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Effects of Dressing Room Lighting Direction on Consumers' Perceptions of Self and Environment

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024065/00001

Material Information

Title: Effects of Dressing Room Lighting Direction on Consumers' Perceptions of Self and Environment
Physical Description: 1 online resource (111 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Baumstarck, Anne
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: direction, dressing, lighting, retail, room
Interior Design -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Interior Design thesis, M.I.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Dressing rooms are key to the retail experience and often represent that final moment where the consumer decides whether or not to make a clothing purchase. Therefore retailers need to understand what affects this decision point in order to increase sales. The main retail servicescape has long been the focus of examination as researchers attempt to understand how aspects of the physical environment affect users? emotional states and personal evaluations. Specifically, the effects of lighting have been investigated in retail environmental studies. However, despite the acknowledged importance of dressing room lighting by professionals and lighting authorities, no researcher to date has examined how the physical environment affects consumers along any key dimensions in the dressing room. This study was conducted to examine the effect of dressing room lighting direction on the dependant variables: emotional state (arousal and pleasure), lighting perception and preference, self-evaluations (facial appearance and body appearance), dressing room evaluations, and the overall dressing room experience due to their importance in the dressing room or their relationship to lighting. A field study was conducted in the dressing rooms of a local apparel store. A total of sixty female participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were randomly assigned to one of two dressing room lighting conditions, overhead and frontal. The overhead lighting condition was created using the store?s track-mounted fixture with two incandescent PAR lamps while the frontal lighting consisted of two fluorescent strip fixtures, one mounted on each side of the mirror. The color and the illumination level were controlled. Participants then completed a short demographics questionnaire and then shop for a couple different outfits in the store. After making a selection, the participants proceeded to the dressing room and tried on the items. Differences between the two lighting conditions were compared using independent sample t-tests. The results revealed no statistical significance between lighting direction and any of the variables. However, there was statistical significance along single word-pairs used to assess dressing room perception and personal appearance: cramped/roomy (p = 0.002) and harsh shadows/no shadows (p = 0.003). Frontal lighting was considered superior to overhead lighting when the main concern was to eliminate facial shadowing or to make the dressing room seem more spacious. Comments revealed a more definitive preference for frontal lighting. Consumers appear to focus on the environment or the self, which influences their ratings of lighting direction. Environmentally focused shoppers made negative comments on overhead lighting. Self-focused shoppers believed frontal lighting superior. Results indicate that lighting direction affects the dressing room experience based on participant comments where frontal lighting is superior. However, quantitative data do not offer overwhelming support for frontal lighting, except when shadowing or spaciousness is the focus. Frontal lighting appears to be superior despite the absence of effect on emotional states. Findings offer insight into the differences of the two different lighting directions and help inform the decisions of retailers and interior designers regarding their lighting direction choices.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Anne Baumstarck.
Thesis: Thesis (M.I.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Park, Nam-Kyu.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2009-06-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0024065:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024065/00001

Material Information

Title: Effects of Dressing Room Lighting Direction on Consumers' Perceptions of Self and Environment
Physical Description: 1 online resource (111 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Baumstarck, Anne
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: direction, dressing, lighting, retail, room
Interior Design -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Interior Design thesis, M.I.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Dressing rooms are key to the retail experience and often represent that final moment where the consumer decides whether or not to make a clothing purchase. Therefore retailers need to understand what affects this decision point in order to increase sales. The main retail servicescape has long been the focus of examination as researchers attempt to understand how aspects of the physical environment affect users? emotional states and personal evaluations. Specifically, the effects of lighting have been investigated in retail environmental studies. However, despite the acknowledged importance of dressing room lighting by professionals and lighting authorities, no researcher to date has examined how the physical environment affects consumers along any key dimensions in the dressing room. This study was conducted to examine the effect of dressing room lighting direction on the dependant variables: emotional state (arousal and pleasure), lighting perception and preference, self-evaluations (facial appearance and body appearance), dressing room evaluations, and the overall dressing room experience due to their importance in the dressing room or their relationship to lighting. A field study was conducted in the dressing rooms of a local apparel store. A total of sixty female participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were randomly assigned to one of two dressing room lighting conditions, overhead and frontal. The overhead lighting condition was created using the store?s track-mounted fixture with two incandescent PAR lamps while the frontal lighting consisted of two fluorescent strip fixtures, one mounted on each side of the mirror. The color and the illumination level were controlled. Participants then completed a short demographics questionnaire and then shop for a couple different outfits in the store. After making a selection, the participants proceeded to the dressing room and tried on the items. Differences between the two lighting conditions were compared using independent sample t-tests. The results revealed no statistical significance between lighting direction and any of the variables. However, there was statistical significance along single word-pairs used to assess dressing room perception and personal appearance: cramped/roomy (p = 0.002) and harsh shadows/no shadows (p = 0.003). Frontal lighting was considered superior to overhead lighting when the main concern was to eliminate facial shadowing or to make the dressing room seem more spacious. Comments revealed a more definitive preference for frontal lighting. Consumers appear to focus on the environment or the self, which influences their ratings of lighting direction. Environmentally focused shoppers made negative comments on overhead lighting. Self-focused shoppers believed frontal lighting superior. Results indicate that lighting direction affects the dressing room experience based on participant comments where frontal lighting is superior. However, quantitative data do not offer overwhelming support for frontal lighting, except when shadowing or spaciousness is the focus. Frontal lighting appears to be superior despite the absence of effect on emotional states. Findings offer insight into the differences of the two different lighting directions and help inform the decisions of retailers and interior designers regarding their lighting direction choices.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Anne Baumstarck.
Thesis: Thesis (M.I.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Park, Nam-Kyu.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2009-06-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0024065:00001


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E F F E C T S O F D R E S S I N G R O O M L I G H T I N G D I R E C T I O N O N C O N S U M E R S P E R C E P T I O N S O F S E L F A N D E N V I R O N M E N T By A N N E B A U M S T A R C K A T H E S I S P R E S E N T E D T O T H E G R A D U A T E S C H O O L O F T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F I N T E R I O R D E S I G N U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A 2008 1

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! 2008 A nne B a um s t a r c k 2

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T o m y f a m i l y 3

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A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I w oul d l i ke t o t ha nk D r N a m K yu P a r k m y t he s i s c ha i r ; a nd t he ot he r m e m be r s of m y c om m i t t e e D r M a r ga r e t P or t i l l o a nd C a ndy C a r m e l G i l f i l e n f or t he i r gui da nc e a nd pa t i e nc e T he i r m e nt o r s hi p ha s be e n i nva l ua bl e e ve n be yond m y t he s i s a nd ha s e nr i c he d m y e duc a t i on. I w oul d a l s o l i ke t o t ha nk W ol f ga ng f or a l l ow i ng m e t o us e t he i r s t or e a nd t he i r d r e s s i ng r oom s f or m y r e s e a r c h. I a l s o t ha nk G oods on E l e c t r i c ( G a i ne s vi l l e F l or i da ) f o r t he i r i ns t a l l a t i on s e r vi c e s a nd L i t honi a L i ght i ng f or dona t i ng t he f l u or e s c e nt l i ght i ng f i xt u r e s f or t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng c ondi t i on F i na l l y t ha nks go t o a l l m y pa r t i c i pa nt s f or t he i r hone s t r e s pons e s a nd w i l l i ng pa r t i c i pa t i on. 4

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T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S pa ge A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 4 L I S T O F T A B L E S ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 7 L I S T O F F I G U R E S ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 8 A B S T R A C T ............................................................................................................................... 9 C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 11 R e s e a r c h P ur pos e ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 13 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 14 C onc e pt ua l F r a m e w or k ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 15 S um m a r y ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 19 2 L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 20 R e t a i l A t m os phe r e a nd L i ght i ng ................................ ................................ ......................... 20 D r e s s i ng R oom L i ght i ng ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 28 S um m a r y ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 34 3 R E S E A R C H M E T H O DS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 35 P a r t i c i pa nt s ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 35 F i e l d E xpe r i m e nt S e t t i ng ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 36 M a i n S t or e A r e a ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 36 D r e s s i ng R oom s ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 36 L i ght i ng C ondi t i ons ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 41 S t or e L i ght i ng C ondi t i ons ................................ ................................ ........................... 41 D r e s s i ng R oom L i ght i ng C ondi t i ons ................................ ................................ ............ 41 D e pe nde nt M e a s ur e s ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 43 P i l ot S t udy ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 45 P r oc e dur e ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 45 4 R E S U L T S ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 47 P a r t i c i pa nt C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 47 R e l i a bi l i t y of M e a s ur e s ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 48 E f f e c t s of L i ght i ng D i r e c t i on on R e s pons e V a r i a bl e s ................................ .......................... 49 S t a t e s of A r ous a l a nd P l e a s ur e ................................ ................................ ..................... 50 L i ght i ng P e r c e pt i on ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 51 L i ght i ng P r e f e r e nc e ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 52 S e l f E va l ua t i ons o f F a c i a l a nd B ody A ppe a r a nc e ................................ ........................ 52 5

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D r e s s i ng R oom E va l ua t i ons ................................ ................................ ........................ 53 O ve r a l l D r e s s i ng R oom E xpe r i e nc e ................................ ................................ ............. 53 Q ua l i t a t i ve F i ndi ngs by L i ght i ng C ondi t i on ................................ ................................ ........ 53 E nvi r onm e nt a l P r e f e r e nc e ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 57 5 D I S C U S S I O N ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 60 S t a t e s of A r ous a l a nd P l e a s ur e ................................ ................................ ............................ 60 L i ght i ng P e r c e pt i on ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 64 L i ght i ng P r e f e r e nc e ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 66 S e l f E va l ua t i ons o f F a c i a l a nd B ody A ppe a r a nc e ................................ ............................... 70 D r e s s i ng R oom E va l ua t i ons ................................ ................................ ............................... 75 O ve r a l l D r e s s i ng R oom E xpe r i e nc e ................................ ................................ .................... 78 C ons um e r E xpe r i e nc e T ype s ................................ ................................ .............................. 80 E nvi r onm e nt a l l y D i s t r a c t e d S hoppe r s S a y: I H a t e D i r t y F l oo r s ................................ .... 81 S e l f O r i e nt e d S hoppe r s S a y: I t s A l l A bout M e ................................ ........................... 82 U na f f e c t e d or U t i l i t a r i a n S hoppe r s S a y: N o C om m e nt ................................ ................. 84 S um m a r y ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 85 L i m i t a t i ons ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 87 C onc l us i ons a nd I m pl i c a t i ons ................................ ................................ ............................. 88 A P P E N D I X A I R B A P P R O V A L ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 92 B C O N S E N T F O R M ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 93 C S U R V E Y I N S T R U M E N T 1 ................................ ................................ .............................. 94 D S U R V E Y I N S T R U M E N T 2 ................................ ................................ .............................. 96 E D E S C R I P T I V E S T A T I S T I C S A N D T T E S T R E S U L T S ................................ ................... 98 F C O M B I N E D R E S P O N S E V A R I A B L E T T E S T R E S U L T S ................................ ............ 101 G P A R T I C I P A N T W R I T T E N C O M M E N T S ................................ ................................ ...... 102 H P O S I T I V E A N D N E G A T I V E W R I T T E N C O M M E N T S B Y L I G H T I N G D I R E C T I O N 105 L I S T O F R E F E R E N C E S ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 106 B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 111 6

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L I S T O F T A B L E S T a bl e pa ge 3 1 I l l um i na t i on l e ve l s m e a s ur e d i n e a c h l i ght i ng c ond i t i on ................................ ................. 42 3 2 L i ght s our c e t ype s a nd pr ope r t i e s ................................ ................................ ................... 42 4 1 P a r t i c i pa nt c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s ................................ ................................ .............................. 47 4 2 R e l i a bi l i t y r e s ul t s ( C r onba c h s a l pha ) ................................ ................................ ............ 49 4 3 M e a ns s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons a nd t t e s t r e s ul t s by l i ght i ng c ondi t i on ................................ 50 4 4 M e a ns s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons a nd t t e s t r e s ul t s f or l i ght i ng pe r c e pt i on ............................. 51 4 5 N um be r of c om m e nt phr a s e s by pa r t i c i pa nt f oc us l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a nd t ype .............. 56 E 1 E m ot i ona l s t a t e s de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s a nd t t e s t r e s ul t s ................................ .................. 98 E 2 L i ght i ng qua l i t y de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s a nd t t e s t r e s ul t s ................................ ................... 98 E 3 S e l f e va l ua t i ons de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s a nd t t e s t r e s ul t s ................................ ................... 99 E 4 D r e s s i ng r oom e va l ua t i ons de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s a nd t t e s t r e s ul t s ................................ ... 99 E 5 D r e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s a nd t t e s t r e s ul t s ................................ 100 F 1 C om bi ne d r e s pons e va r i a bl e t t e s t r e s ul t s ................................ ................................ .... 101 G 1 P a r t i c i pa nt w r i t t e n c om m e nt s ................................ ................................ ....................... 102 H 1 P os i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve w r i t t e n c om m e nt s by l i ght i n g di r e c t i on ................................ ...... 105 7

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L I S T O F F I G U R E S F i gur e pa ge 1 1 C onc e pt ua l m ode l ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 17 3 1 V i e w of t he s t or e f r o m t he ba c k ................................ ................................ ..................... 37 3 2 V i e w of t he s t or e f r o m t he f r ont ................................ ................................ ..................... 37 3 3 S t or e f l oo r pl a n w i t h l i ght i ng ove r l a y ................................ ................................ ............. 38 3 4 D r e s s i ng r oom f l oo r pl a m w i t h l i gh t i ng ove r l a y ................................ ............................. 39 3 5 D r e s s i ng r oom s e c t i on ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 39 3 6 E a s t s e c t i on of t he s t or e ................................ ................................ ................................ 40 3 7 F r ont a l l i ght i ng c ondi t i on ................................ ................................ .............................. 40 3 8 O ve r he a d l i ght i ng c ondi t i on ................................ ................................ ........................... 40 4 1 I m por t a nc e of e nvi r onm e nt a l c ue s i n a dr e s s i ng r o om ................................ .................... 58 4 2 P a r t i c i pa nt qua l i t a t i ve c om m e nt s ................................ ................................ ................... 58 8

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A bs t r a c t of T he s i s P r e s e nt e d t o t he G r a dua t e S c hool of t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e nt o f t he R e qui r e m e nt s f or t he D e g r e e of M a s t e r of I nt e r i or D e s i gn E F F E C T S O F D R E S S I N G R O O M L I G H T I N G D I R E C T I O N O N C O N S U M E R S P E R C E P T I O N S O F S E L F A N D E N V I R O N M E N T By A nne B a um s t a r c k D e c e m be r 2008 C ha i r : N a m K yu P a r k M a j or : I nt e r i o r D e s i gn D r e s s i ng r oom s a r e ke y t o t he r e t a i l e xpe r i e nc e a n d of t e n r e pr e s e nt t ha t f i na l m om e nt w he r e t he c ons um e r de c i de s w he t he r or not t o m a k e a c l ot hi ng pu r c ha s e T he r e f o r e r e t a i l e r s ne e d t o unde r s t a nd w ha t a f f e c t s t hi s de c i s i on poi nt i n or d e r t o i nc r e a s e s a l e s T he m a i n r e t a i l s e r vi c e s c a p e ha s l ong be e n t he f oc us o f e xa m i na t i o n a s r e s e a r c he r s a t t e m pt t o unde r s t a nd how a s pe c t s of t he phys i c a l e nvi r onm e nt a f f e c t us e r s e m ot i ona l s t a t e s a nd pe r s ona l e va l ua t i ons S pe c i f i c a l l y, t he e f f e c t s of l i g ht i ng ha ve be e n i nve s t i ga t e d i n r e t a i l e nvi r onm e nt a l s t udi e s H ow e ve r de s pi t e t he a c know l e dge d i m por t a nc e of dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng by pr o f e s s i ona l s a nd l i ght i ng a ut hor i t i e s no r e s e a r c he r t o da t e ha s e xa m i ne d how t he phys i c a l e nvi r on m e nt a f f e c t s c ons um e r s a l ong a ny ke y di m e ns i ons i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom T h i s s t udy w a s c onduc t e d t o e xa m i ne t he e f f e c t of dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng di r e c t i on on t h e de pe nda nt va r i a bl e s : e m ot i ona l s t a t e ( a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e ) l i ght i ng pe r c e pt i on a nd pr e f e r e nc e s e l f e va l ua t i ons ( f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e a nd body a ppe a r a nc e ) dr e s s i ng r oom e va l ua t i ons a nd t he o ve r a l l dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e due t o t he i r i m por t a nc e i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom or t he i r r e l a t i ons hi p t o l i gh t i ng. A f i e l d s t udy w a s c onduc t e d i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom s of a l oc a l a ppa r e l s t or e A t ot a l of s i xt y f e m a l e pa r t i c i pa nt s be t w e e n t he a ge s of 18 a n d 35 w e r e r a ndom l y a s s i gne d t o one of t w o 9

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dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng c ondi t i ons ove r he a d a nd f r ont a l T he ove r he a d l i ght i ng c ondi t i on w a s c r e a t e d us i ng t he s t or e s t r a c k m ount e d f i x t ur e w i t h t w o i nc a nde s c e nt P A R l a m ps w hi l e t he f r ont a l l i gh t i ng c ons i s t e d of t w o f l uo r e s c e nt s t r i p f i xt ur e s one m ount e d on e a c h s i de of t he m i r r or T he c ol or a nd t he i l l um i na t i on l e ve l w e r e c ont r ol l e d. P a r t i c i pa nt s t he n c om pl e t e d a s hor t de m ogr a phi c s que s t i onna i r e a nd t he n s hop f o r a c oupl e di f f e r e nt out f i t s i n t he s t or e A f t e r m a ki ng a s e l e c t i on, t he pa r t i c i pa nt s pr oc e e de d t o t he dr e s s i ng r oom a nd t r i e d on t he i t e m s D i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he t w o l i gh t i ng c ondi t i ons w e r e c om pa r e d us i ng i nde pe nde nt s a m pl e t t e s t s Th e r e s ul t s r e ve a l e d no s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e be t w e e n l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a nd a ny of t he va r i a bl e s H ow e ve r t he r e w a s s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e a l ong s i ngl e w or d pa i r s us e d t o a s s e s s dr e s s i ng r oom pe r c e pt i on a nd pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e : c r a m pe d/ r oom y ( p = 0 00 2) a nd ha r s h s ha dow s / no s ha dow s ( p = 0. 003 ) F r ont a l l i ght i ng w a s c ons i de r e d s upe r i or t o ove r he a d l i ght i ng w he n t he m a i n c onc e r n w a s t o e l i m i na t e f a c i a l s ha dow i ng or t o m a ke t he dr e s s i ng r oom s e e m m or e s pa c i ous C om m e nt s r e ve a l e d a m or e de f i ni t i ve pr e f e r e n c e f o r f r ont a l l i ght i ng. C ons um e r s a ppe a r t o f oc us on t he e nvi r onm e nt or t he s e l f w hi c h i nf l ue nc e s t he i r r a t i ngs of l i ght i ng di r e c t i on. E nvi r onm e nt a l l y f oc us e d s hoppe r s m a de ne ga t i ve c om m e nt s on ove r he a d l i ght i ng. S e l f f oc us e d s hoppe r s be l i e ve d f r on t a l l i ght i ng s upe r i or R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t s t he d r e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e ba s e d on pa r t i c i pa nt c om m e nt s w he r e f r ont a l l i ght i ng i s s up e r i or H ow e ve r qua nt i t a t i ve da t a do not o f f e r ove r w he l m i ng s uppor t f or f r ont a l l i ght i ng e xc e pt w he n s ha dow i ng or s pa c i ous ne s s i s t he f oc us F r ont a l l i ght i ng a ppe a r s t o be s upe r i or de s pi t e t he a bs e nc e of e f f e c t on e m ot i o na l s t a t e s F i ndi ngs of f e r i ns i ght i nt o t he di f f e r e nc e s of t he t w o di f f e r e nt l i ght i ng di r e c t i ons a nd he l p i nf or m t he de c i s i ons of r e t a i l e r s a nd i nt e r i or de s i gne r s r e ga r di ng t he i r l i ght i ng di r e c t i on c hoi c e s 10

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C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N I t i s c om m onl y be l i e ve d t ha t c l o t hi ng s t or e d r e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e s a r e ke y m om e nt s i n t he pur c ha s e de c i s i on pr oc e s s a nd poor a t m os phe r i c s w hi c h c ons t i t ut e t he phys i c a l de s i gn of t he s pa c e c a n ne ga t i ve l y a f f e c t t he s hoppi ng e xpe r i e nc e a nd r e s ul t i n a l os t s a l e ( O s bor n, 2000; R e a 2000; W i l s on, 2002; W i nc hi p, 2008) C ons i d e r i ng t he l a r ge a m ount s of m one y s om e r e t a i l e r s s pe nd on t he i r m a i n s t or e a t m os phe r i c s t o a t t r a c t c us t om e r s a nd m a ke s a l e s i t i s be l i e ve d by s om e pr of e s s i ona l s t ha t r e t a i l e r s m a y b e m i s s i ng oppor t uni t i e s by no t pa yi ng a t t e nt i on t o t he dr e s s i ng r oom de s i gn I nt e r i or de s i gne r s a gr e e t ha t r e t a i l e r s c om m onl y ove r l ook t he dr e s s i ng r oom s de s pi t e t he know l e dge t ha t dr e s s i ng r oom s c a n i nf l ue nc e c ons um e r be ha vi o r ( A l l D r e s s e d U p, 2006; T he pe r f e c t f i t 2007; O s bor n, 2000; W i l s on, 2002 ). I t i s a l s o r e c ogni z e d t ha t c ons um e r be ha vi or i s i nf l ue nc e d by t he a t m os phe r i c s of t he s t or e e nvi r onm e nt ( B i t ne r 199 2 ; D onova n & R os s i t e r 1982 ; D onova n, R os s i t e r M a r c ool yn, & N e s da l e 1994) B a d s t or e a t m os phe r i c s c a n di s t r a c t t he s hoppe r ( B a ke r G r e w a l & P a r a s ur a m a n 1994 ) a nd di s c our a ge c ons um e r s f r om s t a y i ng i n t he s t or e ( M a xw e l l & K ove r 2003 ) ; w he r e a s good a t m o s phe r i c s e nha nc e t he s hoppe r s m ood a n d he l p i nc r e a s e s a l e s ( B a ke r 1986) L i ght i ng de s i gne r s poi nt out t ha t l i ght i ng c a n c ha nge how p e opl e pe r c e i ve a nd e xpe r i e nc e t he s pa c e ( W i nc hi p, 2008 ) a nd l i ght i ng i s a ke y e l e m e nt f or t he r e t a i l de s i gne r t ha t he l ps c r e a t e a pos i t i ve s t or e e xpe r i e nc e ( R e a 2000; S c hl os s e r 1998 ) I n r e t a i l l i ght i ng s t ud i e s r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t l i g ht i ng, us e d a s a n e nvi r onm e nt a l s t i m ul us a f f e c t s pr oduc t e va l ua t i on ( O be r m i l l e r & B i t ne r 1984) a nd c a n gr e a t l y e nha nc e or hi nde r t he s t o re s a t m os phe r i c s ( A r e ni & K i m 199 4; D onova n & R os s i t e r 1982; D onova n, e t a l 1994 ; P a r k & F a r r 2007; S um m e r s & H e be r t 2001) a nd t he c ons um e r s s hoppi ng e xpe r i e nc e ( H e gde 1996; K ot l e r 1974; R ous h, 19 94) H ow e ve r t hough t he e f f e c t s of l i ght i ng 11

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on th e m a i n s a l e s f l oo r ha ve be e n s t udi e d i n s om e de pt h not hi ng i s know n a bout how dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng i nf l ue nc e s t he e xpe r i e nc e o f t he c on s um e r Y e t t he i ndus t r y i s be gi nni ng t o vi e w th e dr e s s i ng r oom a s a n i m por t a nt a nd s i ngul a r pa r t of t he s t or e e xpe r i e nc e a s t he y m a ke a s l e w of c ha nge s i n c ha ngi ng r oom s : upgr a de d, s l e e ke r m a t e r i a l s ; s of t e r be t t e r pos i t i one d l i ght i ng; m or e s pa c e f or s oc i a l i n t e r a c t i ons ; a nd c l e a r e r m o r e c onve ni e nt l oc a t i ons ( M a ng, 2008) D r e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng di r e c t i on m a y be a s t r o ng f a c t or i nf l ue nc i ng a s hoppe r s dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e s but r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d t o unde r s t a nd h ow a nd a l ong w ha t d i m e ns i ons D r e s s i ng r oom us e r s m a y e va l ua t e t he d r e s s i ng r oo m a nd e xpe r i e nc e s oc c ur r i ng i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom i n m uc h t he s a m e w a y a s t he y e va l ua t e t he e xpe r i e nc e on t he m a i n s a l e s f l oor C ons i de r i ng t he e m ot i ona l e va l ua t i ons t a ki ng p l a c e i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom ( U nde r hi l l 1999) us e r s c oul d e xpe r i e nc e t he s a m e t ype s of e m o t i ona l r e a c t i ons i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom a s t he y do i n t he m a i n s t or e w hi c h a r e o f t e n m e a s ur e d by s t a t e s of a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e ( D onova n & R os s i t e r 1982, 1994) H ow e ve r de s pi t e s i m i l a r i t i e s t o t he m a i n s t or e e xpe r i e nc e s t he d r e s s i ng r oom m a y be gove r ne d by di f f e r e nt e xpe r i e nt i a l qua l i t i e s a nd m ode s of e va l ua t i on i n t he c us t om e r A s one of t he m os t c r i t i c a l s a l e s a r e a s ( M a ng, 2008; U nde r hi l l 1999 ) c l ot h i ng s t or e dr e s s i ng r oom s a r e w he r e c ons um e r s t r y on c l ot he s a nd m a ke t he i r f i na l e va l ua t i on s a nd de c i s i on t o buy ( R e a 2000) a nd pos s i bl y e va l ua t e t he p r i c e a nd ne e d f or t he pr oduc t H ow e ve r i t i s c l e a r t ha t i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom us e r s e va l ua t e t he c ol or t e xt ur e a nd de s i gn of t he c l ot he s ( R e a 2000) I t i s ge ne r a l l y a s s um e d by de s i gne r s t ha t t h e dr e s s i ng r oom i s t he m om e nt w he r e s hoppe r s e va l ua t e t he i r a ppe a r a nc e a nd w he r e c us t om e r s f o r m t he i r m os t i m por t a nt i m pr e s s i ons of t he c l ot he s i nc l udi ng i t s f i t a nd a ppe a r a nc e on t he bod y ( A l l D r e s s e d U p, 2006; T he pe r f e c t f i t 2007; F i t t i ng D e s i gns 1999; M a ng, 2008 ) A l s o, t he dr e s s i ng r oom m a y be a m om e nt of e m ot i ona l r e a c t i on t o e nvi r onm e nt a l a t t r i but e s t ha t c a n a f f e c t s hoppe r s a s t he y t r y on t he c l ot he s 12

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L i ght i ng t h i s s pa c e is c r i t i c a l t o a l l ow i ng t he c us t om e r s t o e va l ua t e t he p r oduc t a nd t he i r pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e unde r opt i m a l c ondi t i ons t he r e by f a c i l i t a t i ng t he c om pl e t i on of t h e s a l e ( R e a 2000 ) T he L i ght i ng H a ndbook ( R e a 2000 ) of t he I l l um i n a t i ng E ngi ne e r i ng S oc i e t y o f N or t h A m e r i c a ( I E S N A ) m a ke s l i ght i ng de s i gn r e c om m e nda t i ons f or t he dr e s s i ng r oom I t i s s ugge s t e d t ha t m ode l i ng o f f a c e s a nd c ol or a ppe a r a nc e i s i m p or t a nt Th e y r e c om m e nd t he us e of bot h ve r t i c a l ( f r ont a l ) a nd hor i z ont a l ( ove r he a d) i l l um i n a t i on t o f a vo r a bl y r e p r e s e nt t he c l ot he s a nd t he pe r s on t r yi ng t he m on w i t hout de e p s ha dow s ( R e a 2000) A s w e l l i t ha s be e n s how n t ha t f r ont a l l i gh t i ng i s p r e f e r r e d t o t op l i ght i ng i n a dr e s s i ng r oom ( T he pe r f e c t f i t 2007 ) A l t hough l i ght i ng di r e c t i on i s a l r e a dy s how n t o be i m por t a nt ( T he pe r f e c t f i t 2007; R e a 2000) no e m pi r i c a l s t udi e s of dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng ha ve be e n publ i s he d T he r e f or e t h i s s t udy s e e ks t o e xpl or e t he e f f e c t s of dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a s a n e nvi r onm e nt a l s t i m ul us on t he s hoppe r s e m ot i ona l s t a t e a nd a ppe a r a nc e a s w e l l a s t he dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e R e s e ar c h P u r p os e I t i s unc l e a r how l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t s c ons um e r s i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom de s pi t e t he a s s um pt i ons of l i ght i ng a ut hor i t i e s r e t a i l e r s a nd d e s i gne r s C ons i de r i ng t he l a c k of s t udi e s a va i l a bl e t o de s i gne r s r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d t o e xpl or e how l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t s t he p r oc e s s e s oc c ur r i ng i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom s o a s t o i n f or m de s i gne r s a s t o t he e f f e c t s of t he i r c hoi c e s T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy i s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he e f f e c t s of l i gh t i ng d i r e c t i on i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom on c ons um e r s e m ot i ona l s t a t e s l i ght i ng pe r c e pt i ons a nd pr e f e r e nc e s s e l f e va l ua t i ons d r e s s i ng r oom e va l ua t i ons a nd t he c ons um e r s ove r a l l dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e E m ot i ona l s t a t e s a r e t he a m ount of a r ous a l a nd p l e a s ur e e xpe r i e nc e d i n a r e t a i l s e t t i ng ( D onova n & R os s i t e r 1982 1994 ) A r ous a l i s t he a m ount of s t i m ul a t i on a nd e xc i t e m e nt t ha t t he s pa c e c a us e s c ons um e r s w hi l e pl e a s ur e i s how s a t i s f i e d or good t he pe r s on f e e l s i n t he 13

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e nvi r onm e nt ( D onova n & R os s i t e r 1982 1994 ) H i gh l e ve l s of a r ous a l a c c om pa ny hi gh l e ve l s of pl e a s ur e i n hi gh e nd r e t a i l s t or e s but a r e i nve r s e l y r e l a t e d i n l ow e nd r e t a i l s t or e s w he r e hi gh l e ve l s of a r ous a l a f f e c t l ow pl e a s ur e ( K a l t c he va & W e i t z 2006) A r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e m a y a l s o m e a s ur e t he e m ot i ona l e f f e c t s o f l i ght i ng di r e c t i on i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom L i ght i ng pe r c e pt i ons a r e how l i gh t i ng i s pe r c e i ve d a l ong di m e ns i ons of l i ght i n g qua l i t y: br i ght ne s s a nd c ol or of l i ght L i ght i ng pr e f e r e nc e i s de f i ne d a s c ons um e r s f a vor i ng one l i ght i ng di r e c t i on ove r a not he r S e l f e va l ua t i ons a r e t he pe r s ona l a s s e s s m e nt of how f a vor a bl y l i ght i ng r e nde r s t he c ons um e r s f a c i a l a nd body a ppe a r a nc e a nd a r e i m por t a nt i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom ( R e a 2000) D r e s s i ng r oom e va l ua t i ons a r e m e a s ur e d t o s e e how l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t s pe r c e pt i ons of s i z e c l e a nl i ne s s c onve ni e nc e a nd s pa c i ous ne s s a m ong ot he r di m e ns i ons of t he dr e s s i ng r oom F i na l l y, t he ove r a l l d r e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e i s t he t ot a l e xpe r i e nc e a l ong di m e ns i ons of s a t i s f a c t i on. H ow e ve r m e n a nd w om e n a r e di f f e r e nt s hoppe r s ( U nde r hi l l 1999 ) W om e n a r e m or e l i ke l y t o t r y on c l ot he s t ha n a r e m e n a nd p r e f e r t o vi e w pr oduc t s i n a c t ua l s e t t i ngs a nd i n us e be f or e m a ki ng a pur c ha s e de c i s i on. T he r e f or e onl y w om e n w e r e i nc l ude d i n t hi s s t udy s i nc e t he y a r e m or e f r e que nt dr e s s i ng r oom us e r s a nd f o c us m or e on t he s hoppi ng e xpe r i e nc e t ha n do m e n ( U nde r hi l l 1999 ) R e s e ar c h Q u e s t i on s T he s pe c i f i c r e s e a r c h que s t i ons a r e : 1. H ow doe s l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t f e m a l e s hoppe r s e m ot i ona l s t a t e of ar ou s al i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom ? 2. H ow doe s l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t f e m a l e s hoppe r s e m ot i ona l s t a t e of p l e as u r e i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom ? 14

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3. H ow doe s l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t f e m a l e s h oppe r s l i gh t i n g p e r c e p t i on s i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom ? 4. H ow doe s l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t f e m a l e s hoppe r s l i gh t i n g p r e f e r e n c e i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom ? 5. H ow doe s l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t f e m a l e s hoppe r s s e l f e val u at i on s o f f ac i al ap p e ar an c e i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom ? 6. H ow doe s l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t f e m a l e s hoppe r s s e l f e val u at i on s o f b o d y ap p e ar an c e i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom ? 7. H ow doe s l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t f e m a l e s hoppe r s d r e s s i n g r oom e val u at i on s ? 8. H ow doe s l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t f e m a l e s hoppe r s ove r al l d r e s s i n g r oom e xp e r i e n c e ? C on c e p t u al F r am e w or k M e hr a bi a n a nd R us s e l l ( 1974) pr opos e d a m ode l o f s t i m ul us or ga ni s m r e s pons e ( S O R ) t o unde r s t a nd t he e f f e c t s of e nvi r onm e nt a l s t i m ul i on e m ot i ona l r e s pons e s t he a m ount o f a r ous a l pl e a s ur e a nd do m i na nc e t ha t us e r s f e e l i n t he phys i c a l e nvi r onm e nt D onova n a nd R os s i t e r ( 1982) a ppl i e d M e hr a bi a n a nd R us s e l l s ( M R ) m ode l t o a s s e s s t he e f f e c t s of e nvi r onm e nt a l c ue s on e m ot i ona l s t a t e s t o r e ve a l a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e a r e e f f e c t i ve m e a s ur e s i n r e t a i l s e t t i ngs but not dom i na nc e T he s e e m ot i ona l s t a t e s t he n a f f e c t a ppr oa c h a voi da nc e be ha vi or i n t he s t or e e nvi r onm e nt A pp r oa c h i s w i l l i ngne s s t o r e m a i n i n t he e nvi r onm e nt w he r e a s a voi d i s t he ne ga t i ve r e s pons e t o t he e nvi r onm e nt w he r e by us e r s r e t r e a t f r om t he e xpe r i e nc e P oor a t m os phe r i c s a nd de s i gn c a n c a us e us e r s t o l e a ve w he r e a s good de s i gn c a n e nc our a ge us e r s t o s t a y l onge r S i nc e t he n e nvi r on m e nt a l s t i m ul i ha ve be e n t he f oc us of m a ny m a r ke t i ng s t udi e s t ha t ha ve s ought t o e xpl a i n t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e nvi r onm e nt a l c ue s a nd t he s hoppi ng e xpe r i e nc e ( A l pe r t A l pe r t & M a l t z 2005; K a l t c he va & W e i t z 2006) I t ha s be e n 15

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f ound t ha t e nvi r onm e nt a l s t i m ul i i nc l udi ng m us i c ( A l pe r t e t a l 2005; B a ke r L e vy & G r e w a l 1992; K ot l e r 1974) s c e nt ( C he ba t & M i c hon, 200 3) c r ow di ng ( E r ogl u M a c hl e i t & B a r r 2005) c ol or ( B a bi n, H a r de s t y, & S ut t e r 2003; B e l l i z z i & H i t e 1992) a nd l i ght i ng ( B a ke r e t a l 1992, 1994; B oyc e L l oyd, E kl und & B r a nds t on, 1996; R ous h, 1994; S c hl os s e r 1998; S um m e r s & H e be r t 2001) a f f e c t e m ot i ona l r e s pons e s a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e a nd w i l l i ngne s s t o r e m a i n i n t he s t or e a nd m a ke a pur c ha s e O t he r m a r ke t i ng r e s e a r c he r s ha ve us e d t he s a m e m ode l or a da pt ed t he m ode l t o s t udy s hoppi ng m ot i ve s ( K a l t c he va & W e i t z 2006 ) e m ot i ona l s t a t e s ( D a w s on, B l oc h & R i dgw a y 199 0) a nd ne ga t i ve e nvi r onm e nt a l a f f e c t ( M a xw e l l & K ove r 2003) E m ot i ona l r e a c t i ons a s m e a s ur e d by pl e a s ur e a nd a r ous a l ha ve be e n s how n t o r e l a t e di r e c t l y t o a nd a f f e c t t he s hoppi ng e xpe r i e nc e ( D onova n a nd R os s i t e r 1982) a nd t r a n s l a t e i nt o s hoppe r s s pe ndi ng m or e t i m e a nd m one y i n t he s t or e ( D onova n e t a l 1994 ) A s w e l l e m ot i ona l r e s pons e s va r y by s t or e t ype ( M a c hl e i t & E r ogl u, 2000) a nd s hoppi ng m ot i va t i o ns ( K a l t c he va & W e i t z 2006) T he s e e f f e c t e d e m ot i ons c a n be t r a ns l a t e d t o pe opl e or obj e c t s i n t he e nvi r onm e nt ( M a s l ow & M i nt z 1956) or t he e xpe r i e nc e ( M e hr a bi a n & R us s e l l 1974 ) I t i s e vi de nt t ha t e m ot i ona l s t a t e s a c t a s a m e di a t or be t w e e n t he phys i c a l s t or e e nvi r onm e nt a nd r e t a i l out c om e s ( B a ke r e t a l 199 2 ; D onova n e t a l 1994; K a l t c he va & W e i t z 2006; S um m e r s & H e be r t 2001 ) L i ght i ng i s a c o m pl e x va r i a bl e c om pos e d of c ol or o f l i ght i nt e ns i t y, pa t t e r n a nd di r e c t i on a nd i s a n i m po r t a nt pa r t o f t he ove r a l l r e t a i l s t or e e nvi r onm e nt ( B a bi n e t a l 2003; B a ke r e t a l 1992; B i t ne r 199 2; R ous h, 199 4) Y e t f e w s t udi e s ha ve a da pt e d t he M e hr a bi a n a nd R us s e l l ( M R ) f r a m e w or k t o i n ve s t i ga t e t he e f f e c t s of l i ght i ng a s a n e nvi r onm e nt a l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c on c ons um e r s m oods a nd be ha vi or i n a r e t a i l e nvi r on m e nt ( A r e ni & K i m 1994; P a r k & F a r r 2007; S u m m e r s & H e b e r t 2001 ) B y a ppl yi ng t he M R m ode l A r e ni 16

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& K i m ( 1994) i nve s t i ga t e d t he e f f e c t s of l i ght i ng i nt e ns i t y on c ons um e r s a ppr oa c h a voi da nc e be ha vi or a s di d S um m e r s a nd H e be r t ( 2001 ) I n a r e t a i l s t or e P a r k & F a r r ( 2007) c om pa r e d t he e f f e c t s of c ol or of l i ght on e m ot i ona l s t a t e s of a r ou s a l a nd pl e a s ur e be t w e e n c ons um e r s f r om t he U S a nd K or e a t o f i nd t ha t t he s e c ons um e r s do di f f e r i n t he i r r e a c t i ons t o l i gh t i ng C ons i de r i ng t ha t l i ght i ng a f f e c t s c ons um e r s e m ot i ona l s t a t e s a nd s hoppi ng be ha vi or i n t he m a i n s t or e e nvi r onm e nt i t i s e xpe c t e d t ha t l i gh t i ng w oul d a l s o a f f e c t c ons um e r s e m ot i ona l s t a t e s i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom D r e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng s houl d be s t udi e d t o unde r s t a nd i t s e f f e c t on c ons um e r s e m ot i ona l s t a t e s a nd s hoppi ng e xpe r i e nc e T he r e f o r e t hi s s t udy a da pt e d t he M e hr a bi a n a nd R us s e l l ( M R ) m ode l t o i nve s t i ga t e t he e f f e c t s o f l i ght i ng di r e c t i on on e m ot i ona l s t a t e s of a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e a nd t he ove r a l l dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he unde r s t a ndi ng t ha t hi gh l e ve l s of a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e a r e p r e di c t or s of buyi ng be ha vi or ( F i gur e 1 1 ) Env i ro n m en ta l S ti m ul i L i g h t i n g D i r ect i o n s 1 ) O v erh ead 2 ) Fro n t al E m o ti o na l Sta tes A r o u s a l P l e a s u r e Sel f Ev a l ua ti o ns F a c i a l a p p e a r a n c e B o d y a p p e a r a n c e R o o m Li g h t P e rce pti o ns & P r efe ren ces Ov era l l D res s i ng R o o m Ex peri e nce D r es s i ng R o o m Ev a l ua ti o ns F i gur e 1 1 C onc e pt ua l m ode l T hough e m ot i ona l s t a t e s a r e i m por t a nt i n r e t a i l e nv i r onm e nt s a ddi t i ona l va r i a bl e s a r e a l s o c r i t i c a l t o t he e xpe r i e nc e w i t hi n t he dr e s s i ng r oom F i r s t t he pe r c e i ve d qua l i t y of t he 17

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dr e s s i ng r oom s a nd pr e f e r e nc e s f o r one o r a not he r e nvi r onm e nt a l di m e ns i on s e e m t o be i m por t a nt a nd m a y a f f e c t or be r e l a t e d t o t he d r e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e a nd de c i s i on t o buy ( T he pe r f e c t f i t 2007 ) L i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t s t he pe r c e i ve d qua l i t y of a s pa c e ( C ha yut s a ha ki j 1998; F l ynn, 1977; R e a 2000) a nd ne e ds t o be a s s e s s e d t o de t e r m i ne i t s r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he ove r a l l e xpe r i e nc e D r e s s i ng r oom qua l i t y i s a f f e c t e d by c l e a nl i ne s s pr i va c y, a nd c onve ni e nc e a m ong ot he r t hi ngs ( T he pe r f e c t f i t 2007) S e c ond, c ons um e r s m a y a l s o pr e f e r one l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a bove a not he r i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom I n ge ne r a l i nt e r i o r e nvi r on m e nt s F l ynn ( 197 7) f ound t ha t l i gh t i ng c om pos i t i on he i ght e ns t he pe r c e pt i on of a nd pr e f e r e nc e f or di f f e r e nt i nt e r i or s c e na r i os D i m pe r i phe r a l l i ght i ng i s l i nke d t o pe r c e pt i on of pr i va c y w hi l e l i ght i ng c om pos i t i o n a m pl i f i e s t he f e e l i ng of s pa c i ous ne s s H ow e ve r i n r e t a i l s e t t i ngs s hoppe r s ha ve be e n s ho w n t o pr e f e r dow nw a r d l i ght i ng ( C ha y ut s a ha ki j 1998) I t i s unc l e a r w ha t us e r s pr e f e r i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom t hough F l ynn ( 1977 ) a nd C ha yut s a ha ki j ( 1998) ha ve unc ove r e d p r e f e r e n c e s f or di f f e r e nt l i gh t i ng c ondi t i ons i n ot he r e nvi r onm e nt s F ur t he r m or e pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e i s i m po r t a nt i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom T he I l l um i na t i ng E ngi ne e r i ng S oc i e t y of N or t h A m e r i c a ( I E S N A ) r e c om m e nd s dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng s houl d a c c e nt ua t e pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e a nd f a c i a l m ode l i ng. A c om bi na t i on of di f f us e d a nd di r e c t i ona l l i ght f r om ove r he a d a nd f r on t a l s our c e s m os t c l e a r l y de f i ne s f a c i a l a nd body a ppe a r a nc e ( R e a 2000) S om e de s i gne r s s ugge s t pr ovi di ng m o r e f r o nt a l l i ght t ha n ove r he a d l i ght t o hi ghl i ght f a c i a l f e a t ur e s i n a dr e s s i ng r oom ( A l l D r e s s e d U p, 2006; T he pe r f e c t f i t 2007 ) T hi s s t udy a da pt e d t he M R m ode l a n d e xpl o r e s t he e f f e c t s o f l i ght i ng d i r e c t i on on t he s e a ddi t i ona l va r i a bl e s f or f e m a l e c ons um e r s i n a f i e l d s e t t i ng. 18

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S u m m ar y I t a ppe a r s t ha t t hough t he r e i s a de c e nt unde r s t a ndi ng of l i ght i ng s e f f e c t on c ons um e r e m ot i ona l s t a t e s a nd be ha vi or i n t he m a i n r e t a i l e n vi r onm e nt l e s s i s know n a bout t he r ol e o f l i ght i ng on t he c ons um e r s pe r c e pt i on o f a nd e xpe r i e nc e i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom S om e l i ght i ng di m e ns i ons l i ke l i ght i ng i nt e ns i t y ( S um m e r s & H e be r t 2001 ) ha ve be e n s t udi e d a nd p r ove n t o a f f e c t t he s hoppi ng e xpe r i e nc e ; ye t none of t he m ha ve be e n a s s e s s e d i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom S pe c i f i c a l l y, not hi ng i s c onc l us i ve a bout l i ght i ng d i r e c t i on de s pi t e i t s pe r c e i ve d i m po r t a nc e T he r e f or e t hi s s t udy s e e ks t o be gi n unde r s t a nd i ng t he e f f e c t of l i gh t i ng di r e c t i on on co ns um e r s i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom 19

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C H A P T E R 2 L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W T hi s c ha pt e r c ons i s t s of t w o s e c t i ons t ha t de s c r i be e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t ur e pe r t a i ni ng t o t he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy T he f i r s t pa r t of t h i s c ha pt e r r e vi e w s l i t e r a t ur e on t he r e t a i l a t m os phe r e t he ap pl i c a t i on of t he M R m ode l t o s t udy r e t a i l l i ght i ng, a nd r e t a i l l i ght i ng pr a c t i c e s T he s e c ond pa r t of t hi s c ha pt e r f oc us e s on l i t e r a t ur e r e ga r di ng t he dr e s s i ng r oom a nd l i ght i ng R e t ai l A t m os p h e r e an d L i gh t i n g D onova n a nd R os s i t e r ( 1982) w e r e t he f i r s t t o a s s e s s t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t or e a t m os phe r i c s a nd e m ot i ona l s t a t e s a nd a da pt e d t he M e hr a bi a n a nd R us s e l l ( 1974) P l e a s ur e A r ous a l D om i na nc e ( P A D ) m ode l t o s t udy e m ot i o ns a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pur c ha s e de c i s i ons a nd r e t a i l out c om e s D onova n a nd R os s i t e r ( 1 982) f ou nd t ha t a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e a r e e f f e c t i ve ga uge s of c ons um e r s r e s pons e t o t he e nvi r on m e nt a nd c oul d be m e a s ur e d w i t h s i m pl e s e m a nt i c di f f e r e nt i a l w o r d pa i r s M a ny s ubs e que nt r e s e a r c h s t udi e s ha ve be e n c onduc t e d t o e xpl a i n t he e m ot i ona l r e s pons e t o e nvi r onm e nt a l c ue s a l ong g e ne r a l a nd s pe c i f i c m e a s ur e s l i ke l i ght i ng ( B a ke r e t a l 1992; R ous h, 1994; S um m e r s & H e b e r t 2001 ) c r ow di ng ( E r ogl u e t a l 2005; H ui & B a t e s on, 1991) s c e nt ( C he ba t & M i c hon, 2003) m us i c ( A l pe r t e t a l 2005; B a ke r e t a l 1992 ) a nd e xpe c t a t i ons of s e r vi c e qua l i t y ( G a gl i a n o & H a t hc ot e 1994) a m ong ot he r s M e hr a bi a n a nd R us s e l l ( 1974) de t e r m i ne d t ha t t he r e i s a m e a s ur a bl e e nvi r onm e nt a l l oa d t ha t i s c om pr i s e d of nove l t y a nd c om pl e xi t y i n t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd t ha t t hi s di r e c t l y a f f e c t s t he pe r s on s e xpe r i e nc e of a r ous a l a nd/ or pl e a s ur e T h e s e e m ot i ona l s t a t e s t he n m ode r a t e a ppr oa c h or a voi da nc e be ha vi or t o / w i t hi n t ha t e nvi r onm e nt ( B i t ne r 1992; D onova n & R os s i t e r 1982; M e hr a bi a n & R us s e l l 1974) T he y f ound t ha t a ppr oa c h a nd a voi da nc e a r e t he m s e l ve s s t r ong pr e di c t or s of c ons um e r s s pe ndi ng e xt r a t i m e i n t h e s t or e a nd s pe ndi ng m or e m one y t ha n i nt e nde d ( D onova n e t a l 1994, 291) 20

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B a ke r e t a l ( 1992) f ur t he r r e i nf or c e d t he r e l a t i ons hi p a m ong e nvi r onm e nt a l s t i m ul i e m ot i ona l s t a t e s a nd r e t a i l out c om e s t hr ough t he u s e of vi de ot a pe r e s e a r c h m e t hods O ve r t he ye a r s a m ul t i t ude of a ppr oa c he s ha ve c onf i r m e d t he e f f e c t of m ood a nd e m ot i ona l s t a t e s on t he r e t a i l s hoppi ng e xpe r i e nc e a nd t he e m ot i on m ode l w a s f ur t he r r e f i ne d de m ons t r a t i ng t ha t a r ous a l a c t s a s a n a nt e c e de nt t o t he e xpe r i e nc e of pl e a s ur e i n a r e t a i l s e t t i ng a nd i s m ode r a t e d by s hoppi ng m ot i va t i ons ( K a l t c he va & W e i t z 2006) H i gh l e ve l s of a r ous a l c a n ne ga t i ve l y a f f e c t pe opl e w i t h ut i l i t a r i a n m ot i va t i ons w he r e a s hi gh a r ous a l l e ve l s m or e pos i t i ve l y a f f e c t pe opl e w i t h r e c r e a t i ona l m ot i va t i ons r e s ul t i ng i n hi ghe r l e ve l s of pl e a s ur e T hi s s i gni f i e s t ha t i n t he hi gh e nd a ppa r e l i ndus t r y hi gh l e ve l s of a r ous a l r e s ul t s i n s hoppi ng pl e a s ur e U nde r s t a ndi ng w ha t a f f e c t s pl e a s ur e a nd a r ous a l m a y a f f e c t gr e a t e r de gr e e s of s a t i s f a c t i on a nd w i l l i ngne s s t o buy ( D onova n & R os s i t e r 1982) F ur t he r m or e e xpe c t a t i ons of s e r vi c e a l s o a f f e c t r a t i ngs of t he s hoppi ng e xpe r i e nc e a nd de c i s i ons t o buy ( G a gl i a no & H a t hc ot e 1994 ) S h oppe r s e x pe c t a t i ons of s t or e s e r vi c e a r e i n pa r t di c t a t e d by t he i r f i r s t i m pr e s s i on of t he s t or e a nd b y pr oduc t p r i c e s H i gh e nd s t or e s a s i ndi c a t e d by be t t e r de s i gn a nd hi ghe r p r i c e poi nt s ge ne r a t e d hi ghe r e xpe c t a t i ons i n s hoppe r s t ha t w e r e l e s s f r e que nt l y m e t f or m a r r i e d, C a uc a s i a n s hoppe r s w i t h hi ghe r a nnua l i nc om e I n a ddi t i on t o r e i n f or c i ng c ons um e r e xpe c t a t i ons t he phys i c a l s t or e s de s i gn c a n di r e c t l y a f f e c t a ppr a i s a l s of m e r c ha ndi s e w i t hi n t he s t or e e nvi r onm e nt M a s l ow a nd M i nt z ( 1956) i nve s t i ga t e d t he e f f e c t of t he phys i c a l e nvi r onm e nt on t he pe r c e pt i ons of ot he r pe opl e a nd obj e c t s w i t hi n a n e nvi r onm e nt T he r e s e a r c he r s a s ke d pe o pl e t o r a t e t he f a c e s of pe opl e i n be a ut i f ul a ve r a ge a nd ugl y e nvi r onm e nt s a l ong di m e ns i ons of f a t i gue / e ne r gy a nd di s pl e a s ur e / w e l l be i ng. I t w a s f ound t ha t pe r c e pt i ons w i t hi n a s pa c e c a n be t r a ns f e r r e d t o or a f f e c t t he pe r c e pt i on of obj e c t s or pe opl e a l s o oc c upyi ng t he s pa c e F or e xa m pl e pe opl e w e r e pe r c e i ve d a s he a l t hi e r 21

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a nd be t t e r l ooki ng i n be a ut i f ul i nt e r i or s G a r dne r a nd S i om kos ( 1985 ) c onf i r m e d t hi s f i ndi ng; t he y f ound t ha t e nvi r onm e nt a l a t t r i but e s a f f e c t t he pe r c e pt i on of pe r f um e qua l i t y P e r f um e s ol d i n hi gh e nd de pa r t m e nt s t or e s w a s r a t e d hi ghe r t ha n t he s a m e pr oduc t s ol d i n di s c ount s t or e s T hi s s uppor t s t he f i ndi ngs of ot he r r e s e a r c he r s t ha t t he phys i c a l e nvi r onm e nt i s ke y t o c r e a t i ng pos i t i ve a s s oc i a t i ons w i t h pr oduc t H ow e ve r e xpe r i e nc e s w i t hi n a s pa c e c a nnot be de f i ne d by one ove r a l l r a t i ng o f pl e a s ur e or a r ous a l or by one i s ol a t e d pa r t of t he e xpe r i e nc e I ns t e a d, t he e xpe r i e nc e i n t he r e t a i l s e t t i ng i s a n e vol vi ng di a l ogue be t w e e n t he c ons um e r a nd t he d i f f e r e nt a t m os phe r i c va r i a bl e s pe opl e or pr oduc t s t he s hoppe r e nc ount e r s t hr oughou t t he s t o r e ( K unke l & B e r r y 2002 ) T a i a nd F ung ( 1997) s t udi e d e m ot i ona l r e a c t i ons t hr oughou t t he s t or e e xpe r i e nc e a nd be l i e ve t ha t t he e m ot i ona l s t a t e s of c ons um e r s a r e not c ons i s t e nt t hr ough t he s hoppi ng e xpe r i e nc e a nd c a n be a f f e c t e d by di f f e r e nt e nc ount e r s oc c ur r i ng w i t h i n a r e t a i l s t or e T a i a nd F ung s ( 1997 ) f i ndi ngs i ndi c a t e t ha t t hough r e s e a r c he r s m a y m e a s ur e t he e xpe r i e nc e i n a c e r t a i n pa r t o f t he s t or e t he s e f i ndi ngs m a y not be a ppl i c a bl e t o ot he r a r e a s w i t hi n t he s t or e E ve n be f or e t he c ons um e r e nt e r s t he s t or e t he y be g i n t o f or m ul a t e i n i t i a l i m p r e s s i ons t ha t a f f e c t t he i r ove r a l l e xpe r i e nc e ( B ur ns & N e i s ne r 2 006) E xpe c t a t i ons a f f e c t pe r c e pt i ons of t he r e t a i l e xpe r i e nc e a nd c r e a t e a s t a nda r d a ga i ns t w hi c h t he e xpe r i e nc e i s j udge d. T he c ons e que nc e of t hi s i s t ha t t hos e r e t a i l e r s w hos e c us t om e r s ha ve hi gh e xpe c t a t i ons m a y ne e d t o pl a c e e xpl i c i t a t t e nt i on on t he i r c us t om e r s e m ot i ons ( B ur ns & N e i s ne r 2006) H i gh e nd s t or e s f os t e r hi gh e xpe c t a t i ons of t he dr e s s i ng r oom a t m os phe r i c s s i nc e t he e nt i r e e nc ount e r i s e xpe c t e d t o be a uni t e d e xpe r i e nc e F a i l u r e t o m e e t hi gh e xpe c t a t i ons c a n r e s ul t i n l ow a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e a nd t hus de c r e a s e buyi ng be ha vi or T hough t he r e a r e m a ny a t m os phe r i c va r i a bl e s t ha t c a n a f f e c t t he e nt i r e e xpe r i e nc e l i ght i ng 22

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ha s be e n t he f oc us of m a ny s t udi e s be c a us e of t he m a ny w a ys i n w hi c h i t c a n b e m a ni pul a t e d t o s e r ve m ul t i pl e f unc t i ons a nd c r e a t e di f f e r e nt m ood s w i t hi n a s pa c e or s t or e a t m os phe r e ( R e a 2000) T he r e i s not a l w a ys one c l e a r s ol ut i on t o l i g ht i ng a s pa c e how e ve r i t i s one ke y pa r t o f t he a t m os phe r e a nd ha s a l a r ge pot e nt i a l a f f e c t o n pe r c e pt i on a nd a c t i on i n t he r e t a i l s e t t i ng ( A r e ni & K i m 1994; D onova n & R os s i t e r 1982; D onova n e t a l 1994; O be r m i l l e r & B i t ne r 1984 ; P a r k & F a r r 2007; S um m e r s & H e be r t 2001 ) S e ve r a l s t udi e s ha ve us e d t he M e hr a bi a n R us s e l l ( M R ) m ode l a s a l e ns t h r ough w hi c h t o unde r s t a nd t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of r e t a i l l i ght i ng A r e ni & K i m ( 1994 ) w e r e a m ong t he f i r s t t o s ubs t a nt i ve l y a ppl y t he i r w or k t o t he s t udy of r e t a i l l i ght i ng. T he y t e s t e d f or t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t w o l i ght i ng c ondi t i ons ( s of t a nd br i ght l i g ht ) ove r a t w o m on t h pe r i od T he y f ound t ha t t hough br i ght l i ght i ng ha d t he e f f e c t of i nc r e a s i ng c us t om e r i nt e r a c t i on w i t h pr oduc t i t di d not ne c e s s a r i l y i nf l ue nc e i nc r e a s e d s a l e s T hi s m a y m e a n t ha t t hough l i ght i ng m a y a t t r a c t a t t e nt i on, ot he r f a c t or s a r e be i ng c ons i de r e d a s s hoppe r s e va l ua t e pr oduc t S um m e r s a nd H e be r t ( 2001) f ol l ow e d s ui t us i ng t h e M R m ode l t o e xa m i ne t he e f f e c t di s pl a y l i ght i ng ha s on a pp r oa c h a voi da nc e be ha vi or T he y i ns t a l l e d t e m po r a r y l i ght i ng ove r di s pl a ys a nd a l t e r na t e d t he l i ght i ng e a c h da y f r om on t o of f C ons um e r be ha vi or w a s a s s e s s e d us i ng s t or e vi de o i n a s i ngl e s t or e w i t h a t ot a l of 23 67 pa r t i c i pa nt s T he pe opl e obs e r ve d t ouc he d m e r c ha ndi s e i n t he on s e t t i ng m os t f r e que nt l y a nd i n one o f t he s t or e s s e c t i ons us e r s r e m a i ne d l onge r i n t he on c ondi t i on t ha n i n t he of f c ondi t i on. E s s e nt i a l l y, t hi s s t udy f ound t ha t l i ght i ng i nf l ue nc e d t he l e ngt h a nd l e ve l of c ons um e r e nga g e m e nt w i t h pr oduc t P a r k & F a r r ( 2007) a ddi t i ona l l y us e d t he M R m od e l t o i nve s t i ga t e t he e f f e c t s of l i ght i ng on r e t a i l e m ot i ona l s t a t e s be ha vi or a l i n t e nt i ons a n d pe r c e pt i ons be t w e e n K or e a n a nd U S pa r t i c i pa nt s T he y us e d a 2 x 2 x 2 f a c t or i a l de s i gn t o a s s e s s t he m ut ua l e f f e c t s o f c ol or 23

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t e m pe r a t ur e c ol o r r e nde r i ng, a nd c ul t ur a l di f f e r e nc e s I n a n e xp e r i m e nt a l s e t t i ng, us e r s w e r e a s ke d t o c om pl e t e a t w o pa r t que s t i onna i r e i ns i de a nd out s i de t he t e s t s e t t i ng a nd w e r e e xpos e d t o e a c h l i ght i ng s c e na r i o f or a s m uc h t i m e a s t he y r e qui r e d f or c om pl e t i ng t he que s t i onna i r e T he r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t hi ghe r c o l or t e m pe r a t ur e ( 5 000K ) l i ght i ng w a s c ons i de r e d m or e a r ous i ng t ha n l ow e r c ol or t e m pe r a t ur e ( 3000K ) l i ght i ng A s w e l l pa r t i c i pa nt s a s s e s s e d t he l ow e r c ol or t e m pe r a t ur e s e t t i ng a s m or e pl e a s a nt t ha n t he hi gh e r c ol or t e m pe r a t ur e s e t t i ng a nd pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he U S pr e f e r r e d hi ghe r C R I l e ve l s t ha n K or e a n p a r t i c i pa nt s V i s ua l c l a r i t y w a s a l s o r a t e d hi ghe r f or hi ghe r c ol or t e m pe r a t ur e l e ve l s E m ot i ona l s t a t e s a nd m ood a r e i m po r t a nt m e a s ur e s of t he e f f e c t t he e nvi r onm e nt ha s on c ons um e r s but ot he r c ons i de r a t i ons a r e a l s o s i gni f i c a nt w he n de s i gni ng f or a r e t a i l e nvi r onm e nt R e t a i l l i ght i ng s goa l i s t o a t t r a c t c ons um e r s a nd, m or e s pe c i f i c a l l y, t o f a c i l i t a t e t he a ppr a i s a l of s e l f a nd pr oduc t i n dr e s s i ng r oom s ( R e a 2000) L i ght i ng a f f e c t s t he r e t a i l e xpe r i e nc e a nd i s a n a c know l e dge d a t m os phe r i c t ool t ha t c a n be a da pt e d f or di f f e r e nt r e t a i l s t r a t e gi e s : a t t r a c t i ng a t t e nt i on, pr ov i di ng vi s ua l f oc us a nd c r e a t i ng m o m e nt s of pa us e ge ne r a t i ng i nt e r e s t l e ndi ng f or m m a ki ng c ol o r s a ppe a l i ng, c r e a t i ng a c om f o r t a bl e a t m os phe r e a nd di r e c t i ng c ons um e r t r a f f i c ( R ous h, 1994; W i nc hi p, 2008 ) L i ght i s pr o ve n t o a f f e c t c us t om e r i nt e r e s t a nd i nt e r a c t i on w i t h di s pl a ys ( A r e ni & K i m 1994; S um m e r s & H e be r t 2001 ) a nd t he num be r a nd l e ngt h of i nt e r a c t i ons w i t h pr oduc t ha s s om e t i m e s be e n s how n t o t r a ns l a t e i nt o hi ghe r s a l e s C ol or e d l i ght i s a l s o know n t o a t t r a c t a t t e nt i on t o w i ndow d i s pl a ys a nd a f f e c t e m ot i ona l s t a t e ( B a bi n e t a l 2003) a nd c a n be a pow e r f ul e l e m e nt i n t he ge ne r a l s a l e s f l oor ( R e a 2000) T he I E S N A s t a t e s t ha t ge ne r a l r e t a i l l i ght i ng s houl d: a t t r a c t c us t om e r s a l l ow t he c us t om e r s t o e va l ua t e t he m e r c ha ndi s e a nd f a c i l i t a t e t he c om pl e t i on o f t he s a l e ( R e a 2000) A s w e l l ge ne r a l s t or e l i ght i ng i s s how n t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h s t or e i m a ge W i t hi n t he r e t a i l e nvi r onm e nt 24

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hi gh l e ve l s of e ve n, a m bi e nt l i ght i ng a r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h di s c ount o r l ow e r e nd s t or e s w he r e a s l ow e r l e ve l s of s of t f oc us e d, a nd z one d l i ght i ng i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h hi ghe r e nd r e t a i l ve nue s ( R e a 2000; W i nc hi p, 20 08) A s w e l l B a ke r ( 1986 ) f oun d t ha t pe opl e e xpe c t hi gh e nd s t or e s t o ha ve s of t m ood l i ght i ng w he r e a s di s c ount s t or e s a r e e x pe c t e d t o us e br i ght e r l i ght i ng H ow e ve r a s e ne r gy c os t s be c om e m or e o f a c onc e r n, r e t a i l e r s i n b ot h hi gh e nd a nd di s c ount s t or e s a r e i nc r e a s i ngl y us i ng e ne r gy e f f i c i e nt s our c e s S pe c i f i c a l l y, f l uo r e s c e nt l i ght i ng i s t he m os t c om m onl y us e d l i ght i ng s our c e i n r e t a i l ( M e r c ha ndi s e B l oom s 2005) T he m a i n r e a s ons r e t a i l e r s c hoos e t he l i ght i ng s our c e s t he y d o a r e e ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y, l i f e c os t c yc l e i ni t i a l c os t a nd m a i nt e na nc e c onc e r ns i n t ha t o r de r ( M e r c ha ndi s e B l oom s 2005) D e s pi t e t he f oc us on e ne r gy e f f i c i e nc y a nd m a i nt e na nc e a ppe a r a nc e w a s r a t e d t he m os t i m por t a nt a s pe c t of l i ght i ng by 72% o f s pe c i a l t y s t or e s a nd 47 1% of de pa r t m e nt s t or e s T h i s i ndi c a t e s t ha t vi s ua l qua l i t i e s o f l i ght a r e s t i l l of pr i m e i m por t a nc e a nd s t udyi ng ho w c ons um e r pe r c e pt i on a nd p r e f e r e nc e i s a f f e c t e d by l i ght m a y t r a ns l a t e i nt o i nc r e a s e d s a l e s ve nue I t i s i nc r e a s i ngl y i m po r t a nt t o ba l a nc e m ul t i pl e ne e ds w he n de s i gni ng r e t a i l l i ght i ng ( W i n c hi p. 2008) b ut c ons um e r pr e f e r e nc e s a r e l e s s c l e a r t ha n r e t a i l e r pr e f e r e nc e s T hough t he r e a r e c l e a r gu i de l i ne s c ons um e r l i ght i ng pr e f e r e nc e ha s not be e n he a vi l y r e s e a r c he d. O nl y C ha yut s a ha ki j ( 1998) i nve s t i ga t e d c ons um e r r e t a i l l i ght i ng p r e f e r e nc e s T hi s s t udy t ook a s pe c i f i c l ook a t l i gh t i ng di r e c t i on pr e f e r e nc e s us i ng pi c t or i a l r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of t he s a m e i nt e r i or s pa c e w i t h di f f e r e nt l i ght i ng s t r a t e gi e s U s e r s w e r e a s ke d t o e va l ua t e t he s e i nt e r i or s ba s e d on a r a nk o r de r o f pr e f e r e nc e H ow e ve r t he s or t i ng m e t hod p r ove d di f f i c ul t a nd t i m e c ons um i ng f or l a r ge r num be r s of s c e ne s be c a us e us e r s w e r e a s ke d t o m a ke s e ve r a l r a nki ng gr oups C ha yut s a ha ki j ( 1998) f ound t ha t t hough hu m a ns t e nd t o pr e f e r c e r t a i n l e ve l s of m ys t e r y 25

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a nd c om pl e xi t y i n t he i r e nvi r onm e nt t he y ha ve v e r y ba s i c r e qui r e m e nt s o f l i ght i ng p r e f e r r i ng ove r he a d i l l um i na t i on. P e opl e r e por t e d t he y pr e f e r r e d t he c ondi t i on w i t h dow nw a r d s pot l i ght s T hi s c ont r a di c t s F l ynn s ( 1977) l a ndm a r k f i ndi ngs t ha t a r e s t i l l us e d by de s i gne r s F l ynn ( 1977) w a s one o f t he f i r s t t o i nve s t i ga t e t he e f f e c t s of di f f e r e nt l i gh t i ng s t r a t e gi e s H e i nve s t i ga t e d l i ght i ng pr e f e r e nc e s by a s ki ng pe opl e t o r a t e pi c t u r e s of di f f e r e nt l i ght i ng s c e na r i os a nd de vi s e d f our m a i n c a t e gor i e s t o e va l ua t e s ubj e c t i ve l i ght i ng i m pr e s s i ons T he s e w e r e : s pa c i ous ne s s pr i va c y, vi s ua l c l a r i t y a nd r e l a xa t i o n. F u r t he r he i nve s t i ga t e d pr e f e r e nc e s f or di f f e r e nt l i ght i ng r e ve a l i ng t ha t pe opl e pr e f e r pe r i p he r a l a nd non uni f or m l i ght i ng t o m o r e uni f or m l i ght i ng. E a c h o f t he s e c a t e gor i e s w a s c r e a t e d us i ng di f f e r e nt c om bi na t i ons of l i ght i ng f oc us a nd di r e c t i on t o s t udy t he ps yc hol ogi c a l pe r c e pt i on of t he l i t e nvi r onm e nt S i nc e t he n, ot he r r e s e a r c he r s ha ve t a ke n di f f e r e nt a ppr oa c he s t o r e s e a r c hi ng l i ght i ng pe r c e pt i ons a nd pr e f e r e nc e s B ut l e r & B i ne r ( 1987 ) us e d p i c t ur e s of s e t t i ngs t o s ol i c i t b r i ght ne s s pr e f e r e nc e s f or di f f e r e nt s e t t i ngs T he y s i m pl y a s ke d pe opl e t he i r l i ght i ng p r e f e r e nc e s a nd i t w a s f ound t ha t pe opl e e xpe c t e d c e r t a i n s e t t i ngs t o be e i t he r di m m e r or br i ght e r ba s e d on s oc i a l s i t ua t i ons a c t i vi t i e s or m oods a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he s pa c e T he y f ound t ha t pe opl e p r e f e r or e xpe c t di f f e r e nt l i ght i ng i l l um i na t i on l e ve l s i n c e r t a i n a r e a s w i t hi n t he hom e a nd di f f e r e nt ve nue s l i ke t he of f i c e c l a s s r oom l i b r a r y, a nd do r m ( B ut l e r & B i ne r 1987) F or e xa m pl e of f i c e l i ght i ng w a s e xpe c t e d a nd pr e f e r r e d t o be b r i ght e r t ha n r oo m s i n t he hom e H ow e ve r br i ght ne s s i s onl y one l i ght i ng di m e ns i on. L i ght i ng i s de s c r i be d by i t s i l l um i na t i on l e ve l c ol or s our c e t ype a nd c ol or r e nde r i ng. I l l um i na t i on l e ve l i s m e a s ur e d by f oot c a ndl e s ( F C ) or by l ux. K e l vi n ( K ) m e a s ur e s t he c ol or of l i ght s uc h a s i t s c ol or a ppe a r a nc e or c ol o r t e m pe r a t ur e ; w hi l e l i ght i ng s a bi l i t y t o r e nde r t he c ol or o f obj e c t s i s m e a s ur e d by c ol or r e nde r i ng i nde x ( C R I ) E a c h of t he s e di m e ns i ons c a n a f f e c t t h e m ood w i t hi n a s pa c e ( R e a 2000) a nd di f f e r e nt c om bi na t i ons of l i ght i ng i l l um i na t i on 26

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l e ve l c ol or t e m pe r a t ur e a nd C R I a f f e c t m a l e a nd f e m a l e m oods di f f e r e nt l y ( K ne z 1997) W om e n a r e s i ngul a r c ons um e r s a nd a r e a f f e c t e d b y t he r e t a i l e nvi r onm e nt di f f e r e n t l y t ha n m e n ( U nde r hi l l 1999 ) I n h i s book, W hy W e B uy U nde r hi l l di s c us s e s t he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n m a l e a nd f e m a l e s hoppe r s W om e n f or i ns t a nc e a r e m or e l i ke l y t o t r y on c l ot he s out of a de s i r e t o s e e t he pr oduc t i n us e be f or e m a ki ng a pur c ha s e A l s o i f m e n de c i de t o us e t he dr e s s i ng r oom t he y w i l l pu r c ha s e t ha t pr oduc t 65 % o f t he t i m e H ow e ve r w om e n a r e l e s s c e r t a i n of t he i r pur c ha s e de c i s i ons e nt e r i ng t he dr e s s i ng r oom buy i ng onl y 25 % of t he t i m e A l s o, w he r e m e n f oc us on f i t w om e n c ons i de r m a ny m o r e f a c t or s l i ke ne e d. S t i l l l i t t l e i s know n a bout w om e n s t hought pr oc e s s e s oc c ur r i ng i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom d e s pi t e t he i m por t a nc e of t hi s s pa c e P e r s ona l e va l ua t i ons a r e a l s o a f f e c t e d by di f f e r e nt pr ope r t i e s of l i ght i ng. P e opl e w i t h di f f e r e nt s ki n t one s pe r c e i ve di f f e r e nt C C T l e ve l s di f f e r e nt l y a nd pr e f e r e nc e s a ppe a r t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y di f f e r e nt by l i ght i ng c ondi t i ons ( Q ue l l m a n & B oyc e 2002 ) V e i t c h, T i l l e r P a s i ni A r s e na ul t J a e ke l a nd S ve c ( 2002) e xa m i ne d t he s pe c i f i c e f f e c t o f f l uo r e s c e nt l a m ps on s ki n a ppe a r a nc e T he y f ound t ha t pe opl e w i t h l i g ht e r s k i n t one s r os e a nd ol i ve s e e m e d t o pr e f e r l a m ps w i t h a r e ddi s h hue r a t he r t ha n t hos e w i t h a g r e e ni s h hue H ow e ve r ot he r s ki n t one s w e r e not a s s e s s e d. F a c i a l r e nde r i ng a nd f a vor a bi l i t y a r e a l s o a f f e c t e d by l i ght i ng d i r e c t i on. V e i t c h, M i l l e r M c K a y & J one s ( 2006) c onduc t e d a s t udy t o s e e h ow di f f e r e nt of f i c e l i ght i ng c ondi t i ons a f f e c t e d pe opl e s r a t i ngs of f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e ba s e d on t he di r e c t i on of t he l i ght i ng. T he y a s s e s s e d f our c ondi t i ons c r e a t e d b y a pa ne l o f l i ght i ng de s i gne r s : s us pe nde d di r e c t / i ndi r e c t ; f ur n i t ur e m ount e d i ndi r e c t w i t h s uppl e m e nt a l c om pa c t f l uor e s c e nt t a s k l i ght i ng; r e c e s s e d 1 x 4 t r of f e r s w i t h s e m i s pe c ul a r pa r a bol i c de e p c e l l l ouve r s ; a nd r e c e s s e d 1 x 4 t r o f f e r s w i t h K 12 pr i s m a t i c l e ns e s ( V e i t c h e t a l 2006 ) T he y f ound t ha t f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e w a s r a t e d s upe r i or unde r c e i l i ng 27

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m ount e d l i ght s m or e t ha n unde r f u r ni t ur e m ount e d l i ght s w hi c h c ont r a di c t s s om e of t he c om m on a s s um pt i ons a bout l i ght i ng p r e f e r e nc e i n dr e s s i ng r oom s ( R e a 2000) W he n r a t i ng f or gl a r e c ont r ol t he y f ound t ha t f ur ni t u r e m ount e d l i g ht i ng w a s r a t e d hi ghe r t ha n c e i l i ng m ount e d l i ght i ng ( V e i t c h e t a l 2006 ) H ow e ve r i t s e e m s t h a t de s pi t e c om m on be l i e f s ove r he a d l i ght i ng i s a l s o c a pa bl e of r e nde r i ng f a c e s f a vor a bl y a nd w a r r a nt s f ur t he r r e s e a r c h i nt o t he e f f e c t t he l i ght i ng di r e c t i on ha s on pe r s ona l e va l ua t i ons M uc h r e s e a r c h ha s e xa m i ne d t he r ol e of s t or e a t m o s phe r i c s i n dr a w i ng a t t e nt i on t o m e r c ha ndi s e a nd on i nc r e a s i ng s pe ndi ng dol l a r s T he M R m ode l ha s be e n s how n t o be a r e l i a bl e m e a s ur e of t he e xpe r i e nc e i n t he r e t a i l e nvi r onm e n t L i ght i ng i s one of t he m a ny pa r t s of t he s t or e e nvi r onm e nt e xpe r i e nc e a nd ha s a l s o be e n i n ve s t i ga t e d us i ng t he M R m ode l a nd a l ong ot he r e xpe r i e nt i a l va r i a bl e s H ow e ve r t hough d r e s s i ng r oom s a r e ke y t o t he a ppa r e l s hoppi ng e xpe r i e nc e t he r e i s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h a va i l a bl e on t he e f f e c t s of l i gh t i ng on dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e va r i a bl e s R e s e a r c h t ha t l ooks a t t he e f f e c t s of l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a r e c onf l i c t i ng a nd a t t i m e s c ont r a di c t t he a s s um pt i ons m a de a bout dr e s s i ng r o om l i ght i ng D r e s s i n g R oom L i gh t i n g D r e s s i ng r oom s a r e one m om e nt i n t he e nt i r e e xpe r i e nc e t he c ul m i na t i on of t he s hoppi ng t r i p, a nd t he l a s t c ha nc e t o s e l l t he p r oduc t ( A l l D r e s s e d U p, 2006; T he pe r f e c t f i t 2007; O s bor n 2000; W i l s on, 2002 ) ; poo r l y c onc e i ve d dr e s s i ng r o om s s e nd t he w r ong i m p r e s s i on t o c ons um e r s T he I E S N A L i ght i ng H a ndbook pr e s e nt s s e ve r a l r e c om m e nda t i ons r e ga r di ng dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng. T he y i ndi c a t e t he s pa c e r e qui r e s t he ut m os t s e ns i t i vi t y f r o m t he de s i gne r t o e ns ur e a ppr opr i a t e ve r t i c a l i l l um i na nc e a nd t he e l i m i na t i on of ha r s h s ha dow s ( R e a 2000, 17 3) H a r s h s ha dow s a r e m os t of t e n c r e a t e d by s pot t y, p oi nt s our c e s l oc a t e d ove r t he s hoppe r i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom T o m i ni m i z e s ha dow s i t i s i m p or t a nt t o us e e i t he r di r e c t i ona l l i ght i ng i n f r ont o f 28

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t he f a c e e ve n i l l um i na t i on, or f r on t a l i l l um i na t i on f r om m i r r o r l i ght s M i r r o r l i gh t i ng of f e r s t he be s t oppor t uni t y f or e ve n i l l um i na t i on of t he e nt i r e body, w hi c h i s ke y w he n t r yi ng on c l ot he s M os t d r e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng i s ove r he a d f l uo r e s c e nt f i xt u r e s but hi gh e nd s t or e s us ua l l y ha ve m i r r or l i ght i ng f or e ve n f r ont a l i l l um i na t i on ( R e a 2000) D r e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng s houl d a l s o pr ovi de good c ol or r e nde r i ng t o f a vor a bl y r e pr e s e nt f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e a nd f a br i c c ol o r a nd t e xt ur e ( R e a 2000) s i nc e d r e s s i ng r oom s r e qui r e a c e r t a i n de gr e e of c ol or a c ui t y, a s a f f or de d by hi ghe r C R I t o a l l ow us e r s t o c ol o r m a t c h s e ve r a l obj e c t s ( R e a 2000 ) V i s ua l c l a r i t y i s a l s o a n i m po r t a nt e l e m e nt t o t he dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e A s i de f r om t he m or e i nt a ngi bl e e xpe r i e nc e a nd pe r s ona l e va l ua t i on, us e r s a r e a l s o e va l ua t i ng t he pr oduc t t hr ough m a t e r i a l a nd de t a i l i ns pe c t i on ( R e a 2000) C ons um e r s ne e d t o be a bl e t o r e a d ga r m e nt a nd pr i c e t a gs I t i s r e c om m e nde d t ha t i l l u m i na t i on l e ve l s s houl d be s uf f i c i e nt e nough t o r e a d l a be l s w i t h t he I E S N A r e c om m e ndi ng hi g h i l l um i na nc e l e ve l s f or de t a i l e d w or k ( R e a 2000) H ow e ve r s hor t r e a di ngs t a s ks do not r e qui r e hi ghe r i l l u m i na t i on l e ve l s t o r e duc e f a t i gue or e ye s t r a i n. T he s e di f f e r e nt r e qui r e m e nt s m a y r e qui r e di f f e r e nt l i ght i ng s c e na r i os a nd l e ve l s D r e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng m us t i nc r e a s e l e gi bi l i t y w i t h hi gh l e ve l s of di r e c t l i ght i ng but s houl d a l s o c r e a t e m oods c onduc i ve t o r e t a i l e xpe r i e nc e s by c r e a t i ng hi ghe r c ont r a s t pe r i phe r a l l i gh t i ng H i ghe r C R I l e ve l s a nd w a r m e r c ol or t e m pe r a t ur e s a r e t hought s upe r i or i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom ( R e a 2000) T he I E S N A r e c om m e nds s our c e s w i t h 3000K f o r dr e s s i ng r oom s a nd hi gh c ol or r e nde r i ng of a t l e a s t 80 C R I ( R e a 2000 ) C ur r e nt l y, s t or e s a r e t r e ndi ng t ow a r d hi ghe r e f f i c i e nc y l i ght i ng t ype s onl y a s t he y be c om e i nc r e a s i ngl y c om pa r a bl e t o i nc a nde s c e nt i n c ol or r e nde r i ng a bi l i t y O nl y one s t udy ha s us e d t he I E S N A s s t a nda r ds t o e va l ua t e dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng ( H e gde 1996) H e gde ( 1996) t ook a n i nve nt or y o f r e t a i l dr e s s i ng r oom f oot c a ndl e m e a s ur e m e nt s 29

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a nd s our c e C R I va l ue s us i ng t hr e e r e p r e s e nt a t i ve dr e s s i ng r oom s i n t he s a m e u r ba n a r e a w i t h s i m i l a r l i ght i ng s t r a t e gi e s a nd s our c e s A l l t h r e e f i t t i ng r oom s s ur ve ye d us e d ove r he a d s ur f a c e m ount e d f l uor e s c e nt l i ght i ng f i xt u r e s w hi c h i s t yp i c a l i n l ow e r e nd r e t a i l s t or e s ( R e a 2000 ) T he s e s m e a s ur e m e nt s w e r e t he n c om pa r e d a ga i ns t t he I E S N A s r e c om m e nde d s t a nda r ds t o r e ve a l t ha t t he f oot c a ndl e l e ve l s w e r e s i gni f i c a nt l y be l ow t he r e c om m e nde d F C l e ve l H e dge ( 1996) be l i e ve d t ha t t he di s c r e pa nc y w a s t he r e s ul t of t he dr e s s i ng r oom s be i ng unde r l i t a nd t ha t t hi s w oul d a f f e c t p r oduc t i ns pe c t i on. H ow e ve r t hi s a r t i c l e f a i l s t o e l uc i da t e pe opl e s pe r c e pt i ons of t he l i gh t i ng l e ve l s t o s e e how t he s e s t a nda r ds m e a s ur e up a g a i ns t c ons um e r pe r c e pt i ons a nd s a l e s l e ve l s T he I E S N A pr ov i de s a good s e t o f gui de l i ne s but u nt e s t e d a s s um pt i ons do l i t t l e t o i n f or m t he de s i gne r a bout t he na t u r e of t he i r l i ght i ng c hoi c e s I t i s not know n how w e l l t he s e gui de l i ne s w or k i n a m yr i a d of s t or e s t ype s f r om bout i que s t o de pa r t m e nt s t or e s C ur r e nt l y, s om e us e f r ont a l i l l um i na t i on a nd ot he r s us e ove r he a d i l l u m i na t i on. S om e us e i nc a nde s c e nt a nd ot he r s us e f l uor e s c e nt E ve n t he l i ght i ng f i xt ur e s di f f e r a m on g s t or e t ype s a nd pr oduc t ba s e I t s e e m s t ha t i n pr a c t i c e t he r e i s no uni ve r s a l s t a nda r d f or dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng. L i ght i ng di m e ns i ons a nd r e c om m e nda t i ons ha ve n e ve r be e n a s s e s s e d i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom H ow e ve r s e ve r a l s t udi e s ha ve l ooke d a t t he i r ove r a l l e f f e c t i n ot he r s e t t i ngs a nd a l ong di m e ns i ons t ha t m a y be i m po r t a nt t o dr e s s i ng r oo m e xpe r i e nc e l i ke pe r s ona l a nd p r oduc t e va l ua t i ons l i ght i ng c ol o r a nd l i ght i ng l e ve l s C ol or m a t c hi ng i s i m por t a nt i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom a nd di f f e r e nt c ol or t e m pe r a t ur e s a nd i l l u m i na t i on l e ve l s a f f e c t t he a bi l i t y of i ndi vi dua l s t o s e e a nd c om pa r e c ol or s T hi s m a y be due t o m e t a m e r i s m t he pe r c e i ve d di f f e r e nc e s i n a s i ngl e c ol or unde r di f f e r e nt l i ght i ng s our c e s ( D i a z C hi r on, & V i not 1998; R i c h & J a l i j a l i 1995 ) o r c ha nge s i n vi s ua l a c ui t y due t o a ge ( I s hi da 2002 ; N a vva b, 2002 ) A gi ng a f f e c t s t he hum a n s 30

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a bi l i t y t o a c c ur a t e l y pe r c e i ve c ol or a nd de t a i l due t o t he ye l l ow i ng o f t he e ye a nd t he w e a ke ni ng of t he m us c l e s ( I s hi da 2002 ; N a vva b, 2002 ) T he r e f or e t he e f f e c t s of a nd pr e f e r e nc e s f or l i ght i ng s c e na r i os or va r i a bl e s c a n va r y g r e a t l y be t w e e n di f f e r e nt a ge gr oups R e s e a r c he r s ne e d t o c ont r ol f or a ge w he n t e s t i ng t he i m por t a nc e o f d i f f e r e nt l i ght i ng va r i a bl e s M uc h of w ha t de s i gne r s do i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom i s ba s e d on t he i m a ge o f t he s t or e a nd i t i s a n i m p or t a nt e l e m e nt i n c r e a t i ng a b r a nd a nd e x pe r i e nt i a l qua l i t y f or a s pa c e H ow e ve r t he r e ha s be e n a n e f f or t t o unde r s t a nd m or e a bout s hoppe r s pe r c e pt i ons of a nd pr e f e r e nc e s i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom C hai n St or e A ge a nd L e o J S ha pi r o & A s s oc i a t e s of C hi c a go ( T he pe r f e c t f i t 2007) ut i l i z e d a phone s ur ve y t o de f i ne t he c ons um e r s i de a l f i t t i ng r oom I t w a s f ound t ha t pe opl e pr e f e r s e a t i ng a nd m i r r or s i ns i de t he d r e s s i ng r oom r a t he r t ha n out s i de ( T he pe r f e c t f i t 2007) T hi s pr ovi de s i ns i ght i nt o w ha t pe opl e pr e f e r but doe s not of f e r a ny e xpl a na t i on of w hy t he y w a nt i t o r how i t a f f e c t s t he i r e xpe r i e nc e L i g ht i ng w a s f ound t o be o f l e s s e r i m por t a nc e i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom ( T he pe r f e c t f i t 2007) H ow e ve r t hi s i n f or m a t i on i s t he r e s ul t of a phone i nt e r vi e w a nd us e r s w e r e a s ke d t o c hoos e be t w e e n t w o opt i ons w i t hout t r yi ng t o e va l ua t e t he r e a s ons f or t he i r c hoi c e s L i ght i ng m a y ha ve a l a r g e r e f f e c t e ve n t hough pe opl e do not s e l f r e por t i t doe s L i ght i ng ha s a l r e a dy be e n pr ove n t o ha ve a s i gni f i c a nt i m pa c t on t he c us t om e r s s hoppi ng e xpe r i e nc e a nd de s i gne r s ha ve s ugge s t e d t ha t t he dr e s s i ng r oom i s a n e ve n m or e i m po r t a nt pa r t of t he de c i s i on t o pur c ha s e ( A l l D r e s s e d U p, 2006; M a ng, 2008) L i ght i ng ha s be e n s how n t o a f f e c t t he pe r c e pt i on of s pa c e a nd p r e f e r e nc e but i t i s u nc l e a r how d r e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng i s pe r c e i ve d or i f t he i ndus t r y pe r c e i ve d be ne f i t s a r e e qua l t o t he s hoppe r pe r c e i ve d be ne f i t s V i s ua l c l a r i t y a nd c om f o r t ha ve a l s o be e n s how n t o r e l a t e t o l i ght i ng di r e c t i on bu t t he r e i s no 31

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unde r s t a ndi ng of t he e f f e c t i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom ( R e a 2000; V e i t c h e t a l 2006 ) D e s i gne r s s e e m t o unde r s t a nd t he ke y i m por t a nc e of dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng bu t i t i s s t i l l o f t e n ove r l o oke d. D e s pi t e t he l a c k of e m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h, a num be r of r e s e a r c h a r t i c l e s a ddr e s s t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t or e a t m os phe r i c s a nd i nc r e a s i ng l e ngt h of s t a y ( D onova n e t a l 1994; M a xw e l l & K ove r 2003 ) c ons um e r s i nt e r a c t i on w i t h pr oduc t ( A r e ni & K i m 1994; S um m e r & H e be r t 2001) p r oduc t e va l ua t i on ( O be r m i l l e r & B i t ne r 1984 ) s hoppi ng e xpe r i e nc e ( He gde 1996; K ot l e r 1974; R ous h, 1994 ) a nd pu r c ha s e be ha vi or ( B a ke r 1986; D onova n e t a l 199 4) but not on t he i r a f f e c t on t he f i na l de c i s i on m om e n t i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom H ow e ve r s om e i n t he i ndus t r y pe r c e i ve a l i nk be t w e e n pur c ha s e be ha vi or a nd t he de s i gn of d r e s s i ng r oom s a nd ot he r de s i gne r s a nd r e t a i l pr o f e s s i ona l unde r s t a nd t he ke y r ol e d r e s s i ng r oom s pl a y i n m a ki ng t he s a l e M a r k H ol m a n, s e ni or l i ght i ng de s i gne r a t R P A a r gue d t ha t I f you ne e d t o c ut [ c os t s ] don t do [ i t ] i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom be c a us e t ha t s w he r e t he s a l e i s m a de a nd i t i s i n t he r e t a i l e r s be s t a dva nt a ge t o do e ve r yt hi ng pos s i bl e s o t ha t t h e s hoppe r f e e l s good a bout how s he l ooks ( F i t t i ng D e s i gns 1999, 106 ) A s w e l l B yr on M e r r i t t s t a t e d i n A l l D r e s s e d U p, t ha t t he f i t t i ng r oom c a n pr ov i de one o f t he c r i t i c a l m om e nt s f o r c ons um e r s i n t e r m s o f t he pur c ha s e de c i s i on ( A l l D r e s s e d U p, 2006 88 ) O s bor ne ( 2000) s e e s dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng a s ke y a nd s ugge s t s of f e r i ng t h r e e s e t t i ngs : da yl i ght of f i c e l i ght a nd ni ght t i m e ( O s bor n, 20 00, 36) A ddi t i ona l l y, S ul l i va n E nt e r p r i s e s s ugge s t s t ha t f r ont a l i l l um i na t i on i s s upe r i or be c a us e i t r e duc e s s ha dow s a nd us e s t he m i r r or a s a l i ght s our c e ( A l l D r e s s e d U p, 2006 ) O t he r s c i t e t h a t ove r he a d f l uo r e s c e nt l i ght s ha ve s e e n t he i r da y a nd ot he r m e t hods of d r e s s i ng r oom l i gh t i ng, l i ke f r ont a l i l l um i na t i on w oul d be a w e l c om e c ha nge ( W i l s on, 2007) 32

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E ve n be yond t he l i ght i ng dr e s s i ng r oom s a r e of t e n ove r l ooke d, poor l y m a i nt a i ne d, a nd unde r ut i l i z e d a s a s a l e s t ool W i l s on ( 2007) l a m e nt s t ha t dr e s s i ng r oom s s t i l l o f t e n ha ve onl y one hook. O s bor n ( 2000) e nvi s i ons t he pow e r o f dr e s s i ng r oom a t m os phe r i c s i n m a ki ng t he s a l e or i n s t oppi ng i t : A l a s t he s ol e m i r r or a nd ba d l i ght i ng m a ke S a l l y l ook pa l e a nd f a t S a l l y ha l f he a r t e dl y t r i e s on a f e w m o r e i t e m s t he n l e a ve s f r us t r a t e d w i t hout pur c ha s i ng a nyt hi ng M a ng ( 2007) a l s o hi ghl i ght s t he l a c k o f a t t e nt i on hi s t or i c a l l y pa i d t o dr e s s i ng r oom s but r e a l i z e s t ha t a s c ons um e r s be gi n t o e xpe c t m or e e ve r y de t a i l c ou nt s D r e s s i ng r oom s a r e m ovi ng a w a y f r om t he ve r y ut i l i t a r i a n t o f oc us i ng on t he e xpe r i e nt i a l L i ght i ng ne e ds t o be us e d i n s t r a t e gi c w a ys C hai n St or e A ge a r t i c l e s l i ke F i t t i ng D e s i gns A l l D r e s s e d U p, L i t t l e T hi ngs M a ke A B i g D i f f e r e nc e a nd F i t t i ng R oom B l ue s hi gh l i ght t he i m p or t a nc e of t he d r e s s i ng r oom s de s i gn a nd l i ght i ng i n t he s e l l i ng of c l ot he s M a ny r e t a i l e r s a ddr e s s t hi s s pa c e onl y a s a n a f t e r t hought A l t hough t he s e a r t i c l e s a r e a ne c dot a l a nd do l i t t l e i n t he w a y o f p r ovi ng a n a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n l i ght i ng a nd pur c ha s e be ha vi or t he y he l p t o i l l us t r a t e t he i ndus t r y pe r c e i ve d l i nk be t w e e n pur c ha s e be ha vi or a nd t he de s i gn of t he s e s pa c e s T he dr e s s i ng r oom i s a w e l l a c know l e dge d m om e n t of s e l f e va l ua t i on. T he I E S N A ( R e a 2000) r e c om m e nds l i ght i ng t ha t f l a t t e r s t he s hoppe r a nd t r a de m a ga z i ne s hi ghl i ght t he i m por t a nc e of w om e n s pe r c e pt i ons of s e l f i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom ( O s bor n 2000) L i ght i ng qua l i t y i s uni ve r s a l l y ne c e s s a r y, t hough i nde f i na bl y e l us i ve a nd c a n a f f e c t t he e xpe r i e nt i a l a s pe c t of t he dr e s s i ng r oom de c i s i on m om e nt w he r e t he s hoppe r s e va l ua t e t he s e l f e qua l l y w i t h t he p r oduc t H ow e ve r t he r e i s no s uf f i c i e nt l e ve l of unde r s t a nd i ng r e ga r di ng how l i ght i ng a f f e c t s pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e a nd e va l ua t i ons of s e l f N o e m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h ha s be e n c onduc t e d t o unde r s t a nd how a t m os phe r i c s c a n be us e d t o a f f e c t t he f i na l de c i s i on m om e nt i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom T hi s s t udy i s ne c e s s a r y i n c l a r i f yi ng t he r ol e of l i ght i ng s pe c i f i c a l l y l i ght i ng di r e c t i on, i n d r e s s i ng r oom s T hi s 33

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s t udy s e e ks t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r ove r he a d o r f r on t a l i l l um i na t i on i s pr e f e r r e d a nd how t he y a f f e c t pe r s ona l a nd s pa t i a l e va l ua t i on a nd pr e f e r e n c e S u m m ar y I n c onc l us i on, a gr e a t de a l o f r e s e a r c h ha s be e n c onduc t e d t o unde r s t a nd c ons um e r r e a c t i ons a nd e m ot i ona l r e s pons e s t o r e t a i l a nd non r e t a i l e nvi r on m e nt s a l ong m a ny e nvi r onm e nt a l di m e ns i ons L i ght i ng ha s be e n a f oc us f or m a ny r e s e a r c he r s s e e ki ng t o unde r s t a nd i t s e f f e c t on pe r c e pt i on a nd c ons um e r be ha vi o r i n t he m a i n r e t a i l e nvi r onm e nt S uc h s t udi e s ha ve f oc us e d on e ve r y di m e ns i on o f l i ght i n g: i nc l udi ng i l l u m i na t i on l e ve l c ol or t e m pe r a t ur e C R I a nd i t s e f f e c t on v i s ua l a c ui t y, e m ot i ona l s t a t e pe r c e pt i on, pe r s ona l e va l ua t i ons a nd a ppr oa c h / a voi da nc e be ha vi or H ow e ve r no r e s e a r c h ha s i nve s t i ga t e d t he e f f e c t s of l i ght i ng i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom w hi c h i s a ke y pa r t o f t he s hoppi ng e xpe r i e nc e G ui de l i ne s ha ve be e n s e t f or t h by t he I E S N A but t he s e s t a nda r ds ha ve not be e n e m pi r i c a l l y a s s e s s e d us i ng a c t ua l c ons um e r s S pe c i f i c a l l y l i t t l e i s know n a bout how l i gh t i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t s c ons um e r s de s pi t e t he w i de s pr e a d i ndus t r y a s s um pt i ons a nd a s l e w of c ont r a di c t or y e vi de nc e T hi s s t udy i s ne c e s s a r y t o c l a r i f yi ng t he r ol e of dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng s pe c i f i c a l l y l i gh t i ng di r e c t i on, on t he dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e a nd pe r s ona l a nd pr oduc t e va l ua t i ons 34

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C H A P T E R 3 R E S E A R C H M E T H O DS T he obj e c t i ve of t hi s s t udy i s t o unde r s t a nd t he i nf l ue nc e of l i gh t i ng di r e c t i on on t he c ons um e r s dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e by e xa m i ni n g i t s pos s i bl e e f f e c t s a l ong di f f e r e nt ke y va r i a bl e s : e m ot i ona l s t a t e s l i ght i ng pe r c e pt i ons a n d pr e f e r e nc e s s e l f e va l ua t i ons dr e s s i ng r oom e va l ua t i ons a nd t he ove r a l l dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e T o a c c om pl i s h t he s t udy obj e c t i ve a f i e l d e xpe r i m e nt w a s c onduc t e d i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom s o f a l oc a l a ppa r e l s t or e T hi s c ha pt e r pr e s e nt s t he r e s e a r c h m e t hods by s pe c i f i c a l l y a ddr e s s i ng t h e s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s t he f i e l d e xpe r i m e nt s e t t i ng s t he de pe nde nt m e a s ur e s t he pi l o t s t udy a nd t he s t udy pr oc e dur e P ar t i c i p an t s A c onve ni e nc e s a m pl e w a s ge ne r a t e d by a s ki ng f o r vol unt e e r s f r om t he s t or e s c us t om e r s A ddi t i ona l pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s ol i c i t e d v i a c a m pus a dve r t i s e m e nt s f l ye r s a nd t hr ough pe r s ona l r e f e r e nc e s A t ot a l of s i xt y i ndi vi dua l s ov e r t he a ge o f 18 pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he f i e l d e xpe r i m e nt f or t hi s s t udy. G i ve n t ha t w om e n a r e a ve r y uni que s e t of c ons um e r s i n a n a pp a r e l s t or e ( U nde r hi l l 1999) on l y f e m a l e s hoppe r s w e r e a s ke d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy P r i or t o c ont a c t i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s t he r e s e a r c he r a ppl i e d f or a nd w a s gr a nt e d pe r m i s s i on t o e nga ge i n r e s e a r c h w i t h hum a n s ubj e c t s by t he uni ve r s i t y s I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d ( I R B ) ( A ppe ndi x A ) B e f or e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s pr oc e e de d w i t h t he s t udy, t he p r oc e s s f or t he e xpe r i m e nt w a s e xpl a i ne d a nd t he I nf o r m e d C ons e nt F or m w a s pr e s e nt e d f or pa r t i c i pa nt a gr e e m e nt ( A ppe ndi x B ) A l l pa r t i c i pa nt s r e c e i ve d a $ 10 gi f t c e r t i f i c a t e f or t he pa r t i c i pa t i ng s t or e a s a n e xpr e s s i on of gr a t i t ude f or t he i r i nvol ve m e nt i n t he s t udy. 35

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F i e l d E xp e r i m e n t S e t t i n g M ai n S t or e A r e a T he f i e l d e xpe r i m e nt t ook pl a c e a t a l oc a l a r e a bou t i que T he s t or e i s l oc a t e d t hr e e bl oc ks f r om t he U ni ve r s i t y o f F l o r i da m a i n c a m pus in G a i ne s vi l l e F L T hi s l oc a l a ppa r e l s t or e c a r r i e s ups c a l e m e n a nd w om e n's c l ot hi ng; how e ve r t he m a j or i t y of t he s t or e i s de di c a t e d t o w om e n s a ppa r e l T he s t or e i s a bout 822 s qua r e f e e t ( 18 10 by 43 8 ) w i t h a c e i l i ng he i ght o f 14 1 T he w a l l s a r e c onc r e t e bl oc ks pa i nt e d w i t h w hi t e s e m i gl os s pa i nt ( F i gur e 3 1) T he c e i l i ng i s a l s o w hi t e t e xt ur e d c onc r e t e T he ba c k w a l l i s s l a nt e d b a c kw a r d by 5 de gr e e s a nd i s c ove r e d w i t h m i r r or pa ne l s ( F i gu r e 3 2 ) T he dr e s s i ng r oom s a r e l oc a t e d i n t he ba c k of t he s t or e ( F i gu r e 3 3) T he y a r e l oc a t e d i n a s m a l l ha l l w a y a c c e s s e d vi a a door w a y i n t he f l oor t o c e i l i ng s l a nt e d w a l l A t t he ba c k of t hi s ha l l i s a door l e a di ng t o t he s t or a ge a r e a a nd i s f i ni s he d w i t h a m i r r o r f or w he n c us t om e r s w i s h t o s t e p out s i de t he dr e s s i ng r oom s t o l ook a t t he c l ot he s F r om t he m a i n s a l e s f l oor i t a ppe a r s a s t hough t he ba c k m i r r o r w a l l i s c ont i nuous a nd o f f e r s a ddi t i ona l m i r r o r s pa c e f or dr e s s i ng r oom us e r s D r e s s i n g R oom s T he r e a r e t hr e e dr e s s i ng r oom s i n t he ba c k of t he s t or e ( F i gu r e s 3 3 ) T he f r ont t w o dr e s s i ng r oom s ( 1 & 2) w e r e us e d f o r t hi s f i e l d e xp e r i m e nt be c a us e t he y a r e i de nt i c a l i n s i z e s ha pe a nd s ur f a c e f i ni s h ( F i gur e 3 4 ) T he w a l l s a nd c e i l i ng a r e f l a t w hi t e pa i nt e d dr yw a l l T he f l oor i s f i ni s he d w i t h l i ght g r e y c onc r e t e pa i nt A t t he f l oor pl a ne t he y a r e a ppr ox i m a t e l y 4 1 by 7 4 w i t h 7 8 hi gh c e i l i ngs 36

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F i gur e 3 1 V i e w of t he s t or e f r om t he ba c k F i gur e 3 2 V i e w of t he s t or e f r o m t he f r ont 37

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F i gur e 3 3 S t or e f l oor pl a n w i t h l i ght i ng ove r l a y 38

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F i gur e 3 4 D r e s s i ng r oom f l oor w i t h l i ght i ng ove r l a y F i gur e 3 5 D r e s s i ng r oom s e c t i on 39

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Fi gur e 3 6 E a s t s e c t i on of t he s t or e F i gur e 3 7 F r ont a l l i ght i ng c ondi t i on F i gur e 3 8 O ve r he a d l i ght i ng c ondi t i on 40

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A s c a n be s e e n i n F i gur e 3 4 t he t w o e xpe r i m e nt a l dr e s s i ng r oom s a r e m i r r o r i m a ge s of one an ot he r c ont a i ni ng a c ha i r a hook a nd a w a l l m ount e d m i r r o r T he c ha i r i s bl a c k pl a s t i c a nd t he r e i s a s i ngl e hook on t he s out h w a l l T he m i r r o r i n e a c h dr e s s i ng r oom ha s a s l a nt e d s i de t o e c ho t he s l a nt of t he w a l l ( F i gur e 3 5) a nd a s t r a i ght e dge a t t he ot he r s i de T hus t he 6 0 h i gh m i r r or i s 2 9 w i de a t t he bot t om a nd 2 3 w i de a t t he t op. I t i s s l a nt e d ba c kw a r d t ow a r d t he w a l l by f i ve de gr e e s B l a c k c ur t a i ns hung f r om a s t e e l c ur t a i n r od c ove r t he dr e s s i ng r oom e nt r y f r om t op t o bot t o m L i gh t i n g C on d i t i on s S t or e L i gh t i n g C on d i t i on s T he r e a r e t hr e e s our c e s of l i ght i ng i n t he s t or e ( F i g ur e 3 6) T he f i r s t i s da yl i ght f r om t he l a r ge w i ndow s i n t he f r ont of t he s t or e T he s e c ond i s di r e c t i ona l l i ght f r om t r a c k m ount e d i nc a nde s c e nt l a m ps ( P A R 20 ) l oc a t e d a l ong t he f ou r I be a m s s pa nni ng t he w i dt h o f t he s t or e T he t hi r d s our c e i s an i nc a nde s c e nt l a m p ( A 19) i n t he d e c or a t i ve pe nda nt m ount e d a r t i c hoke l a m p l oc a t e d i n t he c e nt e r of t he s t or e ( F i gur e 3 6) T he i l l um i na t i on a ppe a r s e ve n t h r oughout t he s t or e a nd t he s t or e i s b r i ght T he i l l um i na t i on l e ve l s a r e 958 l ux ( 89 F C ) i n t he f r on t of t he s t or e 463 l ux ( 43 F C ) i n t he s e a t i ng a r e a a nd 237 l ux ( 22 F C ) on t he m e r c ha ndi s e l oc a t e d unde r t he pe nde nt f i xt ur e D r e s s i n g R oom L i gh t i n g C on d i t i on s T w o di r e c t i ons o f l i ght i ng w e r e a s s e s s e d i n t hi s s t udy: ove r he a d a nd f r ont a l i n bot h dr e s s i ng r oom s T he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he t w o di r e c t i ona l l i ght i ng s c he m e s a r e s how n i n T a bl e 3 1 T he r e s e a r c he r w a s gr a nt e d pe r m i s s i on by t he s t or e s ow ne r t o s e t up t he t w o l i gh t i ng c ondi t i ons E a c h d r e s s i ng r oom ha d ove r he a d l i ght i ng f r om t r a c k m ount e d i nc a nde s c e nt l i ght s ( t w o P A R 20 ) ( F i gur e 3 7) T he t r a c k l i ght i ng w a s l oc a t e d 2 0 f r o m t he m i r r o r w a l l a nd t he 41

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bot t om of t he l i ght f i x t ur e i s 7 0 a bove t he f l oor T he i l l um i na nc e f or e a c h c ondi t i on w a s m e a s ur e d on t he f l oo r 18 i nc he s f r om t he c e nt e r of t he m i r r or a nd on t he f r ont o f t he body a t 18 i nc he s f r om t he c e nt e r of t he m i r r or a nd f i ve f e e t u p ( T a bl e 3 1) T hi s w a s ba s e d on w he r e pe o pl e s t ood i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom w he n l ooki ng i n t he m i r r or T he l i ght s w e r e uns hi e l de d s our c e s w hi c h m i ni m i z e d t he e f f e c t o f pr e f e r e nc e f r om a c e r t a i n l i ght f i x t ur e S i nc e bot h s our c e s a r e vi s i bl e bi a s w a s l i m i t e d f r o m pr e f e r e nc e f or vi s i bl e or hi dde n l i g ht s our c e s T a bl e 3 1 I l l um i na t i on l e ve l s m e a s ur e d i n e a c h l i g ht i ng c ondi t i on L oc a t i on L i ght i ng t ype O ve r he a d F l oor @ 18" f r o m c e nt e r of m i r r or F r o nt a l O ve r he a d V e r t i c a l @ 5' f r om f l oo r 18" f r om c e nt e r of m i r r or F r ont a l L e f t d r e s s i ng r oom 414 l ux ( 38 5 F C ) 371 l ux ( 34 5 F C ) 376 l ux ( 35 0 F C ) 624 l ux ( 58 0 F C ) R i ght dr e s s i ng r oom 438 l ux ( 40 7 F C ) 395 l ux ( 36 7 F C ) 344 l ux ( 32 0 F C ) 617 l ux ( 57 3 F C ) T a bl e 3 2 L i ght s our c e t ype s a nd pr ope r t i e s O ve r he a d l i ght i ng F r ont a l l i ght i ng L a m p t ype I nc a nde s c e nt ( P A R ) F l uor e s c e nt ( T 8) C ol or r e nde r i ng 95 C R I 86 C R I C ol or t e m pe r a t ur e 2800K 3000K T he f r on t al l i ght i ng w a s a c hi e ve d us i ng f our f oot f l uor e s c e nt s i de l i ght s ( G E L i ght i ng F 32T 8/ S P X 30/ E C O ) m ount e d i n L i t honi a s t a nda r d s t r i p l i ght f i x t ur e s l oc a t e d a t e a c h s i de o f t he m i r r or ( F i gu r e 3 7) T he l a m p w a s 32 w a t t s w i t h a c ol or t e m pe r a t u r e of 3000K 86 C R I a nd a m e a n l um e n out put of 2800 T he l a m ps w e r e c e nt e r e d ve r t i c a l l y a l ong t he m i r r or f o r e ve n i l l um i na t i on. Th e c ol o r o f l i ght i n t hi s s t udy m e t t h e I E S N A r e c om m e nda t i on f or a m i ni m um 85 C R I a nd 3000K l i ght s our c e ( R e a 2000 ) T he I E S N A a l s o r e c om m e nds ove r he a d l i ght i ng i n dr e s s i ng r oom s be 323 l ux ( 30 F C ) a nd f r on t a l l i gh t i ng be 54 l ux ( 5 F C ) ( R e a 2000 ) L i ght i ng l e ve l s w e r e ke pt e ve n i n t hi s s t udy t o c om pa r e t he di f f e r e nc e s r e s ul t i ng f r om l i g ht i ng di r e c t i on a l one T he l i ght i ng l e ve l s w e r e m e a s ur e d f or e a c h of t he c ondi t i ons a nd w e r e w i t hi n 65 l ux ( 6 F C ) of e a c h ot he r a s m e a s ur e d on t he f l oo r 42

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D e p e n d e n t M e as u r e s T he da t a c ol l e c t i on i ns t r um e nt f o r t hi s s t udy w a s a s e l f a dm i ni s t e r e d que s t i onna i r e pr e s e nt e d i n t w o pa r t s P a r t one w a s de s i gne d t o o bt a i n de m ogr a phi c a nd ba c kgr ound i nf or m a t i on f or e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt ( A ppe ndi x C ). P a r t t w o e nt a i l e d a s e r i e s of que s t i ons t o a s c e r t a i n t he e f f e c t of l i ght i ng di r e c t i on on 1 ) e m ot i ona l s t a t e s 2) ove r a l l r oom l i ght pe r c e pt i on, 3) s e l f e va l ua t i on, 4) dr e s s i ng r oom e va l ua t i ons a nd 5 ) t h e dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e ( A ppe ndi x D ). 1) M e a s ur e s f or e m ot i ona l s t a t e s ( a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e ) w e r e s e l e c t e d f r om M e hr a bi a n a nd R us s e l l s pl e a s ur e a r ous a l s c a l e s ( M e hr a bi a n & R us s e l l 1974) T he a r ous a l s c a l e ha s f our i t e m s w i t h bi pol a r s e m a nt i c di f f e r e nt i a l s i nc l udi ng w i de a w a ke / s l e e py a r ous e d/ una r ous e d, s t i m ul a t e d / r e l a xe d a nd e xc i t e d / c a l m P l e a s ur e w a s m e a s ur e d us i ng f our i t e m s w i t h pa i r e d a dj e c t i ve s on a s e ve n poi nt L i ke r t s c a l e T he s e w e r e c om f or t a bl e / unc om f or t a bl e s a t i s f i e d / di s s a t i s f i e d r e l a xi ng/ t e ns e a nd p l e a s a nt / unpl e a s a nt 2) T o i nve s t i ga t e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i on o f a n d pr e f e r e nc e f o r t he l i ght i ng c ondi t i ons a n a ddi t i ona l ni ne i t e m s w e r e a da pt e d f r om va r i ous l i ght i ng s t udi e s ( B a bi n e t a l 2003 ; D onova n e t a l 1994 ; H e ndr i c k, M a r t yni uk S pe nc e r & F l ynn, 1977 ) L i ght i ng pe r c e pt i ons w e r e m e a s ur e d us i ng w or d pa i r s : w a r m / c ool b r i ght / di m c l e a r / ha z y di s t i nc t / va gue a nd gl a r i ng/ not g l a r i ng. L i gh t i ng p r e f e r e nc e w a s m e a s ur e d us i ng w or d pa i r s : l i ke / di s l i ke a nd ba d/ good S e ve n poi nt L i ke r t s c a l e s w e r e us e d t o d i f f e r e nt i a t e be t w e e n t he bi pol a r a dj e c t i ve s 3) A s i t r e l a t e s t o l i gh t i ng, s e l f e va l ua t i on i s us ua l l y m e a s ur e d by how l i ght i ng a f f e c t s s ki n ( Q ue l l m a n & B oyc e 2002; V e i t c h e t a l 2002 ) a nd f a c e pe r c e pt i on ( V e i t c h e t a l 2006 ) H ow e ve r s e l f e va l ua t i on i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom doe s not f oc us onl y on s ki n a nd f a c e pe r c e pt i on but a l s o on body a nd ove r a l l a ppe a r a nc e T he r e f or e a f i ve i t e m s c a l e f o r f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e a nd a t hr e e i t e m s c a l e f or ove r a l l body a ppe a r a nc e w e r e de ve l ope d by t he r e s e a r c he r t o t e s t t he uni que 43

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e f f e c t s of dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng on s e l f ev a l ua t i on. T he m e a s ur e s of f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e w e r e bi pol a r a dj e c t i ve s i nc l udi ng good / ba d young / ol d he a l t hy / unhe a l t hy, ha r s h s ha dow s / no s ha dow s a nd f l a t t e r i ng s ki n t one s / unf l a t t e r i ng s ki n t one s T h r e e pa i r e d a dj e c t i ve s ( pos i t i ve / ne ga t i ve a t t r a c t i ve / una t t r a c t i ve a nd s l e nde r / he a vy) on a s e ve n poi nt L i ke r t s c a l e w e r e us e d t o m e a s ur e t he ove r a l l pe r c e pt i on o f body a ppe a r a nc e 4) D r e s s i ng r oom e va l ua t i ons w e r e m e a s ur e d us i ng ni ne bi pol a r a dj e c t i ve w or d pa i r s l i ke t hos e us e d i n M e hr a bi a n a nd R us s e l l ( 1974) a nd D onova n a nd R os s i t e r ( 1982) T he s e w e r e i nc onve ni e nt / c onve ni e nt c r a m pe d/ r oom y di r t y/ c l e a n, l a c k of pr i va c y/ a de qua t e pr i va c y, s m a l l / l a r ge unke m pt / w e l l ke pt l ow qua l i t y/ hi gh q ua l i t y, uni m p r e s s i ve / i m pr e s s i ve a nd ba d/ good. 5) T he dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e w a s a l s o a s s e s s e d us i ng 7 poi nt L i ke r t s c a l e s t o de t e r m i ne how s uc c e s s f ul t he dr e s s i ng r oom s w e r e i n c r e a t i ng a pos i t i ve e xpe r i e nc e U s e r s w e r e a s ke d t o pr ovi de t he i r l e ve l o f a gr e e m e nt t o s t a t e m e nt s : T he dr e s s i ng r oom m e t m y e xpe c t a t i ons ; T he dr e s s i ng r oom f i t i n t he s t or e ; T he dr e s s i ng r oom e nc our a ge d m e t o s t a y a nd t r y t h i ngs on ; a nd M y ove r a l l dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e w a s s a t i s f yi ng. T hi s que s t i on m ode l w a s a da pt e d t o t hi s s t udy f r om pr e vi ous e nv i r onm e nt a l r e s e a r c h l i ke M e hr a bi a n a nd R us s e l l ( 1 974) a nd D onova n a nd R os s i t e r ( 1982 ) T o unde r s t a nd t he i m por t a nc e o f l i ght i ng a nd ot he r e nvi r on m e nt a l c ue s i n dr e s s i ng r oo m s r a t i ngs of a t m os phe r i c c ue s w e r e a l s o s ol i c i t e d us i ng a 7 poi nt L i ke r t s c a l e r a t i ng di m e ns i ons f r om 1 = V e r y N ot I m por t a nt t o 7 = V e r y I m por t a n t T he s e di m e ns i ons w e r e s e l e c t e d f r om pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h i nt o dr e s s i ng r oom a t m os phe r i c s ( T he pe r f e c t f i t 2007) a nd i nc l ude d l i ght i ng, c l e a nl i ne s s a nd s e a t i ng a m ong ot he r s ( A ppe ndi x C ) D e m og r a phi c que s t i ons w e r e a l s o a s ke d, i nc l udi ng a ge l e ve l of e nvi r onm e nt a l a f f e c t l e ve l of s e l f e s t e e m num be r of i t e m s t r i e d on a nd num be r of i t e m s i nt e ndi ng t o pur c ha s e E nvi r on m e nt a l a f f e c t ha s be e n s how n t o be of r e l a t i ve 44

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i m por t a nc e t o di f f e r e nt s hoppe r t ype s ( M oye & K i nc a de 2000; S hi m & K ot s i opul os 1 993) a nd pe opl e a r e di f f e r e nt i n how t he y a r e a f f e c t e d by t he e nvi r onm e nt be i ng e i t he r s c r e e ne r s or non s c r e e ne r s ( M e hr a bi a n, 1977) A s e t of que s t i ons w a s de ve l ope d t o a s s e s s pe opl e s s e l f r e por t e d l e ve l s of s e ns i t i vi t y t o e nvi r onm e nt a l c ue s pa r t i c ul a r l y l i ght i ng S e l f e s t e e m w a s a l s o m e a s ur e d t o c ont r ol t he e f f e c t s o f poor s e l f i m a ge on t he pe r c e pt i on of s e l f a s r e l a t e d t o l i ght i ng. Q ue s t i ons a r e a da pt e d f r om B l a s c ovi c h a nd T om a ka ( 1991) t o s ui t t he e f f e c t s of s e l f e s t e e m r e l a t e d t o body i m a ge P i l ot S t u dy A pi l ot s t udy w a s a dm i ni s t e r e d t o t h r e e f e m a l e uni ve r s i t y s t ude nt s i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom s T hi s t e s t w a s us e d t o de t e c t a ny de f e c t s i n t he p r op os e d s t udy i ns t r um e nt s uc h a s i s s ue s w i t h w or di ng or t e r m i nol ogy a nd t o c he c k t he e xpe r i m e nt a l pr oc e dur e s t i m i ng a nd s e que nc i ng. I t w a s a l s o us e d t o di s c ove r a nd r e s ol ve pr obl e m s w i t h a m bi gui t y i n t he que s t i onna i r e a nd t o e s t i m a t e t he t i m e r e qui r e d t o c om pl e t e t he e xpe r i m e nt a l pr oc e dur e f o r e a c h i ndi vi dua l A l l t hr e e t ook a bout 25 m i nut e s a f t e r w hi c h t he y w e r e a s ke d i f a nyt hi ng w a s c onf us i ng or a nyt hi ng a bout t he s ur ve y or t he e xpe r i e nc e c oul d be i m pr ove d P i l ot s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s di d not e xp r e s s a ny c onf us i on or di f f i c ul t y w i t h t he que s t i onna i r e a nd no c ha nge s w e r e m a de f or c ont e nt P r oc e d u r e T he s t udy w a s c ond uc t e d ove r a t hr e e w e e k pe r i od f r om A pr i l 21 st t o M a y 12 th 2008 m a i nl y on M onda ys t hr ough F r i da ys f r om 11 : 00a m unt i l 2 : 00pm H a l f o f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e r a ndom s hoppe r s i n t he s t or e ( n= 30 50% ) w hi l e s t ude nt s i n a n i nt e r i o r de s i gn l i gh t i ng c l a s s r e f e r r e d a ddi t i ona l pa r t i c i pa nt s t o t he s t udy T he i n t e r i or de s i gn s t ude nt s w e r e not a l l ow e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e t he m s e l ve s be c a us e t he y m a y ha ve be e n m or e s e ns i t i ve t o d i f f e r e nc e s w i t hi n t he 45

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e nvi r onm e nt U pon a r r i vi ng at t he s t or e a nd a g r e e i ng t o pa r t i c i pa t e t he pr oc e dur e o f t he e xpe r i m e nt w a s e xpl a i ne d t o pa r t i c i pa nt s F i r s t t he s ubj e c t s w e r e a s ke d t o c om pl e t e t he s hor t de m ogr a phi c a nd p r e f e r e nc e que s t i onna i r e a f t e r w hi c h t he y w e r e gi ve n t he gi f t c e r t i f i c a t e t o ha ve i n ha nd w hi l e s hoppi ng. T he y w e r e t he n a s ke d t o s h op f o r s e ve r a l out f i t s f o r a bout 10 t o 15 m i nut e s W he n t he y w e r e r e a dy t o t r y t he m on, t he s ubj e c t s w e r e e s c or t e d t o one of t he dr e s s i ng r oom s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e r a ndom l y a s s i gne d t o one o f t he t w o l i ght i ng c ondi t i ons i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom s B ot h t he l e f t a nd r i ght dr e s s i ng r oom s w e r e us e d f or e a c h l i ght i ng c ondi t i on. T he c ondi t i ons w e r e a l t e r na t e d w he n t he r e w a s e nough t i m e be t w e e n pa r t i c i pa nt s T he s ubj e c t s w e r e t ol d t o f ol l ow t he w r i t t e n i ns t r uc t i ons pr i nt e d on e a c h pa ge of t he que s t i onna i r e i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom a nd c om pl e t e t he s e c ond que s t i onna i r e w hi l e s t a ndi ng i n f r ont o f t he m i r r o r E a c h s ubj e c t e xpe r i e nc e d onl y one l i ght i ng c ondi t i on a nd w a s r a ndom l y a s s i gne d t o o ne of t he l i ght i ng c ondi t i ons T he a ve r a ge l e ngt h of t i m e f o r s ubj e c t s t o s e l e c t a nd t r y on c l ot he s a nd t o c om pl e t e t he t w o pa r t s o f t he que s t i onna i r e s w a s a ppr oxi m a t e l y 20 30 m i nut e s D e s pi t e t he s t r e ngt hs of t e s t i ng w i t hi n a n a c t ua l r e t a i l s e t t i ng, i t i s i m pos s i bl e t o c ont r ol f or t he e f f e c t s of a l l pos s i bl e va r i a bl e s l i ke i n a c on t r ol l e d l a b s e t t i ng H ow e ve r a ddi t i ona l l i ght i ng di m e ns i ons l i ke l i gh t i ng i l l um i na t i on a nd c ol or w e r e c ont r o l l e d a nd da y l i ght i ng f r om t he f r ont w i ndow s w a s m a na ge d by t e s t i ng du r i ng t he s a m e t i m e dur i ng t he da y Y e t ot he r pe r s ona l va r i a bl e s l i ke i ni t i a l c ons um e r m ood a nd pa r t i c i pa nt s t r yi ng on di f f e r e nt c l ot he s m a y a l s o a f f e c t t he r e s ul t s H ow e ve r t he i ns i ght s t ha t c a n be ga i ne d f r om t e s t i ng i n r e a l s e t t i ngs w i t h a c t ua l c ons um e r s out w e i gh t he l os s of c ont r ol ove r t he e xpe r i e nc e 46

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47 C H A P T E R 4 R E S U L T S T hi s c ha pt e r pr e s e nt s f i ndi ngs f or e a c h of t he va r i a bl e s I t be gi ns w i t h de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s on pa r t i c i pa nt de m ogr a phi c c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd pr e s e nt s f i ndi ngs f r om t he i nde pe nde nt s a m pl e t t e s t f or t he de pe nda nt va r i a bl e s f or t he t w o l i ght i ng d i r e c t i on. A p va l ue of 0. 05 w a s us e d t o a s s e s s s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e F i na l l y, a c ont e nt a na l ys i s of t he qua l i t a t i ve da t a w a s c onduc t e d a nd r e l a t e d t o t he t e s t e d va r i a bl e s P ar t i c i p an t C h ar ac t e r i s t i c s A t ot a l of 60 w om e n a ge d 18 a nd ove r pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he s t udy. T a bl e 4 1 pr e s e nt s t he f r e que nc y a nd pe r c e nt a ge di s t r i but i ons f or t he pa r t i c i pa nt de m ogr a phi c c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s T he a ve r a ge a ge of pa r t i c i pa nt s w a s 22 r a ngi ng f r om 1 8 t o 33 ye a r s ol d. H a l f ( n = 30, 50% ) of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e be t w e e n t he a ge s of 21 25 ye a r s ol d. T w e nt y f our pa r t i c i pa nt s ( 40% ) w e r e be t w e e n 18 20 ye a r s ol d, f ou r pa r t i c i pa nt s ( 7% ) w e r e be t w e e n 26 29 ye a r s ol d a nd t he r e m a i ni ng t w o pa r t i c i pa nt s ( 3% ) w e r e 30 or ove r P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e pr e dom i na nt l y W hi t e ( n = 47, 78% ) a nd t he r e m a i ni ng pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e A s i a n ( n = 7, 12% ) a nd H i s pa ni c ( n = 6 10 % ) T a bl e 4 1 P a r t i c i pa nt c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s A ge G r oup n ( % ) E t hni c i t y 1 n ( % ) S a m pl i ng M e t hod n ( % ) 18 20 24 ( 40% ) W hi t e 47 ( 78) S t or e C us t om e r s 30 ( 50) 21 25 15 ( 25) 26 29 13 ( 22) O ve r 30 2 ( 3) T ot a l 60 ( 100) 1 O nl y t hr e e e t hni c i t i e s w e r e obs e r ve d. P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e dr a w n f r om t he s t or e s c us t om e r s ( n = 30 50 % ) o r w e r e r e c r ui t e d f r om t he uni ve r s i t y i n c l os e pr oxi m i t y t o t he s t or e T he a ve r a ge l e ngt h of t i m e pa r t i c i pa nt s s pe nt i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom w a s 11 m i nut e s w i t h a r a nge f r o m 5 t o 25 m i nut e s T he a ve r a ge num be r of 30 ( 50% ) A s i a n 7 ( 12) 4 ( 7% ) H i s pa ni c 6 ( 10) 2 ( 3% ) 60 ( 100% ) T ot a l 60 ( 100) C l a s s R e f e r e nc e s P a r t i c i pa nt R e f e r e nc e s A dve r t i s e m e nt T ot a l

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ga r m e n t s t r i e d on w a s 2. 85 ( S D = 1. 219 ) a nd t he a ve r a ge num be r of i t e m s pur c ha s e d w a s 0. 362 ( S D = 0 659) A l l pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e r a ndom l y a s s i gne d t o one o f t w o l i ght i ng c ondi t i ons i n one of t w o r oom s : 1) ove r he a d l i ght i ng i n t he l e f t dr e s s i ng r oo m 2) ove r he a d l i ght i ng i n t he r i ght d r e s s i ng r oom 3 ) f r ont a l l i ght i ng i n t he l e f t d r e s s i ng r oom a nd 4) f r ont a l l i ght i ng i n t he r i ght d r e s s i ng r oom A l t hough t w o di f f e r e nt l i ght i ng c ondi t i ons w e r e m e a s ur e d i n t hi s s t udy, t he r a ndom a s s i gnm e nt t o one of t he f our gr oups w a s ut i l i z e d i n or de r t o c ont r o l f o r t he e f f e c t o f t he s l a nt e d w a l l be i ng on di f f e r e nt s i de s of t he pa r t i c i pa nt ho w e ve r s t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys i s s how e d t he s l a nt e d w a l l ha d no e f f e c t on t he r e s pons e va r i a bl e s R e l i ab i l i t y o f M e as u r e s T he C r onba c h s a l pha t e s t w a s pe r f o r m e d t o e va l u a t e t he i nt e r na l c ons i s t e nc y of s c a l e s m e a s ur i ng va r i a bl e s : e m ot i ona l s t a t e s of a r ous a l a n d pl e a s ur e l i ght i ng pr e f e r e nc e s e l f e va l ua t i ons of f a c i a l a nd body a ppe a r a nc e d r e s s i ng r oom e va l ua t i ons a nd t he ove r a l l d r e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e R e s ul t s of t he C r onba c h s a l pha t e s t f or t he s e va r i a bl e s a r e s how n i n T a bl e 4 2. T o m e a s ur e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s s t a t e of a r ous a l f our i t e m s of bi pol a r a dj e c t i ve s w e r e c om bi ne d i nc l udi ng : una r ous e d/ a r ous e d, r e l a xe d/ s t i m ul a t e d, s l e e py/ w i de a w a ke a nd c a l m / e xc i t e d. T he r e l i a bi l i t y va l ue w a s l ow a t 0 58 w hi c h i nd i c a t e s t ha t i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom w or d pa i r s w i t hi n t he a r ous a l s c a l e w e r e not m e a s ur i ng t he i nt e nde d e m ot i on. P a r t i c i pa nt s t a t e of pl e a s ur e i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom w a s a l s o m e a s ur e d u s i ng f our bi po l a r a dj e c t i ve s : unha ppy/ ha ppy, di s s a t i s f i e d/ s a t i s f i e d, unpl e a s a nt / pl e a s a nt a nd unc om f or t a bl e / c om f or t a bl e T he r e l i a bi l i t y of t he s c a l e w a s ve r y good a t 0. 80 L i ght i ng pr e f e r e nc e w a s m e a s ur e d us i ng t w o bi pol a r a dj e c t i ve w o r d pa i r s : l i ke / di s l i ke a nd ba d/ goo d w i t h a r e l i a bi l i t y o f 0. 93 48

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A l s o, t he e f f e c t of l i ght i ng on s e l f e va l ua t i ons w a s m e a s ur e d t hr ough r a t i ngs o f f a c i a l a nd body a ppe a r a nc e T he s c a l e us e d t o a s s e s s f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e us e d f i ve bi pol a r a dj e c t i ve pa i r s : ba d/ good, ol d/ young unhe a l t hy/ he a l t hy ha r s h s ha dow s / no s ha dow s a nd unf l a t t e r i ng s ki n t one s / f l a t t e r i ng s ki n t one s w i t h a n i nt e r na l r e l i a bi l i t y of 0 84. B ody A ppe a r a nc e w a s m e a s ur e d us i ng t hr e e bi pol a r a dj e c t i ve s : ne ga t i ve / pos i t i ve u na t t r a c t i ve / a t t r a c t i ve a nd he a vy/ s l e nde r a nd ha d a n i nt e r n a l c ons i s t e nc y of 0. 84 D r e s s i ng r oom e va l ua t i ons w e r e a s s e s s e d us i ng ni ne bi pol a r a dj e c t i ve w o r d pa i r s : i nc onve ni e nt / c onve ni e nt c r a m pe d/ r oom y di r t y/ c l e a n, l a c k of pr i va c y/ a de qua t e pr i va c y, s m a l l / l a r ge unke m pt / w e l l ke pt l ow qua l i t y/ hi gh q ua l i t y, uni m p r e s s i ve / i m pr e s s i ve a nd ba d/ good. T he s c a l e e xhi bi t e d ve r y good r e l i a bi l i t y a t 0. 83 T he ove r a l l dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e w a s m e a s ur e d us i ng l e ve l of a gr e e m e nt w i t h f ou r s t a t e m e nt s : T he dr e s s i ng r oom m e t m y e xpe c t a t i ons ; T he dr e s s i ng r oom f i t i n t he s t or e ; T he dr e s s i ng r oom e nc our a ge d m e t o s t a y a nd t r y t h i ngs on ; a nd M y ove r a l l dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e w a s s a t i s f yi ng. T he s c a l e ha d ve r y s t r ong i nt e r na l c ons i s t e nc y a t 0. 86 T he r e f or e a l l t he s e de pe nda nt va r i a bl e s w e r e a c c e pt e d f or f ur t he r a na l ys i s T a bl e 4 2 R e l i a bi l i t y r e s ul t s ( C r onba c h s a l pha ) V a r i a bl e s N of I t e m s M e a n SD C r onba c h s A l pha S t a t e of A r ous a l 4 4. 40 0. 94 0. 58 S t a t e of P l e a s ur e 4 5. 17 1. 07 0. 80 L i ght i ng P r e f e r e nc e 2 5. 03 1. 45 0. 93 F a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e 5 4. 97 1. 07 0. 84 B ody A ppe a r a nc e 3 4. 86 1. 23 0. 84 D r e s s i ng R oom E va l ua t i ons 9 4. 89 0. 86 0. 83 D r e s s i ng R oom E xpe r i e nc e 4 5. 16 1. 22 0. 86 E f f e c t s of L i gh t i n g D i r e c t i on on R e s p on s e V ar i ab l e s I nde pe nde nt s a m pl e t t e s t s w e r e pe r f o r m e d t o c om pa r e t he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he t w o l i ght i ng di r e c t i ons f or e a c h r e s e a r c h que s t i on. T a bl e 4 3 s how s t he m e a n a nd s t a nda r d de vi a t i on 49

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s c or e s f or t he t w o l i ght i ng di r e c t i ons a nd t he t t e s t va l ue a nd r e s ul t i ng p va l ue s f or t he de pe nda nt va r i a bl e s T a bl e 4 3 M e a ns s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons a nd t t e s t r e s ul t s by l i ght i ng c ondi t i on S our c e n M e a n SD t va l ue p S t a t e of A r ous a l 0. 83 0. 413 F r ont a l L i ght i ng 30 4. 30 1. 01 O ve r he a d L i ght i ng 30 4. 50 0. 86 S t a t e of P l e a s ur e 0. 51 0. 612 F r ont a l L i ght i ng 30 5. 24 1. 00 O ve r he a d L i ght i ng 30 5. 10 1. 15 L i ght i ng P r e f e r e nc e 0. 40 0. 693 F r ont a l L i ght i ng 30 5. 10 1. 35 O ve r he a d L i ght i ng 30 4. 95 1. 57 F a c i a l A ppe a r a nc e 1. 19 0. 241 F r ont a l L i ght i ng 30 5. 13 0. 92 O ve r he a d L i ght i ng 30 4. 81 1. 20 B ody A ppe a r a nc e 0. 07 0. 945 F r ont a l L i ght i ng 30 4. 84 1. 20 O ve r he a d L i ght i ng 30 4. 87 1. 28 D r e s s i ng R oom E va l ua t i ons 0. 82 0. 417 F r ont a l L i ght i ng 30 4. 98 0. 95 O ve r he a d L i ght i ng 30 4. 80 0. 76 D r e s s i ng R oom E xpe r i e nc e 0. 03 0. 979 F r ont a l L i ght i ng 30 5. 16 1. 37 O ve r he a d L i ght i ng 30 5. 17 1. 09 S t at e s of A r ou s al an d P l e as u r e De s pi t e e xpe c t a t i ons t he r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t f o r t he c om bi ne d a r ous a l s c a l e t he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he ove r he a d a nd t h e f r ont a l l i ght i ng, t ( 58) = 0 83, p = 413 T he a ve r a ge r e s pons e f or t he f r ont a l l i ght i n g ( M = 4 30 S D = 1. 01 ) w a s not s i gni f i c a nt l y di f f e r e nt f r om t ha t of t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng ( M = 4 50, S D = 0. 86) L i ght i ng di r e c t i on ha d no e f f e c t on t he l e ve l of a r ous a l e xpe r i e nc e d. A s w e l l s i m i l a r r e s ul t s w e r e obs e r ve d f o r t he e f f e c t s of dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng di r e c t i on on t he s t a t e of pl e a s ur e ; t he r e w a s no s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e t ( 58) = 0. 51 p = 612. T he m e a n 50

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r e s pons e f or t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng w a s 5 24 ( S D = 1 00) a nd t he m e a n of t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng w a s 5. 10 ( S D = 1 15) Y e t w i t hi n t he a r ous a l s c a l e t he s i ngl e i t e m of l e v e l of r e l a xa t i on/ s t i m ul a t i on a ppr oa c he d s i gni f i c a nc e a t t he 95% C I t ( 58) = 1. 894 p = 0 06 3. T ha t i s t he m e a n r e s pons e f or t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng ( M = 4 63, S D = 1. 377 ) w a s s l i ght l y di f f e r e nt f r om t ha t o f t he ove r he a d l i ght i n g ( M = 3. 93, S D = 1 484) L i gh t i n g P e r c e p t i on T hr e e va r i a bl e s i nc l udi ng c ool / w a r m di m / b r i ght a nd ha z y/ c l e a r w e r e m e a s ur e d i n or de r t o a s c e r t a i n i f o t he r l i gh t i ng va r i a bl e s he l d c ons t a nt w e r e s uf f i c i e nt l y c ont r ol l e d A s e xpe c t e d, t he t w o di r e c t i ona l l i gh t i ng c ondi t i ons d i d not e xhi bi t a ny s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s a l ong a ny of t he di m e ns i ons : c ool / w a r m ( p = 0 243) di m / br i ght ( p = 0 377) a nd ha z y/ c l e a r ( p = 0. 157) T a bl e 4 4 s how s t he m e a ns s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons a nd t t e s t r e s ul t s f or t he l i gh t i ng pe r c e pt i on va r i a bl e s T a bl e 4 4 M e a ns s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons a nd t t e s t r e s ul t s f or l i ght i ng pe r c e pt i on S our c e n M e a n SD t va l ue p C ool / W a r m 1. 18 0. 243 F r ont a l L i ght i ng 30 4. 40 1. 52 O ve r he a d L i ght i ng 30 4. 83 1. 32 D i m / B r i ght 0. 891 0. 377 F r ont a l L i ght i ng 30 5. 27 1. 41 O ve r he a d L i ght i ng 30 4. 93 1. 48 H a z y/ C l e a r 1. 435 0. 157 F r ont a l L i ght i ng 30 5. 83 1. 09 O ve r he a d L i ght i ng 30 5 40 1. 23 G l a r i ng/ N ot G l a r i ng 0. 545 0. 588 F r ont a l L i ght i ng 30 4. 73 1. 70 O ve r he a d L i ght i ng 30 4. 50 1. 61 T w o t a i l e d t e s t o f s i gni f i c a nc e : p < 05 F or c ool / w a r m t he m e a n o f t he f r on t a l l i ght i ng ( M = 4. 40, S D = 1. 5 2 ) w a s not s i gni f i c a nt l y di f f e r e nt f r om t he m e a n of t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng ( M = 4. 8 3, S D = 1 32) F o r 51

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di m / br i ght t he m e a n of t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng ( M = 5 27, S D = 1. 41 ) w a s c l os e t o t ha t of t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng ( M = 4. 93 S D = 1 48) A s w e l l a l ong ha z y/ c l e a r t he r e w a s no d i f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng ( M = 4 73, S D = 1. 70 ) a nd t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng ( M = 5 40, S D = 1. 23) A s w e l l t he r e w a s no s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e be t w e e n t he t w o l i ght i ng di r e c t i ons a l ong gl a r i ng/ not gl a r i ng ( p = 0 59) T he m e a n of t he f r o nt a l l i ght i ng w a s 4 73 ( S D = 1. 70) a nd t he m e a n of t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng w a s 4. 50 ( S D = 1. 6 1) L i gh t i n g P r e f e r e n c e A s w i t h a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e t he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt f i ndi ng be t w e e n t he t w o d i r e c t i ons of l i ght i ng f or t he r e por t e d l i ght i ng p r e f e r e nc e t ( 5 8) = 0 40, p = 693 T he m e a n of t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng w a s s l i ght l y hi ghe r ( M = 5. 10 S D = 1 35) t ha n t ha t of t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng ( M = 4 95, S D = 1. 57 ) S e l f E val u at i on s of F ac i al a n d B od y A p p e ar an c e F or f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e t he r e w a s no s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e obs e r ve d be t w e e n t he t w o l i ght i ng c ondi t i ons t ( 58) = 1. 19 p = 241. T he m e a n of t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng ( M = 5 13, S D = 0. 92) w a s not s i gni f i c a nt l y di f f e r e nt f r om t ha t of t h e ove r he a d l i ght i ng ( M = 4 81, S D = 1. 20 ) H ow e ve r one i t e m of ha r s h s ha dow s / no s ha dow s w i t hi n t he pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e s c a l e w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt t ( 58 ) = 3 09, p = 003 ( T a bl e 4 5) T he pa r t i c i pa nt s not e d f e w e r s ha dow s on t he i r f a c e s i n t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng c ondi t i on ( M = 5. 37, S D = 1. 33 ) w hi l e t he o t he r p a r t i c i pa nt s e xpe r i e nc e d ha r s h s ha dow s unde r t he ove r he a d l i g ht i ng ( M = 4 33, S D = 1. 27 ) A s w i t h f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e i n t hi s s t udy f or body a ppe a r a nc e t he r e w a s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he f r on t a l l i ght i ng a nd t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng, t ( 58 ) = 0 07, p = 945. T he m e a n of t he f r on t a l l i ght i ng w a s 4. 84 ( S D = 1. 20 ) a nd t he m e a n of t he ove r he a d 52

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l i ght i ng w a s 4. 87 ( S D = 1. 2 8) f or body a ppe a r a nc e A l s o, t he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e a m ong a ny of t he i ndi vi dua l di m e ns i ons w i t hi n t he s c a l e. D r e s s i n g R oom E val u at i on s T he dr e s s i ng r oom c ondi t i ons a l s o e xhi bi t e d no di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n l i ght i ng di r e c t i ons T he ove r a l l d r e s s i ng r oom c ondi t i o ns di d not e xhi b i t a s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e t ( 58 ) = 0 82, p = 417. T he m e a n f or t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng w a s 4 98 ( S D = 0. 95 ) a nd t he m e a n f o r t he ove r he a d gr oup w a s 4. 80 ( S D = 0. 76 ) f or d r e s s i ng r oom e va l ua t i ons H ow e ve r one i t e m w i t hi n t he dr e s s i ng r oom e va l u a t i ons s c a l e di d e xhi bi t a s i gni f i c a nt s t a t i s t i c a l di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he t w o l i ght i ng di r e c t i ons T hi s w a s t he w o r d pa i r c r a m pe d/ r oom y, t ( 58) = 3 18, p = 002 ( T a bl e 4 4) T he pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e i ve d t he d r e s s i ng r oom w a s l e s s c r a m pe d i n t he f r on t a l l i ght i ng c ondi t i on ( M = 5. 3, S D = 1. 21 ) t ha n unde r t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng c ondi t i on ( M = 4 23, S D = 1. 33 ) O ve r al l D r e s s i n g R oom E xp e r i e n c e D r e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e e xhi bi t e d no s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e be t w e e n t he t w o l i ght i ng di r e c t i ons t ( 58) = 0 03, p = 979 T he m e a n o f t h e f r ont a l l i ght i ng w a s 5 16 ( S D = 1. 37) a nd t he m e a n of t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng w a s 5. 17 ( S D = 1. 0 9) T he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s a l ong a ny of t he di m e ns i ons w i t hi n t he s c a l e Q u al i t at i ve F i n d i n gs b y L i gh t i n g C on d i t i on I n or de r t o unde r s t a nd t he qua l i t a t i ve da t a a nd m a k e i t c om pa r a bl e t o t he qua nt i t a t i ve r e s ul t s pr e s e nt e d e a r l i e r i n t he c ha pt e r t he t ype s a n d f r e que nc y of c om m e nt s m a de on t he t w o l i ght i ng di r e c t i ons w e r e a na l yz e d. A c ont e nt a na l y s i s w a s c onduc t e d t o de t e r m i ne t he r a t i o of pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve phr a s e s f or e a c h o f t he t w o l i ght i ng c ondi t i ons ( N e ue ndor f 2002) T he c odi ng m e t hod i s s i m i l a r t o t ha t us e d by W e a ve r & C a r r ol l ( 1985) w ho w e r e l ooki ng a t s hopl i f t e r 53

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m onol ogue s t o de t e r m i ne w ha t t he y w e r e a f f e c t e d by w he n w a l ki ng t h r ough a r e t a i l e nvi r onm e nt T he y c ode d c ont e nt i nt o ph r a s e s a nd t he n br oke t he s e phr a s e s i nt o c a t e gor i e s F or t hi s s t udy, a s i n W e a ve r a nd C a r r ol l ( 1985 ) c om m e nt s w e r e c ons i de r e d t o be ph r a s e s or t hought s t ha t r e l a t e d t o a s pe c i f i c t opi c a nd s e ve r a l phr a s e s on t he s a m e t opi c c oul d c ount a s m ul t i pl e c om m e nt ph r a s e s T ha t i s i f a pa r t i c i pa nt s a i d, I l i ke d t he l i ght i ng, but i t w a s t oo b r i ght a nd t oo s ha dow y i t c ount e d a s one pos i t i ve a nd t w o ne ga t i ve c om m e nt s T hi s a l l ow e d f o r pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t h a s t r onge r r e a c t i on t o a l i ght i ng c ondi t i on a nd us i ng m o r e phr a s e s t o c om m e nt on t he l i ght i ng t o be a c c ount e d f or A t ot a l o f 34 c om m e nt phr a s e s w e r e m a de on f r ont a l l i ght i ng O f t he s e 20 ( 59% ) w e r e pos i t i ve w hi l e 14 ( 41% ) w e r e ne ga t i ve A t ot a l of 36 c om m e nt s ph r a s e s w e r e m a de by pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng c ondi t i on. O f t he s e 25 c om m e nt s ( 69% ) w e r e ne ga t i ve w hi l e 11 ( 31 % ) c om m e nt s w e r e pos i t i ve T he m a j or i t y of c om m e nt s m a de i n t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng c ondi t i on w e r e i n f a vor of f r ont a l l i ght i ng e xc e pt f or oc c a s i ona l c om m e nt s on i t s be i ng t oo br i ght A s w e l l de s pi t e s om e pos i t i ve c om m e n t s f r om pe opl e i n t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng c ondi t i on, t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng w a s r e por t e d t o be t oo s ha dow y, t oo hot a nd i m pr ope r l y l oc a t e d. A l l w r i t t e n c om m e nt s a r e pr e s e nt e d i n A p pe ndi x G T he r e i s a pr ope ns i t y i n f a vor of f r ont a l l i gh t i ng t hough pa r t i c i pa nt s r e po r t e d bot h t ha t t he y di s l i ke d a nd l i ke d bot h l i ght i ng c ondi t i ons T he c ont r a di c t i ons w i t hi n c om m e nt s a r e e vi de nt i n a n i nve s t i ga t i on of pr e f e r e nc e a nd body a nd f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e F or e xa m pl e w r i t t e n c om m e nt s on t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng w e r e bot h pos i t i ve a nd n e ga t i ve P os i t i ve c om m e nt s f oc us e d on t he l i ght i ng s e f f e c t s on phys i c a l a ppe a r a nc e a nd c om m e nt s i nc l ude d t he f ol l ow i ng 1) I l ove d t he l i ght i ng I t m a de m e l ook l i ke m y s ki n ha d a he a l t hy gl ow 2) I r e a l l y l i ke t he l i ght i ng. I w i s h m or e dr e s s i ng r o om s w e r e done l i ke t hi s 3) I l ove t he l i ght i ng! I f e e l l i ke i t i s f l a t t e r i ng s l i m m i ng, a nd e xc i t i ng. I t l ooks m ode r n 54

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H ow e ve r ne ga t i ve w r i t t e n c om m e nt s w e r e a l s o m a de on t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng. T he y f oc us e d on how poor l y i t m a de pe opl e l ook a nd ho w br i ght t he l i ght i ng w a s i n t he r oom E xa m pl e s of t he s e ne ga t i ve c om m e nt s i nc l ude d t h e f ol l ow i ng. 1) D i dn't r e a l l y m a ke m e l ook m y be s t 2) L i gh t i ng s houl d be a l i t t l e l e s s ha r s h. 3) [ N e e ds ] ove r he a d l i ght i ng 4) [ A dd] dow n l i ght s 5) T he l i ght g i ve s m e a he a da c he 6) T he l i ght w a s t oo w hi t e f or m e A s w e l l s e ve r a l c ont r a di c t or y w r i t t e n c om m e nt s w e r e m a de on t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng P a r t i c i pa nt s m a de bot h pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve c om m e nt s E xa m pl e s of pos i t i ve c om m e nt s on ove r he a d l i ght i ng di d not e xhi bi t a ny t r e nds H ow e ve r l i ke i n ot he r c ondi t i ons pe opl e f oc us e d on s e l f e va l ua t i ons a nd pr e f e r e nc e C om m e nt s i nc l ud e d t he f ol l ow i ng 1 ) I l i ke t he l i ght i ng t he w a y i t i s 2) L i gh t i ng i s t he be s t pa r t e xc e pt f or he a t 3) T he l i ght i ng w a s ve r y good on t he f a c i a l a nd bo dy a ppe a r a nc e R e s ponde nt s a l s o m a de ne ga t i ve w r i t t e n c om m e nt s on t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng N e ga t i ve c om m e nt s r e f l e c t e d how poo r l y t he l i ght i ng r e nde r e d f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e a nd t he he a t t ha t t he l i gh t s c r e a t e d. S om e e xa m pl e s of c om m e nt s i nc l ude d t he f ol l ow i ng 1) M a ybe l e s s ove r he a d t he y br i ng out a ny c i r c l e s you ha ve unde r you r e ye s 2) I t w a s w a y t oo b r i ght a nd t he l i gh t s c a us e d m y h e a d t o m a ke a s ha dow on m y f a c e 3) I pr e f e r t he l i ght i ng w he n I s t e p ba c k, but t he c h a i r i s i n t he w a y. 4) T he l i ght i s t oo ye l l ow i s h. Fu r t he r m or e pa r t i c i pa nt c om m e nt s w e r e e xa m i ne d f or t r e nds A c ont e nt a na l ys i s of t he 60 pa r t i c i pa nt s c om m e nt s r e ve a l e d t ha t s om e c ons um e r s onl y c om m e nt e d on t he e nvi r on m e nt ( n= 22) T he y f oc us e d on t he f l a w s of t he s pa c e t h e e f f e c t of t he l i ght i ng, a nd how t o i m p r ove t he e nvi r onm e nt T he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e t e r m e d e nvi r onm e nt a l l y f oc us e d or d i s t r a c t e d s hoppe r s be c a us e ne ga t i ve a s pe c t s of t he e nvi r onm e nt di ve r t e d t he i r a t t e nt i on O t he r c ons um e r s onl y 55

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c om m e nt e d on t he i r a ppe a r a nc e f oc us i ng on s ha dow i ng a nd t he e f f e c t s of l i ght i ng on pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e a nd body s ha pe ( n= 7) T he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e t e r m e d s e l f o r i e nt e d s hoppe r s be c a us e of t he f oc us t he y pl a c e on t he i r a ppe a r a nc e O t he r pa r t i c i pa nt s c om m e nt s f oc us e d on bot h e nvi r onm e nt a nd s e l f ( n= 7) H ow e ve r 20 pa r t i c i pa nt s m a de no c om m e nt s or ne ut r a l c om m e nt s l i ke : N ot hi ng I c a n t hi nk of T he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e c oi ne d una f f e c t e d o r ut i l i t a r i a n s hoppe r s be c a us e t he e nvi r onm e nt pr oduc e d no s t r ong r e a c t i ons H ow e ve r t he s e c a t e gor i e s a r e e xpl or a t or y a nd w e r e c r e a t e d t o f ur t he r t he unde r s t a ndi ng of t he qua l i t a t i ve da t a T he y pr ovi de a s t a r t i ng poi nt f or a ddi t i ona l r e s e a r c h a nd s houl d be a s s e s s e d f ur t he r T a bl e 4 5 N um be r of c om m e nt phr a s e s by pa r t i c i pa nt f oc us l i ght i ng di r e c t i on, a nd t ype E nvi r onm e nt F oc us e d # S e l f F oc us e d # B ot h # F r ont P os i t i ve 8 F r ont N e ga t i ve 6 O ve r he a d P os i t i ve 3 O ve r he a d N e ga t i ve 13 F r ont P os i t i ve 7 F r ont N e ga t i ve 3 O ve r he a d P os i t i ve 2 O ve r he a d N e ga t i ve 4 F r ont P os i t i ve F r ont N e ga t i ve O ve r he a d P os i t i ve O ve r he a d N e ga t i ve 3 2 5 6 A na l ys i s of s hoppe r c om m e nt s w i t hi n e a c h o f t he s e c a t e gor i e s r e ve a l e d t he r e w e r e m o r e pos i t i ve c om m e nt s on f r on t a l l i ght i ng a nd m o r e ne ga t i ve c om m e nt s on ove r he a d l i gh t i ng ( T a bl e 4 5) E nvi r onm e nt f oc us e d s hoppe r s i n t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng c ondi t i on m a de 14 c om m e nt phr a s e s E i ght w e r e pos i t i ve a nd s i x w e r e ne ga t i ve T hos e i n t he ove r he a d l i gh t i ng c ondi t i on m a de 16 c om m e nt phr a s e s O nl y t h r e e w e r e pos i t i ve w hi l e 13 w e r e ne ga t i ve E nvi r on m e nt f oc us e d pa r t i c i pa nt s m a de a bout t he s a m e num be r of pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve c om m e nt s on f r ont a l l i ght i ng H ow e ve r t he m a j o r i t y o f c om m e nt phr a s e s f or ove r he a d l i ght i ng w e r e ne ga t i ve s i gni f yi ng t ha t e nvi r onm e nt f oc us e d pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e i ve d ove r he a d l i ght i ng ne ga t i ve l y O ne pa r t i c i pa nt c om m e nt e d on t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng s a yi ng: C oul d be i n t he ba c k r a t he r t ha n r i ght i n your f a c e O f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s 10 c om m e nt phr a s e s m a de by pa r t i c i pa nt s f oc us i ng on t he s e l f i n t he f r ont a l l i gh t i ng c ondi t i on s e ve n w e r e pos i t i ve a nd t hr e e w e r e ne ga t i ve ; w hi l e of t he 6 c om m e nt 56

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phr a s e s m a de on t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng c ondi t i on t w o w e r e pos i t i ve a nd f our w e r e ne ga t i ve S e l f f oc us e d c ons um e r s r a t e d f r ont a l l i ght i ng m or e pos i t i ve l y a nd ove r he a d l i ght i ng m o r e ne ga t i ve l y. F r ont a l l i ght i ng w a s pe r c e i ve d t o be be t t e r a nd one pa r t i c i pa nt c om m e nt e d: I l ove d t he l i ght i ng. I t m a de m e l ook l i ke m y s ki n ha d a he a l t hy gl ow A l s o, m y e ye s l ooke d a m a z i ng. T he l i ght w a s ve r y f l a t t e r i ng O f t he f i ve c om m e nt ph r a s e s m a de by pa r t i c i pa nt s f oc us i ng on bot h e nvi r o nm e nt a nd s e l f i n t he f r ont a l l i gh t i ng c ondi t i on t hr e e w e r e pos i t i v e a nd t w o w e r e ne ga t i ve ; w hi l e o f t he 11 ( 100% ) c om m e nt phr a s e s m a de on t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng c ondi t i on, f i ve w e r e pos i t i ve a nd s i x ( 55% ) w e r e ne ga t i ve F or pe opl e f oc us i ng on bot h, a bout t he s a m e num be r of pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve c om m e nt s w e r e m a de unde r e a c h l i ght i ng c ondi t i on s how i ng no di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n pe r c e pt i ons a nd no pr e f e r e nc e f or one or t he ot he r E n vi r on m e n t al P r e f e r e n c e I n a ddi t i on t o l i ght i ng, ot he r e nvi r onm e nt a l c ue s a r e a l s o i m por t a nt i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom ( T he pe r f e c t f i t 2007 ) a nd c a n a f f e c t t he ove r a l l e xpe r i e nc e I n or de r t o unde r s t a nd t he s i gni f i c a nc e of t he s e va r i a bl e s pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d t o r a t e t he i m por t a nc e of s e ve r a l e nvi r onm e nt a l di m e ns i ons i n t he dr e s s i ng r oo m f r o m one t o ni ne ( A ppe ndi x C ) t o c om pa r e t he r a t i ngs of l i g ht i ng w i t h t o o t he r e nvi r onm e nt a l f a c t or s P a r t i c i pa nt s r a t e d m os t di m e ns i ons i nc l udi ng l i ght i ng c l e a nl i ne s s m i r r or s i z e e t c ( 1 = ve r y not i m por t a nt t o 7 = ve r y i m por t a nt ) a nd t he r e s ul t s a r e s how n i n F i gur e 4 2 D i m e ns i on s t ha t w e r e r a t e d hi ghe s t w i t h a m e a n ove r s i x w e r e c l e a n f l oor s ( M = 6. 53 ) l i ght i ng ( M = 6. 52) m i r r or s i z e ( M = 6 45) c l e a nl i ne s s ( M = 6 38) pr i va c y ( M = 6 37) m i r r or t ype ( M = 6 17) a nd s a f e t y/ s e c ur i t y ( M = 6 07) T he s e l e a s t i m por t a nt di m e ns i ons w i t h a m e a n s c or e of l e s s t h a n f i ve w e r e s e a t i ng ( M = 4 81) a nd m us i c ( M = 4. 60) 57

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F i gur e 4 1 I m por t a nc e o f e nvi r onm e nt a l c ue s i n a dr e s s i ng r oom F i gur e 4 2 P a r t i c i pa nt qua l i t a t i ve c om m e nt s ( num be r of w r i t t e n c om m e nt phr a s e s = 136) 58

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I n or de r t o unde r s t a nd t he e f f e c t of l i ght i ng i n r e l a t i on t o t he s e ot he r de s i gn f a c t or s pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d t o m a ke a ddi t i ona l c om m e nt s on ot he r pa r t s of t he dr e s s i ng r oom O f t he t ot a l 136 ( 100% ) c om m e nt ph r a s e s m a de 70 ( 51 % ) c om m e nt ph r a s e s w e r e m a de on l i ght i ng T he ot he r 66 ( 49 % ) c om m e nt s phr a s e s w e r e m a de on ot he r de s i gn f a c t or s T he s e w e r e gr oupe d i nt o c a t e gor i e s a nd t he r e s ul t s a r e s how n i n F i gur e 4 1. O f t he s e t he l a r ge s t s ha r e of c om m e nt s ( n = 13, 21 % ) w a s m a de on t he ne e d f o r m or e hooks or ha nge r s i n t he s pa c e A ddi t i ona l l y m a ny c om m e nt s w e r e m a de on t he l a c k of c l e a nl i ne s s i n t he r oom s ( n = 10, 17% ) t he ne e d f o r a dde d d c or ( n = 8, 13% ) t he t e m pe r a t ur e or ne e d f or a i r c ondi t i oni ng a s a r e s ul t o f t he he a t of t he l i ght s ( n = 7 12 % ) t he ne e d f or ne w pa i nt or m or e c ol or f ul w a l l s ( n = 6 10% ) a nd di f f e r e nt s e a t i ng ( n = 4 7% ) T he s e c om m e nt s w e r e ge ne r a l l y c ons i s t e nt e xc e pt f or a f e w pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho w e r e pl e a s e d w i t h t he s t a r k a ppe a r a nc e of t he dr e s s i ng r oom s A s w e l l t w o pa r t i c i pa nt s c om m e nt e d on t he ne e d f or a not he r o r a m ul t i pl e pa ne l m i r r o r w hi l e one pe r s on c om m e nt e d on t he m i r r or s be i ng t oo s m a l l a nd a not he r pe r s on on t he m i r r o r be i ng t oo bi g A l t hough, t he r e w a s no s t a t i s t i c a l di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he t w o l i gh t i ng di r e c t i ons f or t he s t udy va r i a bl e s ( e m ot i ona l s t a t e l i ght i ng pr e f e r e nc e a nd pe r c e pt i on, s e l f a ppe a r a nc e dr e s s i ng r oom e va l ua t i ons a nd dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e ) l i ght i ng w a s t he s e c ond m os t i m po r t a nt e nvi r onm e nt a l c ue w i t h a m e a n r a t i ng of 6. 52 out of a po s s i bl e 7 poi n t s C ont r a di c t i ons a m ong c om m e nt s a nd pr e f e r e nc e s r e ve a l a l a c k of s ol i di t y de s pi t e m or e pos i t i ve f r ont a l l i ght i ng c om m e nt s T he a m bi gui t i e s w i t hi n c om m e nt s f ur t he r c onf ound our unde r s t a ndi ng a nd r e ve a l a c om pl e xi t y w i t hi n l i ght i ng pe r c e pt i on t ha t m a y r e s ul t f r om i ndi vi dua l s e ns i t i vi t y or pr e f e r e nc e T he s e r e s ul t s a r e di s c us s e d f ur t he r i n t he ne xt c ha pt e r i n o r de r t o unde r s t a nd t he s e c ont r a di c t i ons a nd pr e s e nt pos s i bl e e xpl a na t i ons 59

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C H A P T E R 5 D I S C U S S I O N T hi s c ha pt e r pr ov i de s a di s c us s i on of f i ndi ngs f r a m e d by t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons pos e d i n C ha pt e r O ne E a c h va r i a bl e : s t a t e s of a r ous a l a nd p l e a s ur e l i ght i ng p r e f e r e nc e a nd pe r c e pt i on s e l f e va l ua t i on ( f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e a nd body a ppe a r a nc e ) ove r a l l dr e s s i ng r oom c ondi t i ons a nd t he dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e i s di s c us s e d ba s e d on t he s t udy s f i nd i ngs pr e vi ous t he or y, how a nd w hy t he f i ndi ngs of t hi s s t udy e i t he r s uppor t o r c ont r a di c t pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h, a s w e l l a s l i m i t a t i ons a nd s ugge s t i ons f or f ut ur e r e s e a r c h. L a t e r ge ne r a l l i m i t a t i ons c on c l us i ons a nd i m pl i c a t i ons f or f ut ur e r e s e a r c h a r e pr e s e nt e d. S t at e s of A r ou s al an d P l e as u r e A r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e a r e w e l l a c c e pt e d m e a s ur e s f or t he p r e di c t i on of i n s t or e pur c ha s e s a nd t he s e e m ot i ona l s t a t e s a r e a f f e c t e d by e nvi r on m e nt a l c ue s l i ke l i ght i n g ( B a ke r e t a l 1992; P a r k & F a r r 2007 ; R ous h, 1994; S um m e r s & H e b e r t 2001 ) D ue t o t he r e c ogni z e d i m pa c t of l i ght i ng i n t he m a i n s t or e a r e a a nd l i ght i ng s a s s um e d but e m pi r i c a l l y unt e s t e d i m por t a nc e i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom ( R e a 200 0; R ous h, 1994; W i nc hi p 2008) t h i s s t udy e xa m i ne d l i ght i ng s e m ot i ona l a f f e c t i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom T he f i ndi ngs o f t hi s s t udy s ugge s t t ha t l i ght i ng di r e c t i on ha s l i t t l e i m pa c t on t he di m e ns i ons us e d t o m e a s ur e e m ot i ona l s t a t e s of a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom S e p a r a t e l y, t he m a j or i t y of t he i ndi vi dua l i t e m s us e d t o m e a s ur e a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e di m e ns i ons a l s o e xhi bi t e d no e f f e c t by di f f e r e nt l i ght i ng d i r e c t i ons Y e t t he e f f e c t of l i ght i ng di r e c t i on, a s pa r t of t he a r ous a l s c a l e on t he l e ve l of r e l a xa t i on/ s t i m ul a t i on a ppr oa c he d s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e ( p = 0 063) F r ont a l l i ght i ng w a s r a t e d a s m o r e s t i m ul a t i ng t ha n ove r he a d l i ght i ng. F u r t he r m or e t hough t he di f f e r e nc e s a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y w e a k, t he m e a ns of t he f ou r i t e m s w i t h i n bot h t he a r ous a l ( w i de a w a ke / s l e e py a r ous e d/ una r ous e d, s t i m ul a t e d / r e l a xe d a nd e xc i t e d / c a l m ) a nd pl e a s ur e 60

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( c om f or t a bl e / unc om f o r t a bl e s a t i s f i e d / di s s a t i s f i e d r e l a xi ng/ t e ns e a nd pl e a s a nt / unpl e a s a nt ) s c a l e s w e r e c ons i s t e nt l y hi ghe r f o r t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng ( A ppe ndi x E ) A m or e p r onounc e d e f f e c t m a y ha ve be e n obs e r ve d i f a l a r ge r s a m pl e w i t h di f f e r e nt a ge gr oups w e r e us e d. S i nc e m a ny r e t a i l l i ght i ng s t udi e s ha ve a ppl i e d t he M R m ode l t o s t udy s t or e a t m os phe r e r e ve a l i ng a s t r ong c onne c t i on t hi s s t udy a s s um e d t ha t l i ght i ng d i r e c t i on, a s one of t he e nvi r onm e nt a l f a c t or s i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom w oul d ha ve a n i m pa c t on t he s t a t e s of a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e T hi s e xpe c t a t i on w a s r e i n f or c e d by t he f i ndi ngs of ot he r r e s e a r c he r s us i ng t he M R m ode l t o i nve s t i ga t e t he s pe c i f i c e f f e c t s of r e t a i l l i ght i ng on t he e xpe r i e nc e of a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e ( A r e ni & K i m 1994; P a r k & F a r r 2007; S um m e r s & H e be r t 2001 ) T he s e s t udi e s f ound t ha t l i ght i ng c a n e l i c i t a c ha nge i n be ha vi or by c ha ngi ng l i ght i ng i nt e ns i t y or t he c ol o r qua l i t y of t he l i ght O f c our s e t hi s m a y be due i n pa r t t o t he di f f e r e nt f oc i a nd m e t hodol ogi e s us e d i n t he c ur r e nt s t udy c om pa r e d t o p r e vi ous s t udi e s A r e ni & K i m ( 1994) a nd S um m e r s & H e be r t ( 2001) us e d obs e r va t i ona l t e c hni que s t o m e a s ur e t he e f f e c t of l i ght i ng i nt e ns i t y on a ppr oa c h a nd a voi da nc e i n t he r e t a i l s t or e w he r e a s t he c ur r e nt s t udy e xa m i ne d l i ght i ng di r e c t i on i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom us i ng que s t i onna i r e s A s w e l l t hou gh P a r k a nd F a r r ( 2007 ) us e d s i m i l a r e xpe r i m e nt a l m e t hods t he i r s t udy i nve s t i ga t e d c ol or of l i ght F u r t he r m or e t he s e s t ud i e s l ooke d a t l i ght i ng i n t he m a i n s t or e e nvi r onm e nt w he r e a s t hi s s t udy onl y l ooke d a t l i ght i ng i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom T hi s s t udy s f i ndi ngs a l s o c onf l i c t s w i t h w ha t i s kn ow n a bout t he c onne c t i on be t w e e n l i ght i ng a nd e m ot i ona l a f f e c t ( B a ke r e t a l 1992; Ro us h, 1994; S u m m e r s & H e be r t 2001 ) Y e t pr e vi ous s t udi e s di d not t a ke a s pe c i f i c l ook a t dr e s s i ng r oom s T he dr e s s i ng r oom i s a ve r y s e pa r a t e pa r t of t he s hoppi ng e xpe r i e nc e a nd s i nc e e a c h pa r t of t he i nt e r a c t i on w i t h t he s t or e 61

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e nvi r onm e nt c a n ha ve a d i f f e r e nt e m ot i ona l r e a c t i on ( T a i & F ung, 1997) i t m a y be t ha t t he s e r e s ul t s c a nnot be di r e c t l y c om pa r e d t o p r e vi ous r e s e a r c h. O t he r pos s i bl e r e a s ons f or a l a c k of c onne c t i on be t w e e n l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a nd e m ot i ona l s t a t e s a r e : m i s i nt e r pr e t a t i on of t he w o r ds by pa r t i c i pa nt s t he i na ppl i c a bi l i t y of t he M R s c a l e i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom e xt r a ne ous va r i a bl e s ( i ni t i a l e m ot i ona l s t a t e a nd pe r s ona l va r i a bl e s ) t he s t udy m e t hod ( us e r s r a t e d onl y one l i gh t i ng c ondi t i on r a t he r t ha n be i ng a s ke d t o c om pa r e ) or t he r e l a t i ve uni m por t a nc e o f l i ght i ng di r e c t i on on e m o t i ona l s t a t e i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom E a c h of t he s e pos s i bl y c onf oundi ng f a c t or s i s f u r t he r d i s c us s e d. D ur i ng t he e xpe r i m e nt s e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s a s ke d t he r e s e a r c he r f or c l a r i f i c a t i on on t he w or ds us e d t o m e a s ur e a r ous a l e s pe c i a l l y w i t h t he w or d, a r ous a l i t s e l f A l t hough t he i m por t a nc e of e m o t i ona l s t a t e s ha s be e n pr ove n by m a ny m a r ke t i ng r e s e a r c he r s s t udyi ng t he e f f e c t s of s t or e a t m os phe r i c s s t udy r e s ul t s r e ga r di ng a r ous a l ha ve be e n i nc ons i s t e nt ( M a c hl e i t & E r ogl u, 2000) T he r e m a y ha ve be e n c onf us i on a l o ng ot he r di m e ns i ons a s w e l l I n t he c ur r e nt s t udy, t he w o r d pa i r r e l a xe d/ s t i m ul a t e d w a s t he onl y di m e ns i on t ha t a ppr oa c he d s i gni f i c a nc e i n t he a r ous a l s c a l e c ont r a di c t i ng F l ynn s ( 1977) f i ndi ng t ha t pe r i phe r a l s our c e s w i t h no va r i a t i on i n i l l u m i na t i on l e ve l s a f f or d gr e a t e r r e l a xa t i on. I ns t e a d t hi s d r e s s i ng r oom s t udy, us i ng t he M R m ode l s how e d t ha t f r o nt a l l i ght i ng w a s m o r e s t i m ul a t i ng w i t hout va r yi ng i l l um i na t i on l e ve l s S pe c i f i c r e a s ons f or t h i s m a y ha ve be e n t he di f f e r e nc e s i n t he ope r a t i ona l de f i ni t i ons o f r e l a xa t i on F l ynn ( 1977 ) us e d r e l a xa t i on a s a pos i t i ve ps yc hol ogi c a l i m pr e s s i on or a s s e s s m e nt of t he s pa t i a l qua l i t y w h e r e a s t he t r a di t i ona l M R ( 1974) m ode l us e d r e l a xa t i on a s a l a c k of e m ot i ona l e xc i t e m e nt i n a s pa c e a nd i n a ne ga t i ve c a pa c i t y. I t i s unc l e a r how us e r s i nt e r pr e t e d t hi s w o r d pa i r bu t t he M R m ode l i s m os t a ppl i c a bl e f o r m e a s ur i ng i n s t or e e m ot i ona l s t a t e s a nd t he r e f or e w a s us e d i n t hi s s t udy. 62

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O t he r w i s e l i ght i ng di r e c t i on m a y not be a s t r ong d i m e ns i on t ha t a f f e c t s e m ot i ona l s t a t e s L i ght i ng i n t e ns i t y ha s a n e f f e c t on e m ot i ona l s t a t e s w i t h br i ght e r l i ght i ng e l i c i t i ng hi ghe r l e ve l s of a r ous a l ( A r e ni & K i m 1994; S um m e r s & H e be r t 2001) S i nc e i t s e f f e c t ha s be e n w e l l doc um e nt e d, l i ght i ng i nt e ns i t y w a s c ont r ol l e d i n t h i s s t udy, ye t l i gh t i ng i nt e ns i t y m a y ha ve a f f e c t e d r a t i ngs of a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom T he r e w a s no s t a t i s t i c a l di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he t w o l i ght i ng c ondi t i ons i nt e ns i t i e s ; t he r e w a s t he s a m e a m ount of l i g ht hi t t i ng t he f l oor i n e a c h l i ght i ng c ondi t i on. H ow e ve r i n qua l i t a t i ve c om m e nt s s e ve r a l pe opl e w r ot e f r ont a l l i ght i ng w a s t oo b r i ght ( A ppe ndi x G ) a nd t he ove r a l l m e a n f or di m / b r i ght w a s hi ghe r due t o t he pr oxi m i t y o f t he pa r t i c i pa nt t o t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng w he n f i l l i ng out t he que s t i onna i r e a nd due t o t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng be i ng i n t he di r e c t f i e l d of v i s i on ( A ppe ndi x E ) T he l i ght i ng l e ve l on t he f r ont o f t he body m a y ha ve a f f e c t e d t he r e s ul t s a nd f ur t he r t e s t i ng m a y be ne c e s s a r y t o de t e r m i ne i f t he di r e c t i on o f t he l i ght i ng, t he b r i ght ne s s of t he l i ght i ng, or a c om bi na t i on of t he t w o a r e c or r e l a t e d t o s t a t e s of a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom A l s o, r e t a i l s t udi e s ha ve s how n t ha t c e r t a i n e nvi r o nm e nt a l s t i m ul i a f f e c t e m ot i ona l r e a c t i ons ; t he dr e s s i ng r oom m a y not be gove r ne d by t he s a m e s e t of e va l ua t i ons or pe r c e pt ua l c r i t e r i a I n s m a l l dr e s s i ng r oom s t he s hoppe r t r i e s on c l ot he s e va l ua t e s i t s f i t a nd l ook a nd m a ke s a pur c ha s e de c i s i on w i t hi n a s hor t pe r i od o f t i m e i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom T hus t he i nf l ue nc e of l i ght i ng on e m ot i ona l a f f e c t m a y be l e s s c r i t i c a l s i nc e t he f oc us i s on t he c l o t he s a nd t he s e l f M e hr a bi a n a nd R us s e l l s e m ot i on s c a l e m a y not be s ui t e d t o t he uni que dr e s s i ng r oom de c i s i on m a ki ng m ode l or e xpe r i e nc e i n r e ga r ds t o l i ght i ng di r e c t i on, unl e s s one c ondi t i on i s a pp r e c i a bl y di f f e r e nt t ha n t he ot he r T hi s i s l i ke l y c ons i de r i ng t he ve r y l ow a l pha f or t he a r ous a l s c a l e de s pi t e i t s be i ng c onf i r m e d by m a ny s t udi e s T he M R m ode l of e m ot i ons doe s not a ppe a r t o be a r e l e va nt t ool f o r a s s e s s i ng e m ot i ona l r e a c t i ons i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom e nvi r on m e nt 63

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R e s e a r c he r s m a y w i s h t o ge ne r a t e a ne w s e t of di m e ns i ons t o e xa m i ne t he a ppr opr i a t e ne s s of di f f e r e nt s e t s of w o r ds by e nga g i ng t he us e r s t he m s e l ve s i n t he ge ne r a t i on of voc a bul a r y a s ha d R i c hi ns ( 1997) W o r ds l i ke f u l f i l l e d, e nt i c e d, a nd c onne c t e d m a y be be t t e r a ppr oxi m a t i ons o f t he c ons um pt i on e xpe r i e n c e e m ot i ons c ons i de r i ng s hoppi ng s e f f e c t on our s e ns e of be l ongi ng a nd f ul f i l l m e nt ( Z uki n 200 5) O ve r a l l t he r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he t w o l i ght i ng di r e c t i ons r e por t e d l e ve l s of a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e s ugge s t i ng t ha t i n t h e dr e s s i ng r oom t he di r e c t i on of t he l i gh t i ng doe s not ha ve a ny s i gni f i c a nt e f f e c t on t he e m ot i on a l s t a t e s of pl e a s ur e a nd a r ous a l E ve n pa r t i c i pa nt s c om m e nt s di d not i nc l ude e m ot i ona l r e s pons e s a nd i t a ppe a r s t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e not s e ns i t i ve t o l i ght i ng di r e c t i on w he n not a s ke d t o s i m ul t a ne ous l y c om pa r e l i ght i ng c ondi t i ons O t he r va r i a bl e s s uc h a s t he i nt e ns i t y a nd c ol or of l i ght m a y ha ve a s t r onge r i nf l ue nc e on t he dr e s s i ng r oom s t a t e s of a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e S pe c i f i c a l l y, f ur t he r s t udy s houl d i nve s t i ga t e t he e f f e c t of l i ght i ng d i r e c t i on on a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e a l ong w i t h t he c um u l a t i ve i nf l ue nc e o f ot he r ke y va r i a bl e s i n a hol i s t i c m ode l a s ha ve ot he r r e t a i l r e s e a r c he r s ( T ur l e y & B ol t on 1999 ) T he ove r a l l dr e s s i ng r oom e nvi r onm e nt m a y be pe r c e i v e d a s a w hol e l i ke i n G e s t a l t t he o r y ( L a ue r & P e nt a k, 2000) I ns t e a d of f oc us i ng on i ndi vi dua l e n vi r onm e nt a l di m e ns i ons t he s hoppe r e va l ua t e s t he e nt i r e e nvi r onm e nt a s one a nd f oc us e s on pe r c e pt i ons of t he m s e l ve s a nd of t he c l ot he s unl e s s one f a c t or i s m a r ke dl y out of ba l a nc e or vi e w e d a s w r ong or out o f pl a c e L i gh t i n g P e r c e p t i on L i ght i ng p r ope r t i e s l i ke c ol o r t e m pe r a t u r e c ol or r e nde r i ng i nde x, a nd i l l um i na t i on l e ve l ha ve be e n s how n t o a f f e c t s ki n pe r c e pt i on ( Q ue l l m a n & B oyc e 2002; V e i t c h e t a l 2006, 2002 ) a nd c ol or pe r c e pt i on ( D i a z e t a l 1998; R i c h & J a l i j a l i 1995 ) w h i c h a r e bot h ke y t o t he d r e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e ( R e a 2000) H ow e ve r c o l or t e m pe r a t ur e c ol o r r e nde r i ng i nde x, a nd 64

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i l l um i na t i on l e ve l w e r e he l d c ons t a nt i n t hi s s t udy i n or de r t o m e a s ur e t he uni que e f f e c t s of l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a l ong ke y va r i a bl e s I n or de r t o d e t e r m i ne i f t he s e e l e m e nt s w e r e a ppr opr i a t e l y c ont r ol l e d, ot he r l i ght i ng di m e ns i ons w e r e a l s o m e a s ur e d. A s e xpe c t e d, t he c ont r ol s w e r e s uf f i c i e nt a nd t he r e w e r e no s t a t i s t i c a l di f f e r e nc e s i n how w a r m / c ool t he l i ght i ng w a s w hi c h i s de t e r m i ne d by t he c ol or t e m pe r a t ur e of l i ght o r ho w di m / br i ght a nd ha z y/ c r i s p t he l i ght i ng w a s a s i nf l ue nc e d by t he l i ght i ng i l l um i na t i on l e ve l H ow e ve r i n t hi s s t udy t w o di f f e r e nt l i ght s our c e s w e r e us e d. F r ont a l l i ght i ng w a s c r e a t e d us i ng a f l uor e s c e nt s our c e ( 3000K ) a nd ove r he a d l i ght i ng us i ng i nc a nde s c e nt P A R l a m ps ( 2800K ) O ne of t he c onc e r ns i n t hi s s t udy w a s c o nt r ol l i ng f or t he e f f e c t s o f t he s e di f f e r e nt l i ght i ng s our c e s but t he r e w a s no di f f e r e nc e i n t he c ol or pe r c e pt i on o f l i ght i ng i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom W i t hi n c om m e nt s onl y t w o us e r s w e r e s e ns i t i ve t o di f f e r e nc e s i n c ol o r of l i ght de s pi t e t he l a c k of s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e a l ong t he di m e ns i on c ool / w a r m O ne us e r s a i d t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng w a s t oo ye l l ow a nd a not he r s a i d t ha t t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng w a s t oo w hi t e I t m a y be t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e a t t r i but i ng t he e f f e c t s of t he l i ght i n g t o a pa r t i c ul a r a s pe c t w i t hout know i ng w hy S t r ong c om m e nt s l i ke t he s e m a y be m o r e s ubj e c t i v e r e a c t i ons t o unknow n l i ght i ng di m e ns i ons H ow e ve r f or t he qua l i t a t i ve da t a t he c ont r ol s us e d i n t hi s s t udy w e r e e f f e c t i ve a nd t he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n f l uor e s c e nt a nd i nc a nde s c e nt l i ght s our c e s di d not a ppe a r t o be not i c e d or a f f e c t a ny of t he va r i a bl e s T he i m pl i c a t i ons f o r r e t a i l e r s a nd de s i gne r s a r e t ha t w hi l e t he c ol or qua l i t y of f l uor e s c e nt l i ght i ng c ont i nue s t o i m pr ov e i t i s be c om i ng a m or e vi a bl e e ne r gy e f f i c i e nt l i ght s our c e i n r e t a i l s e t t i ngs W he n t he l i ght i ng i s c hos e n a ppr opr i a t e l y t he r e i s no r e a s on t o a s s um e t ha t i nc a nde s c e nt i s s upe r i or t o f l uor e s c e nt T he r e w a s a l s o no s t a t i s t i c a l di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n r a t i ngs of gl a r i ng / not gl a r i ng a s m i ght be e xpe c t e d f or t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng us e d i n t hi s s t udy w hi c h w a s a n uns hi e l de d l i ght s our c e i n t he 65

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pa r t i c i pa nt s f i e l d of vi s i on or e ve n f o r ove r he a d l i ght i ng, due t o t he s ha pe of t he P A R l a m p. T hough s om e us e r s c om m e nt e d t ha t t he f r ont a l l i g ht i ng w a s m or e i nt e n s e a nd o ne us e r c om m e nt e d i t ga ve he r a he a da c he f r ont a l l i ght i ng di d not s e e m t o pr oduc e a ny di r e c t gl a r e H ow e ve r i f a di f f e r e nt s a m pl e w e r e t a ke n w i t h ol d e r s hoppe r s gl a r e m i ght ha ve a m or e pr onounc e d e f f e c t on t he s hoppe r L i gh t i n g P r e f e r e n c e T he I E S N A s ugge s t s a c om bi na t i on of f r ont a l a nd ove r he a d l i ght i ng i s be s t w hi l e m a ny de s i gne r s i n t he f i e l d be l i e ve t ha t f r ont a l l i ght i ng i s pr e f e r a bl e t o ove r he a d l i ght i ng f i e l d ( A l l D r e s s e d U p, 2006; O s bor n, 2000, 36; R e a 2000 ; W i l s on, 2007 ) T h i s s t udy e va l u a t e d t he m s e pa r a t e l y s i nc e no s t udy ha s i nve s t i ga t e d how us e r s vi e w l i ght i ng di r e c t i on s e pa r a t e l y. B e f or e c ons um e r s w e r e onl y a s ke d w ha t di m e ns i ons of t h e dr e s s i ng r oom t he y w oul d pr e f e r t h r ough phone i nt e r vi e w s w hi c h de pe nds on t he r e l i a bi l i t y of c ons um e r r e c a l l ( T he pe r f e c t f i t 2007) A s ki ng pe opl e w hi l e t he y a r e i n a n a c t ua l r e t a i l s e t t i ng c a n he l p i m pr ove r e l i a bi l i t y. T hi s s t udy s ought t o e xpl or e w hi c h l i ght i ng c ondi t i on w oul d be r a t e d hi ghe r w i t hout a s ki ng us e r s t o s i m ul t a ne ous l y c om pa r e t he t w o. I n s t e a d, t w o s e pa r a t e gr oups w e r e a s ke d t o e va l ua t e e a c h c ondi t i on i nde pe nde nt l y. D e s pi t e a n i ndus t r y pr e di l e c t i on f or f r ont a l l i ght i n g, qua nt i t a t i ve m e t hods us e d i n t he c ur r e nt s t udy di d not r e ve a l a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s t r ong p r e f e r e nc e f or e i t he r l i ght i ng di r e c t i on. Y e t s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s w r i t t e n c om m e nt s a l i gne d m o r e c l os e l y w i t h r e t a i l a nd de s i gn pr o f e s s i ona l s s uppos i t i ons O ve r a l l t he r e w e r e m o r e pos i t i ve c o m m e nt s on f r on t a l l i ght i ng a nd m o r e ne ga t i ve c om m e nt s on ove r he a d l i ght i ng A s w e l l s hoppe r s f oc us i ng on t he e nvi r onm e nt m a de s i gni f i c a nt l y m or e ne ga t i ve c om m e nt s on ove r he a d l i ght i ng. T h i s i ndi c a t e s t ha t l i ght i ng di r e c t i on, a s a pa r t o f t he e nvi r onm e nt di d a f f e c t p a r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i ons of t he e nvi r onm e nt 66

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O ve r he a d l i ght i ng ha s a ne ga t i ve e f f e c t on t he pe r c e pt i on of t he ove r a l l e nvi r onm e nt a nd i s pe r c e i ve d c ons i de r a bl y m or e ne ga t i ve l y t ha n f r on t a l l i ght i ng. C ons um e r s w ho f oc us e d on t he i r a ppe a r a nc e i n t he e nvi r onm e nt s how e d a c l e a r pr e f e r e nc e f or f r ont a l l i ght i ng. I t a ppe a r s t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s pr e f e r r e d f r ont a l l i ght i ng t o ove r he a d l i ght i ng. H ow e ve r s om e ne ga t i ve c om m e nt s on ove r he a d l i ght i ng f oc us e d on t h e he a t i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom s N o t e m pe r a t ur e r e a di ngs w e r e t a k e n but t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng s e e m e d t o pr oduc e m or e he a t be c a us e i nc a nde s c e nt P A R l a m ps ge ne r a t e m or e he a t t ha n f l uo r e s c e nt l a m ps ( R e a 2000) T h i s c oul d ha ve a f f e c t e d t he r e s ul t s c ons i de r i ng t ha t of t he 66 ( 100% ) ge ne r a l a t m os phe r e c om m e nt phr a s e s s e ve n ( 21% ) c om m e nt phr a s e s w e r e on t he he a t i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom P r e vi ous l y, onl y t w o s t udi e s ha ve l ooke d s pe c i f i c a l l y a t l i ght i ng di r e c t i on pr e f e r e nc e F l ynn ( 1977 ) e xa m i ne d l i gh t i ng p r e f e r e nc e s i n ge n e r a l i nt e r i or s e t t i ngs us i ng di f f e r e nt l i gh t i ng c om pos i t i ons C ha yut s a ha ki j ( 1998) i nve s t i ga t e d r e t a i l l i ght i ng d i r e c t i on p r e f e r e nc e s on t he m a i n s a l e s f l oor c om pa r i ng s i m pl e di r e c t dow nw a r d l i gh t i ng w i t h m o r e dyna m i c l i ght i ng c om pos i t i ons F l ynn ( 1977 ) f ound t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s pr e f e r pe r i phe r a l une ve n l i ght i ng. F l ynn us e d pi c t or i a l r e pr e s e nt a t i ons a nd e xa m i ne d p r e f e r e nc e s i n ge ne r a l r a t he r t ha n s pe c i f i c e nvi r onm e nt s T he c ur r e nt s t udy s f i ndi ngs o f f e r w e a k ( pr e l i m i na r y) a f f i r m a t i on of F l ynn s c onc l us i ons be c a us e of t he di f f e r e nt ne e ds of dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng a s i ndi c a t e d by t he I E S N A ( R e a 2000 ) F ur t he r m or e t he c om pl e x l i ght i ng c om pos i t i ons u s e d i n F l ynn s ( 1977) s t udy a r e not di r e c t l y c om pa r a bl e t o t he s t r a i ght f o r w a r d l i gh t i ng us e d i n t hi s s t udy, f r ont a l a nd ove r he a d. I n c ont r a s t C ha yut s a ha ki j ( 1998) f ound c ons um e r s pr e f e r s i m pl e dow nw a r d l i ght i ng i n r e t a i l s e t t i ngs t o m o r e s pot t y a nd dr a m a t i c l i gh t i ng. T hough C ha yut s a ha ki j s ( 1998 ) s t udy w a s 67

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c onduc t e d i n a r e t a i l s e t t i ng, t he r e s ul t s a r e no t di r e c t l y c om pa r a bl e t o l i ght i ng p r e f e r e nc e i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom I t a l s o us e d pi c t o r i a l r e p r e s e nt a t i ons r a t he r t ha n r e a l s e t t i ngs T he c ur r e nt s t udy a s ke d pa r t i c i pa nt s t o e va l ua t e t w o l i ght i ng c ondi t i o ns i nde pe nde nt l y of e a c h ot he r w he r e e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt w a s e xpos e d t o onl y one c ondi t i on, w h e r e a s C ha yut s a ha ki j ( 1998) a s ke d us e r s t o r a nk a l l s c e na r i os i n r e l a t i on t o e a c h ot he r T he f i ndi ngs o f t hi s s t udy r e ve a l no pr e f e r e nc e f or one or t he ot he r l i ght i ng di r e c t i on w he n c om pa r e d be t w e e n t w o i nde pe nde nt s a m pl e s us i ng qua nt i t a t i ve m e t hods i n a c t ua l dr e s s i ng r oom s T he r e a r e s om e s t r ong di f f e r e nc e s i n t he m e t hods of t hi s s t udy a nd t hos e of F l ynn ( 1977) a nd C ha yut s a ha ki j ( 1998) T he y us e d pi c t o r i a l r e p r e s e nt a t i ons ; t h e c ur r e nt s t udy us e d a c t ua l e nvi r onm e nt s w i t h s hoppe r s i n t he f i e l d T he i r s t ud i e s a l s o a s ke d us e r s t o c om pa r e or r a nk di f f e r e nt c ondi t i ons s i de by s i de ; t hi s s t udy a s ke d pa r t i c i pa nt s t o r a t e on l y one l i ght i ng c ondi t i on i n a r e a l dr e s s i ng r oom i n t he f i e l d. F l ynn us e d ge ne r a l i nt e r i or s pa c e s a nd C ha yut s a ha ki j l ooke d a t r e t a i l e nvi r onm e nt s ; t he c ur r e nt s t udy a ddr e s s e d dr e s s i ng r oom s D r e s s i ng r oom s m a y be unl i ke a ny pr e vi ous l y s t ud i e d s pa c e R e qu i r e m e nt s of t he dr e s s i ng r oom e nc om pa s s ne e ds f or vi s ua l c l a r i t y e xpe r i e nt i a l qua l i t y, a nd c onve ni e nc e ( R e a 2000) C om pa r i ng f i ndi ngs i n d r e s s i ng r oom s w i t h f i ndi ngs i n di f f e r e nt s pa c e s us i ng di f f e r e nt m e t hods i s di f f i c ul t H ow e ve r s hoppe r s m a y not r e a d i l y pe r c e i ve a ny di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n c ondi t i ons w he n not c om pa r i ng t he m s i de by s i de a nd w he n not m a de a w a r e of t he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he m I ndi vi dua l s m a y a l s o pr e f e r di f f e r e nt l i ght i ng o r l i g ht i ng m a y i m pa c t pe opl e i n d i f f e r e nt w a ys F or i ns t a nc e t houg h s om e s a i d t ha t t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng m a de t he m l ook ba d, ot he r s s a i d i t m a de t he m l ook good T he s a m e w a s obs e r ve d f or f r ont a l l i ght i ng. A l s o, s om e pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng c ondi t i on s a i d t ha t t he y l i ke d t h e l i ght i ng a nd ot he r s s ugge s t e d ove r he a d 68

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l i ght i ng w oul d be be t t e r O t he r pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng c ondi t i on s a i d t he y l i ke t he l i ght i ng a nd s om e s ugge s t e d f r ont a l l i ght i ng w oul d be be t t e r T he a bi l i t y of c ons um e r s t o r e a di l y pe r c e i ve di f f e r e n c e s a m ong qua l i t y l i ght i ng s our c e s m a y be m uc h l ow e r t ha n p r e vi ous l y be l i e ve d a nd o bvi ous l y r e qui r e s m or e r e s e a r c h. H ow e ve r c om m e nt s do r e ve a l s om e s e ns i t i vi t y t o t he e f f e c t s of l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a nd a p r e f e r e nc e f o r f r ont a l l i gh t i ng. T he m a j or i t y of ove r he a d l i ght i ng c om m e nt s phr a s e s w e r e ne ga t i ve w he r e a s t he m a j or i t y of f r ont a l l i ght i ng c om m e nt s w e r e pos i t i ve S om e pa r t i c i pa nt s ha d ve r y s t r ong c om m e nt s on t he c ondi t i ons e ve n t hough a l a r ge n um be r of pa r t i c i pa nt s ha d m o r e ne ut r a l r e a c t i ons t o l i ght i ng H ow e ve r ba s e d on t he num b e r s pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy pr e f e r f r on t a l l i ght i ng. T he f i ndi ngs s ugge s t t ha t i f de s i gne r s ha ve t o m a ke a c hoi c e be t w e e n f r ont a l or ove r he a d l i ght i ng, t he y s houl d de f a ul t t o f r ont a l l i g ht i ng unl e s s t he y c a n us e bot h. H ow e ve r not a l l c ons um e r s a gr e e a nd c ons um e r pr e f e r e nc e s m a y be c om pl e x a nd pe r s ona l i n na t u r e H ow e ve r s hoppe r s w ho t r a di t i ona l l y l a m e nt on po or ove r he a d l i gh t i ng m a y be r e a c t i ng m or e t o poo r c ol o r r e nde r i n g or t o d i f f e r e nc e s i n c ol or t e m pe r a t ur e r a t he r t ha n t he l i ght i ng di r e c t i on. I n t hi s s t udy t he l i ght i ng s c ol o r r e nde r i ng a nd c ol or t e m pe r a t ur e w e r e c ont r ol l e d t o l i m i t t he s e va r i a bl e s e f f e c t s a nd no di f f e r e nc e s w e r e obs e r ve d a l ong a ny d i m e ns i ons of l i ght i ng pr e f e r e nc e L i ght i ng p r e f e r e nc e m a y be m or e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ot he r l i ght i ng di m e ns i ons s u c h a s i l l um i na t i on l e ve l s c ol or t e m pe r a t u r e a nd c ol or r e nde r i ng a bi l i t y I n s um m a r y, t he m e t hods us e d i n t hi s s t udy t o a s s e s s l i ght i ng pr e f e r e nc e a r e unl i ke pr e vi ous s t udi e s s i de by s i de c om pa r i s ons a nd t he r e f or e m a ke t he r e s ul t s di f f i c ul t t o c om pa r e O t he r s t udi e s ge ne r a l l y s ol i c i t e d di r e c t c om pa r i s ons a nd r a nki ngs of s our c e s r a t he r t ha n a s ki ng us e r s t o r a t e onl y one r e a l w o r l d c ondi t i on w i t hout r e f e r e nc e t o a not he r P r e vi ous f i ndi ngs o f pr e f e r e nc e a r e de pe nda nt upon s e l f r e por t e d pr e f e r e nc e s w hi c h do not a l w a ys r e f l e c t a c t ua l 69

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e f f e c t I n t hi s s t udy w he n l ooki ng a t t he i ndi vi dua l a s s e s s m e nt of s our c e s t he r e w a s no qua nt i t a t i ve s uppor t f o r f r ont a l l i ght i ng p r e f e r e nc e H ow e ve r t he r e w a s s t r ong qua l i t a t i ve s uppor t f or f r on t a l l i ght i ng S e l f E val u at i on s of F ac i al a n d B od y A p p e ar an c e D i f f e r e nc e s i n l i ght i ng di r e c t i on c a n i nf l ue nc e pe r s ona l e va l ua t i on, a nd i n a n o f f i c e s e t t i ng ove r he a d l i ght i ng i s s upe r i or f or f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e ( V e i t c h e t a l 2006 ) L i ght i ng c a n a l s o a f f e c t c om pl e xi on pe r c e pt i on ( Q ue l l m a n & B oyc e 2002; V e i t c h e t a l 2002 ) a nd ove r he a d l i ght i ng c a n c r e a t e ha r s h s ha dow s on t he f a c e a nd body ( R e a 2000 ) T he I E S N A r e c om m e nds t he us e of f r ont a l l i ght i ng w i t h ove r he a d l i gh t i ng t o pr ope r l y m ode l f a c e s a nd r e duc e ha r s h s ha dow s ( R e a 2000) A l t ho ugh f a c i a l a nd body a p pe a r a nc e i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom i s i m po r t a nt no s t udy ha s l ooke d a t how l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t s pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e i n t hi s s pa c e T hi s s t udy m e a s ur e d f a c i a l a nd body a ppe a r a nc e i n or de r t o u nde r s t a nd how l i ght i ng di r e c t i on m i ght a f f e c t pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e r a t i ngs i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom D e s pi t e a s t r ong a s s um pt i on t ha t l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t s phys i c a l a ppe a r a nc e t he r e w a s no s t a t i s t i c a l di f f e r e nc e f r om l i ght i ng di r e c t i on f o r f a c i a l or body a ppe a r a nc e A l ong a l l s ub di m e ns i ons e xc e pt one t he r e w e r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he t w o l i gh t i ng c ondi t i ons L i ght i ng di r e c t i on ha d a n e f f e c t on one i t e m i n t he f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e s c a l e ha r s h s ha dow s / no s ha dow s ( p = 0. 003 ) A s e xpe c t e d, t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng gr oup e xpe r i e nc e d f e w e r ha r s h s ha dow s t ha n t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng gr oup w hi c h s uppor t s t he I E S N A s r e c om m e nda t i ons D e s pi t e t he l ow l e ve l of s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e obs e r ve d be t w e e n f a c i a l a nd body a ppe a r a nc e a nd l i ght i ng di r e c t i on i n t he qua nt i t a t i v e da t a t he qu a l i t a t i ve da t a r e ve a l e d t ha t c ons um e r s a r e a w a r e of t he e f f e c t s of l i ght i ng di r e c t i on on pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e C om m e nt s l i ke t hos e i n A ppe ndi x H r e f l e c t a s e ns i t i vi t y t o t he p os i t i ve e f f e c t s of f r on t a l l i ght i ng a s r e ga r ds 70

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f a c i a l a nd body a ppe a r a nc e H ow e ve r pa r t i c i pa nt s i n bot h l i ght i ng di r e c t i ons ha d bo t h pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve c om m e nt s on t he l i ght i ng s e f f e c t T he c om m e nt s a l s o hi ghl i ght e d pa r t i c i pa nt s e ns i t i v i t y t o i nc r e a s e d s ha dow i ng i n t he ove r he a d c ondi t i on. B ut de s pi t e i nc r e a s e d s ha dow i ng t he r e w a s no c l e a r pr e f e r e nc e f or one or t he ot he r i n r e ga r ds t o pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e e ve n t hou gh c om m e nt s of t e n hi gh l i ght e d pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e i s s ue s a nd obs e r va t i ons T hough qua l i t a t i ve da t a of f e r i ns i ght s t ha t hu m a ni z e t he pe r s ona l dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e qua n t i t a t i ve da t a s t i l l r e ve a l e d no de f i ni t i ve c onne c t i on. T he l a c k of s t a t i s t i c a l di f f e r e nc e f r om l i ght i ng di r e c t i on on f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e c onf l i c t s w i t h pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h w he r e l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t e d how pos i t i ve l y pe opl e r a t e d f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e i n a n of f i c e s e t t i ng ( V e i t c h e t a l 2006 ) F ur ni t ur e m ount e d l i gh t i ng r e s ul t e d i n l ow e r r a t i ngs of f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e t ha n di d ove r he a d c e i l i ng m ount e d l i ght i ng. H ow e ve r pe r c e pt i ons o f of f i c e l i ght i ng c a nnot r e a di l y be c om pa r e d t o d r e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng a nd t he e f f e c t s of f ur ni t u r e m ount e d l i ght i ng a r e not ne c e s s a r i l y t a nt a m ount t o t hos e of d r e s s i ng r oom f r ont a l l i ght i ng. D i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t hi s a nd pr e vi ous f i ndi ngs m a y be due t o va r i a t i ons i n s t udy s e t t i ng, t he m e t hodol ogy, a nd t he m ount i ng t e c hni que s us e d. A s w e l l t he r e s e e m s t o be no s hoppe r s e ns i t i vi t y t o di f f e r e nc e s i n l i ght i ng di r e c t i on o r s o ur c e w he n us e r s a r e no t a s ke d t o e va l ua t e t he s our c e of t he l i ght i ng o r t o c om pa r e t w o s our c e s b ut r a t he r t o r a t e one l i ght i ng c ondi t i on i n a r e a l w or l d s e t t i ng T he s e f i ndi ngs a l s o c ont r a di c t pe r c e pt i ons of l i gh t i ng di r e c t i on by bot h l i ght i ng a ut hor i t i e s ( R e a 2000) a nd l i ght i ng de s i gn p r of e s s i ona l s ( A l l D r e s s e d U p, 2006 ; T he pe r f e c t f i t 2007; W i l s on, 2007 ) a nd do not c onf i r m t he i ndus t r y pe r c e pt i on t ha t l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t s body a ppe a r a nc e ( A l l D r e s s e d U p, 2006; T he pe r f e c t f i t 2007; R e a 2000; W i l s on, 2007 ) O f c our s e t he s e a s s um pt i ons ha ve ne ve r be e n t e s t e d be f or e a nd a r e t he i m p r e s s i ons of de s i gne r s a nd 71

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r e t a i l e r s w ho pa y m o r e di r e c t a t t e nt i on t o e nvi r on m e nt a l c ue s a s a pr of e s s i ona l ne c e s s i t y a nd t he r e f or e m a y be c ons i de r e d non s c r e e ne r s w ho a s a r e s ul t of t r a i ni ng not i c e m or e a bout t he e nvi r onm e nt ( M e hr a bi a n, 1977) A c t ua l c ons um e r s i n r e a l s e t t i ngs m a y be l e s s a f f e c t e d by o r s e ns i t i ve t o di f f e r e nc e s i n l i gh t i ng di r e c t i on w he n not di r e c t l y c om pa r i ng t he m a nd t he e f f e c t s m a y be m uc h s m a l l e r t ha n pr e vi ous l y s uppos e d. T he di f f e r e nc e i n s ha dow i ng doe s s uppor t t he i ndu s t r y pe r c e i ve d e f f e c t s of ove r he a d l i ght i ng ( A l l D r e s s e d U p, 2006 ) w hi c h i s a s s um e d t o c r e a t e m o r e dr a m a t i c s ha dow s t ha t c a n a f f e c t f a c i a l a nd body a ppe a r a nc e ( R e a 2000 ) H o w e ve r l i ght i ng di r e c t i on w a s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt t o ot he r f a c i a l a nd body a ppe a r a nc e s c a l e i t e m s L i ght i ng d i r e c t i on s e f f e c t s on s ha dow i ng a ppe a r t o be a un i que a n d s pe c i f i c out c om e P e opl e m a y e i t he r be a bl e t o ove r l ook t he e f f e c t s w he n j udgi ng t he e xpe r i e nc e o r m a y f oc us on di f f e r e nt va r i a bl e s t ha t ha ve a hi ghe r l e ve l of e f f e c t on pe r c e pt i on, pr e f e r e nc e a nd e xpe r i e nc e P e r s ona l va r i a bl e s m a y a l s o be i m por t a nt but i t i s unc l e a r how i m por t a nt t he y a r e or how t he y a f f e c t t he ove r a l l e xpe r i e nc e ba s e d on t h e qua nt i t a t i ve r e s ul t s T he i m po r t a nc e of f a c i a l r e nde r i ng a nd s ha dow i ng ne e ds t o be a s s e s s e d or r a nke d a ga i ns t ot he r va r i a bl e s i n f ut ur e s t udi e s J us t a s t he r e w a s no a s s oc i a t i on m e a s ur e d be t w e e n l i ght i ng d i r e c t i on a nd ge ne r a l f a c i a l a nd body a ppe a r a nc e t he e f f e c t s of l i ght i ng di r e c t i on ha d no e f f e c t on t he pos i t i ve o r ne ga t i ve e va l ua t i on of s ki n t one A nc i l l a r y t o t he m a i n e f f e c t t he di f f e r e nt l i ght i ng s our c e s f l uo r e s c e nt f r ont a l a nd i nc a nde s c e nt ove r he a d, a l s o ha d no e f f e c t on c om pl e xi on a ppe a r a nc e T hi s i s de s pi t e c om m on pe r c e pt i on a nd p r e vi ous r e s e a r c h t ha t f l u or e s c e nt l i ght i ng a f f e c t s s ki n t one pe r c e pt i on a nd i s not pr e f e r r e d t o i nc a nde s c e nt s our c e s ( Q ue l l m a n & B oyc e 2002; V e i t c h e t a l 2002) T he l a c k of e f f e c t f r o m l i ght i ng c ol or on s ki n t one pe r c e pt i on s ugge s t s t ha t t he c ol or t e m pe r a t ur e w a s e f f e c t i ve l y c ont r ol l e d i n t hi s s t udy F u r t he r m or e d i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t hi s s t udy a nd ot he r 72

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l i t e r a t ur e m a y be t ha t u s e r s w e r e pr e vi ous l y a s ke d t o r a t e t he s ki n on t he ba c k of t he i r ha nd i n a l a bor a t or y s e t t i ng w he r e a s t hi s s t udy a s ke d us e r s t o e va l ua t e t he i r s ki n c ol or t h r ough t he m i r r or T hi s s t udy r e qui r e d a l e s s di r e c t e va l ua t i on of s ki n t one t o r e ve a l no s t r ong e f f e c t f r om l i ght i ng di r e c t i on or bi a s f r om t he i nc a nde s c e nt or f l uor e s c e nt s our c e s V e r y f e w c om m e nt s w e r e m a de on how t he l i ght i n g a f f e c t e d s ki n t one but oc c ur r e d e qua l l y i n e a c h l i ght i ng c ondi t i on ( A ppe ndi x H ) O ne w om a n c om m e nt e d t ha t f r ont a l l i ght i ng m a de m e l ook l i ke m y s ki n ha d a he a l t hy g l ow A l s o, m y e ye s l ooke d a m a z i ng T he onl y ot he r pe r s on t o m e nt i on s ki n pe r c e pt i on w a s i n t he ove r h e a d l i ght i ng c ondi t i on a nd s a i d G ood f or s ki n t one S ha dow s not t oo ba d on c e l l ul i t e C ont r a di c t i ons w i t hi n c om m e nt s a nd t he l a c k of a s t r ong pr e f e r e nc e m a y be i ndi c a t i ve o f t he uni que e f f e c t l i ght i ng ha s on di f f e r e nt pe opl e T hough l i ght i ng c a n be c r e a t e d t o s ui t a m a j or i t y i t m a y no t ha ve t he s a m e e f f e c t f or e ve r yone a l ong di m e ns i ons of pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e N ot a l l pe opl e m a y ha ve t he s a m e pr e f e r e nc e s f o r or pe r c e pt i ons of l i ght i ng di r e c t i on M os t pa r t i c i pa nt s di d not c om m e nt on s ki n t o ne s ugge s t i ng t ha t us e r s do not f oc us on t he i r s ki n c ol or w i t hi n t he dr e s s i ng r oom I ns t e a d, ot he r a s pe c t s of pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e s e e m t o be of g r e a t e r i m por t a nc e P a r t i c i pa nt c om m e nt s r e ve a l e d t ha t pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e i s a ke y f oc us i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom C om m e nt s on a t t r a c t i ve ne s s or s l e nde r ne s s ( n= 12) a nd s ha dow i ng ( n= 5 ) hi ghl i ght t he i m por t a nc e of pe r s ona l e va l ua t i ons H ow e ve r w he n pa r t i c i pa nt s m e nt i one d s ha dow s t he y di d not e xpa nd on how i t a f f e c t e d t h e i r a ppe a r a nc e r a t i ngs O nl y one w om a n not e d t ha t ove r he a d l i ght i ng c a us e d s ha dow s unde r he r e ye s A not he r w om a n i n t he s a m e l i gh t i ng c ondi t i on not e d t ha t i t di d not m a ke he r c e l l u l i t e l o ok t oo ba d. I t m a y be t ha t t he s ur ve y p r i m e d t he m t o not i c e s ha dow i ng or i nve s t i ga t e pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e r a t i ngs a l ong pr e vi ous l y m e nt i one d di m e ns i ons A m or e qua l i t a t i ve e xpl or a t i on of dr e s s i ng r oom t hought pr oc e s s e s m i ght pr oduc e a 73

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c l e a r e r unde r s t a ndi ng of how i m po r t a nt pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e i s w i t hi n t he d r e s s i ng r oom a nd how di f f e r e nt a s pe c t of t he l i ght i ng a f f e c t t h i s Y e t s ha dow i ng m a y ha ve c a us e d us e r s t o be unc o m f or t a bl e o r a nxi ous de s pi t e l a c k of s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e f or t he w o r d pa i r u nc om f or t a bl e / c om f or t a bl e S ha dow i ng s e r ve d a s a ki nd of gl a r e t ha t c a us e d pe opl e t o m ove a r ound t o f i nd t he be s t l i ght i ng. T hough s ha dow i ng di d not a f f e c t t he qua nt i t a t i ve r a t i ngs of f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e t w o pa r t i c i pa nt s di d s a y t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng c a us e d s ha dow s on t he f a c e O t he r s m e nt i one d t ha t t he ove r he a d l i gh t i ng r e qui r e d t he m t o s t e p ba c k or s t a nd ba c k f r om t he m i r r o r ( n= 3 ) A ddi t i ona l pa r t i c i pa nt s m e nt i one d t ha t unde r t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng c ondi t i on t he y c oul d not s t a nd t oo c l os e t o t he m i r r o r ( n= 2) I ns t e a d of a f f e c t i ng f a c i a l a ppe a r a nc e i m pr ope r l y l oc a t e d ov e r he a d l i ght i ng m a y c a us e us e r s t o w a s t e t i m e f i ndi ng a s ui t a bl e pos i t i on or a ngl e f r om w hi c h t o e va l ua t e t he pr oduc t a nd s e l f T he f oc us on t he c l ot he s i s l os t a nd i nt e r r up t s t he e xpe r i e nt i a l qua l i t y r e t a i l e r s a r e t r yi ng t o a t t a i n i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom N e ut r a l a t m os phe r i c s a nd e ve n good a t m os phe r i c s a l l ow t he us e r t o e va l ua t e t he p r oduc t a nd s e l f w hi l e goi ng unnot i c e d; w he r e a s ne ga t i ve a t m os phe r i c s pr oduc e a n i nt e r r up t i on t ha t c a n c a us e u s e r s t o a voi d or p r e m a t ur e l y r e t r e a t f r om t h e e xpe r i e nc e ( D onova n & R os s i t e r 1994) T hi s i s e vi de nc e d by one pa r t i c i pa nt s c om m e nt t h a t t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng m a de he r ge t ve r y a nnoye d a nd [ not ] w a nt t o t r y t hi ngs on. A not he r pa r t i c i pa nt i n t he f r on t a l l i ght i ng c ondi t i on s a i d T oo br i ght I c a n t s t a y l ong t i m e a nd I don t w a nt t o t r y m uc h. I n s um m a r y, ove r he a d l i ght i ng doe s pr oduc e m or e not i c e a bl e s ha dow s on t he f a c e a nd body t ha n doe s f r o nt a l l i ght i ng m e a ni ng f r ont a l l i ght i ng i s s upe r i or t o ove r he a d l i ght i ng w he n t he pr i m a r y pur pos e i s t o e l i m i na t e f a c i a l s ha dow i ng. T h i s s uppor t s t he r e c om m e nda t i ons o f t he I E S N A a nd ot he r l i ght i ng de s i gne r s t o us e f r ont a l l i ght i ng s i nc e ove r he a d l i ght i ng pr oduc e s ha r s h s ha dow s H ow e ve r a l ong di m e ns i ons of pr e f e r e nc e a nd body a ppe a r a nc e t he r e w a s no 74

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gr e a t s t a t i s t i c a l di f f e r e nc e T hi s m e a ns t ha t t hough ove r he a d a nd f r ont a l l i ght i ng pr oduc e di f f e r e nt l e ve l s o f s ha dow i ng on t he f a c e a nd b ody t he y ha ve a n i s ol a t e d e f f e c t t ha t doe s not a ppe a r t o t r a ns l a t e i nt o di f f e r e nc e s i n pr e f e r e nc e or pe r s ona l a ppr a i s a l s H ow e ve r qua l i t a t i ve r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e f r ont a l l i ght i ng i s s upe r i or T hough qua nt i t a t i ve s c a l e s m a y be i ns e ns i t i ve t o di f f e r e nc e s i n s e l f e va l ua t i ons qua l i t a t i ve da t a p r o duc e d a m uc h r i c he r i l l us t r a t i on of t he i r di f f e r e nt e f f e c t s T hi s m a y m e a n t ha t t hough c ons um e r s not i c e a di f f e r e nc e a nd p r e f e r f r ont a l l i ght i ng t he y a r e una bl e t o qua nt i f y t he e f f e c t s a l ong s e t s c a l e s W i t hi n qua nt i t a t i ve r e s ul t s c ons um e r s m a y e i t he r be l e s s a t t une d t o e ve n l a r ge di f f e r e nc e s i n l i ght i ng d i r e c t i on a nd qua l i t y or c ons um e r s a r e a bl e t o ove r l ook di f f e r e nc e s of l i ght i ng i n l i e u of m or e i m por t a nt f a c t or s i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e D r e s s i n g R oom E val u at i on s T he ove r a l l e nvi r onm e nt ha s be e n know n t o a f f e c t how pe opl e pe r c e i ve ot he r t hi ng s a nd pr oduc t s ( G a r dne r & S i om kos 1985; O be r m i l l e r & B i t ne r 1984 ) or pe opl e ( M a s l ow & M i nt z 1956) oc c upyi ng a s pa c e L i ght i ng i s one e l e m e nt w i t hi n t he e nvi r on m e nt t ha t a f f e c t s pe r c e pt i on ( F l ynn, 1977; H e ndr i c k e t a l 1977) D r e s s i ng r oo m e va l ua t i ons w e r e m e a s ur e d i n o r de r t o unde r s t a nd how l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t s di f f e r e nt e l e m e nt s w i t hi n t he e nvi r onm e nt m uc h t he s a m e w a y a s t he e nvi r onm e nt a f f e c t s t he e va l ua t i o n of pe opl e or p r oduc t s i n a s pa c e H ow e ve r t he r e w a s no s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e be t w e e n l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a nd t he ove r a l l dr e s s i ng r oom c ondi t i ons or a l ong s pe c i f i c d i m e ns i ons : c l e a nl i ne s s r oom s i z e c onve ni e nc e pr i va c y, qua l i t y o r m a i nt e na nc e C om m e nt s a l s o r e ve a l e d l i ght i ng di r e c t i on ha d no e f f e c t on dr e s s i ng r oom qua l i t y pe r c e pt i on a nd c om m e nt s o n dr e s s i ng r oom c ondi t i ons oc c ur r e d e qua l l y w i t hi n e a c h gr oup T he m a j or i t y of va r i a bl e s l i s t e d a bove ha s not be e n r e s e a r c he d f or t he i r r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h l i ght i ng but a r e i m po r t a nt t o t he dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e ( T he pe r f e c t f i t 75

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2007) H ow e ve r t h r e e va r i a bl e s ha ve be e n s t udi e d f or t he i r r e l a t i ons hi p t o l i ght i ng di r e c t i on. T he s e a r e s pa c i ous ne s s r oom s i z e a nd pr i va c y T he m os t i nt e r e s t i ng f i ndi ng w a s t he c ont r a di c t i on be t w e e n pe r c e i ve d di f f e r e nc e s i n r oom i ne s s ve r s us no pe r c e i ve d di f f e r e nc e i n a c t ua l r oom s i z e L i ght i ng di r e c t i on ha d a s i gni f i c a nt i m pa c t on how c r a m pe d/ r oom y but no t on how s m a l l / l a r ge t he s pa c e a ppe a r e d. T hi s s i gni f i e s t ha t t he f r ont a l l i t dr e s s i ng r oom a ppe a r e d r oom i e r t o us e r s t ha n di d t he ove r he a d l i t dr e s s i ng r oom H ow e ve r t he r e w a s no di f f e r e nc e b e t w e e n t he t w o gr oups e xpe r i e nc e s of how s m a l l or l a r ge t he s pa c e w a s T hi s s uppor t s f i ndi ngs by F l ynn ( 1977) t ha t l i ght i n g c om pos i t i on a f f e c t s pe r c e pt i on of s pa c i ous ne s s Y e t i t c ont r a di c t s t hos e of S t a m ps a n d K r i s hna n ( 2006) w ho f ound bounda r y r oughne s s doe s not ha ve a s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h t he r e po r t e d s pa c i ous ne s s of t he r oom bu t t ha t t he a c t ua l s i z e of t he r oom di c t a t e s pe r c e pt i on of s pa c i ous ne s s F l ynn ( 1977) f ound t ha t di m e ns i ons of s pa c i ous ne s s pr i va c y, v i s ua l c l a r i t y r e l a xa t i on a nd p r e f e r e nc e w e r e c o r r e l a t e d t o di r e c t i ona l qua l i t i e s of l i ght i ng l i ke di f f e r e nc e s i n pe r i phe r a l e m pha s i s or e ve nne s s T he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he s e t w o f i ndi ngs m a y be a r e s ul t of di f f e r e nt e xpe c t a t i ons ge ne r a t e d by t he que s t i on s S pa c i ous ne s s m a y be pe r c e i ve d e i t he r a s s ubj e c t i ve ( r oom i ne s s ) or a c t ua l ( s i z e ) s pa c i ous ne s s a nd t hus j udge d di f f e r e nt l y H e ndr i c k e t a l ( 1977 ) a l s o i nve s t i ga t e d t he e f f e c t of l i ght i ng di r e c t i on on s pa c i ous ne s s us i ng s i m ul a t e d m e t hods a nd r e a l s e t t i ng s t o r e ve a l t ha t pe opl e a r e s e ns i t i ve t o di f f e r e nc e s i n l i ght i ng a r r a nge m e nt s i n bot h m e t hods H ow e ve r H e ndr i c k e t a l ( 1977 ) s ugge s t e d t ha t s om e e xpe r i e nt i a l m e a s ur e s m i ght be : [ R ] e l a t i ve l y i ns e ns i t i ve t o s ubt l e va r i a t i ons i n l i gh t i ng qua l i t y. H ow e ve r t ha t doe s not m e a n t ha t t he hum a n i n t he s i t ua t i on i s i ns e ns i t i ve [ t o t he va r i a t i ons a nd] e va l ua t i ve f e e l i ngs a nd ot he r s ubj e c t i ve r e a c t i ons va r i e d w i de l y by a r r a nge m e nt s e ve n i f di f f e r e nc e s w e r e not g r e a t ( p. 509) 76

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T hough l i ght i ng doe s not a f f e c t t he pe r c e pt i on of v a r i a bl e s t he us e r m a y s t i l l be a w a r e of di f f e r e nc e s i n l i ght i ng T he f i ndi ngs of t hi s s t udy s uppor t t hi s c onc l us i on s i nc e t he qua l i t a t i ve da t a r e ve a l e d l i ght i ng d i r e c t i on ha d no i m pa c t on d r e s s i ng r oom e va l ua t i ons de s pi t e i t s pe r c e i ve d i m po r t a nc e by c ons um e r s a s w e l l a s t he s e ns i t i vi t y t o l i ght i ng di r e c t i on s e f f e c t s a s e vi de nt f r o m w r i t t e n c om m e nt s O nl y one c us t om e r c om m e nt e d t ha t l i ght i ng, t hough c l e a n a nd c r i s p, di d s how a l l t he r oom s f l a w s H ow e ve r no ot he r pa r t i c i pa nt c onne c t e d t he l i ght i ng t o t he c ondi t i on of t he dr e s s i ng r oom de s pi t e a l a r ge num be r of c om m e nt s f oc us i ng on t he c ondi t i on o f t he dr e s s i ng r oom s a l ong di m e ns i ons l i ke t e m pe r a t ur e c l e a nl i ne s s a nd a va i l a bi l i t y of c onve ni e nc e f e a t ur e s ( hooks a nd s e t t i ng) T he m os t i m por t a nt qua nt i t a t i ve f i ndi ng f or l i ght i ng pe r c e pt i on r e l a t e d t o t he pe r c e i ve d s i z e of t he d r e s s i ng r oom T he c ont r a di c t i on be t w e e n c r a m pe d/ r oom y a nd s m a l l / l a r ge m a y m e a n t ha t us e r s a r e a bl e t o j udge t he s i z e o f a s pa c e by c om pe ns a t i ng f or d i f f e r e nc e s i n l i ght i ng di r e c t i on but t ha t t he e xpe r i e nc e of t he s pa c e a l ong di m e ns i ons of r oom i ne s s i s gr e a t l y a f f e c t e d by l i ght i ng di r e c t i on T he l i ght i ng di r e c t i on s e e m s t o ha ve a s i gni f i c a nt s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h how c ons t r a i ni ng t he dr e s s i ng r oom f e e l s T hi s m a y s ugge s t t ha t r e t a i l e r s w i t h l i m i t e d s pa c e m i ght c ons i de r us i ng f r ont a l l i gh t i ng t o r e duc e t he f e e l i ng o f be i ng c r a m pe d, e ve n t hough t he s pa c e i t s e l f doe s not a ppe a r a ny l a r ge r t o t he us e r H ow e ve r s l i ght l y hi ghe r l i ght i ng l e ve l s on t he f r ont of t he b ody m a y a l s o ha ve a f f e c t e d t hi s T he f i ndi ngs o f t hi s s t udy a l i gn w i t h t hos e of F l yn n ( 1977) t ha t l i gh t i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t s s pa c i ous ne s s I n t he s a m e s t udy, F l ynn ( 1977) a l s o r e s e a r c he d t he e f f e c t s of l i ght i ng c om pos i t i on on pr i va c y. A ga i n he us e d s i m ul a t e d m e t hods t o r e ve a l t ha t l i ght i ng or i e nt a t i ons a r e r e l a t e d t o pr i va c y. H ow e ve r t he c ur r e nt s t udy f ound no di f f e r e nc e s i n t he pe r c e pt i on o f p r i va c y. T hi s m a y be be c a us e F l ynn ( 1977) i nve s t i ga t e d w ha t pe opl e pr e f e r f o r p r i va t e s i t ua t i ons d i m une ve n, 77

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pe r i phe r a l l i ght i ng w he r e a s t he c u r r e nt s t udy l ook e d a t how l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t e d pe r c e pt i on of p r i va c y a nd he va r i e d l i gh t i ng l e ve l s a nd l i ght i ng c ont r a s t w he r e a s t hi s s t udy di d not L i ght i ng l e ve l m a y be m or e i m por t a nt t o pr i va c y pe r c e pt i on ( G i f f or d 2002 ) F ur t he r m or e s oc i a l s e t t i ngs ha ve di f f e r e nt r e qui r e m e nt s f or p r i va c y t ha n t hos e o f t he dr e s s i ng r oom T he e f f e c t of l i ght i ng di r e c t i on on pr i va c y m a y not be a s i m por t a nt i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom a s i n ot he r s e t t i ngs S om e pa r t i c i pa n t s c om m e nt e d on how e xpos e d t he y f e l t be c a us e of t he l oc a t i on of t he d r e s s i ng r oom s a nd t he t hi n c ur t a i n pa r t i t i ons ( A ppe ndi x G ) D i f f e r e nt r e s ul t s m a y ha ve be e n obs e r ve d i f t he d r e s s i ng r oom s w e r e f ur t he r r e m ove d f r om t he s a l e s f l oor a nd i f t he r oom s ha d doo r s r a t he r t ha n c ur t a i ns s i nc e c ons um e r s pr e f e r door s ( T he pe r f e c t f i t 2007 ) O nl y a f t e r t he s e pr i m a r y pr i va c y r e qui r e m e nt s a r e m e t m a y l i ght i ng d i r e c t i on s how a ny r e l a t i ons hi p t o pe r c e i ve d pr i va c y. I t s e e m s t ha t di f f e r e nc e s i n t he qua l i t y of t he s pa c e a s obs e r ve d be t w e e n t he t w o t e s t gr oups w e r e not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt a nd t ha t o ve r he a d l i t a nd f r ont a l l i t dr e s s i ng r oom s do not di f f e r i n t he i r pe r c e i ve d qua l i t y e xc e pt a l ong di m e ns i ons of r oom i ne s s T h i s e f f e c t i s s uppor t e d by pr e vi ous l i t e r a t ur e H ow e ve r i t i s un c l e a r how t hi s di f f e r e nc e a f f e c t s t he dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e i f a t a l l a nd f ur t he r r e s e a r c h i s n e e de d. A ddi t i ona l l y, o t he r ke y pe r s ona l va r i a bl e s m a y be a f f e c t i ng t he pe r c e pt i on of a nd t h e pr e f e r e nc e f o r one o r t he ot he r l i ght i ng di r e c t i ons a nd l i ght i ng di r e c t i on doe s not a f f e c t t he m a j or i t y of m or e t a ngi bl e dr e s s i ng r oom e va l ua t i ons O ve r al l D r e s s i n g R oom E xp e r i e n c e T hough a g r e a t m a ny r e s e a r c he r s ha ve t a ke n a l oo k a t how t he m a i n r e t a i l e xpe r i e nc e i s a f f e c t e d by a m y r i a d o f e nvi r onm e nt a l c ue s ( C ol or e d L E D s 2005; D onova n & R os s i t e r 1982; H e gde 1996; K ot l e r 1974 ; R ous h, 1994; B i t ne r 1 99 2 ) no one ha s l ooke d a t t he how t he s e c ue s 78

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a f f e c t t he dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e C ons i de r i ng t he e f f e c t l i ght i ng c a n ha ve on pe opl e i n a r e t a i l s e t t i ng, s t a t e m e nt s w e r e us e d i n t hi s s t udy t o m e a s ur e how l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t s t he ove r a l l dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e T he di r e c t i on of t he l i ght i ng di d no t a ppe a r t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t he r e por t e d e xpe r i e nc e i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom i n t hi s s t udy. H ow e ve r f r ont a l l i gh t i ng w a s c ons i s t e nt l y m or e hi ghl y r a t e d a l ong a l l i t e m s w i t hi n t he s c a l e m e a s ur i ng dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e O nl y one pa r t i c i pa nt m a de a di r e c t c om m e nt on how t he l i gh t i ng a f f e c t e d t he e xpe r i e nc e or c ha nge d how t he y vi e w e d t he s pa c e i t s e l f O ne w om a n i n t he f r o nt a l l i ght i ng c ondi t i on r e m a r ke d: I l i ke i t I t 's c a l m i ng a nd s e e m s l i ke a ba r or r e s t a ur a nt i n t he e ve ni ng. O t he r w i s e no one c om m e nt e d on t he e xpe r i e nc e L i ght i ng di r e c t i on m a y not be di r e c t l y l i nke d t o a s s e s s m e nt s of t he dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e but m a y be i ns t e a d a s m a l l pa r t of a m u c h l a r ge r s e t o f a s s e s s m e nt s F u r t he r e xpl or a t or y r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d t o unde r s t a nd t he l e ve l of i m po r t a nc e of a nd t he d i r e c t na t ur e of e f f e c t r e s ul t i ng f r om di f f e r e nt va r i a bl e s w i t hi n t he dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e I t m a y a l s o be pos s i bl e t o m e a s ur e t he c um ul a t i ve e f f e c t s o f a l l v a r i a bl e s on t he e xpe r i e nc e t hr o ugh m ul t i va r i a t e a na l ys i s t o de t e r m i ne t he r e l a t i ve s i gni f i c a nc e of e a c h i n t he de c i s i on t o buy. T he m a gni t ude of ot he r va r i a bl e s w a s hi ghl i ght e d w i t hi n pa r t i c i pa nt c om m e nt s a nd a s s e s s m e nt s of e a c h va r i a bl e s i m por t a nc e T he m os t c om m e nt e d on a s pe c t of t he dr e s s i ng r oo m w a s t he ne e d f o r m o r e hooks T hi s m a y s i gni f y t he h i gh r e qui r e m e nt s f or c onve ni e nc e i n dr e s s i ng r oom s P e opl e a l s o c om m e nt e d on t he pe r c e i ve d l a c k of c l e a nl i ne s s t he ne e d f o r m o r e A / C a nd t he ne e d f o r m o r e d c or a nd m or e c ol or or di f f e r e nt pa i nt E ve n t hough l i ght i ng m a y not de m ons t r a t e a ve r y s t r ong r e l a t i ons hi p 79

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w i t h va r i a bl e s m e a s ur e d i n t hi s s t udy, ot he r e nvi r o nm e nt a l va r i a bl e s s e e m e d t o be i m po r t a nt a nd t he i r e f f e c t m a y s upe r s e de t ha t of dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng di r e c t i on T he m a j or i t y of c om m e nt s f oc us e d on pe r s ona l a p pe a r a nc e pr e f e r e nc e br i ght ne s s a nd s ha dow i ng. A l m os t no c om m e nt s f oc us e d on e m ot i ona l r e a c t i ons or t he ove r a l l e xpe r i e nc e S hoppe r s f oc us e d i n on m or e c onc r e t e a s pe c t s of t he s pa c e a nd of t he m s e l ve s H ow e ve r t hi s doe s not s i gni f y t ha t pe opl e do no t r e s pond e m ot i o na l l y or t ha t t he l i ght i ng doe s not a f f e c t t he i r e xpe r i e nc e I ns t e a d, t he s e va r i a bl e s m a y ha ve a m o r e s ubl i m i na l e f f e c t O t he r w i s e i f us e r s w e r e a s ke d t o c om m e nt on t he i r e m ot i ona l r e a c t i ons di f f e r e nt a ns w e r s m a y ha ve be e n obs e r ve d. I ns t e a d of t he r e be i ng one l a r ge s w e e pi ng e f f e c t on t he e nt i r e e xpe r i e nc e e a c h va r i a bl e m a y ha ve ve r y f oc us e d e f f e c t s on di f f e r e nt di m e ns i ons of t he e xpe r i e nc e L i ght i ng m a y c ha nge how r oom y/ c r a m pe d t he r oom f e e l s but ot he r va r i a bl e s l i ke f l oor i ng a nd c ol o r m a y a f f e c t how hom e y i t f e e l s C ha i r s a nd hooks m a y a f f e c t how c onve ni e nt i t i s a nd how c ons um e r s f e e l a bout t he m s e l ve s a nd t he c l ot he s m a y a f f e c t pe r s ona l e va l ua t i ons A l l o f t he s e va r i a bl e s m a y w o r k i n t a nde m t o a f f e c t t he e nt i r e e xpe r i e nc e T he e f f e c t s of s m a l l c ha nge s i n t he e nvi r onm e nt a l ong s i ngl e va r i a bl e s m a y go unnot i c e d a nd onl y l a r ge d i f f e r e nc e s or ve r y good/ ba d e nvi r onm e nt s ma y e l i c i t be ha vi or a l c ha nge s A hol i s t i c l ook a t t h e dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e m a y pr ove m o r e us e f ul a nd a f f or d gr e a t e r i ns i ght i nt o how t he e nvi r onm e nt a f f e c t s s pa t i a l pe r c e pt i on, e m ot i ona l s t a t e pe r s ona l e va l ua t i ons a nd e xpe r i e nc e a nd dr e s s i ng r oom e va l u a t i ons C on s u m e r E xp e r i e n c e T yp e s I n or de r t o unde r s t a nd t he e xpe r i e nc e c ons um e r c om m e nt s w e r e i nve s t i ga t e d t o r e ve a l s pe c i f i c pa r t i c i pa nt f oc us s e gm e nt s O ut o f t he 60 pa r t i c i pa nt s 22 f oc us e d on t he e nvi r onm e nt M os t f oc us e d on ne ga t i ve a s pe c t s but t hi s m i ght ha ve be e n due i n pa r t t o t he que s t i ons w hi c h a s ke d pa r t i c i pa nt s t o de s c r i be how t he d r e s s i ng r oo m c oul d be i m pr ove d. T he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s 80

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s e e m e d t o be a f f e c t e d or di s t r a c t e d by t he ne ga t i ve a s pe c t s of t he dr e s s i ng r oom S t i l l ot he r s f oc us e d on t he i r pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e i n r e l a t i on t o t he l i ght i ng o r c om m e nt e d on bot h t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e F i na l l y, t w e nt y pe opl e e i t he r m a de no c om m e nt or m a de s hor t ne ut r a l c om m e nt s T he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s di d not s e e m t o be g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by t he e xpe r i e nc e a nd w e r e l e s s l i ke l y t o r e gi s t e r s t r ong f e e l i ngs or i n s i ght s O nl y one pe r s on c om m e nt e d on t he pr oduc t but t hi s m a y ha ve be e n be c a us e que s t i ons di d not p r om pt pa r t i c i pa nt s t o do s o. B a s e d on t he s e f i ndi ngs s hoppe r pr o f i l e s w e r e de ve l ope d a n d i nc l u de : e nvi r onm e nt a l l y di s t r a c t e d s hoppe r s s e l f f oc us e d s hoppe r s a nd una f f e c t e d ut i l i t a r i a n s hoppe r s A s hor t de s c r i pt i on f or e a c h i s pr ovi de d w i t h a s hor t na r r a t i ve c r e a t e d us i ng pa r t i c i pa nt c om m e nt s a bout t he i r pos s i bl e dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e E n vi r on m e n t al l y D i s t r ac t e d S h op p e r s S ay: I H a t e D i r t y F l oor s M a ny c om m e nt s f oc us e d on t he ge ne r a l qua l i t y of t he s pa c e a nd t he l i ght i ng N e ga t i ve c om m e nt s f or ove r he a d l i ght i ng ( n= 13) w e r e m or e c om m on t ha n t hos e of f r ont a l l i ght i ng ( n= 6) D i r t y f l oo r s i m pr ope r l y l oc a t e d l i ght i ng a nd w a r m poor l y ve nt i l a t e d a i r c a us e d t hi s s hoppe r t ype t o f oc us on t he w r ong t hi ngs a nd m i s s out on t he e xpe r i e nc e t he de s i gne r w a s t r yi ng t o c r e a t e A br i e f na r r a t i ve w a s c r e a t e d t o hi ghl i ght t h i s s hoppe r s t hought s w i t hi n t he c ont e xt of t he i r dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e T he c ons um e r w a l ks i n w i t h t w o dr e s s e s a nd not i c e s t he l i nt [ a nd] di r t on t he f l oor S he s t a r t s t o t hi nk a bout s t a ndi ng on he r s h oe s w hi l e s he t r i e s on t he c l ot he s B ut t he n, s he t hi nks s he c oul d t r y t he d r e s s e s on ove r he r pa nt s a nd ge t a n i de a of how i t l ooks on S he goe s i ns i de a nd s e t s h e r t hi ngs dow n on t he c ha i r a nd ha ngs t he c l ot he s on t he s i ngl e w a l l hook. S he s t a r t s t o t a ke he r s hi r t o f f a nd s e e s s om e one w a l k i n f r on t of t he d r e s s i ng r oom t h r oug h t he s he e r c ur t a i n S he i s a l i t t l e e m ba r r a s s e d a nd hope s ot he r s hoppe r s a nd s a l e s a s s oc i a t e s c a nnot s e e he r T he c ur t a i n [ i s ] s e m i t r a ns pa r e nt a nd t he d r e s s i ng r oom s e e m [ s ] a l i t t l e t o ope ne d t o t he s t or e S he ha d be e n unde r a l ot o f s t r e s s l a t e l y a nd a t e t oo m uc h ove r t he l a s t m ont h. O h S he l ooks i n t he m i r r or a nd s e e s t he s t r e t c h m a r ks on he r l ove ha ndl e s C e l l ul i t e T he l i ght i ng doe s not m a ke m e l ook m y be s t S he ha t e s t o t r y t hi ngs on S he t r i e s on t he dr e s s a nd w he n s he ha s i t on s t a nds i n f r ont of t he 81

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m i r r or t o e va l ua t e i t T he l i ght c r e a t e s ha r s h s ha dow s on he r f a c e a nd body. S he s t e ps c l os e r t o t he m i r r or a nd t he l i gh t i ng ge t s m uc h br i ght e r : I gue s s i t s not i m por t a nt i f i t ge t s br i ght e r a s I ge t c l os e r S he s t e ps ba c k a nd bum ps i nt o t he c ha i r t hi nki ng I pr e f e r t he l i ght i ng w he n I s t e p ba c k, but t he c ha i r i s i n t he w a y. S he knoc ks ove r he r pur s e a nd ke ys f a l l out S he p ut s t he m ba c k i n a nd he a r i ng t he m us i c ge t t i ng l oude r t hi nks : I don t r e a l l y w a nt t o t r y m uc h a nd don't ne e d t o buy a nyt hi ng a nyw a y I r e a l l y t r y t o a voi d s t or e s w i t h t hi s t ype o f m us i c be c a us e I ge t ve r y a nnoye d a nd don t w a nt t o t r y t hi ngs on. S he l e a ve s w i t hout buyi ng a nyt hi ng. H e r e t he pr oduc t w e nt une va l ua t e d a nd t he l i ght i n g ha d l i t t l e e f f e c t e xc e pt t o di s t r a c t he r f r om t he pr oduc t T he ove r he a d l i ght i ng f a i l e d be c a us e s he c oul d not f oc us on t he c l ot he s or he r ow n a ppe a r a nc e I ns t e a d, s he f oc us e d on t he f l a w s of t he r oom S he de c i de d t o go ho m e w i t hout e nga gi ng i n t he e xpe r i e nc e a nd t he r e f or e t he s a l e w a s l os t S om e s hoppe r s a r e c a pa bl e o f ove r l ooki ng t he ba d i n f a vor o f t he good. H ow e ve r t he e nvi r onm e nt s i gni f i c a nt l y a f f e c t s t he s e he doni c s hoppe r s ( B a bi n & A t t a w a y, 2000) a nd po s i t i ve a f f e c t i m pr ove s t he e xpe r i e nc e T he de s i gne r c a n be s t s e r ve t hi s t ype of s hoppe r by c r e a t i ng a ppr op r i a t e qua l i t y, a nd e a s i l y m a i nt a i na bl e a t m os phe r i c s M a ng ( 2008) no t e s t ha t s om e r e t a i l e r s a r e e ve n m ovi ng a w a y f r om c a r pe t be c a us e i t s how s w e a r t oo e a s i l y, e ve n t hough c ons um e r s pr e f e r t he c om f or t i t b r i ngs t o t he s pa c e L i ght i ng i s onl y one s m a l l pa r t o f t he e xpe r i e nc e f or t hi s s hoppe r but w i l l not go unnot i c e d i f i t i s poo r F r ont a l a nd ove r he a d l i gh t i n g w i l l s uf f i c e f or t hi s s hoppe r a s l ong a s t he y a r e not di s t r a c t i ng O ve r he a d l i gh t i ng i s f i ne but ne e ds t o be a ppr opr i a t e l y pos i t i one d, pe r ha ps a i m e d a t t he m i r r or r a t he r t ha n t he s hoppe r t o c r e a t e l e s s di r e c t a nd gl a r i ng l i ght i ng T hi s w oul d he l p t o m i ni m i z e di s t r a c t i ons a nd a l l ow he r t o e va l ua t e t he pr oduc t S e l f O r i e n t e d S h op p e r s S ay: I t s A l l A b ou t M e M a ny ot he r c om m e nt s f oc us e d on t he pe r s on a l a pp e a r a nc e a nd i t a ppe a r s l i ght i ng c a n gr e a t l y i nf l ue nc e s e l f e va l ua t i ons P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t he ove r he a d l i ght i ng c ondi t i on m a de f our ne ga t i ve a nd t w o pos i t i ve c om m e nt s S i m i l a r l y, pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he f r ont a l l i ght i ng c ondi t i on 82

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m a de t hr e e ne ga t i ve a nd s e ve n pos i t i ve c om m e nt s F i ndi ngs i ndi c a t e t ha t l i ght i ng di r e c t i on i s ke y t o r e pr e s e nt i ng pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e w i t h f r ont a l l i ght i ng be i ng s upe r i or A br i e f na r r a t i ve of t hi s pr of i l e s pos s i bl e e xpe r i e nc e w a s c r e a t e d t o hi gh l i ght w ha t t he y t h i nk a bout i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom T he c ons um e r w a l ks i n a nd t he l i gh t i s s of t S of t e r l i ght i ng [ i s ] be t t e r a nd m or e f l a t t e r i ng s he t hi nks T he l i ght i ng on t he s i de o f t he m i r r o r l ooks c a l m i ng a nd s e e m s l i ke a ba r or r e s t a ur a nt i n t he e ve ni ng. I t i s t r e ndy a nd i t f i l l s t h e r oom w i t h e ve n l i ght I l ook pr e t t y good f o r ha vi ng be e n out m os t of t he ni ght s he t hi nks S he l e a ns i nt o t he m i r r o r a nd s t a r t s t o t r a c e he r f i nge r s ove r he r f a c e M a ybe a l i t t l e t i r e d S he s e t s he r ba g dow n on t he c ha i r a nd ha ngs he r c l ot he s on t he hoo k. S he t a ke s of f he r s hi r t a nd pa nt s a nd doe s not m i nd s e e i ng he r s e l f i n t he m i r r or I l ove t he l i ght i ng I t [ m a ke s ] m e l ook l i ke m y s ki n ha [ s ] a he a l t hy gl ow A l s o, m y e ye s l ook a m a z i ng T he l i ght i s ve r y f l a t t e r i ng. S he put s on w ha t s he pi c ke d out a nd t w i r l s i n f r ont of t he m i r r or br i e f l y be f or e f i xi ng he r s e l f i n one pl a c e a nd e va l ua t i ng he r a ppe a r a nc e m o r e c l os e l y. S he i s gl a d s he ha s be e n goi ng t o t he gym be c a us e s he l ooks s ki nny. O r i s i t t he l i ght i ng? I f e e l l i ke i t i s f l a t t e r i ng, s he t hi nks s l i m m i ng, a nd e xc i t i ng. S t i l l l ooki ng i n t he m i r r or s he e va l ua t e s t he he m of t he dr e s s I t hi t s he r a t j us t t h e r i ght p l a c e on t he l e g N ot t oo l ong a nd not t oo s hor t I t m a ke s he r l e gs l ook s l e nd e r T he c ol or i s good t oo s he t hi nks S he de c i de s t o buy i t S h e t r i e s on a not he r dr e s s I t i s a l i t t l e l onge r a nd bl a c k. S he i m m e di a t e l y ha t e s t he w a y i t l ooks I t i s t oo l ong a nd a ga i ns t t he b l a c k c ur t a i n i t i s ha r d t o s e e how w e l l t he dr e s s f i t s m e T he ot he r d r e s s w a s m or e vi br a nt a nd now t ha t s he t hi nks a bout i t m a de he r m or e t a n. S he buys t he f i r s t dr e s s T hi s t ype i s s e l f f oc us e d a nd t he e nvi r on m e nt i s e s s e nt i a l t o e nha nc i ng s e l f e va l ua t i ons T he s e s hoppe r s a r e a t ype of he doni c s hoppe r w ho f oc us e s on t he f ul f i l l m e nt t ha t pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e a f f or ds ( B a bi n & A t t a w a y, 2000 ) a nd i s a f f e c t e d by t he e nvi r onm e nt T he l i ght i ng a ppe a r s t o be a m e a ns t hr ough w hi c h t o e va l ua t e p e r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e T hi s doe s not m e a n t ha t t he s hoppe r w i l l no t not i c e i f t he l i ght i ng i s ba d, bu t onl y i f i t a f f e c t s how s he l ooks T he a t m o s phe r i c s s houl d not hi nde r t h i s pr of i l e s s e l f e va l ua t i ons l i ke t he bl a c k c ur t a i n a f f e c t e d how w e l l t he s hoppe r c oul d e va l ua t e t he f i t of t he d r e s s T hi s s hoppe r t ype i s l i ke l y t o f oc us on pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e a nd i f t he l i ght i ng c a n f a c i l i t a t e t he pos i t i ve e va l ua t i on o f he r a ppe a r a nc e s he m a y be m or e l i ke l y t o buy. F or t hi s s hoppe r f r ont a l l i ght i ng m i ni m i z e d s ha dow i ng a nd 83

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r e duc e d t he a ppe a r a nc e of ba gs / c i r c l e s unde r t he e ye s F r ont a l l i ght i ng i s s upe r i or f or r e nde r i ng f a c i a l a nd pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e U n af f e c t e d or U t i l i t ar i an S h op p e r s S ay: N o C o m m e n t N o m a t t e r t he pr oduc t o r t he e nvi r onm e nt t hi s g r o up of s hoppe r s i s not l i ke l y t o ha ve s t r ong r e a c t i ons O f t he 60 t ot a l c ons um e r s t he s e c ons um e r s e i t he r m a de no c om m e nt s i n e i t he r que s t i on ( n= 14) or t he y m a d e s hor t a nd ne ut r a l s t a t e m e nt s w i t hout s t r ong e m ot i ons ( n= 6) T he s e c ons um e r s s e e m t o t r y on c l ot hi ng a nd m a ke de c i s i ons t o buy w i t hout s t r ong e m ot i ona l r e a s ons ba s e d on t he e nvi r onm e nt o r t he s e l f T hi s ki nd of s hoppe r pr oba bl y w i l l not f oc us on a t m os phe r i c s a nd i s not l i ke l y t o r e a c t s t r ongl y t o a nyt hi ng w i t hi n t he e xpe r i e nc e unl e s s i t i s ve r y ba d. A s hor t na r r a t i ve of he r pos s i bl e e xpe r i e nc e w a s c r e a t e d. T he c ons um e r w a l ks i n c a r r yi ng a s t a c k of c l ot he s S he i s l ooki ng f o r a pa i r o f dr e s s pa nt s t o w e a r t o w o r k s i nc e s he got a c of f e e s t a i n on t he l a s t pa i r S he doe s not pa y a t t e nt i on t o t he e nvi r onm e nt a r ound he r bu t l ooks f or t he hook a nd not i c e s t he c ha i r S he put s on t he f i r s t pa i r of pa nt s T he y a r e t oo t i ght a nd s he t a ke s t he m of f r i ght a w a y. S he t r i e s on t he s e c ond pa i r a nd no t i c e s t he y f i t w e l l unt i l s he t ur ns a r ound a nd s e e s t he y a r e s t r e t c hi ng i n ba c k. S he t r i e s on t he t hi r d a nd t hi nks t he y a r e m uc h be t t e r but s he c a nnot t e l l w ha t c ol o r t he y a r e S he w a l ks c l os e r t o t he m i r r or t o t a ke a m or e de t a i l e d l ook S he t a ke s of f t he pa nt s a nd hol ds t he m up t o he r bl a c k pur s e I gue s s t he y a r e na vy, s he t hi nks N a vy m i ght be be t t e r dur i ng t he da y. S he l ooks f or a not he r hook s o s he c a n ha ng t h e pa nt s up a s a m a ybe i n a s e pa r a t e pi l e T he r e i s no a ddi t i ona l h ook s o s he t h r ow s t he m on t he c ha i r S he t r i e s on t he l a s t pa i r a nd t hi nks t he y m i gh t w or k S he t a ke s bot h of t he m out of t he dr e s s i ng r oom t o l ook a t t he c ol or s be f o r e s he de c i de s t o pur c ha s e t he t hi r d pa i r S he he a ds t ow a r d t he s a l e s c ount e r w i t h he r c r e di t c a r d i n ha nd. T hi s s hoppe r di d no t not i c e t he dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng or w o r r y t ha t t he r e w e r e not e nough hooks F or t hi s s hoppe r t he l i ght i ng di r e c t i on w i l l p r oba bl y ha ve l e s s e f f e c t s i nc e s he f e e l s c om f or t a bl e m a ki ng t he ne c e s s a r y a dj us t m e nt s w i t hi n t he e nvi r o nm e nt E ve n t hough t he y a r e a f f e c t e d by pos i t i ve a t m os phe r i c s l i ke he doni c s hoppe r s ( B a bi n & A t t a w a y, 2000 ) t he y do not dw e l l on t he m I ns t e a d, vi s ua l a c ui t y a f f o r de d by c ol or r e nde r i ng a nd s uf f i c i e nt i l l um i na t i on l e ve l s a r e i m por t a nt t o a l l ow i ng he r t o c om pa r e p r oduc t s e ve n t hough s he m a y not a t t r i but e t hi s 84

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t o a ny di m e ns i on of t he s pa c e P e r ha ps i n a not he r c i r c um s t a nc e s he w oul d ha ve m or e f oc us e d on he r s e l f W he n a s ke d t o c om m e nt on t he s pa c e t he s e c ons um e r s e i t he r m a de no c om m e nt o r m a de ne ut r a l s t a t e m e nt s l i ke : I t s j us t r i gh t N ot hi ng I c a n t hi nk o f [ t o c ha nge ] or I l i ke i t ove r a l l S u m m ar y L i ght i ng s houl d s a t i s f y e a c h o f t he s e s hoppe r p r of i l e s ne e ds a nd m a na ge t he pe r c e pt i ons of w ha t a ppe a r t o be ve r y di f f e r e nt s hoppe r i nt e nt i ons a nd f oc i S om e o f t he s e pr o f i l e s m a y be pr one t o f r e que nt s pe c i f i c r e t a i l s t or e s t he r e f or e t he l i ght i ng c oul d be t a i l o r e d t o m e e t t he i r e xpe c t a t i ons F or e xa m pl e ut i l i t a r i a n s hoppe r s m o s t c om m onl y f r e que nt di s c ount s t or e s a nd a r e f ul f i l l i ng s om e ne e d r a t he r t ha n e nga gi ng i n a n e xp e r i e nc e ( M oye 2000; S hi m & K ot s i opul os 1993) L i ght i ng ne e ds t o be di r e c t a nd unc om pl i c a t e d t o r e duc e s hoppe r a nxi e t y f r o m unr e a l i z e d e xpe c t a t i ons ( K a l t c he va & W e i t z 2006 ) C onve r s e l y, a ppe a r a nc e c ons c i ous s hoppe r s a r e m or e l i ke l y t o s hop a t bout i que s t or e s ( S hi m & K ot s i opu l os 1993) w hi c h t yp i c a l l y ha ve m o r e a r ous i ng l i ght i ng a nd a c l e a r a nd uni f i e d a m bi a nc e f or t he s pa c e H ow e ve r pos i t i ve l y r e nde r i ng pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e w i l l a l s o i nf l ue nc e t he i r e xpe r i e nc e F r ont a l l i ght i n g i s t he m os t a pp r opr i a t e s our c e but c om bi ni ng f r ont a l a nd ove r he a d l i ght i n g of f e r s t he be s t c ondi t i ons f o r e va l ua t i ng pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e I n a ddi t i on t o m e e t i ng s pe c i f i c s hoppe r ne e ds l i gh t i ng m us t m e e t ge ne r a l r e qui r e m e nt s f or vi s ua l a c ui t y pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e a nd c r e a t e a pos i t i ve m ood. E ve n w i t hi n e a c h g r oup, us e r s m a y ha ve di f f e r e nt e xpe c t a t i ons a nd de s i r e s f or l i g ht i ng. T he ut i l i t a r i a n s hoppe r w oul d s t i l l l i ke t o l ook good e ve n i f i t i s not he r f oc us T he s e l f or i e nt e d s hoppe r m a y pr e f e r br i ght l i ght i ng i n t he a f t e r noon but di m l i ght i ng i n t he m or ni ng hour s C ons i de r i ng t he di f f e r e nt e xpe c t a t i ons a nd c onf l i c t i ng c om m e nt s i t a ppe a r s t ha t us e r s c a nnot a gr e e on one s i ngl e l i gh t i ng s c e na r i o. 85

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D e s i gne r s s houl d c ons i de r pr ovi di ng bot h f r ont a l a nd ove r h e a d l i ght i ng a nd e ve n c ons i de r a l l ow i ng s hoppe r s t o di r e c t l y c ont r ol t he m i x a nd b r i ght ne s s O ne l i ght i ng i ns t a l l a t i on c a n t he n s e r ve m ul t i pl e f unc t i ons a nd pr e f e r e nc e s a nd m e e t va r yi ng r e qui r e m e nt s T hi s i s e s pe c i a l l y i m por t a nt i n hi gh e nd s t or e s or bout i q ue s D i s c ount s t or e s w hi c h do not w i s h c ons um e r s t o l i nge r a nd w hos e c us t om e r s a r e ut i l i t y f oc us e d, s houl d pr ovi de on l y t he m os t ba s i c l i ght i ng. H ow e ve r de s i gne r s s houl d c ons i de r s w i t c hi ng ove r t o f l uor e s c e nt f r ont a l l i ght i ng f o r t he hi ghe s t i m pa c t f or t he l e a s t a m ount of m one y r a t he r t ha n u s i ng t r a di t i ona l ove r he a d f i xt ur e s R e t a i l e r s a nd de s i gne r s m us t a l s o c ons i de r t ha t s hoppe r s do not a l w a ys s t a y i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom D e s i gne r s s houl d pr ope r l y i l l um i na t e t he s pa c e di r e c t l y out s i de t he dr e s s i ng r oom t o e nha nc e t he e xpe r i e nc e I f de s i gne r s c a nnot gi ve s hoppe r s di r e c t c ont r ol t he y m a y c ons i de r us i ng t hi s a uxi l i a r y s pa c e a s a n oppor t uni t y t o o f f e r s hoppe r s a s e c ond l i ght i ng c ondi t i on. F ur t he r pe opl e i n e a c h of t he s e pr opos e d s hoppe r pr of i l e s m a y f r e que n t l y c ha nge c a t e gor i e s ba s e d on pr oduc t t ype o r m a y e xhi bi t t h e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of m or e t ha n one c a t e gor y; t hi s i s i ndi c a t e d by s om e c ons um e r s f oc us i ng bot h on e nvi r onm e nt a nd s e l f e va l ua t i ons A ut i l i t a r i a n s hoppe r l ook i ng t o buy a pa i r o f pa nt s t o r e pl a c e he r ol d one s m i ght c ha nge i nt o a s e l f or i e nt e d s hoppe r w he n l ooki ng f o r a n e ve ni ng gow n. A s e l f or i e nt e d s hoppe r m a y a l s o be a n e nvi r onm e nt a l l y di s t r a c t e d s hoppe r ; i f t he e nvi r on m e nt i nt e r r upt s t he i r e va l ua t i ons t he y w i l l not f oc us on t he i r a ppe a r a nc e W om e n c a nnot e a s i l y b e c l a s s i f i e d a s onl y one t ype T he f e m a l e c ons um e r m a y not di r e c t l y e va l ua t e l i ght i ng qua l i t y but i t i s i m po r t a nt a nd a f f e c t s he r w he n s he t r i e s s om e t hi ng on. H ow e ve r t he que s t i onna i r e a s ke d pe opl e w ha t t he y t hough t of t he l i ght i ng a nd w ha t c oul d be i m pr ove d w i t h i n t he d r e s s i ng r o om s T hi s c oul d ha ve i m pl i c a t i ons f or t he i r a ns w e r s Y e t t he ope n e nde d que s t i ons di d not s ol i c i t i m pr e s s i ons of pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e a nd t he s e i ns i ght s w e r e c om m on i n a ns w e r s T he r e f or e s i nc e l i ght i ng ha s t o m e e t t he ne e ds of m a ny 86

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di f f e r e nt s hoppe r pr of i l e s de s i gne r s s houl d us e bot h f r ont a l a nd ove r he a d l i ght i ng. O t he r w i s e f r ont a l l i gh t i ng i s s upe r i o r f o r s e l f e va l ua t i ons a nd ge ne r a l a ppe a r a nc e a nd s houl d be t he de f a ul t l i ght i ng s e l e c t i on w he n a c hoi c e m us t be m a de be t w e e n t he t w o l i ght i ng di r e c t i ons L i m i t at i on s T he r e w e r e s om e ke y l i m i t a t i ons w i t hi n t hi s s t udy r e l a t e d t o s a m pl i ng o r e nvi r on m e nt S a m pl i ng l i m i t a t i ons m a y i nc l ude t e s t i ng i n a n a c t ua l r e t a i l s t or e a nd t he s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e A l s o, i ni t i a l e m ot i ona l s t a t e s a nd e xpe c t a t i ons m a y ha ve a f f e c t e d r a t i ngs F ur t he r e nvi r onm e nt a l l i m i t a t i ons m a y i nc l ude t he e xpos e d l i ght i ng s our c e s t he i nt e ns i t y of t he l i ght i ng, a nd t he c ondi t i on of t he dr e s s i ng r oom s F i e l d s t udi e s pr ovi de a g l i m ps e i nt o a c t ua l be ha vi or a nd t he r e f or e ha ve s t r ong e xt e r na l va l i di t y but t he y c a n a l s o ha ve s i gni f i c a nt dr a w ba c ks ; t he e f f e c t s of a l l va r i a bl e s c a nnot be e nt i r e l y a c c ount e d f or H ow e ve r e nvi r on m e nt a l e f f e c t s l i ke di f f e r e nc e s i n da y l i ght i ng, pa r t i c i pa nt a l e r t ne s s a nd c r ow di ng dur i ng bus y t i m e s w e r e m i t i ga t e d by t he s hor t da t a c ol l e c t i on t i m e f r a m e a nd c ons i s t e nt t e s t i ng t i m e s e a c h da y. A not he r s t udy l i m i t a t i on m a y ha ve be e n t he s a m pl e s i z e T hi s w a s l i m i t e d by t he l oc a t i on a nd w i l l i ngne s s of pa r t i c i pa nt s t o t a ke pa r t i n t he s t udy. A l a r ge r s a m pl e m a y r e ve a l a m uc h m or e s i gni f i c a nt e f f e c t be t w e e n l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a nd t h e va r i a bl e s m e a s ur e d i n t hi s s t udy. F or t hough t he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt e f f e c t a l ong a ny of t he va r i a bl e s t he r e l a t i ons hi p w a s c ons i s t e nt a nd f r ont a l l i gh t i ng w a s r a t e d m or e hi gh l y a l ong e a c h di m e ns i on. A l a r ge r s a m pl e m a y he l p r e ve a l m or e s i gni f i c a nt t r e nds F u r t he r s t udi e s m a y a l s o w i s h t o e xa m i ne t he e f f e c t s of l i ght i ng di r e c t i on f or ot he r de m ogr a phi c gr oups T hi s s t udy onl y e xa m i ne d t he i m p r e s s i ons of young f e m a l e c ons um e r s a nd di f f e r e nt r e s ul t s m a y be obs e r ve d f or ol de r or m a l e c ons um e r s 87

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O t he r l i m i t a t i ons m a y i nc l ude t he pa r t i c i pa nt s ow n i ni t i a l e m ot i ona l s t a t e s e l f e s t e e m a nd ot he r pe r s ona l va r i a bl e s t ha t c a nnot e a s i l y be l i m i t e d e ve n w i t hi n a c ont r ol l e d s e t t i ng. E xi s t i ng e m ot i ona l s t a t e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons b r ought i nt o t he s t or e c a n a l s o a f f e c t r e s ul t s T hough us e r s m a y be a f f e c t e d by l i ght i ng i n t he s a m e w a y, t he de gr e e o f c ha nge m a y d i f f e r f r om pe r s on t o pe r s on. T he s e c ha nge s m a y not r e s ul t i n t he s a m e l e ve l of r e s pons e ba s e d on how t he pa r t i c i pa nt f e l t a t t he be gi nn i ng of t he s t udy. F ut u r e s t udi e s s houl d a s s e s s c ha nge i n e m ot i ona l s t a t e s r a t he r t ha n t a ki ng one m e a s ur e m e nt C e r t a i n e nvi r onm e nt a l f a c t o r s m a y a f f e c t t he r a t i n gs T he s e i nc l ude t he l i ght i ng s our c e s a nd t he dr e s s i ng r oom d c or a nd c ondi t i on. L i ght i ng s our c e s w e r e e xpos e d r a t he r t ha n s hi e l de d by f i xt ur e s T hi s w a s pa r t l y di c t a t e d by t he e xi s t i n g s our c e i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom a nd a l s o he l pe d t o c ont r ol l i ght i ng c ol o r t e m pe r a t u r e a nd t he e f f e c t s o f di f f e r e nc e s i n l i ght i ng f i xt u r e a ppe a r a nc e H ow e ve r s om e us e r s w e r e put of f by t he a bi l i t y t o s e e t he s our c e of t he l i ght F u r t he r m o r e dr e s s i ng r oom c ondi t i ons w e r e a c om m on f oc us i n w r i t t e n c om m e nt s T he s e i nc l ude d t he l e ve l of w e a r on t he d r e s s i ng r o om w a l l s a nd f l oor s a nd t he l a c k of s uf f i c i e nt hooks i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom s a s not e d by a pr e ponde r a nc e o f s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s T hough t he m a j or i t y of e xt r a ne ous l i ght i ng va r i a bl e s w e r e c ont r ol l e d a nd t he r e w a s no e xt e r na l e f f e c t r e gi s t e r e d a l ong pe r c e pt i on di m e ns i ons ot he r di m e ns i ons m a y ha ve a f f e c t e d r e s ul t s I t i s unc l e a r t o w ha t l e ve l i f a t a l l t he y a l t e r e d t he pe r c e pt i on o f va r i a bl e s m e a s ur e d i n t hi s s t udy. H ow e ve r f ut u r e s t udi e s m a y w a nt t o c o ns i de r t he i r e f f e c t s C on c l u s i on s an d I m p l i c a t i on s L i ght i ng qua l i t y i s i m po r t a nt t o r e t a i l e r s a s t he y t r y t o r e p r e s e nt t he i r b r a nd a nd t he i r pr oduc t i n t he be s t l i ght pos s i bl e ( H e gde 1996 ) A l t hough m a ny s t udi e s ha ve t a ke n a l ook a t unde r s t a ndi ng w ha t c ons t i t ut e s l i ght i ng qua l i t y qu e s t i ons a nd c onf us i on s t i l l a bound. T he de s i gn 88

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a nd r e t a i l i ndus t r i e s a r e w e l l a w a r e o f t he pow e r of l i ght i ng i n c ha ngi ng e m ot i ona l s t a t e or a f f e c t i ng pr oduc t i nt e r a c t i on ( A r e ni & K i m 1994; B a bi n e t a l 2003; B a ke r e t a l 1992; B i t ne r 1992; P a r k & F a r r 2007; R ous h, 1994 ; S u m m e r s & H e be r t 2001 ) bu t a r e s t i l l i nve s t i ga t i ng i t s e f f e c t s W i t hi n t he dr e s s i ng r oom i t i s c om m onl y a s s um e d t ha t l i ght i ng di r e c t i on i s i m po r t a nt a nd c a n gr e a t l y a f f e c t t he s hoppi ng e xpe r i e nc e ( A l l D r e s s e d U p, 2006; O s bor ne 2000; W i l s on, 2007) a nd f a c i a l r e nde r i ng ( A l l D r e s s e d U p, 2006 ; R e a 2000; W i l s on 2007) Y e t de s pi t e t he i ndus t r y s s t r ong be l i e f i n t he s upe r i or i t y of f r ont a l l i ght i ng t hi s s t udy s qua nt i t a t i ve r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t t he r e w a s l i t t l e i f a ny s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a nd t he va r i a bl e s m e a s ur e d i n d r e s s i ng r oom s I f t he s e f i ndi ngs hol d t r ue i n f ut ur e s t udi e s i t m a y be t ha t c ons um e r s a r e f a r l e s s a w a r e of o r a f f e c t e d by l i ght i ng di r e c t i on t ha n de s i gne r s a nd l i ght i ng pr o f e s s i ona l s or a ut hor i t i e s w oul d a s s um e O t h e r l i ght i ng di m e ns i ons or ot he r va r i a bl e s m a y ha ve a m or e s i gni f i c a nt e f f e c t on t he dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e a nd e xpe r i e nc e s ub va r i a bl e s S hoppe r s do no t a ppe a r t o be s e ns i t i ve t o di f f e r e nc e s i n l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a l ong t he m a j or i t y of di m e ns i ons m e a s ur e d unl e s s c om pa r i ng l i ght i ng di r e c t i ons s i de by s i de H ow e ve r qua l i t a t i ve da t a r e ve a l a m uc h s t r onge r p r e f e r e nc e f or f r on t a l l i ght i ng w i t h t he m a j or i t y of c om m e nt s on f r ont a l l i ght i ng be i ng pos i t i ve a nd t he m a j or i t y o f c om m e nt s on ove r he a d l i ght i ng be i ng ne ga t i ve bot h i n ge ne r a l a nd a l ong a s s e s s m e nt s of e nvi r onm e nt a nd s e l f e va l ua t i ons I t i s c l e a r t ha t f r ont a l l i ght i ng i s pr e f e r r e d de s pi t e l a c k of a s t a t i s t i c a l c onne c t i on w i t h a ny of t he va r i a bl e s m e a s ur e d i n t hi s s t udy bu t i t s ge ne r a l e f f e c t s a r e l e s s c l e a r I ns t e a d, ve r y s pe c i f i c e f f e c t s w e r e m e a s ur e d i n t he qua nt i t a t i ve da t a I t s e e m s t ha t t he e f f e c t s of l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a r e s ubt l e r a nd t hough t he s e e f f e c t s w e r e de t e c t e d w i t hi n t he qua l i t a t i ve c om m e nt s t he y w e r e not m e a s ur e d by t he qua nt i t a t i ve m e t hods 89

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T he c om pl e xi t y o f t he dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e m a y be of s uc h a de gr e e a s t o l i m i t t he a bi l i t y of r e s e a r c he r s t o s um m a r i l y qua nt i f y s pe c i f i c va r i a bl e s e f f e c t s F i r s t l i ght i ng di r e c t i on doe s not a f f e c t t he s t a t e of a r ous a l a nd pl e a s ur e i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom a nd t he s e s c a l e s do not a ppe a r t o be s ui t a bl e m e a s ur e s of e m ot i ona l r e a c t i ons oc c ur r i ng i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom S e c ond, t hough qua nt i t a t i ve da t a di d not r e ve a l a p r e f e r e nc e f or one l i ght i ng di r e c t i on c om m e nt s i ndi c a t e a s t r ong pr e f e r e nc e f or f r ont a l l i g ht i ng de s pi t e i nc o ns i s t e nc i e s T hi r d m os t di m e ns i ons of l i ght i ng pe r c e pt i on a r e not a f f e c t e d by l i ght i ng di r e c t i on. Y e t t hough pe opl e m a y be c a pa bl e o f j udgi ng t he s i z e of t he s pa c e i n di f f e r e nt l i ght i ng c ondi t i ons l i ght i ng di r e c t i on s e e m s t o a f f e c t t he e xpe r i e nc e of s pa c i ous ne s s a s m e a s ur e d by c r a m pe d/ r oom y. F our t h l i g ht i ng di r e c t i on di d not a f f e c t di f f e r e nc e s i n f a c i a l o r body a ppr a i s a l s but i nc r e a s e d s ha dow i ng w a s s t r ongl y r e l a t e d t o l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a nd w a s s uppor t e d by pa r t i c i pa nt s w r i t t e n c om m e nt s S ha dow i ng s e e m e d t o ha ve a n i nde pe nde nt e f f e c t a nd di d not i nf l ue nc e o t he r va r i a bl e s Y e t s e l f f oc us e d s hoppe r s c om m e nt s i ndi c a t e d pr e f e r e nc e f o r f r ont a l l i ght i ng. F i na l l y, t he d r e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e i s not a f f e c t e d by l i ght i ng di r e c t i on but m a y be m o r e a f f e c t e d by ot he r e xpe r i e nc e va r i a bl e s or a s s e s s e d hol i s t i c a l l y. I t a ppe a r s t ha t l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a f f e c t s t he dr e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e l e s s t ha n e xpe c t e d. T he r e a r e f i ve m a i n r e a s ons t hi s m i ght be t r ue F i r s t t hi s m a y be due t o de s i gne r s ha vi ng a hi ghe r s e ns i t i vi t y t o e nvi r onm e nt a l va r i a bl e s t ha n ot he r pr of e s s i ons S e c ond, t hough pe opl e c a n t e l l t he di f f e r e nc e w he n c om pa r i ng l i ght i ng di r e c t i ons s i de by s i de or a s ki ng t he m w hi c h t he y pr e f e r t he y a r e ge ne r a l l y i nc a pa bl e of not i c i ng t he e f f e c t w he n i m m e r s e d i n t he e xpe r i e nc e a nd a s ke d t o r a t e va r i a bl e s w i t hout r e f e r e nc e t o t he l i g ht i ng t ype o r s our c e T hi r d l i ght i ng d i r e c t i on i s i nde e d i m por t a nt but i t i s onl y a s i m por t a nt a s ot he r va r i a bl e s ; i t i s r e gi s t e r e d a s a pa r t of t he e nt i r e e xpe r i e nc e r a t he r t ha n a s a n i nd i vi dua l f a c t o r F our t h t he e f f e c t s of l i ght i ng di r e c t i on, 90

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t hough i m por t a nt a r e not uni ve r s a l I nd i vi dua l s r a t e d l i ght i ng a s i m po r t a nt but t he r e i s no one c ol l e c t i ve de f i ni t i on o f l i ght i ng qua l i t y t ha t c a n s a t i s f y t he ve r y di f f e r e nt r e qui r e m e nt s of l i ght i ng a m ong a l l i ndi vi dua l s A ddi t i ona l l y due t o t he na t ur e of t he dr e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng m a y be a pa r t of t he a t m os phe r i c ba c kgr ound t ha t i s s e c onda r y t o t he m a i n f oc i i n t he d r e s s i ng r oom e nvi r onm e nt : t he c l ot h i ng a nd t he s e l f I f t r ue t he f i ndi ngs ha ve s t r ong i m pl i c a t i ons f or i n t e r i or de s i gne r s a nd r e t a i l e r s Q ua l i t a t i ve da t a s uppor t t he a s s um pt i on t ha t f r ont a l l i ght i ng i s s upe r i or a nd t ha t c ons um e r s pr e f e r f r ont a l l i gh t i ng. H ow e ve r i n t hi s s t udy w he n pe op l e r a t e d l i ght i ng w i t hout be i ng a s ke d t o c om pa r e di r e c t i ons qua nt i t a t i ve da t a r e ve a l e d onl y a w e a k pr e f e r e nc e f or f r ont a l l i ght i ng w hi c h ha d a s pe c i f i c e f f e c t on s ha dow i ng a nd s pa c i ous ne s s T hi s m e a ns t ha t w he n de s i gne r s a r e w or ki ng w i t h s m a l l dr e s s i ng r oom s t he y s houl d c o ns i de r us i ng f r ont a l l i ght i ng i n o r de r t o r e duc e t he f e e l i ng of be i ng c r a m pe d. D r e s s i ng r oom l i ght i ng s houl d a l s o be ve r s a t i l e e n ough t o s a t i s f y a w i de r a nge o f pr e f e r e nc e s a nd r e t a i l e r s m a y t r y gi v i ng c ons um e r s a c hoi c e by p r ovi di ng bo t h a nd a l l ow i ng s hoppe r s t o c ont r ol t he e xpe r i e nc e T hi s i s e s pe c i a l l y i m por t a nt f or r e t a i l e r s s e r vi c i ng m a ny a ge a nd de m ogr a phi c gr oups w ho m a y ha ve di f f e r e nt p r e f e r e nc e s f or l i ght i ng di r e c t i on a nd i l l um i na t i on l e ve l ; f ur t he r r e s e a r c h s houl d a s s e s s t he s e di f f e r e nc e s H ow e ve r i f de s i gne r s m us t c hoos e one l i ght i ng di r e c t i on t he y w oul d do w e l l t o c hoos e f l uor e s c e nt f r ont a l l i ght i ng f or t he hi ghe s t i m pa c t f or t he l e a s t a m ount of m one y. A s r e t a i l e r s a r e unde r g r e a t e r pr e s s ur e t o e nga ge s hoppe r s a nd c a pt ur e m a r ke t s ha r e t he de s i gne r s r ol e be c om e s i nc r e a s i ngl y i m por t a nt T he dr e s s i ng r oom of f e r s t he m os t r oom f or i m pr ove m e nt a nd de s i gne r s s houl d c ons i de r t he i m pa c t t he i r l i ght i ng c hoi c e s ha ve on s hoppe r s 91

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A P P E N D I X B C O N S E N T F O R M C u s t om e r P e r c e p t i on s of R e t ai l D r e s s i n g R oom L i gh t i n g P l e as e r e ad t h i s c on s e n t d oc u m e n t c ar e f u l l y b e f or e you d e c i d e t o p ar t i c i p at e i n t h i s s t u d y T ha nk you i n a dva nc e f or you pa r t i c i pa t i on. P u r p o s e o f t h e r e s e a r c h s t u d y : T h e f o llo w in g s u r v e y is p a r t o f a s tu d y th a t s e e k s to d e te r m in e th e e f f e c t s o f d r e s s in g r o o m lig h t in g o n p e r s o n a l p e r c e p tio n s a n d m o o d T h e r e s u lt s w ill b e u s e d to m a k e r e c o m m e n d a tio n s to r e t a ile r s to im p r o v e th e r e ta i l s h o p p in g e x p e r ie n c e W h a t y o u w il l b e a s k e d t o d o i n t h e s t u d y : F ir s t y o u w ill b e g iv e n a s h o r t d e m o g r a p h ic s u r v e y t h a t w i ll b e u s e d to d e te r m in e y o u r o v e r a l l p e r c e p tio n s e x p e c ta t io n s a n d d e m o g r a p h ic s T h e n p le a s e ta k e te n o r f if t e e n m in u te s to f in d a c o u p le o u tf it s to tr y o n P e r h a p s t w o to p s t w o b o tto m s o r a d r e s s Y o u w ill b e a s k e d to tr y th e c lo t h e s o n in o n e d r e s s in g r o o m a n d to t a k e a n o th e r f iv e m in u t e s u r v e y T h is s u r v e y i s u s e d to d e te r m in e h o w th e lig h t in g s c e n a r io a f f e c t s y o u r p e r c e p tio n o f th e d r e s s in g r o o m a n d y o u r s e lf a n d w il l b e c o m p l e te d in th e d r e s s in g r o o m A n s w e r s w ill b e u s e d to d e te r m in e c o n s u m e r p e r c e p t io n s o f lig h tin g T i m e r e q u ir e d : 3 0 M in u te s R i s k s a n d B e n e f it s : T h e r e a r e n o e x p e c te d r i s k s o r b e n e f it s a s s o c ia t e d w i th th e s tu d y C o m p e n s a t io n : Y o u w ill b e g iv e n a $ 1 0 g if t c e r t if ic a te f o r th e s to r e f o r p a r tic ip a tin g in th e s tu d y C o n f i d e n t ia lit y : Y o u w i ll N O T b e a s k e d to g iv e y o u r n a m e o r c o n t a c t in f o r m a tio n A n y p e r s o n a l d e m o g r a p h ic in f o r m a tio n w il l o n ly b e u s e d to c o m p a r e y o u r a n s w e r s to o th e r p a r ti c ip a n t s Y o u r r e s p o n s e s w ill b e a n o n y m o u s V o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t io n : P a r ti c ip a tio n i s v o lu n ta r y a n d y o u a r e u n d e r n o o b lig a tio n to c o m p le t e th i s s u r v e y R ig h t t o w it h d r a w f r o m t h e s t u d y : Y o u h a v e th e r ig h t to w ith d r a w f r o m th e s tu d y a t a n y tim e w ith o u t c o n s e q u e n c e Y o u d o n o t h a v e to a n s w e r a n y q u e s tio n s th a t y o u d o n o t w a n t to a n s w e r I f y o u c h o o s e to w ith d r a w p le a s e in f o r m th e s u r v e y a d m in is tr a to r a n d y o u r s u r v e y w ill b e d e s tr o y e d I f y o u h a v e q u e s t io n s a b o u t t h e s t u d y p l e a s e c o n t a c t : A n n e B a u m s ta r c k G r a d u a te S tu d e n t, D e p a r tm e n t o f I n te r io r D e s ig n 3 1 3 A r c h ite c tu r e B u i ld in g 7 0 3 915 3402. N a m K y u P a r k A s s is t a n t P r o f e s s o r D e p a r t m e n t o f I n te r io r D e s ig n G r a d u a te T h e s i s C h a ir 4 4 4 A r c h ite c tu r e B u i ld in g W h o m t o c o n t a c t a b o u t y o u r r ig h t s a s a r e s e a r c h p a r t ic ip a n t i n t h e s t u d y : U F I R B O f f ic e B o x 1 1 2 2 5 0 U n iv e r s ity o f F lo r id a G a in e s v ill e F L 3 2 6 1 1 2 2 5 0 ; p h 3 9 2 0433. 93

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A P P E N D I X C S U R V E Y I N S T R U M E N T 1 I N S T R U C TI O N S: B efo re g o i ng i n to t he dr es s i ng ro o m pl ea s e a ns w e r t he fo l l o w i ng g e nera l ques ti o ns a bo ut y o ur pe rce pti o ns a nd b el i efs 1 P l e a s e r a t e y o u r p r e s e n t f e e l i n g b e t w e e n t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d s A r o u s e d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 U n a r o u s e d R e l a x e d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S t i m u l a t e d Ex c i t e d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C a l m U n h a p p y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 H a p p y D i s s a t i s f i e d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S a t i s f i e d P l e a s a n t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 U n p l e a s a n t 2 P l ea s e thi n k a bo ut d res s i ng ro o m s i n g en era l a nd ra te ea ch o f th e fo l l o w i ng ba s ed o n ho w i m po rta n t t hey a re to y o u i n th e dres s i ng ro o m V e r y N o t V e r y I m p o r t a n t I m p o r t a n t S e a t i n g 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 Li g h t i n g 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 C l e a n F l o o r 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 M i r r o r t y p e 3 2 1 0 + 1 +2 +3 M i r r o r s i z e 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 R o o m s i z e 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 H a n g e r s / s h e l v e s 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 P r i v a c y 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 C o m f o r t 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 S a f e t y / S e c u r i t y 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 A i r Q u a l i t y 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 Te m p e r a t u r e 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 M u s i c 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 C l e a n l i n e s s 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 C u s t o m e r S e r v i c e 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 94

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3 N o w t h i n k a b o u t h o w y o u p e r c e i v e t h i n g s i n a r o o m a n d t h e d e s i g n o f a r o o m i n g e n e r a l T h e n pl ea s e ra te the fo l l o w i ng s ta t e m e nts ba s ed o n ho w m u ch y o u a g re e o r di s a g r ee S t r o n g l y S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e A g r e e I p r e f e r t o s h o p i n s t o r e s w i t h a n i c e a t m o s p h e r e 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 S t o r e d e s i g n i s NOT i m p o r t a n t 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 t o m y s h o p p i n g e x p e r i e n c e I do N O T n o t i c e t h e d e s i g n o f a 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 s p a c e Th e q u a l i t y o f l i g h t i n g i n f l u e n c e s m y s t o r e c h o i c e 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 A s l o n g a s I c a n s e e w e l l I d o N O T c a r e a b o u t t h e l i g h t i n g i n a 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 s p a c e L i g h t i n g i n a s p a c e a f f e c t s m y 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 m o o d 4 N o w t h i n k a b o u t y o u r s e l f a n d h o w p l e a s e d y o u a r e w i t h y o u r b o d y i m a g e P l e a s e r a t e t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s b a s e d o n h o w m u c h y o u a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e A g r e e I n g e n e r a l I f e e l g o o d a b o u t 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 m y p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e A s a w h o l e I a m N o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h m y s e l f 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 I h a v e a N e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 a b o u t m y b o d y s h a p e W h e n I l o o k i n t h e m i r r o r I 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 l i k e w h a t I s e e 5. Y e a r y o u w e r e b o r n : _ _ _ _ 95

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A P P E N D I X D S U R V E Y I N S T R U M E N T 2 I N S T R U C TI O N S: The fo l l o w i ng ques ti o ns a r e us e d to l ea rn y o ur o pi ni o n a bo ut dr es s i ng ro o m l i g hti ng A ft er y o u t ry o n y o u r cl o t hes pl ea s e a ns w er t he fo l l o w i ng q ues ti o ns a bo ut the l i g hti ng a nd y o ur a ppea ra nc e i n t h e l i g hti ng a l o ng t he fo l l o w i ng di m ens i o ns be t w ee n the pa i rs o f des c ri pto rs g i v en b el o w P l ea s e co m pl et e bo th s i des i n t he dr es s i ng ro o m 1 P l e a s e r a t e y o u r r e a c t i o n t o t h e l i g h t i n g b e t w e e n t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d s A r o u s e d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 U n a r o u s e d R e l a x e d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S t i m u l a t e d S l e e p y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 W i d e a w a k e Ex c i t e d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C a l m U n h a p p y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 H a p p y D i s s a t i s f i e d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S a t i s f i e d P l e a s a n t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 U n p l e a s a n t U n c o m f o r t a b l e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C o m f o r t a b l e 2 P l e a s e r a t e y o u r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e l i g h t i n g c o n d i t i o n i n t h i s d r e s s i n g r o o m C o o l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 W a r m B r i g h t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D i m Li k e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D i s l i k e G l a r i n g 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N o t G l a r i n g B a d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 G o o d H a z y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C l e a r 3 A s y o u l o o k i n t h e m i r r o r h o w w o u l d y o u d e s c r i b e Y o u r Fa c i a l A p p e a r a n c e i n t h i s l i g h t i n g ? B a d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 G o o d Y o u n g 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 O l d H e a l t h y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 U n h e a l t h y H a r s h s h a d o w s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N o s h a d o w s F l a t t e r i n g s k i n t o n e s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 U n f l a t t e r i n g s k i n t o n e s 4 A s y o u l o o k i n t h e m i r r o r h o w w o u l d y o u d e s c r i b e Y o u r O v e r a l l B o d y A p p e a r a n c e i n t h i s l i g h t i n g ? P o s i t i v e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N e g a t i v e U n a t t r a c t i v e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A t t r a c t i v e S l e n d e r 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 H e a v y 5 Pl e a s e i n d i c a t e h o w e a s y o r d i f f i c u l t i t i s f o r y o u t o r e a d t h e p r i n t e d t a g a t t h e l e f t V e ry V e ry E as y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D i ffi cu l t t o Read t o Read 96

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6 Pl e a s e p i c k o n e i t e m y o u t r i e d o n E v a l u a t e t h e i t e m a l o n g t h e f o l l o w i n g d i m e n s i o n s a s t h e y a r e a f f e c t e d b y t h e l i g h t i n g V e r y V e r y B a d G o o d F a b r i c T e x t u r e 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 F a b r i c C o l o r 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 O v e r a l l a p p e a r a n c e 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 S i z e o f C l o t h e s 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 C o n s t r u c t i o n 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 F i t s m y i m a g e 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 J u s t f e e l s r i g h t 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 7 Pl e a s e e v a l u a t e y o u r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e O v e r a l l D r e s s i n g R oom C o n d i t i o n s a l o n g t h e f o l l o w i n g s c a l e s I n c o n v e n i e n t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C o n v e n i e n t R o o m y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C r a m p e d D i r t y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C l e a n A d e q u a t e p r i v a c y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 La c k o f p r i v a c y S m a l l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 La r g e W e l l k e p t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 U n k e m p t Lo w q u a l i t y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 H i g h q u a l i t y I m p r e s s i v e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 U n i m p r e s s i v e B a d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 G o o d 8 Pl e a s e r a t e t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s b a s e d o n h o w m u c h y o u a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e Th e d r e s s i n g r o o m m e t m y e x p e c t a t i o n s Th e d r e s s i n g r o o m d o e s N O T f i t i n t h e s t o r e Th e d r e s s i n g r o o m e n c o u r a g e d m e t o s t a y a n d t r y t h i n g s o n M y o v e r a l l d r e s s i n g r o o m e x p e r i e n c e w a s N O T s a t i s f y i n g S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 +1 +1 +1 +1 St r o n g l y A g r e e +2 +3 +2 +3 +2 +3 +2 +3 9 H o w m a n y i t e m s d i d y o u t r y o n ? ( P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e n u m b e r ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 9 H o w m a n y o f t h e s e i t e m s d i d y o u d e c i d e t o b u y ? ( P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e n u m b e r ) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 9 Pl e a s e m a k e a n y a d d i t i o n a l c o m m e n t s o n t h is d r e s s i n g r o o m s l i g h t i n g 10 Wh a t s h o u l d b e c h a n g e d o r a d d e d t o m a k e th is d r e s s i n g r o o m i d e a l ? 97

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A P P E N D I X E D E S C R I P T I V E S T A T I S T I C S A N D T T E S T R E S U L T S T a bl e E 1 E m ot i ona l s t a t e s de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s a nd t t e s t r e s ul t s E m o tio n a l s ta te s C o n d it io n N M e a n SD p U n a r o u s e d / A r o u s e d F r o n t O v e r h e a d 30 30 4 3 3 4 1 4 4 6 1 5 5 4 0 3 9 3 R e la x e d / S t im u la te d F r o n t O v e r h e a d 30 30 4 6 3 3 9 3 1 3 7 7 1 4 8 4 0 0 6 3 Sl e e p y / W id e A w a k e F r o n t O v e r h e a d 30 30 4 8 7 5 0 3 1 2 2 4 1 1 5 9 0 5 9 C a lm / E x c ite d F r o n t O v e r h e a d 30 30 4 4 3 3 9 7 1 3 0 5 1 6 0 8 0 2 2 2 U n h a p p y / H a p p y F r o n t O v e r h e a d 30 30 5 3 7 5 4 7 1 2 4 5 1 1 3 7 0 7 4 6 D i s s a ti s f ie d / S a ti s f ie d F r o n t O v e r h e a d 30 30 5 3 7 5 2 7 1 4 0 2 1 0 1 5 0 7 5 3 U n p le a s a n t/ P le a s a n t F r o n t O v e r h e a d 30 30 4 8 3 4 5 3 1 6 6 3 1 6 7 6 0 4 8 9 U n c o m f o r ta b le / C o m f o r ta b le F r o n t O v e r h e a d 30 30 5 5 5 0 3 1 3 0 6 1 3 2 6 0 1 7 5 T w o t a i l e d t e s t o f s i gni f i c a nc e : p < 05 ** p < 01 T a bl e E 2 L i ght i ng qua l i t y de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s a nd t t e s t r e s ul t s L ig h tin g q u a l ity C o n d it io n N M e a n SD p F r o n t 30 4 4 1 5 2 2 C o o l / W a r m 0 2 4 3 O v e r h e a d 30 4 8 3 1 3 1 5 F r o n t 30 5 2 7 1 4 1 3 D im / B r ig h t O v e r h e a d 30 4 9 3 1 4 8 4 0 3 7 7 F r o n t 30 5 8 3 1 0 8 5 H a z y / C le a r O v e r h e a d 30 5 4 1 2 4 8 0 1 5 7 F r o n t 30 4 7 3 1 7 0 1 G la r in g / N o t G l a r in g O v e r h e a d 30 4 5 1 6 1 4 0 5 8 8 F r o n t 30 5 3 1 2 9 1 B a d / G o o d O v e r h e a d 30 5 0 3 1 4 5 0 4 5 5 F r o n t 30 5 1 7 1 6 8 3 D i s lik e / L ik e O v e r h e a d 30 4 6 1 5 4 5 0 1 8 T w o t a i l e d t e s t o f s i gni f i c a nc e : p < 05 ** p < 01 98

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T a bl e E 3 S e l f e va l ua t i ons de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s a nd t t e s t r e s ul t s S e lf e v a lu a t io n s C o n d it io n N M e a n SD p F r o n t 30 5 1 6 1 9 B a d / G o o d 0 5 2 4 O v e r h e a d 30 5 2 3 1 1 6 5 F r o n t 30 5 3 1 2 3 6 O ld / Y o u n g O v e r h e a d 30 5 0 7 1 1 4 3 0 4 5 1 F r o n t 30 5 1 7 1 4 6 4 U n h e a l th y / H e a l th y O v e r h e a d 30 4 9 3 1 4 1 3 0 5 3 2 F r o n t 30 5 3 7 1 3 2 6 H a r s h S h a d o w s / N o S h a d o w s O v e r h e a d 30 4 3 3 1 2 6 9 0 0 0 3 U n f la t te r in g S k in T o n e s / F r o n t 30 4 6 3 1 6 0 8 F la tte r in g S k in T o n e s O v e r h e a d 30 4 6 7 1 2 1 3 0 9 2 8 F r o n t 30 4 9 3 1 5 3 N e g a t iv e / P o s itiv e O v e r h e a d 30 4 9 3 1 2 3 1 0 0 0 F r o n t 30 4 9 1 4 7 U n a ttr a c t iv e / A ttr a c tiv e O v e r h e a d 30 5 1 1 0 6 2 0 5 4 8 F r o n t 30 4 7 3 1 5 9 6 H e a v y / S l e n d e r 0 6 2 9 O v e r h e a d 30 4 5 3 1 5 9 2 T w o t a i l e d t e s t o f s i gni f i c a nc e : p < 05 ** p < 01 T a bl e E 4 D r e s s i ng r oom e va l ua t i ons de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s a nd t t e s t r e s ul t s D r e s s in g r o o m e v a lu a tio n s C o n d it io n N M e a n SD p F r o n t 30 5 6 1 4 2 9 I n c o n v e n ie n t / C o n v e n ie n t 0 8 6 2 O v e r h e a d 29 5 6 6 0 9 3 6 F r o n t 30 5 3 1 2 0 8 C r a m p e d / R o o m y O v e r h e a d 30 4 2 3 1 3 8 2 0 0 0 2 F r o n t 30 5 1 7 1 3 4 1 D ir ty / C le a n O v e r h e a d 30 5 1 1 4 9 4 0 8 5 6 L a c k o f P r iv a c y / A d e q u a te F r o n t 30 5 4 3 1 5 6 9 0 1 7 3 P r iv a c y O v e r h e a d 30 4 9 1 4 2 3 F r o n t 30 4 5 7 1 1 3 5 S m a l l / L a r g e O v e r h e a d 30 4 5 0 9 0 8 0 2 F r o n t 30 5 2 1 4 4 8 U n k e m p t / W e l l K e p t O v e r h e a d 29 4 9 1 7 3 9 0 4 6 9 F r o n t 30 4 8 3 0 9 5 L o w Q u a li ty / H ig h Q u a lity O v e r h e a d 30 4 7 7 1 1 9 4 0 8 1 2 F r o n t 30 4 3 1 4 1 8 U n im p r e s s iv e / I m p r e s s iv e O v e r h e a d 30 3 9 1 2 6 9 0 2 5 4 F r o n t 30 5 2 1 1 5 7 B a d / G o o d O v e r h e a d 30 4 8 3 1 1 1 7 0 2 1 7 T w o t a i l e d t e s t o f s i gni f i c a nc e : p < 05 ** p < 01 99

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T a bl e E 5 D r e s s i ng r oom e xpe r i e nc e de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s a nd t t e s t r e s ul t s D r e s s in g r o o m e x p e r ie n c e C o n d it io n N M e a n SD p T h e d r e s s in g r o o m m e t m y F r o n t 29 5 3 4 1 3 1 7 0 2 6 2 e x p e c ta tio n s O v e r h e a d 30 4 9 7 1 2 4 5 F r o n t 30 5 6 1 5 6 7 T h e d r e s s in g r o o m f it in th e s to r e O v e r h e a d 30 5 5 3 1 3 3 2 0 8 6 T h e d r e s s in g r o o m e n c o u r a g e d m e F r o n t 30 4 6 7 1 6 2 6 0 2 3 8 to s ta y a n d tr y th in g s o n O v e r h e a d 30 4 1 7 1 6 2 1 M y o v e r a l l d r e s s in g r o o m F r o n t 30 5 6 3 1 4 7 4 0 8 5 3 e x p e r ie n c e w a s s a ti s f y in g O v e r h e a d 30 5 5 7 1 3 0 5 T w o t a i l e d t e s t o f s i gni f i c a nc e : p < 05 ** p < 01 100

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A P P E N D I X F C O M B I N E D R E S P O N S E V A R I A B L E T T E S T R E S U L T S T a bl e F 1 C om bi ne d r e s pons e va r i a bl e t t e s t r e s ul t s V a r ia b le t df p v a lu e M e a n d if f e r e n c e S E d if f e r e n c e A r o u s a l 0 8 2 5 58 0 4 1 3 0 2 0 2 4 2 5 P le a s u r e 0 5 1 58 0 6 1 2 0 1 4 1 7 0 2 7 8 1 A r o u s a l a n d p le a s u r e 0 5 4 1 58 0 5 9 1 0 1 2 2 2 0 2 2 5 9 L ig h tin g p r e f e r e n c e 0 3 9 7 58 0 6 9 3 0 1 5 0 3 7 8 L ig h tin g p e r c e p tio n 1 3 4 3 58 0 1 8 4 0 2 5 8 3 0 1 9 2 3 F a c i a l a p p e a r a n c e 1 1 8 5 58 0 2 4 1 0 3 2 7 0 2 7 6 B o d y a p p e a r a n c e 0 0 6 9 58 0 9 4 5 0 0 2 2 2 0 3 2 0 6 O v e r a l l D r R m c o n d itio n s 0 8 1 7 58 0 4 1 7 0 1 8 1 5 0 2 2 2 2 D r R m e x p e r i e n c e 0 0 2 6 58 0 9 7 9 0 0 0 8 0 3 1 9 101

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A P P E N D I X G P A R T I C I P A N T W R I T T E N C O M M E N T S T a bl e G 1 P a r t i c i pa nt w r i t t e n c om m e nt s C ondi t i on S i de L i ght i ng D r e s s i ng R oom F r ont L N / C F r ont R I t r i e d o n a b l a c k d r e s s s o t h e b l a c k c u r t a i n m a d e a l i t t l e h a r d t o s e e h o w w e l l t h e d r e s s f i t m e F r ont L N / C F r ont R I l i k e t h e i d e a o f t h e l i g h t i n g b e h i n d t h e m i r r o r b u t n o t h o w y o u c a n s e e t h e a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t h o l d s t h e l i g h t b u l b O ve r L N / C O ve r R N / C O ve r L H o t G o o d l i g h t b u t i t w a s c o n s i d e r a b l y w a r m e r t h a n t h e s t o r e G o o d f o r s k i n t o n e S h a d o w s n o t t o o b a d o n c e l l u l i t e : ( C l e a n c r i s p l i g h t i n g b u t s h o w s a l l t h e r o o m s f l a w s O ve r R I l i k e t h e l i g h t i n g t h e w a y i t i s O ve r L Th e l i g h t i n g w a s g o o d i t w a s n o t t o o d i m o r t o o b r i g h t O ve r R N / C O ve r R N / C F r ont R N / C F r ont L I l o v e d t h e l i g h t i n g I t m a d e m e l o o k l i k e m y s k i n h a d a h e a l t h y g l o w A l s o m y e y e s l o o k e d a m a z i n g Th e l i g h t w a s v e r y f l a t t e r i n g F r ont R N / C Fr ont L I l o v e i t O ve r L Th e l i g h t i n g i s t o o d i m N e e d s m o r e l i g h t s o v e r a l l F r ont L I r e a l l y l i k e d t h e l i g h t i n g I w i s h m o r e d r e s s i n g r o o m s w e r e d o n e l i k e t h i s A l t h o u g h t h e d r e s s i n g r o o m w a s s o m e w h a t p l a i n t h e l i g h t i n g r e a l l y w o r k e d w e l l A l s o t h e w h i t e w a l l s a n d b l a c k c u r t a i n a r e a g o o d c o n t r a s t M a y b e y o u c o u l d a d d a p i c t u r e o n t h e w a l l o r s o m e t h i n g w i t h c o l o r N / C C l e a n e r n i c e r c h a i r s ( M o r e c o m f o r t a b l e l o o k i n g ) C l e a n e r w a l l s / f l o o r A d d c o l o r & w a l l a r t c a r p e t Th e l i g h t i n g i n t h i s r o o m i s u n e v e n a n d c a u s e s t h e r e t o b e s h a d o w s w h e n I s t o o d c l o s e t o t h e m i r r o r M o r e h o o k s C l e a n w a l l s Li n t d i r t o n f l o o r C h a i r i s a w k w a r d m a y b e a b e n c h i n s t e a d A s y m m e t r i c a l m i r r o r a n d w a l l s c o u l d b e e n h a n c e d w i t h p a i n t o r d c o r ( i e F r a m e p o s t e r ) L i g h t i n g i s t h e b e s t p a r t e x c e p t f o r h e a t Th e c u r t a i n w a s s e m i t r a n s p a r e n t a n d t h e d r e s s i n g r o o m s e e m e d a l i t t l e t o o o p e n e d t o t h e s t o r e n o t q u i t e e n o u g h p r i v a c y Th e f l o o r w a s a l i t t l e d i r t y Th e a n g l e o f t h e m i r r o r i t m a k e s t h e b o t t o m o f y o u r b o d y l o o k a w k w a r d b e c a u s e t h e m i r r o r i s r e s t i n g a g a i n s t t h e w a l l a n d i s u n e v e n No N / C N / C N / C M a k e i t c l e a n e r A d d e x t r a h o o k s f o r h a n g i n g c l o t h e s S h i e l d s o v e r t h e b u l b s M o r e h o o k s f o r c l o t h i n g / b e t t e r l i g h t i n g I m n o t s u r e m a y b e j u s t s o m e t y p e o f d e c o r a t i o n N ot e N / C i ndi c a t e s no c om m e nt 102

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T a bl e G 1. C ont i nue d C ondi t i on S i de L i ght i ng D r e s s i ng R oom F r ont R N / C C o o l e r A C t e m p O ve r L N / C N o t a t h i n g O ve r R W a s f l a t t e r i n g w h i l e t r y i n g o n c l o t h e s A l i t t l e w a r m t e m p e r a t u r e O ve r L P e r f e c t l i g h t i n g t o s t a n d b a c k a n d l o o k a t t h e M o r e h a n g e r s A / C I f e l t l i k e t h e r e w a s n o a i r o v e r a l l i m a g e b u t w h e n y o u g e t r e a l l y c l o s e c i r c u l a t e d i n h e r e t o t h e m i r r o r t h e l i g h t i n g i s m u c h b r i g h t e r H o w e v e r a s a c o n s u m e r I d o n t t h i n k i t s t h a t i m p o r t a n t i f i t g e t s b r i g h t e r a s I g e t c l o s e r F r ont L I v e n e v e r s e e n l i g h t i n g o n t h e s i d e s o f t h e O n e m o r e h o o k n e x t t o t h e o t h e r o n e s o i t e m s t o m i r r o r a n d I r e a l l y l i k e d i t a l o t b e t r i e d o n a n d i t e m s a l r e a d y t r i e d o n c a n b e s e p a r a t e d O ve r R Th e l i g h t m a k e s m e s k i n n y b u t i t i s k i n d o f N e e d m o r e h a n g e r s e x c i t i n g m u s i c s s h e l f ( c a n d a r k s o i f y o u p u t m o r e l i g h t s i t w i l l b e p u t p u r s e s c a r k e y s o t h e r s t u f f ) b e t t e r C o m b i n a t i o n w i t h y e l l o w a n d w h i t e l i g h t ( t h e l i g h t i s t o o y e l l o w i s h ) F r ont L T o o b r i g h t I c a n t s t a y l o n g t i m e a n d I d o n t I d l i k e d r e s s d r e s s r o o m n e e d s d o o r I m l i t t l e w a n t t o t r y m u c h a f r a i d s o m e o n e c o m e i n d r e s s r o o m d u r i n g I p u t o n d r e s s F r ont R N / C Te m p e r a t u r e n e e d s t o b e c o o l e r a n d e x t r a c l o t h e s h a n g i n g h o o k s t h e r e s o n l y o n e b u t I l i k e t h e m i r r o r F r ont R I w o u l d b u y o n e o f t h e s e d r e s s e s i f I h a d t h e F l o o r i s a l i t t l e d i r t y m o n e y b u t i t w a s p e r f e c t d r e s s O ve r L M a y b e l e s s o v e r h e a d ; t h e y b r i n g o u t a n y M o r e h o o k s c i r c l e s y o u h a v e u n d e r y o u r e y e s O ve r R N / C N / C O ve r R N / C A l i t t l e t o o h o t O ve r L N / C N / C O ve r L N / C N / C F r ont L S o f t e r l i g h t i n g m i g h t b e b e t t e r a n d m o r e M o r e h o o k s f l a t t e r i n g F r ont L I t i n i t i a l l y c r e a t e s a c o o l e f f e c t b u t i t i s n o t O v e r h e a d l i g h t i n g M a y b e m o r e r o o m o r h a n g e r i d e a l f o r t r y i n g o n c l o t h e s s p a c e F r ont L D i d n t r e a l l y m a k e m e l o o k m y b e s t Li g h t i n g s h o u l d b e a l i t t l e l e s s h a r s h F r ont R N / C N / C F r ont L I l i k e h o w t h e l i g h t i n g i s i n f r o n t a l o n g w i t h Ex t r a h a n g e r s m i r r o r h a s s o m e d u s t R u g o n f l o o r t h e c e i l i n g l i g h t i n g W i t h t h i s i t g i v e s y o u w o u l d b e g r e a t f o r m o r e e a s e o n t a k i n g o f f s h o e s l i g h t f r o m e v e r y a n g l e F r ont R N / C N / C F r ont R I l o v e t h e l i g h t i n g I f e e l l i k e i t i s f l a t t e r i n g M a y b e a n o t h e r l i g h t a c r o s s t h e t o p o f t h e m i r r o r. s l i m m i n g a n d e x c i t i n g I t l o o k s m o d e r n O ve r R C o u l d b e i n t h e b a c k r a t h e r t h a n r i g h t i n y o u r C o l o r f a c e N ot e N / C i ndi c a t e s no c om m e nt 103

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T a bl e G 1. C ont i nue d C ondi t i on S i de L i ght i ng D r e s s i ng R oom O ve r L F i n e b u t s h a d o w y Li g h t n e a r e n t r a n c e O ve r R Th e l i g h t i n g w a s v e r y g o o d o n t h e f a c i a l a n d I f t h e r e w e r e m o r e s p a c e a m i r r o r c o u l d p o s s i b l y b o d y a p p e a r a n c e b e a d d e d o n t h e s i d e s O ve r L I t w a s w a y t o o b r i g h t a n d t h e l i g h t s c a u s e d M o r e c l o t h i n g h o o k s d o w n l i g h t s a d d c o l o r o r m y h e a d t o m a k e a s h a d o w o n m y f a c e p i c t u r e s t o w a l l s O ve r L To o b r i g h t C l e a n m i r r o r s l i g h t s p a c e b e t w e e n d r e s s i n g r o o m s O ve r R N / C N / C O ve r R N / C N / C O ve r L I t s j u s t r i g h t N o t h i n g I c a n t h i n k o f O ve r R N / C N / C F r ont R N / C N / C F r ont L I l i k e i t I t s c a l m i n g a n d s e e m s l i k e a b a r o r N o t h i n g g o o d r e s t a u r a n t i n t h e e v e n i n g F r ont R Th e l i g h t i n g i s g o o d b / c i t i s n t d i r e c t l i g h t N / C a n d i t s e e m s t o b e r e f l e c t e d d u e t o t h e w h i t e w a l l s w h i c h i s n t a s h a r s h o n t h e c u s t o m e r F r ont L A l i t t l e i n t i m i d a t i n g C o o l e r t e m p F r ont R I r e a l l y t r y t o a v o i d s t o r e s w i t h t h i s t y p e o f M a k e e i t h e r m o r e e l e g a n t o r m o r e c o z y R i g h t m u s i c b e c a u s e I g e t v e r y a n n o y e d a n d d o n t n o w i t s v e r y d u l l C h a n g e t h e m u s i c M a y b e w a n t t o t r y t h i n g s o n Th e l i g h t g i v e s m e a c a r p e t ? Th e l i g h t i s t o o w h i t e f o r m e h e a d a c h e F r ont L N / C P a i n t w a l l s s c u f f m a r k s Te m p e r a t u r e c o o l e r F r ont R V e r y b r i g h t b u t f l a t t e r i n g P a i n t e d a w a r m e r c o l o r R e p a i n t t h e f l o o r H a n g m i r r o r o n t h e w a l l P i c t u r e s / d e c o r a t i o n s O ve r L Th e l i g h t s r i g h t a b o v e m a k e m e a l i t t l e A 3 w a y m i r r o r a n d m o v e t h e l i g h t i n g w a r m O ve r L I p r e f e r t h e l i g h t i n g w h e n I s t e p b a c k b u t t h e R e m o v e c h a i r c h a i r i s i n t h e w a y F r ont L N / C I l i k e i t o v e r a l l F r ont R To o b r i g h t n e o n l i g h t S m a l l e r m i r r o r O ve r R Th e l i g h t i n g i s f o c u s e d t o w a r d t h e m i r r o r s o M o r e e v e n l e s s i n t e n s e l i g h t i n g w h e n y o u s t e p b a c k y o u g e t h a r s h s h a d o w s O ve r R N / C N / C N ot e N / C i ndi c a t e s no c om m e nt 104

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A P P E N D I X H P O S I T I V E A N D N E G A T I V E W R I T T E N C O M M E N T S B Y L I G H T I N G D I R E C T I O N T a bl e H 1 P os i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve w r i t t e n c om m e nt s by l i ght i ng di r e c t i on F r ont a l L i ght i ng C om m e nt s P os i t i ve N e ga t i ve I l ove d t he l i ght i ng I t m a de m e l ook l i ke m y I t i ni t i a l l y c r e a t e s a c ool e f f e c t but i t i s not s ki n ha d a he a l t hy gl ow A l s o, m y e ye s l ooke d i de a l f or t r yi ng on c l ot he s. a m a z i ng. I l i ke how t he l i gh t i ng i s i n f r ont D i dn't r e a l l y m a ke m e l ook m y be s t I l ove t he l i ght i ng I f e e l l i ke i t i s f l a t t e r i ng, s l i m m i ng, a nd e xc i t i ng I t l ooks m ode r n. I l i ke i t I t 's c a l m i ng a nd s e e m s l i ke a ba r or r e s t a ur a nt i n t he e ve ni ng O ve r he a d L i ght i ng C om m e nt s P os i t i ve N e ga t i ve G ood f or s ki n t one S ha dow s not t oo ba d on T he l i ght i ng i n t h i s r oom i s une ve n a nd c a us e s c e l l ul i t e t he r e t o be s ha dow s w he n I s t ood c l os e t o t he m i r r or W a s f l a t t e r i ng w hi l e t r yi ng on c l ot he s M a ybe l e s s ove r he a d; t he y br i ng out a ny c i r c l e s you ha ve unde r you r e ye s T he l i ght m a ke s m e s ki nny F i ne but s ha dow y. T he l i ght i ng w a s ve r y good on t he f a c i a l a nd I t w a s w a y t oo br i ght a nd t he l i ght s c a us e d m y body a ppe a r a nc e he a d t o m a ke a s ha dow on m y f a c e 105

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B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H B a um s t a r c k A r e c e i ve d he r B a c he l or of S c i e nc e i n B us i ne s s A dm i ni s t r a t i on ( B S B A ) w i t h a c onc e nt r a t i on i n m a r ke t i ng f r om t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l o r i da i n 2003. A f t e r w or ki ng f or t w o ye a r s s he r e t ur ne d t o t he U ni ve r s i t y o f F l o r i da t o e a r n he r M a s t e r of I nt e r i or D e s i gn f oc us i ng on t he ne xus of m a r ke t i ng a nd i n t e r i or de s i gn. H e r m a i n r e s e a r c h i nt e r e s t i s r e t a i l s t or e pe r c e pt i ons but s he c ont i nue s t o be i ns pi r e d by a nd i nt e r e s t e d i n a m yr i a d of t hi ngs w i t hi n t he de s i gn f i e l ds 111