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Ecological Change in Tanzanian Montane Rainforests

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024372/00001

Material Information

Title: Ecological Change in Tanzanian Montane Rainforests From Species to Landscape
Physical Description: 1 online resource (131 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Hall, Jaclyn
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: arc, east, eastern, endemic, forest, image, montane, rain, remote, sensing, tanzania, texture, tropical, usambaras, variance
Geography -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Geography thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Deforestation is a major threat to the conservation of global biodiversity, especially within regions that have high numbers of range-restricted species. Species found in tropical forests are typically forest-dependent and strongly tied to the specific environmental conditions associated with intact forest canopies. The Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania are one of the world?s most important biodiversity hotspots, and is the most important hotspot in terms of density of range restricted species. Conserving the closed-canopy forest in the Eastern Arc is essential for maintaining its function as a biodiversity hotspot for rare species. Within the past 50 years Eastern Arc has lost 25 % of closed forest area, mostly within the lower elevations. Uneven intensity of deforestation on an elevational gradient can impact the conservation of threatened plants that are restricted to lower elevations. Change in elevation, the major environmental gradient in mountain regions of the world, produces a rapid turnover of species. When elevation range is considered, Eastern Arc endemic species have a smaller area of suitable habitat available than if total area of forest in each mountain range is considered, and 80% endemic species deserve to have their level of extinction threat elevated on the IUCN Red List. Conservation efforts in montane hotspots should consider the extent of habitat changes in all elevations and target conservation and restoration efforts across these ecosystems? entire altitudinal ranges. Cardamom has been an important part of diversified livelihood strategies with the humid forests of the East Usambara mountains for 50 years. Compared to protected areas, cardamom farms are have fewer trees, lower canopies, and lower species richness, and are dominated by an invasive exotic tree. With increasing population pressure, farmers may be encouraged to move from traditional practices, where agroforests have native tree overstories and are not intensively managed, to intensely managed farms, with non-native single species plantation like overstories. Conservation plans that include encouragement of agroforestry should incorporate incentives which encourage the use of a variety of native tree species. Species and structural diversity in the overstory will increase the potential of agroforests for biodiversity habitat. Natural resource managers and the conservation community rely on remotely sensed data for identifying aspects of forest stands and forest loss. Estimation of forest canopy variables such as upper canopy height, canopy closure, number of trees, and above-ground biomass has been difficult in humid tropical forests due to a poor understanding of the relationship between satellite data and complexity of the humid forest canopy. Monitoring disturbance in humid tropical forests requires the establishment of new methods and a greater understanding of how different canopy structures affect the spectral signal of a forest. Due to the high biological importance of humid tropical forests, and the sensitivities of their environments to disturbance, ensuring areas of closed canopy forest are conserved is critical for the conservation of the species that depend on them. Successful conservation efforts must have strong goals that are based on science and focused on the function of the entire ecosystem. Well planned conservation requires investigation of patterns and processes of threats to the closed canopy forest from the local species level and the entire ecosystem.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jaclyn Hall.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Southworth, Jane.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024372:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024372/00001

Material Information

Title: Ecological Change in Tanzanian Montane Rainforests From Species to Landscape
Physical Description: 1 online resource (131 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Hall, Jaclyn
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: arc, east, eastern, endemic, forest, image, montane, rain, remote, sensing, tanzania, texture, tropical, usambaras, variance
Geography -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Geography thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Deforestation is a major threat to the conservation of global biodiversity, especially within regions that have high numbers of range-restricted species. Species found in tropical forests are typically forest-dependent and strongly tied to the specific environmental conditions associated with intact forest canopies. The Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania are one of the world?s most important biodiversity hotspots, and is the most important hotspot in terms of density of range restricted species. Conserving the closed-canopy forest in the Eastern Arc is essential for maintaining its function as a biodiversity hotspot for rare species. Within the past 50 years Eastern Arc has lost 25 % of closed forest area, mostly within the lower elevations. Uneven intensity of deforestation on an elevational gradient can impact the conservation of threatened plants that are restricted to lower elevations. Change in elevation, the major environmental gradient in mountain regions of the world, produces a rapid turnover of species. When elevation range is considered, Eastern Arc endemic species have a smaller area of suitable habitat available than if total area of forest in each mountain range is considered, and 80% endemic species deserve to have their level of extinction threat elevated on the IUCN Red List. Conservation efforts in montane hotspots should consider the extent of habitat changes in all elevations and target conservation and restoration efforts across these ecosystems? entire altitudinal ranges. Cardamom has been an important part of diversified livelihood strategies with the humid forests of the East Usambara mountains for 50 years. Compared to protected areas, cardamom farms are have fewer trees, lower canopies, and lower species richness, and are dominated by an invasive exotic tree. With increasing population pressure, farmers may be encouraged to move from traditional practices, where agroforests have native tree overstories and are not intensively managed, to intensely managed farms, with non-native single species plantation like overstories. Conservation plans that include encouragement of agroforestry should incorporate incentives which encourage the use of a variety of native tree species. Species and structural diversity in the overstory will increase the potential of agroforests for biodiversity habitat. Natural resource managers and the conservation community rely on remotely sensed data for identifying aspects of forest stands and forest loss. Estimation of forest canopy variables such as upper canopy height, canopy closure, number of trees, and above-ground biomass has been difficult in humid tropical forests due to a poor understanding of the relationship between satellite data and complexity of the humid forest canopy. Monitoring disturbance in humid tropical forests requires the establishment of new methods and a greater understanding of how different canopy structures affect the spectral signal of a forest. Due to the high biological importance of humid tropical forests, and the sensitivities of their environments to disturbance, ensuring areas of closed canopy forest are conserved is critical for the conservation of the species that depend on them. Successful conservation efforts must have strong goals that are based on science and focused on the function of the entire ecosystem. Well planned conservation requires investigation of patterns and processes of threats to the closed canopy forest from the local species level and the entire ecosystem.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jaclyn Hall.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Southworth, Jane.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024372:00001


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Full Text

PAGE 9

Maesopsis eminii

PAGE 10

Maesopsis eminii

PAGE 16

hottest

PAGE 18

Ecological Services and Agroforests

PAGE 20

Satellite Remote Sensing of Forests

PAGE 21

Research Objectives

PAGE 23

Introduction

PAGE 26

Methods Study A rea

PAGE 28

1) Forest Cover Paleoecological prediction extrapolated paleoecological 1955s

PAGE 29

1975 and 2000

PAGE 30

2 ) Forest C over at different elevations 3 ) Distributional Data on E ndemic Trees

PAGE 32

5) Threat S tatus of E ndemic Trees 6) Analyses

PAGE 34

Sa = S/Az A z S A Sa z Sa A

PAGE 35

z Results Elev ational Distribution of Forest L oss estimated

PAGE 36

Deforestation by Mountain Block.

PAGE 37

Reassessment of the Threat Status f or Endemic Trees Cynometra ulugurensis Mimusops penduliflora Drypetes usambaric a stylosa

PAGE 38

Drypetes usambarica rugulosa Millettia

PAGE 39

elongatistyla Coffea pocsii Tricalysia pedicellata Zenkerella egregia Mussaenda monticola glabrescens Tricalysia acidophylla Discussion

PAGE 40

Deforestation Patterns Within the E astern Arc

PAGE 41

Cupressus lusitanica Pinus patula

PAGE 42

Eucalyptus globulosus Pinus patula

PAGE 43

Caveats

PAGE 44

Conservation R elevance

PAGE 47

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 Forest area (km2)Number of speciesElevation (m)Lowland montane Submontane Montane Uppermontane

PAGE 48

Zone Paleoecologic (km2) 1955 (km2) 1975 (km2) 2000 (km2) Rate of change/ year (%) Endemic Taxa Species/area c orrected 195575 197500 Paleo. 2000

PAGE 51

Introduction

PAGE 53

Ilex paraguariensis

PAGE 55

Methods Study Area

PAGE 56

Elettaria cardamomum

PAGE 57

Allanblackia stuhlmannii Allanb l ackia stuhlmannii Maesopsis eminii Maesopsis eminii M. eminii M. eminii M. eminii

PAGE 58

n atural Floristic D ata C ollection

PAGE 59

Data analysis M. eminii M. eminii

PAGE 60

Results M. eminii

PAGE 61

M. eminii M. eminii. Syzygium aromaticum Cinnamomum verum Cedrela odorata M. eminii

PAGE 62

Sorindeia madagascariensis Allanblackia stuhlmannii Allanblackia stuhlmanii Allanblackia stuhlmanii Forest Structure A. stuhlmanii

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no traditional Invasive Non native Species Maesopsis eminii M. eminii M. eminii M. eminii M. eminii

PAGE 64

Maesopsis eminii M. eminni M. eminii Maesopsis eminii M. eminii M. eminii M. eminii M. eminii M. eminii

PAGE 65

Discussion M. eminii M. eminii. M. eminii M. eminii M. eminii M. eminii M. eminii M. eminii M. eminii traditional

PAGE 66

traditional traditional

PAGE 67

traditional

PAGE 68

Saintpaulia

PAGE 71

Maesopsis eminii M. eminii M. eminii M. eminii

PAGE 72

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Species Richness 0 100 200 300 400 500 Stem Density 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Basal area 0 50 100 150 200 Endemic Stems

PAGE 73

Maesopsis eminii M. s eminii M. eminii M. eminii 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Percent of stems < 10 m 0 10 20 30 40 50 M eminii % of Total stems 0 10 20 30 40 50 M. eminii % of Total stems

PAGE 74

M. eminii M. eminii

PAGE 75

Maesopsis eminii M. eminii M. eminii

PAGE 76

Introduction

PAGE 77

Remote sensing of forests

PAGE 79

Mid -infrared

PAGE 81

Disturbance

PAGE 82

Maesopsis eminii Maesopsis eminii M. eminii M. eminii active cardamom farms abandoned farms

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natural forest mature secondary forest. natural forest Matu re secondary forest M. eminii Research Objectives

PAGE 84

M. eminii Methods Study Area

PAGE 85

Elettaria cardamomum

PAGE 86

Canopy Description

PAGE 87

Satellite I mage

PAGE 88

Results Remotely Sensed Variables Discrimination of forest types

PAGE 89

Correlations of v ariables

PAGE 90

Maesopsis eminii Regression

PAGE 91

Maesopsis eminii Discussion

PAGE 93

Conclusion

PAGE 98

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

PAGE 99

R = 0.692 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 204060 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0.00.10.20.30.40.50.6

PAGE 101

p p

PAGE 102

*p **p

PAGE 103

Introduction Spatial Distribution of Threats to Species.

PAGE 104

Conservation Value of Agroforests

PAGE 105

Maesopsis eminii M. eminii M. eminii

PAGE 106

M. eminii M. eminii M. eminii

PAGE 107

.

PAGE 108

Remote Sensing of Tropical Forests

PAGE 109

Research S ignificance and Implications

PAGE 110

Future Research

PAGE 113

Afrocanthium shabanii Canthium shabanii Allanblackia ulugurensis Allophylus grotei Allophylus melliodorus Alsodeiopsis schumannii Annickia kummerae Balthasaria schliebenii schliebenii Balthasaria schliebenii glabra Balthasaria schliebenii greenwayi Baphia pauloi Baphia semseiana Beilschmiedia kweo Bersama rosea Bertiera pauloi Calodendrum eickii Casearia engleri Chassalia albiflora Chytranthus longibracteatus Coffea mongensis Coffea pocsii Cola scheffleri Craibia brevicaudata schliebenii

PAGE 114

Craterispermum longipedunculatum Croton dictyophlebodes Cynometra engleri Cynometra longipedicellata Cynometra ulugurensis Dombeya amaniensis Drypetes gerrardinodes Drypetes usambarica ( rugulosa Drypetes usambarica stylosa Englerodendron usambarense Erythrina haerdii Garcinia bifasciculata Garcinia semseii Gomphia scheffleri cheffleri Campylospermum scheffleri Gomphia scheffleri schusteri Greenwayodendron suaveolens usambaricum Heinsenia diervilleoides mufindiensis Hirtella zanzibarica megacarpa Hirtella megacarpa Ilex mitis schliebenii Isoberlinia scheffleri Ixora albersii Keetia koritschoneri Lasianthus laxinervis L. kilimandscharicus laxinervis

PAGE 115

Lasianthus macrocalyx L. grandifolius Lasianthus pedunculatus Lasianthus wallacei Lijndenia brenanii Lingelsheimia sylvestris Aerisilvaea sylvestris Mammea usambarensis Meineckia nguruensis Zimmermannia nguruensis Meineckia paxii Zimmermannia capillipes Meineckia stipularis Zimmermannia stipularis Millettia elongatistyla Millettia oblata Millettia sacleuxii Millettia sericantha Mimusops penduliflora Monodora globiflora Mussaenda microdonta microdonta Mussaenda monticola glabrescens Mwasumbia alba Necepsia castaneifolia kimbozensis Neohemsleya usambarensis Octoknema orientalis Omphalocarpum strombocarpum Oxyanthus lepidus kigogoensis Pavetta abyssinica viridiflora Pavetta axillipara

PAGE 116

Pavetta holstii Pavetta manyanguensis Pavetta nitidissima Pavetta sparsipila Pavetta sphaerobotrys sphaerobotrys Pavetta subumbellata subcoriacea Pittosporum goetzei Placodiscus amaniensis Placodiscus pedicellatus Platypterocarpus tanganyikensis Polyceratocarpus scheffleri Polysphaeria macrantha Polysphaeria ntemii Pouteria pseudoracemosa Psychotria elachistantha Psychotria megalopus Psychotria megistantha Psychotria peteri Psydrax kibuwae Pterocarpus mildbraedii usambarensis Pycnocoma macrantha Rhipidantha chlorantha Rytigynia caudatissima Rytigynia hirsutiflora Rytigynia lichenoxenos lichenoxenos Rytigynia nodulosa Rytigynia pseudolongicaudata

PAGE 117

Sibangea pleioneura Suregada lithoxyla Syzygium micklethwaitii subcordatum Tarenna luhomeroensis Tarenna quadrangularis Ternstroemia polypetala Tetrorchidium ulugurense Tricalysia acidophylla Tricalysia anomala anomala Tricalysia pedicellata Trichilia lovettii Turraea kimbozensis Uvariodendron oligocarpum Uvariodendron pycnophyllum Uvariodendron usambarense Vangueria bicolor Vangueria rufescens Lagynias rufescens angustiloba Vangueriopsis longiflora Vepris morogorensis Vitellariopsis cuneata Vitex amaniensis Zenkerella capparidacea Capparidacea Zenkerella capparidacea grotei Zenkerella egregia Zenkerella perplexa