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Characterization and Amelioration of Yield-Limiting Soil Variability in Florida Citrus Production

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024243/00001

Material Information

Title: Characterization and Amelioration of Yield-Limiting Soil Variability in Florida Citrus Production
Physical Description: 1 online resource (368 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Mann, Kirandeep
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: amendment, citrus, clay, depth, entisols, fe, inorganic, irrigation, organic, residuals, sampling, soil, spodosols, treatment, variability, water, wtrs, yield
Soil and Water Science -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Soil and Water Science thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Soil variability is a common problem in Florida citrus production. However, only limited progress has been made in characterizing and managing soil variability to identify and rectify the limitations, to maximize profit, or reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, this study was designed to characterize wide-ranging aspects of variability in these sandy soils and to develop methods to ameliorate critical limiting factors affecting Florida citrus production. To achieve this, a citrus grove was divided into five productivity zones based on tree canopy volume using geographic information system software. These five zones were termed very poor, poor, medium, good, and very good productivity zones. To characterize horizontal and vertical soil variability of chemical, physical, mineralogical and biological properties, six random soil samples were collected from each productivity zone at depth increments of 0-15, 15-30, 30-45 and 45-60 cm. Soil organic matter, nutrient concentrations, soil color, sand content and water retention parameters varied greatly along the productivity zone and the soil depth. Soil organic matter, sand grain coatings, soil color and soil permanent wilting point contributed significantly to the predictive models developed using partial least squares (PLS) regression. These models explained 54 to 71% variance for canopy volume, which increased with the increased root zone depth. For amelioration, two greenhouse experiments with sorghum and radish as bioassay crops were used to study productivity zone, water content, soil amendment, and rate of amendment. The results revealed that application of cheap byproducts like phosphatic clay or iron water treatment residuals at 5 % rates can increase water retention and productivity in the poor areas. These amendments can be cost effective when applied at planting to each tree, and can increase profit in few years when applied to low-yielding areas. In addition, applying frequent small irrigations can enhance water availability in the excessively drained sandy soils of the weakest production zones. The results of this study will assist in planning soil sampling, characterizing soil variability, making land use decisions, and ameliorating unproductive areas of both new fields and established citrus groves. Careful management of soil variability can improve crop production, increase revenue, and reduce potential environmental contamination.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Kirandeep Mann.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Schumann, Arnold W.
Local: Co-adviser: Obreza, Thomas A.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024243:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024243/00001

Material Information

Title: Characterization and Amelioration of Yield-Limiting Soil Variability in Florida Citrus Production
Physical Description: 1 online resource (368 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Mann, Kirandeep
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: amendment, citrus, clay, depth, entisols, fe, inorganic, irrigation, organic, residuals, sampling, soil, spodosols, treatment, variability, water, wtrs, yield
Soil and Water Science -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Soil and Water Science thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Soil variability is a common problem in Florida citrus production. However, only limited progress has been made in characterizing and managing soil variability to identify and rectify the limitations, to maximize profit, or reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, this study was designed to characterize wide-ranging aspects of variability in these sandy soils and to develop methods to ameliorate critical limiting factors affecting Florida citrus production. To achieve this, a citrus grove was divided into five productivity zones based on tree canopy volume using geographic information system software. These five zones were termed very poor, poor, medium, good, and very good productivity zones. To characterize horizontal and vertical soil variability of chemical, physical, mineralogical and biological properties, six random soil samples were collected from each productivity zone at depth increments of 0-15, 15-30, 30-45 and 45-60 cm. Soil organic matter, nutrient concentrations, soil color, sand content and water retention parameters varied greatly along the productivity zone and the soil depth. Soil organic matter, sand grain coatings, soil color and soil permanent wilting point contributed significantly to the predictive models developed using partial least squares (PLS) regression. These models explained 54 to 71% variance for canopy volume, which increased with the increased root zone depth. For amelioration, two greenhouse experiments with sorghum and radish as bioassay crops were used to study productivity zone, water content, soil amendment, and rate of amendment. The results revealed that application of cheap byproducts like phosphatic clay or iron water treatment residuals at 5 % rates can increase water retention and productivity in the poor areas. These amendments can be cost effective when applied at planting to each tree, and can increase profit in few years when applied to low-yielding areas. In addition, applying frequent small irrigations can enhance water availability in the excessively drained sandy soils of the weakest production zones. The results of this study will assist in planning soil sampling, characterizing soil variability, making land use decisions, and ameliorating unproductive areas of both new fields and established citrus groves. Careful management of soil variability can improve crop production, increase revenue, and reduce potential environmental contamination.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Kirandeep Mann.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Schumann, Arnold W.
Local: Co-adviser: Obreza, Thomas A.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024243:00001


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PAGE 20

Introduction

PAGE 21

Mapping the Productivity of a Spatially Variable Citrus Grove

PAGE 23

Characterization of S patial Soil V ariability

PAGE 29

Amelioration of S oil Va riability

PAGE 32

ea mays Lolium Lycopersicon esculentum Sorghum bicolor Moench Sorghum X drummondii (Steudel) Millsp

PAGE 33

Chamaedorea elegans Philodendron scandens oxycardium Triticum aestivum

PAGE 36

Hypotheses and Research O bjectives Hypotheses Objectives

PAGE 38

Introduc tion

PAGE 44

Materials and Methods Grove H istory Citrus F ruit Y ield

PAGE 45

Citrus Tree Canopy Volume Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ( NDVI) Elevation X

PAGE 46

Ground C onductivity Data A nalysis

PAGE 47

Results and Discussion

PAGE 56

Summary and Conclusions

PAGE 66

Introduction

PAGE 68

.

PAGE 70

Materials and Methods Study Site Soil S ampling Chemical P roperties

PAGE 71

Physical P roperties

PAGE 72

a

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p p p p p Soil M oisture R etention C urves

PAGE 74

Representative P rofiles of F ive P roductivity Zones Mineralogical P roperties

PAGE 75

Microb iological P roperties

PAGE 77

Data A nalysi s Classical statistics analysis

PAGE 78

Geostatistical analysis Results and D iscussion Chemical Propertie s

PAGE 81

Lopez Granados et al. 2002;

PAGE 83

;

PAGE 88

Physical P roperties

PAGE 91

.

PAGE 105

Representative P rofiles of F ive P roductivity Zones

PAGE 107

Mineralogical Properties

PAGE 109

Microb iological P roperties

PAGE 112

,

PAGE 113

Summary and C onclusi ons

PAGE 156

Introduct ion

PAGE 159

Materials and Methods

PAGE 161

Results and Discussion Correlation A nalysis

PAGE 170

Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression Analysis

PAGE 172

Partial Le ast Squares (PLS) Regression Analysis

PAGE 174

Cluster A nalysis

PAGE 175

Canonical Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA)

PAGE 179

Summary and C onclusions

PAGE 216

Introduction Sorghum bicolor.

PAGE 217

Raphanus sativus

PAGE 218

Study S ite and Soil S ampling Productivity Indices Sorg hum as a productivity index of citrus grove -greenhouse experiment I Sorghum bicolor

PAGE 219

Radish as a productivity index of citrus grove --greenhouse experiment II Raphanus sativa

PAGE 220

Weed cover as as a pro ductivity index of citrus grove Data Analysis Classical statistical analysis

PAGE 221

Geostatistical analysis Results and Discussion Sorghum and R adish as P roductivity I ndices of Ci trus G rove

PAGE 223

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PAGE 231

Weed C over as a Productivity Ind ex of Citrus G rove

PAGE 232

Summary and Conclusions

PAGE 238

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PAGE 261

Introduction

PAGE 265

M aterials and Methods Study S ite and Soil S ampling Soil and amendment characterization Greenhouse incubation

PAGE 266

M Greenhouse Experiments Experiment al design Experiment al setup

PAGE 267

Greenhouse experiment I Sorghum bicolor Greenhouse experiment II Raphanus sativa

PAGE 268

Water use efficiency Data A nalysis

PAGE 269

Results and Discussion Soil and Amendment Characterization

PAGE 272

Sorghum as a Test C rop

PAGE 276

Radish as a T est C rop

PAGE 281

Summary and C onclusions

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