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Conservation Implications of Livelihood and Park Interactions

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024384/00001

Material Information

Title: Conservation Implications of Livelihood and Park Interactions
Physical Description: 1 online resource (156 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Alvira, Diana
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agriculture, community, conservation, ecuador, forest, frontier, innovations, landscape, livelihood, parks
Interdisciplinary Ecology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Interdisciplinary Ecology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Deforestation associated with colonization of forested frontiers represents a significant threat to tropical biodiversity, and establishment of protected areas (PAs) has been an important conservation strategy to counter this threat. PAs, however, are not isolated, but rather embedded in larger landscapes of human influence. Thus, PA management should focus not only on implementing conservation strategies within boundaries, but also consider issues across PA borders that affect park integrity such as inter-related livelihood patterns, resource use, and forest persistence in neighboring settlements. I selected the frontier at El Chaco municipality in the northeastern Ecuadorian Amazon to explore patterns and drivers of frontier development, the effect of multi-scalar biophysical and socioeconomic factors on forest persistence on frontier farms, and sustainable innovators and innovations that may counter deforestation patterns. I also compared PA-community relations between two regional protected areas Cayambe Coca Ecological Reserve (RECAY) and Sumaco Napo Galeras National Park (PNSNG) and their respective neighboring communities to explore whether those relations were linked to conservation performance in these communities. Both socioeconomic and biophysical drivers at multiple scales have, over time, shaped relatively homogeneous El Chaco livelihood patterns of small farms with a dependence on market-oriented dairy farming and subsistence production fueled by family labor, but with differential proportions and types of forest cover. The comparative analysis of PA-community relations suggests that of the three indicators examined, sustainability-oriented activities and respect for protected area borders may have been directly influenced by PA-community relations, while forest persistence on farms appeared to be driven more by road access, farm size and possibly time since colonization than PA-community relations. Although higher levels of forest persistence were observed on PNSNG than RECAY border farms, seemingly related to clearer boundary demarcation and better community relations under PNSNG staff leadership, all border farmers expressed a clear intent to convert their forests to more lucrative uses when the opportunity arose. Finally, despite pervasive road construction and clearing for cattle, I observed sustainable innovators and innovations that challenged the clear deforestation trend at El Chaco, developing ways to learn jointly and improve natural resource management strategies that support sustainable development at forest frontier regions.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Diana Alvira.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Kainer, Karen A.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024384:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024384/00001

Material Information

Title: Conservation Implications of Livelihood and Park Interactions
Physical Description: 1 online resource (156 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Alvira, Diana
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agriculture, community, conservation, ecuador, forest, frontier, innovations, landscape, livelihood, parks
Interdisciplinary Ecology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Interdisciplinary Ecology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Deforestation associated with colonization of forested frontiers represents a significant threat to tropical biodiversity, and establishment of protected areas (PAs) has been an important conservation strategy to counter this threat. PAs, however, are not isolated, but rather embedded in larger landscapes of human influence. Thus, PA management should focus not only on implementing conservation strategies within boundaries, but also consider issues across PA borders that affect park integrity such as inter-related livelihood patterns, resource use, and forest persistence in neighboring settlements. I selected the frontier at El Chaco municipality in the northeastern Ecuadorian Amazon to explore patterns and drivers of frontier development, the effect of multi-scalar biophysical and socioeconomic factors on forest persistence on frontier farms, and sustainable innovators and innovations that may counter deforestation patterns. I also compared PA-community relations between two regional protected areas Cayambe Coca Ecological Reserve (RECAY) and Sumaco Napo Galeras National Park (PNSNG) and their respective neighboring communities to explore whether those relations were linked to conservation performance in these communities. Both socioeconomic and biophysical drivers at multiple scales have, over time, shaped relatively homogeneous El Chaco livelihood patterns of small farms with a dependence on market-oriented dairy farming and subsistence production fueled by family labor, but with differential proportions and types of forest cover. The comparative analysis of PA-community relations suggests that of the three indicators examined, sustainability-oriented activities and respect for protected area borders may have been directly influenced by PA-community relations, while forest persistence on farms appeared to be driven more by road access, farm size and possibly time since colonization than PA-community relations. Although higher levels of forest persistence were observed on PNSNG than RECAY border farms, seemingly related to clearer boundary demarcation and better community relations under PNSNG staff leadership, all border farmers expressed a clear intent to convert their forests to more lucrative uses when the opportunity arose. Finally, despite pervasive road construction and clearing for cattle, I observed sustainable innovators and innovations that challenged the clear deforestation trend at El Chaco, developing ways to learn jointly and improve natural resource management strategies that support sustainable development at forest frontier regions.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Diana Alvira.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Kainer, Karen A.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024384:00001


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PAGE 6

superpoderosas compaerito telecommunications closet tintico compaerito nemotecnic los chinos novenas asados

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ya acabas te Tamarindo

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Mapa Parlante

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Forests F rontiers and Biodiversity C onservation

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Beyond Protected Area Boundaries for Effective Biodiversity Conservation

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Linking Protected Areas and Smallholder Farms in Northeastern Ecuador

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Introduction

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Patterns of Frontier Development

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Sustainable I nnovations and I nnovators

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Study Site

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Methods Livelihood System Patterns and Forest Persistence

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Sustainable Innovators and I nnovations

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Results Emerging Patterns of Livelihood S ystems Settlement patterns and land tenure

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Economic activities and resultant land uses pasto miel Setaria splendida pasto janeiroEriochloa polystachya pasto micay Axonopus micay Zea maize camote Dioscorea naranjilla Solanum quitoense Lam. yuca Manihot esculenta pltano Mussa X paradisiaca papa chinaColocasia esculenta

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naranjilla yuca, pltano, gualea Phaseolus polyanthus tomate de rbol Cyphomandra betacea naranjilla hierbaluisaCymbopogon citratus Road access farms mochilas

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lecheros tomate de rbol lechero Croton cotinifolia Psidium guajava

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Lycopersicon esculentum babacoCarica pentagona granadilla Passiflora ligularis tomate de rbol Remote farms naranjilla tomate de rbol Guadua angust ifolia

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Explaining F orest P ersistence

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Key D rivers S haping this F orest F rontier

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naranjilla ishipingoOcotea quixos cedro Cedrella montana naranjilla naranjilla terratenientes

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dollarization

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Sustainable Innovators and Innovations Soil, water and forest resource sustainable management Enhancing dairy production and ecological sustainability Promotion of local resources and production systems with income generation

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Social innovations

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guayaba logmaPouteria lucuma Fundacin EcoCiencia Discussion

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Roads and Predictable Deforestation tomate de rbol naranjilla Naranjilla

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cedro Rural -Urban Interface

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Implications of Cattle Husbandry

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Some Forests Persist

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Prevalence of Forest Cover Types lechero guayaba

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Lechero guayaba Lechero Guayaba

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Sustainable Innovators and Innovations Origins of innovations

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The role of partnerships.

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Innovative individuals.

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Innovations that buck ed deforestation trends

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Conclusions

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0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% All farms Remote farms Farms with access Percentage (%) Pasture Crops Forest

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gualea cedros lechero guayaba guayaba bamboo

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Beyond Protected Area Boundaries

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Study Site

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Physical Context pramo

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Methods

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Document Review

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Semi -structured Interviews Cadastral Census

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Results Protected Area -Community Relations Protected area establishment h istory and current management models

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Manga de Aguirre Manga de Aguirre

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naranjillaSolanum quitoense Lam.

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Community interactions with protected area staff

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PA interactions with local farmers.

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PA interactions with local government and other local environmental actors.

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Community awareness of protected areas

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Perceived local benefits and costs of protected areas Tremarctos ornatus

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Sciurus granatensis Sciurus igniventris Ognorhynchus icterotis Speothos venaticus Conservation Performance in Neighboring Communities: Indicators of PA Effectiveness?

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Sustainability -oriented activities

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Forest persistence on local farms

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Respect for protected area borders Manga de Aguirre

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Discussion Conservation Performance in Neighboring Communities and Protected Area Success Sustainability -o riented a ctivities

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naranjilla Solanum quitoense

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Forest persistence on local farms

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Respect for protected area borders

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Protected Area -Community Relations and Conservation Perf ormance

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Factors that Shape d Protected Area -Community Relations

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Ailuropoda melanoleuca

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Implications for Protected Area Managers

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0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% RECAY border farms RECAY nonborder farms PNSNG border farms PNSNG nonborder farms Percentage (%) Pasture and Crops Forest

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Main Research Findings

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naranjilla l echero Croton cotinifolia guayaba Psidium guajava

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A nalysis of Research Process

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Achievements Conflictive Factors

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Success Factors

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Ways F orward in El Chaco logma cedro ishpingo

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Household Interview Questionnaire C UESTIONARIO PARA LAS FAM ILIAS VISITADAS PRODUCTIVIDAD E INGRESOS Actividades econm icas Contexto institucional

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Ingresos d entro y fuera d e l a finca CONTEXTO DE LA FINCA Historia de colonizacin Composicin de la familia y caractersticas socioeconmicas RECURSOS Mano de obra Insumos, Maquinaria, Herramientas Preguntas adicionales: Uso agua Combustible para cocinar Usos maderables y no maderables

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Otros productos del bosque Gui delines for Participatory Mapping -Mapa Parlante Indicaciones para el mapa de la finca

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Cuestionario Director de Area RECAY HISTORIA DE VIDA: HISTORIA DE CREACION DEL AREAPROTEGIDA: DIA DE TRABAJO CAPACITACION, APOYO EQUIPO, DOTACION RELACION CON AUTORIDADES DEL AP Y AFINES

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INFLUENCIAS DEL AP EN COMUNIDAD INFLUENCIAS DE LA COMUNIDAD EN AP RELACIONES CON AP AREA PROTEGIDA Y SU FUTURO Cuestionario Director de Area PNSNG HISTORIA DE VIDA: HISTORIA DE CREACION DEL AREAPROTEGIDA:

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DIA DE TRABAJO CAPACITACION, APOYO EQUIPO, DOTACION RELACION CON AUTORIDADES DEL AP Y AFINES INFLUENCIAS DEL AP EN COMUNIDAD INFLUENCIAS DE LA COMUNIDAD EN AP RELACIONES CON AP

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AREA PROTEGIDA Y SU FUTURO Cuestionario Guarda Parques HISTORIA DE VIDA: DIA DE TRABAJO CAPACITACION, APOYO EQUIPO, DOTACION RELACION CON AUTORIDADES DEL AP INFLUENCIAS DEL AP EN COMUNIDAD

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INFLUENCIAS DE LA COMUNIDAD EN AP RELACIONES CON AP AREA PROTEGIDA Y SU FUTURO Cuestionari o Finquero HISTORIA DEL AP RELACION CON AUTORIDADES DEL AP INFLUENCIAS DEL AP EN USTEDES

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RELACIONES CON AP Cuestionario Alcalde, Concejales Tcnicos UMDS HISTORIA DE TRABAJO: RELACIONES CON AP Qu signi fica para el Chaco tener 2 AP que cubren el 80% de su territorio? HISTORIA DE CREACION DE LAS AREAS PROTEGIDAS: RELACION CON AUTORIDADES DEL AP Y AFINES INFLUENCIAS DEL AP EN comunidad INFLUENCIAS DE LA COMUNIDAD EN AP

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PLAN MANEJO AREA PROTEGIDA Y SU FUTURO Cuestionario Director Proyecto G ran S umaco Historia de vida: HISTORIA DE CREACION DEL PGS, DE LA RESERVA DE LA BIOSFERA Y DEL PNS NG : RELACION CON AUTORIDADES DEL AP Y AFINES

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CAPACITACION, APOYO EQUIPO, DOTACION INFL UENCIAS DEL AP EN comunidad INFLUENCIAS DE LA COMUNIDAD EN AP RELACIONES CON AP AREA PROTEGIDA Y SU FUTURO

PAGE 149

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