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Negotiating Development

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024211/00001

Material Information

Title: Negotiating Development A Study of the Grassroots Resistance to India's 2005 Special Economic Zones Act
Physical Description: 1 online resource (338 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Jones, Jonathan
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: democracy, democratization, development, globalization, india, industrialization, peasants
Political Science -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Political Science thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: NEGOTIATING DEVELOPMENT: A STUDY OF THE GRASSROOTS RESISTANCE TO INDIA'S 2005 SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES ACT This study examines a citizen resistance that occurred in India during 2007 against the country's 2005 Special Economic Zones (SEZ) Act. The resistance largely began in two village blocks in rural West Bengal where farmers stood to lose their land and livelihood due to the establishment of an SEZ and another similar project. It quickly spilled out however into a wider resistance against SEZs that included various elements of India's civil society as well as India's opposition parties. This broad based resistance has resulted in notable concessions by India's state and national governments including increased compensation for land losers, a new policy that forbids the government to forcefully acquire land for SEZs, and the outright cancellation of a number of SEZs across the country. This study poses two central research questions. First, how did villagers, and other Indian citizens come together to form an effective and unified resistance? Second, why did India's state and national governments grant significant concessions to the resistance? I argue that the success of the resistance was facilitated in part by the backdrop of India's democracy. India's democracy provided the impetus for the resistance and government response in several respects. First, rural West Bengal has a legacy of past democratic resistance and subsequent policy concessions. As such, villagers in West Bengal have been conditioned in the art of democratic political protest. Second, India boasts a vibrant civil society, which came out in force to support the anti SEZ resistance. India's civil society had a critical role in the success of the movement, both in terms of guiding and empowering activist villagers and also by pressuring the Indian government to alter state policy. Third, some members of India's various opposition parties responded quickly to the resistance and helped channel the voice of the citizenry to the policy front. Finally, India's media reported heavily on the resistance to SEZs in West Bengal and across the country, and was highly critical of any acts of government violence to quell the resistance. These various forces of democracy have in turn shaped the positive government response. Although the study focuses on India, it has relevance to other developing countries. The study illustrates that the strengthening of political democracy could have a positive impact on the world's poor as developing countries become increasingly exposed to the global economy. Although development might proceed more slowly in developing countries that are democratic, such growth might prove more sustainable in the long run
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jonathan Jones.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Anderson, Leslie E.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024211:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024211/00001

Material Information

Title: Negotiating Development A Study of the Grassroots Resistance to India's 2005 Special Economic Zones Act
Physical Description: 1 online resource (338 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Jones, Jonathan
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: democracy, democratization, development, globalization, india, industrialization, peasants
Political Science -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Political Science thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: NEGOTIATING DEVELOPMENT: A STUDY OF THE GRASSROOTS RESISTANCE TO INDIA'S 2005 SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES ACT This study examines a citizen resistance that occurred in India during 2007 against the country's 2005 Special Economic Zones (SEZ) Act. The resistance largely began in two village blocks in rural West Bengal where farmers stood to lose their land and livelihood due to the establishment of an SEZ and another similar project. It quickly spilled out however into a wider resistance against SEZs that included various elements of India's civil society as well as India's opposition parties. This broad based resistance has resulted in notable concessions by India's state and national governments including increased compensation for land losers, a new policy that forbids the government to forcefully acquire land for SEZs, and the outright cancellation of a number of SEZs across the country. This study poses two central research questions. First, how did villagers, and other Indian citizens come together to form an effective and unified resistance? Second, why did India's state and national governments grant significant concessions to the resistance? I argue that the success of the resistance was facilitated in part by the backdrop of India's democracy. India's democracy provided the impetus for the resistance and government response in several respects. First, rural West Bengal has a legacy of past democratic resistance and subsequent policy concessions. As such, villagers in West Bengal have been conditioned in the art of democratic political protest. Second, India boasts a vibrant civil society, which came out in force to support the anti SEZ resistance. India's civil society had a critical role in the success of the movement, both in terms of guiding and empowering activist villagers and also by pressuring the Indian government to alter state policy. Third, some members of India's various opposition parties responded quickly to the resistance and helped channel the voice of the citizenry to the policy front. Finally, India's media reported heavily on the resistance to SEZs in West Bengal and across the country, and was highly critical of any acts of government violence to quell the resistance. These various forces of democracy have in turn shaped the positive government response. Although the study focuses on India, it has relevance to other developing countries. The study illustrates that the strengthening of political democracy could have a positive impact on the world's poor as developing countries become increasingly exposed to the global economy. Although development might proceed more slowly in developing countries that are democratic, such growth might prove more sustainable in the long run
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jonathan Jones.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Anderson, Leslie E.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024211:00001


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PAGE 7

. ..

PAGE 15

Introduction

PAGE 16

1894 Land Acquisition Act

PAGE 20

Times of India, Delhi edition Decan Herald,

PAGE 21

Times of India

PAGE 23

1894 Land Acquisition Act Times of India

PAGE 24

2003 National Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy

PAGE 25

Research Question s The Argum ent

PAGE 27

Theoretica l Context: Grassroots Resistance and Government Response social movement

PAGE 29

The Political Participation of the Rural Po or: The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte States and Social Revoultions

PAGE 30

The Communitarian Approach to Peasant Political Behavior The Moral Economy of the Peasant

PAGE 32

The Communitarian Perspective in India :

PAGE 33

The Individualist Approach to Political Participation The Rational Peasant

PAGE 35

The Individualist approach in India : Capitalists Against Markets

PAGE 37

Just Institutions Matter The Hand of Compassion

PAGE 38

A Gap in the Literature how and

PAGE 39

and

PAGE 41

Brin g ing in the State : States and Social Revolutions

PAGE 43

Empirical Context: Indias Democratic Political Structure

PAGE 46

Indias Democratic Structures Delegative Democracy

PAGE 47

History of Participation in a Democratic Setting:

PAGE 48

Vibrant Civil Society: Polyarchy

PAGE 49

Making Democracy Work A Functioning Multi -Party System: An Economic Theory of Democracy

PAGE 51

A free and rigorous press: Brokering and Framing

PAGE 52

brokers framing

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drove Conc lusion

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SEZ issue media social activists opposition parties villagers NGO s Democratic Setting

PAGE 58

Introduction

PAGE 59

Indias Democratic History

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Indias Federal Structure

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Indias Party System

PAGE 64

Party Dominance after Indepe ndence

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Nationalism and the Foundation for Social Solidarity

PAGE 68

Bhopal Gas -A ffected Womens Stationary Workers Union The International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal No Hiroshima, No Bhopal. We Want to Live International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal

PAGE 69

Global Day of Action for Corporate Accountability No More Bhopal, No More Dow

PAGE 70

Indias Economic History The Political Economy of Development in India State -Directed Development

PAGE 71

The Politics of Scarcity

PAGE 72

Economic Socialism under Democratic Rule : Capitalists against Markets

PAGE 75

West Bengal Industrialization and Political Participation

PAGE 77

The Citizens Research Collective on SEZ

PAGE 78

Legacy of Midnapore

PAGE 79

Conclusion: The Path to Economic Development in India? In Political Order in Changing Societies State Directed Development

PAGE 81

Introduction Human Development Report.

PAGE 83

The Singur Resistance

PAGE 84

The Tata Car Project :

PAGE 88

The Car Factory :

PAGE 89

The Telegraph

PAGE 91

The Save Agricultural Land Committee

PAGE 93

potential to cause unrest or danger to peace and tranquilit y

PAGE 94

Indian Express The Telegraph

PAGE 96

The Nandigram Resistance

PAGE 98

The Telegraph

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Peoples Tribunal of Nandigram

PAGE 103

The Telegraph

PAGE 104

The Hindu India enews

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Conclusion

PAGE 107

Go palnagar 1656.55 399.98 24 Beraberi 1043.82 327.21 31 Khaserbheri 229.62 180.59 79 Bajemelia 355.13 47.77 13 Singherbheri 310.75 41.56 13 Total 3595.87 997.11 28 Statistical Handbook: Hooghly

PAGE 108

Introduction

PAGE 112

Bandits and Bureaucrats

PAGE 116

have The Telegraph Peoples Democracy

PAGE 117

Consideri ng an Alternative Explanation: Opposition Party Presence in West Bengal Opposition Party Presence in the Singur Movement

PAGE 122

Oppos ition Party Presence in Nandigram

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Everyone in the village is part of the BUPC

PAGE 125

The Maturing of Grassroots Democracy in West Bengal

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The Politicized History of Rural West Bengal :

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The Rise of the CPM :

PAGE 130

Operation Bargadar

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Institutionalize d Democracy at the Local Level: Panchayat Governance

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The R ole of the Past in the Present Have you heard of the Tebhaga movement? If so, what does this movement mean to you?

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Panchayat Democracy

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Conclusion

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Year Numbe r r egistered Up to 1978 0.25 million 1981 1.2 million 1985 1.31 million 1990 1.43 million 1995 1.47 million 2000 1.5 million 2006 1.53 million Source

PAGE 147

Results of Gram Panchayat Elections Results of Panchayat Samiti Elections Results of Zilla Parishad Elections

PAGE 148

0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 1980/811985/861990/911990/962000/012005/06 Year Land Redistribution (acres) Economic Review 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1957 1962 1967 1971 1977 1980 1984 1989 1991 1996 1998 1999 2004 Lok Sabha Election Year Voter Participatin Rate (%) All India Average West Bengal

PAGE 150

Introduction

PAGE 152

Civil Society and the Anti-SEZ R esistance in India

PAGE 155

The Backdrop of Indias Democracy : the

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Indias C ivil Society in Action National Alliance of Peoples Movements

PAGE 160

National Street Hawkers Federation

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International Association of Hawkers and Urban Poor

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Bengals Creative Sector The Intellectuals Forum Nandigram, This land is Mine Right to Land Whose Land is it anyway?

PAGE 166

The Impact on the Villagers :

PAGE 167

What do the names [ Mahasweta Devi/Medha Patkar ] mean to you? She [Medha] is important because she is not a political person. She did not come here to garner votes. She came for a cause. That is why she found a widespread acceptability.16 She[Medha] came to my house and hugged me. It was very emotional .17 Mahasweta Devi is a writer, columnist and advocator of entire movement. She gives the movement legitimacy for the state and nationally.18 It has been a huge moral boost to all of us, these prominent people coming and providing legitimacy. These people are not political. They are philanthropists. They dont represent any political party.19

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Civil Society on the Nation al Front

PAGE 169

When all the peasants come to one place and feel integrated, the movement is st rengthened. We know that it is not only us fighting. Other people are also protesting.21 We became enthused. We got to see the experiences of all the people who are going through similar things across the country. I got a good scope to be acquainted. I got to know others personally. I was able to talk to many people from other states.22 When people came to know that someone from Singur was at the meeting, everyone became exited and tried to talk with me, respected me, and I became very much enthused I felt a spirit against land acquisition. We felt dignity among ourselves. We got assurance that others were with us. We were inspired.23

PAGE 170

After the play, we all introduced ourselves to each other. It was invigorating to meet representatives from other similar movements across the country.24

PAGE 171

The Students for Bhopal The Students for Bhopal

PAGE 172

Action 2007: Delhi Forum

PAGE 173

Delhi Forum

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Delhi Forum

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The National Alliance of Peoples Movements : National Alliance of Peoples Movements

PAGE 176

National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Policy

PAGE 177

Extending the Analysis: Civil Society and the Anti SEZ Resistance in Goa

PAGE 180

The Council for Social Justice and Peace Council for Social Justice and Peace

PAGE 182

Council for Social Justice and Peace SVM Nagrik Kruti Samiti Elements of Democracy in Goa :

PAGE 183

We dont care about the Goa government, the central government. We care about what people want this is a democracy! We are living in a democratic country. So when people say that they dont want [an SEZ], they must listen! The government must account for this.42 Here in Goa, the government think s a hundred times before doing something!43 This i s a democracy. We have governments of the people. They must listen to us. They are not dictators. If they do not listen, we will not give them votes.44 Right to Information (RTI)

PAGE 184

Goa Panchayats :

PAGE 186

History of Resistance :

PAGE 187

Conclusion National Hawkers Association Regional Plan 2011

PAGE 188

The Council for Social Justice and Peace

PAGE 193

Introduction

PAGE 194

Peoples Democracy

PAGE 198

Multiparty Politics: Competition and the Advancement of Democracy

PAGE 199

backed by pressure

PAGE 202

Burgeoning Multiparty Democracy in India viable

PAGE 204

hegemonic parties predominant parties one party dominan ce one party rule Uncommon Democracies

PAGE 205

The Decline of the Congress Party :

PAGE 206

Presidents Rule

PAGE 208

The TMC in West Bengal :

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Indias Parties: Reactive, not C onstitutive under two hours

PAGE 213

Picking Up Steam: T he Initial R ole of the O pposition in West Bengal and Goa

PAGE 214

The TMC in Singur :

PAGE 215

The TelegraphThe Telegraph

PAGE 217

Only one person is still raising the peasants voice, and that is Mamata Banerjee. No other party has consistency, but Mamata still has spirit.23 If every woman w as like Mamata, then we would win our battle.24 Mamata tries to raise our issue to the national level .25 Opposition parties have been key to our resistance here. The villagers started this movement, but after that, the TMC came here and helped lead it.26 Mamata Banerjee has a big role. The role of opposition parties is key to our resistance .27 Opposition parties are doing something for us. Mamata Banerjee is unparalleled.28

PAGE 218

The TMC Nandigram : 29

PAGE 220

Mamatas importance is immense. She is an important leader, so her coming here helped us take our movement forward as a political battle .33 Mamata is very important to our movement. Our local TMC MLA is also very important to us.34 Mamata and our local TMC MLA [member of legislative assembly] have a huge role to play in our movement.35

PAGE 222

once

PAGE 223

Goa Movement against SEZs The Hindu The Hindu

PAGE 224

Opposition Parties at the National Level: India Post

PAGE 226

.45 Times of India

PAGE 229

Opposition Parties and Ideological Stretching

PAGE 230

SEZ, A Report

PAGE 231

Conclusion

PAGE 233

1977 BLD 29 5 41.32 INC 154 34.42 1980 INC(I) 353 46.29 JNP(S) 41 9.39 1984 INC 404 49.1 CPM 22 5.87 1996 BJP 161 20.29 INC 140 28.8 2004 INC 145 26.53 BJP 138 22.16 India Elections Indi a Elections

PAGE 234

The Telegraph The Telegraph

PAGE 235

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1951 1957 1962 1967 1971 1977 1980 1984 1989 1991 1996 1998 1999 2004 National Election Year % popular Vote Share Congress BJP 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 1951 1957 1962 1967 1971 1977 1980 1984 1989 1991 1996 1998 1999 2004 National Election Year Seats Won Congress BJP India Elections

PAGE 236

Introductio n

PAGE 237

The Importance of a Free Media :

PAGE 239

The Media in India

PAGE 241

the World Association of Newspapers St atistical Abstract

PAGE 242

Methodology

PAGE 243

Audit Bureau of Circulations Times of India

PAGE 246

Results and Analysis Results: The Telegraph and the Times of India 1) Intensity of Media Coverage of the Singur and Nandigram Movements:

PAGE 248

p

PAGE 249

Bengal Nation

PAGE 250

2) Media scrutiny of the Movements, the SEZ issue, and the Government :

PAGE 253

3) The Medias role in framing the SEZ issue :

PAGE 254

Government of India, Department of Commerce and Industry

PAGE 258

Results: The Anandabazar Patrika

PAGE 259

1) Intensity of Reporting :

PAGE 260

2) The Medias role in framing the SEZ issue :

PAGE 261

C onclusion

PAGE 269

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Sept 2006 Oct NovDecJan 2007 FebMar Apr MayJun July AugSep Date Frequency of Articles The Telegraph The Times of India 1 2 3

PAGE 270

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 Sept 2006 Oct NovDecJan 2007 FebMar Apr MayJun July AugSep Date Proportion The Telegraph The Times of India 3 2 1 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 Sept 2006 Oct NovDecJan 2007 FebMar Apr MayJun July AugSep Date Proportion The Telegraph Bengal Section The Times of India Nation Section 1 3 2

PAGE 271

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Sept 2006 Oct NovDecJan 2007 FebMar Apr MayJun July AugSep Date Frequency of Articles Anti-government Neutral Pro-government 1 2 3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Sept 2006 Oct NovDecJan 2007 FebMar Apr MayJun July AugSep Date Frequency of Articles Anti-government Neutral Pro-government 1 2 3

PAGE 272

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Sept 2006 Oct NovDec Jan 2007 FebMar Apr MayJun July AugSep Date Proportion 1 2 3 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Sept 2006 Oct NovDec Jan 2007 FebMar Apr MayJun July AugSep Date Proportion 1 2 3

PAGE 273

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Nov 2006 Dec Jan 2007 FebMar Apr MayJune July Aug Sept Date Frequency 1 3 2

PAGE 274

Introduction

PAGE 275

Revisiting the Puzzle Revisiting Existing Explanations : Moral Economy of the Peasant

PAGE 276

The Rational Peasant

PAGE 278

Negotiated Develo pment in India

PAGE 282

O ther Contributions of T his Study inevitably

PAGE 283

Moving Beyond This Study

PAGE 286

Facebook Amnesty Inte rnational Concluding Remarks: Wider Implications of This Study State Directed Development Th e Citizens Research Collective

PAGE 287

United Nations Radio

PAGE 288

.

PAGE 290

Introduction Level of Analysis :

PAGE 291

Multi Method Approach

PAGE 294

In -Depth Interviews Interviews with V illagers in Singur and Nandigram (West Bengal) Interviews in Singur :

PAGE 295

Interviews with Nandigram Villagers :

PAGE 296

I nterview Questions: Singur and Nandigram Villagers : o o o o

PAGE 297

o o o o o o o

PAGE 298

o o o o o o o

PAGE 299

Role of NGOs in the resistance (key social activists often mentione d)

PAGE 300

(TMC state leader) Singur only o o o o

PAGE 301

o o o Nandigram Only

PAGE 303

Interviews W ith Goa villagers

PAGE 304

Civil Society Interviews

PAGE 305

Bengali Writers/intellectuals

PAGE 306

Non Government Organizations

PAGE 309

Interviews with Members of Opposition Parties and Government Officials

PAGE 311

Participant Observation

PAGE 312

Content Analysis Coding Criteria : Date: Location: Section: Page Location: SEZ: Land Acquisition: Resistance: Opposition Parties:

PAGE 313

Nandigram: Article Tone : Photo: Photo Tone : Times of India

PAGE 314

Most Prominent Article of the Day: The Anandabazar Patr ika : Date : Page Location: SEZ: Land Acquisition: Singur: Nandigram: Opposition Parties: Photo: Total Articles: Most Prominent article of the day:

PAGE 317

**

PAGE 318

* **

PAGE 319

* ** *N=4 **

PAGE 320

Most prominent: Least prominent:

PAGE 321

Most prominent: Least Pro minent

PAGE 329

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PAGE 330

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PAGE 331

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PAGE 332

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PAGE 334

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PAGE 335

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PAGE 336

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PAGE 337

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