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The Checkered Beetles (Coleoptera

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0023794/00001

Material Information

Title: The Checkered Beetles (Coleoptera Cleridae) of Florida
Physical Description: 1 online resource (206 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Leavengood, John
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: ababa, callotillus, chariessa, cleridae, cregya, cymatodera, cymatoderella, enoclerus, florida, isohydnocera, lecontella, madoniella, monophylla, necrobia, neorthopleura, pelonium, phyllobaenus, placopterus, priocera, pyticeroides, tarsostenus, thanasimus, thaneroclerus, trichodes
Entomology and Nematology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Entomology and Nematology thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The Florida components of the beetle family Cleridae, with 42 species in 22 genera were reviewed: Ababa tantilla (LeConte), Callotillus eburneocinctus Wolcott, Chariessa floridana Schaeffer, C. pilosa Forster, Cregya oculata (Say), C. quadrinotata (Chevrolat), Cymatodera bicolor (Say), C. floridana Barr, C. inornata (Say), C. undulata (Say), C. wolcotti Barr, Cymatoderella collaris (Spinola), Enoclerus angustus (LeConte), E. ichneumoneus (Fabricius), E. lunatus (Klug), E. nigrifrons (Say), E. nigripes (Say), E. rosmarus (Say), Isohydnocera curtipennis (Newman), Lecontella brunnea (Spinola), Madoniella dislocatus (Say), Monophylla terminata (Say), Necrobia ruficollis (Fabricius), N. rufipes Degeer, N. violacea (Linnaeus), Neorthopleura thoracica (Say), Pelonium leucophaeum Klug, Phyllobaenus humeralis (Say), P. pallipennis (Say), P. pubescens (LeConte), P. rufipes (Newman), P. suturalis (Klug), P. unifasciatus (Say), P. verticalis Say, Placopterus subcostatus (Schaeffer), P. thoracicus (Olivier), Priocera castanea (Newman), Pyticeroides laticornis (Say), Tarsostenus univittatus (Rossi), Thanasimus dubius (Fabricius), Thaneroclerus buquet (Lefebvre), and Trichodes apivorus (Germar). Distinguishing characteristics of each genus were discussed. Each species treatment includes diagnostic discussion, biology, and distribution sections followed by label data and selected references. A habitus photograph and a distribution map are presented for nearly all species.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by John Leavengood.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Thomas, Michael C.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0023794:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0023794/00001

Material Information

Title: The Checkered Beetles (Coleoptera Cleridae) of Florida
Physical Description: 1 online resource (206 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Leavengood, John
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: ababa, callotillus, chariessa, cleridae, cregya, cymatodera, cymatoderella, enoclerus, florida, isohydnocera, lecontella, madoniella, monophylla, necrobia, neorthopleura, pelonium, phyllobaenus, placopterus, priocera, pyticeroides, tarsostenus, thanasimus, thaneroclerus, trichodes
Entomology and Nematology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Entomology and Nematology thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The Florida components of the beetle family Cleridae, with 42 species in 22 genera were reviewed: Ababa tantilla (LeConte), Callotillus eburneocinctus Wolcott, Chariessa floridana Schaeffer, C. pilosa Forster, Cregya oculata (Say), C. quadrinotata (Chevrolat), Cymatodera bicolor (Say), C. floridana Barr, C. inornata (Say), C. undulata (Say), C. wolcotti Barr, Cymatoderella collaris (Spinola), Enoclerus angustus (LeConte), E. ichneumoneus (Fabricius), E. lunatus (Klug), E. nigrifrons (Say), E. nigripes (Say), E. rosmarus (Say), Isohydnocera curtipennis (Newman), Lecontella brunnea (Spinola), Madoniella dislocatus (Say), Monophylla terminata (Say), Necrobia ruficollis (Fabricius), N. rufipes Degeer, N. violacea (Linnaeus), Neorthopleura thoracica (Say), Pelonium leucophaeum Klug, Phyllobaenus humeralis (Say), P. pallipennis (Say), P. pubescens (LeConte), P. rufipes (Newman), P. suturalis (Klug), P. unifasciatus (Say), P. verticalis Say, Placopterus subcostatus (Schaeffer), P. thoracicus (Olivier), Priocera castanea (Newman), Pyticeroides laticornis (Say), Tarsostenus univittatus (Rossi), Thanasimus dubius (Fabricius), Thaneroclerus buquet (Lefebvre), and Trichodes apivorus (Germar). Distinguishing characteristics of each genus were discussed. Each species treatment includes diagnostic discussion, biology, and distribution sections followed by label data and selected references. A habitus photograph and a distribution map are presented for nearly all species.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by John Leavengood.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Thomas, Michael C.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0023794:00001


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1 THE CHECKERED BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: CLERIDAE) OF FLORIDA By JOHN MOELLER LEAVENGOOD, JR. A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 John Moeller Leavengood, Jr.

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3 In loving memory of Kevin Thomsen, a dear friend

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS For their shared interest in taxonomy and their inspiration I would like to thank James C. Dunford, Marc A. Branham, James C. Wiley, John L. Foltz, and Paul M. Choate. I would like to thank my supervisory committee ( Michael C. Thomas, Paul E. Skelley, and Amanda C. Hodges ) for their s upport and friendly criticism. I would also like to thank my father, John M. Leavengood. H e has been a financier of this project and he has served me enormously as a confidant and a friend. A lifetime seems far too short to truly repay him for all he has done for me but I will try anyway.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................12 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................13 C H A P T E R 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................15 Literature Review ...................................................................................................................18 Materials and Methods ...........................................................................................................20 Key to the Subfamilies of Cleridae .........................................................................................22 2 CLERINAE .............................................................................................................................25 Key to the Florida Genera of Clerinae ....................................................................................25 Genus Enoclerus Gahan, 1910 ...............................................................................................25 Key to the Florida Species of Enoclerus ................................................................................26 Enoclerus angustus (LeConte), 1849 (Figs. 21, 2 2) .....................................................27 Enoclerus ichneumoneus (Fabricius), 1777 (Figs. 23, 24) ...........................................29 Enoclerus lunatus (Klug), 1842 (Figs. 25, 26) .............................................................35 Enoclerus nigrifrons (Say), 1823 (Figs. 27, 28) ...........................................................39 Enoclerus nigripes (Say), 1823 (Figs. 29, 210) ............................................................40 Enoclerus rosmarus (Say), 1823 (Figs. 211, 212) ........................................................42 Gen us Placopterus Wolcott, 1910 ..........................................................................................44 Placopterus subcostatus (Schaeffer), 1917 .....................................................................44 Placopterus thoracicus (Olivier), 1795 (Figs. 213, 214) ..............................................45 Genus Priocera Kirby, 1818 ...................................................................................................47 Priocera castanea (Newman), 1838 (Figs. 215, 216) ..................................................48 Genus Thanasimus Latrielle, 1806 .........................................................................................50 Thanasimus dubius (Fabricius), 1777 (Figs. 217, 218) ................................................51 Genus Trichodes Herbst, 1792 ...............................................................................................54 Trichodes apivorus Germar 1824 (Figs. 219, 2 20) ......................................................55

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6 3 ENOPLIINAE .........................................................................................................................70 Key to the Florida Genera of Enopliinae ................................................................................70 Genus Chariessa Perty, 1830 .................................................................................................70 Key to the Florida S pecies of Chariessa .........................................................................71 Chariessa floridana Schaeffer, 1917 (Figs. 31, 3 2) .....................................................71 Chariessa pilosa Forster, 1771 (Figs. 33, 34) ...............................................................71 Genus Cregya LeConte, 1861 .................................................................................................76 Key to the Florida Species of Cregya ..............................................................................76 Cregya oculata (Say), 1835 (Figs. 3 5, 36) ...................................................................76 Cregya quadrinotata Spinola, 1844 (Figs. 37, 38) .......................................................79 Genus Neorthopleura Barr, 1976 ...........................................................................................80 Neorthopleura thoracica (Say), 1823 (Figs. 39, 310) ..................................................80 Genus Pelonium Spinola, 1844 ...............................................................................................87 Pelonium leucophaeum (Klug), 1842 (Figs. 311, 312) .................................................87 4 EPIPHLOEINAE ....................................................................................................................98 Key to the Florida Genera and Species of Epiphloeinae ........................................................98 Genus Madoniella Pic, 1935 ...................................................................................................98 Madoniella dislocatus (Say), 1825 (Figs. 41, 42) .........................................................98 Genus Pyticeroides Kuwert, 1894 ........................................................................................100 Pyticeroides laticorn is (Say), 1835 (Figs. 43, 44) ......................................................101 5 HYDNOCERINAE ...............................................................................................................106 Key to the Florida Genera of Hydnocerinae .........................................................................106 Genus Isohydnocera Chapin, 1917 .......................................................................................106 Isohydnocera curtipennis (Newman), 1840 (Figs. 51, 52) .........................................106 Genus Phyllobaenus Dejean, 1833 .......................................................................................108 Key to the Florida Species of Phyllobaenus .........................................................................110 Phyllobaenus humeralis (Say), 1823 (Figs. 53, 5 4) ...................................................111 P hyllobaenus pallipennis (Say), 1825 (Figs. 55, 56) ..................................................112 Phyllobaenus pubescens (LeConte), 1849 (Figs. 5 7, 58) ...........................................114 Phyllobaenus rufipes (Newman), 1840 (Figs. 59, 510) ..............................................116 Phyllobaenus suturalis (Klug), 1842 (Figs. 511, 512) ...............................................117 Phyllobaenus unifasciatus (Say), 1825 (Figs. 513, 514) ............................................118 Phyllobaenus verticalis Say, 1835 (Figs. 515, 5 16) ...................................................120 6 KORYNETINAE ..................................................................................................................132 Genus Necrobia Olivier, 1795 ..............................................................................................132 Key to the Florida Specie s of Necrobia ........................................................................132 Necrobia ruficollis Fabricius, 1775 (Figs. 61, 62) ......................................................133 Necrobia rufipes Degeer, 1775 (Figs. 63, 64) ............................................................133 Necrobia violacea (Linnaeus), 1758 (Figs. 65, 66) ....................................................137

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7 7 T ARSOSTENINAE ..............................................................................................................142 Genus Tarsostenus Spinola, 1844 .........................................................................................142 Tarsostenus univittatus (Rossi), 1792 (Figs. 71, 72) ..................................................142 8 THANEROCLERINAE .......................................................................................................146 Key to the Florida Genera and Species of Thaneroclerinae .................................................146 Genus Ababa Casey, 1897 ....................................................................................................146 Ababa tantilla (LeConte), 1865 (Figs. 81, 82) ...........................................................147 Genus Thaneroclerus Lefebvre, 1838 ..................................................................................148 Thaneroclerus buque t (Lefebvre), 1835 (Figs. 83, 84) ...............................................149 9 TILLINAE ............................................................................................................................153 Key to the Florida Genera of Tillinae ...................................................................................153 Genus Callotillus Wolcott, 1911 ..........................................................................................153 Callotillus eburneoci nctus Wolcott, 1911 (Figs. 91, 92) ............................................153 Genus Cymatodera Gray, 1832 ............................................................................................155 Key to the Florida Species of Cymatodera ....................................................................156 Cymatodera bicolor (Say), 1825 (Figs. 93, 94) ..........................................................157 Cymat odera floridana Barr, 1972 (Figs. 95, 96) ........................................................160 Cymatodera inornata (Say), 1835 (Figs. 97, 98) ........................................................161 Cymatodera undulata (Say), 1825 (Figs. 99, 910) .....................................................163 Cymatodera wolcotti Barr, 1950 (Figs. 911, 912) ......................................................165 Gen us Cymatoderella Barr, 1962 .........................................................................................168 Cymatoderella collaris (Spinola), 1844 (Figs. 913, 914) ...........................................169 Genus Lecontella Wolcott and Chapin, 1918 .......................................................................170 Lecontella brunnea (Spinola), 1844 (Figs. 915, 916) .................................................171 Genus Monophylla Spinola, 1841 .........................................................................................173 Monophylla terminata (Say) 1835 (Figs. 917, 918, 919, 920) .................................174 LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................187 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................206

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 21 Enoclerus angustus ............................................................................................................60 22 Distribution map of Enoclerus angustus ............................................................................60 23 Enoclerus ichneumoneus ...................................................................................................61 24 Distribution map of Enoclerus ichneumoneus ...................................................................61 25 Enoclerus lunatus ...............................................................................................................62 26 Distribution map of Enoclerus lunatus ..............................................................................62 27 Enoclerus nigrifrons ..........................................................................................................63 28 Distribution map of Enoclerus nigrifrons ..........................................................................63 29 Enoclerus nigripes .............................................................................................................64 210 Distribution map of Enoclerus nigripes .............................................................................64 211 Enoclerus rosmarus ...........................................................................................................65 212 Distribution map of Enoclerus rosmarus ...........................................................................65 213 Placopterus thoracicus ......................................................................................................66 214 Distribution map of Placopterus thoracicus ......................................................................66 215 Priocera castanea ..............................................................................................................67 216 Distribution map of Priocera castanea ..............................................................................67 217 Trichodes apivorus .............................................................................................................69 218 Distribution map of Trichodes apivorus ............................................................................69 31 Chariessa floridana ...........................................................................................................92 32 Distribution map of Chariessa floridana ...........................................................................92 33 Chariessa pilosa .................................................................................................................93 34 Distribu tion map of Chariessa pilosa ................................................................................93 35 Cregya oculata ...................................................................................................................94

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9 36 Distribution map of Cregya oculata ..................................................................................94 37 Cregya quadrinotata ..........................................................................................................95 38 Distribution map of Cregya quadrinotata .........................................................................95 39 Neorthopleura thoracica ....................................................................................................96 310 Distribution map of Neorthopleura thoracica ...................................................................96 311 Pelonium leucophaeum ......................................................................................................97 312 Distribution map of Pelonium leucophaeum .....................................................................97 41 Madoniella dislocatus ......................................................................................................104 42 Distribution map from Madoniella dislocatus .................................................................104 43 Pyticeroides laticornis .....................................................................................................105 44 Distribution map of Pyticeroides laticornis .....................................................................105 51 Isohydnocera curtipennis .................................................................................................124 52 Distribution map of Isohydnocera curtipennis ................................................................124 53 Phyllobaenus humeralis ...................................................................................................125 54 Distribution map of Phyllobaenus humeralis ..................................................................125 55 Phyllobaenus pallipennis .................................................................................................126 56 Distribution map of Phyllobaenus pallipennis ................................................................126 57 Phyllobaenus pubescens ..................................................................................................127 58 Distribution map of Phyllobaenus pubescens ..................................................................127 59 Phyllobaenus rufipes ........................................................................................................128 510 Distribution map of Phyllobaenus rufipes .......................................................................128 511 Phyllobaenus suturalis .....................................................................................................129 512 Distribution map of Phyllobaenus suturalis ....................................................................129 513 Phyllobaenus unifasciatus ...............................................................................................130 514 Distribution map of Phyllobaenus unifasciatus ...............................................................130

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10 515 Phyllobaenus verticalis ....................................................................................................131 516 Distribution map of Phyllobaenus verticalis ...................................................................131 61 Necrobia ruficollis ...........................................................................................................139 62 Distribution map of Necrobia ruficollis ...........................................................................139 63 Necrobia rufipes ...............................................................................................................140 64 Distribution map of Necrobia rufipes ..............................................................................140 65 Necrobia violacea ............................................................................................................141 66 Distribution map of Necrobia violacea............................................................................141 71 Tarsostenus univittatus ....................................................................................................145 72 Distribution map of Tarsostenus univittatus ....................................................................145 81 Ababa tantilla...................................................................................................................151 82 Distribution map of Ababa tantilla ..................................................................................151 83 Thaneroclerus buquet ......................................................................................................152 84 Distribution map of Thaneroclerus buquet ......................................................................152 91 Callotillus eburneocinctus ...............................................................................................177 92 Distribution map of Callotillus eburneocinctus ...............................................................177 93 Cymatodera bicolor .........................................................................................................178 94 Distribution map of Cymatodera bicolor .........................................................................178 95 Cymatodera floridana ......................................................................................................179 96 Distribution map of Cymatodera floridana .....................................................................179 97 Cymatodera inornata .......................................................................................................180 98 Dist ribution map of Cymatodera inornata ......................................................................180 99 Cymatodera undulata .......................................................................................................181 910 Distribution map of Cymatodera undulata ......................................................................181 911 Cymatodera wolcotti ........................................................................................................182

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11 912 Distribution map of Cymatodera wolcotti .......................................................................182 913 Cymatoderella collaris .....................................................................................................183 914 Distribution map of Cymatoderella collaris ....................................................................183 915 Lecontella brunnea ..........................................................................................................184 916 Distribution map of Lecontella brunnea ..........................................................................184 917 Monophylla terminata, female .........................................................................................185 918 Monophylla terminata, male ............................................................................................185 919 Monophylla terminata, male (left) and female (right) .....................................................186 920 Distribution map of Monophylla terminata .....................................................................186

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12 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CAPS Coo perative Agricultural Pest Survey FDACS DPI Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry FSCA Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, Florida JMLC John M. Leavengood, Jr. private collection RHTC Robert H. Turnbow private collection UCFC University of Central Florida c ollection UF ENY University of Florida, Department of Entomology and Nematology

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13 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science THE CHECKERED BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: CLERIDAE) OF FLORIDA By John M. Leavengood, J r December 2008 Chair: Michael C. Thomas Major: Entomology and Nematology The Florida components of the beetle family Cleridae, with 42 species in 22 genera were reviewed: Ababa tantilla (LeConte), Callotillus eburneocinctus Wolcott, Chariessa floridana Schaeffer, C. pilosa Forster, Cregya oculata (Say), C. quadrinotata (Chevrolat), Cymatodera bicolor (Say), C. floridana Barr, C. inornata (Say), C. undulata (Say), C. wolcotti Barr, Cymatoderella collaris (Spinola), Enoclerus angustus (LeConte), E. ichneumoneus (Fabricius), E. lunatus (Klug), E. nigrifrons (Say), E. nigripes (Say), E. rosmarus (Say), Isohydnocera curtipennis (Newma n), Lecontella brunnea (Spinola), Madoniella dislocatus (Say), Monophylla terminata (Say), Necrobia ruficollis (Fabricius), N. rufipes Degeer, N. violacea (Linnaeus), Neorthopleura thoracica (Say), Pelonium leucophaeum Klug, Phyllobaenus humeralis (Say), P pallipennis (Say), P. pubescens (LeConte), P. rufipes (Newman), P. suturalis (Klug), P. unifasciatus (Say), P. verticalis Say, Placopterus subcostatus (Schaeffer), P. thoracicus (Olivier), Priocera castanea (Newman), Pyticeroides laticornis (Say), Tarsostenus univittatus (Rossi), Thanasimus dubius (Fabricius), Thaneroclerus buquet (Lefebvre), and Trichodes apivorus (Germar). D istinguishing characteristics of each genus were discussed. Each species treatment includes diagnostic discussion, biology, and distribution sections followed by label

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14 data and selected references. A habitus photograph and a distribution map are present ed for nearly all species.

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15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The group of coleopterous insects treated here as a full family, the Cler idae, historically has been recognized as multiple taxa. This is a product of the significant morphological variation within the family. Most species are medium sized and brightly colored (often with an aposematic pattern) red, black and orange. The few small, dull species (Thaneroclerinae) are often associated with stored product pests and are widely distribut ed The subfamilies are rather varied in appearance compared to other families of Coleoptera, but are characterized by wide heads, usually wider than the pronotum, the pronotum often rather cylindrical and usually narrower than the elytra, a 5 55 tarsal formula with some members apparently with only four tarsal segments, and the entire body covered with bristle like hairs. The elytral punctures of most taxa become obsolete in the apical fourth and members of several subfamilies may have a faint, pale midelytral fascia. The elaborate color patterns exhibited by the family earned the m the common name the checkered beetles. However, not all species have patterns that are checkered nor do all species have color patterns at all although rarely so. Members of all subfamilies for which there are natural history accounts are known to be entomophagous as immatures and as adults, at least in part E xceptions are adults which may use pollen as an alternative source of protein. Most entomophagous taxa are predacious on bark beetles and other woodboring beetles. The larvae of m any species have been recorded as predators of Hymenoptera. The Korynetina e and Tarsosteninae prey upon stored product pests and larval Hydnocerinae have been observed feeding on chalcidoid larvae in galls as immatures while being commonly encountered on flowers as adults.

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16 The Clerinae, Enopliinae, and Epiphloeinae are commonly encountered on trees infested with Scolytidae, Buprestidae, Cerambycidae and Lyctinae (Bostrichidae) The larvae and, in some cases, the adults can be found in the galleries opportunistically feeding on all life stages of the prey species. When not found at the site of a host plant infestation some clerids will be found on flowers, in high grassy habitats, or running up and down the stems and branches of trees and shrubs. Adding intrigue to the Cleridae is that unless one happens to be at the right plac e, at the right time, when adult emergence and predation on emerging lignicolous insects are in temporal synchronythese [beetles] are likely to be gathered one or two specimens at a time. These are the words of Weston Opitz (2004: 6), who was referring to the subfamily Epiphloeinae, and it rings true for all but the most common clerid taxa. Ant mimicry is considered to be extremely common in the Cleridae and can be observed, in part, by their movement patterns which are very similar to that of an ant scu rrying rapidly up and down plant substrates and shifting directions erratically (Mawdsley, 1994: 115, 2000: 166) Several species are considered to be velvet ant mimics and others are presumed to be a part of a large coleopterous mimicry ring including the Lampyridae and Lycidae as generalized models (Mawdsley, 2002: 166) Links to plant hosts are not strongly species specific. Many species have been reared from numerous plant hosts. The hydnocerines, if any, are the most specialized in that they can reproduce in galls and domatia (Sabrosky, 1934: 65; Krombein, 1999: 1) Otherwise, they seem to have no narrower plant preferences than their prey species. Cymatodera, among a few other taxa, have been reared from seemingly undi sturbed larval c ells of Hymenoptera. Members of the Necrobia are pests in some circumstances, but most often are only present in significant numbers when feeding on another stored product pest species. However, they will

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17 feed on shipments of dried meats and sometimes on animal pelts and the like. Otherwise, clerids are not pests. Some taxa are known to control forest pest populations and are considered economically important. Thanasimus dubius and T. formicarius are best known for this. In fact, T. formicarius was imp orted by Hopkins (1899) to biologically control forest pests of pine and spruce. Most species demonstrate broad distribution and habitat range in the eastern United States. In fact, most of the species which occur in Florida also occur in twelve to more t han twenty other states, with many reaching Canada or Mexico. Among the Florida fauna, only three species are known to be precinctive (= endemic) : Callotillus eburneocinctus Cymatodera floridana, and Chariessa floridana. One species of questionable stat us, Phyllobaenus suturalis is known from Florida and Mexico. The Korynetinae and Tarsosteninae often mat ch the distribution of their stored product prey species, which are often cosmopolitan. The Cleridae ha ve received little attention in the form of revisionary work, especially at the family or tribe levels As such, for the purpose of this thesis eight subfamilies are recognized: Clerinae, Enopliinae, Epiphloeinae, Hydnocerinae, Korynetinae, Tarsosteninae, Thaneroclerinae and Tillinae, as per Opitz (2002). Opitz (2007: 79) suggested that it takes years to accumulate enough material for a reasonable understanding of intraspecific variation. The few and far between specimens collected in lesser known regions further supports the need for patience i n the advancement of cleridology. Barr (quoted by Opitz) explained time and time again I get a shipment and almost always am surprised to find something totally unexpected in the form of one specimen, invariably never to see another one of the same kind As a result, some species that have stood described for over twenty years on the basis of a single tropical specimen have never been collected since (as per observations of museum material over time).

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18 Literature Review Early publications on Florida Cler idae were limited largely to species and genus descriptions and the casual mention of observations on behavior, prey species or host plants. The first significant works on Cleridae by Spinola (1841, 1844) and Klug (1842), which included species accounts n umbering in the hundreds. Later as with most beetle taxa, much descriptive work by LeConte, Gorham, Horn, Melsheimer, and Chevrolat contributed to the known species through the end of the 1800s. Bving and Champlain (1920) addressed the larvae of North American Cleridae. While there was no revisionary work, some of their morphological discussions defended the family as a stable taxon. Five unnamed subfamilies were suggested, some of which match Opitzs (2002) classification, others of which simply combine taxa of similar body form. Barr (1962: 121), in a nonrevisionary work, suggested only two subfamilies of Cleridae, those being the Clerinae, represented by the tribes Tillini, Phyllobaenini, Thaneroclerini and Clerini, and the Korynetinae, represented by the tribes Epiphloeini, Enopliini and Korynetini Opitz (2002: 268) commented that the current assignments of supraspecific groups in Cleridae were highly subjective, often lacking sufficient morphological, molecular and zoogeographical bases. Opitz considered a classification in which all of the tribes listed by Barr (1962) are recognized as subfamilies, plus Tarsosteninae, pending further work. Estimates by Papp (1960) differ little from Gerstmeier (1999) and Opitz (2002) as to the number of Cleridae worldwide (about 4000, 291 of which occur in the United States). Currently, some questions remain unanswered even for the North American fauna where s ome intraspecific variations lend curiosity to the potential sinking or addition of species. The morphology and behavior of these beetles shows potential for mimicry. This is especially evident in those species which resemble Lycidae and Lampyridae ( Chariessa,

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19 Perilypus and Pyticeroides among others) (Opitz, 1997: 51). Many species demonstrate variation s which could lead to one species being mistaken for many. While insects of most taxa have undergone much synonymy and revision in the 250 years of modern classification, those with intraspecific color pattern variation create additional confusion. As a result, clerids have experienced a flurry of new, and subsequently, refuted species, some being recognized as several species for extensive periods of time. This creates a problem to those tracing the history of a species through dated literature whose references weave a labyrinthine mess of synonymy. Such specific epithets as lampyriformis, formicarius and mutillaecolor suggest authors observations of similarities between the named clerids and other invertebrates. Mawdsley (1994: 115) explored potential relationships between the Cleridae and their possible models. The range of their mimicry spans many other families of Coleoptera, aculeate Hymenoptera, and even isolated cases mimicking Zygaenidae (Lepidoptera) and flower visiting Tachinidae (Diptera). While many visual mimics also show behavior al mimicry, only three species of the family have yet to demonstrate chemical defense. Should more species be found to possess chemical defenses, then there would also be Mllerian, rather than only Batesian, mim ics within the family (Mawdsley, 2002: 166). Many of t he Clerinae, Enopliinae and Epiphloeinae are predaci ous as adults and immatures, making them important in iden tifying woodborer infestations Some clerids are the principle predators of wood and bark boring beetles and these predacious habits make them a taxon of economic importance (St. George 1924: 49). As such, the family is generally associated with woody plants. Most of these clerids are encountered under bark, in the galleries of woodand cone boring insects, in galls or on dead twigs and branches. Many species of Enoclerus and Thanasimus are considered to play an important role in the population control of

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20 bark beetles in coniferous forests. Some of the Tillinae and Clerinae infiltrate nests and are predators of bees and wasps while others are not predacious at all as adults, being found on flowers and apparently feeding only on pollen. The immatures of Trichodes complete their development on the egg pods of grasshoppers or within the cells of bees and aculeate wasps (Opitz, 2002: 268, Knull 1951: 271). Others, especially hydnocerines, have been recorded to behave as endoparasites in cynipid galls, the pupal cells of moths, and have even been encountered in egg nests of periodical cicadas (Russel and Stoetzel, 1991: 385). Hydnocerines have been found in galls and in the pithcavity of larval cells of Xylocopinae in domatia in Sri Lanka (Krombein, 1999: 28). Lecon tella and Cymatodera have been found in larval cells of Eum e ninae (Vespidae), Megachilidae, and Sphecidae. While many clerids are predators of bark beetles of all life stages, and are considered forest insects, Mawdsley (2002: 15) was the first to find dir ect associations between these beetles and prairie flora. When found in grasslands clerids should not be expected to be found on their host plants, but rather a broad range of plants as many adults feed as generalist predators on small beetles, wasps, aph ids, true bugs and flies. Because many clerids have densely pubescent bodies and consume pollen as a secondary (or even primary) source of protein, they also function as pollinators. Materials and Methods The specimens examined for this thesis were obtain ed from the holdings of the FSCA, UCFC, JMLC, and RHTC. Additional data was rendered from an effort by the Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey (CAPS) The project was the Solid Wood Packing Material survey for Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae). Th e author was the primary diagnostician for much of the statewide

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21 material, which included checkered beetles. Insect specimens were identified and discarded Species were recorded into a database currently accessible to any member of CAPS via the I drive. Some checkered beetle specimens were preserved and curated at a later date. These specimens were added to the JMLC and are not listed as CAPS material The data resulting from uncurated checkered beetles was entered into the CAPS database. In each spe cies treatment under the section specimens examined such data were included even though no voucher specimen s exist Checkered beetles were identified using various literature (primarily original species descriptions), various microscopes, and using mater ial from the JMLC and FSCA as reference collections All images of checkered beetles were photographed using the AutoMontage system at the FDACS DPI and UF ENY. Images were then edited using PhotoShop. Distribution maps were made using MapInfo Pro Vie wer and cropped in Microsoft Office Picture Manager Images and distribution maps were then converted from TIFF to JPEG files in Microsoft Paint, and inserted into the thesis document as figures at the end of the appropriate chapter. There is an introduction chapter. Each following chapter represents one of the eight subfamilies. Because the subfamilies have never been revised, they are addressed in this thesis in alphabetical order. Similarly, the tribes and genera have received ve ry little attention and no revised genus with more than one Florida species is represented in this thesis. As such, the species within each genus and the genera within each subfamily are also presented in alphabetical order (and not to be mistaken for phylogenetic position). Each species treatment discusses distinguishing characteristics and similar taxa, gives an account of known biological behavior, and provides a full distribution followed by a county-

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22 based distribution for Florida. In the biology se ction, the last paragraph often includes unreferenced information such as flight period or plant associations rendered from the label data of the specimens examined. The specimens examined section lists label data verbatim for Florida specimens only, although other specimens were actually examined. Under each genus treatment the s elected r eferences section lists only literature which addresses all species of the genus For species treatments, all known literature pertaining to the species in questi on is listed At the end of each chapter are habitus photographs and Florida distribution maps for nearly all species. The counties of the distribution maps are not labeled. See Figure 11 for county locations in Florida. In species distributions, Miam i Dade County is equivalent to Dade County. Dichotomous keys to subfamilies, genera and species were made by combining character istics from previous literature and adding characteristics limited to the Florida fauna. The bibliography was formatted using the publishing guidelines of the journal Insecta Mundi. Key to the Subfamilies of Cleridae 1. Tarsomeres I IV of front legs compact; tarsal pulvilli absent; entire body dull brown, patternless ................................................................................................................Thaneroclerinae 1. Tarsomeres I IV of front legs not compact; tarsal pulvilli present; body variable ....................2 2(1) Anterior coxal cavities closed behind ......................................................................... Tillinae 2. Anterior coxal cavities open behind ..........................................................................................3 3(2) Eyes weakly emarginated ; antennae short and stubby ...................................... Hydnocerinae 3. Eyes deeply emarginated ; antennae variable, but not short and stubby ....................................4 4(3) Tarsomeres III and IV subequal in length .................................................................. Clerinae 4. Tarsomere IV much smaller than I III .......................................................................................5 5(4) Antennal club as long or longer than remaining segments combined ....................................6 5. Antennal club shorter than remaining segments combined .......................................................7

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23 6(5) Basal two antennal club segments somewhat apically forked, antler like and elongate .......................................................................................................................................... Enopliinae 6. Antennal club segments greatly dilated, quadrate to triangular in shape .............. Epiphloeinae 7(5) Body r obust; elytra metallic blue or green, sometimes with orange humeri ........ Korynetinae 7. Body e longate; elytra dark bluishblack with a pale midelytral fascia ................. Tarsosteninae

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24 Figure 11. Map of Florida with counties labeled

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25 CHAPTER 2 CLERINAE Key to the Florida Genera of Clerinae 1. Pronotu m bicolor ed in Florida species, orangishyellow with a central black spot ; elytra dark blue to bluishblack, but always unicolor ed in Florida species ..................................... Placopterus 1. Pronotum unicolor ed in Florida species, reddish to black, sometimes with anterior region slightly paler than posterior region, but of the same general color ; elytra variable, but never uni colored in Flo rida species ...........................................................................................................2 2(1) Apical three antennomeres serrate, forming a club; elytra lacking a transverse white fascia or lunula at the middle or just posterior to the middle, instead with two pairs of yellowish midelytral maculae, two per elytron, the posterior pair being closer together than the more laterally placed anterior pair in Florida species ................................. Priocera castanea (Fig. 215) 2. Apical three antennomeres forming a club ; elytra with or without a transverse white fascia or lunula at the middle or just posterior to the middle never with two pairs of yellowish elytral maculae in Florida species ...............................................................................................................3 3(2) P ronotum black, densely covered with ferrugine ous hairs; elytra with alternating orangish yellowis h and blackishpurplish fasciae, lacking a transverse white fascia or lunula at the middle or just posterior to the middle .......................................................... Trichodes apivorus (Fig. 2 19) 3. P ronotum reddish, lacking dense ferrugine o us hairs; elytra with or without a transverse white fas cia or lunula at the middle or just posterior to the middle, never with the color pattern described above in Florida species ..................................................................................................4 4(3) Pronotum with deep, transverse subapical groove, joined by a median depressed line; third and fourth m etat arso meres not co nspicuously dilated ; elytra with humeri red, followed by alternating black and whitish fasciae ............................................... Thanasimus dubius (Fig. 217) 4. Pronotum with at most a shallow, transverse, subapical groove; without a median depressed line; at least third an d fourth m etat arsomeres dilated ; elytral with humeri red, following fasciae as above or not .................................................................................................................. Enoclerus Genus Enoclerus Gahan, 1910 This is the largest clerid genus in the world, with about 200 species in the Western Hemisphere (Mawdsley, 2001: 459). Six species occu r in Florida

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26 The genus Enoclerus is medium sized, elongate, and convex, and are distinguished by distinctly emarginate finely granulate eyes, slender maxillary palpi dilated labial palpi, a three segmented antennal club which is rather abruptly enlarged the pronotum with a shallow, transverse subapical groove lacking a median line joining it, tarsi that are apparently four segmented third and fourth segments of m etat arsi dilated and broadly dentate claws. The species of Enoclerus can be diagnosed using coloration. Often, the differences in color are significant, such as having a black or pinkishred abdomen or the presence or absence of a colored band in the anterior third of the elytra. In the presence of a reference collection specimens of this genus probably need not be keyed out. The adults and immatures of Enoclerus are predacious on bark beetles, weevils and other woodborers. They have been associated with pine, spruce, elm, cedar, white oak, hickory, sweet gum, maple, peach and other hardwoods. These beetles may be observed moving along branches of vegetat ion with movement patterns similar to ants, particularly those of the genus Camponotus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Rifkind ( 1997: 298 ) suggested that E. insidiosus (Gorham) is a mimic of a particular sympatric ant, C. sericeiventris Guerin, in Costa Rica. While E. insidiosus is not a North American species, it shares a general color pattern with many of its congeners. The midelytral pale fascia found in many specie s has darker coloration anterior and posterior to the midelytr al region creating a wasp waist appearance. Selected references : Fabricius, 1775: 157; Jacquelin du Val, 1860: 196; Gahan, 1910: 62; LeConte, 1849: 19; Horn, 1880: 150; LeConte and Horn, 1883: 218; Horn, 1885: 154; Wickham, 1895: 248; Wolcott, 1910 b: 357, 1910c: 852, 1911: 118; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 630; Bradley, 1930: 106; Bving and Craighead, 1931a : 57; Wolcott, 1947: 78; Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 278; Barr, 1976a: 17; Mawdsley, 2001: 459; Opitz 2002: 277. Key to the Florida S pecies of Enoclerus 1. Each elytron with one crescent shaped creamy white slightly elevated lunula located behind the middle, the punctation of the lunula being much less coarse and dense than the remaining

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27 elyt ral regions, the pubescence on the lunula no more dense than the remaining elytral regions .............................................................................................................. Enoclerus lunatus (Fig. 2 5) 1. Each elytron with a pale unelevated fascia at the middle or behind the middle, with pubescence much more dense than on the basal third of the elytra .................................................2 2 (1) Elytra with a broad band of pinkish red across the middle third of the elytra, with an incomplete black fascia at its basal end and a complete black fascia at its apical end; integument of the basal fourth of the elytra distin ctly darker than that of the band at the middle third ................................................................................................... Enoclerus ichneumoneus (Fig. 23) 2. Elytra lacking a black fascia in the basal fourth; integument in the basal third of the elytra with only one distinct reddish color .................................................................................................3 3 (2) Abdomen red .........................................................................................................................4 3. A bdomen black ..........................................................................................................................5 4 (3) Elytra with a pale, often distinctly arched fascia at about the middle, followed by a much broader black fascia occupying one fourth of the elytral length ........ Enoclerus nigripes (Fig. 29) 4. Elytra with a pale fascia just behind the m iddle, the fascia broader marginally, narrowing towards the middle as the elytra meet, followed by a narrower black fascia ............................................................................................................ Enoclerus angustus (Fig. 2 1) 5 (3) Elytra with a midelytral pale fascia, anteriorly bordered by a black, somewhat incomplete fascia ............................................................................................... Enoclerus rosmarus (Fig. 211) 5. Elytra with a midelytral pale fascia, anteriorly bordered by no fascia .......................................................................................................... Enoclerus nigrifrons (Fig. 27) Enoclerus angustus (LeConte ), 1849 (Figs. 21, 2 2) = Clerus rosmarus var. virginiensis Schaeffer, 1917 Barr (1976a : 20) clarified the status of this species from E. rosmarus var. virginiensis, which should not be considered a synonym of E. rosmarus Enoclerus angustus has black ish to reddish legs and is nearly entirely red to reddish pink. At the middle third o f the elytra there are three adjacent transverse fasciae, two black fasciae with a white fascia between them. The white fascia is broadest marginally and narrows towards the middle as the elytra meet. The rest of the elytra is red to reddish pink, occasional ly with

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28 slightly paler integument apically Enoclerus angustus and E. nigripes are similar to E. rosmarus which is distinguished by its black abdomen and a much broader black fascia posterior to the white fascia. Biology: Adults have been coll ected in Florida from March to May. They have been collected in Malaise traps. Distribution : Barr (197 5: 10) recorded this species from Florida and Virginia. Papp (1960: 84) stated that it occurs in the southeastern United States. Before 1950, any dist ributions recorded for E. rosmarus may have included both E. rosmarus and E. angustus In Florida Enoclerus angustus has been recorded from Alachua, Duvall, Jefferson, Levy, and Union Counties. Specimens examined (16) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: 2mi north of LaCrosse, J and E Turf Farm, Santa Fe River flood plain, malaise trap 10V 1996, G.J. Steck and B.D. Sutton ( 1, FSCA); 4mi north of LaCrosse: J and E Ranch 5V 1989, L.R. Davis, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); 9mi northwest of Gainesville on SR 232, malaise trap 5V 1977, H.N. Greenbaum ( 1, FSCA); Gainesville, 26III 1948, E.D. McRae, 21IV 1930, G.E. Merrill, 24 V 1964, R.E. White ( 3, FSCA); SE Gainesville, Kincaid Rd., old field edge, xeric oak habitat, 6 meter Malaise trap 1 8V 1999, B.D. Sutton ( 1, FSCA); 23V 1969, M.L. May ( 1, FSCA); Duval County: Jacksonville 8V 1970, C.F. Zeiger ( 1, FSCA); Jefferson County: Monticello 11IV 1994 ( 1, FSCA); Levy County: 24III 1959, H.V. Weems, Jr ( 4, FSCA); Union County: 1km south of Lake Butler on Highway 121, 27I V 1989, C.W. Mills, III ( 1, FSCA); Highway 241 at Santa Fe River 16IV 1989, C.W. Mills, III ( 1, FSCA) Selected references : LeConte, 1849: 21; Lohde, 1900: 46; Schaeffer, 1917: 131; Papp, 1960: 84; Barr, 1975: 10, 1976a : 20 ; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85.

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29 Enoclerus ichneumoneus (Fabricius), 1777 (Figs. 23, 24) = Clerus rufus Olivier, 1791 = Enoclerus knabi Wolcott 1910 Enoclerus ichneumoneus is a large, reddish pink clerid with thoracic sternites ranging from entirely red to entirely black, often with both colors present The basal fourth of the elytra is reddish, posteriorly margined by an incomplete transverse black fascia. The middle half is reddish pink, but of a paler shade than the basal fourth. The apical fourth follows with a black fascia, the n a white fascia, and a black elytral apex. The head and pronotum are densely, finely punctate. The elytra are coarsely punctate basally, the punctures smaller apically. Enoclerus lunatus is similar, but has an elevated, crescent shaped mid elytral fascia margined with black. Another species, E. muttkowski is nearly identical to E. ichneumoneus but it occurs in the northeastern states and does not pose a diagnostic problem in the southeast Bving and Champlain (1920: 602) described the larvae and compa red them to some related taxa. Biology: According to Knull (1951: 298), adults of this species may be found on infested trees in the summer months and hibernating under bark in the winter months. They have been collected from Rhus spp. (Anacardiaceae), shagbark hickory, sweetgum, maple, white oak, Acer spp. (Sapindaceae), and red cedar infested with Pityophthorus sp., Scolytus quadrispinosus Say, Phloeosinus sp. ( Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae ) and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) ( Bving and Champlain, 1920: 633; Knull, 1951: 298). One overwintering event witnessed in Pennsylvania found about twenty beetles packed together beneath thick bark ( Bving and Champlain, 1920: 633)

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30 Mawdsley (1999: 41) suggested that E. ichneumoneus and E. muttkowski (Wolcott), two species from different lineages of Enoclerus have converged to similar color patterns which may mimic a mutill id wasp. Specimens have been collected in Florida in all months except for January. Adults ha ve been collected at u ltraviolet light mercury vapor light and black light, in Steiner Traps and in Malaise traps. It has also been collected in both e thanol baited and turpentine/frontalinbaited Lindgren funnel traps. It has been collected on Citrus mitis Blanco (Rutaceae ) Distribution : Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Delaware, District of Columbia Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Missouri, Mississippi, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Ontario ( Wolcott 1909: 98; Wickham and Wolcott 1912: 57; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 634; Wolcott 1947: 79; Papp 1960: 83; Barr 1975: 7 ). Knull ( 1951: 298) recorded t his s pecies in Ohio from Cincinnati which is on the Kentucky border Mawdsley (1999: 42) listed its distribution from Pennsylvania, south along the Appalachians and foothills to Florida, and west to Wisconsin, Illinois and Kansas. This distribution rules out the northeastern states included in the distribution of E. ichneumoneus listed by many authors who often include ranges up to Canada and northern New York Mawdsley suggest ed that such northeastern are the result of confusing E. ichneumoneus with E. muttkowski Mawdsley included a table of characters to more easil y separate the two species. In Florida Enoclerus ichneumoneus has been recorded from Alachua, Brevard, Citrus, Dixie, Duval, Flagler, Gadsden, Hardee, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Indi an River, Jackson, Lafayette, Lake, Leon, Liberty, Manatee, Martin, Miami Dade, Marion, Nassau, Orange, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, Putnam, Saint Lucie, Seminole, Union, and Volusia Counties.

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31 Specimens examined (206) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: 29.36 N, 82.22 W, 28VIII 1992, J. Pickering (1, FSCA); 2mi northwest of Gainesville, 2VII 1974, J.B. Heppner (1, FSCA); Austin Carey Forest, flight trap, 21IV 1976, G.B. Fairchild and Roberts (1, FSCA); Gainesville, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 14IV 1989, T.H. Atkinson ( 6, FSCA); Gainesville, Turpentine/frontalin baited Lindgren funnel trap, X 2004, J.L. Foltz and J.M. Leavengood, Jr. (1, JMLC); Gainesville, 19 VI 1968, L. O'Berry, 2III 1972, G.B. Fairchild, 31 V 1969, H.V. Weems, III 4VII 1960, H.V. Weems, Jr. 8XII 1968, C.V. Weems 1VII 1966, P.E. Frierson 16X 1967, C.R. Artaud, 7IX 1986, P.E. Skelley, 21 X 1977, W.H. Whitcomb, 28X 1978, 22XI 1961, F.W. Mead, 8VI 1982, L.A. Hetrick 9XI 1980, L. Darling, 25X 1961, [anon.] VI 2003, VII 2004, XII 2003, VII2006, J.M. Leavengood, Jr., 5IV 1973, H. Greenbaum 7VI 1979, B. Gregory, Jr., 3VI 1969, J.G. May, 6IX 1990, M.C. Thomas 14VIII1979, H. Collins 14 X 1980, R.E. Brown, 9 XI 1984, C.M. Stevens ( 20, FSCA ; 5, JMLC ); Gainesville, Doyle Conner building, blacklight trap, 4V 1986, 9V 1976, 24VI 1986, F.W. Mead malaise trap, 25 II 1982, [anon.], ultraviolet light trap, 9 VII 1990, F.W. Mead ( 6, FSCA); Gainesville, Doyle Conner building, 25 III 1991, L.A. Stange 13VI 1991, F.W. Mead ( 2, FSCA); Gainesville, NW 42nd Terr. and 34th Pl., ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, X 2005, XI 2005, J.L. Foltz and J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 2, JMLC); Gainesville, NW 42nd Terr. and 34th Pl., Turpentine/frontalinbaited Lindgren funnel trap, V 2005, VI 2005, 1XII 2003, J.L. Foltz and J.M. Leavengood, Jr., VI 2000, XI 2000, J.L. Foltz ( 5, JMLC); Gainesville, University of Florida Horticulture Experiment Station, 31 III1976, G.B. Fairchild, flight trap, 20III 1976, G.B. Fairchild ( 2, FSCA); Gainesville, University of Florida, Surge/Natural Area Drive, Turpentine/frontalin baited Lindgren funnel trap, IV 1998, J. L. Foltz (2, JMLC); Gainesville, 610 NW 54th Terrace, 1 III 1995, L.A. Stange (1, FSCA); Gainesville: SW 20th Avenue, 12III -

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32 1991, C.W. Mills, III (1, FSCA) ; Highway 236, 2km west of Highway 241, 19III 1999, 20III 1999, C.W. Mills, III (2, FSCA); Highway 241 and Highway 236, 26III 1989, C.W. Mills, III (1, FSCA); NW Gainesville, San Felasco State Park, 29IV 1948, E.D. McRae beating foliage, 2VI 2001, E. Nearns (2, JMLC ; 1, FSCA ); Santa Fe River at Route 441, under bark, VII 1989, P.E. Skelley (1, FSCA); SW Gainesville, I 75 and SW 20th, 11II 1996, E. Nearns (1, JMLC); SW Gainesville, near Tower Rd. and I 75, 3IV 1995, E. Nearns (1, JMLC); 20X 1946, ( 1, FSCA); 23 IV 1970, M.L. May (1, FSCA); Brevard County: Cocoa, 17III 1982, F.A. Smith (1, FSCA); Merritt Island, ex. Quercus virginiana, 28 II 1985, A. Jones (1, FSCA); Titusville, SR 405, Enchanted Forest Sanctuary, White Trail, xeric oak hammock, Mala ise Trap, 721III 2001, 21III 4IV 2001, 418IV 2001, 216V 2001, 1630V 2001, 30V 13VI 2001, 27VI 11VII 2001, 1125VII 2001, 1 15VIII 2000, 31VIII 14IX 2000, 1631X 2000, 25XI 14 XII 2000, P. Russel l, Z. Prusak and S.M. Fullerton (25, UCFC) ; Union Park, urban yard, 18X 2000, A. Hepburn (1, UCFC); University of Central Florida, MacKay Tract, Orlando, Sawgrass Marsh, red maple, Malaise Trap, 26 IV 1999, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando, LLP Sand Pine, Turkey Oak, Malaise Trap, 2 V 1993, 17VII 1997, S.M. Fulle rton (2 UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando, Longleaf Pine Saw Palmetto, Malaise Trap, 30 X 1997, S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Citrus County: Homosassa, 15IX 1975, H.V. Weems, Jr. (1, FSCA); Dixie County: 4.2 miles north of Old Town, 15V 1979, R. Turnbow (1, RHTC); 4mi north of Old Town, 18V 1979, R. Turnbow (1, FSCA); junction of highways 349 and 351, 30V 1983, R. Turnbow (1, RHTC); Duval County: Jacksonville, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 19III 2007, 9IV 2007, 30IV 2007, 18V 2007, 7VI 2007, 29VI 2007, A. Johnson ( 10, CAPS); Mayport, 21IX 1963, F.J. Santana, (1, FSCA); SE Jacksonville, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, VI 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. (1, JMLC);

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33 Flagler County: Korona 31X 1977, J.N. Pott (1, FSCA); Gadsden County: Quincy, at blacklight 6 IX 1971, (1, FSCA); Hardee County : Lemon Grove Steiner tap 3VI 1964, R.H. Rhodes (1, FSCA); Hernando County: Withlacoochee State Forest, Ri chloam Tract, Goa t Road 10IV 1991, M.C. Thomas 3IV 1998, R. Morris ( 2, FSCA); Withlacoochee Tucker Hill 25 V 1994, J. Meeker (1, FSCA); Highlands County: Highlands Hammock State Park 14IV 1990, R. Turnbow 14IV 1990, M.C. Thomas (1, RHTC ; 1, FSCA ); Hillsborough County: Lithia ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, III 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. (2, JMLC); Ruskin, ex. Citrus sinensis, 21X 1977, D.C. Chancey (1, FSCA); Tampa ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap III2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. (1, JMLC); Indian River County: Vero Beach ex. ripe Morus sp. fruit 23III 1990, K. Hibbard (1, FSCA); Jackson County: Caverns State Park 7XII 1957, H.V. Weems, Jr., 22IV 1972, H. Greenbaum 35V 2008, M.C. and S. Thomas 27IV 1986, R. Turnbow ( 6, FSCA; 4, RHTC); Lafayette County: 0.5 miles west of Branford 29V 1988, R. Turnbow (1, RHTC); Lake County: Grand Island, ex. Citrus sp. 12XI 1982, N.L. Morrison (1, FSCA); Okahumpka 23 V 1981, H.L. Bentley (1, FSCA); Leon County: Tall Timbers Research Station 6IV 1985, R. Turnbow (1, RHTC); Liberty County: 14.8 miles north of Sumatra 7V 1988, R. Turnbow (1, RHTC); Apalachicola National Forest ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, V 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. (1, JMLC); Torreya State Park beating 22 V 2004, E. Nearns 3V 2003, 6V 1989, 7V 1989, R. Turnbow 16V 1968, H.V. Weems, Jr., 5V 1989, M.C. Thomas (1, JMLC ; 3, FSCA; 2, RHTC); Torreya State Park malaise trap 15 VI 1974, H.V. Weems, Jr. and C.R. Artaud (1, FSCA); Manatee County: Palmetto 5X 1991, L.D. Cunningham (1, FSCA); Rubonia ex. Citrus mitis 21 X 1977, D.C. Chancey (1, FSCA); Terra Ceia, ex. guinea grass 20XI 1986, H. Gillis (1, FSCA); Steiner tap 1XI 1963, D.C. Chancey (1, FSCA); Marion County: McIntosh, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, IV 2007,

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34 J.M. Leavengood, Jr. (1, JMLC); Ocala, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, IV 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. (2, JMLC); Ocala National Forest, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, III 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. (1, JMLC); Miami Dade County: Dade Cit y, Steiner tap, 27III 1963, J.H. Grantham (1, FSCA); Nassau County: Fernandina Beach, Jackson trap, 29 III 1982, J. Garbark (1, FSCA); Fort Clinch State Park, 5 V 1988, P.E. Skelley (1, FSCA); Orange County: Apopka, alpha beta pinene baited Lindgren funne l trap, 28X 1963, C.J. Musgrove (1, FSCA); Orlando, alpha beta pinene baited Lindgren funnel trap, 29III 2007, 27IV 2007, 4VI 2007, 29XI 2006, B. Saunders ( 11, CAPS); Orlando, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 29 III 2007, 28VIII 2006, 30XI 2006, 11X 2006, B. Saunders ( 14, CAPS ; 2, JMLC ); Tangerine, 23IX 1982, D.C. Phelps (1, FSCA); Pasco County: New Port Richey, 12VI 1980, L. Ippolite (1, FSCA); Pinellas County: Saint Petersburg, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, VI 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. (1, JMLC); Putnam County: Crescent City, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, III 2004, J.L. Foltz, J.M. Leavengood, Jr., J. White (1, JMLC); Saint Lucie County: Bluefield, McPhail trap, 3 XI 1982, K. Hibbard (1, FSCA); Bluefield, 2XII 1987, K. Campbell (1, FSCA); Fort Pierce, 30X 1985, K. Hi bbard (1, FSCA); Seminole County: Lake Mary, 12VI 1962, C.O. Youtsey (1, FSCA); Sanford, Steiner trap, 17V 1966, G.W. Desin (1, FSCA); 26VII 1962, G.W. Desin (1, FSCA); Union County: Highway 241 at Santa Fe River, 20IV 1986, 10XI 1985, C.W. Mills, III ( 2, FSCA); Volusia County: Daytona Beach, VII 1960, W. Rosenberg (1, FSCA); Holly Hill, 23 IX 1970, J.N. Pott (1, FSCA); Ormond Beach, ex. Citrus sp ., 20IV 1987, J. Beckwith (1, FSCA); [county unknown] : New Zion, Steiner tap, 23IX 1969, W.C. Rhodes (1, FSCA). Selected references : Fabricius, 1777: 230; Olivier, 1791: 13; LeConte, 1849: 20; Drury, 1879: 171; Schwarz, 1890: 165; Wickham, 1895: 250; Lohde, 1900: 43; Felt, 1906: 502; Wolcott, 1909: 98, 1910a : 321, 1910c : 853; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 57; B ving and Champlain, 1920: 600, 602, 633; Wolcott, 1922: 73; Bving and Craighead, 1931b: 276;

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35 Beal and Massey, 19 45: 69; Wolcott, 1947: 79; Barr, 1950: 62; Craighead, 1950b: 201; Knull, 1951: 297, pl. 8, fi g. 29; Papp, 1960: 83; Barr 1975: 7 ; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85; Mawdsley, 1999: 41; Opitz 2002: figs. 50, 54, 55, 56; Leavengood, 2008: (in press). Enoclerus lunatus (Klug), 1842 (Figs. 25, 26) = Clerus bicolor Melsheimer, 1846 Enoclerus lunatus is disting ui shed by the crescent shaped elevated mi delytral lunula margined with black on each elytron just posterior of the middle. It is large and its integument is mostly red. The legs, mouthparts, antennae, thoracic sternites and abdomen are reddish to reddish black. The head and pronot um are densel y, finely punctate, and the e lytra are coarsely punctate basally, the punctures smaller apically. Enoclerus ichneumoneus is similar but has no elevated lunula Possibly causing some confusion, E. nigripes has a pale arched fascia with black on either side just behind the middle of the elytra However, the arched band in E. nigripes is densely pubescent and not elevated. Biology: Enoclerus lunatus has been record ed on peach trees attacked by Scolytus rugulosus (Muller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytin ae) in Georgia. It has also been observed on flowers ( Bving and Champlain, 1920: 634). A dults have been collected in Florida during all months except for November. Specimens have been collected at lights, in McPhail traps and Malaise traps. Specimens h ave been collected on Cassia fasciculata (Michaux) Greene Cassia bicapsularis Linnaeus blooms (Fabaceae), blooms of Castanea alnifolia (Linnaeus) Miller Quercus virginiana Miller (Fagaceae), Citrus aurantium (= nobilis and paradisi ) Linnaeus (Rutaceae) Ocimum micranthum Miller (Lamiaceae) and Ceanothus microphyllus Michaux (Rhamnaceae) Adults ha ve been reared from Metopium toxiferum ( L innaeus ) Krug and Urban (Anacardiaceae) and Co c coloba diversifolia Jacq uin (Polygonaceae) One specimen was collected in the nest of Solenopsis

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36 geminata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Label data did not suggest whether or not the specimen of E. lunatus was collected alive. Distribution : Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Maryland, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas and Virginia ( Wolcott 1909: 97, 1910b: 359, 1947: 80; Papp 1960: 83; Barr 1975: 7; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85). Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 58) recorded it from Riley County, Kansas which is within 50 miles of Nebraska, and Orchard, Alabama, which is within 20 miles of Mississippi K null (1951: 299) suggested that it should occur in Ohio. In Florida Enoclerus lunatus has been recorded from Alachua, Brevard, Clay, Collier, Columbia, Dixie, Hi ghlands, Indian River, Jefferson, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Miami Dade, Monroe, Orange, Palm Beach, Polk, Putnam, Saint Lucie, Seminole, Union, and Volusia Counties Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 58) recorded E. lunatus from Estero and Tampa, which are in Lee and Hillsborough Counties, respectively. Specimens e xamined (189) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: 1 mile south of Highway 26, VI 1972, J. Macchi ( 1, FSCA); 2 miles north of Gainesville ramp trap 23V 1974, H. Davis and W. Jetter ( 1, FSCA); 5.5 miles west of Gainesville, Castlegate Mobile Home Park L.R. Davis, Jr. on Cassia fasciculat a, L.R. Davis, Jr. ( 9, FSCA); Gainesville on oak 24III 1953, B.K. Dozier 20IV 1924, T.H. Hubbell 7V 1968, R.E. Woodruff on blooms of Castanea alnifolia, 15V 1968, 18V 1968, R.E. Woodruff VI 2003, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 5 FSCA ; 1, JMLC ); Brevard County: Malabar, Malabar Road Malabar Scrub Sanctuary, fire unit 16, xeric oak scrub, Malaise Trap 22VII 3 VIII2001, P. Russell, Z. Prusak and S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Titusville, SR 405, Enchanted Forest Sanctuary, White Trail, xeric oak hammock, Malaise Trap 21III 4IV 2001, 418IV 2001, P. Russell, Z. Prusak and S.M. Fullerton ( 4, UCFC); Clay

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37 County: Camp Crystal 19V 1962, H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Collier Count y: Naples, on Citrus sinensis, 3V 1995, M. Brodie ( 1, FSCA); Columbia County: 0.4 miles east of 41 on Hammock Road, 30IV 1978, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Dixie County: 3.5 miles north of Old Town, on Route 349, 3V 1979, M.C. Thomas ( 1, FSCA); 3.7 miles north of Old Town 20V 1978, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); 4 miles north of Old Town, 18 V 1979, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Old Town 20 V 1978, G.B. Edwards ( 1, FSCA); Highlands County: 2 miles south of Sebring, 15IV 1990, M.C. Thomas ( 1, FSCA); Archbold Biological Stati on, insect flight trap 23V 1978, 30V 1978, H.V. Weems, Jr. and Klein L.K., insect flight trap 15 IV 1980, H.V. Weems, Jr. and F.E. Lohrer insect flight trap, 13 V 1979, 27V 1979, H.V. Weems, Jr. and S. Halkin, insect flight trap, 15 VI 1979, H.V. We ems, Jr. and T. Weber ( 6, FSCA); Archbold Biological Station malaise trap 14 IV 1980, 20 IV 1980, 22IV 1980, 23IV 1980 26IV 1980, 28IV 1980, 3V 1980, 4V 1980, L.L. Lampert, Jr., malaise trap 11 IV 1991, 14IV 1990, L.R. Davis, Jr. malaise trap, 1 V 1978, H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 11, FSCA); Archbold Biological Station, 14IV 1978, 21IV 1979 23IV 1979, 1V 1979, L.L. Lampert, Jr. ( 4, FSCA); Highlands Hammock State Park, at light, 30 III 2002, M. Hrabovsky ( 2, FSCA); Lake Placid, on Citrus nobilis, 24 II I 1950, Medsaer ( 1, FSCA); Sebring, fossil sand dunes, 20III 1975, H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Indian River County: 2.5 miles southeast of Wabasso, 16V 1986, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Vero Beach, 18 IV 1977, R. Carter ( 1, FSCA); Jefferson County: in nest of Solenopsis geminat a, 3VI 1958, C.L. Alligood ( 1, FSCA); Leon County: 4 miles west of Tallahassee, on Highway 20, 30IV 1985, C.W. O'Brien ( 1, FSCA); Levy County: 3.8 miles southwest of Archer, malaise trap in rosemary and turkey oak sandhill, 15V 1988, 21V 1988, 19VI 1988, P.E. Skelley ( 5, FSCA); 5 miles north of Otter Creek, 13V 1979, E. Giesbert ( 1, FSCA); Liberty County: 4 miles north of Torreya State Park, 3V 1980, M.C. Thomas ( 1, FSCA); Torreya State

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38 Park, malaise trap, 17 V 1968, H.V. Weems, Jr ( 1, FSCA); Torreya State Park, 3 V 2003, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Marion County: north of Romeo, 18IV 1982, M.C. Thomas ( 1, FSCA); Ocala National Forest, Hopkins Prairie, insect flight trap, 11 V 1979, G.B. Fairchild ( 2, FSCA); Oklawaha River, on Route 316, at light, 5 V 2002, M. Hrabovsky ( 2, FSCA); MiamiDade County: 2 miles southwest of Florida City, 29V 1983, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); 5 miles west of Florida City, 21V 1975, E. Giesbert ( 3, FSCA); Coral Gables, 13VIII 1946, F. Hurst on Citrus paradis i 17 V 1932, B.F. Adams X 1949, [anon.] ( 3, FSCA); Everglades National Park 18V 1975, E. Giesbert ( 1, FSCA); Fuch's Hammock, near Homestead insect flight trap 24 V 1979, T.S. Dickel and H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Homestead 7IV 1933, L.S. Light, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Kendall 6XII 1967, R.W. Swanson ( 1, FSCA); Miami 11VI 1965, B.K. Dozier ( 1, FSCA); Richmond, 10IV 1948 ( 3, FSCA); IV 1957, D. Thornton, IV 1948, 3VI 1950, [anon.], V 1954, W.T. Burch, 29X 1955, D.R. Paulson ( 5, FSCA); Monroe County: Big Pi ne Key 3V 1958, D.R. Paulson, on Ocimum micranthum 10IV 1959, H.V. Weems, Jr., 23VI 1971, W.H. Pierce, emerged 2VIII1977, E. Giesbert ( 4, FSCA); Crawl Key 19VII 1974, B.K. Dozier ( 1, FSCA); Grassy Key emerged 14VIII 1976, R. Turnbow ( 1, FSCA); Key Largo, 3IV 1966, 2V 1957, H.V. Weems, Jr., 2V 1958, [anon.], 14V 1977, 15V 1977, R. Turnbow 16V 1962, 10VI 1972, 29VIII1961, B.K. Dozier 19V 1975, E. Giesbert 14 V 1977, 15V 1977, 17V 1979, 24VI 1978, R. Turnbow ex. Cocoloba diversifol ia Jacq., emerged 4X 1978, R. Turnbow ( 14, FSCA ; 10, RHTC ); No Name Key, 14I 1972, 17 II 1972, 13 IV 1971, W.H. Pierce on Cassia bicapsularis blooms, 24II1972, W.H. Pierce 10 VI 1953, O.D. Link ( 11, FSCA); No Name Key, ex. Metopium toxiferum L., emerged 19VIII 1978, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); north Key Largo, 27V 1965, R.M. Baranowski ( 2, FSCA); Stock Island, 5X 1963, 5IX 1961, H.V. Weems, Jr. (2, FSCA); Tavernier, 20X 1962, B.K. Dozier ( 1, FSCA); upper Key Largo, 15V -

PAGE 39

39 1969, 15V 1979, E. Gie sbert 7 VI 1976, R. Turnbow ( 3, FSCA); 11 XII 1936, E.D. Barcus ( 1, FSCA); Orange County: Orange County: FTU campus, Orlando, 16IX 1977, S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Rk Spr Rn St Res SPine/Oak Scrub, Malaise Trap 24 V 1995, 27IV 1995, 11V 1995, S.M. Fullerton ( 3, UCFC); Wekiwa Springs State Park burn zone 43/31, S22 T20S R28E, longleaf pine turkey oak, Malaise Trap 13IV 2001, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Winter Park, 29IV 1936 11V 1931, 15V 1931 ( 3, FSCA); on Citrus paradis i 30 IV 1932, H.K. Winter ( 1, FSCA); Palm Beach County: Boynton Beach, on Quercus virginiana, 10XII 1985, D. Leone ( 1, FSCA); McPhail trap, V 1936, O.D. Link ( 1, FSCA); Polk County: Lake Marion Creek Estates, 4 IV 1998, 7V 1998, R. Morris ( 4, FSCA); Putnam Count y: Grandin, 26VI 1992, L.R. Davis, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); 21 VI 1939, H. Hixson ( 1, FSCA); Saint Lucie County: Indrio, 16 V 1986, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Seminole County: Econ. Wild. Area scrub oak/saw palmetto burn site, Malaise Trap 8VII 2000, 10 VI 2000, 20V 2000, 24VI 2000, 26 VIII 2000, T. Smith, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton, 29 IV 2000, 6V 2000, 27V 2000, 17VI 2000, 15VII 2000 30VII 2000, T. Smith ( 9, UCFC; 15, FSCA ); lower Wekiwa River State Preserve burn zone, LW 5, S39 T19S R29E, longleaf pine turkey oak, Malaise Trap 2IV 2001, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Union County: on Highway 241, 1 kilometer north of the Santa Fe River, 15V 1987, C.W. Mills, III ( 1, FSCA); Volusia County: Cassadaga, on Ceanothus microphyllus, 30III 196 2, H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 1, FSCA). Selected references : Klug, 1842: 294; Spinola, 1844: 255, pl. 24, fig. 2; Melsheimer, 1846: 307; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Lohde, 1900: 43; Wolcott, 1909: 97, 1910b: 359; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 58; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 634; Wolcott, 1947: 80; Knull, 1951: 299, pl. 9, fig. 34; Papp, 1960: 83; Ekis, 1975: 29; Barr 197 5: 7; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85; Opitz 2002: figs. 67, 70. Enoclerus nigrif r ons (Say) 1823 (Figs. 27, 28) Enoclerus nigrifrons has a red head, pronotum, legs, antennae and mouthparts. The basal third of the elytra is red, followed by an arched, white midelytral fascia which is not anteriorly

PAGE 40

40 margined with black. The remaining apical portion of the elytra is black except for an anteapical white spot, some times broadened to an incomplete fascia. Adults are 6 to 7 mm long. Biology: Enoclerus nigrifrons has been recorded from southern cypress and pine infested with Scol ytinae and other woodborers (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Knull, 1951: 296). King and Fo x (1970: 133) observed it attacking Ips sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and trapped adults in Ips baited traps. In Florida an adult was collected in May. In Ohio adults have been collected from May to July (Knull, 1951: 296). Distribution : Alabama, District of Columbia, Florida, Indiana, Massachusetts, Nebraska, Ohio Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Ontario ( Wolcott, 1909: 97, 1947: 80; Knull, 1951: 296; Papp, 1960: 83; Barr 1975: 9 ). Enoclerus nigrifrons is only known from Florida by a single specimen from Walton County. Specimens examined (1) : FLORIDA: Walton County: Highway 285 at Shoal River, 5V 1985, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC). Selected r eferences : Say, 1823: 190; LeConte, 1849: 23; Hor n, 1885: 154; Wolcott, 1909: 97, 1910c : 853; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 55; Wolcott, 1922: 72; Beal and Massey, 1945: 87, 143; Wolcott, 1947: 80; Knull, 1951: 295; Papp, 1960: 83; King and Fox, 1970: 133; Barr 1975: 9 Enoclerus nigripes (Say), 1823 (Figs. 2 9, 210) Enoclerus nigripes has a red abdomen, red thoracic sternites and black legs. The basal third of the elytra is red, followed by a black fascia, and then a pale, somewhat arched fascia. The next fascia is black and very broad. The apex of the abdomen is pale The head and pronotum are densely, finely punctate. The elytra are coarsely punctate basally, the punctures growing smaller moving apically. Adults are 5 to 7 mm long.

PAGE 41

41 Enoclerus nigripes is most similar to E. rosmarus which has a black abdomen and red legs. Enocle rus angustus and E. lunatus also share similarities with E. nigripes (see the discussions of E. angustus and E. lunatus for distinguishing characters) King and Fox (1970: 133) observed specimens of E. nigripes (without subspe cies or variation noted) which underwent a change i n abdominal color from red to black suggesting temporal dimorphism. Because one such beetle oviposited when it had both a red and black abdomen, the change was not attributed to sexual maturity. Biology: Enoclerus nigripes has been r ecorded on spruce, American elm, white pine, and juniper infested with Hylurgopinus rufipes (Eichoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Pissodes strobi Peck (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on which it feeds on adults, larvae and pupae ( Bving and Champlain, 1920; 603; Pechuman, 1937: 8; Knull, 1951: 294). Other collection records include butternut, ash, mulberry and wild cherry (Chittenden, 1890: 154). It has been found in leaf litter in Febru a ry in Ohio and is active from April to July (Knull 1951: 294). Mawdsley (1994: 119) considered it to be an ant mimic. A single Florida specimen was collected from a log of Carpinus sp. (Betulaceae) in February. Distribution : Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Mai ne, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Ohio Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Wisconsin and Manitoba ( Wolcott 1909: 97, 1947: 80; Knull 1951: 295; Papp 1960: 83; K ing and Fox 1970: 133; Barr, 1975: 9; Gosling, 1980: 69). Because many past authors offer the distribution of E. nigripes without differentiating the distribution of the various subspecies, many older reviews and checklists should be considered to address all forms of E. nigripes All forms,

PAGE 42

42 collectively, would expand the above listed distribution west to Arizona and California, and south to Mexico. Enoclerus nigripes has been recorded in Florida from Liberty County. Specimens examined (1) : FLORIDA: Liberty County: Torreya State Park, ex. dead Carpinus l og, 27II 1998, P.E. Skelley ( 1, FSCA). Selected r eferences : Say 1823: 191; Spinola, 1844: 264, pls. 23, 25, fig. 3, 4; LeConte, 1849: 24, 1859a : 122; Drury, 1879: 171; Horn, 1885: 154; Chittenden, 1890: 154; Lohde, 1900: 44; Felt, 1906: 666; Wolcott, 1909: 97, 1910c : 853; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 56; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 603, 631; Wolcott, 1922: 71; Champlain and Knull, 1925: 113; Pechuman, 1937: 8; Hoffmann, 1940: 56; Beal and Massey, 1945: 78, 92; Wolcott, 1947: 80; Knull, 1951: 294, pl. 7, fig. 28; Papp, 1960: 83; King and Fox, 1970: 133; Dillon and Di llon, 1972: 278, pl. 28, fig. 11; Ekis, 1975: 30; Barr 1975: 9; Gosling, 1980: 69; Mawdsley, 1994: 119; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85; Mawdsley, 1999: 43. Enoclerus rosmarus (Say), 1823 (Figs. 211, 212) = Clerus oculatus Say, 1835 Enoclerus rosmarus has red legs and thoracic sternites and a black abdomen. The basal third of the elytra is reddish. At the middle third of the elytra there are three adjacent transverse fasciae, two black fasciae with a white fascia between them and the apical third of the ely tra is reddish. The posterior black fascia is much broader than the anterior one. The head is finely, sparsely punctate and t he pronotum is finely, densely punctate. The elytra are subopaque and coarsely, densely punctate basally, irregularly arranged, the punctures growing smaller moving apically. Adults are 3.5 to 7.0 mm long. This species resembles E. nigripes and E. angustus (see the discussions of E. nigripes and E. angustus for distinguishing characters). Bving and Champlain (1920: 603) described the larvae and compared them to some related taxa. However, it is uncertain as to whether they described the then undescribed E. angustus Biology: Knull (1951: 297) observed that E. rosmarus is common and abundant on flo wers and weeds in May, June and July. Dillon and Dillon (1972: 279) frequently observed

PAGE 43

43 adults on greater horseweed Gosling (1980: 69) collected adults by beating dead sumac branches. Mawdsley (2002b: 17) observed adults on flowers feeding on small bra conids. In captivity they readily consumed small flies and true bugs, and members of Curculionidae, Mordellidae, Dermestidae and Aphidae. As such, Mawdsley considered it to be a generalist as an adult. It has been observed visiting Asclepias syriaca Lin naeus (Asclepiadaceae) Melilotus officinalis (Linnaeus) Pallas (Fabaceae) Solidago sp ., Conyza canadensis (Linnaeus) Cronquist (Asteraceae), and Tradescantia virginiana Linnaeus (Commelinaceae) Enoclerus rosmarus has been collected in Florida in April a nd May. Adults have been reared from Solidago sp. (Asteraceae) and Rhus sp. (Anacardiaceae) Distribution : Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Wisconsin, and Ontario ( Barr 1975: 9; Gosling, 1980: 69; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85). It is possible that Barr (1975 ) b ased the distribution of previous accounts published prior to 1950. Before 1950, any distributions recorded for E. rosmarus should be considered to include both E. rosmarus and E. angustus In Florida Enoclerus rosmarus has been recorded from Jackson, Le on, and Liberty Counties. Specimens examined (6) : FLORIDA: Jackson County: Florida Caverns State Park, 6V 1968, G.H. Heinrich ( 1, FSCA); Leon County: Tall Timbers Research Station, 13 V 1968, G.H. Heinrich (1, FSCA); Liberty County: Torreya State Park, 26IV 1986, 5V 1984, R. Turnbow ( 4, RHTC) Selected r eferences : Say, 1823: 190, 1835: 163; Spinola, 1844: 267, pl. 26, fig. 1; LeConte, 1849: 21, 1859a : 121; Drury, 1879: 171; Lohde, 1900: 46; Wolcott, 1910c : 854; Schaeffer, 1917: 131; Bving and Champla in, 1920: 600, 603, 631; Wickham and Wolcott, 1922: 56; Wolcott, 1927: 64, 1947: 81; Knull, 1951: 296, pl. 8, fig. 30; Papp, 1960: 84;

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44 Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 278, pl. 29, fig. 9; Ekis, 1975: 32; Barr, 1975: 9; Gosling, 1980: 69; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85; Mawdsley, 2002b: 17. Genus Placopterus Wolcott, 1910 Placopter u s is represented by four species throughout the eastern, central and southern United States and Texas (Barr 1962: 126). Placopterus is recognized by emarginate and finely granulate eyes, emarginate labrum cylindrical and elongate apical maxillary palpi, dilated and securiform apical labial palpi the other segments elongate as well, and basally broadly dentate tarsal claws. They have oblong to ovate bodies and submoniliform antennae, the last three segments forming a rather compact club, the last segment of which being subtriangular and compressed apically. They have five tarsomeres, apparently four. Placopterus superficially resemble Enoclerus and are distinguished by the yellow markings on the lateral pronot um, whereas all Florida Enoclerus have an entirely reddish pronotum. Because specimens of only P. thoracicus were available for examination, no key is presented for the genus. Selected references : Chevrolat, 1876: 5; Wolcott 1910b: 363; Leng, 1920: 149; Wolcott, 1947: 77; Barr, 1962: 126; Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 275; Opitz, 2002: 278. Placopterus subcostatus (Schaeffer) 1917 Placopterus subcostatus is very similar to the more common P. thoracicus but with dark blue elytra with somewhat irregularly elevated longitudinal lines. Adults are about 6 mm long. Biology: Nothing is known of its biology. Distribution : Wolcott (1947: 77) and Barr (197 5: 6) recorded P. subcostatus from Texas and Florida. In Florida, P. subcostatus has been recorded from Alachua, Hernando, Highlands, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Pasco, Putnam, Seminole, and Union Counties (Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85). Schaeffer (1917: 131) recorded it from Enterprise, Volusia County, Florida.

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45 Specimens examined : No Florida specimens were available for examination. All FSCA specimens have been loaned out for a review of the genus. Selected references : Schaeffer, 1917: 131; Wolcott, 1947: 77; Barr 197 5: 6; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85. Placopterus thoracicus (Olivier), 1795 (Figs. 2 13, 214) = Thanasimus monilis Melsheimer, 1846 = Clerus ornaticollis LeConte, 1880 This species is distinguished by its dark blue to bluishblack somewhat shining elytra and yellow to orangishred pronotum which has a central black spot. The head is finely, sparsely punctate. The shining, finely punctured pronotum has a transverse rounded depression at the a pex and at the base. The elytra are densely, coarsely punctate. Adults are 5 to 7.5 mm long. Biology: Placopterus thoracicus has been collected from butternut, willow, witch hazel, sumac, white oak, red maple, and hickory infested with Magdalis olyra (Herbst), Curculio sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Lymantor decipiens LeConte, Scolytus rugulosus (Muller), Micracis swainei Black man, Chr amesus icoriae LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Melasis pectinicornis Melsheimer (Coleoptera: Eucnemidae), Anthaxia viridicornis Say, Agrilus defectus LeConte (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), Pogonocherus parvulus LeConte, Anelaphus parallelus (Newman) and Oncideres sp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) (Knull, 1932: 42; 1934: 207, 1951: 291; Gosling, 1980: 67). Placopterus thoracicus has been found overwintering in the pupal cells of Magdalis olyra (Knull 1951: 291). It is especially common on folia ge in damp meadows (Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 275). Gosling (1980: 67) observed it at ultraviolet lights in hickory oak habitats. Foster and Barr (1972: 123) noted that it had been reared from Trypoxylon sp and Pemphredon lethifer Wagner (Hymenoptera: Sph ecidae) Eliason and Potter (2000: 555) found larvae in dissected stem galls of Callirhytus cornigera (Osten Sacken) (Hymenoptera:

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46 Cynipidae) on pin oak. It was unsure exactly what the larva e predated since many other insects occupied the galls. Mawdsley (1994: 116) considered it to be a part of a tremendous coleopteran mimicry ring with Lampyridae, Cantheridae, Lycidae, Buprestidae, Meloidae, Ptilodactylidae, Elateridae, and the Cleridae Monophylla terminata, Pyticeroides laticornis and Chariessa pilosa. Adults have been collected in Florida from February to May. In Ohio adults occur in May, June and July (Knull, 1951: 291) Specimens have been collected at mercury vapor lights, ultravi olet lights and Malaise traps Distribution : Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Canada and Mexico ( Bving and Champlain, 1920: 630; Knull 1951: 291; Papp 1960: 81; Foster and Barr, 1972: 123; Barr 1975: 6; Mawdsley, 1999: 41; Eliason and Potter, 2000: 555) Wolcott (1947: 77) recorded it from California This record is most likely P. thoracicus pallipes In Florida P. thoracicus has been recorded from Alachua, Clay, Dixie, Hernando, Highlands, Liberty, Marion, Okaloosa, Orange, Santa Rosa, Union, and Walton Counties. Specimens examined (28) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Archer, on Route 26, on oak, 11IV 1992, F.W. Skillman, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Gainesville, Malaise trap 22 27II 1975, H.N. Greenbaum ( 1, FSCA); Gainesville, IV 2003, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JMLC); Clay County: Goldhead Branch State Park, edge habitat sweeping IV 2004, D. Serrano and J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JMLC); Dixie County: 3.4 miles north of Old Town, 11IV 1980, R. Turnbow ( 2, RHTC); Hernando County: Withlacoochee State Forest 10 IV 1991, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Liberty County: Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines Preserve 18IV 1999, 3V 2003 R. Turnbow ( 2,

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47 RHTC); Torreya State Park 2IV 2005, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. and E. Nearns 5V 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 2, JMLC); Marion County: Citra, NW 24th Avenue at mercury vapor and ultraviolet light 22III 1993, 26III 1993, 13IV 1993, F.W. Skillman, Jr. ( 6, FSCA); Mosa Bluff, 3 miles south of 314A on oak, 7IV 1992, F.W. Skillman, Jr. ( 3, FSCA); Okaloosa County: H enderson Beach State Recreation a rea 23III 2003 R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Orange County: Walt Disney World, C 4 Stout Site, S 15, 16 T 24S R 27E, xeric oak/flatwoods, Ma laise Trap, 17IV 1998, Z. Prusak and S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Santa Rosa County: 1.7 miles north of Munson, 20IV 1991, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); 3.7 miles north of Munson, at mercury vapor and black light 10IV 1999, R. Turnbow ( 4, RHTC); Walton County: Defuniak Springs 25III 1989, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC) Selected references : Olivier, 1795: 18, pl. 2, fig. 22; Melsheimer, 1846: 307; LeConte, 1849: 23; Drury, 1879: 171; LeConte, 1880: 194; Chittenden, 1890: 154; Wolcott, 1910b: 362, 1910c : 854; Wickham an d Wolcott, 1912: 55; Leng, 1920: 149; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 630; Wolcott, 1922: 68; Blackman and Stage, 1924: 44; Knull, 1932: 42, 1934: 207; B l ackwelder, 1939: 33; Wolcott, 1947: 77; Craighead, 1950: 203; Knull, 1951: 290, pl. 6, fig. 23; Papp, 1960: 81; Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 275, pl. 29, fig. 3; Foster and Barr, 1972: 123, 1975: 6; Gosling, 1980: 67; Mawdsley, 1994: 116; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85; Mawdsley, 1999: 41; Eliason and Potter, 2000: 555; Opitz 2002: figs. 59, 69, 120. Genus Priocera Kirby, 1818 Priocera is represented by twelve species throughout North and Central America. Two additional species, P. pusilla Kirby and P. lecontei Wolcott questionably recorded from California and North America respectively, may be synonyms (Barr, 1962: 125). Priocera is distinguished by coarsely granulate eyes, thickened femora, serrate antennae which lack a club and elonga te apical maxillary palpomere s Priocera resembles some species of Cymatodera and Enoclerus Enoclerus can be separated by its three segmented antennal club. T he apical antennomere of Cymatodera is three to four times as long as it is wide (at middle) while that of Priocera is one and one half to two

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48 times the length and Priocera lacks any form of projection or tubercle on the s ides of its pronotum. Selected references : Kirby, 1818: 389; LeConte, 1849: 17; Horn, 1880: 150; LeConte and Horn, 1883: 218; Wolcott, 1910c : 851; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 619; Bradley, 1930: 106; Bving and Craighead, 1931a : 56; Wolcott, 1947: 76; Barr, 1962: 125; Opitz, 2002: 277. Priocera castanea (Newman), 1838 (Figs. 215, 216) = Priocera rufescens Spinola, 1844 = Priocera maculata Ziegler, 1845 = Notoxus leprieurii Spinola, 1844 This clerine is mostly reddish brown, including the basal third and apical fourth of the elytra. This middle portion of the elytra is black with two yellow maculae, one behind the middle and one in front of the middle positioned more laterally, on each elytron bordering the black and reddishbrown regions. The surface of the head is finely punctate. The pronotum is longer than wide with irregular elevated regions, basally constricted and with a transverse depression, and sparsely, irregularly punctate. The elytral surface has rows of coarse punctures which become o bsolete apically. Adults are around 9 mm in l ength. Priocera castanea is similar in body form to members of Enoclerus and some Cymatodera (see the generic discussion of Priocera for distinguishing characters). Biology: This nocturnal species has been co llect e d on logs of white oak infested with larvae of Melittomma sp. (Coleoptera: Lymexylonidae), pine attacked by Dendroctonus valens LeConte and pitch pine infested with Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytin ae) ( Bving and Champlain, 1920: 628; Knull 1951: 289). Gosling (1980: 67) observed it at ultraviolet lights in oakhickory habitats.

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49 Adults have been collected in Florida from March through August and September Specimens have been collected at mercury vapor, ultraviolet and blacklights, under bark, in Malaise traps and in ethanol baited Lindgren funnel traps. Distribution : Alabama, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohi o, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia and Ontario ( Wickham and Wolcott 1912: 54; Wolcott, 1947: 76; Papp 1960: 80; Barr 1975: 5). Knull (1951: 289) recorded it in Ohio from Scioto County, which is within 50 miles of West Virginia, and Cincinnati, which is on the Kentucky border. Bving and Champlain (1920: 628) recorded it from Arizona. Because no other species of Priocera were included in their work, it is suspected that this distributional note could be a product of misidentific ation since none of the cited checklists include such extreme western distribution. In Florida Priocera castanea has been recorded from Alachua, Clay, Gadsden, Highlands, Liberty, Marion, Miami Dade, Orange, Seminole, St. Lucie, and Volusia Counties. Spec imens examined (48) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Gainesville, at light 15 VII 1995, M.C. Thomas 8IV 1980, 20VIII1978, M.C. Thomas ( 3, FSCA); Gainesville, Beville Hts. blacklight trap 19III 1980, L.A. Stange ( 1, FSCA); Gainesville, Doyle Conner building, blacklight trap, 14V 1985, F.W. Mead ( 1, FSCA); NW Gainesville, San Felasco State Park under bark, 15IV 2002, E. Nearns and R. Morris ( 1, JMLC); Clay County: Goldhead Branch State Park 8 VI 1986, Cicero ( 5, FSCA); Gadsden County: Aspalaga Lan ding, at boat ramp, at mercury vapor and black light 5 V 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JMLC); Highlands County: Archbold Biological Research Station, 18IV 1976, 5V 1981, L.L. Lampert, Jr., 12IV 1984, N.M. Downie ( 5, FSCA); Archbold Biological Station, 5 miles south of Lake Placid and 1.8

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50 miles south of SR 70/old SR 8, IV 2004, J.M. Leavengood, Jr., J.C. Dunford, K. Barbera ( 1, JMLC); Liberty County: Torreya State Park at blacklight 2123V 1983, K.W. Vick on a log, 15VII 1987 P.E. Skelley 7V 1989, C.W. Mills, III, at mercury vapor and black light 6V 1989, R. Turnbow 46V 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr., flood plain forest at ultraviolet light 24V 2003, E. Nearns and R. Morris ( 5 FSCA ; 3, RHTC; 6, JMLC ); Marion County: Ocala, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, IV 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JMLC); Miami Dade County: Miami ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, VI 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JMLC); Orange County: University of Central Florida, Orlando, LLP Sand Pine, Turkey Oak, Malaise Trap, 30V 1997, 8V 1993, 17V 1993, 21VIII 1997, S.M. Fullerton (4, UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando, LLP Sand Pine, Turkey Oak, ultraviolet light trap, 27III1994, 10V 1994, 25IV 1994, 7IX 1994, 18VII 1994, S.M. Fullerton (6, UCFC); Seminole County: Oviedo, 1V 1997, (1, UCFC); St. Lucie County: ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap 30IV 2007, 25V 2007 B. Saunders ( 2, CAPS); Volusia County: Daytona Beach 1950, W. Rosenberg ( 1, FSCA) Selected references : Newman, 1838 : 380; Spinola, 1844: 119, pl. 4, fig. 3; Ziegler, 1845: 268; LeConte, 1849: 17; Drury, 1879: 171; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Lohde, 1900: 24; Wolcott, 1910c : 851; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 54; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 620, 628; Bving and Craighead, 1931b: 276; Wolcott, 1947: 76; Craighead, 1950: 203; Knull, 1951: 289, pl. 5, fig. 19; Papp, 1960: 80; Ekis, 1975: 20; Barr 1975: 5; Gosling, 1980: 67; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86; Opitz 2002: figs. 63, 73. Genus Thanasimus Latrielle, 1806 Thanasimus is represented by five North American species which are widely distributed generally favoring northern temperate climates ( Opitz, 2002: 277). Thanasimus is recognized by anteriorly emarginate, finely granulate eyes loose very gradually clavate th ree segmented antennal club, the l ast segment of which is not apically truncate, filiform maxillary palpi with the apical segment slender and tapering apically, and the

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51 labial palpi with segments slightly elongat e, last segment compressed and elongate triangular in shape The tarsi are apparently four segmented, slender, elongate, and the claws are broadly toothed Thanasimus is distinguished from Enoclerus by a deep transverse, subapical groove connected by a median depressed line on the pronotum. Thanasimus formicarius was imported by Hopkins in the first attempt to biologically control a forest pest of spruce and pine (Hopkins, 1899: 1). Considerable research has been conducted on pheromonal interactions between Thanasimus bark beetles and host tree chemical volatiles. Mawdsley (1994: 119) considers many members of this genus to be ant mimics. Selected references : Latrielle, 1806: 270; Schaeffer, 1777: pl. 137; Jacquelin, 1860: 196; LeConte, 1849: 19; Horn, 1880: 150; LeConte and Horn, 1883: 218; Wickham, 1895: 250; Wolcott, 1910c : 854; Bradley, 1930: 106; Bving and Craighead, 1931a : 57; Wolcott, 1947: 77; Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 278; Opitz, 2002: 277. Thanasimus dubius (Fabricius), 1777 (Figs. 217, 218) = Thanasimus ruficeps Spinola, 1844 The head and pronotum are densely, finely punctate. The elytra are coarsely punctate basally, with the punctures becoming finer moving apically. The antennae and legs vary from red to black. The body is nearly entirely red, except for the elytra in which only the basal fifth is red. Immediately posterior to the basal region there is a black irregularly margined transverse fascia followed by additional alternating fascia of similar form of white, black and white. The apical portion of the elytra is black. Adults are 7 to 9 mm in length. Bving and Champlain (1920: 601) described the larvae and compared them to some related taxa. Biology: Thanasimus dubius is an obvious predator of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Both adult and larval stages of T. dubius are predacious on all life stages of bark beetles from egg to adult. The

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52 clerid maintains an impressive level of spatial and temporal coincidence with its prey and particularly so with the southern pine beetle populations (Dixon and Payne 1979: 178). It is also a predator of many other bark beetles including Ips, Dendroctonus, Polygraphus (Scolytinae) Pissodes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and other woodbor ers in coniferous trees ( Bving and Champlain, 1920: 629). Most such predation occurs in spruce, pine and elm trees (Knull 1951: 292). Mawdsley (1999: 40) note d that adult males and females, like those of many other clerid species, frequently conceal th emselves beneath bark or in bark crevices. Adults have been collected in Florida in all months except for August and September. Specimens have been collected in Malaise traps and Lindgren funnel traps baited with ethanol, both turpentine and ethanol, and alpha beta pinene. It has been collected on Pinus elliottii Engelmann (Pinaceae). Distribution : Alabama, Alaska, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Wisconsin, Ontario and Mexico ( Wolcott 1909: 96, 1947: 77; Papp 1960: 82; Barr 1975: 7 ) Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 54) recorded it from Chicopee, Massachusetts, which is within 15 miles of Connecticut, and Mount Katahdin, Maine, which is within 75 miles of Quebec and New Brunswick. Knull (1951: 292) suggested that it should occur in Ohio. In Florida T. dubius has been recorded from Alachua, Baker Bay, Duval, Escambia, Leon, Liberty, Marion, Miami Dade, Orange, and Santa Rosa Counties. Specimens examined (153) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Gainesville, on Pinus 19X 1917, E.W. Berger 31X 1932, [anon.], on Pinus elliot tii, 2 I 1967, 8 X 1969, R.E. Woodruff IX 2003, XII 2003, J.M. Leavengood, Jr., 14VII 2001, 16VII 2001, T. Smith ( 6, FSCA ; 5,

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53 JMLC ); Gainesville, frontalin and turpentine baited Lindgren funnel trap, VI 1995, V 1995, J.L. Foltz 20X 1994, E. Ash and D. Durgee ( 26, FSCA); Gainesville, Devil's Millhopper State Park, Millhopper Drive Turpentine/frontalin baited Lindgren funnel trap, III 1999, XI 1999, XII 1998, XII 1999, J.L. Foltz II 2006, J.L. Foltz and J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 5 JMLC); Gainesville, s outh side of Biven's Arm Lake Lindgren funnel trap, 1731 I 2003, P.E. Skelley ( 1, FSCA); Gainesville, University of Florida, Surge/Natural Area Drive Turpentine/frontalin baited Lindgren funnel trap, III1999, IV 1998, J.L. Foltz 17XI 2003, 1XII 2003, J.L. Foltz and J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 4, JMLC); 15XI 1941 ( 1, FSCA); Baker County: Glen Saint Mary 10III 1958, E.W. Holder, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Bay County: alpha beta pinene baited Lindgren funnel trap, 24X 2006, 28XI 2006, 19XII 2006, C. Street ( 3, CAPS ); ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 24X 2006, C. Street ( 1, CAPS) ; Duval County: alpha beta pinene baited Lindgren funnel trap, 18V 2007, A. Johnson ( 1, CAPS); Escambia County: alpha beta pinene baited Lindgren funnel trap 5I 2007, 24I 2007 13II I 2007, 11X 2006, 19XI 2006, 28XI 2006, C. Street ( 41, CAPS); Leon County: alpha beta pinene baited Lindgren funnel trap, 26I 2007, 14III 2007, 17XI 2006, M. Bentley ( 18, CAPS); Liberty County: Apalachicola National Forest, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap V 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JMLC); Marion County: Ocala National Forest ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, III 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 3, JMLC); Miami Dade County: Miami ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, III 2007 V 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 3, JMLC); Miami, alpha beta pinene baited Lindgren funnel trap, 16 III 2007, R. Griffiths ( 1, CAPS); Orange County: RSRSR, T20S R29E S19, 17VII 2001, Buffalo Tram. Res. Staff (18, UCFC); Wekiwa Springs State Park, burn zone 43/31, S22 T20S R28E, longleaf pine turkey oak, Malaise Trap, 30XII 2001, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Apopka on Mammillaria from Texas 10I 1985, C. Phelps ( 1, FSCA); Santa Rosa County: alpha beta

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54 pinene baited Lindgren funnel trap, 5 I 2007, 26 X 2006, 9XI 2006, 19XI 2006, 15XII 2006, C. Street ( 12, CAPS) Selected r eferences : Fabricius, 1777: 229, 1801: 280; Spinola, 1844: 189, pl. 14, fig. 3; LeConte, 1849: 24; Hopkins, 1893a : 155, Hamilton, 1895: 335; Hopkins, 1899: 262; Lohde, 1900: 36; Wolcott, 1909: 96, 1910c : 854; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 54; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 601, 628; Hoffmann, 1942: 7; Beal and Massey, 1945: 84, 86, 142, 143, 145; Wolcott, 1947: 77; Craighead, 1950: 201; Knull, 1951: 292, pl. 6, fig. 24; Papp, 1960: 82; Mignot and Anderson, 1969: 305; Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 278, pl. 28, fig. 13; Barr 1975: 7; Dixon and Payne, 1979: 178; Gosling, 1980: 67; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86; Mawdsley, 1999: 40 ; Opitz, 2002: figs. 62, 71. Genus Trichodes Herbst, 1792 Trichodes is repres ented by eleven North American species of broad distribution ( Barr 1975: 11). The generic name means shaggy, most likely indicative of how the body is densely clothed with hairs (Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 279). Most species of Trichodes exhibit similar behavior, being found primarily on flowers that are in bloom. Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 58) suggested Compositae and Umbelliferae as likely flower taxa on which one would find Trichodes. Their color patterns, behavior and biology make them likely mimics of wasps (Mawdsley, 1994: 120). Trichodes is recognized by its deeply emarginate finely granulate eyes, three segmented triangular antennal club with the last segment apically truncate subcylindrical maxillary palpi with the last segment longe r and slig htly wider those preceding, and strongly dilated labial palpi. The body is very hairy and ha s a range of color patterns from yellow to metallic bluish black The somewhat trigonal apical maxillary palpomere separates it from Enoclerus which has a more cylindrical palpomere. Bving and Champlain (1920: 611) described the larvae and compared them to some related taxa. Selected references : Herbst, 1792: 154; Fabricius, 1801: 283; Latrielle, 1804: 150; Hope, 1840: 139; LeConte, 1849: 17; Lacordaire, 1857: 459; Crotch, 1870: 42; Horn, 1876b: 231, 1880: 150; LeConte and Horn, 1883: 218; Wolcott, 1910b : 367, 1910c : 851; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 58; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 611, 635; Leng, 1920: 150; Bradley,

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55 1930: 106; Balduf, 1935: 107; Wolcott, 1944b : 54; Bving and Craighead, 1931a : 57; Wolcott, 1947: 81; Arnett, 1960: 599; Papp, 1960: 85; Barr, 1961: 109, 1962: 121; Ekis and Gupta, 1971: 60; Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 279; Barr, 1975: 11; Foster, 1976c : 1; Mawdsley, 1994: 120; Opitz, 2002: 277. Trichode s apivorus Germar, 1824 (Figs. 219, 2 20) = Trichodes trifasciatus Sturm, 1826 = Trichodes cribripennis Spinola, 1844 = Trichodes apivorus var. interruptus Wolcott, 1910 = Trichodes apivorus var. borealis Wolcott and Chapin, 1918 Trichodes apivorus is a large clerine with reddish to orangish yellow occupying a median transverse band, an anteapical band, and the basal fifth of the elytra. The rest of the body and elytra is purplish to black and it is abundantly clothed with ferrugineus hairs. The head and thorax are finely to moderately coarsely, densely punctate with many punctures confluent The elytral surface is densely, coarsely punctured, with the punctures not arranged in rows. The basal most antennomere is usually paler than the other segments. Adults are 7 to 15 mm long. I t may be mistaken for a large Enoclerus specimen, however the generic characters readily separate them. Biology: Bving and Champlain (1920: 635) noted that T. apivorus is a pollen feeder and has been recorded from the nest s of bees. It has been collected in Florida in insect flight traps with and without carbon dioxide baits, Malaise traps, Steiner traps and McPhail traps. Adults have been collected from March through November. It has been collected on Cirsium sp., Ambros ia artemisiifolia Linnaeus Erigeron quercifolius Poiret, Pterocaulon pycnostachyum (Michaux) Elliott, Bidens pilosa Linnaeus (Asteraceae) Rhus copallinum Linnaeus (Anacardiaceae) Pinus elliottii Engelmann (Pinaceae) Opuntia blooms (Cactaceae) Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg) Matsumura and Nakai (Cucurbitaceae) Ilex glabra (Linnaeus) Gray (Aquifoliaceae) Melilotus alb us Medikus, Cassi a

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56 sp. (Fabaceae) Polygonum hydropiperoide s Michaux (Polygonaceae) Serenoa repens (Bartram) Small Sabal etonia Swingle (Arecaceae) Citrus sp. (Rutaceae) and Eriocaulon sp. (Eriocaulaceae) Distribution : Alabama, Colorado, District of Columbia Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and Canada ( Wolcott 1909: 98; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 635; Wolcott, 1947: 82; Papp 1960: 85; Barr 1975: 11). Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 59) recorded it from Mount Tom, Massachusetts, which is within 20 miles of Connecticut, and Webster, New Hampshire, which is within 40 miles of Maine Knull (1951: 301) state d that it should occur in Ohio. Foster (1976 c : 26) reported records for Louisiana and Texas, but believed them to be erroneous. In Florida T. apivorus has been recorded from Alachua, Citrus, Clay, Duval, Franklin, Hardee, Highlands, Indian River, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Miami Dade, Okaloosa, Orange, Palm Beach, Seminole, Taylor, and Walton Counties Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 59) recorded it from Crescent City Putnam County, Florida Specimens examined (131) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Gainesville, 6V 1922, 8V 1922, 22V 1924, 25V 1924, 28V 1928, G.B. Merrill 21III 1947, 29 X 1946, H.V. Weems, Jr. 19VII 1991, M.C. Thomas 10XI 1946, [anon.], on Bidens pilosa, 24VIII 1957, H.V. Weems, Jr. on Rhus copallinum, 26VIII1953, H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 16, FSCA); Gainesville Airport, 19 VII 1991, L. Heyer ( 1, FSCA); Gainesville, Austin Carey Forest, CO2 baited insect flight trap, 3 VI 1976, 12 VII 1976, G.B. Fairchild ( 2, FSCA); Highway 24 at Levy County line, 1V 1978, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Monteocha, insect flight trap, 24 V 1977, 27VII 1977, J.F. Butler (2, FSCA); Newberry, 7 VIII 1959, R.E. Woodruff ( 1, FSCA); Windsor, on Pinus

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57 ell iottii, 10 VII 1986, T.W. Phillips ( 1, FSCA); 24 VI 1958, H.A. Denmark, 7VIII 1955, H.V. Weems, Jr., V 1970, L.A. Hetrick, on Melilotus alba, 24V 1955, H.V. Weems, Jr ( 5, FSCA) ; Baker County: 1.3 miles north of Duval County along Route 90, 17V 1992, L.R. Davis, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Bradford County: on Opuntia, 1V 1959, H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Broward County: 1VI 1958, D.R. Paulson ( 1, FSCA); Citrus County: Lecanto, 9 V 1983, P.M. Choate ( 1, FSCA); Withlacoochee State Forest, 4 V 1988, C. Stevens ( 1, FSCA ); Clay County: Camp Crystal, on Pterocaulon undulatum, 6V 1967, H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); 2 VII 1960, H.A. Denmark ( 1, FSCA); Collier County: Corkscrew Swamp, on Cirsium, 9IV 1958, H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Dixie County: 4 miles north of Old Town, 12V 1979, 20V 1978, E. Giesbert ( 2, FSCA); Duval County: Jacksonville McPhail trap 7VI 1950, 22VI 1950, G.G. Norman ( 2, FSCA); Franklin County: Apalachicola National Forest, Road 165, 19V 1985, L.R. Davis, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Gilchrist County: Bell on Citrulius vulgaris 5 V 1954, H.M. Van Pelt ( 1, FSCA); Glades County: 7 miles north of LaBelle on Ambrosia artemisiifolia 28VI 1989, L. Maynard ( 1, FSCA); Hardee County: Lily in Steiner trap 16V 1969, R.H. Rhodes ( 1, FSCA); Highlands County: Archbold Biological Research Station 12 IV 1976, 13IV 1976, W. Rosenberg, 24IV 1978, L.L. Lampert, Jr., Lake Placid 22IV 1983 H.L. Dozier ( 5, FSCA); Avon Park, 4IV 1953, K.V. Krombein ( 1, FSCA); Highlands Hammock State Park, 27III 1950, H.V. Weems, Jr. on Ilex glabra 5IV 1959, H.V. Weems, Jr., 14IV 1990, M.C. Thomas ( 6, FSCA); near Venus 20IV 1958, D.R. Paulson ( 1, FSCA); Venus on Serenoa repens 4V 1961, R.E. Woodruff on Erigeron quercifolius, 21III 1963, 27III 1963 H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 5, FSCA); H illsborough County: Pebble Creek Golf Course 24V 1978 ( 3, FSCA); Indian River County: Vero Beach 4VII 1932, 20VI 1932 30VI 1932 E.M. Becton ( 3, FSCA); Levy County: 1 mile east of Bronson, on Cassis, 22VII 1992, C. Porter and L.A. Stange ( 1, FSCA) ; 13 miles

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58 southwest of Williston, on Highway 121, 26IV 1981, H.D. Baggett ( 1, FSCA); 3.8 miles southwest of Archer 4V 1988, P.E. Skelley malaise trap in rosemary and turkey oak sandhill 21V 1988, P.E. Skelley ( 2, FSCA); Cedar Key 15VI 1980, L.A. Wood ( 1, FSCA); SR 24 at Alachua County line 1V 1978, M.C. Thomas ( 1, FSCA); 19VII 1958, H.V. Weems, Jr., on Polygonum hydropiperoidea, 10IX 1955, H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 2, FSCA); Liberty County: 20VIII 1944 ( 1, FSCA) ; Marion County: Ocala National Forest, NFR 75, Lake Delancy, on Pterocaulon pycnostachyum (Michaux), 5VIII 1990, 11VIII 1990, H.D. Baggett ( 2, FSCA); Village of Rainbow Springs, 4VII 1982, M.C. Thomas ( 1, FSCA); MiamiDade County: Everglades National Park, 10IV 1955, F.W. Mead, 26III 1976, L.L. Lampert, Jr., Long Pine Key, 29IV 1976, F.T. Hovore Pi nelands, 5V 1978, 17V 1978, R. Turnbow ( 4, FSCA ; 4, RHTC); Homestead, 3 IV 1962, R.E. Woodruff on Sabal etonia, 27IV 1933, O.D. Link ( 2, FSCA); Kendall, SW 128th Street, 0.5 miles east of SW 137th Avenue, 26VII 1990 ( 1, FSCA); Miami, on Citrus, 3V 1932, O.D. Link ( 1, FSCA); 20 IV 1949, 22IV 1952, 1950, [no date] ( 4, FSCA); Okaloosa County: 3.2 miles southeast of Niceville, 27V 1985, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); 4.5 miles northwest of Holt, Florida A and M Research Station, Blackwater River State Forest, 31 VIII1978, L.A. Stange ( 1, FSCA); Orange County: FTU campus, Orlando, 9VII 1979, 25VII 1972, 14VI 1972, S.M. Fullerton (3, UCFC); SR 520, 5 miles east of SR 50, 9VI 2006, (1, UCFC); Wekiwa Springs State Park, burn zone 43/31, S22 T20S R28E, longleaf pine turkey oak, Malaise Trap, 9VI 2001, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Wekiwa Springs State Park, burn zone WS 14a, S26 T20S R28E, longleaf pine turkey oak, Black Pan Traps one foot a bove ground, 14V 2001, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton, Flor. Yel. Pan Traps one foot above ground, 8VII 2001, 3 IV 2001, 14IV 2001, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton, Yellow Pan Traps one foot above ground, 10VI 2001, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton ( 5, UCFC) ; 15V 1971, W.E.

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59 Sterling on Eriocaulon, 30VI 1948, O.D. Link ( 2, UCFC; 1, FSCA ); Clarcona, 17VI 1932 ( 1, FSCA); Osceola County: Kissimmee, 16 VI 1920, Reese ( 1, FSCA); Palm Beach County: Jupiter, 16VI 1966, B.K. Dozier ( 1, FSCA); Sarasota County: Mya kka River State Park, Bee Island, on log of Pinus, 30IV 2002, J.L. Foltz ( 1, JMLC); Seminole County: lower Wekiwa River State Preserve, burn zone LW 10, S39 T19S R29E, longleaf pine turkey oak scrub, Flor. Yel. pan traps one foot above ground, 14IV 2001, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton, red pan traps one foot above ground, 14V 2001, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton, white pan traps one foot above ground, 14IV 2001, P. Russell and S .M. Fullerton ( 3, UCFC); Oviedo, 30IV 1959, P.E. Erierson (1, FSCA); on Opuntia blooms, 3V 1960, C.O. Youtsey ( 1, FSCA); Taylor County: Blue Springs Lake, 4VI 1972, 5VI 1972 R. Turnbow ( 5, FSCA); Union County: Santa Fe River at Highway 241, 5VII 1986, C.W. Mills, III ( 1, FSCA); Walton County: Eglin Air Force Base, range 52 A, 18IV 1967, P.A. Thomas ( 1, FSCA); [county unknown] : Florida Agricultural Exp. Station ( 4, FSCA). Selected references : Germar, 1824: 81; Sturm, 1826: 59; Say, 1835: 164; Klug, 1842: 332; Sturm, 1843: 83; Spinola, 1844 : 307, pl. 30, fig. 4; LeConte, 1849: 18; Gemminger and von Harold, 1869: 1742; Horn, 1876b: 231; Chittenden, 1890: 154; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Wickham, 1895: 249; Lugger, 1899: 149; Lohde, 1900: 59; Wolcott, 1909: 98, 1910b: 375, pl. 6, fig. 30; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 59; Wolcott and Chapin, 1918: 108; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 635; Forbes, 1922: fig. 48; Balduf, 1935: 108; Wade, 1935: 108; Wolcott, 1944b: 60, 1947: 82; Knull, 1951: 301; Papp, 1960: 85; Ekis, 1975: 42; Foster, 1976 c : 23; Barr 1975: 11; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86.

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60 Figure 21. Enoclerus angustus Figure 22. Distribution map of Enoclerus angustus

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61 Figure 23. Enoclerus ichneumoneus Figure 24. Distribution map of Enoclerus ichneumoneus

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62 Figure 25. Enoclerus lunatus Figure 26. Distribution map of Enoclerus lunatus

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63 Figure 27. Enoclerus nigrifrons Figure 28. Distribution map of Enoclerus nigrifrons

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64 Figure 29. Enoclerus nigripes Figure 210. Distribution map of Enoclerus nigripes

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65 Figure 211. Enoclerus rosmarus Figure 212. Distribution map of Enoclerus rosmarus

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66 Figure 213. Placopterus thoracicus Figure 214. Distribution map of Placopterus thoracicus

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67 Figure 215. Priocera castanea Figure 216. Distribution map of Priocera castanea

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68 Figure 217. Thanasimus dubius Figure 218. Distribution map of Thanasimus dubius

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69 Figure 219. Trichodes apivorus Figure 220. Distribution map of Trichodes apivorus

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70 CHAPTER 3 ENOPLIINAE Key to the Florida Genera of Enopliinae 1. Pronotum pink to orange, with two longitudinal vittae ; elytra dull ............................. Chariessa 1. Pronotum variable, but never with two longitudinal vittae ; elytra dull or shining ....................2 2 (1). Pronotum with ele vated regions; pronotum mottled brown; lichen mimicking color pattern with a broad, irregularly margined midelytral white fascia .......P elonium leucophaeum (Fig. 311) 2. Pronotum without elevated regions but possibly with depressions ; pronotum variable; elyt ra with or without a broad midelytral white fascia ..............................................................................3 3 (2). Pronotum lacking lateral projections .............................. N eorthopleura thoracica (Fig. 39) 3. Pronotum with lateral projections ................................................................................... Cregya Genus Chariessa Perty, 1830 = Philyra Castelnau, 1836 = Brachymorphus Chevrolat, 1835 Chariessa is represented by four widely distributed species from North America ( Opitz 2002: 278). Chariessa is distinguished by dull, soft elytra which occasionally have yellow lateral and sutural margins, emarginated eyes and anterior t ibia e which are serrulate outside. Chariessa should not be mistaken for Pelonium whose elytra appear polished, harder and have color patterns that differ significantly (mimicking lichen in the Florida species). Neorthopleura shares similar body size ( at times) elytra and antennal structure. However, N. thoracica has an entirely reddish pronotum, no color on the elytral margins, and has an occasional faint pale median elytral fascia. Monophylla share s similar body form and elytra as well, but has an elongate, spatulate apical antennomere while Chariessa has three laterally elongate apical antennomeres. Selected references : Perty, 1830: 109; Chevrolat, 1835, Fas. 7, No. 150; Castelnau, 1836: 53; Spinola, 1844: 347; LeConte, 1849: 32; Chevrolat, 1876: 7; LeConte and Horn, 1883: 219; Wickha m, 1895: 248; Wolcott, 1908: 70, 1910c : 858; Bving and Champlain, 1920:

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71 608; Bradley, 1930: 107; Bving and Craighead, 1931a : 57; Wolcott, 1947: 85; Opitz 2002: 278. Key to the Florida S pecies of Chariessa 1. Pronotal vittae thin, arched outward at the middle, the space between the vittae at middle much wider than the width of a single vitta; only known from Key Largo, Monroe County ........................................................................................................................ C. floridana (Fig. 31) 1. Pronotal vittae thick, subparallel, the space bet ween the vittae much narrower than the width of a single vitta; widely distributed, but not extending to the southernmost seven counties of Florida ................................................................................................................. C. pilosa (Fig. 33) Chariessa floridana Schaeffer, 1917 (Figs. 31, 32) Chariessa floridana is similar to C. pilosa, but in C. floridana the pronotum much more dominated by the pinkish coloration and the two longitudinal black vittae narrower and bent outward from the center but converging normally anteriorly and posteriorly. Despite the extensive variation of C. pilosa, it should not be confused with C. floridana. Both specimens examined possessed yellow lateral and sutural elytral margins. Biology: F ew specimens of this elusive, firefly mimicking species have been collected (Mawdsley, 1992: 28). In Florid a adults have been collected in May and July. Distribution : Schaeffer (1917: 133) and Wolcott (1947: 85) recorded it from Key Largo, Florida (the type locality). Papp (1960: 86) and Barr (1975: 16) only recorded this species from Florida. No literature has suggested this species to occur elsewhere. Specimens examined (2) : FLORIDA: Monroe County: upper Key Largo, 30V 1976, M.C. Thomas and J.H. Frank ( 1, FSCA); Key Largo, 17VII 1959, W.W. Warner ( 1, FSCA) Selected references : Schaeffer 1917: 133; Wolcott, 1947: 85; Papp, 1960: 86; Barr 1975: 16; Mawdsley, 1992: 28; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86. Chariessa pilosa Forster, 1771 (Figs. 3 3, 34) = Chariessa pilosa var. marginata Say, 1823

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72 Chariessa pilosa has a pinkish pronotum with two black vittae and may have yellow sutural and lateral elytral mar gins accentuating the otherwise black color. Its body and elytra share a soft, smooth appearance with no form of shininess. It shares the body form and similar antennae with Monophylla, Pel onium, and Neorthopleura (see the genus discussion above for distinguishing characters). Adults are 7 to 13 mm long. Bving and Champlain (1920: 608) described the larvae and compared them to some related taxa. Biology: Chariessa pilosa has been recorded from oak, hickory, walnut, pear, sassafras, linden, grape, birch, chestnut, elm, and coniferous trees infested with Saperda tridentata Olivier, Xylotrechus colonus (Fabricius), Neoclytus acuminatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), Chrysobothris fe morata (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), Magdalis sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) (Hoffman, 1940: 56; Knull, 1951: 307). After infiltrating the galleries of its prey species it exploits the prey species pupal cell, as it does not construct one of its own ( Bving and Champlain, 1920: 638). Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 66) noted that it has been reared from elm. Gosling (1980: 74) observed it at ultraviolet lights in oak hickory habitats. It is considered to be a mimic of fireflies (Mawdsley, 1992: 28). Adults are diurnal and have been collected in Florida from March to July. Specimens have been recorded collected at mercury vapor lights and blacklights, from ethanol baited Lindgren funnel traps and from flight intercept or Malaise traps. One specimen was collected on persimmon stump sprouts. Distribution : Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisi ana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts,

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73 Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Wisconsin, and Canada ( Wolcott 1909: 100, 1947: 85; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 638; Knull, 1951: 307; Papp 1960: 85; Barr 1975: 16; Gosling, 1980: 74). Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 66) recorded this species from B ayfield, Wisconsin, which is within 40 miles of Minnesota and 75 miles south of Ontario. In F lorida it has been recorded from Alachua, Bradford, Dixie, Gadsden, Gilchrist, Gulf, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Indian River, Jefferson, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Orange, Polk, Putnam Santa Rosa, Seminole, Wakulla, and Walton Counties. Peck an d Thomas (1998: 86) included Monroe County in the distribution of C. pilosa. Examination of the specimen cited showed it to be the much rarer C. floridana. With this clarification, there are no records of C. pilosa in south Florida (i.e., the seven southernmost counties). Specimens examined (132) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: 9 miles northwest of Gainesville, U.F. Horticultural Unit, malaise trap 20IV 1977 H.N. Greenbaum ( 1, FSCA); Austin Cary Forest insect flight trap 21IV 1986, G.B. Fairchild and Roberts 21III 1982, G.B. Fairchild and H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 2, FSCA); Gainesville, VI 2003, J.M. Leavengood, Jr., 21V 1978, M.C. Thomas ( 1, JMLC ; 1, FSCA ); Payne's Prai rie State Preserve insect flight trap 16V 1984, G.B. Fairchild and H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Bradford County: SR 100, 8km west of Starke 30VI 1980, A. Wilkening ( 1, FSCA); Dixie County: 3.5 miles north of Old Town, 27IV 1979, 8V 1978, 9V 1978, M.C. Thomas ( 4, FSCA); 4 miles north of Old Town, 20 V 1978, E. Giesbert 7V 1979, R. Turnbow ( 19, FSCA ; 1, RHTC); 5 miles north of Old Town, on persimmon stump sprouts 23V 1978, R. Woodruff and P.M. Choate, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); highway 349, 3 miles south of junction, 351, 7 V 1978, R. Turnbow ( 8, RHTC); Old Town 20V 1978,

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74 G.B. Edwards ( 2, FSCA); Gadsden County: Aspalaga Landing, Aspalaga Rd ., 9V 2005, E. Nearns ( 1, FSCA); Gilchrist County: vic. Heart Springs 30V 1988, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Gulf County: 15.1 miles northeast of Port St. Joe 29V 1989, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Hernando County: Withlacoochee State Forest, Richloam Tract 8 IV 1994, 9IV 1992, M.C. Thomas ( 3, FSCA); Highlands County: Archbold Biological Station insect flight trap 4VI 1978, H.V. Weems, Jr. and L. Klein malaise trap 25IV 1980, L.L. Lampert, Jr. ( 2 FSCA); H illsborough County: USF Campus ( 1, FSCA); Jefferson County: junction of highways 59 and 98, 30V 1988, 4VI 1988, R. Turnbow ( 2, RHTC); Monticello 17IV 1994, 24IV 1994 1V 1994, 8V 1994, 21V 1994, 28V 1994, Buck B. ( 8, FSCA); Leon County: Tallahassee 4 VII 2002, G.J. Wibmer at ultraviolet light trap 29VI 2002, G.J. Wibmer and C.W. O'Brien ( 3, FSCA); Levy County: 3.8 miles southwest of Archer malaise trap in rosemary and turkey oak sandhill 10 IV 1988, 17IV 1988, 23IV 1988, P.E. Skelley ( 3, FSCA); Liberty County: Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines Preserve 4 V 2003, R. Turnbow ( 2, RHTC); Highway 12, 17 miles south of Bristol 29V 1989, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Torreya State Park ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, V 2007, VI 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 4, JMLC); Torreya State Park 6V 1979, 7V 1989, M.C. Thomas 16V 1971, H.V. Weems, Jr. and G.B. Fairchild flood plain forest 5 IV 2003, E. Nearns ( 3, FSCA ; 1, JMLC ); Marion County: 8 miles southeast of Interla chen 21III 1953, B.K. Dozier ( 1, FSCA); junction of highways 40 and 314A 17V 1986, R. Turnbow ( 2, RHTC); Route 316, Oklahawa River, under bridge at light, 5V 2002, M. Hrabovsky (1, FSCA) ; Orange County: Rk Spr Rn St Res Spine/Oak Scrub, Malaise Trap, 3 V 1995, 24V 1995, S.M. Full erton ( 2, UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando Cypress Forest, Malaise Trap 29III 1999, 12 IV 1999, 17 V 1999, 2VI 1999, 8VI 1999, 14VI 1999, 21 VI 1999, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton (8 UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando, LLPSand Pine, Turkey

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75 Oak, Malaise Trap 17V 1996, 30V 1997, 11VI 1997, 18VI 1997, 10 VII 1997, S.M. Fullerton (5 UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando Longleaf Pine Saw Palmetto, Malaise Trap 11VI 1997, S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando, Maidencane Marsh, Malaise Trap 2VI 1999, 14VI 1999, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton ( 4, UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando, Pond Pine Community, Dahoon Holly, Malaise Trap 17V 1999, 24V 1999, 2VI 1999, 8VI 1999, 7VII 1999, 13VII 1999, 19VII 1999, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton ( 9, UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando, Sand Pine Rosemary Scrub, Malaise Trap 13VI 1993, S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Walt Disney World C 4 Stout Site, S 15, 16 T 24S R 27E, xeric oak/flatwoods, Malaise Trap 1219 V 1998, Z. Prusak and S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Walt Disney World MW 7 (unburned), S 22 T 24S R 27E, sand pine/oak scrub, Malaise Trap 29V 5VI 1997, Z. Prusak and S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Polk County: Lake Marion Estates 1V 1999, R. Turnbow 1V 1999, M.C. Thomas ( 1, RHTC; 1, FSCA ); Tiger Creek Preserve Malaise trap 19 IV 2007, D.T. Almquist ( 1, JMLC); Putnam County: 2V 1959, in spider web 11V 1959, H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 2, FSCA); Santa Rosa County: 11.7 mil es east of Gulf Breeze, 18VI 1988, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); 4 miles north of Munson, 28IV 1984, R. Turnbow ( 2, RHTC); Gulf Breeze, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 4V 2007, 20VI 2007, C. Street ( 3, CAPS); Seminole County: Econ. Wild. Area scrub oak/saw palmetto burn site, Malaise Trap 6V 2000, 15VII 2000, 26 VIII2000, T. Smith, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton (3 UCFC); Oviedo, rural yard, Malaise Trap 5VI 1994, S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Wakulla County: 6 miles east of Newport 4VI 1988, R. Turnbow ( 2, RHTC); Walton County: highway 285 at Shoal River 5V 1985, R. Turnbow (1, RHTC). Selected references : Forster, 1771: 49; Say, 1823: 187; Klug, 1842: 360; Spinola, 1844: 356, 358, pls. 34, 36, figs. 4, 5; LeConte, 1849: 32; Drury, 1879: 171; Chittenden, 1890: 155; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Wickham, 1895: 252; Lohde, 1900: 104; Felt, 1906: 504; Wolcott, 1908: 72; Wolcott, 1909: 100, 1910c : 859; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 66;

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76 B ving and Champlain, 1920: 608, 638; Blackman and Stage, 1924: 46; Hoffmann, 1940: 56, 1942: 7; Beal and Massey, 1945: 69, 92; Wolcott, 1947: 85; Craighead, 1950: 199; Knull, 1951: 306, pl. 10, fig. 38; Papp, 1960: 85; Ekis, 1975: 52; Barr 1975: 16; Gosli ng, 1980: 74; Mawdsley, 1992: 28; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86; Opitz 2002: figs. 80, 88, 89, 119. Genus Cregya LeConte, 1861 Cregya is represented by three described species in the eastern, central and southern United States to Texas (Barr 1962: 127). Two described species are known from Florida. It is distinguished by its emarginated eyes, 11segmented antennae and its conspicuously expanded, angulate pronotal sides Cregya is the only genus of the subfamily with eleven antennomeres. Bving and Champlai n (1920: 606) described the larvae and compared them to some related taxa. Selected references : LeConte, 1861: 197; Wolcott, 1910b: 383, 1910c: 860; Gahan, 1910: 75; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 606; Bving and Craighead, 1931a : 57; Wolcott, 1947: 86; Barr, 1962: 127; Opitz 2002: 279. Key to the Florida S pecies of Cregya 1. E lytra black, with sutural and lateral margins pale; widely distributed .......C. oculata (Fig. 35) 1. E lytra pale with black maculations ; only known from Palm Beach County in Florida ................................................................................................................ C. quadrisignata (Fig. 37) Cregya oculata (Say), 1835 (Figs. 3 5, 36) = Pelonium marginipenne Spinola, 1844 = Enoplium circumcinctum Spinola, 1844 = Pelonium lineolatum Gorham, 1883 The elytral markings of C. oculata are rather consistent with the excep tion of variably reduced pale elytra l margins When reduced, these pale borders may only reach halfway from the apex toward the base of each elytron (or anywhere between the halfway point and the base). The mouth parts, basal antennomeres, prothorax, and parts of the legs are yellow. The pronotum varies considerably from being entirely piceous to having variously shaped maculations. The

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77 body is moderately clothed with erect and semierect hairs, longest on head and thorax. Adults are 4.0 to 7.0 mm long. Despite the extreme var iation in pronotal maculations, C. oculata is rather easily diagnosed from C. quadrinotata by the color of the elytra. Bving and Champlain (1920: 606) described the larvae and compared them to some related tax a. Biology: Cregya oculata has been recorded from pitch pine sumac, chestnut, Virginia creeper infested with Pogonocherus sp., Leiopus sp., Euderces picipes (Fabricius), Ecyrus dasycerus (Say) (Cerambycidae) and Pityophthorus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculioni dae: Scolytinae) (Knull, 1951: 309; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 639) Gosling (1980: 74) observed it at ultraviolet lights in oak hickory habitats. Adults have been collected in Florida from April through July and September Specimens have been collected from mercury vapor lights blacklights, Steiner traps and Malaise traps. Distribution : Alabama, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsyl vania, Ohio, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia (Wolcott, 1909: 101, 1910b: 390, 1947: 86; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 67; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 639; Knull, 1951: 308; Papp 1960: 86; Barr 1975: 17; Gosling, 1980: 74). In Florida it has been recorded from Alachua, Bay, Collier, Dixie, Gulf, Hardee, Hernando, Highlands, Indian River, Jefferson Levy, Liberty, Marion, Monroe, Okaloosa, Orange, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Volusia and Wakulla Counties. Wolcott (1910b: 390) recor ded it from Tampa, Hillsborough County, Florida. Specimens e xamined (39) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Gainesville, at li ght, 30 V 1947, 1VI 1959, 11VI 1948, H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 3, FSCA); SE Kincaid Rd, edge old field, xeric oak hammock, 6 m Malaise trap, 8 15V 1999, 1326VI 1999, B. D. Sutton ( 2, FSCA); SE Kincaid

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78 Rd, 1 mile north of Payne's Prairie, edge old field/xeric oak hammock, 6 m Malaise trap, 24IV 4V 1999, 24IV 4V 1998, 411V 1998, 1724V 1998, 2431V 1998, B. D. Sutton ( 5, FSCA); 6 V 1969, M.L. May ( 1, FSCA); Bay County: 2 miles north of West Bay, 10V 1987, 16V 1987, R. Turnbow ( 3, RHTC); 5.4 miles north of Lynn Haven, 29V 1989, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Collier County: Highway 41, east of 29, 18IV 1998, R. Morris ( 1, FSCA); Dixie County: 4 miles north of Old Town, 20V 1978, E. Giesbert ( 1, FSCA); Gulf County: 10 miles west of Wewahitchka, 7 V 1988, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Hardee County: Ona, Steiner trap, 14VII 1967, R.H. Rhodes ( 1, FSCA); Hernando County: 1 mile north of the junction of highways 50 and 301, 27IV 1991, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Withlacoochee State Forest, Richloam Tract, 9IV 1992, M.C. Thomas 8IV 1994, 27IV 1991, R. Turnbow ( 1, FSCA ; 2, RHTC ); Highlands County: 2 miles south of Sebring, 10 IV 1990, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Jeff erson County: junction of highways 59 and 98, 30V 1988, 4VI 1988, R. Turnbow ( 2, RHTC); Levy County: 5 miles north of Otter Creek, 13 V 1979, E. Giesbert ( 1, FSCA); Liberty County: Torreya State Park, 7V 1989, C.W. Mills, III 25 VI 1989, R. Turnbow ( 1, FSCA ; 1, RHTC); Monroe County: Big Pine Key, 29IV 1977, E. Giesbert ( 1, FSCA); Okaloosa County: Eglin Air Force Base, Santa Rose Island, west of Destin, blacklight trap in dunes, 17 VI 1995, P.E. Skelley ( 1, FSCA); Orange County: University of Central Fl orida, MacKay Tract, Orlando, Sawgrass Marsh, red maple, Malaise Trap, 19 IV 1999, 17V 1999, 24V 1999, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton (3, UCFC); Santa Rosa County: 11.7 miles east of Gulf Breeze, 18VI 1988, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Seminole County: Econ. Wi ld. Area, scrub oak/saw palmetto burn site, Malaise Trap, 10 IX 2000, T. Smith, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Volusia County: Oak Hill, Steiner trap, 8 IV 1963, R.H. Rhodes ( 1, FSCA); Wakulla County: 6 miles east of Newport, 4VI 1988, 11VI 1988, R. Turnbow ( 2, RHTC).

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79 Selected references : Say, 1835: 163; Klug, 1842: 387; Spinola, 1844: 363, pl. 35, fig. 6; LeConte, 1849: 32; Melsheimer, 1853: 84; LeConte, 1859b: 639; LeConte, 1865: 98; Drury, 1879: 171; Gorham, 1883: 191, pl. 9, fig. 14; Henshaw, 1885: 82; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Lohde, 1900: 103; Schenkling, 1906: 317; Wolcott, 1909: 101, 1910b: 389, 1910c : 860; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 67; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 606, 639; Knull, 1932: 43; Wolcott, 1947: 86; Craighead, 1950: 203; Knul l, 1951: 309, pl. 11, fig. 45; Papp, 1960: 86; Ekis, 1975: 53; Barr 197 5: 17; Gosling, 1980: 74; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86; Opitz 2002: 279, figs. 83, 97. Cregya quadrinotata Spinola, 1844 (Figs. 37, 3 8) = Pelonium quadrisignatum Spinola, 1844 (?) = Pe lonium bilineicolle Chevrolat, 1874 (?) While the maculations in C. quadrinotata are variable, the head is typically black. The mouth parts, a frontal maculation and the inner margin of the eyes tend to be pale yellow The abdominal and thoracic sternite s, tarsi, a large humeral maculation and a rounded maculation at the apical fourth of the elytra are usually black. Its body form is otherwise similar to C. oculata. Adult are 4.0 to 5.5 mm long. There is some uncertainty whether C. quadrinotata and C. quadrisignata are two separate species or not Papp (1960: 86) referred to C. quadrisignata quadrinotatabut did not cite where this assignment was originally posited. Biology: Bving and Champlain (1920: 639) recorded it from dead black walnut branches. Distribution : Wolcott (1909: 102, 1910b: 393, 1927: 3, 1947: 86) recorded C. quadrisignata from Texas, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and Columbia. Barr (1975: 17) recorded C. quadrinotata from Texas, and recorded C. quadrisignata from P anama, Guatemala and Honduras. Papp (1960: 86) record ed C. quadrisignata quadrinotata from Texas. Bving and Champlain (1920: 639) record ed C. quadrinotata it from West Virginia It has been collected in Palm Beach County in Florida. Specimens examined : No Florida specimens were available for observation.

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80 Selected references : Spinola, 1844 : 365, pl. 33, fig. 3; LeConte, 1849: 31; Haldemann, 1853: 362; Chevrolat, 1874: 327; Gorham, 1883: 190; Lohde, 1900: 105, 107; Schenkling, 1903a : 107; Wolcott, 1909: 102, 1910b: 392; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 639; Wolcott, 1927: 3, 1947: 86; Papp, 1960: 86; Ekis, 1975: 54; Barr 197 5: 17. Genus Neorthopleura Barr 1976 There are seventeen species of Neorthopleura in the Western Hemisphere, three of which represent t he North American fauna across the eastern, central and western United States and Mexico (Barr 1962: 126). The genus is distinguished by its emarginated eyes, 11segmented antennae and the broadly rounded sides of the pronotum, which is typically reddish. The dark, soft elytra may have a faint, pale transverse median fascia. Measuring from 3 to 12 mm in length, they vary greatly in size, the males often smaller than females. This genus was originally named Dermestoides Schaeffer in 1771. However, the name was not binary and was discarded. They are rather active on infested trees in the evening. Opitz (2002: 279) reported associations with numerous species of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera), Curculionidae (Coleoptera) and Chrysobothris spp. ( Coleoptera: Bupr estidae) in oak, chestnut, and other hardwoods. Bving and Champlain (1920: 617) described the larvae under the name Orthopleura and compared them to some related taxa. Selected references : Schaeffer, 1771: pl. 220, fig. 4; Spinola, 1844: 80; LeConte and Horn, 1883: 219; Wickham, 1895: 248; Wolcott, 1910b: 393, 1910c : 858; Bradley, 1930: 107; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 617; Bving and Craighead, 1931a : 56; Wolcott, 1943: 134; Barr, 1962: 126, 1976b: 2; Opitz, 2002: 279. Neorthopleura thoracica (Say ) 182 3 (Figs. 39, 3 10) = Tillus damicornis Fabricius, 1798 = Enoplium punctatissimum Chevrolat, 1843 = Orthopleura nigripennis Spinola, 1844 = Orthopleura bimaculata Melsheimer, 1845 = Pelonium pennsylvanicum Chevrolat, 1874

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81 The pronotum of this N. thoracica is often reddish, only margined with the black to bluishblack which covers the remainder of its body. But it can also be entirely black to bluish black. Likewise, the normally black to bluish black (save the pronotum) body can instead assume a testaceou s color. Lastly, specimens of this species may have a more or less distinct post median pale fascia on the elytra. Despite the numerous variations, it is rather simple to distinguish from the other genera. The antennal club of males measures more than tw othirds of the total antennal length and more than one half the total antennal length in females. It has toothed tarsal claws and cylindrical apical maxillary and labial palpomeres. Neorthopleura thoracica exhibits much variation in size and color. In reference to its range in size, Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 67) wrote that this insect is the most variable in size of any beetle I know. Adults measure 5 to 14 mm long. The generic characters should be used to distinguish Neorthopleura from similar species in Florida. Bving and Champlain (1920: 618) described the larvae and compared them to some related taxa. Biology: This nocturnal species has been recorded from oak, hickory, grape, locust, elm, persimmon, ash, sassafras, and chestnut infested wit h Chrysobothris femorata (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), Obrium sp., Neoclytus confusus Van Dyke, Tilliclytus geminatus (Haldemann), Phymatodes aereus (Newman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and Curculionidae (Coleoptera) ( Bving and Champlain, 1920: 639; Knull, 1951: 305). Gosling (1980: 74) observed it at ultraviolet lights in oak hickory habitats. A dults have been collected in Florida from February through October. Specimens have been collected at blacklights, halogen lights, mercury vapor lights, ul traviolet lights, Lindgren

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82 funnel traps baited with alpha beta pinene, ethanol, both turpentine and frontalin, Malaise traps and under bark. It has been reared from Lysiloma latisiliqua (Linna e us) (Fabaceae) and hackberry. Distribution : Arkansas, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, the Bahamas, Cuba, Mexico Ontario, Quebec, the West Indies (Wolcott, 1909: 101, 1910b: 396; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 639; Wolcott, 1947: 84; Knull, 1951: 305; Vaurie 1952a : 4; Papp 1960: 85; Barr, 1975: 15, 1976b: 8 ) Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 67) rec orded it from Onaga, Kansas, which is 30 miles south of Nebraska, and Fort Lee, New York which is within 30 miles of Connecticut There are records of N. thoracica from California, but Barr (1950 a : 513) suspected that the inclusion of Lower California may have simply been due to Horns report of its collection in San Jose del Cabo, making the record erroneous since he observed no specimens from California In Florida it has been recorded from Alachua, Bay, Brevard, Broward, Clay, Collier, Dixie, Duval, Escambia, Gadsden, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Indian River, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Manatee, Marion, Miami Dade, Monroe, Orange, Pinellas, Santa Rosa, Sarasota, Seminole, Sumter, Taylor, Volusia Wakulla, Walton, and Washington Counties. Specim ens examined (229) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: 2 miles north of Cross Creek, on Highway 325, 7VII 1991, C.W. Mills, III ( 2, FSCA); 2 miles northwest of Gainesville blacklight 20 IV 1974, J.B. Heppner ( 1, FSCA); 6 miles southwest of Gainesville, blacklight tra p, 13III 1975, 25III1975, 8IV 1975, 1VI 1975, L.R. Davis, Jr., 21 IV 1968, R.E. Woodruff 13 VI 1956, H.A. Denmark ( 6, FSCA) ; Gainesville, VI 1968, 3VI 1980, 8VII 1980,

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83 5IX 1977, 5IX 1986, 12IX 1981, 17IX 1981 30IX 1981, 2X 1980, L.A. Hetrick 15IX 1987, P. Landolt 24XI 1977, [anon.], 4VII 1978, M.C. Thomas VIII2003, IX 2003, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 13, FSCA ; 2, JMLC ); Gainesville, Beville Hts. blacklight trap 13IV 1980, 2VII 1980, L.A. Stange ( 2 FSCA); Gainesville, Devil's Millhopper State Park, Millhopper Drive Turpentine/frontalin baited Lindgren funnel trap, IV 2005, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JMLC); Gainesville, Doyle Conner building, at light 14IV 1990, 1VI 1989, 6VIII 1990, P.E. Skelley, blacklight trap, 24VIII 1972, F.W. Mead ( 4, FSCA); Gainesville, Hogtown Creek and I 75, light trap 19 VI 1988, P.E. Skelley ( 1, FSCA); Gainesville, NW 42nd Terr. and 34th Pl. ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 1VI 2006, J.L. Foltz and J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JMLC); Gainesville, SE Kin caid Rd, 1 mile north of Payne's Prairie old field dry oak hammock, Malaise trap 1422 VI 1998, B. D. Sutton ( 1, FSCA); Gainesville, University of Florida, Surge/Natural Area Drive Turpentine/frontalin baited Lindgren funnel trap, IV 1998, J.L. Foltz ( 1, JMLC); NW Gainesville, at light 28IV 2002, 11VII 2002, E. Nearns reared from hackberry 26V 2002, E. Nearns ( 3, JMLC); Payne's Prai rie State Preserve, gate 9B on Highway 234, malaise trap 26IV 1996, G.E. Steck and B.D. Sutton ( 1, FSCA); 19IV 1955, R.A. Morse ( 1, FSCA); Bay County: Panama City ethanol b aited Lindgren funnel trap, 14IX 2006, 3X 2006, L. Smith ( 1, JMLC ; 1, CAPS ); Brevard County: Titusville, SR 405 Enchanted Forest Sanctuary, White Trail, xeric oak hammock, Malaise Trap 21III 4IV 2001, 1327VI 2001, 1125VII 2001, P. Russell, Z. Prusak and S.M. Fullerton (3, UCFC); Broward County: ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 29V 2007, M. Meadows ( 2, CAPS); Clay County: Goldhead Branch State Park 25VIII1994, C. Porter and L.A. Stange ( 1, FSCA); Collier County: Collier Seminole State Park at mercury vapor and black light 15 IV 1989, R. Turnbow M.C. Thomas ( 1, RHTC; 1, FSCA ); Dixie County: 5 miles north of Old Town, 12V 1979, 20V 1978, E. Giesbert ( 7, FSCA); Duval

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84 Count y: Jacksonville ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 18 V 2007, 7VI 2007, A. Silagyi and A. Johnson, A. Johnson ( 2, CAPS); Escambia County: ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 20VI 2007, C. Street ( 2, CAPS); Gadsden County: Aspalaga Landing, at blacklight 5 V 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 2, JMLC); Hernando County: Withlacoochee State Forest, Goat Road 22V 1992, 14VI 1991, R. Morris at blacklight 4VI 1991, R. Morris and J. Heuther ( 3, FSCA); Withlacoochee State Forest, Richloam Tract 9IV 1992, M.C. Thomas 18IV 1992, 20IV 1992, R. Turnbow ( 4, FSCA); Highlands County: Archbold Biological Station, at mercury vapor and black light 9IX 1999, 10IX 1999, R. Turnbow ( 4, RHTC); Archbold Biological Station, at ultraviolet light 20IV 1979, 26IV 1976, L.L. Lampert Jr. ( 3, FSCA); Archbold Biological Station malaise trap 9 IV 1980, L.L. Lampert, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Archbold Biological Station, 1V 1978, F. Hovore 17IV 1981, N.M. Downie 26IV 1978, 27IV 1978, 28 IX 1977, 30IX 1977, L.L. Lamp ert, Jr. ( 6, FSCA); Archbold Biological Station, 10 miles south of Lake Placid, 2V 1975, J.B. Heppner ( 1, FSCA); Archbold Biological Station, 8 miles south of Lake Placid, blacklight trap, 26 V 1997, P.E. Skelley ( 2, FSCA); Hillsborough County: Lithia, et hanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, VI 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JMLC); Tampa, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 3V 2007, 1VI 2007, 3VII 2007, 21IX 2006, 11X 2006, D. Gaskill 20 VI 2007, Patterson, III 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 6, CAPS ; 4, JMLC ); Indian River County: Vero Beach, 12 V 1964, 16V 1964, W.L. Bidlingmayer ( 2, FSCA); [County unknown], Royal Palm Park, V 1948 ( 1, FSCA); Leon County: Tall Timbers Research Station, 30 IX 1989, P.E. Skelley ( 1, FSCA); Tallahassee, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 4V 2007, M. Bentley ( 1, CAPS); Tallahassee, near I 90 and 319, at blacklight, 22VI 1987, P.E. Skelley ( 1, FSCA); Tallahassee, UV light trap, 1214VIII 2002, M. Haseeb, 28VII 2002, 23 VIII 2002, G.J. Wibmer 6VII 2002, C.W. O'Brien an d G.J. Wibmer 7IX 2002, C.W. O'Brien ( 11, FSCA);

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85 Levy County: 3.8 miles southwest of Archer, blacklight trap, 20V 1988, P.E. Skelley ( 1, FSCA); Liberty County: 14.8 miles north of Sumatra, 7V 1988, R. Turnbow ( 2, RHTC); Apalachicola National Forest, et hanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, V 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JMLC); Torreya State Park, at light, 15VII 1987, 17VII 1987, Matthews and P.E. Skelley at mercury vapor and black light 6V 1989, R. Turnbow ( 3, FSCA ; 1, RHTC ); Torreya State Park eth anol baited Lindgren funnel trap, V 2007, VI 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 3, JMLC); Torreya State Park 10V 2005, E. Nearns 16V 1964, R.E. White 6 V 1989, R. Turnbow 46V 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 2, FSCA ; 1, RHTC; 3, JMLC ); Manatee County: Oneco P. Dillman ( 1, FSCA); Marion County: Lake Eaton blacklight trap, 8IV 1975, P. Drummond ( 1, FSCA); McIntosh ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, IV 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 4, JMLC); Ocala blacklight trap 25VIII 1977, M.C. Thomas ( 1, FSCA); Miami D ade County: Camp Mahatchee, Matheson Hammock 9IV 1994, R. Turnbow ( 1, FSCA); Everglades National Park, Long Pine Key, at halogen light 16 V 1991, R. Morris ( 1, FSCA); Matheson Hammock 26V 1962, R.E. Woodruff ( 1, FSCA); Miami alpha beta pinene baited Lindgren funnel trap, 31V 2007, M. Meadows ( 1, CAPS); Miami blacklight trap 15IV 1960, 22VII 1960, P.E. Briggs ( 2, FSCA); Miami ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap 2IV 2007, 31V 2007, M. Meadows, IV 2007, V 2007, VI 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 2, CAPS ; 4, JMLC ); V 1962 ( 1, FSCA); Monroe County: J. Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park, north Key Largo, telephone pole #106, 15 watt blacklight 29V 1997, P.E. Skelley ( 1, FSCA); Key Largo, at mercury vapor and black light 13 V 1986, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Key Largo, emerged 25III 1978, emerged 15V 1978, R. Turnbow emerged 9VII 1961, B.K. Dozier ( 3, FSCA); Key Largo emerged from Lysiloma 12III 1962, B.K. Dozier ( 1, FSCA); Key Largo, emerged from Lysiloma latisiliqua ( L. ) 18II 1978, 28II 1978, 31III 1978, 15V 1978, R. Turnbow ( 1, FSCA ;

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86 5, RHTC); Key Largo, under bark, 29VIII 1961, H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Key Largo, 15V 1977, 27V 1983, R. Turnbow 12V 1975, E. Giesbert ( 9, FSCA ; 3, RHTC); upper Key Largo, at light, 9VI 1995, M.C. Thomas ( 4, FSCA); upper Key Largo, 3VI 1993, R. Morris and Bratain 7 VI 1998, R. Morris 7VI 1976, R. Turnbow ( 3, FSCA); upper Matecumbe Key, 1 mile southwest of Islamorada, blacklight trap, 27IV 1975, J.B. Heppner ( 1, FSCA); Orange County: Rk Spr Rn St Res Spin e/Oak Scrub, Malaise Trap 14 VI 1995, S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando, LLPSand Pine, Turkey Oak, Malaise Trap, 11VI 1997, S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Orlando, alpha beta pinene baited Lindgren funnel trap, 27IV 2007, 4VI 2007, B. Saunders ( 7, CAPS); Orlando, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 30III 2007, 27 IV 2007, 6VI 2007, 18IX 2006, 11 X 2006, B. Saunders VI 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 11, CAPS ; 4, JMLC ); Orlando, McKay Tract Apartment Complex, edge red maple hydric hammock, at UV light, 2III 2000, T. Smith ( 1, FSCA); Pinellas County: Saint Petersburg, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, IV 2007, VI 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 5, JMLC); Santa Rosa County: 1.7 miles north of Munson, 20IV 1991, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); 4 miles north of Munson, at mercury vapor and black light, 7VI 1986, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Sarasota County: Englewood, residential/urban disturbed yard, blacklight trap 26III 1997, K. Maharay and S.M. Fullerton (2, UCFC); Seminole County: Oviedo, rural yard, ultraviolet light trap 27IV 1994, S.M. Fullerton (2, UCFC); Sumter County: I 75 and CR 470, 18IV 1992, R. Turnbow ( 1, FSCA); Taylor County: 13 miles north of Steinhatchee, on CR 361, 13V 1995, M.C. Thomas ( 1, FSCA); Volusia County: Daytona IV 1952, W. Rosenberg ( 2, FSCA); VIII1956, H.A. Denmark ( 1, FSCA); Wakulla County: 6 miles east of Newport, 4VI 1988, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Walton County: Highway 285 at Shoal River, 5V 1985, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Washington County: Falling Waters Sta te Park, 29VI 1970, G.H. Nelson (1, FSCA).

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87 Selected references : Fabricius, 1798: 177; Say, 1823: 188; Dejean, 1837: 128; Klug, 1842: 358; Chevrolat, 1843: 34; Spinola, 1844: 80, 82, pl. 48, fig. 4; Melsheimer, 1846: 307; LeConte, 1849: 33, 1859a: 90; Che vrolat, 1874: 325; Horn, 1875: 149; Drury, 1879: 171; Gorham, 1883: 185, 1886: 345; Hopkins, 1893a: 186; Horn, 1894: 331; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Wickham, 1895: 252; Lohde, 1900: 109; Schenkling, 1903a: 110, 1906: 317; Wolcott, 1909: 101, 1910b: 395, 1910c : 8 61; Chapin, 1920: 52; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 67; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 618, 639; Knull, 1930: 83; Bving and Craighead, 1931b: 276; Knull, 1932: 43; Wolcott, 1943: 137; Beal and Massey, 1945: 122; Hoffmann, 1942: 7; Wolcott, 1947: 84; Barr, 1950a: 512; Corporaal, 1950: 268; Craighead, 1950: 203; Knull, 1951: 304, pl. 10, fig. 40; Vaurie, 1952a: 4; Papp, 1960: 85; Ekis, 1975: 63; Barr, 1976b: 7; Barr 1975: 15; Gosling, 1980: 74; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86; Opitz, 2002: figs. 85, 104, 105. Genus Pelonium Spinola, 1844 = Corinthiscus Fairmaire and Germain, 1861 Pelonium is represented by four widely distributed species in the United States (Opitz, 2002: 279). This genus is distinguished by its emarginated eyes, 11 segmented antennae and angulate sides of the pronotum which is constricted basally. Most obvious in the Florida fauna is the lichen mimicking color patterns. Selected references : Spinola, 1844 : 347; Fairmaire and Germain, 1861: 4; Wolcott, 1910b: 383, 1947: 86; Opitz 2002: 279. Pelonium leucophaeum ( Klug ) 1842 (Figs. 311, 312) = Pelonium vestutum Spinola, 1844 = Priocera albomaculata Zeigler, 1845 Pelonium leucophaeum is distinguished by its lichenmimicking color pattern and pronotum with irregularly elevated regions. The elytra are irregularly punctured. The body is clothed with semierect pale hairs. Adults are 6 to 11 mm long. Pelonium granulosum Wolcott is strikingly similar. However, P. granulosum has (sometimes subtly) less elevated regions on the pronotum and has not been recorded from Florida.

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88 Biology: Specimens have been reared from small trees and branches of cypress an d juniper infested with immature Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) (Bving and Champlain, 1920: 638; Opitz, 2002: 279). It has been collected on poison ivy (Wolcott, 1910b: 385). Specimens have been collected in Florida from February through September. They have been collected in Malaise traps, Steiner traps, Mediterranean fruit fly traps, suction traps, at ultraviolet lights, and in Lindgren funnel traps baited with ethanol and a lpha beta pinene (separately). Adults have been reared from Taxodium distichum (Linnaeus) (Taxodiaceae) and have been collected on Citrus aurantium (Linnaeus) (Rutaceae) and Sambucus canadensis Linnaeus (Caprifoliaceae). Distribution : Alabama, Californi a, Florida, District of Columbia, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas and Mexico ( Wolcott 1909: 100, 1910b: 385, 1947: 86; Knull, 1951: 308; Papp 1960: 86; Gosling, 1980: 74; Ba rr 1975: 17) Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 66) recorded it from Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, which is within 50 miles of Maryland and West Virginia. In Florida it has been recorded from Alachua, Bay, Brevard, Broward, Duval Flagler, Hernando, Highlands, Indian River, Lake, Liberty, Manatee, Marion, Miami Dade, Orange, Pinellas, Polk, Putnam, Saint John, Santa Rosa, Sarasota, and Wakulla Counties. Wolcott (1910: 385) recorded it from Enterprise, Volusia County, Florida. Specimens e xam ined (93) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Gainesville, 29V 1964, R.E. White 23VI 1977, R.A. Belmont 30 II 1984, M.C. Thomas 1VII 1956, T. Denmark ( 4, FSCA); SE Gainesville, Kincaid Rd, old field edge, xeric oak habitat, 6 meter Malaise trap, 24IV to 1 V 1999, B.D. Sutton (1, FSCA); 18VII 1958, T. Denmark (1, FSCA); Bay County: ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 13VI 2007, L. Smith (1, CAPS); Brevard County:

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89 Titusville, SR 405, Enchanted Forest Sanctuary, White Trail, xeric oak hammock, Malaise Trap, 21II 7III2001, P. Russell, Z. Prusak and S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Broward County: Hollywood, on Citrus paradisi, 4 V 1994, B. Coy (1, FSCA); Duval County: Jacksonville, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 7VI 2007, A. Silagyi and A. Johnson, 18V 2007, A. Johnson ( 3, CAPS); Flagler/Saint John's County: Marineland, in Steiner trap, 28V 1962, G.W. Desin (1, FSCA); Hernando County: Withlacoochee State Forest, ex. Taxodium distichum (L.), emerged 26IV 1991, R. Turnbow (10, RHTC); Withlacoochee State Fore st, Goat Road, 28IV 1990, R. Morris (1, FSCA); Withlacoochee State Forest, Richloam Unit, 27IV 1991, R. Turnbow (1, RHTC); Highlands County: Archbold Biological Research Station, at ultraviolet light, 16 IV 1978, 26IV 1976, L.L. Lampert, Jr. (2 FSCA); Indian River County: Fellsmere, on Sambucus canadensis, 18 IV 1983, E.W. Campbell (1, FSCA); SR 512, 0.5 miles west of I 95, suction trap, 19 VI 1975, (1, FSCA); Vero Beach, 25V 1964, 8VI 1964, W.L. Bidlingmayer ( 3, FSCA); Lake County: Clermont, in Stein er trap, 21VI 1966, C.L. Felshaw (1, FSCA); Mascotte, in medfly trap, VII 1960, C.L. Felshaw (1, FSCA); Liberty County: Apalachicola National Forest, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, V 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. (1, JMLC); Torreya State Park, 9 VII 1988, R. Turnbow (1, RHTC); Manatee County: Palma Sola, in Steiner trap, 27 V 1963, D.C. Chancey (1, FSCA); Marion County: McIntosh, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, IV 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. (3, JMLC); Miami Dade County: Ojus, in Steiner trap, 29 IV 1971, D.R. Dehaven (1, FSCA); 20IV 1949, (1, FSCA); Orange County: Orlando, alpha beta pinene baited Lindgren funnel trap, 4VI 2007, B. Saunders (1, CAPS); Orlando, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 27 IV 2007, 6VI 2007, B. Saunders VI 2007, J.M. L eavengood, Jr. (4, CAPS ; 5, JMLC ); Orlando, 20V 1964, J.R. Woodley (1, FSCA); Rk Spr Rn St Res, S Pine/Oak Scrub, Malaise Trap, 27IV 1995, S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC);

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90 University of Central Florida, MacKay Tract, Orlando, Sawgrass Marsh, red maple, Malaise Trap, 24V 1999, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando, Cypress Dome, Malaise Trap, 20V 1993, S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando, Cypress Forest, Malaise Trap, 24V 1999, 8VI 1999, 2VI 1999, 30VIII1999, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton (5, UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando, LLPSand Pine, Turkey Oak, Malaise Trap, 2VII 1997, 21VIII1993, S.M. Fullerton (2, UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando, Longleaf Pine Saw Palmetto, Malaise Trap, 11 VI 1997, S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando, Maidencane Marsh, Malaise Trap, 2 VI 1999, 8VI 1999, 17V 1999, 24V 1999, 19IV 1999, 26IV 1999, 11V 1999, 5IV 1999, 14VI 1999, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton (14, UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando, Pond Pine Community, Dahoon Holly, Malaise Trap, 2VI 1999, 8VI 1999, 17V 1999, 2VIII 1999, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton (4, UCFC); Pinellas County: Fort Desoto State Park, 3 VI 1998, R. Morris (1, FSCA); Saint Petersburg, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, VI 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. (1, JMLC); Polk County: Frostproof, in Steiner trap, 25IV 1961, R.E. Vild (1, FSCA); Putnam County: Lake Elizabeth, ex. Taxodium sp., emerged 10V 2000, R. Turnbow (1, RHTC); Santa Rosa County: 11.7 miles east of Gulf Breeze, 18VI 1988, R. Turnbow (1, RHTC); Gulf Breeze, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 4V 2007, 24V 2007, 14IX 2006, C. Street (3, CAPS ; 1, JMLC ); Sarasota County: Sarasota, on Citrus aurantium, 3VI 1987, K. Jenkins (1, FSCA); Wakulla County: 6 miles east of Newport, 4VI 1988, R. Turnbow (2, RHTC); [county unknown] : Parish, 29 VII 1964, D.C. Chance y (1, FSCA); Selected references : Klug, 1842; 366; Spinola, 1844: 360, pl. 35, fig. 4; Zeigler, 1845: 268; Haldeman, 1847: 126; LeConte, 1849: 32; Melsheimer, 1853: 84; LeConte, 1865: 98; Chevrolat, 1876: 7; Henshaw, 1885: 82; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Horn, 1895: 228; Lohde, 1900: 103; Schenkling, 1903a: 107, 1903b: 16; Schaeffer, 1904: 220; Schenkling, 1906:

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91 316, 1907: 299; Wolcott, 1909: 100, 1910b: 385, 1910c : 860; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 66; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 638; Wolcott, 1947: 86; Knull, 1951: 307, pl. 11, fig. 44; Papp, 1960: 86; Ekis, 1975: 57; Barr, 1975: 17; Gosling, 1980: 74; Opitz 2002: 279, figs. 76, 78, 84, 92, 115.

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92 Figure 31. Chariessa floridana Figure 32. Distribution map of Chariessa floridana

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93 Figure 33. Chariessa pilosa Figure 34. Distribution map of Chariessa pilosa

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94 Figure 35. Cregya oculata Figure 36. Distribution map of Cregya oculata

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95 Figure 37. Cregya quadrinotata Figure 38. Distribution map of Cregya quadrinotata

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96 Figure 39. Neorthopleura thoracica Figure 310. Distribution map of Neorthopleura thoracica

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97 Figure 311. Pelonium leucophaeum Figure 312. Distribution map of Pelonium leucophaeum

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98 CHAPTER 4 EPIPHLOEINAE Key to the Florida G enera and S pecies of Epiphloeinae 1. Antennal club shorter than funicle; pronotum entirely brown; elytra patterned ........................................................................................................Madoniella dislocatus (Fig. 41) 1. Antennal club longer than funicle; pronotum orange, with a longitudinal black vitta; elytra entirely black ................................................................................. Pyticeroides laticornis (Fig. 43) Genus Madoniella Pic, 1935 This genus is represented by three species across the eastern, central and southern United States, and Texas to California (Barr 1962: 126). Other members of the genus occ ur in the West Indies and South America Madoniella is currently being revised by Weston Opitz and includes numerous new species (personal communication). Opitz (1997: 62) redescribed the genus. They are small and elongat e with anteriorly emarginate eyes ten segmented antennae with a three segmented club which is shorter than the funicle a subquadrate pronotum, and slender tarsi with strongly dentate tarsal claws The antennal club of Pyticeroides is longer than the fu nicle, distinguishing it from Madoniella. Bving and Champlain (1920: 609) described the larvae and compared them to some related taxa. Selected references : Spinola, 1844 : 1; LeConte, 1849: 30; Lacordaire, 1857: 466; Desmarest, 1860: 264; Gemminger and Harold, 1869: 1747; Gorham, 1877: 246; LeConte and Horn, 1883: 219; Kuwert, 1893: 492; Wickham, 1895: 248; Lohde, 1900: 87; Schenkling, 1903a : 86, 1910: 113; Wolcott, 1910c : 858; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 609; Gahan, 1910: 59, 73; Bradley, 1930: 107; B ving and Craighead, 1931a : 57; Pic, 1935: 100; Wolcott, 1944a : 124, 1947: 83; Fleutiaux 1947: 169; Winkler, 1961: 59; Barr, 1962: 126; Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 279; Opitz, 1997: 62, figs. 109120, 2002: 278. Madoniella dislocatus (Say ), 1825 (Figs. 41, 42) = Enoplium distrophum Klug, 1842 = Phyllobaenus transversalis Spinola, 1844

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99 Madoniella dislocatus has yellow to light brown mouth parts, antennae and legs. The pronotum is entirely brown and the elytra are patterned with dark brown and yellow. The he ad, pronotum and elytra are densely, coarsely punctate. The posterior elytral margins are serrulate. Adults are 3.5 to 6.0 mm long. The generic characters and color patterns distinguish Madoniella dislocatus from Pyticeroides laticornis. Bving and Champlain (1920: 610) described the larvae and compared them to some related taxa. Biology: Madoniella dislocatus is commonly found in the burrows of many woodboring insects. Their most common prey are bark beetles associated with oak s juniper, cedar, hickory, pine, hackberry, black spruce, sumac, larch, butternut, redbud and other hardwoods ( Opitz 2002: 278). Adults are diurnal and can be found on dead branches of trees, especially on oak between May and August. They have been recorded from oak, re d oak, hickory, Rhus sp. (Anacardiaceae) redbud, hackberry, apple, and black spruce infested with Elaphidion villosum (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), Bitoma carinata (LeConte) (Colydiidae), Agrilus lecontei Saunders (Buprestidae), Chramesus hicori ae LeC onte Micrasis sp., Scolytus rugulosus (Muller), Scolytus muticus Say, Phloeotribus dentifrons Bl ackman Polygraphus rufipennis (Kirby) and Pityophthorus consimilis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) (Knull, 1951: 302; Gosling, 1980: 73; Mawdsley 1999: 44) Adults have been collected in Florida from March through May. Specimens have been collected in ethanol baited Lindgren funnel traps and sticky traps. Distribution : Colorado, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Ontario (Wickham and

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100 Wolcott, 1912: 65; Wolcott, 1947: 84; Barr 197 5: 14). In Florida it has been r ecorded from Alachua, Jackson, Leon, Liberty and Union Counties. Specimen e xamined (19) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Archer sticky wire trap III 1984, M.J. Plagens ( 1, FSCA); Jackson County: Florida Caverns State Park, 35V 2008, M.C. and S. Thomas (13, FSCA); Leon County: Tallahassee, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 4V 2007, M. Bentley ( 1, CAPS); Liberty County: Torreya State Park 27IV 1991, M.C. Thomas 16V 1964, R.E. White ( 2, FSCA); Torreya State Park ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, V 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JMLC); Union County: Highway 238A 4IV 1989, C.W. Mills, III ( 1, FSCA) Selected references : Say, 1825: 176; Klug, 1842: 374; Spinola, 1844: 4, pl. 40, fig. 6; LeConte, 1849: 30, 1859a : 284; Drury, 1879: 171; Schwarz, 1890: 167; Hopkins, 1893a : 156; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Lohde, 1900: 87; Fel t, 1906: 503; Wolcott, 1909: 99, 1910c : 858; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 65; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 610, 636; Blackman and Stage, 1924: 45; Beal and Massey, 1945: 69, 71, 78, 79; Wolcott, 1947: 84; Knull, 1951: 302, pl. 10, fig. 39; Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 280, pl. 29, fig. 1; Ekis, 1975: 46; Barr 1975: 14; Gosling, 1980: 73; Opitz, 1997: figs. 109120; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86; Mawdsley, 1999: 44; Opitz 2002: 278, figs. 75, 95. Genus Pyticeroides Kuwert, 1894 Pyticeroides is represented in North American by a single species, Pyticeroides laticornis (Say), which is distributed in the eastern and central United States (Barr 1962: 126). Other members of the genus are distributed across Central and South America. Pyticeroides is character ized by having nine antennomeres Other epiphloeines have 8, 10 or 11 antennomeres. The three segmented antennal club is longer than the funicle. In Madoniella the antennal club is shorter than th e funicle. Opitz (1997: 59, 2007: 89) redescribed Pyticeroides, which was previously known to have only five species and all but two were of different genera ( Ellipotoma, Apolopha, Enoplium and

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101 Pyticeroides ). His revision added 27 new species, making the genus comprehensively defined and understood for the first time in history. Opitz (2007: figs. 123127) illustrated several larval structures of the genus and a habitus illustration of a P. laticornis larva. These illustrations were not accompanied by a diagnosis or discussion. Bving and Champlain (1920: 610) described the larvae and compared them to some related taxa. Selected references : Castelnau, 1836: 55; LeConte, 1849: 31; LeConte and Horn, 1883: 219; Kuwert, 1894: 7, 9; Wickham, 1895: 248; Lohde, 1900: 103; Schenkling, 1903a : 112; Gahan, 1910: 73; Wolcott 1910c : 858; Wolcott and Chapin, 1918: 108; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 610; Chapin, 1927: 8; Bradley, 1930: 107; Bving and Craighead, 1931a : 57; Corporaal, 1942: 141; Blackwelder, 1945: 388; Wolcott, 1947: 84; Corporaal, 1950: 253; Winkler, 1961: 59; Barr, 1962: 126; Opitz, 1997: 59, figs. 78, 79, 80, 2002: 278, 2007: 87. Pyticeroides laticornis (Say), 1835 (Figs. 43, 44) This elongate spe cies has black, patternless elytra that are over six times longer than either the pronotal length or elytral width The head and pronotum are orange to yellow, with black vittae extending from the posterior margins of the eyes to the pronotum, where they fuse into a single broad vitta spanning the length of the pronotum. The head and pronotum are densely, finely punctate. Adults are about 6.0 mm long. The most notable color variation is the pale recumbent setae on the head and lateral pronotum. In some specimens these setae are gold to yellow, in others they are more cream colored (Opitz, 2007: 131). The generic characters and color pattern distinguish it from Madoniella dislocatus Biology: This diurnal species has been recorded from elm, red cedar oak, hickory, eastern redbud, mulberry, juniper, hackberry, black cherry, and cypres s infested with Chramesus hicoriae LeConte Scolytus quadrispinosus Say, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), Phloeotribus liminaris (Harris ), Phloeophthorus sp. and Phloeosinus taxodii Bl ackman (Coleoptera:

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102 Curculionidae: Scolytinae) (Bving and Champlain, 1920: 637; Hoffman, 1940: 56; Knull, 1951: 303; Gosling, 1980: 73; Opitz, 2002: 278) The adults are diurnal and have been observed feeding on scolytid eggs and la rvae in galleries ( Bving and Champlain, 1920: 637). At infestation sites, the adult female lays a single egg at the gallery entrance of a bark beetle. The larva preys upon scolytid adults, larvae and eggs. It has been collected from February to October by beating, trapping or at ultraviolet light (Opitz, 2007: 132). Mawdsley (1994: 116) considers P. laticornis to be a part of a tremendous coleopteran mimicry ring with Lampyridae, Cantheridae, Lycidae, Buprestidae, Meloidae, Ptilodactylidae, Elateridae, and the Cleridae Placopterus thoracicus, Monophylla terminata and Chariessa pilosa. Adults have been collected in Florida in January, February, April and May. Distribution : Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Mississippi, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia and Ontario (Wickham and Wol cott, 1912: 66; Wolcott, 1947: 84; Knull, 1951: 304; Papp 1960: 85; Barr 1975 : 15; Gosling, 1980: 73). In his revision of the genus Pyticeroides, Opitz (2007: 131) suggested Mexico as part of this distribution because some Mexican specimens examined do not differ significantly from P. laticornis In Florida P. laticornis has been recorded from Alachua, Jackson and Orange Counties. Opitz (2007: 131) recorded specimens from Orlando, Orange County, 31I 1997, ex. Scolytid infested Leyland Cypress, and Ar cher, Alachua County, Guin SV, W. S. B. Mariana, W. F. Fiske, reared 14IV 1905.

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103 Specimens examined (2) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Archer, sticky wire trap, II1984, M.J. Plagens ( 1, FSCA); Jackson County: Florida Caverns State Park, 3 5 V 2008, M.C. and S. Thomas (1 FSCA) Selected references : Say, 1835: 164; LeConte, 1849: 31, 1859b: 641; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Lohde, 1900: 101; Drury, 1902: 149; Wolcott, 1910c : 859; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 66; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 611, 637; Blackman and Stage 1924: 45; Bving and Craighead, 1931b: 276; Hoffmann, 1940: 56, 1942: 7; Beal and Massey, 1945: 76, 79, 87; Wolcott, 1947: 84; Craighead, 1950: 203; Knull, 1951: 303, pl. 10, fig. 41; Papp, 1960: 85; Barr 1975: 15; Gosling, 1980: 73; Mawdsley, 1994: 116; Opitz, 1997: figs. 7890 2002: 278, figs. 1, 11, 79, 2007: 130, figs. 2729, 3946, 4951, 56, 66, 95, 116, 123127.

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104 Figure 41. Madoniella dislocatus Figure 42. Distribution map from Madoniella dislocatus

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105 Figure 43. Pyticeroides laticornis Figure 44. Distribution map of Pyticeroides laticornis

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106 CHAPTER 5 HYDNOCERINAE Key to the Florida G enera of Hydnocerinae 1. Elytra either entirely blue to green or patterned, never entirely pale testaceous .... Phyllobaenus 1. Body entirely pale testaceous, occasionally with a black macula on the head ...... Isohydnocera Genus Isohydnocera Chapin, 1917 This genus is represented by 14 species throughout the eastern, central and southern United S tates to Arizona (Barr 1962: 125). Other members of the genus occur throughout the Western Hemisphere. According to current literature Isohydnocera is distinguish ed by its simple tarsal claws. The tarsal claws of Phyllobaenus are bifid. Previous liter ature has indicated that the third antennomere in Isohydnocera is twice as long as it is broad, and the elongate bodies and spindly, delicate legs help separate them from Phyllobaenus There is much overlap in these characters which previous authors consi dered distinctive. Additionally, recent authors diagnosed Isohydnocera citing characters that disagree with the original descriptions of the species discussed within their publication (Knull, 1951). Because specimens identified as I. aegra do not match t he published description, I. aegra is considered a synonym in this work. It is considered that I. aegra does not exist (Barr via Thomas, personal communication). Much work is needed to confidently distinguish Isohydnocera from Phyllobaenus Mawdsley (1994: 117) considers the members of the genus to be generalized ant mimics. Selected references : Chapin, 1917: 83; Bradley, 1930: 105; Wolcott, 1944a : 127, 1947: 74; Barr, 1962: 125; Mawdsley, 1994: 117; Opitz 2002: 276. Isohydnocera curtipennis (Newman ), 1840 (Figs. 5 1, 52) = Hydnocera longicollis Zeigler, 1844 = Isohydnocera aegra (Newman), 1840

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107 Isohydnocera curtipennis is entirely pale testaceous. Previous literature suggested that the elytra and or head and prothorax were patterned (Knull, 1951: 283). The body is elongate and narrow with delicate, spindly legs. It resembles an elongated, patternless version of Phyllobaenus Adults are about 5.0 mm long. Sabrosky (1934: 66) describe d the larva, discussed its similarity to other clerid taxa, and explain ed how to use the work of Bving and Champlain (1920) regarding this species. There is some confusion as to whether past literature referred to I. curtipennis or a member of Phyllobaenus (see the discussion under Isohydnocera). Biology: Isohydnocera curtipennis has been considered to breed in hickory and witch hazel as a borer or predator of woodboring insect larvae. It has been recorded from galls of Euura salicus nodus Walsh (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) on willow and Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis Riley (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on golden rod ( Sabrosky, 1934: 65; Knull 1951: 284) Sabrosky (1934: 65) after finding the exuvium of the beetle inside of the pupal cell, suggested the immatures consume the contents of solidago gallmoth pupae while occupying the pupal cell as an endoparasite. Isohydnocera curtipennis has been captured in a habitat rich with torpedograss on Lake Okeechobee (Cuda, 2007: 243). In Florida adults have been collected March through May. One specimen was colle cted in a Malaise trap. Distribution : Connecticut, District of Columbia Florida, Georgia, Illin ois, Indiana, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Ontario (Newman, 1840: 364; Zeigler, 1844: 44; Sabrosky, 1934: 65; Wolcott, 1947: 74; Papp 1960: 80; Barr 1975: 14; Gosling, 1980: 72). Knull (1951: 284) recorded it from Ohio, stating that adults occur from May through August.

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108 In Florida it has been recorded from Alachua Collier, Dixie, Franklin, Gulf, Indian River, L iberty, Palm Beach, Sarasota, Saint Lucie, and Santa Rosa Counties. Cuda (2007: 243) recorded it from Glades County. Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 65) recorded it from Crescent City Putnam County. Specimens e xamined (2) : Florida: Liberty County: Torreya State Park, 4V 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JMLC); St. Lucie County: Fort Pierce, UF/IRREC, Malaise trap, 12 III 2007, C.L. Branch ( 1, JMLC ). Selected r eferences : Newman 1840: 364; Zeigler, 1844: 44; LeC onte, 1849: 29; Drury, 1879: 171, Chittenden, 1890: 155; Baker, 1895: 28; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Lohde, 1900: 92; Wolcott, 1909: 100, 1910c : 856; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 65; Sabrosky, 1934: 65; Wolcott, 1947: 74; Knull, 1951: 283, pl. 4, fig. 13; Papp, 1960: 80; Barr 1975: 14; Gosling, 1980: 72; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86; Mawdsley, 1999: 44; Opitz, 2002: 276; Mawdsley, 2002b: 20; Cuda, 2007: 243. Genus Phyllobaenus Dejean, 1833 Phyllobaenus is represented by 58 well distributed species seven of which occur in Florida (Barr 1962: 125) Members of this genus are often about 4.0 mm long, with soft elytra which often do not cover the entire abdomen, entire, finely granulate eyes, and a short hind body. The posterior elytral margins are minutely serrulate and the anteapical region of each elytron is tumid in some species. The tarsal claws are broadly dentate t he maxillary palpi are cylindrical with the apical palpomeres weakly tapering and t he labial palpi are elongate with the apical palpomere strongl y dilated. The antennae are nearly filiform with an abruptly formed, compact club of two subglobose segments. Phyllobaenus, Isohydnocera and Wolcottia are the only genera of the subfamily in the United States. All genera in the subfamily share varying de grees of the posterior elytral serrulation and body form. Separating members of Phyllobaenus from Isohydnocera requires revisionary work (see the discussion of Isohydnocera) Most m embers of Phyllobaenus are

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109 smaller have more robust bodies and basally toot hed tarsal claws which separate them from Isohydnocera. Wolcottia is similar in body form to Phyllobaenus and has a tooth like notch on its tarsi, where Phyllobaenus has much more distinct tarsal denticle s Wolcott (1944a : 123) offered an extensive discussion of the nomenclatural changes throughout the literary history of the genus with an updated genus diagnosis. Bving and Champlain (1920: 622) described the larvae of Hydnocera and compared them to some related taxa. At the time of publication, Hydnocera included Phyllobaenus and Isohydnocera However, because the work only addressed species now known as Phyllobaenus it should only be considered a genus treatment of Phyllobaenus Members of Phyllobaenus are often co llected in sweep samples of grassy and short foliage habitats. They have been reared from cotton bolls and insect galls. Other plant associations include wild grape, river birch, black and white oak, hickory, sumac, pine, blackberry, cotton, elm, and des ert shrubs. These beetles are predacious on small wood boring insects, wasp larvae and immature weevils ( Opitz 2002: 276). Mawdsley (1994: 117) considers all members of Phyllobaenus to be generalized ant mimics. Some species are also chemical mimics of Pheidole ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), producing chemicals which induce plant tissue growth in stems. My observations suggest a need for revisionary work to accurately distinguish many species of Phyllobaenus The problem lies within a group of species here named the pallipennis verticalis complex, including the known species P. pallipennis P. suturalis and P. verticalis It is uncertain if P. suturalis is a part of this complex or if it even occurs in Florida. This is due to extensive character varia tion seen in members of these species and the all too brief, old (18251842) original species description, to which recent literature has added little usable data. As

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110 such, P. suturalis has been excluded from the diagnostic key (below) but included as a species treatment. I also consider that a species, or variation of a described species, of Phyllobaenus is commonly mistakenly considered to be a member of Isohydnocera (see the discussion of Isohydnocera). The key below is written according to the most current literature and should work for most specimens encountered. Selected r eferences : Dejean, 1833: 113; Newman, 1838: 379; Chevrolat, 1843: 33; LeConte, 1849: 26; LeConte and Horn, 1883: 218; Wolcott, 1910c : 855; Chapin, 1917: 83; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 622, 635; Bradley, 1930: 105; Wolcott, 1944a : 123, 1947: 65, 71; Barr, 1962: 125; Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 274; Mawdsley, 1994: 117; Opitz 2002: 276. K ey to the Florida S pecies of Phyllobaenus 1. Legs entirely pale yellow to orange ............................................................................................2 1. Legs bicolored or entirely bluishblack to black .......................................................................4 2 (1). Elytra somewhat metallic bluish to green, but unicolorous; pronotum matching elytral color, lacking any maculations; head matching elytral color ............................ P. rufipes (F ig. 59) 2. Elytra black, with yellowish maculations of variable form; pronotum black, with or without yellowish maculations; head yellowish or black .............................................................................3 3 (2). Pronotum lacking any yellowish maculations; head black, with yellow integument only at mouthpa rts and antennae; elytra with four yellowish maculae of variable size, sometimes covering most of the elytral surface ............................................................ P. pallipennis (Fig. 5 5) 3. Pronotum variable, with or without yellowish maculations; head yellow, with or without a black macula locat ed basally between the eyes; elytra with two humeral maculae which may extend apically to the full length of the elytra covering most of the surface, if so extended, some evidence of black should remain at the elytral apices and/or elytral margins ................................... P. vert icalis (Fig. 515) 4 (1). Head, pronotum and elytra unicolorous, lacking any maculations; body covered with dense pubescence; legs orangish red ............................................................ P. pubescens (Fig. 57) 4. Head, pronotum and elytra bluish black to black, but with two elytral maculae; body lacking dense pubescence; legs black and unicolorous or bluish black with orangish red at the base of the femora and first tarsomeres ..............................................................................................................5

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111 5 (4). Elytra with orangish humeral maculae; legs bluish black with orangish red at the base of the femora and fir st tarsomeres ..................................................................... P. humeralis (Fig. 53) 5. Elytra with pale median transverse fascia; legs black and unicolorous ................................................................................................................. P. unifasciatus (Fig. 513) Phyllobaenus humeralis (Say), 1823 (Figs. 53, 5 4) = Phyllobaenus axillaris Dejean, 1833 Phyllobaenus humeralis i s a somewhat robust, dark bluish black hydnocerine best recognized by the orange spots on its elytral humeri. Other than the humeral spots, its body, legs, pronotum and head are bluishblack. The mouthparts, antennae and parts of the legs are yellowish t o brown. The yellowish on the legs may be found often on the apical profemora and protibiae and sometimes on the mesofemora. There is much variation and some specimens have legs that are nearly entirely bluish black. The margins of the apical third of t he elytra are weakly and rather bluntly serrulate. If the serrulations appear pointed, then the length of the serrulation should not exceed the width of nearby elytral punctures. The apical third of the elytra is convex. Adults range from 3.5 to 5.5 mm in length. Phyllobaenus humeralis resembles P. pubescens and P. rufipes both of which lack humeral spots and have uniformly reddishorange legs. While Phyllobaenus humeralis is similar in pattern, Necrobia ruficollis is a metallic greenish blue clerid wi th orangish humeri, pronotum, and legs But, N. ruficollis differs significantly in body form and generic characters Biology: Mawdsley (2002b: 21) noted that P. humeralis breeds in t he trunks and limbs of oaks and hickory, and that it may also occur on flowers and foliage of herbaceous plants. A single specimen collected in Florida in April. Distribution : Arizona, California, Colorado, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New

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112 York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, Mexico, British Columbi a, Manitoba, Ottawa and Ontario (Wolcott, 1909: 99; Wickham and Wolcott 1912: 61 ; Wolcott, 1947: 72; Knull, 1951: 281; Papp 1960:79; Barr, 1975: 12). This distribution includes the subspecies P. h. cyaneus and P. h. difficilis however only P. h. humeralis is known from Florida. In Florida only one specimen from Wakulla County has been collected. Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 61) and Papp (1960: 79) recorded this species from Florida, although neither reference refer red directly to a specimen Specimens e xamined (1) : FLORIDA: Wakulla County: Ochlockonee Sta te Park, 4 IV 1984, N.M. Downie ( 1, FSCA). Selected references : Say, 1823: 192; Dejean, 1833: 133; Newman, 1840: 362; Spinola, 1844: 44; LeConte, 1849: 27, 1859b: 122, 640; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Lohde, 1900: 93; Drury, 1902: 149; Wolcott, 1909: 99 1910c : 856; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 61; Wolcott, 1947: 72; Knull, 1951: 280, pl. 3, fig. 9; Papp, 1960: 79; Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 274, pl. 28, fig. 10; Ekis, 1975: 17; Barr 1975: 12; Gosling, 1980: 70; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86; Mawdsley, 1999: 43, 2002b: 21; Opitz, 2002: figs. 51, 53. Phyllobaenus pallipennis (Say), 1825 (Figs. 55, 56) = Phyllobaenus quadrimaculatus Dejean, 1833 = Hydnocera serrata Newman, 1838 Phyllobaenus pallipennis is recognized by its orangish antennae, mouthparts and legs, dark colored body, pronotum and head, and two yellowish markings on each elytron. The elytral maculations vary in size from one specimen to another, ranging from distinctly separate maculae to contiguous swellings. The margins of the apical third of the elytra are strongly serrulate, with pointed serrulations whose length is greater than the diameter of nearby punctures. The surface of the apical third of each elytron has an anteapical depress ion. Adults are 3.5 to 5 mm in length. According to current literature, P. pallipennis may resemble some variations of the likewise variable P. verticalis. P hyllobaenus pallipennis appears to have four distinct, although

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113 occasionally adjacent, elytral ma culae and t here are no yellowish markings on its pronotum or head. (See the discussion of Phyllobaenus ). Wolcott (1909: 100) observed much variation in the color markings of this species. Biology: In the summer months of June and July P. pallipennis has been collected in significant numbers on gray birch feeding on aphids During these months, P. pallipennis prey on many soft bodied insects but none more so than aphids The clerid was rarely collected from neighboring tree species (Chapin, 1948: 304). This species is also a predator of the cotton boll weevil in Texas (Knull 1951: 283). Gosling (1980: 71) collected P. pallipennis from sumac and oak and observed it at ultraviolet lights. It has been collected from Rhus copalina Linnaeus (Anacardiaceae) Mawdsley (2002b: 21) note d that it breeds in the trunks, logs and limbs of oaks and hickory, but that it may occur on flowers and foliage of herbaceous plants. In Florida a dults have been collected in April and May. Specimens have been collected from Malaise traps and sticky traps on slash pine. Distribution : Alabama, Colorado, District of Columbia, Florida, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, South Carolina, Texas, Wisconsin, and Ontario (Wolcott, 1909: 100, 1947: 73; Papp 1960: 79; Barr 1975: 12). Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 64) recorded it from West Springfield, Massachusetts, which is within 10 miles of Connecticut, and Sparta, Wisconsin, which is within 30 miles of Minnes ota Knull (1951:283) recorded this species from Ohio in Noble County, which is within 50 miles of West Virginia and Cincinnati which is on the Kentucky border In Florida it has been recorded from Alachua, Baker, Liberty and Marion Counties.

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114 Specimen s e xamined (7) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Gainesville, SE Kincaid Rd. old field edge, xeric oak habitat, 6 meter Malaise trap 815V 1999, B.D. Sutton ( 1, FSCA); Baker County: Olustee, sticky traps in slash pine 20IV 20V 1978, R.A. Belmont ( 1, FSCA); Liberty County: Torreya State Park 26IV 1991, M.C. Thomas 6V 1989, 7V 1989, R. Turnbow 4V 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, FSCA ; 2, RHTC; 1, JMLC ); Marion County: Summerfield, La Casta subdivision, Rhus copalina, 16 IV 1994, R.E. Woodruff ( 1, FSCA) S elected references : Say, 1825: 176; Dejean, 1833: 113; Newman, 1838: 379, 1840: 363; LeConte, 1849: 28, 1859a : 283; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Lohde, 1900: 93; Drury, 1902: 149; Felt, 1906: 693; Wolcott, 1909: 100; Pierce, Cushmen and Hood, 1912: 41; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 64; Wolcott, 1947: 7 3; Chapin, 1948: 304; Knull, 1951: 283, pl. 3, fig. 12; Papp, 1960: 79; Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 274, pl. 29, fig. 4; Ekis, 1975: 17; Barr 197 5: 1 2; Gosling, 1980: 71; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86; Mawdsley, 2002: 21; Opitz 2002: figs. 39, 44. Phyllobaenus pubescens (LeConte), 1849 (Figs. 5 7, 58) Phyllobaenus pubescens has a blackish blue green body which appears duller in color due to its dense pubescence. The legs, mouthparts and antennae are orangish yellow. The margins of the apical third of the elytra are weakly and bluntly serrulate. If any of the serrulations appear somewhat pointed, then the length of the serrulation should not exceed the width of nearby elytral punctures. The apical third of the elytra is convex. Adults are about 4 mm in length. Phyllobaenus pubescens resembles P. humeralis but lacks the orange humeral maculations and dark colored legs. Phyllobaenus rufipes is also similar in body and leg color, but P. rufipes lacks the d ense pubescence. Sabrosky (1934: 68) discusse d the similarity of the larvae of P. pubescens to Isohydnocera curtipennis and P. verticalis, and explained how to use the work of Bving and Champlain (1920) regarding this species. Bving and Champlain (1920: 623) describe d the larvae and

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115 compare d them to some related taxa. It was noted that P. pubescens was not actually reared and wa s listed as Hydnocera pubescens LeConte (?). Biology: This species is a predator of the cotton boll weevil ( Anthonomus sp.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Texas, and also on Microbracon sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) cocoons (Knull, 1951: 280) Mawdsley (2002b: 19) consider ed P. pubescens to be the most common and abundant clerid associated with prairie flora in North America. Its larvae, and presumably adults, are predaceous on the larvae of Stibadium spumosum Grote (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Heleothis zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), pests of sunflowers and cotton, respectively. It has been recorded visiting Amorpha fruticosa Torrey, Melilotus officinalis (Linnaeus) Pallas, Cassia sp (Fabaceae), Asclepias latifolia (Torrey) Rafinesque (Asclepiadaceae) Gaillardia sp ., Parthenium hysterophorus Linnaeus, Rudbeckia amplexicaulis Vahl, Rudbeckia grandiflora (Sweet) Gmlin ex De Candolle, Rudbeckia hirta Linnaeus, Sideranthus rubiginosus (Torrey and Gray) Britton ex Rydberg, and Vernonia interior Smith, Helianthus petiolaris Nuttall, Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, Aster tanacetifolius Kunth (Asteraceae) various cactus flowers, Malvastrum apiculatum (Linnaeus) Gray, Callirhoe involucrata (Torrey and Gray) Torrey (Malvaceae) Polytaenia nuttalli De Candolle, Cicuta maculata Linnaeus (Apiaceae) Croton punctatus Jacquin (Euphorbiaceae) Monarda pectinata N uttall, Monarda punctata Linnaeus (Lamiaceae) Opuntia sp (Cactaceae) and Quamasia sp (Liliaceae) It has been reared from the nest of Megachile brevis Say (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), the stem of Iva ciliata Willdenow (Asteraceae) the flower head of Rudbeckia amplexicaulis Vahl (A steraceae) and i nsect galls ( Sabrosky, 1934: 66; Knull 1951: 280 ; Mawdsley, 2002b: 19). Only one specimen has been collected in Florida. It was in April in an alfalfa field.

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116 Distribution : Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Kansa s, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, and Utah ( Wolcott 1909: 99, 1947: 73; Papp 1960: 79; Mawdsley, 2002b: 19; Barr 1975: 12). Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 61) recorded it from Brownsville, Texas, which is on the Mexican border Knull (1951: 280) recorded it from Cincinnati, Ohio which is on the Kentucky border. In Florida a single specimen from Gadsden County has been collected Specimens e xamined (1) : FLORIDA: Gadsden County: Quincy, in an alfalfa field 28IV 1970, F.W. Mead ( 1, FSCA). Selected references : LeConte, 1849: 28; Lohde, 1900: 94; Wolcott, 1909: 99, 1910c : 856; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 61; Pierce, Cushman and Hood, 1912: 41; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 623; Sabrosky, 1934: 66; Wright and Whitehouse, 1941: 72; Wolcott, 1947: 73; Knull, 1951: 280, pl. 3, fig. 11; Papp, 1960: 79; Barr 1975: 12; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86; Mawdsley, 2002b : 19. Phyllobaenus rufipes (Newman), 1840 (Figs. 5 9, 510) This somewhat metallic blue green hydnocerine has orangish legs, antennae and mouthparts. The margins of the apical third of the elytra are moderately to weakly, bluntly serrulate. The apical third of the elytra is convex. Adults range from 3.5 to 5.5 mm in length. Phyllobaenus rufipes differs from P. pubescens in that it lacks the lustermuting dense pubescence. It also lacks the dark legs and humeral maculations of P. humeralis and the dark legs and pale elytral fasciae of P. unifasciatus Biology: In Florida adults ha ve been collected from turkey oak and alfalfa fields. Adults have been collected March through June, August and September. Specimens have been collected in Malaise traps, malt bait traps and blacklight traps. Distribution : Alabama, Arkansas and Fl orida ( Wickham and Wolcott 1912: 60; Wolcott, 1947: 73; Papp 1960: 79) Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 60) recorded it from Chu nchula,

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117 Alabama, which is within 20 miles of Mississippi. In Florida it has been recorded from Alachua, Baker, Escambia, Gadsden, Levy, Marion, Na ssau, Okaloosa, Putnam, and Union Counties. Specimens e xamined (38) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Gainesville, 5 V 1964, R.E. White ( 2, FSCA); Pierce's Homestead, west of Gainesville, malaise trap 21III 1976 W.H. Pierce ( 1, FSCA); Baker County: Glen Saint Mary malt bait trap 18IV 1960, E.W. Holder, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Escambia County: Pensacola, on turkey oak, 17V 1960, R.E. Woodruff ( 6, FSCA); Gadsden County: Quincy, in an alfalfa field 28IV 1970, F.W. Mead ( 1, FSCA); 11IV 1960, H.A. Denmark ( 1, FSCA); Levy County: 3.8 miles southwest of Archer malaise trap in rosemary and turkey oak sandhill 10 IV 1988, 17 IV 1988, 1723IV 1988, 23IV 1988, 15V 1988, 21V 1988, 5VI 1988, 18IX 1988, P.E. Skelley ( 14, FSCA); Marion County: 8 miles southeast of Interlachen on oak, 21III 1953, B.K. Dozier ( 1, FSCA); Nassau County: 1.5 miles east of Boulogne "powerline cut in turkey oaks" 17IV 1997 P.E. Skelley ( 1, FSCA); Fort Clinch State Park 26VIII 1993, L.A. Stange and J. Wiley ( 1, FSCA); Ralph Simmons State Forest, 1 mile east of Boulogne 24V 2002, P.E. Skelley ( 3, FSCA); St. Mary's R. State Forest, WMA 1.5 miles east of Boulogne 17IV 1997, P.E. Skelley ( 1, FSCA); Okaloosa County: 1.5 miles west of Holt, on Bryant Bridge Cut Off Road at blacklight trap 14IV 1989, B. Beck, R. Woodruff and P. Skelley ( 2, FSCA); Destin on turkey oak, 16V 1960, R.E. Woodruff ( 2, FSCA); Union County: Highway 241 at Santa Fe River 16IV 1989, C.W. Mills, III ( 1, FSCA) Selected references : Newma n, 1840: 363; Lohde, 1900: 94; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 60; Wolcott, 1947: 73; Papp, 1960: 79; Barr 197 5: 13; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86. Phyllobaenus suturalis (Klug) 1842 (Figs. 511, 512) = Hydnocera limbata Spinola, 1844 The following discussion is based on limited literature and a small number of specimens identified by an authority. Because of the poor descriptions from dated literature, I question the

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118 accuracy of such identifications. The antennae, legs, mouthparts and two markings on each elytron are yellowish. The elytral maculations vary in size from one specimen to another, ranging from distinctly separate maculae to nearly contiguous swellings. The margins of the apical third of the elytra are strongly serrulate with pointed serrulations whose length is greater than the diameter of nearby punctures. The surface of the apical third of each elytron has an anteapical depression. Adults are 3.5 to 5 mm in length. It is doubtful that this species occurs in Florida but revisionary work is required (see the discussion of Phyllobaenus ). Biology: In Florida a dults have been collected in Florida in May. Distribution : Florida, Mexico and possibly Panama (Wolcott, 1927: 4, 1947: 73; Barr 1975: 13). In Florida it has be en recorded from Dixie and Marion Counties. Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 64) recorded this species from Tampa Hillsborough County, Florida, collected in May. Specimens examined ( 2) : FLORIDA: Dixie County: junction of highways 349 and 351, 30V 1983, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Marion County: 11.6 miles southeast of Belleview 16V 1977, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC) Selected references : Klug, 1842: 313; Spinola, 1844: 49; Gorham, 1882: 168; Lohde, 1900: 94; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 64; Wolcott, 1927: 4, 1947: 73; Ekis, 1975: 18; Barr 1975: 13; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86. Phyllobaenus unifasciatus (Say), 1825 (Figs. 5 13, 514) = Hydnocera punctata Spinola, 1844 This dark bodied and dark legged hydnocerine has a pale transverse fascia at about the middle of the elyt ra. The antennae, mouthparts and occasionally parts of the legs are yellowish brown. The apical profemora and tibiae, apical mesoand m etat ibiae, and all tarsi may be

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119 yellowish. The margins of the apical third of the elytra are moderately serrulate. T he apical third of the elytra is convex. Adults are around range 4.5 mm in length. Phyllobaenus unifas ciatus is readily distinguished from P. pubescens and P. rufipes by its lack or orangish legs and dense pubescence. Phyllobaenus unifasciatus lacks orange humeral maculations which separates it from P. humeralis The single median fascia on each elytron separates it from the other species of Phyllobaenus Due to the pale fascia and body coloration it is similar to Tarsostenus univittatus Ta rsostenus h owever, is a much more elongate bodied insect with longer (as opposed to stubby) antennae. Biology: Phyllobaenus unifasciatus has been recorded from sumac, walnut, American elm, and white oak infested with Hyperplatys sp. larvae, Psenocerus supernotatus (Say) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Agrilus defectus Lee (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), Magdalis sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Hylurgopinus rufipes (Eich off) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) ( Bving and Champlain, 1920: 636; Pechuman, 1937: 9; Knull 1934: 34, 1951: 280) Gosling (1980: 71) has reared it from walnut logs. Mawdsley (2002b : 21) notes that it breeds i n the trunks and limbs of oaks and hickory, but that it may occur on flowers and foliage of herbaceous plants. It has also been recorded fr om insect galls (Sabrosky, 1934: 66) Eliason and Potter (2000: 555) found larvae in dissected stem galls of Callirhytus cornigera (Osten Sacken) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on pin oak. It was unsure exactly what the larva predated since many other insects occupied the galls. A single a dult ha s been collected in Florida in April. In Ohio, Illinois and North Carolina, adults are collected in May, June and July (Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 60; Knull, 1951: 280). Distribution : Alabama, Arizona, Colorado, District of Columbia Indiana Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nebraska New Jersey New Mexico New

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120 York North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, Ontario ( Wolcott 1909: 99; Wickham and Wol cott 1912: 60; Wolcott 1947: 74; Papp, 1960: 80; Barr 1975: 14; Gosling, 1980: 71; Eliason and Potter, 2000: 555) In Florida it has only been recorded from Marion County. Specimens examined (1) : FLORIDA: Marion County: Ocala National Forest, Scrub SW salt spring, 10IV 1948, F.N.Y. Young ( 1, FSCA). Selected references : Say 1825: 176; Spinola, 1844: 54, pl. 40, fig. 4; LeConte, 1849: 27, 1859a : 284; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Lohde, 1900: 95; Drury, 1902: 149; Schaeffer, 1908: 131; Wolcott, 1909: 99, 1910c : 856; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 60; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 636; Knull, 1928: 314, 1932: 43, 1934: 34; Sabrosky, 1934: 66; Pechuman, 1937: 9; Hoffmann, 1942: 7; Wolcott, 1947: 74; Craighead, 1950: 203; Knull, 1951: 279, pl. 2, fig. 6; Papp, 1960: 8 0; Barr 197 5: 14; Gosling, 1980: 71; Peck and Thomas, 1998; 86; Eliason and Potter, 2000: 555 ; Mawdsley, 2002b: 21. Phyllobaenus verticalis Say, 1835 (Figs. 515, 5 16) = P. tenella Say, 1835 = P. brachyptera Klug, 1842 = P. lineaticollis Spinola, 1844 This species of Phyllobaenus has t he greatest variation seen in Floridas fauna in maculation expression, size, and elongation. Its elytra may yellow only at the humeri to nearly completely yellow and its head and pronotum may have both yellow and black maculations. Its legs, however, are always yellow. The margins of the apical third of the elytra are strongly serrulate, with pointed serrulations whose length is greater than the diameter of nearby punctures. The surface of the apical third of eac h elytron has an anteapical depression. Adults are 3.5 to 5 mm in length. Wolcott (1909: 99) observed much variation in this species regarding coloration and head and thorax structure. T he degree of variation implies the possibility that more than one species may be present (see the discussion of Phyllobaenus )

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121 Sabrosky (1934: 68) discussed the larvae of Isohydnocera curtipennis and P. pubescens, and explained how to use the work of Bving and Champlain (1920) regarding this species. Bving and Champlain (1920: 623) describe d the larvae and compare d them to some related taxa. Biology: Phyllobaenus verticalis has been recorded from wild grape hickory, river birch black oak, linden, and bittersweet infested with Eupogonius pubescens Le Conte, Grammoptera exigua (New ma n), Phymatodes amoenus (Say) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Agrilus betulae Fisher, and Agrilus geminatus (Say) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) ( Dillon and Dillon, 1974: 274; Knull 1932: 43). Mawdsley (2002b : 21) note d that it b reeds i n the trunks and limbs of oaks and hickory, but that it may occur on flowers and foliage of herbaceous plants. Osten Sacken (1861: 68) reared it from cynipid galls on white oak. Eliason and Potter (2000: 555) found larvae in dissected stem galls of Callirhytus cornigera (Osten Sacken) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on pin oak. They noted that the beetle develops for up to two years in egg chamber of the gall and likely feeds on the cynipid larva. In Florida a dults have been collected February through October. Specimens have been collected in Lindgren funnel traps baited with ethanol and alpha beta pinene (separately), Malaise traps and McPhail traps. It has been collected on oak. Distribution : Florida, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Illinois, In diana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Wisconsin, Ontario, and Toronto ( Wolcott 1909: 99; Wickham and Wolcott 1912: 64; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 636; Wolcott, 1947: 74; Knull, 1951: 282 ; Papp 1960: 80; Barr 1975: 14; Mawdsley, 1999: 44; Eliason and Potter, 2000: 555). In Florida it has been recorded from

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122 Alachua, Dixie, Duval, Gadsden, Leon, Mar ion, Nassau, Okaloosa, Putnam, Suwannee, Volusia, and Walton Counties. Specimens examined (46) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Gainesville, 7 VII 1979, G.B. Edwards sweeping oaks 9II 1975, H. Greenbaum V 1953, IX 1961, L.A. Hetrick 13VI 1964, 18VII 1964, 23V 1964, R.E. White ( 8, FSCA); Gainesville, Lindgren funnel with 95% ETOH bait 29III 14IV 1989, T.H. Atkinson ( 1, FSCA); Gainesville, Doyle Conner building, in window trap 20 feet above ground 20IV 1987, 6X 1987, P.E. Skelley malaise trap 3IV 1987, 29V 1987, 5VI 1987, P.E. Skelley ( 5, FSCA); Gainesville, NW 42nd Terr. and 34th Pl., Turpentine/frontalin baited Lindgren funnel trap, VI 2005, J.L. Foltz and J.M. Leavengood, Jr., 28V 2001, J.L. Foltz ( 3 JMLC); Gainesville, SE Kincaid Rd, 1 mile north of Payne's Prairie edge old field/dry oak hammock, 6 m Malaise trap, 714VI 1998, B.D. Sutton ( 1, FSCA); Dixie County: 3.5 miles north of Old Town, 1V 1978, 17V 1978, M.C. Thomas ( 2, FSCA); 3.5 miles north of Old Town, route 349, 5V 1979, 24V 1979, M.C. Thomas ( 2, FSCA); 3.7 miles north of Old Town, 20V 1978, 18V 1979, 20V 1978, 23VI 1978, R. Turnbow ( 1, FSCA ; 6, RHTC); Duval County: SE Jacksonville ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, VI 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JMLC); Jacksonville, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 7VI 2007, A. Silagyi and A. Johnson ( 2, CAPS); Jacksonville, alpha beta pinene ba ited Lindgren funnel trap, 29VI 2007, A. Silagyi and A. Johnson ( 1, CAPS) ; Gadsden County: Quincy, 21VIII 1971, T.M. Neal ( 1, FSCA); Leon County: Tallahassee, alpha beta pinene baited Lindgren funnel trap, 3X 2006, M. Bentley ( 2, JMLC); Levy County, at light, 3IV 1954, H.V. Weems, Jr. (1, FSCA); Marion County: McIntosh, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, IV 2007, J.M. Leaveng ood, Jr. ( 2, JMLC); Nassau County: Ralph Simmons State Forest, 1 mile east of Boulogne, 24V 2002, P.E. Skelley ( 1, FSCA); Okaloosa County: 1.7 miles northwest of Holt,

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123 Florida A and M Research Station, Blackwater River State Forest, 2 IX 1976, L.A. Stange ( 1, FSCA); Putnam County: 3 miles east of Melrose, K. Ordway Preserve, 24III 1999, P.E. Skelley ( 1, FSCA); Suwan nee County: Suwannee River State Park, malaise trap, 24 VI 14VII 1977, J.R. Wiley ( 1, FSCA); Volusia County: Port Orange, in McPhail trap, 11 V I 1969, J.N. Pott ( 1, FSCA); Walton County: 1 mile southwest of Holmes County line on Highway 185, 17IV 1983, R. Turnbow ( 1, FSCA). Selected references : Say, 1835: 164; Klug, 1842: 313; Spinola, 1844: 51, pl. 40, fig. 1; LeConte, 1849: 29, 1859b: 640; Os ten Sacken, 1861: 68; Drury, 1879: 171; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Lohde, 1900: 95; Felt, 1906: 605; Wolcott, 1909: 99, 1910c : 856; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 64; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 623, 636; Knull, 1930: 82; Bving and Craighead, 1931b: 276; Knull, 1932: 43; Sabrosky, 1934: 68; Beal and Massey, 1945: 76; Wolcott, 1947: 74; Craighead, 1950: 203; Knull, 1951: 282, pl. 2, fig. 7; Papp, 1960: 80; Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 274, pl. 28, fig. 12; Ekis, 1975: 18; Barr 1975: 14; Gosling, 1980: 71; Peck and Th omas, 1998: 86; Mawdsley, 1999: 43; Eliason and Potter, 2000: 555; Mawdsley, 2002b: 21

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124 Figure 51. Isohydnocera curtipennis Figure 52. Distribution map of Isohydnocera curtipennis

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125 Figure 53. Phyllobaenus humeralis Figure 54. Distribution map of Phyllobaenus humeralis

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126 Figure 55. Phyllobaenus pallipennis Figure 56. Distribution map of Phyllobaenus pallipennis

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127 Figure 57. Phyllobaenus pubescens Figure 58. Distribution map of Phyllobaenus pubescens

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128 Figure 59. Phyllobaenus rufipes Figure 510. Distribution map of Phyllobaenus rufipes

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129 Figure 511. Phyllobaenus suturalis Figure 512. Distribution map of Phyllobaenus suturalis

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130 Figure 513. Phyllobaenus unifasciatus Figure 514. Distribution map of Phyllobaenus unifasciatus

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131 Figure 515. Phyllobaenus verticalis Figure 516. Distribution map of Phyllobaenus verticalis

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132 CHAPTER 6 KORYNETINAE Genus Necrobia Olivier, 1795 Necrobia is represented by three cosmopolitan, economically important species in North America (Barr, 1962: 127; Papp 1959: 162). There are six other species from Europe, Argentina and South Africa (Papp, 1959: 165). The three North American species are frequen tly encountered on dry carrion (Wickham and Wolcott 1912: 67). Necrobia is best distinguished by its apical maxillary palpomere which is oval and apically truncate the broad, short and basally dentate tarsal claws, t he ninth and tenth antennomeres distin ctly narrowly transverse, entire and coarsely granulate eyes, and t he eleven segmented antennae with a small compact three segmented club. Their bodies are mostly to entirely metallic bluish black to green. The elytral humeri and/or legs are orangish i n some speci es. Bving and Champlain (1920: 597) described the larvae of Necrobia Selected references: Olivier, 1795: 5; LeConte, 1849: 33; Mulsant and Rey, 1863: 122; LeConte and Horn, 1883: 220; Wickham, 1895: 248; Wolcott, 1910c : 861; Wickham and Wolco tt, 1912: 67; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 597; Chapin, 1924: 279; Bradley, 1930: 107; Bving and Craighead, 1931a : 56; Wolcott, 1947: 88; Knull, 1951: 311, pl. 12, fig. 47, pl. 13, figs. 50, 51; Papp, 1959: 162; Barr, 1962: 127; Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 280; Opitz, 2002: 280. Key to the Florida S pecies of Necrobia 1. Body unicolorous, metallic blue or green .................................................. N. violacea (Fig. 65) 1. Body not unicolorous, with some parts red to reddish brown ...................................................2 2 (1) Legs and basal antennomeres reddish brown, all else metallic blue or metallic green ........................................................................................................................... N. rufipes (Fig. 63) 2. Legs, prothorax and basal of elytra reddish brown, front of head and a pical of elytra metallic blue ................................................................................................... N. ruficollis (Fig. 61)

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133 Necrobia ruficollis Fabricius, 1775 (Figs. 61, 62) Necrobia ruficollis is metallic blue, with the ventral surface of head, entire prothorax, basal elytra, meso and metasternum and legs reddish brown. The antennae and abdomen are dark brown. Adults are typically around 6 mm in length. Biology: Necrobia ruficolli s is known as the red shouldered ham beetle (Peck and Thomas 1998: 86). It is often found on the skin of dead animals and, taking advantage of its fellow carrion feeders, it feeds on the larvae of carrion flies making it both saprophagous and predaceous in its preferred feeding environments (Knull, 1951: 312; Papp, 1959: 164) It is also a pest of dry fish (Papp 1959: 164). In Florida it has been intercepted in two separate shipments in bone meal. Distribution : Alabama, California, Florida, Illinois, New Jersey, Ohio, Tennessee, Wisconsin, Argentina, England and Israel ( Wolcott 1909: 102 1947: 88; Wickham and Wolcott 1912: 67; Knull, 1951: 312; Papp 1960: 87; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86; Gerstmeier, 1999: 33). In Florida it has only been recorded fr om Hillsborough County. Specimens examined (12) : FLORIDA: Hillsborough County: Tampa in shipment from Argentina, in bone meal 19VI 1928, U.C. Reluff ( 5, FSCA); Tampa in bone meal 23V 1923, P. Thomas ( 7, FSCA) Selected references: Fabricius, 1775: 57; Latrielle, 1804: 157; LeConte, 1849: 34; Riley, 1874: 101; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Wickham, 1895: 253; Lohde, 1900: 116; Drury, 1902: 149; Wolcott, 1909: 102, 1910c : 861; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 67; Scott, 1919: 101; Chapin, 1924: 280; Corporaal, 1937: 17; Wolcott, 1947: 88; Knull, 1951: 312, pl. 13, fig. 51; Papp, 1959: 164, pl. 47, fig. C, 1960: 87; Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 280, pl. 29, fig. 6; Barr, 1975: 18; Gosling, 1980: 74; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86; Gerstmeier, 1999: 33; Solervicens, 2002: 92; Kolibac, 2003: 91, fig. 34. Necrobia rufipes Degeer, 1775 (Figs. 6 3, 64) = Tenebrio dermestoides Piller and Mitterpacher, 1783 = Corynetes glabra Champollion, 1814 = Necrobia amethys tinae Stephens, 1832

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134 = Necrobia mumiarum Hope (in Pettigrew), 1834 = Necrobia pilifera Reitter, 1894 = Necrobia foveicollis Schenkling, 1900 = Necrobia pilifera var. aeneipennis Csiki, 1900 = Necrobia pilifera var. cupreonitens Lauffer, 1905 Necrobia rufip es has historically been placed in three different families (Cleridae, Dermestidae and Tenebrionidae) due to its unusual appearance and behavior. This metallic blue or green, oval bodied beetle has orang e legs and basal antennomeres one through five. The remaining antennomeres, eyes and venter are blackish brown. The first antennomere is thick and slightly bent Adults range from 3.5 to 7.0 mm in length. Biology: Necrobia rufipes is best known as the red legged ham beetle, has also been called the ham beetle by the USDA in the early 1900s. Those in the meat industry called it the paper worm. In the Pacific Islands it is known as the copra bug. By any name, N. rufipes is associated with rotting meats, fish and cheese, cur ed ham and bacon, mammal tissue, guano, bone meal, coconut, garlic, grains, silk, cotton, rattan and salt. However, it does not feed on many of these materials. It instead feeds on other pests that infest products or decaying animal matter ( Mallis, 1997: 680; Peck and Thomas 1998: 86). I t is a known predator of the cheese skipper Piophila casei (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Piophilidae), and blowfly and dermestid larvae (Simmons and Ellington, 1925: 845) It also displays cannibalistic behavior in the absence of other sources of nutrients. A live specimen of N rufipes was once collected in the skull of a mummy in Egypt ( Knull, 1951: 313; Papp 1959: 164). Mallis (1997: 680) provided an overview to the life history, development and control techniques of N. ruf ipes Simmons and Ellington (1925: 846) offered a more exhaustive life history and many observations of behavior in adult and larval stages. Presented were notes on

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135 the eggs, larva and larval behavior, prepupa, and pupa and a formal description of the l arva. Bving and Champlain (1920: 598) also described the larvae. Adults have been collected in Florida in all months of the year except March, September and December. Because most of the Florida records are from shipments from other continents, this doe s not necessarily indicate a flight period. Barring specimens whose labels indicate that they came from shipments, adults have been captured in February, and April through August. There is a January record that reads Jacksonville, copra, but this most likely indicates that it was collected in a shipment of copra. S pecimens have been recorded at blacklights, attracted to human feces, in copra and in shipments of bone. Distribution : Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Washington, Argentina, the Bahamas, Brazil, China, Columbia, Cub a Honduras, Israel, Jamaica, the Kingdom of Tonga, Mexico, Panama, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia and Suriname ( Wolcott 1909: 102, 1912: 77, 1927: 4, 1947: 88; Wickham and Wolcott 1912: 67; Barr, 1950a : 517; Knull, 1951: 313; Vaurie, 1952b: 36; Papp 1960: 87; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86; Gerstmeier, 1999: 33) In Florida it has been recorded from Alachua, Broward, Duvall, Hendry, Highlands, Hillsborough, Indian River, Liberty, Marion, Miami Dade, and Monroe Counties. Specimens examined (126) : FLORIDA: Al achua County: Archer 22IV 1961, R.E. Woodruff ( 1, FSCA); Gainesville 18 II 1947, H.V. Weems, Jr., in museum 16XI 1972, S. Humphries ( 2, FSCA); 20V 1969, M.L. May ( 1, FSCA); Broward County: Port Everglades in shipment from Cuba 15V 1941, J.W. McGlamery 2XI 1938, R. Hart ( 3, FSCA); Port Everglades in the ship's hold, from the Philippines 25X 1955, J.B. Guthrie, Jr. ( 78, FSCA);

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136 Duval County: Jacksonville copr a 24 I 1943, E.D. Barcus ( 3, FSCA); Hendry County: Clewiston, Lake Okeechobee in human feces, 20V 1958, R.E. Woodruff ( 1, FSCA); Highlands County: Archbold Biological Station 1IV 1973, L.L. Lampert, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Hillsborough County: Tampa in shipment of coconuts from Cartegena, Columbia 30I 1956, J.F. Kearney ( 4, FSCA); Tampa in shipment from Argentina, in bones 18VI 1928, U.C. Reluff ( 4, FSCA); Tampa in shipment from Argentina 28VIII 1922, N. Mowry ( 6, FSCA); Indian River County: Vero Beach in suction trap, 10VI 1964, W.L. Bidlingmayer ( 1, FSCA); Liberty County: 20VIII1941 ( 1, FSCA); 10 miles northeast of Torreya State Park on dead dog, 16IV 1963, R.E. Woodruff ( 2, FSCA); Marion County: Ocala, blacklight trap 27VII 1977 M.C. Thomas ( 1, FSCA); Miami Dade County: VI 1936, S. Warter ( 1, FSCA); Cutler, on carrion, 18 V 1957, D.R. Paulson ( 2, FSCA); Miami in shipment from Jamaica 4I 1954, I.R. Hargrove ( 2, FSCA); Miami in shipment of straw jackets from the Bahamas, 22VI 1957, F.J. Formichella ( 10, FSCA); 27VII 1975, M.C. Thomas ( 1, FSCA); Monroe County: Stock I sland 12V 1961, R.E. Woodruff ( 1, FSCA) Selected references: DeGeer, 1775: 165, pl. 15, fig. 4; Fabricius, 1781: 65; Piller and Mitterpacher, 1783, 68, pl. 7, fig. 8; Rossi, 1792: 33; Olivier, 1795: 5; Fabricius, 1801: 286; Latrielle, 1804: 156; Schnherr 1808: 51; Champollion, 1814: 41; Stephens, 1832: 417; Hope (in Pettigrew), 1834: 54, pl. 5, figs. 13; Dejean, 1837: 127; Klug, 1842: 350; Spinola, 1844: 101; LeConte, 1849: 34; Rosenhauer, 1856: 71; Lacordaire, 1857: 491; Kiesenwetter, 1863: 693; Ril ey, 1874: 96; Horn, 1876a : 199; Gorham, 1878: 159; Drury, 1879: 171; Gorham, 1883: 193; Reitter, 1894: 85; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Wickham, 1895: 253; Howard and Marlatt, 1896: 105; Lugger, 1899: 150; Lohde, 1900: 116; Schenkling, 1900: 20; Csiki, 1900: 124; Schenkling, 1902: 332; Lauffer, 1905: 406; Escher Kundig, 1907: 242; Wolcott, 1909: 102, 1910c : 861; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 67; Wolcott, 1912: 77; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 598; Chapman, 1921: 53; Corporaal, 1922: 93; Chapin, 1924: 281; Blaisdell, 1925: 324; Simmons and Ellington, 1925: 845; Corbett and Dover, 1927: 239; Wolcott, 1927: 4; Corporaal, 1937: 17; Hardy, 1943: 136; Hinton, 1945: 239, 267; Judd, 1949: 52; Wolcott, 1947: 88; Barr, 1950a : 516; Knull, 1951: 312, pl. 13, fig. 50; Vaurie, 1952b : 36; Papp, 1959: 164, pl. 47, fig. B, 1960: 87; Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 280, pl. 29, fig. 5; Barr 1975: 18; Gosling, 1980: 74; Mallis, 1997: 680; Peck and Thom as, 1998: 86; Gerstmeier, 1999: 33; Opitz, 2002: figs. 108, 116; Solervicens, 2002: 92; Kolibac, 2003: 91.

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137 Necrobia violacea (Linnaeus), 1758 (Figs. 65, 6 6) = Necrobia quadra Marsham, 1802 = Necrobia angustata Falderman, 1835 = Necrobia chalybea Sturm, 1837 = Necrobia errans Melsheimer, 1846 This robust, oval, metallic blue green beetle is the only member of the genus Necrobia which lacks any reddish brown coloration. Adults range from 3 to 4.5 mm in length. Biology: Necrobia violacea is common on the s kin and bones of dead mammals, fish, reptiles and birds. As Dermestes (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) larvae are often attracted to the same stimuli, N. violacea commonly feeds on them. In fact, Karl Linne (Linnaeus) thought the beast was a dermestid beetle an d described it under the name Dermestes violaceus ( Knull, 1951: 313; Papp 1959: 162). El Mallakh (1978: 178) observed that N. violacea not only feeds on the adults and immatures of Sarcophaga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), but that its larvae occasionally bore into the fly puparia, devour the immature puparia contents, and then seal and pupate inside of the fly puparia. It has been collected at light. Distribution : Arizona, California, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Missouri, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, British Columbia and Ontario ( Wolcott 1909: 102, 1947: 88; Wic kham and Wolcott 1912: 67; Knull, 1951: 313; Papp, 1960: 87) In Florida it has been recorded fr om Highlands, Miami Dade, and Orange Counties. Specimens examined (3) : FLORIDA: Highlands County: Archbold Biological Station, at ultraviolet light 6V 1979, L.L. Lampert, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Miami Dade County: Coral Gables ( 1, FSCA); Orange County: Orlando, 12 XII 1935 ( 1, FSCA)

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138 Selected references: Linnaeus, 1758, 1: 356; Marsham, 1802: 323; Falderman, 1835: 210; Sturm, 1837: 43, pl. 232; Melsheimer, 1846: 307; LeConte, 1849: 34; Riley, 1874: 101; Drury, 1879: 171; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Wickham, 1895: 253; Lohde, 1900: 117; Wolcott, 1910c : 862; Wickha m and Wolcott, 1912: 67; Chapin, 1924: 280; Hinton, 1945: 239, 272, 285; Wolcott, 1947: 88; Knull, 1951: 313, pl. 12, fig. 47; Papp, 1959: 162, pl. 47, fig. A, 1960: 87; Dillon and Dillon, 1972: 281, pl. 29, fig. 7; Barr 1975: 18; ElMallakh, 1978: 178; Gosling, 1980: 74; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86; Mawdsley, 1999: 44; Kolibac, 2003: 91; fig. 35.

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139 Figure 61. Necrobia ruficollis Figure 62. Distribution map of Necrobia ruficollis

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140 Figure 63. Necrobia rufipes Figure 64. Distribution map of Necrobia rufipes

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141 Figure 65. Necrobia violacea Figure 66. Distribution map of Necrobia violacea

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142 CHAPTER 7 TARSOSTENINAE Genus Tarsostenus Spinola, 1844 Tarsostenus is represented in North America by the cosmopolitan T arsostenus univittatus (Rossi) (Barr 1962: 127). Tarsostenus is distinguished by the somewhat triangular apical palpomere s and simple tarsal claw s The antennae end in a loose three segmented club, distinguishing Tarsostenus from Cymatodera and Callotillus which lack antennal clubs. Bving and Champlain (1920: 612) described the larvae and compared them to some related taxa. Selected references: Spinola, 1844 : 287; LeConte, 1849:17; Horn, 1880: 150; LeConte and Horn, 1883: 218; Gahan, 1910: 59; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 612; Chapin, 1924: 278; Bradley, 1930: 107; Wolcott, 1947: 87; Opitz, 2002: 279. Tarsostenus univittatus (Rossi), 1792 (Figs. 71, 7 2) = Opilo fasciatus Curtis, 1832 = Tillus succinctus Chevrol at, 1842 = Dupontiella fasciatellus Spinola, 1844 = Opilo albofasciatus Melsheimer, 1846 = Notoxus moerens Westwood (in White), 1849 = Tillus picipennis Westwood (in White), 1849 = Tarsostenus biguttatus Montrouzier, 1860 = Opilo incertus MacLeay, 1872 Tarsostenus univittatus is recognized by its narrow, elongate, dark brown to black body, and elytra with a transverse white fascia. The pronotal surface is irregularly punctate, but less densely punctate in the central region. The pronotal margins are gr adually divergent until suddenly rounded and constricted posteriorly. Adults are about 4.0 mm long. Cymatodera spp. and Callotillus eburneocinctus Wolcott are similar in appearance, but are best separated by generic characters. Biology: Tarsostenus univittatus has been recorded from ash, hickory, persimmon, white oak, Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne raddiana (Savi) Brenan (Fabaceae), Carya pecan (Marshall)

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143 Engl. and Graebn. (Juglandaceae), Cercis siliquastrum Linnaeus (Fabaceae), Eucalyptus maculata Hook (Myrtaceae), Ficus retusa Linnaeus (Moraceae), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), and Triplochiton sclerodendron (Obeche) (Sterculiaceae) on plywood and furniture made from plywood infested with Lyctus africanus Lesne, Lyctus brunneus (Stephe ns), Lyctus planicollis LeConte Lyctus parallelocollis Blackburn, S inoxylon sp., Xylobi ops basilaris (Say) Trogoxylon impressum (Comolli) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae ) ( Bving and Champlain 1920: 628; Knull, 1951: 311; Gerstmeier, 1999: 32) Both T. univittatus and several prey species have been found in lumber and other dry, seasoned wood ( Knull 1951: 311) Gerstmeier (1999: 32) regarded it as an important predator of Lyctus africanus which causes severe damage to wood products. St. George (1924: 49) offered detailed observations on mating, development, and oviposition. Additionally, he illustrated and made comparisons between the eggs and larvae of T. univittatus and its prey. Bving and Champlain (1920: 613) described the larvae and compared them to some related taxa. Donisthorpe (1901: 362) considered it to be a mutillid mimic, but no further exploration has been published since then. In Florida T. univittatus has also been collected from an ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap. It has been collected from Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) lumber from Hon duras and Philippine mahogany. Distribution : California, Florida, Ohio, Texas, Australia, Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Israel, Italy, Honduras, Peru, the Philippines and West Africa (Wolcott, 1947: 87; Barr, 1950a : 518; Knull, 1951: 311; Blackwelder, 1957: 1418; Papp 1960: 87; Peck, 1993: 153; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86; Gerstmeier, 1999: 32; Solervicens, 20 02: 91; Kolibac, 2003:

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144 50). Barr (1950 a : 518) noted that the dist ribution of the species was cosmopolitan to the extent that it matched the distribution of Lyctus on which it is predaceous. In Florida it has been recorded from Alachua, Hillsborough, Manatee, Miami Dade, Orange, and Palm Beach Counties. Most records ar e from ports or interceptions, indicating that t his species may not be established in Flor ida (Peck and Thomas 1998: 86). Only two specimens indicate the species may be established in Florida but the data are inconclusive They are from Delray Beach, P alm Beach County, and Tampa, Hillsborough County. Specimens examined (18) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Gainesville, in wood drum from West Africa, 2 4III 2003, D. Harris and J. Diaz ( 2, FSCA); Hillsborough County: Tampa, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 11X 2006, Gaskill ( 1, CAPS); Tampa, in shipment from Manila, Philippines, 12 X 1953, A.S. Mason ( 3, FSCA); Manatee County: Bradenton, dead, in orchard basket from Guatemala, 9 X 2000, M. Runnals ( 1, FSCA); MiamiDade County: Miami, via Jacksonville on tra iler load of Philippine mahogany, 4VIII 1961 ( 1, FSCA); Orange County: Winter Park, in Swietenia macrophylla lumber from Honduras, 12IV 1994, W. Thompson ( 9, FSCA); Palm Beach County: Delray Beach, 1 IV 1974, F. Mulligan ( 1, FSCA). Selected references: Rossi, 1792: 44; St ephens, 1830: 324; Curtis, 1832: 6, pl. 270; Dejean, 1837: 126; Stephens, 1839: 197; Chevrolat, 1842: 277; Klug, 1842: 321; Spinola, 1844: 172, pl. 8, fig. 5; Melsheimer, 1846: 306; LeConte, 1849: 17; Westwood (in White), 1849: 48, 57; W estwood, 1852: 50; Lacordaire, 1857: 452; Montrouzier, 1860: 260; Desmarest 1860: 254; MacLeay, 1872: 269; Chevrolat, 1874: 283; Gorham, 1876: 64; LeConte, 1873: 334; Lewis, 1892: 188; Blackburn, 1900: 136; Lohde, 1900: 52; Donisthorpe, 1901: 362; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 613, 628; Chapin, 1924: 278; St. George, 1924: 49; Bving and Craighead, 1931b: 276; Corporaal, 1937: 16; Wolcott, 1947: 87; Barr, 1950a : 517; Craighead, 1950: 203; Knull, 1951: 310, pl. 12, fig. 46; Blackwelder, 1957: 1418; Papp, 1960: 87; Barr 1975: 18; Peck, 1993: 153; Mawdsley, 1994: 118; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 86; Gerstmeier, 1999: 32; Opitz, 2002: 279, figs. 101, 112; Solervicens, 2002: 91; Kolibac, 2003: 50.

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145 Figure 71. Tarsostenus univittatus Figure 72. Distribution ma p of Tarsostenus univittatus

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146 CHAPTER 8 THANEROCLERINAE North America is home to three genera of the Thaneroclerinae Ababa, Thaneroclerus and Zenodosus The two genera that occur in Florida are each represented by one species, Ababa tantilla (LeConte) and Thaneroclerus buquet (Lefebvre), which are also the only species of their respective genera in North America. Both of these species are cosmopolitan and feed on stored product pests Members of this subfamily are often confused with other stored product pests in the families Tenebrionidae, Colydiidae and Silvanidae. Adults are characterized by broadly dilated protarsi and nearly entire eyes. Foster ( 1976b: 76) offered an extensive treatment of the larvae of the subfamily. The Thaneroclerinae w ere treated a t a family level by Kolibac (1992). Gerstmeier (2000) provided a synopsis of the morphology, historical research, biology, molecular research, zoogeography and systematics of the Thanerocleridae and Cleridae. For the purposes of this thesis the Thaneroclerinae are retained as a subfamily. K ey to the Florida Genera and Species of Thaneroclerinae 1. Prothorax strongly constricted basally, creating collar like modification; pronotal margins entire, lacking any serration; presence of a distinct carinate intermetacoxal process which spans half of the anterior length of the ventrite on which it is found. ..... T haneroclerus buquet (Fig. 83) 1. Prothorax broadly rounded basally, lacking a collar like modification; pronotal margins minutely serrate basally; carinate intermetacoxal process absent. ............. Ababa tantilla (Fig. 81) Genus Ababa Casey, 1897 Ababa is represented in North America by a single species, Ababa tantilla (LeConte), the distribution of which reaches across the eastern, central and southern United States (Barr 1962: 125).

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147 Adults are distinguished by their small size (1.8 2.6 mm), dull dark brown color, and convex pronotum which is rounded behind. Unlike other members of T hane roclerinae, the pronotal puncta tions are rounded and the pronotal margins are minutely serrate behind the middle. Neither Thaneroclerus nor Zenodosus share this minute serration. Further separating this genus from Thaneroclerus Ababa lacks the pronotal collarlike modification although it does have a basally rounded and mildly constricted pronotum. Foster ( 1976b: 76) provided a generic larval description and addressed the best means for distinguishing immature Ababa from those of Thaneroclerus and Z enodosus Selected r eferences : Casey, 1897: 653; Wolcott, 1910b: 396, 1911: 125; Schaeffer, 1917: 133; Bradley, 1930: 107; Corporaal, 1939: 358; Wolcott, 1947: 76; Foster, 1976b: 76; Opitz, 2002: 273. Ababa tantilla (LeConte), 1865 (Figs. 8 1, 82) = Ababa crinita Casey, 1897 Some characters to distinguish this species are given under the genus treatment. Other distinguishing characters include a densely, finely punctured head, small eyes, a pronotum that is more densely punctured than the head, and e lytra that are densely punctured with the basal punctures larger than those of the pronotum and becoming smaller apically. Its body is entirely dull brown to dark brown. Biology: Ababa tantilla has been encountered in tobacco bales from the Philippines ( Corporaal, 1939: 358). It has been reared from touchwood (Polyporaceae: Fomes ign i arius (Linnaeus) ) in Texas (Knull, 1951: 287) Ababa tantilla has been collected in Florida in the months of March, June and July. It has been caught in Lindgren funnel traps baited with alpha beta pinene and ethanol. In Alachua County it has been collected on Ilex vomitoria Aiton (Aquifoliaceae) and reared from the shelf fungus Phellinus sp. (Polyporaceae ) inhabited by Ciidae.

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148 Distribution : Alabama, District of Columbia, Florida, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Missouri, Texas, Mexico, Brazil and the Philippines (Wolcott, 1910b: 396, 1947: 76; Corporaal, 1939: 358; Papp, 1960: 80) Knull (1951: 287) noted that it may occur in Ohio. In Florida it has been recorded from Alachua, Duval, Monroe, and Santa Rosa Counties. Specimens examined (3) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Gainesville, on Ilex vomitoria 25III 1964, F .W. Mead ( 1, FSCA); Duval County: alpha beta pinene baited Lindgren funnel trap 7VI 2007, A. Silagyi and A. Johnson ( 1, CAPS); Santa Rosa County: Gulf Breeze, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 31VII 2006 C Street ( 1, FSCA) Selected references : LeConte, 1865: 96; Casey, 1897: 654; Lohde, 1900: 49; Wolcott, 1910b: 396; Corporaal, 1939: 358, pl. 2, fig. 23; Wolcott, 1947: 76; Knull, 1951: 287, pl. 13, fig. 53; Blackwelder, 1957: 1416; Papp, 1960: 80; Barr, 1962: 125, 1975: 1; Foster, 1976b: 76; Pec k and Thomas, 1998: 85; Opitz, 2002: 273, figs. 4, 6, 15. Genus Thaneroclerus Lefebvre, 1838 Thaneroclerus is represented in North America by a single species, Thaneroclerus buquet (Lefebvre). Thaneroclerus can be separated from the somewhat similar Zenodosus by its closed procoxal cavities, its proportionally longer first visible abdominal segment, and its duller reddish brown color. Thaneroclerus has a distinct ly carinate intermetacoxal process which spans half of the anterior length of the metasternum The prothorax of Thaneroclerus is also constricted posteriorly, creating a subtle collar. This collar and the pronotum lack ing any marginal posterior serrations separate it from Ababa. Foster ( 1976: 76) offered a larval treatment of all members of the Thaneroclerinae. Bving and Champlain (1920: 618) described the larvae and compared them to some related taxa as well. Selected references: Lefebvre, 1838: 13; Desmarest 1860: 247; Gemminger and Harold, 1869: 1739; Chevrolat, 1880: 31; Horn, 1880: 150; LeConte and Horn, 1883: 218; Gahan, 1910: 62; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 618; Bradley, 1930: 106; Matsumura, 1935: 234; Corporaal, 1939: 348; Wolcott, 1947: 75; Foster, 1976b: 76; Opitz, 2002: 273.

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149 Thaneroclerus buquet (Lefebvre), 1835 (Figs. 83, 84) Some characters to distinguish T. buquet are given under the genus treatment. Other distinguishing characters include a densely, finely punctate head, a densely, coarsely punctate pronotum, and elytra that are more densely, coarsely punctured than the pronotum. It is entirely dull brown. Adults range from 4.7 to 6.3 mm in length. Biology: Thaneroclerus buquet is a predator of insects in stored products such as spices, coffee, tea, drugs and tobacco. It has been encountered in coffee beans tobacco, dru gs, rice and tea imported from China infested with Araecerus fasciculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Anthribidae), Lasioderma serricorne Fabricius (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), Tribolium ferrugineum Fabricius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeu s) ( Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Corporaal, 1939: 350; Knull, 1951: 286). Distribution: Florida, California, Hawaii, New York, the West Indies, Puerto Rico, and Cuba, as well as South America (Columbia and Brazil), Africa (Somalia), Europe (Netherlands, Ge rmany and Switzerland), and Asia (Israel, China, Japan, India, Burma, Sumatra, Java, and the Philippines) (Corporaal, 1939: 350; Gerstmeier, 1999: 28). Knull (1951: 286) sugges ted that it may occur in Ohio. Because the reported prey, A. fasciculatus also occurs in dry seeds and dry and fresh Citrus and all of the other infesting beetle species mentioned above are cosmopolitan, T. buquet may be found anywhere that such infestations occur. Corporaal (1939: 350) recorded specimens of T. buquet from Tampa, Quincy, and Key West (Hillsborough, Gadsden and Monroe Counties, respectively). Although it has been collected at various Florida localities and intercepted at Florida ports it is considered unlikely that the species is established in Florida. However, it is established in Cuba It was originally introduced from the Old World ( Peck and Thomas 1998: 85) Specimens e xamined : No Florida specimens were available.

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150 Selected r eferences: Lefebvre, 1835: 577, pl. 16, fig. 4; Westwood, 1838: 13; Klug, 1842: 310; Spinola, 1844 : 207; Chevrolat, 1880: 31; Lohde, 1900: 49; Gahan, 1910: 63; Wolcott, 1910b: 363; Jones, 1913: 10, pl. 1, fi gs. 10, 11, 12, 13; Runner, 1919: 32; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 621; Chapin, 1924: 253; Bving and Craighead, 1931b: 276; Matsumura, 1935: 234; Corporaal, 1937: 14, 1939: 349, pl. 9, fig. 1; Wolcott, 1947: 75; Knull, 1951: 286, pl. 5, fig. 18; Blackwelder, 1957: 1416; Papp, 1960: 80; Barr, 1962: 125, 1975: 1; Ekis, 1975: 10; Foster, 1976: 76; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85; Gerstmeier, 1999: 28; Opitz, 2002: 273, figs. 2, 5, 8, 10, 12, 26, 49.

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151 Figure 81. Ababa tantilla Figure 82. Distribution map of Ababa tantilla

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152 Figure 83. Thaneroclerus buquet Figure 84. Distribution map of Thaneroclerus buquet

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153 CHAPTER 9 TILLINAE Key to the Florida Genera of Tillinae 1. Antennae with 10 segments (but with apparently fewer segments due to strongly reduced size of segments III V in females or III IX in males of Monophylla) ....................................................2 1. Antennae with 11 segments .......................................................................................................3 2 (1). Antennomere X spatulate and longer than antennomeres I IX combined, up to four times longer than antennomeres I IX combined in males; widely distributed throughout Florida ( including Miami Dade and Monroe Counties ) and North America ................................................................................. Monophylla terminata (Figs. 917, 918, 919) 2. Antennomere X not spatulate and no longer than antennomeres VIII and IX combined; found only in Miami Dade and Monroe Counties ............................ Callotillus eburneocinctus (Fig. 91) 3 (1). Antennomere XI elongate, at least longer than the two preceding segments combined .......................................................................................................... Lecontella brunnea (Fig. 9 15) 3. Antennomere XI shorter than the two preceding segments combined ......................................4 4 (3). Body length 9.0 mm or larger ; pronotum variable .............................................. Cymatodera 4. Body length 7.0 mm or smaller ; pronotum orange with apical and basal margins black .................................................................................................... Cymatoderella collaris (Fig. 913) Genus Callotillus Wolcott, 1911 Callotillus is represented by two species across th e southwest ern United States, Florida, Mexico and Central America (Barr 1962: 124). The genus is easily confused with Enoclerus However, Enoclerus has a three segmented antennal club whereas Callotillus lacks a club. The apical antennomere of Callotillus is approximately as long as the preceding two segments (antennomeres 8 and 9). Selected references : Wolcott, 1911: 115; Barr, 1962: 124; Opitz, 2002: 275. Callotillus eburneocinctus Wolcott, 1911 (Figs. 91, 92) Callotillus ebu r neocinctus is the only tilline in North America with a swollen, pale, transverse fascia near the middle of the elytra. While some members of Cymatodera have a

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154 midelytral transverse fascia, their fasciae oscillate with irregular margins across the elytra and are not swollen. Additionally, Callotillus proportionately has much shorter antennae and a more stout body form. Callotillus eburneocinctus has a reddish brown head, antennae, pronotum, thoracic sternites, and basal elytra. Its abdomen and posterior elytra are bluish black. Separating the bluishblack and reddish brown regions of the elytra are midelytral pale transverse fasciae. It also has long black setae on the middle of the pronotum, arranged in one dense tuft of long setae in the basal region of each elytron, and a dense tuft of setae (shorter than those located basally) on the apical region of each elytron. These tufts, most notably those of the basal elytra, are shared in no other clerid taxon occurr in g Florida. Biology: Foster and Barr (1972: 123) noted C. eburneocinctus emerged from buttonwood ( Combretaceae: Conocarpus erecta Linnaeus ) in March 1971. The wood was collected by R. L. Westcott at Tavernier, Key Largo, Florida in November 1970. It has also been reared from poisonwood (or Florida poisontree) (Anacardiaceae: Metopium toxiferum L innaeus ) and has been collected on white mangrove (Combretaceae: Laguncularis racemosa (Linnaeus) ) In Florida it has been collected in May and June, and has been reared from wood from February through April and July through September. Distribution : Callotillus eburneocinctus is known only from the southern extremes of Florida. It has been recorded from Miami Dade and Monroe Counties. Wolcott (1911: 116) recorded it only from Key West, Monroe County, Florida the type locality Foster and Barr (1972: 123) recorded it from Key Largo, Florida. It has been collected on at least six of the Florida Keys, ranging from Key Largo to Key West.

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155 Specimens examined (28) : FLORIDA: Miami Dade County: Miami, 25VI 1965, B.K. Dozier ( 1, FSCA); Miami, Virginia Key, 13 VI 1963, B.K. Dozier on Conocarpus erecta L., 23VI 1970, G.H. Nelson, on Laguncularis racemosa (L.), 22VI 1970, G.H. Nelson ( 5, FSCA); Monroe County: Big Pine Key, reared from wood, emerged II 1978, emerged IV 1977, emerged 5IV 1978, em erged 17IV 1978, emerged 21IV 1978, emerged 26IV 1978, emerged 27IV 1978, emerged 27 VII 1977, emerged 11VIII 1977, emerged 20VIII 1977, emerged 5 IX 1977, E. Giesbert ( 13, FSCA); Everglades National Park, Flamingo, 16V 1991, R. Morris ( 1, FSCA); No Name Key, 29V 1997, R. Turnbow ex. Metopium toxiferum L., emerged 31III 1979, R. Turnbow ( 3, RHTC); Sugarloaf Key, 2V 2000, 30V 1997, R. Turnbow ( 3, RHTC); T avernier, on Key Largo, on Laguncularis racemosa (L.), 19VI 1970, G.H. Nelson ( 2, FSCA). Selected references : Wolcott, 1911: 115; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 51; Wolcott, 1947: 67; Papp, 1960: 76; Foster and Barr, 1972: 123; Barr, 1975: 1; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85. Genus Cymatodera Gray, 1832 = Cymatoderus Desmarest, 1860 Cymatodera is represented by about 80 species which share a vast distribution, but most are distributed within the southwestern United States and Northern Mexico (Barr 1962: 124). Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 52) considered this genus to be rarely col lected and stated that it would be unusual to take more than one or two examples from a single plant. Nearly all Cymatodera have cryptic color patterns, are nocturnal and are strongly attracted to lights (Mawdsley, 1994: 117). In daylight, they are mor e often encountered on stressed or dying branches than on healthy plant material. Rarely encountered on flowers and occasionally found resting under bark, Cymatodera is most commonly collected by beating trees and bushes. Known plant associations include cedars, larch, junipers, acacias, apple, walnut, oaks and sequoias. Various observations suggest that adults favor the immature stages of cynipoid wasps

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156 and other gall inhabiting grubs, fruit tree caterpillars, and the larvae of Scolytidae, Cerambycidae and Buprestidae as prey (Opitz, 2002: 276). Immatures of C. oblita Horn have been collected from the cells of bees and wasps. Cymatodera is recognized by coarsely granulate eyes, 11segmented subfiliform antennae with oval, pointed apical antennomeres and bipartite tarsal claws. Members of Cymatodera range from 4 mm to over 20 mm, but Florida specimens are 7 mm to 20 mm. Lecontella closely resembles Cymatodera (see the discussion of Lecontella for distinguishing character s to separate the two genera). B ving and Champlain (1920: 614) described the larvae and compared them to some related taxa. Foster (1976 a : 135) offered a description of the larvae of the genus and discusses how to separate them from Monophylla and Lecontella Wolcott (1921: 283) reported specimens of an unnamed species from Crescent City, Florida, and Mississippi which were similar to C. wolcotti He considered them to be a new species but did not describe the species nor did he address the question in future publications Sele cted references : Gray, 1832: 375; LeConte, 1849: 14; Desmarest 1860: 240; Horn, 1876b: 220; LeConte and Horn, 1883: 217; Wolcott, 1910c : 849; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 52; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 614, 626; Wolcott, 1921: 271; Bradley, 1930: 105; Bv ing and Craighead, 1931a : 56; Wo lcott, 1947: 68; Barr, 1962: 124, 1972: 1; Foster, 1976 a : 135; Opitz, 2002: 276. K ey to the Florida S pecies of Cymatodera 1. Body bicolorous or tricolorous; elytra with multiple, irregularly margined fasciae ...................2 1. Body ent irely brown or bicolorous, with a reddishorange prothorax and the remaining body black to bluishblack; elytra monocolorous or with a pale midelytral fascia ..................................4 2 (1) Elytra tricolorous, the basal third reddish, followed by a yellowish fascia with irregul ar margins, the apical portion black with yellowish maculae of variable size; only known from Highlands County, Florida ............................................................................. C. floridana (Fig. 95)

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157 2. Elytra bicolorous, basally with at least some evidence of dark brown, followed by five alternating irregularly margined transverse fascia of yellowish and brown to dark brown, with the apex of the elytra brown to dark brown; widely distributed ............................................................3 3 (2). Posterior yellow elytral fascia more blotchy than zigzagged, occasionally not reaching elytral margin s, sometimes appearing to be two nighadjacent maculae which, in combination typically have two or fewer distinct anterior yellow arches, on each elytron; head densely, coarsely punctate; pronotum coarsely punctate, differing in density to the punctation of the basal portion of the head; distributed throughout Florida ....................................... C. wolcotti (Fig. 911) 3. Posterior yellow elytral fascia consistent in form with those more anteriorly located, sometimes reduced to the swelling of adjacent brown regions, but not appeari ng blotchy and typically having three or more distinct anterior yellow arches on each elytron; head densely, finely punctate; pronotum densely, finely punctate; distributed farther north, only recorded from Liberty and Putnam Counties in Florida, but is ex pected to occur throughout Northern Florida ........................................................................................................................ C. undulata (Fig. 99) 4 (1) P ro thorax mostly reddish yellow (but rarely only on prosternum anterior to the procoxae); elytra black to bluish black ............................................................................... C. bicolor (Fig. 93) 4. P ro thorax brown; body and elytra brown ................................................. C. inornata (Fig. 97) Cymatodera bicolor (Say), 1825 (Figs. 93, 94) Cymatodera bicolor is blackish blue over most of its entire body. Its pronotum is mostly reddish orange, nearly always with the exception of a dark band across the anterior and posterior margins of the pronotum when viewed dorsally. Within the Florida fauna, C. bicolor is quite obvious, possibly being mistaken only for Cymatoderella collaris which differ s significantly in size. Cymatodera bicolor is larger measuring about 10 mm in length, about twice the length of C. collaris The pronotal disk of C. bicolor has an uneven dorsal surface whereas it is smoothly convex in C. collaris Further separating the two, C. collaris has more finely granulate eyes versus the coarse gran ulation of C. bicolor In C. bicolor mouthparts and two basal most antennomeres match the orangish color of the pronotum, which extends to the ventral prothorax. Additionally, the coxae and basal femora usually match this color. The femora may be orangis h in the basal fourth to basal three fourths.

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158 However, specimens from northern regions may exhibit no such coloration on the coxae and femora. The same goes for the coloration of the basal antennomeres. This orangish coloration of the mouthparts, basal antennomeres, coxae and femora is not shared with C. collaris S pecimens of C. bicolor from as far north as Michigan and Canada express the reddishorange of the prothorax much less. As Wolcott (1921: 278) explains, some specimens from the northern regions exhibit reddish orange only on the prosternum anterior to the coxae. Wolcott (1909: 95) also observed a similar case in some specimens from New York. These northern specimens had a pronotum that was nearly entirely black, with the exception of the dila ted lateral portions which were described as pale. Such specimens may be confused with C. inornata or Lecontella cancellata, both of which are brown in color. This has been observed in few Florida specimens. Knull (1951: 276) described C. bicolor as h aving a light trans verse band at middle of elytron in some specimens In Florida specimens with this character seem quite rare and, when present, it is faintly expressed and would likely be overlooked. Bving and Champlain (1920: 616) described the larvae and compared them to related taxa. Biology: This species has been collected from juniper flowering dogwood, spice bush, pignut hickory, birch and sycamore infested with Phloeosinus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae : Scolytinae ) Encyclops coerulea (Say), Microclytus gazellula (Hald eman ) Cyrtophorus verrucosus (Oliv ier ) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Ptilin us ruficornis Say and Trichodesma sp. (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) ( Bving and Champlain, 1920: 626; Knull 1934: 207, 1951: 277). Surprisingly Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 53) wrote that C. bicolor is found occasionally running about in the house but has seldom been encountered outdoors. Gosling (1980: 67) observed it at ultraviolet lights in oakhickory habitats.

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159 The immatures can be located by follow ing their small, unpacked mines which are tunneled through the sawdust packed galleries of their prey species. Although they may construct their own pupal cells, they often use the pupal cells of their host. The pupae most often are oriented vertically in the pupal cell. Adults have been collected in Florida from April to August, and one specimen was captured in December. It has been collected at mercury vapor lights, blacklights, ultraviolet lights, and Lindgren funnel traps baited with ethanol, turpentine and frontalin, and alpha beta pinene. Of the specimens examined listed below, every single specimen of C. bicolor collected from Florida was collected in a trap o r at light. Distribution : Alabama, Arizona, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee Texas, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Ontario ( Wolcott 1909: 95; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 626; Wolcott 1921: 278, 1947: 68; Knull 1951: 277; Papp, 1960: 77; Barr 197 5: 2; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85). It was also recorded from Chicopee, Massachusetts, which is within 50 miles of Rhode Island, and Onaga, Kansas, which is within 50 miles of Nebraska and Missouri ( Wickham and Wolcott 1912: 53). It has also been recorded from Cincinnati, Ohio, which is on the Kentucky border (Knull, 1951: 276). In Florida it has been recorded from Alachua Bay, Escambia, Liberty, Orange, Putnam, and Santa Rosa Counties Specimens examined (22) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Gainesville, Beville Hts., blacklight trap, 5 VII 19 80, L.A. Stange ( 1, FSCA); Gainesville, Hogtown Creek and I 75, blacklight trap, 3 VIII 1988, P.E. Skelley ( 1, FSCA); Gainesville, NW 42nd Terr. and 34th Pl., Turpentine/frontalin baited Lindgren funnel trap, V 2002, J.L. Foltz ( 1, JMLC); Bay County:,

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160 alpha beta pinene baited Lindgren funnel trap, 1VI 2007, L. Smith ( 2, CAPS); ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 15 V 2007, L. Smith ( 1, CAPS); Escambia County: ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 4V 2007, 24V 2007, 20VI 2007, C. Street (5, CAPS); Libert y County: Apalachicola National Forest, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, V 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JMLC); Torreya State Park, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, V 2007, VI 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 5, JMLC); Orange County: University of Central Florida, Orlando, Cypress Dome, Malaise Trap, 7 VI 1993, S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando, Cypress Forest, Malaise Trap, 26IV 1999, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando, Pond Pine Community, ultraviolet light trap, 12VI 1993, J.C. Longhurst and S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Putnam County: Lake Winnott, Melrose, ultraviolet light trap, 5XII 2001, E. Nearns ( 1, JMLC); Santa Rosa County: 3.5 miles north of Munson, at light, 10IV 1999, P.E. Skelley (1, FSCA). Selected references : Say, 1825: 174; LeConte, 1849: 16, 1859a : 282; Horn, 1876b: 224; Drury, 1879: 171; Hopkins, 1893a : 154, 1893b: 185; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Lohde, 1900: 19; Wolcott, 1909: 95, 1910c : 850; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 53; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 616; Wolcott, 1921: 278; Knull, 1932: 42 1934: 207; Wolcott, 1947: 68; Craighead, 1950: 199; Knull, 1951: 276, pl. 1, fig. 4; Papp, 1960: 77; Barr 1975 : 2; Gosling, 1980: 67; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85; Mawdsley, 1999: 40; Opitz, 2002: figs. 9, 11, 21, 27. Cymatodera floridana Barr 1972 (Figs. 95, 96) This little collected species has a distinct color pattern which separates it from other Cymatodera readily. The basal third of the elytra is brown to brownishorange, an irregularly margined pale yellowish fascia follows, and the apical half of the elytra is black with a single anteapical pale yellowish macula of variable size on each elytro n. Each elytral macula may appear to be partially divided, taking the form of two spots which have swollen to contact each other. The color of the head and pronotum is typically a shade darker than that of the basal third of the elytra. The legs and antennae match the color of the pale fasciae and anteapical maculae.

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161 It head is coarsely, densely punctate with elongate punctures. The prothorax is coarsely, densely punctate. Adults are typically around 9 mm in length. Two species may be mistaken for C. floridana : C. undulata and C. wolcotti However both of these similar species have only two different colors on their elytra and their heads and pronota match the color of their elytral humeri. Biology: In Florida, adults have been collected in January, April, September and November. Several specimens have been collected from flight intercept traps. Distribution : This species is only known from its type locality in Highlands County, Florida (Barr, 1972: 28). Further literature has not expanded the know n distribution. Specimens examined (7) : FLORIDA: Highlands County: Archbold Biological Station, insect flight trap, 21 I 1979, H.V. Weems, Jr. and D.D. Guenther 8IV 1878, insect flight trap, H.V. Weems, Jr. and L.L. Lampert, Jr. insect flight trap, 13XI 1979, H.V. Weems, Jr. and T.A. Webber ( 3, FSCA); Archbold Biological Station, 1977, 11IV 1978, 24IX 1978, L.L. Lampert, Jr. 16IV 1989, R. Turnbow ( 3, FSCA ; 1, RHTC) Selected references : Barr, 1972: 27; Barr 1975: 3; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85. Cym atodera inornata (Say ), 1835 (Figs. 97, 98) = C. tenera LeConte, 1849 Cymatodera inornata is the most plain of the Florida Cymatodera It is uniformly brown to light brown, and some specimens have a pale, irregularlymargined transverse fascia at about the middle of the elytra. The head is coarsely punctate, the eyes are coarsely granulate, the surface of the p ronotum is sparsely, minutely punctate and the e lytra l surface has coarse punctures arranged in rows, the punctur es becoming obsolete apically. Adults are typically around 12 mm in length.

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162 Cymatodera inornata is similar to Lecontella brunnea (see the discussion of Lecontella for distinguishing characters to separate the two genera). Bving and Champlain (1920: 617) described the larvae and compar ed them to some related taxa. Biology: Cymatodera inornata has been recorded from dry hickory branches infested with Bostrichus bicornis (Web.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), dead standing birch infested with Melasis (Coleoptera: Eucnemidae) and buprestid larvae, and also from oak, hackberry, beech and redbud ( Bving and Champlain, 1920: 627) A single record of a pupa was found in beech slash infested with anobiid larvae in Delaware County, Ohio (Knull 1951: 277). In Florida, adults have been collected fr om February through July. Specimens have been collected in Lindgren funnel traps baited with turpentine and ethanol, ethanol, and alpha beta pinene, Malaise traps and blacklight traps. Distribution : Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Flori da, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, Ohio, Oklahoma, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Utah, Wisconsin, Ontario, Mexico ( Wolcott 1909: 95, 1921: 278, 1947: 69; Papp 1960: 77; Barr 1975: 3; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85). Wickham and Wolcott ( 1912: 53) recorded it from Onaga, Kansas, which is within 50 miles of Nebraska Knull (1951: 277) recorded it from Cincinnati, Ohio, which is on the Kentucky border. In Florida it has been recorded from Alachua, Baker, Bay, Escambia, Highlands, Hillsborough, Leon, Liberty, Manatee, and Orange Counties. Specimens examined (18) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Gainesville, V 2005, J.M. Leavengood, Jr., at blacklight trap, 22 III 1979, M.C. Thomas ( 1, JMLC ; 1, FSCA ); Baker County: Olustee, malaise trap, 15V 1978, R.A. Belmont ( 1, FSCA); Bay County: alpha beta

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163 pinene baited Lindgren funnel trap, 4 V 2007, L. Smith ( 1, CAPS); Escambia County: ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 20VI 2007, C. Street (1, CAPS); Highlands County: Archbold Biological Station, at ultraviolet light, 20 IV 1979, L.L. Lampert, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Hillsborough County: Lithia, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, III 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 3, JMLC); Leon County: Tal l Timbers Research Station, 20 miles north of Tallahassee, 8 VII 1972, R.L. Jacques, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Liberty County: Apalachicola National Forest, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, V 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JMLC); Torreya State Park, ethanol baite d Lindgren funnel trap, VI 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 3, JMLC); Manatee County: Myakka River State Park, FFA/N Plot, Turpentine/ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 22III 2001, J.L. Foltz (1, JMLC); Orange County: Orlando, alpha beta pinene baited Lindgr en funnel trap, 29III 2007, B. Saunders ( 2, CAPS); Orlando, ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap, 16I I 2007, B. Saunders ( 1, CAPS) Selected r eferences : Say, 1835: 161; LeConte, 1849: 14, 15, 1859b: 638; Horn, 1876 b: 224; Hopkins, 1893b: 186; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Lohde, 1900: 20; Wolcott, 1909: 95, 1910c : 850; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 53; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 617, 627; Wolcott, 1921: 278; Blackman and Stage, 1924: 43; Bving and Craighead, 1931b: 276; Wolcott, 1947: 69; Knull, 1951: 277, pl. 1, fig. 1; Papp, 1960: 77; Barr 1975: 3; Gosling, 1980: 67; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85. Cymatodera undulata (Say), 1825 (Figs. 99, 910) = C. bosci Chevrolat, 1843 = C. longicollis Spinola, 1844 Cymatodera undulata has a brown head and pronotum. Its elytral humeri, at least somewhat, and apices are brown with zigzagged irregular margins. Immediately following the brown humeri are alternating yellow and brown fasciae with likewise irregular margins. Three of these fasciae are y ellowish and there are two brown fasciae within their boundaries. The coloration of the legs matches that of the yellowish fasciae. The head and pronotum are finely, densely punctate. Adults are typically around 10 mm in length.

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164 The color pattern of Cym atodera undulata is nearly identical to that of C. wolcotti In C. wolcotti the punctures are more densely arranged on the head than on the pronotum especially near the attachment of the head. In contrast, the density of the punctures in C. undulata is similar on the head and pronotum. The color pattern of C. floridana is also similar to C. undulata, however C. floridana has three distinct colors on the elytra and its head and pronotum are a darker shade than the basal third of the elytra. Bving and Ch amplain (1920: 616) described the larvae and compared them to some related taxa. Balduf (1926: 29) offered a diagnosis of the pupae. Biology: Cymatodera undulata has been recorded from chestnut maple oak, and Carolina poplar infested with Phymatodes ae reu s (Newma n) Callidium aeneum (DeGeer) Elaphidion sp., Oberea sp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and Eucnemidae (Coleoptera ). It has also been collected on sumac, wild grape, hackberry birch, butternut, and American bittersweet, and bred from Spanish nee dles and Virginia creeper ( Wickham and Wolcott 1912: 54; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 627; Wolcott, 1921: 282; Knull 1951: 278). Eliason and Potter (2000: 555) found larvae in dissected stem galls of Callirhytus cornigera (Osten Sacken) (Hymenoptera: Cynip idae) on pin oak. It was unsure exactly what the larva predated since many other insects occupied the galls. Balduf (1926: 29) encountered a female of C. undulata while studying a bur oak gall made by Disholcaspis mamma Walsh (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). T he larva was found in the pithy substance, just below the outer surface where parasitic wasp larvae tend to burrow, surrounding the central wasp inhabited core. The adults and larvae seemed to avoid light exposure when presented the option. It was sugges ted that the hooks on the ninth abdominal segment are for moving backward by tugging at the top of an inhabited burrow. An immature was observed consuming about 100 chalcidoid

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165 larvae and an adult was observed consuming, in part or in total, nineteen adult beetles, flies and true bugs (all of which were phytophagous). In Florida, adults have been collected in April and May. One specimen was collected at light. Distribution : Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iow a, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Wisconsin, and Canada ( Wolcott 1909: 96, Wolcott, 1921: 282, 1947: 71; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 54; Papp 1960: 78; Barr 197 5: 4; Gosling, 1980: 67; Eliason and Potter, 2000: 555). Knull (1951: 278) recorded it in Ohio from Athens, which is within 20 miles of West Virginia. In Florida it has been recorded from Liberty County. Wick ham and Wolcott (1912: 54) recorded it from Crescent City Putnam County, Florida, collected in April. Specimens e xamined (2) : FLORIDA: Liberty County: Torreya State Park 6V 1979, M.C. Thomas at light 17V 1963, H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 2, FSCA) Selected r ef erences : Say, 1825: 174; Chevrolat, 1843: 31; Spinola, 1844 : 147, pl. 10, fig. 1; LeConte, 1849: 15; Horn, 1876b: 228; LeConte, 1859a : 282; Drury, 1879: 171; Hamilton, 1895: 335; Lohde, 1900: 21; Wolcott, 1909: 96, 1910c : 851; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 54; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 616, 627; Wolcott, 1921: 282; Balduf, 1926: 29; Wolcott, 1947: 71; Knull, 1951: 278, pl. 2, fig. 5; Papp, 1960: 78; Ekis, 1975: 16; Barr, 1975: 4; Gosling, 1980: 67; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85; Elia son and Potter, 2000: 555. Cymatodera wolcotti Barr, 1950 (Figs. 911, 912) = C. confusa Wolcott, 1921 In 1921, Wolcott named this species Cymatodera confusa ( Wolcott, 1921: 282; Barr 1950b: 61), which not to be mistaken for C. modesta var. confusus Spin ola Thus, it was renamed C. wolcotti Now long understood to be C. wolcotti this species is often found misidentified in collections due to its strong similarity to C. balteata and C. undulata (Wolcott,

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166 1921: 283) (see the discussion of C. undulata for distinguishing characters to separate the two species). Cymatodera wolcotti has a brown head and pronotum. Its elytral humeri, at least somewhat, and apices are brown with zigzagged irregular margins. Immediately following the brown humeri are alternating yellow and brown fasciae with likewise irregular margins. Three of these fasciae are yellowish and there are two brown fasciae within their boundaries. The coloration of the legs matches that of the yellowish fasciae. The posterior yellow elytral fascia is more blotchy than zigzagged, occasionally not reaching elytral margins and sometimes appearing to be two nigh adjacent maculae which, in combination, typically have two or fewer distinct anterior yellow arches on each elytron. The head is coarsel y, somewhat densely punctate. The pronotum is coarsely punctate with variable density, often dense and rarely sparse. Adults range from 9 mm to 14 mm in length. Foster (1976a : 138) described the larvae. Biology: In Florida, adults of C. wolcotti have been collected during all months except for June. Specimens have been collected at mercury vapor and ultraviolet lights, black light traps, Malaise traps, a wooden block nest intercept trap, Lindgren funnel traps baited with alpha beta pinene and ethanol (separately) and turpentine and frontalin (together). Adults have been collected on Prunus persica (Linnaeus) Batsch, (Rosaceae) and Quercus nigra Linnaeus (Fagaceae) They have been reared from fusiform rust canker on Pinus elliottii Engelm an (Pina ceae) and pupae have been collected from cones of the same pine species. Distribution : Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, Mississippi, Missouri, South Carolina, and Texas (Wolcott, 1921: 283, 1947: 69; Papp 1960: 78) Foster (1976a : 138) noted specimens f rom Harrison County, Mississippi, which is within 50 miles of Alabama and Louisiana. In

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167 Florida it has been recorded from Alachua, Baker, Clay, Duval, Hillsborough, Jefferson, Liberty, Miami Dade, Orange, Pinellas Putnam, and Suwannee Counties. Specimens e xamined (48) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Gainesville, 20 XI 1984, L.R. Davis, Jr. ex. Prunus persica 1V 1978, C. Lieberman 19III 1980, G.B. Edwards 28XII 1988, P. Landolt X 2004 J.M. Leavengood, Jr., IX 1979, 1X 1983, 8X 1980, XII 1982, 27II 1982, 15III 1974, 2V 1978, M.C. Thomas ( 11, FSCA ; 1, JMLC ); Gainesville, Doyle Conner Building, blacklight trap 13IX 1986, F.W. Mead malaise trap 21I 1973, 5XI 1973, H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 3, FSCA); Gainesville, University of Florida, Surge/Natura l Area Drive Turpentine/frontalin baited Lindgren funnel trap in prescribed burn site III 2000, J.L. Foltz ( 1, JML C ); Monteocha insect flight trap 6VII 1977, 3X 1977, 26X 1977, J.F. Butler ( 3, FSCA); San Felasco Hammock, forest between Sanchez Prairie and hay field 6m Malaise Trap 19IX 10X 1997, B.D. Sutton and G. Steck ( 1, FSCA); Baker County: Osceola National Forest ex. Pinus elliottii cones as pupae, emerged 20 X 1956, 18X 1956, E.P. Merkel ( 2, FSCA); ex. fusiform rust canker on Pinus elliottii, emerged 6 IX 1961, 24VII 1961 P. Mikell ( 1, FSCA); Clay County: Camp Blanding Training Site Insect Survey Site 24: Mown Sandhill, N 30o 0.768 W 81o 57.724, light trap, 5IX 1999, M. Minno and M. Minn o ( 1, FSCA); 2VII 1960 H.A. Denmark ( 1, FSCA); Duval County: Jacksonville alpha beta pinene b aited Lindgren funnel trap, 5I 2007, A. Silagyi ( 1, CAPS); Hillsborough County: Lithia ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap III2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JML C ); Jefferson County: Monticello 13 VIII 1993 ( 1, FSCA); Liberty County: Torreya State Park 5V 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr., blacklight trap 17IV 1963, E.I. Hazard ( 1, JMLC; 1, FSCA); Torreya State Park ethanol baited Lindgren funnel trap II 2007 J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JML C ); Miami Dade County: Naranja 10IX 1962, R.M. Baranowski ( 1, FSCA); [no data] ( 1, FSCA); Orange County: University of Central Florida,

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168 Orlando, LLP Sand Pine, Turkey Oak, Malaise Trap, 27VIII1997, 7XI 1997, 9X 1997, S.M. Fullerton (3, UCFC); University of Central Florida, Orlando, Sand Pine Rosemary Scrub, Malaise Trap, 31 X 1992, 4X 1992, S.M. Fullerton (2, UCFC); Walt Disney World, S 16 T 24S R 27E, MW 5 (unburned) sandpine oak scrub, Malaise Trap, 1018X 1996, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Wekiwa Springs State Park, burn zone 43/31, S22 T20S R26E, longleaf pine turkey oak, Malaise Trap, 18XI 2001, P. Russell and S.M. F ullerton, 28X 2001, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton (2, UCFC); Wekiwa Springs State Park, burn zone LW 5, S39 T19S R29E, longleaf pine turkey oak, Malaise Trap, 2 XII 2001, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Orlando, alpha beta pinene baited Lindgren funnel trap, 30III 2007, 8XI 2006, B. Saunders ( 3, CAPS ; 1, JMLC ); Pinellas County: Saint Petersburg 11XI 1964, M. Postupack ( 1, FSCA); Putnam County: Palatka at mercury vapor and ultraviolet lights 10I 1991, 3 XII 1990, H.D. Baggett ( 2, FSCA); Suwa nnee County: Suwa nnee River State Park wooden block nest intercept trap IV 2004, D. Serrano and J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JML C ) Selected references : Wolcot t, 1921: 282, 1947: 69; Barr, 1950b: 61; Papp, 1960: 78; Barr, 1975: 5; Foster, 1976a : 138, fig. 5; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85. Genus Cymatoderella Barr, 1962 Cymatoderella is represented by three species in the southern United States and Central America ( Rifkind, 1993: 280). Species were originally within Tillus with T. collaris Spinola later becoming the type species of Cymatoderella At the time Cymatoderella was described (Barr, 1962) T. collaris and T. patagoniae Knull were the only species in the genus, a change that eliminated the distribution of the genus Tillus from the New World (Barr, 1962: 123). The genus resembles a small Cymatodera and is best distinguished by its reddish brown pronotum, finely granulate eyes, entire labrum and bifid tarsal claws (see the discussions of Cymatodera for more characters to separate the taxa). Rifkind (1993: 280) emended Barrs description of the

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169 genus to accommodate a previously troublesome species, now known as C. morula Rifkind, and offered a key to the North and Central American Cymatoderella Selected references : Olivier, 1790, No. 22; Voet, 1806: 78; LeConte and Horn, 1883: 217; Wolcott, 1910c : 849; Chapin, 1924: 174; Bradley, 1930: 105; Bving and Craighead, 1931a : 56; Wolcott, 1947: 67; Barr, 1962: 123; Rifkind, 1993: 279; Opitz, 2002: 276. Cymatoderella collaris (Spinola) 1844 (Figs. 913, 914) This small tilline has a bluish black body with a reddishorange pronotum. The anterior and posterior margins of the pronotum are lined with bluishblack. The head and central pronotum are finely, sparsely punctate. Adults are 4.0 mm to 5.5 mm in length. It may be mistaken for C. bicolor (see the discussion of C. bicolor for characters to distinguish the two species). Biology: Rifkind (1993: 281) recorded it from Chilean mesquite ( Fabaceae: Prosopis chilensis Stuntz) and Acacia sp. (Fabaceae) in Mexico. It has been collected on Quercus nigra Linnaeus (Fagaceae) In Florida, adults have been collected in April, May and July. Specimens have been collected from flight intercept traps and at mercury vapor and blacklights. Distribution : Alabam a, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Ohio, South Carolina, Texas, and Mexico ( Wolcott 1909: 93, 1921: 270, 1947: 68; Papp 1960: 76; Barr 1975: 2; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85) W ickham and Wolcott (1912: 52) recorded it from Mobile, Alabama, which is within 20 miles of Mississippi Knull (1951: 275) recorded it from Lake Hope Ohio, which is within 50 miles of Kentucky and West Virginia Internationally, C. collaris is reported from Mexico and Guatemala, but not other Central American countries (Gorham 1886: 332; Wolcott 1909: 94; Rifkind 1993: 280). It is likely that previously published Mexican distributions represent both C. collaris and C. morula Rifkind and records for Guatemala or Honduras are all

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170 C. morula. In Florida it has been recorded from Alachua, Dixie, Gadsden, Liberty, Orange, Sumter, and Union Counties. Specimens examined (23) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Gainesville, 29IV 1928, G.B. Merril on Quercus nigra L., 8IV 1961, H.V. Weems, Jr., 22IV 1947, H.V. Weems, Jr., IV 2003, J.M. Leavengood, J r. ( 3, FSCA ; 1, JMLC ); Highway 241 at the Santa Fe River, 5IV 1989, C.W. Mills, III (1, FSCA); San Felasco Hammock State Park, insect flight trap, 2 V 1977, G.B. Fairchild and H.V. Weems, Jr. ( 1, FSCA); Dixie County: 3.5 miles north of Old Town, on Route 349, 27IV 1980, M.C. Thomas ( 1, FSCA); 4 miles north of Old Town, 6 V 1979, R. Turnbow ( 1, FSCA); Gadsden County: Aspalaga Landing, at boat ramp, at mercury vapor and black light, 5V 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 1, JMLC); Liberty County: Torreya State Park, 6V 1989, R. Turnbow at light, 16 VII 1987, Matthews and P.E. Skelley at light, 17 VII 1987, P.E. Skelley, 46V 2007, J.M. Leavengood, Jr. ( 3 FSCA ; 7, JMLC ); Orange County: Wekiwa Springs State Park, burn zone 43/31, S22 T20S R26E, longleaf pine tur key oak, Malaise Trap, 13V 2001, P. Russell and S.M. Fullerton (1, UCFC); Sumter County: I 75 at CR 470, 18IV 1992, R. Turnbow ( 1, FSCA); I 75 at SR 470, 18IV 1992, M.C. Thomas ( 1, FSCA); Union County: Highway 241 at the Santa Fe River, 15 IV 1989, C.W. Mills, III (1, FSCA) Selected references : Spinola, 1844 : 98, pl. 2, fig. 6; LeConte, 1849: 12; Gorham, 1886: 332, tab. 13, fig. 7; Lohde, 1900: 11; Drury, 1902: 149; W olcott, 1909: 93 1910c : 849; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 52; Wolcott, 1921: 270, 1947: 68; Corporaal, 1950: 26; Knull, 1951: 275, pl. 1, fig. 2; Papp, 1960: 76; Barr, 1962: 123, 1975: 2; Ekis, 1975: 16, pl. 3, fig. 12; Rifkind, 1993: 279; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85; Opitz, 2002: figs. 23, 37. Genus Lecontella Wolcott and Chapin, 1918 Lecontella is represented by two species in the eastern, central and southwestern United States and Mexico (Mawdsley, 2002a : 164). Currently, the validity of a third species from southern Florida is under investigation ( Opitz and Thomas, personal communic ation).

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171 Lecontella resembles Cymatodera, however in Lecontella the apical antennomere is elongate, to a much greater degree in males, and the elytral punctures are very coarse and reach the elytral apices. In Cymatodera, the apical antennomere is not longer than the two preceding segments combined. The antennae of Lecontella are proportionally thicker, looking heavy and less delicate than those of Cymatodera. Foster (1976 a : 134) offered a description of the larvae of the genus based on a single specimen o f Lecontella brunnea and discussed how to separate them from Cymatodera and Monophylla. Selected references : Wolcott and Chapin, 1918: 107; Bradley, 1930: 105; Wolcott, 1947: 68; Foster, 1976a : 134; Mawdsley, 2002a : 164; Opitz, 2002: 275. Lecontella brunnea (Spinola) 1844 (Figs. 915, 916) = Cymatodera cancellata LeConte, 1854 Older literature lists L. brunnea under Cymatodera. Collection material may include specimens diagnosed as Lecontella cancellata or L. brunnea cancellata. These should be considered L. brunnea. The name L. cancellata was confirmed as a synonym by Ekis (1975: 13). Previously, Wolcott and Chapin (1918: 107) had designated C. cancellata rather than L. brunnea for the genotype of Lecontella naming L. brunnea as a homonym. Lecontella brunnea is easily confused with members of the genus Cymatodera which lack distinct color patterns. It is most similar to C. inornata, which may have a faint, pale, transverse fascia across the middle of the elytra. Without th is character, the two are best separated using generic characters. Lecontella gnara Wolcott is the only other member of the genus currently described. It differs most from L. brunnea in that its pronotal punctures are larger and more densely arranged. T he eyes of L. brunnea are coarsely granulate and the elytral surface has rows

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172 of coarse punctures which become smaller approaching the elytral apices. Adults are around 12 mm long. Biology: This spec ies has been collected from bee nests in dead logs and in the larval cells of the black and yellow muddauber, Sceliphron caementarium Drury (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) ( Knull, 1932; Rau, 1944: 197) Foster and Barr (1972: 123) noted that R. Bittner of Purdue University reared L. brunnea from the bee species Osmia lignaria Say, Osmia coerulescens (Linnaeus), and Megachile rotundata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), the wasp species Monobia quadridens (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) and Trypargilum striatum (Provancher) (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Bitner (1972: 24) encountered L. brunnea in the nests of Trypargilum clavatum (Say) and Isodontia auripes (Fernald) (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). The larvae were found in empty sealed and opened cocoons in unbroken nest cells. Adults have also been reared from aban doned Polistes nests (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). It was suspected that a megachilid that reused the abandoned nest cel l was parasitized. According to label data, Mawdsley (2002a : 165) noted that adults were most frequently collected at lights at night. In Florida, adults have been collected in April through June and September. Distribution : Arizona, District of Columbia, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylva nia, Tennessee, and Texas (Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 53; Wolcott, 1921: 271, 1947: 68; Papp, 1960: 76; Foster and Barr, 1972: 123; Gosling, 1980: 67). Knull ( 1951: 275) recorded it from Athens, Ohio, which is about 30 miles from the West Virginia border. In Florida it has been recorded from Alachua, Highlands, Jefferson, Miami Dade, and Monroe Counties.

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173 Currently, William Barr is describing a new species of Lecontella from south Florida (Thomas, personal communication ). As such, it is possible that some specimens examined in this project are not L. brunnea. Specimens examined (11) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Gainesville, IV 2003, VI 2003, J.M. Leavengood, Jr., blacklight trap 18V 1962, F.W. Mead V 1967, L.A. Hetrick ( 2, JMLC; 2, FSCA); Highlands County: Archbold Biological Station 15 IX 1978, 17IX 1977, L.L. Lampert, Jr. ( 2, FSCA); Archbold Biological Station, 8 miles south of Lake Placid, blacklight trap 26V 1007, P.E. Skelley ( 1, FSCA); Monroe County: Big Pine Key blacklight 19 VI 1973, J. B. Heppner ( 1, FSCA); Everglades National Park, Flamingo ( 1, FSCA); Everglades National Park, Flamingo, 18V 1975, E. Giesbert ( 1, FSCA); upper Key Largo, blacklight 9V 1974, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC) Selected references : Spinola, 1844 : 147; Melsheimer, 1846: 306; LeConte, 1849: 15, 1854: 81; Horn, 1876b: 223; Drury, 1879: 171; Wolcott, 1910c : 850; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 53; Wolcott and Chapin, 1918: 107; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 626, Wolcott, 1921: 271; Knull, 1932: 42; Rau, 1944: 197; Wolcott, 1947: 68; Knull, 1951: 275, pl. 2, fig. 8; Papp, 1960: 76; Bitner, 1972: 23; Foster and Barr, 1972: 123; Barr, 1975: 2; Ekis, 1975: 13; Foster, 1976a : 135, figs. 1, 2, 3, 7; Gosling, 1980: 67; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85; Mawdsley, 2002a : 164. Genus Monophylla Spinola, 1841 = Macroletus Klug, 1842 = Elasmocerus LeConte, 1849 Monophylla is represented by three North American species across the southwestern, western and eastern state s (Opitz, 200 2: 274). This sexually dimorphic genus is readily separated from other genera by its elongate, flattened, spatulate apical antennomere. In females, this apical antennomere is often longer than one third of the length of the entire antenna. In males this antennomere is up to four times the length of all other basal antennomeres. Many members of the genera Chariessa and Neorthopleura possess a similar color scheme to

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174 Monophylla and also have long antennae with elongate apical antennomeres. However, Chariessa and Neorthopleura have three modified apical segments which are not straight, while Monophylla has only one which is rather straight. The adults and larvae of Monophylla prey primarily on Bostrichidae with cylindrical galleries that are less tightly packed with frass and sawdust than those of Buprestidae. Such galleries are ideal collecting sites for the larvae. Foster (1976 a : 134) offered comparative characters to separate the larvae of M. terminata and M. californica from those of Lecontella and Cymatodera, as well as a detailed description. Bving and Champlain (1920: 618) also described the larvae and compared them to some related taxa. Selected references : Spinola, 1841: 75; Klug, 1842: 274; Spinola, 1844: 384; LeConte, 1849: 13; LeConte and Horn, 1883: 217; Hopkins, 1893b: 185; Wolcott, 1910b: 339, 1910c : 849; Schaeffer, 1911: 123; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 618; Bradley, 1930: 105; Wolcott, 1947: 67; Foster, 1976a : 133; Opitz, 2002: 274. Monophylla terminata (Say) 1835 (Figs. 917, 9 18, 919, 920) = M. megatoma Spinola, 1844 This elongate species has a brownish yellow pronotum with a central black spot which can occupy most of the dorsal pronotum. Its head may be brownishyellow and it has a brownishyellow stripe extending from the elytral humerus to the midely tral margin. At the middle of the elytra, there may be pale yellowish macular spurs extending transversely across the elytra from the marginal stripe. This character is similar to the pale, median elytral fascia found in other genera. The size range with in the species is great, with males as small as 4.2 mm and females as large as 15.0 mm, however the males and females have similar average lengths (Wolcott 1909: 93). Biology: Monophylla terminata is known to feed on bark beetles in conifers and on various other woodboring beetles. It has been found in ash lumbar hackberry hickory,

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175 sassafras, wild grape Celtis sp. (Ulmaceae), American bittersweet ( Celastraceae: Celastrus scandens Linnaeus) and persimmon ( Ebenaceae: Diospyros virginiana Linnaeus) infested with Phymatodes amoenus (Say) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), Lyctus sp., Sinoxylon sp. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), Agrilus sp. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), Pissodes strobi Peck (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Scolytus muticus Say Chramesus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae : Scolytinae), and Anobiidae (Coleoptera) ( Hamilton, 1895: 365; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 626; Knull 1951: 274). It has been reared from h oney l ocust mesquite, walnut logs, Vitia sp. (Vitaceae) Metopium toxiferum L innaeus (Anacardiaceae) and bamboo (Wickham and Wolcott; 1912: 51; Wolcott, 1921: 269; Foster, 1976a : 134; Gosling, 1980: 66). One specimen was labeled ex. Saururus cernuus presumably it was collected from the plant and not reared. This nocturnal species hides beneath bark or in bark crevices during the day. Mawdsley (1994: 116) considered it to be a part of a tremendous coleopteran mimicry ring with Lampyridae, Cantheridae, Lycidae, Buprestidae, Meloidae, Ptilodactylidae, Elateridae, and the Cleridae Placopterus thoracicus, Pyticeroides laticornis and Chariessa pilosa. In Florida, adults have been collected from February through September, and have been reared from wood, emerging as late as October under artificial conditions. Distribution : Alabama, Arizona, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Caroli na, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia, Mexico and Ontario ( Wolcott 1909: 93; 1910b: 342, 1921: 269, 1947: 67; Knull, 1951: 274; Papp, 1960: 76; Barr 1975: 1; Gosling, 1980: 66; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85) Wickham and Wolcott (1912: 51) recorded it from Onaga, Kansas,

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176 which is about 30 miles from the Nebraska border, and Iowa City, Iowa, which is within 60 miles of the Wisconsin border In Florida it has been recorded from Alachua, Dixie, Hernando, Hig hlands Jefferson, Miami Dade, and Monroe Counties. Wolcott (1921: 269) recorded it from Crescent City, Putnam County, Florida. Specimens examined ( 33) : FLORIDA: Alachua County: Gainesville, 5 V 1968, D. Habeck ex. Vitia sp ., e merged 24IX 1990, wood collected 6 IX 1990, M.C. Thomas 24IX 1990, M.C. Thomas ( 11, FSCA); Dixie County: 3.5 miles north of Old Town, 8V 1978, M.C. Thomas ( 2, FSCA); 3.5 miles north of Old Town, on Route 349, 5V 1979, M.C. Thomas ( 1, FSCA); Hernando County: Withlacoochee Sta te Forest, Richloam Unit, 8 IV 1994, R. Turnbow ( 1, RHTC); Highlands County: Archbold Biological Station, 2V 1978, R. Turnbow 23III 1978, 14IX 1979, L.L. Lampert, Jr ( 1, RHTC; 2, FSCA ); Highlands Hammock State Park, 24III 1951, H.V. Weems, Jr., ex. Saururus cernuus 2III 1950, F.W. Mead ( 2, FSCA); Jefferson County: Monticello, 21 V 1994 ( 1, FSCA); Monroe County: Big Pine Key, emerged V 1977, emerged 2 VIII1977, emerged 11VIII1977, E. Giesbert ( 3, FSCA); Key Largo, ex. Metopium toxiferum L., emerge d 24VI 1977, emerged 15VII 1977, emerged 19VIII1977, emerged 7X 1977, R. Turnbow ( 7, RHTC); Key Largo, 4 II 1962, B.K. Dozier ( 1, FSCA); Key Largo, 2 miles north of Tavernier, 20VI 1973, J.B. Heppner ( 1, FSCA) Selected r eferences : Say, 1835: 160; Klug, 1842: 274, pl. 2, fig. 4; Spinola, 1844: 126, 385, pl s 6, 28, fig s 3, 5; LeConte, 1849: 13, 1859b: 637; Gorham, 1876: 61; Drury, 1879: 171; Chittenden, 1890: 154; Hopkins, 1893a : 154; Hamilton, 1895: 335, 365; Lohde, 1900: 9; Fall, 1901: 251; Sche nkling, 1903a : 9, pl. 5, fig. 1; Felt, 1906: 501; Wolcott, 1909: 93 1910b: 342, 1910c : 849; Wickham and Wolcott, 1912: 51; Bving and Champlain, 1920: 619, 626; Wolcott, 1921: 269; Blackman and Stage, 1924: 43; Champlain and Knull, 1925: 113; Bving and C raighead, 1931b: 276; Beal and Massey, 1945: 76, 111, 122; Wolcot t, 1947: 67; Craighead, 1950: 201; Knull, 1951: 274, pl. 1, fig. 3, pl. 13, fig. 2; Papp, 1960: 76; Ekis, 1975: 12; Foster, 1976a : 134; Barr 1975: 1; Gosling, 1980: 66; Mawdsley, 1994: 116; Peck and Thomas, 1998: 85; Opitz, 2002: 274, figs. 25, 30, 31.

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177 Figure 91. Callotillus ebu r neocinctus Figure 92. Distribution map of Callotillus eburneocinctus

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178 Figure 93. Cymatodera bicolor Figure 94. Distribution map of Cymatodera bicolor

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179 Figure 95. Cymatodera floridana Figure 96. Distribution map of Cymatodera floridana

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180 Figure 97. Cymatodera inornata Figure 98. Distribution map of Cymatodera inornata

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181 Figure 99. Cymatodera undulata Figure 910. Distribution map of Cymatodera undulata

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182 Figure 911. Cymatodera wolcotti Figure 912. Distribution map of Cymatodera wolcotti

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183 Figure 913. Cymatoderella collaris Figure 914. Distribution map of Cymatoderella collaris

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184 Figure 915. Lecontella brunnea Figure 916. Distribution map of Lecontella brunnea

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185 Figure 917. Monophylla terminata, female Figure 918. Monophylla terminata, male

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186 Figure 919. Monophylla terminata, male (left) and female (right) Figure 920. Distribution map of Monophylla terminata

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187 LIST OF REFERENCES Arnett, Jr., R. H. 1960. The beetles of the United St ates. Catholic University Press; Washington, D. C. 1112 p. Baker, C. F. 1895. Biological notes on some Colorado Coleoptera Entomological News 6: 2729. Balduf, W. V. 1926. On the habits and development of a checkered beetle ( Cymatodera undulata Say) Trans actions of the American Entomological Society 52 : 2937. Balduf, W. V. 1935. The bionomics of entomophagous Coleoptera. J ohn S. Swift Company; Chicago, IL. 220 p. Barr, W. F. 1950a. Contributions toward a knowledge of the i nsect fauna of Lower California ( Coleoptera: Cleridae ) Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 24(12) : 483 519. Barr, W. F. 1950b Systematic and synonymical notes on New World Clerid beetles (Coleoptera) Entomologische Berichten 298(13) : 6162. Barr, W. F. 1961. Cleridae. p. 105112. In : M. H. Hatch The beetles of the Pacific Northwest Part III. University of Washington Press; Seattle, WA. 503 p. Barr, W. F. 1962. A key to the genera and a classification of the North American Cleridae (Coleoptera) Coleopterists Bulletin 16 : 121127. Barr, W. F. 1972. New species of North American Cymatodera ( Coleoptera: Cleridae). Entomologische Arbeiten aus dem Museum G Frey Tutzing Bei Muenchen (1972): 132. Barr, W. F. 1975. Family Cleridae. Volume 4. Family 73. p. 118. In : R. H. Arnett, Jr. (ed.). Checklist of the beetles of North and Central America and the West Indies Flora and Fauna Publications; Gainesville, FL. Barr, W. F. 1976a. Descriptions and taxonomic notes of Enoclerus and some a llied genera (Coleoptera: Cleridae). Melanderia 24: 1735. Barr, W. F. 1976b. Taxonomy of the new clerid genus Neorthopleura (Coleoptera). Melanderia 24: 114. Beal, J. A., and C. L. Massey. 1945. Bark beetles and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytoidea): with special references to species occurring in North Carolina Duke Univ er sity School of For estry Bulletin 10(1) : 1 178 Bitner, R. M. 1972. Predation by the l arvae of Lecontella cancellata (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) on seven s pecies of Aculeate Hymenoptera. Entomological News 83: 2326

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188 Blackburn, B. A. 1900. Further notes on Australian Coleoptera, with descriptions of new genera and species. Transactions of the Roya l Society of Southern Australia 24: 113 169. Blackman, M. W., and H. H. Stage. 1924. (I.) On the successions of insects living in the bark and wood of dying, dead and decaying hickory. New York State College of Forestry at State University Technical Bulletin 17 : 1269. Blackwelder, R. E. 1939. Fourth supplement 19331938 (inclusive) to the Leng Catal ogue of Coleoptera of America, n orth of Mexico. John D. She rman; Mount Vernon, N. Y. 146 p. Blackwelder, R. E. 1945. Checklist of the coleopterous insects of Mexico, Central America, the West Indies and South America Part 3 United States National Museum Bulletin 185: 343550. Blackwelder, R. E. 1957. Checklist of the coleopterous insects of Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and South America. Part 6. United States National Museum Bulletin 185: i vii, 9271492. Blaisdell, F. E. 1925. Expedition to Guadelupe Island, Mexico, in 1922. The Coleopt era. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 4(14) : 321 343. Blatchley, W. S. 1910. The Coleoptera or beetles known to occur in Indiana Indiana Dep artment of Geol ogy a nd Natural Resources Bulletin 1 : 1 1386. B ving, A. G., and A. B. Champlain. 1920. Larvae of the North American beetles of the family Cleridae Proceedings of the United States National Museum 57: 576649 Bving, A. G., and F. C. Craighead. 1931a. An illustrated synopsis of the principal larval forms of the order Coleoptera Ent omol gica Americana 11(1) : 1 80. Bving, A. G., and F. C. Craighead. 1931b An illustrated synopsis of the principal larval forms of the order Coleoptera Entomolgica Americana 11(4) : 275 351 Bradley, J. C. 1930. A manual of the genera of beetles of America north of Mexico Daw, Illston and Company; Ithaca, NY. 360 p. Casey, T. L. 1897. Coleopterological notices VII Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 9 : 285684. Castelnau, La Porte de. 1836. Et des ento mologiques, ou descriptions d'insectes nouveaux et observations sur la synonymie. Revue Fran aise d'Entomologie 4: 560. Champlain, A. B., and J. N. Knull. 1925. Notes on Coleoptera The Canadian Entomologist 57 : 112115.

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189 Champollion Figeac, J. F. 1814. Note sur une nouvelle esp ce d'insecte du genre Corynetes Fabricius, trouv e dans une momie gyptienne, observ e a Grenoble Magasin Encyclopedique 3: 4146 Chapin, E. A. 1917. Studies in the Hydnocerini. The hydnoceroid genera Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 12: 8385. Chapin, E. A. 1920. New American Cleridae, with note on the synonymy of Micropterus Chevrolat Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 22: 51 52. Chapin, E. A. 1924. Classification of the Philippine compone nts of the Coleopterous family Cleridae Philippine Journal Sci ence 25: 159286. Chapin, E. A. 1927. The beetles of the f amily Cleridae c ollected on the Mulford Biological Exploration of the Amazon Basin 19211922. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 71(2) : 1 10. Chapin, E. A. 1948. Notes on Cleridae Overgedrukt uit: Entomologische Berichten 285 (12) : 304. Chapman, R. N. 1921. Insects infesting stored food products. University of Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bul letin 198: 1 76 Chevrolat, M. A. 1835. Col opt res du Mexique, f asc 7. Impremiere de G. Silberman; Strasburg. 48 p. Chevrolat, M. A. 1842. Descriptions de quelques Terediles de l'Afrique Australe, du voyage de M. Drege. Revue de Zoologie Africaine 5: 276278 Chevrolat, M. A. 1843. Description de vingt quatre nouvelles espces de Teredi l es, pour faire suite a la monographie des Clairones de M. Le Docteur Klug. Annales de la Soci t Entomologique de France (2)1: 31 42. Chevrolat, M. A. 1874. Cata logue des Clerides de la collec i n de M.A. Chevrolat Revue et Magasin de Zoologie ( Series 3) 2(6) : 252329. Chevrolat, M. A. 1876. M moire sur la famille des Cle rites. Annales de la Socit Entomologique de France 5(5): 151. Chevrolat, M. A. 1880. Descriptions d'un Cleride et de deux Calandrides noveaux. Bulletin de la Socit Entomologique de France (5)10: 31 32 Chittenden, F. H. 1890. Remarks on the habits of some species of Cleridae. Entomolgica Americana 6: 154155.

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190 Corbett, G. H., and C. D over. 1927. The life history and control of some Malayan insects of economic importance, the copra bug, Necrobia rufipes Degeer Malayan Agr icultural Jour nal 15 : 239271. Corporaal, J. B. 1922. Over Necrobia rufipes DeGeer (Ista Mededeeling over Cleriden). Entomologische Berichte n 6: 9394. Corporaal, J. B. 1937. Checklist of the Cleridae (Coleoptera) of Oceania. Occasional Papers Bernice F. Bishop Museum Honolulu 13: 1126. Corporaal, J. B. 1939. Revision of the Thaneroclerinae (Cleridae, Coleopte ra) Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 27: 347359. Corporaal, J. B. 1942. Cleridae (Coleoptera). Beitr ge zur Fauna Perus 2(13) : 1 35 147. Corporaal, J. B. 1950. Cleridae. In : W. D. Hinks (ed.) Coleopterorum catalogus supplementa, Pars 23 (editio secunda) W. Junk; The Hague 373 p. Craighead, F. C. 1950. Insect enemies of eastern forests. United S tates Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publications 657: 1679 Crotch G. R. 1870. The genera of Coleoptera studied chronologically (17351801) Transactions of the Entomological Society of London ( 1870) : 4152. Crowson, R. A. 1964. A review of the classification of Cleroidea (Coleoptera), with descriptions of two new genera of Peltidae and of several larval types Transactions of the Royal Entom ological Society of London 116(12) : 275 327. Csiki, E. 1900. A magyarorsz gi Cleridak Rovartani Lapok 7: 117124. Cuda, J. P., J. C. Dunford, and J. M. Leavengood, Jr. 2007. Invertebrate fauna associated with torpedograss, Panicum repens (Cyperales: Poa ceae), in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, and prospects for biological control Florida Entomologist 90(1) : 238248. Curtis, J. 182340. British entomology, being illustrations and descriptions of the genera of insects found in Great Britain and Ireland. 16 vols. J. Curtis (privately published); London. 770 pls. Degeer, C. 1775. Mmoires pour servir a l'histoire des insects e vol. 5. De l impremiere de Pierre Hesselberg; Stockholm. 448 p. Dejean, P. F. M. A. 1833. Cat alogue des Col opt res de la collection de M. le C omte Dejean livre. 2. M quignonMarvis; Paris. 80 p. (p. 97176.). Dejean, P. F. M. A. 1837. Catalogue des Coloptres de la collection de M. le B a ron Dejean. 3rd ed. (rev.). M quignon Marvis; Paris. 503 p.

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191 Desmarest, E. 1860. Cleriens. p. 226 279. In : J. E. Chenu (ed.). Encyclop die d'histoire naturelle ou trait complet de cette science d'apres les travaux des natural istes les plus minents de tous les pays et de toutes les poques. Coleoptera P ar t 2. Libraire de Firmin Didot ; Paris 312 p. Dillon, E. S., and L. S. Dillon. 1972. A m anual of c ommon beetles of eastern North America. Vol ume 1. Dover Publications, Inc.; New York NY. 434 p. Dixon, W. N., and T. L. Payne. 1979. Aggregation of Thanasi mus dubius on t rees under massattack by the s outhern p ine beetle. Environmental Entomology 8: 178181 Donisthorpe, H. 1901. Cases of protective resemblance, mimicry, etc., in the British Coleoptera Trans actions of the R oyal Entomological Soc iety of London 3 : 3 45377. Drury, C. 1879. List of the Coleoptera observed in the vicinity of Cincinnati Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History 2: 162178. Drury, C. 1902. A revised list of Coleoptera observed near Cincinnati, Ohio. Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History 20: 107196 Ekis, G. 1975. Taxonomic and nomenclatural s tatus of c lerid t axa d escribed by Massimiliano Spinola (17801857) (Coleoptera : Cleridae) Bollettino del l Museo di Zoologia del l Universita di Torin o 1 : 1 80. Ekis, G 1978. Comparative ana tomy and systematic significance of the internal o rgans of c heckered b eetles. Pt II. Reproductive s ystems of the New World genus Enoclerus G ahan (Coleoptera: Cleridae) Coleopterists Bulletin 32(4) : 279 98. Ekis, G., and A. P. Gupta. 1971. Digestive system of Cleridae (Coleoptera) Internationa l Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 1(1) : 5186. Eliason, E. A., and D. A. Potter. 2000. Biology of C allirhytis cornigera (H ymenoptera: C ynipidae) and the arthropod community inhabiting its galls Environmental Entomology 29: 551559. El Mallakh, R. 1978. A food s ource for Necrobia violacea (Coleoptera: Cleridae). Entomological News 89: 178. EscherKundig, J. 1907. Funde von Insekten in der Schadelhohle einer Mumie Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 11(6) : 242 Fabricius, J. C. 1775. Systema entomologiae, sistens i nsectorum classes, ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonymis, locis, des criptionibus, observationibus. Korte; Flensburg and L eipz i g. 832 p.

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192 Fabricius, J. C. 1777. Genera i nsectorum : eorumque characteres naturals secundam numerum, figerum, situm et proportionem, omnium partium oris adjecta mantissa specierum nuper detecterum. Litteris M. F. Bartischii; Kiel, Germany 310 p. Fabricius, J. C. 1781. Species i nsectorum. 2 vols. Bohn; Hamburg and Kiel, Germany 1069 p. Fabricius, J. C. 1798. Supplementum ent omologiae systematicae. Proft and Storch; Copenhagen. 572 p. Fabricius, J. C. 1801. Syst ema e leuth eratorum 1 Impensis Bibliopolii Academici Novi; Ki el, Germany 506 p. Fairmaire, L., and P. Germain. 1861. Coleoptera Chilensia --II. L. Fairmaire and P. Germain (privately published); Paris. 4 p. Faldermann, F. 1835. Additamenta Entomolgica ad faunam Rossicam in itineribus 18271831 collecta. Nouv eaux Mmoire s de la Socit imperial des Nat uralistes de Moscou 4; 1 310. (Title later changed to "Fauna Entomolgica Transcaucasica," of which this paper formed vol. 1.) Fall, H. C. 1901. List of the Coleoptera of southern California, with notes on habits and distribution of new species Occ asional Pap ers of the Calif ornia Acad emy of Sci ences 8: 1282. Felt, E. P. 1906. Insects affecting park and wo odland trees N ew York State Museum Memoirs 8(2) : 333 877 Fleutiaux, E., Legros, C., Lepesme, P., & R. Paulian. 1947. Faune de lEmpire Fran ais, VII, Coloptres des Antilles, vol. 1. Librairie LaRose; Paris. 239 p. Forbes, W. T. M. 1922. The wingvenation of the Coleoptera. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 15: 328345. Forster, J. R. 1771. Novae species Insectorum. Centuria I. T. Davies and B. White; London. 100 p. Foster, D. E. 1976a. A r eview of the North American Tillin i l arvae (Coleoptera: Cleridae) University of Idaho, Department of Entomology Anniversary Publication 19: 133138. Foster, D. E. 1976b. North American Thaneroclerinae l arvae (Coleoptera: Cleridae) Coleopterists Bulletin 30(1) : 75 80. Foster, D. E. 1976c. Revision of North American Trichodes (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Cleridae). Special Publications of the Museum of Texas Tech University 11: 186. Foster, D. E., and W. F. Barr. 1972. Notes on the distribution and bionomics of some North American Cleridae. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 45(1) : 122 125.

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204 Westwood, J. O. 1849. Descriptions of new species. In : Adam White Nomenclature o f coleopterous insects in the British Museum. Part 4: Cleridae. Spotiswoode and Shaw; London. 52 p. Westwood, J. O. 1852. Descriptions of new species of Cleridae, from Asia, Africa and Australia Proc eedings of the Zool ogical Soc iety of London 20 : 3555. Wickham, H. F. 1895. The Coleoptera of Canada. XIII. The Cleridae of Ontario and Quebec The Canadian Entomologist 27: 247 253. Wickham, H. F., and A. B. Wolcott. 1912. Notes on Cleridae from North and Central America Laborator y of Natural History Bulle tin, Iowa State University 6(3) : 49 67. Winkler, J. R. 1961. Die Buntkafer ( Cleridae). A. Ziemsen Verlag ; Wittenburg, Lutherstadt 108 p. Wolcott, A. B. 1908. The North American species of Chariessa (Coleoptera) Entomological News 19: 7072. Wolcott, A. B. 1909. The Cleridae of the Public Museum of Milwaukee. The Bulletin of the Wisconsin Natural History Society 7(34) : 93102 Wolcott, A. B. 1910a. Description of a new genus and four new species of North American Cleridae Entomological News 21: 320323. Wolcott, A. B. 1910b Notes on some Cleridae of Middle and North America, with descriptions of new species. Field Museum of Natural History Publications, Zoological Series 7(10): 339401. Wolcott, A. B. 1910c Cleridae p. 846862. I n: W. S. Blatchley. An Illustrated descriptive catalogue of the Coleoptera or beetles known to occur in Indiana. Bulletin of the Indiana Department of Geology and Natural Resources 1. 1386. Wolcott, A. B. 1911. New American Cleridae, with notes on others (Col eopte ra ) Entomological News 22: 115125. Wolcott, A. B. 1912. The Cleridae of the Stanford Expedition to Brazil. Psyche 19(3) : 7 177. Wolcott, A. B. 1921. North American predaceous beetles of the tribe Tillini in the United States National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 59: 269290. Wolcott, A. B. 1922. New species of Coleoptera of the tribe Clerini, with notes on others Transactions of the American Entomological Soc iety 48: 67 78

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205 Wolcott, A. B. 1927. A r eview of the Cl eridae of Costa Rica. Coleopterological Contributions 1(10) : 1 104 Wolcott, A. B. 1943. Notes on the North American species of Orthopleura Spinola (Coleoptera: Cleridae). The Pan Pacific Entomologist 19: 134138. Wolcott, A. B. 1944a. A generic review of the subfamily Phyllobaeninae Journal of the New York Entomological Society 52 : 121152. Wolcott, A. B. 1944b The American species of Trichodes The Pan Pacific Entomologist 20(2) : 5460. Wolcott, A. B. 1947. Catalogue of North American beetles of the family Cleridae Fieldiana: Zoology 32(2) : 59105. Wolcott, A. B., and E. A. Chapin. 1918. Notes on Cleridae Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 13: 107108. Wright, J. F., and J. Whitehouse. 1941. Additions to the list of Cincinnati Coleoptera Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 36: 6973 Zeigler, D. 1844. Descriptions of new North American Coleoptera Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 2(1844) : 43 47. Zeigler, D. 1845. Descriptions of new Nor th American Coleoptera Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 2(1845) : 266 272.

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206 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH John Moeller Leavengood, Jr., was born in New York to John and Leila Leavengood. He was raised in Haddonfield, New Jersey, where he attended Haddonfield Memorial High School and was a member of the tennis and soccer teams until his junior year. John then moved to Saint Petersburg, Florida and graduated in the class of 2000 of Boca Ciega High School Initially a business major at the University of Florida John was eventually swayed to the discipline of entomology by Don Hall and completed his undergraduate studies in December 2003. Before beginning his graduate degr ee, John developed an increased interest in beetles while focusing on various projects with James Cuda John Foltz and Jorge Pena involving general insect diagnostics. Upon the suggestion of Michael C. Thomas ( supervisory committee chair), J ohn pursued the checkered beetles. During graduate school John worked as a teaching assistant and developed a passion for interacting with students. In the future, John wishes to pursue teaching as a faculty member of a university in Florida so that he ma y be close to his large family