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1 PREDICTORS OF CAREER DECISION SELF-EFFICACY IN SECOND GENERATION SOUTH ASIAN COLLEGE STUDENTS By SHANAZ ALI SAWYER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008
2 2008 Shanaz Ali Sawyer
3 To my little brother Shezan Azad Ali. His concern for others and passion for the field of mental health was my inspiration for pursu ing this study. He departed this life far too early; a tragic loss not only for our family, but for the mental health field as I have always felt he would have made great contributi ons of his own.
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would lik e to extend my deepest apprecia tion to Dr Ellen Amatea, chair of my committee, who guided me through the dissertation pr ocess with patience and skill. My sincere thanks also go to Dr Mary Ann Clark and Dr Connie Shehan, each of whom contributed great support and wisdom in this research journey. Additionally I am grateful to Dr Carlos Hernandez for his friendship and counsel through these ma ny years; his wisdom and support have been a source of enduri ng inspiration. Many of my family have also been essentia l in my journey toward s achieving this goal. First my parents, Azad and Veronica Ali who ha ve never wavered in their support of my dreams along with my sister, Nerissa Ali-McClory, her husband Robert and my nephews Evan and Aron; my sister-in-law, Patricia Ashton and her husba nd Ray for their love and encouragement from the day we met, and their passion for their work which inspired me in my own research journey. My mother-in-law, Maxine Sawyer, a beautiful soul whom I have been blessed to know she raised a terrific son and I thank her. I also thank my own personal cheerleaders, Razia Ali Hamm and Racquel White who, through the years have been the st andard of friendship no matter wh ere they were in the world; my dissertation companion and friend Kelly Aiss en, without whom this research journey would have been far lonelier; and my wonderful village of friends including Mickey Schafer, Tina Lee, Cindy Eisenschenk, Deborah Evans, Marcy Cole man, Cindy Wall, Helda Montero, Joan Scully, their families and of course, Andrew Ali Hamm, who unselfishly lent their time and support, whether cheering me on, providing a meal or chil dcare, or just a few hours of much needed respite. I thank my two beautiful children, Annika and Adam who came along during this long journey and have shown me how to really cherish life on a daily basis; my stepson Ryan, to
5 whom I have been truly blessed and privileged to be a step-mother, and of whom I am so proud. Finally, I thank my husband, Mike, who is my roc k, and has encouraged me to continue this endeavor throughout these many years. His love, wisdom and resolute faith in my ability to complete this task have many times sustained me through the ups and downs as I worked to make my dream a reality.
6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................................................... 4 LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................8 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................... ...............9 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 10 Scope of the Problem ..............................................................................................................12 Ethnicity and Career Decision Making ...........................................................................12 Gender and Career Decision Making .............................................................................. 14 Acculturation and Career Decision Making ....................................................................17 Theoretical Framework ...........................................................................................................18 Career Self-Efficacy Theory ............................................................................................18 Social Cognitive Career Theory ...................................................................................... 19 Purpose of the Study .......................................................................................................... .....20 Research Questions ............................................................................................................ .....21 Definition of Terms ................................................................................................................21 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ........................................................................................23 Introduction .................................................................................................................. ...........23 South Asians in the United States ...........................................................................................23 Acculturation and Ethnic Identity ...........................................................................................26 Gender ........................................................................................................................ .............29 Androgynous Gender Role Identity ........................................................................................35 Self-Efficacy Theory ..............................................................................................................37 Social Cognitive Career Theory ............................................................................................. 39 Summary ....................................................................................................................... ..........40 3 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................. 41 Delineation of Relevant Variables .......................................................................................... 41 Career Decision Self Efficacy (CDSE) ........................................................................... 41 Acculturation ................................................................................................................. ..41 Androgynous Gender Role Identity .................................................................................42 Perceived Parental Support ..............................................................................................42 Gender and Student GPA ................................................................................................ 43
7 Population and Sample ......................................................................................................... ..43 Sampling Procedures ..............................................................................................................43 Subjects ...................................................................................................................... .............44 Data Collection Procedures ....................................................................................................45 Instrumentation ............................................................................................................... ........46 Career Decision Self-Efficacy S cale Short Form (CDSE-SF) ...................................... 46 Suinn-Lew Self-Identity Accu lturation Scale (S L-ASIA) .............................................. 47 Bem Sex-Role Inventory Short Form (BSRI-SF) ........................................................ 49 The Career-Related Parent Support Scale (CRPSS) ....................................................... 50 Demographic Questionnaire ............................................................................................51 Hypotheses .................................................................................................................... ..........51 4 RESULTS ....................................................................................................................... ........52 Data Analysis Procedures .......................................................................................................52 Career Decision Self-Efficacy (CDSE) Scale .................................................................53 The Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation (SL-ASIA) Scale ............................. 53 Career Related Parent Support Scale (CRPSS) ...............................................................54 Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) ..................................................................................... 54 Grade Point Average ....................................................................................................... 54 Analysis Results ......................................................................................................................55 Hypothesis Testing ............................................................................................................ .....58 5 DISCUSSION .................................................................................................................... .....61 Career Decision Self-Efficacy ................................................................................................61 CDSE and Level of Acculturation ..........................................................................................63 CDSE and Career Rela ted Parental Support ........................................................................... 64 CDSE and Androgynous Gende r Role Identity ......................................................................65 CDSE and Grade Point Average .............................................................................................66 CDSE and Gender ............................................................................................................... ....67 Limitations ................................................................................................................... ...........68 Implications .................................................................................................................. ..........70 Practice ...................................................................................................................... ......70 Theory ........................................................................................................................ ......72 Research ..........................................................................................................................73 Recommendations for Future Research ..................................................................................74 Conclusions .............................................................................................................................74 APPENDIX A LETTER TO PARTICIPANTS ..............................................................................................76 B DEMOGRAPHIC DATA SHEET .........................................................................................77 LIST OF REFERENCES ...............................................................................................................79 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .........................................................................................................85
8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Country of birth..................................................................................................................44 3-2 Choice of major by gender ................................................................................................. 45 4-1 Descriptive statistics of sam ple on each measure .............................................................. 53 4-2 Distribution of student grade point averages .....................................................................54 4-4 Source Table for regression model with CDMSE as the dependent variable ....................57 4-5 Results of hypothesis testing ............................................................................................. .60
9 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy PREDICTORS OF CAREER DECISION SELF-EFFICACY IN SECOND GENERATION SOUTH ASIAN COLLEGE STUDENTS By Shanaz Ali Sawyer December 2008 Chair: Ellen S. Amatea Major: Mental Health Counseling The purpose of this study was to examine the in fluence of five variables in predicting the level of career decision self-efficacy in sec ond generation South Asian college students: 1) acculturation, 2) perceived parental support, 3) androgynous gender role identity, 4) gender, and 5) participant grade point average. The sample consisted of 138 college students (18-24 years old) who met the criteria for second generation South Asian. Correlational analyses were conducted to test the associations betw een each of the pairs of independent variables and the dependent vari able, career decision se lf-efficacy. Two variables were found to have a slight positive association with career decision self-efficacy: career related parental support and part icipant GPA. Regression analysis wa s used to evaluate the contribution of the five independent variables in predicting the level of car eer decision self-efficacy as measured by the Career Decision Se lf-Efficacy Scale. This set of 5 predictor variables explained 13% (R = .13) of the variance in career deci sion self-efficacy in second generation South Asian college students. Statistically significant associations were found between career decision selfefficacy and career related parental support and part icipant grade point average. Implications for theory, practice and research were discussed a nd recommendations for future research were presented.
10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION There is a lack of objective, research -based information on significant aspects of South Asian peoples experience in the Un ited States. For instance, little is known about the quality of the lives of South Asians in the U.S, the stresses and strains, their mental health needs, and the degree to which they utilize ment al health services. Even less is known about the career decision making patterns of South Asians living in this co untry. South Asians are individuals from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan (Inman & Nath, 2002). Although Asian Indians refer to those who are originally fr om India (Sodowsky & Carey, 1987), the terms South Asian and Asian Indian are often used intercha ngeably in the social sc ience literature. For the purposes of this study the term, South Asian was be used to refer to persons from the above mentioned six countries. The term first generati on, refers to those individuals who came to the U.S after the age of twenty-five while the term, second generation refers to individuals who were either born in the U.S or who came to the U.S before the age of twelve (Inman & Nath, 2002). Second generation South As ians were the target populati on of interest in this study. A limited number of studies examining South Asians living in North America can be found scattered throughout the social science lite rature. For the most part, relevant knowledge about this population has to be pieced together from anthropologica l and sociologic al literature (Das & Kemp, 1997). These studies have focused on formulating a cultural profile of the South Asian immigrant familys mental health needs. Although occupational choices of South Asia ns have been well documented, little is known about the psychological and sociological factors that influence the career decisionmaking process for this particular group. Ma ny South Asian immigrants have achieved upward structural mobility in the prof essions of medicine, engineering, nuclear science, and computer
11 science via university teaching positions or ownership of sm all private businesses. First generation immigrants frequently ha ve strong roots of emotional s ecurity in the extended family back home in India, who offer them conti nuous moral support and applaud them for their educational and material success in the United States. More recent South Asian immigrants, often from the middle class in India, may have an easier time being accepted and adjusting to the standards of American life than did the earlier waves of uneducated Asians who immigrated to this country from China in earlier years. A lthough many of these immigrant families try to maintain their traditional social patterns and base their lifestyles on traditi onal beliefs, values and expectations, changes in traditional role expecta tions are inevitable depending on their length of stay. (Sodowsky & Carey, 1987; Ramisetty-Mikle r, 1993; Farver, Bhadha & Narang, 2002). Professional employment and vertical and geographic mobility in their adopted country have eased this adjustment. Researchers report that the longer exposure to Western culture and value system has resulted in the Asian Indian family system in the West becoming more egalitarian. For instance, there seems to be more mutual sharing of decision making and household labor between husband and wife, and th e children seem to en joy more independence in their educational and career planning, and in their preferences for Western food, clothes, music, and dancing (Sodowsky & Carey, 1987). Ibrahim, Ohnishi & Sandhu (1997) propose th at gender role expectations of South Asians may vary with generational and educational leve l, social class, and economic stability. Such expectations can range from extremely pa triarchal to egalitarian. These authors contend that South Asian Americans have a high regard fo r hierarchy in social re lationships and assume that a person exists within a hierarchy mediated by education, age, and social class. According to Ibrahim et. al (1997) South Asians yearn for the ideals of individualism, yet reality requires an
12 acceptance of hierarchical systems, relationshi ps, and the importance of the group. In addition, people work for the future, they are planful and goal oriented, whereas focusing on the here and now is a low priority. Hence second generation South Asian young adults may be enjoying greater independence in career-decision making, yet it is unclear how these young adults reconcile differing cultural expectations fo r their career decision making a nd identity development because Farver et al., (2002), contend that many South Asian families discourage adolescent independence especially with re gard to career choice and marria ge. This study sought to examine the influence of such family expectations by as sessing the impact of perceived parental support, participant level of acculturation, gender, andr ogynous gender role identity and grade point average (academic achievement) on the confiden ce or efficacy in career decision-making of second generation South As ian college students. Scope of the Problem Although much of the existing social sciences literature fails to di stinguish between the m any ethnic groups within the Asian domain, there seem to be many stereo types applied to all Asian subgroups including South Asians that re flect assumptions about career and academic decision making. Ethnicity and Career Decision Making Since the 1960s, the m edia and press have often portrayed Asian Americans as the model minority, which refers to the stereot ype of Asian Americans who have achieved extraordinary success academically, as well as economically. Reports indicate that Asian Americans not only have higher college attendance rates but also higher achievement test scores than do Caucasians (Kim, Rendon & Valadez, 1998). This stereotype may seem more applicable to South Asian Americans since there is little documentation of unemploym ent within this group,
13 whereas there is much evidence related to under and unemployment as well as illiteracy and high school drop out rates among many other Asian subgroups within the United States. Kim and her associates (1998) contend that Asian Americans are by no means a homogeneous group in terms of academic performa nce, educational aspirations and attainment, and socioeconomic characteristics. They conducted a study to investigat e whether there were differences in the educational aspirations, math performance, and socioeconomic characteristics of 10th graders, from six major Asian ethnic groups (Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Koreans, Southeast Asians, and South Asians). They also explored whether there were differences among the six ethnic groups in terms of parental ex pectations; parental o ccupational status and socioeconomic level; peer influence; academic se lf-concept, and type, location, and racial and academic climates of their schools. They found th at, on average, South Asian students tended to express the highest educational aspirations and have the highest math performance. Moreover, South Asian parents tended to ha ve the highest level of educa tion and the highest status of occupation as compared to the other five ethnic groups. Yet all six groups were characterized by high parental educational expectations which were positively relate d to students high educational aspirations. When compared to other minority groups in America, Asian Americans seem to achieve educationally at a high level with approximately 8 out of 10 Asian American high school graduates enrolled in college two years after graduation (Herr & Cramer, 1996). An earlier study by Leong & Hayes (1990), investigated occupational stereotyping of Asian Americans, which included South Asians. Questionnaires were given to only White students that included profiles of a variety of students indicating gender, age and ethnic ity (White or Asian). Using 16 occupations, the participants were then asked to rate the individual in terms of a) the probability
14 of success within each occupation, b) how well qualified the indivi dual was to seek occupational training within the occupations listed, and c) how likel y the individual was to be accepted by coworkers within the occupations listed. The re searchers found that Asian Americans compared to Whites were rated as more likely to be succes sful as engineers, computer scientists, and mathematicians, but not insurance salesperson. Women were rated as less qualified to seek training as engineers, police o fficers and economists, but more qualified to seek training as secretaries. This study noted that Asians Americans were heavily overrepresented in mathematics, engineering and biological sc iences [traditional car eer choices for Asian Americans], but underrepresented in education, and the social and beha vioral sciences [nontraditional career choices for Asian Americans] (Leong & Hayes, 1990). As noted earlier these studies rarely distinguish between South Asians and other Asian s ubgroups so it is unclear as to how South Asians are represented in various occupa tions. In addition, it is unclear to what extent the career paths of second generation South Asian men and women are influenced by their families and to what degree their career choices reflect traditional versus non-traditional occupational choices for the South Asian population in general. Gender and Career Decision Making Lips (1992) assessed gender a nd science-related attitudes as predictors of college students academic choices in a study of 253 female and 235 male college students. She found that males disagreed more than females that women can combine scientific careers and family. She concluded that men and women in the study di ffered in their intentio ns and behavior with respect to academic and vocational choices invol ving mathematics and science. Women placed more importance on people-related concerns such as combining career and family, but contrary to prediction, evidenced less concern about the difficulties faced by women in combining careers in mathematics or science with marriage or motherhood. For women, belief in the compatibility
15 of a science career and family ro les were related to intent to study more science. This study demonstrated that, in general, women were underrepresented in the mathematics and science fields but their attitudes revealed that the pursui t of careers in such fiel ds was more related to interest in those fields, rather than the attitude that these career fields are too difficult for women, or not conducive to multiple family roles. Other factors listed as partia l explanations for the gender differences in the career choice of mathem atics or sciences were: number of high-school mathematics and science courses completed; gende r differences in the level of confidence in mathematical and scientific ability; gender-related differences in enjoyment of mathematics; and differences in the amount of encouragement to ward mathematics and science and non-science fields young women and men receive from parents and teachers. While the author contends that there is an even lower representation of mi nority women than men in the mathematics and science related career fields the article does not specifically address pa rticular minority women groups. Betz (1992) contends that in choosing a career, problems for women in general may include an avoidance of caree r options in traditionally male-dominated career fields. Performance issues may include the effects of low self-efficacy in career decision making as well as consequent anxiety in test taking. Women and minorities enroll ed in programs traditionally dominated by Anglo men such as science and en gineering, continue to face chilly institutional climates where they may encounter little or no support for their nontr aditional aspirations. Therefore, increasing self-efficacy expectations ma y increase womens durability in the face of hostile environments. Betz & Hackett (1981) investigated the rela tionships among occupationally related selfefficacy expectations, the nature and range of occupational alternat ives considered by
16 undergraduate women and men, and gender differences in self-efficacy expectations with regard to the educational requi rements and job duties of traditiona lly female and traditionally male occupations. They found that ther e were significant and consiste nt gender differences in selfefficacy with regard to traditional and nontra ditional occupations. They found greater selfefficacy among students as it related to occupations considered stereotypically traditional for females (e.g. social worker), and for males (e .g. engineer), within those genders. The most significant finding of this study wa s the observed gender differences due to divergent perceptions of capability among men and women. The women perceived lower capabili ty in traditionally male occupations, whereas men reported equivale nt overall self-efficacy with regard to both traditional and nontraditional occupations. In a follow up to this study, Lent and Hackett (1987), contend that the findings stil l hold true, regarding women an d career decision-making selfefficacy, and that beliefs about self-efficacy serve as a potent internal barrier to womens career choices and achievements. With respect to wo mens career development, self-efficacy theory may also serve as a mechanism through which so cialization experiences affect the career behavior of minority women. Traditionally, the labor market in the Unite d States has been characterized by gender segregation, but some women and men have crossed those lines to enter into careers that are nontraditional for their gender. Lease (2003), explai ns that the factors that influence men and women to enter gender atypical occupations, likel y differ for each gender. For example, men in nontraditional occupations may place less emphasis on status than men in traditionally male dominated careers and may have more liberal attitudes about gender and career choice. While there is increasing evidence that women are increas ingly present in tradit ionally male dominated
17 occupations, the degree to which this applies to South Asian men and women has yet to be assessed. Acculturation and Career Decision Making According to Marin (19 92), acculturation in pr esent day American society refers to the degree to which an individual conforms to or identif ies with the attitudes, lifestyles and values of the European-American-based macroculture. Res earch on South Asians indicates strong family relationships and a desire to adhere to core values related to family, dating practices, gender-role relationships, marriage and religi on. At the same time there is an adaptation to the pragmatic aspects of survival in the host culture, such as speaking English, disciplining practices, dress style, division of responsibilities at ho me and career decision making (Inman, Ladany, Constantine & Morano, 2001). Ngo (2006), assessed the educational differences of Asian American sub groups and contends that an image of high educational achievement among Asian Americans as a larger group fails to address the many differences a nd diversity between the many Asian American groups that consider ethnic, soci oeconomic, generational, and ge nder issues; that the image of Asian success in America masks economic, social and cultural challenges. For example, while South Asian Americans seem to show evidence of greater academic achievement than other Asian American subgroups, they have to contend with an increasingly ho stile environment since the events of September 11, 2001 as hate speech a nd many hate crimes have often targeted South Asians who many perceive to be Muslim and terrorists. With respect to education, this author concludes that South Asian youth must negotiate and balance exp ectations and pressures from mainstream American culture as we ll as family, school and friends.
18 Theoretical Framework To explain the career decision m aking self e fficacy of second generation South Asians, a theoretical framework is needed that defines car eer decision self-efficacy and identifies the role of particular family and cultural processes that influence self-efficacy in career decision making. Consequently, this study is based on the theoreti cal perspectives of Self-Efficacy Theory and Social Cognitive Career Theory. Career Self-Efficacy Theory Albert Bandura (1982) contends that behavior change and therefore decisions m ade are mediated by expectations of self-efficacy: expecta tions of beliefs that one can perform a given behavior. The theory states that the level and strength of self-efficacy will determine (1) whether or not a coping behavior will be initiated, (2) how much effort will result, and (3) how long the effort will be sustained in the face of obstacles. This model proposes four principal sources from which expectations of self-efficacy are deri ved: performance accomplishments, vicarious observational learning experiences, verbal persua sion (encouragement), and emotional arousal (negative anxiety related to performance abilities). In several im portant studies, self-efficacy has been found to be strongly related to mathematics performance, to career entry behaviors such as choice of college major and academic performan ce, and to gender differences pertinent to a variety of career behaviors. In his research Bandu ra reported that the high er the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplis hments and the lower the emotional arousal. Bandura also distinguished between outcome expectancy and efficacy expectancy. Outcome expectancy refers to the persons estimate that a gi ven behavior will lead to particular outcomes. An efficacy expectation is an estimate that one can successfully execute the behavior required to produce the outcomes sought. (Bandura, 1982; Betz, 1992; Herr & Cramer, 1996; Sullivan & Mahalik, 2000).
19 Bandura also addressed the importance of colle ctive efficacy, stating that people do not live their lives as social isolates and that ma ny of the problems, challenges and decisions they may face require a sustained collective effort to produce significant change (Bandura, 1982). It is important to consider this perspective on coll ective efficacy when looking at a South Asian college student population. Hackett and Betz (1981) were the first to pr opose that self-efficacy might be an important variable to include in models of career deve lopment, influencing the achievement behavior, academic and career decision making, and career adjustment of both men and women. They extended Banduras theory of self-efficacy to the career domain and in doing so provided an outline for how personal efficacy may develop diffe rently in men and women due to gender-role socialization, resulting from diffe rential access to the four sources of efficacy information (Lent & Hackett, 1987). Social Cognitive Career Theory Albert and L uzzo (1999), descri be social cognitive career th eory (SCCT) as a framework for conceptualizing career development and as an extension of Banduras so cial cognitive theory. Social cognitive career theory recognizes the mu tual interacting influenc es between people, their behavior, and their environment. Personal attributes, such as internal cognitive and affective states, physical attributes, extern al environmental factors, and overt behaviors or actions, all operate as interlocking mechanisms that affect one another bidirectionally. Social cognitive career theory attempts to explain the developm ent of career and academic interests, the career choice process, and performance outcomes. In addition, this SCCT proposes that goals are a central component in the career pr ocess. Goals are defined as the determination to engage in a particular behavior or activity or to affect a particular future outcome. By setting goals, individuals help to organize a nd guide their behavior. SCCT s uggests that there is a complex
20 interplay among self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and goal setting that wo rk together to help individuals exercise personal ag ency and become self-directed. However, these components of SCCT do not occur in a vacuum or function alone as these are shaped continually by contextual factors (such as perceived barriers) that lead to career interests and choi ces. Contextual factors may relate to perceived barriers including a lack of familial support, educational limitations, economic needs, or gender or ethnic discrimi nation. This may occur among minorities who may realize that there are few repres entatives in a certain career fi eld from their own ethnic group. (Albert & Luzzo, 1999; Lent Brown & Hackett, 1994). In choosing a career, problems for women in general may include an avoidance of career options in traditionally male-dom inated career fields. Performance issues may include the effects of low self-efficacy in career decision making as well as consequent anxiety in test taking. Women and minorities enrolled in programs trad itionally dominated by Anglo men such as science and engineering, may en counter little or no support for their nontraditional aspirations (Betz, 1992). In her discussion of SCCT, Sheila Smith (2001) further described the importance of examining the interplay of two complementary levels of theoretical analysis to develop a clearer picture of the social cognitive variables that shape career development behavior. The first level includes the primary cognitive-person variables such as self efficacy outcome expectations and goals. The second level includes personal charact eristics such as gende r and ethnicity and contextual variables such barriers to decision making. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to investigat e the career decision se lf-efficacy of secon d generation South Asian college students. The in fluence of five variables on student career decision making self efficacy was examined. The five variables were: 1) level of acculturation,
21 2) androgynous gender-role identi ty, 3) perceived parental sup port in career decision making, 4) gender, and 5) student GPA. Research Questions The following research questions w ere posed in this study: 1. What is the contribution of the combined influence of acculturation, androgynous genderrole identity, perceived pare ntal influence, gender and GPA in predicting the career decision self-efficacy of second genera tion South Asian college students? 2. Is there a relationship between career decision self efficacy and level of acculturation in second generation South As ian college students? 3. Is there a relationship between career decisi on self efficacy and androgynous gender role identity in second generation South Asian college students? 4. Is there a relationship between career decision self efficacy and perceived parental support in career decision making in second gene ration South Asian college students? 5. Is there a relationship between career d ecision self efficacy and gender in second generation South Asian college students? 6. Is there a relationship between career decisi on self efficacy and GPA in second generation South Asian college students? Definition of Terms For the purpose of this study, key construc ts and term s are defined as follows: Acculturation. Acculturation in American society refers to the degree to which an individual identifies with or conforms (willingly or unwillingly) to the attitudes, lifestyles, and values of the European-American based macroculture (Marin, 1992). Androgynous Gender-Role Identity. The ability for an individual to use both feminine and masculine traits depending on the situatio nal appropriateness of these modalities (Bem, 1981). Asian American. Asian American refers to more than twenty nationality groups that came to the United States as early as the late 1800s. The term also cove rs a wide variety of identities, languages and cultures (Kitano & Maki, 1996).
22 Career Decision Making Self-Efficacy. An individuals degree of belief that he or she can successfully complete the task s necessary to making career decisions (Betz & Taylor, 1983). South Asian. South Asians are described as individua ls from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan (Inman & Nath, 2002). Second generation. Second generation is defined as those persons who either were born in the United States or came to the U.S before the age of twelve (Inman & Nath, 2002).
23 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction The career development patterns of South Asia ns living in this country have not been studied extensively by social scie ntists. Moreover, the particular individual and collective (i.e., familial and societal) factors that influence this groups career decision ma king. In this chapter, literature concerning the individu al and collective factors influe ncing the career decision self efficacy of second generation South Asian college students is discussed. A brief history of the immigration pattern s of this subgroup in the United States is important to provide an orientati on to the issues that influence South Asians. Professionals have accounted for a large percentage of Asian Indian immigrants. In the United States, South Asians have been largely urban, well-educated technical and professional people such as scientists, engineers, doctors, academics, and some busin ess people. A significant number of this subgroup was educated in this country. They came to the United States to pursue higher education and then applied for change of status from internati onal students to permanent residents (Seth, 1995). According to Sodowsky & Carey, (1987), several re searchers claim that tw o-fifths of foreign doctors practicing in the U.S come from either India or Pakistan. Another study reported that eighty-eight percent of the 46,000 Asian Indian immi grants to this country either worked as engineers, scientists, medical professionals, or were the spouses and children of these individuals. Career advancement seems to be an important motivation for immigrating from India. South Asians in the United States The general term, Asian American refers to more than 20 nationality groups that came to the United States as early as the late 1800s. These include a wide variety of identities,
24 languages and cultures within th is subgroup. In the last three decades South Asians have comprised a newer immigrant Asian subgroup living in the United States. Diversity within Asian subgroups is often obscured by stereotypes. Kitano & Maki, (1996) contend that Asian Americans are commonly stereotyped because of assumptions that they look alike, act alike, have an Asian face, and have close ties to their ancestral culture. South Asians are described as individuals from India, Pa kistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan (Inman & Nath, 2002). These immigrants also represent the ethnic and cultural diversity of the countries on the Indian subcontinent all the major religions [Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism] and the diverse ethnic and linguistic groups are represented (Das & Kemp, 1997). To understand the ethnic identity of South Asians, it is important to understand the cultural diversity and sociopolitical hi story of this very large group. Ethnically and culturally there are several influen ces including Turks, Greeks, Caucasas, Arabs, Huns and the British. Each province is diverse with respect to language, cultural traditions, religions, beliefs and values (Ibrahim, Ohnishi & Sandhu, 1997). The term South Asian is often used interchangeably with Asian Indian throughout the literature although the majority of researchers use the former term. According to the 2000 Census Bureau, South Asians make up the fourth largest Asian American subgroup, approximating three million. This is a rapidly growing subgroup. In 1970 there were not enough South Asians to be count ed as a separate subgroup. In 1980 they were 361,544, and in 1990 there were 815,447. Thus, in each of the last three decades the population of this Asian subgroup has almost doubled. Th ese numbers alone imply the importance of attending to South Asian concerns (Kitano & Maki, 1996; Census Bureau, 1990, 2000). First generation South Asians include t hose individuals who came to the Un ited States after the age of
25 twenty. Second generation is defined as those who were either born in the United States or came to the U.S before the age of twelve. (Inman & Nath, 2002). Das and Kemp(1997) have emphasized that objective, research-based information on significant aspects of the experien ce of South Asians in this country is lacking. For example, not much is known about the quality of their lives, the stresse s of their day to day life, their mental health needs, and the degree to which they ut ilize mental health services. Few studies about South Asians in North America can be found in the literature. For the most part, relevant knowledge about the population has been synthe sized from anthropological and sociological literature dealing with peoples on the Indian subcontinent. Much of the literature fails to distinguish between the many ethnic groups within the Asian domain and stereotypes seem to be applie d to all Asian subgroups including South Asians. Since the 1960s, the media and press have of ten portrayed Asian Americans as the model minority, one stereotype of Asian Americans that suggests that they have achieved extraordinary success academically and economically. Reports indicate that Asian Americans not only have higher college attendance rates but also have higher achievement test scores than Caucasians (Kim et al., 1998). This stereotype may be more applicable to S outh Asian Americans since there is little documentation about unemployment within this group, whereas there is much evidence related to under and unemploym ent, illiteracy and high school drop out rates among many other Asian subgroups within the United States. Thes e authors describe a stereotype of Asian Americans as the Super student who is able to leap curricula in a single bound and, faster than a speeding bullet and master all sort s of difficult tasks. The attractiv eness of this image is further enhanced by the fact that the student is likely to be the son or daughter of first-generation immigrants.
26 Acculturation and Ethnic Identity Acculturation in American society refers to the degree to which an individual identifies with or conforms to the attitudes, lifestyles a nd values of the dominant Euro-American culture. Ethnic identity has been defined as a persons sense of belonging to an ethnic group (Marin, 1992; Lee, 1997). According to Phinney, Horenczyk, Liebki nd & Vedder (2001), acculturation and ethnic identity are often used interchangeably in the re search literature. While the distinction between these constructs is unclear, thei r inherent processes can be con ceptualized in a two dimensional model. Thus, an individual who has a strong ethnic identity and also identifies with the dominant culture is considered to have an integrated or bicultural identity. An individual who has a strong ethnic identity but does not identify with the dominant culture has a separated identity. An individual that discards an ethnic identity but ra ther identifies only with the dominant culture has an assimilated identity. An individual that rejects ethnic identity and has little interest in that of the dominant culture, the individu al is described as having a marginalized identity (Berry, 2001). How this perspective applies to second gene ration individuals in unclear. Chang, Tracey & Moore (2005), state that models of accultura tion may account for important differences among individuals within groups, incl uding variables such as stress satisfaction, attitudes and adjustment. Ibrahim, Ohnishi & Sandhu (1997) maintain that efforts to develop ethnic identity models for specific minority groups has been limited, par ticularly for Asian American subgroups, due to the multifaceted nature of Asian American iden tity. Yet, these authors outlined some basic beliefs and values that are believed to be consistent for all South Asians:
27 Self-respect, dignity, and self-control: From early childhood, the importance of these three variables is emphasized. Each person is empow ered to achieve self-respect, dignity, and self-control. All excesses are abhorred. The pers on is seen as an individual in a familial context. Individuality of a person is encour aged within the boundari es and limits of the family. The highest ideal is to achieve a self-identity free of material needs. Respect for the family/filial piety: Parent s are to be honored and revered. The family extends horizontally and laterally, these various relationships are va lued, and appropriate respect is given to each family member. Respect for age: It is assumed that the older a person gets, the more maturity and knowledge he or she has. Older persons are respected for these attributes. Families go to elders to resolve familial conflicts. They also turn to older family members for advice and support when they are in a crisis or when so cial or work relations hips are disrupted. Awareness and respect for community: This idea derives from the earliest values, previously mentioned, where the community is seen as an extended family and one has responsibilities to the community. This value decides how self-respect, dignity, and selfcontrol are mediated for each person. Respect for community requires awareness (social climate) and sensitivity. This value reinfo rces group orientation among Pakistani Asian Americans. Fatalism: A belief that no matter what one does or does not do, certain challenges are preordained and must be handled appropriatel y. For example racist attitudes of others will be clearly defined as violence toward self without taking responsibility for another person's racism. This attitude is in direct cont rast to the Greek notion of nemesis, where all positive or negative events are a result of one 's behavior. Nemesis underlies most Western assumption of success and failure. Humility: It is extremely important to not make oneself the center of attention or to discuss one's accomplishments. It is expected that th e more people achieve, the more humble they will be. Others in the group and the community are expected to extol the virtues and accomplishments of group members. It is also very important not to draw attention to yourself by posing as someone w ho is better than others. Th is value is misunderstood in the United States as the person having a lo w self-concept, or maybe not being as accomplished as mainstream colleagues assume the person to be. This value also backfires in the competitive world of the age of information, where South Asian Americans may share their knowledge an d others may gain from it. Cred it is not given to the person who originally put forth the ideas because the person did not request the recognition based on the value of humility (p.45). Das and Kemp (1997) developed a cultural pr ofile for the South Asian immigrant family and then attempted to infer the mental health needs of this group. Most South Asian immigrants who have come to the United States since 1965 bel ong to the Westernized e ducated elite of their
28 countries and speak English fluently. South Asia ns try to recreate some formal and informal institutions from their countries of origin. Regional and sectarian affiliations are overcome and a larger South Asian identity emerges. Businesses and social institutions, from temples to dance academies have sprung up. These institutions provid e structure and a sense of community to the immigrant population. The desire to maintain a distinct ethnic and cultural identity is strong in the first generation. They also gradually acquire a partia l American identity which allows most South Asians to function with a dual identity, or fused identity as Asian Americans. Children of South Asian immigrants are socialized into two cultures, the culture of the family and the culture of the larger American society. Most parents try to ins till a sense of ethnic prid e and awareness of their cultural heritage in their child ren. Ethnic pride and cultural awareness come with intellectual maturity and strong familial support. After migrat ion to the United States, the responsibility of parenting is continued by the pa rents alone and they are highly involved in decision making for and with their children, particularly in the areas of education, career c hoice and marriage (Das & Kemp, 1997; Deepak, 2005). Sodowsky, Kwan & Pannu (1995) identified cultural variables for Asian Americans that apply to South Asian Americans: non-confrontati on or silence as a virtue; respect for older persons and the elderly; mode ration in behaviors; devalua tion of individualism; harmony between hierarchical roles; filial piety; stru ctured family roles and relationships; humility; obedience; high regard for learning; modesty about sexuality; not demonstrative with heterosexual affection; less need for dating; st rong sense of duty to family; protect honor and face of family; marrying within versus outsi de of ethnic group; importance attached to preserving the original relig ion. Second generation South Asians may experience tension
29 between mainstream American values and their ethnic cultural values and may find it offensive to be seen as foreigners (Das & Kemp, 1997). Ibrahim et. al., (1997) claim that each (South Asian) generation born and raised in the Un ited States will become more acculturated. Gloria & Hird (1999) examined the influe nces of ethnic and nonethnic variables on career decision making self efficacy among college students. They found that ethnic variables accounted for a larger proportion of the variance of career decision-making self-efficacy than did non-ethnic variables and therefore were more strongly predictive of career decision self-efficacy. These authors suggest that ethnic identity development is a significant vocational task for ethnic minorities. Gender The studies reviewed do not distinguish be tween m en and women of South Asian descent thus it is unclear how South Asians women are represented in various occupations. In addition, it is unclear to what extent the career paths of second generation South Asians have been chosen individually or reflect traditional versus non-tr aditional occupational directions for the South Asian population. Thus, the extent of career deci sion making self-efficacy of college women and men was targeted for examination in this study. Malgwi, Howe & Burnaby (2005) examined the in fluences on students choice of college major. While their sample was restricted to bu siness majors, results showed that regardless of gender, interest in the subject was the most important factor fo r incoming freshmen. Interestingly they found that there were several gender differe nces in choice of major. For example, women more so than men were influenced by their aptitude in the subject, whereas men were significantly more influenced than women by occupational pay. As many as half of college students change their majors a nd this study found that men and wo men appear to be more alike in what factors influence their choice of major over time. Intere stingly, high school advisors and
30 parents were not found to be infl uential in the initial choice of major. This study did not provide information on sample ethnicity so the inclusion of South Asians in this study could not be determined. Das and Kemp (1997), claim that first generation South Asian families are typically hierarchical in terms of gender and age, with gender roles a nd relationships clearly defined. While the majority of marriages are arranged an d the divorce rates are low, this picture is beginning to change slowly for the second genera tion. The desire of parents to choose mates for their children, especially daughter s, leads to restriction, sometim es totally prohibiting dating and any expression of sexuality. This further comp licates the lives of young people who are brought up to love and obey their parents, yet want to assimilate into mainstream American culture by dating. Gender roles are graduall y becoming more equal, and child ren are being given a greater say in family decision making and more freedom in the choice of a career and a marriage partner (Das & Kemp, 1997). An ethnographic study on the effects of migration on first generation South Asian women in the United States by De epak (2005), found that the first generation mothers took the opportunity to distance themselv es from family and community expectations, allowing them to make more independent parenting decisions. This author found that this (freedom) resulted in dynamic re lationships of these first gene ration mothers with their second generation daughters, providing them with suppor t and guidance in stretching a reshaping the boundaries of South Asian womanhood. Coogan & Chen (2007), suggest that early gender role orientation influences career choices among women. These authors explain that early socialization of girls that focus on taking care of others as a primar y obligation and that career plan s may somehow interfere with or superimpose on that obligation. The consequences of this socialization are that girls may limit
31 themselves to the types of occupations th ey would consider pursuing, perhaps favoring stereotypically female occupations and disc ounting typically male occupations. Another consequence is that girls may not place the same emphasis on pursuing a career as compared to boys. The degree to which this gender role so cialization occurs among second generation South Asian women is unclear since cons ideration would have to be give n to the mutual influence of cultural values and changing dynami cs of parents (particularly mothers) with their girls. Ibrahim et.al., (1997) proposed that gende r identity of South Asians varies with generational and educational level, social class, and economic stab ility and suggests that it can range from extremely patriarchal to egalitarian. They contend that South Asian Americans have a high regard for hierarchy in soci al relationships and where a pers on exists in this hierarchy is mediated by education, age, and social class. These authors explained that the social construction of gender and ethnicity for South Asian women is fluid and changing, based on the maternal status of the woman given that traditionally, a woman is not equal to a man, but when she becomes a mother she gains power in the hierar chy and must be revered. The experience of marginality, and being on the outside of the hos t culture, creates stronger bonds within family and less rigid gender identifica tion and boundaries. Because educat ion and the self are highly connected, it requires people to be flexible base d on their social class, educational level, and circumstances in the United States. If sexist in terpretations of ethnic culture are imposed, people born and raised in the United States will reject them or seek to mediate those assumptions (Ibrahim, et.al., 1997). The role of family me mbers in helping young women develop the selfefficacy necessary to pursue careers, particularly in math and science has been identified as highly influential, along with importance of relationships with other adults such as high school counselors (Whitmarsh, Brown, Cooper, Hawkin s-Rodgers & Wentworth, 2007). This may well
32 need to be assessed among second generation South Asian Americans since there is contradictory evidence of the influence of pare nts and other role mode ls in the literature. Lips (1992) assessed gender and science rela ted attitudes as pred ictors of college students academic choices and found that men and women in his sample differed in their intentions and behavior with respect to academ ic and vocational choices involving mathematics and science. Women placed more importance on people-related concerns such as combining career and family, but contrary to prediction, ev idenced less concern about the difficulties faced by women in combining careers in mathematics or science with marriage or motherhood. For women, belief in the compatibility of a science caree r and family roles were related to intent to study more science. This study demonstrated that in general, women were underrepresented in the mathematics and science fields but their attitude s revealed that the purs uit of careers in such fields was more related to intere st in those fields, rather than believing that these career fields were too difficult or not conducive to multiple family roles. Other factors listed as partial explanation of gender differences in the mathem atics and sciences were : number of high-school mathematics and science courses completed; gende r differences in confidence in mathematical and scientific ability; gender-relat ed differences in enjoyment of mathematics; and differences in the amount of encouragement toward mathem atics and science and non science fields young women and men receive from parents and teachers. While researchers contend that there is now an even lower representation of minority women in the mathematics and science related career fields, this study does not specifically a ddress other groups of minority women. According to Betz (1992), when choosing a career women may avoid career options in traditionally male-dominated career fields. Performance issues may include the effects of low self-efficacy in career decision making as well as consequent anxiety in test taking. Women and
33 minorities enrolled in programs traditionally dominated by Anglo men such as science and engineering may encounter little or no support for their nontra ditional aspirations. Betz & Hackett (1981) investigated the relationships of occupationally related se lf-efficacy expectations to the nature and range of occupational altern atives perceived by undergraduate women and men, and the sex differences in self-efficacy expectati ons with regard to the educational requirements and job duties of traditionally female and tradit ionally male occupations. They found that there were significant and consistent sex differences in self-efficacy with regard to traditional and nontraditional occupations. They found greater se lf-efficacy among students as it related to occupations considered stereotypically traditional for females (e.g. social worker), and for males (e.g. engineer). The most significant finding of th is study was the observed sex differences due to divergent perceptions of capab ility among men and women. Women perceived lower capability in traditionally male occupati ons, whereas men reported equivale nt overall self-efficacy with regard to both traditional and nontraditional occupations. In a follow-up study, Lent and Hackett (1987) found that the findings still held true, regarding women and career decision-making self -efficacy. Beliefs about self-efficacy serve as a potent internal barrier to wome ns career choices and achievement s. With respect to womens career development, self-efficacy theory ma y also serve as a mechanism through which socialization experiences affect the career behavior of minority women. Role models are identified in the social science literature as such a mechanism, having an impact on womens career decision making. Through their lives and activities, role models influence another person in some way and individuals tend to seek role mode ls that are similar to them in some way, such as gender or race. A lack of female role models in nontraditional careers has been identified as a barrier for women who choose to enter t hose professions. Quimby & DeSantis (2006)
34 investigated the influence of role models on womens career development and found that role model influence added to the pr ediction of career choi ce over and above the c ontribution of selfefficacy among women. Thus, exposure to role m odels in nontraditional occupations may be increasingly valuable to young women wanting to enter those careers in which women are underrepresented. Role model influence among second generation South Asian women is unknown. These role models may exist within South Asian communities or immediate family but the extent to which those relationships exist has yet to be investigated. The labor market in the United States has, until recently, been gender segregated. While there has been a crossing of those boundaries with men and women making nontraditional career choices, the wealth of research has focused on the increasing number of women making those decisions (Lease, 2003; Whitmarsh et al., 2007). Increasing numbers of women are choosing to enter traditionally male dominated career fiel ds and this has been regarded as a positive movement that works toward narrowing the ge nder gap in the world of work offering opportunities for increased pay, status and advancement. The choice of nontraditional career choices for men, in typically female dominated occupations does not gene rally have the same positive perception (Lease, 2003). Dodson and Borders (2006), examined gender ro le attitudes, gender role conflict and job satisfaction among men in traditi onal and nontraditional male caree rs (mechanical engineers and elementary school counselors, respectively). Thes e researchers contend th at few studies have been conducted that study men who enter female dominated careers, despite the increasingly gender balanced labor market. They found that mechanical engineers reported more traditional choices, attitudes and beliefs that did the elementary school counsel ors. Further, the elementary school counselors were willing to sacrifice traditional male-dominat ed career choices for greater
35 prestige in a nontraditional career field. They also found that the engineers expressed stronger antifemininity beliefs (eg. men should not do anything that might appear feminine) than did school counselors. The engineers also reported greater toughness and more experiences of conflict regarding success and expression of emotions, as well as balancing family and work life, than did the school counselors. The authors concl uded that the engineers expressed a measure of cost in their lives related to a dherence to traditional male gender role expectations. The degree to which second generation South Asian men adhere to traditional male occupations has not been measured but one may expect that based on the high priority and value of education, there may be a closer adherence to stereotypical male occu pations for this group. Lease (2003), conducted a study that tested a model of mens nontraditional occupational choices among 354 male college students. She f ound that more liberal social attitudes among male college students predicted nontraditional car eer intentions. These at titudes allow men more role flexibility in choosing occupations that ma y not be considered typical and appropriate for men. These men did not consider the goals of family and career to be in conflict and contrary to the authors expectations; the influence of societ al role models assessed by traditional female occupations of their mothers did not have a significant influence over their sons choices for nontraditional male careers. However, mothers that were in nontraditional careers had were more likely to have sons with more liberal attitudes about nontraditiona l careers. The ethnicity of the study sample was not provided and so the degree to which these findings can be generalized to second generation South Asian men is unknown. Androgynous Gender Role Identity According to Be m (1981), masculinity and femi ninity have been conceptualized as the opposite ends of a single gender di mension. Psychological androgyny re fers to the integration of femininity and masculinity with in an individual, male or fe male. The idea of psychological
36 androgyny suggests that it is possibl e for an individual to be both feminine and masculine (for example, compassionate and assertive) and us e these complimentary modalities simultaneously in a given situation, such as fi ring an employee. To test the m oderating environmental influences on childrens gender stereotyping, Bi gler (1985), examined the eff ects of the functional use of gender in the classroom. She found that the use of gender dichotomies in the test classroom increased childrens gender stereotyping. Children in the gender classroom showed greater stereotyping of occupations co mpared with the control group Children in the gender groups were more likely than those in the control group to rate occupa tions as only men and only women. A study conducted by Portman (2001), examined gender role attributions of AmericanIndian women. Results of this study, using a sample of 505 American-Indian women found that women scored higher on the masculine subscale co mpared with White female counterparts. They also scored high on the femininity subscale. Th e importance of this st udy is that it provides evidence that individuals may engage in psychol ogical androgyny, implying that it is possible for a person to engage both stereotypi cal feminine and stereotypical masculine characteristics as the situation demands. For example, it is possibl e for an individual to be compassionate and assertive, tender or aggressi ve (Bem, 1981). Millard, Habler & List (1984), examined the relationship of sex-role orientat ion to career indecision in 109 college students. They found that androgynous individuals experienced less career indecision than feminine or masculine groups. The Portman (2001) study indicated that psychol ogical androgyny is associ ated with healthier mental health functioning and bett er health practices than feminine or masculine trait dominance. Ozkan and Lajunen (2005), examined masculin ity and femininity among college students in Turkey. Using a sample 280 men and 256 wome n, they found that men and women showed no
37 statistical difference on masculine traits while both men and women scored higher on feminine traits. For example, aggressiveness is undesirable for both sexes and traits such as affectionate and sympathetic are desirabl e for both Turkish men and women. This study further illustrated the idea that psychological an drogyny implies resilience and flexibility of traits and that this preference may exist across cultur es. These authors contend that changing gender roles for women have been influenced by greater urbanization, increase d numbers of women at universities and expanded career opportunities whic h have in turn challenged more traditional notions of gender roles. Modern Turkish women ar e expected to be more adaptable and flexible in work and personal environments. This contra sts with the findings of previous studies regarding gender role identity. There appears to be greater discussion in the recent social science literature that men and women with a higher numbe r of both masculine and feminine traits report better psychological adjustment because they ar e more adaptable to changing life situations. These studies have indicated that androgyny is associated with bette r mental health and lower gender typing of occupations. Hence, it is possible that the greater the androgynous characteristics in an individual, the greater self-efficacy he or she may possess in exploring career options, includin g nontraditional occupations, and over all career decision making. There are no known studies that have examined the influence of psychological androgyny among South Asian Americans. Self-Efficacy Theory One theoretical fram ework used to look at ca reer decision self-efficacy is Banduras work on behavior change. Bandura ( 1982) claimed that behavior ch ange and decisions made are mediated by expectations of self-efficacy: expecta tions of beliefs that one can perform a given behavior. His theory postulates that the level and strength of self-efficacy will determine (1) whether or not a coping behavior will be initiated, (2) how much effort will result, and (3) how
38 long the effort will be sustained in the face of obstacles. This model proposes four principal sources from which expectations of self-effi cacy are derived: performance accomplishments, vicarious (observational learning) experience, verbal persuasion (encouragement), and emotional arousal (negative anxiety related to performance abilities). In other studies, self-efficacy was found to be related to mathematics performance, car eer entry behaviors such as choice of college major and academic performance, and to gender di fferences pertinent to a variety of career behaviors. Bandura also found that the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplishments and the lower the em otional arousal. Bandura also distinguished between outcome expectancy and efficacy expectancy. Outcome expectancy refers to the persons estimate that a given behavior will lead to particular outcomes. An efficacy expectation is an estimate that one can su ccessfully execute the behavior required to produce the outcomes sought. (Bandura, 1982; Betz, 1992; Herr & Cramer, 1996; Sullivan & Mahalik, 2000). Hackett and Betz (1981) were the first to pr opose that self-efficacy might be an important variable to include in models of career deve lopment, influencing the achievement behavior, academic and career decisions, and career adju stment of both men and women. They extended the theory of self-efficacy to the career dom ain and provided an outline for how personal efficacy may develop differently in men and wo men due to gender-role socialization, and differential access to the four sources of efficacy information (Lent & Hackett, 1987). Sullivan & Mahaliks (2000) study on incr easing career self-efficacy for women, evaluated a group intervention. Th ey evaluated whether women w ho participated in the group that was designed to enhance career self effi cacy would increase career decision self-efficacy and vocational exploration and commitment comp ared to a control grou p. Compared with the control group, their results i ndicated that women in the treatment group improved on career
39 decision-making self efficacy and vocational explor ation and commitment and that this gain was sustained at the six-week follow up. One important aspect of this study was that it addressed the impact of gender role socializ ation in womens career decision self-efficacy. In addition the findings highlight the importance of incorporating contextual factors such as gender socialization issues into the career counseling process. As not ed earlier, gender roles ar e typically clearly set within South Asian culture, and thus are a vita l contextual factor wh en assessing the career development concerns of South Asians. Social Cognitive Career Theory Albert and L uzzo (1999) descri bed social cognitive career th eory (SCCT), an extension of Banduras social cognitive theory as a fram ework for conceptualizi ng career development. Social cognitive career theory recognizes that there are mutual interacting influences between people, their behavior, and their environmen t. Bandura (1982) termed this interaction triadic reciprocality in which personal attributes, such as internal cognitive and affective states, physical attributes, external envi ronmental factors, and overt behaviors or actions, all operate interactively and affect one another bidirectionally. Social cognitive career theory attempts to explain the development of car eer and academic interests, th e career choice process, and performance outcomes. In addition, this SCCT proposes that goals are a central component in the career process. Goals are defined as the determin ation to engage in a pa rticular behavior or activity or to affect a particular future outcome. By setting goals individuals organize and guide their behavior. SCCT suggests that there is a complex interplay among self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and goal setting. This theory also proposes th at contextual factors are responsible for shaping the experiences that lead to career interests and choices. In SCCT, contextual factors may relate to perceived barriers in career decision making, such that even if indi viduals possess high levels of
40 self-efficacy, high outcome expectations, and intere sts congruent with those expectations, they may still avoid choosing a particular career if th ey perceive insurmountable barriers to career entry or career goal attainment. Perceived barriers that may include economic needs, educational limitations, lack of familial support, gender and et hnic discrimination and may inhibit the pursuit of a preferred career goal. Th is may occur among minorities w ho realize that there are few representatives in a certain ca reer field from their own ethn ic group (Albert & Luzzo, 1999). Summary A review of the relevant liter ature in dicated that evidence based research on the career decision making processes of South Asians is lacking and that existing social science research fails to distinguish between Asian subgroups living in the United States. This review of literature suggested that processes of acculturation, ethnic identity and gender role identity formation are fluid and ongoing for second generation South Asians in the U.S. as these individuals mediate the influence of two cultures (South Asian and Euro-American) in career decision making. Thus, the purpose of this study was to i nvestigate career decision self-efficacy among second generation South Asian college student s by examining the impact of acculturation, androgynous gender role identity, perceived parent al support, gender, an d student grade point average on students career self-efficacy.
41 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY In this study the influence of five variables on the level of career decision self efficacy of second generation South Asian coll ege students was examined. The fi ve variables were: (1) level of acculturation, (2) androgynous gender role identit y, (3) perceived parent al support in career decision making, (4) gender, and (5) student grad e point average. A cross-sectional survey research design was used in this study. In this chapter the research hypo theses, research design and relevant variables, data analysis, populati on, sample, and data collection procedures are described. Additionally, the study instrume ntation and methodology are discussed. Delineation of Relevant Variables This study investigated the relationships among six variables. Each variable is described here. A more detailed presentation of the instruments used to measure each of these variables is found in the instrume ntation section. Career Decision Self Efficacy (CDSE) CDSE refers to an individuals belief or confiden ce that he or she can successfully complete the tasks necessary to making career d ecisions (Taylor & Betz, 1983). Sources of selfefficacy are thought to come from ones family of origin as well as variables including gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and available educational oppor tunities (Betz, 2004). CDSE was the dependent variable in this study and was me asured for second generation South Asian college students using the Career Decision Self Efficacy Scale, SF (short form). Acculturation Acculturatio n is a process that occurs when two or more cultures in teract. Outcomes of this process include assimilati on (the individual adopts the cu ltural attitudes, values and behaviors of the dominant culture); resistance to assimilation where the individual rejects the
42 host culture and retains only and identity with his or culture of origin; or biculturalism in which the individual adopts characterist ics of both the dominant culture and culture of origin (Suinn, Khoo & Ahuna, 1995). In this study the level of acculturation for second generation South Asian college students in the United States was measured using the Suinn-Lew Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA). Androgynous Gender Role Identity Androgyny is described by Bem (1978), as those whose persona lities embrace both feminine and masculine traits. Masculinity an d femininity are considered separate concepts rather than extremes of a single bipolar dime nsion. Thus, both men and women may have scores on both dimensions. According to Abu-Ali (1999 ) gender role identity is acquired through exposure to societal expectations and beliefs ab out behaviors and characteristics appropriate for males and females (p. 185). Abdalla (1995) reports th at gender role identity is associated with career decision making self efficacy with the androgynous (having both male and female) gender role identity related to higher sc ores in CDMSE as compared to e ither the traditionally masculine or traditionally feminine gender role identities. Gender-role identity was assessed using the Bem Sex-Role Inventory short form (Bem, 1981). Perceived Parental Support In the development of the Career-Related Parent Support Scale by Tu rner et. al., (2003), the authors postulated that pare ntal support in educational and career decision making is strongly related to self-efficacy in adolescents. The role of parents is a critical factor in influencing CDSE among young adults since they have the capacity to influence their childs perception of being academically and vocationally competent, thus having a positive impact on adolescent career development (Turner & Lapan, 2002). The Career Related Parent Support Scale was used to
43 investigate the contribution of parental s upport perceived by second generation South Asian college students to their car eer decision self efficacy. Gender and Student GPA The participants gender and overall GPA was assessed from the demographic questionnaire, reported by student participants. Population and Sample South Asians have been described in the literature as individuals from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, a nd Bhutan. Second generation South Asians are defined as those who were either born in the United States or who came to the U.S before the age of twelve (Inman & Nath, 2002). The population for this study was second generation South Asians. A convenience sample for this study was drawn fr om this population of second generation South Asians. Sampling Procedures The sam ple of participants selected for th is study was comprised of college students currently attending tier one, 4-year, research uni versities in the southeastern United States, in three states. Participants were considered eligible for this study if they met these four criteria: 1) enrolled at a 4-year, tier one re search university, 2) between the ages of 18-24, 3) of South Asian descent and 4) were second generation South Asians. To recruit students to participate in the st udy, the primary investigat or contacted student participants via direct email us ing university student directories. University student directories were accessed since the Universi ties did not have a South Asia n designation available in the breakdown of ethnicities represented in their student populations. Eleven hundred South Asian college students were identified by name on st udent directories, as well as through student cultural groups at those Universities and the f aculty advisors for South Asian campus student
44 organizations. Each student and faculty member was sent an email inviting participation in this study three times over the course of six weeks. Pa rticipants and faculty members were asked to forward the study invitation to other South Asian students at thei r Universities, representing a snowball sampling method. Participation in th e study was completely voluntary. Two hundred and four students participated in the survey and after eliminating responses that were not complete or did not meet the criteria for part icipation, the final sample number was 138. This represents a low response rate of only 12.5%. Th ere was no compensation for participating in this study. Subjects The sam ple consisted of 138 college students who met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Forty three percent of the sample were ma le (n=59), and 57% were female (n=79). All participants attended large 4-year research universities in the southeast and were within the target age range of 18-24 yrs old. All participants met the criteria for second generation South Asian, those students born in the United States or immigrated before th e age of twelve (Inman & Nath, 2000). The distribution for countri es of birth of participan ts is shown in Table 3-1 Table 3-1. Country of Birth Country of Birth Frequency Percent United States 83 60.1 India 33 23.9 Sri Lanka 12 8.7 Pakistan 7 5.1 Bangladesh 2 1.4 Nepal 1 0.7 Total 138 100 Eighty-two percent of student GPAs were 3.0 or higher. Student participants represented a cross section of year in co llege: 23% freshmen, 20% sophomore s, 26% juniors, 17% seniors and 13% graduate students. Only 6% of participants were unde cided about choosing a major.
45 83% of the participants reporte d that their mothers had a coll ege education, while 93% reported that their fathers had a college education. Participants reported choice of major and Table 3-2 shows the choice of major by gender. Table 3-2. Choice of major by gender Gender Major Male Female Total Agricultural Sciences 0 2 2 Building Construction 2 0 2 Business 14 8 22 Education 0 2 2 Engineering 9 4 13 Journalism 1 3 4 Law 1 1 2 Liberal arts and sciences 20 32 52 Medical sciences 2 7 9 Pharmacy 4 6 10 Health Professions 1 6 7 Not stated 5 8 13 59 79 138 Data Collection Procedures Approval of this study by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Florida was obtained before collec ting data. This researcher cont acted potential participants via direct email using online student directories. Students were then asked to voluntarily participate in the study made available online by explaining the purpose of the study and requesting their participation. The study was described as an investigation to bette r understand how young adult second generation South Asians make decisions about career. In compliance with IRB protocol, participants were informed of any potential risks and benefits as a result of participation. Finally, the participants were given the contact informa tion for the primary investigator and encouraged to contact her should they have any questions or concerns that should aris e from participation in this study. To ensure anonymity the participants were informed of and given printed information
46 about confidentiality. They were informed that there would be no identifying information on any of the surveys and demo graphic questionnaire. The survey packet was available for web-base d administration. Each participant received an email explaining the study and inviting participation. They were provided with the URL for the online survey packet and as ked to complete it privately. Instrumentation A set of five self-report instrum ents dist ributed to study participants comprised the survey. Three of the instruments (i.e., Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-SF, the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, and the Bem Sex-Role inventory) assessed the participants perception of self with respect to confidence about career decision making and level of adjustment with respect to culture and gender role identity. The fourth instrument, the CareerRelated Parent Support Scale assess ed the participants perception of parental support in career decision making. The fifth instrument, a resear cher constructed quest ionnaire, obtained individual demographic data. Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form (CDSE-SF) The Career Decision Making Self Efficacy Scale Short Form (CDSE-SF) is a tool for measuring a persons degree of confidence that he or she can successfully complete the tasks necessary for making career choices. This instru ment was developed for group administration to college students and is based on Banduras theore tical notions of self-e fficacy (Betz & Taylor, 1983). Low career decision self-efficacy expectations are hypothesized to lead to an avoidance of tasks and behaviors needed to make quality career decisions, whereas high self-efficacy expectations lead to an increase in the freque ncy of behaviors that ar e necessary for quality career decision making (Luzzo, 1993).
47 The CDMSE-SF consists of 25 items. The response to each item is based on the participants preconceived belief (confidence) th at he or she can accomplish each task. A fivepoint Likert-type scale measures responses that range from no confidence (1 point) to complete confidence (5 points). A single scor e is computed from the 25 responses. Higher scores indicate higher career decision self efficacy. Sample ite ms include, Figure out what you are and are not willing to sacrifice to achieve yo ur career goals, and, Mak e a plan of goals for the next five years. Internal consistency reliability was estimated with coefficient alpha on the five subscales of the CDSES. The reliability values for the 5 level response continuum in self-appraisal, occupational information, goal selection, pla nning, and problem solving were .88, .89, .87, .89, and .86 respectively. Total reliabil ity for the 25-item survey is .94 (Betz, Klein & Taylor, 1996). Additional research has provided ev idence that the 25-item short form is nearly as reliable and as valid as the longer CDSES of 50 items. (Betz et. al., 1996). While the inst rument demonstrates respectable evidence of reliabi lity these authors caution researchers to continually assess its applicability to populations other than college students. Suinn-Lew Self-Identity Accu lturation Scale (SL-ASIA) The SL-ASIA is one of the most frequently referenced assessment tools for measuring acculturation in Asian Americans in the counseli ng literature. This instrument consists of 21 multiple choice items. A score is obtained by calculating the sum of all scores and dividing by 21. The resulting score can range from 1.00 (low acculturation) to 5.00 (high acculturation). Low scores are reflective of high Asian identification and high scores are refl ective of high Western identification. A score of 3.00 would indicate th at an individual is bicultural, adopting characteristics of both the dominant Euro-Ameri can culture and their own Asian culture (Suinn, Ahuna & Khoo, 1992). Sample items are:
48 What language can you speak? 1. Asian only (for example Chinese, Korean etc.) 2. Mostly Asian, some English 3. Asian and English equally well (bilingual) 4. Mostly English, some Asian 5. Only English How would you rate yourself? 1. Very Asian 2. Mostly Asian 3. Bicultural 4. Mostly Westernized 5. Very Westernized The SL-ASIA has a satisfactory level of inte rnal consistency across mainstream Asian American college groups in that researchers in nine studies have reported an internal consistency range of .68 to .91 (Ponterrotto, Baluch & Carelli 1998). However, the instrument has not been normed specifically on South Asian populations. In the original development of the instrument, limited evidence was provided on the scale reliabili ty and validity. Hence the original published scale has no numerical values to indicate reliability and validity. Subsequent evaluations of the instrument in more than twenty studies have revealed internal consistency ranging from .72 to .91 (Ponterrotto et al., 1998; Johnson, Wall, Guan ipa, Terry-Guyer & Velasquez, 2002). While these figures are respectable, th e authors suggest caution in gene ralizing to all Asian American groups. There is some evidence of the SL-ASIA criterion related validity regarding counseling process variables such as attit udes toward counseling and willingne ss to see a counselor serve as the variables. For example, higher scores repres ent greater acculturation to mainstream American culture and thus increased willingness to engage in counseling. Regarding construct validity, correlations in predicted directi ons with measures such as self -identification and length of time living in the U.S., yield strong support (Ponterrott o et al., 1998).
49 Bem Sex-Role Inventory Short Form (BSRI-SF) Bem (1981) proposed that masculinity and fe mininity are two independent dimensions rather than two ends of a single dimension. Thus a person can indicate whether he or she is high on both dimensions (androgynous), low on both dimensions (undifferentiated), or high on one but low on the other (either feminine or masculine). The BSRI short form consists of 30 items, 10 of which are masculine items (for example: independent, acts as a leader, assertiv e), 10 feminine items (for example: gentle, loyal, affectionate) and 10 n eutral items (for example: ha ppy, adaptable, jealous). The participant is required to rate him or her self on a seven point scale, from never or almost never true to always or almost always true (Maznah & Fong, 1986). Scores are calculated for both the feminine and masculine scales and the difference computed (femininity score masculinity score) using a or + High scores in either direction indi cate a tendency to be strongly gender-typed. Positive scores indicate femininity and negative scores indicate masculinity. The traditionally gender-typed person would be motivated to keep his or her behaviors consistent with idealized images of femininity or ma sculinity regarding career decision making and other behaviors (Bem, 1981). Using the BSRI, Abdalla (1995) investig ated the gender role concepts and career decision making self-efficacy of Arab college st udents and reported findings that support the construct validity of the scales with alpha scor es of .82 for masculinity and .87 for femininity. Abu-Ali (1999), reported an inte rnal consistency of the BSRI of .86 and .80 for masculine and feminine scales respectively. This author claims similar consistency when the scales are used with diverse ethnic groups.
50 The Career-Related Parent Support Scale (CRPSS) The CRPSS is a self-report inventory designed to assess the particip ants perceptions of the ways their parents provide support in their ca reer decision m aking. In the development of this scale the authors, Turner, Allm an-Brissett, Lapan, Udipi & Ergun (2003) proposed that parental support of adolescents educationa l and vocational development is related to their offsprings self-efficacy and outcome expectations when engaging in appropriate vocational and educational tasks. The test is comprised 27 items representing f our scales that corres pond to Banduras four sources of self-efficacy expectations: performance accomplishmen ts, vicarious learning, social persuasion and emotional arousal. Participants ra te each item on a 5 point Likert scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree): Scale 1 (7 items) Instrumental Assistance (support of adolescents career related skill development), for example, My parents teach me th ings that I will someday be able to use at my job Scale 2 (7 items) Career-Related Modeling (p arents provision of career related modeling behavior), for example, My parent s have taken me to their work. Scale 3 (6 items) Verbal Encouragement (paren ts praise and encouragement associated with their adolescents educational a nd career development), for example, My parents expect me to finish school. Scale 4 (7 items) Emotional support (parents support of the affect experienced by their adolescents with respect to their educational and career developm ent), for example, My parents talk to me when I am worri ed about my future career. Descriptive statistics were computed for each scale and a total score calculated for the entire instrument. Results for the scale developm ent showed internal consistency estimates for
51 the scores across the four CRPSS subscales range from .78 to .85., while the internal consistency estimate for the entire scale was .79. Demographic Questionnaire The demographic questionnaire was designed to collect data on indi vidual characteristics of participants: age, ge nder, current standing in college (freshman, sophomore junior or senior), country of origin/ancestry/birth, number of year s in the United States (to assess whether the individual meets criteria for second generation South Asian) and GPA. Hypotheses The following null hypotheses were evaluated in this study: Ho (1): There is no contribution of the va riables (i.e., level of acculturation, androgynous gender role identity, percei ved parental support, gender or GPA) to the prediction of the level of career decision making se lf efficacy in second generation South Asian college students. Ho (2): There is no significant association between the le vel of career decision self efficacy and gender role identity repo rted by second generation South Asian college students. Ho (3): There is no significan t association between the le vel of career decision self efficacy and perceived parental support in career decision making reported by second generation South As ian college students. Ho (4): There is no significant association between the le vel of career decision self efficacy and gender in second genera tion South Asian college students. Ho (5): There is no significant association between the le vel of career decision self efficacy and GPA reported by second generation South Asian college students. Ho (6): There is no significant association between the le vel of career decision self efficacy and level of acculturation re ported by second generation South Asian college students.
52 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The purpose of this study was to investigat e the career decision se lf-efficacy of second generation South Asian college students. The in fluence of five variables on student career decision-making self-efficacy was examined. The fi ve variables were: 1) level of acculturation, 2) gender-role identity, 3) perceived parental support in car eer decision making, 4) gender and, 5) student GPA. The sample for this study included 138 s econd generation South Asian college students between the ages of 18 and 24 years old. Participan ts were enrolled at large 4 year universities in the southeastern United States. Specifically, career decision self efficacy was assessed by the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale (CDSE-SF) The degree of acculturation of second generation South Asian college students for th is study was measured using the Suinn-Lew Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to assess gender role identity, and the Career Related Parent Support Scale (CRPSS) was used to measure the contribution of parental support pe rceived by participants to thei r career decision self-efficacy. A demographics questionnaire was used to collect data on year in college and GPA of student participants. Data Analysis Procedures Descriptive statistics were com puted for th e dependent variable, CDSE as well as for each of the five predictor variables (i.e., level of acculturation, level of gender role identity, perceived parental support, gender and GPA). Th ese descriptive statistics are summarized in Table 4-1.
53 Table 4-1. Descriptive statis tics of sample on each measure N Mean S.D. Minimum Maximum Total CDSE 138 95.47 16.65 35.00 125.00 SL-ASIA 138 3.21 0.54 1.71 4.86 Sum CRPSS 138 100.12 19.94 53.00 135.00 BSRI T-score 138 51.62 10.42 17.00 82.00 GPA 138 4.07 0.86 1.00 5.00 Career decision self-efficacy as measured by the Career Decision Self Efficacy Scale was designated as the dependent variable while leve l of acculturation (SL-ASIA), perceived parental support (CRPSS), gender role iden tity (BSRI), gender and GPA were the predicto r variables. Career Decision Self-Efficacy (CDSE) Scale The m ean sum score for CDSE for this samp le was 95.47 with a range of 35 to 125. Higher scores represent higher levels of career de cision making self efficacy. The mean score for participants on the five point likert scale with 1 = no confidence and 5 = complete confidence was determined by dividing the mean sum score by 25. Thus the mean score for this sample was 3.81 indicative an overall confidence level in the moderate to much confidence range. A standard deviation of 16.65 indicates a normal distri bution of the scores for this sample. The Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation (SL-ASIA) Scale On the SL-ASIA scores can range from 1.00 (low acculturation) to 5.00 (high acculturation). Lower scores are reflective of hi gh South Asian identification while higher scores are reflective of high Western identification. A score of 3.00 is reflective of a bicultural disposition. The mean SL-ASIA score in this study was 3.21 with a range of 1.71 to 4.86. The mean score and standard deviation of 0.54 indica te a grouping of acculturation scores around the mean, or the bicultural range of this instrument.
54 Career Related Parent Support Scale (CRPSS) The CRPSS assessed the particip ants perception of career re lated parental support. The mean sum score was 100.12 with a range of 35 to 135. Higher scores represent greater perceived parental support in career d ecision making. The standard devi ation of 19.94 reflects a normal distribution of scores for this instrument. Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) The BSRI assessed pa rticipants level of attunement to cultural definitions of gender appropriate behavior and the use of those definitions as the ideal standard against which his or her own behavior is evaluated, including maki ng decisions about career. The mean T-score on the BSRI was 51.62 with a standard deviation of 10.64. Grade Point Average Student participants indicated their current GPA by choosing one of five categories: below 2.0, 2.1-2.4, 2.5-2.9, 3.0-3.5, 3.6-4.0.The distribution of student grade point averages are shown in Table 4.2. Table 4-2. Distribution of student grade point averages Frequency Percent Below 2.0 1 0.7 2.1-2.4 8 5.8 2.5-2.9 16 11.6 3.0-3.5 69 50.0 3.6-4.0 44 31.9 Total 138 100.0 A correlation matrix was generated to present all the possible combinations of correlations among the independent and depende nt variables. The Pearson product-moment coefficient (r) was calculated for each pair of the six independent and dependent variables. The correlation coefficient (r) measures the nature an d degree of relationship between two variables. The relationship between two variables may be positive, negative or non-existent. A positive
55 correlation indicates a direct re lationship between two variables where high (or low) scores on one variable related to high (or lo w) scores in a second variable. A negative correlation indicates an inverse relationship between two variables where low scores on one variable relate to high scores on the second variable, or vice-versa. The magnitude of the re lationship between two variables in a correlation matrix is designated by a number between +1 and -1 (Creswell, 2005; Boney, 2002). A step wise multiple regression analysis wa s performed to determine the proportion of variance in the dependent variab le (i.e., CDSE) that could be accounted for by the set of predictor variables. In addition, regression analysis was genera ted to calculate the proportion of variance in the dependent variable that was acco unted for by each of the independent variables when the effects of all other pr edictor variables were held constant. This allowed an assessment of the effects of each variable while contro lling for others (Creswell, 2005; Boney, 2002). Analysis Results The goal of the correlation matrix was to assess the relationships between the dependent and independent variables: CDSE, SL-ASIA, CRPSS, BSRI, gender and GPA. Table 4.3 shows the results of this analysis. Table 4-3. Intercorrelations betwee n independent and dependent variables Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. CDSE 1.00 2. SLASIA -.08 1.00 3. CRPSS .28* -.08 1.00 4. BSRI -.07 -.09 -.00 1.00 5. Gender -.04 .04 -.16* -.15 1.00 6. GPA .19* -.03 -.09 -.08 -.05 1.00 ______________________________________________________________________________ N=138, *p <.05 (two-tailed) NOTE: CDSE = career decision self-efficacy; SL ASIA = acculturation; CRPSS = career related parent support; BSRI = gender role id entity; GPA = grade point average.
56 There was a positive correlation between car eer related parental support and career decision self-efficacy (r = .28). Therefore, as per ceived career related parental support increases, CDSE increases. There was a positive correlatio n between GPA and career decision self-efficacy (r = .19). Therefore as GPA increases, career de cision self-efficacy increases. The remaining pairs in the correlation matrix indicated only slight negative re lationships that did not reach significance. A regression model was developed to dete rmine what, if any, relationship existed between the set of independent variables and the dependent va riable, career decision selfefficacy. This analysis can be conducted by evaluating the entire model, or by conducting an analysis for each individual variable when the eff ects for all the other variables are held constant. Career decision self-efficacy was designated as the dependent variable in this model. The independent variables included level of accultura tion, perceived parental support, gender role identity, gender and student GPA. The regression coefficient (R) provides information regarding the overall amount of variance explained in a dependent variable by al l independent variables. It also shows the regression weight the amount of contribution of each variable while controlling for the variance of all other variables, called beta, for each variable. A beta weight is a coefficient indicating the magnitude of prediction for a va riable after removing th e effects of all other predictors. The beta value indi cates the direction of the rela tionship between the dependent variable and each independent variable. A positive coefficient indicates that an increase in the independent variable results in an increase in the dependent variable. A negative coefficient indicates that that an increase in the independent variable results in a decrease in the dependent variable. The absolute value of the regression coefficient provides information regarding the
57 degree to which a change in the independent variable affects a ch ange in the dependent variable. Evidence regarding the strength and direction of the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent vari able is provided in Table 4.4. Table 4-4. Source Table for regression mode l with CDMSE as the dependent variable Standardized 95% Confidence Interval for B Coefficients Source (Beta) t-value pvalue Lower Bound Upper Bound SL-ASIA -0.058 -0.714 0.477 -6.858 3.221 CRPSS 0.294 3.539 0.001 0.108 0.383 BSRI -0.052 -.0.622 0.535 -0.344 0.180 Gender 0.011 0.134 0.894 -5.165 5.915 GPA 0.213 2.592 0.011 0.981 7.304 N=138 The results in Table 3 indicate that based on the standardized coe fficients, CRPSS has the greatest influence on CDSE followed by GPA. None of the remaining independent variables in the model were found to have significant direct effect on the dependent variable, CDSE. Evidence regarding the strength and direction of the relationship between an independent variable and the dependent variab le is provided by examination of the regression coefficients (R). The results in Table 3 indicate that the level of career decision se lf-efficacy measured by the CDSE scale was significantly affected by two of the variable s: career related parent support and GPA. The relationship between CDSE and career related parental support (CRPSS) was found to be positive in direction. Similarly, the relationship between CDSE and student GPA was found to be positive in direction. In other words, an increase in perceived parental support resulted in a higher reported sc ore in CDSE. Similarly, as GPA increased, this was associated with a higher reported CDSE score. Examination of the t-values in Table 3 pr ovides evidence that th e relationship between career related parental support and CDSE (t = 3.539), is stronger in magnitude than the association between GPA and CDSE (t = 2.592). The remaining independent variables: Level of
58 acculturation, gender role identity and gender were not found to have any significant relationship with reported CDSE. With a calculated R of .13, this model accounts for 13% of the variance in career decision self-efficacy reported. Controlling for other variables in the model, males were predicted to have a 0.375 higher CD SE score relative to females. Hypothesis Testing Six hypotheses were evaluated to test the th eoretical assumptions of this research. A multiple regression model was developed and tested for statistical significance. The results for each hypothesis are described in the following paragraphs and summarized in Table 4. Hypothesis 1 stated that there is no cont ribution of the variab les (i.e., level of acculturation, androgynous gender role identity, pe rceived parental support, gender and GPA) to the prediction of the level of career decision self efficacy in second generation South Asian college students. The results of the regression model demonstrated a statistically significant contribution of perceived parental support and reported student GPA on career decision selfefficacy of second generation South Asian colleg e students. Therefore, statistical evidence existed to reject the null hypothesis. Hypothesis 2 stated that th ere is no significant associati on between the level of career decision self efficacy and gender role identity reported by second generation South Asian college students. The results of the regression analysis did not demonstrate a statistically significant association between gender role identity and career decision self efficacy among second generation South Asian college students. Therefore, no statistical ev idence existed to reject the null hypothesis. Hypothesis 3 stated that ther e is no significant association between the level of career decision making self efficacy and perceived pare ntal support in career decision making reported by second generation South Asian college students. The results of the regression analysis
59 demonstrated a statistically significant association between perceived career related parental support and career decision self-efficacy among sec ond generation South Asian college students. Therefore, statistical evidence existed to rej ect the null hypothesis. Hypothesis 4 stated that ther e is no significant association between the level of career decision self efficacy and gender in second genera tion South Asian college students. The results of the regression analysis did not demonstrate a statistically significant association between gender and career decision self efficacy among second generation South Asian college students. Therefore, no statistical evidence ex isted to reject th e null hypothesis. Hypothesis 5 stated that ther e is no significant association between the level of career decision self efficacy and GPA reported by second generation South Asian college students. The results of the regression analys is demonstrated a statistically significant association between GPA and career decision self-efficacy among se cond generation South Asian college students. Therefore, statistical evidence existed to rej ect the null hypothesis. Hypothesis 6 stated that ther e is no significant association between the level of career decision self-efficacy and level of accultura tion reported by second ge neration South Asian college students. The results of the regression analysis did not demonstrate a statistically significant association between level of accultu ration and career decision self efficacy among second generation South Asian coll ege students. Therefore, no st atistical evidence existed to reject the null hypothesis. The results of hypothesis testing are shown in Table 4-5
60 Table 4-5. Results of hypothesis testing Number Hypothesis Decision Ho (1): There is no contribution of the variables (i.e., level Reject of acculturation, androgynous gender role identity, perceived parental support, gender or GPA) to the prediction of the level of career decision self efficacy in second generation South Asian college students. Ho (2): There is no significant association between the level Fail to Reject of career deci sion self efficacy and gender role identity reported by second generation South Asian college students. Ho (3): There is no significant association between the level Reject of career decision self efficacy and perceived parental support in career decision making reported by second generation South Asian college students. Ho (4): There is no significant association between the level of Fail to Reject career decision self efficacy and gender in second generation South Asian college students. Ho (5): There is no significan t association between the level of Reject career decision self efficacy and GPA reported by second generation South Asian college students. Ho (6): There is no significant association between the level of Fail to Reject career decision self-efficacy and level of accult uration reported by second generation South Asian college students. ______________________________________________________________________________
61 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The purpose of this study was to assess the infl uences of five variables on the level of career decision self-efficacy in secon d generation South Asian college students. The five variables examined were: 1) level of accultura tion, 2) perceived parental support 3) androgynous gender role identity, 4) gender and 5) student GPA. A total of 138 college students from large research universities in the southeastern Unite d States participated in this study. The study sample consisted of 59 males (43%) and 79 females (57%). All participants met the criteria for second generation South Asian. Par ticipants represented birth c ountries of the United States (60.1%), India (23.9%), Pakistan (5.1%), Sr i Lanka (8.7%), Bangladesh (1.4%) and Nepal (0.7%). Participants ranged in age from 18 to 24 in compliance with the criteria for this study. Eighty two percent of student GPAs were 3.0 or higher. Student participants represented a cross section of year in college: 23% freshmen, 20% sophomores, 26% juniors, 17% seniors and 13% graduate students. Only 6% of participants were undecided about choosing a major. The distribution of college majors by gender reflect women in traditional (education) and nontraditional majors (law, medicine, pharmacy a nd engineering). The distribution of men and choice of major reflect traditional male career choices (engin eering, business and sciences). Eighty three percent of the partic ipants reported that their moth ers had a college education, while 93% reported that their father s had a college education. Career Decision Self-Efficacy The m ean sum score for CDSE for this sample was 95.47 with a range of 35 to 125. Higher scores represent higher levels of career decision maki ng self efficacy. A standard deviation of 16.65 indicates a norma l distribution of the scores for this sample. The mean and standard deviation scores for this sample are consistent with findings from other studies on
62 CDSE in college student populati ons. Paulsen (2001) and Smith (2001) both reported means of 3.9 (on a five point continuum, where 1 = no confid ence; 2 = very little co nfidence; 3 = moderate confidence; 4 = much confidence, and 5 = comp lete confidence) for college students with samples of N = 603 and N = 423, respectively. Th e mean score for this study sample of second generation South Asian college stude nts was slightly lower than th at of general college student populations at a mean of 3.81. This is indicative of an overall confid ence level in the moderate to much confidence range which seems to be consistent with findings that college students in general indicate considerable c onfidence in their ability to pe rform the tasks necessary for effective career decision making. Betz, Hammond & Multon, (2005) conducted an assessment of the CDSE-SF using 1832 college students. Only 2% of the sample was As ian and the identificatio n of specific Asian subgroups was not provided. Howeve r, the study reported a mean CDSE of 3.8 for Asian college students. The results of CDSE fr om this study on South Asian co llege students are consistent with those reported in other studies on Asian college student populations. Hypothesis 1 stated that there is no contribution of the predic tor variables (i.e., level of acculturation, androgynous gender role identity, pe rceived parental support, gender and GPA) on the level of CDSE for this popula tion. The results of this study i ndicate that the perception of career related parental support and GPA are significant factor s contributing to career decision self-efficacy in South Asian American college students. This model accounted for 13% (R = .13) of the variance in the depe ndent variable, CDSE, with per ceived parental support and GPA accounting for most of the variance. The closer an R value is to 1, the better the model is at predicting the dependent variable Therefore the predictive power of this model for CDSE in second generation South Asian college students is low.
63 CDSE and Level of Acculturation Hypothesis 6 stated that ther e is no significant association between the level of career decis ion making self-efficacy reported and level of acculturation in second generation South Asian college students. With a m ean score of 3.21, participants re flected a score indicative of a bicultural orientation. Accordi ng to Richard Suinn (1992), this indicates that the sample population was, in general, capable of assuming the best of two worlds, with denial to neither, in this case Western and South Asian culture. The process of bicultutural orientation is called integration in Berrys (2001) model of acculturation and he contends that this is the preferred mode of acculturation (Farver et.al., 2002). Conceptualizations of acculturation whereby individuals may hold onto aspects of their culture of origin while also acqui ring beliefs and attitudes of th e host culture have been proposed by Berry (2001). Hence, engagement in the accultura tive process will affect attitudes, values and beliefs in different ways; particularly self-efficacy beliefs, the types of activities people are willing to engage in and thus the types of career s they are willing to consider (Rivera, Chen, Flores, Blumberg & Ponterotto, 2007). This study assumed that higher career self efficacy would be associated with higher leve ls of acculturation (i.e., identi fication with Western culture), however this was not found to be statistically significant. It is possible that the bicultural orientation of the participants in this study may be a benefit to career decision self-efficacy. In th eir study on the benefits of biculturalism among Asian and Latino youth and school dropout rates, Feliciano (2001), found that bilingual students were less likely to drop out than those in Eng lish-dominant or English-limited households, and students in immigrant households were less like ly to drop out than those in nonimmigrant households. She concluded that bi cultural students who were able to draw resources from both their community of origin and mainstream soci ety were best equipped for educational success.
64 Therefore, it is logical to c onclude that maintaining an im migrant culture, rather than assimilating into mainstream culture is an asse t and could result in higher career decision making self-efficacy among individuals who are brought up in both cultures. This study may have found that a bicultural orientation is not only an asse t but related to higher se lf-efficacy scores among second generation South As ian college students. Hence, the assumption that higher CDSE w ould be associated with higher acculturation scores (i.e., more Western) may be a limiting co nceptualization in studying the career decision making processes for this population. It is po ssible that higher CDMSE for this population is associated with a bicultural orientation rather than a completely Western orientation. CDSE and Career Related Parental Support Hypothesis 3 stat ed that there is no significant asso ciation between the level of career decision m aking self efficacy and perceived pare ntal support in career decision making reported by second generation South Asian co llege students. There was stat istically significant evidence to reject the null hypothesis and find that perceived career relate d parental support significantly influences CDSE in second genera tion South Asian college students. Within Banduras (1982), social cognitive theo ry model, role models are seen as sources of vicarious learning through whic h behaviors are learned and self -efficacy beliefs are formed. The findings of this study are consistent with fi ndings in the social science literature that perceived parental support is a strong predicto r of career decision self efficacy. Studies on the influence of parent support on CDSE by Turn er & Lapan (2002), Turner et al. (2003), and Alliman-Brissett, Turner & Skovholt (2004), f ound that perceived parental support among adolescents a strong predictor of CDSE. Tang (2002) examined the relationship between parental influence and the career choices of Asian Americans, Chinese Americans and Caucasian
65 Americans. Results showed that Asian American and Chinese college students were more likely to be influenced by their families in making decisions about career. Among South Asians, parents are highly invol ved in decision making for and with their children particularly in the ar eas of career choice a nd education. This type of influence is particularly strong when pare nts are first generation (Deep ak, 2005; Mathews, 2000). South Asians have been described as a collectivistic culture which or ganizes values and behavioral mores around one or more collectives such as the family and extended family as well as other kinship networks and religious groups. There is an internalization of group values rather than individual independence and studies show that an authorita rian approach to pa renting is typically engaged (Maiter & George, 2003). Traditionally, the term authoritar ian is used to describe a st yle of parenting that focuses on strict codes of behavior designed to subjuga te children and establis h parental control. Although this style of parenting differs from mainstream American culture, in which individuality is stressed, for South Asians (and other Asian groups) authoritarian parenting emerges from parental care and concern for childrens well-bei ng. Thus authoritarian parenting styles associated with South Asian culture is not accompanied by lower levels of warmth or negative attributions about children. Hence, there is a difference in the meaning of authoritarianism in collectivis t and individualist cultures. This study showed a strong positive relationship between perceptions of parental sup port as it relates to car eer decision making selfefficacy. CDSE and Androgynous Gender Role Identity Hypothesis 2 stated that there is no significant relationship between the le vel of career decision self -efficacy and androgynous gender role identity in second generation South Asian college students. No statistically significant association was found in the regression analysis and
66 so androgynous gender role identity was not a si gnificant factor in predicting CDMSE in this sample. The T-score was calculated for this variable to illustrate how this sample presented psychological androgyny, the integrati on of femininity and masculinity within a single individual and the ability to engage both feminine and ma sculine modalities such as compassionate and assertive as circumstances warrant (Bem, 1981). For this sample, there was no difference among males and females in using male and female characteristics in caree r decision making. This finding may provide support for previous discussi ons that gender roles in South Asian families are gradually becoming more equal and children of immigrants are enjoying greater freedom in decision making in career (Das & Kemp, 1997). CDSE and Grade Point Average Hypothesis 5 states that there is no significant association between the level of career decision self efficacy and GPA reported by second generation South Asian college students. There was statistically significant eviden ce to reject the null hypot hesis. The results of this study indicate that higher student GPAs predict higher levels of career decision selfefficacy. Luzzo (1993) suggests that student GPA might represent his or her general cognitive skills that are essential for ma king effective career decisions. Social cognitive career theory hypothesizes that self-efficacy beliefs lead to higher academic performance. Brown, Tramayne, Hoxh a, Telander, Fan & Lent (2008), examined social cognitive predictors of college students academic perfor mance and found that there is a direct correlation between self-e fficacy and academic performance (GPA). It is possible that students with higher versus lower self-efficacy beliefs work toward more challenging academic goals, and so the results of this study suggest that higher GPA scores may reflect higher selfefficacy related to career decision making. Hence, the results of this study on second generation
67 South Asians reflect the association between CDSE and GPA among general college student populations. CDSE and Gender Hypothesis 4 stated that ther e is no significant association between the level of career decision self -efficacy and gender in second genera tion South Asian college students. Results of this study indicate that gender is not a predictor of CDSE with this sample. Women in this study chose majors that represent traditional and nont raditional choices. However, some nontraditional career choices such as medicine are considered traditional choices fo r South Asian women. The sample for this study showed a greater number of women in medicine and other medical/health related major choices than men as well as a broa der spectrum of majors chosen. The only majors where the numbers of men were greater than women were business, building construction and engineering. This distribution of majors for men in this study reflects traditional choices of major for men that have been reported throughout the soci al science literature. This finding reflects what has been reported in other studies, that women are increasingly choosing nontraditional careers while this is not generally true of men. In fact, the women in this study were underrepresented in majors such as education while heavily represen ted among the sciences. This finding in congruent with that of other studies that observe career choices of South Asian women as being heavily repr esented in the sciences. It is possible that gender is becoming increasi ngly a lesser factor as a predictor of CDSE. A study conducted by Whitmarsh et al.,(2007), reviewed the U.S Depa rtment of La bor statistics to determine which careers were male versus female dominated. They were surprised to find that several careers that had been male dominated (for example, attorneys and physicians), where more than seventyfive per cent of positions were filled by men, had lost that ranking in 2002. Enough women were employed in those careers to make the category gender neutral. However,
68 there were no major changes of gender representation in careers th at had been female dominated, such as teachers, nurses and social workers, which are still more than seventy-five per cent female. We might conclude that while there are still many female and male dominated professions, there is grea ter access of the genders to profe ssions not typical of their gender, evidenced by the closing gender gap in some traditionally male dominated professions such law and medicine and observed in this study. Hence, with more career options available to women, gender may be a decreasing factor in predicting career decision self-efficacy. This is not to say that there are not significant gender gaps in other aspects of occupational life for women. The achievement of senior positions, promotions and equal pay are still recognized as ongoing gender biased issues. Limitations In this study there were inherent limitati ons concerning instrumentation and sample selection. Considerable effort was made in selecting instruments w ith sound psychometric properties to assess the variable s in this study; however, none were discovered that had normative data for South Asian populations. Th e BSRI-SF (Maznah & Choo, 1986) has not been used specifically with second generation South Asian populations but had been used in studies with non-western populations. To use this instrument with non-western (for example Arab) populations, translation and modi fication of items were employed. This further weakened the generalizability of this instrument. The CRPSS (Turner et. al., 2003) was developed and used primarily to assess vocational efficacy among at risk adolescents in middle and high schools. A potential limitation of this study design is the na ture of self-report in struments. Self-report inventories may be subject to malingering or fa king and respondents may be inclined to select responses that create a favorable (socially desirable), or unfavorable impression (Anastasi, 1988).
69 This instrument has not been extensively used on college or South Asian populations and so relevant normative data for th is study is not indicated. There were sampling issues that limited the generalizability and validity of this study. The registrars offices at the uni versities targeted for this stud y did not offer a South Asian or similar designation of race or ethnicity for its students. Thus South As ian students may have classified themselves as Asian and possibly other depending on how they self-identify. This resulted in limited access to the South Asian st udent population using this selection process. The response rate of invited participants to this survey was onl y 12.5% despite the 1100 students invited to participate over three email contacts. Ther e was no option for narrowing the sample population to the targeted second generation South Asians. The number of international students and non-South Asians is not known but since they did not fit the study criteria for participation (i.e., South Asian, second generatio n, between the ages of 18-24), they may have elected not to participate or were otherwis e eliminated for not fulfilling these criteria. Alternatively, those who did partic ipate may have been individuals readily engaged in the career development process. Another limitation of this study that may have resulted in low partic ipation is the idea that this study somehow reflected mental health or psychological issues. In South Asian culture there seems to be a negative stigma associated wi th mental health. South Asians are less likely to report psychosocial issues or seek help form mental health professionals. Mental illness is generally considered a weakness within this culture where being of sound mind and mental acuity is valued. South Asians are more likely to report somatic complaints to a physician and be selective in the symptoms reporte d. The possible diagnosis of a me ntal disorder, prescription of psychotropic medication and referral to mental health specialists may be perceived as
70 stigmatizing and irrelevant to their needs. There is a reluctance to seek treatment or assistance based on both stigma and ignorance on the effectiveness of treatment (Commander, Odell, Surtees & Sashidharan, 2004). Indivi duals are very concerned with how their actions reflect on their family. South Asians tend to maintain strong boundaries outside of the family which reflects a great sense of privacy. Thus, the stigma of mental illness and taking problems outside the family would instill a sense of shame and re duce family honor. Hence, they may rarely seek psychotherapy (Rastogi & Wadhwa, 2006). Implications Practice The results of this investig ation can be useful for practit ioners working with diverse college student populations, particularly student s who are second generation South Asian dealing with career decision making issues. This population is at a unique point in the history of South Asians in the United States. Use of a social cognitive theoretical perspective allows practitioners to utilize a multifaceted approach when working with second generation South Asian students. Assessing the degree of parental support in career decision making is important in working with these students as well as taking in to account the generally bicultural orientation of these students. It may be beneficial to include aspects of family dynamics in the counseling session, and consider using a collectivistic approach in additi on to needs of the indivi dual. Hence, individual counseling may incorporate culture of origin beliefs and values sy stems as well as expectations and needs of family and individual as intertwined and not separate. It would be important for couns elors to consider the value system of South Asians as well as the structure and hierarchy of the family and how that impacts the South Asian college student in decision making. One should not assume th at because South Asian college students incorporate family traditions and values into thei r own world view and lifestyle that they do not
71 have some autonomy in career decision making. Practitioners should be aware that it would appear that there is no significant difference be tween men and women and gender role identity with respect to career self-efficacy. In fact, c ounselors should note that men and women may be equally adept at using a more androgynous approach to career decision making. In other words, second generation South Asian men and women in college do not differ in how they use male and female characteristics in making decisions about career. Six per cent of the participants reported not having chosen a major. It may be reasoned that these students may be the ones experiencing lower CDSE and perceived parental support. Career counselors will have to consider the student-parent relationship within the South Asian cultural context when working with undecided South Asian American students. It is possible that students that struggle with choosing a major ma y be dealing with the stress of shame and bringing dishonor to their families. Counselors must familiarize themselves with the collectivistic cultural values of South Asians if they are to assist struggling students. For second generation students that identify as bicultural and may appear all-American, it is important to evaluate the individual students conceptualization of gender and gender role in career decision making; how liberal or traditional each individual s ideas of career options may be mediated by the effects of South Asian culture. Dodson & Bo rders (2006), suggest that counselors consider gender role attitudes and beliefs when working with male client s. In fact a discussion about gender role socialization may sh ape career choices including the consideration of nontraditional career choices even if the client ex presses some traditional beliefs. When working with South Asian clients that are women, a discussion of role models in the students life may reveal the students orientation to c onsidering traditional versus nontraditional majors or careers. Counselors must keep in mind that traditi onal career choices for
72 South Asian American women include the sciences and medical professions. Career choices in education, for example are not traditional choi ces for South Asian women. Only two women in this study sample chose educati on as their major, while there was a heavier representation of South Asian women in liberal arts and sciences which includes the biological sciences and other science related fields. Theory The results of this study contribute to the two theories guiding this research; Banduras (1982) self-efficacy theory and Alb ert and Lu zzos (1999) social cognitive career theory (SCCT). The findings of this research confirm the influence of career related parental support and GPA (academic achievement) on career decision making self-efficacy. Bandura noted that the higher the level of self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplishment. This notion is consistent with the finding in this study of highe r reported GPAs associated with higher levels of career decision making self-efficacy. SCCT is explained as a framework for conceptualizing career development, including CDSE, recognizing th at there are mutual interacting influences between people, their behavior and their enviro nment. The findings from this study support the notion that contextual factors, such as parent al support have an infl uence on career decision making confidence. South Asians are a unique Asian subgroup in the United States ba sed on a history of immigration in which relative educational a nd financial success was achieved by the first generation. This first generation is highly educated, consistent with findings in this study, and arrived speaking English, unlike many other Asian immigrant groups. The second generation, largely born in the U.S., has en joyed a lifestyle that incorporates traditional and Western comforts. Within a single genera tion born in the United States, there is evidence that individuals have already integrated into mainstream Ameri can culture. In addition, these individuals have
73 also respected the beliefs, values and practices of their cultures of origin to arrive at a more bicultural orientation. The findi ngs of this study indicate a larg ely bicultural orientation among participants but also higher levels of CDMSE. This means that the abil ity of second generation South Asians to navigate their cultures of origin and mainstream American culture is an asset in career decision making. An assumption of this study was that the mo re acculturated participants are to Western culture (higher scores), the higher the CDSE. While there was no statistical significance for this, it is possible that self-efficacy in career decisi on making for second generation South Asians may be related to levels of biculturali sm. There is little in the social sciences lite rature to support this other than recent discussions that biculturalism may be an asset in decision making. Inherent in a bicultural orientation is the ability to incor porate individualisti c and collectivistic desires and needs into career decision making. Thus, using a lens of biculturalism within SCCT in examining mental health and career development proces ses of second generation South Asians might provide a richer theoretical discussion of ethnic identity and acculturation for this group. Research One im plication of the findings from this study is that current instruments of acculturation for this population may need to be adjusted to accommodate the bicultural experiences of second generation South Asians in the United States. If research with this population addresses only the degree to which South Asian Americans identify with Western culture, the importance of bicultural experi ences may be diminished. Development of instrumentation that provides a more in depth analysis of biculturali sm may provide richer information in recognizing the experiences of young second generation South Asians and perhaps also offer a deeper understanding of acculturation/biculturalism across Asian subgroups.
74 The findings of this study imp lied that this particular m odel for predicting CDSE was relatively low. A revised, more powerful mode l for predicting CDME in second generation South Asian college students is warranted. Recommendations for Future Research Additional research could investigate the dept h of parental involvement in career decision making and effects on self-efficacy among second ge neration South Asians. An examination of specific parenting behaviors and styles of parenting in South Asian families might inform practitioners and the counseling li terature of new perspectives in individualism and collectivism in working with South Asian families and indi viduals in the United States. Investigating the influence of mother, father, and the extended fam ily will provide furthe r understanding of the roles family in career decision making, includi ng hierarchy and gender ro les. Including the perspective of the second generation on fam ily dynamics may identify variables more specifically that affect self-efficacy as it relates to career decision making. The current definition of South Asian in the social science literature excludes the many groups of South Asian ancestry who were born outside of South Asian countries but share cultural values and beliefs. For example there are large So uth Asian populations throughout Africa, the Caribbean and Europe that have been several generations out of South Asian countries but still share many of the same cultural values and beliefs. The inclusion of South Asians not originally from South Asian count ries will allow for a broader examination and understanding of the diversity in South Asia n experiences across the United States. Conclusions This chapter has provided a discussion of results and recommendations derived from an investigation of acculturation, career related pa rent support, gender, gender role identity and GPA on the career decision self-efficacy of second generation South Asian college students. The
75 findings that were significant were discussed, and associations were examined for expanding future studies. The findings of this study reinfor ce the conclusions of prio r research regarding the influences of parental support and GPA on self -efficacy related to career decision making among second generation South Asian college students. It is hoped that continued investigation will stimulate further understanding of family conn ections and individual needs and how these interface with mainstream American culture in career decision making.
76 APPENDIX A LETTER TO PARTICIPANTS Dear Participant, In a better effort to understand how young a dult South Asians make decisions about career, a research study is being conducted on the influence of acculturation, gender role identity and parental support. As a docto ral candidate in the Counselor Education Department at the University of Florida, I am inviti ng you to participate in this study. Participation will require about 20 minutes. You will be asked to complete several questionnaires that ask you about your own caree r decisions, your percepti ons of and preferences for culture, how you would descri be your personality, and your perceptions about your parents support in career planning. Lastly, you will be asked to complete a demographic questionnaire that gives you an opportunity to share any additi onal information you think would be helpful to me. You will not be asked to provide your identit y and your responses will be kept confidential and anonymous to the extent provided by the law. Questions or concerns about your rights as a research participant may be di rected to the UFIRB office, Un iversity of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL. 32611; ph (352) 392-0433. Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. You do not have to answer any question that makes you uncomfortable and you may withdraw at any time. There are no known risks; however, if you feel that you need to speak with someone regarding issues stimulated by these surveys, you may contact me for a referral No immediate benefits are anticipated but you will be contributing to an important study on South Asian college student experiences. There will be no compensation for participating in this study. If you have any questions about this st udy, you may contact me by phone at (352) 3173260 or by email, firstname.lastname@example.org. You may also contact my faculty supervisor, Dr Ellen Am atea, at (352) 392-0731. Either of us may be contacted in writing at 1212 Norman Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611. Sincerely, Shanaz Ali Sawyer, M.S., Ph.D. Candidate Ellen Amatea, Ph.D. Licensed Mental Health Couns elor # 7822 Supervisor Principal Investigator Date__________ Date__________
77 APPENDIX B DEMOGRAPHIC DATA SHEET Instructions: Please fill out the follow ing section using the menu provided. No identifying information will be requested and all responses will be kept anonymous. 1. Age : 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 2. Gender : Male Female Other (please specify)_____ 3. Current GPA below 2.0 2.1 2.4 2.5 2.9 3.0 3.5 3.6 4.0 4. Current Year in College : Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Graduate student 5. Please choose ONE of the following: I have chosen a major__ I am undecided about my major__ 6. Major (if applicable) :____________ 7. Where were you born? India Pakistan Bangladesh Sri Lanka Nepal Bhutan United States 8. If you were not born in the United St ates, how old were you when you arrived ? Before the age of 12__ After the age of 12__ 9. What country is your mother from? India Pakistan Bangladesh Sri Lanka Nepal Bhutan United States 10. If your mother was not born in the U.S how old was she when she arrived in the U.S? Before the age of 12__ After the age of 12__ 11. What is your mothers highes t level of education attained? High School Some college Bachelors degree Masters Degree Doctoral Degree Professional Degree ( such as M.D, JD, etc.) Other 12. What is/was your mothers occupation? Please indicate even if she is not currently employed. _______________ 13. What country is your father from? India Pakistan Bangladesh Sri Lanka Nepal Bhutan United States 14. If your father was not born in the U.S how old was he when he arrived in the U.S? Before the age of 12__ After the age of 12__
78 15. What is your fathers highes t level of education attained? High School Some college Bachelors degree Masters Degree Doctoral Degree Professional Degree ( such as M.D, JD, etc.) Other 16. What is/was your fathers occupation? Please indicate even if he is not currently employed. _______________ 17. In this section, please feel free to add any additional information you feel would be helpful to me in addition to the informa tion you have already provided.
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85 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Shanaz Ali Sawyer was born in London, Engl and, in 1968, the oldest of three children. Having lived in the Croydon area, she m oved with her family to Trinidad and Tobago at the age of 11. There she attended Holy Faith Convent C ouva school for girls and then returned to England at the age of 16 to attend Croydon College In 1987 at age 19 she relocated again with her family to Florida where she moved to Gainesville to attend the University of Florida. After earning her bachelors degree in psychology, Sh anaz married Mike Sawyer and pursued her masters degree in psychology, mental health co unseling at Nova Southeastern University. As they began building their life in Gainesville, Sh anaz entered the counselor education program at the University of Florida to pursue her dream of earning a doctorate in the field of mental health. While in the program Shanaz and Mike welcomed their children Annika and Adam. Through the years while raising children and attending classes, Shanaz to ok the opportunity to travel extensively with her husband and work toward earning her state license in mental health counseling.