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1 THE CHALLENGE OF THE SLUMS : LOOKING FOR DEMOCRATIC INCLUSION IN THE SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL By BRYAN CHRISTOPHER WILLIAMS A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008
2 Copyright 2008 by Bryan C. Williams
3 T o all of the good people who shared their lives wi th me and made my work possible
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Although there is only one author of this dissertation, and consequently only one individual to assume the blame for all of its inaccuracies and oversimplifications, there are many may be found herein. My most grateful thanks goes to my two mothers, my father, and my beautiful wife whose support was e ssential to the completion of this document that represents a lifetime of education and pondering. I am thankful to be surrounded by an intellectually stimulating family that understands the importance of long journeys of exploration in order to develop g reater personal understandings of the world around. Of equal importance to my study was their generosity with their time, patience, and their cooking that allowed me to concentrate on struggling with ideas rather than the maintenance of my body and home. I would also like to thank my dissertation committee for their instruction and personal insight on how I might decode the complexity of the great blooming, buzzing confusion of the world. More specifically, I owe a large debt of gratitude to the Chairpers on of my committee, Dr. Gran Hyden, for consenting to help me organize my thoughts and interests about development administration, and eventually acting as the midwife for the document that follows. Similarly, Dr. Larry Dodd was important to my work in t hat he first helped me understand the multiple views and approaches to the study of events and moments in time, as well as processes across time, and then he directed me towards those approaches that best led to an empirical, scientific method of study fo r my particular puzzle. I asked Dr. Kenneth Wald to be a member of my committee because I value his practical approach to methodology, making the difficult connections between quantitative and qualitative studies that he uses to produce thick considerati ons of the effects of religion on political behavior. More than any other professor, Dr. Wald made me feel that he had time to discuss
5 ideas with me, which gave me the confidence to trust my own scholarship and take on the difficult task of researching an d writing a dissertation in the slums of a foreign country. I must thank Dr. Phillip Williams and Dr. Manuel Vasquez for the subject and geographical area expertise that they brought to my committee. Both specialize in Latin America as seen through the lens of religion, and both are familiar with the slums ( favela s ) of Rio de Janeiro. Their penetrating questions drove me to a tighter focus, and a greater humility in accepting my role as a participant in the slowly developing conversation that is the bo dy of political science knowledge. I would like to single out Dr. Jos Cludio Alves of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro for his selflessness in sharing his home, his knowledge, his friendship, and his contacts with me. I am truly moved wh en I reflect on how much he has had to do with all of the positive aspects of my life in Rio de Janeiro, and more relevant to these acknowledgements, my ability to complete my research here. His presence in this section is inadequate to express the depth of my appreciation for the kindness he has shown and the inspiration he provided. In closing, I would like to mention a few institutions that have funded my work over the years. The UF Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing supported my initial two years in the PhD program and provided me with interesting work that helped me understand development politics in Florida. The UF Center for La tin American Studies provided funding for two pre dissertation trips to Brazil as well as two years Portuguese study through the Federal Language Area Studies program and their Tinker grant. Finally, the Fulbright Organization financed fourteen months of field research in Rio de Janeiro, as well as an exciting community of motivated researchers to interact with. I realize that I have taken on a lifelong obligation of shaping a career that honors the investment that everyone has put into me.
6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 11 CHAPTER 1 LOOKING FOR DEMOCRACY IN THE SLUMS OF RIO DE JANEIRO ........................ 13 A Global Problem ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 16 The Economic Drain ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 17 Informality versus the State ................................ ................................ ............................. 18 A Crisis of Democracy and A Crisis of State Authority ................................ ................. 20 The Political Climate of Rio ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 22 Demo cracy or Clientelism? ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 25 ................................ ................................ ............................. 26 Elements of Democracy ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 28 Democratic Structures ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 29 Democratic Processes ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 31 State Autono my ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 32 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 34 Framework f or This Manuscript ................................ ................................ ............................. 36 2 ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF FAVELAS IN RIO DE JANEIRO ................................ ....... 42 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 42 Pre 1900 At the Birth of the Nation Comes the Birth of Favela s ................................ .......... 49 1900 1930 The Period of Rapid Urbanization ................................ ................................ ........ 53 1930 1964 The Vargas Years ................................ ................................ ................................ 61 1964 1984 The Military Dictatorship Decides to Clean House ................................ ............. 72 1984 Present The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same ............................... 79 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 83 3 SOCIAL CAPITAL AND THE SLUM ................................ ................................ ................. 87 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 87 What is Social Capital ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 88 Social Capital at the Individual Level ................................ ................................ ............. 89 Social Capital at the Community Level ................................ ................................ ........... 97 Bonding, Bridging, Blinding, and Binding Social Capital ................................ ............ 102 Social Capital in the Favela s of Rio de Janeiro ................................ ................................ .... 106
7 Social Capital as an Individual Resource ................................ ................................ ...... 108 Social Capital as an Exit Option ................................ ................................ .................... 111 Social Capital Embedding Favela Residents in Government and Society .................... 115 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 123 4 SOCIAL CAPITAL AND THE CAPACITY TO ACT IN CONCERT .............................. 134 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 134 Social Capital and the Capacity to Concert ................................ ................................ .......... 137 The Capacity to Concert in Favela s ................................ ................................ ..................... 143 The Vaccine Revolt ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 144 Escolas da S amba ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 146 The Political Development of the Favela s ................................ ................................ .... 147 Liberation Theology Creating the Capacity to Concert ................................ ........................ 149 Linking Liberation Theology to Social Capital ................................ ............................. 150 Evidence from the Field ................................ ................................ ................................ 153 ................................ ................................ ............. 155 The History ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 155 The Contemporary Scene ................................ ................................ ............................... 157 Little Support for AMs at the End of the Century ................................ ......................... 160 Obstacles to Relevancy for Residents ................................ ................................ ........... 161 Political Activity of the AMs and the Residents ................................ ........................... 163 Benefits From the Capacity to Concert ................................ ................................ ................ 165 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 168 5 BINDING SOCIAL CAPITAL, NETWORKS, AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS ............... 177 Binding Action Networks ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 179 BANs and the Political Opportunity Structure of Social Movements ................................ .. 180 The Communities Speak: Data from the Study ................................ ................................ ... 186 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 194 Competing Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 213 Clientelism ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 213 Age and Size and Location as Determinants ................................ ................................ 215 Long term versus Short term Residents ................................ ................................ ........ 217 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 218 6 WHAT DOES THIS ALL MEAN? ................................ ................................ ...................... 224 Implications for the Current Conversations in Political Science ................................ .......... 224 Democracy and Democratization ................................ ................................ .................. 225 Social Capital ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 228 Social Movements ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 236 Applications for These Findings ................................ ................................ ........................... 241 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 244 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 257
8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 1 Population and growth of Rio de Janeiro and the favela s of Rio by decade ........................... 39 1 2 Growth rate of number and population of favela s by zone, 1980 1997 ................................ .. 39 1 3 The Process of Democratization in Rio de Janeiro ................................ ................................ .. 40 2 1 Government housing starts in Rio de Janeiro by year, 1962 1975 ................................ ......... 85 2 2 Favela homes destroyed per zone after the creation of CHISAM, 1968 1972 ....................... 85 2 3 Removals in the largest favela s of Rio by zone, 1963 1966 & 1968 ................................ ..... 86 3 1 Origin of favela residents by region by favela ................................ ................................ ..... 124 3 associations : min, max, and avg percent by favela (not aggregate) ................. 124 3 3 Reason for currently living in favela ................................ ................................ ..................... 124 3 4 Correlations between measures of social capital from 1998 survey of 51 favela s ............... 125 3 5 Correlation matrix of measures of social captial and individual resources .......................... 126 3 6 Correlations between measures of social capital and measures of material quality of life .. 128 3 7 Reason for conditions improving in favela ................................ ................................ ........... 128 3 8 Reasons for conditions worsening in favela ................................ ................................ ......... 128 3 9 Informal sector as percentage of metropolitan rio workforce, and salary difference ........... 128 3 10 Correlation among favela s' major pro blem and source of improvement ........................... 129 3 11 Correlation among violence in each favela and measures of social capital ....................... 129 3 12 Min, max, and mean percent of population of 51 favela s with state issued identification ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 129 3 13 Bivariate correlations between measures of social capital and measures of state embeddedness of individual residents of favela s ................................ ............................. 130 3 14 Correlation between measures of social capital and public resources ................................ 131 4 1 Individuals in Rio, 18+ years, reasons for joining unions for non professionals .................. 171 4 2 Main problems of 18 Favela s ................................ ................................ ................................ 171
9 4 3 Sewage connections of 50 favela s by type ................................ ................................ ........... 171 4 4 Water delivery and connection by frequency (50 favela s) and origin (18 favela s) ............... 172 4 5 Group mobilized by conflict objective ................................ ................................ .................. 173 4 6 Percentage of fa vela s with p articipation at given levels in ............ 173 4 7 Organization providing support for favela in conflict vs. objective of conflict .................... 173 4 8 Form of conflict by mobilized group ................................ ................................ ..................... 174 4 9 Correlation matrix of six measures of social capital ................................ ............................ 175 4 10 Correlations between measures of social capital and group level resources ...................... 176 5 1 Correlations between passive social capital, orges de classe and unions .......................... 220 5 2 Correlations between active social capital, orges de classe and unions .............................. 220 5 3 Correlations between quality of infrastructure and services to NGOs ................................ .. 220 5 4 First order partial correlations between measures of media and infrastructural quality controlling for violence ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 221 5 5 Bi variate correlations between measures of internal organization and infrastructure quality controlling for violence ................................ ................................ ........................ 221 5 6 Explaining motivation and capacity for protests and legal action : zero and first order correlations between active social capital, media measures, and residents' visible dem and making ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 222
10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3 1 losed vs. open group s ................................ ........................... 132 3 2 Change in community strength from 1969 to 2001 in selected favela s ............................... 132 3 3 Ties between groups ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 132 3 4 Conceptualization of four types of social capital by group openness and strength of ties within the group ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 133 3 5 Favela res idents' opinion on governmental impact by level ................................ ............... 133 5 1 Internal and external linkages around favela issues ................................ ............................ 223
11 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE CHALLENGE OF THE SLUMS : LOOKING FOR DEMOCRATIC INCLUSION IN THE SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL By Bryan C. Williams December 2008 Chair: Gran Hyden Major: Political Science Our aim was to describe the mechanisms that drive this difference in success among gr oups of urban squatters in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The purpose is to find how space for democracy may be created at the bottom of the socio economic pyramid in the context of great social, political, and economic inequality. Exposing the avenu es and methods of successful democracy develops, deepens, and functions particularly under unfavorable conditions. Moreover, understanding how and why the poor cho ose to access or avoid the government when they do is an important first step in trying to build a relationship between the state and the slums. Developing this relationship is imperative in order to turn the current unsustainable drain of uncontrolled ur into a positive contribution to state and society. How to bring in those with an exit option to participate in the state is the real challenge of the slums. A new model of social and political movements is presented here that captures a heretofore unobservable phenomenon: that of binding, or temporary, cooperative relationships between indi viduals in a community that form groups; between these temporary groups and influential institutions outside of the community; and de facto asynchronous cooperation between the
12 institutions on behalf of the community. The presence of these Binding Action Networks is empirically tested, as well as the results for communities where the Binding Action Networks are relatively stronger or weaker. In the final analysis, this dissertation develops a new view of social movements among the worst off in society, a nd consequently captures an element of democracy and democratization that has been overlooked until now. In the final analysis, social capital, both within the community and bridging outside of the community plays an instrumental role in the political voi ce and the material well being of those pushed to the political and economic margins of society.
13 CHAPTER 1 LOOKING FOR DEMOCRAC Y IN THE SLUMS OF RI O DE JANEIRO This study does not attempt to travel the well worn path of looking for obstacles to egalitarian results from a Latin American democracy where the voice of the majority the poor has been unsuccessful in wringing meaningful reforms from the government. Aut hors from Plutarch to Dahl have noted the causal link between economic and political inequality; the political tools and access points available to the wealthy are not in the same arena as those of the poor. Instead, this study compares equivalent groups of poor individuals whose main point of difference is that some groups were politically successful in that they received governmental development funds, services, or projects, while the others did not. The puzzle that is confronted in this work is to dis cover the mechanisms that drive this difference in success among these groups of urban squatters ( favelados ) in the city of Rio de Janeiro (Rio), and in so doing, to find how space for democracy may be created at the bottom of the socio economic pyramid 1 Exposing the avenues and methods of the demand making of, and understanding of how democracy develops, deepens, and functions particularly under unfavorable conditi ons 2 Moreover, understanding how and why the poor choose to access the government when they do is an important first step in trying to build a relationship between the state and the slums. Developing this relationship is imperative in order to turn the current 1 Popular Contention in Great Britain: 1758 183 4 2 According to Freedom House Freedom in the World Country Ratings 1972 2000 Brazil political climate has to the newly overturned m ilitary dictatorship (1984), and creation of an extraordinarily liberal constitution (1988). The failure of the government to make good on the promises of the civilian constitution, exacerbated by violent treatment of the poor and homeless led to a declin until today.
14 unmanageable drain into a positive force for state and society. How to bring in those with an exit option to participate in the state is the real challenge of the slums 3 This challenge is the global issue for the foreseeable future because it is the slums in and around the already crowded major cities in developing countries that are to be home to a vast majority of the additional three billion people the world is to bear by the middle of this century. A rise from the current population of approx imately six billion to nine billion individuals on earth is daunting for a number of reasons, particularly with most large cities in the developing world already bursting at the seams with too many immigrants chasing the unrealized dream of employment and a better life. City growth has surpassed industrial growth in and around those cities more than ten fold, and it has happened with Malthusian speed. Using a conservative, physical and legal characteristics only 4 easily empiricized definition for slum, a 2002 2005 UN study predicted more than one billion residents of slums in 2005 fully 17% of the population of Aside from the more individual problems of feeding and housing the growing population of slu m dwellers, negative spillovers such as pollution, disease, crime, and urban congestion promise to make urban habitation a society wide problem. Unchecked, this problem in countries like Brazil the country with the third largest population of slum dweller s in the world 5 will consume state resources and stall economic advances after the past decade of profitable industrialization. This is the root of the main political and economic problems for new democracies like Brazil and its Latin American neighbors: how to capture these burgeoning 3 Slums are the result of two increasing factors: urbanization and the urbanization of poverty. Slums are the locus of the worst shelter, physical and environmental conditions (United Nations Human Settlements Programme., 2003) 4 These characteristics are defined as inadequate access to safe water; inadequate access to sanitation and other infrastructure; poor structural quality of housing; overcrowd ing; and insecure tenure (ibid, p. 12) as opposed to a definition based on soc ial conditions such as the locus of discontent or political disruptiveness. 5 China has 37.8% or 193.8 million of its urban population living in slums; India has 55.5% of its urban population, or 158.4 million individuals, in similar conditions; and Brazi l has 36.6% of its urban population, or 51.7 million individuals, in slum communities commonly called favela s (Davis, 2006 p. 34)
15 populations of the poor into the state so as to use them as productive resources, and to more efficiently meet their needs while forestalling the most negative effects of their uncontrolled immigration. This dissertation, then, is about democracy in the City of Rio de Janeiro (Rio) in the years (1988 2000) after the dictatorship, with data focusing primarily on 1995 2000. The findings of this study could be seen as disagreeing with the current trend in the literature, whic h prefers clientelism to describe the primary relationship of the poor with the state, and the cause for their marginalization in the stalled democracies ( ditaduras ) of Latin America. But rather than contradict, this study adds a different perspective and deepens the understanding of citizen state relations at the bottom. While authors such as Diniz (1982) have put extensive work into describing the extent and method s of the clientelist machine in Brazil, others, such as Gay (1999) Paley (2001) and Stokes (1995) have attempted to capture the undercurrent of desire for and action towards real, inclusive democr acy among the traditionally excluded classes in Brazil, Peru, and Mexico. In so doing, they point to how the poor build relationships with the state on their own terms. To these authors of the social movement school, it is useful to add studies and theor y from research on social capital in order to move away from the phenomenological case based approach and towards a more general framework for comparing the more than fifty communities in this dissertation. The research for this manuscript follows a theme similar to Gay, Paley, and Stokes and focuses on the democratic, political actions of groups of urban squatters ( favelados ) in pursuit of collective benefits from governmental resources. And, while clientelism certainly persists in Rio, years of unfulfill ed promises and incomplete projects 6 6 See most recently the now infamous debacle for the Garotinho political dynasty of Rio de Janeiro where the Obras
16 becoming savvier and seeking new ways of approaching and negotiating with the government. h centered, top down analyses of politics. Global Problem What is revealed in Table 1 1 shows that there is a squatter population of over one million in Rio de Janeiro, or almost one fif th of the total population of the city 7 Moreover, the growth of the favela s has far outstripped the overall growth of the city for all but ten years between 1950 and 2000. Also, it is important to note that these figures provide a low estimate based on a favela that has changed over time and across applications. In addition to those who live in communities officially designated as favela s there is a group of equal size or larger who live in irregular settlements that were not t he result of illegal occupation or invasion. The living conditions in these lotementos irregulares is often worse than in the favela s, and combined the two types of slums account for around 40% of the urban population of the city, a conservative number wh ich is consistent across the largest cities of Brazil. Table 1 2 shows the uneven distribution of favela population and growth by zone of the city. The concentration of the favela s is highest in the North, industrial zone housing more than half of all f avela residents and nearly half of the communities. The North Zone was the destination of the first wave of slum removal projects that cleared the city center and the South favela boom between 19 80 and 1991 with the population of residents more than doubling to around 200,000. The wealthier South Zone has avoided most of the sprawl during until shortly after the end of the military extent of publicity for t he campaign (R$11 million) alongside the thousands of projects that had either not been started or had not been completed (Menezes, 2006) 7 The proportions are approximately the same for the state of Rio de Janeiro
17 dictatorship. From 1991 to 1997, the number of favela s nearly do ubled and the population of these illegal communities increased by more than 50%. Poverty continues to increase across all infrastructure and plenty of unwante d land. And in the fashionable South Zone, largely because of access to jobs or tourists, those favela s that managed to escape the destruction of the military dictatorship are growing upwards and developing population densities that rival Tokyo and Osaka. Economic Drain With over 80% of the country already urbanized and a predicted 90% urbanization by 2020, that means that more than one third of all Brazilians will be living in crowded, unorganized, unhealthy urban conditions by the end of the next decade. In the past two decades, 72 of every 100 new households established in Brazil have been located in favela s (Tod aro, 1997, pp. pp. 6 7) The residents of these slums are plagued by problems of transportation to work, finding jobs, dangerous housing, lack of clean water and sewage facilities, concomitant ill health, social discrimination, political marginalizatio n, and continual fear of removal for lack of legal tenure. Surrounding neighborhoods complain of spillovers from these unsanitary conditions and high crime, as well as property devaluation due to the proximity of such squalor. Governmental policies regard ing favela s have varied as wildly as their growth rate (Table 1 2 ) depending on the interests of the state, the implementation of repressive measures, and the ability of the favela residents to mobilize politically. The current policy practiced in Rio de Janeiro is to allow slum dwellers to exist on the periphery of the state, acting as a drain on resources. Their presence and growth can largely be attributed to the need for cheap labor in the
18 The principle source of resource drain results from the general increase in welfare policies in every administration since Jos Sarney became the first civilian presiden t in 1985 after over twenty years of military dictatorship. This culminated in the 2002 election and 2006 reelection Partido dos Trabalhdores, who dramatically increased the monetary amount and number of state b enefits for the poor. The form of aid provided is non productive and is not compensated by returns of a more competitive and economically participative population. Also, vast informal 8 economic networks exist in the urban areas under discussion, which d eprive the state of needed resources in terms of exportable production, taxes, and other contributions to the state. And since the end of the military dictatorship in the 1980s, there has drug gangs that require more and more state resources in the attempt to contain them. Informality versus the State The estimates of two different studies put the informal economy of Brazil around 33% of its GNP (Portes and Sassen Koob, 1987; Schneider and Enste, 2000) that is one third of the taxable base that is not being captured. And means tested aid is likely being misallocated to those who do not mer it it according to program guidelines. From 1995 to 2002, unemployment 17 year olds increasing threefold (11.0% to 34.5%) and that for young adults aged 18 24 more than doubling (9.3% to 21.4%) (UNDP, 2005, p. 124) And total urban unemployment there in the same period rose from 4.3% to 7.1%. These are individuals who either choose to or are forced to enter the informal economy in order to survive. Furthermore, those that participate in the informal economy as their primary 8 earning activities, save those that are legally registered or regulated. In general, criminal activity is exc luded from this definition (Portes and Sassen Koob, 1987; Schneider and Enste, 2000)
19 9 participation, thus robbing the state of legitimacy of almost one third of its citizens. Also, there is a further drain on the fo rmal economy through attracting consumers and able workers from the formal sector to the informal who would rather not suffer the extra expense of taxation and governmental monitoring (Schneider and Enste, 2000) Informal sector workers may be there because of lack of education, a dislike for authority, a traditional adherence to local work options, or exclusion from the formal sector by social discrimination. Similarly, there are those urbanites who remain in t he peasant mode of production as a type of proto proletariat who engage only in self employed production and trade (Wilson, 1998) Gran H yden (1983) points to the dire prospects for economic development of countries that have large, uncaptured productive groups 10 The limitations of the state to oversee production and labor in the slums means that the workers can escape the system, even though they do not own their own means of production 11 Marx and Engels envisaged a state created by the capitalist means of production that had government by the social and political backlash against the military regime, a decade of ruinous economic policy, and the ambiguous historical position of the squatters has led to refuges in the squatter settlements in which small to medium enterprises exist with their own army of street 9 Albert Hirschman (1970) proposed that individuals in a state have s everal choices in reacting to state policy: support the policy, voice their discontent, or exit the state to avoid the effects of the policy. The exit option undermines the legitimacy of the state in denying the power of the state over all individuals wit hin its political borders. Repeated use of the exit option by broad sections of society will lead either to a praetorian state or a crisis of government. The voice option indicates a continued relationship with the state and a de facto acceptance of the rules of the game. 10 work and the urban squatters in terms of alternative economic activities, social characteristics, and political reasoning. 11 A lthough there is an important informal sector provision of services in the slums, such as coiffeurs and mechanics, the vast majority of individuals and most of the income in the informal economic sector are merely retail agents.
20 level retailers. Moreover, the complex and costly processes of legitimizing a bu siness in Brazil, added to the potential liabilities of ultra liberal labor laws, plus the corruption of government fiscal agents results in a combination of factors guaranteed to keep fledgling businesses unregistered. So, like the peasants, the producti ve and reproductive needs of the poor are not tied to the upper classes. That is to say that the relationships between them and the rulers are not based in the production system. Outside of police repression, then, the state has very little control over (Hyden, 1983 p. 7) policy as unwelcome foreign intervention to be avoided as much as possible. A Crisis of Democracy and A Crisis of State Authority The following statistics indicate a cr isis of democracy in Brazil, and further explain the economic and political society is a task necessary for progress and growth of Brazil, or at least the sta sphere of influence are great, while the economic incentives the state offers in the way of transfer payments is negligible and insufficient to live on. At the same t ime, distrust of the government is at an all time high with almost two thirds (64.7%) of the respondents in a 2002 never intended to they lied in order to be elected (UNDP, 2005, p. 51) In 1999 through 2002, Transparency International (2002) polling results listed Brazil as 4.0 on an eleven point scale with lower numbers corresponding to higher political corruption (ranked 45 th least corrupt country out of 141 countries). By 2006 that estimation had fallen to 3.3/11 (70 th least corrupt country out of 141 countries) (Infoplease, 2007) And the same Latinobarometer survey mentioned above revealed that 56.7% of all respondents, and 44.7% of those who claim to prefer
21 democracy to any other system of government, would prefer to live under authoritarian rule if it meant improved economic progress. Compounding the problem of a large population with little reason to reach up to the state, the extensive slums are often the homes to criminal gangs who set up small fiefdoms that form a signific ant barrier to the entry and function of the legitimate state 12 And more than just one more obstacle in constructing a relationship between the poor and the state, this criminal activity creates a serious drain on state resources in terms of policing and control. Consequently, because of the inability to enter poor communities to treat the source of pollution and disease, spillovers must continually be dealt with downstream where it is more difficult and costly to treat. This problem is particularly visi ble in Rio de Janeiro and So Paulo in Brazil where drug gangs are so powerful that they have closed these cities down for a week at a time (Oliveira, 2006) and fire fights between police, the national army and the drug gangs involving modern weapons of war (bazookas and antiaircraft machine guns are the latest that have been seized) Clearly, some incentives need to be created to encourage slum dwellers to invest themselves in the greater society. But strong, functioning informal networks coupled with the common wisdom that politics are corrupt and politicians are unaccountable provid e opportunities and justification to remain outside of state control. Even with mandatory voting for citizens aged 18 65 that penalizes non voters by withholding governmental benefits such as welfare payments, public jobs, and public education, around a q favela dwellers opt out and either refuse to vote or fail to register with the government for any type of identification (PCBR, 1998) 12 See, for explanation, (Leeds, 1996; Amorim, 2004; Mir, 2004; Arias, 2006)
22 By existing outside of government purview, individuals avoid the hassle of the formidable bureaucracy; the potential of being removed to a government housing project far from fam ily, friends, and work; and possible trouble with a justice system that is patently distrusted by the poor. Furthermore, because of the stigma of residing in a slum, residents experience social prejudice that precludes many legitimate job opportunities an d negates the value of having an officially registered job ( Carteira de Trablho assinada ). In contrast, operating in the informal economy, individuals can often make more than minimum wage either as a micro entrepreneur, or by selling their services off b ook and thus saving employers both paperwork, social insurance payments, and the growing possibility of lawsuits from disgruntled employees. Even with this avoidance of the government at all levels, it is clear that the poor, at least in Rio de Janeiro whe re they occupy the very visible sides of tall hills throughout the city, do have access to and influence over the government to some extent. After all, these hillside communities started out as squatter settlements with no rights or legal claims for gover nment help. Even in the 1970s under the military dictatorship, the most active period for removing these squatter settlements, some were left standing on what should be the most expensive property of the elite South Zone. Since that time, the process of upgrading and integrating favela s into the city has been just as selective as the earlier removals, gracing some with projects, others with the promise of projects and token starts, and still others left out entirely. Political Climate of Rio As seen in mo st Latin American nations, 20 th century transitions to democracy have tended to privilege those elite groups who brokered the transitions. The result has been the creation of (Peterson et al., 2001, pp. 11, 106) wherein voting is the only form of democratic participation for the poor, and access to government services and fair treatment is limited. That is, excluded groups (the majority) have
23 little real power to influence policy, and few choices when they are able to exercise their right to vote. There is a cumulativ e, mutually reinforcing effect between economic inequality, social inequality, and political inequality where wealth determines social position and access, wealth and social access lead to political power, and political power allows the protection and enha ncement of wealth and social position. From this perspective, the democracy of Brazil, and particularly of Rio de Janeiro, must be seen as inherently unstable. The status quo is unviable, and the future possibilities appear as polar opposites: a return to dictatorship and hegemony, or riotous demand making by the lower classes (or most likely: riotous demand making leading to a return to dictatorship). A third option complete s the triangle of future possibilities: movement towards inclusive democracy at all levels of society. Realizing this deepening of democracy, however, would require the ent (the rich who benefit from the status quo ) as well as political interest and participation from the poor. Robert Dahl (1971) suggests that a country like Brazil that has a system of public contestation trammeled by extreme inequality is on the path to return to authoritarian rule. So, the possibility of deepening 13 democracy in Brazil is unlikely because of the vulnerability of systems when they attempt to include such disparate interests of the extreme ly wealthy and the very poor in the contest of ideas that is politics. What has been the norm for social policy in (1971) prediction of consistent, stopgap measures to delay general rebellion among the disenfranchised (maintain the system) due to resentment and frustration at perceived inequality that has eroded their allegiance to the regime. An appropriate metaphor is that of a king giving his ring in order to save his finger from being bitten off by the hungry 13 By deepening of democracy, I refer to an increase in top down inclusio n of the polity into democratic institutions and practices, as well as an increase in commitment to democratic norms, voting, and campaign activism at the grassroots. See particularly (Oxhorn, 1995; Booth and Richard, 1998)
24 peasants. But even in this hostile atmosphere, has there been the development of a civil society accompanied by a democratic culture and accompanying repertoire of democratic actions among the poor? n to civilian democracy from a twenty one year military dictatorship, and the 1988 passage of an extraordinarily liberal constitution, the level of political, social, and economic inclusion has not significantly advanced, leaving the poor as de facto non c itizens to a large extent. This is especially true of those who live in the illegal squatter communities known as favela s where, in Rio, less than one third of those who work either full time or part time are officially registered 14 (PCBR, 1998) And although procedural democratic practices may have returned for the middle classes, nothing inherent in the transition to democracy guarantees either procedural or substantive democracy for the lower classes (O'Donnell, 1992; Fox, 1994a) because of the signing of decrees or the tran (Fox, 1994b, p. 106) The question remains, however, of why is it and how is it that some groups of poor citizens, moreover squatters or illegal inhabitants of public and private land, s ucceed in capturing governmental responsiveness in the form of material resources and public services, while other nearly identical groups are left to fend for themselves? It is even more difficult to explain the success of squatters in capturing governme ntal resources over other, needier groups who own title to their land such as those in irregular housing arrangements 15 14 Registered workers ( Carteira de Trabalho assinada ) receive governmental protection and guarantees as well as qualify for unemployment insurance as well as a n enhanced pension after reaching retirement age. 15 Favela is both a socially constructed and a legal term with the two definitions often conflating in practice. Communities that are categorized as favela s often receive special attention in the news and in the government, while communities owned land that has been subdivided into very small plots and sold or rented by
25 Democracy or Clientelism? The research presented in this dissertation shows that a democratic space has indeed opened in Rio that benefi ts certain groups over others in relation to the various democratic actions these groups pursue. Only a careful study of attitudes, resources, and actions at the grassroots level can reveal this trend, as typical institutions of aggregating political will such as political parties or ballot box returns are not appropriate measures of democracy in Rio. As voting in elections is mandatory, with rather severe penalties for shirking, this participation alone cannot be interpreted as political will. Further, electoral laws in Brazil and much of Latin America have rendered political parties to be poor representative containers, as politicians habitually jump from one party to another within a single term. There is, therefore, no accountability to uphold a part campaign material of each individual candidate. At the same time, electoral laws provide equal access to television advertising of parties, not candidates, a perverse combination that serves to misinform the electorate, or at best, leave the electorate uninformed about their choices. This setup has been the perfect recipe to continue clientelistic relationships 16 between politicians and their electoral base. As only individual politicians can really be held accountable at the ballot box, savvy voters prefer personalistic relationships over supporting a party that has no real ability to mount a united front to implement its platform. Further, years of populist rule of Rio de Janeiro under Braz ilian President Getlio Vargas (1930 1945 & 1951 1954), his protg, Joo Goulart (1961 1964), and later Governor Leonel Brizola (1983 87, 1991 94), created a historical expectation of governmental assistance in return for electoral support so that, the landowner for the construction of multiple houses. It is the responsibility of the residents to continue water, electricity, and sewage infrastruct lotementos irregulares ) 16 Clientelism here refers to the trading of votes for the promise of post election returns in the form of government resources. See particularly (Diniz, 1982; Gay, 1990a)
26 to thi s day, even the current generation of favela fracturing of the central state devolved into an almost feudal system of coronelismo known as caudillismo in Spanish America (Campos, 2004) Later, modern clientelistic networks were firmly established during the twenty years of the military dictatorship (Diniz, 1982) yet clientelism does not define the limits of grassroots political participation in the post dictatorship years (Gay, 1990b) Philip Williams (1994, p. 171) conceptualizes democracy at two levels: one is formal institutional and deals with competitive elections and regime accountability; the other blocked by clientelistic obstacles, the lowe r level of social mobilization still remains, with a broad repertoire of democratic actions including petitions, public demonstrations, and lawsuits preclude demo cratic activism at the grassroots. What Is Meant by Democracy Defining and breaking democracy into its composite parts is necessary at this stage to create an understanding not only of how democracy should work, but also to provide a framework for analyzin g the Brazilian case of Rio de Janeiro. Presented in Table 1 3 political on paper has not led to political equality or any semblance of real democracy for Brazi lians. Yet rather than rehash the case against democracy in Brazil that many authors have already presented
27 in even more volumes 17 the purpose here is to describe the formal and informal democratic institutions and processes in order to later connect them to the grassroots organizations and actions of the poorest Brazilians. As the focus of this research is to reveal the extent of democratic content of urban word. Democracy is not a bimodal condition that a state may either have or not have. Democracy is better conceived as processes and structures that are implemented in fits and starts with varying success and inclusion over time. In Brazil, elections wi th full suffrage, a citizenship is ineffective [so that] the vast majority cannot rely on the institutions of the state particularly the courts and the police to respect or guarantee their individual rights, arbitrate (Holston and Caldeira, 1999, p. 719) Further, neoliberal reforms have created a disconnect between governmental institutions and social actors a distance that is not easily bridged by any but the economic elite. Munck and Verkulien (2002) indicate that conceptualizing democracy ultimately derives from whatever (Gutmann, 2002, p. 8) The preliminary task of any study of democracy, then, is to delineate the necessary attributes of such a system. Robert Dahl (1971, p. 16) contestation and participation in governmental decision making characterize those imperfect s capture a 17 (cf. Gay, 1990b; Mainwaring et al., 1992; Cohen, 1994; Stepan, 1994; Leeds, 1996; Weyland, 1996a, 1996b; Marx, 1998; Smith and Messari, 1998; Gay, 1999; Levine and Crocitti, 1999; Samuels, 2001; Goirand, 2003)
28 multitude of nuances that allow Dahl to measure the degree to which polyarchies approach the theoretical ideal of democracy. Elements of Democracy Sylvia Chan (2002) describes democracy as the rules for popular decision making. These rules define the mechanisms used to aggregate the public will. Like Dahl, Chan requires depth of participation and contestation in these r historical element to the definition, breaking democratization into three stages: transition, consolidation, and maintenance. Western liberal democracies, in the maintenance stage, may be backsliding as exclusionary political parties and public apathy distort these mechanisms, and Latin American democracies have never progressed to full consolidation. At the same time, participation cannot be taken on its own. Dahl (1971) among others, reminds that many authoritarian regimes require a kind of rubberstamp voting that indicates a high level of participation in government while no meaningful alternatives are presented. Structure does not exist witho ut process. Each element interacts with all others in the framework for analyzing the degree to which a country is democratic. No single part is sufficient, and each interacts with the other, providing democratic meaning to abstracted aspects. In this ca se, a strictly structural or procedural study of the governing system of any country will not reveal the true extent that it approaches democracy. That is to say that socio economic structures and civic and state institutions are important, however, the p rocesses that they engender are not equally influential. In all, it is important to look at the foreground players background democratic processes and structures (the rules and institutions for popular decision making). The shared ideas and beliefs that constitute civic structures, as well as those that undergird governmental structures are also important to consider. Finally, evolution of historical
29 paths and c onditions must be considered in evaluating the democratic nature of any system (Tilly, 1984) Both Dahl (1971) and Chan (2002) Agree that there are historical, material, and socioeconomic conditions that converge in order to pass a system through the stages of democracy: transition, consolidation, and maintenance. Democratic Structures Authors in the Modernization school of democ racy, such as Lipset (1959) and Rostow (1960) see technological modernization occurr ing alongside economic modernization, which creates private spaces and common interests through the liberation of the market to all, access to private property rights, and increased education and communication. It is these factors that allow democratizati on of a society. Lipset emphasizes that democratization requires broad legitimacy of the state within society, and he criticizes France and Italy for having had too many unincorporated groups during their stumbling attempts at democracy. He suggests that the show effective benefits at this level and thus win buy in and loyalty to the system. Taking the idea of private space and common interests out of modernization avoids the paradox of democratic transition in eighteenth century America where educated, white freeholders in a pre industrial society began to form democratic institutions and pra ctices. With the relative ubiquity of cheap mass media to create intra class communication and coherence, urbanization and industrialization were not necessary to create the weakening of the bourgeoisie or landed gentry that made space for broader politic al inclusion in Europe and later, in Spanish America (Dahl, 1971; Ruesc hemeyer et al., 1992) This space for civil society is the important structure that resulted from modernization in other post industrial societies. And the change in the relationship between the working class and the bourgeoisie is the resulting proce ss.
30 The capacity to participate and carry out civic duties must exist among the polity. For Putnam, associationalism is linked to civic capacity because clubs, teams, and groups are (2000, p. 339) In addition to these civic skills, norms of reciprocity and trust are engendered through interaction in the civil sphere; th ese provide a base that facilitates government function, and even replace government function in some cases (North, 1990b; Ostrom, 1990; Putnam et al., 1993) Moreover, civil society is the space and mechanism for information sharing, so necessary for democratic decision making (Dahl, 1971; Putnam, 2000; Chan, 2002) And for Dryzek (1990) this sharing of information can lead to an exchange of political opinions among the polity which nears his ideal of discursive democracy where there is a general, highly inform ed, public debate about policy issues. Actual participation in elections or politics is not a sufficient measure of the political capacity of society (Munck and Verkuilen, 2002; Moraski, 2003) ; for the participation to be meaningful, citizens must be informed and allowed to derive their own opinions regarding pol itical choices. In addition to a space for civil society, in a democracy the most important structure is that which aggregates the public will. Barrington Moore (1966) posits that a state must evolve sufficient institutions to absorb popular voice, or riot and praetorian society will result. External challenges to the system itself can lead away from democracy by reducing state autonomy necessary to enforce the aggregate will of the polity, or may force a praetorian intervention on the part of the state. Severe external challenges to an already democratic system (consolidating, or maintaini ng) are most likely to occur in the form of hegemonic coups, rather than those in the forms of groups demanding greater democracy.
31 One of these aggregating structures is political parties, which work in conjunction with another structure, the electoral sys tem, to attempt to create an approximation of the collective will. In the large, complex systems of modern, industrialized nations, parties and representative democracy is the norm. The broader or more inclusive these structures are (to a point), the mor e likely they are to engage in democratic decision making processes that contribute to a democratic political culture and build the repertoire of democratic participatory actions in society. On the other hand, highly factionalized parties, like those in B razil, in societies with multiple socio economic cleavages, again like Brazil, are likely to evolve exclusionary structures with inflexible, exclusionary processes (Dahl, 1971, pp. 221 5) The eventu al outcome of an election held with either factionalized or broad based parties may end quite similarly, however as a democratic structure, the more inclusive the parties, the better for democracy. Democratic Processes Democratic processes work in conjunct ion with democratic structures. And while the formal institutional rules and structures mark out the limits of democracy of the system, it is these rules in practice, or structures in use (processes), that really show the degree of democracy in the system. For example, it is possible to have a political party structure that is deeply inclusive in theory, but privileges a segment of the population in practice all theoretically may participate, but only a small minority is able to. The same is true with pub lic debate of political issues: all may contribute, but some few voices are heard much louder than others in practice. Thus we are cautioned by Dahl (1971) that complete suffrage and high participation in elections meant very little for democracy in the Soviet Union. Dankwart Rustow (1970) takes the processes of conflict and reconciliation to build a minimal definition of democracy. The heart of democracy, for Rustow, is the agg regation of the public will in the decision
32 decision by the polity. Through a participatory (discursive) process, the state derives a e creation or acceptance of this process is usually achieved by pact making among the elite who believe that losing under a democratic regime is preferable to winning under the alternative (Przeworski, 1991) The outcomes from a best to all major parties involved (Rustow, 1970, p. 357) optimal to the leaders and the polity, the decision must be implemented. This requires a degree of state autonomy in order that the policy not be captured or distorted in implementation. The historical process of democratization is also important, in terms of stage (transition, consolidation, or maintenance), and whether it was imposed from external sources, created from the grassroots, or created from the middle (Rueschemeyer et al., 1992) The impetus for, and process of democratization will impact th e path to habituation of shared democratic values. And, although each step towards democracy is fragile and reversible, in general, the longer a country has been on the path, the more deeply imbedded democratic values and capacities are in the polity (Dahl, 1971; Chan, 2002) For Rustow (1970) it is shared values of national unity, whatever the regime, that provides the n ecessary precondition for democratization. State Autonomy Clearly, state autonomy from foreign intervention is necessary to any definition of democracy as the people that govern must also be those that are governed. What is less clear is why state autonom (1978) provides an important justification, suggesting that a state with limited resources must shield itself from demand making or risk losing legitimacy through its inability to even partially meet those demands. This is the paradox that Chan (2002) mentions: a strong state is necessary to protect liberties and carry lso be less responsive to the
33 polity and more invasive. Moreover, should the state mechanisms be too strong or unresponsive, especially in the face of concerted objection, protests against the system itself (rather than about the issue) are likely to ensu e (Moore, 1966; Kitschelt, 1986; Skocpol, 1992) A balance between strength (autonomy) and opennes s is needed. This question of balance is related to the nature of the non elected administrative bodies of reduce the democratic nature of society due to risk of capture by minority factions? Or does it increase democratic nature because of expanded access to the policy process for the general populace ? The answer links openness to equality of access, which is naturally linked to socioeconomic equality. If di fferent groups are able to express their collective will at these On the other hand, if the same minority factions have disproportionate access to both input s and outputs of the government, then it is clear that having a non elected bureaucracy only increases the hegemonic nature of the state. The same must be true with the judiciary often proclaimed to be a pre requisite for true democracy. Some measure of security from the state is necessary for the polity (and between groups and individuals within the polity). Yet a non elected judiciary that broadly interprets laws made through an elected legislature dilutes the democratic nature of the state. This may be particularly true in the case of a common versus civil law tradition, as common law is based on precedents and interpretation, whereas civil law is anchored in the rule of law above all else. A counterargument could insist that common law practices ad apt laws made in previous historical contexts to fit contemporary public sentiment, lest the past be our unquestioned master. It is
34 usually only hear a case if the issue has made multiple appearances in courts around the country. Most consistent with the definition of democracy being developed in this paper, laws and their implementation should be the aggregated consent of the popular will through democrati c processes. Judicial or bureaucratic adjustments to this will, coming from un democratic institutions, must be considered as dilutions to democracy. But openness to a degree of influence from the polity may increase the democratic potential of a state i f access is equal at all points, or roughly equal with tradeoffs between groups and policy stages. These aspects of democracy will be taken up again in the third and fourth chapter of this dissertation. There, using a social capital based lens, the politi cal resources of favela residents and the available access points to the government will be addressed. Social capital is a useful tool to describe the actions and interactions of these residents in order to examine each of the communities in this study th rough the common framework provided in Table 1 3 which summarizes the political history of Rio according to the lens provided in the preceding pages.. Methodology This study is based on field research conducted in Rio de Janeiro between January, 2005 and June, 2007. While in Rio, I received both theoretical and practical help from Dr. Jos Cludio Souza Alves, a Dean at the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro His help and friendship were invaluable in formulating my conception of the favela s a nd gaining introductions to key informants in several communities. I also received generous funding from the Fulbright Commission for the fourteen months of January, 2005 to May, 2006.
35 I employed a variety of research methodologies during the data collect ion phase of my dissertation. Living in four different communities for at least a month each 18 allowed me to conduct participant observation of household daily life, community social interactions, and community political actions. During this time, I atten ded political rallies and participated in community works projects. At the same time, I conducted semi structured interviews with the residents regarding their view on government, society, and their living situation. This immersion in the language and cu lture gave me a profound appreciation for the urban squatters who are the subject of my study. And, although I had to give up on one community because of drug gang related violence, I have never felt more welcome nor safer in Rio de Janeiro than when on t he streets or at home with my hosts in these poor communities. During this stage of my research, I realized that the news stories that emphasize the violence in Rio are not reflective of the day to day lives of the residents of favela s I was always looki ng for signs of fear, desperation, or at least dread, but even the most violent favela s I visited had consistent movement on the streets something that is not the case after dark in the neighborhoods surrounding them. The popular conception of the favela s as anarchic and wild west like was not born out in reality. This was confirmed for me by a census of more than 250,000 favela residents who failed to list violence as one of the top ten problems that they were concerned about. Rather, the residents were more concerned with quality schools, access to transportation, and availability of jobs. And the cases of violence that they did cite were divided 50 50 between police brutality and shootings, and drug wars. sts as being violent affairs where they use stones and burning tires to close highways and threaten motorists was only telling one side of the 18 I w as unable to secure housing in R ocinha, a very large community in the South Zone of Rio. Instead, I bussed in each morning, and returned to a share house in Copacabana at night (between 5PM and 4AM depending).
36 story: the sensational side. I found favela residents to be extremely politicized, to use Marxist language when talking about their situation, and for small groups of community leaders to be tied in to a city wide network of political activists. In short, the months that I spent living in the favela s were, without question, necessary for me to ground my more quanti tative findings. In addition to these more anthropological research methods, I conducted archival research in the Rio de Janeiro edition of O Globo the most widely distributed newspaper in Brazil, and immersed myself in the databases of the Regional Elect oral Tribunal (TRE), the State Tribunal of Accounts (TCE), Instituto de Estudos do Trabalho e Sociedade (IETS) Pesquisa das Comunidades de Baixa Renda (PCBR), and the Instituto de Pereira Passos do Rio de Janeiro (IPP), a clearinghouse for government spons ored research on urbanization. From the newspaper, I pulled all instances of the mention of fifty one favela s 19 found from 1995 2005, and evaluated them with the help of a research assistant according to their content, storing the results in a database and then exporting cleaned and sorted data to the SPSS statistical program. The electoral and budget information will be discussed in later chapters. randomly selec ted favela s, including some of the same fifty one favela s mentioned above. I also conducted unstructured interviews with employees of local development organizations (NGOs), and with municipal politicians. F ramework f or This manuscript The following chapters attempt to make a coherent argument that brings social capital into the center of the debate on democratization in Rio de Janeiro in order to refine the concept, as 19 These fifty one favela s are the same as thos e in the PCBR census that will be described later. The census chose a representative sample of favela s in terms of size and location around the city of Rio de Janeiro.
37 well as to show how social capital works to provide space for civil society interactions, embed individuals in the state, and facilitate democratic action. The first chapter lays out the historical context of the favela s relationship to the state, and to the society of Rio de Janeiro. The absence of the state is prevale nt throughout this history, and when legal authority does take note of the favela communities, it does so through repressive measures meant to dislocate the squatter settlements to the far outskirts of the city. In this chapter, social capital plays the r isolation of the favela s. As expressed above, a democratic state cannot survive without legitimacy given by its citizens, so the presence of favela s can be seen as a political crisis in this new democracy. Chapter two investigates literature relevant to the study and operationalization of the concept of social capital. The theoretical study here distills social capital into two major components, individual and group level social resources, and then carries on to analyze data on individual level social capital at work in the favela s between 1995 2000. The data show that social capital can be a resource that allows individuals to avoid the government the exit option. At the same time, recognizin g that social capital may bond and blind homogenous groups or bridge and bind heterogeneous groups, the preference for networking outside of the community leads to individuals with this kind of social capital choosing to embed themselves in the state. As much as it is a threat to democracy, it may also be a solution for the state. Chapter three looks at the group level benefits of social capital, first locating the processes and mechanisms through which it works by examining three key points in the history of group action in favela s. From this background, group level social capital is described in two forms: creating and maintaining group identity and group norms, as well as creating (or facilitating) the
38 ability for collective action among the favela resi dents. In the search for what differentiates favela The second part of the chapter addresses evidence of this capacity to concert during the time of this study, and then turns to evidence of the connection between group level social capital and collective resources. Chapter four completes the social capital based explanation that drives this dissertation and details how wide, loose, complex, binding social network favela s to the government. That is, social actors including reporters and media, ONGs, inter favela associations, and the residents themselves act sporadically around the same issue, occasionally coming into contact and working together directly. The demand making of all of the actors is synergistic, creating much more of an effect than each actor working alone, and allowing the demand to remain in the social discourse for much The concluding chapter points to the implications of this research, both in the literature and in application, as well as a future research agenda based on the inevitable shortcomings of this current project. In general, using the unpacked version of the concept of social capital allows for a more exact or transparent examination of how social resources are created and used at the individual and group level, and of the connection between social and political resources. Furthermore, the concept of social capital as presented here gives great purchase into an understudied area of democratization literature and helps bring the people back in. Finally, using these findings to create a more focused study, particularly among the poorest communities, can then help design governmental attempts to re ach down and incorporate the economically, socially, and politically disenfranchised.
39 Table 1 1 Population and g rowth of Rio de Janeiro and the favela s of Rio by d ecade Year (a) P opulation of favela s (b) T otal population of rio a/b% % favela growth by decade %population growth of rio by decade 1950 169,30 5 2,337,451 7.2 1960 337,412 3,307,163 10.2 99.3 41.5 1970 563,970 4,251,918 13.3 67.2 28.6 1980 628,170 5,093,232 12.3 11.4 19.8 1991 882,483 5,480,768 18.3 59.4 7.6 2000 1,001,336 5,857,879 18.7 23.9 6.9 Favela is a term that will be discussed later; in short it is a slum area that started as a squatter settlement. As noted in an earlier footnote, counts of favela s and their residents vary for the same time period depending on the source due to disagreement about the exact definition of favela same office at any given time, and especially over time. Source: IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Ge ography and Statistics), 2000 Table 1 2 Growth rate of number and population of favela s by zone, 1980 1997 Number of favelas Geographic Zone 1980 1991 Growth '80 91 1997 Growth '91 97 South 25 26 4% 50 92% West 86 195 127% 219 12% North 194 270 39% 272 1% CBD& Port 45 57 27% 60 5% Total 350 548 57% 601 10% Population of favelas 1980 1991 Growth '80 91 1997 Growth '91 97 South 65,596 79,651 21% 124,446 56% West 94,002 195,546 108% 226,158 16% North 416,307 532,340 28% 529,199 1% CBD& Port 92,119 99,488 8% 98,224 1% Total 668,024 907,025 36% 978,027 8% Source: table assembled from various sources including (O'Hare and Barke, 2002; Perlman, 2006)
40 Table 1 3 The Process of Democratization in Rio de Janeiro Democratizing mechanism Process Historical event Creation of space for civil society Social and economic liberalism is necessary for individuals to have the space necessary to make independent, meaningful decisions without government intrusion. 1860 1930 implementation and growth of economic liberalism 1888 abolition of slavery 1945 return to economic and (some) social liberalism after Vargas is deposed Creation of civil society Space for political debate and information sharing necessary for meaningful participation in elections; also leadership training among all levels of society. 1945 rise of unions among urban industrial poor 1954 suicide of Vargas allowed a move from corporatist, populist policies to a more open democracy under Kubitsch ek 1964 Liberation Theology and the Pastoral das Favela s encourages collectivization among the poor Creation of structures to aggregate common will Elections are meaningless without known choices for leaders who embody the spectrum of the polity's desires. Political parties, unions, and social movements are examples of this type of structure. 1930 Vargas breaks the hold of the Caf com Leite oligarchy 1945 Vargas is removed from power for the first time, opening space for more political inclusion political isolation new and old power seekers rise on the political scene, creating new political parties 1974 Military regime opens electoral competition under tight control 1988 First open election with free partic ipation from any parties State autonomy Can implement second best decision to suit all somewhat. com Leite oligarchy that was beholden to agrarian interests of only two states. Also, implements authoritarian regime 1964 84 military dictatorship 1964 strong, layered bureaucracy ensures continuation of autonomy State openness Allows more direct access at various points of policy for more actors to have input (may lead to capture). 1984 return to civilian democracy 1988 liberal, socially progressive constitution is ratified
41 Table 1 3, continued Judiciary Necessary to judge if laws are being applied consistently and to judge if laws are being created in accordance with the overall, predetermined limits (usually a constitution). 1891 creation of STF (like US Supreme Court) 1932 creation of TSE (Superior Court of Elections) to prevent fraud and manipulation 1946 creation of TFR (Federal Court of Appeals) & TST (Superior Labor Court) 1988 TFR STJ (Superior Court of Justice) 1995 creation of JEC (Small Claims Court) following the 1988 constitutional mandate for a judicial instrument available to the common citizen Bureaucracy Necessary to apply laws consistently and to attend to the polity's needs and rights. 1964 m ilitary coup created a rationalized state and implemented the strong bureaucracy that exists today Correcting inequality Necessary to create the conditions of social and economic inclusion that lead to buying into the system and the current system than try to bring about a different system altogether. 1965 free access for parties to broadcast campaign material by radio and television a 1988 there is almost unlimited basis for standing in the Supreme Federal Tribunal (STF) and unlimited appeal up to the STF Incorporating polity into the government's purview Increases potential pool of individuals connected to the government through participation and demand making as opposed to connections going in the opposite direction government registration and enforcement. 1891 Republican Constitution expands direct popular participation under limited suffrage (approx. 2.2% of pop.) b year limit of majority for voting (approx. 5.7% of pop.) c 1945 voting ma de mandatory and men and women registered as employed were automatically registered d 1988 universal suffrage with no restrictions (property, wealth, literacy requirements) 1989 first direct presidential election a. O horrio eleitoral gratuito or horrio poltico provides time for political commercials to all parties passing a minimum threshold of adherents and allocates this time proportionally based on party size; b, c. (Engerman and Sokoloff, 2001); d. The Constitution of 1946 continued to limit voting to the literate more than of the population was ineligible
42 CHAPTER 2 ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF FAVELAS IN RIO DE JA NEIRO Introduction The historical interaction between favela s, the government of Brazil, the state of Guanabara, and the city of Rio de Janeiro 20 is both tragic and complex, and needs to be understood at some level in order to appreciate the contemporary relations between favela s, or 21 hundred years of a few general policies towards the favela s that has ingrained a unique social logic in their residents. This logic provides a basis for rationality in the morros (hills) that differs from that on the asfalto (lit. asphalt, or urbanized area). Excluded by social discrimination from many options of formal participation in production, the favelados existence is determined by very local, informal production and exchange networks that have little or no connection to government or society at large 22 What foll ows, in short, is the history that justifies this stance from the favelados point of view, as well as the mechanisms and processes that have been a part of their repertoire of political action. From the onset, favela s have been a resource to be exploited b y politicians, entrepreneurs, and the church. For the politicians, favela s were a rallying point that demonstrated all that was bad and wrong in the city and could be corrected with the appropriate vote. On the other hand, the same politicians saw the fa velados as a potential constituency with a cheap price tag. The 20 Rio de Janeiro became the national capital of Brazil in 1763, the capital of the Portuguese Empire in 1808, and the federal capital in 1822 after independence. Rio de Janeiro grew to take on the geographical boundaries of the state of Guanabara in 1965 w 21 The legality and tenure of many of these communities categorized as favela s is a topic in need of clarification as, particularly since 1988, parts of communities that started as squatter settlements have been l egalized on a lot by lot basis, and more generally, the largest single favela Rocinha, is officially a bairro (neighborhood). At the same time, many of the government housing projects that started legally have been favelizado or made into a favela becau se of irregular building over the years. 22 Here I borrow from Gran Hyden (Hyd en, 1980, 1983) See the introductory chapter of this dissertation for the logic of likening the traditional or peasant mode of production to understand the favela mode of production.
43 entrepreneurs saw favelados as a cheap source of ready local labor until their makeshift housing projects interfered either with the construction of new factories, transportation of produced goods to the ports, or spoiled the view from the elegant homes of the nouveau rich. Favelados for the church, inhabited an equally paradoxical position. On one hand, they were poor souls that needed to be saved and therefore required the transfer of gre at resources from Rome. Further, they gave concrete reasons for the Church to become politically involved and led to the foundation of semi statal religious organizations like Fundao Leo III, thus increasing the ime, these poor communities were the focal point for the liberation theology movement that threatened central control of the Catholic religion and led to a rift within the Church and between the Church and the state throughout Latin America 23 The tenuous p osition that favela s have always had has been made worse by the game of state, and national levels of government, allowing the favela without real benefits in terms of social structural changes, social services or infrastructure. For the most part, this relationship with the government has been concentrated at the sub national level, except for the sixteen years between 1964 and 1 980 when the military government implemented policies of removal in a conservative attempt to forestall growing social spending. It was the state government that has been mostly responsible for housing policy in the city of Rio de Janeiro from the beginni ng (1889) until the implementation of municipal decentralization from the 1988 constitution. This reformation of government structure gave broad taxing and 23 In 1952, Bishop Dom Helder Cmara and other progressive Brazilian bishops organized the creation of the National Council of Brazilian Bishops ( Conselho Nacional dos Bispos Brazileiros CNBB ), one of the principal s leadership to take an active role in social change. To accomplish this, the CNBB faced an internal political struggle in the Church that they waged through, among other methods, converting moderate bishops during Cursos de Atualizao de Bispos (a type of professional development workshop); their position in the Latin American Council of Bishops ( Conselho Episcopal Latino Americano CELAM ); and the founding of the Center for Religious Statistics and Social Investigations (Neuhouser, 1989)
44 con stitutionally guaranteed block grants for federal funding of municipalities. The major factors that have historically dictated the treatment of favela s are: 1) the architectural modernization of Rio de Janeiro; 2) the health and sanitation of the city; 3 ) the creation of a land speculation market via absolute right to property laws; 4) concentration of transportation infrastructure in the port area, the city center, and the rich South Zone; 5) the utility of a reserve army of labor nearby a quickly growin g metropolis. The priority given to any one of the above was often in conflict between the levels of government enacting programs at any one time, often resulting from political battles between the parties in control at each level. And riding herd over a organizations such as the Rotary club who firmly embraced the philosophy of Social Darwinism. The resulting policies have been a chaotic mlange of neglect, urbanization, eradic ation, relocation, moral and civil education, and responsibilitization. In the final analysis, while the residents of favela s have reaped some short term benefits from their ambiguous position of tolerated illegality ( illegal e da ), the long term consequ ences include their exclusion from needed resources, a profound prejudice within society, and a lack of political voice through formal channels. The particular historical path of the interaction between the various levels of the state and the favela s of Rio de Janeiro has had four interconnected results. First, the residents of favela s and the poor in general in Rio have developed a dependency on the state because of repeated populist policies over time, their political orientation by the liberation theo logy movement, and the social liberalism of the 1988 constitution. Second, although clientelism still exists in Rio, the historical patterns of politicians failing to deliver on their promises has led to a more savvy
45 constituency who have sought different means to make demands on the government. And third, governmental corruption, the growth in power of drug gangs, misguided removal and public housing projects, and rapid population growth of favela s from in migration have resulted in a deterioration of so cial capital within favela s. At the same time, the absence of bonding capital within the favela has incentivized the development of bridging social capital to connections outside of the favela some of which may help in attracting political champions for community. And fourth, the major form of political participation from the favela s is group demonstration. These demonstrations may be petitions, peaceful gatherings, or aggressive protests that generally seek to interrupt the regular flow of the city. Th e dependency on the government, seen from the top down, looks similar to the idea of development embraced by the modernization school that the government is best equipped to enact policies that will result in increases of the macro economic and social indi cators. From the grassroots, acceptance of assistencialismo 24 may be counter intuitively justified by involvement of the favela residents in liberation theology. The fundamental goal of the ecclesiastically based communities (CEBs) is to bring small grou ps of Christians together, united by the common desire to study in their faith, in order to help them focus on improving their well being. But the remnants of this ideology uncovered in the course of this study suggest that the idea of rights for the poor has been emphasized while the self help impetus has been lost. Additionally, there was a radical backlash to the elitism and human rights abuses of the military dictatorship that resulted in the 1988 constitution with guarantees for minimum standards of living and social use of property. 24 Assistentialism is the government policy of giving direct aid instead of indirect, capacity building opportunities with few or no expectations in return from the beneficiaries.
46 These two events provide the philosophical basis for the poor to understand the populism and clientelism that they experienced from 1930 on. This has created an expectation that it is the he favela s and the lives of the residents to the point that it actually inhibits action in civil society. That is, many residents of favela s are unwilling to invest their own time, effort, and resources in self help community work because, in principle, i t is owed to them by the government. Certainly, there are core groups of actors within communities that organize and carry out improvement projects, but participation in most favela s is small. In communities that have some kind of mechanism to enforce sh ared responsibility, residents would prefer to buy their way out of the community effort by purchasing a bag of cement or five meters of PVC pipe in lieu of participating. From the fifty communities included in this research, there was only one that consc iously eschewed any government support but they have the support of a including sharing in the labor. The ubiquitous use of clientelism in the favela s, especially fro m Vargas through the military dictatorship, played in to the expectations of assistentialism. However, fifty years of experience with unrealized campaign promises and incompletely executed public projects has led to a favela constituency that is no longer willing to consolidate their vote in return for the promise of specific benefits. The belief in the right to government assistance still exists, but the belief in the promises of candidates has been tempered with experience. This personal experience wit h governmental corruption, constant repression by the police, and frequent political scandals revealed in the public media have resulted in an attitude of antipathy towards the government. The cost and confusing bureaucracy of the sluggish court system, e ven after the implementation of the local Special Courts ( Juza Especial ), blocks the only other alternative to
47 democratic participation through the institutions of the government. Individual politicians cannot be trusted; the ground level instruments of policy implementation are as likely to exploit the residents as help them; and the option of approaching the courts is either out of reach or unhelpful. The relationship between the state and the favela s has been reinforced as such for more than one hundr ed years. And the result is a politicized population who must make demands outside of the formal channels. Unfortunately, the ability of the communities to carry out successful demand making campaigns is hindered by the lack of cohesion of identity or sha red condition among the community residents. One of the central features of the Favela Bairro program was the creation beneficiaries of that program, it is still a clear p riority to have such a community space at the very least, for a place where residents can hold celebrations ( sala de festa 25 ). Nevertheless, there has been a drastic reduction in the amount of social contact between residents, and a consequent lack of trust and reciprocity. The qualitative data collected for this research revealed a conscious and clearly stated desire that ma which is a drastic reversal from earlier findings (Perlman, 1976; Leeds and Leeds, 1978) There are many additive reasons for the severe reduction in social capital in the favela s. At one level, interviewees implied that they did not want the obligation to share their meager resources that social connections bring, which suggests a lack of expectation of norms of reciprocity and trust. Also, they indi cated that they would prefer to get to know people outside of the community, perhaps because of the potential opportunities that such contacts might bring. 25 The sala de festa is present in all condiminums o f the middle and upper classes and serves the purpose of bringing large families together for birthdays, anniversaries, and holidays. Where the sala de festa is not available, there is always a casa de festa (lit. party house) nearby that exists only to r ent space for these gatherings.
48 Furthermore, they would prefer not to be associated with the favela because of the social stigma th at inhibits employment and dating. Another aspect that has reduced the social capital in the favela s is the history of removals and subsequent mixing of families and social groups, often randomly, into either new government settlements or new areas whereve r space could be found to try to reconstruct a home. Combined with this, the explosion of favela populations with thousands of new residents emigrating every day from surrounding states requires some integrative factor that is apparently not present. One such factor used to be an acceptance of the favela as the future family community; however most residents now express the plans or desires to move out and into a usually because of the potential for violence. Investing resource s constructing a life outside of the community. The role of drug gangs in the organizational structure of the favela s cannot be ignored in the decline of social capita l and access to formal, institutional access to the government. While strong gangs enforce safety and order in their hillside strongholds, they do so with violence. Also, the presence of a drug gang is a magnet for battles with other gangs or the police where stray bullets cut through the hollow bricks of the favela houses and often leave dead bodies behind. This provides the incentive to move and the disincentive to develop strong ties to the violent place. It also affects the way that police view the residents because, just as in a guerilla war, it is impossible to know exactly who the enemy is. This mentality explains some of the worst violations of human rights by the police in the 1990s and the resulting distrust of police by the residents.
49 So, w ith a belief in their entitlement to government resources and support, yet finding formal avenues to make demands on the government blocked, the remaining actions have to do with popular protest. The deterioration of their patronage relationships opened t he door for this (Brockett, 1991) Unfortunately, the lack of social capital means that sustained action is unlikely sporadically and occas ionally violently. Petitions are common, but fairly ineffective unless they are accompanied by a visible event like a group demonstration. The most effective method of complaint, then, is to infringe on the normal function of the city through methods lik e blocking traffic with their bodies, or closing the roads entirely with rocks and burning tires. Drug gangs incite favela residents to hinder public transportation, and gang members symbolically burn commuter buses as their voice to the government. NGOs have aided political action by providing a form and incentive for organization, occasionally providing economic support, adding legitimacy to the complaints by making them class bridging issues, and increasing visibility through media and other contacts. With the help of Viva Rio a South Zone based NGO, more peaceful protests that involve people from the middle class have been carried out one such famous, yearly action is a march of primarily middle class citizens, all dressed in white, along the beach ro ad of Copacabana. It is a show of solidarity that is ridiculed to some extent in the favela s, but it does keep the issue in the paper, and consequently on the agendas of policy makers. Pre 1900 At the Birth of the Nation Comes the Birth of Favela s As Ri o de Janeiro developed as the urban industrial and shipping center of Brazil in the early 19 th Century, more and more freed slaves and immigrants from other parts of the country were welcomed by the barons of nascent industry and construction. At the same time, these
50 labor inputs for economic development were viewed with suspicion and reticence by the government and the aristocracy over concerns of the housing of these large groups of poor. Slums made up of flophouses, makeshift shacks, and overcrowded ap artments began to proliferate in the city center. The Inspector of Public Hygiene and the Academy of Medicine denounced the cortios 26 (slums) as insalubrious breeding grounds for epidemic disease prompting political solutions to the housing problems of th e burgeoning city. The governments principal concern was to keep the citys ports open and functioning amidst paralyzing plagues occurring in other port cities in the Northeast and congestion in the city center and port area as workers and hopefuls estab lished casabres (shacks) close to the jobs. In response, as early as 1882, the government began to implement incentives for industrialists to create housing for their workers. In a decree (12/09/1882), the state government lifted customs duties for thos e businesses that created appropriate housing centers ( vilas operrias ) for their employees. Six years later, as population pressure among the lower classes in city increased, the incentives were raised to include the ceding of public land and 100% tax re lief on imported construction materials used for the purpose of housing workers (08/02/1888) 27 The law allowed for the vilas to be constructed nearby the factories following a pre approved and standardized design meant to maximize number housed and minimi ze the possibility for disease and epidemics. Unfortunately, this policy did not encourage housing starts to meet the needs of the army of unemployed nor those employed outside of the industrial sector, which left the growing problem of the homeless. Nor was the governments architectural plan particularly healthful as it did not provide for indoor 26 27 One rich industrialist, Arthur Sauer, villages, many of which still exist today. (Centro: Vila Rui Barbosa; Jardim Botnico: Vila Arthur Sauer; Sampai o: Vila Sampaio; Vila Isabel: Vila Maxwell e Vila Senador Soares) (Mendes de Pinho Via, 2001, p3)
51 ventilation, and fresh water, cooking, and toilet facilities were all communal for groups up to 500 residents. At the same time that the government was encoura ging private industry to address the problem of the slums in Rio, concurrent national policies led to a worsening of the housing shortage there. The progressive end to slavery in 1850 (end to importation of new slaves), 1871 ed), and 1885 (emancipation of senior citizens) leading to the complete abolition of slavery in 1888 created a new class of citizens without resources, jobs, or homes. The difference in the cost of slave labor versus salaried labor led many plantation own ers to unceremoniously expel a majority of their freed slaves from their former, modest housing. The Inspector of Public Hygiene at the time estimated that the slum population at least doubled between 1888 and 1890 as a result of emancipation without conc urrent support 28 Even as affordable housing demand was soaring, the state government implemented a the administration of Mayor Pereira Passos (1902 1906) such remoes (removals) were increasingly common as a variety of both formal, such as a literacy requirement, and informal policies, such as de facto social segregation, denied the poor a political voice to challenge the process. The purpose behind this wholesale relocation of the urban poor was the re ordering of the city center for the benefit (aesthetic, social, and economic) of the urban aristocracy. Those left without shelter after the demolit ion of more than 3,000 29 homes during the reformas Passos (1903 1906) sorted through the rubble and carried what they could up onto the hills that populate Rio de Janeiro only a very few were relocated to the suburbs. They rebuilt a more precarious and ins alubrious version 28 Abreu, 1994, p36 29 Soares and Soares, 2005, p. 1
52 of their former homes on the steep sides of the morros (hills), and thus began the favela zation of the city. The initial relationship between those who created these squatter settlements and the government was that of pests who could be modernization and urbanization. 30 The government, in the guise of military generals, created a formal relationship with these hillside communities by billeting their soldiers on this unused land in the peri od between 1897 provisioning became the primary concern of the military, having finally won a long and costly campaign of national consolidation in the Northe ast. 31 The first favela for which all that followed are named, was the Morro da Providncia (providence hill), called Morro da Favella (favella hill) after a flowering plant that is plentiful in the Northeast. Other communities were formed by the previou neighborhoods were ignored by the government, completely lacking in basic infrastructure and susceptible to landslides during the rainy season that could carry away one or all s hacks from a community in an instant. And, by 1900, there were seven favela s that shared these common characteristics. At this time, the relationship between favela and government was very different from that of non favela slums and the government. Where as the government was clear about its objectives to remove the slums (particularly from the city center), the favela s, located mostly on the hillsides that populate the city, benefited from benign neglect. From the point of view of the government, not dealing with the favela s allowed a necessary evil, providing the pool of 30 The first three communities constructed were Quinta do Caju, Mangueira (not THE Mangueira), and Serra Morena around 1881. These had begun on the bottom of hillside slopes in the downtown district (O'Hare and Barke, 2002) These may not have been invasions, but were settlements by Portuguese, Italian, and Spanish immigrants. 31 Os Sertes along with more conetemporary tr eatments of the War of Canudos.
53 available labor that was necessary for the mod ernization plans of the capital city. Moreover, it was an evil that could easily be ignored as the favela s remained more or less discrete and out of public view. The poor, on the other hand, did not. From the foundation of the first republic to 1902, there were a number of protests against the poor living conditions in the city: lack of water, poor food distribution resulting in high prices, and a lack of affordab le housing, education, and health care. In 1890, there was an organized protest of hundreds of working class marchers representing a collection of suburbs to demand something be done about the high price of food. multi day event resulting in battles with the police, and vandalism and threats on food markets. But the norm for collective action among the poor was spontaneous outbreaks or riots that grew from a si ngle incident or specific complaint (Meade, 1989) 1900 1930 The Period of Rapid Urbanization The following period was not nearly as friendly for the favela s. Mayor Pereira Passos (1902 1906) left an in delible stamp on the geography of Rio de Janeiro through his future looking plans that privileged huge plazas and wide avenues that would be packed with cariocas 32 very European look and feel and facilitated exports (particularly of coffee, wood, and precious metals and stones) in return for manufactured goods from Europe. Also important to Mayor Passos was modernization, which meant removing the stigma of yellow fever and squalor from the face of the city 33 manual labor to carry out huge urbanization projects, while at the same time, the reduction of 32 Carioca is the local word for residents of Rio de Janeiro. 33 Rio de Janeiro, at that time, was infamous for rampant epidemics and was avoided as much as possible by all shipping companies.
54 affordable housing opportunities within the cit y (and within easy commute to their worksites). modernization plans. While prior to the construction projects, Rio de Janeiro grew at an annual rate of just less t han three percent (2.84%), it leapt to almost three and a half percent (3.40%) with housing starts only growing by one percent (1.00%). This unequal growth rate resulted in a marked increase in housing density, from 7.3 to 9.8 people per dwelling (Valladares, 2000) The common conception of favela s at this time is exemplified in a 1900 Jornal do Brasil (national newspaper of Brazil) article that vilifies the hills as criminals who are the dread of families police officer of the time : impossible to police that area that is filled with deserters, thieves, and army garrisons, there are no streets, the shacks are made of wood and covered with zinc, and there isnt e ven a single gas (in Valladares, 2002, p8). These stereotypes of the collective poor were only reinforced by the typical interaction between them and the state: riots. In October of 1904, Oswaldo Cruz, the Director General of Pu blic Health, attacking population for Mayor Passos, this would have the additional benefit of allowing him to condemn and remove much of the unhealthy conges tion in the port area. Accompanied by police, public health teams broke down doors, destroyed many shacks, and gave variola shots to the bared asses of willing and unwilling alike. With no political recourse, the poor began peaceful demonstrations that e ventually coalesced into a city wide riot known as the revolta da vacina 34 34 Under the Lei de Vacina Obrigat ria, Octobro 4, 1904, the riot lasted from Oct. 10 16.
55 anti government aspect of the protests went much further than the vaccination program. Much of the beautification works that took the place of the eradicated slums lay in ruins along with symbols of modernization such as streetlights, streetcar tracks an d the streetcars that ran along them. Unseen was the unification of disparate groups of the working class including an ideological wing of the military, the Positivists, who reacted by launching an aborted coup against the national government (Meade, 1989) In all cases of popular demonstration, severe repression was the only remedy carried out by an increasingly well armed and violent police who habitually escalated peaceful demonstrations into riots and thereby alienated the demonstrators from potential, less than radical allies. favela s: a public nuisance to be fumigated like so much of a t ermite mound. Three years later, his shack busting focused on eradicating the community on Morro da Favella. The portrait painted of favela The illega l communities that were springing up on the unusable hills of the city were officially tolerated. The 1903 Official Decree 391 stated that 1) shacks and other irregular ted on those hills that were currently uninhabited. In the context of this solution for the housing problem of Rio, it makes sense that the government demolition of two to three thousand housing units for the poor was countered by the construction of only 120 casas populares (public housing for the poor) by the Reformas Perreira Passos
56 Further formal recognition of favela s occurred in 1905 when the Minister of Justice and Domestic Affairs, Dr. J.J. Seabra, created a commission f or the sole purpose of analyzing the problem of favela s One year earlier, although evidence preying on otherwise innocent citizens (Meade, 1989, p. 251) hygienic importance of removing not only the shacks necessary to widen the streets, but also the favela s observations of the favela s from site visits of his staff, challenged the popular conception of who th e residents are: favela shows; diligent workers also live there who, lacking basic rooms, reach for these high places where they spend relatively little for a kind change [ in luck] that they continually (in Valladares, 2000, p. 13) Yet this view within the report was no match for the continuing social dialog in the newspapers of the time, generally blaming the favela s ills. In particular, regardless of who lived in the communities, they were seen as impediments to the modernization Allowing slums and favela s to continue was counter t o the economic interests of the wealthy homeowners and, increasingly, of the growing middle class. Removal, eradication 35 and repression campaigns by the government were consistently driving a geographical wedge between the interests and connections of th e poor and the rest of society (Meade, 1989) This marginalization of the poor led to alienation from the city services enjoyed in the city center and the South Zone, yet that were completely absent in the Northern and Western suburbs, which 35 The first official removal was in 1910 against the Morro de So Antonio. In the following nine years, the residents were expelled three more times, the second by a fire of mysterious origins.
57 lacked schools, clinics, streetlights, storm water systems, reliable garbage collection, policing, and public health programs such as mosquito control. By 1913, according to a report from the Director of Public Health, there were a total of 669 shacks with a population of more than 5,000 people (avg. 7.47 people per shack) in the two largest favela s (Morro da Favela and Morro do Santo Antnio). On the flatland, life was a bit more comfortable with a population density o f 5.30 people per shack, and easier access to food, water, transportation, and jobs. In the seven urban districts of the city there were still 2,564 shacks housing around 13,600 people. A majority of the remaining slums were in the suburban districts. Th e most contested of these was the Zona Sul (South Zone) where Copacabana, Ipanema, and Leblon are now located. At that time Zona Sul was rapidly growing in value and popularity among the wealthy coinciding with government terraforming and infrastructure projects. Increasing transportation costs and increasing distance of the suburbs made even a day trip to the beach of Copacabana or L eme for a family of four out of reach for any in the working class 36 which left only the few favela s remaining in the South Zone and their residents as property in the Civil Code of 1916, there began an unchecked land speculation that constantly uprooted informal settlements. The homeless and landless were driven further and further into the periphery, far from employment and any urban infrastructure such as transp ortation, water, and sewage. The year 1913 also marked another large scale collective action of the poor who, after a decade of sporadic riots following the revolta da vacina 36 Acc ording to the Jornal do Brasil in 1905 the round trip cost of the streetcar from a suburb to the city center was around 10% of the monthly wage of the working class. The cost of streetcar and movie for four was one entire monthly salary. And the cost of streetcar and drink for four in Copacabana or Leme was at least two full monthly salaries (Meade, 1989, p. 255) Prices continued to rise thereafter resulting in the 1913 Cost of Living R iots.
58 and, at the same time, inflation continued to drive even a minimum standard of living further from their grasp. Under the organization of the anarcho syndicalist group FORJ ( Federao Operria do Rio de Janeiro Workers Federation of RJ), a two month Campaign Against the High Cost of Living was con ducted, uniting disperse groups and interests among the poor, workers, homeless, and favelados Although the Campaign was successfully repressed in the end, 1913 marked a year of increasingly organized collective action by the lower classes. This was of enough concern to the government that they turned their police loose to ferret out the organizers so as to better bring the groups under control either through cooptation, or through an escalation of individualistic repression that had not been possible or necessary when demonstrations and riots were local, spontaneous, and specific. In the end, however, the interests of the lower classes in general had been fused with those of trade unions who saw a gain for one as a gain for society. Although FORJ initia ted general strikes in 1917 might have enlightened the governing elite that the urban problems of Rio de Janeiro were neither simple nor solvable through police action, under the administration of Mayor Carlos Sampaio (1920 1922), many more of these slums were demolished in order to improve the aesthetics and hygiene of the wealthiest areas 37 The 1920s was an era characterized by the celebration of the values of capitalism exemplified in entrenched in society, and those riding on the cusp of progress felt completely entitled and morally justified to pave over had weathered the grandiose Reform a Pereira Passos were made homeless when the favela Morro do Castelo (Castle Hill) along with the poor neighborhood at its foot, Bairro da 37 The best exemplar of these motives is the 1920 removal of the favela Morro Dois Irmos, which has a commanding view of Gvea, Ipanema, and Leblon in the South Zone, in preparation for the visit of the King of Belgium.
59 Misericrdia (lit. neighborhood of mercy), were demolished. No alternative housing was offered nor created, nor did the government offer infrastructure in the suburbs where the poor were forced to relocate: no transportation for jobs, no water, and no government services none of the urban conveniences. According to Social Darwinism, only the strong survive, and culling the the problem of those who could. In 1926, working through the politically influential Rotary Club in combination with the press and local politicians, Dr. Mat tos Pimenta began to change the social discourse around favela s from that of simply a hygienic problem or one of crime to one of an impediment to progress and aesthetics. Pimenta used inflammatory language to characterize the favela s as irredeemable, call relegated the favelados (residents of favela s ) to the status of non citizens due to their existence ty, and social favela s a genuine Carioca creation not to be found in any other cities, even in Brazil are not purely a ruthless crime against aesthetics. They are a particularly serious and permanent threat to public tranquility and health. Built in opposition to all precepts of hygiene (no water, no sewage, not the least bit of cleanliness, no garbage removal) they are like large filthy latrines covered with excrem ent and other waste of human existence, heaps of dirt and rottenness that feed clouds of flies and attract all kinds of diseases and impurities into the city streets. Devoid of any type of policing, freely built out of cans and scrap in lands of the Nation al Patrimony, freed from the need to pay any taxes, alien to all fiscal actions, they are an excellent stimulus to indolence, an attractive appeal to tramps, a stronghold of loafers, a nest of thieves bringing insecurity and restlessness to all corners of favela the Rotary Club in October 1926 (in Ribeiro and Lag o, 2001, p. 39) ). storey apartment buildings with 20 apartments on each floor: a monument to modernization, hygiene, and maximization of space.
60 His plan was to replace all slums and favela s within 15 years, financing his project through rent, justifying that even the most humble of shacks in the worst slum was rented in some way (Valladares, 2000) In an ironic twist in favela policy, he put the responsibility of the financial burden completely on the shoulders of the favelados by tying the construction and eradication plan still held the favelados responsible for the common problems of the rest of society. Further, all of this discussion and planning was carried out at the highest levels of society that had no personal knowledge of the problem, excluding those who would be directly affected. According to Valladares (2000) Mattos Pimenta must be given credit for planting the seed for the major policies 38 and perceptions of favela s for the next 50 years. Mayor Prado Jnior followed Mattos Pimentas suggestions closely and implemented Plano Agache (named for his advisor Alfred Agache) that meant to remake the face of Rio de Janeiro into a monumental city. This plan, supported by the dominant economic class was restricted to the city center and the South Zone, and found the favela s particularly aesthetically as they were interrupting the beautiful views from the richest neighborhoods. Agache characterized the favela dos as proto citizens, quasi nomadic and without any rule of hygiene whatsoever (in Valladares, 2000, p. 17) Plano Agache formalized the idea of economic and social stratification, designating suburban areas for public housing projects to house the poor (who, he rationally admitted, would only return to the hills once expelled without this alternative) far from the rich. The decade ended with an estimated favela population of 200,000. 38 Specifically: Plano Agache, Codigo das Obras 1937, and the BNH (1964)
61 1930 1964 The Vargas Years On October 24, 1930, Getlio Vargas ascended to the presidency of Brazil in a bloodless coup that marked the end of agrarian, Caf com Leite 39 elite rule. His populist platform de facto oligarchy by reforming the military, ending coronelismo (rul e by colonels, military bosses and political patrons of their almost feudal districts), and promoting industrial interests over the prior primacy of coffee and dairy farmers. For this, Vargas is credited for laying the foundation for the modern state of B industrial powerhouse of the southern cone through his dictatorial program of the Estado Novo reated a schizophrenic complex of policies: on one hand demanding a social use for land in his (later to be wed to his corporatist syndicates); while on the other, de nying suffrage for illiterates, migration, and supporting the destruction of the few favela s that remained in the rich South Zone and the city center. He further complicated the lives of the poor residents of the Federal District of Rio de Janeiro by introducing land use planning and zoning, and regulating land sales as preventative tools to the growth and establishment of favela s. The dual character of the favelados in this era is well characterized by Leeds and Sanjek : who suggest that the government sees them as voters and workers who need to be mobilized, but as a potential source of strikes and disorder, they need to be contained or actively controlled (1994, p. 228) 39 The Caf com Leite politics of Brazil involved a negotiated peace between the large states of So Paulo and Minas Gerais where the presidency of the country would switch back and forth to give power to a candida te from each region every other term.
62 governmental work cards tying them to the Institute of Retired Persons and Pensions ( IAP ) and inhibit the participation of the unregistered poor. His 1933 policy that made loans accessible to the poor for housing through the Caixa Econmica Federal (National Bank), and his 1941 policy of creating housing projects for factory wo rkers ( parques proletrios ) were available only for the salaried poor (Burgos, 1998) Even so, very few benefitted with space for only around 4,000 created by 1941. He ignored the needs of the great majority of favelados whose participation in the formal economy was sporadic, when it occurred at all, due to the growing societal hostility towards the more than 200,000 illegal residents of the hillside communities. Those that he did acknowledge, he treated as pre citizens as his parques proletrios were compounds for (Burgos, 1998) Furthermore, o open government to the voices of the poor, therefore political action on the part of the favelados remained unorganized, intermittent, and ineffective. The 1937 City Building Code ( Codigo das Obras da Cidade favela group of two or mo re shacks made from improvised materials in contradiction to the Code, and 40 improvements could be made in the existing favela s. By making favela s illegal as well as improvements in situ the government effectively absolved itself of any responsibility for improving the habitation for a growing number of urban workforce. But instead of outright eradication, continuing the general historical trend of viewing favela s as a source of pollution and disease, the treatment of favela s was taken over by the Secretary General of Health of the Federal District who assigned the duty to Vtor T. Moura, the director of the Good Will Hostel. 40 Although in 1933 shacks (casebres) were added as an official census category, the 1937 building code is the first official recognition of the favela
63 fiercely apply the law forbidding construction or repair of irregular housing; registering individuals curre ntly living in halfway houses ( instituies de amparo ); and fourth, to conduct an impassioned reeducation campaign for the favelados to correct personal habits and incentivize melhor moradia ) (Burgos, 1998) Political recognition of the favela s was twofold: first the physical location was legally registered for the first time with the building code of 1937; and second, the residents became central to the ambitions of politician s from the president to the mayor who saw them as a favela s in Rio, gained his popularity through a selective policy of benign neglect along with rhetoric of removal thre atening with one hand while winking conspiratorially to let the residents know that he would never bring about their end. This policy dissonance created a de facto formalization of many of the contemporary favela s. Vargas further facilitated the de jure formalization of favela s by buying into the popularization of Samba, a musical product of the urban hills. For political ends, he hosted several shows at or near his proletarian parks. The progression of Samba from the hills to the pavement was quickly advanced when the poetry of a favelado Cartola, was mixed with the music of a well known, middle class musician, to make the samba school ( Escola da Samba ), or costumed parade band, an official part of the Carnival celebrations (Burgos, 1998) And it was around Samba that the first homegrown political organization of the favela s began with the Voz do Morro lit Voice of the Hill) which carried news about the Estao
64 Primeira da Mangueira samba school, and also other news and calls to meetings relevant to the poor (Silva and Barbosa, 2005) The government support of favela culture led to embedding these illegal settlements into the official framework of Rio de Janeiro as the competition between samb a schools, all from the did it hurt that these samba schools were concurrently financed by the large, organized network of criminal activity that centered on the jogo do bicho an illegal, private lottery that started while Brazil was still an empire. The bicheiros or dons of the game, were very rich and very well connected politically as they financed election campaigns and samba schools alike to buy legitima cy amongst their fellow citizens where they could not achieve it in the law books. The official tolerance, and moreover support, of the samba schools exemplifies the relationship between the favelados and the rest of Rio, which remained one of exploitation and favelados were expected to bring the entertainment to Carnaval, vote as ordered, and then retreat to their community and try not to bother decent society. Similar to the situation of Black Americans around the same time, the mostly black favelados 41 composed largely of families of the first generation of freed slaves, were celebrated for their music, samba like its counterpart jazz in the US, and segregated (but not by law) from other white collar occupations. Blacks at this time in Brazil had only recently won a place on a professional soccer team (Vasco de Gama in 1923), but not through government action. Because there were no laws mandating racial segregation, it was social restrictions reinforced by the elites of the day that created the impass able divide (Marx, 1998) Thus, at this 41 Non white s made up around 43% of the total population of Rio at this time and around 75% of favela residents, although some of the communities were either all white (for example those starting with Portuguese immigrants) or all black (for example Jacarezinho).
65 time, favelados were cau ght under the triple yoke of social, economic and political discrimination. favelados were seen as pre citizens needing moral education and soul saving as much or more than literacy. But even instruction in morality was expected to be the problem of the surrounding states to which the poor were slated to return. Yet instead of a proactive policy to create opportunities in the Northeast (the source of most of the migration), or to cr eate opportunities for freed slaves and first generation freemen, Vargas and his cronies courted the vote of those poor who could pass a literacy test with populist fish fries, samba shows, and a failure to destroy favela s (the absence of the negative maki favela s). At the same time, around 1935, the Municipal Guard of Rio De Janeiro took over the security of the capital of the Republic from the military police. By 1937 this paramilitary corps had bee n turned into a disciplined, uniformed, and very public armed force. In their role of preserving urban order and providing security for special occasions, they began bumping heads with favela s and favelados They played a major role in the removal of the favela Hpica in 1945, and in the creation of the largest soccer stadium in the world, Maracan in 1950, which populist rule was in many ways an extension of th e eradication policies of Perreira Passos and Oswaldo Cruz from the turn of the century, with just enough acceptance offered as needed to win the popular vote. Following this trend of recognizing the favela s (or at least the threat of favela s), the first C ensus of Favela s was carried out by the mayor ngelo Mendes de Morais in 1947 overall plan, following that of the state Secretary General of Health Moura, was to map and
66 count the communities and their residents in preparation to plow under th e shacks and return the Morais was supported by local press 42 e of civil war, and of the need to do away with the poor invaders. The mayor eventually blamed the failure of his plan on the lack of support from the other Brazilian states who refused to participate in the reverse migration scheme (Leeds and Leeds, 1978) The year after the publication of the municipal census, the first national Favela was taken in 1950. Together, these two official counts of the communities and their residents were able to challenge the common yet erroneous w isdom that was propagated in the press of the day. Even so, the two counts differed dramatically. The estimated number of communities was cut from 119 to 105 and then to 58 by the federal census (Preteceille and Valladares, 2000; O'Hare and Barke, 2002) The est imated number of residents was cut in half, from 400 600 thousand to 280 thousand, and finally settled at between 134 169 thousand who lived in around 35 thousand shacks with only about four people per habitation (Valladares, 2000; O'Hare and Barke, 2002) Importantly, even this reduced population count already amounted to almost ten percent of the population of the Federal District. There were several other formal institutio ns designed specifically to treat favela s during the Vargas years, although not many by his administration, as housing in Rio de Janeiro was more of a state issue than a national one. In 1937, the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC RJ) created the Instituto Social Departamento de Servio Social ) 42 C arlos Lacerda, contemporary journalist and la ter politician and governor of the State of Guanabara from 1960 1964 led this propaganda campaign having recently changed his allegiance and ideology from communist to anti communist.
67 whose social assistants became the right hand of the municipality in the administration over the poor offering social protection on one hand, and facilitating governmental control ov er the poor at the same time (Preteceille and Valladares, 2000) Ten years later, the Fundao Leo XIII ( Fundao ), a church organization with strong ties to the government (eventually becoming a governmental agency in 1963), was created as an alternative to the populist pedagogy of the time. In the eyes of some (Soares and Soares, 2005) the Fundao gave a special legitimacy to the existence of favela s as it provided them with access to at least some public goods and services, with the dignity of recognition, and with the voice of an advocate in the government although still not their own voice. On the other hand, as the Fundao was created with the favela ost to the city and to provide appropriate favelados favela s and their residents had not improved (Leeds and Leeds, 1978, p. 199) Orientation in this case meant re educating the illiterate, disease ridden thieves, layabouts, and prostitutes. More than plans for urbanization and orientation, there was a political motivation behind the good [came] down (Leeds and Leeds, 1978, p. 199) From the 1920s, the Brazilian Communist Party (PCB) was a lurking threat both to the economic elite and, seen as an internationalist organization, to the nationalism that was still nascent in Brazil. In 1947, the year the Fundao was created, the PCB had around 200,000 members in Brazil a majority of those in Rio and had gone through a bumpy history of cyclic banishment and illegality, and reintroduction to Brazilian politics. In 1945, the PCB had once again been allowed to participate but in 1948 was driven underground again. Because the communist platform and messa ge resonated best with the urban poor, there was a very rational
68 fear that favelados been demonstrated by the 1945 collaboration between the socially progressive wing of the Churc h, the PCB, and Comisses de Moradores in securing city water for several favela s, and governmental guarantees that the favela s would not be removed for the creation of parques proletrios. ommissions continued into the 1960s and were joined in 1953 by the Unio dos Trabalhadores das Favela s ( UTF Union of Workers from Favela s). The UTF was an organization of leaders from various favela s supported by the progressive leadership of the Church in Brazil and the PCB. By 1957, many more favela s were integrally connected through their own political organizations such as the Coligao dos Trabalhadores Favelados do Distrito Federal (Federal Di strict [of Rio de Janeiro] Alliance of Favela Workers) 43 (Silva and Leite, 2004) As the state was not improving its relationship with the poor communities, the communities were organizing to change their relationship from the bottom up by connecting politically with the state, and not limiting their political par ticipation to mass demonstrations in reaction to government action. The favelados were finding that they could have agency and work proactively to make a better life out of their hard existence. In terms of changing the social discourse around favela s, th e official "home of the poor," the Fundao was meant to Christianize the masses and offer persuasion instead of coercion in the spirit of Democratic responsibility. Instead of political conflict, the Fundao promised dialogue and understanding; instead of the fight for public goods, they promised assistance; instead of mere criticism and resignation they planned the development of traditional leaders 43 This was later either joi ned or replaced by the following, similar organizations: Federao de Favela s do Estado da Guanabara (Fafeg), a Federao de Favela s do Rio de Janeiro (Faferj), a Federao de Associaes de Favela s do Rio de Janeiro (FafRio) e a Pastoral de Favela s In 2005, this study determined that the proliferation of organizations of favela leaders actually inhibits coordination as there are too many competing parties claiming to represent the needs and ideas of the favelados some are actually the creation of politi cians.
69 (Burgos, 1998) These social activities of the Church tha t concentrated on the poor were A Theology of Religion Projects by the Fundao were a radical departure from the previous treatment of the favela s in that this organization actively worked to upgrade and integrate the marginal areas into the social fabric without removal. Furthermore, these projects were, for the most part participatory with more help for community group projects than execution of projects from the top down. Between 1947 and 1954, the Fundao had implemented projects for basic services (light, water, and sewer) in thirty four different favela s (Burgos, 1 999, 29). And the Cruzada So Sebastio created by the Church in 1955 to facilitate basic service projects in twelve more favela s, quickly expanded its role, moving into the political arena as intermediary between governmental removal policies and the fa vela s. By 1962, these two church based organizations had become state funded service providers for the poor communities and became part of the waft and weave of the government, which could now exercise some control over them. Although it may be coinciden tal, 1962 coincides with opening of the Second Vatican Council where Pope Paul VI vociferously criticized the liberation theology movement as being inappropriately political, and for sullying the traditions of the Church by popularizing the religion. In th e first real reformation between the state and poor communities, the municipal government created The Special Service for the Recuperation of Favela s and Unsanitary Habitation ( SERFHA ) in 1956, the first governmental organization designed specifically to u rbanize and improve favela s (Silva, 2005) of its 1950 federal census of the favela s in 1957, which revealed the working class nature of the
70 residents, and debunked the myth of favelados as crooks and whores. In this same vein, the Undersecretary of Social Services at the time undertook progressive policies that treated the poor residents as capable and intelligent individuals instead of the pre or the subhumans of Cruz and Passos. The Undersecretary was particularly interested in creating the incentive for political organization within the favela s for streamlined contact with the government, and self he lp actions with governmental support. This resulted in the creation of (Portes, 1979) Unfortunately, SERFHA was short lived as Governor Lacerda 44 the same man who, as a journalist, had led the to reduce the formal structures that existed to connect the state and favela s. By 1967, Decree no 870 along with 3.330 in 1969 limited each favela demand making was reversed to attend the demands of the state. Predictably, the first require ment was to register all of the residents and prohibit new construction. The implementation of this law eviscerated the leadership and a necessity to develop a new r epertoire for demand making on the government. At the same time SERFHA was reaching out to serve the poor citizens, the city increased its eradication efforts in a seemingly contradictory policy, on one hand, attempting to urbanize, regularize, and legitim ize the informal settlements, while on the other attempting to bulldoze them from the sides of the hills where they perched. In 1960, the state government jumped into providing housing and services for the poor through COHAB ( Companhia de Habitao Popula r ). That same year, the federal government joined the effort with the Federal Council on 44 In 1960, the national capital was moved to Braslia and the municipality of Rio de Janeiro was left under the governance of the State of Guanabara. As of 1975, the Guanabara state no longer exists, and the city of Rio de Janeiro now includes all of its former territory.
71 Housing ( CFH Conselho Federal de Habitao ), which brought housing for the poor into the national spotlight for the first time (Soares and Soares, 2005) was tasked to do something to solve it. Between 1962 1965, COHAB built a total of 9,500 dwellings in government housing projects 45 in return for the eradication of 5,345 dwellings in the three largest favela s 46 and twenty four smaller ones for a total of 41,958 removed individuals in the South Zone, and in the North central Tijuca Mier area. The stated purpose was to make way for improved roadways and a state university (Portes, 1979) periphery in the West Zone where they did not have easy access to public transportation, jobs, or commercial services such as marke ts. Lacerda lost the next election due to the participation and preference of the working poor and favelados clearly demonstrating their growing political power and growing organization (Perlman, 1976) At the municipal level, the Sociedade de Anlises Grficas e Mecanogrficas Aplicadas aos Complexos Sociais ( SAGMACS Society for the Graphic and Mec ano graphic Analysis of Complex Society) was created in 1960 to, among other things, carry out a comprehensive study favela s. Also, a kind of triage area stop gap measure was implemented primarily to help those residents made homeless by favela e radication: the Centro de Habitao Provisria ( CHP Provisional Housing Center). These centers, created by the Fundao were intended to count, register, house and feed the newly homeless as they migrated back to their home state, or at least to the city suburbs and into a government housing project. The lack of coordination between eradication and construction, however, resulted in the temporary inhabitants of these provisional centers squatting, refusing to move, and the centers eventually turning into favela s. 45 Conjunto Habitacional de Vila Aliana (2,181) e Vila Kennedy (4,751). 46 Favela Esqueleto (3,931); Morrod do Pasmado (911); Maria Angu (503) affecting 41,958 individuals.
72 In 1963 the Legislative Assembly of Rio, for the first time, guaranteed the allocation of 3% of its state budget for public works to improve favela s in situ Although the Military dictatorship would reverse this city level trend in 1964, in sit u improvements became and remain the norm for the treatment of favela s since 1988. 1964 1984 The Military Dictatorship Decides to Clean House As demand making increased and the government at the various levels was unable, or politically unwilling, to incre ase investments in services for the poor, new steps were taken to bring the favela s more firmly under control. The policy can be generally seen as drowning these nascent political bodies in red tape through co opting them by legally recognizing them, then binding them with crippling bureaucracy, and offering conditional funding based largely on the adherence to strict censorship policies (Soares and Soares, 2005) The first step was to make the Fundao into an official state agency in 1963 so as not to have the principal agent disconnect from when policy in the Fundao was dictated by the Church. As the government was turning away from the favela s, 1967 saw the first private collaboration on a large scale with the favela s. Ao Comunitria do Brasil (ACB Community Action of Brazil). This registered Feder al Public Utility was funded by a group of businessmen with the objective of creating the spirit of self help while building the capacity in the favela of Mar so the residents can solve their own problems without relying on a reluctant government. This d omestic non governmental organization (NGO) represents the birth of what has become the contemporary hope for most favela s in the Twenty first Century. At the same time, for a variety of reasons, the organization has a spotty record of negotiating between the government and the community. The new federal government continued to use COHAB as its major policy arm for the housing of the poor; however it was clear that it had lost its will to spend. For example, in the
73 period 1966 1968, COHAB built fewer dwel lings than it had in 1964 47 alone. Further, all of those new starts were in the same remote project ( Cidade de Deus ) and was merely completing a chapter of the public budget that had already been committed prior to the military take over in 1964; yet it ov ersaw more removals than it had in all prior years combined 48 (Portes, 1979) At the same time, the new regime creatd the Banco Nacional de Habitao 49 ( BNH ) (National Housing Bank) to replac e the Conselho Federal de Habitato for the unrealized purpose of facilitating the construction and purchase of personal housing for the poor. The state government chose to reform its relationship with the poor by creating CODESCO ( Companhia de Desenvolvi mento de Comunidades Community Development Company), in 1967, which was quickly subsumed by the federal CHISAM ( Coordenao da Habitao de Interesse Social da rea Metropolitana do Grande Rio Greater Metropolitan Rio Habitat Coordination for Social Intere st ) in 1968. CODESCO was tasked to deal with the problem of housing and urban decline in Rio de Janeiro, however it quickly became the locus for the general returned to the supportive structures of SERFHA and thus were working in direct opposition to CODESCO began planning the improvement of specific favela s, but before any of its projects could meaningfully get underway, the federal CHISAM of government under its umbrella policy of eradication. This rivalry between th e national and sub national governments played itself out in the conflicting policies regarding welfare and housing of the poor, among other areas, and were 47 In a 1964 survey favela occupation of 23% of federal land, 27% of state land, and 44% of private land. 48 From 1963 1966, they removed 6,875 homes. 49 Law 4380 of 21 Aug, 1964
74 gradually resolved through a number of institutional acts between 1965 and 1974 that eliminated ele ction of the president, then of state governors, then of city mayors, thus consolidating the federal will at all levels of the state. Opposition was violently oppressed through the use of an end to popular protest for that decade. The federal intervention in what had been the arena of state policy put the favelados in the crossfire of battling politicians with the best option for them the benign neglect of the state level populists. In 197 2, the state level government was appointed by the military regime rather than elected. This removed the governmental infighting, but worsened the plight of the favelados Favela organizations were of little help as the elimination of the large number of access points to the government had left them with a single closed door. It was truly best at this time to avoid the notice of the government if at all possible as their bulldozers seemed anxious to get to work in new areas. And in terms of the social d iscourse, after almost twenty years of building a societal perception of favelados as honest, church favela s as insalu brious dens of criminality, dangerous blights on the city. And the removal of an autonomous state government and the dismantling of CODESCO in 1972 removed the issue from public debate. Thus, the small gains made by formalizing relationships between city, state, and federal government and the favela s were reversed by the military dictatorship that was all but inaccessible by the poor. This opened the door to clientelistic politics in the favela s where politicians would dip into the well of support that th e favela s represented and leave behind token
75 efforts of help, always careful not to meet all of the needs of the community so that the need to trade for favors would not dry up (Diniz, 1982) In seven years (1968 75), more than 100,000 individuals from between fifty and sixty favela s were destroyed without providing alternative housing the vast majority of these removals were from the trendy South Zone (Table 2 2 and 2 3 ) where the ma jority of supporters of the dictatorship lived (Portes, 1979) main policy had two primary motivations: first, to reorganize urban space for the modernization and beautification of the city also maximization of land values by allowing middle and upper class homes to take the place of slums; and second, to create employment and grow businesses through construction starts at all economic levels. In 1972, coinciding with the appointme dismantling of CODESCO CHISAM was also virtually deactivated in the historical context of a job well done having fulfilled its purpose. CHISAM w ere complicated for the residents as the plans placed an untenable economic burden on favelados who were to buy their space in newly constructed housing projects and pay for utilities and condo fees. Of particular interest in this policy is the inherent r ecognition of favelados as income earning and capable enough to finance their own removal and, thus, the progress of the entire city, while at the same time justifying their removal by identifying them as incapable, quasi human, non citizens. Families who pinned their hope on regularized land title found their loan indexed for inflation that consistently ran ahead of salary adjustment leading to average default rate of 74 the poor got some cash but no housing help (Perlman, 1976) Worse, the housing projects moved favelados far from job opportunities which increased the economic burden of time and
76 transportation. And by collecting large groups of unemployed, untrained and therefore similarly skilled individuals far from wealthier regions, the opportunity for odd jobs ( bisca te ) was lost. Finally, the safety net of the poor, family and social networks, were torn apart as relocations were necessarily hurried and without the luxury of many options. In the favor of the favelados was that, in the early 1960s in the first years of the military dictatorship, the favela became a locus of investigation for university research (Valladares, 2000; Lustosa, 2006) This link between universities, whic h are much more closely tied to social action than those in the United States, and favela unions and other labor unions associated with universities that are the biggest advocates for favela s in the governmen t and in society. The strength of popular movements and protest, and the growing networks of AMs in the mid 1970s and early 80s brought about a radical change in favela policy at all levels. First, with the deactivation of CHISAM eradication programs we re all but stopped. Second, COHAB was reformed as CEHAB ( Companhia Estadual de Habitao State Housing Company) and its mission changed from being primarily a construction company to administering BNH policies and returning to individual level loans rathe r than attempting mass projects. This was more of benign neglect than anything and resulted in a virtual standstill of new housing starts for the poor financed by the government. Whether the result of popular movements in the 1970s (Valladares, 2000) or due to poor funding structures (Portes, 1979) the results were the same: a return to Vargas era particularistic relationships with favela s designed more to develop dependency on the state through individual politicians than to actually improve liv ing conditions. The extent of this neglect can be seen through the loans of the BNH. From 1964 1975, the Bank identified only about one tenth (9%) of all money loaned as fulfilling its :
77 facilitating construction and acquisition of housing fo r the poor (Table 2 1) Much of the one third of its resources it officially allocated for low income housing actually went to finance middle to upper class housing (Portes, 1979) And of the housing for the poor, the president of the Favela favelados removed to CEHAB housing returned to live in favela s, near their places of work, building new shacks with the sale money from their apartments (Portes, 1979, p. 23) In 19 emphasized the problems of the favela s, and used the issue as a strong criticism of the military government. Moreover, Klabin used his position to condemn all earlier legislation and treatment of favela s and their residents as inept. One of his first priorities was helping sanitize the communities by providing free trash collection with the formation of COMLURB/FEEMA under the Secretary of Public Works. In addition to putting tw elve trucks and three hundred sanitation workers on the streets, he sent education campaigns in the communities to help residents understand the compounding problems of trash and pollution. (Valla, 1985) By 1980, the military government was keenly aware that they had lost the support of all classes of society and were then trying to negotiate a controlled transfer of power. In 1979, the literacy criteria for voting was abolished, removing a formal obstacle from the largely illiterate poor for having their voices heard in government and consequently making favela s even more desirable to politicians. At the same time, as a s op to the middle class, the government set up Promorar the last housing program of the military regime, under the National Housing Bank ( BNH ). Specifically this program would work with basic sanitation in favela s that proved significant public health ris ks to the rest of the city as flooding threatened to pollute municipal
78 water supplies with favela sewage, and the ever present threat of dengue fever loomed large in areas that were not easily accessed by the government. According to the Minister of the I nterior, (Valla, 1985) rogram immediately became mired in its methodology of participative planning when the residents began to agitate for ownership of land title. The municipal government Projeto Mutiro (Project Self help) as o ne of several unambitious attempts to improve around fifteen favela s. Proface in 1983, was the state annex to Projeto Mutiro that dealt specifically with water and sewage infrastructure, and at the same time, the state government initiated a regularizat ion of land title program called Cada Familia Um Lote (A Lot for Every Family). The movement of the government reaching out towards the favela s from 1979 1982 was return to Vargas like populism won him a landslide victory, largely on the votes of the newly incorporated poor. Having been the Secretary of Pu blic Works for the municipality had served him well in building a constituency prior to his election. Brizola incentivized a renewal of favela associations. His political platform was creating opportunities for equal access to governmental resources from electricity to police security. In the end, he used his political institutions to coopt favela leadership and support his administration. The infrastructure of favela s in general certainly improved during this time, and his trademark Integrated Center for Public Education (CIEP) was implemented in 137 locations around the city that could educate as many as 30,000 students per day. Furthermore, he addressed the age old pro blem of public transportation by renovating the fleet of public busses. But Brizola satisfied the population of the favela s with
79 short term improvements, such as creating the Sambadromo for the yearly Carnaval, and made no move to incorporate them into pol itical or economic society. 1984 Present The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same The 2000 census by IBGE defines favela s as: Below Normal Agglomerations ( favela s and the like) in a group of at least fifty one habitable units occupying or having occupied until recently usurped land (public or private), generally disorderly and densely constructed, mostly lacking in essential public services. But, according to their own data, defining favela s in terms of what they lack (title to land, and public services) is no longer accurate. The three largest favela s, Rocinha, Complexo Alemo, and Mar actually rank above the city wide average for the were made aft er return to democracy. The post military regime era in Rio de Janeiro was a confusing one for municipal policy regarding favela s. Not only did the 1988 constitution create broad legal space for illegal of living for all citizens; but the nature of city state nation relationships as outlined in the Lei Organica created a bottleneck in that municipalities were given unprecedented autonomy, which allowed clashes in policy coordination between local governm ents in areas such as transportation, environmental stewardship, and urban infrastructure integration. In 1993, a new populist mayor, Csar Maia, created an administrative mechanism to try to bring order out of the chaos that was provoking many spontaneo us popular demonstrations (Acioly, 2001) The principal aim of this new mechanism was to bring particularistic populist spending practices that created great inequality among the poorest areas, and equalize expenditures for general improvement of informal communities and public spaces. Transparency was brought to the municipal budget, and the
80 Instituto Perreira P assos (IPP), formerly IPLANRIO, was created to research and record a huge variety of urban and budget indicators (Soares and Soares, 2005) The 1991 census reported the existence of 412 separate favela s, a number which was quickly increased to 570 after an IPLANRIO census of favela s two years later. The 1993 census estimated around 1.3 million inhabitants of favela s that represented more than twenty percent of favela s had suffered was evident in the change in building materials: shacks were no lon ger precarious dwellings made of wood and salvaged scrap, but were now overwhelmingly made of concrete and brick. The negative side of the neglect was equally obvious in the near total lack of municipal services save for those that had been integrated int o the community through improvised connections ( gatos ). One important step in reforming the relationship between the city and the poor was the networks tha t were encouraged during the military regime (A lves, 2003) In order to continue party control after opposition was allowed in 1984, the state was divided into many regions that were under the control of one or two strongmen each. This execution infrastructure was a continuation of earlier policy that used summary impeachment of opposition members to maintain political control or to solve political problems. The increase in force from impeachment to execution was seen as necessary to control not only politicians, but also a population that had alr eady shown itself to be capable of rebellion in the mass demonstrations that finally brought down the military regime. In addition to using selective elite assassinations and mass drive by shootings in communities to instill fear of defecting, these polit ical groups also created loyal constituencies to provide token services to as positive incentives as the carrot accompanying the stick of violence (Alves, 2003) The result for residents of poor communities
81 was to alienate them from any decision making process and keep them cowed for fear of repris al against voicing any political opinion. Over the past 30 years, the political and criminal spheres have overlapped and drug gangs that control favela s have replaced their execution infrastructure predecessor, severely complicating the relationship betw een favelados and the government (Arias, 2006) And at the same time, the state has proven to be poorly coordinated and controlled, with various groups of police and firemen taking justice into their own hands either in reprisal for violence done to them and their frie nds; for personal financial interest working as mercenaries for one drug faction; or as privateers carrying out unauthorized raids in order to fill their own pockets. For example, in ell armed, masked men invaded the favela Vigrio Geral and killed twenty one men, women, and children in what is known as the Vigrio Geral Massacre ( A Chacina do Vigrio Geral ). In the final analysis, thirty three civil and military police officers were arraigned for the crime, although the appeals continue and many have been absolved. The example above points to but fails to fully capture the climate of distrust of the state and fear of the police by the favela residents who often choose Yet at the same time that drug gangs serve as political fixers for state and municipal hip with the informal communities have been carried out. The common feature of these recent policies is they were to be carried out in situ One such step was the 1994 creation of the Secretariat of Municipal Housing (SMH) that was tasked with providing sustainable solutions to the multitude of housing problems being revealed by IPP studies. The SMH set about to re create the national housing finance system that was active from 1964 1985, and to retake control over public housing projects in order to
82 add ress their inadequacies. The elimination of the Banco Nacional de Habitao in 1981, as ineffective as it was, coupled with the dire economic situation for the next two decades resulted in an explosion in the populations of favela s as the poor had no othe r options than to move in to the periphery of an illegal settlement where their illegal presence would be tolerated (Preteceille and Valladares, 2000; Ribeiro and Lago, 2001) The Favela Bairro Program, begun in 1993, was the most comprehensive of SMH projects, undertaking the ambitious mission of integrating informal communities into the surrounding neighborhoods socially, spatially, a nd economically (Conde and Magalhes, 2004) The partial and arguable success of the program aside, it is without a doubt that the gov ernment has carried out the first steps of Favela Bairro and held participatory planning meetings with residents of over 145 favela s and their surrounding neighborhoods. Although the program necessitates standardized architecture that does not always adap t to the local conditions, most of these favela s are now more spatially integrated into the city. At least on the periphery of the favela s, public services may now flow: police, ambulance, mail, sewage, and light. Outside of the meetings for Favela Bairro the formal communication structure between state and favela has become strained. Part of the reason is the rise of the drug gangs who serve as impediments to favela organization, not wanting to call attention nor the anger of the government down on their place of business. Further, the drug gangs are integrally involved infrastructure often meet resident resistance in proxy for the objections of the drug gangs who ben efit from labyrinthine streets and alleys that make access to the favela difficult. Further, the increase in violence in the favela s, among other reasons, has led to a decrease in social networks within the communities a necessary ingredient for the commo n collective protests of previous
83 eras. As evidence of the specificity of the violence, a study by the Legislative Assembly of Rio de Janeiro revealed that in the ten years between 1992 2002, more than one hundred community leaders were assassinated by dr ug dealers; another three hundred were literally banished from their community; and four hundred were working in the employ of drug dealers (Silva and Leite, 2004) Conclusion favela s have created a complicated and unique relations social construction of what a favela is and what it is to be a favelado has defined the options for social, economic, and political interaction for that specific group that makes up almost one fifth of the middle class society, largely due to governmental excesses against the favelados criminalizing, scapegoating, and threatening the elimination of favela s remain part of th e social discourse. The favela understood in this context the former is concrete and has been won from time to time while the latter two are abstract and progress is without visible reward within a single generation. Favela to this exclusion, and another part based in their historic exploitation at the hands of industr ialists, politicians, and clergy. They make up a politicized body that is aware that the city While such an attitude is an excellent core around which to build a cohesive group identity, there are several intervening factors that have fractured the solidarity of favela residents. United groups did exist at one time in many of the favela s; however favela removals, particularly vicious during the military dictatorship, broke up tight networks and fam ilies. The increased
84 immigration to Rio and the associated growth of the favela s led to further dilution of their social networks. Further, the benefits of united action began to dwindle by the 1960s as populist politics were replaced with neo liberal re forms and the clientelistic promises of campaigning politicians rang hollow year after year. At the same time, repression by the police, drug gangs, and the militias increased the risk of making waves and being noticed. There is little left of the relatio nship between favelados and the state except half hearted attempts from both sides to improve communication and cooperation. While the Favela Bairro program has painted the visible, road side row of houses in 145 favela s and filled a few potholes, favela residents continue to tap illegally into the electricity, cable, and water lines that run nearby. Police, ambulance, and mail service refuse to climb the hills, and fully one third of the book and untaxed. In some few communities, t here seems to be healthy and successful exchanges with the government, and it is exactly the element that makes those communities successful that this dissertation aims to reveal. It is important for all parts of society: the favela residents, the governm ent, and the middle class neighbors that surround and are surrounded by the dysfunctional communities on the hills of Rio.
85 Table 2 1 Government housing starts in Rio de Janeiro by y ear, 1962 1975 Year Houses built Apartments built Total 1962 499 0 499 1963 4,115 0 4,115 1964 3,815 0 3,815 1965 120 1,101 1,221 1966 1,560 0 1,560 1967 1,014 0 1,014 1968 767 0 767 1969 2,566 3,237 5,803 1970 673 22,252 22,925 1971 366 8,000 8,366 1972 1,057 0 1,057 1973 1,446 800 2,246 1974 99 380 479 1975 2,288 144 2,432 Total 20,385 35,914 56,299 Compiled from Portes, 1979 Table 2 2 Favela homes destroyed per zone after the creation of CHISAM, 1968 1972 South zone North zone Outer central zone I nner central zone Northern and western periphery Total Number 9,789 2,646 0 902 3,130 16,467 % 54.5 16 0 5.5 19 100 Compiled from Portes, 1979, p. 14
86 Table 2 3 : Removals in the largest favela s of R rio by zone, 1963 1966 & 1968 Favela name Zone Date of removal attempt(s) Homes removed Zone subtotal Alvaro Ramos South 1963 1966 25 Getulio Vargas South 1963 1966 113 Macedo Sobrinho South 1963 1966 14 Marques de So Vicente South 1963 1966 111 Morro do Pasmado South 1963 1966 911 Praia do Pinto South 1963 1966 81 1,255 Catacumba South 1968 2,071 Fazenda Areal South 1968 1,688 Fazenda Botofogo South 1968 1,162 Macedo Sobrinho South 1968 1,279 Praia do Pinto South 1968 3,600 11,055 Av. Brasil North 1963 1966 14 Bras de Pina North 1963 1966 366 C.C.P.L North 1963 1966 104 Del Castilho North 1963 1966 17 Maria Angu North 1963 1966 503 Moreninha North 1963 1966 35 Parque do Caju North 1963 1966 30 Vila da Penha North 1963 1966 180 1,249 24 de Maio CBD 1963 1966 36 Esqueleto CBD 1963 1966 3,931 Morro do Quiteo CBD 1963 1966 197 Morro dos Prazeres CBD 1963 1966 10 So Carlos CBD 1963 1966 253 Turano CBD 1963 1966 35 4,462 Total 16,766 Compiled from data in (Portes, 1979)
87 CHAPTER 3 SOCIAL CAPITAL AND T HE SLUM Introduction The last chapter ended with a fairly pessimistic view of social capital and collective action in the favela s of Rio de Janeiro, suggesting that the limited capacity to act in concert came from a lack of social networks within the communities or attachment to the community as an identity. The simple definition of social capital as used in this dissertation is, at the individual level, the amount and intensity of actual and potential cooperation an individual receives when interacting with another; and similarly, at the society level, it is the aggregate potential and actual cooperation that society gains from al l members. This definition will become clearer as it is applied throughout this chapter to investigate the extent to which social capital in the favela s provides an exit option for the residents; the extent to which it facilitates demand making on the sta te; and the extent to which it may help embed the residents in the state society structure. In the first case, social capital must be understood at the individual level as a productive resource and survival strategy that takes the place of the state in t he lives of favela residents. In the second case, social capital must be understood as a community resource that creates the capacity to act in concert and make demands on the government. And in the final case, social capital must be understood at both th e individual and community levels in terms of how aggregate linkages within society lead to greater or lesser connection to the state. Understanding the mechanism of social capital formation and differentiation into type and intensity will provide an effi cient lens through which to examine the social, economic, and political strategies of favela residents.
88 What I s Social Capital Before discussing social capital in the favela s of Rio de Janeiro, the concept will be operationalized here. Current literatur e on social capital acknowledges both its positive and negative potential. On the one hand, social capital may ease inter ethnic conflict (Varshney, 2002) or provide a foundation for enhanced function of institutions (North, 1990b; Putnam et al., 1993) It may also be an instrumental individual resource, providing a leg up for immigrants (Portes, 1995) and reinforcement of culture and community in minority groups (Gold, 1995) On the other hand, it may restrict individual choice (Portes and Sensenbrenner, 1993) compel harmful behavior (Fernandez Kelly, 1995) and lead to narrow pursuit of interests (Varshney, 2002) Transporting social capital to a development context, Naryan and Pritchett (1997) discovered a positive correlation between social capital and house hold income in rural Tanzania, giving empirical evidence of social capital as a resource to enhance survival strategies and options. The many differences above can best be understood in terms of the unit of study (individual, community, or society); wheth er social capital is causal (exogenous) of social behaviors, or the result of interactional behavior (endogenous); the variable utility of social capital; and the extent to which social capital can be measured, created, stored, and destroyed. ood (1916, p. 130) The term then lay dormant unt il the 1950s, where it was used to describe the associations of immigrant suburbanites in Canada. The idea of social bonds and norms being bankable, or as an available resource to be put to use for personal betterment was first identified by Jacobs (1961) in terms of
89 neighbor hood networks and the ability to borrow a cup of sugar during hard times. James Coleman provided a theoretical framework (1988, 1990) which was later adopted and narrowed by Robert Putnam (1993; 2000, 2002) in terms of norms for interpersonal relations, particularly trust, that facilitate productive, group activities. Economists such as Douglass North (1990b; 1990a) and Elinor Ostrom (Ostrom, 1998; Alt et al., 1999) have developed models of the instrumental value of trust and norms of reciprocity in terms of lowering transaction costs in free market exchanges. H owever, these theories have not been empirically tested. In all of the cases above, the measures of social capital have been conflated with the definition of social capital. Cooperation, and particularly the potential to cooperate, is very difficult to em piricize and measure. Norms of reciprocity and feelings of trust, the general basis for measuring social capital across most authors, are but two manifestations of actual and potential cooperation. In order to understand the mechanism of social capital, however, these organization, such as networks, norms, and trust, that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit (1993, p. 36) level cooperation in the historical discourse of a given society leads to stronger social networks, generalized trust and reciprocity, and shared norms and values. Social Capital at the Individual Level Social capital, at the individual level, can be conceived as a complementary form of the traditionally acknowledged forms of human, physical and economic capital, and the more recent cultural and political capital. Human capital is the knowledge and skills that individuals possess that enable them to work. Phy sical capital refers to the resources used in production such as tools, land, and raw inputs. Economic capital is simply access to economic resources (cash assets). Cultural capital is the forms of knowledge, skill, and education which allow individuals
90 hierarchy and ability to command action (power). And in broad terms that capture the individualist side of social capital as described above, it is pos session or access to resources which are linked to a network of relationships of mutual acquaintance and recognition (Bourdieu, 1986) colla boration for their own benefit. As a factor of production, it can be used in the production of other goods, or as a multiplier for the other types of capital, and is as particularistic as an e tools and wealth, as opposed to naturally occurring resources such as land. And, like a tool or machine, it is not necessarily used up when employed in production. As a factor of production, social capital is an additional resource to be employed to ach ieve individual goals. Importantly, social capital is specific to its context of creation, for example it is not reasonable to expect that a social network created around fine dining would be the best resource to recruit help to build a barn. Social capit al can exist between two individuals in the form of goodwill, non monetary expectations and obligations, or non monetary debts that can be traded or called in when resources are needed. These obligations occur through norms of reciprocity 50 or through cult ural traditions, such as familial obligations between a mother and her son. It can also exist between an individual and a group in terms of gaining access to group benefits, resources, and information. 50 Norms of reciprocity, as conceived by Robert Putnam, are a public good that results from active social capital at large particularistic norms of trust and reciprocity generalize to the society in general and may be enjoyed by strangers within the society or even newcomers to the society. Note that Putnam focuses on the norms that exist as path dependent cultural outcomes made durable through tradition of historical processes. It is more useful, however, to envision the norms in terms of an iterated game where each decision outcome affects the probable choices of the players in the next round. These norms certainly enter into societal discourse, as well as the signifiers that leads one to expect (or not) that a new individual, location, or situation will adhere to those norms. However, th ey are not indefinitely durable and do not survive nearly the same levels of defection that a good friend might tolerate in a series of games.
91 51 (1973) (1988) work begin and give purchase on the actual mechanism of social capital. Granovette r envisioned relationships in terms of dyads that had either no relationship 52 whatever (absence of relationship); a weak relationship (weak tie) such as that created between individuals who work in the same office or attend the same school but only share c onversation around the water cooler; or a strong relationship (strong tie) that can only be built over time after numerous positive interactions and shared interests such as with good friends or family members. Coleman extends this idea of intensity of d yadic relationships to social networks in order to consider the notion of open and closed groups of individuals (see Figure 3 1 ). In an open group ( Figure 3 1B ), because there is no interconnection between terminal ends (x & z), an individual in either branch (w,x or y,z) may behave badly (defect) and suffer no social consequences from the other branch because of the lack of direct connection for information flow between z and x. In a closed group ( Figure 3 1A ), however, information may be transmitted f rom one branch to the other, either by person A, or by the C D connection. The closed group, therefore, is more effective at generating generalized trust and norms of reciprocity because reports on group members and the quality of their interactions can be easily passed throughout the entire network without relying on a single bridge, thus the only way to avoid sanctions is to leave the group entirely a potentially costly decision. Also, in the terminology of Granovetter, because each dyad is connected, that is they spend time together to develop a relationship, it is more likely in the closed group than in the open one that separation in the 51 e mechanism that underlies social networks, which are its basis. 52 It would be interesting to treat the each other on the street or ride the same bus without talking, however this would complicate the research without adding much benefit. As such, like Granovetter, I do not treat this weaker form of weak ties. Certainly favela residents may experience a decrease in discriminatory treatment on an individual level due to nodding re lationships, and may parlay some of these into weak ties, but it is probably sufficient to incorporate such acquaintances into the absence of relationship category. Additionally, negative ties are not treated here.
92 relationship chain (e.g. A is not directly connected to C) will not prevent members of the group from knowing each other nor from having spent time with one another. Reasonable expectations of behavior then develop because of confidence in the social cooperation to enact sanctions shown by historical experience. This idea of banking on cooperation goes beyond the ide a of rationality however, even when rational choice is expanded to include iterated games. That is, individuals within a group base their choices on embedded, historical trends, and learned expectations and behaviors outside of dyadic interactions. As su ch, the individuals create their choices based not only on the likelihood that their transaction partner will defect or cooperate, but based on the likelihood of community sanctions in the face of defection given the historical actions of the community; th e chance to enhance their reputation outside of the dyad even in the case of no real transactional gain; and based on the cultural signifiers that their partner presents, indicating that they are either group adherent (cooperators) or group defiant (defect particularistic experiences become generalized to encompass others who are not personally dependence to generalized or society wide social capital in Italy where the North and the South are divided primarily because of their different historical experience with the hierarchy of the Catholic Church (1993) In the case of the favela residents, the continuity of historical precedent and subsequent ability to predict fellow residents eradications (see chapter 1 for this discussion). Further, stable expectations continue to be hindered by the great influx of new immigrants who keep the community group open rather than closed, and the refore without reasonable hope of sanctions in the case of malfeasant behavior.
93 Trust and norms of reciprocity in this case do not develop even though they existed in the same place only thirty years prior (Perlman, 2000) The generalization of social capital from successful dyadic (individual level) relationships to reasonable expectations of enforced reciprocity found within closed groups (group level) fails to occur because of the prevalence of an open group community (see Figure 3 2 ). Neve rtheless, individuals find it worthwhile to invest time in cultivating social relationships and obligations (individual level social capital) because of the direct utility they derive from it. Portes (1995) both before and after their arrival in their new residence. Immigrants p rovide an excellent case study in the creation of social capital, as they have the potential to arrive in a new locale with no contacts, no understanding of the culture of their new surroundings, and only the shirt on their back. Their ability to survive requires that they quickly create a social network to gain the cultural capital that will facilitate their navigation of their new society, and thus their accumulation of economic resources. Even with limited options for these groups of immigrants in the new culture due to language or discrimination, it is possible to tap into the resources of their cultural group rather quickly because it is virtually closed the degrees of separation between a group in one city and a group of the same makeup in another te nd to be few, so reputation and sanctions can easily follow. In the favela s of Rio, on the other hand, immigrants do not face the same limiting obstacles to navigating the new culture such as the lack of a work visa or the ability to speak the language. Nor do they stand out as notably different and thus identifiable as some immigrant communities in the US do. For example, note the relative favela population in Table 3 1 This couples with the post 1975 trend of outwar d migration from favela s rather than maintaining and improving a
94 generational home there (Perlman, 2004) Groups, therefore, remain open, so the possibility to defect and run with no repercussions is great. Also helpful to explain the apparent lack of social capital resulting in collective action in the favela s, still looking at the individual level, is that connections or relationships outside of the favela are preferred to those within. One way of conceiving of this preference is through (1973) rms of access to information and resources, weak ties are more valuable than strong ties. Weak ties are those dyadic relationships that require little time and few resources to maintain, but result in a connection somewhat more profound than that of noddi ng acquaintances. Strong 53 ties, on the other hand, are like those between good friends or close family members, which require a substantial investment of time and energy and allow high predictability of the actions of the others in the group. To create time this is the main difference between strong and weak ties. Therefore, if A has strong ties to s presence some of the time certainly enough to develop at least a weak tie based on the common interest that B is a friend to both. In a group predominated by strong ties, the chances that everyone in the group spends some time together in either a prima ry relationship or secondary relationship is high. This group is automatically closed because everybody knows one another, and it is unlikely that there are significant relationships that are not somehow included in the group by virtue of the shared time (Figure 3 1 ). Much of the information that the individuals in this group possess is likely to be common and available for the asking. Also, each member of the group may have 53 Tie strength is mostly determined by t he combination of the amount of time, emotional intensity, mutual confiding, and reciprocity that describe the relationship (Granov etter, 1973) Note that these relationships can be negative and are most likely always asymmetrical to some exten t.
95 er the resources 54 Strong ties that (Figure 3 1 ) as per Putnam (1993) and typically unites people with similar characteristics and interests. A gr oup composed primarily of weak ties (see 3 1 ), on the other hand, almost guarantees (closely tied groups) that are unknown to the other members in the weakly tied group because each pair (v w, w x, v y, y z) does not spend sufficient time together to know many of the w and v y does not imply a transitive association (i.e. v w & w x v x) between v x and v z, sim ilarly there is no tie between x z. The practical benefit of this is that it is possible to maintain numerous weak ties as they do not require much time, effort, or resources. As such, each individual in such a network has access to many other networks t In other words, an individual must invest much time and energy to maintain a close group of friends who, by the nature of common interests attracting, will likely have limited types and acts outside of the group to enrich it. On the other hand, the comparatively inexpensive weak ties are much more likely to pay off with their expanded access to previously unavailable information and other resources. To put this in real terms, favela res idents tend to save their time and energy and the potential of accruing time robbing obligations within their communities, and instead develop as many ties outside of the favela as possible. The research for this dissertation revealed a common, conscious preference for ties outside the community because 1) residents see these ties 54 Social connections and introductions are resource s that are usually available because they cost little to share. However, resources here can also mean physical labor, tools, money, or other productive resources.
96 a potential way out of the favela ; and 2) (particularly younger <35 years old) individuals seem to have internalized the discrimination against favela s and consequently steer cle ar of even their own (Figure 3 2) This was evident to researchers in the early 1960s (Mangin, 1967) just as it is today in the form of consistent advice to avoid other favela s because they are dangerous and the strategic or not, weaker, outside ties are beneficial to the favela residents because it is those multiple weak ties that are most likely to be rewarding in terms of information, employment, educational opportunities, or loans. Of course residents in favela s do form strong ties, but these tend to be within their extended families, and take up a majority of their free time, leaving little room for more strong ties outside of their house. From the outside, the relationship structures within favela s can look l ike the amoral familism described by Banfield (1967) Italy where families were reported to see other families as competitors in a zero sum game, and therefore unlikely to interact or help one another. Another way of looking at this phenomenon is to think of it in terms of the fragmentation of society into cliques with few ties between to a ct as bridges (Figure 3 3 ). Rather than mean bridging, weak ties between closed groups, individuals must interact in a variety of contexts to develop them (Granovetter, 1973) Trust can only be devel oped through a reasonable occurs after repeated interactions or repeatedly hearing of others through acquaintances. But the benefit of a rich network of these bridging ties between individuals or between closed groups is increased sharing of information, resources, and mutual understanding. Without these bridges,
97 each group will not have access to information and innovation from other parts of society, resource s that have a very practical, economic utility in terms of finding jobs, purchasing quality products, and investing wisely. Social Capital at the Community Level Social capital at the community level is manifested in several forms: generalized rather tha n strictly particular trust; a capacity to act in concert for common goals; and informal but very real community sanctions for those who deviate from the norms. Just as social capital works to pital, it does the same for a community or society; yet all social capital originally derives from dyadic interactions and was religion, and morality of the specifi c societal context. The actual capital in individual case is the and transactions. The manifestation of the social capital is the appearance of trust, reci procity, goodwill (or distrust and bad will) that exists within the dyad. cooperation and collaboration that each of its members provides to the rest of the group as a whole. This exists in two parts: one part is composed of the social norms that facilitate dyadic interactions (a tendency to cooperate that reduces transaction costs); and the other part is composed of the aggregate potential for group members to coo perate for the good of the society as a whole cooperation itself being a public good. The manifestation of social capital at this community at large requ ires both facilitating community action as well as social enforcement of community norms (usually a type of ostracism) that extends beyond mere financial punishment into the possibility of robbing a defector of their way of life.
98 For example, in a society with little or even negative social capital, individuals are not likely to produce any public goods whatever, and may even actively destroy what public goods there are because of their antagonistic relationship with the greater group. This seems like a ty pically adolescent or immature attitude, to spitefully damage public property as an act of rebellion against a system that is perceived as oppressive. The behavior is immature because it is self at they are hurting everyone in the group themselves as well. Further, the behavior is tolerated de facto because there is no collective consequence. On the other hand, altruistic behavior such as the type promoted by Boy and Girl Scouts looks to acknowl honors anonymous help to strangers. However generalized or community oriented such altruism may be, there is still an expectation that such behavior will be rewarded, perhaps with the intangible, reputation enhancing respect at the individual level. And at the community level, the reward may be a continuation of good works by others that makes society a better place for all. Just as patents and private property are thought to be necessary prerequ isites for scientific and economic innovation, generalized social capital is necessary for a society to function (1993) he found that cooperative behaviors in the North tended to fill in the gaps that were not comp letely spelled out by the government, allowing state functions to be carried out more quickly and efficiently. In the South however, the lack of such cooperation meant that the government bureaucracy had to invest extra time and resources to carry out the same policies. There is another natural experiment to understand social capital in the form of work slow the strikes where employees demonstrate the value of their good will to their employer by withholding cooperation. Even in the engineered transactions of an assembly line, there are
99 many unwritten norms and actions that allow it to work smoothly, and without valuing the group perfect work will en d up in disaster. One way of thinking of the society level social capital is, as Putnam described, that it is habituated patterns of interacting predicated on governmental and religious history. The South of Italy lacks cooperation because they were habit uated for hundreds of years in vertical or strict, hierarchical organization. Conversely, the North was more liberal and citizens interacted in more horizontal or non hierarchical organizations from town government to local churches. But this macro lens is not sufficient, because it suggests that changes in society wide social capital can only occur through generations of habituation. Dyadic interactions generate immediate consequences and, although the consequences may be tempered by habits and common r epertoires of social action, it is these tangible costs and benefits that result from interacting that, in the end, drive good will and cooperation. Fukuyama (2001) looks at this pairing of social norms and individual will in terms of a eloped through iterated interactions with individuals and outcomes of cooperating with society to determine the extent to which the particularistic trust for one other person or for immediate family is generalized or extended to others who are less well kn a short radius of trust that may not extend beyond those well known members. And certainly, strong ties that form in a closed group provide ample time to evaluate the trustworthiness of all members so that nothing need be taken on faith. And although weak ties and an open group mean that defection and free riding may increase without consequence to those who do so, the radius of trust may be extended based on stron g social norms of civic values; effective
100 monitoring for defectors and free riders by civic organizations or the government; the visible, positive result of cooperation in iterated interactions. Fukuyama (1995) identifies the shortcomings of particularistic trust a visible measure of social capital. In comparing the United States and Japan with Italy and China, he finds that the culture in the latter two cou ntries includes very short trust radii that do not extend beyond family, once removed. Thus businesses must rely on nepotistic hiring practices for management because Japan, that do have generalized trust, have been able to generate huge mega corporations, benefitting from innovation and expertise from around the world. Italy and China have not because their businesses have a tendency to fail when the family member wi th business acumen dies. At best, network. Lacking in the Italian and Chinese cases is the power of reputation, or social censure/acceptance of an individual base d on the known record of their behaviors and beliefs. Reputation is a concept that bridges individual level and society wide units of analysis. citizens of good reputation may generate more public good cooperation. The power and Bay in the US and Mercado Livre in Brazil. Sellers on e Bay, and buyers and sellers on Mercado Livre, are rated after every transaction as either having performed positively, negatively, or having failed to distinguish themselves for good or bad and gaining a neutral evaluation. If one party defects and either fails to pay or sends a disap site is unable to bring about a satisfactory outcome, the e Bay/Mercado Livre society will punish
101 the defector by refusing to do business with them. Even though these online sites are very open groups with mostly weak ties connecting members (strengthened through social networking options such as chat and on site e mail), it is costly to deactivate an identity (leave the group) and come back under another identity because a new identity is almost as bad as a negative reputation. T The trading of information about the sellers is a social act, as are the various product Bay and Mercado Livre have created to draw more and more time from more and more individuals to make their site a Bay and Mercado Livre members take the time to participate, submit reputations, and read comments so they can sanction defectors, these sites have become the two biggest in their markets and attract thousands of new members (strangers) individual cooperation created a stronger, more efficient, and ultimately more reliable society. A benefit of a long trust radius is that confidence spans groups, and these bridging ties help integrate society and mitigate friction between competing groups. The trust radius likely lengthens only in response to repeated interactions with individuals fr om other groups, which is a society wide benefit of weak ties. Those who can exist within several groups or within one group and at the periphery of others not only accrue the individual benefit of access to information and resources, but provide experien (2001, 2002) study of ethnic violence in India suggests that it was exactly these kinds of social or civil interactions in a variety of contexts between Hindus and Muslims that resulted in a are the periodic riots along
102 religious lines in other regions of India that lacked the types of organizations that facilitated a mixing of Hindus and Muslims. Bonding, Bridging, Blinding, and Binding Social Capital Whether at the individual or community/s ociety level, social capital can be thought of in terms of the types of connections that compose it: either bonding or bridging social capital (see Figure 3 4 ). Bonding social capital, in the terminology of Robert Putnam (Putnam, 2000) is made up of the strong ties that form within groups after multiple interactions where norms of behavior and expectations of reciprocity are developed. Bonding social capital tends to form among individuals who share many common characteristics, tha t is they have many common points whereby to connect, which facilitates the interactions within multiple contexts where a rich set of norms and expectations that may be generalized to other, unknown contexts may be practiced. Because of the shared charact eristics of individuals within such a group, when bonding social capital is very strong, it may be exclusionary towards outsiders and consequently eliminate opportunities for ideas from outside of the group. Hyden (2006) (Figure 3 4 ) because it results in a group that is not self reflective and only mutually reinforces ideas already in the friction between such groups and the rest of society. From a positive point of view Putnam (2000) exists, the better individuals are able to relate to one an other within the group, communicate, interact, and forgive when limits are surpassed. It is the glue that helps keep community together in solidarity. In the extreme, blinding social capital is most evident in the favela s among the drug gangs or the fact ions within the state wide drug gangs. Because of the high risk of betrayal by police or rival spies, or even individual greed, drug gangs are necessarily closed for protection
103 from the outside as well as for effective monitoring and sanctioning of all me mbers. This causes a favela social capital is extended, by virtue of the watchful eyes (olheiros) of the gang, to all residents of the community, which limits the possibili ty for rewarding bridges (Figure 3 4 ) outside of the community or to other communities. Blinding social capital can also be seen as inhibiting broad based collective action where (1967) her groups or families in the community. Banfield saw this resulting in a zero sum game approach to life in the city that made collective approaches to community problems impossible. Similarly, in many favela s in Rio, families or geographic blocks of neig hbors will work together to improve their constrained area at the expense of, or at least to the exclusion of, non group members and areas of the larger community despite the potential for greater rewards from generalized community action. Blinding social capital, in this case, increases expectations of free riding from non group individuals, but more importantly prevents the casual social interactions that could facilitate even sic level even outside of the question of sharing resources. Whereas bonding social capital may be transferrable to a general trust of strangers, blinding social capital is not. Bridging social capital (Figure 3 4 ) is composed of weaker connections betwee n individuals who do not share many common characteristics, and are separated by group affiliation or identification such as religion, race, or political ideology. Strong ties are almost exclusively bonds, and can rarely be bridges. Only if neither party in the dyad has other strong ties can a strong tie between them be a bridge (see Figure 3 3 ). Weak ties, on the other hand, are
104 nearly always bridges. As above, bridging social capital is generated through multiple interactions over time and grows strong er with the increased variety of contexts for these interactions. Norms and expectations between individuals are created and may eventually be generalized to entire groups of populations so that using the signifiers that indicate belonging to one group is sufficient to be imbued with the social capital attributed to the group in general. And because bridging social capital puts individuals in touch with information, connections, and resources that may not exist within their primary group, it can be though t of it as good for group they can include in their network. While the favela is t o focus on bridging rather than bonding social capital. They tend to make social contacts that may be of value to them either by increasing the options of current survival strategies, or as an investment in the future should some crisis occur in their liv es. This type of social capital is not society working without having to renegotiate social, economic, and political transactions every time a person interac ts with someone who is not from their known community (if the social capital is positive). At this level, both bonding and bridging social capital are equivalent to generalized trust between individuals and members who appear to be from their group, or be tween individuals and other groups that have been included into the lexicon of trustworthy associates through the creation of norms and expectations. Binding social capital (Figure 3 4 ), on the other hand, is more of a temporary truce or shift in the cost benefit analysis of working with others for common goals. Hyden (2006) describes it as short lived connections between individuals who may only share a few common contexts of
105 interaction. In his examples, binding social capital requires some external stimulus to catalyze formation, such as a problem or enemy that threatens groups across social cleavages. Although it facilitates cooperation between individuals who may have had little or no contact, it is cannot be generalized like bridging and bonding social capital above. Instead, it is limited trust extended to others who are working towards the same ends that will usually result in personal bridging or bonding social capital may, the collective orientation applies to a single problem or issue at a time. This results in a final distinguishing characteristic of binding social capital, which is its transient nature. Whereas bridging, bonding, and blinding social capital are reasonably durable, applicable to a large set of different types of interactions and purposes even if they are not able to be maintained in the face of defection, binding social capital provides the ooperation around one, limited problem or issue and then deactivates 55 When binding social capital is next seen, it is likely to connect some of the individuals from the previous action to a different set of temporary allies. Binding social capital is lik ely the most common type within favela s, and has even been able to bridge strong, blinding ties. At one extreme are the temporary agreements between two of the three state wide drug gangs made in order to eliminate the third, or even the agreements betwee n battalions of police and a drug gang that may allow non drug related police action in the community, provide weapons to the gangs against another gang, or even enlist the service of 55 The possibility also exists that binding social capital may result in a more durable form, but will not be applied to the entire group as the interests of all individuals in the group likely only intersect at one or few issues.
106 police in a drug war 56 Usually such cooperation is less extreme and occ urs in forms such as the collective effort to maintain claim on land against police or unhappy neighbors; cooperating for a one off infrastructure project such as sewage, stairs or streets; or in reaction to police violence within the community that may sp ark spontaneous and immediate protest to bring public attention. Social Capital in the Favela s of Rio de Janeiro As early as 1967, Mangin reported that, counter intuitively from a Marxian frame that predicts durable community once individuals see each other as linked by their common situation an d not as competitors in a zero sum game of life, squatter residents may involve themselves in the single collective effort of securing their land in the initial invasion from opposition, which has been labeled as active binding social capital above. The expectation of the press and most researchers, who treat favela s and their residents as interchangeable (Preteceille and Valladares, 2000) has been for some sort of class consciousness or fraternity to evolve among those favela s. However, as evident from examples above, all types of social capital actively exist in the favela s at all levels. The rest of this chapter considers social capital in the favela s of Rio de Janeiro, first at the individual level, and then at the community level. The focus of the empirical evidence below is on bonding social capital within the favela and bridging soci al capital from the favela to professional organizations (either unions or smaller, more local groups), particularly the relationships between social capital and individual and community well being. However, binding and blinding social capital are also evi dent, but are more appropriately considered in the context of the favela 56 In the extreme, in the drug war of April, 2004 between Terceiro Comand and Comando Vermelho, two different battalions were seen firing at each other in Rocinha (documentation from a personal interview with a local journalist).
107 For a general picture of social capital in fifty one favela s of the fifty five included in this study, Table 3 2 show s five measures for collective action and associationalism 57 The evidence there suggests a greater instance of cooperation and collective orientation than Mangin found above. With no large survey data available reporting norms of reciprocity and trust, gr oup membership and participation in favela events is a satisfactory proxy for measuring the civic space and social ties that are parts of the concept of social capital. According to Table 3 2 below there is great variation in the tendency to join an organization across the fifty one favela s in the data set. The greatest tendency is to join an orgo de classe (ultra local work related or professional organization) with an average of 11.58% of the favela greater neighbo rhood ( bairro ) or the favela (average membership of 9.54% per favela ). Nevertheless, with only a maximum of one quarter and average of one tenth of the favela the formal connection to the government that is provided for by law in every favela is still quite low. Low participation can be explained by avoidance of monthly dues (usually between R$3 and R$10 or US$2.00 5.00, which was 3 7% of a monthly minimum salary at the time, perception of corruption in even the most local of governments, and the ineffectiveness of such organizations. While the 1980s saw a proliferation of grassroots organizations and activity in favela s, the movement of NGO funding from project or favela specific to more universal cau ses, such as hunger and poverty in general, has led to dissolution or fragmentation of such 57 Social capital can be measured as it manifests: potential and actual cooperation and collaboration between an individual and others, and between society and members. For this study, data regarding associational membership, com munity attitudes, and personal resources from a 1998 census of fifty one favela s, is used to approximate the concept of social capital empirically.
108 groups. The other, local options, such as membership in a sports team, religious or philanthropic organization, parent teacher association, or cultural group (col umn b in Table 3 2 other local social organizations), are not well exercised, which points to the preference for ties to outside the community mentioned above. Social Capital as an Individual Resource As an individual resource, social capital may increa se the number of survival strategies and amplify those already in practice. New or expanded possibilities when linked to social capital the when the neighbor is in need. Access to knowledge about work opportunities or better paying opportunities, and the ever important personal introduction has also been noted as a benefit to social capital (Granovetter, 1983) There is a play on words in Brazil that emphasizes exactly that: the QI ( quoeficiente de inteligncia intelligence quotie nt or IQ) is slang for quem indica (who introduced you) indicating that who you know is often more important than what you know. The value of acquiring or maintaining social capital can be seen in the numbers of formal memberships that favela residents hol d, where an average of one in ten are members of their (Table 3 2 ). More still either moved to or remain in the same favela because of their friends (see Error! Reference ource not found. below ). Table 3 3 provide s what they say they th ink, and what they say they have done. But with the data available from a survey of fifty one favela s in 1998, it is possible to quantify the value to individuals of these connections by looking at the correlations between various measures for social capital and tangible, individual assets.
109 These measures are methods of empiricizing the presence or absence of the concept of social capital. For this, it is necessary to find trust, and norms of reciprocity that are socially enforced through the presence of interconnecting social networks at the community level. At the individual level, it is enough to find the extent to which each person in a community is socially membership in a workplace professional organization or union are all good measures of this. From the survey, there are three more measures that help expose the extent to which the generalization of social capital is perceived as existing in the community: if the resident reported vernmental, by themselves, made through a group project ( multiro ), or made by the government; and if friends were the main reason for living in the favela One t est of the construct validity of the measures of social capital to be used in this chapter is looking for strong, statistically significant bivariate correlations between them. Table 3 4 shows correlations between the seven measures of social capital: fi ve at the individual level, and two at the community level. Each of these measures alone has a high face validity that is, on its face, it appears to get at the idea of social networks, trust, and group orientation towards problem solving. If these diffe rent measures are correlated, it is reasonable to assume that they are measuring different aspects of the same thing, as there is no reason to believe a causal relationship between any of the seven variables. The concept of social capital is quite complex so the seven measures above are only proxies for some of its components. It is for this reason that data from hundreds of hours of personal interviews and participant observation are included in this section to reinforce the validity of the quantitative data available.
110 Table 3 4 Table shows that there are at least weak correlations (r<.15, p<.01) between all of the measures except between membership in a work related organization and reporting that household connections to piped water were made by group effort ( multiro ) as opposed to government or individual effort. The latter measure also has an unexpected, negative relationship with friends being the main reason to move to or remain in the favela but may be explained by ready made social ties leading to blinding social capital within the community along with the preference for building bridges outside of the community. The four most strongly corr related organization ( orgo de classe ), and reported participation in community events. The weaker correlations between friends being the main reason for living in the community and the other measures could be due, in part, to the insensitivity of the variable in determining if the friends live inside or outside of the community. Another significant reason for weaker correlations between the variable above, reporting life improvi ng in the community because of the residents, and water connections made by group effort is that these three variables attempt to capture an informal measure of social capital at the community level. Whereas membership in formal groups is individual, clea rly either present or not present, and unlikely to change back and forth over time, daily connections to friends and daily sentiments about neighbors are likely to change rapidly and radically. And although Leeds (1978) saw the occupation and building process of informal settlements as contributing to the strengtheni ng of infrastructure, the measure of group the initial invasion, putting in local connections to a nearby water supply may be a one off activity. These connections suggest that
111 nearly as well as current Nevertheless, these three variables are clearly related to the concept of social capital, and thus make good cross checking points for triangulation on the other four measures. So cial Capital as an Exit Option Thinking of social capital as creating an exit option from the state for favela residents goes directly against the logic of Robert Putnam (1993) who, conceptualizing social capital as a generalized cultural climate of trust and norms of reciprocity, repor ts how it functions to embed government in society and society in government. For Putnam, social capital fills in the gaps that governmental institutions leave. Similar to a firm grinding along inefficiently during a the nal, informal institutions are shut down, a government depends on all of the informal pathways that are generated by robust social networks to help disseminate information, facilitate access to services, and enhance enforcement of rules. His research in Italy suggests that in the atomized South, characterized by weak ties and a subsequent lack of generalized trust, state governments were very inefficient and ineffective. However, in the North, characterized by high levels of generalized norms of reciproc ity 58 and trust, the government was very efficient and effective. The difference is attributed to the integration of the government institutions into the existing social networks that reduced the cost of transactions between the government and its constitu ents and vice versa It is easy to imagine the opposite as well, that is strong social capital being an impediment to the function of government when the social networks are opposed to its rule. Underground resistance movements during WWII, and student mo vements in China immediately come to 58 Individuals acting for the benefit of unknown others, or society at large and not in a dyadic relationship of reciprocity.
112 mind. For social capital to be instrumental in creating an exit option for the favela residents it must allow them to avoid relying on the state so as not to be monitored by it. Social capital, then, must substitute f or several public goods: economic security, physical security (policing), health, education, and living conditions. A negative perception of government may also drive individuals to seek an exit as opposed to a voice option. Figure 3 5 shows a disturbing picture of the favela government in their lives in 2000. Residents, whether correct in their idea or not, believe that the longitudinal study is suppor ted by the data from the 1998 census of fifty one favela s (Table 3 10 ) that reveals a minimum of 12%, a maximum of 67%, and an average of 42% of the population of these communities believe that their lives have been made worse because of the government. S o choice for at least 1/6 th of the residents. This attitude is echoed in historical research at the beginning of the military dictatorship where available da ta reports almost 50% of favela quality of life over t he previous five years (Mangin, 1967, p. 83) Econom ically, the choice is fairly easy as the voice option does not garner enough to live on 59 even when there are no costs for habitation. Because of a decline in the number of jobs requiring unskilled labor, uneducated residents of the favela s cannot demand minimum wage or a formal job with guaranteed benefits (the signed work card). The same is true for the number of residents who work as housekeepers, gardeners, and nannies so they all must make their own 59 a variety of conditional cash transfer programs were consolidated and streamlined, yet the average payment for a family of four is less than R$150 (about US$75) per month, while the minimum salary has been r aised in steps from R$120 in 2002 to R$450 in 2007.
113 economic security. According to Table 3 9 for the decade between 1991 and 2002, the informal workforce of Rio de Janeiro grew from 36% of the total to 43% of the total workforce, which was a rational move as the monetary difference between working on or off book consistently declined at the same time. Although a part of this change can be attributed to a 1.8% increase in unemployment over the same time, most of the movement can be attributed to the increased benefit of avoiding government monitoring and taxes as the post dictatorship bureaucracy found i ts footing. Somehow, in the decade after the civilian government was reinstated in Brazil, it became easier and more profitable to enter the informal economic sector. Goirand (2003) and grassroots movements of the urban poor. T applies more to self reliance than embeddedness. Whether the favela residents are thought of as either marginalized, and existing at the periphery of state, society, and economy, or actually repressed and e xcluded by the system, they are substituting the state through social movements and participation in local community organizations, having learned to distrust the inaccessible and corrupt state. Data in the first column of Table 3 12 shows the correlation between the responses of two different questions: what the main problem in the favela is; and, if life in the favela has gotten worse, what the main cause for that is. The strong, highly statistically significant correlation between these unrelated questi ons that appear in different parts of the questionnaire suggest that there is, more than face validity, also construct validity for the concept of violence. The following columns show that all measures of social capital, except for union membership, are i nversely related to violence in the community. Although the correlations are weak (r < 0.10 ),
114 they are highly statistically significant (p < 0.01) and point in the expected direction that would be explained by group cooperation and social sanctions again st acts of violence within the favela Table below provides confirmatory evidence to this idea, that social capital may substitute the state, at least in some capacities. Data in the first column suggest that safety is better in those favela s that have higher measures of social capital than thos further, that government action has not helped alleviate the problem of violence 60 It is not fair to say that government involvement in the community makes violence worse, but it is clearly not associated with making it better. Similarl y, the second column should be understood to indicate that residents are not as effective at improving the infrastructure as the government does. From the evidence above, it is clear that social capital provides enhanced economic opportunities as well as physical security, and thus is a credible exit option to some extent. The other public services that the government can use to capture the favela residents include healthcare, education, and living conditions. In Brazil, however, the Sistema nico de Sa de (SUS) equity principle makes it so public healthcare is free to all, and public hospitals and clinics the government, but does not help the government in registering them so they can be counted, social capital has been widely explored by public health researchers. Like the association between social capital and s afety, those with higher levels of social capital tend to be healthier, live longer, and require fewer medical interventions in their lives. Moreover, these same individuals perception of their wellbeing a measure of mental and physical health combined 60 Note that there is an inverse relationship between government and residents improving the community that was
115 wi th their prospects in life is significantly improved relative to the amount of social capital they have 61 In terms of improved quality of life, Table 3 9 provides the correlations between measures of social capital and measures of work stability and income and Erro r! Not a valid bookmark self reference. Error! Not a valid bookmark self reference. provides the correlations between measures of social capital and physical living conditions. With very few anomalies, the correlations support the hypothesis that social capital, or access to cooperation and collaboration of others, is instrumental in im proving the physical conditions of life. Cashing in on these social connections could be through information networks, personal introductions, receipt of donations and hand me downs, and receiving help in constructing or improving a home. But at the same time that access or possession of social capital enhances the viability of the exit option, the act of collaborating and cooperating, of being a part of a group, may also have the opposite effect. The following section looks at how social capital may act ually embed favela residents in the government and society. Social Capital Embedding Favela Residents in Government and Society The history of favela residents is one of purposeful marginalization, repression, and expulsion that kept them from becoming a part of the social body and the body politic for most of the 20 th century. As seen in the previous chapter, even through the populist Vargas administration and into the 1950s, favela society. They were proto citizens who needed to be broken of their deviance and immorality the underlying reason for the creation of Parques Proletrios and Fundo Leo XIII. An (malanderers) from the hills tha t 61 F or recent literature on this subject, see (K awachi et al., 1997; Leeder and Dominello, 1999; Raphael et al., 2001; Helliwell, 2003; Lochner et al., 2003; Lauder et al., 2006; Miller et al., 2006; Poortinga, 2006; Carpiano, 2007)
116 differentiated favelado mentality from that of the traditional orientation of peasant migrants to the city. There was no question of these deviants being embedded in government and society because their perceived was to subvert and leech o ff the system so carefully being constructed by the gente (lit. people). Yet from a Marxian point of view, the poor were completely integrated into the system, only much to their disadvantage, and always at the margin. The construction and modernization of Rio de Janeiro benefitted greatly from the huge reserve army of labor that could be pushed out of the way as the city expanded to conveniently exist away from the city streets at the beck and call of industry. Even more conveniently, because their pov erty and filthy conditions were perceived as the result of their own low morals, because they were to blame for their station in life, the government did not have the obligation to care for them. But instead of blaming the victim, favela residents can be seen not as marginalized but as repressed, stigmatized and excluded by the system (Perlman, 1976) Another perspective takes a more positive approach to the embeddedness of favela residents that is brought about by their apparent preference for weak ties outside of the favela which enhances their linkages to, at least, the social body of Rio de Janei are a culturally based method of crossing class lines. The more formal choice of godparents is often strategically planned to hop efully provide a better future for the godchildren. Furthermore, membership in regional and voluntary associations tends to tie individuals to the greater society instead of creating a closed, rural or traditional community within the city (Mangin, 1967) from 1980 to 2000 in economic inclusion of favela residents in terms of possession of durable goods such as
117 refrigerators and televisions, and access to public services such as water and electricity. These figures approach 99%, but fail to reveal the full picture, such as the frequency of water delivery and the type of connection to the city system (legal or makeshift/stolen), or the nests of improvised electrical taps into public transformers. The government, for the most part, accepts these gatos (illeg al water and electrical taps) as a necessary evil a part of the benign neglect favela s are not indebted to the government and so not embedded in the state. Social capital, in this case, does not lead to more embeddedness in the government, but rather makes public resources available through social networks who benefit from the obligations they incur through sharing. The same distribution of resources through socia l networks occurs from some favela middle class residents near favela s who tap into their social connections on the hill in order to tap into the illegal connections (gatos) for power water, and cable television. This decreases the embeddedness on both sides as middle class residents become leeches on the system, and favela residents can benefit from their extended network outside. This may help explain why government attempts to leg alize land tenure and access to public services are often rejected because of the perceived cost to benefit ratio of becoming embedded in this way being mapped and counted means being subject to taxation. On the other hand, social capital is strongly cor related with other measures of embeddedness in the state, which include the possession of government issued identification, registration being a primary requirement of citizenship. In this case, a 1998 study (see Table 3 12 ) revealed that, on average, les s than three quarters of the eligible population of fifty one favela s had a voter registration card despite voting being mandatory and non voting carrying the
118 penalty of being denied federal aid and access to federal jobs. The same is true for the CPF (eq uivalent to a US Social Security number). And while around 60% of the eligible population has a work card and state issued ID, less than one third of those with work cards have had it registered ( assinada ) by their employer, which entitles them to governm ental protection and benefits. In this case, the work card represents either the hope of a better future, or merely the necessity of a second ID to do anything in the complex public and private bureaucracy. Yet, according to the correlations in Table 3 1 5 measures of social capital are strongly and significantly positively related to measures of embeddedness in the state. plan to centralize conditional social aid and increase access through the provision of a debit card ( carto unica ) with automated, monthly deposits by the federal government. Whereas the bureaucracy of the previous system required individuals to visit various offices to collect various, specific type s of aid, each with their specific requirements and proof, there is now a single office with streamlined procedures. This has made it easier for the government to register and track the poor, and also to ensure that the conditions for receiving aid, such as school attendance and vaccinations of all children in a family, are met. It has also made counterfeiting and fraud more difficult, thus eliminating an exit option. By decreasing the costs to the favela residents, the government has succeeded in captur ing a greater number. In terms of the effect of social capital on state embeddedness, Table 3 13 shows a strong, positive correlation between measures of social capital and measures of individual embeddedness in the state from a survey of fifty one favela s completed in 1998. Membership in a community organization of any kind 62 is a strong predictor of possession of some form of state 62
119 connection and registration 63 Such membership has a stronger correlation with the measures of state embeddedness than the mo re formal membership of work related associations ( orgos de classe sindicatos ), and even more than those who reported participating in community (local) events such as parties and self help work groups ( mutiros ). This begs the questi on of causality: does social capital lead to embeddedness, or vice versa favela and the government, it is reasonable to assume that those more closely connected to the association will have more opportunities to learn about and be guided through the bureaucratic process necessary residents are more likely to be able to share information with them than communities who are not so attached. The counter hypothesis, that having a government ID of some sort exposes residents to more opportunities to lear n about or join the associations, on the other hand, is not their activities. Furthermore, identification is not a requirement to belong to or participate in th e association. The same argument holds true for the directionality of participating in community events and having identification and registration. These same arguments do not necessarily hold for the work related organizations or unions. Work related or ganizations ( orgos de classe ) are ultra local associations that pertain to one firm, franchise, or limited geographical region. They are not national professional organizations as understood in the United States, such as the APSA, the AMA, or the Bar Ass ociation. In Brazil, these associations include groups of bakers or apartment building doormen in a neighborhood or in the city; groups of tire repair businesses on a certain street; all 63 state ID
120 of the restaurant help from the two Sheraton Hotels in Rio, and othe r, similar types of work related groups. Membership does not require a formal ID or work card, whereas union membership does. Although the argument for social capital within work related organizations leading to state embeddedness is not as strong as wit h the measures above because many of these organizations represent professionals (nurses or dental hygenists for example) that have state licensure as a pre combined data of these two ty pes of membership in the work related organizations, inseparable significant, positive correlation with the measures of state embeddedness. It is likely tha t the direction of causality would run from organization to state embeddedness, at least in those cases where state ID was not a prerequisite. Union membership, on the other hand, has state registration and identification as a prerequisite, but as above, i t does not make sense that ownership of identification would lead to union membership. What makes more sense is that the desire to join a union for its various benefits would lead to procuring legal identification and work registration. Carrying the discu ssion about the difference resulting from the characteristics of the four measures of social capital above, Seligson (1999) points out that the type of organization is at least as important as strength of association to the organization for turning social capital into a practical resource, such as creating the civic space for political discussions. For example, she speculates that members of a bird watching group are less likely to politicize than those of a environmental advocacy group. Along these lines, the lower correlation 64 of union membership to measures of state embeddedness compared to the other measures of social cap ital can be 64 measures of social capital can be explained by a) union control of public transport and trucking, and b) the higher average wage that union members earn that may allow for the purchase of a car.
121 explained by the indirect involvement of the workers in collective bargaining and in interacting with the state, as it is primarily union leaders who carry out these discussions behind closed (1993) unions engender vertical relationships, such as the strong, hierarchical t raditions of the Catholic Church in southern Italy. Vertical relationships do not promote generalized trust and norms of reciprocity as horizontal, everybody is more or less equal relationships do. (2000, p. 51) describes as having taken over the civic organization scene in the United States over the past three decades in vestment of money, but no time or social commitment. Belonging to a modern union is essentially the same, in terms of social capital, as membership the American Association for Retired Persons (AARP), where only ten percent of the members are also members of their local chapter, and therefore come into face to face contact with one another. Following Granovetter above, it is this personal contact and spending time in the presence of one another that determines the type and intensity of the social tie. It is reasonable to expect more direct participation from the more local, work related organizations ( orgo de classe ) 65 and as such, should lead to stronger ties in direct relationship to the time invested. The more intense social capital relates to a high er rate of embeddedness in the state. a connection between the favela and the government. From the point of view of the residents, it is to perform parastatal func tions in the absence of actual state presence. It is therefore the embeddedness in the state of the favela as a whole, and therefore of the residents as 65 According to Ivo (2001) there has been a steady erosion of the local orgos de classe in favor of the sector wide unions ( sindicatos ) since the mid 1980s, which must have the effect of reducing face to face contact and concurrently reducing the social capital engendered by them.
122 ind ividuals. Table 3 15 supports this idea demonstrating strong correlations between population percentages of the four available measures of social capital and possession of some form of state registration. There is no statistically significant correlation between the aggregated population work card, but at the individual level, there is (Table 3 15 ). The first case is most likely explained by the low numbers effect on the population and making such an aggregate measure inappropriate. The second case is not correlated because of the homogeneous distribution of population percentages of work c ard holders (mean=.784, S.E.=.004, Std. Dev.=.026). Turning to another data source, attitudes are another good measure of social capital and embeddedness. In a longitudinal study covering the same population in 1969 and 2000, Perlman (2004) noted an under standing among the favela residents in her sample of the importance of group approaches to government problems. As suggested by the strong, positive correlation between measures of social capital and measures of embeddedness, above, being pulled into the state is more likely when individuals attach themselves to a group. This is echoed by the sentiment of 60% of the study group in 2000 (vs. 40% in 1969) who believe that the government will only respond to organized demand making. This group orientation i s correlated to the doubling from one third to two thirds of the population who now believe that it is important to participate in political life rather than allow policymaking to remain in the hands of the politicians, and a tripling (from 11% to 30%) in those who now believe that they can influence government decisions through their participation. Even more promising is the 67% (vs. 30% in 1969) who have approached a government agency for help. But this optimism in the system must be tempered by the inc rease from 36% in 1969 to 51% who do not believe that Brazilians
123 are able to choose their candidates, and the 67% (vs. 26% in 1969) who believe that government officials do not try to understand the problems of the poor. Conclusion The most important aspec t of this chapter has been the disaggregation of several components of social capital, which is often ambiguously used in political science literature. include blindin g and binding. Here, social capital retains the categorization of the types of horizontal networks, and then disaggregates further into individual level and group level social network resources. At the individual level, social capital exists as an extens ion of personal wealth and a complement to survival strategies. That favela residents prefer bridging outside of their community indicates that social capital varies in value to the individual, and social capital within the community does not increase an come with high costs of obligation that end up actually draining resources. Also, because social capital at the individual level depends on the maintenance of relationships and reputation, the mechanism fo r the creation or destruction of it becomes apparent. This chapter also outlined how individual level social capital can be transformed into group level social capital, particularly through interconnected networks that allow reasonable expectations of othe defection in a transaction. At some point these norms and patterns of behavior become part of the social fabric and new entrants and children will fall into the same patterns witho ut thinking 66 66 In Blink (2005) Malcom G ladwell describes an experiment with chimpanzees wherein all of the chimps receive a shock if any one of them attempts to grab a bana severe penalties for individuals who even approach the banana. One by one, these chimps are traded out for others that have no experience with the group under observation. Even after seve ral generations of these trades, with no chimp ever having been shocked or meeting a chimp who had met a chimp who had been shocked, the norm of allowing the banana to hang by its wire was enforced. While humans are not chimpanzees, this experiment goes a long way to confirming the power of societal enforcement of unwritten rules and social etiquette.
124 Table 3 1 Origin of favela residents by region by favela North Northeast South Southeast Central w est Other c ountry Min 0.00% 3.54% 0.00% 55.84% 0.00% 0.00% Max 1.01% 43.20% 0.66% 96.13% 0.51% 1.66% Av g 0.31% 18.07% 0.20% 81.06% 0.17% 0.19% The Southeast includes Rio de Janeiro, which accounts for a majority of the favela residents from that region Table 3 2 favela (not aggregate) N eighbrhd org (a) O ther local, social orgs (b) (a) + (b) by favela W ork related orgs Workers union S um of all assns P articip. in comm events Min 0.66% 0.00% 1.07% 0.84% 1.46% 4.55% 1.12% Max 26.41% 3.96% 28.36% 34.03% 11.58% 74.09% 28.77% Av g 9.94% 0.59% 10.54% 10.67% 4.37% 28.68% 8.67% City Av g NA NA 9.00% 1.80% 12.00% 22.80% NA Source PCBR data and *City Average is from IBGE Monthly Survey of Jobs, Rio de Janeiro April 1996 Table 3 3 Reason for currently living in favela Dependent Cost Friends Locale Work Other Creche Min 41.54% 11.98% 7.63% 0.69% 0.54% 0.00% 0.00% Max 67.22% 29.80% 33.96% 11.98% 4.40% 1.71% 0.06% Aver ag e 54.03% 22.85% 16.91% 3.93% 1.73% 0.53% 0.01%
125 Table 3 4 Correlations between measures of social capital from 1998 survey of 51 favela s Living in favela b/c of friends Res assn P articip in events Union Work related org Life better b/c resident s Water conn. by group Living in r = 1 0.08 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.04 favela b/c of p 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 friends n 29931 29931 23404 23404 23397 15644 19434 Member of r= 0.08 1 0.78 0.14 0.88 0.05 0.02 p 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 association n 29931 81882 65234 65234 65223 15685 19476 Participate in r = 0.04 0.78 1 0.11 0. 58 0.05 0.05 e vents p 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 n 23404 65234 65234 65232 65221 12351 15095 r = 0.05 0.14 0.11 1 0.13 0.02 0.02 union p 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.00 n 23404 65234 65232 65234 65220 12349 15095 Work related r = 0.04 0.88 0.58 0.13 1 0.03 0.01 o rg p 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.26 n 23397 65223 65221 65220 65223 12348 15089 Life b etter b/c r = 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.02 0.03 1 0.08 r esidents p 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.00 n 15644 15685 12351 12349 12348 15685 11234 Water c onn. r = 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.08 1 b y g roup p 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.26 0.00 n 19434 19476 15095 15095 15089 11234 19476 Source PCBR data
126 Table 3 5 Correlation matrix of measures of social captial and individual resources S igned work card W ork outside comm. S alary U nemp. benefit R etire benefit S ocial sec. benefit Member of r = 0.06 0.04 0.09 0.01 0.07 0.04 p 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.91 0.00 0.06 association n 28152 33656 29865 304 4058 2880 Participate r = 0.05 0.03 0.07 0.01 0.07 0.04 in events p 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.89 0.00 0.02 n 28145 33648 29857 304 4058 2878 r = 0.19 0.12 0.17 0.30 0.16 0.02 union p 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.37 n 28146 33649 29858 304 4058 2878 Work related r = 0.05 0.03 0.08 0.02 0.06 0.02 o rg p 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.68 0.00 0.21 n 28142 33639 29849 304 4058 2878 Better b/c of r = 0.03 0.01 0.05 0.25 0.02 0.06 r esidents p 0.07 0.54 0.00 0.06 0.60 0.15 n 4830 6090 6017 58 768 544 Connected to r = 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.03 0.08 w ater by p 0.54 0.70 0.91 0.38 0.42 0.04 g roup e ffort n 6013 7594 7516 80 877 660 Living in r = 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.00 0.04 favela b/c of p 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.52 0.94 0.17 f riend n 9011 11404 11262 110 1486 1031 Individual level Community level
127 Table 3 6 Correlations between measures of social capital and measures of material quality of life Better walls Better roof Better floor Own home Bi level fridge Freezer Color TV Wash mach VCR Phone Car Hired help at home Micro wave oven Member r = 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.01 0.04 res. Assn. p 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 n 81760 81834 81837 81840 81831 81836 81854 81847 81843 81847 81841 81844 29989 Better b/c r = 0.05 0.10 0.07 0.01 0.04 0.04 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.01 0.04 residents p 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.00 n 15669 15669 15671 15680 15678 15680 15680 15673 15674 15680 15680 15675 15675 Water r = 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.05 0.01 0.00 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.04 connect. p 0.00 0.08 0.83 0.36 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.64 0.00 0.00 0.27 0.00 by group n 19435 19462 19471 19476 19466 19467 19476 19476 19465 19469 19463 19466 19469 Participate r = 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.00 0.03 in events p 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.68 0.00 n 65135 65199 65196 65197 65193 65194 65210 65206 65200 65205 65201 65202 23429 Work r = 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.01 0.03 related p 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 org n 65123 65188 65185 65186 65182 65183 65199 65195 65189 65194 65190 65191 23422 r = 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.06 0.02 0.05 union p 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 n 65135 65199 65196 65197 65193 65194 65210 65206 65200 65205 65201 65202 23429 Live in r = 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.00 favela b/c p 0.12 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.10 0.21 0.61 0.21 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.42 of friends n 29875 29906 29914 29923 29911 29914 29923 29916 29912 29916 29910 29913 29910 127
128 Table 3 7 R eason for conditions improving in favela in percent Residents Government Religious o rgs Businesses Other Min 9.08 17.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 Max 78.99 90.92 5.39 2.04 3.29 Average 53.52 43.83 1.30 0.25 1.10 Table 3 8 Reasons for conditions worsening in favela in percent Residents Violence Government Other Min 0.00 0.00 12.50 0.00 Max 42.22 71.43 66.67 34.38 Average 19.11 29.13 42.61 9.15 Table 3 9 Informal sector as percent of metropolitan rio workforce, and salary difference % s elf employed workers of total % w orkers w/o work card of total % salary difference btw workers w/ and w/o card % salary difference btw workers w/ card and self employed 1991 22.0 14.1 109.9 38.5 1992 22.6 16.1 121.7 50.8 1993 22.8 16.4 114.1 59.8 1994 23.4 16.7 116.5 42.5 1995 23.7 16.8 88.9 15.3 1996 24.1 16.9 77.4 16.5 1997 24.9 16.5 79.0 17.0 1998 26.2 16.2 93.1 21.5 1999 27.4 16.2 74.0 20.4 2000 27.2 16.9 60.4 20.9 2001 27.3 16.1 66.9 19.8 2002 26.6 16.6 62.7 20.1 Data from IETS, 2002
129 T able 3 10 Correlation between favela s' major problem and source of improvement Main problem is violence Main problem is inf rastructure Better b/c of r esidents r = 0.09 0.07 p 0.00 0.00 n 15677 15677 Better b/c of r = 0.09 0.06 g overnment p 0.00 0.00 n 15677 15677 Table 3 11 Correlation between violence in each favela and measures of social capital Worse b/c violenc e Comm. o rg Particip ate Union Work related org Better b/c resident s Water conn. b y group Main r = 0.26 0.04 0.05 0.00 0.02 0.09 0.04 Problem p 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.74 0.00 0.00 0.00 Violence n 2377 29982 23426 23426 23419 15677 19469 Table 3 12 Min max, and mean percent of population of 51 favela s with state issued identification Voter reg. Card Social security card Driver's license Work card Signed work card ID card Birth certificate Min 63.70 63.33 4.07 70.79 21.74 71.05 97.47 Max 82.40 84.36 22.73 84.08 42.02 87.15 100.00 Average 72.59 72.51 9.92 78.43 30.64 79.29 99.35
130 Table 3 13 Bivariate correlations between measures of social capital and measures of state embeddedness of individual residents of favela s Work card Signed work card State ID Driver's license C PF (social security) Voter's reg. Proof of military service Community r = 0.170 0.060 0.170 0.140 0.190 0.190 0.160 o rg p 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 n 65246 28152 65244 65228 65250 65251 65243 Participate r = 0.130 0.050 0.130 0.120 0.150 0.150 0.130 p 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 n 65226 28145 65224 65209 65230 65231 65224 Union r = 0.110 0.190 0.110 0.220 0.130 0.130 0.190 p 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 n 65226 28146 65224 65209 65230 65231 65224 Work r = 0.160 0.050 0.150 0.130 0.170 0.180 0.150 related o rg p 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 n 65215 28142 65213 65198 65219 65220 65213 Data from (PCBR, 1998)
1 31 Table 3 14 Correlation between measures of social capital and public resources Comm. o rg Particip. e vents Union Work a ssn r = 0.039 0.003 0.030 0.050 Main problem p 0.000 0.622 0.000 0.000 infrastr ucture n 29982 23426 23426 23419 r = 0.005 0.009 0.003 0.006 W ater frequency p 0.450 0.036 0.461 0.125 n 24984 58200 58200 58190 r = 0.028 0.030 0.023 0.007 S ewage quality p 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.065 n 80180 64022 64022 64011 r = 0.004 0.014 0.002 0.007 C linic quality p 0.504 0.045 0.779 0.307 n 29960 21162 21162 21156 r = 0.007 0.001 0.007 0.012 C rche quality p 0.250 0.928 0.326 0.086 n 29951 19486 19486 19482 r = 0.002 0.009 0.009 0.010 S treet quality p 0.791 0.236 0.234 0.196 n 29964 18418 18418 18412 r = 0.003 0.013 0.011 0.016 S ports quality p 0.653 0.070 0.110 0.019 n 29944 20829 20829 20824 r = 0.006 0.001 0.006 0.002 R ecreation quality p 0.262 0.928 0.406 0.826 n 29944 21031 21031 21026 r = 0.047 0.027 0.030 0.059 T rash collection p 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 quality n 29931 18323 18322 18318 Source (PCBR, 1998)
132 Figure 3 1 Relations between individuals in c losed vs. open group s. A) closed, B) open Figure 3 2 Change in community strength from 1969 to 2001 in selected favela s Figure 3 3 Ties among groups Person A Person B Person C Person D Person E Person v Person w Person x Person y Person z 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1969 2001 2% 16% 18% 26% 25% 41% 55% 17% Tightly United United Lack of Unity NR *s trong tie A v is unlikely as v has no connection to other members in A&v appear to share to maintain their close tie solid line = strong tie dashed line = weak tie B A A C E D B v x z y w
133 Figure 3 4 Conceptualization of four types of social capital by group openness and strength of ties within the group Figure 3 5 Favela Residents' Opinion on Governmental Impact by Level 67 67 Source (Perlman, 2004) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 federal State Mayor City Council Int'l Agencies 12 37 25 12 3 26 33 42 48 32 52 16 16 16 25 Harmed Neutral Helped Open Binding Group Bridging Closed Bonding Group Blinding Weaker Ties Stronger Ties
134 CHAPTER 4 SOCIAL CAPITAL AND T HE CAPACITY TO ACT I N CONCERT Introduction In the previous chapter, the concept of social capital was discussed as existing at both the individual level and group level, and went on to consider the individual benefits that can be (1993; 2000) idea of the horizontal bonds of social capital creating a fertile ground for the development and growth of vertical bonds to the a spect of social capital is important to understand in regards to the growing challenge of state legitimacy and authority as informal economies and parallel systems of authority are created in favela s. In this way, social capital can actually be seen as a threat to democracy as opposed to a facilitator. In addition to this double sided, individual facet, social capital can become generalized to the community or society at large, fostering cooperation and collaboration to overcome the collective actio n problem so individuals can work together towards a common, social goal 68 In this case, it is the glue that brings disparate individuals together; it facilitates collective action and is the real focus of most social capital literature where this aspect is analyzed in terms of its bonding, blinding, bridging and binding tendency 69 This was the aspect of American culture that so impressed de Tocqueville in the 19 th century: the transcendence from mere individualism to community or civic mindedness. By his definition, the culture of individualism leads to the kind of small, closed groups that Banfield (in 1967) noticed in Italy, and is a drag on progress and quality of life. 68 This group level aspec t of social capital also has an opposite side when blinding occurs and prevents cooperation between individuals in one group and the rest of the community or society. 69 (Putnam et al., 1993; Putnam, 2000) the transformation of horizontal to vertic al connections is rather taken for granted.
135 pursuit of the petty and banal pleasures with which they glut their souls. Each of them, withdrawn into himself, is almost unaware of the fate of the rest. Mankind, for him, consists in his children and his personal friends As for the rest of his fellow citizens, they are near enough, but he does not notice them. He touches them but feels nothing. He exists in and for himself, and though he still may have a family, one can at least say that he has not got a fatherland [ emphasis added ] (Tocqueville, 1969, p. 692) Although he describes Americans as individualistic, Tocqueville attributes their capacity to and industrial asso ciations in which all take part, but others of a thousand different types -religious, moral, serious, futile, very general and very limited, immensely large and very minute (p. 513) constructed capacity to work together is vital to the life of the democratic state, and a lack of collective capacity puts not only the state, but also civilization at risk. Thus, depends that of all the others (p. 517) creation of shared understandings (p. 515) The benefits are such that, when investment in communal rather than individual efforts is correctly understood, collective action i s actually value pleasure to point out how an enlightened self love continually leads them to help one another and disposes them freely to give part of their time and wealth for the good of the state [ emphasis added ] (p. 526) Put in terms of a collective action problem, s ocial capital lowers the cost of exchange because improved cooperation within social networks leads to societal enforcement of unwritten contractual expectations, and thus the terms of exchange do not have to be renegotiated at every transaction. Furtherm and allow expectations of reciprocity for contributions towards common goals first, through the
136 ability to limit the benefits to a closed group, and second through the understood fu ture benefit of investing in reputation (Olson, 1965; Olson and Khknen, 2000) Further, ther e should be a reduction in private actions with negative, public spillovers because of the greater ability to monitor community actions and apply sanctions when a densely interconnected group is present. These aspects of social capital have been identifie d in terms of relations of trust; reciprocity in exchange; common rules, norms, and sanctions; and connectedness through networks and within groups (North, 1990b; Ostrom, 1999; Putnam, 2000, 2002) Most contemporary measures o f social capital center around self reported feelings of general trust towards others (within or between groups); norms of reciprocity; group membership; and participation in bonding rather than isolating activities (picnics or bowling versus watching tele vision alone) 70 Daubon and Saunders (2002) go a step further towards measuring the instrumental potential of social capital, suggesting that social capital can be roup activities (1988, pp. 100 1) In the favela s, it is difficult to measure the extent to which group activities are facilitated through the social construction of the ability to work in concert for common goals. As binding s ocial capital is the most common type of social capital at work in the poor communities of Rio, the participants and defectors are constantly changing. The evidence for this is the lack of durable groups in these communities, and the few incidents where i ndividuals risk the investment of time, resources, or personal security to collectivize in order to confront a problem. This is particularly the case since the 1990s when ONGs began to work more at the national level than 70 (Coleman, 1988; Seligson, 1999; Dasgupta and Serageldin, 2000; Putnam, 2000; Fukuyama, 2001; Varshney, 2001; Krishna, 2002)
137 at the local level. From that ti me there has been a dearth of centers of ready made benefits around which to organize. This reduction in voluntary associations and collective action is as true with community level literacy courses as it is with comunidades eclesiais de base (CEBs Eccl esiastically based Communities). In the first case, the change in focus of the ONGs from local to global causes diminished the field of available resources to individual favela s; and in the second case, it has been the continual decline in Catholic adhere nts in favor of the growth of Protestant, Evangelical faiths. This is all to say that whereas bonding and bridging social capital may have existed in their more durable forms in the favela s of the past (Perlman, 197 6; Leeds and Leeds, 1978) there has been a process of change since the end of the military regime in Rio de Janeiro that clearly Social Capital and the Capacity to Concert The capac ity to concert is directly linked to the collective action problem proposed by Mancur Olson in 1965. Using a rational choice frame of reference, Olson proposed that, when there is no accountability or risk for not participating in an attempt to gain a gro up reward, it is rational not to participate in the work, but to be the first in line to collect the reward in other words, to be a free rider. Further, with the very real prospect of free riders in any attempt to gain generalized rewards, the incentive f or anybody to participate in the effort is close to zero. Consequently, projects that will have generalized benefits and have no negative implications for not participating rarely, if ever, get off the ground. e action problem is, although stated in different capable first of monitoring participation of all members, and second in restricting the rewards to the member
138 (Granovetter, 1973, 1983) binding social capital can provide the incentive for rational participation in group projects with generalized benefits as long as generalized trust and norms of reciprocation are sufficiently of a good turn by a stranger is not directly to that stranger, but rather to another stranger who is in need of a good turn. A strict rational choice view of individuals makes this second possibility unlikely because each unmonitored interaction with a st ranger is, essentially, a non iterated game with a rational winning strategy of defection in every case. However, authors such as Douglass North (1990b) and Elinor Ostrom (1990) among others, have noted that reciprocity and trust can become institutionalized within a heterogeneo us society to the point that even experiencing several defections from anonymous interactions will sufficient bonding social capital to bring about norms of r eciprocity within groups and particularized trust, as well as sufficient bridging or binding social capital to generalize both. It is the bridging or binding social capital then that is the key to the capacity to concert. Shifting lenses, literature on so cial movements has taken on the difficult task of explaining collective action to achieve generalized benefits in the presence of the great possibility of free riders. The New Social Movements (NSM) model of social movements is useful to explain the group work projects and protests of the favela s of Rio de Janeiro in the context of social capital. For Melucci (1985) and Habermas (1996) the formal, institutionalized catalyst for collective action, the social mo vement organizations (SMOs), are not as important as the hidden networks of interpersonal relationships that only become visible temporarily when activated by some
139 catalyzing event. Collective action seen through this lens is not coordinated group action, but through their personal life and actions. This approach focuses on the symbolic function of movements, the struggle to produce new meaning within society and to change the meta discourse that defines it (Melucci, 1985) (1988) 71 work on framing suggests that the messages that compete for prominence in the meta discourse that drive societal values are created through purposive framing of these movement messages. This theme will be taken up l ater in the context of Liberation Theology in the favela s that provided a common frame of reference for adherents around which collective action was possible. Later, evidence is presented of purposive attempts to change how favela residents are framed in order to gain recognition and importance in the social discourse. Research using a database of protests and legal action demonstrates that the residents activate spontaneously (81.7% of the time), and mostly without the contributing support of any formal SMO (69.5% of the studied occurrences 72 ). vision of collective action where the cost of joining a movement approaches zero. Since movements, as seen through this lens, are p rimarily constructed of networks of everyday movement needs to provide is a symbol upon which adherents may build their identity. Mobilization, although more prob lematic within this model, can largely be seen in terms of 71 is helpful shorthand to conceptualize the power of social discourse or narrative. The use and power of language, stereotypes, and problem defi nition in public discussion produce a limited set of frames that constrain approaches to (2000) article on social movements of the homeless in the United States. Similar work in the field of public policy also illuminates the po wer of discourse and symbols in attracting support to pressure policy makers in government (Fischer and Forester, 1993; Roe, 1994) 72 (Vanier and Acselrad, 2007)
140 individuals exercising their new identity as a lifestyle. In this way, NSMs are counter cultural expressions that do not directly assault the political system, but can certainly make demands upon it. In terms of social capital, mobilization can be seen as fleeting moments of intense bridging around a single event or symbol that is the trigger for binding social capital to manifest among individuals who may have few ties or commonalities in daily l ife. Furthermore, this event or symbol need not be the most important part of movement adherents identity it merely rises temporarily in prominence for some individuals and may fade into unimportance just as quickly. Binding social capital in the favela s often manifests as collective action and protest after grief and a nger were the common triggers that catalyzed spontaneous community protest (68.28% 73 ). Initially, these protests may be started by one or several aggrieved individuals whose voices are spontaneously joined by community members ironically, the same neighbor s who were found in the previous chapter not to work together in community improvement projects. Spontaneous protests like this are mostly the result of police violence in the community (63.4%) or the roadway death of a community youth crossing the nearby highway (4.88%) 74 The work of Charles Tilly (1995, 2003, 2004) has highlighted the effectiveness of disruptive group action in order to make political change. Similarly, other authors have reported the importance of such behavior, particul arly to social movements where the base has few resources or where inequality and repression make formal organization dangerous, as was the case particularly during the military dictatorship. The resulting social movement relies on 73 I bid 74 Ibid
141 (Piven and Cloward, 1977) (Melucci, 1989) (Scott, 1990) forms of resistance. There are two main purposes behind the residents taking to the streets. The first is a demand on the government clearly articulated by the resid ents to control the police or install an overpass crosswalk. There is a clear second message that is an affirmation of their own value as human beings and a call to be noticed and treated as fellows. These actions are very much an attempt to alter the me ta discourse of society about who the favelados are: somebody! Their protests include tactics such as holding rallies in the surrounding middle class neighborhoods or Palcio da Guanabara ); or cl osing down streets or major thoroughfares around their favela for hours at a time, using everything from their bodies, to blocks of wood and burning tires. Repeated instances of police violence in the favela s have led to increased levels of bonding social capital by repeatedly reactivating the binding connections between the same individuals. This process is particularly visible in the creation of groups of mothers who maintain the focus and action of the mo vement long after the binding social capital has faded (Alvito, 2001; Nobre 2005) These groups of mothers are then available to quickly mobilize either to prevent or protest further police actions. Over time, these groups have created bridging ties between favela s that have blossomed into permanent social movement organiza tions such as the Mes de Acari and the Network Against Violence ( Rede Contra Violncia Posso Me Identificar? ) campaign. An initial protest from a favela community is often followed by a secondary protest of a larger and more organized nature that is better analyzed through the Political Opportunity Structure approach to social movements. In the second phase, an institutionalized social
142 movement organizat ion (SMO) uses the catalyzing event to recruit the (temporary) support of the protesters and channel their energy into demand making efforts that the SMO has in its repertoire. That these secondary protests are also examples of binding rather than bonding social capital is evidenced by how provisional support for the SMO is, and how quickly adherents disappear after the initial moment has passed. At the same time, the larger SMOs that work with favela s in Rio de Janeiro, such as IBASE and Viva Rio, have enough contacts with political entrepreneurs that they are able, from time to time, to coordinate city wide protests that include groups from all socio economic levels and various primary interests around an issue that has common pull to all involved 75 Th e death of young children caused by the stray bullet of a police officer, or a massacre ( chacina ) of several teens in one night were the causes for such large scale secondary protests in the time period covered in this study (Vanier and Acselrad, 2007, as well as original research) The issue of police violence has been a sensitive issue since the end of the military dictatorship in the mid sleeping on the streets by executing them and stacking their bodies on street corners to be collected the following day 76 While the New Social Movement literature predicts moments of binding social capital as the key to a kind of organic political organization, there is a lso evidence of more durable, Table 3 2 in the previous chapter reveals that in a sample of fifty favela s, there is a range between 1.46% and 11.58% of the a source of bonding social capital. In a city wide survey of 75 All the same, there are many politicized individuals in the favela s who see organizations such as VivaRio (Long Live Rio!) and Reage R io (React, Rio!) as middle class movements that are more about pacifying the South Zone than meaningfully addressing the underlying problems of poverty, and economic and social exclusion. [interviews, Cludio, and O Dia 29 Nov 1995, 13 & 20. 76 1996 news ar
143 non professional unions (blue another 11.2% of these members joined primarily for political activity (see Table 4 1) This indic ates a potential group of political entrepreneurs and activists in the favela s 77 with the resources of an SMO to call on. Capacity to Concert in Favela s The capacity to concert may be exhibited in various forms among favela residents. The two principal c ases are demand making actions such as petitioning and demonstrating, and collective work projects such as a group work day to install or repair sewage pipes. Other less observable forms of concerted action include group enforcement of social norms, and g eneration and maintenance of group identity. These latter two are rarely observed at the group level, but rather as individual decisions and disconnected actions that, in the aggregate, compose the group culture. 78 This capacity to concert has a number of qualities including the quantity of participants in a group for a specific event, the unity of purpose, and the degree of self organization. The number of group events within a community, and the diversity of attendance from one event to another are two other possible measure, whereas the successful achievement of intervening variables. In the terms of McCarthy and Zald (1977) in a population which represents preferences for changing some elements of the social structure 77 It is reasonable to accept this survey data in Error! Reference source not found. as approximately correct for avela s even though it is f rom a city wide sample because the vast majority of the formally employed in the favela s work in non professional jobs, and union participation in the favela s is very close to the city average. 78 I have witnessed group enforcement of norms in several case s including expelling a resident thief as well as intervention in episodes of domestic violence. The community involved in these cases was either small or represented a neighborhood within the larger community. In terms of creating and maintaining a grou p identity at the group level, the best examples are community celebrations, barbeques, dances, and games (such as a favela league soccer match, which involves players and fans).
144 ement these goals (1218) 79 organizations working to motivate change. Vaccine Revolt The history of struggle of the poor in Rio is filled with examples of binding social capital turned into political action. Such alliances tend to fall apart quickly after the collective goal is reached, often leading to great conflict between the former allies as each group begins to struggle to con trol what they could not have won alone. The Vaccine Revolt ( Revolta da Vacina 80 ) of 1904 mentioned in Chapter One is one such example on a large scale where tens of thousands of individuals, each bolstered by the participation of the next, collectivized a nd directed their anger and actions against the state rather than randomly, or at each other. In this case, riots began spontaneously and quickly included several, clearly differentiated groups, each with their own purpose. These groups included the poo r from the cortios who wanted to halt the process of slum burning and removal; the poor from the nascent favela s on the hills who resented the repressive intrusion of the police battalions who were aiding the doctors in the vaccination process; labor unio ns who were agitating for a seat in government; and even middle class roughnecks who were protesting the increasing costs of everything from food to the price of a streetcar ride. The unions were particularly useful as they provided the daily impetus that kept the protest active for a week, and they also turned anarchic, violent destruction of state property and symbols to more focused and purposive marches and rallies. In the end, the unions were the biggest winners. By 79 (Tilly, 1978, 1995) work helps understand how favela lev el action can be understood in the social movement framework limiting SMs to groups that lack formal, institutionalized access into government decision making processes and thus must find other methods of demand making. 80 See the chapter above o n the histo ry of favela s.
145 jumping in front of the already mo ving parade, they were able to convince the government of their growing mass appeal and their ability to call upon it. As for the others, prices continued to rise, cortios continued to be destroyed, and after a five day lull the vaccinations were taken u p again in the same aggressive manner. Notable in this case is that no one person or group had sufficient strength to stop the vaccination campaign, and both the risk and penalty of trying were high while there was absolutely no risk for not participatin g. Disorderly fights cannot be counted as examples of binding social capital, but in this case, it was riotous mobs who confronted police battalions and focused their violence specifically on the government, which demonstrates commonality of purpose. The length of the anti vaccine campaign also points to a high level of spontaneous cooperation that was maintained despite the involvement of a spectrum of socio economic groups and heterogeneous individuals. The unions certainly acted as an organizing force but the power of the common thread they were able to use to weave the variety together remains a puzzle at some point in the young republic, Brazilians had gained the capacity to concert. Machado da Silva (2002) suggests that, in the first half of the 2 0 th Century, social action from the favela s was almost non entering the asphalt society for wo rk or diversion was a kind of protest a manifestation of existence without concomitant political demands on the system for resources or for formal recognition 81 82 81 While NSMs are reportedly contemporary phenomena that required a certain level of modernization and technology for the diffusion of common symbols and connectedness, as well as a progression away from SMO led protesting, it seems a useful model to apply to the favelados in the first half of the 20 th Century. 82 1937 1945
146 but with incre ased police repression and no catalyzing event or institution, the favelados turned inwards whatever social capital they had into community improvement projects. Escolas da Samba The first voluntary associations that gained public recognition and thus some state reward were the escolas da samba (samba schools 83 carnaval culture. Through 1930s, favela s were mostly black, and carnaval was a yearly expression of emblems of African culture: samba (dance), candombl (African spiritualism hidden under Catholic symbols), capoeira (a kind of martial art dance), and malandragem dance, song, and beauty competitions also the beginning of the space for civil society interactions among the poor. Carnaval also known as Mardi Gras or Fat Tues day, being a permitted time of excess, became the opportunity for communities to display their pride in competitions in the public spaces of Rio de Janeiro. This was the impetus for the creation of community identity, and a focus for collective action thr oughout the year to practice the community song and dance, and to make beautiful outfits to rival the other schools. Bonding or binding social capital was built around these competitions as team or community loyalty became a center of commonality. For th e contestants, their yearly cycle of practice and performance created a durable bond. For the fans from the communities and from the asphalt, Carnaval was a two week period of the year where their attachment to a particular school might outweigh all of th eir other attachments. 83 Originating prior to emancipation, samba schools were more euphemistic than anything. Blacks in Brazil were not allowed to gather in number except for educational purpose like martial art of capoeira that esent the pantheon of African deities in Macumba Umbanda and Candombl
147 It should be said that the escolas de samba gained monetary support from the owners ( donos ) of the lottery like jogo do bicho (lit. animal game), so social capital created around them allowed access to tangible resources. Formal org anization in the favela recognition and support of escolas de samba and samba shows, particularly for his parques proletrios Without such organization, the favela populist calculus, as findin donos of the jogo do bicho were perfect for the role as they had ties and respect among the poor. Even when jogo do bicho was outlawed in 1947 and carnaval became tied to illegality and a nti state movements, populist politicians still reached for the hills through their fixers to engage in clientelist politics also known as polticos do ry promises and results thereof). In the final analysis, resources from the escolas de samba were directed towards carnaval and not towards infrastructure, political recognition, or any long standing contribution to the physical conditions in the favela s. Nevertheless, spreading the symbol of favela s to the streets of Rio was the first real step in gaining acceptance among general society as well as creating a stronger identity among the favela residents. Political Development of the Favela s From 1947 unt il the military dictatorship of 1964, there were a number of structural changes in the Rio de Janeiro government that led to sources of durable social capital concurrent with the political activation of the ever increasing favela population. Fundao Leo XIII ( Fundao ) was the first attempt to reach into the favela s to give help and organization, and
148 consequently a voice in government 84 Unions ( sindicatos ) were the next to think to use the political strength of the poor in order to avoid a second admini stration of the anti labor President Dutra. Labor unions brought about various Unions of Favela Workers ( Unies dos Trabalhadores Favelados ) that quickly mobilized to halt the removals of several favela s that stood in the way of urban expansion. Their ta ctics were peaceful, marches and rallies, but they were also determined and went so far as to invade the seat of government ( Cmara ) in 1955 (Lima, 1989) Alone, these unions did not gain the serious attention from the government, but when they began to support the Communist Party in Brazil (PCB), the Ch urch and the government scrambled to bring an end to the possible growth of communism. The Fundao quickly spawned a specialized unit ( A Cruzada So Sebastio Saint Cr uzada scope was, in the end, not very large, but it did arrange some immediate tangible benefits for those poor who associated themselves with the Church. The government created their own agency to deal with the threat of the new found power of the poor in Rio: the Special Service for the Recuperation of Favela s and Unhygienic Housing ( SERFHA ). The main goal of these two new organizations was to monitor the favela s and either control or out compete any other efforts therein especially the PCB and the PT creation of Favela associaes de moradores or AMs) in seventy five different communities. These became the direct ties from favela s to the government that promised to bring a better standard of living. And for two years (1962 1964) SERFHA did distribute infrastructure and housing resources to many communities that contributed a weekly quota of man hours ( cota multiro ) While the promise remains unfulfilled until today, the 84 While it is not technically correct to call Fundao part of the structural changes in the government, it was commonly seen as such and, in 196, it was finally, formally adopted in See Chapter One of this text for a discussion of the dual nature of the Fundao: social programs or social control.
149 cr social capital into active cooperation. Liberation Theology Creating the Capacity to Concert Binding social capital best describes the prevalent form of communit y wide cooperation in the favela s in this study. While there may be small pockets of non family groups that display the more durable bonding social capital, joined by common norms, values, and contacts, even in the smallest communities in this study, the se patterns do not extend to all, or even most of the residents. Although not addressed in these terms, the durable social networks discussed in the recent literature on favela s (cf. Leeds, 1996; Venkatesh, 1997; Arias, 2006) tend to focus on drug gangs. Certainly the rules mandated by the gangs and enforced by a small numbe r of individuals who make up the formal institution of the gang, along with the informally affiliated 85 residents, are strong boundaries for certain activities 86 Also, in populist style, gangs may try to win favor of communities by sponsoring dance parties ( bailes ), sponsoring infrastructural improvement, associations, it is clear that, for some types of collective action, the gangs provide the capacity to concert. However the cooperation is self serving: encouraging the residents to protest police raids; providing a safe hiding place during a police or rival gang invasion; maintaining a collective silence; and maintaining order in the community through self polici ng. 85 Drug gangs ( traficantes ) may be considered a formal institution in that they have a regula ted hierarchy of command and control of the organization, associate for a common purpose, and are bound by intra institutional norms and rules. This formal core, even in the largest favela is typically relatively small (10 50 members). However, the drug gangs are strengthened by using informal associations with community residents who are not part of the hierarchy, are not invested in the purpose, and are not bound by the rules and norms of the gang. These informal affiliations are best seen through the lens of patron client ties, with the same weaknesses thereof. 86 While drug gangs are often the court where community problems are resolved, it is not their purpose nor in their interest to be involved in more than avoiding giving the police any reason to enter. A notable exception follows the code enforced in Brazili an prisons that does not tolerate rapists or abusers of children drug gangs may involve disturb the general peace, the court is closed.
150 Linking Liberation Theology to Social Capital favela s was the ecclesiastically based communities (CEBs) formed under the guidance of priests of Liberation Theology (LT) of the Catholic Churc transformed, depending on your view) the Catholic message to apply heavenly principals to Earth, such as human rights, dignity, and charity. Because LT considers the poor as a class group and enco urages recognition of this commonality, it has been termed Marxist. This stigma, along with its intertwining of social reality with religious doctrine, led to a removal of Papal support that, along with the growth of Pentecostalism and other competing rel igions in Rio has gradually siphoned off adherents. Nevertheless LT led to a transformation among adherents that has also been absorbed into the competing religions, and must be considered as a source of social capital lending to the capacity to concert (Vsquez, 1998) CEBs are groups of about ten to sixty people who assemble to study the bible and discuss its relationship to their daily lives under lay leadershi p that is, with Catholic clergy providing mostly organizing support. The activities of CEBs can be enumerated in terms of education and fellowship (reflection and discussion, and political consciousness raising), community action (aiding in provision of b asic services such as health, education, and housing), organizational or leadership functions (creating functional subgroups, providing representation to the community network, lay ministers), and of course, religious activities (prayer meetings, bible stu dy, festival preparation). It is the religious activities that are the principal social bond that buttress each of the other functions and create relational networks between adherents. Aside from the Catholic doctrine, CEB membership provides exactly the kind of preparation for productive participation in a democracy that Putnam (Putnam, 2000) exhorts. Not only is commonality reinforced, but the introduction of social issues and p roblems is the political component of civil society that can
151 be connected to the state through the nascent leaders and the community network, if not through the Church. Reflection and discussion sessions that apply the teachings of the Bible to the daily experience of the poor have been instrumental in facilitating individual transformations. Perhaps most importantly, has been the growth of rights consciousness among the members of CEBs. Participants in the movement have internalized a belief that they a re entitled to a better life than they have. At the same time, the feeling of empowerment that participants gain by acting on their own behalf has led to increased action outside of the community. Local examples of such action include petitioning the cit y for running water and electricity (Vasquez, 1997; Russell, 2001) In this way, CEBs have been a training ground, source of support, and springboard for activism. Liberationists tend to conceive of the CEBs as a spontaneous demo cratic collectivization a true grassroots movement. While others have documented the elite character of community formation, their impetus derived from the CNBB (Conferncia Nacional de Bispos do Brasil) Joint Pastoral Plan, and most in evidence where the local bishop approves them (Bruneau, 1982; Hewitt, 1990) Both characterizations may have merit, as CNBB support nurtured a pre existing trend of small scale collectivization (Vsquez, 1998) But, at least in the case of Brazil, CEBs would not be nearly as prevalent in the absence of church support (Hewitt, 1986; Rhother, 2007) While it is easiest to observe the organization of the movement elites, and the cohesiveness of resisting forces within the church, more important to understanding collective action among the poor require s investigation at the level of organization within each CEB that has dictated the majority of individual benefits. So, although these communities only flourished under the sanction of the church, their diffusion and internal strength is related to leader ship, organization,
152 and resource issues particular to each community (Bruneau, 1980; Hewitt, 1 990) Vasquez environments order (1998, p. 10) society, even in the face of limited resources such as knowledge and power. The variety of housing, education, medical, and nutrition services that these small groups are able to produce to help themselves and their neighbors is the capacity to concert in action providing tangible rewards (Hewitt, 1990) But the attraction to this colle ctive action is not to procure such membership benefits, particularly as the CEBs are ideologically committed to sharing with all in need. Since movements are primarily constructed of networks of everyday, personal relationships, there is no added cost of belonging. The original attraction to bond to the social network is the symbol upon which adherents may build their identity in this case, the (1986) nd world views, which provides the basis for approaching different kinds of problems. Religion, as one of the central components of culture, can provide a repertoire of social action, which, combined with available resources, defines the parameters of pos sible strategies for mobilization. Here, mobilization can be seen in terms of individuals exercising their new identity as a lifestyle. experience of day to day reality. From this bridge, a new vision of reality and the forces at work in society, results from the sharing of indiv idual experiences. The strength of the movement lies in such individual level transformation. The poor and oppressed, validated and
153 valued often for their first time, is empowering and life changing (Hurley, 1991; Smith, 1991; McCann, 1994) Evidence from the Field Around the year 2000, there were approximately 75,000 CEBs in Brazil, with more than half estimated to participate in some type of social activism (Cousineau, 1997; Russell, 2001) Furthermore, the solidarity of purpose and unity of effort has been reported to provide the strength necess ary to bear violent retaliation against their demand making (Cousineau, 1997; Vasquez, 1997) Unlike much of the rest of Brazil, although Rio de Janeiro did evolve a great number of CEBs, the community groups could not be as visibly active as elsewhere. Althoug h the basic tenets of LT, such as encouraging lay group interpretation of the Bible to deepen the personal experience with Catholicism, were in action in the late 1950s, it was not a coordinated effort by regional bishops until the Medelln conference of 1 968. By that time, the repressive force of the military dictatorship was at the height of its power and reacted harshly to any hints of communist social action, particularly in Rio as the national capital transitioned to Brasila. After twenty years of authoritarianism, the archbishop of the state of Rio de Janeiro (1971 2001), Cardinal Eugnio Sales, proscribed the social and political aspects of liberation theology ascension in 1981. Nevertheless, one researcher in the field (Madeleine Cousineau) commented Paulo, CEBs received the national or regional meetings so as not to flaunt their existence and draw the anger of the Cardinal (Fraser and Jeffrey, 2004)
154 Burdick (1996) and Vasquez (1997; 1998) among others 87 have comme nted on the decrease in Catholicism, and particularly CEBs in Brazil since the end of the military regime. The common explanation starts with an increase in the popularity of Pentecostal, evangelical religions that siphoned adherents to the more modern, m usical and moving services. With a base quarters of those identifying themselves as Pentecostals, while the Catholic Church exhibited the opposite trend, reducin g to only about 75% of the population by 2000 (IBGE, 1980 & 2000). That, along with the economic crisis in Brazil in the 1990s, which necessitated CEB participants and activists to invest more of their time working and procuring family sustenance, have re duced the number of CEBs to a level that Daniel Levine (in Burdick, 1996, p. 4) to sugges t that Despite the contemporary absence of visible CEBs in Rio, they remain important for their contributions to the favela was that even as CEBs began to lose visibility, particularly in politics, they will still term role by eliciting and promoting new sources and styles of leadership, making them normal and legitimate. The groups as such may leave center stage but the leaders they develop should diffuse throughout society. This is probably the most critical long term impact of liberation theology (p. 260) And in the absence of economic justice and social equality, the themes, messages, and sy mbols of LT remain in the political discourse of the poor shaping their perceptions of and approach to their daily struggles. The important contribution of LT to contemporary favela life is this common discourse that creates a base of commonality around w hich binding social capital is easily formed and can be activated and politicized with the right catalyst. 87 (Levine, 1988; Hewitt, 1990; Cousineau, 1997; Alves, 2002; Souza, 2007)
155 Hewitt (1990) helps to explain the invisibility of CEB impact on election outcomes in Rio de Janeiro through a study that shows th at the small size of each CEB, and the dispersion throughout the city dilute their measurable effect. Furthermore, s tudies by Bruneau (1982) and Hewitt (1986, 1987) have shown that CEBs are very heterogeneous in terms of their organization and purpose As a super local community organization, regardless that they a re connected through a common religion, they were never meant to have an external, measurable impact. Additionally, the favela residents must naturally concentrate more on sustenance before investing al efforts so that when collective actions do occur, they cannot be sustained for long periods and thus fail to catch public attention. And finally, Hewitt (1990) (1988) prediction in his longitudinal study of eleven CEBs in So P aulo. He reports a general shift in focus from political activism towards devotional activities in the CEBs of the poorest communities, but includes an observation that the activists simply moved into other organizations such as unions. Nevertheless, li ke the change in the political discourse among the favela residents, the early successes of the CEBs in organizing to gain basic infrastructure, halt police abuse, and avoid removal remains in the local history and repertoire (Levine, 1988; Cousineau, 1997; Vasquez, 1997) The fact is that there must be some model of success on which the residents base their protests, because the risks of protesting are high and the rewards are never achieved quickly. History In Rio de Janeiro, there is a long list of non governmental organizations (NGOs) at work in the favela s as meta organizations that house or unite the community efforts that may catalyze group action However, the outside
156 resources that NGOs often have access to may be seen as rewards that are actual goal of participants. Collective action around guaranteed benefits may help create common bonds, but is more akin to a campus fraternity party with a po ( Associaes de Moradores AMs), on the other hand, receive few or no external resources to offer to the residents who choose to work alongside of their official community coordinator. The rewards are in this case are contributions to the association, or they are the goal of group action 88 The following section explore s the role of AMs in facilitating, generating, or representing the capacity to concert of the community. common interests around the community in general. Since 1969 89 their purview has been delimited in statutes charging the AMs with the defense of certain ri ghts of favela residents, particularly in negotiating their relationship with the state and the providence of basic urban services. From the point of view of the government, AMs would register and monitor the residents and dwellings and be charged with ca rrying the law from the asphalt to the hill. For the residents, they hoped the AMs would continue to negotiate the details of the concessions they had won through popular protest and ensure the delivery of water, electricity and sewage to provide a minimu m standard of healthful living in the poor communities. The earliest documented AM in a favela was founded in 1947. Nearly 8% of the AMs in favela s that existed in 1981 were founded in 1966, the year after the federal government requirement for each favel a to have such an official organization. The next big surge was in 88 This in no way is to deny possible spiritual or social benefits such as the benefit of the sense of belonging, and the satisfaction of being a part of something that is big ger than oneself. 89 Decree No 3.330/1968 limited favela be the official contact between the government and the community.
157 1979, where around 15% of the 1981 total was instituted. SERFHA ( Servio Especial de Recuperao das Favela s e Habitao Anti Higinicas Special Service for the Recuperation of Favela s an d Unsanitary Habitation), tasked with improving the general living conditions in the favela s, was formed in 1956, and by 1961 this governmental organization was providing incentives for the residents to organize formally for their own benefit, such as off ering construction material for weekly group budget was gutted and what was left was better fit for registering and monitoring the favela s than to support self help projects and favela organization. Pred ictably, many of the nascent AMs disappeared and others became inactive with only symbolic leadership. Some few maintained their momentum and worked effectively as the mechanism to carry the voice of their residents to the states (Diniz, 1981) Under the Lacerda administration (1960 1965), the deactivation of SERFHA took on new meaning as the governor rolled out urban remodeling plans that required removing the poor 1970) took a stronger stance against the favela s and was suppor in political rhetoric, then with the first removals in 1963, can help explain the foundation of 42% of the AMs existing in 1981 between 1960 and 1967 (Diniz, 1981) Replacing the positive incentives of SERFHA with t he threat of removal created a strong motivation for the favela residents to organize. Contemporary Scene Today, all favela s in Rio, at least nominally, have an RA, yet the leaders of the previous generations lament that the new associations are nothing li ke they were when residents worked together to force the government to recognize their political power and their needs (Pandolfi and Grynszpan, 2003; Silva and Barbosa, 2005) All of the association presidents included in this
158 study cited a lack of resources from the government and a lack of solidarity or int erest from the residents for the current downturn in AM activity. The decrease in the importance or activity has come to the point in some of the favela s in this study that the AM is nothing more than a building used to house a community phone and message board, and as the point of collection and distribution for mail. The main tasks performed by AMs today, aside from being the communications hub of the community, include monitoring and passing payment for the community sanitation workers and electrical re pairmen, who are paid and trained by the city sanitation and disposal company, COMLURB, and the city electric company, LIGHT or Rio Luz The AM is also the official contact for CEDAE, the state water company. And it is the official distribution point for mail to not deliver directly a lack of official addresses or maps, as well as potential danger due to gangs. Although not all communities have sanitation, elec tricity, and water projects, the problem of moderating disagreements over the illegal electric and water taps ( gatos or gatinhos ) usually falls to the association. For example, Rocinha, famed for being the largest slum in Latin America as well as having favela s, is technically a bairro (official, legally incorporated neighborhood) but has thousands of gatos bristling from electric transformers and CEDAE to the constantly growing number of apartments, houses layered one upon the next. When these pipes are broken they affect all residents downstream, so the AM speaks with the AM is also involved as the point of contact when an overloaded transformer explodes or catches
159 alig ht. Once LIGHT restores the network to working condition, the AM will coordinate the reconnection of the homes based on seniority. In the name of public safety, it may also limit the number or type of appliances that families try to connect. The AM also functions as a notary, registering important documents in a semi official capacity. Because of the fees that can be charged, this single role makes administering the AM a highly contested position in favela s with a vibrant real estate market where the tra nsfer of title, although not legal in the eyes of the Brazilian government, costs 10% of the sales price 90 All births in hospitals are automatically registered at no cost to the parents, but on the infrequent occasion that there is a birth in the communit y the AM may give semi official testament. And, as many residents do not have official connections to electricity, they have no legal address of residence, which denies them access to jobs and credit as current, official proof of residence is a basic requ irement. In this case, the AM may charge a small fee for such a document. The major issues that confront the favela s today (see Table 4 2 ) are infrastructure problems 91 like drainage and sewage (see Table 4 3 ), regular access to potable water (see Table 4 4 ), regular access to electricity, and trash collection, as well as adequate commerce close enough for employment and shopping without the added expense of buses. Infrastructure concerns are the concentration of the AMs daily business, but the daily conce rn with violence in the favela s, particularly police violence, is the issue that brings more people and organizations to action (see Table 4 5 ). 90 This may vary across favela s, but the 25 presidents of AMs who reported this as one of the services they provide, they all reported that the charge is 10%. The price of a two bedroom dwelling ranges between around R$1,000 and R$25,000, with Rocinha and Vidigal as outliers with prices above R$40,000. 91 Statistics from the Brazilian government proudly tout that from 1980 2000 favela s went from below 50% connected to electricity, sewage, and water to 99%. Site visits, however, suggest that the number is somewhere closer to 70 80% as there are entire communities who se collective sewage is piped directly into the bordering river, whose intermittent access to water may leave them dry for days at a time, and whose intermittent access to electricity is no better.
160 Little Support for AMs at the End of the Century By 1998, almost none of the AMs (4%) receive meaningful support or legitimacy from their residents as evidenced by fall in participation from 1981 (see Table 4 6 ). The reasons given extremely heated and divided the community, or the community differed greatly from the associat such as the police or drug gangs had pressured either the association or the residents into halting their participation. The major problems that keep the associa tion leaders from being effective are a lack of resources (financial, material, and human); insufficient support from the government; poor relations with the community at large; general lack of support from both the community and the government. Another po ssibility for the low participation is the lack of relevance of AM work to what is considered the real problem of the favela s: social discrimination leading to economic inequality and inhuman treatment at the hands of the government. In this database of conflicts in Rio (Vanier and Acselrad, 2007 ) public safety refers to police violence in the context of the favela while in the conflicts that originate from a different locale, public safety usually means criminal violence but may also refer to pollution or unsafe building practices. From 199 3 2000, there are 818 conflicts included, with 164 originating from favela s that is 23.3% of the total, which closely corresponds to the favela these group conflicts originated from the grassroots within the favela s. Most of the cases (74.4%) are about police violence, but the residents mobilized over many different issues. Table 4 5 shows that public safety in the favela s also brings in the most diverse external support with
161 only the judiciary and state legislators choosing not to become involved in that cause, regardless that it is usually the federal police (Polcia Militr) who are the cause of the threat to public safety. Obstacles to Relevancy for Residents Associaes de Moradores as a potential center for bonding or binding social capital, must find relevance to the lives of the residents. Almost two thirds of the AMs work in isolation, without any ties to other groups, and thus must have some intrinsic value to residents in order to b e of use. Almost a quarter are involved in supporting or organizing Blocos de Carnaval or Escolas da Samba and around one tenth support or coordinate sports groups. This certainly aids in creating the space for civil society, and so gives the residents more potential to develop the the best organized local interests, only one association leader reported working together to support their activities. In fact, only around a third of the leaders even mentioned what might be 92 The AMs are, nominally, the official pipeline to the government on behalf of the residents, and vice versa However, when asked about their relationship with politicians, the leaders were very cynical in their response, which must temper their ability to carry out their function as a mediator. Fully one quarter of them will have nothing to do with politicians, and 10% of the sample refuses to even let the politicians enter their community for campaigning. Around one third of the leaders surveyed commented that they meet with politicians and negotiate with them in pure clientelistic fashion, yet they now demand at least a part of the promise to be delivered before the election (Avritzer, 2000) Interviews f or this research revealed that the association 92 Mainly issues dealing with the health and education of c hildren.
162 a trading chit. For those association leaders who are willing, this is a great test to their personal social capital whether or not they can command or cajole a third of their residents to support a candidate in exchange for the promise of payola. The 1986 creation of a new budgeting system that gives legislators the ability to propose up to twenty amendments on the yearly federal budget destined for public works, so they capitalize on the monetary value and size of the projects they promise to bring back to their home district. However, this portion of the budget is pre set by the Ministry of Planning and there is never anywhere near enough money to pay for even half of the projects, so each legislator finances their twenty pet projects over decades and allocate a small percentage of the get, each legislator has twenty new amendments to propose with no rule requiring them to support their ongoing projects. In 1996, there were 2,214 public works projects worth a total of $15billion that went unfunded because the $600million was already com mitted to mostly new projects that would also never be completed (Avritzer, 2000) The per verse incentives in the budgeting process encourage clientelism and broken promises. Furthermore, it is up to the executive branch to release the funds, which they do only quid pro quo ups lose out because they are easily confused by a process that is hard to track and, ultimately, disastrously wasteful of governmental resources. In this atmosphere it seems that the residents seeking change would naturally turn to the closest and most a ccountable political body available, the making to the government, and to organize internal community activities. Yet
163 above shows that, even in 1981 at the height of social activism in the context of t he waning military dictatorship and before the 1986 budgeting changes, almost one third of the AMs indicated that fewer than 20% of their residents participated in any AM assembly, and % of the associations in this study reported participation from less than 40% of their residents, and 96% reported participation from less than 20%. Political Activity of the AMs and the Residents Table 4 8 gives more evidence of the lack of the politica l activity of AMs. In 164 conflicts involving favela s from 1993 2000, AMs were the primary agent of complaint twice. This compares poorly with the sample of conflicts involving non favela neighborhoods where 31 or 6.3% of the 489 complaints were championed by the AM. On the other hand, the AMs from favela s supported the residents in their protest in 19 other cases, or 11.6% of the time ( Table below ), whereas in the other neighborhoods, AMs lent their support only 33 times, or 6. 7% of the time. So in regards to the whether or not AMs are instrumental in building the capacity to concert amongst favela residents, there is strong evidence as their participation is correlated with 21 of the 164 favela driven conflicts, or 12.8%. Thi s is essentially equal to the 13.3% participation of the AMs in non favela neighborhood actions. Leaving aside the issue of leadership or support by the AMs, T able Table 4 5 reveals that 81.7% of favela related conflicts were championed by the residents themselves clear evidence of the capacity to concert amongst the favela populations. And it is important to note that these cases represent more than 79 diff erent favela s 93 as the principal actor in the conflict, which indicates that this capacity is widespread, and approximately one eighth of these communities 93 The 164 cases from the database on conflicts t hat include favela s as the principal actors, 119 different favela names are included but many have been grouped into the larger complexes to which they belong, such as Mar, Complexo Alemo, and the various linked favela s of Catumbi.
164 engaged in demand making that was public enough to be picked up by the news sources included in the s tudy. Looking again at T able Table 4 5 it appears that the principal actor (AM or resident group) specializes in the objective they choose to pursue. The two issues the AMs of the favela s chose to tackle dealt with living conditions in one form or another, while the residents primarily demanded improvements in public safety (an end to police violence in 101 cases) and the safety of children (four cases pro testing inadequate medical treatment for children and six favela s). Error! Reference source not found. Table 4 8 shows the repertoire of demand making actions from the various plaintiffs on behalf of favela Only 9 .7% of residents mobilization resulted in the destruction of property, such as the burning of commuter buses an immediate reaction to a grievous event in all cases, perhaps suggested or supported by drug gangs in some. While the blocking of streets (60.0% repertoire) is also often a spontaneous reaction, it may also be a planned event. Almost one public squares. Appropriately, it was the AM filed the one complaint with a government officer reported in the database, acting as the representative of the residents in this case. An AM was also the organizer in one of the forty five public rallies that were held during the period of this study. Of the a pproximately 600 favela s that existed between 1993 and 2000, no less than 79 (13.2%) were involved in bringing a conflict to the public sphere at a rate of about 23 cases per o concert, which can only be assessed in action. Participation numbers were available for 80 of the 165 reports of
165 favela originated conflict detailing the smallest participation of 30 individuals, and the largest of 20,000 individuals who took part in a city wide remembrance march of a 1993 police massacre of 21 residents of Vigrio Geral. The median of participation among these cases is 225 individuals, indicating that half of the conflicts involved more than 225 people working together in some form or another (mean = 1,651.4, mode = 200). Benefits From the Capacity to Concert Although the outcome of those specific actions is unknown, some generalizations can be drawn from complementary data. From the various measures of social capital and capacity to c oncert in action 94 there are consistent results that point to favela residents organizing and activating in order to solve community level problems. Table 4 9 shows the correlation matrix for six measures of social capital and eight group level resources. Membership in an AM or other community organization, and moving to a favela where a social group already exists are measures of potential social capital in its passive form as the organizations provide a commonality around which bonding or binding social capital may form. The next three measures are similar in that they measure reported social capital in action through participation in the AMs activities, working as a group to install water pip es to neighborhood houses, and the more general report that life in the favela has improved ( melhorou ) because of the residents. Table 4 9 clearly demonstrates the strong relatio nship between these six measure The highly significant correlations suggest that an individual who is involved with one of these aspects of social bonding or networking is also involved with at least one more. The only relationship that is not statistically significant is that between the group work and being a member of the AM. Group work also has an inverse relationship that what was 94 From the PCBR 1998 study of 5 1 favela s, the following variables are used: a) member of the AM, b) member of other community organization, c) water piping installed by community group, d) reason for moving to favela was to be with friends, and e) life in the favela has improved because of the residents.
166 expected with having moved to the favela because of friends. This is not particularly troubling, however, as the two variables are capture different aspects of social capital, active and potentia l, and can thus disagree without threat to the concept validity of the measures. The group level benefits of social capital can be seen in Table 4 10. There is an interesting difference between the two groups of variables that seem fit the following explan ation: social capital is more likely to be activated around perceived needs, while potential social capital in the form of group membership, size and expected solidarity is likely to remain after the group has met with success in achieving its goals. Thi s fits the model of how social capital works as LT and AM as facilitators of social capital. That is, that CEBs and LT provided a central belief system around w hich otherwise unrelated individuals were able to bind in order to achieve collective success. Also, the creation of a group and the expectations of solidarity make it less costly, in terms of risk analysis, to make claims to the government or to venture personal effort amid the possibility of free riders. The positive correlations between potential social capital and group level resources are most likely the result of earlier instances of group solidarity, either in demand making, or in selling a block of votes for clientelist booty 95 The negative correlations found on the other side of the table with the active social capital variables are consistent with the relative deprivation model of social movements. This can be understood in terms of the percei ved deficiency in the community becoming the common center around which the residents bond and activate. 95 Following the 20 interviews with AM pr esidents, both of these possibilities are equally plausible as, although only of the other favela associations did. Furthermore, more than 60% of the interviewees recalled group demand making on the government, particularly for infrastructure and healthcare facilities.
167 through the follow up interviews some 7 to 10 years later that confirmation of sorts is available. The case of garbage and sanitation is also noteworthy as it is positively correlated with all six variables. COMLURB, the city sanitation company, began community sanitation projects starting in 1989 in jus t six favela s. By 2000, the project has expanded to include 60 communities and complexes of communities. The gari comunitrio (community street sweeper) employs between 4 and 100 favela residents for daily or semi weekly trash gathering and removal. COM in other neighborhoods or over the edge of a cliff onto underlying highways. They do require the assistance of the AM in order to monitor, supply, and remunerate t he workers, and so they have targeted communities that have the ability to maintain a consistent sanitation program. The gari comunitrio fits under both active and potential social capital because, once gained for the community, it requires daily coopera tion to maintain it. Interviews with 20 presidents of favela associaes de moradores confirm the quantitative findings above. More than 75% of those interviewed reported that their community had been politically active during the time covered by this stu dy, and every one mentioned some community protest against police violence. The other reason consistently mentioned by 50% of the respondents was lack of infrastructure (electricity, water, or sewage). A third reason for community action was against stal led governmental projects, particularly when the press visited presidents were aware of court cases that the AM had filed for various reasons mostly on behalf of a resident in order to legalize their plot, but also in legal complaint against police violence. One small community in the middle of a middle class suburb in the West Zone was
168 successful in using judicial power to halt daily harassment by the police who were trying to oust the fledgling community before it became a permanent favela In terms of the role of the AM, that group protests had to start with th e residents before the AM would consider taking action. Although only about 10% of the interviewees admitted to having been pressured by drug gangs in the role of the AM, a 2002 report from the municipal legislature ( ALERJ ) identified around 400 community leaders who were associated with the criminal syndicates between 1992 and 2001. The same report found another 400 community leaders who had been assassinated (100 150) or expelled (250 300) during the same time (Schmidt, 2002) After the interview, once ou t of the AM office, other presidents admitted that they too had been or were under pressure to follow gang directives. When asked how that relationship affects their ability to work in the interests of the community, the similar replies indicated that, al though the AM was often burdened by an extra sinecure or two, the AM could operate normally as long as the actions so as not to bring undue notice upon themselves. On encourage protests against the police a perverse use of social capital. On the other hand, as gang leaders i nfiltrate the city and state government, their relationship with any given favela can (Garcia, 2002b, 2002a; Alves, 2003) Conclusion The point of this chapter was to outline a second aspect of social capital, that of providing edge of how to combine [that] is the mother of all other forms of knowledge; on its progress depends that of all the others (Tocqueville, 1969, p. 517)
169 focusing on the case of favela residents in Rio de Janeiro, it has been possible to elaborate the process through which social capital of this type develops. The examples of the Vaccine Revolt, samba schools, Liberation Theology, and associ aes de moradores all point to the same important components: a central focus to provide commonality around which bonding, bridging or binding is possible, and group solidarity that provides the reasonable expectation that individual risk taking will have shared consequences. The transient nature of favela resident raison Like the short term activation of samba school loyalty during Carnaval or team loyal ty during soccer playoffs, groups come together briefly and then quickly return to anonymity with no durable bonds. The example of the Mes de Acari, however demonstrated that durable bonds are not out of the question, and that the more often a group act ivates around the same central idea or cause, the more likely durable bonds will occur. Although this chapter ended with evidence that generalized or group level social capital is highly correlated with government resources, the question of why some favela s have access to more governmental resources has yet to be satisfactorily addressed. The following chapter will present a model, introduced above, that considers complex open networks of social actors that revolve around the various communities and become visible only when each actor mobilizes, between formal organization a nd autonomy one that can only be bridged by strong, informal, organizations (Tarrow, 1998, p. 137) however fluctuating he i magines them, still prioritizes formal structures and durable ties. What
170 is termed Binding Action Networks (BANs) in the following chapter have very much the quality of NSMs in the very temporary connections that characterize even the core of the movement Importantly, BANs have expanded the strategies of favela residents in making demands on the state, away from the clientelistic options that dominated the scene through the 1980s. In terms of democracy, the previous chapter demonstrated how social capital can work to provide an exit option for favela residents to avoid participating in the state economically and politically. At the same time, the evidence showed that individual lev el social capital was positively correlated with state embeddedness, which leaves the power of these networks as a double edged sword vis vis the government. This chapter expanded the discussion on social capital and democracy showing how the creation o f group level social capital is equivalent to creating space for civil society an essential building block for democratic governance. The chapter that follows explains how the horizontal bonds of civil society connect vertically to the state through the f ocused attention of diverse social actors in a loose, binding network.
171 Table 4 1 Individuals in Rio, 18+ years, r easons for j oining u nions for n on professionals Sample n= 526,758 % Medical assistance 129,253 24.5 Legal assistance 173,876 33.0 Leisure, s ports, or c ulture 56,933 10.8 Political activity 58,985 11.2 Other 254,916 48.4 No response 5,642 1.1 Source IBGE Monthly Survey of Jobs, Rio de Janeiro April 1996 Table 4 2 Main p roblems of 18 favela s Main Problem % n= Infrastructure 49.1% 14720 Violence 19.5% 5840 No problem 15.9% 4774 More commerce for jobs / markets 5.5% 1650 Other 10.0% 2998 Total 29982 Source (PCBR, 1998) Table 4 3 Sewage connections of 50 favela s by type T ype of sewage system % of sample n= General network 78.3% 62817 Septic tank 6.7% 5338 Septic runoff / open pit 8.2% 6571 Directly to river 6.8% 5433 Other 0.0% 21 Total 80180 Source (PCBR, 1998)
172 Table 4 4 Water delivery and connection by frequency (50 favela s) and origin (18 favela s) Water Delivery % of sample n= Connection made by % of sample n= every day 70.0% 50769 private, individ 46.0% 8950 every other day 12.6% 9147 private, group 16.2% 3151 2x / week 5.3% 3837 CEDAE 28.3% 5502 irregular 9.4% 6821 Favela Bairro 8.8% 1718 every day, at least some 2.7% 1956 other 0.8% 155 don't know 0.0% 0.0% Total 19476 total 72530 Source (PCBR, 1998) T able 4 5 Group mobilized by conflict objective W tr and Sewr Aesthetics O wnrshp and land use Living cond. Health Public s afety Transpt and t raffic Conflict m ethod t otals Percent of all c onflicts a ssn 1 1 2 1.2 Environmental o rg 1 1 0.6 Parents and f riends 1 7 8 4.9 Residents or n eighbors 9 1 13 4 101 6 134 81.7 Homeless m ovements (MST) 2 2 1.2 NGO 5 5 3.0 Others 1 2 3 1.8 Related p rofessionals 7 7 4.3 Unions or Prof. Assn 1 1 2 1.2 Conflict o bjective t otals 9 1 3 17 5 122 7 164 100.0 Percent of all conflicts 5.5 0.6 1.8 10.4 3.0 74.4 4.3 100.0 Source (Vanier and Acselrad, 2007)
173 Table 4 6 Percentage of favela s with p articipation at given levels in rojects Levels of Participation 1981 1998 0 20% 28 96 21 40% 31 4 41 60% 23 61 80% 11 81%+ 7 Total (n=97) (n=50) Source (Diniz, 1981; PCBR, 1998) Table 4 7 Organization providing support for favela in conflict vs. objective of conflict Water and sewer Aesthetic Ownrship and land use Living cond Health Public safety Transport and traffic Total Conflict objective totals 9 1 3 17 5 122 7 164 assn 1 4 1 13 19 Professional assn 2 2 Human rights org 2 2 Religious groups 5 5 Social movement 2 1 3 NGO 1 6 7 Judiciary 1 1 Union 5 5 University 1 1 Political party 2 2 State legislator 1 1 City legislator 2 2 Support Totals 0 0 3 5 1 40 1 50 Unsupported conflicts 9 1 0 12 4 82 6 114 Source (Vanier and Acselrad, 2007)
174 Table 4 8 Form of conflict by mobilized group Res. assn. Envr. org Parents and f riends Res or neighb r Hmless mvmt (MST) NGO Other Related profess ionals Unions or p rof. assn Total Percent of all Petitions, letters, visits 4 4 2.4 Vehicular procession (bike, car...) 1 1 1 3 1.8 Direct confrontation with police/army 2 2 1.2 Public complaint to gov officer 1 1 1 3 1.8 Destruction of property 1 13 14 8.5 Blocking streets 75 1 76 46.3 Appeal to the judiciary 1 1 0.6 Rally in public plaza 1 1 3 29 2 2 6 1 45 27.4 Seizing buildings or land 3 3 1.8 Others 1 1 0.6 Strike or slow down 1 1 0.6 March 2 5 1 3 11 6.7 Grand Total 2 1 8 134 2 5 3 7 2 164 100.0 Source (Vanier and Acselrad, 2007)
175 Table 4 9 Correlation matrix of six measures of social capital Res. a ssn (AM) Member in a ny o ther comm. o rg. Moved to favela b/c of friends Particip. i n a ssn. Water p iping installed by group work Favela is better b/c of residents Res. a ssn (AM) r = 1.00 0.88 0.04 0.58 0.01 0.03 p = 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.259 0.000 n = 65223 65223 23397 65221 15089 12348 Member in a ny. r = 0.88 1.00 0.08 0.78 0.02 0.05 o ther c omm. o rg p = 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.000 n = 65223 81882 29931 65234 19476 15685 Moved to Favela r = 0.04 0.08 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.06 b/c of friends p = 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 n = 23397 29931 29931 23404 19434 15644 Particip. i n a ssn. r = 0.58 0.78 0.04 1.00 0.05 0.05 p = 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 n = 65221 65234 23404 65234 15095 12351 Water p iping r = 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.05 1.00 0.08 installed by group p = 0.259 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000 work n = 15089 19476 19434 15095 19476 11234 Favela is better r = 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.08 1.00 b/c of residents p = 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 n = 12348 15685 15644 12351 11234 15685 Source (PCBR, 1998)
176 Table 4 10 Correlations between measures of social capital and group level resources R es. assn ( AM ) M ember in any comm. org. M oved to favela b/c of friends P articip. in assn. W ater piping installed by group work Favela is better b/c of residents Public safety r = 0.04 0.05 0.01 0.04 0.00 0.10 p = 0.000 0.000 0.355 0.000 0.701 0.000 n = 23390 29945 29868 23397 19451 15671 Creches r = 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.06 0.07 p = 0.016 0.250 0.076 0.950 0.000 0.000 n = 23393 29951 29873 23400 19448 15681 Medical clinics r = 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.01 p = 0.364 0.504 0.479 0.057 0.027 0.426 n = 23403 29960 29881 23410 19460 15683 Streets r = 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.07 0.08 p = 0.821 0.791 0.000 0.862 0.000 0.000 n = 23404 29964 29885 23411 19459 15683 Sports r = 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.03 0.10 p = 0.891 0.653 0.000 0.945 0.000 0.000 n = 23391 29944 29866 23398 19445 15683 Recreation r = 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.09 p = 0.139 0.262 0.201 0.447 0.045 0.000 n = 23391 29944 29866 23398 19445 15683 Garbage and r = 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.03 sanitation p = 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.000 n = 23380 29931 29852 23387 19433 15663 General life r = 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.10 0.01 conditions p = 0.000 0.000 0.086 0.000 0.000 0.327 n = 23400 29960 29883 23407 19446 15685 Source: (PCBR, 1998)
177 CHAPTER 5 BINDING SOCIAL CAPITAL, NETWORKS, AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS The story above has shown that the government is not predisposed to aid the favela s, that the aid that has been provided has been incomplete, and that there is no single answer for favela improvement and development. Neither NGO, AM, CEB, or government agency has been able to create a large scale, cross favela plan that has made significant improvement, regardless of the billions of dollars that continue to be spent in the Favela Bairro p rojects of Rio de Janeiro. This chapter explores the complex open networks that are composed of combinations of the internal and external actors around favela issues that allow the transfer of necessary local information and demands to influence general public opinion and consequently decision makers in the government and other development agencies. In the highly politicized grassroots environment of favela residents and activists, many o povo ) are capable of bringing abo ut meaningful reform, which o movimento ). A century of experience has shown that external actors operate on their own agenda, and connections of favela residents to e xternal actors are too often cheaply co opted for the benefit of only a few. The problem is that while local change can only be affected by locals at the local level, favela s are woven into the fabric of society and so the residents cannot simply turn the ir back on the rest of the world. To pursue their community goals in the social and political milieu, they must cultivate external links to help them remove the constraints, created externally, that define the possibilities of the locale. These limitatio ns include the stigmatized public perception of favela s and their residents, police repression of contentious activities outside of the favela s, and the labyrinthine nature of the government bureaucratic apparatus that is poorly disposed to attend favela r epresentatives.
178 Desmond Arias (2006) made an ethnographic study of two 96 external networks, built from favela level organization, that ultimately succeeded in drawing government response to their demands. Importantly, he found that state action only ca me about much later after the original event and subsequent protests, which indicates that the original message was somehow maintained in the social and political discourse until it was addressed. The success that Arias reports for one community, Vigrio Geral, was based on the ability of a group of active residents, fronted by a college educated community leader, who used external contacts with politicians and international funding agencies to finance local action NGOs. External financing motivated the local NGOs to formalize and persevere, and the prestige of the international element, broadcast by the local, national, and world wide press, resulted in government help to end violence in the favela after thr ee years. Unfortunately, this was a short lived solution and Vigrio Geral remains one of the most violent favela s in Rio. In the long term, international financing and support helped create and maintain a local alternative for youth recreation, Afro Reg gae. This local NGO now has branches in several other favela s, and makes international tours in an attempt to lure kids away from the drug business and to raise awareness about the problem of violence in the favela s of Rio (Junior, 2006) The failure to address the underlying problem of Vigrio Geral exemplifies the biggest limitation of the temporary nature of binding social capital as an agent of political change in the face of the complexity of the government, bureaucracy, and judiciary. It allows opposing long and will likely dissi pate before any political changes are necessary. This is especially true 96 Three case studies are included in his research, but one community failed to make external connections because of limitations placed by the drug gang, working in collaboration with the AM president.
179 among the poor residents who get no quick reward for their investment in trying to influence the system, and so they must turn their attention to more immediate concerns. The media is not a reliable ally in their struggle as the press needs fresh news every day. With even the ongoing war in Iraq and Afghanistan turning stale, how can the comparatively small problems of small, unwelcome groups hope to keep the public eye throughout t heir campaign? Binding Action Networks Binding action networks (BANs) refer to a specific type of social movement that is particularly applicable to groups that lack social, economic, and political resources to engage in The simple definition, as developed here, is that they are loose collections of groups and institutions, like AMs inside the favela and the media operating outside the favela that operate independently and asynchronously as part of a process over time, ye t have similar reasons to connect a favela to the state in a bid for resources. The creation of binding social capital with institutions outside of the favela is absolutely necessary for the creation of resilient action networks that distinguish successfu l cases from those that fail to gain governmental resources. Note that the difference between a durable network constructed from bridging social capital, and a resilient network created from binding social capital makes the latter more difficult to empir icize because each branch of the network may only be activated for a short time, potentially never visible in action at the same time as any other branch. This collection of on again, off again ties distinguishes itself by always activating around the sam e cause or idea, even though it may not be a central concern for most, or even any, of the actors. The various actors or at key points to keep it going all without formal coordination.
180 The lack of central organization means that the momentum of the movement may fade away forever, or fade away temporarily only to be re lit later by a new actor who just discovered the cause, or by a previous actor whose prio rities finally shifted to give the movement attention again. This is the same basic picture that New Social Movement (NSM) theory creates for modern movements, that they are constructed of identity driven adherents whose tenuous support consists of punctu ated activity over time. The difference with the BAN, particularly in the context of democratization, is that BANs must involve at least two sets of actors, demand makers originating from the favela s, and the government BANs examine a strictly political p henomenon. Residents and organizations of poor communities approach intervening actors that help to solidify the link between favela s and the government. Consequently, the study of BANs requires an understanding of the public policy process as well as th e mechanisms of social movements, which are described here through the lens of social capital. Because of the temporary and fungible nature of the network, literature on interest groups, lobbyists, and other formal political institutions is not an appropr iate framework for understanding BANs. BANs and the Political Opportunity Structure of Social Movements (1998) Political Opportunity Structure (POS) provides the most promising existing framework in social movements literature to understand the success in demand making of favela residents in Rio. This model, constructed to create a unified theory of social movements, is flexible enough to allow the struggle in Rio to be described, but in trying to be all encompassing, it obscures the central character of the movement there, the strength of which comes from binding rather than bridging, weaker rather than stronger ties, from being resilient rather than durable. The POS model, applied to favela movements, requires consideration of their dual focus 1) as a competing frame in societal discourse, and 2) as a political force competing for power in the
181 state system. The latter concentrates on elite level politics where decisions are ultimately made, and the former looks first for the consensus formation of the movement frame, and then for actor among parts of the population (Tarrow, 1998, p. 113) the POS model discusses the mass base as important in terms of political leverage to be used by (p. 105) show where elites and authorities are most vulnerable, and trigger social networks and collective identities around common themes (p. 20) the larger the favela the more political leverage would exist and could be used to gain resources. The data on the favela s in this study, however, did not find correlation between favela size and resources even when controlling for other variables What is useful from the POS model is the idea that movements are both a political force as well as a cultural one through their influence on the societal discourse. A third effect of social movements is how they change lives at the individual, personal level. This is not as much about how they shape the way daily lives are lived, as was discussed in the context of Liberation Theology in the previous chapter. Instead, POS emphasizes how individual life changes may substitute formal movement organizatio n through the creation and adoption of new identities among adherents that can facilitate action, interaction, and alliances according to the common norms, values, and accepted life style repertoire of the created community. In order to do this, the new i dentity must clearly identify movement members as different from the rest of society, particularly distinguishing the militants 97 (p. 119) Identity, in 97 Tarrow uses the example of the solidarity movement in Poland to show how it was not a movement of Catholic industrial workers, but rather industrial workers using the symbols of Catholicism to create a common language and
182 terms of the BAN model that recognizes the transient nature of associations, can be thought of as priority put upon a cause or idea, out of the field of causes that vie for personal investment individuals together in demand making under this mod el, collaborative action does not have to occur at the same time (i.e. it can be asynchronous). 98 Unlike the biographical influence imagined in the POS model, the BAN model emphasizes temporary prominance of identity parts. Similar to the POS, it is the c place of a formal movement organization, or formal organization within the movement. In addition to group identity and movement frame, the POS looks at organization as a third resource to be used politically. Organization is described along three axes: a) hierarchical that link leaders and followers, center and periphery, and different parts of a movement sector, permitting coordination and aggregation between movement organizations and allowing movements to persist even when formal organization is lacking (pp. 123 24) BAN model uses social capital to explai n both intra group cohesiveness and inter group commonalities for action, but rejects the necessity of hierarchical leadership. This vertical component is unrealistic in the context of favela s in light of the evolution of favela movement tactics and ideol ogies that were strengthened over the long term as corrupt or co opted movement leaders lost support, as eventually vertical leadership did. As described in the previous chapters, movement cells with strong hierarchical structure that were either rendered powerless once accepted into the government structure or succumbed to corruption dissipated, rallying point, perhaps more for its antithetical position in communist ideology and sta tes than for the coherence of movement ideas to Catholicism (1998, p. 119) 98 This is not empirically tautological in the sense that the commonality exists if collaboration occurs, and collaboration occurs when commonality exists. The commonality is vi sible, even when the actors are not collaborating as will be demonstrated below.
183 leaving the rest of the movement temporarily weakened, but sturdier in the end. Now, movement adherents, disenchanted with such leaders, openly express suspicion of even the most well meaning organizers. (1998) conception of cycles of contention is particularly well suited to account for the ebb and flow of the favela movement over the past four decades. The chapter above dealing with the history of favela s detailed th e changing field of political opportunities involving the porousness of the state administration in contrast to its repressive capacity, as well as the availability and sincerity of potential institutional allies. Unions of favela workers, for example, we re one of the results of the turn of the century vaccine revolt. However, in the context of economic liberalism and later anti communism, they were not able to win any substantive gains. The Church was the only institution ostensibly placed to continuall y pursue social justice but it worked more as an arm of the state monitoring and controlling favela movements until the 1970s when state sponsored torture and repression led to a change of heart among the church leadership. Regrettably, by that time, its ability to make overt challenges was effectively political interference, and had its biggest impact through the development of Liberation Theology and ecclesiasti cally based communities (CEBs) 99 that changed the societal discourse around the poor across the socio economic spectrum, as well as catalyzing individual transformations among the poor. Describing the tension among the various forces and actors in politi cs is an appropriate use for POS in analyzing the favela movement. However, one of the most important changes that occurred through unionizing and liberation theology was a change in the nature of the individual 99 See the discussion in the previous chapter on the role of Liberation Theology in building the capacity to concert among favela residents.
184 self worth of the poor. The political stru ggle for solidarity and power against industrialists and neo liberal policies is clearly captured by the POS conception of social movements. The path for personal metamorphosis and the cybernetic 100 nature of identity and resistance, on the other hand, is no t. This is a fundamental mechanism in the process of demand making that is lost in the POS model. As good of a job as the POS does at describing movement cycles in terms of external opportunities and restraints, it is not designed to capture the socia l and economic reality that defines internal relationships at the grassroots. For example, the post dictatorship economic crisis in Brazil increased the need of poor hou self exploit, leaving less time and energy for community participation re mains outside of the view of the POS lens. Also affecting the cycle of favela movements is the rise of Pentecostalism that has substantially changed the focus away from the earthbound reality of the poor towards the heavenly possibilities that may exist f or them in the afterlife away from political action to correct temporal problems towards prayer and service that promise the exchange of suffering on Earth for an eternity in heaven. Finally, the para statal drug gangs create a non political obstacle for organization and contention. None of these informal factors fit into the POS model that was designed around more traditional interest group politics. They are, however, central considerations in the BAN model. Actors and groups of actors tend to appear a nd fade away quickly making networks difficult to discern. This tendency, from the nature of binding social capital, has to do with the multiple identities each individual carries based on the host of relationships that constitute the person. Over time, each identity gains prominence in its appropriate context for each individual, which may not occur at the same time as other individuals. This can make groups virtually 100 (1987) concept of mutually reinforcing or balancing systems where a change in one element brings about a consistent reaction in a nother.
185 hidden networks in the short term. Although the entire network may not be visible at one time, it is possible to assemble the threads of the action web in order to get a good idea of how the connections work by using the BAN model. It is this empirical nature of the this model that separates it from similar social movement approaches such as New Social Movements (cf. Melucci, 1985; Snow and Benford, 1988; Habermas, 1996; Giugni et al., 1999) and Tilly's polity model (1978) POS provides a model for the context of the favela movement, and B ANs help to explain the actual mechanisms. For favela movements, network actors include residents, AMs, other neighborhood organizations, the press, NGOs, religious groups, and governmental offices, but no one group or individual is responsible for mobili zation or progress. Also, further removing favela movements from the more formal and political conception of POS, competition for same issue, but rather an effo rt to attract sustained policy attention 101 Figure 5 1 portrays the important limitations in interest sharing both between residents in the favela s and between the residents and other, external institutions. The separation of the external institutions i ndicates that each may have a different interest in the favela and so will only activate on its behalf under separate circumstances when that interest is stoked. The areas of the circles representing favela residents that do not intersect with the circle s representing other only with their family, in a blinding group within the favela earning income, or bridging outside of the favela The small area of in tersection of the three circles representing each favela resident 101 Admittedly, funding is a zero sum game by virtue of the limited nature of resources versus unlimited demands, but there is a big difference between competition between two plans or frames of the same issue and the competition between different issues for g overnment budgeting and funding. Moreover, the absurd difference between budgeting and actual allocation of funds mentioned in the previous chapter further reduces the likelihood of a favela proposal being challenged in the budgeting phase.
186 indicates the difficulty in finding common interests amongst all of the other demands or The Communities Speak: Data from the Study The BAN model exp lains the difficult to visualize political action of social movements of traditionally excluded groups. The model is tested here by considering differential success in demands on the government by favela residents who, although strongly politicized by the language of Liberation Theology that still dominates the assessment by the poor of their condition and position in Brazil, lack political, economic, and social resources necessary to participate as equals in claim making on the state. Further, the stark separation between asfalto and morro has maintained the conception of class in their movement, not based on proletarian solidarity (attraction or pull based commonality), but based on discrimination and exclusion from the rest of society (isolation or push based commonality). These two con textual conditions contribute to the clear, purposeful targeting of the government by the favela movements. Additionally, without a doubt, there is a constant subtext to favela movements intended to change the social discourse about their communities and lived demonstrations by residents the primary or unitary reason for involvement in the movement for many. Still, such riotous protests do not constitute a social movement and are included as an important part of the BAN. favela communities between 1993 and 2000, 2) the residents own reports of their living conditions from a 1998 census of the same communities, and 3) original research including participant observation and unstructured interviews in four favela s as well as semi s tructured interviews with the presidents of the AMs of 15 others.
187 Brazilian national, daily newspaper, O Globo, which I constructed for this study by searching in the favela between the years 1995 and 2000, and then collating, cleaning and coding thousands of 102 articles. This labor intensive process has an advantage over the next data source, a database of confli cts gathered from the news, in that my selection criteria were much more inclusive the articles merely had to mention the name of the favela rather than only selecting news with conflict related information, and then looking for favela names. This allowed the creation of a more complete picture of the public perception of the favela s, including secondary and tertiary mentions rather than only focusing on articles where the named favela was the main topic. The most obvious limitation of this database is tha t it depends on only one source: the O Globo daily newspaper, which has a reputation of collaborating with the national government and, with its headquarters in Rio, may also be susceptible to influence from the state or city level. However, by 1980, O Gl obo played an active role in watching over the government, and seems to have maintained that position, even if it remains economically conservative. Another limitation is that, due to cost constraints, I was only able to assess the article title plus the 150 words surrounding the favela name. The reason for maintaining this source despite its potentially severe limitations is that, being the only newspaper with a searchable database that covers the years of interest in this dissertation, it was the only option to capture five years of any mention of the favela s of interest. Additionally, to compensate for the lack of the full article, I achieved more than 97% congruence in coding trials between O Globo articles where the full text was available (current week 2005 102 Although I o riginally employed a research assistant to help with the coding, in the end I went back and checked or recoded every article personally. I do wish to give thanks to the efforts of my assistant, Juliana Cardoso.
188 2006) and the remnant available in their archive, which suggests that the title plus 150 words of context was sufficient to capture the essence of the reference (average of 595.5 words with standard deviation of 191.5). The database of conflicts in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area is a collection of thousands of articles culled by a team of university affiliated researchers from five different media sources, and then sorted by motive for the conflict, location of the conflict, participants in from 1990 2008, those occurring between 1995 and 2000 were selected for use in this study. This source was instrumental in picking which favela s had made t he news for either initiating or being the cause of some type of civil or legal conflict. Happily, it includes all manner of protests and is consequently sensitive to the most common type of favela level action. Coming from five different news sources is also beneficial because it casts its net wider than relying on a single source and can build a more complete profile of the conflict with collaborating or conflicting reports. The main drawback to this source is that it has a tendency to, when summarizi ng the reporting on a favela level conflict, leave out associated communities, focusing instead on the one or two that were directly involved and not those who may have lent support. On the other hand, this data does include supporting organizations like NGOs or religious institutions. Special census data giving extra details of 50 favela s comes from the PCBR and PCEBR studies carried out for the state of Rio de Janeiro by IETS, an NGO specializing in statistical description and analysis of economic indica tors and employment data. These two data sets were compiled from individual structured interviews in 50 different favela s with questions pertaining
189 favela around them, as well as their reports o f possessions, income, education, and occupation and migration history. The biggest benefit of this data is the large number of respondents (82,358 individuals from 21,704 households), and the roughly proportionate distribution of surveys by favela popul ation per city zone (North, South, Central, and West). More than one third of the 254,618 estimated population of the favela s in the study directly responded in person to this census, and represent around one quarter of the entire favela population of Rio at the time. The biggest limitation of this data, however, is that all of the favela s in the study were selected for prefeitural in situ upgrading projects ( Favela Bairro or Favela Barrinho), which means that neither the smallest nor the largest communi ties are included in the data set. This is not to suggest, however, that the programs had been implemented in all of these favela s nor that residents knew that their community was on the list for upgrade by 1996 1998, the years of the survey. Many of th ese same communities from the first round of the implementation of these world renowned projects are still waiting for the promised upgrades to anything more substantial than aesthetic improvements to those areas viewable by the passing public. Unfortunat ely, without a follow up study, the survey remains a snapshot of personal evaluations of their community at a single point in time. In order to make up for this limitation of previously collected data, as well as to be able to contextualize the findings fr om this study, I lived 103 a month each in four different favela s from 2005 2007 and maintain several friendships from that time, and conducted interviews with the favela s in 2008. Living in the communities and 103 In two of these cases, I did not find an a partment nor a family to stay with. Nevertheless, I visited daily for a minimum of eight hours, sometimes managing to sleep on couches for days. I feel that this arrangement was better in many ways than being bound to a single family and their extended g roup of friends because it allowed me to cover more ground, particularly in Rocinha, which has more than 100 named mini neighborhoods.
190 par ticipating in the daily lives and landmark events was irreplaceable for gaining an understanding of the reality behind quantitative evaluations of the communities, as well as the thoughts and actions of the residents. The interviews of the AM presidents provided information to understand what relationships exist and how the relationships function between media, politicians, NGOs and religious institutions and the favela residents and favela government. If it had not been for these qualitative interviews, enriched by my experience I would not have had the knowledge and information necessary to have developed the BAN model of political action around a favela And despite the comparatively limited exposure to the 50 favela s that I have the most data for, I believe that I was able to create generalizable understandings that have borne out under quantitative testing. As described in the previous two chapters, there is a high correlation between related terms in the various data sets, which gives great confide nce in the construct validity of social capital as used in this research, and confirms my coding for the 164 conflicts from the conflict database, the PCBR and the PCEBR surveys, and my original content analysis of more than 2,600 articles about the commun ities in the study. The major benefit of using such a variety of sources, each with its particular data value of a variable by looking for congruence between the various sources. In the reverse of the idea of triangulation in navigation at sea, which uses the angle of sighting from the ship to three known, mapped points in order to estimate its position, this study uses a definition of each concept as the central, known point and evaluates the data from variables that are hypothetically related to each definition. When these data demonstrate the expected pattern or correlations around each conceptual definition, it suggests that the data is indeed a measure of the concept
191 because it is related in the expected way to the concept as well as to the other independently measured data points. Hypothes i s: The evidence from these various sources is used below to test the following hypothesis: BANs are responsible for the success in those f avela s that gain government resources, Empirically, favela s related to external institutions such as the media, religious organizations, and NGOs, along with internal associat ions and groups will have higher quality infrastructure, health, and education services. This is broken down into the following empirically measurable hypotheses: 1) External actors are attracted to favela s where there is internal self organization visible th rough the presence of local groups of any type, membership in the AM, and religious organizations. (measures of passive soc ial cap ital ) 2) External actors are attracted to favela s where there is active group participation in community events. This can be se en in participation in AM events and group production of collective resources. (measures of active soc ial cap ital ) 3) External actors are positively associated with the quality of infrastructure of the favela 4) Internal organization is positively associated with the quality of infrastructure of the favela 5) The connections between internal groups, between external groups, and between internal and external groups is not formal but is based upon temporary overlaps i n their focus of attention to the similar purpose of improving the favela 6) External actors are positively correlated with the presence of government led development. Independent variables The independent variables in this study include both internal and external actors that influence the outcome of the favela quality dependent variables. The external actors are made up of the following groups or institutions: The media variable s repres ent the total number of articles, average words per, average articles per author, article frame (the frames are measured as the proportion of articles from all the articles about a particular favela that are about a certain topic like needy ness, police vi
192 articles to 5,000 about 50 favela s and end up with 2,600 articles about 39 favela s in the study. The variables regarding the involvement of religious institutions are reports that the f avela had been made better by religious institutions (survey of 80,000+ residents called PCBR elsewhere), news reports that include religious institutions in the favela (but not the action) The presence of non governmental organizations (NGOs) was determi ned from the news articles mentioned above that mention specific NGOs by name or description in the favela (again, action is not coded, but whether it is a positive or negative frame is) The unions and orges de classe variables are derrived from the PCBR census, calculated as the percentage of residents who reported they belonged either to a labor union or orgo de classe (work related organization described in chapter three). Internal actors are broken down into measures of passive social capital and act ive social capital. Passive social capital refers to those variables that indicate the presence or high probability of close networks that facilitate the creation of social capital such as: associao de moradores or AM) membership is the proportion of residents who reported membership in the AM usually requires a monthly subscription cost of R$2 5. Any favela organization is the proportion of residents who reported membership in any other organization within the favela (soccer tea m, bible study group riends proportion of residents who reported that the reason they had moved to a particular favela was because they already had friends living there. lients proportion of businesses inside the favela ( barbers, stylists private homes and not dedicated storefronts ) that report that a majority of their customers are from the favela Variables representing othe r potential actors within the communities look at social networks in action where social capital is being used (and most likely generated) through physically contributing to some group activity. These variables include: The proportion of residents who rep orted that they participated in AM organized events (not including elections).
193 The proportion of houses where the head of household reported that the water piping from the source was made by group work. The proportion of residents who reported that the f avela had improved over the time of The proportion of articles about each favela that contained a mention of some group building event or collective resource production (excluding protests) Dependent variables state, and federal politics requires variables quite different from those above. But a focus on the process outputs is often more important than one on the process itself, even more so when considering the convoluted practices of the Brazilian legislation system which is as rife with unrelated amendments and riders as that of the US. As outputs, the evidence is clear which favela s have benefitted from governmental development policies and wh ich have not. Unfortunately, governmental budgets and spending reports to quantify investment per favela were not accessible 104 The information that was available was the type of governmental programs at work in the sample of favela s from 1995 2000, news paper articles rating program progress for some of these cases, and resident and news reports on the various types of infrastructure that is commonly part of government upgrade projects. This information from non governmental sources is actually a better indicator in the end because of errors in tracking the all too common diversions of allocated funds, unscheduled delays, and years where budget items get no allocation. The data indicate a strong and highly significant correlation between government proje cts and 104 I worked for three years trying to uncover the detailed governmental budget that would list the resources that were inv ested in each favela in this study to no avail. There appears to be a purposive effort to obscure the final destination for funding related to urban development in Rio de Janeiro, regardless the origin. Pursuing the trail, I was advised three times, once by an AM president, once by a office assistant in the SMH, and once by a lawyer
194 infrastructure quality, which supports the belief that government resources are at least partially responsible for the quality of infrastructure, health, education, and sanitation in the favela s. Census results were all 5 point Likert scale items transformed into proportions of residents reporting that the infrastructure items listed below were very bad, bad, regular, good, or very good. The variables for quality of the community include: Quality of streets Quality of sports facilities (soccer f ) Quality of recreation facilities (skate ramp, tables and benches, lighting ) Quality of trash pickup Quality of crche Quality of clinic Sewage destination (city connection, septic tank, open septic field river, lake, or sea) Water sources (government created, group installed, installed by individual, no water in home) Similarly, the d ata from the O Globo dataset are all percentages of articles about the favela The quality related variable from this set include: Infrastructure rated as good Infrastructure rated as bad Environmental problems (separate for water, trash, deforestation, erosion, combination) Public health (mention of hospital, clinic, health team, or epidemic) Data Analysis 105 Overarching Hypothesis With a reasonable expectation that government resources are at least partially responsible for the quality of infrastructure, health, education, and sanitation in the favela s, the independent variables and their effects can be evaluated. The definition of BANs, as developed in this study, leads to the following overarching hypothesis for empirical testing: 105 This chapter relies on six different data sources (see appendix A for complete descr iptions): two are from a single census of 50 favela s of Rio de Janeiro, PCBR and PCEBR, the third is a database of more than 2,600 articles from O Globo directly related to the same 50 favela s, the fourth is a database of conflicts reported in the news fro m 1993 2000, the fifth is a series of 15 semi structured interviews conducted with presidents of favela associations, and the sixth is from a municipal database of favela s (IPP). It makes for awkward reading and writing in this chapter to conti a higher percentage of articles about social capital and portion of the favela population made of longer term ore readable but take nothing away from the transparency of the science behind the writing, each statistic is marked by a superscript letter indicating its origin: A = PCBR, B = PCEBR, C = O Globo Articles, D = Conflict Articles, E = Interviews, and F = IP P.
195 BANs are responsible for the successes of those favela s that gain g overnment resources, and the favela s related to external institutions such as the media, religious organizations, and NGOs, along with internal associations and groups wi ll have higher quality infrastructure, health, and education services. The individual relationships described in this hypothesis are examined below in terms of bivariate correlations using the computer statistics package SPSS 15.0. The results of these co rrelations 106 are reported in parentheses as a convenient manner of providing quantitative evidence with associated claims as attempting to provide a table to capture the various relationships would be unwieldy and confusing. I examined dependent variables and experimented with eliminating cases with radical outliers, but was dissatisfied because, in every case, the outliers existed for a reason that I felt needed to be captured if the study were to be at all generalizable. I performed factor analysis on t he independent and dependent variables in order to create a more concise list of important factors, and at the same time, eliminate problems of multicollinearity while maintaining internal, construct validity. From these results, I created composite measu res of active and passive social capital from the simple algebraic sum of individual variable values. Additionally, factor patterns allowed me to avoid variables with outliers in favor of those without outliers, but with a similar factor load (see Appendi x A). In this way, I was able to maximize the number of valid cases while ensuring construct validity. I performed partial correlations to try to identify potential intervening variables that were leading to extreme results; this is particularly the case for reported violence in the favela s. There is a high potential for violence by drug gangs or police to affect survey responses by reducing 106
196 quality per favela u sed in this study. Moreover there is a well known difficulty in carrying out development projects in communities where gang presence is particularly strong, which must reduce the actual, objective quality of each affected favela Yet, whereas gangs are d etrimental to favela quality and reports of favela quality, strong gangs tend to be located in those favela s in the most populated and wealthy parts of the city two variables hypothesized to be positively effect of violence on quality, I used first order partial correlations in the affected hypotheses 1 p 1 n 1 ). Hypothesis 1 (H1 ) states that e xternal actors are attracted to favelas where there is internal self organization visible through the presence of local groups of any type. Support for H1, or rejecting the null hypothesis, requires highly significant correlations between me asures of passive social capital A,B,C listed above and indicators for religious organizations A,C the media C and NGOs C,F associated with each favela Levels of passive social capital can be approximated from the data in this study including membership i n the AM A membership in any other group within the favela A the proportion of residents who moved to the favela to be with friends A the proportion of businesses whose clients are mostly from the favela B an index of length of residence A and the visibili ty of group cohesion in the news C These are considered to presence of visible groupings, excepting drug gangs, or the probability of grouping because of report ed friendship groups or longer residence that provides the context for the repeated reports and news articles indicating the presence of religious instituti ons and NGOs, repeated
197 connections with the media measured by number of articles and average length of the articles, as favela The data shows that the hypothesized relationships between grou p organization and external groups do exist as expected. The presence of NGOs C is highly positively correlated to scale of passive social capital 107 (r = .635, p = .066, n = 9), as are news reports of social capital C (r = .398, p = .013, n = 38). The corre lation between these two sources from the O Globo database is noteworthy in that there is little overlap (3.07%) between articles that include both social capital and NGOs. In other words, the communities were evaluated in different articles as having new sworthy instances of social capital in some, and NGOs in others. Further confirmation of H1 is that religious institutions C are also associated with measures of passive social capital. A simialr scale 108 of passive social capital is positively related to the presence of religious institutions (r = .688, p = .131, n = 4). The media, too, is associated with measures of passive social capital. Controlling for violence in first order partial correlations, the two scales 109 mentioned in this section are strongly correlated with higher numbers of articles about the favela s (r = .877, p = .022, n = 4 & r = .854, p = .030, n = 4) as are the individual component parts of each scale. Finally, 5 1 shows how unions and orges de c lasse are related to passive social capital. Hypothesis 2 (H2) states that e xternal actors are attracted to favelas where there is active group participation in community events that can be seen in participation in AM events and group production of colle ctive resources. External organizations are even more strongly associated with measures of active social capital than passive. NGOs C have strong, 107 AM membership A + other favela org member ship A + moved b/c friends A 108 AM membership A + other favela org membership A + moved b/c friends A + clients B + social capital articles C ; 109 1) AM membership A + other favela org membership A + moved b/c friends A + clients B + social capital articles C ; 2) AM membership + other favela org membership + moved b/c friends
198 positive relationships with three indices 110 of group action in the favela s (r = 1) .721, 2) .723, 3) .635, p = 019, .018, .066, n = 10, 10, 9). At the same time, one of these indices 111 is also highly correlated with the number (r = .662, p = .037, n = 10), average length (r = .628, p = .052, n = 10) 112 and positive frame (r = .316, p = .050, n = 39) of O Globo C arti cles during the time of this study. And, removing the suppressing effect of violence through a first order partial correlation, political action in protests and legal cases is shown to be strongly related to articles per author C about a particular favela (r = .905, p = .013, n = 4 & r = .963, p =.002, n = 4). Also, removing the effect of violence reveals the strong association between participation in the AM A and the length of articles. Finally, considering another category of possible external actors in a BAN, unions and orges de classe are highly correlated with participation in the AM and with reports that the favela improved because of the residents (see Table 5 2 ). Hypothesis 3 (H3) states that e xternal actors are positively associated with the qual ity of infrastructure of the favela. The link between NGOs and favela s may exist for the simple reason that NGOs budgets are paid by the government and international aid, so they go to the poor communities in order to attract money that is then turned in to salaries for the NGO employees, and potentially not much else. Interviews with numerous individuals in the larger favela s in Rio confirm that this type of exploitation of misery is not unusual. They even have a name for the large NGOs ( organizao no governemtal, ONG ) that are known to receive lots of input but produce little to no output king ee kong e there are many small NGOs that do meaningful work in the favela s and mid sized NGOs that 110 1) AM participation A better b/c residents A water by group A and protests C 2) AM participation, better b/c residents, water by group, and 3) AM participation, better b/c residents, pr otests 111 AM participation, better b/c residents, water by group 112 There is no significant correlation (r = .064, p = .698, n = 39) between number of articles and average length of the articles, which strengthens the argument that it is the intervening varia ble of active social capital that is responsible for the high correlation above.
199 specialize in demand mak ing on the favela s behalf. One example is Justcia Global, which is a grassroots police watchdog organization in Rio that bears witness and files actions on behalf of the favela s they are involved with. But with over 800 favela s in the city of Rio de Jan eiro, it is impossible for this, or any other organization, to work with them all. Fulano de Tal 113 the president of a South Zone AM, admits that both international and local NGOs have helped improve the quality of life there, however he complained that t hey are more interested in publicity and news coverage than actually helping. The NGOs apparently control the contact with the media 114 even preventing reporters from talking with residents and community leaders so that the NGO does not get associated with just one community. As the methodology for gathering these O Globo articles was to search by community name, the NGOs included in this study are not of that type to any large extent. Linking NGOs (domestic C and international C ) to measures of infrastructu re and service quality A in the favela s demonstrates the highly significant contribution they make to the communities in providing, securing, or helping to secure infrastructural resources (see Table 5 3 ). A reading of the articles that include international NGOs reveals that they include the Inter American Development Bank ( Banco Inter Americano do Desenvolimento, BID ) that co financed the largest in situ favela urbanization project in Rio de Janeiro, Favela Bairro, that had been implemented to some degree or another in 155 favela s by 2000. Other international NGOs made the news during the time of this study for opening art schools in poor communities, providing language classes, contributing to Escolas de Samba and even coordinating the visit of Prime Minister Tony Blair of England. 113 As promised in the pre interview IRB consent form, names have been changed and locations are not exact to prevent identification of sources. 114 When controlling for violence in a first order partial correlation,
200 In addition to NGOs, Unions, or s indicatos and orges de classe are predicted to be positively associated with favelas with stronger or more plentiful groups. These organizations were discussed in the third chapte r of this dissertation as an individual level source of social capital. As spaces for civil society interaction and debate, leadership opportunities, and links to other external organizations, they should also be considered here. Data analysis reveals th at favela s with higher percentages of members of these groups also have better infrastructure and services associated with governmental resources. Orges de classe is positively correlated with the index of all infrastructural resources and services (r = .483, p = .042, n = 18) and, in partial correlations controlling for violence, with better water (r = .545, p = .054, r = 11), sewage connection (r = .420, p = .153, n = 11), streets (r = .059, p = .076, n = 11), and trash pickup (r = .593, p = .033, n = 11). Unions, on the other hand, do not share the association with quality infrastructure, and are actually related to some negative indicators. The explanation for this is likely the strong correlation between union membership and the poorly developed W est Zone (r = .296, p = .035, n = 51), which is where the majority of industry is located. Additionally, unions are large sector to be as interested or effec tive in favela level affairs. Conversely, membership in the smaller and more local orges de classe is unrelated to location and is more likely to be based on participation instead of simply paying dues. Religious institutions make up another important po tential set of external actors. The previous chapter examined the role of Catholic base communities (CEBs) in fostering the capacity for favela residents to work together, and additionally carrying their voice 115 to the 115 akes sense that
201 government through the developed inst itution of the Church and its longstanding involvement with the government 116 This is one example of an external link that can bring about real change, not only in the government, but also in the social discourse. However, as Catholicism has given way to Evangelicals whose focus is more heavenward than to present conditions on Earth, the That religious institutions have taken a step back from politics does not affect their position as a social actor in a BAN for any given favela The historic relationship between churches and the favela s, coupled with the religiosity of the Brazilian culture, has created a generalized trust around them. Additionally, the evangelical services that popularize their relig ion through music and socializing create space for civil discourse within a bonding context. The role of the churches in the favela movement is to foster the creation, strengthening and maintenance of social capital. The leadership of the church can also be a link outside of the favela providing the resource of contacts and, potentially, influence. The data about religious institutions is contradictory in terms of effect on quality of favela infrastructure in a way that suggests the two measures are not capturing the same phenomenon. Controlling for violence in first order partial correlations, the proportion of articles referring to religious institutions in the favela s is associated with positive attributes such as an index of infrastructure (r = .464 p = .110, n = 11) and better clinics (r = .494, p = .086, n = 11). Conversely, the proportion of residents reporting that the favela improved because of religious institutions is significantly negatively associated with almost every measure of favela that is what the poor would support. At the same time, for millennia around the globe, religions have been n this here only to indicate that, in the discussion about the authenticity of the voice of the people, 116 Although the Church supported the military regime at th e start, a decade of violent repression, particularly against the poor, drove it to take up the cause of defending them in the early 1970s.
202 in frastructure from sewage (r = .593, p = .033, n = 11), streets (r = .634, p = .020, n = 11), sports (r = .641, p = .018, n = 11), and recreation (r = .542, p = .056, n = 11) to crches (r = .581, p = .037, n = 11) and clinics (r = .557, p = .048, n = 11). The two measures of religious institutions themselves have no significant relationship (r = .078, p = .782, n = 15), which points to the presence of institutions being unrelated to having improved the favela Although it is not possible to return t o the census respondents to clarify this difference, the likely explanation for saying that the reason for community improvement was because of motivo pelo condies melhores na comunidade religioso ) is that this declaration is a per sonal statement rather than one that applies to the condition of the community. and spiritual opportunities to the point that they feel more individually satisfi ed. In the context of appearing in newspaper articles, however, the institution represents either an actor or scene of the story. In the second case, merely appearing in the paper indicates institutional participation in social or political action. In t he first case, however, turning eyes upward and focusing on the next life is a protective reaction that acts as a substitute for political demand making. With their own motives, both print and broadcast media have great potential for influencing the flow of public goods, and are examined here as a final external actor. The media, as captured by the O Globo database, has a strong tendency to frame favela s in a negative light. More words are written about favela p = .103, n = 15) problem in the community (r = .054, p = .056, n = 15). More articles overall are written about favela s where violence is the major concern (r = .491, p = .063, n = 15) and where residents cite violence as the major cause for conditions getting worse (r = .857, p = .000, n = 15) Article
203 topics focus on police violence C (r = .469, p = .003, n = 39) and traficantes (r = .328, p = .041, n = 39), whereas communities that receive positive coverage C in the press even once receive less coverage overall (r = .268, p = .099, n = 39). That the media accentuates the negative in favela s runs counter to the expectations of H3 above. However, these fin dings have two explanations, both of which fit into the model of BANs. First, the actors in the binding networks are known to have their own motivations for associating with the cause of the favela s. The only requirement under this model is that their par ticipation be purposeful in furthering the movement, but clearly this has to be accomplished alongside their other competing interests. The tendency to exaggerate the violent aspect of the favela s is consistent with the commercial interests of O Globo in that this particular frame is very popular with the O Globo readership and it would seem overly liberal to present favela s in positive frame or as deserving of attention. Additionally, reading about cops and robbers is evocative and entertaining, much mor e so than reporting that a group worked over weekends to another version of favela stories and so it is stuck with the pattern of drugs and violence. Also, and this is not to deny the real danger that can exist for strangers asking questions in favela s, reporters are nervous to enter and end up getting most of their information from the police (Arias, 2004) the side that reflects 99% of the daily life in the community 117 develop relationships with the AMs or small, local NGOs who could use the public voice to speak to the government. This is one of t he reasons that so much of the political action of favela residents must take place on the streets outside of the community. It is the only place where they 117 In a 1984 study, more than 13% of favela residents reported that police were discriminatory while only 3.65% of people outside of favela s felt the same way (Pedrosa et al., 1990, p. 27) In 2004, 52% of the favela residents interviewed reported similar feelings of discrimination by the police (Perlman, 2004, p. 3 2)
204 will be noticed and have their story heard. Across the interviews with AM presidents in this stud lobbies of the public ministries, secretariats, and politicians. The media, then, appears to be hindering the secondary goal of the favela movement, that of changin g the societal discourse around favela favela and the government in their bid for resources. One indication that reporters may be using the power of the press to amplify the voice of favela residents is demonstrated in the data for H2, that reporters tend to develop relationships, measured in number of articles per author by favela with favela s that have high l need are longer, on the average, than about any other subject (r = .559, p = .059, n = 10). Table 5 4 illustrates, consistent with H3, the favela s that have built a relationship with an au thor tend to have better infrastructure and services. Moreover, when removing the suppressing effect of violence from the correlations, more and longer articles portray the poor conditions of favela s that can be seen as a constant pressure on the governme nt to address their unmet needs. Hypo thesis 4 (H4) states that i nternal organization is positively associated with the quality of infrastructure of the favela. Similar to H4 above, measur es of active social capital were analyzed to determine their correl ation with favela quality. Counter intuitively, active social capital was not found to be related to higher quality infrastructure and services in the favela s if anything, they are related to poorer quality. Measures of passive or potential social capita l, in contrast, are significantly and strongly associated with improved communities as demonstrated in Table 5 5 An element of passive social capital is the proportion of favela commerce with a majority of clients from the favela Higher proportions of local clients per
205 business suggests either 1) an isolated favela with few options for purchasing goods and services in the surrounding areas, 2) a very large favela like Complexo Alemo or Mar where walking to the morro/asfalto border can take as much as an hour, or 3) a favela with well developed commerce such as Rocinha or Nova Holanda. The causal mechanism to explain the importance of the clients residing in the favela is that there are more opportunities for interaction as the residents are not exitin g the favela as much as in other communities. Increased interaction leads to stronger social ties and the development of commonalities around which they might unite and act. Front porch markets to storefronts in the favela s tend to charge a premium for th e convenience, and most individuals would prefer to shop in larger discount stores. However, shopping outside of the community requires the investment of time, round trip bus transportation, and moto taxi transport on the return if loaded with purchases. Furthermore, one of the limitations of poverty in the informal economy is that food must often be purchased daily, or only as often as money comes in, which makes such forays outside of the favela impractical, and the savings of buying in bulk unattainable. In any case, apart from the possibility of good commercial development, the other two possibilities point to poor favela s that would not commonly be thought of as being developed. It is fittin potential social capital would have the weakest correlations of the three reported in Table 5 5. The unexpected negative correlation between active social capital and resources actually fits the BAN model well as it turns out that the worse the conditions in the favela the more likely explain how the differentiation in resources occurs, and suggests that favela groups, a nd links between favela groups and external actors facilitate demand making on the government. Without
206 the motivation derived from discontent with favela conditions, the groups do not become active, and are therefore invisible to researchers using externa l sources. The opposite relationships of passive or potential social capital being associated with more resources, and active social capital being associated with fewer is evidence that government is moved to invest in favela s with strong (albeit passive) social capital. However, favela s only develop active social capital when Hereby, H4 becomes the most important in terms of looking for democracy at the grassroots. How internal organization turns into claim making on the g overnment is a picture of political participation where official avenues are closed or unreachable. Focusing exclusively on the links to external support organizations diminishes the amount of agency that the favela residents regularly display, particular ly in terms of protests and legal action in the courts. External links are essential, but it is important to remember that the demands are first articulated by the aggrieved, not by others on their behalf in a paternalistic manner. A history of favela pr otests C ( manifestaes ) is associated (r = .229, p = .160, n = 39) with unhealthy living conditions C (1970) of relative deprivation driving contentious action. Protests are also linked to an index 118 of active social c apital A (r = .571, p = .085, n = 10) (see Table 5 6) While this was captured to some extent in the conflicts database D it can be tied directly to the communiti es through the database of O Globo articles E These articles include suits for regularized title to occupied land ( usucapio ), wrongful death suits against the police, and requests for resources based on comparative inequality. The correlations here are consistent with 118 Percent of residents who participate in AM events A + percentage of residents with water connections made by group self help work A + percentage of residents who reported that the community improved because of other residents A
207 these motives, with a justifiable complaint about access to water (r = .284, p = .086, n = 39) and trash collection (r = .722, p = .003, n = 15) (see Table 5 6) Sports and recreation, a big problem in these tightly packed communities, are often developed through government construction of basketball/soccer courts and skate ramps as well as through large, off site recreation centers known as Vilas Olmpicas. In some communities, the city pays for youth sports training. On site sports p rojects tend to be cheap tokens to give to a floundering community. Nevertheless, the sports (r = .451, p = .089, n = 15) and recreation (r = .453, p = .093, n = 15) facilities reported by the residents in communities with articles about legal cases by residents tend to be poor. But because legal cases from favela s concern three main reasons, abusive police, lack of infrastructure, or land title, and favela s with both shorter and longer term residents suffer equally from these problems, a natural hypothesis is that these two variables would not correlate significantly. Contrary to intuition, legal cases are positively related to higher percentages of newer residents (under 10 years) (r = .349, p = .043, n = 34). There is a two part explanation f or this phenomenon that starts with the AM being the primary source of origination of legal cases, and ends with the reluctance of longer term residents to interact with it, as mentioned above. Hypothesis 5 (H5 ) states that t he connections between internal groups, between external groups, and between internal and external groups is not formal but is based upon temporary overlaps in their focus of attention to the similar purpose of improving the favela. Looking first at NGOs and AMs, first order partial co rrelations controlling for the presence of NGOs helped to clarify the picture of where they fit in to community organization. The results of relating the social capital measures to measures of favela quality reveal that
208 without NGOs there is less organiza tion 119 around the problem of sewage (r = .393, r 1st =.395; p = .004, p 1st = .381; n = 51, n 1st = 5) and recreation (r = .574, r 1st = .727; p = .013, p 1st = .064; n = 18, n 1st = 5). In other words, NGOs have an augmentative effect on the organization in favela s that have problems with sewage and recreation. However, because the data on infrastructure is not longitudinal, it is not possible to know what the results of this organizing effect are. On the other hand, the links between both active and passive soci al capital and the quality of life in the favela have already been demonstrated, so it is fair to suggest that the organizing effect of the NGOs on favela s will eventually produce positive outcomes. The presence of NGOs has a suppressing effect on the asso ciation between AM membership and trash collection, at least where the collection is good. That is, there is a higher 1st = .846; p = .031, p 1st = .016; n = 18, n 1st = 5) and par ticipation (r = .407, r 1st = .795; p = .094, p 1st = .032; n = 18, n 1st = 5), as well as with participation in other favela organizations (r = .490, r 1st = .832; p = .039, p 1st = .020; n = 18, n 1st = 5) when controlling for the presence of NGOs. In this case, NG Os reduce both the size of the correlation as well as the probability that the relationship between the variables is not by chance. Trash collection, however, is a special case among the government services to favela s as COMLURB has been proactive in tryi ng to prevent urban pollution from the favela s since 1989 when they implemented and funded the gari communitrio program. For most (66%) of the AM presidents interviewed for this study, the monthly stipend for the local garis is the only money they recei ve, and for 100% of them, it is the only state money they receive. The result has been symbiotic in that the program solves the access problem that was plaguing COMLURB, improved the health of the favela s and the surrounding neighborhoods, and strengthene d the AMs by giving them authority, albeit limited, in the 119 AM membership, AM participation, any other bairro association.
209 community and a where there is no need. The suppressing effect of NGOs in this case is due to NGOs associating with f avela part in favela BANs, working and drawing resources to where there is necessity rather than wherever is easiest. The same can be said for favela s in which the water del ivery is clean and constant: there is a suppressing effect of NGOs C on the correlation of AMs A that have already been successful with this resource A A second order partial correlation with AMs, controlling for both NGOs and age F of the favela shows that age also affects the delivery of water (r = .097, r 2nd = .860; p = .498, p 2nd = .028; n = 18, n 2nd = 4). In other words, AMs have a strong positive correlation on their own that becomes obscured when considering the age and presence of NGOs in the favel s. Moving on to other actors, o f the four categories of external organizations analyzed in this study, unions and orges de classe is the only one that does not have any direct connection to the favela Whereas NGOs enter the favela s to implement projec ts or create headquarters and community centers, religious organizations either convert homes or build places of worship, and the media reports what happens inside of favela s, the two work related organizations require residents to leave the favela to interact with them. The unions of favela workers that were created in the 1920s and 1930s were effectively dismantled by the military regime and have not been reincarnated. Similarly, the organizations of favela s discussed in the previous chapter, ar e poorly attended and anyway only involve the community leaders. The major role for these organizations in the BANs is to provide leadership training and space for civil debate and exchange of information. Nevertheless, favela s with larger percentages of union or orgo de classe members do have correlations to NGOs, the media, and religious institutions.
210 The NGO Viva Rio, although considered by many to be a South Zone organization, has a positive correlation with orges de classe even controlling for zone (r = .307, p = .057, n = 39). On the other hand, union membership has a negative correlation with NGOs in general, again controlling for zone (r = .269, p = .098, n = 39). Union membership has a potentially important link with total articles per favela (r = .296, p = .068, n = 39). The connection is not likely direct as in unions contacting the press on the behalf of the favela but rather union members acting as a bridge to facilitate the adoption of a technique from the professional demand makers int o their no significant effect with zone (r = .246, p = .131, n = 39), which again has no logical, causal connection. This type of association, however, fi ts the BAN model and speaks to H5. External organizations need not interact with the other external organizations on behalf of the favela the expectation is only that the more external support the favela has, the more likely it is to be successful in get ting its demands met by the government. Confirmatory evidence of this, following the other hypotheses, is that if external organizations are all attracted to favela s with high levels of internal organization, then these organizations should also be associ ated at the favela level. Religious institutions were found to have a significant impact on community visibility in the media. Analysis revealed a strong correlation between favela residents reporting that their community was improved by religious organiz ations A and the number of articles C produced about that community (r = .617, p = .014, n = 15) suggesting a potential network connection between the church or church groups and catching the attention of the press. It appears that the variable representing favela improvement by religious organizations A suppresses the relationship between protests C and articles about religion C
211 because of religion A a strong relationship appears (r 1st = .821, p 1st = .000, n 1 st = 12) that did not exist in the multiple regression (r = .177, p = .231, n = 39). The lack of correlation (r = .140, p = .396, n = 39) between the total number of articles C and the number of articles C linking religion and favela s indicates that the fo rmer relationship is not a side product of reporting on a church in the favela and picking up on another story. Still controlling for religion A communities with more articles C about religion are associated with environmental problems C (r = .711, p = .004 n = 12), threats of removal C (r = .759, p = .002, n = 12), legal cases C (r = .495, p = .072, n = 12). This fits H5, that churches play a part in getting favela or bonding, organizing, and reaching out. Thinking of a BAN as a series of branches or links between other networks, the high correlation (r = .693, p = .038, n = 9) between religious organizations A and the index of passive social capital A described above suggests that the complete mechanism starts with the residents, passes through the AM and local churches to the press. To complete the process, the press would have to attract governmental attention, which is the topic of the next section. Hypothesis 6 (H 6) states that external actors will be positively correlated with the presence of government led development As mentioned above, transparent budgeting and allocation data was not available to confirm H5. The O Globo database does contain many articles that mention the largest contemporary projects in the favela s. During the time of this study, the government ha d recently implemented Favela Bairro, Favela Bairrinho, and Grande Favela in situ upgrading programs. The result was that the smaller projects and unassociated government expenditures were eclipsed and did not receive media coverage except when residents protested against the government for stalling implementation or completion of a
212 promised project. The proxy for government development, as described in H3, is the quality of infrastructure level resources and services such as roads, sewage, water, clinics and crches. This is an imperfect proxy as these resources and services may have been produced locally or with the support of an NGO, without benefitting from the government. Interviews with AM presidents, however, confirms that the major development p rojects were performed by the government or under government grant to a private construction company. Still, the findings presented in the discussion of H3 can be improved using the gross measures available. Because of the newspaper priority on reporting violence, a partial correlation removing its effect reversed what was a negative correlation and revealed that favela s with more press coverage overall are likely to have some government program (r 1st = .451, p 1st = .122, n 1st = 11). And controlling for t he number of articles on the three major favela upgrade programs, where there are more articles per author, there is likely to be a government project (indicated by a zero one dummy variable) (r 1st = .272, p 1st = .098, n 1st = 36), as there are when control ling for active social capital 120 (r 1st = .611, p 1st = .081, n 1st = 7). Likewise, when removing the effect of this same active social capital index, the presence of religious institutions is strongly tied to the Favela Bairrinho program (r = .931, p = .000, n = 7). The strong correlation between active social capital and government programs hides or suppresses the relationship between religious institutions and the Bairrinho program. Not unexpectedly, there is not a very strong relationship between unions or orges de classe and governmental resources as these organizations have no real role in the favela s. All the same, unions have a weak positive association with the favela Bairrinho program (r = .255, p = .117, n = 39). 120 AM participation, better b/c residents, water by group
213 Competing Hypotheses This sectio n considers alternative explanations for differentiated success among favela s in securing government resources. The alternatives are more traditional in terms of literature about favela s and about relations between the government and the poor they do not acknowledge the agency of the favela residents, and they do not consider the possibility of democratic participation from the poor. Nevertheless, they have face validity and should be evaluated instead of simply relying on the null hypothesis, that BANs d o not determine which favela s receive resources, as the rather vague competition to the proposal presented here. Clientelism The 1982 release of Voting and the Political Machine: Patronage and Clientelism in Rio de Janeiro (Diniz) presented a detailed picture of how prevalent the anti democratic practice was, how it worked, and why it existed so openly. While the military regime has been transformed into a nominal democracy, evidence of political perfidy is presented daily in the news. The question is not whether clientelism exists in the favela s, but rather if clientelism is responsible for the government resource flow that has improved some favela s and left other (1990b, 199 0a, 1999) excellent study favela s whose political practices point to a growing aw areness among favela residents that the benefits of clientelism are not particularly grand, and that remaining in the grasp of patronage politics is actually betraying their future 121 That is to say that it is not a foregone conclusion that clientelism hol ds sway in all or even most of the favela s of Rio. Some evidence that points to patronage politics from the data in this study is found in the difference between the Favela Bairro and Favela Bairrinho programs. Bairrinho, similar to Favela Bairro, was des igned to upgrade and urbanize smaller and less populous favela s with 121 Marketing Democracy (Paley, 2001) is another interesting study with the same general findings of post dictatorship dichotomies among the poor who are separated by their d edication to meaningful democracy or still caught in clientelistic webs.
214 basically all of the same architectural and infrastructural improvements. Interestingly, while residents in communities that were upgraded by Favela Bairro by 1998 reported that the gove rnment had improved their community, those in Favela Bairrinho communities reported that and not religious organizations. There are many public complaints re garding the top down style of implementation in the larger Bairro program even though the design called for including residents in the planning and construction phase in each favela These same complaints are not as typical for the smaller program, perhap s because it was easier to include and employ a representative sample of residents in the smaller community for the group opinion to be satisfied. On the other hand, the Bairrinho project has a significant association to the articles mentioning clienteli stic practices in the favela s (r = .700, p = .000, n = 39). This supports the speculation that the Bairrinho program was begun in communities with an understanding that e possibility of clientelism affecting favela response rate) reported that their community had received resources from the government in exchange for votes E during the period of this study. The actual percentage is likely higher than reported as the same respondents indicated that between 50% and 100% (average 85%, 75% response rate) of the neighboring favela s were involved in the practice. Furthermore, when interviews with these respondents co ntinued outside of the office, or had to be broken into different parts over some days, the response often changed from denying to admitting that vote buying occurs in their community. Clientelism tends to create particularistic rather than general benef its as the patrons, although they like to be seen in favela s around election time, prefer to deal with a broker who
215 usually includes his own fee on top of what he must promise the community. Clientelistic relationships could be counted as a logical aspect of BANs as the vote buying requires a certain amount of solidarity on the part of the residents 122 For the purposes of this study, which describes democratic participation from the grassroots, clientelism must be considered as a non democratic subset of e xternal connections. Age and Size and Location as Determinants The ages of the favela s in this study were determined by either their official history maintained by the AM that reports the year of occupation E,F or by an official entry in the municipal registry that was opened in 1981 F or the first year of legalization of tenure of at least one parcel in the favela F In most cases in this study, all three dates were obtained. The age of the favela as measured from the date of founding F definitely play s a role in the types of problems that the favela s confront. For example, the older favela s are inversely related to reports of infrastructure problems C (r = .330, p = .046, n = 37), that is to say that the older the favela the fewer problems it has w ith infrastructure. This relationship between age and quality of infrastructure may be explained by the lack of governmental projects C in the younger favela s F (r = .291, p = .085, n = 36). Newer favela s also have to worry more about being targets for rem oval E,F (r = .437, p = .007, n = 37), and the perception in the news trends away from positive framing C (r = .429, p = .009, n = 36), which suggests they should receive less sympathy from society at large. Controlling for favela age alone, reveals the suppressing effect of the year of occupation on the relationship between AMs and the quality of trash pickup (r = .508, r 1st = .894; p = .031, p 1st = .007; n = 18, n 1st = 5). Removing AMs, on the other hand, shows that older favela s t end to have worse trash pickup (r 1st = .817, p 1st = .025, n 1st = 5), worse sewage (r 1st = .792, p 1st = .034, n 1st = 122 Interview participants explained F that between a 33 50% block of votes had to be arranged as the going rate for these brokered exchanges.
21 6 5), and worse streets (r 1st = .698, p 1st = .081, n 1st = 5). Favela s with more AM membership, then, are a mitigating factor in the qualit y of group level infrastructure, and therefore an important element of the BAN. In terms of size, there is a direct relationship between the area occupied by the favela F and the population A (r = .639, p = .000, n = 49) 123 which is only surprising in the fac e of the vertical growth and increasing population density in the older and more urban favela s. The large population creates a profitable market base for drug gangs, and the large area makes hiding from police raids easier, consequently police violence C i s higher (r = .39, p = .016, n = 38), and is confirmed by the residents A (r = .874, p = .000, n = 17). As sex and violence make for good entertainment, which is enough of a reason that the more violent favela s get more coverage. Larger favela s are not on ly more violent, they are also more likely to be visible from the street more articles written about the more populous favela s (r = .90, p = .000, n = 38). The ch apter on the history of favela s described the growth pattern of the communities as moving from the center of the city and port area to the South Zone and then populating the North Zone as jobs drew workers in that direction. The favela removals in the 196 0s and 1970s started the move into the West Zone and eradicated most of the South Zone and some of the central favela s. There is currently a patchwork of founding dates across the map of Rio, so the statistical relationship between the year of founding of the community and geographic zone are not significant. 123 The relationships of all of the following c orrelations provided parenthetically are reported consistently with age, population, size, and percent all having the same directionality. I have tried to use a more natural language to describe the relationships such as reporting that newer favela s ten d to be smaller, which is an inverse relationship between size and age and the r value is presented as a negative number.
217 The main geographic pattern of favela quality shows that South Zone and city center communities F A as those in the North and West (r = .422, p = .007, n = 39). This geographic measure of inequality is particularly vivid in light of the A (r = .391, p = .005, n = 51). Long Term versus Short Term Residents The time of reside nce in a community is important for many reasons, and the collection of the benefits and drawbacks due to the percentage of residents who have lived in the same favela for 1 to 3, 3 to 5, 5 to 10, and more than 10 years A is directly linked to its age F and population A (r = .275, p = .064, n = 46). Probably due to this, the more residents in a community with long periods of residence live with less fear of removal A ,E (r = .381, p = .026, n = 34), better water delivery A (r = .279, p = .060, n = 46), and better conditions overall C (r = .347, p = .021, n = 34). The common sense explanation, that older favela s have had more opportunity to be developed bears out under statistical investigation. Newer favela s F tend to have shorter term residents A (r = .394, p = .007, r = 46) whereas the longer term residents A (10 years or more) can just as distinctly be found in the older ones (r =.384, p = .008, r = 46). This becomes important when social capital is introduced to this explanation as the natural expectation is that in communities with longer term residents wo uld have more social capital built through the repeated interactions of daily life (r = .264, p = .076, n = 46), more time to be picked up by the news C and turned into a household name (total articles: r = .306, p = .078, n = 34), and more chances for inst itutionalized external relationships Of course, there are some confounding circumstances such as the larger population A area, and
218 violence A,C associated with longer term residents, as well as clientelism C associated with governmental projects C (r = .74 5, p = .000, n = 39). These variables should detract from social capital. All the same, the larger the percentage of long term residents A in a favela the higher the correlation with measures of social capital A,C which makes sense given the discussion on how social capital is formed in the preceding chapter. More iterated interactions between individuals means greater predictability of future interactional outcomes at the very least. It also allows time for individuals with similar interests to find e ach other and create friendships or familiarities. Turning to the individual level data, there is a strong, positive relationship between the amount of time an individual resides in a favela A and belonging to some community organization A other than the AM (r = .363, p = .000, n = 13131). No significant correlation was found between AM membership and length of residence in the favela although from qualitative interviews, longer Conclusion Social and political phenomena are remarkably complex. In order to create a model with any applicability outside of a single case, some tolerance is allowable regarding its expectations and requirements. The competing hypotheses clearly expla in a part, albeit small, of the differentiation in favela success. One component of the limited size of their effect is the simplicity of the single causal mechanism. In the final exa mple above, that of length of residence in the community, finding the intervening variable of social capital begins to give explanatory power to the otherwise context less correlation. The BAN model, with its six hypotheses, provides context for the power of each of its elements and links them in a coherent chain starting with the causes of resident binding at the
219 lowest level and then bonding into favela level organizations. The model carries through to the logical conclusion of external actors, associate d with a given favela also associated with government projects and resources in that favela At each step, the evidence confirmed the hypotheses, and anomalies were explainable under the system that was described at the outset no patchwork exceptions aki The following chapter, the last in this dissertation, will examine the success of this new model of social movements and its use of a clarified definition of social capital in terms of how it contributes to the current literature in political science.
220 Table 5 1 : Correlations between passive social capital, orges de classe and unions AM membership M ove b/c friend C lients in the favela r = 0.949 0.114 0.453 Orgo de Classe p = 0.000 0.651 0.002 n = 51 18 44 r = 0.420 0.481 0.052 Union p = 0.002 0.043 0.739 n = 51 18 44 Table 5 2 : Correlations between active social capital, orges de classe and unions AM participation Favela better b/c residents r = 0.704 0.285 O rgo de classe p = 0.000 0.252 n = 51 18 r = 0.380 0.492 Union p = 0.006 0.038 n = 51 18 Table 5 3 : Correlations between quality of infrastructure and services to NGOs Streets Sports Recreation Trash Crche Clinic Sewage r = 0.957 0.969 0.966 0.892 0.986 0.981 0.746 Local NGO p = 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 n = 15 15 15 15 15 15 39 r = 0.762 0.781 0.765 0.634 0.798 0.802 0.417 All NGOs p = 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.011 0.000 0.000 0.008 n = 15 15 15 15 15 15 39
221 Table 5 4 : First order partial correlations between measures of media and infrastructural quality controlling for violence Trash Sewer Streets Sports Recreation Crches Clinics r 1 = 0.346 0.583 0.591 0.511 0.498 0.588 0.566 Article t otal p 1 = 0.270 0.036 0.033 0.075 0.083 0.034 0.044 n 1 = 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 r 1 = 0.331 0.606 0.533 0.331 0.276 0.522 0.544 Average wo rds p 1 = 0.293 0.028 0.011 0.294 0.385 0.082 0.067 n 1 = 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 r 1 = 0.628 0.446 0.376 0.499 0.462 0.465 0.456 Articles per p 1 = 0.029 0.146 0.229 0.099 0.130 0.128 0.136 a uthor n 1 = 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Table 5 5 : Bi variate correlations between measures of internal organization and infrastructure quality controlling for violence sewer, water, streets, trash, sports, recreation, clinic and crche streets, trash, sewer, and water clinic and crche sports and recreation r = 0.446 0.770 0.425 0.487 Majority clients from favela p = 0.169 0.006 0.192 0.129 n = 11 11 11 11 r = 0.923 0.680 0.928 0.908 Social capital in the news p = 0.000 0.005 0.000 0.000 n = 15 15 15 15 r = 0.896 0.738 0.878 0.864 AM and other favela p= 0.001 0.023 0.002 0.003 organization membership n = 9 9 9 9
222 Table 5 6 : Explaining motivation and capacity for protests and legal action: zero and first order correlations between active social capital, media measures, and residents' visible demand making AM participation, better b/c residents, water by group Articles per author Article highlights necessity Discussion about removing favela r= 0.571 0.123 0.229 0.531 Protests p= 0.085 0.457 0.160 0.001 n= 10 39 39 39 r 1 = 0.363 0.986 0.110 0.205 Protests p 1 = 0.548 0.002 0.860 0.740 ctrl violence n 1 = 3 3 3 3 r= 0.280 0.024 0.448 0.085 Residents' p= 0.434 0.882 0.004 0.608 legal action n= 10 39 39 39 Residents' r 1 = 0.492 0.966 0.022 0.245 legal action p 1 = 0.400 0.007 0.972 0.691 ctrl violence n 1 = 3 3 3 3
223 Figure 5 1 : Internal and external linkages around favela issues
224 CHAPTER 6 WHAT DOES THIS ALL M EAN? Implications for the Current Conversations in Political Science The findings of the study reported in this dissertation directly address one form of democratic inclusion is generally overlooked in contemporary political science literature. This concluding chapter points to the implications of this research, both to var ious disciplines of political science, as well as to practical, policy oriented application. A future research agenda is then presented, which applies the methodology developed here to cases outside of the favela s of Rio de Janeiro, as well as laying out plans to improve upon the inevitable shortcomings of this current project. The answer to the question that drove this study is that the model: Binding Action Networks seems to go a long way in determining the dif ferential success between favela s that receive, receive little, or do not receive government resources. In general terms, this study has approached the idea of consolidation of democracies from the grassroots rather than the common top down approach. Th e central issue underlying each economic disadvantaged fit into a still consolidating position on some of the best land of Rio and who have been habitually repressed from using their political voice, have influence in the politics there. The answer is: yes, they do. Upon finding that favela more complex as it approach es how this process works. This requires a two stage evaluation. First, the horizontal connections that perform the function of the formal aggregating institutions like political parties have to be located, and then the vertical connections between such non traditional or informal groupings and the government must be identified. The academic discourse about social capital is the point of departure for understanding the creation, and nature,
225 of the networks of favela residents. Social movements literatur e is the entrance to the vertical connection. First, an unpacked version of the concept of social capital is developed and then applied to determine how demands are aggregated among those in the lowest socio economic strata. The detailed description of th e different axes or spectra for considering the various qualities and intensities of social capital turn, what was before a black box, into a transparent process. This use of social capital provides an insight into the formation of groups from individuals and the attachments between these groups and formal institutions and in so doing, it fills an important lacunae in the social movement literature. Once the picture of favela level actors is clarified, social movement theories are considered as the means for analyzing the vertical connections that transform horizontally formed demands into claims on the government. In doing so, current conversations on social movements are found inappropriate to explain the resources and interactions that occur in the fa vela s of Rio de Janeiro. Democracy and Democratization Unlike the vast majority of the literature on democracy, this study looks from the ground up, which is appropriate when looking for the influence of a heterogeneous group that has no organized lobby or political party to collect its voice and carry it to the debate inside the government. Whereas these formal aggregating institutions are generally sufficient to involve the middle and upper strata of society, they do not democratically represent large pa rts of the citizenry in countries with great economic inequality. In other words, primacy for quality of, and inclusion in, democracy is put on individual agency instead of structural access points into government.
226 Civil society One major theme in democra tization literature is that of the creation and action of civil society as a precursor for democratic participation. There is a paternalistic argument among many in Brazil that favela residents cannot take care of themselves and that transfer payments to the poor in general are misspent on drugs and alcohol instead of childcare and education. This line of thinking portrays favela s as an anarchic wilderness, not unlike the England that Thomas Hobbes saw when he looked out of his window in 1651. To the con trary, this study has shown that there is a robust civil society in the favela s of Rio. Because most literature on democratization looks at top down structures, civil society is sing the lens of social capital, this study details the mechanism for self organization, as well as how the process of organizing creates the space for exchanging ideas and interacting within civil society a spectrum of possibilities rather than a conditio relationships formed in this space has been the creation of groups of residents who are informed (1969) together to work in cooperation in spite of the general disincentives of the collective action problem. These voluntary associations are the schools for demo cracy that Putnam (2000) describes, teaching thoughtful decision making, valuing the whole group rather than just parts of that group, and working alongside one anot her to realize goals that is understanding, taking responsibility for, and valuing that each individual has a role within a non family system, the goal of which is self perpetuation. Unlike other works that contribute to an understanding of civil society, this examination of favela society. The para statal organizations and informal economic associations found in favela s
227 ooking at the role of bridging social capital and open versus closed groups, the author demonstrates how civil society exists in favela s and may lead to variable embeddedness of favela residents, or to avoidance of the government. State and society: E mbe ddeness and democratization Almond and Verba (1963) speculate that democracy can only thrive in a society where there are som leaders must be representative of the entire society, or it must be prepared to use repression to exclude and pacify the losers in the system when they begin to care and are no longer content to follow. Creating the culture of solving problems through dialogue and interaction with the system is the key to maintaining governmental stability. This is why everything from the legal filings to the aggressive but ultimately controll able street level protests are so important for the Brazilian state because the favela s are ultimately working within the constraints of the state to affect decisions made by the state rather than trying to overturn the system. The actual mechanism for wo stem. The voluntary associations among favela residents can cut both ways for the government, however. Evidence presented in the second chapter elaborates how social capital can work to provide favela tion, creating an unproductive drain on state resources in the form of aid, security, and health costs as well as uncaptured taxes and theft of governmental resources. The group that intentionally chooses disenfranchisement is a constant threat to the sov ereignty of the state. In Rio de Janeiro, it is drug gangs and independent militias that carve out neighborhoods where their own law exists and the legal government may not interfere. The government walks a fine line as a democracy whose
228 consensus decisi ons are not accepted and consequently not obeyed in areas within its borders. Accepting the status quo will lead to the eventual dissolution of the democratic system; there cannot be two sovereigns in one state. Repression is s slippery slope for a democ ratic government, particularly for Brazil where the government has already slid down that path before into dictatorship. The remaining choice is re negotiating the consensus so that it is minimally acceptable to the excluded groups. How this process mig ht be carried out cannot even be imagined via current images of democracy and democratization because the tools and elements in this literature are not fine enough or do not reach far enough into the population to approach how they might be reached. The d emocratization discussion needs to consider the informal web of binding networks that the favela residents seem to favor over the more enduring bridging or bonding connections. It is the BANs described in the previous chapter that could reveal those who co uld easily become isolated, and work towards embedding them in the state. After absorbing the uncaptured population, the quality of democratic participation must be improved, whether it is pro forma partic ipation in elections, or whether voluntary associations among the favela residents and is not a habit that can be forced 124 Social Capital The conversation arou nd social capital provides inroads into the actual processes and methods of voluntary association. While most authors of social capital literature are content to view networks as a useful resource equivalent to a hammer or a dollar, whether the subject is an 124 Of course, the Soviet model o f the Young Pioneers (a kind of communist Boy and Girl Scouts) and the Chinese model of collective exercise and attendance mandatory educational presentations that substituted entertainment during the Maoist era show that it is possible to inculcat e habits, particularly over generations, but that is well outside of the scope of democratic governance.
229 individual or a regional government, they avoid describing the means to create, store, modify, and destroy it just as any physical resource can be manipulated. This is generally taken for granted and it is much easier and less messy to work with associ ations that are visible and measurable, and whose purposes are generally known. But in the context of the favela s where the procurement of daily sustenance and shelter may occupy much of the residents time, these associations may not be consistently visib le, which could give the incorrect impression of some kind of amoral familialism at work. One of the important clarifications on social capital made by this study is that, just as authors have already illustrated the different qualities of bonding, blindi ng, bridging, and binding, the concept must be explicitly separated into individual level capital and group level, recognizing that these are the products of the same basic network structure. The building blocks of social networks are described in chapter (1973) idea of strong and (1988) of open and closed g roups. The method of generalizing group capital to society uses the rational choice language of iterated games and explains the benefits quantitatively in terms of reduced transaction costs as discussed by North (1990a) and Zerbe and McCurdy (1999) These three factors together create a new, clear vision of what social capital is that has not been brought together as a cohere nt depiction of the concept in previous contributions to the literature. At the individual level Viewing social capital at the individual level, as presented by authors such as Coleman (Coleman, 1988) Portes (1995) and Hardin (1999) gives theoretical pur chase on how social resources can replace the functions of government, and thus allows the individual an exit option from the state. That is, social capital can be a bankable, spendable resource with specific application (many willing friends who can use a hammer or can loan a hammer) or more general
230 application (many willing friends with different skills, knowledge and lendable possessions). In the absence of the state to provide individual access to infrastructure (water, sewage, electricity) or service s (child care, education, health care, security), individuals can employ their social capital to make up for this lack. In this way, communities of individuals can focus on being self sufficient as a group, and may decide to avoid connections to the state because of the potential costs. Individual level explorations of social capital, however, have not considered the opposite possibility that is the cornerstone of society wide social capital studies in political science that individual social capital may also work to foster embeddedness in the government, or may help the state capture its citizens. Here, social networks are conduits for the spread of innovation to individuals distant from the state. Knowledge of state benefits and legal rights moves bet ween open groups and may draw upon each other to negotiate the convoluted bureaucracy of the Brazilian government. Similarly, the government may tap into these connective threads to reach an underserved population as they do with their PSF ( Plano de Saude Famliar or Family Health) agents who use a kind of snowball method to search out the most needy and least accessible patients in the poor communities and bring the medical team directly to them. However, limiting the discussion of social capital to individual utility misses the cumulative effect of many such binary connections and many overlapping networks operating in society that allow generalization of these trust networks 125 Still, whether e xit option or cause for embeddedness, these views consider social networks 125 Generalization of trust is a rational response to the decreased risk of catastrophic betrayal in a society with strong particularlistic social capita l (except in the exclusive presence of blinding networks) because generalizing trust reduces transaction costs of negotiating and monitoring every exchange. As long as expected benefits outweigh expected losses in the absence of monitoring, the scarce res ource of time is better allocated in increasing the number of contacts in a network.
231 that stores objects to be borrowed, or as a community bulletin board for accessing infor mation. identity and self valorization that has been so important among favela residents, creating or reinforcing their identity as deserving citizens with the confidence to make demands. Such biographical effects have been noted to a very limited extent in terms of social movements (McAdam, 1999) and to a somewhat limited extent in regards t o immigrant groups (Gold, 1995; Portes and Landolt, 2000) In Brazil, the importance of Liberation Theology to social and religious discourse in the 1960s and 1970s was a particularly influential case in the history of favela s (Levine, 1988) and highlights this personal role of active social relationships, revealing a new outcome of social capital that should be investigated in future research. Bringing attention to the idea of the role of personal identity in social capital (and vice versa ) allows access to the mechanism responsible for the fluctuating nature of associations. The necessary variance in priority given to each in the multitude of relationships by which we define ourselves explains why social networks both in and out of favela s may appear to completely disintegrate only to reform stronger at some much later time. This is only understandable by acknowledging the basic structures of social capital, the open and closed groups, and weak and strong times that individuals develop. Allowing for association disintegration and reintegration makes the concept more realistic, reduces the number of necessary assumptions needed to apply co nnection has only been temporarily subsumed), and provides a new lens to assess community organization and potential for political action. At the group level Group identity is another important product of social capital, and has been described in this con text of variable attention given to the relationships that are the threads in the weave of our
232 personalities. But again, without clarifying the elements that make group identity out of social capital, it is an untouchable concept that is perceived as havi ng different intensities and qualities from group to group. The process of creation, differentiation, intensification cannot be understood without bringing in the idea of open groups versus closed groups and their effect on innovation or changes in group culture. Occasionally, models from medical epidemiology are used to describe the spread of ideas, however this model overlooks the human element, imagining ideas as transmissible with x% contagion rate. A detailed model of social capital as presented in this study can explain the rate of transmission not in terms of contact, but through the idea of group openness. Whereas individuals in either open or closed groups may be exposed to new ideas on a daily basis, differentiation in adoption is explained by the reinforcement and reiteration, or resistance that is met within the group. Members of open groups will hear more ideas directly from other members, whereas members of closed groups will hear more ideas from non group members and will be valued less. Because in the open group there is guaranteed competition between ideas, new ideas have the possibility of entering the group discourse. Closed groups are likely to have no competition among major beliefs, so contradictory opinions will meet united resis tance and be rejected. In the case of favela limited opportunities for travel and exchange both with people on the asfalto and with people in other morros as well as the degree of control of the community by d rug gangs. With this information, more accurate predictions of any given favela Social capital is also important to understand how favela residents manage to overcome the disincentives to collective action and work t o maintain norms of civility, to produce group benefits, and to make collective demands. Separating this aspect of the capacity to concert from
233 active ph ase. The main feature of social networks, in this regard, is that they reduce the cost of and compel participation. The fewer free riders on any project pro portionally reduces the investment of time, energy, or material goods each individual must contribute and makes the benefits more selective. Similarly the cost of making demands on the government, which include those above plus risks to personal safety, are reduced with increased participation. Just like preferring to swim in the ocean around groups because of decreased odds in being chosen by a passing shark, the probability of being directly affected by any violence that may occur during a protest or r ally dwindles as the number of participant rises. Even more, the probability of violence occurring is inversely related to the number of protest participants as the possible costs of any single act of violence rise. The capacity to concert includes both the quality (group solidarity) and the intensity (proportion of group involved) of social capital. It is the lack of intensity that social networks in favela s tend to demonstrate that leads to this final addition to the conversation about social capital. First, intensity is quite different from durability of social connections. Durability describes the longevity and possibility to withstand adversity, whereas intensity describes commitment to or importance of the connections to any one individual, and m ay be evaluated at the group level by the proportion of active participants at any one time. Putnam touches on this difference when he contrasts AARP with the Audubon Society, the first has a huge member list but the main activity is writing checks to su pport lobbyists in DC whereas the second has a much
234 smaller list but serves as a center of naturalism and conservation activities every week. Putnam (2000) uses thi s distinction as an important part of the decline of social capital in the US. Here, the intensity of social capital is addressed in terms of the competing relationship networks that provide a multitude of allegiances and demands to consider at any singl e moment. Mother, daughter, son, father of a family group; student, teacher, athlete, alumni of an academic may assume priority at one time or another. These may be eternally enduring relationships, as in the case of family, or ephemeral, as in the case of a summer job working for a public interest research group. But with the number of relationships vying for primacy, it is certain that some will suffer less intense commitment from adherents over time. Binding social capital is characterized by those relationships around a cause or idea that benefit from the temporary priority of many individuals. Unlike bridging social capital, the impetus for the relation ships in binding social capital quickly declines in importance to group members after succeeding or failing in the group mission. In bridging social capital, the central commonality that connects the members persists with enough importance for members to continue to relate. In binding social capital however, other relationships overwhelmingly extinguish attention paid to the binding core, and previous allies may find themselves as enemies e re ignition of an alliance around the same core in the future. favela s where, for a large number of the residents, water, food, and shelter are daily struggles, the importance of relationships not related to su stenance must often take a back seat. Groups within the favela may appear only once a year to commemorate a relevant date, whereas others may congregate daily or weekly with varied
235 attendance. Measuring the capacity to concert at any one time is difficul t in itself, and any snapshot is bound to produce a distorted view of the ebb and flow of the intensity of social capital. Nevertheless, it may be the shortest lived of relationships, particularly relationships that bridge outside of the favela that are the most politically important. Binding action networks are a concept introduced in this study and held to be the answer to the question of political success of different favela s. Using the definition of binding social capital above, these networks involv e groups and institutions within the favela s connected to those outside of the community. These groups are bound together by the central idea that a certain favela should receive governmental resources, and although they may never directly work together, they remain important to that favela The lack of strong, permanent connections can even work in favor of the favela for while the connections may not be intense, they may be durable as they require little investment. Permanence is one of the most import ant qualities of demand making pressure on the government to secure positive results in the end as there is a world of difference between being allocated resources in the budget and actually receiving them 126 The principal groups in favela issues were i dentified as the associaes de moradores of the community, the press, NGOs, and religious organizations. Each may play a different role in as storage for a fav ela movement with residents reactivating after a long run of apparent disinterest when costs of group participation are lowered by the AM, a local church, or NGO. The residents may also activate politically when the benefits or chances for benefits are in creased such as when they are in the media spotlight, or when international attention is on them in the 126 Senator John Ding ell famously indicated in the choice between control of policy content and policy process, he would prefer the process every time.
236 form of NGO outreach. These brief contacts between individuals temporarily forming groups, and groups interacting with external institutions may creat e stronger ties of higher intensity over repeated interactions. Even in the absence of strong bonds, the occasional contact with outside institutions can put the favela in the periphery of multiple influential social networks, the confluence of these netw orks eventually pushing that particular favela to the center of attention and temporary importance. Social Movements The BAN model emphasizes informality in movements Binding action networks (BANs) refer to a specific type of social movement that is par ticularly applicable to the favela s of Rio because of their lack of social, economic, and political resources. The simple definition as developed here is that they are loose collections of groups and institutions that operate independently and asynchronou sly, yet are similarly purposed to connect a favela to the state in a bid for resources. This is in contrast to the Resource Mobilization (RM) approach to social movements that prioritizes the social movement organization (SMO) as the driving force for mo vement progress and looks at demand making as a competition between various formal organizations. The Political Opportunity Structure (POS) revision reduces the focus on the SMO, but still emphasizes formal organization within the movement; collective exp ectation of success among the mass base; and the cohesiveness of insiders that structures the political opportunities of challenger groups. These are not requirements for the BAN model, which acknowledges the multi faceted identities of individuals that a llows for strong but temporary attachments that facilitate effective collective without future expectations or obligations to the group.
237 The informality of organization embodied in the BAN model creates a moving target that avoids direct, organized competi tion. That is, no one group is responsible for mobilization or with opposite agendas, but rather an effort to attract sustained policy attention 127 The RM and POS approaches to social movements see the field of social movements as filled with opposing players. Even New Social Movement (NSM) literature looks at purposeful framing and counter contest public frames, it is an attempt to alter a century of prejudice and discrimination that is not produced nor reinforced by an organized opposition. BANs do work to alter social discourse, but not on a field of players that moves in opposition to th e BANs efforts. Unlike the conception of movements by RM or POS, effort need not be coordinated or planned to qualify as a movement, spontaneous and violent reactions in these two models are In the BAN model however, favela method of claim making pulled from a repertoire determined by the particular historical path of governmental repression and respons e. The duration of the movement around a particular favela is based on the continuation of unmet need perceived by the BAN actors rather than political strategizing. This should be understood more formally than the unlimited breadth of actions recognize d by NSM literature that holds that creating a life in reference to a movement symbol qualifies as movement action. Under the BAN model, effort and action does need to be purposeful and goal oriented. 127 While every fundi ng policy is a zero sum game, there is a great difference between competition between two plans or frames of the same issue and the competition between different issues for government budgeting and funding. Moreover, the absurd difference between budgetin g and allocation of funds mentioned in the previous chapter further reduces the likelihood of a favela proposal being challenged in the budgeting phase.
238 The BAN model was developed out of a combination of NSM literature and the Political Opportunity approach as neither are perfectly suited to capture the phenomenon. Much of the previous literature on social movements, when considering movement outcomes, has focused y the official movement organizations rather than a in terms of political acceptance and new advantages concentrates only on those advantages explicitly sought by t he movement organization. This narrow definition ignores the organic composition of BANs that, by the nature of uncoordinated actors, may have several complementary agendas. Temporary and Changing: Movement Cycles, Performance Clusters, and Action Syste ms (1998) as a process, emphasizing the tendency to grow in momentum, peak, and then ebb. The BAN model takes this idea and builds on it to include the reiterative nature of such cycles, as we ll as their recursive nature. At least in the field of favela movements in Rio de Janeiro, the to movement exhaustion or burnout. Because the BAN model inco rporates the reality of divided attention among actors, it can explain the longevity of a movement in terms of episodic affiliation/disaffiliation and activation/deactivation of movement networks without looking for exposition, rising action, climax, fall ing action, and denouement. Furthermore, each repetition of the cycle feeds back on the movement itself modifying the relationship threads between individuals and groups. Tilly progresses toward a useful model to describe favela movements by supplanting the mistaken idea that movements are solidaristic and coherent with a model of movements (1999, p.
239 25 6) precedence depending on the immediate context. Although he rejects NSM ideology because of his specific focus on the formal and organized competition in electo ral campaigns and interest group politics, his idea about multiple identities seems to resonate with the NSM concept of participants activating sporadically with no fixed loyalty to one specific group. At the same time, his explanation of clusters of acti on implies some coordination and synchronization of (Melucci, 1985, p. 792) escribed by Political Opportunity Structure (POS). These actors or movement adherents in this field of constraints are composed of both hidden networks as well as visible organizations engage in limited political behavior in response to opportunities prod uced by variations in the system. The BAN model, which requires an explanation of the highly variable nature of pro favela support, especially from the residents themselves, adopts a similar view but focuses on the relationship threads, viewed as resilien t, although only occasionally active. The benefit of privileging the connection rather than the individual is, particularly in the relatively small population of each favela that it explains how movements strengthen or weaken and groups form or dissolve depending on the frequency of activation of each relationship strand. The BAN model goes given moment in this sense, it is more empirically oriented than th e NSM image. BANs: A Model to F it Bureaucratized Government and Continuing Class Divisions rejection of their necessity organizations, was necessary because of the bureaucratization of government that has led to a decline of representative democracy, and has conseq uently changed
240 the landscape of social movements (Touraine 1992, p130 dictatorship is a bureaucratic authoritarian state that continues to protect the socio economic system of inequality through a faade of democrac y, which Melucci and Tilly predict leads to a reduction of direct political action of social movements in favor of competition for social resources to influence the meta cultural discourse that, purposefully or not, redefines society. In this vision, the proletariat has been transformed into a class of consumers with varied and distant relations to business so that class mobilization is no longer a useful lens for understanding the targeting and actions of social movements. BANs specifically apply to the case of favela residents who were strongly politicized by the language of Liberation Theology that still dominates their claim making. Further, the stark separation between asfalto and morro maintains the conception of class in the movement, not based on proletarian solidarity, but based on exclusion from the rest of society. These two contextual conditions contribute to the clear, purposeful targeting of the government by the favela movements. Without a doubt, there is a constant subtext to favela move ments intended to change the social discourse around their community and residents, particularly those protesting children being run over on the bordering streets and highways. These expressions of grief are meant to reach the government, but they also mu st be understood as a call for recognition by society at large. Most favela movement action, however, involves direct political demands on social movements represent the competition between members of the polity and challengers who seek to enter the polity so must compete for social resources in order to increase their share of power and public resources.
241 In sum, social movement theory needs to be combined with social capital in order to explain how horizontal networks reach upwards, making demands on the government. Unfortunately, the extant visions of collective political action are not wholly appropriat e for a population as bereft of social, economic, and political resources as the favela residents. organizations with explicit goals as they do, are most useful f or analyzing the context in which favela movements operate particularly the political obstacles and opportunities that they might tems, describe a loose network of actors, the former is too organization oriented and should be constantly visible, and the latter allows for purposeless action, which is too amorphous and does not lend itself to empirical study. In the previous chapter, one description of participation in a favela on movement tenets. In the case of Liberation Theology, these changes were patterned on a politicized religious vision, and led to adherents automatically becoming ch allengers to the contemporary members of the system in pursuit of their preferential option. The BAN model favela s. Applications for These Findings Government attempts to ext end the rule of law into the ever growing favela s of Rio, must make every effort to capture the residents into the system if they are to meet any success at all. Already the problem of para statal organizations claiming sovereignty to small but populous a reas of the city is a challenge to the authority of the state, as well as a constant drain on its resources. From the point of view of a consolidating democracy, they create a dilemma that ultimately destabilizes the regime and has already resulted in lim iting civil rights for the residents of many favela s there. But as long as these areas exist, they provide a sanctuary for the
242 greater economic productivity a s around one third of the workforce of Rio is involved in unskilled or low skilled off book jobs that, with more resources diverted to education and job standing in the world economy. Searching for a solution, however, leads to the paradox that, as long as the favela residents remain without political voice, there is little direct incentive for the government to improve their situation. The small advances that the g overnment has made towards the favela s to date have potentially done more harm to the relationship between the two than good as projects go unfinished for years, promises made at the highest level are broken shortly after they are made, and the main token from the government, legalization of land tenure, is not necessary or wanted (2000) vision that has been adopted by the World Bank and USAID, there is already an active real estate market in all of the favela s, and borrowing against a house there happens all the time, just not from a bank. In this, the favela activists are correct when they say that the solution to favela s must come from within the favela s. However, as traditional avenues of political contestation, aside from voting, are either blocked or unfeasible for favela residents, their only alternative becomes rallies, protests, and destructive violence to call attention to their cause, the l ast of which only distances them further from incorporation. This behavior has certainly given many on the asfalto the idea that the residents are not capable of being part of their democratic society. To the contrary, this study shows that there is a vi brant civil society within the favela s that has prepared them for democratic inclusion, so should the proper approach be made, inclusion is culturally feasible.
243 the upgrade projects has been lip service and post facto meetings that have had little or no impact on project implementation. Moreover, the state must acknowledge that their official connection, the AM, is not the solution to inclusion as it is often poo rly subscribed and even more poorly supported by action. Understanding how residents already interact with their socio political surroundings, that is through BAN, can help sensitize government efforts in this direction. If nothing else, this study points to the need to begin inclusionary efforts, and the sooner the better as the current trend in disordered urbanization is only growing. Preparing the ground, so to speak, for the inevitable increase in urban squatters in the next twenty to thirty years is something that will be more difficult and more expensive with each passing year. In short: 1) Social movement adherents and groups may exist even in their apparent absence 2) The government cannot expect need to propel the poor into its purview, the poor can an d do survive and even thrive using social capital as an exit option. 3) Proper understanding of transmission of ideas and resources through social networks waste of resour ces and further alienation of those they are trying to reach. 4) Political groups and demands from the poor look different from demands from those with more economic, social, and political resources. a. These demands occur more based on crisis then based on ex ternal opportunity and constraint. b. Demand making is less organized, and more organic and flowing with potentially strong relationships that appear to flicker on and off. 5) Individuals in favela s are politicized and do practice democratic organization in the vibrant space for civil society that exists there, despite the popular perception of these away from the morro 6) Action by favela residents is important to their cause, regardless that there is rarely immediate response to their demands the nature of the favela movements is to use asynchronous pressure from various sources making for an exceptionally resilient process that is independent of any one organization for support or future expectations of success.
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257 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH thinker about world affairs, a goal that he has pursued for more than twenty years through teaching, travel, and formal study. In the middle of his BA studies at the Uni versity of Florida ( in political science, Latin American politics, and education ) he took a year long break to travel the US, occasionally funding his trek by selling t shirts, pancakes, and burritos at Grateful Dead concerts. Two years after gaining his first degree, Bryan graduated from the UF College of Education with an MEd in secondary social studies instruction and curriculum, and a license to teach. His plan at this time was to make the world better one student at a time. He made the most of his long summer vacations, one of the benefits of being a teacher, by traveling extensively throughout Mexico and Guatemala, making many friends along the way. Eventually, his peripatetic lifestyle found him on another sabbatical, this time travelling around the world to gain a better understanding of those places he knew only as blotches on maps. After a year and a half, Bryan washed up on the shore of Japan and returned to his career as a teacher, eventually designing curriculum, implementing a teacher trai ning program, and managing a franchise of a national chain of English schools. Invaluable as a personal learning experience, his stay in the Far East lasted four and a half years before the pull of more formal education brought him back, once again, to hi s family home in Gainesville and the ivied halls of UF. around the world, pushed him to develop a deeper and better understanding of conflict and cooperation through comparative politics and public administration of developing countries. Encouraged by the diverse faculty in Anderson Hall, Bryan studied Africa, India, and Latin
258 America; and eventually went to work in microfinance in Kazakhstan as part of the Coca Cola World Citizenship Program at UF. Finally settling on the topic of social movements, the collective action problem, and how groups work to solve their own problems i n Brazil, Bryan gained fluency in Portuguese and a Fulbright research scholarship in order to study in the poor communities of Rio de Janeiro. Certainly, sharing the lives of the generous and open residents of these so called favela s was the most importan t aspect of his work in Rio. But equally important in shaping and developing his thinking about group cooperation was his preparation for teaching history at a local American school. With students as a sounding board for his ideas, and historical content to fuel his intellectual fire, Bryan developed a significant addition to political science theory in the form of Binding Action Networks. The BAN model seeks to describe how the poor gain a political voice in a society that blocks them at every turn beca use of social, economic, and political inequality. After receiving his PhD, Bryan intends to return to the classroom as a university professor in order to keep developing his understanding of the world, which is much more easily done when creating a shared understanding with a group. And finally, having found his own voice through this two decade long process, he would like to write in order to share his ideas with the world, participating in the very slow conversatio n in political science that can be seen evolving in the various journals and publications of new books rather more ambitious than making the world better one student at a time.