burns to forest health, which was still an understudied area at the time. Harris assisted Deviney her major professor, in the zoology lab, and Kurtzs bo tany courses cemented her ability to read a landscape, she later reflected. She embraced the womens college experience and excelled in her studies.68 Harris graduated from Florida State College fo r Women with a bachelors degree in zoology in 1936. Her major professors supported her decision to apply to graduate programs in zoology or ornithology, her chosen field. Because the majority of Eastern universities and private institutions would not admit women to graduate programs in the sciences (women who expressed an interest in science continued to be funneled into ho me economics programs), Harris was unable to enter graduate school immediately following the completion of her studies at Florida Sta te College for Women. This was a personal example of the dialectic of opportunity and constraint women experienced in the 1930s and 1940s. She had received a first class science education at Florida State College for Women, gaining top honors. Harris wa s inducted into Phi Beta Kappa, the nations oldest academic honor society; and Sigma Xi the nations top honor society for research scientists and engineers. Sigma Xi elects its members based upon their research potential or achievements. The society p ublishes the award winning bimonthly 66 In 1935, Florida State College for Women was awarded Floridas first (Alpha) chapter of Phi Beta Kappa, beating the all male University of Florida. The national academic honor society granted the womens college this honor for its s cholastic strength in the liberal arts tradition. See McCandless, The Past in the Present 97. 67 Marjorie Harris Carr, foreword to Ronald L. Myers and John J. Ewel, Editors, Ecosystems of Florida (Orlando 1990), xi xiii. 68 Leslie Kemp Poole and Everett Caudle interviews. Information on Marjorie Carrs involvement in honor societies and extracurricular activities can be found in Flastacowo, the Florida State College for Women yearbook, and in her curriculum vitae.

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67 magazine American Scientist In 1936, Harris was appointed as a charter member of the Florida Academy of Sciences, the state affiliate of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The Florida Academy of Sciences publishes the quarterly journal Florida Scientist which Harris contributed to later in her career. Despite these academic accomplishments, both Cornell and the University of North Carolina turned down her application for funding and admission. At the time of Harris s graduation, the nations top graduate schools closed their doors to most women scientists. Many schools continued to fight coeducation at the graduate level, especially in the hard sciences. Although Cornell was one of the nation s first coeducational universities in 1872, faculty members remained skeptical about womens capacity for abstract thought.69 Those women who succeeded in attaining advanced degrees in science found it difficult to find employment. Women scientists educa tion and experience bore little weight in determining their rank or status at co educational institutions: a man with a masters degree in chemistry automatically outranked a woman with a doctorate. At best, women Ph.D.s were hired as lecturers at co educational institutions; more commonly, women with doctorates were ranked as assistants. These hiring and pro motion discrepancies stemmed from male scientists resistance to the increasing tide of female college graduates, who were shunned from graduate s chool and barred from prestigious masculine positions. Aspiring undergraduate women who expressed an interest in science were encouraged to eschew the more masculine fields such as physics, chemistry, and zoology, in favor of the feminine field of home economics. In the 69 Ruth Bordins Women at Michigan descr ibes the discrimination against women that continued at the top public universities as they became coeducational in the late nineteenth century. For more information on women science faculty members struggle for equal opportunity in tenure and promotion at Cornell University, see The Cornell Womens Handbook, History of Women at Cornell, Cornell University Womens Resource Center website, http://wrc.dos.cornell.edu/aboutus/handb ook/chapter_01.html (accessed June 16, 2009).

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68 1920s and 1930s, this was the only academic field in which women could be promoted to full professor, department chair, or dean.70 Harris s struggle to finish her science education and embark upon what would become a short lived profe ssional career in zoology mirrored a similar battle among millions of professional women in the United States who had lost ground in their fight to maintain and advance gains for women in education and employment in the 1930s. A decade after gaining the s uffrage in 1920, American women of the middle class appeared to have succumbed to a renewed call for Victorian domesticity. According to historian Regina Morantz Sanchez, marriage increased in popularity for all American women in the 1920s. Polls indicat ed that educated women preferred marriage to careers in the 1920s, and the Great Depression threatened to eliminate the small gains professional women had made in the previous decade. Public hostility toward working women in the 1930s combined with Depres sion era disruptions in the economy and the malaise of the timescontributed to womens failure to preserve gains even in feminized fields such as nursing, teaching, social work, and library work. Women working in masculine professions such as medicine experienced sharper losses, dropping to a total of just five percent of all medical doctors in the 1930s. Moreover, womens membership in professional organizations dropped in the 1930s, as public support for womens careers dwindled. The renewed emphasi s on companionate marriage encouraged younger professional women to turn their backs on the agenda of the first wave feminists, which had included the formation of segregated professional organizations in order to further the needs and goals of women (incl uding equal opportunity in education and the professions).71 70 Rossiter, Women Scientists in America Volume One. 71 Womens unequal participation in the public sphere can be traced to the early republic, when the United States Constitution failed to extend citizenship t o women. This legal precedent ultimately sanctioned womens lack of

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69 Polls conducted in the 1930s indicated that women were more interested in companionate marriage than higher education and professional careers.72 Besieged by a lingering domestic ideology that str essed that (middleclass) womens role as wife and mother w as paramount, women of Harris s generation had to contend with a contemporary version of the pre Enlightenment view that women were inferior copies of men.73 Nowhere was this clearer than in equal access to higher education and the professions until Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 barred sex discrimination in the workplace, and Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 made sex discrimination in higher education illegal. See Barbara Miller Solomons pioneering examination of the rise of womens education in America, In the Company of Educated Women: A History of Women and Higher Education in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985). Linda K. Kerbers Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980) popularized the concept of Republican Motherhood. The ideology of separate sp heres for women and men is further elucidated in Mary P. Ryans Cradle of the Middle Class: The Family in Oneida County, New York, 1790 1865 (New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), and in Nancy F. Cotts The Grounding of Modern Femini sm (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987) and The Bonds of Womanhood: Womans Sphere in New England, 1780 1835 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997). Important new insights into womens battle for equal access to higher education are found in Lynn Peril, College Girls: Bluestockings, Sex Kittens, and Coeds, Then and Now (New York and London: W. W. Norton and Company, 2006); Linda Eisenmann, Higher Education for Women in Postwar America, 1945 1965 (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006), Ruth Bordin, Women at Michigan: The Dangerous Experiment, 1870s to the Present (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1999); Amy Thompson McCandless, The Past in the Present: Womens Higher Education in the TwentiethCentury South (Tusc aloosa and London: The University of Alabama Press, 1999); Helen Lefkowitz Horowitz, Alma Mater: Design and Experience in the Womens Colleges from Their NineteenthCentury Beginnings to the 1930s 2nd Edition (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press 1993); John L. Rury, Education and Womens Work: Female Schooling and the Division of Labor in Urban America, 1870 1930 (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991); Leslie R. Wolfe, ed., Women, Work, and School: Occupational Segregation and the Role of Education (Boulder, San Francisco, and Oxford: Westview Press, 1991); Sharon Lee Rich and Ariel Phillips, eds., Womens Experience and Education (Cambridge: Harvard Educational Review Reprint Series No. 17, 1985); and Saul D. Feldman, Escape fro m the Dolls House: Women in Graduate and Professional School Education (New York: McGraw Hill, 1974). 72 Regina Markell Morantz Sanchez, Sympathy and Science: Women Physicians in American Medicine (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985), 322 351. 73 Thomas Laqueur, Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990). Laqueur traces changing interpretations of gender from ancient to modern times, contending that the Greeks considered women to be inferior copies of men, but still essentially the same as men. Laqueur maintains that modern binary constructs for men and women (active/passive, rational/irrational, and so on), which stem from the view that men and women are inherently different, em erged gradually. See also Kerber, Women of the Republic Women of the early republic had responded to their exclusion from citizenship by amending republican ideology to suit their needs. The mainstream republican ideology borrowed heavily from Aristotl ean philosophy, which delineated separate spheres for women and men: (male) republicans would function in the public sphere of politics while women would care for hearth and home in the private sphere. Attempting to forge an acceptable space in the publi c arena, women of the early republic crafted the idea of Republican motherhood. Countering the prevailing view that there was no need to educate women (since their proper place was believed to be in the private sphere), women maintained that their education was essential to the health of the new republic because they instilled the doctrines of Republican citizenship in their (male) offspring. Therefore, while embracing their perceived domestic responsibilities, women succeeded in overcoming one of the g reatest

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70 higher education, which set strict limits on womens participation in certain academic fields and professions.74 The sciences were still in the process of professionalization, and women were actively excluded from all but the lowest levels. After graduation, Harr is found the search for full time employment in the sciences to be an uphill battle. Most of the available positions for women combined low level laboratory work with clerical duties. In this sense, the dialectic of opportunity and constraint was palpable to Harris who had accomplished the impressive feat of graduating with a science degree but was rejected from pursuing an advanced degree in her field. Her experience was shared by the majority of women scientists of her time, who were also unable to fi nd appropriate employment in their field.75 limitations of their assigned sphere: lack of education, which correlated to womens inability to advance professionally. 74 Beginning in the late eighteenth century, women capitalized upon the concept of Republican motherhood as a means to estab lish womens literacy. As the nineteenth century progressed, academies for white girls and women proliferated. Prior to this development, formal education had been reserved for white boys and men only. Nonetheless, higher education remained a masculine realm well into the antebellum era. See Solomon, In the Company of Educated Women; Peril, College Girls ; Horowitz, Alma Mater ; Bordin, Women at Michigan ; Feldman, Escape from the Dolls House Horowitz traces the evolution of womens education, which began with academies in the late eighteenth century. Separate seminaries for males and females replaced academies in the early nineteenth century, with the goal of preparing men for the ministry and women for teaching and Republican motherhood. When Vassar College opened in 1865, it became the first true college for women (the first to offer a complete liberal arts curriculum). In 1848, the Seneca Falls Convention marked both the rise of the suffrage movement and the push for womens colleges in the United States. Echoing Mary Wollstonecrafts A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments stressed that women could not reach their full potential while they continued to be denied admission to institutions of higher education. Moreover, the Declaration of Sentiments accused men of monopoliz[ing] nearly all the profitable employments. See the Declaration of Sentiments, http://www.usconstitution.net/sentime nts.html accessed June 14, 2009. The Seneca Falls delegates further complained that women were barred from teaching medicine, law, and theology. Delegates to the Seneca Falls Convention linked womens disfranchisement to their lack of equal access to education and professional opportunities, asserting that womens inferior status in society would remain constant as long as this imbalance prevailed. See Peril, College Girls ; see also Rosemarie Zagarri, The Rights of Man and Woman in Post Revolutionary America, William and Mary Quarterly Third Series, Volume 55, No. 2 (April 1998), 206 07, which analyzes the debate over womens right to an education. 75 McCandless, The Past in the Present ; Peril, College Girls ; Rury, Education and Womens Work ; Lesli e R. Wolfe, ed., Women, Work, and School: Occupational Segregation and the Role of Education (Boulder, San Francisco, and Oxford: Westview Press, 1991); Sharon Lee Rich and Ariel Phillips, ed., Womens Experience and Education ; Horowitz, Alma Mater ; and Rossiter, Women Scientists in America, Volume One.

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71 Far more seasoned women scientists with doctorates faced discrimination in hiring and promotion at Eastern universities and colleges. Cornell Universitys failure to promote women to full professorships is a case in point. The university failed to promote Anna Comstock to full professor four separate times before finally promoting her in 1920, when she was in her sixties. A nationally recognized naturalist, Comstocks ability and scholarly merit were not in ques tion. Cornells science department followed a longstanding, national trend of keeping women scientists at the assistant professor, lecturer, and assistant levels only. Still, Cornell held the distinction of graduating the first female doctorate in scienc e (Caroline Baldwin Morrison) in 1895.76 After World War I, the reality of womens slow progress in higher education and the professions was compounded by a new emphasis on companionate marriage. In the interwar years, womens status as mates came to outr ank their traditional value as mothers, which women had capitalized upon previously as a means to gain access to higher education. Twentiethcentury proscriptions against mixing work and marriage were reinforced by the new language of science, in which (m ale) scientists used ostensibly objective evidence pertaining to womens biology in order to justify their natural role in society. Therefore the sexual division of labor was merely a natural outcropping of mens and womens different biological makeup.77 In 1936, gender was the deciding factor in Cornell University s rejection of Harriss application to its graduate program in science. Arthur Allen, the director of the ornithology 76 Although Cornell had been a pioneer in the area of undergraduate coeducation, the university was slow to accept women as equals on the faculty. In 1911, Cornell promoted Martha Van Rennselaer and Florence Rose to full professor. The universitys first women full professors functioned within the prescribed feminine field of home economics, lessening their potential threat to the universitys male faculty. See The Cornell Womens Handbook, History of Women at Cornell, Cornell University Womens Resource Center website, http://wrc.dos.cornell.edu/aboutus/handbook/chapter_01.html (accessed June 16, 2009). 77 Hubbard, The Politic s of Womens Biology especially 2, 102. Hubbard contends that all science is subjective, gendered, and therefore political.

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72 laboratory, informed her that there was no place for women in the field The University of North Carolina also denied Harris admission and fellowships. As mentioned previously, large public universities and prestigious private institutions fought coeducation at the graduate level. Hoping to pursue a professional career in science and earn enough money to enter graduate school in the near future, Harris began searching for nearby positions in government work. This led to a short lived position as the nations first female federal wildlife technician with the Resettlement Ad ministration in Welaka, Florida where she first encountered the Ocklawaha River.78 The next chapter chronicles the challenges Marjorie Harris faced in government work and private industry. Her supervisor at the Resettlement Administration was as reluctant to work with a woman scientist as Arthur Allen had been at Cornell University. In her next professional position at the Bass Lab in Englewood, Florida Harris would fight to remain engaged in scientific pursuits instead of performing the secretarial duties her employer often requested of her. Harriss biggest challenge would be to find a way to combine work and marriage. She and her future husband, Archie Fairly Carr, Jr., would enter into a passionate yet tumultuous relationship that posed personal and institutional challenges to the continuation of Harris s career in zoology. 78 Graham, Jr., What Matters Most, 97.

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73 Figure 21. Charles Ellsworth Harris. Courtesy of Mimi Carr. Figure 22. Clara (Haynes) Harris. Courtesy of Mimi Carr.

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74 Figure 23. Marjorie Harris (center) with childh ood friend Ralph Maglathlin (1916). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. Figure 24. Twoyear old Marjorie Harris in Boston, Massachusetts (1917). Courtesy of Archie Fairly Carr III.

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75 Figure 25. Marjorie Harris examining seashells with her father, Charles Harris, at Sanibel Island, Florida, in 1919. Courtesy of Mimi Carr. Figure 26. Nine year old Marjorie Harris (front row, second from right), Bonita Springs School, Lee County, Florida (1925). Courtesy of Archie Fairly Carr III.

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76 Figure 27. Marjorie Harriss childhood home in Bonita Springs (1920s). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. Figure 28. Marjorie Harris riding her horse, Chiquita (1920s). Courtesy of Mimi Carr.

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77 Figure 29. Marjorie Harris (center) with alligator skin, Bonita Springs (1920s). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. Figure 210. Marjorie Harris, Fort Myers High School senior picture (1932). Courtesy of Archie Fairly Carr III.

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78 Figure 211. Marjorie Harris in Florida State College for Women graduation regalia (1936). She was a member of the Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi honor societies. Courtesy of Mimi Carr.

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79 CHAPTER 3 BLENDING SCIENCE AND MARRIAGE IN THE NEW DEAL ERA Gender discrimination prevented Marjorie Harris from proceeding directly to graduate work in zoology after she completed her ba chelors in science at Florida State College for Women.1 Soon after graduation, however, the Resettlement Administration hired her as the first female federal wildlife technician. Harris was assigned to the Welaka Fish Hatchery, located near the St. Johns River in North Central Florida This position serve d three key purposes in her professional and personal life. First, Harris s work at the fish hatchery inspired her later research on the large mouthed black bass of Florida, which would become the subje ct of her masters thesis. Second, t his position introduced Harris to the Ocklawaha River, whose preservation and restoration would later command thirty five years of her attention. Third, Harriss work at the fish hatchery prompted her to conduct resear ch at the University of Florida in Gainesville, where she met Archie Carr, who was completing his doctoral dissertation in herpetology. Their meeting prefaced the establishment of a personal and professional partnership that would benefit both scientists in their future scholarly and conservation activities. As the young couple began thei r partnership, however, Harris would face a series of challenges to her ability to combine marriage with a scientific career. The Welaka Fish Hatchery was part of Amer icas national fish hatchery system, which was founded in the late nineteenth century. The purpose of the national fish hatcheries, which were under the jurisdiction of the Commission of Fish and Fisheries (created by the U.S. Department of State in 1871) was to ensure that Americas public waters remained stocked with an abundance of native fish. Hatchery employees gathered information on the nations fishery resources, which were undergoing a rapid decline (especially in regions that had experienced 1 Frank Graham Jr., What Matters Most, 96.

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80 ex tensive logging); identified the causes of the decreasing supply of fish populations; and defined and protected U.S. fishing rights. The agency was also responsible for reporting its findings on the nature of the fish decline and any recommended remedial action to Congress, which expanded the agencys powers in 1872 to include culturing native fish species in hatcheries for the purpose of supplementing the declining supply of native fish in Americas rivers, lakes, and streams. The Commission on Fish and Fisheries was a forerunner of the Fisheries Program of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is charged with conserving native fish species. The National Fish Hatchery System of the Fisheries Program continues to supplement native fish supplies through its breeding and restocking program. Today, the national hatcheries, which were originally charged with replenishing fish supplies for recreational purposes, culture more than 100 aquatic species to replace fish lost through natural disasters, pollution, habitat loss, dam construction, and other events that interfere with the natural life cycles of native fishes.2 Established in 1926, the Welaka National Fish Hatchery was incorporated into the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1938.3 The only national f ish hatchery in Florida, the Welaka Fish Hatchery is a warm water hatchery whose purpose is to raise fish native to the Southeast and release them into rivers, streams, and lakes.4 The h atchery is divided into two units: the Welaka Unit, which includes t he ponds at the hatcherys headquarters near an aquarium; and the Beecher 2 U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Web site, http://www.fws.gov/fisheries/fisheries.html (accessed October 11, 2009). 3 The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, which is an extension of the Department of the Interior, is responsible for partnering with local, state, and federal agencies and communities to conserve, protect, and stock fish, wildlife, plants, and natural habitats. The National Fish Hatchery System is charged with restoring native aquatic species protected by the Endangered Species Act U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Web site, http://www.fws.gov/fisheries/nfhs/ (accessed October 11, 2009). 4 Men from the World War I Veterans Labor Camp Building Cages and Houses for the Aviary at the We laka Fish Hatchery, Florida State Archives, http://ibistro.dos.state.fl.us/uhtbin/cgisirsi/1zOBwmgLqQ/STA FLA/131010181/9 (accessed February 7, 2010).

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81 Unit ponds three miles further south, near Beecher Spring. The Welaka Unit is fed by the St. Johns River and a 423foot deep well. The aquarium houses native species of Florida fis h that are raised at the hatchery for the purpose of replenishing the native fish supply in local waters. The remote location is also home to an abundance of water birds, deer, raccoons, opossums, squirrels, rabbits, and turkey. The nearby St. Johns Rive r has been described as the bass capital of the world. Harris s studies of the fish of the St. Johns would later lead her to select bass as the subject of her graduate thesis at the University of Florida, The breeding habits, embryology and larval deve lopment of the large mouthed black bass of Florida. As a wildlife technician, her duties at the Welaka Fish Hatchery included a mixture of biological research, field research and collecting, and aquarium management.5 As the nations first federal female wildlife technician, Harris benefited from the expanding professional opportunities the New Deal made available to women. Although the New Deal in particular and Depression conditions in general contributed to the feminization of clerical work, which benefited employers who compensated female employees at a lower rate than what they had previously paid male employees who performed the same tasks, the New Deal also played a major role in increasing womens presence in public life in the 1930s.6 After women gained the suffrage, the 1920s witnessed a sharp backlash against womens concerns. Yet the election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the hardships brought on by the Depression, and the implementation of the New Deal programs redefined relationships among t he federal 5 Welaka National Fish Hatchery Web site, http://www.fws.gov/southeast/welaka/ (accessed October 11, 2009). 6 For more on the feminization of clerical work and unequal pay for women, see Angel Kwolek Folland, In corporating Women: A History of Women and Business in the United States (New York: Twayne, 1998); Ruth Milkman, Gender at Work: The Dynamics of Job Segregation by Sex During World War II (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987); and Alice Kessler H arris, In Pursuit of Equity: Men, Women, and the Quest for Economic Citizenship in 20thCentury America (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).

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82 government, society, and the individual, resulting in an overall improvement in womens status that would not be matched until the 1960s.7 Nonetheless, the American public was slow to accept womens entry into public life. Four fifths of Amer icans surveyed in a 1936 Gallup poll expressed the opinion that married women should not work if their husbands were employed. The federal governments official policy reflected this public sentiment: Between 1932 and 1937, 1,600 married women whose husbands also worked for the government were dismissed from government service. Still, women benefited from the social and economic restructuring that accompanied the New Deal.8 Between 1923 and 1939, the total percentage of women employed by the federal gove rnment increased from 15.8% to 18.8%, representing an increase of 90,000 government positions for women.9 In academic and professional science, women were perceived to be a threat. Since the dawn of the industrial age, womens labor had been compensated a t a lower rate than mens, and women had been relegated to sex typed jobs. As womens presence in science increased, these practices were extended to that field as well. Cultural beliefs about gender difference persisted in the 1930s, when women accounte d for approximately fifty percent of the work force.10 7 Indeed, womens advancement and social reform have coincided throughout American history, beginning with the joint antislavery and womens rights movements of the 1840s and resurfacing in the 1960s with the Civil Rights Movement, antiwar movement, and the reemergence of feminism. Susan Ware, Beyond Suffrage: Women in the New Deal (Cambridge, Mas sachusetts and London, England: Harvard University Press, 1981), 46. 8 Although women faced significant discrimination in academia and in the workforce throughout the 1930s, the New Deal era was also a time of great progress for women in politics and t he professions. President Roosevelt gave women a prominent role in the development and administration of New Deal programs, and Eleanor Roosevelt championed womens causes throughout her husbands presidency. Despite the lack of an organized womens move ment, the 1930s ushered in a new era of opportunity for womenespecially collegeeducated women in public life. Ware, Beyond Suffrage 1 2. 9 The New Deals Works Progress Administration accounted for 18% of this increase. Roosevelt also appointed women to top administrative positions in select New Deal agencies. Ware, Beyond Suffrage 61. 10 Employers reactions to the perceived threat women posed to men in the workplace are examined in Sonya O. Rose, Limited Livelihoods: Gender and Class in Nineteenth Century England (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1992); John Rury analyzes similar practices in higher education in Education and Womens Work: Female Schooling and the Division of Labor in Urban America, 1870 1930 (Albany: St ate

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83 One unresolved issue at the time concerned the future of the nations college educated women. Although some would pursue graduate educations or professional careers in the early twentieth century, most collegeeducated women who worked after graduation entered the female dominated (and socially acceptable) positions of school teacher, nurse, librarian, social worker, or clerical worker.11 Yet the Depression era represented a time of social and economic r eform, followed by a period of global war. Historically, American womens employment has experienced dramatic upswings during periods of great expansion and national emergencies, leading to important (temporary) progress.12 The Resettlement Administration s decision to appoint a woman to the biologist position at the Welaka Fish Hatchery was indicative of this overall shift in womens favor. Not all government bureaucrats supported the extension of traditionally male dominated positions to women, however. After spending four years at an all female institution, Harris enjoyed the camaraderie of her male colleagues at the Welaka Fish Hatchery. Yet being the only female biologist at Welaka posed a unique problem for her. The programs director was very uncomfortable with a woman biologist, she recounted. He didnt know what to do with me.13 Zoology was an unusual career choice for a woman to make in the 1930s. It involved getting dirty in the field: collecting and preserving myriad insects, spiders, r eptiles, fishes, mollusks, birds, and other assorted creatures; hunting for specimens by hand or by rifle; and engaging in a University of New York Press, 1991); and Mary C. McComb, Great Depression and the Middle Class: Experts, Collegiate Youth and Business Ideology, 19291941 (New York and London: Routledge, 2006). 11 Ware, Beyond Suffrage 24. 12 Ibid., 60 61. 13 Graham, Jr., What Matters Most, 96.

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84 host of activities women tra ditionally shunned. To Harris however, studying nature in rural Florida was second nature. In addition to working with fish, Harris, who had specialized in ornithology at Florida State College for Women, assumed research responsibilities in the aviary housed at the Welaka Fish Ha tchery (see Figure 3 3). World War I veterans constructed the aviary during the hatcherys expansion under the New Deal.14 In the fall of 1936, Harris s colleagues were unable to identify the source of a mysterious illness that afflicted the hatcherys quail population. The hatcherys laboratory lacked the equipment required to di agnose the disease, but Harris suspected that it was a condition that also affected chickens. I had minored in bacteriology, she explained, so I took the quail over to a laboratory at the University of Florida Harris s supervisor refused to allow he r to test her hypothesis during working hours, so she conducted her research at the universitys laboratory at night and drove back to Welaka in time to start work the following morning.15 While Harris toiled over the microscope, the young herpetologist Arc hie Carr worked well into the evenings on his doctoral dissertation in the zoology department, just down the hall from the laboratory. The young male scientists at the officially all male University of Florida were awestruck by the presence of a twentyone year old, female scientist who had descended upon the science building in high heels and a lab coat, toting caged birds. One graduate student said Miss Harris was the most beautiful woman he had ever met. Another 14 Aviaries at the Welaka Fish Hatchery, Florida State Archives, http://ibistro.dos.state.fl.us/uhtbin/cgisirsi/XSyyQaDAyU/STA FLA/ 131010181/9 (accessed February 7, 2010). 15 Marjorie Harris Carr, Special Voices, Two Florida Women: Marjorie Carr, Marjory Stoneman Douglas video production (Florida Atlantic University/Florida International University, Joint Center for Environmental an d Urban Problems, 1985).

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85 graduate student, Horton Hobbs, repor ted to his friend Archie Carr that he had just met the love of his life. That prompted Archie to introduce himself to Harris .16 She helped finance their courtship by convincing her supervisor at the fish hatchery to purchase a collection of local fish spec imens from Archie. He reciprocated by nominating her for full membership in the Florida Academy of Sciences, of which she was already a charter member at the associate level. (As science underwent the process of professionalization in the early twentieth century, it was customary for women to be excluded from full participation in professional organizations such as scientific academies.)17 The two hour drive from Gainesville to Welaka was also assisted by Archies brother, who loaned him a truck he had inherited from an aunt. Archies brother was impressed with Harris s business like demeanor when he first met her, in addition to the fact that she wore boots. She was a conservationist from the very beginning, he explained, while Archie was a hunter fi rst and became interested in conservation gradually.18 Archie teased Harris for taking a position sponsored by the New Deal. I love to look at you even if you are a resettlement woman, he wrote in December 1936. You talk so cute too.19 Archie, a Southerner, was amused by Harris s New England accent. Although the pair 16 Authors interview with Dick Franz of the Florida Museum of Natural History, February 27, 2009. The title of Archie Carrs doctoral dissertation was The Geographic and Ecological Distribution of the Reptiles and Amphibians of F lorida (Ph.D. thesis, University of Florida, 1937). 17 Marjorie Harris to Archie Carr (November 8, 1936), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. Marjorie thanked Archie for nominating her to the Academy and asked if she would be subjected to the same process as a first time nominee or if her status could simply be changed from associate to member. In the same letter she referred to her recent shipment of several species of fish to Archie, all of which she had preserved in formaldehyde at the Welaka fish hatc hery. She also supplied Archies colleagues with various research specimens, including quail ovaries. Marjories early correspondence with Archie was both cordial and professional, discussing research specimens and specimen requests for Archie and his co lleagues. The letters also reveal their blossoming friendship. For more information on the practice of relegating female scientists to the status of associates versus full members of professional organizations, see Rossiter, Women Scientists in America, Volume One ; 18 Authors interview with Dr. Tom Carr, August 13, 2008. 19 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris (December 6, 1936), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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86 had just met in October, Archie already signed his letters with love. Yet Archies next letter, which he wanted to be a cheerful, happy first love letter, was instead filled with doubts. Harris had lost her position at the Welaka Fish Hatchery after a coll eague took credit for her discovery of the cause of the quails illness. Archie investigated th e abrupt termination of Harris s employment and confirmed her suspicions. Barred from testing her hypothesis regarding the cause of the quails i llness on company time, Harris had burned the midnight oil at the university laboratory and proved that the quail suffered from a common chicken disease. Yet her efforts had gone unrecognized at t he fish hatchery by all but one person, who promptly announced that he had discovered the source of th e birds illness. Although Harris and Archies letters do not reveal the full story regarding her response to this unfortunate situation, it is clear tha t her reaction to her coworkers false claim resulted in her own dismissal. A frantic search for a new position ensued, driving Archie closer to his love interest while simultaneously leaving him feeling inadequate as a potential provider for Harris Thi s crisis caused the young couple to make a rushed decision about the future of their relationship.20 Archie had already proposed to Harris but marriage was a risky venture during the Great Depressi on. Archie feared that she would only agree to marry him because of the turmoil stemming from her dismissal from the fish hatchery. Moreover, he was unable to support her financially, so they would have to live separately while he finished his dissertation. This scenar io would only be feasible if Harris could find work as a biologist, and even then, the newlyweds would have to endure more than half a year of separation. Archi e advised Harris to heed her mothers advice and think with her mind, not her heart. He claimed that his love was 20 Carr letters, December 1936 through January 1937, in Private Collection of Mimi Carr; authors interviews with Mimi Carr. Later in life, Marjorie Harris Carr rarely discuss ed this incident with her children, which was in keeping with her practice of internalizing problems.

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87 selfish because had li ttle to offer her as a struggling graduate student, while what she offered him was priceless. I have so much to gai n, Archie warned Harris. You are everything I need and want. You will make my life far more important and satisfying than it could be w ithout you. Can I do these things for you? Listen to your mother and stop feeling and think. This is a warning, my dearest, because Im going to marry you the minute you weaken. Im going to be a louse and take a wife I cant support, and let her live away from me and work, and ignore the risk of losing her respect the minute you weaken. You are magnificent. I profit so greatly. I dont want to clip your wings. Think hard.21 Although his intentions were serious, Archie did not want to curtail Harris s professional ambitions. He was aware of the implications of their potential marriage for her career in science. This explains why his letter contained both a marriage proposal and a plea to be reasonable and end their affair. He confided that writing a three ream dissertation left him sleep deprived and admitted that his letters might be screwy. The followin g day, Archie sent Harris a hand delivered letter that revealed the depths of his insecurity. Your earthly loveliness is as stable and indomi table as a rainforest, he professed.22 Im too skinny and probably will be bald in a couple of years. My right arm is pretty well wrecked. I have to do almost as much physical work as mental to feel right. I should have been a farmer or a mackerel fish erman, and Im trying to be a scholar.23 Archies father, Archibald Fairly Carr, Sr., was a Presbyterian minister who had relocated the family from Fort Worth, Texas, to Savannah, Georgia, in 1920. While attending college there, Archie developed osteomyel itis in his arm. Although penicillin would 21 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris (December 1936), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 22 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris (mid December 1936), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 23 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris (dated simply Sunday), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. This letter was never mailed; it was likely written in mid December, the day after the previous excerpt.

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88 have cured the disease quickly, it was not available at the time. As a result, Archie underwent six major operations on his right arm. The surgeries resulted in an immobilized elbow and enormous scars, which Ar chie usually kept covered. It was a big blow to Archie emotionally, his brother Tom explained, adding that Archie had to decide whether he wanted his arm to be permanently frozen in a straight or bent position. He decided that the bent position would be more functio nal, so his doctors ensured that his right arm remained in that position for the rest of his life (see Figure 3 5) .24 Archie spent a year in a cast and weighed a slight one hundred and nine pounds upon leaving the hospital in Atlanta. His fa ther promptly found work for him as a manager of a terrapin farm in Tidewater, Georgia. The physically demanding job wa s therapeutic: Archie caught one hundred pounds of fish to feed the turtles each day.25 This early experience with turtles stimulated Arc hies interest in the species at a time when very little was known about them. In 1930, the Carr family moved to Umatilla, Florida, where Archies father planned to enjoy semi retirement. Archie enrolled at the University of Florida in Gainesville and h is father worked part time work as a minister at a small church in Umatilla. He planned to use the profits from a small orange grove on their property to supplement his modest income from the church. According to Tom Ca rr, hunting and fishing were his fa thers true passions. The Carr familys hunting cabin in the Ocala National Forest still remains, and a campaign is currently under way to preserve it. As children, Archie and Tom learned about the outdoors and science from their father, who shared the w ork of Einstein and other scientists with his congregation and enjoyed 24 Authors interview with Dr. Tom Carr, August 13, 2008. 25 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (March 28, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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89 quoting cosmology in his sermons. Both of the Carr brothers went on to complete doctorates in science.26 Archie felt inadequate as a suitor. In particular, he was sensitive about his d isabled right a rm. He speculated that Harris would meet many men through her work in zoology, men who would value what he described as her great friendliness, beauty, and unique relation to mena Whitmanesque camaraderie that is a delight to behold. He was nearly six years her senior. Archie cautioned Harris against settling for him when she would be better off marrying a more suitable companion. Admitting that he had an inferiority complex, he claimed that in this case it was justifiable. In brief I dont think Im good enough to hold you, Archie confessed. Youre my destiny but yours is elsewhere. I love you. Goodbye.27 Shortly after the letter was delivered to Harris Archie reversed his position dramatically and ordered her to burn that dam ned letter. He wrote that his love for her was more powerful than he ever imagined human emotion could be. He pleaded with her to marry him any way she wished: Secretly or at your Uncle Adolphs. Down at the fish house. In St. Francis Cathedral. W ith you Ill submit to the rites of the Buddhists, the Baptists or the Mormons. Ill take the weird vows of Mbuq at the headwaters of the Khablh. Or Ill bring you home and let my dad do it. Hes good. Please marry me, Margie. I adore you. If we wa it something will happen.28 Ar chie was convinced that Harris would meet another man while he finished his doctorate in Gainesville and she worked in another city. He believed the only way he could hold on to her love was to marry her immediately. Lets take a chance, he begged her. Lets make 26 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris (dated simply Sunday), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. This letter was never mailed; it was likely written in mid December, the day after the previous excerpt. 27 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris (dated simply Sunday), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 28 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris (December 22, 1936, afternoon), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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90 everybody miserable. If we dont, and quick, we face a good chance of going through life without each other. That, to me, is the most repulsive and revolting thought that I can summon to consciousnessId just as soon die now if I could be resurrected when you decide to marry me.29 Harris read Archies passionate letters over and over. She had fallen hard for the herpetologis t poet. Archie was not Harris s first lover, but his passion was overwhelming, and the y were kindred spirits. She wasted no time accepting his proposal. Just seven months shy of completing his doctorate, Archie contemplated abandoning his degree in order to find a job that would pay enough for the young couple to live together. He claime d he would leave the university without a single regret if she wanted him to, but if not she would need to find other employment as soon as possible. Shortly after being fired from the Welaka Fish Hatchery, Harris applied for a position as a biology techn ician at Bass Zoological Research Supply in Englewood, Florida. Archie had made several research trips to the Bass lab, and he had been friends with the owner, Jack Bass, for several years.30 Alt hough Archie encouraged Harris to seek work there, he was r eluctant to speak on her behalf: if he told the Ba sses they were engaged, she would not be offered a permanent position, since it was still customary for female scientists to resign their positions upon marriage. Archie asked Harris if she would consider working as a secretary in Gainesville if she was unable to secure a position at the Bass lab. There were very few opportunities for employment in the biological sciences in Gainesville especially for women. The universitys zoology department had no ope nings, and the best nonfaculty positions (held by Archie and a fellow graduate 29 Ibid. 30 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris (December 22, 1936, evening), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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91 student) paid just $43.50 per month. After expenses, this left Archie with only $3.50 to live on each month. He held out hope for the summer, when they might find research fe llowships together in Virginia. He was already thinking in terms of the scientific partnership they would develop.31 For the time being, however, Archie was powerless to bring about a positive resolution to their financial dilemma. Yet instead of dwelling on their looming separation, he focused on hi s overwhelming love for Harris penning love lines with the flair of a poet. My love for you is all pervading, he gushed. Its as fundamental to my life as metabolism. It is my life. When I lie awake at night and listen to my heart it beats, MargieMargie, so loud in the dark I think everybody must hear. I think you must hearOh my darling, we must be going to be awful happyI love you forever.32 For the next several days, Archies love for Harris ecli psed his anxiety over their immediate future. My love for you is my life these days, he opined. You are my ultimate choice the end of my existence. I worship you.33 And on Christmas day he put pen to paper as only a smitten herpetologist could: If I stepped on a dozen rattlesnakes a day Id step off the last two or three casually with ennui and a jaundiced eye. I dont know whether I think of you a hundred or a thousand times a day. But I do know, my darling, that the thought of you never ceases t o thrill me.34 Although Harris was an avid reader, she felt ill equipped to respond to Archies love letters with passionate prose of her own. Instead she compared her feelings to those expressed in the work of renowned poets, explaining that for the firs t time, she truly understood the feelings 31 Ibid. 32 Ibid. 33 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris (December 23, 1936), i n Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 34 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris (December 25, 1936), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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92 the writers had captured on paper. Archie had majored in literature as an undergraduate student before switching to biology, and he later became famous for his creative prose. A prolific writer, he refused to adopt the dry scientific writing style typical of his profession. Although the self deprecating Archie poked fun at his eternal verbosity, portions of his love letters deserve to be published for their poetic style and narrative power. Days before their e lo pement, Archie compared Harris to the beauty of the cosmos. Sometimes to me you are something tiny and infinitely precious which I must watch over tenderly and keep very close to me forever, he promised. Sometimes the beauty of you expands and mount s to Andromeda and beyond, and I look up and gasp at the cosmic splendor of it and whimper, and beg you to come back to me. Sometimes you are just the loveliest woman I have ever known. Always I love you.I adore younow and the day I die When the elect rons of the last atoms that have been me fly out of their orbits it will be in quest of you.35 This was the l ast letter Archie wrote Harris before they eloped. On New Years Day, 1937, Judge Platt married the couple at the Charlotte County Courthouse in F ort Myers.36 They honeymooned on a beach not far from the Everglades.37 Although none of their friends or family had witnessed the ceremony and they were separated by hundreds of miles following their brief honeymoon, Marjorie and Archie felt like they were walking on air. My Archie I am so very glad we were married January 1, Marjorie Harris Carr reflected several months later. That is 35 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris (December 27, 1936), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 36 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (Ma rch 26, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr; authors interview with Dr. Tom Carr (August 13, 2008). 37 Authors interview wi th Dr. Tom Carr, August 13, 2008

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93 ours with all its enchantment, Night Herons, mystery and Saw Grass marshes. It was so beautiful.38 Archie remembered that the moon was pretty the night they got married.39 Blinded by love, the newlyweds were completely unprepared for the pain their impending separation would cause them. Moreover, Carrs decision to marry Archie would have important short term and longterm consequences for her professional career. Marriage practically constituted professional suicide for women scientists in the 1930s, when almost three quarters of female scientists were single and nearly two thirds of all unemployed female scientists were married. Federal policy undermined married womens tenure in the workforce through section 213 of the Economy Act of 1932, which made spouses (customarily wives) the primary targets of workforce reductions. In addition, universities strengthened their an tinepotism rules during the Depression, making it even more difficult for married female scientists to advance professionally.40 For these reasons, the Carrs decided against sharing the news of their nuptials with colleagues, friends, or coworkers for as lo ng as possible. Beginning with his first letter to his new bride, Archie masked his wifes married name. He addressed this letter to Miss Margie Harris at Zoological Research Supply, where Carr had just started her new position as a biology technician. Yet the letter inside the envelope bore Carr s new name: Mrs. A. F. Carr, Jr., General Genius, The Basshian Unity, Englewood, S. Fla. The letter contained news that the Carrs elopement had wreaked havoc in the University of Florida zoology department. Archie 38 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (May 24, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 39 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (March 26, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 40 The percentage of female scientists who were married had increased from 18.2% in 1921 to 26.4% in 1938, reflecting an increase of more than 45%. Yet the unemployment rate for married women scientists in 1938 was 22.0%, compared to just 4.3% for unmarried women scientists. Married women scientists accounted for 64.9% of the total of unemployed women scientists in this time period. Margaret Rossiter, Women Scientist s in America: Struggles and Strategies to 1940 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982), 14142.

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94 joked that talk of elopement, rape, and suicide pacts had reached J. Speed Rogers, the department chair and Archies supervisor, whom Archie reported was in a hell of a lather. Archie attempted to play down the rumors in the department, but he had little to lose should the truth be revealed, since female spouses were almost always the ones to lose their jobs in such situations. Nonplussed, Archie waxed eloquent about Carr s consummate intelligence, their true compatibility, and their friendship, which was already closer than any he had experienced.41 Meanwhile, at the Bass Lab in faraway Englewood, near Fort Myers, Carr was in an utter daze over becoming Archies wife. She told Archie she enjoyed her new position there, but I couldnt have stood it if we hadnt gotten married.42 Although she handled the separation better than her husband, it was still palpable. What a heaven we have together, she wrote, and what utter agony apart. Neither of us can stand that horror of separation agai n. What had we better do? See each other more often or farther apart?43 The physical demands of Carr s work at the Bass Lab took her mind off of their separation much of the time. It was not uncommon to preserve hundreds or thousands of the same speci es throughout the day. Carr packed cans of Arachnoidea one morning until her hands hurt. Formaldehyde is not a good skin lotion, she quipped. The work was more than mechanical, however. She also had discretion to choose which animals to collect and pre serve, and she sought more sales opportunities, where she could market Bass specimens to universities and museums. She asked Archie what would be a good series of animal specimens to prepare for general college biology courses. For instance a series sho wing evolution of gills by using Siren, Necturus, and Amphiuma, she inquired. Or a representative collection of Arachnids. If you have any ideas please shoot them along. Dr. 41 Archie Carr to Marjorie Carr (January 4, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 42 Marjorie Carr to Archie Carr (January 5, 1937), in Private C ollection of Mimi Carr. 43 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (February 16, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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95 Rogers mentioned that he would like some of these sets made up but was so vague that we are in the dark as to just what to prepare.44 When Archie was on a research trip to the Northeast, he struggled to maintain his composure in front of his collea gues while he pined for Carr Its hell to live through a day without hearing from you, he wrote. I worship you, my first love. Life is tolerable. I can eat and work, and even laugh. But forever more Ill be incomplete when youre not with me. Please dont think Im just a lover separated from his mistress. No, beautiful, thats bad enough, but its much deeper than that. My soul is an encysted organism doomed to half life till conditions become propitious for its emergence. The only real satisfaction I get from life these days comes with the thought that someday I shall rest my head forever on your lovely breasts and the live warmth of you will release my encysted soul, and together we shall live completely once more. Ill always remember these months of waiting, my wife. And the thought of them will keep me grateful to you for ending them, and I shall adore you forever.45 Carr began to learn the zoologists tools of the trade at the Bass lab, including how to run boats.46 She used a variety of boats while questing for sharks, dogfish, jellyfish, snakes, eel, turtles, seahorses, and myriad water creatures. She enjoyed classifying rare and possibly new species. Three weeks after their wedding, Carr felt confident enough to attempt catching alligators. The next day she and her Bass colleagues embarked upon a cruise on the Virgin ia the research boat the Carr brothers had helped Bass sail to Englewood. Carr marveled at her new status as Mrs. A. F. Carr, Jr., but she also relish ed her new position. Her excitement over her 44 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (dated simply Thursdayno postmarked envelope), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 45 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (January 23, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 46 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (another Thursday letter), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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96 new job prompted Archie to ask her not to stay away from him for such a long time ever again. He did not want her to become too comfortable with long periods of separation from her husband. On an early expe dition at the Bass Lab, Carr collected fifty live cockroach specimens by hand. She expressed the unease s he felt watching insects molt, combining scientific observations and illustrations with pledges of devotion. Oh, how every part of me wants you tonight, she wrote Archie, for I am your wife. At this point none of Carr s relatives, friends, or colleag ues was aware that she was a married woman. She could only share her excitement about her secret nuptials in her letters to Archie.47 Archie was not as goo d at keeping secrets as Carr was, however. Just two days later Archie confessed to Carr that he had told Rogers about their wedding. He thought it was necessary to tell Rogers because he had control of Archies future in the department. Pending the Legislatures approval of the universitys budget, Rogers had offered him a full time instructorship in the department. Rogers and Professor Shermans wives were already gossiping about the Carrs elopement, Archie advised his wife and concealing it from Rogers would have been imprudent. He told Archie he was glad they were married. Additiona lly, Rogers offered to help Marjorie Carr get a job in the department.48 Carr began to plead with Archie to pay her a visit at the Bass Lab in Englewood, which was three hundred miles away (nearly a six hour trip by car). Yet any visit by Archie would be extremely complicated, since he had been friends with owner Jack Bass and lab manager Stewart Springer before he met Carr Archie had obtained a fellowship at the Bass Lab, where he conducted research toward the completion of his dissertation on the distribution of Floridas 47 Marjorie Carr to Archie Carr (January, 1932), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 48 Only part time work was available in the biology department, so Marjorie kept her full time position at the Bass Lab until Archie graduated. Upon enrolling in the University of Floridas graduate program in zoology in the fall of 1937, Marjorie was hired as a part time assistant in the department.

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97 reptiles and amphibians. Archie and his brother, Tom had helped Jack Bass sail a 54 foot, twomasted schooner, the Virginia from Mobile, Alabama to Englewood in July 1935, when the Carr brothers were both students at the University of Florida Bass purchased the schooner, which had been built in Mobile in 1865, for use as a laboratory and collecting vessel.49 Archie asked Carr how they could possibly conceal their passion from Bass and his wife Else, and how the Basses would react if they fou nd out about the true nature of the Carrs relationship. Carr could not risk losing her position at the Bass Lab, which paid forty dollars a month (just $3.50 less than Archies monthly salary), plus room and board. Her new job offered extensive hands on training in specimen collection and preservation. The Bass Lab supplied some of the East Coasts most prestigious colleges and universities with research specimens. The entry level position would provide Carr with a broad understanding of a diverse set of native Florida wildlife species, provided that she could conceal her excitement over her brand new marriage and cope with her husbands reluctance to visit her at the lab.50 Carr s hidden marriage was not the only problem she faced at the Bass Lab, where she resisted Jack Basss efforts to demote her to the status of lab secretary. A young man recommended by Dr. Norris is coming down to ac t as Jacks secretary, Carr informed Archie. Jack, however, hints that maybe Ill be swapped for him. I had bett er misspell some words for him. Youd be impressed at the typist Ive turned out to be.51 Unfortunately, Carrs concerns as an undergraduate at Florida State College for Women had been justified: in order to fulfill her 49 Tom D. Carr, A Voyage to Remember (N.P., N.D., in the Private Collection of Tom Carr). Carr reported that Jack Bass spent the majority of the voyage in his cabin due to seasickness. The other crew member, a mechanic, worked on a faulty auxiliary engine throughout the trip and was also debilitated by seasickness. The Carr brothers navigation skills failed when a hurricane churned up rough seas in the Gulf of Mexico. Through the aid of the Car rabelle lighthouse on Floridas Gulf Coast, the Carrs steered the ship through gale force winds and docked the schooner. Bass and his associates took the Virginia on many collecting trips in the years that followed. 50 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (January 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 51 Ibid.

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98 dream of working as a zoologist, s he apparently had to prepare for a side career in clerical work. Yet she preferred working in the zoological supply endspecimen collection and preservation to secretarial work.52 Carrs letters, like Archies, include a mixture of eloquent professions of love and detailed descriptions of specimen collecting, including illustrations and scientific problems and questions. She also described the inner workings of the Bass labtension between Else Bass and workers; the lavish meals and cocktails they enjoyed at the Bass lab despite the Depression; the constant stream of visiting scientists; and sometimes hilarious tales from collecting expeditions. Archies letters blended a newlyweds bliss with morose predictions of personal failure, compounded by the fact that he could not afford even to visit his new bride at her new place of work in Englewood. Even if he could afford it, they would have to conceal their new marriage from Carrs employer and Archies friend, Jack Bass, w ho would likely relieve Carr of he r duties at the Bass Lab upon learning the news. Im still wondering about my coming down there, Archie wrote one week after they were married. Will it make it tough for you? Can we be matter of fact and casual? Can I stand around and listen to Jack s banalities and laugh for him when Im crying for you? Can I work with snakes and you with Necturus in the daytime, and not compromise you at night? Can we dissemble convincingly when all the world must see my heart? Can I look at you as I do at Else [Jack Basss wife] or Stewart [Springer, the laboratory manager]? Can we do all this and do you want to? These arent rhetorical questions. Answer me with your mind.53 52 Marjorie Carr to Archie Carr (early January, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. Although Marjorie saved most of Archies envelopes, which include the postmarked date, Archie usually save d the letters only. Without the postmark, the only date available is the day of the week, at best. This letter had no date. 53 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris (January 8, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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99 The newlyweds remained cautious throughout the first months of their marriage, seldom seeing each other in person. Instead, the couple sent letters and telegrams to each other at least once each day. From the day Carr arrived at the Bass Lab, she longed for letters from her new husband. I stay in a state of coma until mail time, she w rote Archie.54 Yet his communications were not always comforting. Archies writing blended poetic rhapsodies of love with anxiety and depression over their speedy marriage and painfully long separation. Not to be overshadowed by her literary paramour, Car r s voice grew stronger across the months of separation. At first sounding somewhat like an infatuated young girl, her letters would soon reveal a newfound confidence as she became immersed in her field and laboratory d uties at the Bass Lab. Carr made he r longing for more than the life of a homemaker clear through her pleas for Archies consent regarding her career ambitions. Archie wanted to keep his new bride close to him, and he worried that she enjoyed her independence at the Bass Zoological Research Suppl y laboratory too much. Carr did her best to assuage Archies fears, constantly reassuring him that she loved him as much as he loved her. Economic necessity kept them apart, leaving behind a trail of passionate love letters that open a window into the early trials Carr faced as an aspiring zoologist who planned to pursue a career in academia, at her husbands side. She wanted to build a scientific partnership with her new husband, but a married womans struggle for professional relevance in the sc iences was an uphill battle in the 1930s. While Archie was despondent over his inability to provide for his wife financially, Carr grappled with the challenges her secret marriage posed to her ability to navigate a new position in a scientific field coded as masculine. 54 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (Jun e 5, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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100 From the moment Carr started working at the Bass Lab, Jack Bass exploited her clerical talents. Archie worried that Bass would attempt to have an affair with his new employee. On one of her first nights at the laboratory, she was awaken ed in her quarters and summoned to take dictation (while still in her night clothes). I was rather surprised to hear that Jack has started his midnight dictating so soon, Archie wrote Carr soon after she moved to Englewood. I cant see what he hopes t o gain by such precipitousness. Please be careful. And please believe when I ask you to be careful, that its your peace of mind Im thinking of and not selfish jealousy. I told you once that I would never worry you with jealousy and I wont But liste n mug. Mrs. Bass is as cunning and cold and merciless as a weasel where her own interests are concerned. If Jack gives the slightest hint of having designs on you you will be fired like that. And if she thinks hes falling in love with you shell divorc e him and take everything hes got and stamp you in the mud and laugh like hell. This sounds lurid, but you should have seen Ruby. If Jack gets hard to handle and the weather looks heavy to windward and you want to keep the job, go to Else and deflate he r. Tell her youre married and want to work there but that you dont want her goddamned husband. Ask her to help you plan some way of getting Jack in bed with her instead of in the lab with you. This would be somewhat delicate, but I think Else likes a certain amount of frankness and I know you could put it over. Thats what I would do if things got hard to take.55 While Carr and Archie tackled the problem of concealing their marriage from the Basses, they faced the additional hurdle of coping with thei r familys reactions to the news of their elopement. Archie revealed the truth to his mother, Louise Carr, within w eeks of the wedding ceremony Although she was chagrinned that they had not had a church wedding, Louise wrote 55 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (January 10, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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101 her new daughter in law prom ptly to offer her blessing.56 Of course I am very sorry you two saw fit to go about it in just that way, she admitted. I cant even pretend to see any sense in it, unless frankness mi ght jeopardize the job [Carr s job at the Bass lab].57 She s colded Car r for failing to realize how difficult their separation would prove to be. I make allowances for two poor kids in your states of mind not having more than half of what the lord and a college education gave you, she chided. Didnt you know, you babes i nthe woods or was it the Everglades? that a boyfriend (ugh!) is a lot easier to stand separation from than a husband?58 Unlike Archies mother, Carrs mother was not privy to the inner workings of the couples relationship in the beginning. Before they e loped, Carr had told her mother that she and Archie planned to marry. C lara Harris and some of Carr s aunts reacted negatively to this news. They believed that the recent college graduate should devote her affections to her widowed mother. Carr contributed a significant portion of her salary from the Welaka Resettlement Administration and later the Bass lab to her mothers monthly car payments and mortgage. Clara insisted that Carr must not marry any time soon. Reflecting on the elopement three months later, Archie told Carr he was ashamed of hiding the truth from her mother. Referri ng to the day he picked Carr up at her mothers house for their rendezvous with Judge Platt, who married the couple, Archie confessed he was not at all proud of not telling your mother where we were going that night.59 56 Authors interview with Dr. Tom Carr, August 13, 2008. As a ministers wife, Louise Carr was disappointed that her son had forgone a traditional church wedding ceremony. Several months after the elopement, Louise Carr and Marjories aunts orchestrated a formal wedding ceremony performed by Archie Carr, Senior. 57 Louise Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (January 19, 1 937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 58 Ibid. 59 Ibid.

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102 Carr was wise to have hidden the marriage from her mother, however. Clara reacted violently when Carr finally told her four m onths after the event. Clara depended upon her daughter, and she considered th e marriage to be somewhat of a loss. Yet the m arriage provided Louise Carr with an ally who would help her cope with her sons depression, which grew more severe with each passing week that the couple spent apart. In March, Louise Carr asked her daughter in law if she could get away from business long enough to come and spend a weekend with A rchie at his parents home. Louise promised to help arrange a visit with a honeymoon eff ect and advised Carr to come any time just as you would go home.60 In a subsequ ent letter, Archie told Carr that she would have been better off if she had stayed with Kenneth, a scientist she dated after ending a romantic entanglement with Jack Young. I think you were wise to change from Young to him. I think you might have been wiser if you had stuck with him, Archie wrote in his typical self deprecating manner. Chemists always make plenty of money. And Kenneth would never have married you until he was in a position to set you in platinum.61 Archie required endless r eassurances of Carr s love for him. She usually tempered his doubts with hopeful visions of their future together, but at times Archies dark letters required harsher responses. After one par ticularly stark letter, Carr sent an immediate response. Late r I will write again and soothe you, she promised, but now you see just how I feel this minute. Damn it to hell. I did not make a mistake New Years night. No. It would not have been better to marry Kenneth. Or Young or George or Joe or anyone else in Gods Heaven. It is you that I love. YOU. Archie Carr. And I always will. Dont you dare think that if you left me it would be better for methat Im young and that the hurt would soon 60 The emphasis is Louise Carrs. Louise Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (March 20, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 61 Kenneths last name is not mentioned in Archie and Marjories letters. Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (late March 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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103 be over and I would laugh and be better off. Thats all tommy rot. When you married me I was a girl but now I am a woman. And I adore you. And I will stick to you so tight, so tight. You cant get away. There is nothing you can do to get away or get me away. What you need to do is to come and sleep with me. I will kiss your doubt of us away and you will know that you are my husband. Please come.62 Archie explained that the only way he could afford the bus fare to Englewood would be if he stopped eating for a week. In an effort to conserve money, he had already switched to hand rolling cigarettes instead of purchasing t hem in packs. Yet when Carr offered to send Archie cigarettes, he was offended, explaining in his next letter that he had described his financial state to her only to explain why he could not vi sit that weekend. Archies anger did not dissuade Carr from volunteering to pay his bus fare to Englewood. Moreover, she offered to support him over the summer while he finished his dissertation. Instead of lifting Arc hies spirits, however, Carr s offe r of assistance left him feeling emasculated. Listen, he admonished Carr Its unpleasant enough for me to have to meditate on your puttering about in mudpuppy guts all day.63 It was not the onerous process of preserving mudpuppies that troubled Archi e he was uncomfortable with his inability to support his wife. For you to think you must support me is more than I can bear, Archie complained. After all, I have my pride. Or I should have anyway. Great God in heaven.You are a good wench Margie. I love you. But a Carr was never supported by a woman. Not financially.64 Archie viewed his wifes relative financial security at the Bass Lab 62 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (late March, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. This excerpt comes from a letter Marjorie wrote in response to Archie s letter advising Marjorie that she would have been better off with her former lover Kenneth, a successful chemist. Normally patient and reassuring when Archies insecurity reared its head, this letter shows Marjories growing frustration with Archies do ubts. 63 Due to a botched order at the Bass Lab, Marjorie had prepared a seemingly endless procession of thousands of mudpuppies. She complained about the tedious preparation process in several letters to Archie. 64 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (Apri l 3, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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104 as a blo w to his manhood. When Carr asked Archie to let her cover his expenses while he finished his doctorate in the spring of 1937, the new husband made it clear to his wife that she had crossed a line. Rather than sinking into despair like her phlegmatic husband, Carr began searching for a practical solution to their financial predicament. She hunted for scient ific positions first in Gainesville and Tallahassee, and later discovered a potential summer position directing the Key West Aquarium. The job would pay more than three times Archies salary at the University of Florida.65 The directorship belonged to Archies friend Leonard Gio Giovannoli, who had asked Archie to fill in for him over the summer. This would have made more regul ar visits with Carr possible, but Archie needed to remain in Gainesville through the end of July to defend his dissertation. He had already turned down a summer research fellowship in Virginia for the same reason. If the aquarium opportunity fell through, Archie planned to work as a teaching assistant in comparative biology at the university or make lantern slides to meet expenses The uncertainty of his employment and the weight of their separation plagued Archie. The whole layout strengthens my conviction that I was a damned impulsive ass for marrying you, he wrote Carr in his characteristic self flagellating manner.66 I cann ot but regard my inability to mate with the woman of my choice as a cosmic catastropheprolonging this torture would be suicide.67 Carr proposed a solution: she could take the aquarium directorship for the month of July, enabling Archie to assume the directorship after he defended his dissertation. Lets both go 65 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (April 1, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. The salary at the Key West Aquarium would have been $150.00 per month, compared to Archies spare salary of $43.50 a t the University of Florida. 66 Ibid. 67 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (March 14, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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105 down to Key West, she suggested. Couldnt I take care of things [at the aquarium] until you got your degree?68 Archie was not amenable to this idea, however. I think Gio would rather turn over his job to an intelligent gibbon than to a woman, Archie maint ained. Archie informed Carr that Giovannoli had said he would leave his position July 1 if he could find a capable person to take his place. Coming from him, that stipulates male, Arch ie explained. If he knew you he might be more apt to acquiesce, but he would only foam at the proposition, not knowing you.69 Although Archie was adamant that it was Giovannoli (who would visit the Carrs in Honduras in the 1940s) who was uncomfortable w ith a woman becoming the director albeit temporarily of the Key West aquarium, Archies failure to consider discussing the matter with his friend merits closer scrutiny. Even if his friend believed women were incapable of holding executive positions in the sciences, it would have been an appropriate gesture for Archie to inquire about the feasibility of his wife assuming the aquarium position until Archie could take over in late July. The fact that Archie was unwilling to even suggest the idea to his clos e friend implies that he held reservations about his wife holding an administrative position with a salary that would have been more than three times his current salary at the university. Although the job would have lasted no longer than a month, it would have set a disturbing precedent in Archies view. Archies conception of their budding scientific partnership was not an equal one. Insecure about his own prospects for a successful career in herpetology, the young Archie Carr did not want his wifes c areer to surpass his own. While Carr was concerned that Archie 68 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (early April 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 69 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (April 5, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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106 questioned her ability to take the Key West position, it would appear that he actually feared she would excel at the job. Even if the position was only temporary, Archie found the prospect of his wife holding a more prestigious and better paying job than his own to be unpalatable. Despite Archies selection of a scientist and naturalist for a mate, he still clung to traditional mid twentieth century notions of the breadwinner husband and the domestic wife. Archie was uncomfo rtable with the idea of Carr compensating for what Archie perceived to be his failure to earn a living and support his wife financially, even though she prefaced her offers of financial support with an explanation that this would only be a temporary solution while he finished his dissertation. Archie viewed Carr as a young novice and an optimist. Although the couple formed a scientific partnership that lasted a lifetime, they entered this partnership with differing interp retations of their proper roles. In the case of the Key West aquarium position, for example, Archie never seriously ente rtained the notion that Carr could run the aquarium in his stead, even though her education, her prior experience managing the Florida State aquarium, and her work at the Welaka Fish Hatchery made her an ideal candidate for the job. Archie was not comfortable with the idea of his wife taking this prestigious position. He ignored her repeated requests to intervene on her behalf. Again, Carr implored Archie, you dont think there is a chance in the world Giovannoli would let me pinch hit for you for a month? I had charge of the Florida State Aquarium for three months. Hell I could do itChuck I know I could.70 Archies letters reveal that he feared his wife would become too independent. Carr acquiesced to her husbands wishes. She still viewed Archie as a mentor and hoped to learn from him. She expressed an interest in auditing his ecology class and asked him 70 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (April 13, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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107 numerous questions about specimen preservation, anatomy, proper dissection methods, and other techniques that her colleagues at the Bass Lab lacked the experience to provide sufficient training in. Carr asked Archie if he was sorry he had married such a young incompetent gir l, and she promised to improve with age.71 Carr s feelings of inadequacy were eclipsed by her husbands, however. I shouldnt have married you, he lamented. You shouldnt have married me. You married a god damn fool. You married beneath you. You ma de a mistake. Do you realize it yet? You will before fall.72 He now referred to their wedding as your indiscretion of Jan. 1.73 In late Apr il, Louise pleaded with Carr to come to the familys home in the small town of Umatilla for a short honeymoon. She called her son pathetic and said it w ould do him a lot of good if Carr would visit him there. I get awfully out of patience with him for being so emotional about the situation [their separation], Louise wrote Carr But I do feel very sorry for hi m. He is most madly in love with you and separation from you is making him prey to all sorts of foolish fears about the future. It was Louise s hope that if Archie could see that his parents a ccepted his marriage to Carr during a visit to the family hom e, he would feel more secure about the marriage. She referred to Archie as the poor dis traught lover and warned Carr that she feared the consequences if Archie did not get the full time instructorship at the University of Florida upon graduation.74 Whi le Louise planned a therapeutic reunion for her son and daughter in law, Carr grappled with a third pregnancy scare in thirty days. Archie had come to view these episodes 71 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (early April, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 72 Archie Ca rr to Marjorie Harris Carr (March 24, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 73 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (March 27, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 74 Louise Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (April 21, 1937), in Private Collection of Mi mi Carr.

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108 with a sense of humor. Either you are endowed with the most excessively unorthodox physiology south of the blue ridge, he teased Carr or you are completely unlearned in the ancient and indispensable science of chronology.75 Carr continued to panic over her irregular periods even though Else Bass had arranged for her to use orthogynol after a prior pregnancy scare.76 Later in life, Carr claimed that she had not used birth control Nonetheless, the Carrs delayed starting a family for the first six years of their marriage. B etween 1943 and 1952, Carr gave birth to five children .77 The visit in Umatilla had healed Archies wounds for the moment, just as Carrs first visit to Umatilla had calmed his fears over the Christmas holidays. In both instances, Archie s mother reached out to Carr affectionately requesting that she visit her son in Umatilla to end his doubts over their relationship and pull him out of his depression. Archies letters remained optimistic for weeks. He abandoned his brooding tales of inadequacy and returned to his favored style of love letters. You are a moonflower, but I cannot crush you with my hands, nor your breasts with the weight of my body, he began his first letter after their brief honeymoon. You are a white bird, but you drink with me the hot blood of a fresh killed kid. Your face is wild as my hear t; you take my passion with joy; you rebel with me and curse and love and jibe at your race. You are geisha and nun, ouled nail and Vestal, cocotte and regina. You feed me lotus, but as the mist gathers you show me Vega and compute for me its weight. You sit with me long hours on the banks of the Styx and fish for small carp with boiled peanuts. And when the moon is under you daub the regal scarps of Olympus with bawdy drawings. You mold cleverly to your body as 75 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (April 16, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 76 Ortho gynol was an early spermicidal jelly or cream intended to be used in combination with a diaphragm. Else Bass also had a background in science. When Jack Bass met her in Washington, D.C., she was working as an x ray technician. Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (March 26, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 77 Authors interview with Mimi Carr, March 7, 2007.

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109 garments the refinements of man you are without shame when they are stripped from youYou are complete. The consummate femaleness of you does not eclipse Homo and Amphioxus and Protoamoeba. Nothing is lacking. You are my mate.78 As their separation ne ared its final stretch, Carr was beginning to see the light at the end of the tunnel. Still, she had become accustomed to deprivation, and the prospect of their reunion seemed intangible. Being with you is such a state of perfection I start and wonder is it true, she questioned, or is it s ome Utopian dream?79 Carr continued to immerse herself in her duties at the Bass Lab, even as she prepared for her pending troth pledging ceremony. She enjoyed her frequent nighttime duties, which helped take her mind off of their separation. The nights are far the worst, she lamented. At night it is so alone and so quiet, with only the clams burbling, and its cool at night and I would love to be in your arms tight w ith coolness over us. Carr s task on that particular night was clam pegging. Firs t I place some two hundred Quahogs on the anterior part of their umbo, she explained. Then armed with pegs I stand in the middle of them and pretend not to notice them. The minute one opens his valves to get a breath of air or slap at a mosquito I swoop down and peg him. However they are quite wary and grow sly as the night goes on. While I am pegging one two or three behind my back burble at me but the minute I turn around they are all smugly closed.80 Carr s collecting activities were physically ex hausting. One grueling grasshopper expedition lasted from 4:30 a.m. to 10:30 p.m. We picked steadily all day and netted nearly six thousand of the beasts, she informed Archie. I am as sore as the day I tried some of Martha Grahams stunts for three h ours without stopping. It is unlikely that Jack Bass considered the 78 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (April 28, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 79 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (May 28, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 80 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (undated, June, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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110 environmental impact of his companys collecting expeditions on the marine, insect, and animal life of Englewood. Carr became adept at coaxing myriad species out of their hiding places, catching many species with her bare hands. I caught two king snakes yesterday, she boasted. Big devils and one was a male I know. They both were infested with ticks. They are nice beasts, the snakes, and damn strong arent they?81 While the other w omen at the Bass Lab, Else Bass and Vergie Springer, spent the majority of their time entertaining, keeping house, and car ing for their children, Carr dressed in overalls and boots and worked outside or in the laboratory with the men. Although she viewed herself as an equal at the Bass Lab, not all of her male colleagues and supervisors treated her as such. She voiced her frustration over repeated incidents of sexual harassment to her husband. May I vent my spleen to you? Men and their damn eyes and goddamn nasty tongues make me sick, she complained. Can you realize how utterly weary and worn out one gets after, say, nine years of constantly butting up against it? From the first oldfriend of the family kiss of some old fool who you knew damn wel l tried to squeeze your arm and more. I have so many times wanted to slap embut no, must evade and pull away and frown and smile and shake head. If only you knew how damn mad it makes me. When you make a simple statement and have it constantly twisted into a sort of shady liplicking smokehouse implication. The other night, a simple thing, I was seated on the arm of a chair watching a ping pong game and swinging my feet. A ball went wild and went under the chair. I tried to stop it with my feet. Wh en I said Gee I should have had my feet together, I hear a sort of shady Oh, yeah. Why Margie. Not you.Archie, if some day I shock you by insulting some man for some slight remark it will be because of the piling up of many years. Hell Im not a pr ude. You know that. 81 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (June 24, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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111 Things my family, close friends say are all okay. But its the freedom and liberty any man thinks he can take that makes me want to draw blood. The lecherousness of scientists is pretty raw at times.82 Jack Bass took adv antage of Carrs live in status at the lab. On one of her first weekends at the lab, she was awakened near midnight and summoned in nightwear to sort through fresh specimens in the lab. Carr later claimed that Bass had misrepresented the facts regarding the full tim e nature of the position. She wanted him to regard her work instead as a part time research fellowship, which would have more prestige. Carr believed the job was a useful six month to twelve month introduction to practical zoology. She thought a new gra duate male or female would learn the essentials of specimen collection, preservation, and laboratory techniques. She did not consider the position permanent, however; she still wished to pursue graduate studies in zoology.83 Had Carr s colleagues been awar e of her marriage to their good friend Archie they might have been less inclined to take advantage of her. However, it took three months before the Basses began to suspect the truth. I think Else and Jack are quite sure we are married and Stew [Springe r] b y this time too, Carr informed Archie. I bet you told him.84 Springer had just visited Archie at the zoology department. Throughout his visit Archie referred to his wife as Miss Harris, being careful not to give away her marital status in order to protect her position at the Bass lab.85 By this time Carr had earned Springers respect. He informed Archie that Carr 82 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (June 3, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 83 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (February 16, 1937), in Private Collection o f Mimi Carr. 84 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (April 5, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 85 Ibid.

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112 was a damn good technician.86 It was actually Carr who first revealed their marriage at the Bass lab, telling Springers wife Vergie i n March. On the eleventh of that month Carr wired Archie, informing him that Jack and Else Bass were scheduled to depart that weekend on a schooner; Springer would leave Tuesday; and Vergie know s all and is pleased. Carr asked Archie to visit over the weekend, as she often didbut this time the cats were away. Vergie would have found it difficult to keep the Carrs marriage secret from her husband, who wa s friends with Archie. Carrs admission to Vergie Springer, combined with Archies daily letters ensured that it was only a matter of time before the Basses would find out.87 Even after everyone at the B ass Lab discovered that Carr and Archie were married, it was clear that the couple would not be able to live together until the summer or fall. Iv e been trying so hard to get the idea of not seeing you for m onths through my head, Carr explained to Archie. But I can only cry myself to sleep.88 Nighttime was the most difficul t period of the day for Carr who spent her free time reading and smoking in bed. She became a serious smoker during their separation, a habit that would ultimately lead to her death. Smoking was a popular pastime at the Bass Lab. On one occasion, Jack Bass pushed a practical joke past the boundaries of acceptable behavior, p lacing the lighted cher ry of a cigarette down Carr s back in the lab. When it burned her and smoke started billowing from her shirt, he apologized, saying he did not realize it would hurt. This was one of the more visible incidents of sexua l harassment that Carr endured at the lab. Although lighting cigarettes and smoking while working around formalin and other chemicals seem dangerous today, it was common practice at the B ass lab, likely leading Carr to develop her lethal addiction. 86 Ibid. 87 Marjorie to Archie Western Union telegram (March 11, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 88 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (April 9, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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113 Carr s days were filled with laboratory and field work. As the weeke nds grew near, however, she sent off a barrage of letters and telegrams to Archie, imploring him to come down for the weekend. A new development made t he prospect of visiting Carr at the Bass lab more a ttractive. After concealing their mar riage for three months, she wrote apologetically that both Else and Jack Bass had found out. Else was apparently quite sentimental about the whole s ituation, according to Carr [She] says when you come down we can take Jacks mothers house for your stay.89 Carr gave Springer notice that she would resign her position at the Bass lab at the end of the summer or early in the fall. So you see my bridges are burning, she warned Archie, and I really am going to be your wife next fall.90 Meanwhile, Archie had become a rising star in herpetology. When Archie began his studies at the University of Florida, his dissertation advisor and committee members were pioneers in the field of zoology. Rogers taught ecology at the university, and his students conducted pioneering research in the field of herpetology, conducting regular field research in Floridas understudied ecosystems. Some of the nations most influential zoologists visited the University of Floridas zoology department when traveling to Florida to collect specimens for their museums. Thomas Barbour (18841946), a Harvard biologist and director of its Museum of Comparative Zoology, exerted the greatest influence over Archies professional career. Barbour provided Archie with turtle specimens, prints, and mentorship. In return, he asked Archie to wait until Professor Stejneger died before publishing his work. A very peculiar sit uation, he confided in Carr He is Stejnegers very best friend. It suits me however.91 Barbour 89 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (April 9, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 90 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (undated likely June 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 91 Ibid.

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114 predicted that Archies work would provide a major contribution to herpetology, and he apparently wanted to shield his friend Stejneger from the effects. Ironically, Harvard had the best Florida herpetology collection at the time, whi ch prompted Archie to visit the Northeast for dissertation research and to meet some of the nations top herpetologists, including Stejneger.92 Just two weeks after their wedding, Archie traveled with his colleague Horton Hobbs to Harvard, the Smithsonian, the American Museum in New York City, and the Philadelphia Academy of Science. His turtle expertise preceded him, as Archie met many professional contacts he had corresponded with for years. The trip will be of immense value, not only in rounding out my thesis, but in settling some questions about turtles that have bothered me for a long tim e, Archie explained to Carr I have great plans for turtles. Nobody knows much about them. Pseudemys. But me. And Ill know a lot more when I come back. My th esis is going to be a bitch. A hundred and sixty species and for each at least one page on habitat and biology, a full page map, and another page of distribution data. That makes around 480 pages, which staggers me. It must be finished by April. Ill have to work like the devil. Tell me its for you. I have two courses: I can let the thought of you drive me insane, and seethe and foment and get nothing done. Or I can think of you lotus face and the stars in your eyes and the song of your voice and t he fierce sweetness of those two nights of ours and the perfect years before us, and think of time and work as distance between us and run like a fiend. And thats what Ill do, of course. But its hard, hard the worst job I ever had, and the most worthw hile.93 92 Authors interview with Dr. Tom Carr, August 13, 2008. 93 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (January 8, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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115 Thomas Barbour, the director of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, would later invite Archie to return to Harvard for a summer fellowship. His patronage helped establish Archie in the field and provided a great deal of intell ectual support. Archie served as a Thomas Barbour fellow for seven summers, beginning in 1937. Barbours sponsorship helped Archie conduct vital research into turtles.94 The pair began corresp onding in January 1934 when Archie sent Barbour a copy of The Florida Naturalist hoping to curry favor with the distinguished and influential scient ist. The magazine featured Archies latest paper, A Key to the Breeding Songs of the Florida Frogs.95 Barbour became increasingly interested in Archie s research. In A pril 1937 Barbour invited Archie to study the museums turtle collection for a month that summer.96 Carr accompanied Archie to Cambridge each summer starting in 1937, when Archie completed his first research fellowship at the Museum of Comparative Zoology a t Harvard. While Archie worked in the turtle collection, Carr worked in the ornithology collection. Barbour, director of the museum, furthered both the Carrs careers through these summer fellowships. Unfortunately, the influence of Barbour, who became a dear friend to both the Carrs, ended with his death in 1945. Although Archie was already starting to gain recognition as a herpetologist, the strain of completing his dissertation was taking a toll on his new marriage. He informed Carr that his disser tation needed to be completed by July, so June would be one hell of a month.97 He lamented the likelihood that they would see each other seldom if at all in June. He viewed his inability to find the time or the money to be with his wife as a personal fault. If you keep 94 Frank Graham, Jr., What Matters Most, 97. 95 Thomas Barbour to Archie Carr (January 24, 1934), Carr Papers. 96 Thomas Barbour to Archie Carr (April 30, 1937), in Carr Papers. 97 Ibid.

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116 yourself happy in spite of being married to me you will have done a good job, Archie declared.98 Although Carr always reassured Archie that she loved him and would wait for him, she remained preoccupied with laboratory and collecting work, which was draining. Oh wise and venerable spouse, she wrote after a particularly arduous collecting trip, I am battered. Bruised in a hundred places. Two large black spots designate the place my hip bones gouged through my flesh. All this from eel ing. But by golly what eeling. At present 85 are slithering around in a Shedd can.99 She boasted about the challenges of collecting in South Florida, claiming that most biologists limit their forays to the Apalachicola region and lake region, as if the peninsula ends there. I hate that sort of professional timidity, she asserted. It takes a brave soul to dip down into south Florida.100 She and her Bass colleagues scoured the South Florida earth and seas for insect and animal specimens, ranging from co ckroaches to spiders, jellyfish to snakes, and large predators such as wolves and alligators. While Archie dwelled on th eir current separation, Carr looked forward to working and publishing together in the future. She chided him for taking a defeatist att itude concerning their marriage. Your letter breaks my heart, she scolded. Why do I fail so miserably in showing you how deeply I love you? Have I told you too insistently how young I am? Do you think I am an immature little girl who does not really know her mindheart life? Is it just a romantic statement to you when I saymy husband I love you with my life. And I will forever. Ah Archie you dont know how you have hurt me. For the first time that cold dread you speak of closes down on me for it seems you do not look into my heart. Maybe when we are together you will know. But please believe me. So many men and women work togetherDo you suppose 98 Ibid. 99 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (April 9, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 100 Ibid.

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117 Ill ever get to the place where it will be [scribbled article title] by A. F. and M. H. Carr, Jr.? I think it would be fun. But first you must learn to trust my heart and know beyond a shadow of a doubt that I am your wife forever more.101 As Archie had initially warned Carr that he would be too busy preparing for his July dissertation defense to see Carr at all in the month of June, he agreed to participate in a ceremony that would make their union official in the eyes of their families, friends, and colleagues. Although their marriage was alread y legally binding, Archie and Marjorie Carrs families (especially their female relatives) craved the ceremony of a formal Christian wedding. Archies father presided over a troth pledging ceremony at the Bass Lab on June 11, 1937. Before the ceremony, Carr s mother and aunts offered their advice to the bri de. I laughed and laughed, she informed Archie. The quality of linen, French nighties, and the making of chutney. [On] June 11 Ill laugh and look at you and wink and youll laugh too. And it will be sweet. Arent you glad?102 Although they had alr eady been married for mor e than five months, Carr donned a white wedding gown and the couple enjoyed all the trimmings of a formal wedding. The troth pledging ceremony was held shortly after the end of Prohibition. Tom Carr, who had never been exposed to alcohol before, recalled that Marjorie Carr s aunts kept him well lubricated.103 Carr worked at the Bass lab for another month while Archie prepared to defe nd his dissertation. T hey spent the weekend of the wedding ceremony at Carr s family home in Bonita Springs and took a formal honeymoon to Key West after Archie defended his dissertation in July With the 101 The emphasis is Marjories. Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (la te June, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 102 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (May 24, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 103 Authors interview with Dr. Tom Carr, August 13, 2009.

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118 dissertation behind them, Archie and Marjorie Carr were able to live together as newlyweds at long last It will be a new and peculiar feeling to be with you and not have the dread of separ ation hanging over us, Carr had predicted in June .104 I think sometime I shall go mad with love of youThis has been a scrambled spring. I am glad it is nearly over. You and I, we have been tried I want you to hold me very tight to you. I want to wake up and be in your arms and kiss you when you are asleep.105 After the Carrs troth pledging ceremony Marjorie Carr prepared for the transition from her independence in Englewood to married life in Gainesville.106 D o you know youve never seen me longer than five days in succession? At Christmas, she reminded Archie. Can you realize how heavenly it will be to live together? I dont believe either of us can fully realize it or we couldnt exist apart. I want to look at you and look at you and look at you for eternity.107 Although A rchie had pleaded with Carr to forget him or, at the very least, to love him lightly over the course of their separation, they emerged from their separation stronger than they might have been otherwise. I promised you my soul. I give it to you my dear, Carr said. We have a most beautiful thing, a most rare and precious thing in our love. And I have not the slightest qualm as to our ability to receive and nurture it. We are supreme and invincible. So far I have been a person of few if any gods. I have had ideals but Ive not been crushed when they were shattered. I have been glad of my ability to adjust myself and rearrange my ideas as I grew. 104 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (June 14, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 105 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (June 2, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 106 Marjorie Harris Carr discussed her Key West honeymoon in a 1985 speech in Islamorada in the Florida Keys. Speech by Marjorie Har ris Carr about Responsible Industry and Protecting the Keys, http://everglades.fiu.edu/two/transcripts/SPC958_2.htm (accessed February 7, 2010). 107 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (June 22 23, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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119 Believe me when I say I give my lif e to you. It is my only desire to be your wife.108 Carr accompanied Archie on his summer fellowship to Harvard, working in the nearby ornithology laboratory. In the fall of 1937, Carr audited courses in zoogeography and the history of biology at the Uni versity of Florida. In that same year, Kathleen Vertrees Wheeler became the first woman to graduate from the University of Florida with a bachelors of science in agriculture. In 1938, Juliet Carrington earned a bachelors of science in entomology and wa s the first woman to graduate from the college of agriculture with high honors. Women were slowly integrating themselves into the student body at the University of Florida, but their numbers were small. When the university officially reintroduced coeduca tion in 1947, there were six hundred and one female students and eight thousand, one hundred and seventy seven male students (a 14:1 male to female ratio). Even fewer women attended U.F. in the 1930s (especially at the graduate level), and they sometimes encountered resistance to their presence on campus. Although many colleges and universities consigned women scientists to separate laboratories Carr formed strong professional relationships with her male colle agues in the biology department, joining them on numerous collecting trips and working with them in the laboratory.109 Unfortunately, graduate funding opportunities for women at the University of Florida remained scant. Although it is now common for professors spouses and family members to receive fr ee or reduced tuition, in the 1930s and 1940s, the universitys antinepo tism policies prevented Carr from enjoying this privilege. Consequently, she applied for a graduate scholarship to cover her expenses. Im back in school again, Carr wrote Jack Bass. Next 108 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (June 16, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 109 Mary Ann Burg, Kevin McCarthy, Phyllis Meek, Constance Shehan, Anita Spring, Nina Stoyan Rosenzweig, and Be tty Taylor, eds., Women at the University of Florida (Published by the University of Floridas 150th Anniversary Committee, 2003), 33 40.

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120 semester Im applying for a scholarship. There are four open and I hope to receive one. Two of Carr s undergraduate professors, Drs. Deviney and Kurz, were providing two of the required letters of recommendation, and she asked Bass to write th e third. She provided the name of the dean of the graduate school and his address and instructed Bass to send the letter before November 30th.110 Basss response to Carr exemplified the uphill battle against gender discrimination that she faced in the 1930s In a letter dated one week after the scholarship deadline, Bass expressed the frustration he had experie nced upon learning that Carr had secretly married Archie before starting work at the Bass Lab. Although she had considered her position to be a scie ntific fellow s hip, Bass viewed her primarily as a laboratory assistant and secretary. Last spring, I was terribly disappointed to hear that you and Dr. Carr were going to [sic] get married, he replied, as I felt that we had a laboratory assistant, tech nician, and secretary who would fit into permanent plans for expansion of the Laboratory. It is very understandable that you cannot live in Englewood while your husband teaches in the University of Florida. If it were not for the fact that Dr. Carr has v isited us often, here at the Laboratory, we would hold a grudge against him for taking you away from us.111 Carr left behind no letters in which she expressed her frustration with Jack Basss reluctance to assist her with the scholarship application. Howev er, given the fact that she had devoted half a year of service to the Bass Laboratory, it is rea listic to conclude that she was disappointed by her former employers actions. Although it must have been reassuring to hear that Bass wanted to retain her ser vices at the laboratory, it had never been her intention to remain 110 Marjorie Harris Carr to Jack Bass (November 12, 1937), in Private Collection of Dr. Tom Carr. 111 Jack Bass to Marjori e Harris Carr (December 6, 1937), in Private Collection of Dr. Tom Carr.

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121 in the laboratory technician position permanently. At the same time, Carr was probably frustrated by Basss failure to meet the scholarship application deadline, in addition to the condesc ending tone he took in his letter. Bass complained that he could not write a lett er of recommendation on Carr s behalf unless she provided him with the name of the person who would recei ve the letter, although she had made it clear in her initial request that the letter should go to the dean of the graduate school at the University of Florida. He then proceeded to list the positive qualities Carr exhibited while in his employ, focusing especially on the clerical tasks she performed. While you were here Bass wrote, you had a great number of different duties, among them was acting as secretary for me. In this work, you were competent in filing, typewriting, and general office work.There was a great deal of technical work to be done, such as the injec tion of frogs and salamanders. These specimens did not come in at regular intervals and it was often necessary for you to spend many hours at night to keep caught up with this work. I do not remember ever hearing you grumble, or ever seeing that the work was not accomplished as soon as physically possible. Your powers of observations, as well as your scientific notes, were always accurate, so that we were able to use them to our full extent. Everybody here at the Laboratory is awfully sorry that you are not with us, Bass concluded, and should you, at any time, desire to return, we certainly would be glad to have you back.112 Carr had intended to enlist Basss help in writing a recommendation for a graduate scholarship. Yet the type of letter Bass prop osed to write would have been suitable only for another assistant or secretarial position. Carr had been correct in surmising that there was no room for advancement at the Bass Lab. Unfortunately, this was one of her only paying positions 112 Ibid.

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122 in the sciences. The 1930s was an inhospitable time for women scientists, especially in the South. After spending six months as Basss diligent employee, he was reluctant to write a strong recommendation for a scholarship. As a provider of generous fellowships to (mal e) graduate students who used his facilities to conduct academic research, Bass was fully cognizant of the qualities he should stress in a letter of recommendation for a graduate scholars hip. Yet he focused on Carr s secretarial and assistant skills instead of discussing her general intelligence and fitness for advanced study. This was esp ecially egregious since Carr s competition for the scholarship consisted exclusively of men, and a letter touting her secretarial skills would only reinforce stereotypes and diminish her chances of receiving a scholarship. Basss reluctance to write an appropriate lette r of recommendation for Carr might have stemmed from the controversial circumstances surrounding the end of her service at the Bass Lab. While Carr was still in Basss employ, Archie wrote Bass to try to make amends. I wish to apologize for my temerity and presumption in marrying a member of your staff without your permission. I wont do it again, he wrote the Basses with tongue in cheek. When I eventually deprive you of your mudpuppy executioner you will no doubt look for a new one. Be careful this time. You may get another wife in sheeps clothing.113 Although Archie attempted to use humor to make the best of a sore situation, it did little to reli eve Basss disappointment over Carr s departure. Archies concerns over clipping Carr s wings had been astute. In time, their marriage would effectively end her formal career in zoology. Yet Carr s marriage to a successful herpetologist would also help her develop professionally, beginning with her acceptance into the University of Floridas graduate program in zoology. Archies colleagues, including Thomas 113 Archie Carr to Jack and Else Bass (April 28, 1937), in Private Collection of Dr. Tom Carr.

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123 Barbour, extended their support to Carr as well, enabling her to join a close knit group of Flor ida zoologists. Carr and Archie would postpone starting a family for the first six years of their marriage while she completed her graduate work and accompanied Archie on collecting and research trips. As the next chapter will show, the Carrs greatest r esearch opportunity presented itself shortly after the birth of their second child, when Thomas Barbour arranged for Archie to take a sabbatical from the University of Florida in order to teach at the Escuela Agricola Panamerica in Honduras. While Archie conducted pionee ring turtle research, Carr became an authority on the birds of Honduras Carr carved out a niche in the field of ornithology, which was slow to professionalize and therefore remained open to women practitioners. Marjorie and Archie Carr w ould function as equal partners in the local zoological community of Honduras.

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124 Figure 31. The Welaka National Fish Hatchery is located in Putnam County, which borders Alachua County (where Gainesville is located) and Marion County (where Ocala is loc ated). The Ocklawaha and St. Johns Rivers cross Putnam County. Figure 32. Aerial view of the Welaka National Fish Hatchery.

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125 Figure 33. The aviary at the Welaka Fish Hatchery (1935). Courtesy of the Florida State Archives. Figure 34. Stewart Springer and Marjorie Harris Carr with snakes at Bass Zoological Research Supply Laboratory, Englewood, Florida ( 1937). Courtesy of Archie Carr III.

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126 Figure 35. Archie Carr and Marjorie Harris Carrs troth pledging ceremony (June 11, 1937). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. Figure 36. The interior of the Bass Lab, where Marjorie and her colleagues prepared zoological specimens for university research. Courtesy of Mimi Carr.

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127 Figur e 3 7. Bass Lab manager Stewart Springer (second from left), owner Jack Bass (second from right) and two unidentified lab workers (1937). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. Figure 38. The exterior of the rustic Bass Lab (1937). Courtesy of Mimi Carr.

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128 Figure 39. Thomas Barbour, director of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Natura l History (late 1930s). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. Figure 310. Marjorie Harris Carr on a collecting and research expedition at the River Styx near Gainesville (December 1937). Courtesy of Mimi Carr.

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129 CHAPTER 4 HONDURAS IN THE 1940 s : A NATURALISTS PA RADISE Between 1937 and 1943, Marjorie and Archie Carr spent seven summers in Cambridge while Archie worked as a Thomas Barbour fellow at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard. Barbour worked with Archie on turtles while Carr alternated between performing mundane laboratory work considered appropriate for women technicians and studying in the Ornithology Department. The Great D epression raged on, Carr was delighted to be able to accompany her husband to Cambridge. As grateful as she was to find temporary employment at the museum, the tasks she was required to perform were beneath her education and abilities. One year I changed all the alcohol in the bottles where reptiles were preserved, she later recalled, and another year I took apart owl pellet s. She was eventually permitted to conduct research in the Ornithology Department. I wanted to do [zoological] research, she explained, but I couldnt get a job in research. I eventually was able to do it because my husband had a research job.1 On weekends, the couple engaged in regular collecting excursions for adventure and to supplement Archies fellowship. We rented a room from a Mrs. Murphy in Cambridge, Carr recalled. On weekends Archie and I collected marine animals off the coast and we filled up Mrs. Murphys cellar with pickled specimens. We would get dogfish from a fishing boat in Rockport. The Sicilian fishermen took great delight in watching us inject various colored fluids into the circulatory systems of the dogfish. One of the S icilians had an uncle who was a mortician, and he would make running commentaries on our technique.2 1 Frank Graham, Jr., What Matters Most: The Many World of Archie and Marjorie C arr, Audubon (March 1982), 97. 2 Ibid.

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130 Upon their return to Gainesville each fall, Carr continued her studies at the University of Florida. At one point the necessities of the wartime economy led her to take a temporary position as a nurses aid.3 Yet her main focus remained the completion o f her graduate degree. Carr s graduate specialty within the larger field of zoology was ichthyology, the study of fish. The subject of her graduate resear ch was the largemouthed black bass, a native fish that was a practical choice to study because of wartime gas rationing, which made it inconvenient to conduct research far f rom home. In addition, Carr had prior experience with the species at the Welaka F ish Hatchery. She conducted original research, becoming one of the first scientists to discover social parasitism among freshwater fishes. The parasitic chub sucker, Carr revealed, laid its eggs in the nests of the large mouthed black bass. Because the chub sucker fry bear a strong resemblance to bass fry, the bass are tricked into protecting the young chub suckers after hatching.4 While Carr completed her gradu ate work, she and Archie delayed starting a family. Carr conducted much of the research for her masters thesis in Hogtown Creek, Bivens Arm Lake near Paynes Prairie, and other local waterways.5 She also accompanied Archie on local collecting trips, which was how the Carrs first met their lifelong friend J. C. Dickinson, Jr. Like Archie, Dickinson would complete his B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. in biology at the University of Florida, where he later became the director of the Florida Museum of Natural History. The Carrs also led groups of students on holiday collecting excursions in Mexico. These were incredibly rustic trips, J. C. Dickinson, Jr. remembered. The Carrs loaded food and collecting supplies onto 3 Frederick Rowe Davis, The Man Who Saved Sea Turtles: Archie Carr and the Origins of Conservation Biology (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), 63. 4 Ibid., 98. 5 Authors interviews with Mimi Car r and authors interview with J. C. Dickinson, Jr. (February 22, 2008).

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131 the back of a truck and camped under a tarp.6 Nonetheless, these trips were among the highlights of the college careers of Archies young students .7 The couples three exploratory trips into the Mexican wilderness only whetted their appetite for further adventures in Central America Marjorie Carr observed that these trips had been so satisfying, so exhilarating and provocative, that we were more than ready for the move to Honduras in 1945.8 After Carr graduated from the University of Florida in 1942, Thomas Barbour helped her publish her thesis on the breeding biology of bass in the Proceedings of the New England Zoological Club.9 In that same ye ar, Carr also published Notes on the Courtship of the Cottonmouth Moccasin with Archie Carr. Barbour practically adopted the Carrs, Dickinson observed. Standing at six feet, six inches tall and weighing more than three hundred pounds, Barbour traveled to Florida regularly during the 1930s and 1940s to meet with fellow herpetologists and expand the M.C.Z. collection. He purchased a Florida license plate in an attempt to mask his Yankee heritage, but when he opened his mouth you knew, Dickinson recalle d. Dickinson came to know Barbour when he spent time at the David Fairchild Botanical Garden while Fairchild was writing Vanishing Eden.10 Because Archie s position at U.F. kept Carr tethered to the small college town of Gainesville, her options were limited after graduation. In the 1940s, professional opportunities f or married scientists were limited. Carr could have pursued a doctorate in zoology, but the time 6 Authors interview with J. C. Dickinson, Jr. (February 22, 2008). 7 Authors interviews with Mimi Carr. 8 Marjorie Harris Carr, foreword to Archie Carr, High Jungles and Low, 2nd ed. (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1992), viii. 9 Marjorie H. Carr, The Breeding Habits, Embryology, and Larval Development of the Large Mouthed Black Bass in Florida, Proc. New England Zool. Club 20 (1942): 4377. 10 Authors interview with J. C. Dickinson, Jr. (February 22, 2008).

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132 seemed right to start a family. In 1943, Marjorie and Archie Carr welcomed their firstborn c hild and only daughter, Mimi. The war continued, and Marjorie Carr contributed to household expenses by teaching science in Alachua, a small town ten miles north of Gainesville, when Mimi was a baby. Approximately one year after Mimis birth, Carr became pregnant againa trend that would continue with little interruption over the next several years. Ultimately the couple would welcome five children within the space of a decade. Reflecting upon his experiences in Honduras, Archie would later joke, My wi fe is a na turalist too, between babies.11 In January 1945, acting upon Barbours advice, Archie Carr traveled to the Escuela Agrcola Panamericana (E.A.P., or Zamorano) near Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Barbour had suggested that Wilson Popenoe, the schools founding director, might be able to help Archie answer some unresolved questions about turtles. As it turned out, Popenoe, a longtime United Fruit Company employee and former plant explorer for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, possessed no knowledge of turtles (nor a formal university degree), but he offered Archie a teaching position at the E.A.P.12 At the time the school had no Ph.D.s on its faculty, and Popenoe realized that the addition of an established university professor would add prestige to the fledgling school.13 Archie was surprised that Popenoe was interested in his turtle research, which involved testing an original theory that turtles migrated between Central America to Africa annually to spawn. I must say I was surprised that he thought t he [United] Fruit Company would be interested in hiring an individual whose chief interests are so wholly devoid of 11 Archie Carr, High Jungles and Low xix. 12 Malo, El Zamorano 222. Archie Carr also discusses the reasons he traveled to Honduras in High Jungles and Low ; and in Frank Graham, Jr., What Matters Most: The Many Worlds of Archie and Marjorie Carr, Audubon (March 1982), 90 105. 13 Ibid., 413.

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133 practicality, Archie wrote to Barbour. But Dr. Popenoe thought that Mr. Zemurray and you, the directors of the school, would have no obje ctions... From my standpoint, I am crazy about the place and the possibilities for doing some pioneering work in natural history.14 Barbour had encouraged Archie to begin revising the taxonomy of turtles, which was incomplete and flawed. A great deal ha d been published on freshwater turtles, but the literature on sea turtles was a mixture of folklore and fact. Archie corrected this problem with his 1952 publication of Handbook of Turtles .15 I decided to become the worlds sea turtle man, he explained.16 I couldnt decide whether the turtles in the eastern Pacific were exactly the same as those in the Atlantic or slightly different. Since museum collections of sea turtles are inadequate, I began to meditate on the possibility of my going down where the oceans are close together to compare their turtles directly.17 Archies pioneering sea turtle research in Central America, the West Indies, Africa, and Australia in the 1940s and 1950s would establish his international reputation as an expert on sea turtl e breeding and migration.18 The E.A.P., tucked away in the high valley of the Yeguare River in the mountains of southern Honduras, had just graduated its first class of agriculture students. I walked about the palm grove campus and through the school buil dings and brandnew staff residences, Archie reflected, all built in gracefully solid colonial style of handcut rhyolite from the school quarry, 14 Archie Carr to Thomas Barbour (January 10, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 15 Archie Carr, Handbook of Turtles: The Turtles of the United States, Canada, and Baja California (Ithaca, New York: Comstock Publishing Associates, 1952). 16 Graham, Jr., What Matters Most 98. 17 Archie Carr, High Jungles and Low xx. 18 For an excellent biography of Archie Carr, see Frederick Rowe Davis, The Man Who Saved Sea Turtles: Archie Carr and the Origins of Conservation Biology (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007). See also Graham, Jr., What Matters Most ; and Malo, El Zamorano Carrs international travels are documented in his short stories and books, including Hig h Jungles and Low and Ulendo: Travels of a Naturalist In and Out of Africa (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993).

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134 timbered and beamed with Danl cedar and pine from the mountainside, and roofed with half round tiles of red school clay. Dr. Popenoe actually knew nothing about sea turtles, but he offered Archie a job, and Archie accepted immediately. Unable to serve the armed forces in a traditional manner due to his osteomyelitis, he taught introductory physics (perhaps h is least favorite subject) to cadets for two years with the Army Air Force Pre Flight Program at U.F. The E.A.P. position would enable him to resume the naturalists lifestyle that teaching physics had prevented him from enjoying full time. When he traveled home to give Carr the good news, she started packing before he even finished the story.19 As n aturalists, the Carrs had long dreamed of exploring the lower latitudes, and the decision to uproot their family and move to the rural high tropics was instant aneous. Among the factors that drove Archie to accept Popenoes job offer so quickly was the deprivation he and Carr had experienced since the start of the Great Depression. In addition, wartime rationing had forced most Americans to go without quality m eat and produce for years. When Archie toured the E.A.P., he was particularly impressed by the schools vast stores of fresh steaks that animal husbandry students delivered to the faculty, in addition to the newly constructed, impressive faculty residences. The war was coming to a close, the Carr family was expanding, and their Honduran sojourn would provide them with a high quality of life that would never be matched.20 The Carrs could explore the forests on quality horses that were available for purchase at twenty five dollars apiece. Archie received an initial three year leave of absence from U.F., the Carrs sold their house in Gainesville, and the family moved south, Archie prepari ng the way in April and Carr following with the children in July. The school gave us a pleasant house and cheerful 19 Carr, High Jungles and Low xx xxi. 20 Ibid., xix.

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135 servants to run it, Archie later recalled, and we had a strawberry bed and no morning classes and three months out of the year to collect and explore and get to know the tropics.21 Archies responsibilities in cluded teaching two classes per semester at the agricultural school and conducting a biological survey of Honduras for the United Fruit Company. The E.A.P. was established in 1942 under the direction of Samuel Zemurray, who was then the United Fruit Compa nys top executive. The schools mission was to provide rural men from tropical America with free tuition, board, clothing, and other educational expenses without requiring the students to work for the company after graduation.22 Zemurray pleaded with the United Fruit Company to use its $200 million wartime surplus to construct the agricultural school in Honduras, which lacked an agricultural education program. Wilson Popenoe helped realize Zemurrays dream of establishing a practical school with a handson agriculture program. Popenoe created a handsome school on a parcel of rural land covered by a forest of native palms and pastureland.23 The E.A.P. had an international student body, a strict code of discipline, and a hands on curriculum that required stu dents to assist with campus agricultural production.24 Thomas Barbour served as the original eminent conservationist on the E.A.P.s first board of directors.25 Barbour and David Fairchild had played a major role in raising public awareness of the problems of habitat loss and dwindling flora and fauna populations in Florida and the tropics. In That Vanishing Eden: A Naturalists Florida, Barbour argued that the states 21 Ibid., xxi. 22 Zamorano did not graduate its first female students until 1983 Simn E. Malo, El Zamorano: Meeting the Challenge of Tropical America (Manhattan, Kansas: Simbad Books, 1999), 343. 23 Malo, El Zamorano 19 21. 24 Ibid., 22 33. 25 Ibid., 21321.

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136 remaining wildlife was in dire need of protection and preservation.26 He documented the effects of habitat destruction on Floridas birds and other animal species, citing Floridas unchecked commercial growth as the main culprit. Barbour also faulted the government for its maltreatment of the Seminole Indians, showing a level of concern for both nature and culture that was rare among naturalists. Barbour recommended several books on Central America to Carr soon after Archie accepted the position at the E.A.P. Yet none of the books provided any references on the flora and fauna specific to H onduras, which only increased her excitement over the prospect of collecting there. You know how I have always wanted to spend at least a few years in South or Central America, Carr wrote Barbour, but I never dared hope for such an opportunity as this. 27 Barbour anticipated the couple would provide the M.C.Z. with many scientific skins. He had completed two thirds of a book on Central America, but he said his notes would be of little use to the Carrs.28 This unpublished manuscript, The Stars Differ addressed the problems of deforestation and habitat loss in Central America.29 Ba rbours influence on Archie can be seen in High Jungles and Low which Archie began writing while in Honduras; in it Archie expresses equal concern for the native Honduran peoples and their natural surroundings.30 When Archie arrived in Honduras, he oversaw the completion of his familys villa. It is a jewel of a house and I wish you could see it, he informed Barbour. Its the same basic plan 26 Thomas Barbour, That Vanishing Eden: A Naturalists Florida (Boston: Li ttle, Brown, and Co., 1946). 27 Marjorie Harris Carr to Thomas Barbour (March 9, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 28 Thomas Barbour to Marjorie Harris Carr (March 12, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 29 Although Marjorie Carr read Thomas B arbours final manuscript on Central America, tentatively titled The Stars Differ it was never published after his death on January 8, 1946. Marjorie Carr mentions receiving the manuscript with excitement in an October 7, 1945 letter to her mother. 30 Ibi d., 222. See also Thomas Barbour, A Naturalist in Cuba (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1945).

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137 as the other three faculty houses b ut with improvements. Having been able to identify all of the frog songs of Florida, Archie marveled at his unfamiliarity with Central American frogs. The rainy season has begun here and the frogs are singinglots of them, he wrote, and I dont know a single one.31 In addition to being ignorant of Honduran frog song, the Carrs had to sharpen their Spanish, of which Marjorie Carr knew very little. She began taking lessons immediately, first learning common commands to use with the servants. Mimis knowledge of Spa nish outpaced Carrs however. Soon twoyear old Mimi was able to translate whatever Carr wished to tell the servants. Carr frequently called upon Archie to translate Mimis sentences. Only days after landing in Honduras Carr hired a nanny for Mimi, a pretty fifteen year old girl who does nothing but care for Mimi from six to six. The Carrs wasted no time making use of their new servants. On their first weekend together in Zamorano, they climbed Mount Uyuca. We drove the first 2000 f eet, about six miles, in 45 minutes and climbed the last 1000 feet in about 30 minutes, Carr wrote home. The latter part goes straight up and is covered with a cloud forest at the top. The big trees all damp and dripping are covered with epiphytes incl uding lots of orchids.32 Cloud forests are rainforests located on high, tropical mountains. A climb up to a cloud forest begins in the hot, steamy lowlands and changes as one climbs higher through changing vegetation zones, which become cooler as the elevation increases. The highest zone is typically covered in mist and fog; the high moisture levels foster the growth of epiphytes, ferns, and mosses. 31 Archie Carr to Thomas Barbour (June 3, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 32 Marjorie Harris Carr to her mother (July 9, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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138 Marjorie and Archie Carr were thirty and thirty six years old respectively when they moved to Honduras. Despite Archies relatively young age, he would soon become one of the earliest advocates and most powerful voices for conservation of tropical rainforests and sea turtles.33 Yet Archie advanced scientists understanding of tropical ecology at the expense of the same fauna he sought to protect: his favorite collecting tool was a shotgun. With respect to my attitude toward varmints, Archie admitted, I have always been afflicted with a Dr. Jekyll andMr. Hyde complexan altogether unresolved conflict betw een the instincts of a naturalist and the urge to shoot things.34 The Carrs shot and killed thousands of animals for science, sport, and sustenance, preparing scientific skins for use in research collections at Barbours Museum of Comparative Zoology at Ha rvard; at the American Museum in New York; at the Florida Museum of Natural History in Gainesville; and at the E.A.P. Barbour was eager to add the Carrs specimens to the M.C.Z. collection, and he agreed to furnish them with all of the firearms, ammunitio n, technical advice, and other appropriate tools for killing and preserving specimens.35 Much to Barbours dismay, the Carrs collecting was delayed in the first months of their Honduran sojourn. They had to wait longer than they had expected for the requi red firearms to arrive. Archie joked that the Honduran government must have feared that the Carrs were attempting an insurrection. Two weeks after arriving in Honduras Carr had informed Barbour that she was impatient to find out what the birds are here Practically all are strange to me, she confessed. As soon as Archies guns arrive well collect some.36 She complained that gun 33 Ibid., 433. 34 Carr, High Jungles and Low 162. 35 Ibid., 434. 36 Marjorie Harris Carr to Thomas Barbour (July 17, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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139 shells were non existent in Honduras, and everything cries out to be shot ducks, deer, pigeons to eat and many others to skin. 37 Three months after Carr s arrival in Honduras, the firearms and ammunition required for collecting were still missing. Our g uns havent come yet, she complained to her mother It is infuriating, for I cant do anything but slobber at the mouth over the birds.38 Without the me ans to shoot the birds, Carr was unable to collect and preserve specimens to ship to the States. Another item she was m issing was pants. When Carr prepared for the familys move to Honduras, she had not realized that i t was still not acceptable for women to wear pants in Central America. Yet they were a necessity given the Carrs daily rides on horseback.39 Since pants and other American style clothes were not readily available in the outlying tow ns near the E.A.P., and Carr was usually unable to accompany Archie on his occasional resear ch trips to the States, she would soon learn to make her own clothing and outfits for her growing family. In her letter s to friends and family Carr made regular requests for shoes, cloth ing, childrens books, and other things she could not acquire in Honduras, where goods cost two to three times what they did in the States.40 While the Carrs waited on Barbours initial shipments of weapons and ammunition to arrive, they borrowed firearms from co lleagues at the E.A.P. Carr started to prepare bird skins within weeks of her arrival in Honduras.41 She and Archie also hunted a variety of wild game. The rice field is ripe and the doves and rice birds come in droves all day long, she informed 37 Marjorie Harris Carr to Thomas Barbour (July 31, 1945), in Private Collection of Mi mi Carr. 38 Marjorie Harris Carr to Clara Haynes Harris (October 7, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 39 Marjorie Harris Carr to Clara Haynes Harris (July 15, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 40 Marjorie Harris Carr to J. C., Lucy, and Dick Dickinson (April 13, 1948), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 41 Marjorie Harris Carr to Clara Haynes Harris (July 30, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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140 her mother. We go down every day and shoot a few pigeons to eat. The States doves are thick now and then there are also the big local white winged pigeons.42 Archie once boasted to a Gainesville friend and colleague that he had just shot sixtyfive pig eons in two days.43 Although not all hunters of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were naturalists, many naturalists of this period were hunters. John James Audubon (17851851), the artist who inspired the Audubon Society movement, shot th ousands of birds while preparing his sketches for Birds of America Hunting was the cultural frame out of which his encounter with birds emerged, Audubons biographer explained.44 The conservationist George Bird Grinnell (18491938), who was tutored by A udubons widow and founded the National Audubon Society in 1886, was among the gentleman (and lady) hunters who first made the case for conservation of the nations avifauna. By definition, hunters destroyed life, but their appreciation of the outdoors le d them to be the first to notice and speak out against the habitat destruction that decimated the assorted species they enjoyed hunting. Moreover, naturalists furthered the study of biology in this period by killing specimens for scientific research and f or display in museums of natural history. Collecting specimens with a firearm became a necessary evil. By the late nineteenth century, the effects of rampant development, habitat destruction, and over hunting on the nations wildlife came to the attent ion of Grinnell, whose Yale education centered on natural history. As editor of Forest and Stream a weekly magazine designed for sportsmen and naturalists, Grinnell espoused the creation of a game warden system that would be financed by 42 Marjorie Harris Carr to Clara Haynes Harris (October 31, 1945), in Private Collection of M imi Carr. 43 Archie Carr to J. C. Dickinson (January 16, 1948), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 44 See Richard Rhodes, John James Audubon: The Making of an American (New York: Alfred A. Knopf: Distributed by Random House, 2004), 75. See also Jack E. Da vis, An Everglades Providence: Marjory Stoneman Douglas and the American Environmental Century (Athens & London: The University of Georgia Press, 2009), 167.

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141 hunting fees. Gr innell advocated hunting regulation, habitat conservation, and the establishment of a national park system. He also served as a conservation consultant for President Theodore Roosevelt and started Audubon magazine in 1887.45 Naturalists systematically stu dy and identify natural objects in order to understand the larger connections between them and their habitats. In this sense natural history was a precursor to ecology and conservation.46 Nonetheless, the meaning of the term conservation has always been su bjective, ranging from the managed exploitation of natural resources for human gain to the preservation of flora, fauna, and their habitat for their own sake.47 The Progressive conservation movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries stemm ed from a philosophy of efficient management of natural resources. While President Theodore Roosevelt took an unprecedented role in involving the United States government in purchasing and protecting forest land, his selection of Gifford Pinchot to head t he newly created U.S. Forest Service in 1905 established the precedent of scientific management of public lands for the nations economic benefit.48 Pinchot applied Frederick Taylors principles of efficiency to forestry management. Trees came to be view ed as harvestable crops, and wildfires were considered to be completely within the control of humans. The first principle of conservation is development, Pinchot 45 George Bird Grinnell: Appraising the Work of a Key Conservationist, panel organized by Carolyn Merchant and chaired by Donald Worster, American Society for Environmental History 2009 Annual Conference in Tallahassee, Florida; see also Davis, An Everglades Providence 16568. Roosevelt and Grinnell founded the first national conservation organiz ation, the Boone and Crockett Club, in order to preserve their favorite hunting grounds, according to Davis. 46 Paul Lawrence Farber, Finding Order in Nature: The Naturalist Tradition from Linnaeus to E. O. Wilson, Johns Hopkins Introductory Series in the History of Science (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000), 2. 47 Davis, An Everglades Providence, 151. 48 Ted Steinberg, Down to Earth: Natures Role in American History (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 13851.

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142 wrote, the use of the natural resources now existing on this continent for the benefit of the people who live here now.49 Among the problematic outcomes of the governments treatment of ecosystems as natural resourceselements of nature that should be exploited for human benefit was its policy of valuing certain species over others. Economy tr umped ecology, and conservation of one species sometimes involved the destruction of other species, including those animals that interfered with commercial agriculture and hunting interests. By the 1880s, when overhunting and habitat loss had led to a dra matic decline in deer, waterfowl, bison, elk, and fish species favored by hunters and tourists, early twentiethcentury game managersfollowing Pinchots lead promoted the preservation and breeding of these popular species. The Welaka Fish Hatchery is an example of these early efforts to restore depleted specimens to the nations forests for the benefit of sports hunters and fishermen.50 The dark side of the early conservation ethos can be seen in the active role the federal government played in exterminati ng species considered to be pests or a burden to the agriculture and livestock industries, resulting in the near extinction of the bison and grey wolf. Roosevelts own description of the shooting of a puma near the Grand Canyon reveals the conservationist s mindset regarding large, predatory mammals: The big horse killing cat, the destroyer of the deer, the lord of stealthy murder, facing his doom with a heart both craven and cruel.51 The federal governments conservation policies contributed to the extinction of wolves and other large mammals.52 The Department of Agricultures Predatory Animal and Rodent Control 49 Ibi d., 141. 50 Ibid., 13851. 51 Donald Worster, Natures Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas, Second Edition (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 260. 52 Worster, Natures Economy 258 290.

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143 Service attempted to eradicate animals that threatened the nations livestock because they no longer have a place in our advancing civilization, according to a biologist employed by the departments Bureau of Biological Survey. The federal government began regulating hunting on public lands in an effort to replenish wild game, yet federal regulations often benefited sports hunters over subsist ence hunters, including Native Americans whose prior treaties guaranteeing hunting rights were overlooked when the national parks system was first established.53 Despite its flaws, the conservation movement ushered in by Progressive era social reformers ser ved as the inspiration for the modern environmental movement of the late twentieth and early twentyfirst centuries, which will be discussed in greater detail in chapters four and five.54 Marjorie and Archie Carr lived off of the land in Honduras, supplementing the produce from their garden with freshly killed meat. There was plenty of game to shoot and a little known wilderness at your doorstep, Archie boasted. The volcanoset Pacific shore was sixty miles to the south and the hot, lush banana coast a hundred miles to the north; you could climb a mountain three miles away and find any sort of weather you hankered after.55 The Carrs hunted and ate macaws and other tropical birds, sea turtle meat and eggs, iguana, monkeys, manatee, rodents, and a host of additional animals. As Archies turtle conservation efforts increased in the 1950s, critics pointed out his hypocrisy in arguing for the conservation of sea turtles while 53 Steinberg, Down to Earth 138 151. For more information on the commodification of nature in the nineteenth century American West, see William Cronon, Natures Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West (New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company, 1992). 54 For more on the disparities and connections between conservation and environmentalism, see Jack E. Davis, An Everglades Providence: Marjory Stoneman Douglas and the American Environmental Century (Athens & London: The University of Georgia Press, 2009); Davis, Conservation Is Now a Dead Word: Marjory Ston eman Douglas and the Transformation of American Environmentalism, in Davis and Raymond Arsenault, eds., Paradise Lost? The Environmental History of Florida (Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 2005); and Mark W. T. Harvey, A Symbol of Wild erness: Echo Park and the American Conservation Movement (Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 2000). 55 Carr, High Jungles and Low xxii.

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144 continuing to consume them. I appear to be at one moment dejected over the precari ous survival state of sea turtles, he explained, and at the next drooling over the thought of eating them. Today I try to do better.56 While in Honduras however, the Carrs sampled a variety of native animals. One of Carr s favorite dishes was boiled a rmadillo. They were elegant, she wrote Barbour. Like pig I thought. I believe there is more meat for size than any little animal Ive eaten.57 On an early collecting trip along the Choluteca River Hondurass largest river near the Pacific, located a shor t drive from the E.A.P.Carr acquired her first scarlet macaw. We crossed two mountain ridges covered with long leaf pine trees, she informed her mother. I got an immense thrill when we came upon a flock of Macaws sitting in the pines along the roadside. They were huge and unbelievably brilliantly colored red, blue and yellow. They were very common in the Choluteca River Valley and we must have seen over 100 during the day.58 Still lacking her own firearm, Carr asked Archies colleague George Hog aboom to shoot one of the majestic tropical birds for her. She promptly skinned the bird and took it home for the servants to prepare. It was simply delicious, she wrote Barbour. Like good duck I thought. Our cook boiled it for eleven hours, however The main purpose for the collecting trip was to find specimens of the Anableps or four eyed fish, which was common in the Choluteca River. The Anableps eyes are divided such that they are able to see under and above water at the same time. After c ollecting several samples of Anableps the Hogaboom shot three iguanas. The largest was over 56 Graham, Jr., What Matters Most 101. 57 Marjorie Harris Carr to Thomas Barbour (n.d.), in Private Co llection of Mimi Carr. 58 Marjorie Harris Carr to her mother (July 22, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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145 5 feet long and weighed 25 pounds. 59 Carr lamented that they had planned to eat the iguanas, but the buzzards flew off with the bodies when our backs were turned.60 In addition to the nations diverse animal life, Honduras was home to what Archie described as an almost infinite variety of plants in the 1940s. High mountains and steaming lowlands provided the right conditions for numerous habitats to flourish.61 The Carrs spent a great deal of time exploring the cloud forests of the high mountains surrounding the E.A.P.: Uyuca, Monte Crudo, El Portillo, El Volcn, Rancho Quemado, Pea Blanca, San Juancito and others. Some of their collecting expeditions led t o the discovery of new species of fish and other animals.62 In contrast to the Colombian rainforests, which had been cleared and cut back for agriculture by the 1940s, the Honduran rainforests contained as many as five layers of tree canopies with 200foot specimens that blocked direct sunlight. The ocelot, puma, and jaguar hunted there, joining such jungle fauna as the sloth, several species of monkey, the quetzal, mountain goat, and myriad parrots, among other species. The valleys were home to the coyote numerous snake and frog species, the armadillo, tarantula, fox, deer, skunk, and more.63 Yet the high cloud forest was relatively devoid of flora, a condition Archie considered a mystery.64 Archies light teaching schedule allowe d him to join Carr and a r otating assortment of visitors and colleagues on regular collecting and research trips. He taught chemistry and biology in Spanish, which improved with time. Archies lectures blended traditional science with 59 Marjorie Harris Carr to Thomas Barbour (July 31, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 60 Ibid. 61 Carr, High Jungles and Low 24 25. 62 Ma lo, El Zamorano 434. 63 Carr, High Jungles and Low 30. 64 Ibid., 34 35.

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146 conservation, making him an anomaly at the E.A.P. He attempted to raise his students awareness of the connection between traditional agricultural methods and environmental degradation, encouraged them to consider the impact of agriculture on forests and fauna, and helped them appreciate the benefit s of sustainability in food production. At the time, Honduras still had an abundance of virgin or old growth forests, and the concept of biodiversity was rarely considered in relation to tropical agriculture. Archie challenged his students to practice visionary agricultural techniques so that the consequences of Honduran agriculture would not be as catastrophic as it had been elsewhere in the tropics, including Colombia.65 Over the course of the Carrs first year in Honduras, Archie struggled to balance his turtle research with his other obligations with the E.A.P. and United Fruit Company. Although his teaching load was not demanding, the time requirements nonetheless interfered with his ability to travel all over Central America to rese arch turtle migr ation. Carr assisted Archie with his turtle research whenever the couple was able to get away. She conducted her own research at the same time, collecting and preserving approximately 2,000 scientific skins between the summer of 1945 and the fall of 1949. At the time, there were no adequate field books to help her identify the birds. Little was known about the species she collected, increasing the value of her research and specimens. Carr prepared assorted scientific skins at a rapid pace, shipping th em to Barbour for use in his museum and elsewhere. We go collecting ahorse nearly every day, she reported to Lucy Dickinson. I finished 52 bird skins last night. We have a mountain of bats too. Also a weasel, skunk, rabbits, squirrels and so forth. Sunday Archie and I went caving. Nothing there. We want to find a bat cave. A week ago we rode up to Uyuca (I do mean rode didnt look at the 65 Malo, El Zamorano 434.

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147 view a single time). We had lunch in the highest milpa and then caught grasshoppers for Hub [Dr. Theo Hubbell at the University of Florida]. I felt not unlike Heidi.66 The older Carr children have some memories of their mothers preservation activities. Chucks are mostly impressionistic. Mimi, the eldest of the five Carr children, has stronger memories. One of the earliest is of her mothers brown hands tanned in the Honduran sun working with Germanmade dissection tools to preserve specimens. Carr stuffed cotton in the birds gutted bodies until it came out of their eyes, her daughter recalls, mimicking t he repetitive motions she used to see her mother make so often. Another persistent memory is of the hours long walks they took with the servants each afternoon, passing more ox carts than automobiles. After the deprivation of the long Depre ssion years, M arjorie and Archie Carr enjoyed their comfortable lifestyle in Honduras. It was a lovely life and they knew it, Mimi explained. The war was ending and things were calming down. If you were an outdoorsy type, it was beautiful. 67 Before the Carrs mo ved to Honduras Carr continued to accompany her husband on collecting and research trips, even though she was caring for baby Mimi and pregnant with Chuck. Yet having household help in Honduras made it possible for her to complete unfinished work and sta rt new projects. Im writing a small fish paper, she wrote her mother two months after reaching Honduras. I did the work a year ago and havent been able to write it up since then.68 Carr published her work the following year in the Quarterly Journal of the Florida 66 Marjorie Harris Carr to Lucy Dickinson (November 23, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 67 Authors interview with Mimi Carr (March 7, 2007). 68 Marjorie Harris Carr to her mother, Clara Haynes Harris (September 8, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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148 Academy of Sciences; the paper continued to be cited in biology journals more than a decade later.69 Although Carrs publications centered exclusively on the Honduran flora and fauna, Archies work focused on both the ecosystems and the people of Central America. The Honduras Marjorie and Archie Carr encountered in the 1940s was one of the poorest nations in Central America. Aside from its Mayan ruins and the colonial architecture of its capital city, Tegucigalpa, Honduras remained mostly undeveloped. Honduras lacked roads, and outside of the airport in Tegucigalpa, cow pastures functioned as landing strips for the small airplanes that provided the only reliable means of transportation throughout the country. A violent underworld thrived i n Tegucigalpa and the nations rural areas, replete with local warlords. It was common for men to display pistols on their belts for safety and machismo. Yet the most common condition of the rural Hondurans the descendants of the Maya was extreme poverty .70 In a series of letters describing Hondu ran culture and nature, Carr discussed her amazement at the industriousness of the rural people she encountered in the face of their impoverished living conditions. The reasons why one country is more successful than another is a constant source of interest to me, she mused. The smug way we more fortunate blame it on the human beings of these countries certainly is not fair or true. I keep saying to myself, There, but for the Grace of God, go you. I am convinced it is a group of lucky coincidences that has made our country the success she is.71 The small towns surrounding Zamorano were 69 Marjorie Harris Carr, Notes on the Breeding Habits of the Eastern Stumpknocker, Lepomis Punctatus Punctatus (Cuvier), Quarterly Journal of the F lorida Academy of Sciences Vol. 9 (1946), 101 106. Carrs paper was cited repeatedly in David K. Caldwell, Howard T. Odum, Thomas R. Hellier, Jr., and Frederick H. Berry, Populations of Spotted Sunfish and Florida Large Mouth Bass In a ConstantTemperat ure Spring, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 85 (1957), 120134, which continues to be cited by biologists today. 70 Malo, El Zamorano 22 33. 71 Marjorie Harris Carr to Clara Haynes Harris (October 23, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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149 filled with people dressed in tattered clothes, and the majority of the young men who studied at the E.A.P. came from farming families who still used primitive tools a nd antiquated methods. Carr s description of a student project at the E.A.P. demonstrates the schools incorporation of modern agricultural practices with practical, low cost techniques and supplies. Today they are making ensilage for their new trench silo, she explained to her mother. Ox carts bring in the corn stalks. While one bunch of boys fills the cutter another bunch tramps the chopped stalks down in the trench. These boys really lea rn by doing work. Although Carr was impressed with the students progress, she expressed misgivings about the state of Honduran agriculture writ large. Honduras is a pitifully poor country, really, she lamented. Our valley [the E.A.P.] is a garden in the wilderness. It just shows what could be done with modern methods. While we use machinery here they also teach the boys how to make home made implements that will work on the farm.72 Despite the inescapable poverty of Honduras Carr was taken with its natural beauty as her description of the ride from Tegucigalpa to the valley of El Zamorano reveals. The roads are out of this world, she wrote her mother upon arriving in Honduras. Hard clay, dried into ruts and strewn with great rocks that fall constantly from the hills. The road out of Teguc climbs and winds up mountains and then down into the valley of El Zamorano. The ride has beautiful scenery. The pine trees are covered with many varieties of air plantsmany blooming. There are many springs up in the mountains and little freshets pass over the road. We passed lots of little caravans of burros, loaded down, on their way to market. Also two trucks and buses. It took one and a half hours to drive the 16 miles. You come down out of the pine covered mounta in to a level green valley almost round. You pass a little native town of Hicorita, cross 72 Marjorie Harris Carr to Clara Haynes Harris (August 17, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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150 a rocky stream drive through a grove of coyol palms and then you are at our house a big cream stucco house with a high steep pitched roof of red tile and a deep front porch.73 Jus t as the horse had been Carr s chosen form of transportation in Bonita Springs, it was the easiest way to get around Honduras. One of her first explorations of the local flora and fauna was on a horse ride to San Antonio, an old silver mining town located near Zamorano. The trail led up a deep ravine the sides of which were covered with pines, she recounted to her mother. A mountain stream rushed along over beautifully colored volcanic rocks. We came to a place where the water seeped do wn the side of a steep wall and found large blooming orchids orchids four inches across. We must have ridden twelve miles over very steep roads so we were tired at the end. Saw a big flock of emerald green parrots flying against the dark green forest.74 At the same time that the Carrs were in Honduras, another scientific couple was living in Colombia. Although not a scientist by means of formal education or training, Nancy Bell (Fairchild) Bates serves as a useful reference point in the process of contextualizing Marjorie Carrs experiences in Honduras. In contrast to Carr, who engaged in full time collecting and research activities with Archie, Nancy Bates assisted her husband part time wi th his work. Moreover, Carr pursued her own research and collec ting agenda in Honduras, with the goal of amassing a unique collection of natural birds and publishing her research findings. The granddaughter of inventor Alexander Graham Bell and the daughter of naturalist David Fairchild, Nancy accompanied her husband, naturalist Marston Bates (author of Where Winter Never Comes: A Study of Man and Nature in the Tropics which Archie referred to in his letters 73 Marjorie Harris Carr to Clara Haynes Harris (July 3, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 74 Marjorie Harris Carr to Clara Haynes Harris (July 15 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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151 from Honduras) to the jungles of South America in the 1940s.75 The couple lived in the remote town of Villavice ncio, Colombia in the shadow of the Eastern Andes for more than six years while Marston studied the ecology of the mosquitoes that carry the yellow fever virus. Nancy was in the latter stages of pregnancy when she arrived in Colombia, and as the 1940s progressed she gave birth to three daughters there. Nancy served as an assistant to her husband, working part time in the Rockefeller Foundation laboratory, accompanying him on collecting trips, and explaining the significance of his work to scientists and other visitors who visited the lab. Nancys role as Marstons assistant and the primary caretaker of the couples children stands in stark contrast to the Carrs working relationship, which stood on more equal footing. While the Bateses constructed a nur sery and playground at the laboratory where Marston spent the majority of his time, the Carrs left the care of their children in the hands of a staff of servants while they engaged in full time collecting activities in the cloud fore sts. The Carrs colleagues in Zamorano referred to them as the biology professor and his ornithologist wife, while the locals in Villavicencio called the Bateses the doctor and his seora (wife). Moreover, Nancy called Marston the Boss in person and in writing, while referring to herself as a housewife throughout her book on Colombia, East of the Andes and West of Nowhere: A Naturalists Wife in Colombia .76 Nancy did bibliography work for Marston, but unlike Marjorie Carr she did not know her way around the laboratory. Mar ston worked at the Rockefeller lab in Colombia, which was geared mainly toward the manufacture of yellow fever vaccine. His job was to study yellow fever in Villavicencio, which involved regular inspection of local ditches and ponds for mosquito 75 Marston Bates, Where Winter Never Comes: A Study of Man and Nature in the Tropics (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1952). 76 Nancy Bell (Fairchild) Bates, East of the Andes and West of Nowhere: A Naturalist s Wife in Colombia (New York and London: Charles Scribners Sons, 1947).

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152 larvae.77 Like Carr Nancy helped her husband collect specimens primarily mosquitoes, butterflies, moths, fish, and frogs. Yet Nancys role was as a traditional assistant. She did not collect with the purpose of publishing her research. In fact, most of her time was spent caring for their children, even though the family also employed a team of servants. Nancy worked at the lab each morning from nine to noon, and then looked after the children for the rest of the day.78 Marjorie Carr and Nancy Bates disagreed with the view that the people of Central America were somehow responsible for their poverty. It is true that Colombia is not advanced in many of the ways we treasure, that there are poverty and misery in abundance, that the greater proportion of the wealth i s in the hands of the few, Nancy conceded. But we do not believe that this came about because of a fundamental inability to do better in the people themselves. When foreigners come down and start damning the dirt, the inefficiency, the lethargy of the se people, I wonder just how far they themselves would have gotten if they had been born into the same environment. These comments echo the sentiments Marjorie Carr expressed on the preceding pages.79 Unlike Nancy Bates, who assisted her husband at the l aboratory in the mornings but spent the majority of her time caring for their children, Marjorie Carr routinely left her children in the hands of the familys servants for twelve or more hours per da y. Even when Carr was at home especially in the latter s tages of her pregnancy the servants played with and cared for her children while she prepared specimens. Archie helped out with childcare when Carr traveled throughout Central America to examine museum bird collections, add to her own collection, and trav el with guests. On one such trip, a hired driver escorted Carr, her Aunt Ruth, and Carrs 77 Ibid., 53 55. 78 Ibid., 82, 113. 79 Ibid., 122.

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153 mother in the Carrs recently acquired Ford pickup truck to Guatemala and San Salvador. I had to stay home to take care of Mimi and Chuck, Archie wrote Lucy and J C. Dickinsons son Dick. Or at least to make Tina take care of them and Tita cook for them and Juan clean up after them and a gal you dont know wash for them.80 At the time of the trip, Carr was pregnant. Mother was pregnant the whole time she was in Honduras Mimi recall ed. 81 She continued to ride on collecting trips until the final weeks of her pregnancy, when riding a horse became too cumbersome. At that point she shifted her focus to preserving specimens and preparing notes on her collection. Pregnancy is no obstacle, Archie wrote a pregnant Lucy Dickinson, hoping to encourage his friends to visit them again before they left Honduras. Nothing ever happens to women as near full term as youll be then, Lucy. Nothing could. As for your self esteem, eschew it. You should feel no shame over basic function. Jesus, you ought to see Margie; and she is this way nearly all the time.82 Giving birth in Honduras posed its own unique challenges. Carr came to prefer natural childbirth. Her first two children were born in the United States where the standard hospital birth involved the use of heavy anesthetics for the mother. The dosage was often so high that the mother would be unconscious throughout much of labor and delivery, resulting in a le ngthened and more complicated recovery period. In Tegucigalpa Carr wasnt given so much as an aspirin tablet and all they did was to turn the bed around and tie two ropes to the posts for me to hold on to, she wrote Lucy the week the Carrs third child, Stephen, was born. The amazing thing was how good I felt right away. Ten minutes after Steve was born Dr. Lazarus and I were having a cup of coffee together while watching the three nuns cope with Steve. I do believe I could have 80 Archie Carr to Dick Dickinson (July 11, 1946), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 81 Authors interview with Mimi Carr (March 7, 20 07). 82 Archie Carr to J. C. and Lucy Dickinson (January 16, 1948), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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154 walked right out of t he hospital that morning and felt fine.83 After the birth of her fourth child, Thomas, Carr wrote Lucy about the advantages of natural childbirth. You know what you are doing and can cooperate and do more and much, much faster, she explained. The best thing is your feelings afterwards.84 Carr told Lucy she wished she had given birth to Chuck in Honduras. A major factor that shaped Carrs glowing endorsement of natural childbirth and motherhood in general was the constant presence of servants in her home. Toward the end of the Carrs Honduran sojourn, Felipa whom they had invited to move to the United States with them accompanied the family on a camping trip to Agua Azul, Cortez. We are ideally fixed up here, Carr boasted. Felipa and the four [children] have bunk beds in one room and Archie and I and a lab table have the other room. We go out on the Lake at least twice a day. In one two hour jaunt around the south end of the Lake saw about fifty wood ibis, fifty American egrets, three spoonbills thirty pichichis, thirty least bittern, sixty jacanas and one hundred cormorants. Twenty little blue herons a few each [male and female] coots, Florida gallinules Little green herons, snowy egrets, Muscovy ducks, ringed kingfishers, rails, pelican (one ). Saw only about twelve grebes and sixteen big crocs.85 The Carrs had become accustomed to life with servants, and they were reluctant to give their comfortable lifestyle up as they planned for their return to Florida. Im plea sed with the servants, C arr wrote her mother in the early months of their Honduran sojourn. We are really quite a tranquil family. Im enjoying having free time immeasurably.86 Carr set her own 83 Marjorie Harris Carr to Lucy Dickinson (December 7, 1946), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 84 Marjorie Harris Carr to Lucy Dickinson (March 18, 1948), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 85 Marjorie Harris Carr to J. C. and Lucy Dickinson (July 28, 1949), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 86 Marjorie Harris Carr to her mother (September 17, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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155 schedule in Honduras, devoting more time to work than to childcare or domestic chor es. Our cook prepares delicious soups for lunch and supper and she bakes bread every day, she wrote. This is really the easiest life I will ever lead. Imagine arriving at six after being away all day to find ones house all in order, a fire burning, babies fed and put to bed and asleep, supper ready and waiting, the bed turned down and plenty of hot water for the bathand all your clothes clean and ironed!87 As the Carrs prepared to leave Honduras, they realized that things would change dramatically e sp ecially for Marjorie Carr with four children and no help. The Carrs expenses had been quite low at El Zamorano. They grew some of their own produce, hunted and fished near their home, paid no utilities, and had few bills. They paid each servant appr oximately six dollars per month. The family was able to save much of Archies $200 (U.S.) monthly salary.88 Carr appears to have devoted more time to specimen collection and preservation than she spent with her children. Infant Chucks first words were T ina and Tita, the servants names.89 The Carrs had become so dependent upon the labor of servants that they invited two of their servants to return to the States with them in 1949. The salary of a University of Florida professor was not substantial enough for the Carrs to afford domestic help at standard American rates. If the Carrs could convince some of their Honduran servants to accompany them to the United States, however, the family would benefit from their help while compensating them at a lower r ate. Felipa, who became the Carrs nanny after Tina married, and Juan, the gardener, were interested in working for the Carrs in Florida. Unfortunately for the Carrs, however, Felipa was unable to pass an English test required of all Central American 87 Marjorie Harris Carr to her mother (November 18, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 88 Marjorie Harris Carr to her mother (September 11, 1945), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 89 Marjorie Harris Carr to Sara Beard (April 18, 1946), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr.

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156 imm igrants to the United States. Juan spoke better English than Felipa, but he ultimately remained in Honduras as well.90 Although the transition to life without servants was certainly a difficult one for the Carrs, Archies international reputation as a le ading sea turtle expert was established with the publication of Handbook of Turtles: The Turtles of the United States, Canada, and Baja California in 1952 and in High Jungles and Low in 1953. Following the example of conservationist Aldo Leopold, Archie used his writing to educate the public about the importance of species and habitat preservation. Fre derick Rowe Davis documents Archie s transition from natural history to ecology and conservation in The Man Who Saved Sea Turtles: Archie Carr and the Ori gins of Conservation Biology .91 Archie s experimental turtle tagging program is an example of his practical application of the new science of conservation biology. He blended groundbreaking scientific research into the m igration and breeding patterns of se a turtles with compelling nature writing and an effective conservation program that continues to thrive today. The assistance Carr provided to Archie over the course of his career has been largely overlooked. Together they transitioned from naturalists w ho killed specimens for scientific research and display in museums, to activist scientists in large part due to Carrs attempts to convert Archie from a hunter to a conservationist/environmentalist.92 Archies conservation ethos developed as a result of th e influence of his mentor, Thomas Barbour; the tutelage of J. Speed Rogers and other professors at the biology department at the 90 Marjorie Harris Carr to Lucy and J. C. Dickinson (July 28, 1949), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. The Carrs asked the Dickinsons if they would be willing to pay Juan a $20 monthly salary plus boat fare to Honduras, but this plan never came to fruition. Marjorie Harris Carr to Lucy Dickinson (August 9, 1948), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 91 Frederick Rowe Davis, The Man Who Saved Sea Turtles 9. 92 For further analysis of the influence of natural history upon the development of ecology and conservation biology, see Davis, The Man Who Saved Sea Turtles

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157 University of Florida; and through his encounters with the local people of Central America while he and Carr collected animals.93 The rural mo untain folk they met along the way practiced the custom of inviting travelers to dismount from their horses and enjoy a cup of coffee in their homes. Dr. Karl Schmidt, a famous herpetologist, once wrote that naturalists make the best ambassadors because folks are pleased with your interest in their land, and therefore their natural suspicions toward a stranger are allayed, Carr explained. Perhaps this is why we always felt en rapport with country people whether in Mexico, Honduras, Costa Rica, or any of the other small nations of the Central American isthmus.94 Archie learned that the Central Americans he encountered at the E.A.P. and the tourists he encountered often had different views of the regions future from those of its rural inha bitants. At the University of Florida the Carrs learned to appreciate the relationships between nature and culture. In High Jungles and Low the people of Central America are as central to the narrative as the regions flora and fauna. Archie was also remembered fondly by E.A.P. alumni, who came to hold some of the top political, financial, and academic positions in Central America The connections Archie formed with his students and colleagues at the E.A.P. blossomed into lucrative partnerships that h elped him accomplish his research and conservation goals in the decades to come.95 Archie visited Central America (particularly Costa Rica) yearly for about four decades as he established and directed the Green Turtle Research Station at Tortuguero on the C aribbean coast, where the Costa Rican government established a national park on a twenty mile stretch of 93 Ibid., 84 85. See also Carr, High Jungles and Low 94 Marjorie Harris Carr, foreword to Archie Carr, High Jungles and Low xiv. 95 Davis, The Man Who Saved Sea Turtles 84 86.

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158 green turtle nesting beach.96 The Carrs had faith that conservation would work in Central America. Conservation takes a lot of education anywhere, Ca rr admitted. It requires people to take the long view. In Latin America it takes a special kind of message, and it is needed in massive doses, immediately. Although the pressure to clear land for agriculture and develop the beaches for tourism remains strong, the respective governments of the Central American isthmus are cooperating to preserve a wildlife corridor, Paseo Pantera The Wildlife Conservation Society (W.C. S.) and its partner, Archie s Caribbean Conservation Corporation, started working on Paseo Pantera (the Central American Biotic Corridor) in 1990. Its purpose is to address the economic health of the respective nations and local peoples while also preserving a series of ecosystems stretching from Mexico to Panama. Chuck Carr worked with Wildlife Conservation International as coordinator for projects in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean.97 In High Jungles and Low Archie described the E.A.P. as being at a crossroads of inter Americanism in the 1940s. The war was on, and funds for buying t he favor of our neighbors flowed freely. Projects to court the people with the promise of technical or agricultural enlightenment sprouted like mushrooms.98 Most of these programs flopped, prompting Archie to recommend the following steps in Central Ameri ca: improve the quality of the personnel the United States sends to the tropics; stop underestimating the intelligence and sensitivity of the rural Latin American people; avoid irresponsible spending for unnecessary technical assistance; increase opportunities for Latin American students to go to the United States for training; support the expansion of public health programs; accelerate and expand agricultural research and education; and encourage and help the Latin American countries in establishing and m aintaining 96 Marjorie Ha rris Carr, foreword to High Jungles and Low xiv xv. 97 Ibid., xv. 98 Archie Carr, High Jungles and Low 37.

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159 campaigns of conservation and restoration of renewable resources.99 Of the three principal areas in which technical help from us is most badly needednutrition, public health, and conservation, Archie continued, the last seems to me at once th e most basic and the field in which the least is being done. It is surely the most difficult.100 Making the case for an ecologically sensitive solution rather than an outdated conservation program based solely upon regulation of hunting, Archie explained the scientific basis behind the decline in Hondurass environmental sustainability. The Yeguare River did not produce enough fish to feed the locals, who turned to dynamite or dropping rocks in the river to catch small water creatures. A simple conservat ionist approach to this problem, Archie suggested, would be to establish a wardenship to regulate fishing. Yet regulation alone would not return the Yeguare River or other Central American rivers to productivity, he explained, because the root of the problem could be found in the regions spring fires and summer rains. These environmental conditions flooded the rivers with soil and sediment, turning them into the equivalent of storm sewers. Because the silt suffocates most water creatures save for those small enough to take refuge under stones, Archie theorized, the rivers larger fish populations were in decline.101 Fish depletion is not to be handled as a problem apart but as a symptom of a more general and basic disorder, Archie maintained, emphasizin g the connections between organisms and habitats within an ecosystem. The river is lean because the land is lean, and the ills of the two cannot be treated separately. Forests, wildlife, and hydraulic heads are all parts of an integrated whole, and none suffers or is restored separately. The river is sterile because the 99 Ibid., 38 43. 100 Ibid., 43. 101 Ibid., 46.

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160 hillside above is sterile. The firewood famine in the city and the diminishing water supply are not separate afflictions but different signs of the same disaster. Fishing is poor in th e high tropics for the same reason that a thousand miles of night driving on the highways shines no eyes of wild thingsThe idea that tropical America is still an unspoiled wilderness dies hard. The average North American is surprised to learn that the La tin countries have any depletion problems at all, and is frankly incredulous when told of their urgency. A workable plan for restoration and maintenance of a landscape is not easy to devise. The factors involved are complex and their interrelationships a lmost endless. An immense amount of data on the physical and biological makeup of the region must be gathered before anything that the public can see can be done.102 Archie had a talent for distilling complex scientific processes in simple yet lyrical pro se. High Jungles and Low which issued an ecological wake up call for Central America, predated Rachel Carsons Silent Spring by nearly a decade. Five decades after the publication of High Jungles and Low Archies recommendations for U.S. involvement wi th Central America were still considered on target.103 Unfortunately, environmental conditions have deteriorated significantly in Honduras. The coyotes that used to howl outside the Carrs faculty residence at the E.A.P. are rarely if ever heard on campus now.104 Most of the coyol palms surrounding the school and throughout Honduras were eliminated by a lethal palm disease introduced to the region in the 1960s.105 Most of the rainforests the Carrs knew in the 1940s are vanishing or no 102 Ibid., 48. 103 When El Zamorano was published in 1999, Malo maintained that Archie Carrs seven recommendat ions for Central America were still valid and would be an efficient strategy to address the concerns of the twenty first century. Malo, El Zamorano, 442. 104 Ibid., 437. 105 Ibid., 443.

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161 longer exist.106 Although Mar jorie Carr had reported spotting more than one hundred scarlet macaws at a time, they have not been seen near Zamorano since the late 1960s. New roads and unrestricted hunting are thought to have driven the macaws to eastern Honduras, where there is less human encroachment upon the birds habitat.107 When the Carrs returned to Gainesville in the fall of 1949, Carr started to compile her notes on the tropical birds of Honduras. She prepared a catalogue of the regions birds with notes on their habitat prefe rence and available habitats in the area. She worked on the project sporadically over the course of the Carrs four year stay in Honduras, finishing her work in the final months leading up to the familys return to the States in August, 1949.108 Her article s included The San Geronimo Swift in Honduras, which she and J. C. Dickinson, Jr. published jointly in 1951; and multiple references in Burt L. Monroe, Jr.s 1968 study of Honduran birds, A Distributional Survey of the Birds of Honduras After the 1951 publication of The San Geronimo Swift in Honduras Carr did not publish independently for fourteen years, when she first wrote about the Ocklawaha River.109 Without domestic help, raising a large family commanded mos t of Carrs attention. She also assisted Archie with his turtle research and taught biology and chemistry in publi c and private schools. Carr finally found the time to publish her findings from the Honduras trip, Notes on the Birds of Honduras for the Years 19451949, With Special Reference t o the Yeguare River Valley, Department of Francisco Morazn, in 1995.110 106 Ibid., 446. 107 Ibid., 438. 108 Marjorie Harris Carr to J. C. Dickinson (November 20, 1948), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 109 The Ocklawaha River Wilderness, Florida Naturalist 38 (1965), 3 A. 110 In 1951, Marjorie and J. C. published their Honduran findings jointly in Marjorie Harris Carr and J. C. Dickinson, Jr., The San Geronimo Swift in Honduras, Wilson Bulletin 63 (1951), 27173. Nearly a half century later, Marjorie was finally able to publish her research on the birds and bird habitats of Honduras in Notes on the

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162 In the 1950s Marjorie Carr faced the challenge of combining child rearing and science. In keeping with the gender norms of the times, she assumed the role of primary caregiver for her family, which increased to five children in 1952 with the surprise addition of David. Nonetheless, c hapter four will demonstrate that Carr remained active in zoology, albeit on a smaller scale than in Honduras, where she had domestic help. She devoted a s much time as possible to the Florida Museum of Natural History at the University of Florida, where she was named an associate. Carr was often on her own with the children while Archie embarked upon lengthy international research trips. When Archie trav eled to Africa in 1952, Carr took the children to some of the regions abundant lakes, rivers, and beaches, where she taught them how to identify Floridas flora and fauna, as her parents had done. She also shared this knowledge with her daughters Girl S cout troop in the early 1950s. By the late 1950s, when all of her child ren were of school age, Carr embarked upon a conservation career that focused primarily on land preservation. As postwar development and an influx of millions of residents inundated F lorida, the states natural spaces were being developed at an unprecedented rate. Carr s conservation efforts which were conducted through the local Garden Club and Audubon Society marked the beginning of her lengthy career as an environmental activist. Although she was unable to blend caring for a large family with a full time position in science while her children were young, she kept up with the advancing field of ecology through extensive reading and through la nd preservation. The seeds of Carr s later environmental activism were planted long before she learned that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was planning to build a barge canal that would destroy the Ocklawaha River and cut the state in two. Birds of Honduras for the Years 19451949, With Special Reference to the Yeguare River Valley, Department of Francisco Morazn, Ceiba 36 (1995), 277334.

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163 Figure 41. The San Antonio mining town near El Za morano, Honduras. Photo by Margaret Hogaboom. Courtesy of Mimi Carr.

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164 Figure 42. The Carrs faculty villa at the Escuela Agrcola Panamericana in El Zamorano. Photo by Margaret Hogaboom. Courtesy of Mimi Carr.

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165 Figure 43. J. C. Dickinson, Jr. (who later became the director of the Florida Museum of Natural History) and Marjorie Carr prepare bird specimens after a collecting expedition. Dickinsons son, J. C. Dickinson, III., sits to the right of his father; Chuck and Mimi Carr sit beside their mother while she works. Courtesy of Mimi Carr.

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166 Figure 44. Archie (left) and Marjorie Carr (right) prepare for a ride through the Honduran rainforest (1945). Photo by Margaret Hogaboom. Courtesy of Mimi Carr. Figure 45. Mimi and Chuck Carr play with sea turtles (1946). Courtesy of Mimi Carr.

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167 Figure 46. The Carrs nanny, Tina, feeds Chuck and Mimi by candlelight (1947). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. Figure 47. Marjorie Carr (center) with colleagues on a collecting and research trip in H onduras (1948). Archie is third from the left, looking down. Courtesy of Mimi Carr.

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168 Figure 48. In 1948, Marjorie and Archie Carrs growing family included Chuck (left), Tom, Mimi, and Steve. Courtesy of Mimi Carr. Figure 49. Marjorie Carr exa mines the massive trees of the Honduran cloud forest near El Zamorano (1947). Photo by Margaret Hogaboom. Courtesy of Archie Carr III.

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169 Figure 410. Marjorie Carr with a toucan she killed to add to her tropical bird collection (1947). She donated mor e than 2,000 bird specimens to the Florida Museum of Natural History at the University of Florida, the American Museum of Natural History in New York, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard. Courtesy of Archie Carr III.

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170 CHAPTER 5 MARJORIE HAR RIS CARRS EARLY CONSERVATION CAREER Marjorie Carrs conservation career started at the local level in the 1950s. Like many of her female contemporaries, Carr s volunteer service started with town beautification work. From there she branched out into land preservation campaigns in Gainesville and Micanopy. Carr s activism took a more controversial turn with her opposition to the construction of three proposed highway projects that would cross environmentally sensitive lands: Interstate 75, a cross campu s throughway and twothousandcar parking lot on the University of Florida campus, and a proposed turnpike that would have connected Jacksonville and Tampa Carr s initial activist projects helped her develop successful grassroots leadership strategies that would prove instrumental to her success with the campaign to save the Ocklawaha River. Unlike her early projects, Carr s opposition to the turnpike took place in the 1980s. Yet it is included in this chapter in conjunction with an examination of her l eadership of two earlier campaigns designed to protect the environment from the encroachment of major road projects to show the progression of Carr s leadership style over the course of her long career in conservation and environmental activism. Each of the three hig hway projects that Carr opposed was de signed without considering its impact on the environment. Developers failed to engage in land planning as they transformed Floridas environment. The emergence of the states Interstate highway system is a prominent example of this lack of for esight. Carr and her colleague s were outraged by the rampant destruction of Floridas landscape. The nations road builders have needlessly damaged or destroyed a shocking amount of unique American landscape, not so much because they build unnecessary roads, but because of their narrow minded attitude in selecting the loc ation of new roadways, Carr observed. The state highway directors are responsible for selecting the routes

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171 which our highways follow, and cheapne ss of right of way apparently has been their main criterion. Too often this has resulted in roadways ripped straight through National and State Parks and unique areas of natural beauty.1 Carr s observations of a series of profound changes in Floridas e nvironment over more than thirty years as a Florida resident stimulated her interest in conservation. Hundreds of thousands of soldiers who had trained in the state during World War II returned as residents after the war ended. Floridas inexpensive hous ing and low cost of living made it an ideal place to raise a family, and the gradual introduction of air conditioning starting in the 1950s helped residents tolerate the states subtropical climate. Carr and others who witnessed the decline of Floridas n atural landscapes challenged the dominant probusiness ideology that was central to the states rapid, unchecked growth. Womens clubs and other organizations with strong female memberships provided female activists with the institutional support required to launch effective conservation campaigns.2 Historian Alice Kessler Harris has argued that postwar America embraced a gendered social order that revolved around family life and depended upon (middle class) womens labor as housewives.3 Scholars have view ed middle class womens conservation activities in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as an extension of their role as protectors of the home. Carolyn Merchant championed this line of argument a quarter of a century ago, characterizing 1 Marjorie Harris Carr, review of George Laycocks The Diligent Destroyers 1970, Florida Defenders of the Environment Papers, Box 33. 2 For a useful discussion of the Floridas postwar growth, see Lee Irby, A Passion for Wild Things: Marjorie Harris Carr and the Fight to Free a River, in Making Waves: Female Activists in Twentieth Century Florida ed. Jack E. Davis and Karl Frederickson (Gainesvill e: University Press of Florida, 2003); and Gary Mormino, Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams: A Social History of Modern Florida (Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 2005). 3 Alice Kessler Harris, In Pursuit of Equity: Men, Women, and the Quest for Economic Citizenship in 20thCentury America (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).

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172 Progressi ve era womens conservation between 1900 and 1916 as a socially acceptable form of civic outreach for middle class women who lacked suffrage. Thousands of women across the United States engaged in species and habitat preservation work in order to protect and improve the world their children would inherit.4 Focusing primarily on the maternal motivations behind womens conservation and environmental activism obscures the contributions of professional women, including scientists and writers. The limnologist Ruth Pat rick (a contemporary of Carr) was one of the pioneers of the developing field of ecology. Patrick was in the vanguard of scientists working on the groundbreaking concept of biodiversity. She studied the relationships between microscopic organism s and the fresh water ecosystems they inhabit, demonstrating the effects of pollution on different species within an ecosystem. Today scientists refer to the Patrick Principle, which considers biodiversity as an important indicator of the health of an e cosystem. Throughout her adult life, Carr familiarized herself with current biological research. The land preservation campaigns Carr spearheaded in the 1950s and 1960s stemmed from her awareness of the importance of biological diversity to the health of an ecosystem. Other noted female environmentalists of the mid to late twentieth century include Rachel Carson, who blended science and writing to increase awareness of ecosystems and pollution; and Marjory Stoneman Douglas, who was also a writer. Both C arr and Douglas were Florida transplants who embodied a strong sense of environmental stewardship in their adopted state.5 4 In Women of the Progressive Conservation Movement: 19001916, Environmental Review 8 (Spring 1984), 57 85, Carolyn Merchant argues that wome ns conservation activities in the Progressive era stemmed from their desire to protect their middle class lifestyles, influenced by the separate spheres construct. For further discussion of the ideology of separate spheres, see Leonore Davidoff and Cathe rine Hall, Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the Middle Class, 1780 1850 (Chicago, 1991). See also Steven Noll and David Tegeder, Ditch of Dreams: The Cross Florida Barge Canal and the Fight for Floridas Future (Gainesville, forthcoming) 5 See the American Philosophy Society Museum Web site, http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http:// www.apsmuseum.org/undaunted/images/audubon.jpg&imgrefurl=ht

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173 Historians have portrayed the postwar era as the dawn of consumerism and domesticity, a time when most white, middle class women wi llingly traded in their temporary wartime jobs and returned to domesticity.6 Although some scholars have viewed Carrs experiences in the 1950s through the lens of postwar domesticity, this approach obscures the impact of crucial events that shaped her d eveloping environmental ethos in this period. Schol ars have contended that Carr abandoned her formal career in science in order to care for her growing family, characterizing the 1950s as a period of professional inactivity and domesticity for her. Carr even appeared to her daughter Mimi to be the image of a classic 1950s housewife, yet she was in the process of tp://www.apsmuseum.org/undaunted/audubon.html&usg=__3TYauPJZu1wmcQp3byJxZcFeUWA=&h=258&w=39 2&sz=30&hl=en&start=19&sig2=2wK0Py1Qg5wpEFsQGvgbCw&tbnid=gWqX5abhBMO1rM:&tbnh=81&tbnw= 123&prev=/images%3Fq%3Djohn%2Bjames%2Baudubon%2Bin%2Bflorida%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D20%26hl %3Den%26sa%3DG&ei=MuTNSsasC5XkMZDv6IMD (accessed September 12, 2009); the Academy of Natural Sciences Web site, http://www.an sp.org/research/pcer/rp/index.php (accessed November 13, 2009); and Patricks biography on the Academy of Natural Sciences Web site, http://www.ansp.org/research/pcer/rp/biography.php (accessed November 13, 2009). 6 Before the 1980s, historians largely overlooked womens experiences in postwar America, focusing instead on the political, military, and economic ramifications of the Cold War buildup of the military industrial complex; the pos t Depression economic recovery and transition to a society grounded in conspicuous consumption; and the United States expanding role in the world economy and global politics. Lizabeth Cohen would later address the central role of womens contributions as consumer citizens to the development of the postwar, consumptionoriented society in A Consumers Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America (New York: 2003). Beginning in the 1980s, scholars focused overwhelmingly on Cold War domest icity in the United States, suggesting that womens wartime gains in employment and autonomy were lost when World War II servicemen returned home. Examining postwar propaganda that encouraged American women to return to the home after filling in for men in the workforce for the duration of World War II, these first studies centered on the domestic ideology that millions of women allegedly subscribed to in the postwar years, contending that there was little resistance on the part of (white, middle class) w omen to Americas renewed emphasis on the ideology of separate spheres for men and women. See Karen Anderson, Wartime Women: Sex Roles, Family Relations, and the Status of Women During World War II (Westport, Connecticut and London, 1981). Anderson stre ssed that womens wartime advances in economic status declined rapidly in the postwar period. Employers viewed women as a useful source of cheap, temporary labor. The majority of women were forced to abandon their jobs, either by discriminatory employment practices, marital concerns, or societal pressures. Those women who remained in the work force, Anderson maintains, were marginalized in low paying feminine positions including clerical work, nursing, and school teaching. See also Sherna Berger Gluck, Rosie the Riveter Revisited: Women, the War, and Social Change (Boston, 1987). This collective biography of women war workers reveals the difficulties facing women who chose to continue working after the war, in addition to documenting other womens sa tisfaction with domesticity. Early works focusing exclusively on the cult of domesticity failed to address alternative belief systems, instead characterizing the lives of women of all classes, races, and ethnicities as fitting into one monolithic domestic pattern that was only available to select middle and upper middle class women. In ignoring the impact of class, race, and ethnicity on womens choices to work or remain in the home, the early historiography of postwar women failed to account for the p articipation of increasing numbers of women in academia (especially as undergraduate college students) and the workforce (increasing their presence both in traditional pink collar fields and in the professions).

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174 quietly reinventing herself, utilizing her experiences as a naturalist and zoologist as a springboard to an unconventional career that would st ill allow her to fulfill the traditional duties as a wife and mother.7 The history of womens conservation and environmental activism demonstrates the active role women played in redefining their status in American society. As mentioned previously, w omens conservation and environmental work began in the late nineteenth century, at the height of the influence of the ideology of domesticity. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, women such as Jane Addams had broken free of the ideology o f domesticity, pioneering the field of urban environmentalism in part as an alternative to college educated womens main options upon graduation: marriage, school teaching, or nursing (which would ideally be conducted only before marriage). They applied the principles of social science and medicine germ theory was still relatively new to urban environmental and public health reform. Six decades after Addams spearheaded the field of urban environmentalism, Carr would take a similar approach to environment al activism. Like the educated women of Chicagos mun icipal reform movement, Carr would apply her own expertise and work with (mostly male) academic experts and a maledominated system of government to effect environmental change on a monumental scale. A lso like Addams, she did not accomplish this feat alone. But there was nobody who worked longer or more steadfastly to stop what was perhaps the most ill conceived public works project to date: the Cross Florida Barge Canal. Conservation had been conside red within the purview of elite, middle class white women since the nineteenth century, yet Carrs conservation activities helped her develop the leadership skills needed to apply her understanding of complex ecological issues to the environmental 7 Authors interviews with Mimi Carr (Nov ember 11, 2005 and March 7, 2007).

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175 challeng es of the late twentieth century. The path she forged in the 1950s combined the traditional responsibilities of a wife and mother with the aspirations and abilities of an ecologist. Moreover, it reveals the inadequacies of the concept of domesticity as a unilateral category that encompasses the experiences of all (middleclass) women of the postwar era.8 Not all married women who raised families in the postwar era subscribed to the ideology of domesticity. Yet scholars have couched womens reform work in this period (and especially in the first half of the twentieth century) in terms of domestic feminism or municipal housekeeping, contending that their involvement in the masculine public realm was an extension of their duties as wives and mothers i n the feminine private sphere. Historians have also applied the concept of domesticity to womens conservation and environmental activism, focusing on the differences between mens and womens encounters with nature. Since the 1990s, however, scholars have shifted their focus away from domesticity, revealing the complex economic, social, moral, and scientific arguments women articulated in defense of environmental preservation, justice, and reform. Womens conservation activities in the United States s tarted with the womans club movement in 1860. Denied the suffrage, excluded from the formal political process, and still 8 The 1990s ushered in a new wave of scholarship focusing on the incongruities between domestic ideology as seen in proscriptive literature and the realities of postwar womens lives. In shifting their focus away from the ideology of domesticity, the new historians of the postwar era concentrated on the experiences of women who did not fit into the scope of earlier inquiries into this period: working class women, minorities, and women who resisted domestic containment. See Joanne Meyerowitz, ed., Not June Cleaver: Women and Gender in Postwar America, 1945 1960 (Philadelphia, 1994). She argues that when scholars treat the postwar period solely as an age of womens containment within the domestic realm as Elaine Tyler May did in Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era (New York: 1988) they erase the history of womens diverse experiences and lend credence to the domestic stereotype. Linda Eisenmanns Higher Education for Women in Postwar America, 1945 1965 (Baltimore, 2006) asserts that only upper middle class women could afford the leisure of the domestic ideal in the postwar era. Further, whereas the domestic ideology permeated mainstream thought at the time, womens presence in the workforce actual ly increased in the postwar years, as did womens undergraduate enrollment. At the same time, Eisenmann stresses, women of all classes struggled to balance education, career, and home life. Also see Nancy A. Walker, ed., Womens Magazines 19401960: Gender Roles and the Popular Press (Boston and New York, 1998). This collection of postwar magazines examines some alternative views and critiques of domesticity printed in womens magazines.

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176 largely barred from participation in higher education, womans clubs offered opportunities for education and increased womens presen ce in the informal political realm through social reform. By the 1880s, most cities and towns across America had womans clubs. The club movement espoused middle to upper middle class values and embraced the ideology of separate spheres for men and wome n while also providing women with a venue for socially acceptable public work. In addition to founding libraries, clinics, and kindergartens, and lobbying for improved working conditions in factories and better living conditions in the cities, womans clubs campaigned to preserve natural areas. In 1895, Florida clubwomen established a statewide federation to promote the interests of the mostly white, middle and upper class members whose elite status relieved them of many of the domestic obligations that prevented other women from engaging in club work. The club movement progressed from womans clubs to a profusion of special interest clubs, including garden clubs and Audubon societies. Members of the Florida Federation of Womens Clubs founded the Flori da Audubon Society in order to protect the states birds from over hunting and possible extinction from the plume trade. Garden clubs and Audubon societies provided women conservationists with the opportunity to serve as leaders of local, statewide, and national conservation projects, although these women rarely held leadership positions over men. Whether serving in national clubs such as the Federation of Womans Clubs or small grassroots organizations devoted to single issues, women expanded their publi c influence through their club work.9 9 Over the past fifteen years, scholars of women and the environme nt have questioned the utility of framing womens activism exclusively in terms of the ideology of domesticity. Beginning with the premise that women who had capitalized upon domesticity in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (in order to ju stify their entry into the public realm as social reformers) ceased using gender as a tool of social organization as they were integrated into the public realm, scholars have started to search for new frames of analysis of womens activism. See Cameron Bi nkley, No Better Heritage than Living Trees: Womens Clubs and Early Conservation in Humboldt County, The Western Historical Quarterly 33 (Summer, 2002), 179 203. Binkley employs domesticity as a tool of analysis, but she concludes that early women c onservationists abandoned the rhetoric of feminine sensibility after they had increased mens respect for womens political and social equality. For more on the role of womans clubs, garden

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177 Women were the foot soldiers of the conservation movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but scholars have characterized the Progressive conservation movement as an example of municipal houseke eping, or womens attempt to sweep up the city as they would their kitchens.10 When the Florida Audubon Society was established in 1900, most of its presidents were male, yet the efforts of its many female members were essential to the organizations earl y successes. Womens contributions were responsible for the founding of Florida Audubon and the establishment of bird protection laws and bird preserves. Women also maintained the societys records, finances, and correspondence, wrote articles and pamphl ets that increased public support for Audubon projects, led meetings, and networked with members of other conservation organizations, yet their role in early Audubon work has been ignored or marginalized, historian Leslie Kemp Poole has observed. Yet Flor ida Audubons female membership thrust the issue of the plume trade into the national spotlight. Audubon women launched a nationwide public education campaign geared toward curbing womens desires for fashionable hats decorated with bird feathers, wings, heads, and entire bodies. By the 1880s, the clubs, and Audubon societies in establishing the conservation movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, see Jack E. Davis, Up from the Sawgrass: Marjory Stoneman Douglas and the Influence of Female Activism in Florida Conservation, in Making Waves: Female Activists in Twentieth Century Florid a ed. Jack E. Davis and Kari Frederickson (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003); see also Jennifer Price, Flight Maps: Adventures with Nature in Modern America (New York: 1999); Carolyn Merchant, Women of the Progressive Conservation Movement: 19001916, Environmental Review 8 (Spring 1984): 57 85; and Leslie Kemp Poole, The Women of the Early Florida Audubon Society: Agents of History in the Fight to Save State Birds, Florida Historical Quarterly 85 (Winter 2007), 297 323. 10 Recent scho larship has focused on the limitations of the focus on domesticity, including the backlash that stemmed from womens use of their alleged special moral qualities as wives and mothers as a justification for reform work. Urban planners maintained that women such as Lady Bird Johnson were incapable of understanding the real problems of the city and distanced themselves from Johnsons city beautification movement. Historians have supported this idea, according to Maureen A. Flanagan, by isolat[ing] womens environmental ideas and work from those of professional men, categorizing womens work as beautification or domestication in specific counterpoint to male advocacy of function, rationality, and planning; thus scholars focus on municipal housekeeping whe never considering women [when] women sheltered a variety of environmental causes. Flanagan faulted historians for caricaturing womens environmental work as the attempt of women to sweep up the city as they would their kitchens. In dwelling on domesti city, Flanagan maintains, historians have perpetuated the false dichotomy that mens work is political/public while womens work is domestic/private. See Maureen A. Flanagan, The City Profitable, the City Livable: Environmental Policy, Gender, and Power in Chicago in the 1910s, Journal of Urban History 22 (January 1996), 163190; quotes on pp. 164 165.

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178 trend had been responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of birds especially Floridas wading birds such as egrets, roseate spoonbills, flamingos, herons, and ibis. Their plumage fueled the growth of the seventeen million dollara year New York millinery industry that resulted in the total destruction of rookeries from Tampa to the Everglades.11 Florida Audubon dedicated itself to saving the states birds from the plume trade. The organization hired a game warden to patrol a one hundred fortymile wetland that had proven lucrative to plume hunters, who ignored state and federal laws prohibiting hunting in established rookeries. In 1900, the Lacey Act offered federal protection to birds, but enforcemen t was another matter. Audubons first warden, Guy Bradley, was shot to death and became the movements first martyr. Another warden was killed three years later. Their deaths brought even greater attention to Audubons cause and increased its membership In 1903, the society created the United States first national bird refuge at Pelican Island on Floridas eastern coast part of the national bird refuge system sanctioned by the conservationminded President Theodore Roosevelt. Florida Audubon combined forces with the Florida Federation of Womens Clubs (established in 1895) on the plume trade issue, designing a public education campaign that targeted plume hunters and sportsmen alike, as both groups contributed to the decimation of Floridas native and wintering birds.12 May Mann Jennings, married to former Florida governor William Sherman Jennings, was an active conservationist and the most politically powerful woman in the state in the early twentieth century, according to historian Linda D. Vance. As president of the Florida Federation 11 Poole, The Women of the Early Florida Audubon Society, 297301; Jack E. Davis, Alligators and Plume Birds: The Despoilation of Floridas Living Ae sthetic, Paradise Lost: The Environmental History of Florida (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2005); Mark Derr, Some Kind of Paradise: A Chronicle of Man and the Land in Florida (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1989), 13637. 12 Poole, Th e Women of the Early Florida Audubon Society, 305311.

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179 of Womens Clubs, Jennings contributed to the creation of Everglades National Park, which was dedicated in 1947. In 1920the year that women finally gained the vote Florida Audubon elected its first female president Katherine Bell Tippetts. After being widowed in 1909, Tippetts took over her husbands business interests and founded the St. Petersburg Audubon Society. The well educated businesswoman lost a close race for a seat in the Florida Legislature in 1920, b ut she convinced the legislature to name the mockingbird the state bird and promoted state bird campaigns throughout the country. Ten federal bird refuges had been established in Floridas coastal nesting areas by this time, although poachers destroyed southwest Floridas Alligator Bay Rookery in 1916, shooting eight hundred birds and burning the rookery. Funding for wardens remained a critical issue. Conservationists were assisted by changing tastes in womens hats, however. After prostitutes donned ha ts adorned in plumes, middle class women lost their taste for feathered hats, and the demand for fresh feathers declined. In the opening decades of the twentieth century, womens involvement in Audubon Society and womens club conservation projects increased their political clout in an era where women lacked full civic status. Florida women had proven their ability to conduct effective grassroots campaigns that slowed the pace of environmental destruction in their state.13 Like so many of the women conse rvationists of Florida who came before her, Marjorie Carrs activism stemmed from her appreciation for the states scenic landscapes. At the be ginning of the Carrs marriage, Marjorie Carr expressed an early interest in establishing a home in rural Florid a One week after their tr oth pledging ceremony, Carr asked Archie if living close to campus was truly a necessity. Are there any places a lit tle away from things? she 13 Ibid., 31923.

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180 inquired. Wouldnt prices be lower farther from campus? And you could have a turt le pen.14 Archie shared his wife s distaste for city living. On a research trip to New York City he complained to Carr that he hated cities on principle.15 Upon their return from Honduras in September 1949, the Carrs fulfilled their dream of living in t he country when they decided to raise their family in the small North Central Florida town of Micanopy, located ten miles south of Gainesville, while Archie resumed teaching biology at the University of Florida. In that same year, the department promoted him to full professor, but the family had sold their house when they moved to Honduras and lacked the resources to buy a new one. Instead, they started to build their own house on some forested land near a sinkhole pond they named Wewa, after the Seminole word for water. The Carr family homestead is located on approximately two hundred acres in Micanopy, a town so small that it made Andy Griffiths Mayberry seem like a thriving metropolis in comparison. The Carr children came of age in a different world from their suburban school peers in Gainesville. Lacking the commercial and government infrastructure of nearby Gainesville, Micanopys charm lay in its rustic location at the edge of Paynes Prairie, where the Carr children were immersed in the beauty of natural Florida.16 For about a year after the family moved to Micanopy, there was no telephone in the house.17 The Carrs designed their house with just enough room to accommodate four children. On New Years Day 1952, the Carrs welcomed the surprise additi on of their fifth and final child, David. (Mimi Carr suspects that her parents 14 Marjorie Harris Carr to Archie Carr (June 18 19, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. 15 Archie Carr to Marjorie Harris Carr (January 25, 1937), in Private Collection of Mimi C arr. 16 Sand in Her Shoes, River in Her Blood, St. Petersburg Times November 18, 1996; authors interview with Archie Carr III (March 18, 2009); Graham, Jr., What Matters Most, 98 100. 17 Authors interview with Mimi Carr (March 6, 2009).

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181 used the rhythm met hod of birth control.) Carr cared for the children in relative isolation, enjoying a daily routine that was different from those of most other faculty wives in suburban Gainesville.18 The Carrs owned one automobile in the 1950s, a yellow Dodge truck with a wooden frame around it. Each weekday morning, Archie dropped the school aged children off at their respective schools in Gainesville on his way to work. By the time Mimi was in junior high school, the daily commute from the country to the city in a truck that was sometimes filled with livestock offended her preteen sensibilities. I was about twelve years old and I was embarrassed to be riding in the tru ck to start with, Mimi explained. One morning she asked her father to drop her off at the corner just before they arrived at school so that her friends would not see her sitting in the front cab with her father and three of her four brothers (David was s till too young to attend school). Instead Archie stopped the truck which he had loaded with two steers from the familys herd, which he planned to sell in Gainesville right in front of the school. And just as we pulled up those poor cows defecated and u rine came out all over, Mimi recalled with horror. The kids paid no attention to me. They were fascinated with the cows.19 At the dawn of the 1950s, Florida especially the states rural areaswas still recovering from the Great Depression. Micanopys residents were primarily farmers, a section of the population that felt some of the greatest effects of the Depression. The cottage industry of harvesting Spanish moss for use in stuffing cushions and mattresses st ill thrived in Micanopy. Archibald (Chu ck) Carr III remembers watching men with long poles collecting the Spanish moss from the tall trees lining the Carr estate. Many of his childhood memories highlight the 18 Authors int erview with Mimi Carr (July 08, 2006). 19 Ibid.

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182 strong presence of wildlife inside and outside his home. The Carrs shared Wewa pond w ith a female alligator for more than forty years. On one occasion, the alligator treed Archie after he attempted to photograph her, leaving him stranded high in the tree until his wife came home. The Carrs kept a pet otter inside their home. The otter w ould follow the family on long walks to a nearby creek, where it swam freely before following them back to the house. The young otter practiced swimming in the toilet bowl. Although the Carrs loved snakes Archie had kept an uncaged boa constrictor as a pet in his office in Honduras they taught their children to avoid Floridas venomous snakes and to keep their eyes on the ground when they walked outside. Chuck recalled spotting a large diamondback rattlesnake near the house when he was a child. He ran inside and got his mother, who came out with a double barrel shotgun and shot the rattle right off the snake.20 Mimi recounted a similar occasion when her mothers talents were required to quell a disturbance among a pack of dogs outside the house. I re member thinking how brave she was, Mimi recalled, going out in her pink nylon pajamas with a broom.21 Carr experienced a strong connection to nature. Mother was a real naturalist, I think more than my father, Mimi explained. I mean to walk with her, she was always so aware of her surroundings. It was just part of her soul.22 The Carrs return to the States affected the entire family, but the transition had the greatest impact on Marjorie Carr The scientific partnership she shared with Archie did n ot come to an end in the 1950s, but it became overshadowed by the responsibilities of cari ng for a large family. Carr remained involved in zoology as much as she could considering the time 20 Authors interview with Archie Carr III (March 18, 2009); Archie Carr, A Naturalist in Florida: A Celebration of Eden Ed. Marjorie Harris Carr (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994), 2 9. 21 Aut hors interview with Mimi Carr (July 8, 2006). 22 Authors interview with Mimi Carr (July 23, 2005).

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183 constraints of raising five young children without the assistance of domestic servants or relatives. With no relatives living nearby Carrs mother lived in Fort Myers at the time and Archies paren ts remained in Umatilla Carr devoted the majority of her time to child care and housekeeping. Although biological conserva tion gradually became the prime focus for the Carrs, they also wanted to provide their children with a stable home life. The Carr children later explained that their parents never tried to force their beliefs on them. We would talk about biological cons ervation around the dinner tabl e, David Carr recalle d. And that was just their normal conversation. Still, the Carrs encouraged their children to find their own path in life. I recall them bending over backwards to accommodate whatever interest s we might have, David remembered .23 Carr devoted as much time as possible to each of her five children, balancing the needs of caring for baby David with leading a Girl Scout troop when Mimi reached Scouting age. Carr served as a Girl Scout leader from 1952 to 1954 in Gainesville. She also helped each of her sons complete the requirements for their Boy Scout nature merit badges. Ever since she had led the summer naturalist tours with the National Youth Administration while in college, she had believed in t he importance of educating children about the environment. If people did not learn to appreciate nature as children, she feared, they would be less inclined to act as good stewards f or the land as adults. Carr s Girl Scout troop included her daughter Mim i and several of her friends and schoolmates. She led the girls on nature tours, taught them camping skills, and held meetings in the Carrs Micanopy home, where one former Girl Scout recalled that a pet otter, goats, ducks, and other animals wandered fre ely through the house. The Carrs also had a Mexican burro named Donkey Hotey. The Carr children were aware that their upbringing 23 The Family Carr, Gainesville Sun December 6, 1993.

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184 differed from those of their peers. We were sort of hermitlike, Chuck remembered. On weekends, while their schoolmates w atched movies at the Florida Theatre in downtown Gainesville, the Carr kids went on nature hikes, fished, and explored the woods together.24 It was like being landlocked out there [in Micanopy], David explained.25 The Carrs turned to nature, music, and books for entertainment and inspiration. Archie played the guitar and quoted the Bible by verse. The family listened to records (mostly Latin music and show tunes), but they did not own a television until the mid 1960s. We could watch the news, and news specials, and a half hour after the news wed shut it off, David recalled. It was to encourage reading and other, more wholesome things, including homework. Like many Florida households, the Carrs lived without air conditioning throughout most of their childrens youth. Much of their time was spent outdoors. David remembers his fathers fondness for the familys one hundredpound alligator snapping turtle named Jasper, who lived in a small koi pond near the house. When youd come home with another kid, Daddyd be in the kitchen, cutting up strips of calfs liver, David recounted. Hed put it in a coffee cup and go out and dangle it over the pond. He loved to show anybody who came around how he could dangle the calfs liver over, and this great big turtle would come up. Archie would howl with laughter as he dropped the dripping meat into the turtles mouth, to the amazement of his childrens young friends.26 Although the Carrs were isolated in Micanopy, the idyllic setting of the fa mily homestea d provided Carr with a refuge from the social obligations that preoccupied faculty wives living in Gainesville. The daily routines associated with cooking, cleaning, and caring for a famil y of 24 Authors interview with Elizabeth Powell (March 11, 2006); authors interviews with Mimi Carr. 25 G ainesville Sun December 6, 1993. 26 Ibid.

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185 seven consumed much of Carrs time, but being removed from the Gainesville social scen e freed her to pursue intellectual activities. During the four anda half years she spent in Honduras, Carr had become accustomed to spending her time with Archie in the outdoors, working on her specimen collection indoors, and rea ding. By comparison, th e move to Micanopy made Carr less of a recluse than she had been in Honduras. She and Archie spent much of their free time reading books that shaped their growing conservation ethos, including Fairfield Osborns 1948 book Our Plundered Planet ; Aldo Leopolds 1949 book A Sand County Almanac ; Rachel Carsons 1962 book Silent Spring; Eugene P. Odums 1953 book Fundamentals of Ecology ; Marston Batess 1955 book The Prevalence of People and Man in Nature published in 1961; Barry Commone rs 1966 book Science and Survival ; Raymond Dasmanns 1959 book Environmental Conservation and A Different Kind of Country published in 1968; and Paul Ehrlichs 1968 book The Population Bomb.27 Each of these books examined the growing threat that humans posed to the environment through overpopulation and the manipulation and exploitation of nature. These works also stressed scientists social responsibility, emphasizing their obligation to provide the citizenry with accessible scientific information that w ould help them make responsible decisions for the planet. Carr would later convince the authors of several of these groundbreaking environmental works to lend their support to the campaign to save the Ocklawaha River.28 27 Archie Fairly Carr, Thirty Years with Sea Turtles: Perspectives for World Conservation, Fairfield Osborn Address, in Archie F. Carr, Jr. Papers, Department of Special and Area Collections, George A. Smathers L ibrary, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 28 Chapter six addresses the scientific communitys support for Florida Defenders of the Environments opposition to the construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal. Bates, Ehrenfeld, Odum, Commoner, Dasmann, and Ehrlich were among the prominent authors who lent their names to a January 27, 1970 letter to President Richard Nixon signed by more than one hundred and fifty scientists. The letter, orchestrated by Marjorie Carr, requested that Nixon take action to save the Ocklawaha River from catastrophic environmental damage.

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186 The Carr familys Micanopy retreat w as intended to serve as a source of inspiration for Archies writing. In addition, it furth ered the development of the Carr s conservation ethos and provided a constant source of entertainm ent and education for their children. David, the baby of the fami ly, required his mothers attention more than the four older Carr children, who were like a tribe, Chuck observed. The Carrs rural homestead and the many lakes, ponds, and creeks that surrounded it functioned as an expansive playground for the Carr kids. When Archie traveled to the Caribbean, Brazil, West Africa, or Portugal to research the breeding grounds and migration pa tterns of sea turtles, Carr was sometimes left alone with the children for weeks or mon ths at a time (although she and the children a ccompanied Archie on several trips to Costa Rica). Between June and September 1952, Archie traveled to the Shire River Valley of Nyasaland in East Africa to take part in a medical survey of insects. During Archies lengthy research trips, Carr used natur e as an ally to keep the children occupied. She took the family to the University of Florida owned Lake Wauburg (at Paynes Prairie), where the children swam and played along th e shore for hours while Carr read the latest works in the biological sciences and conservation.29 Carr learned to manage her time carefully so that she could blend parenting with professional and volunteer work. Soon after returning from Honduras she started to catalogue the bird skins she had donated to the Florida Museum of Natura l History and the University of Floridas biology department beginning in 1947.30 Carr had amassed a sizable collection of more than 2,000 tropical birds in Central America. She had an advanced degree in zoology, had 29 Authors interview with Chuck Carr (March 18, 2009); authors interview with Mimi Carr (March 07, 2007); Archie Carrs curriculum vitae, J. C. Dickinson, Jr. Papers, Florida Muse um of Natural History, Dickinson Hall, University of Florida. 30 H. B. Sherman (Acting Head of Biology Department) to Marjorie Harris Carr, May 1, 1947, J. C. Dickinson Papers, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida. Sherman thanked her for a gift of seventy study skins collected in Honduras. The species included in this gift are with only a few exceptions new to our collection and form a valuable addition, he informed Marjorie.

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187 published in the field, and was an expe rt in Florida and Ce ntral American ornithology. Carrs work had been incorporated into the ornithology collections of the Escuela Agrcola Panamericana in Honduras; the acclaimed American Museum of Natural History in New York City; and the Museum of Compa rative Zoology at Harvard University.31 In March 1954 John Allen, Interim President of the Univers ity of Florida, invited Carr to join the Board of Associates of the universitys Florida State Museum of Natural History (now the Florida Museum of Natural His tory). As an Associate of the Museum, Allen informed Carr you would be in a position to help in the task of its reorganization and would also find its facilities at your disposal for the furtherance of your own studies. The association would appear t o be mutually beneficial, since it would promise to contribute to the advancement of Ornithology here.32 Although the associate position did not come with a salary or stipend, it provided Carr with an institutional affiliation that helped to advance her ca reer. J. C. Dickinson, Jr., then serving as the museums curator of biological sciences (five years before becoming its director), said the board of associates rarely held official meeti ngs, which accommodated Carrs active home life. At this point the m useum had already acquired 1,000 of her Honduran bird skins. Carrs work was considered to be of the highest quality, and many of the specimens she preserved were rare or had not been discovered before. Although Archie s clout and international reputatio n likely played a role in convincing the administration that Marjorie Carr would be a worthy addition to the board, his wife s sizable donation of scientific skins improved the museums collection greatly. In addition, she was already an experienced board member, 31 Marjorie Carr began donating to these museums while she was living in Honduras. When Marjorie first began collecting there, she discovered species that had not yet been catalogued in natural history museums. She shipped her early skins directly to Thomas Barbour at Harvard, who kept many specimens for the Museum of Comparative History and forwarded others to the American Museum. 32 Letter from Vice President John S. Allen to Marjorie Harris Carr, March 20, 1954, J. C. Dickinson Papers, Florida Museum of Natural History, Dickinson Hall, University of Florida.

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188 having served on the board of directors of the Ga inesville Garden Club. Carr s formal affiliation with the Florida Museum of Natural History bestowed her with a level of prestige and professional autonomy that distinguished her from her faculty w ife peers.33 After joining the board of associates at the Florida Mus eum of Natural History, Carr assisted with the process of relocating and reconceptualizing the museum, which moved from the flooded basement of the Seagle Building in downtown Gainesvill e to the University of Florida campus. By this point the four oldest Carr children had reached school age, but David was still at home. Whenever she could get Archie to watch David, Carr would head to the museum to catalogue specimens and contribute to t he museums transition. Although a professors schedule tends to be somewhat flexible, Archie supple mented his regular teaching and research duties with substantial writing projects. Between 1952 and 1956 alone, he published three books: Handbook of Tur tles High Jungles and Low and The Windward Road. This high level of productivity left Archie with very little time to assist Carr with child care duties. Much of Archies time at home was spent writing, and he complained to J.C. Dickinson, Jr. that thi s was an extremely difficult task to accomplish with a large family. Still, Archie enjoyed spending time with the children in the garden and wooded grounds outside their house. He taught them to decipher different frog songs and insect chirps as they explored the woods together. The Carrs instilled an appreciation of Floridas flora and fauna in their children, as their parents had done for them. The abundant wilderness that surrounded their home functioned as an outdoor laboratory for Marjorie and Archie Carr and an amusement park for their children.34 33 Authors interview with Dr. J. C. Dickinson, Jr. (February 22, 2008); Thomas Barbour Papers (in Private Collection of Mimi Carr); Marjorie Carrs Honduras correspondence (in Private Collection of Mimi Carr). 34 Archie Carr to J. C. Dickinson, Jr., October 1, 1948, J. C. Dickinson, Jr. Papers, Florida Museum of Natural History, Dickinson Hall, University of Florida.

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189 In August 1956, the Carr family relocated to Costa Rica, where Archie established a research station at Tortuguero and served as a technical advisor and director of the biology department at the University of Costa Rica through November 30, 1957.35 Marjorie Carr taught biology and chemistry in English at the Escuela Metodista. The Carrs sabbatical in Costa Rica was not as luxurious as their stay in Honduras. Costa Ricas hot, sandy climate was less hospit able than the temperate Honduran mountains. Whereas the Carrs had enjoyed the assistance of a team of servants in Honduras, in Costa Rica their only servant was a part t ime laundress. Most of Carr s time was consumed by the responsibilities of teaching, which was an ideal profession in Costa Rica since she could work while her children were in school. This would be the last time the Carrs would uproot their family. Archie normally traveled alone on subsequent international trips while the children were st ill living at home, but Carr continued to assist him with research at Tortuguero, where they monitored nesting green sea turtles. They published their findings jointly in several prestigious scientific journals.36 Upon reaching age twelve or thirteen, ea ch of the Carr children spent a couple of summers at their parents research station on the Costa Rican coast.37 By December 1957, when the Carr family returned to Micanopy, all five of their children had reached school age, which freed Carr to engage in volunteer work during the daytime. One 35 Authors interview with Archie Carr III (March 18, 2009); Archie Carrs curriculum vitae, J. C. Dickinson, Jr., Papers, Florida Museum of Natural History, Dickinson Hall, University of Florida; Graham, Jr., authors interview with David Godfrey (December 19, 2008); What Matters Most; and Caribbean Conservation Corporation website, http://ww w.cccturtle.org/aboutccc.php (accessed March 22, 2009). 36 Authors interview with Mimi Carr (March 7, 2007). Marjorie Carrs joint publications with Archie Carr include Modulated Reproductive Periodicity in Chelonia, Ecology 51 (2): 335 337, 1970, 2 tb ls.; Recruitment and Remigration In a Green Turtle Nesting Colony, Biological Conservation 2 (4): 282 84, 1970, 3 tbls., 1 fig.; Site Fixity In Caribbean Green Turtles, Ecology 53 (3): 425 29, 1972; and The Ecology and Migrations of Sea Turtles: The West Caribbean Green Turtle Colony, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 162 (1978), with Archie Carr and Anne B. Meylan. 37 Gainesville Sun December 6, 1993.

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190 of her first acts was to pressure Micanopys town council to preserve the towering canopy of live oaks that shaded the historic downtown streets. She convinced town leaders to designate the Spanish moss covered trees as wards of the town, which protected them and the nearby nineteenthcentury shops from demolition. Developers erected modern buildings in other sections of Micanopy, but Carr s beautification work helped preserve the historic charm of the pedestrian fr iendly dow ntown. An avid reader, she also worked to expand the small town librarys natural history and literature collections.38 Carr soon moved from beautification work to larger conservation projects. Her first major project proved to be a painful fail ure. As the Dwight Eisenhower Interstate system expanded across the nation, several parcels of rural Micanopy farmland lay in the proposed path of Interstate 75, a highway that would connect South Florida to North Florida (and extend as far north as Michi gan). Archies longtime friend and former colleague Leonard Giovannoli (whose Key West Aquarium position intrigued Marjorie in 1937) informed the Carrs that the proposed route for Interstate 75 would cross their Micanopy property and divide nearby Paynes Prairie. The local courts designated the Micanopy parcels as farmland for the purpose of compensating landowners Before the Carrs bought their homestead, it had been used for tobacco farming. Yet the Carrs had purchased the land as a nature retreat whe re Archie could write and they could raise their children in natural surroundings.39 Carr decided to take a stand against the construction of Interstate 75 through sections of Micanopy and Paynes Prairie. Archie was busy writing The Windward Road, and he decided not to get involved in what he was certain would be a losing battle. Although Carr realized there 38 Authors interviews with Mimi Carr. 39 Authors interview with Archie Carr III (March 18, 2009).

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191 was no stopping the multi billion dollar Eisenhower Interstate highway program which funneled nearly two hundred million dollars into Florida during t he first three years of construction she wanted to voice her opposition to highway planners decision to build the road through Micanopy, Paynes Prairie, and her own backyard. At this point in their careers, Archies conservation activities were primarily limited to his writing and academic research, but Carr s approach was becoming more confrontational an d political in nature. She went to court to challenge the states classification of all of the Micanopy lands that the Interstate would cross as farmlan d. She sought a higher rate of compensation for the fifteen acres of her familys homestead that had been condemned for the purpose of building the Interstate.40 My mother went to the judge here in Gainesville, and made this appeal that it wasnt just r ural farmland as far as she, and especially her hu sband, was concerned, Chuck explaine d. It was a wild area, and it was bought for a higher use than just watermelon farms and cattle. It was a retreat for a man whose writing was very important to his in come, if you will. She made this case, and the judge rejected her argument. And I have this vivid memory of her at the stove that evening, and there are tears in her eyes. Then she explained this thing, and it was the first time I had ever seen my mothe r defeated by any damn thing. It left an impression about my mother, and about challenging the system, and about the power of the U.S. government, and a whole lot of things.41 The standard procedure for right of way acquisition was for the state to pay pr operty owners for the condemned land. Because the federal government reimbursed the state for only ninety percent of the cost of the right of way, the judge was reluctant to reimburse the 40 Gainesville Sun December 6, 1993. The cost of the Eisenhower Interstate highway program is examined in Skyway Financing Scheme without Justification, St. Petersburg Independent April 18, 1958; for a summary of the right of way comp ensation process, see Alls Not Rosy: Heres Some of the More Darker Corners, Times Daily October 25, 1960. 41 Gainesville Sun December 6, 1993.

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192 Carrs at a higher rate than what had already been determined to be adequate compensation for Micanopy farm land. By the time Interstate 75 opened in 1964, almost fifteen acres of the Carrs peaceful nature retreat were interrupted by the incessant noise of highspeed traffic along Interstate 75. In that same year, eight een thousand snakes were killed by automobile traffic along Paynes Prairie.42 To Marjorie Carr, the tremendous noise pollution from Interstate 75 which crossed the Carrs homestead and isolated approximately ten acres of their land, was a daily reminder of the mounting threat Floridas rapid postwar development posed to the states rural areas. Although the construction of Interstate 75 forever altered the bucolic setting of the familys nature retreat, it also steeled Carrs resolve and prompte d her to fi ght future proposals to build new highways in Central Florida. One of Carr s later and more successful campaigns against the construction of a major highway project was conducted through Florida Defenders of the Environment (F.D.E.), the environmental int erest group she cofounded in 1969 to save the Ocklawaha River from the Cross Florida Barge Canal Carr and F.D.E. argued that a proposed three hundred and eighty five million dollar turnpike linking Jacksonville to Tampa was not necessary. She contended that the Department of Transportation had not proved that a new road was warranted or that existing roads could not be upgraded. The Florida Defenders of the Environment decries the lack of planning and public input that has gone into justification of this project and the process of route selection, she announced at a 1988 press conference, adding that F.D.E. advocates the development and publication of a plan that demonstrates integration of all the available modes of transportation in response to perc eived needs of the future. Select city and county governments opposed specific road corridors, but at the time, F.D.E. was the only organization to challenge 42 Ibid.; St. Petersburg Independent April 18, 1958; Times Daily October 25, 1960.

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193 the overall concept of building a new turnpike. The turnpike would have passed through Micanopy, which was already traversed by Interstate 75 and the four lane State Road 441, both of which had had a negative impact on the wildlife and habitats of Paynes Prairie. The proposed turnpike would have reduced travel time between Jacksonville and Tampa by one hour; in the process, it would have passed through several environmentally sensitive areas in Central and North Central Florida. One proposed route would have placed the turnpike close to Gainesville and Micanopy, making it possible that Paynes Prair ie would be interrupted by a third major highway.43 In response to mounting opposition to the proposed turnpike, state Department of Transportation officials admitted they had attempted to proceed too quickly and with too little public input into the pla nning process. In an attempt to speed the process of planning and building the turnpike, the D.O.T. canceled a series of public hearings, which incited greater outrage amongst opponents of the project. State Department of Transportation Secretary Kaye He nderson admitted that the state had made several mistakes in the planning process for the proposed toll road. He apologized for the agencys errant judgment and decided to delay the completion of the feasibility study indefinitely until public concerns were satisfied. Turnpike opponents criticized the D.O.T.s decision to build the road through the nine thousandacre Ordway/Swisher nature preserve in Putnam County, through numerous Marion County horse farms, and through an Ocala subdivision. Henderson vowed to keep the public better informed 43 Environmental Group to Fight Tampa Jacksonville Turnpike, St. Petersburg Times, November 25, 1988; State Ponders Building a Turnpike between Jacksonville and Tampa, Gainesville Sun May 15, 1987.

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194 about proposed turnpike routes through a series of public hearings, but opponents demanded an end to the project.44 I think the recent excitement over the proposed cross state toll road points up one entire area t hat has not been addressed, Carr said. It is very important that we begin to plan for transportation of human beings and goods for the future in an efficient, environmentally sound way. We need to make those plans now.We are losing large amounts of undeveloped land.People do like to have a way to get from here to there. But you dont need three ways to get from here to there. And you dont need to get there a few minutes sooner. I think thats what people are getting upset about, the redundancy. Asked if she opposed the very idea of the turnpike, or just the proposed routes, she answered, I see no reason for it. They [D.O.T.] have not presented any valid arguments for it.45 Carr joined the president of the Marion County Audubon Society and the president of the national Nature Conservancy in expressing their opposition to the proposed turnpike in a series of letters to Attorney General Bob Butterworth. In response, Butterworth who faulted Henderson for botching early planning for the turnpike cri ticized him for spending state funds to develop new roads without first demonstrating the need for them, especially since the states roadbuilding program faced serious financial difficulties. Butterworth recommended that the D.O.T. make improvements to U.S. 301, Interstate 75, and other existing roads instead of building a toll road. Echoing environmentalists concerns, Butterworth stressed that the proposed turnpike would open undeveloped, environmentally sensitive rural areas for development. He aske d Henderson for documentation that the road was needed. In March 1989, 44 The Incredible DOT, Gainesville Sun December 1, 1988; Area Residents give DOT Plan a Cool Reception, Ocala Star Banner December 16, 1988; Toll Road Study Deadline Extended, Ocala Star Banner December 16, 1988. 45 Managing Growth in State Leads Environmentalists Concerns, Gainesville Sun December 11, 1988.

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195 the D.O.T. halted all work on the road and decided not to include it in the state Turnpike Authoritys five year plan for construction. In September 1989, Henderson resigned. He star ted a new position as a lobbyist for an engineering consulting firm that had been awarded D.O.T. contracts totaling forty seven million dollars in four years, an amount that was more than three times the amount of its closest competitors.46 The primary moti vation for building the Jacksonville Tampa turnpike was money. Preliminary reports indicated that the proposed turnpike would generate approximately five hundred and twentyeight million dollars over fifteen years. Henderson, a major financial contributor to Bob Martinezs successful 1986 gubernatorial campaign, was appointed Secretary of the D.O.T. after Martinez won office. At the time, the Miami to Wildwood main line of the Florida Turnpike was paid off, and the turnpike produced one hundred and thirt yone million dollars in annual revenue. Henderson and Martinez planned to expand the states toll roads to generate additional revenue, but by 1988 a cash shortage forced them to find new sources of construction funding. The Republican governor opposed a gas tax increase; instead he and Henderson planned to borrow against the annual Florida Turnpike revenue to construct new toll roads. Martinez and his allies pushed for nearly two and a half billion dollars in turnpike expansion projects through the regular 1989 legislative session and three subsequent spec ial sessions. Although Carr had been unable to stop the construction of Interstate 75 through Micanopy and Paynes Prairie, this time her successful leadership of the anti turnpike movement prevented t he D.O.T. from building an unnecessary toll road designed to generate income at the expense of ecologically sensitive areas.47 46 Butte rworth is One of Many against Road, Ocala Star Banner March 1, 1989; Ex DOT Heads Firm Gets State Bonanza, Ocala Star Banner October 11, 1990. 47 Ocala Star Banner October 11, 1990.

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196 Carr had revealed the main driving force behind the construction of toll roads in undeveloped areas. In addition to generating re venue through tolls, the proposed turnpike would have opened rural lands for development. The Jacksonville Tampa turnpike extension would have transformed Micanopys historic district into a truck stop. For the most part, Micanopy has resisted the type o f development that normally accompanies major highways. Today a few small businesses line the Micanopy stretch of U.S. 441, including Pearl Country Store & Barbecue, a gas station and convenience store with a hometown atmosphere. A sign with the letters BBQ inside a neon outline of a pig lights up the store window. Pearl, which David Carr and his wife Peggy purchased in 2002, offers country breakfasts, boiled peanuts, Florida nature guides, the New York Times, and Wi Fi access, which makes it arguably the most cosmopolitan feature of Micanopy. Pearl also boasts a self serve copy machine, which would have pleased Davids mother, since Micanopy had no copy machine in the early years of her campaign to save the Ocklawaha River. The pedestrian friendly, h istoric downtown area still has no traffic lights, gas stations, fast food chains, or convenience stores. Several small antique shops, an ice cream store, and an independent book store without air conditioning are among downtown Micanopys offerings. Mic anopys historic charm led to its selection as the location for the 1991 film Doc Hollywood, in which Michael J. Fox plays a big city doctor who must adjust to life in a small town. In contrast to Micanopys historic downtown area, the garish adult enter tainment complex Caf Risqu dominates the scenery near Interstate 75. Other businesses near the Interstate exit include a couple of gas stations, a Knights Inn hotel, a fireworks store, and Smileys antique mall, which competes with the downtown antique stores. Several closed gas stations and restaurants near Micanopys Interstate 75 exit attest to the challenges faced by local

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197 businesses that must contend with the greater number and more appealing variety of restaurants, strip malls, and gas stations wi thin a stones throw of nearby Gainesvilles four Interstate exits. The majority of the travelers along Interstate 75 pass through North Central Florida without noticing Micanopy. Most tourists only contact with the town comes through their exposure to the many brightly colored billboards featuring pictures of sultry women with the Caf Risqu motto We Bare All announcing the presence of the towns most infamous attraction. Located approximately two hours from the major metropolitan centers of Jacksonville, Tampa, Orlando, and the Atlantic beaches, Micanopy has escaped the development that would have accompanied to the proposed Jacksonville Tampa turnpike extension.48 After the failure of Marjorie Carr s first attempt to oppose the construction of an interstate highway across environmentally sensitive lands, she came to appreciate the importance of collaborating with established statewide and national organizations. She channeled her subsequent conservation activities through the Gainesville chapters of the Garden Club and Audubon Society, which had a powerful statewide and national infrastructure that aided Carr and other conservationists in their local campaigns. As an officer and board member of the Gainesville Garden Club and Alachua Audubon Socie ty which she cofounded along with David Ant hony and others in 1960 Carr worked closely with University of Florida experts and government officials on a variety of local conservation projects. She served on the board of directors of the Gainesville Garden Club whose membership was mostly femalefrom 1958 through 1962. In contrast, the majority of the Alachua Audubon Society members were professional men, including faculty from the University of Florida and prominent local 48 Restoring Heritage: Barbecue, Breakfast Attract Local Crowd, Ga inesville Sun November 18, 2002.

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198 businessmen. Carr served as presi dent and a longtime board member of the Alachua Audubon Society.49 As the Carr children witnessed the emergence of their mothers activist career, they offered their support. Combining full time conservation work with the demands of caring for a large fam ily was a challenge.50 Carr schedule d face to face meetings when her children were in school and conducted other business at home over the telephone. The Carr s conservation activities were a regular topic of dinnertime conversation. Although the children did not always understand all of the scientific terms and theories their parents discussed at the dinner table, these talks shaped their understanding of the world and encouraged them to become involved in conservation, first through their mothers projec ts and later in their own professional and volunteer activities.51 Marjorie Carrs first major project with the Gainesville Garden Club involved the preservation of Paynes Prairie, a 17,346acre prairie made famous by the naturalist William 49 Harold L. Platt has shifted the dialogue regarding Progressive womens activism away from domesticity, describing the work of Jane Addams and other female reformers as environmental in focus. Instead of basing their d ecades long battle for municipal reform in Chicagos slums on their presumed moral superiority to corrupt male politicians, Addams, Florence Kelley, and other well educated, middle class women reformers (including two women with doctorates) developed new f orms of social science and public health analysis to improve living conditions for the citys working class immigrant population. Platt reframes their work as a pioneering form of environmental justice urban environmentalism. Addams and her allies battle d a corrupt municipal system based upon the paternalistic benevolence of machine politics and graft. In the process, they shifted public discourse away from prevailing nativist, xenophobic views of immigrants as ethnic others who were responsible for their own poverty and fatal diseases; to the language of class, which identified municipal policies that favored tenement slumlords over residents and condoned irresponsible public health and workplace standards as the source of immigrants horrific living and working conditions. See Harold L. Platt, Jane Addams and the Ward Boss Revisited: Class, Politics, and Public Health in Chicago, 1890 1930, Environmental History 5 (April 2000), 194222. 50 Rachel Carson adopted her nephew, but she never married. She, Marjory Stoneman Douglas, and Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings maintained their independence emotionally and financially. Marjorie Harris Carr is unique in the sense that she married a fellow scientist and conservationist who supported her activist career. As the mother of five children, Carr sacrificed the financial independence the aforementioned environmentalists and writers experienced, but she gained the emotional support of a close knit family; the financial support of a professor husband; and, perhaps most importantly, the intellectual support of a husband who supported her activist work financially and by offering his scientific expertise publicly and privately. 51 Authors interview with Archie Carr III (March 18, 2009).

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199 Bartram in the late eighteenth century. The Carrs had read Bartrams Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida and considered Paynes Prairie (which Bartram had dubbed the Great Alachua Savanna) to be a natural treasure. In 1964, Archie provided an ecological description of the prairie in Ulendo: Paynes Prairie is fifty square miles of level plain in north central Florida let down in the hammock and pinelands south of Gainesville by collapse of the limestone bedrock. It drains partly int o Orange Lake to the south and partly into a sinkhole at its northeast side. The sink used to clog up occasionally, and for years or decades the prairie would be under water. The people called it Alachua Lake in those times and ran steamboats on itNowad ays the prairie is mostly dry, with shallow ponds and patches of marsh where ancient gator holes have silted up but never disappeared, and with patches of Brahma cattle here and there out into the far spread of the plain, like antelope in Kenya. The prair ie is about the best thing to see on U.S. Route 441 from the Smoky Mountains to the Keys, though to tell why would be to digress badly. But everybody with any sense is crazy about the prairie. The cowboys who work there like it and tell with zest of unli kely creatures they seea black panther was the last I heard of and people fish for bowfins in the ditches. There used to be great vogue in snake catching on the prairie before the roadsides became a sanctuary. People from all around used to come and cat ch the snakes that sunned themselves along the road shoulders. When William Bartram was there the prairie wrought him up, and his prose about the place was borrowed by Coleridge for his poem Kubla Khan. The prairie has changed since then, with all the wolves and Indians gone. But still there are things to make a crossing worth your while, to make it, as I said, the best two miles in all the long road south from the mountains.52 52 Archie Carr, Ulendo: Travels of a Naturalist In and Out of Africa (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993), 16061. Originally published by Alfred A. Knopf (1964).

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200 Long ago, massive pachyderms, llamas, several varieties of camel, bison, sl oths, glyptodonts, and giant tortoises and the robust insects they fed upon roamed the prairie.53 Archie traveled past the prairie daily on his way to and from the University of Florida. On one occasion he spotted seven hundred and sixty five snakes during one crossing, but today travelers are unlikely to find even one snake traveling along the road.54 Although the increased traffic from U.S. 441 and Interstate 75 has played a significant role in the dramatic decline in the population of native snakes Archi e blamed the reintroduction of the armadillo for much of the damage. Although Floridas native armadillo species had become defunct, no more than thirty or forty nine banded armadillos from Central 1920s. Since then they have spread across the state and into neighboring states, earning the unfortunate distinction of becoming the most common form of road kill.55 The armadillo, with its protective armor, has few predators in Florida. Those who are able to penetrate its tough exterior include panthers, bobc ats, and bears, whose numbers are not strong enough in the state to keep the armadillo population under control in Floridas altered ecosystem. So the nine banded armadillo remains free to wreak havoc in peninsular Florida. They dig their burrows under orange trees, drying out the roots and destroying them. The armadillos also destroy the forest floor, whose rich layers are home to an important mixture of mold, organic debris, organic soil, and mineral sand, making the floor unsuitable for life. As a re sult, the states insect, lizard, salamander, and snake populations have experienced a 53 Ibid., 2056. 54 Ibid., 161. 55 Graham, Jr., What Matters Most, 92; Archie Carr, Armadillo Dilemma, in Marj orie Harris Carr, Ed., A Naturalist in Florida: A Celebration of Eden (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994), 2045.

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201 catastrophic decline in regions inhabited by the armadillo. The reintroduct ion of one species, Archie lamented, spoiled the natural world in a very subtle yet profound way.56 In the 1930s, the armadillo had not reached Alachua County. Even in the 1940s, Archie and his students and colleagues could collect a wide assortment of snakes on the prairie, which was visited by herpetologists from around the globe due to its reputation for snakes.57 But I drove around here one day last week, made a complete loop, and didnt see a single snake, Archie reported in 1982, where forty years ago, even twenty years ago, there would have been two hundred. There arent any! I havent seen one here in ten years. It seems odd that the only snakes I see anymore in Paynes Prairie are big, six foot diamondback rattlers, he complained. Some say thats because rattlers live in the holes made by the armadillos. Archie shot any armadillo he saw near his home in Micanopy, leaving the carcass on the ground to attract bald eagles.58 The danger the armadillo poses to Paynes Prairie is matched by the greater threat of development. The prairie was purchased for industrial development at the turn of the century, but through a series of mishaps, it remained relatively undisturbed when Marjorie Carr spearheaded its preservation 1957. Phosphate mine owner William Camp, who was one of Floridas biggest land owners (in 1907 he owned 150,000 acres of F lorida real estate), bought prairie because he wanted to plug Alachua Sink, recreate Alachua Lake, and harness the lakes overflow to produce electricity. Soon after purchasing the prairie, Camp discovered that the plan to flood the prairie was too costly, so he abandoned it. While he was deciding how to derive the most profit from his property, Camp rented grazing rights to cattle ranchers. Since flooding the 56 Archie Carr, Armadillo Dilemma, 206 9. 57 Graham, Jr., What Matters Most, 91. 58 Graham, Jr., What Matters Most, 92.

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202 prairie was not cost effective, Camps next plan was to drain it. Gainesvilles city leaders w ere thrilled with the plan to drain the prairie, but the industrialist died two weeks after discussing the plan with them. Camps son Jack inherited prairie and continued his fathers practice of renting it out to cattle ranchers. Jack began raising his own livestock and soon had a herd of 3,500 cattle that gave birth to 2,000 additional calves each year. Nonetheless, the younger Camp decided it would be more lucrative to follow through with his fathers plan to drain the prairie. When Micanopys town leaders learned of Camps plan in 1919, they considered draining Orange Lake and Tuscawilla Lake for development. The water from these lakes would join be channeled along with water drained from the prairie into the Ocklawaha River, transforming 150,000 a cres of bad lands into an area suitable for development. Interest in draining the lakes eventually waned, but Camp was still interested in draining the vast prairie. In 1926, local support for draining increased as U.S. 441 (the Dixie Highway) was constructed on Paynes Prairie. Although the outrage Micanopy citizens expressed over the plan to drain the towns nearby lakes pressured town leaders to abandon the idea, the prairie was privately owned, so Jack Camp did not face the same obstacles to his plan to drain the prairie. By 1931, Camp had nearly completed the drainage process. Occasional flooding resulted during heavy rains, but in time the canals did their job and the prairie became dry again.59 Camp had free reign over Paynes Prairie until the G ainesville Garden Clu bwith Carrs assistance embarked upon a public education and conservation initiative.60 The Florida Department of Transportation had launched a program of setting aside roadsides as preserves. Carr and others set aside roadside of U.S. 441 through Paynes Prairie as a preserve. Prairie was 59 Lars Andersen, Paynes Prairie: A History of the Great Savanna (Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, 2001), 128 39. 60 Ibid., 134.

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203 privately owned, so preserve designation applied only to areas immediately adjacent to the highway. In 1970 Florida Dept. of the Environment bought the rest of Paynes Prairie and established it as a s tate park. Four years later, the prairie was designated Floridas first official wildlife sanctuary. Yet at that point the sanctuary only protected a small stretch of land immediately adjacent to the span of U.S. Highway 441 as it crossed the prairie bec ause the majority of the prairie still remained in private hands.61 Mr. Camp, who owned the prairie, said, A bsolutely delightful! Carr recalled. And if anybody steps off your preserve onto my land, Ill shoot them.62 Jack Camps wrath was not the o nly thing that stood in the way of the transformation of the entire prairie into a wildlife preserve. Alachua County Commissioner Edgar Johnson championed a proposal to flood the prairie and revive the defunct Alachua Lake was given serious consideration. The idea of conservation and protection of a unique prairie and wildlife sanctuary lost support among many Gainesville and Alachua County citizens and developers who would have preferred to see the development of a lake for fishing and tourism. Even som e members of the Gainesville Garden Club and Alachua Audubon Society approved of the plan. The proposal to flood the prairie eventually ran out of steam after the county commission denied funds for a feasibility study.63 Paynes Prairies fate ultimately rested in the hands of the state. In 1963, Florida established a pioneering land conservation program with a bathing suit tax on outdoor clothing and equipment. I n 1968, Republican governor Claude Kirk replaced that tax with a documentary stamp tax that funded the states land conservation program with proceeds from all land 61 Andersen, Paynes Prairie 134 39; Everett Caudle interview with Marjorie Harris Carr. 62 Everett Caudle interview. 63 Andersen, Paynes Prairie 129 39.

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204 transactions in Florida. T he documentary stamp tax, which was later bolstered by the passage of the Florida Land Conservation Act in 1972, evolved into Florida Forever, the nations largest landbuying program. Florida Forever provides state monies to purchase state forests, state and local parks, water management district lands, and state wildlife preserves, banning development on these lands permanently. The program also negotiate s preservation agreements with private land owners.64 I n 1970, the State of Florida used funds from its land conservation program to purchase Paynes Prairie from Camp for $5.1 million, transforming it into Paynes Prairie State Preserve. The state proceed ed to restore the prairies native flora and fauna, as much as possible, using Bartram s Travels as a guide Several of the species Bartram described had become extinct or only existed elsewhere in Florida by the 1970s, but the state made every effort to restore the prairies original flora and fauna, including reintroducing bison in 1975. Other species Bartram sketched and described in his Travels include wild horses, originating from horses the Spaniards brought to Florida in the sixteenth century; biso n; an diverse assortment of reptiles, amphibians, and birds; the Florida panther (which abandoned the prairie and have not been reintroduced to the prairie); and other species. The state also purchased a stretch of railway line that ran through the prairie and converted it into hiking trails. Humanmade canals and ditches have been harder to eliminate. Today Paynes Prairie is a 21,000acre state park and wilderness preserve with open uplands, wetlands, freshwater marshes, and wet prairie.65 64 Recharging Florida Forever: Rising Land Prices and a Flat Budget Have Eroded the States Leading Conservation Program, Florida Trend October 1, 2006; Florida Could Run Out of Land Buying Money by Oct. 1, Bruce Ritchie, Envir onmental News from Floridas Capital August 20, 2009, http://bruceritchie.blogspot.com/2009_08_01_archive.html (accessed April 1, 2010). 65 Andersen, Paynes Prairie 134 39.

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205 In the late 1 960s, w hile Carr was working to convince the State of Florida to take action on Paynes Prairie, another one of Gainesvilles most important environmental treasures was also at risk. The Carrs had enjoyed viewing the diverse wildlife of Lake Alice on the U niversity of Florida campus since the 1930s. Archies students wrote ecological descriptions of the Lake Alice ecosystem, wading past alligators while conducting their research. Lake Alice and Bivens Arm Lake (near Paynes Prairie) were among the bodies o f water the Carrs visited most. In an essay written shortly before the university community discovered that Lake Alice was being considered as the site of a cross campus throughway, Archie described the sad state of the lakes he had explored for decades. Both used to seem to me to rank among the wonders of the world, Archie reflected, and much of their old magic is gone. Water hyacinths, in the virulent phase they get into when they grow near civilized man, were the chief cause of the sad change.66 Se wage and agricultural runoff had polluted both lakes, adding substantial doses of nitrogen and phosphorous, which caused devastating plankton blooms or submerged plants that depleted the lakes oxygen levels. Tens of thousands of fish floated to the top of the lake, followed by the growth of a thick blanket of water hyacinths. Occasionally university and city of Gainesville officials sprayed herbicides on the hyacinths in Lake Alice and Bivens Arm. The hyacinths died, sank to the lake bottom, and created a different form of pollution that further decimated the biota of the lakes. Regular poisoning eventually killed off the hyacinths at Bivens Arm Lake, which also produced the unintended consequence of distorting the ecology of the lake. The high levels of nitrogen and phosphorous at Lake Alice continued to support the growth of water hyacinths, however, essentially hiding the lake beneath for a period of several years.67 66 Archie Carr, Water Hyacinths, in Marjorie Carr, Ed., A Naturalist in Florida 216. 67 Ibid., 21819.

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206 Archie recommended a more effective and ecologically sensitive course of action fo r the eradication of water hyacinths in Floridas bodies of water: removal of the nutrients at their source through prevention of agricultural runoff and more effective sewage disposal methods. As long as the exudations of humanity pour in the hyacinths will riot and grow marvelously tall and crowd together joyously in hydroponic splendor, he cautioned. And each spring they will celebrate the spread of man with fields of lovely flowers.68 Today, Floridas standard treatment of the hyacinth problem involves limited use of herbicides and the introduction of two weevils and a moth that feed upon hyacinths, in addition to physical removal of hyacinths when warranted. The goal is to keep the destructive plants at the lowest possible level in the states rivers, lakes, and ponds, and to prevent the spread of hyacinths before a serious outbreak clogs a body of water.69 In the late 1960s, however, University of Florida and Florida Department of Transportation (F.D.O.T.) planners envisioned a more permanent trea tment for Lake Alices problems. In the fall of 1969, the university community learned that plans were well under way for the construction of a four lane, limited access, campus throughway and 2,000car parking lot along sections of Lake Alice. The highw ay would link West University Avenue with U.S. 441 south of Gainesville. The State Road Department had already completed a preliminary survey at that point and was in the final planning stages. Marjorie Carr who was also heavily involved in the campaign to save the Ocklawaha River at that point in addition to leading the Paynes Prairie preservation project helped organize an ad hoc committee to investigate and oppose the proposed cross campus throughway as soon as she heard about it from Archie and her c olleagues 68 Ibid., 219. 69 Marjorie Harris Carr, Notes to Archie Carr, A Naturalist in Florida 252.

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207 at the zoology department. She employed the same grassroots strategies as those she used in her other conservation campaigns, enlisting the assistance of university experts and the Alachua and Florida Audubon Societies, who contacted university and state representatives to express their concern over the imminent destruction of the lake and its surrounding wilderness area.70 Opponents shared their outrage at a U.F. Campus Land Use and Planning Committee meeting, objecting to the proposed highways route and its effects on the sixty acre campus lake. John H. Kaufmann, an associate professor of zoology who worked closely with Carr on the Ocklawaha campaign, claimed that construction would immediately and irreplaceably destroy the major wildlife values of the entire lake area, leaving behind at best a landscaped pond devoid of visible wildlife and surrounded on all sides by roads and parking lots. Kaufmann, Carr, Joe Little, and some of their University of Florida colleagues organize d the Ad Hoc Committee on Lake Alice within days of learning about the highway. Many people in the university and Gainesville are aware of Lake Alice as one of the few spots remaining where one can see an alligator or an egret in its natural surroundings, Kaufmann e xplained. Relatively few appreciate the functions it serves in the teaching and research programs of the university, or of the potential it has as a scenic and educational facility for both the university and the public.71 University of Florida zoology, entomology, and botany professors routinely used the lake and its wooded north shore for undergraduate and graduate research and instruction. Archie wrote University of Florida President Stephen C. OConnell to convey his dismay over the proposed highway and to inform the president of his and his colleagues plans to develop the 70 Road to Divide UF Campus Already Divisive, St. Petersburg Times O ctober 19, 1969. 71 Ibid.

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208 lake and its shore as the site of a campus research station. Throughway proponents maintained that Lake Alice was already damaged by past construction and pollution, rendering it unfit for research and education. Moreover, they contended that the universitys predicted growth made the development of Lake Alice at a future date future inevitable. Therefore it was pointless to develop the area for biological use, when the universit y could establish research stations elsewhere on campus. The main reason proponents cited to support construction of a four lane highway over Lake Alice was that Gainesville was in urgent need of another north south traffic artery with access to campus facilities, and the proposed route through Lake Alice would best accomplish this goal, from an engineering standpoint.72 Kaufmann admitted that Lake Alice had changed over the years, but he disagreed with the idea that its biological usefulness had been destr oyed or that it could not be restored. There are good prospects for repairing much of the damage done so far, he explained. Areas that are set aside soon enough become inviolate because they are the last open areas amid the steel and concrete. The possibility that future expansion will eliminate the wildlife is a poor excuse for irrevocably destroying it now. The speed with which U.F. and the state were moving forward with plans for construction of the throughway shocked the university community. K aufmann criticized planners for proceeding with undue haste and too little publicity.73 The Florida Audubon Society pleaded with Governor Rubin Askew, the state Cabinet, and the Board of Regents to intervene on behalf of Lake Alices wildlife. The campus is in kind of a turmoil over this thing, claimed Martin Northrup, Florida Audubons assistant executive director. The route favored by university and state planners would cut through Lake 72 Ibid. 73 Ibid.

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209 Alice Wildlife Sanctuary, an established refuge for herons. Flo rida Audubon informed state representatives that more than forty percent of all of Floridas native bird species had been spotted at Lake Alice. They contended that the highway was incompatible with the philosophy of a sanctuary.74 Both Kaufmann and Uni versity of Florida law professor Joe Little first became involved in conservation through the effort to protect Lake Alice from the proposed cross campus throughway. T hey worked closely with Carr on the opposition and became heavily involved with Florida Defenders of the Environment. At the start of Littles participation in the Lake Alice campaign, stopping the throughway appeared to be an impossible feat. The cross campus highway was a done deal, Little recounted. Mr. OConnell himself told me that face to face. The Florida Department of Transportation and President OConnell had already signed off on the project when they scheduled a campus hearing on the matter at the J. Wayne Reitz Union, the campus student center. The meeting hall overflowed with protestors, alerting the Department of Transportation and OConnell to the groundswell of local opposition to the throughway. Before that meeting, campus and state officials had failed to consider the throughways impact on Lake Alice. Planners had tunnel vision as they prepared to dredge and fill the majority of Lake Alice in preparation for construction. It was a case of progress versus swamps and alligators, Little maintained. It was real. It was a done deal.75 F.D.O.T. and OConnell abandoned the campus throughway project after they became cognizant of the extent of campus and community support for Lake Alice. After the reversal, campus organizers acquired a great deal of respect for OConnell. Little was an untenured 74 Society Seeks to Block Road, St. Petersburg Times, November 13, 1971. 75 Joe Little became active in the Alachua Audubon Society, serving as President in 1973. He served as the Legal Chairman of Florida Defender s of the Environment starting in 1970, as a trustee from 1977 to the present, and is currently F.D.E.s vice president. Authors interview with Joe Little (December 19, 2008).

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210 faculty member at th e time, but he suffered no professional repercussions from his activism, even though throughway opponents were relentless in their approach to conservation. Marjorie was absolutely fearless, Little recalled. She was unremittingly determined, she was b razen.76 Marjorie Carr and the other leaders of the opposition worked to inform the public that state and university officials were putting something over on the public, Kaufmann recalls. Although fellow activists agreed that the cross campus highwaylike the Cross Florida Barge Canal was a bad idea scientifically, economically, and morally, Carr was the only one who believed that it could be stopped. Margie, Kaufmann remembered, from the very beginning, saw this asWe're going to win this.77 Once the throughway project was stopped, the opposition shifted its focus to restoration efforts. The university addressed the problem of sewage drainage and agriculture runoff at Lake Alice and Carr (working through Alachua Audubon Society) coordinated the planting of cypress trees along the edges of the lake. The lakes water hyacinth population has been reduced s ignificantly Museum Road, a twolane road with no shoulders, represents the universitys compromise with the opposition. Engineers designed a narrow road that skirts the northern edge of the lake. Plans for a 2,000car parking lot on the lake were abandoned. Instead of dredging and filling Lake Alice, it was restored and remains the campus nature retreat that the Carrs struggled to preserve. T oday students, Gainesville residents, and tourists stop at Lake Alice t o spot alligators, turtles, fish, and birds in the daytime. Every day at dusk spectators wait outside a bat house located near the lakes north shore to watch thousands of bats fly ove r the lake in search of mosquitoes and other insects. University students conduct research in an experimental 76 Ibid. 77 Interview with Jack Kaufmann excerpted from A Tale of Two Women: Marjory Stoneman Douglas and Marjorie Harris Carr, Florida International University Everglades Digital Library, http://everglades.fiu.edu/two/index.htm accessed October 31, 2008.

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211 garden next to the bat house. The Baughman Center, a nondenominational chapel and meditation center, was erected on Lake Alices western edge in 2000. University of Florida students, alumni, and community members use the chapel, which offers a scenic view of Lake Alice, for weddings, funerals, and memorial services. There are no signs at Lake Alice to commemorate the efforts of Marjorie and Arch ie Carr and their colleagues to save and restore the lake, and few members of the university community remember that the campus landmark was almost destroyed in the name of progress.78 Over the course of an activist career that lasted for forty years, Marjo rie Carr came to believe citizen activism was the key to successful environmental campaigns. It is now abundantly evident that if our Paradise is to be protected, the initiative and force will have to come from the grassroots, she stated. The action w ill have to start at the local level and move upward. That is natural and proper in a democracy. Here in Florida we have indicated over and over again that the public places great value on the preservation of original landscapes, wildlife and ground wate r. It is the citizen who must lead; and to lead effectively the citizen needs to have certain basic knowledge.79 Carrs involvement in beautification work in Micanopy left a living legacy for the town, which recognized her contributions to Florida conser vation by erecting a historic marker in her honor, as part of the Great Floridians 2000 program.80 Carr s inability to stop Interstate 75 from encroaching upon the family homestead served as a painful lesson. The devastation she witnessed in Micanopy and on Paynes Prairie was magnified many times over when Int erstates 78 Everett Caudle int erview with Marjorie Carr; Archie Carr Papers, Department of Special Collections, George A. Smathers Library, University of Florida, Gainesville. 79 Marjorie Harris Carr, foreword to Peggy Cavanaugh and Margaret Spontak, Protecting Paradise: 300 Ways to Protect Floridas Environment (Fairfield, Florida: Phoenix Publishing, 1992), 3 4. 80 Micanopy Honors Its Three Great Floridians with Historic Markers, Gainesville Sun May 4, 2000.

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212 4, 10, 75, and 95 facilitated the movement of millions of tourists across the state especially after the 1971 opening of Walt Disney Wor ld in Central Florida. Carr s later successes at saving Lake Alice from the campus throughway and preventing the construction of a Jacksonville Tampa turnpike that would have damaged environmentally sensitive areas were shaped by the sting of defeat in her own backyard. She realized that effective conservatio n campaigns required an organized, autonomous group of individuals; effective utilization of the media to sway public opinion; persistent grassroots attempts to influence local, state, and national politicians; and competent representation in the court sys tem. These local conservation projects had prepared Carr for the national campaign to save the Ocklawaha River a battle she would lead for thirty five years.

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213 Figure 51. Like her parents before her, Marjorie Carr taught her children about Floridas flora and fauna. Marjorie and her five children Mimi (bottom left), Tom, David (center), Steve, and Chuck (bottom right) at Cedar Key (1953). Courtesy of Mimi Carr. Figure 52. Marjorie Carr rescued historic downtown Micanopys live oaks by convincing t own leaders to declare them wards of the town. Photo by Peggy Macdonald.

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214 Fig ure 53. Wewa Pond on the Carr family homestead. Photo by Peggy Macdonald.

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215 Figure 54. Cattle rest under live oak trees at the Carr family homestead. Photo by Peggy Macd onald.

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216 Figure 55. Another view of Wewa Pond. Photo by Peggy Macdonald.

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217 Figure 56. A tree lined section of Paynes Prairie State Park. Photo by Peggy Macdonald.

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218 Figure 57. Another view of Paynes Prairie State Park Photo by Peggy Macdonald. Figure 58. An alligator crosses Lake Alice at the University of Florida. Photo by Peggy Macdonald.

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219 CHAPTER 6 PROTECTING PARADISE: MARJORIE HARRIS CARR LAUNCHES THE CAMPAIGN TO SAVE THE OCKLAWAHA RIVER In 1962, one of Marjorie Carrs Garden Club associates advised her that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was planning to construct a cross state canal along a section of the Ocklawaha River in Putnam County (see figure 62). Although the river was located in neighboring Marion and Putnam Counties and Carr s local Audubon Society chapter represented the interests of Alachua County, she had become acquainted with the scenic river while working at the Welaka Fish Hatchery in the 1930s, so she decided to investigate the potential environmental effects of the proposed Cross Florida Barge Canal Carr and David Anthony, who served as co presidents of the Alachua Audubon Society, invited representatives of the state board of conservation to provide Alachua Audubon Society members with more information about the canal. The November 8, 1962 meeting that followed marked the beginning of Carrs involvement in the ongoing campaign to protect and restore the Ocklawaha River. By 1965, the campaign to save the Ocklawaha River Valley consumed Marjorie Carr. This really did become the most important thing in her life, her daughter Mimi recalled. Thats what she did every day. Florida Naturalist published Carr s 1965 essay on the Ocklawaha River Valley, The Oklawaha Wilderness, which reflected the campaigns new environmenta l focus. In her essay, Carr articulated the damage that the Cross Florida Barge Canal (see figure 6 1) would cause to the Ocklawaha ecosystem. The language of ecology would prove to be a much more effective tool for Carr and her colleagu es than their initial campaign strategy, which centered on the natural resources that would be lost should the canal be completed. The next challenge for the defenders of the Ocklawaha River would be to demonstrate the need for a public hearing in which t he interests involved could express their opinions, show that the Corps of Engineers was utilizing unsound engineering techniques (including its failure to conduct accurate scientific

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220 studies of the canals impact on the Floridan Aquifer), and demonstrate that the current benefit to cost ratio was unrealistic. Carr continued to assist her husband with his research and writing on turtles, in addition to leading efforts to transform Paynes Prairie into a state park and to save Lake Alice on the University of Florida campus. Four of Carr s five children had left home by this point in time, freeing her to devote her full attention to her conservation activities. In the late 1960s, the Ocklawaha would attract the attention of a national environmental campaign that awakened Americas environmental consciousness. In the mid 1960s, however, the Ocklawaha campaign remained disorganized and regional in focus. Carr and her supporters would suffer a crippling blow at the public hearing they fought so hard to achieve .1 Carr s connections to the University of Florida were central to the success of the Ocklawaha campaign. Marion Countys pro business climate fueled its strong support for the proposed canal, which boosters claimed would provide Central Florida with subs tantial economic benefits. The more liberal Gainesville in Alachua County was populated by a solid base of intellectuals who questioned the canals alleged economic and recreational benefits. Under Carr s leadership, a growing coalition of University of Florida professors would come to question the logical and moral soundness of destroying a river in order to construct an outdated barge canal.2 Canal boosters never stopped to consider the environmental effects of the canal. Politicians and special interests had pushed for the canal since the early twentieth century, gaining approval for a cross state ship canal during the Great Depression. However, the public works project was only approved as a means of providing economic relief. At the peak of the 1 Interview with Mimi Carr, From Waterway to Greenway 2 Luther Carter, The Florida Experience: Land and Water Policy in a Growth State (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1975), 279.

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221 De pression, approximately one quarter of Americans was unemployed. As the nation turned its attention and economic resources to World War II, funding for construction of the ship canal was canceled, and the canal remained incomplete. However, boosters cont inued to push for the canals completion, touting the canals economic and defense benefits. In 1942, Congress authorized construction of a shallower barge canal, but no funds were appropriated for construction. Years of costly economic restudies followe d. In 1958, an economic restudy concluded that the barge canals recreational and economic benefits justified the cost of construction. With the direct assistance of Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, funding for the canal was authorized. The Corps of Engineers planned to complete the canal along the same route as the one designated during the DepressionRoute 13B, which crossed the Ocklawaha River.3 The Corps of Engineers wasted no time putting their longawaited canal funds to work. Th ey planned to construct a high level lock barge canal that would be twelve feet deep and one hundredfifty feet wide from the St. Johns River to the Gulf of Mexico with five locks, two earth dams, and several canal crossings. The estimated federal cost of construction was $145,300,000 in 1963 dollars. However, Corps of Engineers benefits for the canal erred on the low side. Congress distributed funds incrementally. Canal funding through fiscal year 1963 totaled $1,885,100. Congress authorized an additi onal $1,000,000 to initiate construction of the canal 3 See Bill Partington, History of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, Environmental Impact of the Cross Florida Barge Canal with Special Emphasis on the Oklawaha Regional Ecosystem (Gainesville: Florida Defenders of the Environment, March 1970); Charles E. Bennett, Early History of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, The Florida Historical Quarterly Vol. 15 (October 1966): 132 144; and J. Richard Sew ell, Cross Florida Barge Canal, 19271968, The Florida Historical Quarterly (April 1968), 369383.

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222 from Palatka to the St. Johns Lock and from there to Rodman Pool. The leaders of the campaign to save the Ocklawaha realized they needed to take action immediately.4 The Ocklawaha Rivers name comes fr om the Muscogee (Creek) word ak lowahe which means muddy or muddy water. The sandbottom Ocklawaha is actually crystal clear, although the natural byproducts of the dense tree swamp surrounding the river give the water a light tan stain. The Muscoge e and later the Seminole peoples used the river for transportation and hunting. In the 1960s the Ocklawaha was one of Florida s last relatively undisturbed rivers. The largest tributary of the St. Johns River, the Ocklawaha is among a small number of maj or North American rivers that flows north, traveling for seventyeight miles from its source in Lake Griffin, Lake Eustis, Lake Harris, and Lake Dora in Central Florida, before it joins the St. Johns River approximately eight miles north of Lake George nea r Welaka. Silver Springs massive daily output of crystal clear water flows into the Ocklawaha River at Silver Springs Run (see Figures 64 and 6 5) Tourists used to travel along the river on steamboats, savoring the exotic beauty and impressive wildlif e of the canopied, subtropical river valley. In the 1960s, the Ocklawaha was home to a diverse population of fish species, including channel catfish, chain pickerel, a large variety of sunfish species, speckled perch, and massive largemouth black bass, wh ich were the subject of Marjorie Carrs master s thesis. According to Carr the river valley also supported several types of herons, limpkins, gallinules, rails, wood ducks, anhingas, snakes, turtles, alligators, deer, raccoons, otters, the Florida panthe r, bobcats, and black bears (see Figures 63 and 6 6) .5 4 Army Corps of Engineers Summary of Civil Works Projects under Construction and Surveys in Progress, January 1964, 8, Series 301, Box 29A, Folder 1, Mildred and Claude Pepper Library; Summary of Civil Works Projects Under Construction and Studies in Progress, December 1965, Series 301, Box 29A, Folder 4. 5 Clarence J. Simpson, in Mark F. Boyd, Florida Place Names of Indian Derivation (Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Geological Survey, 1956); Marjorie Harris Carr, The Oklawaha River Wilderness, The Florida Naturalist 38

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223 Carr had known the Ocklawaha River for thirty years. The first time I went up the Ocklawaha, she remembered, I thought it was dreamlike.6 The majority of the river is located in Marion County. Carr first learned that the Corps of Engineers planned to build a barge canal along a path that crossed the Ocklawaha River from a board member of Florida Audubon and the Florida Federation of Garden Clubs. After attending a Corps of Engineers hearing in Jacksonville, the woman wrote the district engineer to find out more about the canal route. He informed her that not much would happen to the Ocklawaha. The Garden Club advised the leadership of the Florida Audubon Society to research the canal route, but Florida Audubon was reluctant to do so because a member of the Corps of Engineers sat on its board of directors. Thus the onus fell upon Carr whoalong with David Anthony, a U.F. professor of biochemistry and relative of Susan B. Anthonyadded a program on the environmental impact of the Cross Florida Barge Canal on the Ocklawaha River Valley to the Alachua Audubon Societys regular conservation lecture series.7 The November 8, 1962 meeting, titled The Effects of the Cross Florida Barge Canal on Wil dlife and Wilderness, featured Dr. John Wakefield of the Florida State Board of Conservation and Dr. Robert F. Klant of the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, was the first public inquiry into the proposed canal. Ironically, the Board of Conse rvation was one of the agencies responsible for overseeing the canals construction. The meeting, which was held in the P. K. Yonge school auditorium in Gainesville, focused on the environmental impact (August 1965); Florida Defenders of the Environment, Restoring the Ocklawaha River Ecosystem Steven Noll and David Tegeder examine the history of the Ocklawaha steam boat industry in Ditch of Dreams 6 Sand In Her Shoes, River in Her Blood, St. Petersburg Times N ovember 18, 1996. 7 See Everett Caudles April 24, 1989 interview with Marjorie Carr, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program, University of Florida; and Leslie Kemp Pooles October 18, 1990 interview with Marjorie Carr, Florida Defenders of the Environment he adquarters, Gainesville, Florida.

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224 of the canal at a time when planners typically failed to address a construction projects environmental impact. The Corps of Engineers had exercised its authority to manipulate Floridas waterways for decades without being requested to justify their actions or examine the environmental costs of their work. The organization was neither prepared for nor overly concerned about the potential resistance of a small group of bird watchers.8 The University of Florida community was outraged by the Corps of Engineers proposed route for the canal. They werent r eal ly against the canal, Mimi Carr explained, they just wanted to protect the riverat this point.9 Marjorie Carr was shocked not only that the Corps of Engineers planned to build the Cross Florida Barge Canal along the Ocklawaha River, but that the age ncy had offered only vague explanations of how construction would proceed. Here, by God, was a piece of Florida, she explained. A lovely natural area, right in my back yard, that was being threatened for no good reason.10 At the Alachua Audubon Societ y meeting on the barge canal, the two state representatives used an oil painting of the proposed barge canal to describe its route: no detailed explanation, supporting documents, or job specifications. The audience responded with a blizzard of questions that the state representatives were either unable or unwilling to answer. The members of Alachua Audubon quizzed the representatives about the canals potential impact on the aquifer, the benefit cost ratio, and the damage the canal 8 Everett Caudle interview; Leslie Kemp Poole interview. The date of the Alachua Audubon Society meeting on the Cross Florida Barge Canals environmental impact on the Ocklawaha River has been reported two different ways. Carr informed Poole that the meeting was held on November 2, 1962, in their 1990 interview. A 1971 newspaper article stated that the meeting was held on November 8. See Ed Pavelka, Fame Has Come to Marjorie Carr But to Her, Its a Family Affair, The Gainesville Sun January 25, 1971. At the time of Pooles interview, Carr said she still had a Xerox copy of the original meeting flyer in her files. 9 Authors interview with Mimi Carr (July 23, 2005). 10 Leslie Kemp Poole, interview with Marjorie Harri s Carr, October 18, 1990.

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225 would cause to the O cklawaha River.11 We were all astounded that they had planned to build the canal right down the Ocklawaha River Marjorie Carr remembered.12 It enraged everybody, Mimi recounted. And after that, everybody started pulling up their sleeves.13 Because the state representatives had failed to provide satisfactory answers to their questions at the meeting, Alachua Audubon Society members under Carr s leadership launched an investigation into the barge canals effects on the Ocklawaha.14 The Corps of Engineers planned to dam the river at two points and flood 27,350 acres of hardwood forest to create a shallow barge canal and a reservoir that would provide its re gular water supply. As Carr and her colleagues researched the Corps plans for the canal, they began to question the extent of the alleged economic benefits of the canal. None of the Corps of Engineers economic studies and restudies produced realistic benefit to cost ratios that justified the expense of the canals construction and maintenance. It w as a ridiculous thing, Carr contended. It would destroy a beautiful river and it didnt bring in any money! That really stuck in my craw.15 Carr challenged the Corps of Engineers economic studies of the canal, contending that the Corps had inflated predicted barge traffic and recreation benefits in order to justify the cost of the canals construction. Canal boosters maintained that the project would enrich the economy of North Central Florida. They based their argument upon estimated barge traffic projections 11 Marjorie Harris Carr, The Fight to Save the Oklawaha (paper presented at the Twelfth Biennial Sierra Club Wilderness Conference, Washington, D.C., September 25, 1971). 12 Everett Caudle interview. 13 Authors interview with Mi mi Carr (July 23, 2005). 14 For more on the November 8, 1962 meeting, see the Everett Caudle and Leslie Kemp Poole interviews with Mimi Carr. 15 St. Petersburg Times November 18, 1996.

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226 and the alleged recreation benefits that would accompany the construction of artificial reservoirs near the canals dam structures. Yet the biggest motivation behind the construction of the canal had always been graft. The Cross Florida Barge Canal was a pork barrel project designed to funnel Congressional appropriations to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, line the pockets of construction companies, and draw federal funding to Florida districts in order to keep stat e lawmakers in office. Carr believed that the ultimate weapon to combat poorly conceived projects that were not in the publics best interest was the democratic process. She played an important part in shaping the discourse of the burgeoning environmental movement with a coordinated letter writing and lobbying campaign that targeted state and federal politicians that she later supplemented with a legal campaign bolstered by the scientific and economic expertise of Florida Defenders of the Environment (F.D.E.), the single issue organization she cof ounded in 1969. One of Carr s main strengths in the campaign to save the Ocklawaha was her use of the media to educate the public and put pressure on state and federal politicians. For nearly seven years before t he inception of F.D.E., Carr led the Ocklawaha campaign under the auspices of the Alachua Audubon Society. Carr cofounded the Alachua Audubon Society in 1960, along with H. K. Wallace (a colleague from the U.F. zoology department) and Enid and John Mahon.16 From its earliest days, thi s local chapter of the Florida Audubon Society focused more on conservation and land preservation than on bird watching. Its core membership was composed of University of Florida professors who were interested in na ture and conservation. Carr held a vari ety of executive positions with Alachua Audubon, including co president (with David Anthony) and chair of 16 The Fight to Save the Ocklawaha River, paper presented at the 12th B iennial Sierra Club Wilderness Conference in Washington, D.C., September 25, 1971, Florida Defenders of the Environment Papers, Department of Special Collections, George A. Smathers Library, University of Florida, Gainesville; Leslie Poole interview; Frede rick Rowe Davis, Get the Facts and Then Act: How Marjorie H. Carr and Florida Defenders of the Environment Fought to Save the Ocklawaha River, The Florida Historical Quarterly 83:1 (Summer 2004), 50.

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227 conservation. She also served on the board of directors of Alachua Audubon (19601967) and Florida Audubon (19601968; 19721980) From its inceptio n, Carr observed, the Alachua Audubon Societys leadership and membershipwhich included a strong contingent of University of Florida professors was more devoted to conservation than to bird watching.17 Following the meeting, Carr and her Alachua Audubon associates pondered what their organizations next course of action should be. She was determined to intervene on behalf of the Ocklawaha. I felt the destruction of the Ocklawaha was like the murder of the Genovese girl in New York, she observed. The people who stood by and watched her be killed were not criminals, but they were partly to blame because they refused to be involved. And here, here in Florida, is this beautiful river which was to be murdered. In the beginning, the more I learned about it the stronger I felt that somebody had to do something to prevent its destruction.18 Carr wrote the Corps of Engineers to express her concerns regarding the proposed canal routes effects on the Ocklawaha River. The Corps replied that her fears were un founded; the river would be left intact except for the part between Sharpes Ferry and Rodman Dam. The Cor ps response infuriated Carr It was like saying that one is just going to cut off the roosters tail right behind the head, she explained. Tha t forty five mile stretch was the heart of the river. Alachua Audubon Society members reacted by mailing maps of the canal route to conservation groups across the state, writing letters to their Congressmen and state officials, and embarking upon the ted ious process of gathering further information on the barge canal. We 17 For more on the founding of the Alachua Audubon Society, see Everett Caudle and Leslie Kemp Pooles interviews with Marjorie Harris Carr. 18 Marjorie Carr, excerpted from Ed Pavelka, Fame Has Come to Marjorie Carr But to Her, Its a Family Affair, The Gainesville Sun January 25, 1971. Carr referred to the 1964 murder of 28 year old Catherine Kitty Genovese in New York City. Genovese was stabbed repeatedly, raped, and robbed outside her Queens apartment while her neighbors ignored her screams and cries for help.

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228 were quite sure that if our elected representativ es realized the truth, Carr recalled, they would take appropriate action. Boy, were we nave. They paid no attention to us.19 In t he beginning, Carr thought the campaign to save the Ocklawaha would be relatively short and effortless. I thought when we started out this would be simple, she reflected in the late 1960s. All it would require, I felt, was to point out a few things to the Corps of Engineers. They would need to understand that the Ocklawaha is a treasure, that there is an alternate route and that a lot of people really want the Ocklawaha River saved. I thought once these things had been explained to them we could get the canals course changed.20 Carr and her fellow activists were aware that the public and most major newspapers at the state and national levels supported the canal. Moreover, the Corps of Engineers had an abundance of political clout and great amounts of time and money had already been invested in the canal project. Therefore, Alachua Audubons leaders agreed that it would be impractical to call for an end to the canal project as a whole; instead, they suggested that the canal be rerouted around the Ocklawaha.21 F. W. Hodge, who was the president of Alachua Audubon at the time, attempted to enlist Florida Audubons help in garnering support and assistance from the states other conservation groups, but the statewide organization was slow to come on board. Opposition was minimal on the Gulf Coast, where a dam was already in place and Florida Power Corporation had donated the Withlacoochee backwaters areaknown as Lake Rousseau to the Canal Authority. For the moment, Carr and her fellow activists in North Central Florida were on their own.22 19 Fight that Blocked Canal Work Sta rted in Gainesville in 1962, Sarasota Herald Tribune January 24, 1971. 20 George Laycock, The Diligent Destroyers (New York, 1970), 52 66; quote on 64. 21 Leslie Poole interview. 22 Florida Defenders of the Earth Papers; Davis, Get the Facts and Then Act, 53; James Lewis, Canal Recreation Decision Due, Marion Times (undated).

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229 Carr and her allies coordinated a direct action campaign to increase public awareness of the threat the canal posed to the Ocklawaha. They maintained a get the facts strategy that utilized scientific, economic, and l egal research; expert testimony; a grassroots letter writing campaign; and public education. At the same time that Carr and Alachua Audubon spearheaded efforts to save the Ocklawaha, another group of activists launched a separate campaign based in Ocala i n neighboring Marion County. Composed of a mixture of Alachua Audubon Society members and locals who lived near the Ocklawaha River, the group assumed the name Citizens for the Conservation of Floridas Natural and Economic Resources, Inc. Margie Bielling explained the sense of shock and concern that she and other members of Citizens felt upon learning of the Corps of Engineers plans for the Ocklawaha River. The more research I did, the less logical it seemed that they should be building this canal at all, let alone using the Ocklawaha, she recounted. The land cut would have been disastrous.23 Bielling, like Carr, understood the ecological ramifications of the proposed canal. Bielling had a bachelors in biology from the University of Florida and taught science at the high school level. In 1964 she applied her background in microbiology to her research of the hydrology and geology of the Ocklawaha River Valley, paying special attention to the impact of the proposed canal on local aquifers. Bielli ng shared her research with Carr and the Alachua Audubon Society, helping to produce a series of brochures that informed the public about the ecological dangers of the canal.24 Her father, John Couse, was another key player in Citizens. A 23 Interview with Margie Bielling, From Waterway to Greenway: The History of the Cross Florida Barge Canal DVD, directed by Darren Preston Lane (Gainesville, Florida: forthcoming, 2 010). Citizens for Conservation was incorporated in 1964. Marjorie Harris Carr to Mrs. Forrest, February 12, 1965, Florida Defenders of the Environment Papers; Davis, Get the Facts and Then Act, 54. 24 Ocala Magazine June 29, 2007, http://www.ocalamagazine.com/specPubsNews/templates/cityscape.aspx?articleid=1159&zoneid=12 ., accessed February 4, 2009.

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230 retired Palm Beach County businessman, Couses political and business contacts in South Florida proved beneficial to the Ocklawaha campaign. Another important Citizens leader was retired army colonel Walter Hodge, who served as president of both Citizens and Alachua Audubon in 1965.25 Already balancing a full time teaching job and a young family, Bielling traveled to Gainesville with the goal of finding an existing conservation organization to assume leadership of the Ocklawaha campaign. She met with Hodge, whose wife advi sed her to get in touch with Marjorie Carr. Alachua Audubon Society members worked loosely with Citizens, but their efforts remained uncoordinated, which ultimately dampened their effectiveness. In the fall of 1965, the Federated Conservation Council an alliance of sixteen non profit organizations including Audubon Society chapters, Garden Clubs, Womens Clubs, environmental education clubs, and river a nd fishing clubs expressed its support for the Ocklawaha campaign, with the Alachua Audubon Society cont inuing to function as the leading organization behind the fight.26 Alachua Audubons approach was to determine the facts about the barge canal and convey them to government agencies and the public Instead of resorting to emotional attacks, the Ocklawaha campaign was based upon the principle of applying sound scientific and technical information to decisions that affected the environment. Finding accurate details regarding the Corps of Engineers construction plans proved to be a challenging task, howeve r, because the Corps disseminated very little information about the project to the public. This problem was exacerbated by the fact that newspapers did not yet have environmental writers in the early 1960s. Carr and her Audubon Society colleagues had a difficult time obtaining specific 25 Noll and Tegeder, Ditch of Dreams 14950. John Couses influence would prove helpful in convincing Nathaniel Reed to take a stand against the Cross Florida Barge Canal. In turn, Reed would help sway President Richard Nixon to halt construction of the canal. 26 Interview with Margie Bielling, From Waterway to Greenway: The History of the Cross Florida Barge Canal DVD, directed by Darren Preston Lane (Gainesville, Florida: forthcoming, 2010). Davis, Get the Facts and Then Act, 58.

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231 information about Route 13B and its effects on the Ocklawaha. Early in the process of researching the canal, they discovered that the Corps had not conducted studies on the canals potential effects on the lands and wildl ife that lay in its path.27 Carr s scientific understanding of the Ocklawaha River Valley stemmed from her graduate studies at the University of Florida in the 1930s and 1940s. The young men, and later women, who were in the graduate program could pick out a group of animals that they were interested in, but nobody had ever worked with those in this area [Florida], she explained. Eden opened up before you.28 By the 1960s, University of Florida biologists had developed a sophisticated understanding of the flora and fauna of the river valley and their relationship to the Ocklawaha ecosystem. Professors and students had conducted ecological studies of North Central Florida for decades, focusing on the relations of individual species to their respective e cosystemsincluding the Ocklawaha regional ecosystem. So when the barge canal came along, which would have destroyed this whole ecosystem, Carr recalled, you had a whole bunch of people who were very upset and could speak with authority.29 Alachua Audubon and Citizens shared members and leadership, often blurring the lines between the two organizations. Bert Dosh, the editor emeritus of the Ocala Star Banner routinely supported the canal and reported on the failures of Carr and Citizens. After an unsuccessful Citizens campaign to eliminate a $10,000,000 congressional appropriation for the 27 Michael Blumenfeld, Assistant Secretary of the Army (Civil Work s), and Bob Bergland, Secretary, Department of the Army, to Honorable Walter F. Mondale, President of the Senate, and Honorable Tip ONeill, Speaker of the House of Representatives, April 11, 1979 (F.D.E. Papers, Box 8). Regarding the availability of info rmation on the Corps plans for the canal, see F.D.E. Papers. The group was routinely denied access to information, but Carr and her colleagues invoked the Freedom of Information Act in order to gain access to government documents relevant to their campai gns to reroute the Cross Florida Barge Canal or stop its construction; to deauthorize the canal; and to restore the Ocklawaha River Valley. 28 Everett Caudle interview. 29 Ibid.

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232 construction of Rodman Dam and Eureka Dam and Lock along the Ocklawaha River, Dosh informed his readers that Every member of the Florida delegation in Congress is standing firmly in support of the canal. The article included an excerpt from a letter from Representative Syd Herlong, Jr. to M arjorie Carr, whom he identified as a director of Citizens. As much as I admire and respect you and Archie, I regret to advi se you that I dont plan to do anything to interfere with the orderly construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal Herlong informed Carr I would be less than honest if I didnt tell you that Im a supporter of the canal. I do give you full credit fo r the sincerity of your point, but I think that the overwhelming majority of the people I have the honor to represent are strongly in favor of this waterway and I must respect their views. This is easy to do when I personally agree with them because I bel ieve this project will be most helpful to all of Florida Carr and her allies faced an uphill battle against formidable opponents: a coalition of state and national politicians, most of the Florida press, and the Corps of Engineers. Even the U.S. Fish a nd Wildlife Service supported the construction of the barge canal, noting its outstanding recreational advantages if the public had access to the canal bank 30 After the passage of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, the Corps of Engineers became the nati ons most prestigious engineering organization, charged with oversight of all construction along the nations navigable waterways. Although Congress was ultimately responsible for decisions related to Corps projects, lawmakers gave serious consideration t o the desires of local interests, as demonstrated by the successful lobbying efforts of Congressman Bennett and other Florida politicians. The Corps was responsible for flood control projects that improved 30 In Heated Session Foes of Canal Question Route, The Tampa Tribune October 5, 1965; R. N. Dosh, Editor Emeritus, Right of Way for Canal, Ocala Star Banner October 3, 1965. Bert Doshs statement and Congressman Herlongs letter were excerpted from the Ocala Star Banner article.

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233 agriculture, navigation, and residential areas across the nation. Yet the Corps also had a long history of destroying wetlands and manipulating the land without considering the consequences. Since 1802 the Corps had applied Enlightenment era views of the domination of nature to its engineering projects Its castle logo is believed to be modeled after the city gates of Verdun, France. Critics have described the Corps as a ruling class and an untouchable empire.31 Compounding the fact that the Corps of Engineers obscured the specific details of the c anals pending construction was the challenge of organizing a large scale environmental movement capable of countering the canals strong support among politicians, businessmen, and the press. In the early years of the Ocklawaha campaign, Carr continued w orking through the Garden Club and Audubon Society while a separate group of concerned citizens emerged. The Garden Club provided Carr with early financial assistance, and her leadership of Alachua Audubon lent authority to her correspondence. At first, Florida Audubon was reluctant to support Carr, fearful that challenging the Corps of Engineers would lead to political repercussions against Audubon in Tallahassee. Eventually, Florida Audubon took a stand against Route 13B, becoming only the second stat ewide organization (after the Garden Club) to do so. National organizations including the Izaak Walton League, National Audubon, Nature Conservancy, Sierra Club, and Conservation 70s also supported the Ocklawaha campaign. 32 Carl 31 See Courtney T. Hackney and S. Marshall Adams, Aquatic Communities of the Southeastern United States: Past, Present, and Future, in Hackney, Adams, and William H. Martin, eds., Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States: Aquatic Communities (New York, 1992), 747 760. Hackney and Adams suggest that the Corps of Engineers, which was initially devoted exclusively to military operations at the time of its origin in 1802, branched out into civilian projects early on because they were the U.S. governments only organized group of engineers. Before t he Civil War, the Corps had assumed responsibility for a variety of civilian canal, river clearing, drainage, and other waterways projects. See also J. Richard Sewell, Cross Florida Barge Canal, 1927 1968, The Florida Historical Quarterly (369 383). Se e also Todd Shallat, Structures in the Stream: Water, Science, and the Rise of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994); George Laycock, The Diligent Destroyers (New York: National Audubon Society and Ballantine Books, Inc., 1970). 32 Leslie Poole interview. For a fuller discussion of Floridas early conservation movement and its connection to the states Audubon Societies (and Garden Clubs), see Carolyn Merchant, Women of the Progressive Conservation Movement: 1900 19 16, Environmental Review 8 (Spring 1984): 57 85; and Leslie Kemp Poole, The Women of

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234 Buchmeister, president of the National Audubon Society, considered the Cross Florida Barge Canal to be a national environmental catastrophe. He went so far as to claim that the barge canal was one of the greatest political and economic boondoggles in the history of the United Sta tes. [Boondoggle] was a term that was very endearing, Nathaniel Reed recalled. The term environmentalist wasnt in our dictum at that time.33 Ocklawaha supporters found little respect for the sanctity of the Florida environment in Washington, D.C. C ongresss reluctance to block $10,000,000 in canal appropriations was not the only setback for the Ocklawaha campaign. Bradford Patton of the Southwest Florida Audubon Society expressed the organizations concern for the future of the Ocklawaha in the fal l of 1965, emphasizing the rivers natural beauty. The official White House response informed Patton that the economic benefits from the canals construction outweighed the rivers scenic value. The White House reiterated the fact that the matter had been settled for years and construction had already commenced. Under these circumstances, the Johnson White House concluded, it was impossible to stop construction of the barge canal.34 The political establishment of the early to mid 1960s was devoid of an environmental consciousness; moreover, women like Carr struggled to be taken seriously in a political realm dominated by men. The late twentieth century was a period of political and cultural transition for American women. As their role in formal politics evolved from exclusion to inclusion, two women whose names became synonymous with Florida politics crafted independentlya subtle strategy that placated critics of womens entry into political spaces that had conventionally the Early Florida Audubon Society: Agents of History in the Fight to Save State Birds, The Florida Historical Quarterly 85 (Winter 2007), 297323. For more on Florida Audubons involvement in the Cross Florida Barge Canal opposition, see the Florida Defenders of the Environment Papers, Smathers Library, University of Florida. 33 Interview with Nathaniel Reed, From Waterway to Greenway 34 R. N. Dosh, Editor Emeritus Right of Way for Canal, Ocala Star Banner October 3, 1965.

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235 been reserved for men, while sim ultaneously providing the required justification for their admission into those spaces. Marjorie Harris Carr and Paula Hawkins (1927 2009) stood on opposite sides of the Cross Florida Barge Canal debate. Hawkins embarked upon her first and only term in the United States Senate in 1981 as part of the Ronald Reagan landslide, when the Democrats lost control of the Senate to th e G.O.P. By that point Carr had spent more than a decade lobbying the Florida Legislature and United States Congress to kill the canal. Hawkins, who was the first woman elected to statewide public office in Florida, the first woman elected to the United States Senate from the South, and the first woman without marital or familial political connections ever to be elected to a full term in the Senate, backed legislation that would breathe new life into the canal. Despite their politica l differences, however, Carr and Hawkins shared the common experience of navigating a political system that was ho stile to women. One of Carr s biggest a dversaries, State Senator George Kirkpatrick of Gainesville, once angered womens groups and grammarians alike with the following advice for rape victims: If its inevitable, then you might as well lay [sic] back and enjoy it. He also helped ensure the demise of the Equal Rights Amendment. This larger than life politician embodied the chauvinistic character that Carr and Hawkins were forced to contend with in Florida and national politics in the late twentieth century.35 35 Kirkpatrick made this offhand remark comparing the construction of two four lane roads in Gainesville to the act of being raped while speaking to the Gainesville Homebuilders Association. Eppes, Kirkpatrick Shoot for State Senate, Gainesville Sun September 2, 1982; Senator Admits Hes A Bully, But He Gets Things Done, Gainesville Sun July 16, 1995; Georges Way, Gainesville Sun February 7, 2003. See also Paula Fickes Hawkins: Sena tor, 19811987, Republican from Florida ( http://womenincongress.house.gov/member profiles/profile.html?intID=103 ), accessed December 18, 2009. In 1954, Hazel Abel, a Nebraska businesswoman who had no political family ties, was elected to complete the last two months of the term of a Nebraska Senator who had died in office. Paula Hawkins, first woman senator from South, dies at 82, The Gainesville Sun December 5, 2 009. In the preceding chapters, I use Marjorie and Archie Carrs first names to differentiate between them in a clear, consistent manner. In this chapter I refer to Marjorie Harris Carr by her last name instead of her first because Archie Carr is less cen tral to the narrative; in addition, when comparing Marjorie Carr to Paula Hawkins, it is simpler to use the historical actors last names.

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236 Unlike Carr, Hawkins was not a co llege graduate. The former model became active in Republican politics as a community activist and quickly branched out into national political campaigns. In the 1970s, she became the first woman in Florida to be elected to a statewide political office, s erving two terms on the Florida Public Service Commission. In 1980, Hawkins was swept into office on the crest of the Ronald Reagan landslide. At one of her first national press conferences in Washington, D.C., a reporter from a major television network asked Hawkins who would do her laundry now that she was a U.S. S enator. The reporters question encapsulated the reaction of the previously all male political establishment to the unexpected presence of women in politics in the late twentieth century.36 Ca rr and Hawkins devised a sophisticated methodology that eased their transition into the male dominated realm of twentieth century politics without appearing to challenge the restrictions placed upon women by the gendered social order of their time. Both w omen were self described housewives, an occupation that was presumed to be a womans natural calling.37 In the early 1960s, when Carr launched her campaign to save the Ocklawaha River, women lacked the full civic status they needed to participate as equals in the American political processa condition that had not been remedied effectively in the 1970s, when Hawkins first entered politics at the state level. In 1960, most workplaces remained segregated by gender, with approximately seventy percent of employed women working primarily with female coworkers.38 36 Gainesville Sun December 5, 2009. Quote excerpted from interview with Paula Hawkins, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program, University of Florida. 37 Hawkins community activism commenced shortly after her arrival in Florida, where she volunteered for the Republican Party. Her campaigns involvement included serving as the cochair of Richard Nixons presidential campa ign in Florida. The political connections she formed through her campaign work helped her win election to Floridas public service commission from 1972 to 1979. For more on Hawkins early forays into politics, see Paula Fickes Hawkins: Senator, 1981 1987, Republican from Florida ( http://womenincongress.house.gov/member profiles/profile.html?intID=103 ), accessed December 18, 2009. 38 Linda K. Kerber, No Constitutiona l Right to Be Ladies: Women and the Obligations of Citizenship (New York: Hill and Wang, 1998), 173.

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237 Moreover, a womans presumed status was not that of a worker at all, but a homemaker. In Hoyt v. Florida (1961), attorneys for Gwendolyn Hoyt, a Tampa woman accused of murdering her husband with a basebal l bat, argued that she was unable to receive a fair trial because of Floridas practice of exempting women from jury service, a problem that could only be solved when the State mandated womens registration for jury service. At the time, Hillsborough Countys jury pool included 68,000 potential male jurors and just 218 prospective female jurors. Although 46,000 women were registered to vote in the county, registration for jury duty was optional for women; as a result, only one tenth of one percent of wo men participated in jury service in Florida, which was tantamount to excluding women from jury service, according to United States Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren. Hoyts defense team had appealed their clients murder conviction on the grounds their clients inability to receive a trial of her (female) peers. Warrens original intention was to reverse the Florida Supreme Courts decision because Floridas jury selection process excluded women, which violated Hoyts constitutional right to due process.39 Instead, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that exemption (rather than exclusion) from jury service continued to be a female privilege because of each womans (perceived) primary obligation to nurture her family. The Warren court, which already faced serious repercussions from the Brown v. Board of Education decision requiring the desegregation of public schools, reached the unanimous decision not to overturn Hoyt v. Florida. Supreme Court Justice John Marshall Harlan explained why the Court had rule d that the State of Florida was not obligated to compel women to register for jury service: Despite the enlightened emancipation of women from the restrictions and protections of bygone years, and their entry into many parts of 39 Ibid., 15557, 177188.

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238 community life formerly considered to be reserved to men, woman is still regarded as the center of home and family life.40 The Court maintained that the State of Florida was under no obligation to compel women to register for jury service, upholding a legal precedent whose roots can be traced to the eighteenth century law of coverture, which sanctioned a husbands control over his wifes body, earning capacity, and property.41 In a climate in which the highest court in the land upheld the Enlightenment era precedent of coverture, pro viding legal validation for the continuance of an equally antiquated view of womens innate domesticity, Marjorie Carr and Paula Hawkins s decision to perform domesticity to use the label as a rhetorical device while they surpassed its limitations in pract icecould be read as a conservative response to outdated social norms designed to limit (middle class) womens activities to the home. Read another way, however, their adoption of the housewife persona could be viewed as subversive. Portraying the image of a housewife played directly into the hands of men such as Kirkpatrick, who were certain to find a homemaker politician to be less threatening than a feminist politician who aspired to be treated as an equal. In reality, Carr, who had the composure and commanding presence of a highly educated scientist, considered herself the equal of her (male) peers. From an outsiders perspective, however, Carr and Hawkins appeared to accept their assigned (domestic) role in society, even as they infiltrated the uppe r echelons of state and national politics at a time when women were grossly underrepresented.42 Fully cognizant that their presence in the public sphere represented a 40 Ibid., 181. 41 Ibid., 176213. 42 Here I borrow the concept of performing femininity from Jo Burr Margadant, ed., The New Biograp hy: Performing Femininity in Nineteenth Century France (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000). Margadants collection of essays concern the performative nature of constructing a successful feminine self in nineteenth century France, when women borrowed from or rejected dominant masculine models to stage a persona of their own design. Womens created public selves responded to popular vi ews of women in ways that

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239 threat to the gendered order, Carr and Hawkins employed the rhetorical strategy of the sel f described housewife as a means to bridge the gap between the safer image of the traditional, domestic woman of the past and the more threatening image of the feminist or modern woman of the late twentieth century, a divide that had become prevalent in la te twentieth century discourses on womanhood.43 The maledominated news industry appeared to take Carrs self described housewife status at face value. In 1966, an Atlanta Journal and Constitution Magazine article on Carr s fight to save the Ocklawaha was labeled One Womans Fight to Save a River, conjuring images of the epic battle between David and Goliath.44 A 1971 Houston Chronicle feature provided the m the authority and legitimacy they needed to function in the public realm. According to Margadant, women engaged in an artful subversion of the discourses that oppressed them, in which women expanded upon prevailing views of their moral and spiritual authority as women previously limited to the domestic sphere to assert their authority in social reform in the public arena. (Margadant, 89 93). As women appeared to assume feminine roles, they were actually exposing traditional notions of femininity as nothing more than an act. Through this process women transformed thei r identities into something of their own creation. (171 97). Like the nineteenth century women Margadant describes, Marjorie Carr performed femininity especially in her private interactions with politicians, when the housewife moniker helped her arrange meetings or lobby on behalf of the environment. Carr supplemented her housewife persona with a masculine knowledge of science, creating a public identity that was palatable to (male) politicians who were sometimes put off by the more militant tactics of other environmentalists. For more on performing femininity, see Mary Louise Roberts, who examined deliberate acts of gender subversion practiced by the New Woman of France in the final decades of the nineteenth century. These new women entered the pub lic sphere as journalists and actors, performing what Roberts describes as disruptive acts of gender subversion designed to reveal the fluidity of cultural notions of femininity. French playwrights including Paul Hervieu and Jules Case furthered the New W omans agenda, writing plays that offered new visions of twentieth century womanhood that eclipsed what the playwrights presented as womens comfortable domestic imprisonment in the nineteenth century. See Roberts, Disruptive Acts: The New Woman in Fin de Sicle France (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2002). In the late twentieth century, Marjorie Carr and Paula Hawkins practiced a modified variation of performing femininity as an expedient intended to ease their transition into the m ale dominated political realm. Their self described housewife status offered them relatively safe passage into the previously all male world of American politics. In an era of perceived gender crisis, when secondwave feminism threatened to uproot the es tablished gender order, the tactic Carr and Hawkins employed enabled them to play a central role in state and national politics, where their very presence challenged the order from within. 43 By the time Marjorie Carr and Paula Hawkins started their activ ist careers, the 1963 publication of Betty Friedans The Feminine Mystique and the widely disseminated 1953 English translation of Simone de Beauvoirs 1949 classic The Second Sex had contributed to the spread of secondwave feminism in the United States. These and other feminist manifestos sparked serious debate about womens status in the late twentieth century. 44 The Atlanta Journal and Constitution Magazine August 14, 1966.

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240 highlighted Carrs sensational success in Woman Took on Army Engineers to Save River in Florida.45 In 1974, a Chr istian Science Monitor story on Marjorie appeared under the headline Housewife who Roared.46 Since 1962, Carr had worked thirtyto fifty hour weeks (without pay) on the Ocklawaha campaign. Yet these articles stressed that Carr was happily married with f ive children, which made her successful activist career more palatable. Even in the 1980s, newspapers continued to use the courtesy title M rs. when referring to Car r, Hawkins, and other married women a title that proved useful during their gradual trans ition from the sidelines to the front lines of the process of political decision making.47 With the possibility of stopping the canals construction seeming to be off the table, Carr suggested a new route for the Cross Florida Barge Canal that would shorten it by ten miles, reduce the total cost, and most importantly steer clear of the Ocklawaha River. In response to the repeated requests of the defenders of the Ocklawaha to reroute the canal, the Corps of Engineers asked Carr to propose a more acceptable r oute. They asked me where I would make the canal, Carr exclaimed. They were asking me I thought this was ridiculous. I took a pencil and drew a line. Just like that! After that they called it Mrs. Carrs route. I think they were a little upset that they hadnt brought it up themselves, but once they make up their minds on a route they are not interested in any alternates. And they defend their choice to the very last.48 A 45 Jan. 31, 1971 letter referred to Houston Chronicle article, Woman Took on A rmy Engineers to Save River in Florida. In Barbara Laxson to Mrs. Marjorie Carr, January 31, 1971 (F.D.E. Papers, Box 8). 46 The Christian Science Monitor July 1974. 47 For a detailed analysis of womens transition from exclusion to inclusion in mainstrea m politics, see Catherine E. Rymph, Republican Women: Feminism and Conservatism from Suffrage through the Rise of the New Right (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006); and Susan M. Hartmann, The Other Feminists: Activists in the Liberal Establishment (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1998), From Margin to Mainstream: American Women and Politics since 1960 (New York: Knopf, 1989), and The Home Front and Beyond: American Women in the 1940s (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 198 2). 48 Laycock, The Diligent Destroyers.

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241 Corps represe ntative later confirmed Carrs suspicions. To my knowledge, the Corps did not look at any alternative routes in detail or in cost after the 42 study, admitted Sam Eisenberg, a retired member of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Everything that was done after that followed along the 13B route. Eisenberg cl aimed that the final Corps of Engineers report that triggered Congressional funding for construction of the canal in 1964 was a very minimal type report that was approximately an eighth of an inch thick, indicating that little consideration was given to the environmental impact of the canal as construction plans were finalized.49 Mrs. Carrs route would have directed the canal through sand hills sparsely populated with shallow rooted pines. The channel would have entered the St. Johns River through the Ocala National Forest and Lake George. Moreover, the alternate route would not have required costly reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers decided against Mrs. Carrs route because it did not require reservoirs, among other reasons. Without reservoirs the re would be no new recreational benefits, and the Corps already inflated benefit cost ratio would collapse.50 The canal opposition would later argue that recreational opportunities along an unaltered Ocklawaha surpassed those available in a human made rese rvoir that is expensive to maintain and plagued by hydrilla.51 The Corps was only humoring Carr when it asked for her input on the canal route. Both the Corps and the press made light of the opposition. The Chief of the Army Corps of Engineers, Lieutenan t General W. F. Cassidy, labeled Carr and her supporters little old ladies in tennis 49 Interview with Sam Eisenberg, Environmental Impact Study Manager, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Retired), From Waterway to Greenway: The History of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, DVD, directed by Darren Lane (Gaine sville, Florida: forthcoming, 2010). 50 Laycock, The Diligent Destroyers Congress July 23, 1942 authorization of construction of the canal was based on a Corps of Engineers benefit cost ratio that offered a marginal return in exchange for the cost of co nstruction. The benefits included recreation opportunities in the canals impoundments and alleged enhanced land values along the canal route. See also Barge Canal: Boon or Boondoggle? Daytona Beach Morning Journal December 20, 1969. 51 See Florida Defenders of the Environment, Environmental Impact of the Cross Florida Barge Canal with Special Emphasis on the Oklawaha Regional Ecosystem (Gainesville, 1970).

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242 shoes, reassuring politicians and local interests that the canals opponents were not to be taken seriously. At the time, no active Corps of Engineers project had ever been stopped in its tracks. During the same timeframe, pesticide corporations smeared Rachel Carson a bird and bunny lover, seeking to discredit her best selling expos on the dangers of D.D.T. and other chemical pesticides.52 Although the Corps belittle d canal opponents in public, behind the scenes their strategy was to bypass the opposition by starting construction as soon as possible.53 In the 1960s, the Corps of Engineers current and anticipated projects in Florida not to mention their other major p rojects across the United Statesincluded the channelization of the Kissimmee River, the extension of the Intracoastal Waterway, and flood control projects in the Everglades National Park and Lake Okeechobee. A January 1965 Corps map depicts a future Flor ida that resembles Frankensteins monster, with sections cut apart and stitched back together from Key West to Pensacola (see Figure 6 1) Corps mapmakers severed the Florida panhandle from the rest of the state and placed it at the southwestern corner of the map, near Key West. For administrative purposes, Florida was divided into three parts: the Mobile District oversaw the Pensacola region; the Savannah District managed a slice of Floridas northeastern edge; and the Jacksonville District supervised p rojects throughout the remainder of Florida. The maps disturbing dissection of Floridas northwestern tip, combined with the sheer volume of current and proposed Corps projects, speaks volumes about the Corps of Engineers vision for a redesigned Sunshine State that would place nature firmly under human control.54 Congress trusted the Corps implicitly. In fiscal year 1964, Congress appropriated more than a billion 52 Linda Lear, introduction to Silent Spring (xvii). 53 Laycock, The Diligent Destroyers ; also see Leslie Poole and Everett Caudle interviews. 54 See Figure 5 1, a 1965 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers map, Civil Works Projects in Florida, Claude Pepper Library, Florida State University, Tallahassee.

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243 dollars for Corps of Engineers civil works projects and nearly a billion and a quarter dolla rs for fiscal year 1965, the most Congress had ever designated for Corps projects up to that time.55 The Fiscal Year 1965 appropriations included $14,150,000 in construction funding and $254,700 in operation and maintenance costs for flood control project s in Central and Southern Florida; $16,000 for investigations into navigation locks in Central and Southern Florida; $137,000 for investigations into flood control projects at Everglades National Park; $250,000 for operation and maintenance of the Intracoa stal Waterway from Jacksonville to Miami; $100,000 for investigations of the Intracoastal Waterway from St. Marks River to Tampa Bay; and $4,000,000 for construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, the Corps chief navigation project in Florida.56 The 1965 funds included $4,000,000 for construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, under the authority of Public Law 675, 77th Congress, 23 July 1942. These funds were in addition to the $1,000,000 fiscal year 1964 appropriation for construction of the barge canal. The Corps fiscal year 1963 estimate for the total cost of construction was $145,300,000, considered conservative by canal opponents. The Corps planned to use the fiscal year 1964 $1,000,000 appropriations to begin work on the canal from Palatka t o St. Johns Lock and from St. Johns Lock to Rodman Pool.57 Carr embraced the language of Congressional funding in her plea for a new route for the barge canal and ultimately demonstrated that the Corps of Engineers had exaggerated the canals economic benef its In the first years of the campaign to save the Ocklawaha River Carr and her 55 Congress appropriates $1,220,400,200 for fiscal year 1965 Army Engineers Civil Works Program, 1, report issued by the Office of the Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army, August 1964, Series 301, Box 29, Folder 5, Claude Pepper Library, Florida State University, Tallahassee. 56 Marjorie Carrs opposition to the Corps of Engineers construction of the missing link is discussed in chapter six. 57 Army Corps of Engineers Summary of Civil Works Projects under Construction and Surveys in Progress, January 1964, 8, Series 301, Box 29A, Folder 1, Mildred a nd Claude Pepper Library; Summary of Civil Works Projects Under Construction and Studies in Progress, December 1965, Series 301, Box 29A, Folder 4.

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244 supporters called upon state and national politicians to reconsider the economic feasibility of an active Corps of Engineers project authorized and funded by the U.S. Congre ssat a time when it was considered unpatriotic to question the government. Carr thought it was wrong to place a dollar amount on every species, body of water, or forest in Florida. If that was what it took to protect the states unique ecosystems, howev er, she was willing to speak in terms of the financial costs of environmental destruction. At first, Alachua Audubon and Citizens placed great importance on the economic value of the wild turkey population that depended upon the Ocklawaha. The groups als o stressed the negative impact that the canal would have on hunting and fishing in the river valley. Speaking in the language of nineteenthcentury conservation which viewed nature as a collection of natural resources that should be managed for the benefi t of humankinddid little to further the Ocklawaha campaign.58 The river was under consideration for inclusion on a national list of wild, scenic rivers that deserved protection from development. In 1963 the Departments of Agriculture and Interior conclude d that the Ocklawaha met the established study criteria and should be considered for inclusion. Yet the Corps of Engineers was slated to begin work on the Cross Florida Barge Canal the following year, and such a classification would have forced the Corps to select an alternate route for the canal. When the Corps informed the Senate about its plans to construct the canal along a portion of the Ocklawaha, the river was removed from the list of rivers considered for the wild river study. A Department of Agr iculture administrator later admitted that the barge 58 Carr, The Oklawaha River Wilderness; Florida Defenders of the Environment, Restoring the Ocklawaha Riv er Ecosystem ; see also Marjorie Harris Carr, An Interim Report on the Cross Florida Barge Canal, In Defense of Rivers, A Citizens Workbook: Impacts of Dam and Canal Projects (published by the Delaware Valley Conservation Association), 138 46. For a detailed analysis of the conservation focus of the early campaign to save the Ocklawaha River Valley, see Noll and Tegeder, Ditch of Dreams

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245 canal may have been one reason why the Ocklawaha was not considered in wild and scenic rivers legislation.59 Carr pleaded with President Lyndon B. Johnsonwho became the canals new champion after Pres ident Kennedys assassination on November 22, 1963to prevent the destruc tion of the Ocklawaha. Her request fell on deaf ears, and she was forced to reach out to the First Lady instead. Lady Bird Johnson succeeded in delaying the Presidents approval of funds for initial construction of Rodman Dam for two days, but the President was a firm supporter of the canal.60 In February 1964, President Johnson traveled to Palatka, Florida to start construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal with a ceremonial blast of dynamite. Johnsons speech touted the alleged economic benefits of the canal: Today, we accept another challenge we make use of another natural resource. We will construct this canal across North Florida to shorten navigation distances between our Atlantic and Gulf coasts. When this canal is completed, it will spark new and permanent economic growth. It will accelerate business and industry to locate along its banks. It will open up new recreation areas. I wish all of youand the canal Godspeed.61 To canal boosters, the start of the canals construction was a long awaited dream come true. Nonet heless, Carr and her colleagues were not ready to admit defeat. In addition to destroying tens of thousands of acres of wildlife habitat through the crea tion of a series of locks, dams, and reservoirs, salt water and pollution from barge canal traffic would have contaminated the Floridan Aquifer, the states major source of groundwater. The defenders of the Ocklawaha River sought a public hearing to addre ss the issue, but canal backers ignored their repeated 59 M. M. Nelson, Deputy Chief, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, to William M. Partington, Florida Defe nders of the Environment, April 7, 1970, Florida Defenders of the Environment Papers Box 33. 60 See Leslie Poole and Everett Caudle interviews. 61 Sewell, Cross Florida Barge Canal, 378 82; see also Florida Defenders of the Environment Papers.

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246 requests. Canal boosters faulted Ocklawaha supporters for waiting until the barge canal was already underway before initiating their protests. You dont stop something like this after its started, Congressman Syd Herlong insisted. The canal is going to be completed.62 The Alachua Audubon Society urged Florida politicians and governmental bodies to take strong steps to oppose the completion of the Cross Florida Barge Canal. In a series of letters, Marjorie Carr and David Anthony, acting on behalf of the Alachua Audubon Society, advised their representatives that the present route of the canal will obliterate the Ocklawaha River and its heavily forested valley from Silver Springs down to its confluence with the St. Johns. Carr and Anthony also voiced their concern over the introduction of heavy industry along the rivers banks. The mere presence of an industrial barge canal in the heart of a section of Florida long dedicated to the various out of door pleasures of man will damage and degrade the character of the entire wilderness area, they warned. We believe that in years to come the wilderness of the Ocklawaha River wilderness area will mean more to the economy of Florida if it is preserved than if it is destroyed.63 In a letter to Floridas congressional delegation, Carr and Anthony suggested an immediate course of corrective actions. First, the fourteen congressmen should request the immediate suspension of construction of the barge canal from the Silver Springs area to the St. Johns River. Carr and Anthony also urged the congressmen to direct the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to offer plans for a new canal route from the Silver Springs area to the St. Johns River, avoiding the Ocklawaha River regional ecosystem. They stressed that the Corps of Engineers should work with the Department of Agriculture and the Department of the Interior to prepare 62 Editorial by Paul Ferguson, Marion Sentinel editor, Much about Marion: Tossed Salad, Orlando Sentinel September 28, 1965. 63 Opposition to Barge Canal Voiced by Alachua Group, Ocala Star Banner July 21, 1965.

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247 the plans for an alternate route. Finally, Carr and Anthony requested that a public hearing on the barge canal be held in North Central Florida in order to allow the public to offer input on the new plans before their approval. The Ocklawaha River will become a symbol, Carr and Anthony predicted, whether of mans folly or mans wisdom remains to be seen.64 Canal boosters ignored the growing opposition movement and proceeded with plans to secure right of way for the barge canal. In an Ocala Star Banner article, Bert Dosh had stressed the importance of securing a large crowd for an upcoming Oca la Canal Authority meeting scheduled to address the acquisition of canal right of way. To his dismay, those in attendance included a vocal group of Citizens members who asked the Authority why there had been no public hearing on the canal since 1940. Canal Authority Chairman L. C. Ringhaver admitted that he was unable to offer an explanation, and he attempted to shift the focus of the meeting back toward the procedure of obtaining right of way for the canal. State Conservation Director Randolph Hodges ac cused the questioners of having ulterior motives, adding that some people may not be aware of it, but if we take time to have some projects of the canal restudied it would seriously jeopardize construction of the canal in a time in the foreseeable futur e. Indeed, stalling construction of the canal long enough to inform the public about its negative environmental impact would be a major boon for the Ocklawaha campaign. Citizens members resumed their questioning, asking what benefits the canal would provide that would counter its harmful effects to the Ocklawaha River Valley. One crowd member asked if the canal was such a flimsy project that it could not withstand the close scrutiny a public hearing would bring. An unidentified female attendee asked, What would be the harm of a public hearing? At that point, Ringhaver advised the crowd that the canals feasibility had already been established and 64 Ibid.

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248 reminded those in attendance that the purpose of the meeting was to discuss right of way acquisition and not whether the federal project should have further public hearings.65 The Florida Times Union (published in Jacksonville, which overwhelmingly favored construction of the canal) reported that the canal opponents two main objections to the canal the threat it posed to the Floridan Aquifer and salt water intrusion were unfounded. Colonel Giles Evans of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers assured those in attendance that underground water did not flow long distances through the length of the state. He claim ed that the canal would be built in a sag in the land and would not affect the states main source of drinking water. When someone in attendance asked how the Corps planned to handle the issue of oil flecks from the barge canal damaging fishing along the river, officials responded that the switch from a proposed ship canal to a barge canal eliminated the threat of pollution from barge traffic. In addition, the height of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast locks twenty feet above sea level would eliminate the da nger of saltwater intrusion. Hodges admitted that a great deal of concern had been shown over possible damage to the states wildlife and fish as a result of the canal. He attempted to assuage canal opponents fears about the canal, informing the crowd t hat the Board of Conservationcomposed of the governor and his Cabinet (instead of an independent group of scientists and other appropriate experts)had studied all aspects of the canal and was certain that it posed no threat to the states wildlife.66 The Corps planned to step up construction efforts in order to complete the canal sooner than early projections of eight years. In order to do so, Congress would have to increase its annual appropriations to more than $20 million per year. Governor Haydon Bur ns supported this 65 Canal Opponents Want Hearing, St. Pet ersburg Times October 5, 1965. 66 Florida Times Union October 5, 1965.

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249 strategy, stating that the canal is of no value to anyone until the first barge is across the waterway. Increasing the pace of construction would also solve the problem of contending with the canals opposition, who continued to press for a public hearing to discuss the advisability of completing the canal along Route 13B.67 According to Corps of Engineers literature distributed to Congress, standard procedure for any Corps project includes public hearings in the initial stages of inves tigation. The desires of the people concerned are fundamental in making final recommendations to Congress, a 1965 Corps report states. The Corps explained that successful projects include benefits that will exceed costs, feature sound engineering design, meet the needs of the people concerned, and make the fullest use possible of the natural resources involved. In addition, projects are designed to improve available recreation opportunities and minimize the loss of existing recreational values. Plans for recreational development are coordinated throughout the planning stages with local interests and interested State and Federal agencies, the Corps stressed.68 The Corps statements regarding the planning process for its projects contrasted with the way plans for the construction of the barge canal had been realized. Approximately twenty percent of the estimated cost of the barge canal had already been expended by the fall of 1965, yet no public hearing had been held, although the Corps maintained that this was standard procedure.69 Carr and her fellow activists had begun to harness the power of the press. Newspapers across the state covered their struggle to schedule a public hearing. Canal proponents were slowly realizing that they would have to addr ess the activists concerns at least on the surface. 67 R. N. Dosh, Editor Emeritus, Right of Way for Canal, Ocala Star Banner October 3, 1965. 68 Water Resources Development by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in Florida, U.S. Army Engineer Division, South Atlantic, 1 January 1965, Mildred and Claude Pepper Library, Series 301, Box 29A, Folder 4. 69 Barge Canal Progress Is Discussed, Florida Times Union September 30, 1965.

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250 The longawaited public hearing would prove to be a farce. Yet it would also prove to be a turning point in the campaign to save the Ocklawaha, which shifted its focus from conservation to ecology. The Ocklawaha fight began during the emergence of the environmental movement, which reoriented activists focus from the conservationist goal of preserving natural resources for human use to an ecology based perspective favoring the maintenance of sustainable relationships with nature. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, dams and reservoirs symbolized human ingenuity and determination. The structures would improve upon nature and serve the needs of a population that increasingly abandoned rur al life and embraced the modern city, opening up opportunities for engineers to manipulate natural resources to supply the material needs of city residents. In the late twentieth century, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers received billions of dollars in annual funding for projects that shaped the land according to human will. Just as manifest destiny had been used to justify Americas expansion into the American West in the nineteenth century, in the twentieth century, the prevailing view continued to be t hat humans were destined to dominate and control the natural world.70 Yet the American public was on the cusp of a paradigm shift in its environmental consciousness that would begin to give preference to stewardship over exploitation. Ironically, the growth of suburbs after World War IIwhich in turn fueled Americans increasing dependence upon the automobile contributed both to the rapid deterioration of environmental qualities and a new appreciation for nature, which had become more accessible to suburb anites than it was to city dwellers. Mounting pollution from heavy industry and the electric power industry threatened the nations water, air, and land. In the absence of strict, national environmental regulations and enforcement agencies, industries re gularly disposed of raw 70 Ibid., 38 47.

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251 sewage and chemicals in waterways, emitted vast amounts of toxins into the air, and disposed of toxic waste near residential areas. The science of ecology a potentially subversive science that would empower scientists and citizens alike with the ability to discern evidence of environmental degradation provided activists with the expertise required to mount a successful challenge to some of the more environmentally insensitive programs of federal agencies such as the Corps of Enginee rs and Bureau of Reclamation. The focus of ecology had gradually evolved from the study of single species to analyses of the complex interactions between species and habitats within an ecosystem a transition influenced by the 1953 publication of Eugene P. Odum and Howard T. Odums Fundamentals of Ecology The Odum brothers provided environmental activists with a sophisticated new language and philosophy that emphasized the centrality of the ecosystem to all living things.71 Ecologys maturation also cont ributed to the rise of activist scientists who acted on a sense of commitment to their local communities and the country at large by using their scientific expertise to evaluate and comment on deteriorating environmental conditions and challenge irresponsi ble government programs that lined the pockets of state and local officials and contractors while damaging the environment. Aldo Leopold was in the vanguard of a growing group of writers whose combined scientific and literary talents awakened a new genera tion of environmentalists. Leopolds early career with the U.S. Forest Service afforded him an insiders perspective on the philosophy and methodologies behind federal conservation programs. He 71 For an in depth analysis of the centrality of ecology to the rise of the national environmental movement, see Donald Worster, Natures Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas, Second Edition (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994). For an excellent summary of the connection between ecology and Floridas environmental movement, see Jack E. Davis, An Environmental Providence: Marjory Stoneman Douglas and the American Environmental Century (Athens and London: The University of Georgia Press, 2009), 41217. For a useful examination of the conne ction between postwar suburban growth and the rise of the environmental movement in addition to an analysis of the rise of environmental legislation in the 1960s and 1970s see J. Brooks Flippen, Nixon and the Environment (Albuquerque: University of New Mex ico Press, 2000).

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252 abandoned his career in wildlife management to cofound the W ilderness Society and advocate environmental ethics. His message reached its widest audience after his death with the 1949 publication of Sand County Almanac which espoused a land ethic that emphasized cooperation over competition.72 Leopolds Almanac set the stage for Rachel Carsons 1962 publication of Silent Spring an indictment of the United States indiscriminate use of D.D.T. and other pesticides. Silent Spring aided in the transition from conservation or the idea of preserving nature for human ity to environmentalism, whose goal was to protect nature from humanity. Carsons message contributed to the growth of the publics awareness of the connections between human actions (including unregulated pesticide use) and ecosystemsor the web of life as she so lyrically described the relationships between species and habitat. The ways humans interact with the environment, Carson stressed, affect all life: poisoning an ecosystem with what she termed biocide affects not only the targeted insect, but the species that feed upon it, their habitat, and humans who are also supported by the flora and fauna within the ecosystem. Silent Spring empowered citizen groups to challenge pollution and other environmental hazards at the local level.73 Aldo Leopold and Rachel Carson were not the nations first activist scientists, however. Florida led the nation both in terms of the science of ecology and citizen activism. Marjorie and Archie Carrs ecological awareness which began with their undergraduate trai ning in the 1930s a t F lorida State College for Women and the University of Florida, respectively continued to be refined throughout their graduate training at the University of Florida, and in Honduras, Costa 72 Davis, An Environmental Providence 412 17. 73 Ibid.

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253 Rica, and Africa, which became the subject of A rchies Ulendo Archie like Aldo Leopold wrote about nature with colorful, accessible prose. His University of Florida training had stressed the importance of including human culture as an important variable in the study of ecosystems. For decades his r esearch had considered the impact of human practices upon the survival of several species of sea turtle. By the time the environmental movement was beginning to flourish, Archie lamented that too few scientists acted upon their ethics and involved themsel ves in global and local environmental struggles. The trouble is not mad scientists destroying the world, Archie purported, but politicians not planning beyond their noses, and chambers of commerce clamoring for growth and profit, and people in gener al being too passive and far too fertile and abundant. As I see it, the thing to blame scientists for is not what they do, but what they dont dotheir leaving to engineers, politicians and military men the decisions that change the earth and determine the way our descendants will live. Obviously scientists ought to be more active in the struggle to put the strong tools that their discoveries have created into the hands of more responsible, humane, and fore sighted planners than those who are now in charge. I believe scientists are coming to see that this is so.74 Although Archie was frustrated with the slow pace of environmental activism and awareness, Florida was actually years ahead of the national curve. In 1946, the Florida Audubon Society challen ged the states indiscriminate use of D.D.T., long before the publication of Carsons Silent Spring. Audubon expressed its concerns about the pesticides fatal effects on Floridas avian and marine life. The state board of health and the Florida Anti Mos quito 74 Archie Carr to Miss Lore Rensoy Otzen (February 12, 1971), Box 33, Florida Defenders of the Environment Papers. Reflecting Archies international acclaim, Archie received and respo nded to letters from readers from around the world. Rensoy Otzen wrote from Norway to express her concerns about human indifference to the environment and pollution.

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254 Association protested the states practice of spraying D.D.T. throughout entire cities, which the organizations viewed as a public health threat of epic proportions. In the 1950s, a popular pastime for Mimi Carrs childhood friends in Gainesville wa s to chase the mosquito spray truck as it made its weekly rounds, spraying a fine mist of D.D.T. on everything in its path. In 1957, the state created the Florida Air Pollution Control Commission in response to the air pollution generated by its thriving phosphate industry. Mirroring activists use of scientific expertise in the Echo Park campaign, citizens offered scientific proof of the phosphate industrys role in polluting Floridas air with sulfur oxides and fluorides and insisted upon government int ervention. The year prior, the marine biologist Robert Hutton drafted one of the first environmental impact statements as part of a collective action opposing the dredging and filling of Boca Ciega Bay in St. Petersburg. The bays sensitive estuarine env ironment had already suffered the Corps of Engineers dredging of a fifteenfoot deep ship channel and extensive plume hunting. Developers plans to create fill land in the bay were ultimately approved, but Huttons study served as a useful prototype for future environmental impact studies. The created land is now home to Eckerd College, whose students are likely unaware that their waterfront campus was created artificially.75 The influence of the science of ecology upon the burgeoning environmental movem ent could not find a clearer form of expression than Marjorie Carrs March 1965 essay, The Ocklawaha Wilderness, published in the August issue of Florida Naturalist The essay begins with an ecological survey of the Ocklawaha River Valley and its flora and fauna. The essay demonstrates a shift in Carr s strategy from a focus on the Ocklawaha River as a valuable natural resource that provided clear economic rewards to humans measured in terms of such tangible 75 For more information on the transition from conservation to environmentalism in Florida and the nation, see Davis, An Everglades Providence 40719, 500528.

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255 experiences as hunting and fishingto the vie w that the Ocklawaha River is of value to humans by virtue of its ecological uniqueness. The Ocklawaha River Carr contended, was an ancient ecosystem that was home to a unique sampling of flora and fauna that were threatened by the construction of the ba rge canal. The native flora and fauna supported by the river valley required a big piece of unbroken woods in order to continue to exist in the state. Today, as Floridas population increases and its wilderness decreases, more and more people, with a variety of interests are coming into the Forest, Carr explained. Students, ranging from grade school to college, come here on field trips; winter visitors, groups of youngsters, Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts and families come for a day or a week, just for the pleasure of being in natural Florida woods.76 Carr s essay was peppered with details about the damage that a completed barge canal would inflict upon the Ocklawaha Valley. Lake Eaton in the Ocala National Forest will be wholly drowned along with forty f ive miles of the river, if the Cross Florida Barge Canal construction continues as presently planned, she warned. Five outstanding Florida springs are located in or very near this natural wilderness area This valuable complex of wilderness which, mostl y by plain good luck, remains as a sample of the original Florida, if saved and cared for could forever serve the enjoyment, inspiration and education of man. By focusing on the value of the land itself not as a natural resource fit for consumption, but as a treasure to be protected f rom human exploitation Carr changed the composition of the movement to save the river from one of limited scope related to the protection of local hunting interests to a movement of national significance. The environmental m ovement in Florida and the nation was in its infancy, and speaking in terms of the innate value of nature was a powerful new tactic that would 76 Carr, The Oklawaha River Wilderness. Although Carr stressed the value of the Ocklawaha River Valley to nature tourism, her argument centered primarily on the merits of preserving t he Ocklawaha River ecosystem one of the largest unbroken tracts of land in Florida and one of only sixty eight wild and scenic rivers remaining in the nation because of its ecological diversity.

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256 expand the influence and reach of the Ocklawaha campaign. If the Rodman and Eure ka Dams were completed, Carr poi nted out, approximately 27,000 acres of riverine forest would be flooded and more than thirty miles of the mile wide Ocklawaha Valley would be converted to a shallow, snag filled reservoir. Moreover, Rodman Dam would drastically reduce the flow of water to the last ten miles of the Ocklawaha River, blocking native fish and manatees from traveling up the Ocklawaha (and resulting in their death in the dam and lock structures), and leading to additional disastrous consequences for the flora and fauna along that section of the river.77 Although dredging of the barge canal had already commenced along select portions of the Ocklawaha River, construction of the Rodman and Eureka dams and reservoirs was not scheduled to begin until 1966. Activists opposition t o Route 13B intensified throughout 1965, when Alachua Audubon, Citizens, the Florida division of the Nature Conservancy, and other Florida conservation organizations lobbied Florida Governor Haydon Burns and the Florida Canal Authority to schedule a publi c hearing on the Cross Florida Barge Canal something that had not occurred since the inception of the barge canal project in 1942. It isnt too late t o save the Ocklawaha, Carr insisted. The canal lives from appropriation to appropriation. Its based on a sixand a half year construction period. The cost of the canal is estimated at one hundred and seventy one million dollars including interest.78 The Florida Canal Authoritys chairman, L. C. Ringhaver, repeatedly tabled requests to set a date for a hearing. His actions prompted Mrs. Kenneth R. Morrisonchairman of Florida BiPartisans (a civic affairs study group investigating the barge canal) to warn Governor Burns in writing that if the canal authority did 77 Ibid; see also Florida Defenders of the Environment, Rest oring the Ocklawaha River Ecosystem 78 Audubon Joins Stand against Barge Canal, St. Petersburg Times May 10, 1965.

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257 not schedule a meeting that week, Florida Bi Partisans and other civic organizations from across the state would hold a protest boat a cade on the Ocklawaha River to draw national attention to their cause. Along with Florida Bi Partisans, Alachua Audubon, and Citizens, statewide organizations that supported the Ocklawaha included the Izaak Walton League of Americas Florida division; the Federated Conservation Council; and the Florida Audubon Society.79 Time was of the essence. The Corps of Engineers planned to let contracts for Marion Count y projects including construction of Rodman and Eureka Dams and reservoirs by February 1st, 1966. The valley will be turned into a reservoir, Carr explained. In effect that will mean killing 27,000 acres of unbroken forest.80 Governor Burns invited the defenders of the Ocklawaha to voice their concerns at the January 25, 1966 Annual Water Resources Development Meeting in Tallahassee. Burns invited us because we had raised so much hell, recalled Bill Partington, an officer of the Florida Audubon Soci ety.81 The meeting had originally been scheduled to coordinate the states water related public works projects before presenting an official budget request to Congress, which raised the ire of activists, who had requested a meeting designed specifically to address the planned route for the barge canal. Activists also complained that Tallahassee was an inconvenient location and requested a hearing closer to the proposed site of the barge canal. Politicians should visit the Ocklawaha River before deciding upon its fate, activists contended. Although the Corps of Engineers assured activists that they 79 Barge Canal Hearing Plan Draws Fire, St. Petersburg Times December 12, 1965; Early Decision May Come on Holding Canal Hearing, Oca la Star Banner December 6, 1965. The newspaper article only identified Mrs. Kenneth R. Morrison, the leader of Florida Bi Partisan, by her husbands name. In the early days of the Ocklawaha campaign, Marjorie Carr signed most of her letters to politicia ns as Mrs. Archie Carr, Co Chairman for Conservation, Alachua Audubon Society, but as the campaign wore on, she switched to Marjorie H. Carr, updating her official title as it changed to Co President of Alachua Audubon, Vice Chairman of Florida Defende rs of the Environment (F.D.E.), and later President of F.D.E. 80 Citizens Attack Florida Barge Canal Project, Sarasota Journal July 26, 1965. 81 Lakeland Ledger January 24, 1971.

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258 would do everything possible to preserve the wild and natural state of the Ocklawaha River Valley, the rivers defenders claimed that the canal would destroy the rivers wild status and natural beauty. Marion County officials supported the canal, which was predicted to be a boon to the regions economy. Ringhaver admitted that the canal would alter approximately fortyone miles of the Ocklawaha River Valley, but he maintained that construction would also improve access to recreation opportunities for the public. The Citizens group was the most vocal in criticizing the state for failing to schedule a hearing that would focus exclusively on the issue of rerouting the canal. At the time, two miles of the eastern segment of the canal were already complete. On the western end, extensive dredging and bridge and lock construction were underway.82 More than three hundred and fifty people ranging from concerned individuals to representatives of every major conservation organization in the nation converged upon Tallahassee to speak not against the canal, but on behalf of the Ocklawaha River; approximately sixty people made presentations to state officials, requesting an alternate route for the Cross Florida Barge Canal. Most of the speakers assured Randolph Hodges of the Board of Conservation and Secretary of State Tom Adams that they did not oppose the canals construction only its present route. Carr had publicized th e event in newsletters published by state and regional chapters of the Audubon Society and Garden Club, as well as in other conservation groups newsletters throughout the state. Canal boosters, meanwhile, resorted to paying supporters to attend. All these men arrived in their double breasted suits, and they filled the well of the hall, Carr recalled. We, on the other hand, were just around on the perimeter 82 Ibid.; Canal a Surprise to Housewife Who Led Fight, Lakeland Ledger January 24, 1971; Early Decision May Come on Holding Canal Hearing, Ocala Star Banner December 6, 1965; Barge Canal Foes to Have their Innings, St. Petersburg Times January 24, 1966. See also Environmental Impact of the Cross Florida Barge Canal wi th Special Emphasis on the Oklawaha Regional Ecosystem (Gainesville: Florida Defenders of the Environment, 1970), 55.

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259 and up in the gallery. We outnumbered them. It was fantastic. Canal proponents including state legislators, county and port officials, waterways officials, and contractorswere given the floor until the early evening. State Senator L. K. Edwards of Marion County, a longtime canal supporter, said he would hate to see anything done to stop the ca nal now. He pointed out the canals alleged economic benefits, including increasing land values and cheaper transportation costs for businesses. Although the water resources development meeting was also devoted to projects that were unrelated to the can al, the backers of those projects also expressed their support for the construction of the barge canal along its current route.83 Those who favored rerouting the canal around the Ocklawaha traveled from all over the state to share their concerns that the current route would destroy thousands of acres of trees and cause irreparable damage to the river valley. Adams made light of their concerns, chiding them for failing to realize how difficult it would be to change the route. Adams claimed the only other suitable water source to fill the canal and operate its locks would be Silver Springs, a popular tourist destination and a main source of water for the Ocklawaha River. Tapping into Silver Springs as a water source for the canal would render the Ocklawah a a stagnant stream, Adams predicted, from Silver Springs to the St. Johns River. The new route would also cost an extra thirteen million dollars and reduce the canals recreation benefits, he said, reading from a Corps of Engineers report explaining w hy rerouting the canal was not feasible. Nonetheless, Hodges assured those in attendance that the results of the hearing would be compiled and sent to the 83 Marjorie Harris Carr, Everett Caudle interview; Lakeland Ledger January 24, 1971; Ocala Star Banner December 6, 1965; Oklawaha Riv er Backers Speak Up at Hearing, St. Petersburg Times January 26, 1966; Florida Defenders of the Environment, Environmental Impact of the Cross Florida Barge Canal; Leslie Poole and Everett Caudle interviews with Marjorie Harris Carr; Pork Barrel and Ph easant Feathers video, directed by Holly Fisher, 1966.

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260 Board of Conservation for study, although it would be some time before a recommendation if anywould be made.84 Although river defenders expected to plead their case to the governor or his cabinet, Tom Adams served as the meetings chair. He bu llied every one of us, Carr recalled. The canal opposition had been scheduled to present their findings early that afternoon, but canal proponents did not cede them the floor until the early evening. Carr had urged those in attendance not to express any opposition to the canal at the hearing. Instead, they were directed to request officials to consider the meri ts of selecting an alternate route that would spare the Ocklawaha. Defenders of the Ocklawaha River Valley made the case that if the barge canal were constructed along its currently planned route, the Ocklawahas wild state and natural beauty would be rui ned. They also predicted that the artificial reservoirs which proponents claimed would improve upon the rivers natural recreation values would become clogged with exotic water weeds and tree snags. Proponents countered that the Corps of Engineers would preserve as much of the Ocklawahas natural beauty as possible.85 In a stunning blow to the river defenders, activists found out after the alleged public hearing the real business decisions concerning the canal had already been made in private on the morni ng of the hearing, without the knowledge or participation of those who had requested a public hearing on the canal project. The committee dismissed testimony of conservationists before hearing it. Nathaniel Reed called the botched public hearing an epic event that contributed to the growth of Floridas environmental movement. According to Reed, the Chief of the Corps of Engineers and his staff grossly misplayed the hearing. And I was there not as 84 Ibid. 85 Ocala Star Banner December 6, 1965; Florida Defenders of the Environment, Environmental Impact of the Cross Florida Barge Canal; Leslie Poole and Everett Caudle interviews with Marjorie Harris Carr; Pork Barrel and Pheasant Feathers video, directed by Holly Fisher, 1966.

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261 an opponent, he added. I was there to learn. A neutral observer would have been totally aghast at the proceedings. It was the most rigged public hearing that I have ever been to or hope to go to in my lifetime. The opponents were allowed three minutes each at five oclock in the afternoon. The proponents had the entire day. It was a statewide scandal. Every newspaper picked it up. This thing was totally rigged.86 The January 25 hearing had shown that the balance of power favored canal proponents. This chapter in the canal story ended with a painful defeat for the defenders of the Ocklawaha, but they considered the public hearing to be a watershed. I learned later, Partington recalled, that only one copy of the hearing record was made and our arguments never were forwarded to Congress. We went a way mad and wounded, but we never forgot. I think of that meeting as the turning point in Florida conservation history, because people from the Florida Keys to the Panhandle met each other for the first time. Splintered groups began talking about organiz ing a united front.87 Although the Corps of Engineers and canal proponents had been reluctant to reconsider their plans to build the canal along the Ocklawaha River, there was a precedent for rerouting Corps navigation projects. At the same time that the Corps was preparing to construct the Cross Florida Barge Canal, it had also been authorized to build the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway from Carrabelle to St. Marks, Florida. The Gulf section of the Intracoastal Waterway would have traversed the Carrabelle, Crooked, and Ochlockonee Rivers, but the Corps agreed to consider the advisability of providing an alternative route in lieu of the authorized route, according to Corps literature. Because the Freedom of Information Act was not signed into law until Jul y 4, 86 Interview with Nathaniel Reed, From Waterway to Greenway: The History of the Cross Florida Barge Canal DVD, directed by Darren Preston Lane (Gainesville, Florida: forthcoming). 87 Lakeland Ledger January 24, 1971.

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262 1966, however, Carr and her fellow activists lacked the ability to access official Corps of Engineers files. Even after the passage of this crucial law, however, the Corps obstructed access to official information through a series of delays and failures to rep ly with the requests of Carr and other activists.88 Rebuffed by officials in Tallahassee, Carr retreated to Micanopy to prepare for the next confrontation. While the Ocklawaha defenders prepared a new strategy, the Corps of Engineers started work on Rodman Dam in 1966, using a massive new machine designed to clear forest as quickly and effectively as possible. F. Browne Gregg, the designer of the experimental crawler crusher, estimated that the machine crushed approximately four thousand five hundred acres of trees in five weeks. They destroyed the forest along the river as fast as they could, Marjorie remembered. By the fall of 1968, five thousand, five hundred acres of Rodman Reservoir had been cleared, Rodman Dam and the St. Johns Lock had been completed, and Eureka Dam was under construction. The Corps closed Rodman Dam on September 30, 1968, and flooded Rodman Reservoir. Thousands of dead trees that the crawler crusher had bulldozed floated to the top of Rodman Pool after the reservoi r was flooded. Just as activists had predicted, hardwood trees surrounding the reservoir started to die, while hydrilla prospered.89 It was a horrible sight to see, Florida Presbyterian College biology professor George K. Reid observed. This is a crime against nature. The Corps had destroyed all of the trees in a twenty mile section of the Ocklawaha forest in preparation for the barge canal. A Corps 88 Summary of Civil Works Projects Under Construction and Studies in Progress, December 1965, 49, Mildred and Claude Pepper Library, Series 301, Box 29A, Folder 4. The Florida Defenders of the Environment Papers contain an entire folder concerning problems and strategies related to the Freedom of Information Act. 89 Marjorie Harris Carr, Everett Caudle interview; Gregg later supervised the creation of a series of artificial lakes and underground tunnels for Walt Disney World. Interview with F. Browne Gregg, From Waterway to Greenway: The History of the Cross Florida Barge Canal DVD, directed by Darren Preston Lane (Gainesville, Florida: forthcoming); Florida Defenders of the Environment, Environmental Impac t of the Cross Florida Barge Canal

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263 spokesman later admitted that the organization had not anticipated the adverse publicity that followed its use of the crawler crusher and the flooding of Lake Ocklawaha (Rodman Pool). Another chapter in the Ocklawaha campaign had ended in failure for the defenders of the river. After their decisive defeat in Tallahassee, Carr and her allies realized tha t they had to aim higher. The activists commenced an intensive public education campaign, complemented by an improved legal strategy backed by an ecological study highlighting the canals consequences for Floridas environment.90 By 1966 Mimi, Chuck, Stephen, and Tom Carr had reached college age. Only David, the youngest of the Carrs children, was still living at home with his parents. Carr devoted most of her time to the campaign to save the Ocklawaha River, which meant that there were many nights when David and Archie had to fend f or themselves at dinner time. Because t he Carrs were both too busy to devote much time to household chores, they employed the services of a part time housekeeper David offe red occasional assistance to his mothers cause by taking potential supporters on canoe rides along the Ocklawaha or providing office assistance. In 1970, David started his freshman year at the University of Florida, but he continued to live at home with his parents. He often called his mother at the F.D .E. office in Gainesville to ask if she was coming home for dinner. Carr later apologized for devoting more time to the Ocklawaha than to her family as the campaign progressed, but Archie was equally preoccupied with his own research and writing.91 Carr co ntinued to support her husbands turtle research throughout her campaign to save t he Ocklawaha. In 1968, she spent five weeks at the Tortuguero research station in Costa Rica, 90 Burlington County Times January 20, 1971; Miami Herald Thursday, January 21, 1971. Florida Presbyterian College was renamed Eckerd College after Jack Eckerd, the founder of Eckerd Drug Stores, made a substantial don ation to the school. 91 Fame Has Come to Marjorie Carr But to Her, Its a Family Affair, Gainesville Sun January 25, 1971.

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264 where she tabulated the results of fifteen years of turtle tagging. This data provided the foundation for several subsequent articles that she wrote with Archie, including two pieces that were published in the prestigious national journal Ecology .92 Just as the science of ecology now informed the debate over the Cross Florida Barge C anal, beginning in 1970, ecology and conservation formed the theoretical framework of all of Archies research projects, historian Frederick Rowe Davis has observed. While Archies groundbreaking turtle studies commanded international attention to the pl ight of endangered sea turtle populations, Marjorie Carr harnessed the activist science of ecology to raise awareness of the threatened Ocklawaha River and to foster environmental stewardship at the national level.93 Science remained at the heart of Carrs campaign to save the Ocklawaha, which stands in contrast to certain scholarly interpretations of womens environmental activism in the late twentieth century. Historian Robert Gottlieb makes a distinction between male and female leadership styles within t he environmental movement. He contends that within the antitoxics movement that emerged in the 1970s, womens leadership skills were derived from their experiences managing their homes, engaging in activities concerning their childrens schools, and in holding their families together. Gottlieb contrasts this feminine style of leadership with the masculine leadership style that leaders of the mainstream conservation and environmental organizations espouseda leadership style that was grounded in scie nce and policy. He maintains that there were no women leaders of environmental groups at the 92 As mentioned in chapter four, Marjorie Carrs joint publications with Archie Carr include Modulated Reproductive Periodicity in Chelonia Ecology 51 (2): 335 337, 1970, 2 tbls.; Recruitment and Remigration In a Green Turtle Nesting Colony, Biological Conservation 2 (4): 282 84, 1970, 3 tbls., 1 fig.; Site Fixity In Caribbean Green Turtles, Ecology 53 (3): 425 29, 1972; and The Ecology and Migrations of Sea Turtles: The West Caribbean Green Turtle Colony, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 162 (1978), with Archie Carr and Anne B. Meylan. 93 For an excellent analysis of Marjories joint publications on sea turt les with Archie Carr, see Frederick Rowe Davis, The Man Who Saved Sea Turtles (206209).

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265 beginning of the movement; by the 1970s, there were only a handful, and most of these women leaders adopted male leadership styles. Gottliebs history of the environmental movement of the late twentieth century is comprehensive in scope, yet it largely overlooks Florida campaigns and leaders including Marjory Stoneman Douglass leadership of Friends of the Everglades and Marjorie Harris Carrs leadership of the campaign to save the Ocklawaha River. Although Gottlieb contends that women seldom served in formal leadership positions within established conservation organizations such as the Audubon Society and the newer professional organizations such as the Environmental Defense Fund at the start of the environmental movement, Carr and other Florida women activists served at the helm of both types of conservation and environmental organizations.94 On e of the reasons behind Carr s successful leadership within the mal e dominated field of environmental activism was her background in academic science. Unlike the activism that was characteristic of the antitoxics movementin which women leaders constructed arguments that stemmed from personal experiences with toxic pollu tion and its effects on their families and co mmunities Carr s authority was based upon her scientific understanding of the effects of the proposed barge canal upon the Ocklawaha ecosystem. A graduate of the University of Florida s zoology department, Carr functioned as a member of the academic community of Gainesville. She drew upon the intellectual resources of the University of Florida, an established bastion of professional expertise, to coordinate and disseminate scientific, economic, and legal inform ation that bolstered the Ocklawaha defenders developing case against the Cross Florida Barge Canal. 94 Robert Gottlieb provides a thorough examination of the development of the national environmental movement in Forcing the Spring: The Transformation of the American Environmental Movement (Washington, D.C. and Covelo, California: Island Press, 1993); see especially 206 230; quote on 209.

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266 Using Gottliebs model for female and male leader ship styles as a guide, Carr s would have fallen into the masculine category like most of the other wome n leaders of the early environmental movement because she emphasized science, economics, and politics over traditional womens concerns. However, judging the sensitivity of environmental organizations by their commitment to issues pertaining to women and gender seems counterproductive when the efficacy of singleissue campaigns focusing on one environmental cause would be undermined by branching out into social issues. Moreover, the subtext of Gottliebs argument on female and male leadership styles appears to be that the expertise and policydriven approach to environmental activism is male, whereas female activism stems from womens personal experiences within their presumed cultural role as nurturers. As a female scientist, Carrs leadership style does not fit within the gendered constraints of this female/male leadership style dichotomy. The next chapter examines the role Marjorie Carr and Florida Defenders of the Environment played in the emergence of a statewide and national environmental movement in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Carr s continuing battle to stop construction of the barge canal and restore the Ocklawaha River garnered national media attention and stood as an example of the effectiveness of science and citizen activism in resolving environmental controversies. Her persistence never waned. When sh e reached retirement age, Carr s influence was at its peak, and she remained active in the fight for restoration until terminal illness sapped her energy in the late 1990s. The final chapte r of this dissertation considers Carrs environmental legacy.

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267 Figure 61. A 1965 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers map detailing the organizations active and planned civil works projects in Florida. The Cross Florida Barge Canal is identified with a th ick, black line. Note Florida is severed, with the panhandle near Key West. Summary of Civil Works Projects Under Construction and Studies in Progress, December 1965, Mildred and Claude Pepper Library, Series 301, Box 29A, Folder 4.

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268 Figure 62. The Ocklawaha River in the early 1960s, before construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal. Courtesy of the Florida State Archives.

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269 Figure 63. An anhinga dries its wings after diving for fish. Photo by Peggy Macdonald.

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270 Figure 64. The Silver Ri ver (pictured) carries the crystal clear waters of Silver Springs to the Ocklawaha River. Photo by Peggy Macdonald.

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271 Figure 65. Like the Ocklawaha River, Silver Springs (pictured) lay in the proposed path of the Cross Florida Barge Canal. Photo by Pe ggy Macdonald.

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272 Figure 66. Turtles bask in the sun to remove algae from their shells at Silver Springs, approximately nine miles from the Ocklawaha River. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. Figure 67. Construction of the U.S. 19 bridge over the Cross Florida Barge Canal in Inglis Florida (late 1960s). Courtesy of the Florida State Archives.

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273 Figure 68. Construction of the St. Johns Lock, late 1960s. Florida s terrain has been transformed beyond recognition. Courtesy of the Florida State Archives. Figur e 6 9. Florida Governor Claude Kirk presents Marjorie Carr with the Governor's Award for Outstanding Conservation Leadership (1970). Archie Car r is at right. Courtesy of the F lorida State Archives.

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274 CHAPTER 7 FLORIDA DEFENDERS OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE DEATH OF THE CROSS FLORIDA BARGE CANAL By the late 1960s, Marjorie Carr and her colleagues had transformed the campaign to save the Ocklawaha River from a regional movement to one of national significance. Carr and like minded activists questio ned the economic and environmental soundness of bringing a nineteenthcentury dream to life in the late twentieth century. Florida Defenders of the Environment would prove that the Cross Florida Barge Canal would devastate Floridas environment while prov iding no real economic benefits to Central Florida. The organization would show that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers had in fact manipulated economic data to inflate the canals alleged economic and recreational benefits. Throughout the twentieth centur y, a group of politicians and business leaders had kept the dream of the barge canal alive in order to curry favor with political constituents and profit from the construction of the canal, as opposed to its actual operation. F.D.E. proved that the Corps of Engineers inflated estimated barge traffic in order to justify the cost of the canals construction. Moreover, the nations Interstate highway system rendered water transportation obsolete. Rachel Carson had enabled environmentalists to articulate hum ans threat to sensitive ecosystems through the language of ecology. Starting in 1965, Carr applied this new language to the Ocklawaha campaign, alerting the state of Florida and the nation to the threat federal agencies such as the Corps of Engineers pos ed to the environment. The defenders of the Ocklawaha warned that the Cross Florida Barge Canal would cause more harm than it would do good, slicing through the states main source of drinking water and polluting it further with the byproducts of the ba rge traffic that would travel across the center of the state. Activists raised concerns about the reliability of the benefit to cost ratio developed by

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275 the U.S. Corps of Engineers, contending that the canals economic benefits had been blown out of propor tion in order to justify the cost of construction. Carr and her allie s also challenged the Corps of Engineers contention that damming the Ocklawaha River at two points and creating a pair of reservoirs to facilitate barge travel along the canal would imp rove the rivers recreational benefits. She stressed that the recreational benefits provided by an unaltered Ocklawaha River Valley surpassed any alleged benefits from the creation of two artificial reservoirs. At the time of the Ocklawaha campaign, the United States was at a cultural crossroads. Ecologya science that considered the connections between humans and all aspects of their environment blossomed amidst the backdrop of social unrest, as American citizens began to question their nations involvement in the Vietnam War and were awakened to the inequalities embedded in their cultures racial and gender hierarchies. At the dawn of the 1970s, the campaign to save the Ocklawaha River Valley helped a growing number of Floridians and Americans redefin e the concept of progress. Environmental controversies have swirled around competing versions of the best possible use of natural resources since the early twentieth century battle over the Hetch Hetchy River Valley, when thousands of conservationists cam paigned against the construction of a dam and reservoir that would transfer water (and power) from the majestic valley to San Francisco.1 Unlike Hetch Hetchy whose dam and reservoir provided clear, tangible benefits to Californians (albeit at the expense o f the health of the river valleys ecosystem and the flora and fauna that thrived upon it) the benefits of the Cross Florida Barge Canal were debatable. Proponents maintained that the barge canal would bring trade and profit to Central Florida, transforming the small inland city of Ocala into a thriving port city and 1 For a thorough examination of John Muirs involvement in the struggle to prevent the construction of a dam and reservoir at Calif ornias Hetch Hetchy River Valley, see Robert W. Righter, The Battle Over Hetch Hetchy: Americas Most Controversial Dam and the Birth of Modern Environmentalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).

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276 increasing barge traffic along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. Those who fought against the canal, and to protect the Ocklawaha River Valley questioned the legitimacy of these economic projections and considered the environmental gamble of the Corps of Engineers ill conceived engineering decisions to be too great a risk for Floridians to tolerate.2 As the 1960s progressed, the science of ecology bolstered and transformed the 1950s preservati onist message. The evidencedriven environmental impact statement countered the engineering expertise of federal agencies such as the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which represented the conservation ethos of a bygone era. The tool of the environmental impact statement lent authority and credibility to the embryonic environmental movement as it challenged the nineteenth century worldview embodied by such federal agencies as the United States Forest Service, the United States F ish and Wildlife Service, and the Department of the Interior, which managed nature as a resource to be altered and consumed at will by humans. A great deal had changed since the early twentieth century fight over Hetch Hetchy, a battle in which the opposing sides held conflicting views of how humans could make the best possible use of the river valley with one side favoring its recreational benefits while the other preferred to dam the river and create a reservoir that would provide San Francisco with wa ter and hydroelectric power. By the 1950s, when the Bureau of Reclamation proposed to build a similar dam at Echo Park, a wilderness ethos had developed. Although opponents relied upon scientific techniques to bolster their political campaign against th e dam, the science of ecology was still 2 See Righter, The Battle Over Hetch Hetchy for a detailed analysis of the Hetch Hetchy campaign. Righter argues that dam opponents letters contained references to nature tourism and failed to encompass the wilderness ethic others scholars have ascribed to the activists. See Righter, especially 206 8. Another factor that distinguished the Hetch Hetchy dispute from the Ocklawaha campaign was that the defenders of the Hetch Hetchy Valley operating at the beginning of the twentieth century struggled to protect the valley not for the sake of preserving wi lderness, but to safeguard the valley for humans spiritual renewal and recreational use.

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277 not readily accessible to activists. After Carr and her colleagues suffered a hard defeat in Tallahassee in 1966, they widened the scope of their campaign beyond the limitations of traditional grassroots campaigns, embracing ecology and forthcoming federal legislation to strengthen their case against completion of the Cross Florida Barge Canal. In January 1964, President Johnson referred to the Ocklawaha River as a natural resource to be exploited for the benefit of man. Within a few short years, however, the American peoples tolerance for porkbarrel projects that destroyed the environment while benefiting local developers had started to wane. Silent Spring paved the way for citizen engagement in localized, singl e issue campaigns that challenged government or corporate projects that privileged profits over environmental stewardship. Environmentalists weapon of choice would be the environmental impact statement, which exposed the disastrous consequences of projec ts designed without consideration of their ecological consequences. One such project was the colossal Miami jetport, which the Dade County Port Authority planned to erect in the Big Cypress Swamp, located six miles upstream from Everglades National Park. The Port Authority planned to build one of the largest airports in the world there, complete with a super train that would ferry travelers through the Everglades. South Floridas growth was considered to be an inevitable fact of life, and the Port Auth ority did not perceive any conflict between the urban sprawl that would accompany the billiondollar, thirty nine square mile jetport of the future and its chosen location inside the vulnerable, ecologically important Everglades ecosystem.3 The Miami jetport would have deprived the northwestern portion of Everglades National Park and the Ten Thousand Islands of their main source of fresh water. The proposed airports runways would accommodate the largest jets the industry could produce and stretch for s ix 3 Davis, An Everglades Providence, 485; Michael Grunwald, The Swamp: The Everglades, Florida, and the Politics of Paradise (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006), 254.

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278 miles. Acting on behalf of the National Audubon Society, Joe Browder patched together a coalition that included the Miccosukees, alligator poachers (who realized that the airport threatened their livelihood), hunters, and environmentalists. He convinc ed Marjory Stoneman Douglas to serve as the movements figurehead, transforming the seventynine year old author of The Everglades: River of Grass into an environmentalist for the first time in her life. River of Grassalong with Leopolds A Sand County Almanac Wallace Stegners This Is Dinosaur on Echo Park, and Carsons Silent Spring helped set the stage for the environmental movement. Although River of Grass offered no solutions to the environmental problems of Florida or the nation, it articulated t he benefits of a healthy Everglades to life including human life and became the bible of Florida environmentalists in the late 1960s, according to Douglass biographer, Jack Davis.4 Although older statewide and national organizations such as the Audubon Society and the Izaak Walton League continued to play an important role in the growing environmental movement, single issue organizations experienced greater success as they challenged the programs of conservation minded federal organizations such as the Bureau of Reclamation and Corps of Engineers.5 Another indispensable ally to Floridas new environmental movement was the Republican Party. Walter Hickel, President Nixons interior secretary, took a personal interest in the states alligator population, whi ch had fallen from a total in the millions to an estimated 20,000 wild alligators. Hickel and Governor Kirk who had dug a ceremonial shovel full of dirt at the start of the jetports construction before Nathaniel Reed convinced him to 4 Davis, An Everglades Providence, 459485; Jack E. Davis, Up from the Sawgrass: Marjory Stoneman Douglas and the Influence of Female Activism in Florida Conservation, in Making Waves: Female Activists in Twentieth Century Florida ed. Jack E. Davis (G ainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003), 148; Grunwald, The Swamp 25456; Flippen, Nixon and the Environment, 50 58. 5 Ibid.

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279 withdraw his support for the project visited the Everglades to investigate the poaching problem. After a night of beer fueled alligator hollering, Hickel pledged to increase funding for alligator protection and to consider the implications of the jetport, which would devasta te the Everglades native flora and fauna. Meanwhile, Congress was busy drafting the National Environmental Protection Act, which would require environmental impact statements before federal approval or funding was made available for major development projects. Jetport opponents commissioned Luna B. Leopold (Aldo Leopolds son), a former University of Miami professor who specialized in river hydrology, to lead the Florida team as they drafted an environmental impact statement on the Everglades jetport. A t the same time, Dade County commissioners requested an independent study of the jetports impact, and the National Academy of Sciences provided sixty scientists with a grant to conduct a study of South Floridas planning and water needs with a special emp hasis on the implications of the jetport.6 The Everglades jetport attracted the attention of the national media. On September 17, 1969, the Leopold report was released to the public, suggesting that the jetport would wreak havoc on the South Florida ecosystem and Everglades National Park. The following day, the National Academy of Sciences report confirmed the results of the Leopold study. The County Commissions independent study was finally released in December. Predictably, the Commissions report sa nctioned construction of the jetport as long as it was limited to runways only. In what would be the first of several important environmental decisions for his administration, President Richard Nixon ended the debate by ordering a halt to the jetports co nstruction. The Port Authority begrudgingly entered into negotiations with the Departments of the Interior and Transportation and Governor Kirks office, resulting in the creation of the 6 Davis, An Everglades Providence, 46388.

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280 Jetport Pact, through which the Port Authority agreed to a new loc ation for the jetport in exchange for federal reimbursement of the twelve million dollars the agency had invested in the jetport.7 The American public began to question the soundness of the Corps of Engineers manipulation of the Everglades ecosystem. The change in public opinion from unquestioning acceptance of Corps projects to suspicion came as a shock to this elite organization. The Corps was a fraternity whose engineering expertise had traditionally commanded respect and authority. Since the nineteenth century, the Corps had applied its technical expertise to state and federal projects that utilized and improved natural resources. The Corps was not accustomed to having its engineering decisions questioned. Yet the blossoming environmental moveme nt symbolized by Floridas opposition to the desecration of the Everglades and the Ocklawaha River was composed of experts of a different sort who were no longer willing to defer to the expertise of the Corps or other conservationminded agencies.8 When t he U.S. Army Corps of Engineers formed its initial plans for construction of a barge canal along the Ocklawaha, St. Johns, and Withlacoochee Rivers, no government agency questioned their designs. The Corps, it turned out, maintained complete oversight ove r the planning, construction, and evaluation of its own projects. Over the years, Herbert Hoover, Dwight Eisenhower, and other presidents had recommended various solutions to remedy this inherent conflict of interest, but their proposals were never acted upon. When Route 13B was selected as the most appropriate path for the barge canal, the Budget Bureau (which became the Office of Management and Budget) and the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors (which is 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid., 489.

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281 composed of two Corps of Engineers office rs and five regional engineers) were the only external agencies charged with reviewing Corps projects. Marjorie Carr brought the agencys lack of legitimate independent oversight to the attention of the media, identifying this problem as one of the reas ons why the Corps had consistently failed to consider the impact of its projects on the environment.9 As the 1966 public hearing had clarified, the Corps of Engineers was unable to admit the environmental consequences of the barge canal including its pote ntial impact on the Floridan Aquifer and had expressed little concern for the canals effects on the Ocklawaha ecosystem. The hearing also demonstrated that the Audubon Society was not the ideal organization to coordinate the Ocklawaha campaign, although it would continue to provide financial and organizational support throughout the campaign to halt construction of the barge canal and restore the Ocklawaha River. The defenders of the Ocklawaha needed to found a new, independent agency that would be dedic ated exclusively to the campaign to protect the river valley from the Cross Florida Barge Canal. This new organization would continue to utilize tried and true grassroots methods such as letter writing and public education, but these methods would be supplemented by sophisticated ecological studies and federal lawsuits. Founding one central organization to direct an environmental campaign at the state and national levels would overcome the problems that the defenders of the Ocklawaha had encountered previ ously because they were splintered and too regional in focus. They realized that federal intervention was needed. Marjorie Carr, David Anthony, and other Ocklawaha supporters contacted the Environmental Defense Fund (E.D.F.), which had just won a major l awsuit against the producers 9 January 1971 (F.D.E. Papers, Box 8), 2.

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282 of D.D.T Carr convinced the members of E.D.F. that they had accumulated enough scientific and economic evidence to challenge the Corps of Engineers in court for breach of public interest. E.D.F. advised the activists to form an ad hoc committee to continue their investigation of the Cross Florida Barge Canal. In July 1969, Florida Defenders of the Environment was born. Although the organizations leadership consisted of current and former Audubon Society members including C arr (F.D.E.s founding vice chairman and longtime president, and Alachua Audubon Societys co president), Anthony (F.D.E.s second president, and Alachua Audubon Societys co president), and Bill Partington (who took leave from his position as Florida Audubon Societys assistant executive director to serve as F.D.E.s founding chairman)F.D.E.s sole focus in its early years was to protect the Ocklawaha River Valley from the barge canal. Carr described the organization as a coalition of scientists, lawyer s, economists, and other specialists who volunteer their expertise to defend a quality environment in Florida. F.D.E.s strongest source of intellectual support stemmed from its core membership of University of Florida professors, who contributed the maj ority of reports to the organizations environmental impact statement for the barge canal. Carr encapsulated F.D.E.s strategy in the Ocklawaha campaign which she considered a successful recipe for any environmental campaign as follows: Solutions to environmental problems may result from the education of the general public through the press, new legislation at the state and federal levels, action by governmental agencies or through the influence of the courts. Most often a combination of methods is the most successful. Whatever the method, the essential ingredient will be a thorough and accurate knowledge both of the problem and the opponent.10 10 Marjorie Ha rris Carr vitae, Box 33, Florida Defenders of the Environment Papers; Everett Caudle interview.

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283 F.D.E.s first task was to research the environmental and economic effects of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, which also involved getting to know as much as possible about the inner workings of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. At the time, the Corps a branch of the Defense Departmentwas the worlds largest construction organization and the biggest developer of water control structures. The Corps was composed of two hundred regular Army officers and forty thousand civil employees. Its annual expenditures exceeded a billion dollars of what Carr loved to refer to as the taxpayers money. She credited the Corps (along with the Bureau of Reclamation) with developing scores of dams and other waterways projects that appeared to serve a purpose in the nineteenth century, but which were no longer needed in the late twentieth century. By then, Carr argued, the Corps had resorted to colluding with waterways organizations such as the National Rivers and Harbors Congress (N.R.H.C.) and construction interests to undertake water resource projects that would justify the Corps existence, help politicians please their consti tuents, and pad developers pockets at the expense of the environment. The N.R.H.C., an independent organization with tremendous clout in Congress, shaped most successful rivers and harbors legislation. Canal boosters including Tom Adams, Florida Senator Spessard Holland and Representative Robert Sikes served as national vice presidents of the organization, and longtime canal proponent Henry Buckman, a Jacksonville engineering consultant, served as president of the N.R.H.C. throughout much of the 1960s, helping to push barge canal appropriations through Congress. In 1953, the Hoover Commissiona nonpartisan economic study grouppointed out that N.R.H.C. members shared close connections with contractors lobbyists, but this alliance was not investigated fu rther.11 11 Marjorie Harris Carr, review of George Laycocks Diligent Destroyers Box 33, Florida Defenders of the Environment Papers; Tom Adams in Dual Role on Florida s Barge Canal, St. Petersburg Times, January 9, 1966.

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284 Because Corps of Engineers projects only lived from appropriation to appropriation, F.D.E. formulated a plan that was intended to bring an end to the barge canals Congressional funding. E.D.F. envisioned F.D.E.s lawsuit as a classic example of the degradation of our American environment and unjustifiable expenditure of public funds that has repeatedly occurred throughout the nation and will continue to happen until drastic and probably dramatic steps are taken to bring the whole scandalous set up to the attention of the entire American public. By 1969, the Corps of Engineers had completed approximately one thi rd of the barge canal. Carr hoped the F.D.E. lawsuit would teach the Corps a lesson. In search of funding for F.D.E.s legal expenses, she wrote Roland Clement of the National Audubon Society, who helped her set up an account for donations to the Ocklawaha fund. The mere fact of the public taking the Corps into Court for betrayal of public interest may in itself have a therapeutic effe ct on the Corps, the Bureau of Reclamati on and similar groups, Carr wrote. And it would certainly stimulate Congressional action necessary to prevent such enormous and arrogant squandering of public assets by governmental agencies.12 On September 15, 1969, E.D.F. filed suit in U.S. District court in Washington, on behalf of F.D.E. The organizations charged the Corps of Engineers with violating the constitutional rights of the American people by destroying a natural treasure, the Ocklawaha River. They further alleged that the Corps failed to report objections to the Cross Florida Barge Canal to Congress; misrepresented benefit cost ratios; grossly underestimated maintenance costs; and failed to consider the ecological value of the loss of the Ocklawaha River when calculating the canals benefit cost ratio. Meanwhile, state agencies began to come to the aid of the campaign to 12 Mrs. Archie Carr to Mr. Roland C. Clement [Vice President of Biology, National Audubon Society], March 8, 1969 (F.D.E. Papers, Box 33). For a thorough description of the appropriations process and payments for contractors, see U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Specifications for Job No. 8,Department of the Army (in authors private collection).

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285 save the Ocklawaha. The Florida Department of Air and Water Pollution Control issued a report that described the canal as the mo st devastating project ever undertaken in Florida. The Florida Senate Committee on Natural Resources voted 5 0 for an investigation to determine whether the state should withdraw its support of the canal.13 F.D.E.s legal experts including E.D.F. on the national level and a team of professors from the University of Florida and other state schools helped the organization make the best use of a stream of new environmental legislation that President Nixon signed into law. Although President Johnsons Gr eat Society programs ushered in the first wave of anti pollution legislation in the 1960s, between 1970 and 1974, Nixon signed into law an arsenal of environmental legislation that enabled the environmental movement to mount a series of successful campaign s in that decade and beyond. In Nixons first years in office, Congress enacted an updated Endangered Species Conservation Act (December 1969), which increased the number of flora and fauna it protected; the National Environmental Policy Act (January 1970), which made environmental impact studies a requirement for major government projects; the Clean Air Act (1970), which improved upon the previous air quality standards of the 1967 Air Quality Act; and the Clean Water Act (1972), which extended protection to wetlands; finally, the E.P.A. banned the use of D.D.T. within the United States, although chemical companies continued to export the pesticide to neighboring countries. Symbolizing Nixons commitment to the environment at least in the first years of hi s administration the President established the Environmental Protection Agency (July 1970) to coordinate and enforce the volumes of new federal policies designed to protect the environment. The new federal environmental legislation was complemented on the state level by the pioneering 1972 Land Conservation Act, which provided 13 Fight that Blocked Canal Work Started in Gainesville in 1962, Sarasota Herald Tribune January 24, 1971.

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286 up to $240 million in state bonds for the acquisition of large tracts of Florida real estate for preservation. Only California, New York, and Washington would enact similar legislat ion, making Florida one of the nations leading states in the practice of land preservation.14 In response to Silent Spring and the publics increasing awareness of deteriorating environmental conditions throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s, the national conservation organizations the Sierra Club, National Audubon Society, and the Wilderness Society, and others struggled to adapt themselves to the new environmental age and watched their memberships double in size. Gaylord Nelson launched the first nati onal Earth Day celebration on April 22, 1970, with an estimated twenty million Americans participating in environmental activities ranging from tree planting to public protests. The science of ecology had permeated the American consciousness, replacing th e humancentered conservation ethos with an appreciation of humans tiny part in a larger series of ecosystems that made up spaceship Earth. During Nixons first term in office, Congress laid the institutional framework for the environmental movement, whi ch was in full bloom at the time of F.D.E.s founding.15 As America became more attuned to the consequences of human manipulation of the environment, the science of ecology gained more credence in the media, shaped public opinion, and informed new legislati on at the local, state, and federal level. Ecology played a central role in redefining th e Ocklawaha campaign, which experienced a major turning point with the March 1970 publication of Florida Defenders of the Environments environmental impact statement F.D.E.s evidence was clear: if construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal continued, Florida 14 Jack Davis, An Environmental Providence 488 504; Flippen, Nixon and the Environment, 1 6. Flippen contends that Nixon experimented with environmental reforms for political gain during his first term in office but abandoned them after his election to a second term. He vetoed the Clean Water Act, although Congress overrode his veto. From 1972 on, Flippen argues, Nixon became increasingly conservative and rejected environmental legislation as something that was no longer politically viable. Nonetheless Nixon set the stage for the environmental age. 15 Ibid.

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287 would experience an environmental catastrophe. The impact statements language echoed the message put forth in Silent Spring: Although man evolved as pa rt of the natural biosphere, much of his effort has been turned toward disrupting it. So far, we have managed to survive our ecologic errors, but there are signs that we may be reaching the limits of our immunity. Such a sign is the lack of any sound ass essment of the long term values and ecologic options at stake in the Oklawaha regional ecosystem. It is the purpose of this report to give a brief account of those values and options. The impact statement examined conditions in the Ocklawaha regional ecosystem, which the report defined as all communities within the drainage basin of the Oklawaha River, before construction of the barge canal began, the current state of the ecosystem after partial construction of the canal, and the predicted state of the ecosystem after the proposed completion of the canal. The report considered physical factors (geology, hydrology, climate, and soils) and biological systems (plants, animals, and people), in addition to probable interactions among these systems (the relationships within the Ocklawaha ecosystem).16 Carr and Partington were among the members of the board of editors who directed the environmental impact study. The majority of the studys contributors were University of Florida faculty members from a variety of relevant disciplines. The study featured extensive data on the barge canals observed and expected impact on the Ocklawaha and on the Floridan Aquifer, including ecological, economic, and landuse studies that F.D.E. observed should properly have been undertaken before the project was initiated. F.D.E.s volunteer experts studied the canal from the viewpoints of ecology, hydrology, geology, economics, landuse planning, anthropology, and environmental quality. Their findings indicated that a complet ed Cross 16 Florida Defenders of the Environment, Environmental Impact of the Cross Florida Barge Canal 6 7.

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288 Florida Barge Canal would pollute the Floridan Aquifer and contaminate all surface water in the ecosystem, including the popular Silver Springs nature park; would require extensive additional pumping facilities to maintain canal operations during natural drought conditions; would fail to provide alleged flood control benefits; would destroy a unique natural region that supported the full spectrum of plant and animal life native to North Central Florida; and would promote the growth of masses of wat er weeds in the shallow Rodman and Eureka Pools. Furthermore, the report suggested that the controversy surrounding the proposed barge canal emphasized the need for longrange regional land use planning, which had not been done in Central Florida and for which no agency then existed to direct it.17 From an economic perspective, F.D.E.s experts determined that the discount rate used by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to calculate the benefit cost ratio of the canal was unrealistic. If realistic interest rates were applied, the canals benefit cost ratio would no longer exceed the cost. In addition, the amount of traffic that the Corps estimated would use the canal and the freight savings per ton mile appeared to be unjustifiably inflated. The report also challenged canal proponents claims that the canal would enhance land values and improve recreational values in the region affected by construction. Moreover, F.D.E. pointed out an important oversight in the Corps of Engineers benefit to cost ratio. Successful operation of the canal depended upon the completion of the Intracoastal Waterway from St. Marks southward along the northwest coast of Florida (a section of the Intracoastal Waterway known as the missing link). Yet the Corps had not include d construction costs for the proposed waterway in its benefit to cost ratio for the barge canal. Even when considering the amount of money already invested in the barge canal project, the report suggested that an impartial economic restudy of the project 17 Florida Defenders of the Environment, Environmental Impact of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, iii 2.

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289 would result in its rejection as unsound, on a purely economic basis, without any consideration of the environmental values to be lost.18 Although F.D.E. was adamant that there was no economic justification for the canal, its main interest resided in pre serving the integrity of the unaffected areas of the Ocklawaha regional ecosystem and in restoring what had already been damaged. In a section of the report with no byline but bearing the same writing style and some of the exact phrasing from the ecologic al study of the Ocklawaha River that appeared in Carr s 1965 Florida Naturalist essay F.D.E. stresses the environmental value of the Ocklawaha River. (Carr served as one of the primary editors and coordinators of the environmental impact statement.) Within an eightyfive mile radius of Eureka on the Ocklawaha River (where two proposed reservoirs would be located), there were eight hundred seventyfive lakes, but just seven rivers. If the barge canal were completed, three of these riversthe Ocklawaha, Wi thlacoochee, and St. Johns would be modified severely or essentially destroyed. For this loss, the report state, the creation of two artificial reservoirs is offered in restitution. F.D.E. maintained that the Corps of Engineers claims regarding the increased recreational values that the canal would provide were greatly exaggerated.19 Archie Carr and University of Florida ecology professor Ariel Lugo argued that the Ocklawaha regional ecosystem was a reservoir of ecological stability that was still relatively unruined by human exploitation, which should be considered an incomparable asset, especially since the regions natural environments were disappearing quickly.20 The scientists explained that the ecosystems treasure trove of diverse, native flo ra and fauna including the endangered 18 Florida Defenders of the Environment, Environmental Impact of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, 2 3. 19 Ibid., 16. 20 Ibid., 29, 34.

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290 Florida Panther was only part of its charm; what was even more valuable was the ecosystems vast, uninterrupted size. The Oklawaha Ecosystem is an investment in the ecologic future of man, a big expanse of uncommitte d, undisrupted biological landscape, left as a buffer against human ecological error, they concluded. In a region that is fast becoming fit habitat only for man, and perhaps is not long destined to remain even that, such an asset is one to be treasured. F.D.E.s report conceded that construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal had already altered the Ocklawaha ecosystem drastically. Nonetheless, F.D.E.s experts including Archie Carr observed that much of the Ocklawaha River and its valley remained unimpaired, and if construction of the barge canal were to stop, the damaged areas would recover dramatically within ten to twenty years. F.D.E. recommended a cessation of further federal and state funding for construction of the canal and requested its dea uthorization. F.D.E. suggested that the canal right of way along the Ocklawaha River be transferred to the United States Forest Service or another appropriate agency for recreation and other appropriate multiple use management. F.D.E. requested that the Ocklawaha River be designated as a scenic river and be granted all the protections afforded to rivers included in the national wild and scenic rivers system. One of F.D.E.s most adamant recommendations was that the Rodman Reservoir be drained immediatel y and that the river could be returned to its original free flowing condition from Silver River to the St. Johns River. In order to prevent similar ecological mistakes in the future, the report indicated the need for the establishment of a regional environmental planning council to consider the needs of conservation, environmental protection, recreation, and development throughout the Ocklawaha regional ecosystem. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, Marjorie Carr

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291 organized several conferences to promote the id ea of land use planning at the local and regional levels.21 In addition, F.D.E. recommended that benefit cost analyses for future projects be conducted by an impartial agency, and that full consideration be given to the ecology and environmental values in the planning and evaluation of such projects. Revealing F.D.E.s frustration with the canals authorization, which had occurred in 1942, the report recommended that all authorized public works projects be started within five years of their authorization, and that a full restudy be required of all projects that are not completed within ten years of their original authorization date. Not surprisingly, F.D.E. also recommended that official public hearings be held near the site of the proposed public works pr oject within a year previous to authorization and within a year previous to initial funding in order to determine if the project is in the public interest. F.D.E. suggested that public hearings were a necessity given the rapid environmental, economic, and social changes currently being experienced in the United States.22 On September 15, 1969, the Environmental Defense Fund filed suit in federal district court in Washington, D.C. that charged the Corps of Engineers with violating the constitutional rights of the people of the United States by destruction of natural resources. The lawsuit sought to enjoin the Corps from proceeding further with construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal as presently planned. F.D.E.s environmental impact statementwhich was completed in March 1970would serve as the backbone of the legal case against the Corps of Engineers. F.D.E. modeled its environmental impact statement after the Leopold report commissioned by 21 Ibid., 3 5. 22 Ibid.

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292 opponents of the Miami jetport. At the time F.D.E. prepa red its report, an F.D.E. poll of candidates running for office in 1970 indicated that eightyone percent favored a moratorium or abandonment of the barge canal; only one percent favored completion of the canal as planned. In addition to having the suppor t of most politicians running for office in 1970, F.D.E. benefited from the spat of environmental legislation Nixon signed into law at the beginning of the decade, including the National Environmental Policy Act (N.E.P.A.), which would soon require environmental impact statements for all projects receiving federal authorization or funding.23 E.D.F. accused the Corps of Engineers of violating the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, Water Pollution Control Act, and Migratory Bird Act. When N.E.P.A. was signe d into law in 1970, the Corps of Engineers ignorance of the environmental impact of the barge canal strengthened F.D.E.s case immensely. The minute that passed we u sed it in our lawsuit, Carr recalled. On February 16, 1970, E.D.F. filed an amended co mplaint that sought to require that the Corps of Engineers comply with various federal statutes and executive orders that protect the environment. The passage of N.E.P.A. and the release of F.D.E.s environmental impact statement prompted Secretary of the Interior Walter Hickel to order the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife to evaluate the barge canals impact on the environment. Hickel had been inundated with letters from Florida residents and state officials who expressed their opposition to the canal. State Representative Roger Wilson of St. Petersburg was among the officials who wrote Hickel, asking him to take action to protect Floridas natural resources from the destruction the canal was causing. Furthermore, there also seems to be some question as to the benefit cost ratio, Wilson added. In light of the fact that the Corps of Engineers had not 23 Housewife Halted Florida Barge Canal, Bradenton Herald January 24, 1971; Flippen, Nixon and the Environment, 50 58; Florida Defenders of the Environment, Environmental Impact of the Cross Florida Barge Canal.

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293 considered the environmental impact of the canal before commencing construction, Hickel concluded that a new appraisal of this project and its effe cts on the environment of northern Florida is in order. In the interim, Hickel called for a moratorium on construction.24 F.D.E. had begun courting the Nixon administration in earnest soon after the President expressed an interest in improving the qualit y of the American environment in his 1970 State of the Union address. On February 6, 1970, F.D.E. sent President Nixon a letter requesting a moratorium on construction of the barge canal. More than one hundred and fifty scientists and other experts signe d the letter, which was forwarded to Nixons Council on Environmental Quality, which he had created on January 29, 1970. The letter thanked Nixon for emphasizing his concern over the alarming degradation of natural environment in America in his recent S tate of the Union address. F.D.E. requested the Presidents assistance in preventing further degenerative manipulation of one of the most valuable natural ecosystems of Florida, the Oklawaha River Valley, and in averting probable attendant changes in the quality of the subsurface water supply of Central Florida. In addition, F.D.E. identified problems with the lengthy gap between the Cross Florida Barge Canals authorization in 1942 and the start of its construction, and a questionable benefit to cost r atio that had fluctuated over the years. The canal was then approximately onethird complete; only twenty five miles of the one hundredseven mile long channel of the canal had been excavated. A completed canal, F.D.E. warned, would drastically alter ec osystems associated with the Ocklawaha and Withlacoochee Rivers. Moreover, excavation of the channel of the cross state canal will be carried out in a section of the peninsula in which the great Floridan Aquifer comes closest to the ground surface, F.D .E. advised. In addition, Central Floridas high incidence of sink hole formation further 24 Tampa Tribune February 24, 1970; Hickel Orders Review of State Canal Impact.

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294 demonstrated the permeability and unstable nature of the aquifer along the canal route. F.D.E. also faulted the Corps of Engineers for using outdated construction p lans that were both impractical (the locks were too small to accommodate modern barges) and failed to meet the environmental standards required by recent environmental legislation. F.D.E. informed the President tha t its experts were completing a study of the barge canals effects on the Ocklawaha River ecosystem that would be similar in scope and form to the environmental impact study of the Big Cypress Jetport that the United States Department of the Interior prepared in September 1969. F.D.E. conclude d the letter by congratulating Nixon and his administration for resolving the Miami Jetport issue and asking for his help in avoiding a major, national ecological disaster.25 The letter included the signatures of several of the nations most important e cologists, including Eugene P. Odum (coauthor of Fundamentals of Ecology ); Paul R. Ehrlich (author of The Population Bomb); Rene Dubos (author of So Human an Animal and winner of the 1969 Pulitzer Prize); David R. Ehrenfeld (author of Principles of Biologi cal Conservation ); Barry Commoner (author of Science and Survival ); G. Evelyn Hutchinson (author of The Enchanted Voyage and The Ecological Theatre and Evolutionary Plays ); Raymond F. Dasmann (author of Different Kind of Country and Environmental Conservat ion); Marston Bates (author of The Prevalence of People and Man in Nature ); Archie Carr, who was listed as an ecologist and author; and Harvard University ecologist E. O. Wilson. The list included many members of the prestigious National Academy of Scienc e. Approximately a quarter of the scientists hailed from the University of Florida, and nearly a third of the rest of the signatures came from professors at 25 Letter signed by one hundred and fifty scientists to President Nixon (January 27, 1970), Box 33, Florida Defenders of the Environment Papers; Florida Defenders of the Environment, Environmental Impact of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, 58 59.

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295 other Florida universities and colleges. Several of the Carrs former colleagues from the Univers ity of Florida biology department lent their support to the cause as well, including Theodore Hubbell (University of Michigan); Horton Hobbs (the Smithsonian Institutions Senior Scientist with the Department of Invertebrate Zoology); and Harley Sherman (U niversity of Florida professor of zoology, retired).26 Marjorie Carr coordinated the production of the scientists letter. On May 1st, she solicited the support of these and other scientists in F.D.E.s continuing campaign to save the Ocklawaha. Because she had earned a masters degree in science from the University of Florida, Carr considered herself a colleague of U.F.s specialists in the environmental field. In talking to my colleagues I realized that an awful lot of scientists were just as upset or even more so over the destruction of the environment as members of conservation organizations she recalled. Carr addressed F.D.E.s May 1 letter Dear Fellow Scientist. She directed the recipients to contact Secretary Hickel and the Honorable Russel Train, Chairman of the Presidents Environmental Council, as soon as possible to express their expert opinion on the environmental effects of the barge canal project. Carr also informed the recipients of the letter that F.D.E. was working to add its envi ronmental impact study to the official record of the Public Works Subcommittee of the Appropriations Committee, as part of its ongoing effort to end Congressional funding for the canal. We are encouraged with the progress of our effort and we will press right on until we have satisfactorily resolved the problem, she concluded.27 26 Ibid. 27 Everett Caudle interview; Marjorie Carr, Vice Chairm an of F.D.E. to Dear Fellow Scientist (May 1, 1970), Box 33, Florida Defenders of the Environment Papers. In the May 1 letter, Carr asked the scientists to read the recently released F.D.E. environmental impact statement and then forward their opinions to the news media, state and federal elected officials, government agencies, and the public as soon as possible.

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296 Science was central to F.D.E.s legal case. The Corps of Engineers had not conducted thorough studies of Central Floridas geology or hydrology. At the time of the 1966 public hearing, a representative of the Corps of Engineers admitted to Carr that the Corps had never had a biologist on staff before. The Corps had commissioned only limited studies of the Floridan Aquifer. The barge canals potential effects on the aquifer wer e not clearly understood. They had not involved the geological survey people in the studies on the middle part of the state, Carr explained. But in the barge canal they had something that was designed to float on the aquifer waters. And yet they had not made the studies. They did not know about the aquifer. Nathaniel Reed, who served President Nixon as the assistant secretary of the Department of the Interior, accused canal proponents and the Corps of Engineers of gambling with Floridas environment. Since nobody knew whether [the canal] would or wouldnt destroy the Floridan Aquifer, well, why not take the chance? Reed mused. The opposite side was, why take the chance? But that was the drumbeat in the 1960s. We were still growing up. We wer e still the land of conquest. Were going to conquer this land. And this is true not only in Florida, but right across the country.28 The Floridan Aquifer is an intricate system of highly porous limestone that stores water and facilitates its movement un derground. The Floridan Aquifer System, formed over millions of years as carbonate sediments were deposited and dissolved, is among the worlds most productive aquifer systems. It underlies all of Florida, varying in depth from a few feet below the surfa ce to one thousand feet underground. When the Corps of Engineers completed its plans for the barge canal, it relied upon inadequate surveys of select sections of the aquifer. Corps planners were unaware that the depth of the aquifer varied from one end of the proposed route to 28 Everett Caudle interview with Marjorie Carr; interview with Nathaniel Reed, From Waterway to Greenway DVD, directed by Darren Preston Lane (Gainesville, Florida: forthcoming.)

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297 the other, and the organization failed to consider the consequences of dredging and routine barge operations along the aquifer.29 By the close of 1969, construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal had fallen seven years behind sched ule. Congress had scaled back appropriations by several million dollars each year, which increased the total estimated cost of construction. In 1962, the canal was expected to cost one hundred and fortyseven million dollars to complete. Seven years lat er, the estimated total cost of construction had risen to one hundred and seventyseven million dollars a calculation that was based upon a 1977 date of completion. Any delay in construction would elevate the estimated cost of completion to two hundred mi llion dollars when factoring in unpaid interest rates. The barge canal would cost one dollar for every ninety two cents of estimated benefits. Canal proponents had touted the canal as a river of gold that would create new sources of industry such as docking facilities and manufacturing plants. At the same time, the Corps of Engineers inflated the recreation benefits that would originate from the industrial canal. Fishermen, recreational boaters, campers, and swimmers would have to compete with westbound barge traffic that would enter the St. Johns River at Jacksonville, travel south to Palatka, move into the twelve foot deep canal, pass through five locks and enter the Gulf of Mexico at the small fishing village of Yankeetown. In 1936, Congress changed the Corps of Engineers planning formula from navigation and flood control values to the benefit to cost ratio. In calculating the barge canals benefits to the Central Florida, the Corps of Engineers had overlooked the canals impact on the environment a nd the communities that would be affected by the canal.30 29 Peter Alden et al, National Audubon Society Field Guide to Florida (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998), 19; Everett Caudle interview. 30 Barge Canal: Boon or Boondoggle? Daytona Beach Morning Journal December 20, 1 969.

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298 Change proceeded rapidly after Florida Defenders of the Environment distributed its environmental impact statement on the effects of the Cross Florida Barge Canal. The report (and F.D.E.s lobbying efforts) prompted the Florida Department of Air and Water Pollution Control to call the canal the most devastating project ever undertaken in Florida. In June 1970, just three months after the release of F.D.E.s environmental impact statement, Secretary Hickel responded to the reports recommendation for a moratorium on construction by asking the Corps of Engineers to halt construction for fifteen months while further study of the canals environmental impact was completed. We have known for a long t ime that if this project was ever examined close ly, it would collapse, Carr said after Hickel requested a moratorium on construction. Our opponents know it, too.31 F.D.E. increased pressure on the Corps of Engineers by adding allegations that the agenc y had not reported objections to the canal to Congress (including those voiced at the infamous 1966 public hearing) to the federal lawsuit against the Corps. The lawsuit also blamed the Corps for misrepresenting the benefit to cost ratio, grossly underest imating maintenance costs, and failing to include the environmental value of the Ocklawaha River in its calculations. The Corps failed to comply with Hickels request for a moratorium, but on January 15, 1971, the federal court issued a temporary injuncti on halting certain phases of construction. After nearly a decade of painful losses, the defenders of the Ocklawaha witnessed a relatively speedy victory in federal court. It took eighteen months for F.D.E. to attain the preliminary injunction. It ended this Corps project in mid flight, Carr said, adding that the Corps had a difficult time believing the judgment when it was released.32 31 Professors Wage Battle to Kill Barge Canal, Sarasota HeraldTribune June 10, 1970. 32 Housewife Halted Florida Barge Canal, Bradenton Herald January 24, 1971; Leslie Poole interview.

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299 Carr and F.D.E. experienced an even greater surprise when President Nixon ordered a separate halt to the canals constr uction on January 19th. Mimi Carr recalled that her mothera staunch Democrat was both grateful to Nixon and disappointed that the Republican president would receive credit for stopping the canal. F.D.E. continued to press its federal legal case against the Corps of Engineers after Nixon ordered a halt to the canals construction. Nixons Council on Environmental Quality had recommended the construction halt because of the threat the canal posed to the Ocklawaha River Valleys unusual and unique natural beauty. The President called the Ocklawaha a natural treasure that would be destroyed if construction continued. Although fifty million dollars had been invested in the project which was estimated to cost approximately one hundred and eighty million dollars to complete Nixon explained that the economic return from the projects completion did not justify its cost, including the environmental costs of the canal. In calculating the economic return of the canal, Nixon contended, the destruction of natura l, ecological values was not counted as a cost, nor was a credit allowed for actions preserving the environment. The step I have taken will prevent a past mistake from causing permanent damage. He asked the Secretary of the Army to work with the Council on Environmental Quality to develop recommendations for the Ocklawahas future. His action stunned canal proponents and energized environmentalists. Moreover, Nixons defense of the Ocklawaha River gave the terms environment and ecology new political currency.33 Carr commended the President for intervening on behalf of the Ocklawaha. It was a very forthright action by the President and his Council on Environmental Quality, she remarked. We have telegraphed our thanks on behalf of the thousands of Floridians who have been engaged for years in the battle to prevent degradation of this beautiful valley. Nixons 33 Bradenton Herald January 24, 1971; Philadelphia Evenin g Bulletin January 20, 1971.

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300 decision was a crucial victory for environmentalists. For canal boosters and the Corps of Engineers, however, the construction halt repr esented a painful loss. Canal proponents promptly filed lawsuits alleging that the President did not have the authority to cancel a project that had received Congressional authorization and appropriations. Within days of Nixons announcement, the White H ouse was inundated with telegrams pleading with the President to reverse his decision. Carr was well aware that the battle for the Ocklawaha River was far from over. Although construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal had ended, the battle for the Ock lawahas restoration had only just begun.34 Carrs reaction upon hearing that Nixon had ordered a halt to the construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal was to push for its immediate deauthorization. We dont want this thing to sit around for another twenty years and then be revived again, she told reporters and supporters, referring to the canals rebirth in the 1960s, decades after its initial authorization in 1942 as a World War II defense measure.35 Carr speculated that the best way to make sure th at the project was halted permanently was for Florida Defenders of the Environment to continue its lawsuit against the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in U.S. District Court in Washington. Just five days before Nixons order, U.S. District Judge Barrington P arker suspended work on the canal by granting a preliminary injunction brought by the Environmental Defense Funds attorneys. Parker ruled that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers had failed to comply with the newly enacted National Environmental Policy Act. President Nixons subsequent order to halt construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal enraged the canal boosters who had worked for decades to gain Congressional support and funding for the canal. Seeking to nullify Florida 34 Burlington County Times January 20, 1971. 35 Politicians React as Canal Sinks, St. Petersburg Times January 20, 1971.

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301 Defenders of the Environme nts legal victory against the Corps of Engineers and to challenge the Presidents authority in stopping the canal canal proponents filed several countersuits in U.S. District Court.36 The Corps of Engineers reaction to Nixons halt was less than enthusias tic. The Corps second in command, Lieutenant Colonel John R. McDonald, informed the press that the agency would obey President Nixons order to halt construction. This is a directive from the President, who is also commander in chief, McDonald explained. The Corps of Engineers obviously will abide by the directive. Until we receive further instructions from our Washington office, we will be unable to make any further comment on the announcement. Canal proponents reacted to the order by questioning the Presidents authority in canceling a project that was authorized by Congress. Florida Congressman Don Fuqua complained that Floridas congressional delegation had been unable to meet with the President to press the case for the canal before Nixon made his announcement. Former Senator Spessard Holland accused Nixon of acting on bad advice. Stopping the canal is entirely unnecessary and can be extremely expensive, Holland contended. Former interior secretary Walter J. Hickel said he was pleased wit h the Presidents decision. Its the kind of action we recommended months ago, Hickel boasted. This is a step in the right direction for all America.37 As congratulatory letters and teleg rams arrived in droves, Carr responded with a call to action. There is, of course, a great deal yet to be done before this Florida project can be considered closed, she wrote the National Coalition to Save the Ocklawaha, a collection of scientific and economic experts and concerned citizens dedicated to stopping con struction of the 36 Marjorie Harris Carr, review of George Laycocks The Diligent Destroyers Florida Defenders of the En vironment Papers, Box 33; End of the Barge Canal, Time February 1, 1971. 37 Politicians React as Canal Sinks, St. Petersburg Times January 20, 1971.

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302 Cross Florida Barge Canal. She highlighted the items that required immediate attention, including restoration of the Ocklawaha River Valley; taking the required measures to include the river in the national system of Wild and Scenic Rivers; developing a comprehensive landuse plan for the Ocklawaha Regional Ecosystem; and determining the environmental impact of other water resource proj ects on the Ocklawaha. Carr encouraged her supporters to act upon the environmental mandate presented by the barge canal victory. Everyone engaged in the effort to save the Oklawaha has realized the broader implications of this fight, she wrote. The effort truly stands as a classic example of concerned citizens determination to defend the natural envir onment from needless destruction. President Nixon has made a dramatic and positive response. We urge you to take the initiative in encouraging an overwhelming public response so that Mr. Nixon will know, beyond a shadow of a doubt, that he has public support when he defends the environment.38 F.D.E. had established two major legal precedents. First, the Court ruled against the Corps of Engineers claim that it had sovereign immunity in relation to projects authorized by Congress. Second, F.D.E. had shat tered the notion that a Corps of Engineers project could not be stopped once it was under way. F.D.E. member He rbert Kale II commended Carr for her fortitude during the fight to stop construction of the canal, a battle he had believed to be futile. Please allow me to eat humble pie, Kale implored her, with all the others who thought that trying to stop the Cross Florida Barge Canal was akin to one of Don Quixotes impossi ble dreams. Although Carr would have been the last one to claim credit for F.D.E .s victory, her unwavering dedication to the cause had produced a momentous victory for environmentalists. Even though some of us continued to write impossible letters, give impossible talks, and attend 38 Marjorie Harris Carr to the National Coalition to Save the Oklawaha, February 1, 1971, Florida Defen ders of the Environment Papers, Box 8.

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303 impossible hearings we never really felt that our time was not being wasted, that our efforts couldnt even put a dent in the economic armor of the canals proponents, Kale admitted.39 While Carrs supporters showered her with thanks, irate barge canal proponents flooded the President with telegrams and l etters asking him to reverse his decision. Carr directed F.D.E.s supporters to send telegraphs and letters thanking Nixon for his action, in addition to thanking state politicians for their support of the construction freeze.40 U.S. Representative Don Fuq ua reiterated his support for the canal to F.D.E., claiming that the Corps had already demonstrated that the canal posed no threat to the environment. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has had the responsibility for the construction of this waterway and e xhaustive studies have shown that the construction would not present any irrevocable disturbances to the surrounding area, Fuqua stated. I have called on the Secretary of the Interior to conduct additional studies into the ecological effects of this con struction and I regret that these studies were not undertaken before the President issued his termination orders.41 One month after Nixon halted construction of the canal, Florida Governor Reubin Askew observed that the dream of the canal project was over. If its not completely dead, he told reporters, its in the last stages of gasp. He insisted that the Presidents decision on the canal was final, and Florida needed to address the problem of dealing with the completed sections of the canal and tying up loose ends. The state cannot finance it alone, he concluded. I dont think Congress is going to beat the President on this, and after all the ecology facts are in Florida might not want it anyway. The governor agreed with longtime canal propone nt Tom Adams 39 Herbert W. Kale II to Marjorie Carr (February 5, 1971), F.D.E. papers, University of Florida Department of Special Collections, P. K. Yonge Library, Box 33. 40 John B. Funderburg, Trustee, Florida Defenders of the Environment, to supporters, January 25, 1971 (F.D.E. Papers, Box 33). 41 Don Fuqua, M.C. to Mrs. Helen Strathearn, January 19, 1971 (F.D.E. Papers, Box 8).

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304 that Nixons decision to kill the canal was purely political, but he did not support Adamss suggestion that the State of Florida or the Florida Canal Authority challenge the President in court. Askew conceded that a growing segment of Floridas population had expressed dissatisfaction with the barge canal and cautioned against proceeding with the project without the support of the people.42 Many members of Congress proved to be reluctant to let go of the canal project. Seventythree million dollars had already been expended on the canal project when it was halted in 1971. The canal was approximately thirty five percent complete. More than a year after construction of the canal had stopped the existing barge canal structures remained in pla ce. Rodman Dam still blocked sixteen miles of the Ocklawaha River (see Figures 77 through 7 10) Never connected to the incomplete barge canal, Eureka Dam and Lock looked out of place in the landlocked valley.43 Although F.D.E.s scientists were confident that the basin under Rodman Reservoir could be replanted and a developing forest would be present within twenty five to thirty years, the approximately tenthousandacre Rodman Reservoir and Dam remained in place.44 None of the steps Carr recommended in h er letter to the National Coalition to Save the Ocklawaha had been accomplished. She expressed her frustration to the President. It is springtime in Florida and another growing season has started, she wrote. When will restoration begin in the Oklawah a River Valley ? Carr forwarded copies of the letter to the Floridas Department of Pollution Control, the United States Forest Service, The United States Department of the Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Florida section of the Society of American Foresters, the National Audubon Society, and a host of other national and 42 Barge Canal Issue Dead, St. Petersburg Times February 27, 1971. 43 Time February 1, 1971. 44 Canal Forest Areas Return to Wild Asked, Times Daily January 20, 1971.

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305 statewide environmental organizations, signaling that the campaign to restore the Ocklawaha River Valley required immediate assistance.45 Their efforts soon resulted in a federal court order to lower the Rodman Reservoir by five feet in order to save a significant number of trees at the edge of the reservoir. Its quite a major victory, said Carr who became F.D.E.s president in 1972. Its long overdue and could be the first big step into restoration of the area.46 Yet after U.S. District Judge Harvey Johnsens previous order to lower the water level by five feet, which reduced Rodman Reservoir from 10,000 acres to 4,300 acres until December 1, 1972, F.D.E. found itsel f back in federal court that fall. The Corps of Engineers wanted to return Rodmans water level to its previous depth of eighteen feet. Using the media as a public education tool, Carr explained that raising the water level that much would put the lives of approximately 25,000 hardwood trees and six to seven hundred acres of land back in jeopardy. F.D.E. struggled to achieve incremental drawdowns of the reservoir until it was finally drained completely, but this still has not happened.47 In the spring of 1972, while the battle over the Rodman water level waged on, canal boosters sought to revive the canal by any means necessary. Proponents distributed procanal bumper stickers in Washington, D.C. before a House Appropriations Committee vote on a $300,000 appropriation for another study of the canals effects on the environment. Boosters contended that the canal would divert water southward from the Ocklawaha and Withlacoochee Rivers, which would help the Everglades. F.D.E.s scientists countered that a c ompleted barge canal would not alter the northward and northeastward flows of the respective rivers. The real 45 Marjorie Harris Carr to President Richard M. Nixon, March 9, 1972, Florida Defenders of the Environment Papers, Box 8. 46 Lake Oklawaha Ordered Lowered, Lakeland Ledger July 25, 1 972. 47 Barge Canal Still Gasping, The Evening Independent October 14, 1972.

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306 purpose of the study was to keep the canal project alive with a fresh injection of federal study funds. The bumper stickers, which were produced by the Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce, said Save the Evergladescomplete the Cross Florida Canal Carr was outraged at canal proponents blatant attempt to secure new funding for the project by conflating it with the popular movement to save the Ever glades. Saving the Everglades has become a national battle cry, she said. Its an unfair tactic. They wouldnt dare distribute those stickers in Florida. But in Washington, they might actually mislead a Congressman into thinking the Everglades would benefit. Congressmen supporting the new canal study included Don Fuqua, Robert Sikes, Bill Chappell and Charles Bennett. Carr criticized Fuqua for joining his three Florida colleagues who had been some of the barge canals staunchest supporters in the request for a new canal appropriation. He has twentysix counties in his district, she said, and only Putnam County is pressing him. He cant say he is doing what the vast majority of constituents want. The day of rubber stamping every project of the vested interests is past. Thats not what Florida wants.48 While Carr formulated F.D.E.s plans for deauthorization and restoration, canal proponents were confident that the court would rule in their favor. The Corps of Engineers conducted its own environmental impact statement so that the canal project would be in compliance with N.E.P.A. The restudy was completed in February 1977. Contrary to initial expectations, the results prompted the Chief of Engineers to recommend against completion of the barge canal, in view of its marginal economic justification and potential adverse environmental impacts. This was exactly what F.D.E. had argued for years. Carr and her allies were elated when President Jimmy Carter requested that Congress officially de authorize of the Cross Florida Barge Canal. Carter also recommended extending the borders of the Ocala 48 Cross Florida Barge Canal Revived in Washington, Sarasota HeraldTribune May 3, 1972.

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307 National Forest in order to protect the Ocklawaha River in the future and urged Congress to consider how to dispose of canal lands and structures. Most importantly, he called for the restoration of the Ocklawaha River and suggested that the river be designated as a Wild and Scenic River. The Secretaries of Agriculture and Army, the Department of the Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Governor and Cabinet of Florida responded to the President on January 27, 1978. They estimated that the cost (at January 1979 price levels) of enacting the Presidents proposals for restoring the Ocklawaha River and disposing of canal lands and facilitie s would be $30,138,000.00. In contrast, they predicted that the cost of completing the canal would be $366,800,000.00.49 Although Nixons involvement in the barge canal dispute appeared at first to have resolved the canal issue at the start of the 1970s, b y the decades close, almost no progress had been made toward the rivers restoration. Although President Carter had called for the deauthorization of the barge canal and the restoration of the Ocklawaha, Congress took no action on either matter. We fin d ourselves in the very peculiar position of having won our fight but not our prime objective, Carr lamented. An impressive array of elected officials vigorously recommend deauthorization of the canal project, including the Florida Legislature, Governor Graham, the Florida Cabinet, Senators Chiles and Stone, you [Fuqua] and twelve other Florida Representatives, and President Carter. And yet because Mr. Chappell and Mr. Bennett, representing a small group of vested interests in Jacksonville, oppose the l egislation, the bill to legally terminate the canal project is stalled.50 49 Michael Blumenfeld, Assistant Secretary of the Army (Civil Works), and Bob Berglan d, Secretary, Department of the Army, to Honorable Walter F. Mondale, President of the Senate, and Honorable Tip ONeill, Speaker of the House of Representatives, April 11, 1979 (F.D.E. Papers, Box 8). 50 Marjorie H. Carr, President to The Honorable Don Fuq ua, October 19, 1979 (F.D.E. Papers, Box 8).

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308 Unless the barge canal was deauthorized at the federal and state levels, it could be restored to active status with ease. Today the canal project is alive and only needs appropriat ion of construction funds to continue on its destructive path, Carr complained to Fuqua. And we citizens are in the anomalous position of having won every battle but not succeeded in saving the Oklawaha and Withlacoochee Rivers, ensuring the protection of the central Floridan Aquifer, and preventing a great waste of taxpayers dollars. The canal project is in limbo and as long as it remains in this state of suspended animation, sixteen miles of the Oklawaha River remain flooded, the lower Withlacoochee s flow is reduced to a damaging level, nearly a million dollars a year are spent maintaining the canal structures, and thousands of acres of right of way lands are tied up that might be used for public and/or private ventures.51 Throughout the 1970s, Congr ess and the Florida Legislature considered legislation calling for the deauthorization and restoration of the Ocklawaha River and the incessant requests of a small but vocal group of barge canal supporters. In 1974, Carr advised the Florida Senates Commi ttee on Natural Resources and Conservation to issue a favorable report on a deauthorization bill, citing the Florida Canal Authoritys lack of responsiveness to the citizens of Florida because the agency still envisages its promotion of the canal as an ongoing project. She reminded the committee that the Florida Cabinet had suspended its support for the canal project in 1972, pending the completion of an updated environmental impact study. Although the Cabinet had rescinded its support for any future canal plans that passed through the Ocklawaha River Valley, the Canal Authoritys plans continued to include the Ocklawaha.52 51 Ibid. 52 Senators Back Measure to Kill Canal Authority, Sarasota HeraldTribune May 14, 1974.

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309 Carr was certain that the barge canal was dead when a 1976 study indicated that the completion of the Cross Florida Barge Canal would have little impact on industrial growth in the region. I would think it would remove the last bit of genuine support for the canal, she said, adding that many very reasonable people had supported the canal on the assumption that it would stimulate industrial development and boost Floridas economy (although F.D.E. had long maintained that t he opposite was true). Carr thought that support for the barge canal would wane upon the release of the independent study, conducted by the Cambridge, Massachuse tts firm Meta Systems, Inc., as part of the court ordered $1.8 million study on the environmental and economic impact of the canal. After ruling that President Nixon had overstepped his authority in halting the canal, a federal judge ordered the studies t o serve as a guide for Congress in determining whether the canal should be completed or terminated. According to the economic study, which was financed by the Environmental Protection Agency, the canal would be located too far from major markets to withstand competition from established industrial centers. Moreover, there were not enough raw materials in the canal area to sustain substantial economic growth in Central Florida.53 Meta Systems findings failed to kill boosters dream of a completed canal. C arr argued that a completed canal would only benefit a small group of Jacksonville businessmen at the expense of the public good. The Florida public is very concerned about the wasteful and destructive project, she told the p ress, stressing that it was unlikely that the Corps would be able to justify the revival of the project. The evidence is so overwhelming that it seems to us there isnt any way they can come out saying the project isn t an economic loser. Carr continued to push for the Ocklawaha s restoration. This area, even though damaged in small areas, can be 53 Barge Canal Report Hailed by Environmental Leader, Sarasota Herald Tribune March 16, 1976.

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310 restored and be a very valuable and productive area for all Flor idians, she insisted. Carr attempted to persuade Floridians that restoration would be more profitable than completing t he canal. Economically, there will be more jobs in restoration than there would be in construction of the canal, she explained. Also, there will be more longterm economic gains from recreation in the [restored river] than there would have been from a canal.54 Carr likened the continuing battle for deauthorization and restoration to the Energizer bunny. Its like that pink rabbit, she reflected. It keeps going and going. Carr kept up the fight, unwilling to take no for an answer. She believed that the outcome of the battle for the Ocklawaha would be indicative of the success of environmental struggles around the globe. This is really symptomatic of any other conservation problem, she purported. The way the Ocklawaha goes is the way the wo rld goes.55 In the 1980s, canal backers continued to stall deauthorization in the hope that the political climate would eventually shift in favor of the completion of the barge canal. U.S. Senator Paula Hawkins supported a canal restudy championed by Bi ll Chappell and Charles Bennett. The proposed $450,000 restudy would reexamine the canals economic benefits. Chappell claimed that the economic restudy would be valuable even if you wanted to blow [the barge canal] up like M rs. Carr wants to do. Carr called the proposed restudy a slice of pork and laid much of the blame for delaying deauthorization upon Chappell. She claimed that the new study was a waste of money and could be completed with a pocket calculator or a piece of paper and a pencil. Carr accused Hawkins of contributing to the delay by failing to clarify her position on the canal. She contended that Hawkins only supported environmental issues only if they 54 Canal Oppone nts to Fight Corps, Palm Beach Post December 5, 1976. 55 The Family Carr, Gainesville Sun December 6, 1993.

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311 benefited her politically.56 Carr also opposed Hawkins plan to preserve the cana l right of way for recreational use without deauthorizing the canal, leaving open the possibility that the canal project could be revived at any time in the future. She called Hawkinss plan frivolous, ridiculous, and nonsensical, adding, t he only reas on not to deauthorize the canal is to build it. Hawkinss stance on deauthorization of the Cross Florida Barge Canal became a campaign issue in 1986, when she lost her bid for reelection to the Senate to former Governor Bob Graham.57 Carr placed longtim e canal booster Bill Chappell between a rock and a hard place when she crafted a measure to use a section of canal rightof way as the site of a national veterans cemetery. In order for the barge canal lands to be used for the cemetery, the canal project would have to be deauthorized. F.D.E.s proposal outraged Chappell, who had fought for years to establish a national veterans cemetery at a different location near the Withlacoochee River.58 The proposed thirtymillion dollar Florida National Cemetery woul d accommodate nearly three hundred thousand grave sites. Carr hoped that the cemetery proposal would finally lead to the canals deauthorization. The state cant wait any longer, she said. Its got to use these resources.59 Chappell mobilized veterans groups behind his original plan for a cemetery near the Withlacoochee, capitalizing upon veterans concerns that the politics of deauthorization might jeopardize the new national veterans cemetery. With close to one and a half million veterans living in Florida, the states three national veterans cemeteries were unable to 56 New Funding for Barge Canal Tucked Into Bill, Ocala Star Banner August 18, 1982; Group Criticizes Hawkins Environmental Record, Ocala Star Banner October 17, 1986; Graham for U.S. Senate, Orlando Sentinel October 5, 1986; Graham Welcomes Hawkins Attack on Environment, Gainesville Sun February 2, 1986; Paula Hawkins Rebuked Over Remarks about Cross Florida Barge Canal Land, Lakel and Ledger August 3, 1984. 57 Hawkins Aides Unveil Barge Canal Proposal, Lakeland Ledger August 4, 1984. 58 New Move Putting Chappell in a Spot on U.S. Cemetery, Sarasota Herald Tribune September 7, 1979. 59 Groups Want Barge Canal Land for New VA Cemetery, St. Petersburg Times January 10, 1983.

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312 accommodate the growing number of World War II veterans who had retired to the state. In 1988 the new cemetery was dedicated in Bushnell, close to the Withlacoochee River.60 In the end, it was better for the Ocklawaha that the cemetery was located elsewhere. When deauthorization finally occurred, none of the former canal lands were sacrificed to development. Carr learned to use the media to educate the public and to shame politicians into doing the right thing for the environment. People at every level we re intimidated by her, Carr s former public relations consultant David Godfrey recalled, because she could put their name in the papers the next day.61 State Senator Dempsey Barron who had repeatedly blocked F.D.E.s efforts to deauthorize the barge canal, told Carr in 1980 that there was no real public support for your point of view.62 After their confrontation, Carr returned to her Tallahassee office and made five phone calls. The following day five major Florida newspapers published editorials calling for deauthorization of the barge canal. We had been sending these papers information right along and keeping them up with developments, Carr explained. So all I had to do was call the editors and let them know the current state of the bill.63 A state legislator once claimed that Carr s mere presence at the Florida State Capitol persuaded legislators to take action on the barge canal issue. All you have to do is walk the hall s, the legislator told Carr. You 60 Nations Newest Veterans Cemetery in Bushnell, Ocala Star Banner March 1, 1988; Veterans React to Cemetery Location: Spokesmen Say Sumter Site is Best, Ocala Star Banner August 10, 1983; VA Looks f or Site for New Veterans Cemetery in Florida, St. Petersburg Times June 7, 1982. 61 Authors interview with David Godfrey, who is now the executive director of the Caribbean Conservation Corporation. 62 Frank Graham, Jr., What Matters Most: The Many Worl ds of Archie and Marjorie Carr, Audubon (March 1982): 93. 63 Graham, Jr., What Matters Most, 94.

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313 dont have to say a word. Just be seen there, and every legislator who sees you will say to himself, Oh, yes. The Barge Canal.64 Despite Carr s influence in Tallahassee, a handful of powerful state politicians had s ucceeded in protecting the interests of a relatively small number of Floridians who wanted to resurrect the canal. These politicians including Barron, Bennett, Chappell, and State Senator George Kirkpatrick managed to railroad F.D.E.s numerous attempts t o deauthorize the ca nal. Well, we almost won, Carr wrote F.D.E. members after another failed attempt at deauthorization in the fall of 1978. But since we didnt we will have to start all over again with the new 96th Congress when it convenes on Januar y 15, 1979. Year after year, Carr was unwilling to accept defeat in F.D.E.s quest to restore the Ocklawaha River. She urged F.D.E.s members to assist the campaign by writing or telephoning their Congressmen and persuading them to support deauthorizati on.65 F.D.E.s grassroots strategy eventually paid off. U.S. Senators Bob Graham and Lawton Chiles sponsored deauthorization legislation with the assistance of Carr and Jack Kaufmann, who made specific recommendations for the initial drafts of the deauthor ization legislation.66 On October 27, 1990, Senate Bill 2740 deauthorized the canal at the federal level. President George H. W. Bush, wishing to be remembered as an environmental President, signed the bill into law on November 28, 1990. On January 22, 1991, the Governor and Cabinet of the State of Florida signed a resolution agreeing to the terms of federal deauthorization, an act that 64 Graham Jr., What Matters Most, 93. 65 Marjorie H. Carr, President to F.D.E. members, November 1, 1978 (F.D.E. Papers, Box 8). 66 Marjorie H. Carr, Co Chai rman and John H. Kaufmann, Co Chairman to Senator Bob Graham, March 21, 1990 (F.D.E. Papers, Box 8); See Senator Bob Grahams revised draft of an amendment to the Water Resources Development Act of 1986, which would provide for deauthorization of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, plus the fax cover sheet that accompanied the draft, which was faxed to Carr in March 1990 (F.D.E. Papers, Box 8).

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314 officially deauthorized the Cross Florida Barge Canal. The Florida Legislature had previously enacted a deauthorization bill that conformed to a bill passed simultaneously in the U.S. Senate, but the state deauthorization could not go into effect until the canal was deauthorized at the federal level. On the date of the canals deauthorization, the lands that had formerly been set aside as canal right of way became the Cross Florida Greenway, a 107 mile nature park.67 Carr never imagined that it would take two decades to deauthorize the Cross Florida Barge Canal. Bill Partington, who was our president back in 1971, told me at the time, You know, now we have another twentyye ar fight ahead of us, Carr recalled. And I said, Bill, youre crazy. But he was right.68 Throughout the endless fight for deauthoriz ation and restoration, Carr remained supportive of her childrens dreams and goals. Although Mimi describes her parents as driven almost to the point of obsession, they were as devoted to their children as they were to conservation and environmental activism Theyre such well adjusted people, my parents, and they enjoyed life so much, Mimi reflected. They were f un to be around.My parents were my best friends. The Carr children said that their mother never let her environmental activism make her a distant or preoccupied mother.69 For thirty five years, Marjorie Carr led the fight to save and restore the Ocklawaha River An effort that started at a small meeting of Aud ubon Society members in 1962 culminated in a successful environmental battle with national ramifications for the local, state, and federal politic ians; the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; and developers across the country. Carr attributed her success to her grassroots organizations ability to harness the power of the 67 Senator Bob Graham, Florida Wins Environmental Victories, December 1990 communication to Grahams constituents (F.D .E. Papers, Box 8.) 68 Managing Growth in State Leads Environmentalists Concerns, Gainesville Sun December 11, 1988. 69 The Family Carr, Gainesville Sun December 6, 1993.

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315 democratic process. We had gained the attention of the decision makers, she expl ained. I think elected officials listen to the public, if the public speaks loudly. Furthermore, the results of not doing whats right for the environment are dreadful, and they will happen fairly quickly. And the rascals will get turned out if they ar e perceived as neglecting the environment.70 As the battle for deauthorization came to a c lose in the late 1980s, Carr remained optimistic about the future of Floridas environment. I think we are at a watershed time, she surmised. One reason Im en couraged is that I do believe that the economic well being of the state is tied to its environmental well being. I think the big businesses realize if you dont have a good environment here in Florida, then businesses will go down the drain. When more pe ople realize that, you will have the business community coming in right behind the environmentalists to work on behalf of the environment. Referring to the practice of condemning land for the construction of an Interstate highway, Carr asked, If they can condemn land for a road, why cant we condemn land for conservation? Our society has already accepted condemnation of land in the public good. I think we just have to define what is the public good. Marjorie Carr and Florida Defenders of the Environ ment convinced the public and politicians that unchecked growth and development in environmentally sensitive areas was not in the public good. Using scientific and economic facts as weapons, they defeated the Cross Florida Barge Canal. To Carr, F.D.E.s success was indicative of the power of the democratic process. In the environmental effort, Carr said at an environmental conference in Key West, I am constantly made aware of the advantages of a democracy. Her speech touted the benefits of an involved, educated, and outspoken public to the environmental movement. Environmental progress, Carr argued, is most likely to occur when the citizenry accepts the responsibility of 70 Managing Growth in State Leads Environmentalists Concerns, Gainesville Sun December 11, 1988.

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316 stewardship and when a democratic government responds to the publics requests. I think thats why the U.S. is extraordinary in the field of the environment, she maintained, and where Florida is a leader, too.71 The strategies F.D.E. employed in its st ruggle to save the Ocklawaha River Valley served as a guide for other environme ntal battles across the nation Environmental groups adapted F.D.E.s environmental impact statement to suit the requirements of their own proje cts for years to come. Carrs resolve inspired other environmentalists to persevere in their own seemingly un winnable campaigns. Environmental organizations from other states sought her expert counsel in their respective battles with nuclear power plants, phosphate mines, industrial pollution, river restoration, and other complex environmental issues. She serve d on the boards of state and local land planning councils, state and national environmental organizations, cooperative efforts between environmentalists and businesses, and environmental education foundations. Carr was a firm believer in the power of cooperation between government, industry, and the citizenry. Unlike the confrontational activists of later environmental group s such as Earth First!, Carr and F.D.E. pro moted civil dialogue Although she did not live to see the Ocklawaha River run free, Marj orie Carr remained optimistic that in the end, the people of Florida would do what was right for the environment. 71 Speech by Marjorie Carr about responsible industry and protecting the [Florida] Keys, A Tale of Two Women: Marjory Stoneman Douglas and Marjorie Carr, Video transcript, Everglades Digital Library Collection (Florida International U niversity, 1985). http://everglades.fiu.edu/two/index.htm (accessed November 25, 2007).

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317 Figure 71. A detail of the completed sections of the Cross Florida Barge Canal Courtesy of the Florida State Archives.

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318 Figure 72. A completed section of the Cross Florida Barge Canal near Palatka on Floridas eastern coast. Photo by Peggy Macdonald

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319 Figure 73. A view of the U.S. 19 bridge over the Cross Florida Barge Canal at Inglis, near the Gulf of Mexico Ph oto by Peggy Macdonald.

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320 Figure 74. The Marjorie Harris Car r Cross Florida Greenway is an uninterrupted wilderness corridor located on the lands formerly designated as barge canal right of way. The state protects all flora and fauna in the greenway Photo by Peggy Macdonald.

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321 Figure 75. Marjorie and Archie Carr each won the New York Zoological Societys Gold Medal for achievement in biological conservation in 1978; in 1988 the society made her a Scientific Fellow. Courtesy of Mimi Carr. Figure 76. Rodman (now George Kirkpatrick) Dam and Reservoir continues to interrupt the natural flow of the Ocklawaha River. Photo by Peggy Macdonald.

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322 Figure 77. Trees killed when Rodman Reservoir flooded the Ocklawaha River Valley in 1968 still drift towa rd Rodman Dam. Photo by Peggy Macdonald. Figure 78. Anglers fish near Rodman Dam; the Ocklawaha River is seen in the distance. Photo by Peggy Macdonald.

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323 Figure 79. A great egret hunts along the banks of the Ocklawaha River near Rodman Dam. T he egret competes with anglers (pictured above) for fish that pass through the dam Photo by Peggy Macdonald.

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324 CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION The creation of a new, national environmental infrastructure contributed to the development of an environmental ethos in the late twentieth century. Still, Marjorie Harris Carr believed that local citizen action was the key to environmental stewardship. In 1970, she reflected upon the role environmentalists had played in defending the environment from unregulated development. Although the last few years have seen the adoption of a growing amount of legislation designed to curb the mindless destruction of the land, the time has grown so late, she cautioned. So little is left and destructive forces have become so strong, tha t if the remaining American landscapes are to be saved, it will only be because groups of conservationists the little oldladies in tennis shoes have learned to take prompt and effective action. Lack of citizen support for the barge canal was a key factor in the eventual cancellation of the project.1 In an article published two weeks after the unprecedented Florida Defenders of the Environment victory over the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Time magazine observed that the demise of the Cross Florida Bar ge Canal was indicative of the increasing role ecology was beginning to play in national politics. President Richard Nixons order to halt construction of the barge canal encouraged conservationists who hope that the Corps of Engineers will shift its foc us from building ecologically questionable canals and dams to more desperately needed projects, such as new sewage systems and water treatment plants, Time reported. At the beginning of the Ocklawaha campaign, most news publications supported the barge c anal project. F.D.E.s lawsuit against the Corps of Engineers supplemented by its path breaking 1 Marjorie Harris Carr, review of George Laycocks The Diligent Destroyers Florida Defenders of the Environme nt Papers, Box 33.

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325 environmental impact statementhad transformed the medias interpretation of the barge canal debate into a battle between sound environmental practices and ecologically questionable canals and dams. The media had become more critical of Corps of Engineers pork projects that satisfied shipping interests, construction interests, and the needs of others who would exploit the earth for profit. However, Congressm en continued to court Corps projects that would direct money and jobs to their districts, and the Corps remained the nations leading director of waterways projects.2 Although environmental concerns were the driving force behind the demise of the barge c anal, F.D.E.s economic argument set an important national precedent for other public works projects. It is the first real confirmation that the benefit cost ratio philosophy has been challenged, University of Florida professor of engineering Olle I. Elgerd noted. It could conceivably have as a result that the whole value system which in the past has laid at the base of all hydro projects will come up for review on a national scale. In this respect the victory on Oklawaha could be as fundamental in the annals of conservation as was Carsons work for turning the pesticide tide. For decades the Corps of Engineers had relied upon the benefit to cost ratio to justify its manipulation of the land. After F.D.E.s victory over the Corps of Engineers, federal agencies would be required to consider the environmental impact of proposed project when deciding if it was in the publics best interest. Moreover, F.D.E. revealed that the Corps was guilty of exaggerating the economic benefits of the canal project in order to receive Congressional funding.3 2 Time February 1, 1971. 3 Olle I. Elgerd to Marjorie Harris Carr, January 26, 1971, Florida Defenders of the Environment Papers, Box 8.

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326 At the time of F.D.E.s victory over the Corps of Engineers, environmental law was still in its infancy. The Miami jetport case was the first environmental lawsuit in Florida. The only environmental laws in ex istence in 1970 were anti pollution and anti dumping laws; no laws were designed specifically to protect the environment, according to David Gluckman, who filed the first environmental lawsuits on behalf of the Sierra Club in Florida in the late 1960s. In 1970, only five national environmental cases served as precedents for environmental litigation. It was the beginning of the movement, Gluckman contended.4 F.D.E.s lawsuit against the Corps of Engineers resulted in the termination of one of the nation s largest public works projects. You have to remember, the Cross Florida Barge Canal was the biggest deal since the digging of the Panama Canal, Nathaniel Reed explained. Marjorie was eventually able to prove that, economically, the barge canal was ni neteenth century thinking.5 Unlike much of the United States, Florida escaped the process of industrialization in the nineteenth century. In many respects, Florida especially Central Florida was lost in time. Hot, humid, and undeveloped, inland Florida was inhospitable to tourists and new residents alike. With the advent of air conditioning and a massive influx of new residents after World War II, this would all change. Veterans who had trained in Florida returned to the state to start a new life after the war. Florida was transformed from the smallest state in the South (and one of the poorest) before the war, to the fourth largest state in the nation by the centurys close. In the absence of any significant efforts to develop regional land planning, developers plans received little scrutiny .6 4 Authors interview with David Gluckman (January 21, 2009). 5 Sand In Her Shoes, River In Her Blo od, St. Petersburg Times November 18, 1996. 6 Bu ddy MacKay with Rick Edmonds, How Florida Happened: The Political Education of Buddy MacKay (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2010), xi xv; and Mormino, Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams

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327 In the postwar era, the proposed barge canal generated debate over the best use of Floridas rivers. Although state leaders had championed the Cross Florida Barge Canal as a means to achieve economic growth, an increasingly vocal group of Floridians contested the states dominant discourse of industrialization and promoted a c ompeting discourse grounded in ecology. While canal proponents viewed the Ocklawaha, St. Johns, and Withlacoochee Rivers as transporta tion routes that should be utilized to facilitate commerce in Central Florida, Carr and her colleagues argued that riversparticularly the undisturbed Ocklawaha River were central to the health of their respective ecosystems, and that industry threatened t he stability of these ecosystems. Carr succeeded in translating the complex new language of ecology to the masses. She harnessed the power of the media, which initially supported construction of the barge canal as a means to foster economic growth in Cent ral Florida, to inform the public about the importance of preserving the integrity of the Ocklawaha Regional Ecosystem. After suffering a crushing defeat at the 1966 public hearing in the states capital, Carr transformed a local campaign to reroute the barge canal around the Ocklawaha River Valley to a national effort to prevent the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and similar federal agencies from completing pork barrel projects planned without considering their effects on the environment. Florida Defenders of the Environments environmental impact statement challenged the conservation ethos of federal agencies that manipulated natural resources for profit and furthered the nations transition to an environmental awareness grounded in the science of ecology. Once construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal was halted, when the official court ordered economic and environmental impact studies had been completed, and even after the Corps of Engineers recommended against completing the canal, proponents continued to sponsor

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328 legislation authorizing expensive economic restudies designed to keep the dream of the canal alive until the political climate shifted in favor of finishing the partially constructed canal, until the barge canal project was finally deauthorized nearly half a century after its initial authorization during World War II. Carrs opposition to the barge canal stemmed from a personal connection to the natural beauty of North Central Florida, which was her home for sixty years. Whenever she left hom e, she traveled along U.S. Highway 441. Heading north, she passed through Paynes Prairie on the way to Gainesville, taking in changing scenery that included prehistoric animals such as alligators, when heavy rains flooded the prairie, and an assortment of native and migratory birds (sandhill cranes, egrets, ibises, and hawks soaring above the pr airie in search of food) Even if there was not enough time to stop the car and listen to the frogs singing in the tall grasses or the clicking of cicadas in the t rees, a short drive through the prairie was enough to recharge Carrs soul and remind her what she was fighting for. In 1964, when Interstate 75 replaced these sounds with the roar of thousands of automobiles cutting through her own backyard, she became determined to stand up for the North Central Florida environment. Carrs strong sense of place kept her involved in science, conservation, and environmental activism in spite of t he powerful institutional barriers that had prevented her from maintaining a f ormal career in zoology. Her affiliation with the University of Florida, where she was both an alumna of the schools graduate program in zoology and an associate of the Florida Museum of Natural History, and her status as the wife of one of the worlds l eading turtle experts and a pioneer in the field of conservation biology, provided her with the resources she would draw upon over the course of a nearly fortyyear career in conservation and en vironmental activism that ultimately preserved not only the Oc klawaha River but also much of what remains

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329 of the North Central Florida landscape. Although Archie Carr lent whatever support he could to his wifes conservation and environmental activities, he was preoccupied with his own research and conservation age nda. Archie credited his wife with being the militant one whose optimism, dedication, and persistence were responsible for preserving and restoring Paynes Prairie and Lake Alice; for stopping the University of Florida from building a four lane throughwa y and twothousandcar parking garage that would have destroyed the lake; for preventing the construction of a Jacksonville to Tampa turnpike that would have further damaged Paynes Prairie, disrupted the rural charm of historic Micanopy, and damaged other environmentally sensitive lands in Central Florida; and saving the Ocklawaha River. Marjorie Carr contributed to the awakening of Floridas environmental consciousness by making ecology accessible to the citizenry, and she inspired citizens across the nat ion to use the activist science of ecology to improve the environment in their own communities, at the local level, by gathering relevant scientific and economic information and using the media to convey that information to the public and politicians. Carr s approach to environmental activism was cutting edge. Beginning with her 1965 Florida Naturalist essay, she conveyed a complex ecological message in plain words that anyone could understand, elucidating the threat that ill conceived development posed to Floridas fragile ecosystems. Carr understood the ecological ramifications of the Corps of Engineers proposal to build a canal along the Ocklawaha River, including the damage it would cause to the Floridan Aquifer. Moreover, she felt a personal connect ion to the river, which she had known since she was a young scientist. She was outraged that the river would be sacrificed in the name of (dubious) economic progress. Its the same outrage one feels upon hearing that a man took a

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330 hammer and wrecked the Pieta, Carr explained. It should be saved because it is a beautiful, unique river.7 In the absence of a scholarly biography of Marjorie Carr, her importance to the national environmental movement of the late twentieth century is at risk of being forgot ten. Many of the key players in the environmental revolution have die d or retired. Indeed, Carrs name is slipping from the minds of some of the politicians with whom she worked closely. This problem might have been exacerbated by her choice to play the part of the housewife. Carr projected the image of domesticity by emphasizing her status as Archies wife, referring to herself as Mrs. Carr in her dealings with the media and politicians. Bob Graham, Floridas former governor and a retired U.S. Senat or, worked closely with Carr on legislation to deauthorize the barge canal and other environmental issues. Yet he did not immed iately recognize her name in a 2005 interview. After being reminded of Carrs efforts to stop construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, Graham still could not recall who she was. Upon hearing that she was the wife of Archie Carr, however, Graham responded animatedly, OhhhMrs. Carr!8 Although Marjorie Carrs name is still remembered among Floridas older generation of environmentalists, Carr and the Ocklawaha River itself are not familiar to Floridas younger generations of environmentalists. Moreover, Carrs leadership of the campaign to save the Ocklawaha River is seldom addressed in national histories of the environmen tal movement, although her campaign served as a model for other environmental campaigns across the nation. Carr attempted to branch out in new directions in the 1980s and 1990s, but F.D.E.s efforts to deauthorize the Cross Florida Barge Canal and restore the Ocklawaha River Valley 7 Foc us on Housewife Who Roared, Christian Science Monitor July 20, 1973 8 Authors 2005 interview with Senator Bob Graham at the launching ceremony for the Bob Graham Center for Public Service, now located in Pugh Hall at the University of Florida.

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331 continued to demand most of her time. F.D.E.s membership had expanded from fewer than four hundred members at the start of the Ocklawaha campaign to approximat ely 2,000 members, with Carr still at the helm of the organization of volunteer experts.9 In addition to leading the Ocklawaha campaign, Carr and F.D.E. directed efforts to manage growth in Florida and worked to restore and preserve threatened wetlands and rivers, including the Apalachicola, Suwannee, Wekiva, and St. Johns, whichlike the Ocklawaha was in need of restoration. She envisioned F.D.E. taking a leading role in the drive to preserve as much as possible of what remained of natural Florida. To keep samples of our original landscapes here in Florida, whether in hammocks, coastlines, scrubs, wetlands or swampstha ts a worthwhile goal, Carr maintained. She looked forward to the day when Florida would restore the Kissimmee River, Lake Okeechobee, and the Everglades.10 Carr emphasized the importance of maintaining close relationships with government and industry in order to craft responsible solutions for the environment. This was the primary motivation behind F.D.E.s establishment of the Environmental Service Center in Tallahassee, where F.D.E. could monitor legi slation and involve its coalition of volunteer specialists in solving any problems that might arise. Instead of antagonizing developers and industrialists, Carr partnered with them where appropriate to further her environmental goals. Because a strong ec onomy in Florida depends upon a healthy environment and sustainable development, she was confident that businesses would make decisions that were in the best interests of the environment. Carr believed that citizens, government, and industry should work t ogether to protect Floridas future. For example, she suggested that the Florida Chamber of Commerce, the 9 Conse rvationists Oppose Highway, Miami News November 25, 1988. 10 Managing Growth in State Leads Environmentalists Concerns, Gainesville Sun December 11, 1988.

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332 Department of Natural Resources, and local and state departments of tourism assume a leading role in teaching new residents and touris ts about the en vironment by using the media to coordinate a public education program. Florida s longstanding debate over economic growth versus environmental stewardship continues in the twenty first century.11 Marjorie and Archie Carr s relationship began and ended wit h science. As they aged, they were too immersed in their careers to consider retirement. They were for most of their lives rather happy people, I believe, Mimi observed. Towards the end of their lives they we re very driven. While Carr continued to lead Florida Defenders of the Environments drive to deauthorize the canal, Archie remained immersed in his sea turtle research. In the mid 1980s, he was diagnosed with stomach cancer. I dont think he had any inkling the cancer was coming on, Mimi ref lected. Archie had a fear of doctors, which might have been caused by the traumatic development of osteomyelitis in his youth. By the time doctors discovered Archies stomach cancer, it was too late to put up much of a fight. Archie died at home in Mica nopy on May 21, 1987. Soon after Archies death, Carr s health began to deteriorate. Mother was, of course, just slowly destroying herself with the smoking, Mimi recalled.12 Carr developed emphysema, a smokinginduced disease that results in irreversib le damage to the lungs. The disease progresses slowly, culminating in what is commonly referred to as end stage emphysema, in which only thirty percent of the patients lungs are still able to function and the risk of contracting lunch infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis is 11 A Tale of Two Women: Marjory Stoneman Douglas and Marjorie Carr, Video transcript, Everglades Digital Library Collection (Florida International University, 1985). http://everglades.fiu.edu/two/index.htm (accessed November 25, 2007). 12 Authors interview with Mimi Carr (July 8, 2006).

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333 elevated.13 Emphysema reduced Carr s mobility rapidly. In the early 1990s, she moved from the family farm in Micanopy to a Gainesville duplex developed by Rodman Reservoir proponent George Kirkpatrick. Mimi left behind an acting career in Oregon and moved in with her mother, who was on oxygen and required full time car e. Carr continued to campaign on behalf of the Ocklawaha from home, remaining optimistic that she would live to see its restoration. Buddy MacKay, who worked t o dismantle the barge canal project as a Congressman and state lawmaker, described the death of the canal as one of the real happy endings in the entire American environmental movement. He was instrumental in urging the Florida Legislature to name the C ross Florida Greenway after Marjorie Carr.14 Although she was honored by this gesture Carr would have been more pleased if the Legislature had resolved to restore the Ocklawaha River. Restoration remained plagued by problems of financing and contesting vi sions of the Ocklawahas future. Estimates of the total cost of removing the existing barge canal structures including Rodman Dam and Reservoir and restoring the river to its natural course varied wildly, but with a likely price tag in the millions of dol lars, the expense was too great for private charities and environmental organizations to cover without government assistance. Not only was restoration expensive, it was controversial as well. Bill Chappell and George Kirkpatrick prevented the passage of deauthorization and restoration legislation at the federal and state levels year after year, touting the reservoirs benef its as a bass fishery. Carr claimed that very few people opposed the Ocklawahas restoration, but those who did were obsessed with maintaining Rodman Reservoir. She further maintained that bass anglers who opposed restoration ought to be ashamed of themselves. Restoring the Ocklawaha would not 13 L ife Expectancy with End Stage Emphysema, http://www.babyboomercaretaker.com/funeral/life expectancy/LifeExpectancy With End Stage Emp hysema.html (accessed January 4, 2010). 14 Park Should be Named for Carr, Says Chiles, Gainesville Sun March 2, 1994.

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334 detr act from local fishing, Carr argued, since nearby Lake George provided excellent fi shing and recreation opportunities in a more natural setting than the artificial Rodman impoundment, which was expensive to maintain.15 In the f inal years of her life, Carr was tethered to an oxygen tank. The emphysema restricted her travel and sapped he r energy. Nonetheless, she remained the symbolic leader of F.D.E.s fight for restoration of the Ocklawaha, lobbying over the phone and through letters to politicians, including Senator Bob Graham, who made house calls to discuss proposed legislation. In order to continue her work as F.D.E .s president emeritus, Carr converted her bedroom into a working office with a desk, filing cabinet, and telephone. The centers of power are o nly a phone call away, she maintained.16 She continued to harness the power ful tool of the media, contributing fact filled commentaries to Florida newspa pers. In November 1996 Carr was inducted into the Florida Womens Hall of Fame, but she was too ill to attend the ceremony. Shortly afterward she endured a monthlong hospitali zation for respiratory distress. Upon her release, Carr gradually resumed her efforts to remove Rodman Dam and secure restoration.17 Carr remained steadfast in her belief that there was still time to save the Ocklawaha River. She envisioned a time after the dam was breached and the reservoir was drained, when the springs underneath the flooded section of the river would help it resume its original course, the forested valley would return to its former glory, the Ocklawahas water quality would improve, a nd the water creatures that were unable to pass through the dam (and often died 15 A Restoration Effort: Activist Recalls Fight to Let the River Run, Gainesville Sun June 13, 1997. 16 A Tale of Two Women: Marjor y Stoneman Douglas and Marjorie Carr, Video transcript, Everglades Digital Library Collection (Florida International University, 1985). http://everglades.fiu.edu/two/index.htm (accessed November 25 2007). 17 Ibid.; authors interview with David Godfrey (December 19, 2008); authors interview with Mimi Carr (July 8, 2006).

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335 trying) would resume their normal migration along the river. Once the dam is gone, Carr predicted, the manatees will be able to come up there during the winter. What a sight that will be. How lovely that will be.18 Tragically, it was a vision that Carr would never see come to fruition. On October 10, 1997, after living with end stage e mphysema for two years, she lost h er battle with the disease. Carr died at age eighty two without having the chance to see her beloved river run free. Each of her five children remained involved in conservation and environmental activism after their parents death. Mimi supplemented a professional acting career with documentary projects and public appearances for F.D.E. Longtime F.D.E. activist Joe Little has observed that engaging Mimi in a conversation is like talking with her mother. Chuck followed in his parents footsteps closely. Like his mother, he earned a bachelor of science de gree at Florida State University and a master of science degree at the University of Florida. He completed a doctorate in estuarine ecology at the University of Michigan. Chuck became a regional coordinator for the Wildlife Conservation Society and direc ted conservation projects in Central America and the Caribbean. Steve worked to restore the sturgeon, a primitive and highly endangered fish, to the Suwannee River. Tom produced aerial surveys of mega fauna including native species such as manatees and s ea turtlesfor several national and international organizations. David served as F.D.E.s research director in the 1980s and worked as the executive director of the Caribbean Conservation Corporation before embarking upon other conservation activities. I n 1999, he founded the Conservation Trust for Florida, a non profit land trust modeled after F.D.E. and 18 Gainesville Sun June 13, 1997.

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336 dedicated to the preservation of the states rural landscapes. All of the Carr children still reside in Alachua County.19 In 1998, the Florida Legislatu re dedicated the former canal right of way to Carr renaming it the Marjorie Harris Carr Cross Florida Greenway. Stretching from the Gulf Coast to the Atlantic, the greenways uninterrupted span of habitat supports a diverse assortment of native flora and fauna and provides Floridians and tourists with a variety of recreational opportunities. Yet the Ocklawaha River remains blocked by Rodman Dam, which was renamed the George Kirkpatrick Dam to honor its greatest supporter. The dam costs between $150,000 and $500,000 annually to maintain. Florida Defenders of the Environment and other environmental organizations continue the campaign for restoration, with no end in sight. In the absence of Marjorie Carr s leadership, the battle for restoration continues while the Ocklawaha River Valley holds its breath.20 19 The Family Carr, Gainesville Sun December 6, 1993; speech by Marjorie Carr about responsible industry and protecting the [Florida] Keys, A Tale of Two Women: Marjory Stoneman Douglas and Marjorie Carr, Video transcript, Everglades Digital Library Collection (Florida International University, 1985); http://everglades.fiu.edu/two/index.htm (accessed November 25, 2007). 20 Authors interview with Mimi Carr (July 8, 2006); Florida Defenders of the Environment staff, Conservationists File Notice of Intent to Sue for Enforcement of Endangere d Species Act in the Maintenance of Rodman Reservoir, The Monitor 23 (2005), 3.

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337 LIST OF REFERENCES Pnina G. Abir Am and Dorinda Outram, eds., Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science, 17891979 (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1987). Peter Alden et al, Nati onal Audubon Society Field Guide to Florida (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998). Lars Andersen, Paynes Prairie: A History of the Great Savanna (Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc., 2001). Karen Anderson, Wartime Women: Sex Roles, Family Relations, and the Status of Women During World War II (Westport, Connecticut and London, 1981). Allen H. Andrews, A Yank Pioneer in Florida: Recounting the Adventures of a City Chap Who Came to the Wilds of South Florida in the 1890s and Remained to Grow Up Wit h the Country (Jacksonville, Florida: Press of the Douglas Printing Company, 1950). Raymond Arsenault, St. Petersburg and the Florida Dream, 18881950 (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996). Helen S. Astin and Mary Beth Snyder, Womens Educ ation and Career Choice: Disparities Between Theory and Practice, in Elizabeth Fennema and M. Jane Ayer, ed., Women and Education: Equity or Equality? (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984). Authors interviews with Mimi Carr, Tom Carr, Archie Fairly Carr III, David Anthony, J. C. Dickinson, Jr., Dick Franz, David Gluckman, David Godfrey, Joe Little, Elizabeth Powell, JoAnn Valenti, Elizabeth Wing, Nick Williams. Kendall E. Bailes, ed., Environmental History: Critical Issues in Comparative P erspective (Lanham, M.D.: University Press of America, 1985). Cynthia Barnett, Mirage: Florida and the Vanishing Water of the Eastern U.S. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2007). Nancy Bell Bates, East of the Andes and West of Nowhere: A N aturalists Wife in Colombia (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1947). Charles E. Bennett, Early History of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, The Florida Historical Quarterly Vol. 15 (October 1966): 132144. Gordon E. Bigelow, Frontier Eden: The Literary Career of Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1980).

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338 Cameron Binkley, No Better Heritage than Living Trees: Womens Clubs and Early Conservation in Humboldt County, The Western Historical Quarterly 33 (Summer, 2002), 179203. T. Jean Blocker and Douglas Lee Eckberg, Environmental Issues as Womens Issues: General Concerns and Local Hazards, Social Science Quarterly 70:3 (September, 1989): 586593. Elizabeth Blum, Pink and Green: A Comparative Study of Blac k and White Womens Environmental Activism in the Twentieth Century (Ph.D. Diss., University of Houston, 2000). -----, Linking American Womens History and Environmental History: A Preliminary Historiography, http://www.hnet.org/~environ/historiography/uswomen.htm Marcia Myers Bonta, Women in the Field: Americas Pioneering Women Naturalists (College Station, Texas: Texas A&M Press, 1991). Ruth Bordin, Women at Michigan: The Dangerous Experiment, 1870s to the Present (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1999). Peter J. Bowler, The Norton History of the Environmental Sciences (New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company, 1993). Mary Joy Breton, Women Pioneers for the Environment (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1998), especially 245250. Mary Ann Burg, Kevin McCarthy, Phyllis Meek, Constance Shehan, Anita Spring, Nina Stoyan Rosenzweig, and Betty Taylor, Women at the University of Florida (published by the University of Floridas 150th Anniversary Committee, 2003). Gene M. Burnett, The Granddaddy of Boondoggles, in Burnett, Floridas Past: People & Events That Shaped the State, Volume 2 (Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, 1988). Al Burt, Al Burts Florida: Snowbirds, Sand Castles, and Self Rising Crackers (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997). Margaret M. Caffrey and Patricia A. Francis, ed s ., To Cherish the Life of the World: Selected Letters of Margaret Mead (New York: Basic Books 2006). Archie and Marjorie Carr Papers, in Private Collection of Mimi Carr. Archie Fairly Carr, Jr. Papers, P.K. Yonge Library, University of Florida. Archie Carr, A Naturalist in Florida: A Celebration of Eden (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994), ed. Marjorie Harris Carr. -----, High Jungles and Low 2nd ed. (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1992).

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339 -----, Ulendo: Travels of a Naturalist In and Out of Africa (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993). Marjorie Harris Carr, fo reword to Ronald L. Myers and John J. Ewel, eds. Ecosystems of Florida (Orlando, 1990), xi xiii. -----, The Oklawaha River Wilderness, The Florida Naturalist 38 (August 1965). -----, What do users want? Wilderness! Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Section of the Society of American Foresters, 1967 (6 9) -----, The Fight to Save the Ocklawaha, presented to the 12th Biennial Sierra Club Wilderness Conference, Washington, D.C., September 25, 1971. -----, An Interim Report on the Cross Florida Barge Canal, In Defense of Rivers, A Citizens Workbook: Impacts of Dam and Canal Projects (published by the Delaware Valley Conservation Association), 13846. -----, foreword to Peggy Cavanaugh and Margaret Spontak, Protecting Paradise: 300 Ways to Protect Floridas Environment (Fairfield, Florida: Phoenix Publishing, 1992). -----, foreword to Archie Carr, High Jungles and Low 2nd ed. (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1992). Marjorie Carr/Jack Kaufmann: Fixing a Brok en River, in People Who Make a Difference: Americans from All Walks of Life are Taking Extraordinary Steps to Safeguard Wildlife and the Environment, National Wildlife (October/November 1992, 30: 6), https://www.nwf.org/NationalWildlife/article.cfm?issueID=91&articleID=1254 (accessed February 2, 2009). Rachel Carson, Silent Spring 40th anniversary edition (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002). Luther Carter, The Florida Experience: Land and Water Policy in a Growth State Johns Hopkins Press (Baltimore), 1975). Robert A. Catlin, Land Use Planning, Environmental Protection and Growth Management: The Florida Experience (Chelsea, Michigan: Ann Arbor Press, 1997). Everett Caudle interview with Marjorie Harris Carr, April 24, 1989, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program, University of Florida. Robert Clarke, Ellen Swallow: The Woman Who Founded Ecology (Chicago: Follett Publishing Company, 1973)

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340 Lizabeth Cohen, A Consumers Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America (New York: 2003). Jere Cohen, Protestantism and Capitalism: The Mechanisms of Influence (Hawthorne, New York: Aldine de Gruyter), 2002. David R. Colburn and Lance deHaven Smith, Floridas Megatrends: Critical Issues in Florida (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002). -----, Government in the Sunshine State: Florida Since Statehood (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1999). Nancy F. Cott, The Grounding of Modern Feminism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987). -----, The Bonds of Womanhood: Womans Sphere in New England, 17801835 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997). Raymond E. Crist, The Citrus Industry in Florida, America n Journal of Economics and Sociology 15:1 (October, 1955). William Cronon, Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England (New York: Hill and Wang, 1983). Leonore Davidoff and Catherine Hall, Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the Middle Class, 17801850 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991). Frederick Rowe Davis, The Man Who Saved Sea Turtles: Archie Carr and the Origins of Conservation Biology (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007). -----Get the Facts and Then Act: How Marjorie H. Carr and Florida Defenders of the Environment Fought to Save the Ocklawaha River, Florida Historical Quarterly 83 (Summer 2004): 4669. Jack E. Davis, An Environmental Providence: Marjory Stoneman Douglas and the American Environmental Century (Athens and London: The University of Georgia Press, 2009). Jack E. Davis and Kari Frederickson, eds., Making Waves: Female Activists in Twentieth Century Florida (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003). Jack E Davis and Raymond Arsenault, eds., Paradise Lost: The Environmental History of Florida (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2005). Natalie Zemon Davis, Women on the Margins: Three SeventeenthCentury Lives (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995). Mark Derr, Some Kind of Paradise: A Chronicle of Man and the Land in Florida (New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1989).

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341 Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Everglades: River of Grass (Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc., 1947, 1988). R iley E. Dunlap and Angela G. Mertig, eds., American Environmentalism: The U.S. Environmental Movement, 19701990 (Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis, 1992). R. Thomas Dye, The Rosewood Massacre: History and the Making of Public Policy, The Public His torian 19:3 (Summer 1997), 2539. R. Thomas Dye, Larry E. Rivers, David R. Colburn, William R. Rogers, and Maxine D. Jones, A Documented History of the Incident Which Occurred at Rosewood, Florida in January, 1923: A Report Submitted to the Florida Board of Regents, December 1993, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee, Florida. Linda Eisenmann, Higher Education for Women in Postwar America, 19451965 (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006). Robert Elman, Americas Pioneering Naturalists: Their Lives and Times, Exploits and Adventures (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Winchester Press, 1982). Paul Lawrence Farber, Finding Order in Nature: The Naturalist Tradition from Linnaeus to E. O. Wilson, Johns Hopkins Introductory Series in the History of Science (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000). Saul D. Feldman, Escape from the Dolls House: Women in Graduate and Professional School Education (New York: McGrawHill, 1974). Pork Barrel and Pheasant Feathers video, directed by Holly Fisher, 1966. Maureen A. Flanagan, The City Profitable, the City Livable: Environmental Policy, Gender, and Power in Chicago in the 1910s, Journal of Urban History 22 (January 1996), 163190. J. Brooks Flippen, Nixon and the Environment (Albuquerque: Uni versity of New Mexico Press, 2000). Florida Defenders of the Environment (F.D.E.) Papers, P.K. Yonge Library, University of Florida; and F.D.E. office, N.W. 13th Street, Gainesville, Florida. Florida Defenders of the Environment, Environmental Impact o f the Cross Florida Barge Canal with Special Emphasis on the Oklawaha Regional Ecosystem (Gainesville, 1970). -----, Restoring the Ocklawaha River Ecosystem (Gainesville, Florida: Florida Defenders of the Environment, 1990).

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342 Noralee Frankel and Nancy S. Dye, eds., Gender, Class, Race, and Reform in the Progressive Era (Lexington, Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky, 1991). Michael Gannon, ed., The New History of Florida (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996). Sherna Berger Gluck, Ros ie the Riveter Revisited: Women, the War, and Social Change (Boston, 1987). Claudia Goldin, Lawrence F. Katz, and Ilyana Kuziemko, The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap, Journal of Economic Perspectives 20:4 (Fall 2006), 133156. Robert Gottlieb, Forcing the Spring: The Transformation of the American Environmental Movement (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1993). Frank Graham, Jr., What Matters Most: The Many Worlds of Archie and Marjorie Carr, Audubon ( March 1982): 93. -----, The Audubon Ark: A History of the National Audubon Society (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990). Elizabeth Grossman, Watershed: The Undamming of America (New York: Counterpoint, 2002). Michael Grunwald, The Swamp: The Everglades, Florida, and the Politics of Paradise (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006). Courtney T. Hackney and S. Marshall Adams, Aquatic Communities of the Southeastern United States: Past, Present, and Future, in Hackney, Adams, and William H. Martin, eds., Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States: Aquatic Communities (New York, 1992), 747760. Mark W. T. Harvey, A Symbol of Wilderness: Echo Park and the American Conservation Movement (Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 2000). Susa n Hartmann, The Other Feminists: Activists in the Liberal Establishment (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1998). -----, From Margin to Mainstream: American Women and Politics since 1960 (New York: Knopf, 1989). -----, The Home Front and Beyond: American Women in the 1940s (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1982). Samuel P. Hays, Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The Progressive Conservation Movement, 18901920 (Cambridge, 1959).

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343 Carla Hesse, The Other Enlightenment: How Frenc h Women Became Modern (Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2001). Charles H. Hildreth and Merlin G. Cox, History of Gainesville, Florida, 18541979 (published by the Alachua County Historical Society, 1981). Martha Hodes, The Sea Captains Wife: A True Story of Love, Race, and War in the Nineteenth Century (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006). Elizabeth Hoffman and Gary D. Libecap, Institutional Choice and the Development of U.S. Agricultural Policies in the 1920s, The Journal of Economic Hi story 51:2 (June 1991), 397411. Helen Lefkowitz Horowitz, Alma Mater: Design and Experience in the Womens Colleges from Their Nineteenth Century Beginnings to the 1930s 2nd Edition (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993). Ruth Hubbard, Th e Politics of Womens Biology (New Brunswick and London: Rutgers University Press, 1990). Lee Irby, A Passion for Wild Things: Marjorie Harris Carr and the Fight to Free a River, in Jack E. Davis and Karl Frederickson, eds., Making Waves: Female Activists in Twentieth Century Florida (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003). -----, The Big Ditch: The Rise and Fall of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, in Paradise Lost? The Environmental History of Florida, ed. Jack E. Davis and Raymond Arse nault (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2005). From Waterway to Greenway: The History of the CrossFlorida Barge Canal DVD, directed by Darren Preston Lane (Gainesville, Florida: forthcoming, 2010). George Laycock, The Diligent Destroyers (Ne w York: Ballantine Books, 1970). Helen Lefkowitz Horowitz, Alma Mater: Design and Experience in the Womens Colleges from their Nineteenth Century Beginnings to the 1930s 2nd edition (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993). Geoffrey Kabaservice, The Guardians: Kingman Brewster, His Circle, and the Rise of the Liberal Establishment (New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 2004). Polly Welts Kaufman, National Parks and the Womans Voice: A History (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico P ress, 1996). Morton and Phyllis Keller, Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of Americas University (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001).

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344 Linda K. Kerber, Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980). -----, No Constitutional Right to Be Ladies: Women and the Obligations of Citizenship (New York: Hill and Wang, 1998). Alice Kessler Harris, In Pursuit of Equity: Men, Women, and the Quest for Economic Citizenship in 20thCentury America (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001). Helen L. Kohen, Perfume, Postcards, and Promises: The Orange in Art and Industry, The Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts 23 (Florida Theme Issue, 1998), 3347. Sally Kohl stedt, ed., History of Women in the Sciences: Readings from Isis (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999). Shepard Krech III, J.R. McNeill, and Carolyn Merchant, eds., Encyclopedia of World Environmental History (New York: Routledge, 2004). Ange l Kwolek Folland, Incorporating Women: A History of Women and Business in the United States (New York: Twayne, 1998). Thomas Laqueur, Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990). Linda Lear, Rach el Carson: Witness for Nature (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1997). Nancy C. Lutkehaus, Margaret Mead: The Making of an American Icon ( Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2008). Mark Hamilton Lytle, The Gentle Subversive: Rachel C arson, Silent Spring, and the Rise of the Environmental Movement (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007). Buddy MacKay with Rick Edmonds, How Florida Happened: The Political Education of Buddy MacKay (Gainesville: University Press of Flori da, 2010). John K. Mahon, History of the Second Seminole War: 1835 1842 (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1985). Simon E. Malo, El Zamorano: Meeting the Challenge of Tropical America (Manhattan, Kansas: Simbad Books, 1999). Chapter 18, Environmental Rumblings and Radical Ideas, contains three articles on the Carrs: Archie F. Carr, Jr.: A Scientist with the Soul of a Poet, The Ornithologist Wife Writes for the Folks Back Home, and The Carr Legacy and Challenge: Avoid Chainsaw Massa cres. Jo Burr Margadant, ed., The New Biography: Performing Femininity in NineteenthCentury France (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000).

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345 Elaine Tyler May, Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era (New York: Basic Books, 1988). Amy Thompson McCandless, The Past in the Present: Womens Higher Education in the Twentieth Century American South (Tuscaloosa and London: The University of Alabama Press, 1999). Mary C. McComb, Great Depression and the Middle Class: Experts, Collegiate Youth and Business Ideology, 19291941 (New York and London: Routledge, 2006). Carolyn Merchant, Women of the Progressive Conservation Movement: 19001916, Environmental Review 8 (Spring 1984): 5785. -----, Reinventing Eden: The Fate of Nature in Western Culture (New York: Routledge, 2003). -----, The Columbia Guide to American Environmental History (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002). -----, Earthcare: Women and the Environment (New York: Routledge, 1996). -----, Ecologic al Revolutions: Nature, Gender, and Science in New England (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989). -----, The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the Scientific Revolution (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1980). Joanne Meyerowitz, ed., Not June Cleaver: Women and Gender in Postwar America, 19451960 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994). Sallie Rowe Middleton, Cutting Through Paradise: A Political History of the Cross Florida Barge Canal (unpublished dissertation, Flori da International University, 2001). Ruth Milkman, Gender at Work: The Dynamics of Job Segregation by Sex During World War II (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987). Char Miller and Hal Rothman, eds., Out of the Woods: Essays in Environmental His tory (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1997). Clarence L. Mohr and Joseph E. Gordon, Tulane: The Emergence of a Modern University, 19451980 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2001). The Monitor, F.D.E.s monthly newsletter, Florida Defenders of the Environment office. Regina Markell MorantzSanchez, Sympathy and Science: Women Physicians in American Medicine (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985).

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346 Gary Mormino, Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams: A Social Hist ory of Modern Florida (Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 2005). Ronald L. Myers and John J. Ewel, eds., Ecosystems of Florida (Orlando: University of Central Florida Press, 1990), foreword by Marjorie Harris Carr. T. H. Napier, The Southern State College for Women, Peabody Journal of Education 18:5 (March 1941), 268275. Louise Newman, White Womens Rights: The Racial Origins of Feminism in the United States (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999). -----, ed., Mens I deas/Womens Realities: Popular Science, 18701915 (New York: Pergamon Press, 1985). -----, Coming of Age, but Not in Samoa: Reflections on Margaret Mead's Legacy for Western Liberal Feminism, in Lois W. Banner and Dolores Janiewski, eds., Reading Be nedict/Reading Mead: Feminism, Race and Imperial Visions (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 5169. Richard Newman, Rosewood Revisited, Transition 80 (1999), 3239. Steven Noll and David Tegeder, Ditch of Dreams: The Cross Florida Barge Canal and the Struggle for Floridas Future (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009). Kari Norgaard and Richard York, Gender Equality and State Environmentalism, Gender and Society 19 (August 2005). Dan A. Oren, Joining the Club: A Histor y of Jews and Yale Second Edition (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000). Claude Pepper Papers, Mildred & Claude Pepper Library, Tallahassee, Florida. Lynn Peril, College Girls: Bluestockings, Sex Kittens, and Coeds, Then and Now (New York and London: W. W. Norton and Company, 2006). Daniel J. Philippon, Conserving Words: How American Nature Writers Shaped the Environmental Movement (Athens and London: University of Georgia Press, 2004). John B. Pickard, Floridas Eden: An Illustrated History o f Alachua County (Gainesville, Florida: Maupin House, 1994). Harold L. Platt, Jane Addams and the Ward Boss Revisited: Class, Politics, and Public Health in Chicago, 18901930, Environmental History 5 (April 2000), 194222.

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347 Leslie Kemp Poole intervie w with Marjorie Harris Carr, October 18, 1990 and Februa ry 4, 1991, transcript at Florida Defenders of the Environment office, Gainesville. -----, The Women of the Early Florida Audubon Society: Agents of History in the Fight to Save State Birds, Flori da Historical Quarterly 85 (Winter 2007), 297323. Jennifer Price, Flight Maps: Adventures with Nature in Modern America (New York: Basic Books, 1999). Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Cross Creek (New York: Touchstone Books, published by Simon and Schuster, 1996). Richard Rhodes, John James Audubon: The Making of an American (New York: Alfred A. Knopf: Distributed by Random House, 2004). Sharon Lee Rich and Ariel Phillips, eds., Womens Experience and Education (Cambridge: Harvard Educational Review Reprint Series No. 17, 1985). Robert W. Righter, The Battle Over Hetch Hetchy: Americas Most Controversial Dam and the Birth of Modern Environmentalism (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005). Glenda Riley, Women and Nature: Saving the Wild West (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999). Mary Louise Roberts, Disruptive Acts: The New Woman in Finde Sicle France (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2002). -----, Acting Up: The Feminist Theatrics of Marguerite Durand, F rench Historical Studies Vol. 19, No. 4, Special Issue: Biography (Autumn, 1996), 11031138. Sonya O. Rose, Limited Livelihoods: Gender and Class in NineteenthCentury England (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1992). Margaret Rossiter, Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies to 1940 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982). -----, Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science, 17891979 (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1987). -----, Women Scientists in America: Before Affirmative Action, 19401972 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995). John L. Rury, Education and Womens Work: Female Schooling and the Division of Labor in Urban America, 18701930 (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991).

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348 Mary P. Ryan, Cradle of the Middle Class: The Family in Oneida County, New York, 17901865 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981). Catherine E. Rymph, Republican Women: Feminism and Conservatism from Suffrage through the Rise of the New Right (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006). Anne Firor Scott, Natural Allies: Womens Associations in American History (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992). J. Richard Sewell, CrossFlorida Barge C anal, 19271968, The Florida Historical Quarterly (April 1968), 369383. Philip Shabecoff, A Fierce Green Fire: The American Environmental Movement (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2003). Todd Shallat, Structures in the Stream: Water, Science, and the Rise of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994). Jerrell H. Shofner, The Legacy of Racial Slavery: Free Enterprise and Forced Labor in Florida in the 1940s, The Journal of Southern History 47:3 (August 1981), 411426. Carroll Smith Rosenberg, Disorderly Conduct: Visions of Gender in Victorian America (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985). Barbara Miller Solomon, In the Company of Educated Women: A History of Women and Higher Education in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985). Mark Somma and Sue Tolleson Rinehart, Tracking the Elusive Green Women: Sex, Environmentalism, and Feminism in the United States and Europe, Political Research Quarterly 50:1 (March 1997), 153169. Christine Stansell, City of Women: Sex and Class in New York, 17891860 (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1987). Ted Steinberg, Down to Earth: Natures Role in American History (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002). John A. Stuart and John F. Stack Jr., eds ., The New Deal In South Florida: Design, Policy, and Community Building, 19331940 (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2008). Anita Mitchell Tassinari, A Wider Vision: A History of the Gainesville Womans Club, 19031995 (published by the Gainesville Womans Club, 1995). Willard Thorp, Minor Myers, Jr., Jeremiah Stanton Finch, and James Axtell, The Princeton Graduate School: A History (Princeton, New Jersey: Association of Princeton Graduate Alumni, 2000).

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349 Jno. J. Tigert, Coordination in Florida, The Journal of Higher Education 4:3 (March 1933), 138141. Nancy A. Walker, ed., Womens Magazines 19401960: Gender Roles and the Popular Press (Boston and New York: BedfordMartin, 1998). Judith Walkowitz, Prost itution and Victorian Society: Women, Class, and the State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982). Susan Ware, Beyond Suffrage: Women in the New Deal (Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: Harvard University Press, 1981). Patsy West, The Enduring Seminoles: From Alligator Wrestling to Ecotourism (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1998). Leslie R. Wolfe, ed., Women, Work, and School: Occupational Segregation and the Role of Education (Boulder, San Francisco, and Oxford: Westview Press, 1991). Donald Worster, Natures Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas, Second Edition (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994). E. Lynne Wright, Tired Housewife from Micanopy, It Happened In Florida: Remarkable Events That Shaped History, 2nd Ed. (Guilford, Connecticut: Morris Book Publishing, 2010). Mary Wyer, Donna Giesman, Mary Barbercheck, Hatice Ozturk, and Marta Wayne, ed., Women, Science, and Technology: A Reader in Feminist Science Studies (New York and London: Routledge, 2001).

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350 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Peggy Macdonald is a fourthgeneration Floridian. Her grandfather, William D. Macdonald, taught law at the University of Florida at the same time that Archie Fairly Carr, Jr. taught biology. Born and raised in Gainesville she and her siblings used to walk around the University of Florida campus with their grandfather, taking in the beauty of Lake Alice. She spent many summers at her grandparents Daytona Beach condominium, the first high rise building constructed on the beach (in 1969). She has witnessed the erosion of Daytona Beach, which is now lined with an unbroken succession of condominiums. The sand dunes have disappeared. The beach is many f eet lower than it used to be, a nd each summer the tides come closer and closer to the condominiums. The beach erosion intensified during the active 2004 hurricane season, when high winds and torrential rains from Hurricanes Charley, Frances, and Jeanne damaged the Central Florida landscape. Although Archie C arrs influence i s still palpable at Daytona and other Florida beaches through a conservation program that encourages the dimming of lights during turtle nesting season, cars are still permitted to drive and park along Daytona B each in the daytime Macdonald was awakened to the state, national, and global environmental crisis as a teen ager, when she enrolled in Steven Starks summer courses in ecology and marine biology at Gainesville High School. She graduated from Hollins University, a womens college in Roanoke, Virgini a, in 1993. She majored in communication s tudies and came close to completing a second major in theatre. Mimi Carr directed her in August Strindbergs The Stronger at the Acrosstown Repertory Theatre in Gainesville. Rehearsals were sometimes held at the Florida Defenders of the Environment office and at Marjorie Harris Carrs home. Mimi Carr had returned to Florida to take care of her mother, leaving behind a successful career as a

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351 Shakespearean actor on the West Coast. Macdonald had the privilege of m eeting Marjorie Carr in her home Macdonald entered the graduate program in history in 2002 and passed her preliminary qualifying examination in 2003, receiving a rare pass with distinction on the early American history segment. She received a masters in history in 2004. Her advisor, Dr. Louise Newman; Dr. Sheryl Kroen, professor of European history; and Dr. Angel KwolekFolland, Associate Provost and professor of U nited States history, provided her with a solid foundation in the history of women and gender. Dr. Jack Davis introduced her to environmental history. Dr. Robert Hatch dared all of his students to approach history from a different perspective, one that might involve seeing a bird when everyone else is certain it is a rabbit. Macdonald was adm itted to candidacy in March 2006. She received the Daniel J. Koleos Award for the most outstanding performance on the qualifying examination in a year in which sixteen students completed their examinations. In April 2007 she was selected as an O. Ruth McQuown scholar. This scholarship is awarded annually to a select number of advanced female doctoral students in the humanities. Macdonald received the highest level award ($9,000), which supplemented one year of doctoral research. In April 2009 she recei ved the Samuel Proctor Award for the best scholarly writing in Florida or Southern history at the University of Florida. She has presented her work at meetings of the American Society for Environmental History, Florida Historical Society, and Florida Cons ortium for Women and Gender Studies. She was interviewed by Bill Dudley for a program that was aired on public radio stations across Florida and is available on the Florida Humanities Councils website, www.flahum.org. Cambridge Scholars Press published her work on Carr in Many Floridas: Women Envisioning Change Macdonald graduated w ith a doctorate in history in May 2010.