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Public Relations and Celebrity Charitable Organizations

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024113/00001

Material Information

Title: Public Relations and Celebrity Charitable Organizations a Study of the Eight Underlying Dimensions of Excellent Public Relations
Physical Description: 1 online resource (84 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Buntin, Alexis
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: celebrity, charitable, organizations, public, relations, web
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine how celebrity charitable organizations practice the eight underlying dimensions of public relations, as evidenced on their Web sites, and which element of the four pairs of the eight underlying dimensions---one-way and two-way, symmetrical and asymmetrical, mediated and interpersonal, and ethical and unethical---is most evident on celebrity charitable organization Web sites. For this study, a content analysis of 20 Web sites was conducted from the list of USA Today s Top Celebrity Charities & Foundations. Statistical analysis revealed that of the four pairs of the underlying dimensions one-way and two-way, symmetrical and asymmetrical, mediated and interpersonal, and ethical and unethical the results of this study found that the most evident elements on celebrity charitable organizations Web sites are two-way, asymmetrical, mediated and ethical communication. Although the requirements for excellent public relations are present on celebrity charitable organization Web sites; based on the finding that celebrity organization Web sites applies two-way asymmetrical, mediated, and ethical public relations, a strong trace of two-way symmetrical, mediated and ethical communication was also found, resulting in excellent public relations. Thus, this study provided answers concerning how celebrity charitable organizations utilize their Web sites to represent the eight underlying dimensions of public relations, and how celebrity charitable organizations practice excellent public relations, as evidence on their Web sites. Based on this study, celebrity charitable organizations can explore more effective strategies to practice excellent public relations on their Web sites. Moreover, scholars can develop other online features that represent the eight underlying dimensions of public relations to measure public relations excellence on celebrity charitable organization Web sites.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Alexis Buntin.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Mitrook, Michael A.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024113:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024113/00001

Material Information

Title: Public Relations and Celebrity Charitable Organizations a Study of the Eight Underlying Dimensions of Excellent Public Relations
Physical Description: 1 online resource (84 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Buntin, Alexis
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: celebrity, charitable, organizations, public, relations, web
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine how celebrity charitable organizations practice the eight underlying dimensions of public relations, as evidenced on their Web sites, and which element of the four pairs of the eight underlying dimensions---one-way and two-way, symmetrical and asymmetrical, mediated and interpersonal, and ethical and unethical---is most evident on celebrity charitable organization Web sites. For this study, a content analysis of 20 Web sites was conducted from the list of USA Today s Top Celebrity Charities & Foundations. Statistical analysis revealed that of the four pairs of the underlying dimensions one-way and two-way, symmetrical and asymmetrical, mediated and interpersonal, and ethical and unethical the results of this study found that the most evident elements on celebrity charitable organizations Web sites are two-way, asymmetrical, mediated and ethical communication. Although the requirements for excellent public relations are present on celebrity charitable organization Web sites; based on the finding that celebrity organization Web sites applies two-way asymmetrical, mediated, and ethical public relations, a strong trace of two-way symmetrical, mediated and ethical communication was also found, resulting in excellent public relations. Thus, this study provided answers concerning how celebrity charitable organizations utilize their Web sites to represent the eight underlying dimensions of public relations, and how celebrity charitable organizations practice excellent public relations, as evidence on their Web sites. Based on this study, celebrity charitable organizations can explore more effective strategies to practice excellent public relations on their Web sites. Moreover, scholars can develop other online features that represent the eight underlying dimensions of public relations to measure public relations excellence on celebrity charitable organization Web sites.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Alexis Buntin.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Mitrook, Michael A.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024113:00001


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1 PUBLIC RELATIONS AND CELEBRITY CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS: A STUDY OF THE EIGHT UNDERLYING DIMENSIONS OF EXCELLENT PUBLIC RELATIONS By ALEXIS LAUREN BUNTIN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009

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2 2009 Alexis Lauren Buntin

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3 TABLE OF CONTENTS page LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................................ 4 ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................................... 5 CHAPTER 1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY ....................................................................................................... 7 Charitable Organiz ations .............................................................................................................. 7 Celebrity ......................................................................................................................................... 9 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................................... 13 Celebrity Theory ......................................................................................................................... 13 Theory of Identification ....................................................................................................... 14 Celebrity Endorsement Theory ........................................................................................... 15 Publ ic Relations Theory .............................................................................................................. 17 Models and Dimensions ...................................................................................................... 18 Public Relations and the Internet ........................................................................................ 20 Public Relations and Interactivity ....................................................................................... 22 3 METHODOLOGY ...................................................................................................................... 24 4 RESULTS .................................................................................................................................... 29 Research Question 1 .................................................................................................................... 29 Research Question 2 .................................................................................................................... 33 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ........................................................................................ 34 Research Question 1 .................................................................................................................... 34 Research Question 2 .................................................................................................................... 48 Limitations and Future Research ................................................................................................ 52 APPENDIX A CODING SHEET FOR CONTENT ANALYSIS ..................................................................... 54 B CODEBOOK FOR CONTENT ANALYSIS ............................................................................ 56 C SAMPLE FOR CONTENT ANALYSIS .................................................................................. 60 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................................................................................................... 80 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................................................................................. 84

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4 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Number of w eb sites possessing online communication f eatures ....................................... 32

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5 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication PUBLIC RELATIONS AND CELEBRITY CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS: A STUDY OF THE EIGHT UNDERLYING DIMENSIONS OF EXCELLENT PUBLIC RELATIONS By Alexis Lauren Buntin August 2009 Chair: Michael A. Mitrook Major: Mass Communication T he purpo se of this study is to examine how celebrity charitable organizations practice the eight underlying dimensions of public relations, as evidenced on their Web sites, and which element of the four pairs of the eight underlying dimensions ---one -way and two -way, symmetrical and asymmetrical, mediated and interpersonal, and ethical and unethical ---is most evident on celebrity charitable organization We b sites. For this study, a content analysis of 20 Web sites was conducted from the list of USA Todays Top Celebrity Charities & Foundations Statistical analysis revealed that o f the four pairs of the underlying dimensions one -way and two -way, symmetrical and asymmetrical, mediated and interpersonal, and ethical and unethical the results of this study found that the most evident elements on celebrity charitable organizations Web sites are two -way, asymmetrical, mediated and ethical communication. Although the requirements for excellent public relations are present on celebrity charitable organization Web sites; based on the finding that celebrity organization Web sites applies two way asymmetrical, mediated, and ethical public relations a strong trace of t wo -way symmetrical, mediated and ethical communication was also found, resulting in excellent public relations.

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6 Thus, this study provided answers concerning how celebrity charitable organizations utilize their Web sites to represent the eight underlying d imensions of public relations, and how celebrity charitable organizations practice excellent public relations, as evidence on their Web sites. Based on this study, celebrity charitable organizations can explore more effective strategies to practice excelle nt public relations on their Web sites. More over, scholars can develop other online features that represent the eight underlying dimensions of public relations to measure public relations excellence on celebrity charitable organization Web sites.

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7 CHAPTER 1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Little or no research exists to explain the public relations behavior of celebrity charitable organizations, and most celebrity endorsement research remains in th e field of marketing. This paper proposes a study that will examine t he Web sites of 20 celebr ity charitable organizations to attempt to explain the public relations behavior of each organization, particularly in relation to donor publics. The organizations represent two face ts of entertainment: television/film and music T heir Web sites will be analyzed using theoretical dimensions recently advanced by public relations scholars, and the result will be compared to identify similarities and significant differences. The emerging understanding of celebrity philanthropy will provide insight into this social phenomenon from a public relations standpoint. The success or failure of a cele brity charitable organizations practice of public relations is the subject of this thesis. It starts by describing the state of charitable organiz ations and explores the practice of public relations from the perspective of celebrity chari table organizations Charitable Organizations Nonprofit organizations provide programs and services that address social, political and economic problems. These cha ritable organizations are a crucial part of the fabric of society and provide opportunities for individuals to make a difference and contribute to humanity. A nonprofit organization that is created in the United States must be acknowledged as a charitable organization by the Internal Revenue Service to ensure that the organizations donations are tax deductable. Section 501 (c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code defines tax-exempt organizations as those structured for religious, scientific, educational and cha ritable functions, among others. 501 (c)(3) organizations are considered to be private foundations unless they exhibited one of the following qualities: (a) organizations that include schools, colleges, churches, hospitals, etc.; (b)

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8 organizations that g enerate more than one third of their funds from g rants or gifts, and usually do not receive more than one third of their funds from investments; ( c) a supporting organization managed by another public charity; and ( d) organizations specifically functioning for public safety issues. A private foundation is described as serving the public primarily through making grants to other nonprofit organizations. Additionally, the primary funds are usually received from a single source and are maintained by the organi zations own trustees. A private foundation does not solicit funds from the general public. Conversely, a public charity generally receives its funds from the multiple sources that include individuals, government organizations and private foundations. The majority of public charities behave through tax -exempt activities, although few do participate in grant -making. Many public charities use the term foundation in the organizations name. This term is misused. As previously stated, private foundations and public charities have different operating guidelines. In regard to making information publicly available, a private foundation is required to file the Form 990 -PF. Conversely, a public charity is required to file the Form 990. Both forms provide important facts concerning an organizations grants, finances and board members. According to the National Center for Charitable Statistics (Number of Nonprofit Organizations, n.d.) the number of nonprofit organizations in the United States greatly increased fro m 1996 to 2006. Specifically, public charities increased 68.7 % from 535,930 in 1996 to 904,313 in 2006. Philanthropic giving, or financial support provided by donors to public charities, saw an increase in 2007. According to Giving USA (2008), a leading co nsultant to nonprofit organizations, charitable giving in the United States rose 3.9% to an estimated $306.39 billion in 2007 the most recent year for which statistics are available The amount given

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9 represents the first time in history that charitable g iving in the United States has exceeded $300 billion. These statistics imply that charitable organizations are making efforts to create modifications to the manner in which they function in an attempt to appeal to donors ( L. Salamon, 2002). The development of public relations strategy in the nonprofit sector could contribute to this change and help charitable organizations develop and maintain mutually beneficial r elationships with their publics, including donors. Within charitable giving, certain organiza tions appeal to a wider range of publics for gifts by way of reputation and association, and not necessarily because of the urgency of the cause. D onors give to institutions represent ing causes that are important to them. According to Odendahl (1989), Per sonal interest, involvement and satisfaction are important motivations (p. 172). Kelly (1998) stated that individuals give for multiple reasons ranging from the advancement of society to obtaining tangible benefits Kelly holds that mixed motives are the motivation for giving commonly accepted by philanthropy and nonprofit management scholars. The mixed motive model of public relations protects ones own interest while recognizing the opposing interest of the other party, creating an environment that accommodates the interests of both the organization and public. One benefit prospective and current donors can receive as a result of giving is the personal association with a celebrity (Wheeler, 2002). Likewise, the celebrity benefits from an increase in cre dibility and visibility. Celebrity Historically, fame was defined b y achievement. Daniel Boorstin (cited in Neimark, 1995) defined modern fame by an individuals image. The hero was distinguished by his achievement, the celebrity by his image. The celebr ity is a person well known for his well known-ness (p. 57). The twentieth century brought about an amplified interest in celebrities that filtered through

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10 all aspects of American society (OMahony & Meenaghan, 1997). According to Dana Kennedy (cited in N eimark, 1995), senior writer at Entertainment Weekly the number of celebrities and the amount of coverage of them has vastly increased He stated, Thirty years ago the only real celebrities were in movies. Now theyre everywhere (p. 57). Celebrity pers onalities permeate through numerous media during a time when information is immense and immediate. Why is society enthralled with the celebrity? Neimark (1995) argues that we live in a media culture that encourages people to think that celebrities are wort hy of our attention and respect. Additionally, society desires a reassuring moral tale from celebrities (p. 90). The cultural visibility of the celebrity creates this opportunity. John Dempsey, cited in Lennon (2006), preside nt of Estee Lauder, says that P eople want a sense of familiarity with the people they look up to (p. 42). Furthermore, the explosion of the Internet has contributed to a public hunger for more news on celebrities. Just as publicity is likely to provide a boost in image for celebr ities, celebrities can help provide a boost for sustained media and philanthropic attention for charitable organizations As fame and fortune grow, celebrities embrace opportunities to use stature to take an active role in addressing pressing social issues Jamie Lee Curtis, a celebrity and childrens health advocate, as cited in People Magazine says the The best use of my celebrity is to bring focus to an issue that needs it (p. 50). Robin Bronk, cited on FoxNews.com (2002) executive director of the C elebrity Coalition, an organization that pairs celeb rities with causes, stated, Celebrities are up there with pillars of the community they are voices of influence. Five years ago, no one knew what stem cells were, but Michael J. Fox pushed it to the top of the agenda (2002, 4). According to Holston (2007), Investing time, talent, and personal finances, high profile personalities from

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11 America have become key factors in drawing attention to perplexing issues, and in mobilizing individual, government an d corporate resources to address them (p. 21). Paulette Maehara, cited in Hau (2007), president and chief executive of the Association of Fundraising Professionals, the largest professional association for fundraising practitioners in the world, said that a greater awareness of a celebrity creates a lot of exposure for a charity. Benefits such as name recognition and connections to other entertainers and would -be donors are reasons for celebrity giving ( 10). In recent years, celebrities who formall y kept their giving private have made their giving public in hopes of encouraging others to contribute ( J. Salamon, 2005, 4). Celebrities can attract societys attention to national passions, cultural battles, and societal issues. Celebrities actively involved in efforts to raise awareness of and seek solutions to a range of social plights is evidence of a relationship between mass media and philanthropy, and the influence of famous faces on both (Corbett & Mori, 1999, p. 244). Some argue that celebri ty giving is a righteous one upmanship with public relations benefits or smart fundraising ( J. Salamon, 2005, 4). It is important to study celebrity charitable organizations because celebrities are instrumental in creating a structure through which the general public has an attractive way to direct their resources to issues in which they believe most. It is also valuable to study celebrity charitable organizations because of the identificati on that individuals have with celebrities and their status. Because o f a celebritys visibility, celebrities are well known for the organizations and causes they support, and they have the opportunity to implement change faster and on a larger scale. Additionally, it is important to study celebrity charitable orga nization Web sites because social networking through the Internet is expanding. It is changing the ways in which people are learning about causes an d changing how they decide the causes to which they will

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12 contribute. Several nonprofit organizations exist online to assist celebrities in establishing philanthropic opportunities to inspire others to give back to society. Such organizations include the Celebrities for Charity Foundation and The Giving Back Fund. As stated, these organizations act as a resource for celebrities to unite their charitable goals with a public. This paper contends that celebrity charitable organizations play a fundamental role in philanthropy. Theories regarding public relations excellence and celebrity endorsement and identification have been selected to form a framework for the proposed thesis. The study will examine celebrity charitable organizations in orde r to better understand how each demonstrated evidence of the eight underlying dimensions of public relations excellence The n ext chapter focuses on the theories that have been selected to achieve this purpose.

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13 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW History has demonstrated societys growing interest in celebrities of popular culture and sports. A public can perceive a celebrity as signif icant and in turn, create a symbolic connection with said celebrity. To explain this phenomenon, this chapter will discuss literature regarding celebrity theory. Celebrit y theory is important to examine in this study because it explains the idea of identif ication that a public exhibits with a celebrity, and the symbolic connection through association with a celebrity that inspires a public to participate in causes that the celebrity supports. These theories can help explain why celebrities can influence don or behavior in charitable organizations. Furthermore, this chapter will discuss public relations theory as it applies to this study. By focusing on the eight underlying dimensions of the four models of public relations, this study will provide an in depth account of how, and to what extent, celebrity charitable organizations practice excellent public relations with donors on its Web site. Celebrity Theory It is suggested that the effect celebrities have on individuals and their consumer actions could be be cause celebrities are viewed as highly dynamic, likeable and attractive persons, and because their notoriety and fame attract attention to the product (Atkin & Block, 1983, p. 61). Academic research on sports celebrities has documented a change in the medias fascination with celebrity and the relevance of sport in consumer behavior. These studies recognize the symbolic power of sports stars who become bearers of the many aspirations, values and desires of the fans who follow them (Haynes, 2004, p. 102). Media scholars have questioned the way in which people acquire social values and behavior from media personalities. Such research inquiries have found that celebrities have had a growing influence through mass media that ha s given them a powerful sta tus, that mass

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14 audiences engage in a process of identification with a celebrity, and that celebrity identification leads society to role model a celebritys perceived values and behavior (Brown & Frasier, 2002). Historically, people closely identified with heroes and regarded them as those who should be followed, role modeled, and emulated. Gamson (1994) argued that rapid growth of the cinema -television industry in the United States spawned Americas celebrity culture during the early 20th century. Boorst in (1961) said that the growth of popular media has led to a social transition from heroes to celebrities. Famous athletes, musical entertainers, and film and television stars have gained international fame through the all -pervading reach of media (Brown & Fraser, 2002). Celebrity status is dependent on public attention (Alberoni, 1972). This attention leads to public perceptions that illustrate how celebrities function as role models. A role model is defined as someone whose values, beliefs, and behavior are likely to be adopted by others within their sphere of influence (Brown & Fraser, 2002). The influence of celebrities on a public has contributed to an environment that inspires individuals to perceive a celebrity as a role model, and even emulate the celebritys behavior. This knowledge is important to this study because it can help explain if the public relations behavior of a celebrity public charity is different than public charities that are not associated with a celebrity. Theory of Identificatio n The process of social influence by which individuals adopt the values and behaviors of media personality is described by the theory of identification (Brown & Fraser, 2002). According to Burke (1969), identification occurs when one individual shares, or believes that he or she shares the interests of another. The relationship between the celebrity and a public can be described as a perceived mutual interaction between individuals and a celebrity. Gabler (1998)

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15 argued that in a culture occupied by enterta inment, a celebrity creates values (p. 203) and becomes a human trademark (p. 221). The more celebrity an individual acquires, the more cultural value the individual has. Furthermore, as a means of self -expression, the individual can use the iconic r epresentation of the celebrity to promote particular cultural values (Soukup, 2006, p. 330). Caughey (1986) concluded that an individuals experiences represent a complex process of identification in which the media figures values and plans are incorpor ated into the fans social behavior (p. 241). Soukup (2006) said that these individuals are identifying with public identity of a celebrity (p. 333). According to Simonson (2001), the impact and significance of celebrity giving is found in the cultures of music, entertainment, and celebrity that contain different commun icative opportunities than news -based controversy (p. 401). From a public relations viewpoint, they symbolize a new potential for publicity and offer a selection of media outlets in whic h to insert messages free of charge (Simonson, 2001). Celebrity Endorsement Theory Celebrity endorsement theory is based on the idea that celebrities are perceived as successful individuals because of their symbolic connection, meaning individuals create an association with a celebrity by participating in causes that the celebrity advocates (Assael, 1984, p. 57). The majority of celebrity endorsement research focuses on advertising products and services for for profit organizations, or businesses. Few stu dies concentrate on the benefit of celebrity endorsement for charitable organizations. This study hypothesizes that the underlying principles upon which celebrity endorsement theory hold that people want to associate themselves with a celebrity, particular ly by purchasing goods recommended by the celebrity or donating time and money to the celebritys cause.

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16 According to Wheeler (2002), some celebrities are more suitable for particu lar organizations than others, and n ot all celebrities can successfully ass ociate themselves with charitable organizations. For example, Kevin Nealon, a celebrity that has publicly announced his vegetarian lifestyle, is a suitable celebrity to support the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), the largest animal righ ts organization in the world. In contrast, a celebrity that is known for wearing fur and consuming meat products would not be suitable. Celebrity association with organizations pose such questions as the following: Is the celebrity a logical and appropria te fit for this role? Will the celebrity generate a high level of intention to v olunteer time and donate money? Will an ord inary person who is connected to a nonprofit agency be more or less effective than a connected celebrity or u n connected celebrit y? (p. 23) Additionally, Wheeler (2002) emphasized that the connection of the celebrity endorser to the product does not rely on the image and attractiveness of the celebrity, but is built on the compatibility of the celebrity endorser with the charitabl e organization being promoted (p. 21). Celebrity involvement in charitable organizations is most valuable when they have a connection to the cause and a message conveyed by their own life experience. While celebrities are often seen as trustworthy, the y are much more effective when they have a personal experience with the issue (Atkin & Schiller, 2002, p.24). For example, American professional road racing cyclist, Lance Armstrong, is an example of a celebrity endorser that is intimately connected to th e fight to cure cancer because he survived testicular cancer. Celebritys deepening involvement in charitable organizations creates a greater awareness for causes. By identifying with celebrities and adapting their values and behaviors, individuals resp ond enthusiastically to the appeal of a celebrity that supports a cause in which the individual already has an interest

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17 Domino (2003) researched celebrity endorsement of NFL celebrities in charitable organizations by adapting the mixed motive model of pu blic relations to the study. The purpose of the study was to establish a celebritys influence on an individuals contribution to a charitable organization through both a marketing and public relations perspective. The findings rejected the mixed motive mo del of public relations and held that Celebrity endorsers alone cannot influence information seeking, level of involvement, information processing, and willingness to donate time or money to charitable organizations (Domino, 2003, p. 66). To encourage the participation of donors, Domino (2003) emph asized that practitioners first use celebrity endorsers to build awareness about issues and then, use the situational theory of publics to explain their behavior. Dominos (2003) study is significant to this st udy because it suggests that celebrities are not the only factor influencing donor behavior in charitable organizations, and that effective public relations communication, not marketing communication, contributes to how and why donors give. Public Relation s Theory A commonly ac cepted definition of public relations, regardless of organizational type is one given by Cutlip, Center, & Broom (2000). They assert that the primary characteristics of public relations are managerial and relationship driven, and de fine public relations as the management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and a public on whom its s uccess or failure depends (2000, p. 6). In 1984, J. Grunig and Hunt introduced four models of public relations. The term model was used to describe the framework for public relations behaviors and approaches to communicating with audiences (J. Grunig & L. Grunig, 1992). Not every organization fits the models perfectly or exclusively. The theo ry holds that practitioners practice all four models to some extent, but they

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18 practice one predominantly. The predominant model is important because it represents the philosophy of public relations held of those who control the organization. Models and Dim ensions The press agentry and public information models are examples of one -way asymmetrical communication. The principle behind these models is to generate publicity for the organization by using mediated communication. These models do not typify excelle nt communication practices (L. Grunig, J. Grunig, & Dozier, 2002). According to L. Grunig, J. Grunig, and Dozier (2002), the two-way asymmetrical model and the tw o -way symmetrical model are greater in excellency. Organizations that perform two -way communic ation use formative research to assess public perceptions before a campaign and evaluative research to gauge effectiveness of campaigns when they conclude. Both models use a combination of mediated and interpersonal communication. The purpose of the two-wa y asymmetrical model is to shape messages in order to persuade a public to believe and behave as the organization wants it to. In contrast, the two way symmetrical model uses research to develop mutual understanding between the organization and its publics and, if necessary, change both the organizations and publics attitudes and behaviors. After decades of research on the models, L. Grunig, J. Grunig, and Dozier (2002) concluded that there are four sets of dimensions underlying the four models of publ ic relations. The first set of dimensions describes the extent to which public relations behavior is one -way or two -way. The second set of these dimensions is symmetry and asymmetry, the degree to which communication is balanced through public relations be havior. The third set of dimensions describes the use of mediated and interpersonal forms of communication. The fourth dimension describes the degree to which public relations practice is ethical.

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19 As adapted from L. Grunig, J. Grunig, and Dozier (2002), t he following items summarize how the previously discussed eight underlying dimensions of public relations relate to the discussed models of public relations: Press agentry model: one -way, asymmetrical, mediated, unethical Public information model: one -way, asymmetrical, mediated, more ethical Two -way asymmetrical model: two -way, asymmetrical, mediated or interpersonal, ethical or unethical Two -way symmetrical model: two -way, symmetrical, mediated or interpersonal, ethical. The two -way symmetrical model, wit h a combination of mediated, interpersonal, and ethical communication, indicates excellent public relations. The application of the theory of the four pairs of, or eight underlying dimensions of public relations excellence to thi s study will help explain how celebrity charitable organizations practice excellent public relations with donors on its Web site. To examine the extent that each charitable organizations Web site exhibits excellent public relations, the eight underlying dimensions of public relat ions will be defined by the following discussed online features. One -way communication will be demonstrated by search capabilities, viewer choice and curiosity devices. Two -way communication will be demonstrated by email, registration, messaging or feedbac k, order or donate forms and chat rooms. The one way and two -way communication online features were adapted from McMillans (2002) study of interactivity on Web sites. Her study analyzed 108 healthrelated Web sites to explore the applicability of a four p art model of online interactivity based on Grunigs (1992) four models of public relations. Through content analysis, she found that search capabilities, viewer choice and curiosity devices facilitated one -way communication on Web sites. Additionally, she found that email, registration, messaging or feedback, order or donate forms and chat rooms facilitated two way communication.

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20 Online features such as messaging and feedback, IRS Form 990, annual report, Frequently Asked Questions, and donation policy wil l demonstrate symmetrical communication. I contend that these features create a balanced and dialogical environment that can establish mutual understanding between an organization and a public. Conversely, asymmetrical communication will be demonstrated by the absence of symmetrical communication features. Mediated communication will be demonstrated by special events, videos or photos, press room, editorials and publications. Personal letters, speeches and face -to -face conversations via Web cameras and microphones will demonstrate interpersonal communication. The mediated and interpersonal communication online features were adapted from Kellys (1998) Hierarchy of Public Relations Tactics/Techniques by Three Levels of Communication that discusses public rel ations techniques used in both mediated and interpersonal communication. Ethical public relations practices will be demonstrated by evidence of donor policy, annual report, partners, board of directors, mission statement, IRS Form 990, amount spent of fun draising, amount spent on administration, and amount spent on program services. I contend that these online features exhibit truthful and upfront information that advocates an accurate and honest exchange of information about an organization to a public. C onversely, unethical public relations practices will be demonstrated by the absence of ethical features. Duplicate online communication features are represented among the dimensions that, by definition, indicate excellent public relations. These include t he two -way and symmetrical dimensions that measure messaging or feedback options, and the symmetrical and ethical dimensions that measure IRS Form 990, annual report and donation policy. Public Relations and the Internet The Internet has become an essenti al part of public relations practice. In particular, the Internet provides organizations with new opportunities to develop effective strategies to

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21 communicate with key publics. Cutlip, Center and Broom (2000) observed that the digital world has changed co mmunication within organizations and between organizations and their various publics (p. 285). Web sites, one part of the Internet, are an intricate part of the online medium. Several studies found that for smaller organizations, such as many nonprofit organizations, Web sites play a critical role as a primary resource for communicating with and responding to stakeholder groups (Taylor, Kent & White, 2001). Kang and Norton (2004) asserted that the World Wide Web offers a unique opportunity to interactive ly reach multiple audiences. Previous research has maintained that the use of the Internet for effective communication can help establish and maintain relationships with multiple publics (Coombs, 1998). Public relations is most effectively practiced with t he use of the Internet (Newsome, Van Slyke, & Kruckeburg, 2000). Furthermore, two -way communication features on the Internet could facilitate excellent public relations (McMillan, 2002; Grunig & Grunig, 1992). Cutlip, Center, and Broom (2000) asserted tha t public relations in the charitable sector, similar to public relations in other sectors, seeks to establish and maintain important relationships in an effort to accomplish the organizations mission. In maintaining these relationships with various public s, the Internet allows public relations practitioners the ability to bypass the gatekeepers of other mass media (White & Raman, 1999). Landesman (1995) suggested that the Internet could positively affect the state of public education, fundraising, and volunteer recruitment for charitable organizations. By maintaining dialogue, organizations could redefine existing relationships and proactively build ongoing relationships with pertinent publics. Frenza (1997) asserts that the Internet reaches more individuals than any other form of communication. Compared to traditional methods of mass media, the Internet enables people to

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22 utilize two -way communication features through an interactive medium online, leading to relationship building. As recalled, two-way comm unication, as prescribed by models of public relations, is superior to one -way communication characteristics of public relations. Public Relations and Interactivity Communication and technology scholars alike have examined the nature of interactivity, wh ich has led to an inconsistent definition. Mass communications researchers, such as Rogers (1995), define interactivity as the degree to which participants in a communication process can exchange roles and have control over their mutual discourse (p. 314). In an attempt to explain interactivity comprehensively, Kiousis (2002) describes interactivity as the degree to which a communication technology can create a mediated environment in which participants can communicate (one to -one, one to -many, and many -to -many), both synchronously and asynchronously, and participate in reciprocal message exchanges (third-order dependency). With regard to human users, it additionally refers to their ability to perceive the experience as a simulation of interpersonal communication and increase their awareness of telepresence (p. 372). Unlike traditional media, the Internet has interactive features embedded in the online communication, enabling people to engage in two -way communication and build relationships. The interact ive nature of the Internet gives the practice of public relations an exceptional opportunity to collect information and monitor the public opinion of stakeholders. Public relations scholars and practitioners have valued two -way communication between the or ganization and publics as excellent public relations (J. Grunig & L. Grunig, 1992). At a time when the Internet has emerged as a communication device, there is no typology of public relations tactics that deals with the unique characteristics of Web sites. This study overlaps with K. S. Kellys (1998) Hierarchy of Public Relations Tactics/Techniques by Three

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23 Levels of Communication. Kelly asserts that the three levels of communication are interpersonal; controlled media, which includes the Internet; and uncontrolled or mass media. I contend that the Internet is a combination of all three levels of communication. The Internet can be considered mass media because it reaches mass audiences by mediated communication through uncontrolled channels such as onlin e newspapers and online streams of television and radio broadcasts. Additionally, the Internet can be considered controlled media because it reaches audiences through mediated communication controlled by a specific organization, such as newsletters or broc hures. Finally, the Internet can be considered interpersonal communication because it offers opportunities to have real time conversations via the Web using computer hardware such as Web cam era s and microphones, creating an online interpersonal environme nt. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the public relations behavior of celebrity charitable organizations according to the eight underlying dimensions of public relations as evidenced on the organizations Web sites. Based on the literature just re viewed, the following research questions were formulated: RQ 1 To what extent does public relations practice of celebrity charitable organizations represent the eight underlying dimensions of public relations, as evidenced on their Web sites? RQ 2 Which el ement of each of the four pairs of the underlying dimensions --one -way and two -way, symmetrical and asymmetrical, mediated and interpersonal, and ethical and unethical -is the most evident on celebrity charitable organization Web sites?

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24 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This is a descriptive study that examined a population of 20 celebrity organization Web sites. Newsome, VanSlyke and Kruckeberg (2000) assert that it is nearly impossible to practice public relations effectively today without using the Internet. Beca use of its interactive features, the Internet could facilitate two -way symmetrical communication, providing critical charitable organizations with excellent public relations. Thus, this study reviewed nonprofit organizations application of the eight under lying public relations dimensions by analyzing each charitys Web site. Due to limited literature on celebrity charitable organizations, a content analysis research design specifically utilizing the Web sites of celebrity charitable organizations was dee med an appropriate method of data collection for this study. As stated, the Web sites of 20 celebrity nonprofit organizations was used as a research sample. The ce lebrity charitable organization s Web sites were purposively chosen with celebrities of telev ision/film and music in mind. In order to find the celebrity organization s Web sites, a Web search using www.google.com and the search term celebrity charitable organization was performed. The outcome of this searc h produced USA Todays Top Celebrity Charities & Foundations list published in 2001. The criteria used to select the celebrity public charities for this study include celebrities of American popular culture, celebrity participation in television/film or m usic, public charity status of the celebritys organization and the presence of a Web site for the charitable organization. Due to the limited number of celebrity charitable organizations with Web sites on USA Todays Top Celebrity Charities & Foundations list only 20 organizations were used in this study.

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25 The research objectives were achieved by conducting a content analysis of the Web sites during the period from February 11, 2009 to February 25, 2009. A two-week duration was chosen because of the fluid nature of the Internet. It is constantly altering the content of sites causing information and features to change (Wimmer & Dominick, 2003). Content analysis was used because it provides a framework for analysis through pattern matching across different d ata during the research period (Han, 2001). Additionally, McIllan (2000) determined that content analysis is an ideal research design when analyzing data on Web sites. Five coders participated in this study; the researcher and four other graduate student s Inter -coder reliability was determined through pre -testing sample sites. The coders conducted a pretest independently with 20% of the research sample to test the reliability of each characteristic. Scotts Pi formula (1955) was calculated and inte r -coder reliability was .921 The coder s evaluated the s ites based on an 8 part, 30 -item scale, based on the eight underlying dimensions of public relations. A coding sheet is presented in Appendix A. In the duration of two week s each site was coded fo r the pres ence or absence of 30 characteristics. Additionally, the coder s recorded the number of clicks it takes to get from the homepage to eac h of the logical items on the 30 item scale. To maximize reliability, each item was carefully analyzed based on the codebo ok, which is presented in Appendix B. To examine the extent that each public charity exhibits the eight underlying dimensions of public relations excellence, each site was coded for evidence of the following features: one way communication demonstrated by search capabilities, viewer choice and curiosity devices; two -way communication including email, registration, messaging or feedback, order or donate forms and chat rooms; symmetrical communication including messaging or feedback, IRS Form

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26 990, annual report, FAQs and donation policy; asymmetrical communication that exhibits an unbalanced worldview by the absence of previous ly mentioned symmetrical measures; mediated communication including special events, videos or photos, press room, editorials and publi cations; interpersonal communication including personal letters, speeches and face to -face communication via Web; and evidence of ethical public relations practices including donor policy, annual report, partners, board of directors, mission statement, IRS Form 990, and amount spent on fundraising, administration and program services. The extent that each charitable organization exhibits the eight underlying dimensions of public relations was coded on a scale of weak to strong The ranges are as follows: 1 % to 25% equals weak, 26 % to 44 % equals below average, 45 % to 55% equals average, 56 % to 75 % equals above average and 75% to 100% equals strong. The sample for this study was obtained from USA Todays Top Celebrity Charities & Foundations list published i n 2001. Of this list, the following celebrity charitable organizations will be examined: 1 Oprahs Angel Network, http://oprahsangelnetwork.org 2 The Elton John AIDS Foundation, http://www.ejaf.org 3 The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinsons Research, http://www.michaeljfox.org 4 The Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation, http://www.chri stopherreeve.org 5 The HollyRod Foundation for Help and Hope, http://www.hollyrod.com 6 Rosies For All Kids Foundation, http://www.forallkids.org 7 Farm Aid, www.farmaid.org 8 The Liberace Foundation for the Performing and Creative Arts, www.liberace.org 9 The Windstar Foundation, www.wstar.org 10. The Ch ildrens Heal th Fund, www.childrenshealthfund.org 11. The Doris Day Animal Foundation, www.ddaf.org 12. Save the Manatee Club, www.savethemana tee.org 13. The Sundance Institute, www.sundance.org 14. Starlight Starbright Childrens Foundation, www.starbright.org 15. The American Foundation for AIDS Research, www.amfar.org 16. The Michael Bolton Charities, www.michaelboltoncharities.com 17. The Teammates for Kids Foundation, www.teammatesforkids. com 18. The Dollywood Foundation, www.imaginationlibrary.com

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27 19. The Woody Guthrie Foundation, www.woodyguthrie.org 20. The Larry King Cardiac Foundation, www.lkcf.org A preliminary review of each organizations most recently available IRS Form 990 was conducted. The IRS Form 990 provides an organizations financial information including a detailed list of grants, the organizations tru stees and officers and other important information about the organization. Under IRS regulations, public disclosure of IRS Form 990 is required. For this study, the IRS Form 990 was obtained through the Foundation Center Web site. Results of the review sh owed that none of the celebrity namesakes appear to draw a salary from the public charities they created. Additionally, none of the celebrities appear to give to their organizations. The analysis showed that 10 of the organizations are representative of ce lebrities in TV/film and 10 are representative of celebrities in music. Furthermore, 10 organizations serve the public both nationally and internationally and 10 organizations only serve the public on a national scale. A total of five different areas of so cial need are represented by the celebrity public charities. Six organizations support education and research for diseases, seven organizations support the development and rights of children, three organizations support the performing arts, two organizatio ns support environmental issues, and two organizations support agriculture. Six of the organizations were established in New York, three organizations were established in California and two organizations were established in Colorado. Other states of establ ishment include Illinois, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Nevada, Connecticut, Utah, Tennessee, Florida and Maryland. Of the 20 organizations, 10 listed the organizations celebrity as the founder, three listed the organizations celebrity as the co -founder, tw o listed the celebrity as the director, three listed the celebrity as a chairman and two organizations did not list the celebrity, but one did list the celebritys daughter as the secretary.

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28 Background information about each celebrity and their correspondi ng organizations can be found in Appendix C. That section offers a description of each organization and specific financial information regarding revenue, grants and compensation.

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29 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS This study addressed two research questions: RQ 1. To what extent does public relations practice of celebrity charitable organizations represent the eight underlying dimensions of public relations, as evidenced on their Web sites? and RQ 2. Which element of each of the four pairs of the underlying dimensions one -way and two -way, symmetrical and asymmetrical, mediated and interpersonal, and ethical and unethical is most evident on celebrity charitable organization Web sites? In order to answer these questions, a content analysis of 20 celebrity charitable orga nizations from USA Todays Top Celebrity Charities & Foundations list was conducted. This chapter describes the results of the content analysis. Research Question 1 Research Question 1 asks to what extent does public relations practice of celebrity charit able organizations represent the eight underlying dimensions of public relations, as evidenced on their Web sites. Table 4 1 shows the total number of Web sites that demonstrate the eight underlying dimensions of public relations. First, analysis of one -w ay communication features revealed that of the 20 Web sites in the study, 12 Web sites had search capabilities such as an internal search engine; five sites had viewer choice capabilities such as a language change options and a text size change option; and three sites included curiosity devices, such as trivia games, video games and matching games. Second, analysis of two -way communication features revealed that 19 Web sites had email contact addresses exhibited by an email link or listed email address; 16 sites had registration items, such as an embedded online form requesting the users name, email address, mailing address, user identification and password, and mailing and email updates options; seven sites had messaging or feedback capabilities, such as an embedded online form requesting the

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30 users name, email address and comments; 20 sites had order or donate forms that include an option to make the donation in honor of someone, options for donation amount and reoccurrence, donor information such as name email address, mailing address, phone number and billing information; and three sites had chat rooms that included a separate page for synchronous and real time communication. Third, analysis of symmetrical communication features revealed that seven Web sites had messaging or feedback capabilities, such as an embedded online form requesting the users name, email address and comments; five sites had IRS Form 990, such as a link to a pdf file of the organizations IRS Form 990; seven sites had annual repo rts, such as a link to a pdf file of the organizations annual report; 11 sites had a FAQs page that listed questions and answers regarding the organization; and 15 sites had a donation policy that included a statement of donation rules and regulations tha t explain how donations are used and the rights of the donor. One site used all of the symmetrical communication features. Additionally, analysis of asymmetrical features revealed that two sites used exclusively asymmetrical communication features. Furth ermore, analysis of mediated communication features revealed that 17 Web sites had special events such as descriptions and announcements of past and upcoming special events sponsored by or hosted by the organization; 20 sites had videos or photos that were uploaded by the organization and included jpeg or tiff formats and streaming video through programs such a s RealMedia and Quicktime video ; 16 sites had a press room that included press releases, press kits, media centers with multimedia press packages, video image libraries, organization profile and public relations contacts; 10 sites had editorials such as articles stating organization opinions or articles that give perspectives about the organization and the cause it supports; and 11 sites

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31 had publications s uch as newsletters, excerpts fro m books by the organization or associated celebrity and online brochures and fliers. Moreover, analysis of interpersonal communication features revealed that nine Web sites had personal letters, such as letters written and signed by the associated celebrity; three sites had speech es, such as streaming videos of past speeches given by celebrities or politicians regarding the organization or related initiatives; and none of the sites used face -to -face interactions via the Web and Web camera, such as a real -time streaming video option with audio. In addition, analysis of ethical communication revealed that 15 Web sites had a donation policy that included a statement of donation rules and regulations that explain how donatio ns are used and the rights of the donor; seven sites had annual reports, such as a link to a pdf file of the organizations annual report; 12 sites named the partners by listing the partners by name or company; 15 sites named the board of directors by list ing the members of the board of directors, and occasionally including contact information such as an email address; 20 sites had a mission statement that included a brief statement of the organizations purpose, primary publics, responsibility of the organ ization in regard to its publics and services that the organization offered; five sites had IRS Form 990, such as a link to a pdf file of the organizations IRS Form 990; nine sites had the amount spent on funding; eight sites had the amount spent on admin istration; and nine sites had the amount spent on program services, all of which included a link to a pdf file with the organizations financial information, or a financial page with the organizations financial information listed. One site used all of the ethical communication features. Finally, analysis of unethical communication revealed that no sites used unethical communication features exclusively.

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32 An evaluation of the totals showed that 11 out of 20 Web sites examined used 50% or more of the eight underlying dimensions of public relations. Although eight out of 20 Web sites demonstrated 33% and 43% of the eight underlying dimensions of public relations, only one Web site demonstrated the lo west total representing only 27% of the underlying dimensions of public relations. Table 4 1. Number of Web Sites Possessing Online Communication Features Feature Number Percent One way Communication Search Capabilities 12 60 Viewer Choice 5 25 Curiosity Devices 3 15 Two way Communication Email 19 95 Re gistration 16 80 Messaging/ Feedback 7 35 Order/ Donate 20 100 Chat Room 3 15 Symmetrical Communication Messaging/ Feedback 7 35 IRS Form 990 5 25 Annual Report 7 35 FAQ 11 55 Donation Policy 15 75 Mediated Communication Special Events 17 85 Videos/ Photos 20 100 Press Room 16 80 Editorials 10 50 Publications 11 55 Interpersonal Communication Personal Letters 9 45 Speeches 3 15 Face to face via Web 0 0 Ethical Communication Donation Policy 15 75 Annual Report 7 35 Partners Nam ed 12 60 Board of Directors Named 15 75 Mission Statement 20 100 IRS Form 990 5 25 Amount Spent on Funding 9 45

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33 Table 4 1 Continued. Amount Spent on Administration 8 40 Amount Spent on Program Services 9 45 Research Question 2 Research Question 2 asks which element of each of the four pairs of the underlying dimensions one -way and two -way, symmetrical and asymmetrical, mediated and interpersonal, and ethical and unethical is most evident on celebrity charitable organization Web sites. Of the eig ht underlying dimensions of public relations, one -way communication was exhibited at an average frequency of 33 % among the 20 charitable organization Web sites. Conversely, two -way communication was demonstrated at an average frequency of 66% Symmetrical communication was exhibited at an average frequency of 48% and asymmetrical communication was demonstrated at an average frequency of 55 % among the 20 charitable organization Web sites. Mediated communication was exhibited at an average frequency of 74 % and interpersonal communication was demonstrated at an average frequency of 18 % among the 20 charitable organization Web sites. Finally, ethical communication was exhibited at an average frequency of 55% and unethical communication was demonstr ated an ave rage frequency of 44% among the 20 charitable organization Web sites.

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34 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCL USION This study explored how celebrity charitable organizations practice the eight underlying dimensions of public relations, as evidenced on their Web sites, and which element of the four pairs of the eight underlying dimensions ---one -way and two -way, symmetrical and asymmetrical, mediated and interpersonal, and ethical and unethical ---is most evident on celebrity charitable organization Web sites. Rese arch Question 1 Analysis of how celebrity organization Web sites practice the eight underlying dimensions of public relations demonstrated that more than half (60% ) of the Web sites utilize search capabilities as the predominant form of one -way communica tion. Providing an internal search engine allows the organization to index content on the Web site so a visitor can search the contents of the site. For example, Farm Aid provided search capabilities that search keywords or phrases and displayed results by the date the content was modified. All queries resulted in information provided by the organization and included information such as special event details, organization news, photos and videos and articles. In regard to public relations, providing a searc h capability option is a strength for an organization because it contributes to easy navigation of the site, the idices make finding specific records easier and faster, and an organization can provide a lot of information on its site in a clear and precise fashion. Examination of the sample revealed that 25 % of Web sites displayed viewer choice options and 15% of the sample displayed curiosity devices. Although viewer choice options were represented on one quarter of all Web sites, curiosity devices were e vident on only 15% of the entire sample. All of the Web sites that provided viewer choice options utilized the opportunity for language changes. These organizations were among the charities that serve the public both

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35 nationally and internationally. Because only 25 % of the sample used viewer choice, this study found that the majority of charities that aid the public on a national and international scale are not providing a valuable one -way communication option, such as changing the language from English to a nother language on the Web site, for easy interpretation of the site for international publics. Viewer choice options allow the user to cha nge the language on the site from English to multiple other languages with one click on the language link or icon. One site, such as the Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation, provided a viewer choice option with multiple language change options including Spanish, Chinese, Hindi, Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese. Other sites used a language change option for only one la nguage, predominately Spanish. In regard to public relations, providing a language change option means that an organization can reach multiple audiences through the same medium, but with an added element that offers a bilingual packaging of the site. The option appeals to international publics and creates dialogue in multiple languages. Additionally, there is a continuous need for a bilingual practice of public relations to communicate news agenda items to relevant bicultural publics. The use of curiosity devices such as video trivia and matching games foster social interaction and can build casual or meaningful relationships through problem solving, creativity and recognition. For example, The Liberace Foundation for t he Performing and Creative Arts provi ded multiple intellectually stimulating games that were relevant to the organizations goals. Although the games were relevant to the organizations mission, using curiosity devices such as games could be more effective as a public relations tool if the or ganization pledged to donate to the cause if a visitor plays a game. Users could play as long as they would like with an added benefit to the organization of donating an increasing amount of resources toward the charity.

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36 This study found that less develop ed Web sites that provided limited descriptive information about the charity, limited financial information and totaled four Web site pages or less within the organizations Web site did not utilize the search capability option. I t could be possible that a n organiza tion with a narrow Web site do es not need the broad capabilities of search capabilities to locate information within its Web site. Examination of the two -way communication features showed that email features were used by 95% of the sample. Regis tration was evident on a majority of Web si tes (80 % ), and messaging or feedback was represented by 35 % of the organizations. All of the Web sites utilized an order or donate form, however a chat room was found on 15 % of the Web sites researched. Organiza tions that provide an email option supply visitors with speed and efficiency in communication and facilitate dialogue without time and place barriers. Email encourages a public to correspond with an organization and provides a permanent record of messages, replies and details of when messages were received. The Sundance Institute, for instance, not only provides a listed email address on its contact page, it provides an embedded link to send the email conveniently and immediately. But for an organization to be most effective with this option, it should set up a reasonable reply period to meet a publics needs. Organizations that provide messaging or feedback offered the option through an embedded form that encourages a public to correspond with an organizat ion. Excellent public relations requires evaluation to gauge effectiveness and develop mutual understanding between organizations and a public. But just encouraging feedback is not effective; an organization must use feedback to develop understanding, and if necessary, change both the organizations and publics attitudes and behaviors. For example, The Elton John AIDS Foundation offers an

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37 embedded messaging or feedback form on a contact page that allows the user to input information such as name, email add ress and comments to submit. Because the email option was used by a majori ty of the sample, and messaging or feedback was used by less than half of the sample, it is possible that a majority of organizations might equate the email and messaging or feedbac k as a comparable mode of communication with a public, both of which provide two -way communication. All of the si tes that did not have messaging or feedback options featured email options. Moreover, two sites th at that did not offer messaging or feedback a re among the 15 % of sites tha t utilized chat rooms on their W eb sites. Registration was utilized by organizations that want to provide a public with unique organization resources, publications and online communities. In regard to public relations, registr ation can help an organization keep track of and help define an interested public. Furthermore, it gives an organization the opportunity to reach out to a specific interested public and shows a publics sense of increased loyalty to an organization. For example, The Woody Guthrie Foundation offered users to register their email address to receive the charitys monthly e -newsletter. The donate or order form was used by 100% of the sample. Found primarily on the organizations donation page, it provides acc essibility to immediate donations and transactions. Additionally, the form created a sense of personal connection between the organization and a public by providing an in honor of option where users can contribute in recognition of an individual, most likely someone affected by or involved with the charitys focus, such as disease. For example, The HollyRod Foundation for Help and Hope provides a donate option that also provides a monthly or annual recurring donation opportunity that benefits both the

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38 o rganization, because it receives the donation, and a public, because of continued and automatic involvement with the organization. It is possible t hat because the organizations W eb site plays a critical role as a primary resource for communicating with a nd responding to stakeholder groups the organization provides an option for public participation and donations online. In conjunction with meeting the charitys mission and goals, the organization also seeks to solicit funds and support from a public. Lik ewise, a n online donate or order form provides the accessibility of donating immediately. Although all of the organizat ions studied feature a donate or order form, only 75 % of the sample provided a donation policy. A potential negative aspect to omitting a donation policy that ensures that contributions are used to support specific activities or programs of the organization is that the charities might risk losing some donations or public participation from those that expect to be informed of the policy tha t protects the ethical and private nature of their gift or transaction. Additio nally, providing such a policy c ould inform a public of the guidelines for acceptance and giving of donations, and also what contributions fall within the scope of the organizat ions donation procedures. It could c reate accountability for organizations and might maximize future donation opportunities. Chat rooms were used by only 20% of the sample. The option is a means for virtual community building that fosters an environment where a public can chat and exchange ideas. In regard to public relations, chat rooms can demonstrate increased loyalty of a public and reveals a distinctive focus of an organization to meet a publics needs by providing dynamic content that encourages dialogue and engages members. For instance, The Starlight Starbright Childrens Foundation provides a chat room specifically for teenagers with life -threatening diseases.

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39 Additionally, the extranet community of a chat room is designed to strengthen relationsh ips with other interested publics such as donors, partners and founders. Also, the intranet community of a chat room is designed to facilitate knowledge sharing within an organization. Organizations that used chat rooms were among the organizations that u tilized the most two -way communication features by exhibiting all, or almost all, of the options. The limited use of chat rooms could be a result of external factors such as an organization needing a moderator to maintain the sites chat room; legal constr aints or potential issues of liable or slander that could occur in the chat room; or the requirement of registratio n for chat room login and participation. These are just a few of the many possible reasons behind the finding. Upon further investigation, r esearch showed that six Web sites did not use any one -way communication features. Eight of the sites used at least one third of these features and 30% of the sites used more than 66 % of the one -way features. Furthermor e, more than three quarters (85%) of t he Web sites exhibited at least 60 % of the two -way communication features. One Web site used 100% of the two -way communication features. No Web sites studied used 100% of the one way features. Therefore, evidence remains that although the two-way communication features were exhibited on 100 % of the sites, the two -way features were present at an average frequency of 66% Additionally, one -way communication features were used by 70% of the sample at an average frequency of 33 % Overall, a combination of one -way, and predominately two -way, communication features were used by the celebrity charitable organization Web sites. Analysis of symmetrical communication features demonstrated that 70 % of t he sample represented messaging or feedback options and annual re port on the Web site. Additionally, half of the sites featured an IRS Form 990. The analysis revealed that more than half (55 % ) of the

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40 Web sites had FAQs. The most predominant symmetrical feature on celebrity charitable organization Web sites was the donat ion policy. It was represented on three -quarters of the Web sites. Organizations, such as the Larry King Cardiac Foundation, provided financial statements that included IRS Form 990 and annual report to explain an overview of the organizations fiscal hea lth. In regard to public relations, it promotes public accountability that requires a high degree of accuracy and reliability. In addition it shows the growth of an organization by listing the various financial aspects, including where the contributions a re generated and how they are directed. The sites that exhibited the most symmetrical communication features also exhibited the most ethical communication features. Less than half of the sample featured IRS Form 990, annual report and amount spent on fund ing, administratio n and program services online. Under IRS regulation, t hese financial documents are publicly available and could be easily included on a site for informational purposes for donors and other stakeholders. Moreover, providing financial infor mation online could be more cost effective than printing the documents and the immediate access to an organizations financial information online contributes to a publics understanding of the financial position and future direction of a charity. This stu dy found that organizations with the least amount of revenue and smaller, less developed sites did not include financial information. The sites that did include financial information were among the organizations that utilized the most one -way, two -way, med iated and ethical online features. Frequently Asked Questions were used on more than half of the sample as an informative and accessible feature. Organizations, such as The Rosies For All Kids Foundation, used FAQs

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41 as a reference for a public and immedia te access to obtain answers without having to contact the organization. This option is a strength for an organization if the said questions are true and frequent inquiries that are answered correctly. FAQs can balance the need of an organization and a publ ic by providing desired information in a simple and clear format. Interestingly, the sites that did not include FAQs did include the same type and quality of information about the organization on another part of the Web site such as the organizations pro file. Therefore, it is possible that the majority of organizations are providing information about the most common inquiries on a FAQ page, and other organizations are providing the same information, just not on a defined FAQ page. A ssessment of the data s hows that one Web site used 100% of the symmetrical communication features. However, 20% of the sample did not use any symmetrical communication features. Although 65% of the Web sites used less than half of the symmetrical communication features, 40 % of t he sites exhibited at least 60 % of the symmetrical communication features. Conversely, 10 % of the sample did not use any asymmetrical communication features. Two out of 20 sites used 100% of the asymmetrical communication features and 65% of the sites use d more than half (60 % ) of the asymmetrical communication features. Although 95% of the sample used asymmetrical communication features, the features were present at an average frequency of 55 % Moreover, symmetrical communication features were present amo ng 90% of the celebrity charitable organization Web sites at an average frequency of 48% Examination of mediated communication features found that 85 % of the sample used special events and 80 % used press rooms. Furthermore, 100% of the sites used videos or photos.

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42 Although more than half of the Web sites exhibited publications, only 50 % of the sample used editorials. The Teammates for Kids Foundation is among the organizations that utilized special events by providing information about the charitys mos t popular sporting events with celebrity athletes. By providing special event details, an organization is able to raise awareness about events that can create rewarding numbers and cultivate prospective donors and public relations exposure. The Christophe r and Dana Reeve Foundation is among the organizations that provided a press room that included foundation news and a media room with press information in a printable format, including the organizations mission, background and the organizations research programs, resource center information and advocacy. The press room also includes a link to the foundations board of directors, and press contacts. Less developed press rooms, such as the press room on the Dollywood Foundation Web site, included public rel ations contacts and news releases. Videos or photos were used by organizations such as Oprahs Angel Network. This organization used photos that represent the mission of the charity and included images of children and Oprah participating in the organizati ons programs. Also, streaming video was provided of the charitys events including Oprah assisting orphans in Ethiopia. Another example of photo or video was demonstrated by The Doris Day Animal Foundation that provided online photos and video of the orga nizations most popular annual event, Spay Day USA, a campaign in conjunction with the Humane Society of the United States that saves animal lives by spaying and neutering pets and feral cats.

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43 Editorials were utilized by organizations, such as The Save t he Manatee Club, to discuss environmental factors that affect the life and sustainability of the manatee. The posted editorials were written by organization representatives and other registered members of the charity. The Save the Manatee Club also provide d publications about manatees and other related material. In addition to the Save the Manatee Club, organizations such as The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinsons Research, provided downloadable brochures, organizational newsletters, and excerpts from a recent book written by Fox. Moreover, The Childrens Health Fund provided academic publications, conference presentations, health education materials and advocacy publications. Analysis of interpersonal communication features showed that 45% of the sam ple used personal letters. Only 15 % of the sites used speeches. In contrast, none of the Web sites used face -to -face interaction via Web. Due to this finding, there are no examples to demonstrate this feature. Personal letters were used by organizations a nd were observed to be written and signed by the associated celebrity. For example, The Michael Bolton Charities used a personal letter to give news about the charity, ask for participation and give thanks for contributions. In regard to public relations, the inclusion of a personal letter not only gives a public the opportunity to identify with a celebrity, but it gives the organizations an opportunity to personally address a public through interpersonal means. Organizations that provided speeches did so by streaming video in multiple, accessible formats such as RealMedia and QuickTime Video. For example, The Elton John AIDS Foundation posted videos in both of the previously mentioned formats of John advocating for

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44 HIV/AIDS research and former president Wi lliam J. Clinton addressing AIDS issues at a conference. Further exploration revealed that more than one third (35% ) of the sites used 100% of the mediated communication features. Additionally, 80 % of the sites used 60% or more of the mediated communicati on features. Only 20 % of the sample used 40 % of the mediated communication features. Conversely, 95 % of the sample used less than half of the interpersonal communication features. Almost half (45% ) of the Web sites used none of the interpersonal communicat ion features. Unlike the other dimensions, mediated communication features were most dominant with 74% of the sample practicing mediated communication. 18% of the sample used interpersonal communication features. Videos or photos were used by 100% of the sample. I t is possible that organizations use this feature to make the site aesthetically pleasing, and to tell the story of an organization. The use of videos or photos could potentially create a human element to the Web site and provide a public with a first hand image that represents the charity and associated celebrity. Special events (85% ) and press room (80 % ) were used by a majority of sites to inform a public, including media. The inclusion of these features could be an effective technique to boost credibility with a public, gain positive coverage and tell the organizations story directly to whoever searches the site. Furthermore, press rooms are an opportunity for an organization to provide facts regarding when a charity started and where they are now. It provides a personal look at an organization and helps flesh out organizational philosophy, gives praise to key participants and donors and notes organization events, awards and successes.

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45 Publications and editorials were used by at least half o f the sample. Utilizing the need for instant access and financial viability, prov iding publications and editorials online is an emerging possibility in digital publications. With content created to meet the goals and objectives of the organization, virtual editions could maintain the look and substance of the printed edition, while allowing the provider to add video, sounds and links. Plus, articles can be read, saved, printed, emailed and in some cases, commented on. By providing immediate access to public ations and editorials on a public c harity Web site, images and text could be more efficiently intertwined to create layers that promote a deeper level of understanding and may reduce redundancy on the Web site. Although face to -face via Web was not used b y any sites, the option could be viewed as the next evolution in online video with direct, interactive storytelling and communication as an effective medium for public relations. Moreover, the use of face -to -face via Web could help create a recognized rela tionship with a public and associated celebrity. Personal letters were used by 45 % of the sample as a way to personalize the online interaction with a public. All personal letters included personal news about the organization and celebrity asked the rec ipient to participate with the charity and thanked the recipient for their contribution Including a personal letter online could be a resourceful way to personally address a public visiting the site and create a perceive d relationship between the celebrit y and a public. Speeches were used by 15 % of the sample and provided a significant video and audio experience on the celebrity charitable organizations Web site. It could offer a public instant access to a speech and gives a strong sense of who the celebrity is, what the organization is and reasons to support the cause. I t is possible that it is a development in interpersonal communication online with the means to connect a public, personally, to an organization.

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46 Analysis of the ethical communication fea tures showed that 100% of the sample used a mission statement. A donation policy and listing the names of the members of the board of directors was exhibited on 75 % of the sites. Although 45% of the sample featured the amount spent on funding and amount sp ent on program services, only 40 % of the sites featured the amount spent on administration. Partners were named on 60% of the Web sites. An annua l report was demonstrated by 35% of the sites, and the IRS Form 990 was exhibited by more than one quarter (30 % ) of the sample. The Rosie for All Kids Foundation is among the organizations that utilized a mission statement on the organizations Web site. Specifically, this charity clearly stated the organizations mission in a brief statement found on the about u s page, under the sub-heading mission. Rosies for All Kids Foundation also provided a list of the organizations partners, both companies and individuals, on the about us page. More developed partner lists were exhibited by organizations such as The Windstar Foundation that included a list of partners with email address for contact. Additionally, it provided a logo with a link for the partners Web site. Audited financial statements, such as the amount spent on funding, administration and program ser vices were included by organizations including The American Foundation for AIDS Research. By providing a link to a pdf file or providing a list of financial data on a financial page within the Web site, organizations provide financial accountability and sh ow a willingness to be measured and transparent. Additionally, an open -door approach to information inspires confidence in and publics willingness to contribute to a charity. The more a public knows, the more they are willing to identify with and organiza tion and support it. An assessment of the data shows that 35 % of the sample used at least 88% of the ethical communications features. One site exhibited 100% of the eth ical features. Additionally, 20% of

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47 the sites used more than half (66 % and 77% ) of the ethical communication features. One third of the sample used more than 33% of the ethical communication features. Conversely, 50 % of the sites used at least 66% of the unethical communication features. Less than half (45 % ) of the Web sites studied used on e third or less of the unethical communication features. One site did not use any unethical features. Therefore, evidence remains that although unethical communication was demonstrated on more than one third (44 % ) of the Web sites, ethical communication w as used by more than half (55 % ) of the sample. Mission statement was used by 100 % of the sample to define what the organization is, what it wants to be, and to serve as a framework to evaluate current activities. All statements clearly defined the purpose of the organization in an effort to guide the actions of the organization. This feature is an important characteristic of ethical communication in public relations because it distinguishes the public charity from other charitable organizations and outline s how a public affects and is affected by an organizations strategies. Board of directors was exhibited by 75 % of the sample. By providing information about the elected or appointed persons who jointly oversee the activities of an organization, a public can hold the charitable organization and celebrity associated with it accountable, and also specific members of the decision -making authority. Additionally, a list of partners was evident on half of the sample. Incorporating partners on the site could show the gratitude of partnership and support and could help illustrate the responsible and accountable outlook of the organization. All of the Web sites researched used one or more features of two -way, mediated and ethical communication features. Two -way co mmunication features such as email options and order or donate options both dominated among the two-way communication features. Also,

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48 videos or photos dominated among the mediated communication features. Finally, providing a mission statement is the featur e that dominated the ethical communication dimension. The only feature that was not demonstrated by any Web site in the sample was the interpersonal feature, face to -face via Web. It might be concluded that this feature is weak among celebrity charitable organization Web sites because of the cost of supporting the connection of video and audio feeds, and the cost and availability of manpower to monitor the site for a public looking to utilize a face -to -face via Web option. Additionally, this feature reli es on a user having an external device, a Web camera, and also relies on the user having knowledge of how to use video options. Research Question 2 Of the four pairs of the underlying dimensions one -way and two -way, symmetrical and asymmetrical, mediated and interpersonal, and ethical and unethical the results of this study found that the most evident elements on celebrity charitable organizations Web sites are two way, asymmetrical, mediated and ethical communication. Two -way communication features were used at a frequency of 66% of the sample, twice as frequent as one-way communication on celebrity charitable organization Web sites. It might be concluded that organizations use two-way features more frequently to exchange information and create dialogue with a public. Rather than simply disseminating information through one wa y channels, two -way features could be used to provide greater communication opportunities with a public and provide excellence in public relations. Symmetrical and asymmetrical communication features were the closest in frequency of all the communication features studied. Asymmetrical features were predominantly used, implying that celebrity charities use the organizations Web site in an attempt to change a publics attitude and beh avior in a way that supports the interests of an organization.

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49 Additionally, it might be concluded that messaging or feedback is used to manipulate a public, specifically donors, to determine what public attitudes are in regard to the organization, and how they might be altered Also, it could be reasoned that charitable organization Web sites tend to adapt to asymmetrical features when communicating with donors to achieve changes that are skewed in favor of the organization Nonetheless, the use of more sy mmetrical features than asymmetrical features on celebrity charity Web sites would contribute to public relations excellence. Mediated communication was used by almost three quarters of the sample, and showed a significant difference with interpersonal co mmunication (18% ), possibly because of the inherently mediated nature of the Web. Face -to -face communication via Web was the least utilized feature on celebrity charitable organization Web sites, implying that most celebrity organizations are not utilizing face to -face via Web as a valuable approach to interpersonal communication. Furthermore, interpersonal communication features represented the lowest percentage of all the communication features studied. Therefore, it might be concluded that most celebri ty charities do not employ a significant amount of interpersonal communication features on the organizations Web sites. Additionally, it might be suggested that online interpersonal communication possibilities are often encroached upon by the obvious medi ated nature of Web sites. However, the results could support the claim that a majority celebrity charitable organization Web sites are practicing excellent public relations by using a combination of mediated and interpersonal communication features. Still, the use of more interpersonal features on celebrity charity Web sites would contribute to public relations excellence.

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50 Ethical communication was used more frequently than unethical communication on celebrity organization Web sites. This supports the idea that building relationships and trust is an important aspect of excellent public relations, and is achieved through professional and ethical performance and disclosure Furthermore, a valuable way to maintain satisfying relationships is to be open, result ing in understanding and enabling an organization to reach organizational goals of social responsibility. It can be argued then that the requirements for excellent public relations are present on celebrity charitable organization Web sites; based on the f inding that celebrity organization Web sites appl ies two -way asymmetrical, mediated, and ethical public relations. However a strong trace of two -way symmetrical, mediated and ethical communication was also found, resulting in excellent public relations. Th ese predominant models are important because they represent the philosophy of public relations held by the celebrity charitable organizations. For analysis, this study assumed that celebrity charitable organizations could practice excellent public relatio ns, as demonstrated on their Web sites. This was determined by whether they exhibited certain online features that characterize the eight underlying dimensions of public relations. In regard to public relations, the results suggest that celebrity charitabl e organizations are utilizing Web sites for excellent public relations. But, the results determined that organizati ons could more actively utilize their Web sites for excellent public relations by taking advantage of multiple online communication options t o facilitate dialogue. The fluid and accessible nature of the Internet lends itself to innovative options for organizations to practice excellent public relations. This studys sample shows that there are different ways that a site can be leveraged to co mmunicate everything the organization does in a lively way that would engage supporters and volunteers. Essentially, these organizations could

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51 incorporate more interpersonal features, such as face -to -face via Web, by utilizing the online technology that ha s become a feasible option. Additionally, providing more financial information such as annual reports, IRS Form 990, and amount spent on fundraising, administration and program services, and providing access to publications and editorials online could pote ntially save on the cost of printing those materials. Furthermore, showing more evidence of symmetry and ethics could inspire the respect and trust of a public and create accountability for the charitable organization. Symmetrical communication can be a catalyst that initiates organizational excellence and effectiveness. My interpretation of the results is that a majority of celebrity charitable organizations are not using their Web sites to practice the press agentry and public information models of publi c relations. The majority of organizations in this study have shown that their Web sites are not used for the principle purpose of generating publicity for the organization by using mediated communication. This study found that a combination of approaches is being used to achieve excellent public relations on the celebrity organization Web sites. The two -way asymmetrical and two -way symmetrical models best describe the framework for public relations behaviors and approaches that celebrity charitable organiz ations are practicing to achieve excellent public relations on their Web sites. This study suggests that organizations embrace a small interest in asymmetrical objectives for public relations, however most Web sites did not seem to apply a purely asymmetri cal objective. Web sites play a critical role as a primary resource for public relations and practitioners. By evaluating the underlying dimensions of the public relations models, scholars and practitioners can determine how effective specific online feat ures are for an organization. This study suggests that organizations are effective, but the organizations effectiveness variable

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52 increases when structure, culture and environment are in agreement as evidence on their Web sites. To understand and improve t he effectiveness of a site in regard to public relations, a planning or discussion phase to solicit feedback from a public, internal and external, to consider effective components should be performed. Also, an evaluation of the design should be performed, and the site should be updated frequently. Overall, this study demonstrates how celebrity charitable organizations utilize their Web sites to represent the eight underlying dimensions of public relations, and how celebrity charitable organizations practic e excellent public relations, as evidence on their Web sites. The value of public relations comes from the relationship that the organization develops and maintains with a public. Reputation is a product of relationships and the quality of relationships an d reputation results more from the behavior of an organization than from messages it disseminates. The organizations communication programs and Web sites can be planned, strategically managed and evaluated to demonstrate effectiveness. Limitations and Fut ure Research A key limitation of this study is that the sample size was small. This was due to the inadequate use of Web sites among USA Todays Top Celebrity Charities & Foundations list. Future studies should investigate a larger sample of Web sit es. Al so, the study only examined one facet of nonprofit organizations, public charities. Therefore, future studies should analyze among different types of nonprofit organizations. Future research could examine the differences between how celebrity public charit ies and celebrity foundation s practice public relations according to the eight underlying dimensions. Another limitation is that the quality of features was measured by the frequency of items, similar to previous studies. In conjunction with measuring the frequency of online features, future studies could measure the quality and depth of the features examined by calculating the

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53 materials, such as publications, used on the site This could also be achieved by interviews or questionnaires completed by public relations practitioners from each celebrity organization. The research design would provide an exceptional explanation of the symmetrical or asymmetrical worldview of a celebrity charitable organization. Additionally, future studies should investigate o ther defined online features that represent the eight underlying dimensions of public relations. Prospective studies could also explore how celebrity charitable organizations practice public relations specifically with donors, media and volunteers, and exa mine the differences between these publics. Other studies could explore the theory of parasocial interaction and its effect on the perceptions of donors and users. Consequently, this study would be more reliable if a longitudinal analysis over several mont hs was conducted so one could monitor any changes or updates made to the Web sites. Based on this study and future research, celebrity charitable organizations can explore strategies to practice excellent public relations on their Web sites. Moreover, star ting from this study, scholars can develop features that represent the eight underlying dimensions of public relations to measure public relations excellence on celebrity charitable organization Web sites.

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54 APPENDIX A CODING SHEET FOR CONTENT ANALYSIS Celebrity Charitable Organization Name: ____________________________________________ Organizations Web Site (URL): ___________________________________________________ 1. One Way Communication 1 1. One -way communication features in the celebrity Web sit e (Check one per item) 1 1 1. Search Capabilities: (1) Absence (2) Presence 1 1 2. Viewer Choice: (1) Absence (2) Presence 1 1 3. Curiosity Devices: (1) Absence (2) Presence ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. Two way Communication 2 1. Two -way communication features in the celebrity Web site (Check one per item) 2 1 1. Email: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks 2 1 2. Registration: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks 2 1 3. Messaging/ Feedback: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks 2 1 4. Order/Donate: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks 2 1 5. Chat Room: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Symmetrical Communication 3 1. Symmetrical communication features in the celebrity Web site (Check one per item) 3 1 1. Messaging/ Feedback: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks 3 1 2. Form 990: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks 3 1 3. Annual Report: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks 3 1 4. FAQ: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks 3 1 5. Donation Policy (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks ______________________________________________________________________________ 4 Asymmetrical Communication 4 1. Asymmetrical communication features in the celebrity Web site will be exhibited by the absence of the previous symmetrical measures. ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. Me diated Communication 5 1. Mediated Communication features in the celebrity Web site (Check one per item) 5 1 1. Special Events: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks 5 1 2. Videos/Photos: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks 5 1 3. Press Room: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks 5 1 4. Editorials: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. click s 5 1 5. Publications (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. Interpersonal Communication 6 1. Interpersonal Communication features in the celebrity Web site (Check one per item) 6 1 1. Personal Letters: (1) Absence (2) Presence 6 1 2. Speeches: (1) Absence (2) Presence 6 1 3. Face to -face via Web (1) Absence (2) Presence

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55 _____________________________________________________________________________ 7. Ethical Communication 7 1. Ethical Communication features in the celebrity Web site (Check one per item) 7 1 1. Donations Policy: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks 7 1 2. Annual Reports: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks 7 1 3. Partners Named: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks 7 1 4. Board of Directors Named: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks 7 1 5. Mission Statement: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks 7 1 6. Form 990: (1) Absence (2) Pres ence No. clicks 7 1 7. Amt Spent on Fundraising: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks 7 1 8. Amt Spent on Administration: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks 7 1 9. Amt Spent on Prgm Services: (1) Absence (2) Presence No. clicks ______________________________________________________________________________ 8. Unethical Communication 8 1. Unethical communication features in the celebrity Web site will be exhibited by the absence of the previous ethical measures.

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56 APPENDIX B CODEBOOK FOR CONTENT ANALYSIS Coder instructions: Please code the items selected for analysis. Organizations Web site: name of organization analyzed 1. One -way Communication 1 1 One -way communication features in the celebrity web site. Observe evidence of one -way communication and code the following features as presence or absence. Find items that facilitate one -way communication, such as search capabilities, viewer choice options, curiosity devices, games, contests, etc. Feature Item Description Sea rch Capabilities Search engine or option Viewer Choice Viewer choice (e.g. change font) Curiosity Devices Curiosity devices (e.g. brainteasers) 2. Two -way Communication 2 1 Two -way communication features in the celebrity web site. Observe evidence of two -way communication and code the following features as presence or absence. Find items that facilitate two -way communication, such as email, registration, survey, order forms, etc. Feature Item Description E -mail Links to an e -mail address Regist ration Registration for organization updates Messaging/ Feedback Messaging option and/or feedback form Order/Donate forms Order or purchase form or donation form (on online page) Chat rooms Chat room for synchronous communication

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57 3. Symmetrical Communication 3 1 Symmetrical communication features in the celebrity web site. Observe evidence of symmetrical communication and code the following features as presence or absence. Find items that facilitate symmetrical communication, such as evidence of lis tening and responding to stakeholder interests, etc. Feature Item Description Messaging/ Feedback Messaging option and/or feedback form Form 990 Form 990 Annual report Annual report FAQ Frequently Asked Questions Donation policy Explanation of how donations are allocated 4. Asymmetrical Communication 4 1 Asymmetrical communication features in the celebrity web site. Asymmetrical communication features in the celebrity Web site will be exhibited by the absence of the previous symmetrical measures. 5. Mediated Communication 5 1 Mediated communication features in the celebrity web site. Observe evidence of mediated communication and code the following features as presence or absence. Find items that facilitate mediated communication, such as direct mail, special events, videos and photos, etc. Feature Item Description Special events Special events described Videos/Photos Video or Photo Press room Press room with news releases Editorials Editorial

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58 Publications Publica tions 6. Interpersonal Communication 6 1 Interpersonal communication features in the celebrity web site. Observe evidence of interpersonal communication and code the following features as presence or absence. Find items that facilitate interpersonal communic ation, such as personal letters, speeches, personal proposals, etc. Feature Item Description Personal Letter Personal letter Speeches Speeches Faceto -face via Web Ability for live face to -face conversation via Web camera and microphon e 7. Ethical Communication 7 1 Ethical communication features in the celebrity web site. Observe evidence of ethical communication and code the following features as presence or absence. Find items that facilitate ethical communication, such as evidence of m oral principles, transparency, honesty and dialogue, etc. Feature Item Description Donation policy Explanation of how donations are allocated Annual report Annual report and/or financial information Partners List of sponsors and participat ing partners Board of Directors List of board of directors Mission statement Mission statement Form 990 Form 990 Amount spent on fundraising Total mount spent on fundraising Amount spent on administration Total amount spent on administration Amount spent on program services Total amount spent on program services

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59 8. Unethical Communication 8 1. Unethical communication features in the celebrity Web site will be exhibited by the absence of the previous ethical measures.

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60 APPENDIX C S AMPLE FOR CONTENT AN ALYSIS Oprahs Angel Network : Oprah Gail Winfrey, born January 29, 1954, is an American television host, an Academy Award nominated actress, entrepreneur, magazine publisher and philanthropist. Her talk show, The Oprah Winfrey Show is internationally syndicated and is the highest ranked talk show in history. The show has also won her multiple Emmy Awards. She has been ranked the richest and most philanthropic African American. She is the founder of Oprahs Angel Network. Oprahs Angel Network (OAN) is a 501(c)(3) public charity that awards grants to organizations that are improving access to education, developing leaders, protecting basic rights and creating communities of support. Founded in 1998 in Illinois OAN seeks donations for s pecial projects, building improvements and endowments. It serves national and international locations such as Africa, Asia, South America and Central America. Currently, OAN has received more than $80 million in contributions from donor publics. OAN suppo rts charitable organizations that concentrate their activities on one of the four funding areas of education, leadership, basic rights and communities. OAN encourages individuals to create opportunities that facilitate positive change in individuals. OAN a ccomplishments include building more than 55 schools in 12 countries, giving over $1 million in school supplies to 18,000 children in South Africa, helping to restore homes in 8 communities in response to Hurricane Katrina and Rita damage, and launching O Ambassadors in 2007, to encourage youth to active and informed about global issues. According to Form 990, the total revenue of OAN in 2006 was $15.6 million Of the current officers, directors and key employees for 2006, only one member, the executive dir ector, was compensated for their assistance to OAN. This salary was in the amoun t of $99,403. OAN

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61 allocated $21.9 million to grants in 2006. Oprah Winfrey is listed as the director and president of the organi zation. Related organizations to OAN are The Opr ah Winfrey Foundation and The Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy Foundation. The Elton John AIDS Foundation: Sir Elton Hercules John, born March 25, 1947, is an English pop singer, composer and pianist. John is one of the most successful artists having sold over 200 million records. He has won five Grammy awards, one Academy Award, has seven number one albums and nine number one songs. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994. John was knighted in 1998 and is considered on of the greatest a rtists of all time. Additionally, John is a Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender right activist. The Elton John AIDS Foundation (EJAF) is a 501(c)(3) public charity that awards grants to organizations that support HIV prevention programs, eliminate disc rimination against HIV/AIDS and organizations that provide care and support for individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Founded in 1992 in New York EJAF has raised over $150 million, and leveraged an additional $315 million in support of HIV/AIDS programs natio nally and in 55 countries internationally, specifically in North and South America and the Caribbean. EJAF seeks funds from donations and supports initiatives through income from special events and cause -related marketing projects. EJAF awards grants throu gh by way of two channels: EJAF that focuses on supporting HIV/AIDS programs in the Americas and the Caribbean and EJAF -UK, the sister organization, focuses on supporting HIV/AIDS programs in Africa, Asia and Europe. This study will focus only on EJAF. Recently, EJAF has increased grant making by 140% allowing the organization to increase the amount of money given and to target expand not only the amount of money given but also to target important populations that have a high risk of infection. EJAF su pport

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62 programs and service such as community based prevention and education programs about AIDS/HIV, advocacy programs that progress policy regarding AIDS/HIV, and AIDS/HIV related medical and counseling treatment. According to Form 990, the total revenue of EJAF i n 2006 was $9.5 million Of the current officers, directors and key employees for 2006, only two members, a board member and the executive director, were compensated for their assistance to EJAF. These salaries total $510,327. EJAF gave $ 4.8 million in 2006. Sir Elton John is listed as the chairman of the Board of Directors. The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinsons Research : Michael J. Fox born June 9, 1961, is an American film and television star. He has won numerous Emmy Awards and Golden G lobes for his acting roles. Additionally, he was awarded two Screen Actors Guild Awards. Fox was diagnosed with Parkinsons disease in 1991. In 1998, he announced his condition publically. After retiring from acting in 2000, he founded the Michael J. Fox F oundation for Parkinsons Research. The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinsons Research (MJFF) is a 501 (c)(3) public charity that is committed to finding a cure for Parkinso n's disease and supporting the development of treatment for individuals with Parkinsons. Created in 2000, the organization works to raise funding and awareness through targeted research programs. In 2006, MJFF organized 350 of the worlds top academic and lab researchers to set forth a future funding initiative strategies. MJFF p rovides the public with multiple resources for patients an d caregivers about Parkinsons d isease. Since its inception, the Foundation has funded $126 million in Parkinson's research. MJFF is encouraging Parkinsons research through The Rapid Response Innov ation Awards, a unique program that rapidly and immediately supports Parkinsons

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63 research; The Target Validation program, that scrupulously examines whether or not discoveries show potential for Parkinsons therapy; and the Clinical Intervention Awards, th at funds small sample experimental research for neuro -protective treatments. MJFF was established in New York. According to Form 990, the total revenue of MJFF in 2006 was $31.5 million Of the current officers, directors and key employees for 2006, two members of the organization, the president and CEO and the V.P of Administration, were compensated for assistance to MJFF. This s a lary totaled $660,955. MJFF gave $24.1 million in 2006. Michael J. Fox is listed as the founder of the organization. This orga nization earned the most in revenue, and gave the most, of all 10 organizations examined in this study. The Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation : Christopher D'Olier Reeve born September 25, 1952 was an American actor, director, producer and author. He is best known for his role as Superman/Clark Kent in films from 19781987. Reeve married Dana Morosini in 1992. In 1995, he was paralyzed in an equestrian event and confined to a wheelchair for the duration of his life. After his accident, he advocated for embryonic stem cell research and for others with spinal cord injuries. Reeve died from cardiac arrest in 2004. His wife, Dana died of lung cancer in 2006. Christopher Reeve founded the Christopher Reeve Foundation, renamed The Christopher and Dana R ee ve Foundation in 2007. The Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation (CDRF) is a is a 501 (c)(3) public charity that supports research and funding for the cure of paralysis. Additionally, the organization works to improve the quality of life for individu als living with spinal cord injury. Through The Reeve Foundation's Paralysis Resource Center the foundation encourages the well -being of individuals living with a spinal cord injury by providing r esources and referral services. CDRF was

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64 originally founded in 1995 and was established in New Jersey. Contri butions for the orga ni zations initiatives come from a variety of sources including individual and corporate donors, special events and grants. CDRF has launched several campaigns including the Paralysi s Community, a social networking site for individuals affected by paralysis; the NeuroRecovery Network, that includes seven rehabilitation centers and two community centers that provide activity based therapies; and the North American Clinical Trials Netw ork that promotes the usage of new and promising therapies. Additionally, CDRF has awarded over $30 million to research grants and has funded $6.54 million in Quality of Life grants to 830 nonprofit organizations around the world. According to Form 990 the total revenue of CDRF in 2006 was $15.9 million. Of the current officers, directors and key employees for 2006, four members of the organization, the president and CEO the executive V.P, and two other V.P.s, were compensated for assistance to CDRF. This sa lary totaled $842,470. CDRF gave $9.3 million in 2006. HollyRod Foundation for Help and Hope : Holly Elizabeth Robinson Peete born Septmeber18, 1964 is an American singer, actress and author. She majored in psychology and French while studying i n New York and also studied abroad at the Sorbonne. Her husband, Rodney Peete was born March 16, 1966. He is a former American football quarterback who played for 16 years in the National Football League. Together, they founded the HollyRod Foundation for Help and Hope. The HollyRod Foundation for Help and Hope (HFHH) is a is a 501 (c)(3) public charity that works to provide support for individuals with Parkinsons Disease. Founded in 1997 by NFL quarterback Rodney Peete and actress Holly Robinson Peete HFHH holds various fundraisers nationwide to support the organizations mission Unlike other Parkinsons disease

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65 organizations, HFHH is committed specifically to the individual to improve their quality of life. In 2002, HFHH partner ed with the Center for Parkinson's Research and Movement Disorders at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and established The HollyRod Compassionate Ca re Program that provides financial and medical aid to th ose suffering from Parkinsons d isease. HFHH has two major programs, the HollyRod Compassionate Care program that provides care and services to those with minimal healthcare, and the HollyRod4Kids pr ogram that supports the quality of life for children affected by disease, specifically autism. Additionally, HFHH has created fundraising opportunities such as the Gridiron Glamour Celebrity Fashion Show and DesignCure, both of which involve celebrity part icipation and benefit HFHH. HFHH was established in California. According to Form 990, the total revenue of HFHH in 2007 was $306,858. Of the current officers, directors and key employees for 2007, no members were compensated for assistance to HFHH. HF HH gave $164,688 in 2007. Holly Robinson Peete and Rodney Peete are both listed as co president. Rosies For All Kids Foundatio n: Roseann Rosie ODonnell, born March 21, 1962, is an American television host, standup comedian, actress, author, celebrity blogger, television producer and a Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender right activist. She is best known for The Rosie ODonnell Show, that she started hosting in 1996. The show received several Emmy awards. In 2006, Rosie became a moderator on the talk show, The View. She is the founder of Rosies For All Kids Foundation. Rosies For All Kids Foundation (RFKF) is a 501 (c)(3) public charity that supports the development of children throughout the nation. Established in 1997, the organization is dedicated to providing opportunities for underserved children to develop intellectually, socially and

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66 culturally. To date, RFKF has helped thousands of children in the United States. Over 1,400 grants of more than $28 million have been distributed to m ore than 900 nonprofit organizations. The organization supports at -risk children through program funding and advocacy, and focus on specific events or crises. Among its accomplishments, RFKF has built 27 Cutie Patootie Centers, childcare centers in low -inc ome areas, throughout the United States; supports Rosies Broadway Kids, an arts education program for children; and, through the Project Katrina Initiative, built a Childrens Plaza and Family Center in Louisiana in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Accordi ng to Form 990, the total revenue of RKFK in 2005 was $5.8 million Of the current officers, directors and key employees for 2005, one member of the organization, the CEO was compensated for assistance to RKFK Additionally, one former officer, director o r trustee was compensated. This sa lary for both totaled $96,223. RKFK gave $1.6 million in 2005. Farm Aid : Farm Aid was created by three musicians: Willie Nelson, Neil Young and John Mellencamp. Willie Nelson, born April 30, 1933, is an American country si nger songwriter, author, poet and actor. During the 1970s, Nelson was best known for the outlaw country movement in music, named for non -conforming to the country music standards of Nashville. As of recent years, he is still recording and performing, and a dvocating for marijuana and agriculture. Neil Young, born November 12, 1945, is a singer -songwriter, musician and film director. Young is best known for his folk acoustic rock and electric -hard rock brands of music. Formally a member of Buffalo Springfiel d, and Crosby Stills, Nash, and Young, he received much acclaim for his solo projects. He has been named by Q magazine as One of the top 50 Bands To See Before You Die.

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67 John Mellencamp, born October 7, 1951, is an American singer -songwriter, musician and artist. Formally known as John Cougar, and then, John Cougar Mellencamp, Mellencamp received great success in the late 1970s and early 1980s playing roots rock and heartland rock brands of music. He won a Grammy Award in 1982 and was inducted into the Roc k and Roll Hall of Fame in 2008. Farm Aid (FA) is a 501 (c)(3) public charity that was created in 1985. Nelson, Young and Mellencamp organized the longest running annual concert to raise awareness and funds for the family farm structure of agriculture. To date, FA has raised over $33 million to promote strong family farms and keep family farmers on their own land. FA achieves its mission by promoting food from family farms through mediated campaigns, promoting local and organic food and creating opportuniti es for family farmers, and providing resources, grants and support services to family farm organizations nationally. FA was established in Massachusetts. According to Form 990, the total revenue of FA in 2006 was $1.7 million. Of the current officers, di rectors and key employees for 2006, one member of the organization, the executive director, was compensated for assistance to FA. This salary totaled $23,350. FA gave $760,999 in 2006. Young and Mellencamp are both listed as directors of the organization. Nelsons daughter, Lana, is listed as the secretary. The Liberace Foundation for the Performing and Creative Arts : Wladziu Valentino Liberace, born May 16, 1919, was an American pianist. He was best known for his showmanship and flamboyant costumes. Originally playing classical music, he reinvented his piano style to a pop based sound with classical undertones. Liberace was a successful entertainer who made over $1,000,000 per year from appearances and his syndicated television show. He died in 1987 as a re sult of AIDS.

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68 The Liberace Foundation for the Performing and Creative Arts (TLF), created in 1976, is a 501 (c)(3)works to provide scholarships for talented individuals that hope to work in the performing and creative arts. Since its inception, TLF has pr ovided over $5 million in support to more than 2200 students at over 110 colleges. Additionally, the organization has granted over $3 million annually to arts institutions. Established in Nevada, the organization began its work by funding a series of conce rts to assist the University of Nevada Las Vegas Music Department Scholarship Fund. In 1980, TLF awarded $10,000 to five schools nationwide, launching its first major scholarship program. According to IRS Fo rm 990, the total revenue of TLF in 2006 was $1 million Of the current officers, directors and key employees for 2006, three members of the organization, the secretary, treasurer and executive director were compensated for assistance to TLF. This s a lary totaled $442,690. TLF gave $211,786 in 2006. The Windstar Foundation: John Denver, born December 31, 1943, was originally named Henry John Deutschendorf, Jr.. He was an American country and folk music singer songwriter and musician known for his acoustic sound. Nick -named Poet Laureate of Colorado, he was most popular in the late 1960s and 1970s composing and recording an estimated 300 songs. Denver made frequent appearances on television ranging from guest -starring on The Muppet Show to hosting the Grammy Awards. In 1975, The Country Music Association honored him with the Entertainer of the Year award. Denver died in 1997 after the plane he was piloting crashed. He co -founded of The Windstar Foundation with author and Aikido instructor, Tom Crum. The Windstar Foundation (TWF), established in 1976, is a 501 (c)(3) committed to a mission that educates individuals about making conscious choices regarding environmental

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69 issues. Established in Colorado, TWF works to create opportunities to preserve earths natural environment through educational programs and events. Since 1986, TWF has presented the Choices for the Future symposium, featuring various environmentalists, every year in an effort to educate and involve supporters. TWFs accomplishments include numerous programs such as the Windstar Connection program, a worldwide program that supports participation of members within local communities; an Institute for Global Change, a program created with NASA; the Holiday ReLeaf card program that aids reforestation; TREES from GrassRoots program and the Plant It 2000 program, both of which support reforestation. According to IRS Fo rm 990, the total revenue of TWF in 2006 was $76,246. Of the current officers, directors and key employees for 2006, no members of the organization were compensated for assistance to TWF TWF gave $2,000 in 2006. This organization earned the least in revenue, and gave the least, of all the organizations examined for this study. The Childrens Health Fund: Paul Frederic Simon, born October 13, 1941, is an American singer -songwriter known f or his traditional style of music. He began his musical career in 1957, but did not receive fame until 1964 when he joined his friend, Art Garfunkel, creating Simon and Garfunkel, a folk music act. After the duo split in 1971, Simon pursued a successful so lo career that included works in world and popular music. Simon and Garfunkel were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1990, and honored with the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2003. Simon is one of the few artists that own the copyright on their recordings. Simon is the co -founder of The Childrens Health Fund with pediatrician Irwin Redlener, MD. The Childrens Health Fund (TCHF) is a 501 (c)(3) public charity that works to provide health care and create programs that guarantee health ca re to children in need around the nation.

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70 Established in New York in 1987, TCHF consists of a network of doctors, psychologists, social workers and academic medical centers that support a mission that enhances the quality of life of children and low income families. TCHFs initiatives include Flagship New York City pediatric programs, National Network of Childrens Health Projects, health initiative for homeless and underserved children, advocacy programs that campaign for health care programs, and educatio nal forums to advise the public about the issues associated with health care and disadvantaged children. According to IRS Fo rm 990, the total revenue of TCHF in 2006 was $16.6 million. Of the current officers, directors and key employees for 2006, two memb ers of the organization, the president and the executive director, were compensated for assistance to TCHF. This salary totaled $300,000. TCHF gave $9.1 million in 2006. Simon is listed as the director of the organization. Redlener, the co -founder, is list ed as the president of TCHF. The Michael Bolton Charities: Michael Bolton, born February 26, 1953, is an American singer -songwriter. Achieving success in the early nineties, he is best known for his soft rock ballads in the adult contemporary and easy list ening genre. Among wining awards from both the American Music Awards and Grammy Awards, Bolton has sold over 53 million albums, has eight top ten albums and two number one singles on the Billboard charts. In 1993, Bolton established T he Michael Bolton Foundation to assist at risk women and children from the effects of poverty and abuse. The Michael Bolton Charities (TMBC), formally known as the Michael Bolton Foundation, is a 501(c)(3) public charity that was established to support women and children at ris k of poverty and emotional, physical and mental abuse. Additionally, the organization works to educate the public and create opportunities for youth in different socioeconomic and

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71 multicultural areas. Through innovative initiatives, the charity improves ac cess to resources for education, development and environmental awareness. Since its inception, Michael Bolton Charities has granted over $5 million to organization across the country such as, The National Domestic Violence Hotline in Texas; Prevent Child A buse America in Illinois, MENTOR The National Mentoring Partnership in Virginia; The Domestic Violence Crisis Center in Connecticut; and The New York City Family Justice Center. TMBC was established in Connecticut. According to Form 990, the total revenue of TMBC in 2007 was $630,853. Of the current officers, directors and key employees for 2007, only one member, the executive director/ acting treasurer, was compensated for their assistance to TMBC. This salary was in the amount of $107,529. TMBC allocated $233,679 in grants in 2007. Bolton is listed as the chairman of this organization. The Teammates for Kids Foundation: Troyal Garth Brooks, born February 7, 1962, is an American Country music artist. The integration of rock elements into his music and perf ormances contributed to great success in both the country and mainstream pop genres. His first album, released in 1989, reached #1 on the US country album chart and #13 on the Billboard 200 pop album chart. Neilson Soundscan listed Brooks as the second bes t -selling artist from 1991 onwards, with over 67 million albums sold. To date, his total world-wide sales have topped reached over 200 million singles and albums. Brooks is the co-founder of the Teammates for Kids Foundation. Teammates for Kids Foundation (TTFK) formally known as the Touch Em All Foundation, is a 501 (c)(3) public charity that was established in Colorado in 1999 by Brooks and Bo Mitchell. The organization works to develop and implement innovative programs that

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72 benefit childrens charities. Through four Teammates sports divisions; baseball, hockey, soccer and basketball, the foundation contributes funds to nonprofit organizations that effectively benefits children through health, education and inner -city programs. Specifically, the organizat ion triples the paid donation of each professional athlete that contributes financial resources, as a Teammate, to the foundation. Since its establishment, the charity has distributed over $74 million dollars in cash, gifts and scholarships. According to F orm 990, the total revenue of TTFK in 2007 was $8.4 million. Of the current officers, directors and key employees for 2007, four members, the director, the president, the vice president and the financial advisor, were compensated for their assistance to TT FK. This salary was in the amount of $411,115. TTFK allocated $3.5 million in grants in 2007. Brooks is listed as the co -founder/ director of this organization. American Foundation for AIDS Research: Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor, DBE, born February 27, 1 932, is an American actress known as one of the great actresses of Hollywoods golden years. Also known for her many marriages, Taylor was named seventh among the Greatest Female Stars of All Time by the American Film Institute. Among her achievements, Tay lor has been awarded two Academy Awards and an Academy Award Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award. Additionally, she was appointed Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire. Taylor is the founder of the American Foundation for AIDS Research. The American Foundation for AIDS Research (AFAR), established in 1985 in New York, is a 501 (c)(3) public charity that is dedicated to funding research initiatives to increase understanding about HIV/AIDS and ending the global epidemic. The organization advocates for effectual AIDS related public policy and supports HIV/AIDS research, HIV prevention and treatment education. AFAR has invested nearly $275 million in its programs. Among its

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73 accomplishments, AFAR has funded early studies for revolutionary drug treatments for HIV/AIDS; pioneered research for prevention such as syringe exchange programs and antiretroviral drugs to block mother to infant HIV transmission; established Community-Based Clinical Trials Network; and supported landmark studies in Kenya and Nepal t hat demonstrated pivotal results for HIV/AIDS research. According to Form 990, the total revenue of AFAR in 2007 was $23.7 million. Of the current officers, directors and key employees for 2007, five members, the director of publications, the director of h uman resources, the acting director of public policy, the chief tech director and the director of research, were compensated for their assistance to AFAR. This salary was in the amount of $1.6 million. AFAR allocated $3.4 million in grants in 2007. Taylor is listed as the founder of this organization. Starlight Starbright Childrens Foundation: Steven Allan Spielberg, KBE, born December 18, 1946, is an American film director, screenwriter and film producer. He has been noted as the most powerful and influen tial figure in the motion picture industry and one of the 100 Most Important People of the Century by Time magazine. He has won the Academy Award fro Best Director for two movies and three of his films have broken box office records, becoming the highest -g rossing film made at the time. Forbes magazine estimates Spielbergs net worth at $3.1 billion. Additionally, Spielberg was honored as an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire. He is the co -founder of the Starbright Childrens Founda tion. The Starbright Childrens Foundation, known as the Starlight Starbright Childrens Foundation (SSCF), is a 501 (c)(3) public charity that works to improve the quality of life for children with chronic and life -threatening conditions. The charity brings together health care, technology and entertainment to educate and entertain seriously ill children. Founded in 1991 by

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74 Steven Spielberg and Randy Aduana, the charity merged with the Starlight Foundation in 2002. Established in California, the organizati on has chapters, offices and affiliates throughout the US, Canada, UK, Australia and Japan. Among its programs, the organization supports Fun Centers with mobile entertainment units, PC Pals laptop computers with educational software and Starbright World, an online social network for teens with medical conditions. The national spokesperson is Jamie Lee Curtis. According to Form 990, the total revenue of SSCF in 2007 was $8.7 million. Of the current officers, directors and key employees for 2007, five member s, the associate vice president of development, the director of western religion, the associate vice president of development, the associate vice president of marketing and the director of finance, were compensated for their assistance to SSCF. This salary was in the amount of $918,006. SSCF allocated $286,608 in grants in 2007. Spielberg is listed as the co-founder and chairman emeritus of this organization. The Sundance Institute: Charles Robert Redford Jr, born August 18, 1936, an American actor, film di rector, producer, businessman and environmentalist. Emerging in the 1950s in television and theatre, Redford was one of the most popular film stars of the 1970s. He has won the Academy Award for Best Director and is the founder of the Sundance Film Festiva l, the largest independent film festival in the U.S. Redford is the founder of the Sundance Institute. The Sundance Institute (TSI), founded in 1981, is a is a 501 (c)(3) public charity dedicate to the development of independent film and theatre artists. T he Institutes programs include the annual Sundance Film Festival; the Feature Film Program that supports screenwriters and directors through the development of their films; the Documentary Film Program that aids nonfiction film makers through editing and scoring workshops; the Film Music Program

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75 Composer Lab that assists musicians in composing for film and the Theatre Program that supports advances in independent theatre. Additionally, the organization brings together producers and industry professionals w ith the Independent Producers Conference; facilitates participation of Native and indigenous artists through the Native American Initiative; and maintains the Sundance Collection at UCLA to archive and preserve the history of independent film. This organiz ation was established in Utah. According to Form 990, the total revenue of TSI in 2007 was $18.6 million. Of the current officers, directors and key employees for 2007, five members, the director of feature films, the director of festival program, the dire ctor of theater program, the director of documentary film and the director of creative development, were compensated for their assistance to TSI. This salary was in the amount of $697,953. TSI allocated $1.5 million in grants in 2007. Redford is listed as president of this organization. The Dollywood Foundation: Dolly Rebecca Parton, born January 19, 1946, is an American singer -songwriter, author and actress. She is the most successful female artist in the country music genre with 25 number -one singles and 42 top10 country albums. Parton is a seven time Grammy Award winner, was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for recording and also awarded a star on the Nashville Star Walk for Grammy Winners. She was inducted into the Grand Ole Opry in 1969 twi ce and inducted into the National Academy of Popular Music/Songwriters Hall of Fame. The Nashville Business ranked Parton as the wealthiest country music star, with an estimated $600 million net worth. The Dollywood Foundation (TDF) is a 501 (c)(3) public charity that oversees the Imagination Library, a book distribution program established in Tennessee. Launched in 1996, the program provides a free age appropriate book each month to children until the age five.

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76 Although the program has expanded from Tennes see to Missouri and South Carolina, it can be implemented in other communities, nationally or internationally, by private organizations, with the Foundation remaining responsible for the distribution of books in the areas. In 2003, the High Scope Research Foundation surveyed a national sample of parents that determined that almost 75% of reported that they now read to their child more frequently because of participation in the Imagination Library program. According to Form 990, the total revenue of TDF in 2007 was $1.2 million. Of the current officers, directors and key employees for 2007, one member, the president, was compensated for their assistance to TDF. This salary was in the amount of $134,451. TDF allocated $13,451 in grants in 2007. Parton is liste d as the c hairperson of this organization. The Save the Manatee Club: James William Buffet, born December 25, 1946, is a singer, songwriter, author and entrepreneur. Buffet began his musical career in the late 1960s, but achieved fame in the 1970s with his island escapism persona and a combination of country, folk and coastal music sounds. Aside form his career in music, Buffet has written three Number 1 best sellers and is involved in two restaurant chains named after two of his most popular songs. In 1981, Buffet co -founded the Save the Manatee Club with former Florida governor, Bob Graham. Save the Manatee Club (TSMC) established in Florida in 1981, is a 501 (c)(3) public charity that seeks to promote public participation in the conservation of the endangered species, the manatee. The organization is membership -based and works to protect the manatee and its natural habitat. Contributions to the charity go toward manatee research, rescue and rehabilitation efforts, and advocacy for the manatee. The organiz ations main program is the

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77 Adopt -A -Manatee program, in which donors adopt a live manatee, with the opportunity to see the manatee in one of three locations in Florida. According to Form 990, the total revenue of TSMC in 2007 was $1.3 million. Of the curre nt officers, directors and key employees for 2007, one member, the executive director, was compensated for their assistance to TSMC. This salary was in the amount of $83,000. TSMC allocated no money in grants in 2007. Buffet is listed as the co-founder of this organization. Doris Day Animal Foundation: Doris Mary Anne von Kappelhoff, famously known as Doris Day, was born April 3, 1922. She is an American actress and singer known for her play comedy and dramatic roles. She is currently the top ranking female box office star of all time with 39 films and 75 hours of television to her credit. Additionally, she has been honored with a Golden Globe and a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Days interest in animal rights was highly publicized in the early 1970s, w hen she co-founded Actors and Others for Animals. She also founded the Doris Day Animal League, an organization that merged with the Humane Society of the United States to promote advancements in animal advocacy, and the Doris Day Animal Foundation. The Do ris Day Animal Foundation (DDAF) was established in California in 1978. Formally known as the Doris Day Pet Foundation, DDAF is a national 501(c)(3) public charity dedicated to helping animals, specifically by funding other nonprofit organizations that car e for and protect animals. DDAF achieves its mission through specialized programs such as in school humane education, training assistance dogs, providing senior citizens with food for their pet, rescuing greyhounds and providing scholarships for veterinary students specializing in shelter medicine. Among the organizations most notable projects, Spay Day USA is responsible for over one million spays and neuters. According to Form 990, the total revenue of DDAF in 2007 was $1.2 million. Of the current office rs, directors and key employees for 2007, no members were compensated for their

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78 assistance to DDAF. DDAF allocated $215,200 in grants in 2007. Day is listed as the co-founder of this organization. Woody Guthrie Foundation: Woodrow Wilson Guthrie, born July 14, 1912, was an American singer -songwriter of folk, political, childrens songs and ballads. Widely known for his improvisations, his best known song, This Land is Your Land, is sung in schools nationwide. A figure to the folk -movement, his work was honored and emulated by the folk revivalist of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Guthrie died on October 3, 1967 from complications associated with Huntingtons disease, a genetic neurological illness. The Woody Guthrie Folk Festival, held annually in Okemah, Oklahoma, celebrates Guthries life and music Guthrie was inducted into the Oklahoma Music Hall of fame in 1997. The Woody Guthrie Foundation ( T WGF), established in New York in 1972, is a 501 (c)(3) public charity dedicated to preserving the social, poli tical and cultural values of Woody Guthrie. Through archiving, exhibition and display; the organization supports, research, scholarship and educational programs that perpetuates the art and ideals of Guthrie. The organization serves national and internatio nal audiences. T WGF houses the worlds largest collection of Guthries work, including unrecorded lyrics. According to Form 990, the total revenue of TWGF in 2007 was $61,392. Of the current officers, directors and key employees for 2007, no members were c ompensated for their assistance to TWGF. TWGF allocated no money in grants in 2007. Guthries daughter, Nora Guthrie, is listed as the director. The Larry King Cardiac Foundation: Lawrence Harvey Ziegler, born November 19, 1933, is an American television a nd radio host and author better known by his stage name, Larry King. He is currently regarded as one of the premier broadcast interviewers in the United States.

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79 King has conducted over 40,000 interviews with key newsmakers including athletes, politicians a nd entertainers. King began as a journalist in Florida and his popularity skyrocketed with the national broadcast of his show, Larry King Live, on CNN in 1985. Among his awards, King has won an Emmy Award, two Peabody Awards and ten Cable ACE Awards. King is the founder of the Larry King Cardiac Foundation. The Larry King Cardiac Foundation (LKCF), established in Maryland in 1988, is a 501 (c)(3) public charity that is dedicated to providing funding for the treatment of individuals with heart disease whom otherwise could not obtain treatment and care that they need. The Foundation works with hospitals and doctors to provide medical attention and surgeries at no charge. The organization is funded from the proceeds of Kings books and appearances. The Founda tion is associated with seven premier Cardiac Centers around the nation and have embraced a goal to Save a Heart a Day. According to Form 990, the total revenue of LKCF in 2007 was $2.3 million. Of the current officers, directors and key employees for 2007, one member, the president, was compensated for their assistance to LKCF. This salary was in the amount of $200,000. LKCF allocated $48,500 in grants in 2007. King is listed as the director of this organization.

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80 LIST OF REFERENCES Alberoni, F. (1972). The powerless elite: Theory and sociological research on the phenomenon of the stars. In D. McQuail (Ed.), Sociology of Mass Communications (pp.75 89). Harmondsworth: Penguin. Assael, H. (1984). Consumer behavior and marketing action. Boston: Kent Publ ishing Company. Atkin, C., & Block, M. (1983). Effectiveness of celebrity endorsers. Journal of Advertising Research 23 (1), pp. 5761. Boorstein, D.J. (1961). The image: A guide to pseudo-events in America New York: Harper & Row. Brown, W., & Fraser, B. (2002) Media, celebrities, and social influence: Identification with Elvis Presley. Mass Communication & Society 5 (2), pp. 183206. Burke, K. (1969). A rhetoric of motives Berkeley: University of California Press. Caughey, J. (1986). Social relations with media figures. In G. Gumpert & R. Cathcart (Eds.), Inter Media: Interpersonal communication in a media world (pp. 219252). New York: Oxford University Press. Coombs, W. T. (1998). The Internet as potential equalizer: New leverage for confronting s ocial irresponsibility. Public Relations Review 24 (3), pp. 289 304. Corbett, J. & Mori, M. (1999). Medicine, Media, and Celeb rities: News Coverage of Breast Cancer, 19601995. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 76 (2). Summer 1999. pp. 229249. Cutlip, S. M., Center, A. H., & Broom, G. M. (2000). Effective public relations (8th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Domino, T. (2003). Toward an integrated communication theory for celebrity endorsement in fund-raising. Unpublished Masters Th esis. University of South Florida. Esrock, S. L., & Leichty, G. B. (1998). Social responsibility and corporate Web pages: self presentation or agenda setting? Public Relations Review 24(3), pp. 305 19. Esrock, S. L., & Leichty, G. B. (1999). Corporate World Wide Web pages: Serving the ne ws media and other publics. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 24 (3), pp. 45667. Fox News.Com (2002, January 29). Celebrities Use Status to Stump for Causes. Retrieved October 8, 2007 from http://www.foxnews. com/story/0,2933,44195,00.html Frenza, J. (1997). How to stake out your claim in cyberspace. Nonprofit World 15, pp. 21 24.

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81 Gabler, N. (1998). Life the movie: How entertainment conquered reality New York: Alfred Knopf. Gamson, J. (1994). Claims to Fa me: Celebrity in contemporary America B erkeley: University of California Press. Giving USA. (2008). Retrieved July 3, 2008, from http://www.givingusa.org/press_releases/releases/20080622.html Grunig, J. E., & Grunig, L. A. (1989). Toward a theory of public relations behavior of organizations: Review of a program of research. In J. E. Grunig & L. A. Grunig (Eds.), Public Relations Research Annual (Vol. 1). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Grunig, J.E., & Grunig, L.A. (1992). Models of public r elatio ns and communications. In J.E. Grunig (Ed.) Excellence in public relations and communications management pp. 285 326. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Grunig, J. (1992). Communication, Public Relations, and Effective Organizations: An Overview of the Book. In J. Grunig, D. Dozier, W. Ehling, L. Grunig F. Repper, & J. White (Eds.), Excellence in Public Relations and Communication Management (pp. 1 28). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Grunig, L. A., Grunig, J. E., & Dozier, D. M. (2002). Excellent public relations an d effective organizations: A study of communication management in three countries Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Han, L. (2001). Corporate relationship building online: A cont ent analysis of fortune 500 Web sites. Unpublished manuscript. Hau, L. (2007, December 5 ). Extreme celebrity giving. Forbes Retrieved January 3, 2008 from http://www.forbes.com/2007/12/05/victoria bec kham -nude biz -media cx_lh_1205celebcharity.html Haynes, R. (2004). The fame game: The peculiarities of sports image r ights in the United Kingdom. Trends in Communication. 12 (2). 2004. pp. 101116. Heath, R. L. (1998). New communication technologies: an i ssues management point of view. Public Relations Review 24 (3 ), pp. 273 88. Hill, L. N., & White, C. (2000). Public relations practitioners perceptions of the World Wide Web as a communication tool. Public Relations Review 26 (1), pp. 31 51. Holston, Mark. Shakira energizes inspirations & dreams. Americas July/August 2007, 59 (4). pp.2026.

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84 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Alexis Lauren Buntin was born in Tampa, Florida. She graduated with a degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication from the University of Florida in August 2009.