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Taxonomy of the Soldierless Termites (Isoptera

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022847/00001

Material Information

Title: Taxonomy of the Soldierless Termites (Isoptera Termitidae: Apicotermitinae) of the Dominican Republic Based on Morphological Characters and Genetic Analysis of Mtdna and Nuclear Dna.
Physical Description: 1 online resource (95 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bahder, Brian
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: coii, dna, dominican, morphology, soldierless, termite
Entomology and Nematology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Entomology and Nematology thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The Apicotermitinae pose a problem to traditional taxonomy by not having the solider caste for analysis or typological comparisons. The morphological character that has recently shown promise in identifying species within this group is the enteric valve. In this study, samples taken from the Dominican Republic were dissected to observe variation in the worker enteric valve, P1 segment of the gut, and external morphometrics. This variation was compared with inferred trees produced from gene sequences of the COII region. Four different enteric valve morphological groups were identified in this study. There was a distinct correlation between enteric valve morphology and the structure of the P1 segment. All samples with a constricted segment had group-one and group-two enteric valve morphology and all samples without a constriction in the P1 had group-three and group-four morphology. Genetic variation within each group with COII was about 4.1% and the distance between the two groups was 5.1%. A replicate was performed with a subset of samples from the initial dataset and some samples from the Bahamas that had analogous morphology as samples from the Dominican Republic. The COII locus produced the same branching pattern and relatedeness as before with no congruence between morphotype and genotype. If the COII data for this study were accurate, the incongruency between morphology and genotype could be due to polymorphic species, recent divergence, or human error in record keeping of samples. It is apparent that there are two different genera, Anoplotermes ss and Anoplotermes ng. Between these genera, there are two different species and potentially four different species. The separation of genera is due to a P1 constriction and lack of upturned scales on enteric pads for the Anoplotermes ss and an unconstructed P1 with enteric pads that have upturned scales for Anoplotermes ng. More work is needed on other morphological characters, such as worker mandibles and legs, to say with confidence that there are four species of soliderless termites in the Dominican Republic.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Brian Bahder.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Scheffrahn, Rudolf H.
Local: Co-adviser: Giblin-Davis, Robin M.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0022847:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022847/00001

Material Information

Title: Taxonomy of the Soldierless Termites (Isoptera Termitidae: Apicotermitinae) of the Dominican Republic Based on Morphological Characters and Genetic Analysis of Mtdna and Nuclear Dna.
Physical Description: 1 online resource (95 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bahder, Brian
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: coii, dna, dominican, morphology, soldierless, termite
Entomology and Nematology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Entomology and Nematology thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The Apicotermitinae pose a problem to traditional taxonomy by not having the solider caste for analysis or typological comparisons. The morphological character that has recently shown promise in identifying species within this group is the enteric valve. In this study, samples taken from the Dominican Republic were dissected to observe variation in the worker enteric valve, P1 segment of the gut, and external morphometrics. This variation was compared with inferred trees produced from gene sequences of the COII region. Four different enteric valve morphological groups were identified in this study. There was a distinct correlation between enteric valve morphology and the structure of the P1 segment. All samples with a constricted segment had group-one and group-two enteric valve morphology and all samples without a constriction in the P1 had group-three and group-four morphology. Genetic variation within each group with COII was about 4.1% and the distance between the two groups was 5.1%. A replicate was performed with a subset of samples from the initial dataset and some samples from the Bahamas that had analogous morphology as samples from the Dominican Republic. The COII locus produced the same branching pattern and relatedeness as before with no congruence between morphotype and genotype. If the COII data for this study were accurate, the incongruency between morphology and genotype could be due to polymorphic species, recent divergence, or human error in record keeping of samples. It is apparent that there are two different genera, Anoplotermes ss and Anoplotermes ng. Between these genera, there are two different species and potentially four different species. The separation of genera is due to a P1 constriction and lack of upturned scales on enteric pads for the Anoplotermes ss and an unconstructed P1 with enteric pads that have upturned scales for Anoplotermes ng. More work is needed on other morphological characters, such as worker mandibles and legs, to say with confidence that there are four species of soliderless termites in the Dominican Republic.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Brian Bahder.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Scheffrahn, Rudolf H.
Local: Co-adviser: Giblin-Davis, Robin M.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0022847:00001


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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................................................... 4 LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................................ ...7 LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ......................................................................................................... .9 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................... .............11 1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 13 Global Termite Taxonomy and Importance ............................................................................ 13 Previous Work and Issues in Termite Taxonomy ..................................................................14 Soldierless Termites (Isoptera: Termitidae: Apicotermitinae) ........................................ 15 DNA Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding ............................................................................ 17 Samples and Objectives .........................................................................................................21 2 TYPOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES IN MO RPHOLOGY AMONG SOLDIER LESS TERMITES (ISOPTERA: TERMITI DAE: APICOTERMITINAE) IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC ............................................................................................................................26 Introduction .................................................................................................................. ..........26 Materials and Methods ......................................................................................................... .29 Termite Samples ............................................................................................................. 29 Gut Constriction and Morphometrics ............................................................................. 29 Dissection and Slide Preparation .................................................................................... 29 Contrast Settings and Slide Microphotography .............................................................. 30 Results and Discussion ..........................................................................................................31 Enteric Valve Morphology ............................................................................................. 31 Morphometrics ................................................................................................................ 33 Comparison of Gut Morphology, Enteric Valve Morphology, and Morphometrics ......34 Conclusion .................................................................................................................... .........35

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3 MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF THE SOLDIERLESS TERMITES (ISOPTERA: TERMITIDAE: APICOTERMITINAE) IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC BASED ON COII AND D3 GENE SEQUENCES AND ITS RELATIONSHI P WITH WORKER MORPHOLOGY ....................................................................................................................54 Introduction .................................................................................................................. ..........54 Issues with DNA Taxonomy and Undescribed Species .................................................54 Genes Used in DNA Taxonomy Studies ........................................................................ 56 Materials and Methods ...........................................................................................................58 Termite Samples and DNA Extraction ........................................................................... 58 PCR and Purification ......................................................................................................59 Sequence Analysis ..........................................................................................................60 Results and Discussion ..........................................................................................................62 D3 Sequence Variation ...................................................................................................62 COII Sequence Variation for First Replicate .................................................................64 Patterns Between Genes and Morphogroups in First Replicate .....................................65 COII Sequence Variation for Second Replicate ............................................................. 68 Patterns Between Genes and Mor phogroups in Second Replicate .................................70 Incongruency with COII and Mor phology in Previous Studies .....................................71 Sources of Incongruency ................................................................................................72 Conclusion .................................................................................................................... .........75 LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................................................................................... 88 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ......................................................................................................... 95

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1-1 Some common computer software used in analyzing DNA sequence data ......................23 2-1 Termite sample codes and th eir corresponding enteri c valve m orphological characterizati on, morphology of P1 segment, locality data, and mean and range of head width mean ........................................................................................................ .................47 2-2 Termite sample codes and mean measurements for each character .................................. 51 2-3 Morphological char acteristics used to identify Anoplotermes ss an d Anoplotermes ng ...53 3-1 List of samples used in seque nce analysis for D3 and com plimentary data ......................86 3-2 List of contigs used in sequence anal ysis f or COII and each sample used to assemble the consensus sequences ..........................................................................................................87

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1-1 Anoplotermes sp. gut structure ..........................................................................................23 1-2 Enteric valve morphology ............................................................................................ .....23 1-3 Location of the enteric valve .............................................................................................24 1-4 Map of the Dominican Republic with Apicoterm itinae sample locations ......................... 25 2-1 Eversion of enteric valve into P3 segment ........................................................................ 36 2-2 Morphology of P1 segment in Anoplotermes ss and Anoploterm es ng .............................36 2-3 G1 enteric valve morphology ......................................................................................... ...36 2-4 G2 enteric valve morphology ......................................................................................... ...37 2-5 G3 enteric valve morphology ......................................................................................... ...37 2-6 G4 enteric valve morphology ......................................................................................... ...38 2-7 Morphology of scales in the enteric valve ......................................................................... 38 2-8 Enteric valve situation .......................................................................................................38 2-9 Distribution map .................................................................................................... ............39 2-10 Photographs of enteric valves of each specimen used in COII sequence analysis ............ 40 3-1 Sequence data for the D3 extension segm ent of the 28S nuclear rRNA gene ................... 78 3-2 COII sequence data for first replicate ................................................................................79 3-3 Neighbor-joining tree for COII sequences for first replicate using bootstrap m ethod ...... 82 3-4 Distance matrix for COII sequence da ta for first replicate for each enteric valve morphological group ............................................................................................... ...........82 3-5 COII sequence data for Apico termitinae from the Dominican Republic for second replicate .............................................................................................................................83 3-6 Neighbor-joining tree for COII gene for second replicate us ing bootstrap m ethod .......... 85 3-7 Distance matrix for COII for second replicate for each genotype .....................................85

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Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes

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Global TermiteTaxonomyand Importance

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Previous Work and Issues in TermiteTaxonomy Nasutitermes

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Soldierless Termites (Isoptera: Termitidae: Apicotermitinae)

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DNA Taxonomyand DNA Barcoding

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a priori

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X

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Samples and Objectives Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes

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Anoplotermes Anoplotermes

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Anoplotermes AnoplotermesAnoplotermes parvus Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes

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Anoplotermes Eburnietermes

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Program Function Developed X

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Introduction Anoplotermes gracilis Anoplotermesmanni

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Ebunitermes, Coxotermes, Labidotermes, Ateuchotermes Anoplotermes Aparatermes, Grigiotermes, Ruptitermes, Tetimatermes

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Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes

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Materials and Methods TermiteSamples Gut Constriction and Morphometrics Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Dissection and Slide Preparation

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ContrastSettings and Slide Microphotography

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Results and Discussion Enteric ValveMorphology

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Anoplotermes Anoplotermes

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Anoplotermes Morphometrics Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes

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Comparison of Gut Morphology, Enteric Valve Morphology, and Morphometrics Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes

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Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Conclusion Anoplotermes bahamensis A. inopinatus

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. Anoplotermes Anoplotermes : Anoplotermes Anoplotermes

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Anoplotermes

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Anoplotermes Anoplotermes

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.

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Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Sample No. of Termites 1 and P1 type Locality Head Width Mean SD(mm) Head Width Range m (mm) : UP3 G1 EV_Ano DR 127 10: Constricted Hoyo de Pun 0.81 0.01 0.80 0.83 ; n/a DR 374 10:Constricted Santa Domingo, C 0.82 0.01 0.80 0.83 : n/a DR 476 10: Constricted 3 km S Saban del Mar 0.82 0.02 0.80 0.85 : n/a DR 1214 8: Contstricted 2 km W Bani 0.83 0.01 0.83 0.86 : n/a DR 1219 8: Constricted 2 km E Caafi stol 0.86 0.02 0.83 0.90 : n/a DR 1222 10: Constricted 2 km E Caafistol 0.88 0.01 0.83 0.86 : n/a DR 1223 9: Constricted 2 km E Caafi stol 0.83 0.01 0.82 0.84 : n/a DR 1227 10:Constricted 2 km E Caafist ol 0.89 0.05 0.86 1.03 : n/a DR 1228 3: Constricted 2 km E Caafi stol 0.86 0.01 0.86 0.88 : n/a DR 1256 1: Constricted 1 km E Galeon, DF 0.84 0.00 0.84 : n/a DR 1257 9: Constricted 1 km E Galeon, DF 0.86 0.02 0.83 0.86 : n/a DR 1258 9: Constricted 1 km E Galeon, DF 0.81 0.01 0.81 0.83 : n/a DR 1315 1: Constricted 2 km E Caafistol 0.82 0.00 0.82 : n/a DR 1316 10: Constricted 2 km E Caafistol 0.88 0.02 0.83 0.91 : n/a DR 1317 10: Constricted 2 km E Caafistol 0.86 0.01 .086 0.88 : n/a DR 1339 9: Constricted 2 km E Caafi stol 0.86 0.02 0.83 0.88 : n/a DR 1355 10: Constricted La Barilla, fa rm 0.80 0.00 0.80 0.81 : n/a DR 1516 7: Constricted Bani 0.80 0.00 0.80 0.81 : n/a DR 1532 10: Constricted 2 km E Caafistol 0.86 0.01 0.83 0.88 : n/a DR 1541 10: Constricted 1 km S Matadero 0.85 0.02 0.81 0.86 : n/a DR 1542 5: Constricted 1km S Matadero 0.84 0.02 0.80 0.85 : n/a DR 1598 10: Constricted 1 km W Bani 0.85 0.02 0.86 0.88 : n/a DR 1934 6: Constricted E Bani 0.86 0.02 0.83 0.86 : n/a G2 EV_Ano DR 126 10: Constricted Bomba de Gaunuma 0.72 0.03 0.68 0.76 : n/a DR 128 10: Constricted 9 km W Embassy, BE. 0.78 0.01 .076 0.79 : n/a DR 400 10: Constricted Samana City Park 0.76 0.02 0.76 0.79 : n/a DR 420 10: Constricted Playa Grande 0.74 0.02 0.70 0.78 : n/a DR 970 10: Constricted Jimenoa nr. Jara bocoa 0.75 0.02 0.73 0.78 : n/a DR 971 10: Constricted Jimenoa nr. Jara bocoa 0.78 0.01 0.76 0.79 : n/a DR 1166 10: Constricted Guineal 0.78 0.03 0.76 0.79 : n/a DR 1167 10: Constricted Guineal 0.76 0.02 0.73 0.79 : n/a DR 1168 10: Constricted Guineal 0.76 0.03 0.69 0.79 : n/a DR 1173 10: Constricted Guineal 0.75 0.02 0.72 0.78 : n/a DR 1505 9: Constricted Batey, Los Guineos 0.77 0.01 0.76 0.79 : n/a DR 1979 10: Constricted Las Terrenas 0.74 0.02 0.70 0.78 : n/a G3 EV_Ang DR 129 10: Tubular La Guajaca 0.89 0.02 0.88 0.91 : 19 DR 456 10: Tubular Santiago, Inst. Sup. Ag. 0.85 0.02 0.83 0.86 : 11 DR 459 10: Tubular Santiago, Inst. Sup. Ag. 0.84 0.02 0.81 0.86 : 18 DR 460 10: Tubular Santiago, Inst. Sup. Ag. 0.84 0.02 0.81 0.86 : 11 DR 469 10: Tubular El Pino 0.88 0.02 0.86 0.91 : 15

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Table 2-1. Continued Sample No. of Termites 1and P1 type Locality Head Width Mean SD(mm) Head Width Range m (mm) : UP DR 596 10: Tubular La Romana 0.82 0.02 0.81 0.86 : 13 DR 601 10: Tubular La Romana 0.86 0.02 0.83 0.88 : 16 DR 604 10: Tubular La Romana 0.84 0.02 0.80 0.87 : 13 DR 617 10: Tubular La Romana 0.84 0.02 0.80 0.86 : 12 DR 619 10: Tubular La Romana 0.87 0.02 0.83 0.88 : 16 DR 721 6: Tubular La Colonia nr. Jauncho 0.75 0.02 0.73 0.78 : 6 DR 722 4: Tubular La Colonia nr. Jauncho 0.86 0.00 n/a : 13 DR 754 10: Tubular 10 km W Oviedo 0.84 0.01 0.83 0.86 : 10 DR 911 10: Tubular Finca Ochoa 0.88 0.02 0.86 0.91 : 13 DR 991 4: Tubular Santo Domingo 0.76 n/a : 10 DR 1082 3: Tubular El Carril 0.86 0.00 n/a : 7 DR 1180 10: Tubular 13 km N San Jose Oco. 0.89 0.04 0.86 0.98 : 11 DR 1191 10: Tubular 13 km N San Jose Oco. 0.87 0.03 0.83 0.91 : 12 DR 1220 10: Tubular 2 km E Caafistol 0.83 0.02 0.81 0.85 : 12 DR 1226 10: Tubular 2 km E Caafistol 0.83 0.02 0.80 0.84 : 13 DR 1276 7: Tubular Tres Chacos 0.82 0.01 0.81 0.83 : 12 DR 1283 10: Tubular 3 km NW Tres Chacos 0.81 0.01 0.78 0.83 : 7 DR 1286 10: Tubular NW Tres Chacos 0.83 0.02 0.81 0.86 : 12 DR 1287 10: Tubular NW Tres Chacos 0.83 0.02 0.81 0.86 : 12 DR 1288 10: Tubular NW Tres Chacos 0.85 0.02 0.81 0.86 : 10 DR 1291 10: Tubular 2 km S Canada de P.V. 0.84 0.02 0.78 0.86 : 11 DR 1313 10: Tubular E Caafistol 0.85 0.01 0.83 0.86 : 10 DR 1314 7: Tubular E Caafistol 0.86 0.04 0.81 0.91 : 14 DR 1318 10: Tubular 2 km E Caafistol 0.83 0.02 0.81 0.86 : 10 DR 1320 10: Tubular 2 km E Caafistol 0.82 0.02 0.81 0.86 : 15 DR 1338 10: Tubular 2 km E Caafistol 0.84 0.02 0.83 0.86 : 13 DR 1353 10: Tubular La Barilla, farm 0.76 0.02 0.73 0.78 : 9 DR 1354 10: Tubular La Barilla, fa rm 0.82 0.03 0.76 0.86 : 10 DR 1517 10: Tubular Bani 0.85 0.02 0.83 0.86 : 15 DR 1527 10: Tubular 2 km E Caafistol 0.84 0.02 0.81 0.86 : 13 DR 1528 5: Tubular 2 km E Caafistol 0.84 0.01 0.83 0.86 : 11 DR 1559 10: Tubular W Bani 0.85 0.02 0.83 0.86 : 15 DR 1562 10: Tubular W Bani 0.85 0.02 0.83 0.86 : 15 DR 1663 10: Tubular Botoncillo 0.79 0.02 0.76 0.81 : 9 DR 1743 4: Tubular Tres Chacos 0.80 0.02 0.78 0.83 : 14 DR 1775 10: Tubular Jaragua Natl. Park 0.81 0.02 0.78 0.81 : 13 DR 1784 10: Tubular Jaragua Ntl. Park 0.79 0.02 0.78 0.81 : 12 DR 1790 10: Tubular Jaragua Ntl. Park 0.89 0.02 0.86 0.91 : 12 DR 1796 10: Tubular Jaragua Natl. Park 0.83 0.02 0.81 0.86 : 9 DR 1803 10: Tubular Jaragua Natl. Park 0.82 0.02 0.81 0.86 : 12 DR 1827 10: Tubular Oviedo 0.83 0.03 0.78 0.86 : 9 DR 1853 10: Tubular 13 km SW Oviedo 0.83 0.04 0.78 0.93 : 11 DR 1854 10: Tubular 13 km SW Oviedo 0.86 0.01 0.86 0.88 : 8 DR 1866 10: Tubular 12 km SW Oviedo 0.87 0.03 0.83 0.93 : 8 DR 1867 9: Tubular 12 km SW Oviedo 0.86 0.02 0.83 0.88 : 14 DR 1884 Tubular W Tres Chacos 0.85 0.02 0.82 0.88 : 11 DR 1885 10: Tubular W Tres Chacos 0.85 0.02 0.81 0.88 : 9

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Table 2-1. Continued Sample No. of Termites 1and P1 type Locality Head Width Mean SD(mm) Head Width Range m (mm) : UP DR 1886 10: Tubular W Tres Chacos 0.80 0.01 0.78 0.83 : 12 DR 1887 5: Tubular W Tres Chacos 0.80 0.03 0.76 0.83 : 11 DR 1904 4: Tubular Oviedo 0.84 0.01 0.83 0.86 : 18 DR 1905 10: Tubular Oviedo 0.80 0.02 0.78 0.83 : 14 DR 1922 10: Tubular N of site # 77 0.82 0.02 0.78 0.86 : 6 G4 EV_Ang DR 125 10: Tubular Santo Domingo 0.88 0.06 0.78 0.93 : 26 DR 321 10: Tubular 9 km E Quita Coraza 0.82 0.02 0.81 0.86 : 28 DR 325 10: Tubular 9 km E Quita Coraza 0.81 0.02 0.78 0.81 : 30 DR 328 10: Tubular 2 km N Canoa 0.80 0.01 0.78 0.83 : 27 DR 700 10: Tubular Caracoles 0.83 0.01 0.81 0.86 : 21 DR 1036 10: Tubular 11 km W of Azua 0.79 0.00 0.78 0.79 : 26 DR 1037 10: Tubular 11 km W of Azua 0.79 0.00 0.78 0.79 : 32 DR 1046 10: Tubular 1 km E Azua 0.80 0.03 0.76 0.83 : 31 DR 1047 6: Tubular 1k E Azua 0.82 0.01 0.81 0.83 : 26 DR 1048 10: Tubular 1k E Azua 0.81 0.02 0.78 0.83 : 20 DR 1049 6: Tubular 1k E Azua 0.81 0.02 0.78 0.83 : 22 DR 1050 10: Tubular 1k E Azua 0.81 0.01 0.81 0.83 : 23 DR 1051 10: Tubular 1k E Azua 0.82 0.03 0.78 0.86 : 33 DR 1062 9: Tubular 11 km W of Azua 0.82 0.02 0.78 0.83 : 28 DR 1073 4: Tubular 11 km W of Azua 0.78 0.01 0.78 0.79 : 20 DR 1221 8: Tubular 2 km E Caafistol 0.78 0.01 0.76 0.78 : 20 DR 1224 10: Tubular 2 km E Caafistol 0.78 0.01 0.76 0.78 : 24 DR 1225 5: Tubular 2 km E Caafistol 0.80 0.03 0.79 0.83 : 26 DR 1260 10: Tubular E Las Carreras 0.78 0.01 0.76 0.79 : 25 DR 1261 10: Tubular E Las Carreras 0.78 0.01 0.76 0.81 : 27 DR 1262 10: Tubular E Las Carreras 0.78 0.01 0.76 0.79 : 21 DR 1264 10: Tubular 11 km W of Azua 0.83 0.01 0.81 0.83 : 21 DR 1295 10: Tubular 2 km S Canada de P.V. 0.84 0.02 0.81 0.86 : 26 DR 1319 10: Tubular E Caafistol 0.83 0.02 0.81 0.86 : 24 DR 1324 10: Tubular 2 km E Caafistol 0.82 0.01 0.81 0.83 : 36 DR 1333 10: Tubular 2 km E Caafistol 0.82 0.02 0.81 0.86 : 37 DR 1335 10: Tubular 2 km E Caafistol 0.86 0.02 0.83 0.88 : 29 DR 1345 10: Tubular E Caafistol 0.85 0.01 0.82 0.89 : 31 DR 1533 10: Tubular 2 km E Caafistol 0.81 0.02 0.78 0.81 : 25 DR 1929 10: Tubular E Azua 0.81 0.02 0.78 0.83 : 23 DR 1960 10: Tubular Santo Domingo 0.91 0.02 0.88 0.91 : 22 No EV info DR 3382 n/a Yayas de Viajama n/a n/a DR 362 1: Constricted Santa Domingo, C 0.88 0.00 n/a DR 697 1: Tubular Caracoles 0.81 n/a DR 10282 n/a 11 km W Azua n/a n/a DR 1038 1: Tubular 11 km W of Azua 0.80 n/a DR 1052 1: Tubular 1k E Azua 0.79 n/a DR 1072 1: Tubular 11 km W of Azua 0.82 n/a DR 1086 1: Tubular La Canoa 0.81 n/a

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Table 2-1. Continued Sample No. of Termites 1and P1 type Locality Head Width Mean SD(mm) Head Width Range m (mm) : UP DR 1263 1: Tubular 11 km W of Azua 0.78 n/a DR 1269 1: Tubular 4 km E Vicente Noble 0.81 n/a DR 1277 1: Tubular Tres Chacos 0.83 n/a DR 1323 1: Tubular 2 km E Caafistol 0.82 n/a DR 13922 n/a 1 km NW Playa Bavar n/a n/a DR 1774 2: Tubular Jaragua Natl. Park 0.79 0.02 0.78 0.81 : n/a DR 1783 2: Tubular Jaragua Natl. Park 0.79 0.02 0.78 0.81 : n/a DR 1932 1: Constricted E Bani 0.88 n/a DR 1933 1: Constricted E Bani 0.91 n/a

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Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Sample BL HL HW CH CL CW PW FTW MTW HTW DR 126 2.62 0.93 0.72 0.12 0.19 0.34 0.46 0.14 0.10 0.09 DR 127 3.20 1.02 0.80 0.11 0.18 0.35 0.50 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 128 3.04 0.99 0.78 0.13 0.22 0.37 0.49 0.14 0.10 0.10 DR 400 3.03 1.02 0.77 0.12 0.19 0.35 0.49 0.15 0.11 0.09 DR 420 3.00 0.91 0.74 0.11 0.18 0.33 0.48 0.13 0.10 0.09 DR 476 2.44 0.95 0.77 0.14 0.20 0.36 0.49 0.14 0.10 0.09 DR 970 2.95 0.98 0.75 0.12 0.21 0.36 0.48 0.14 0.10 0.09 DR 1214 2.73 1.04 0.83 0.16 0.24 0.28 0.52 0.16 0.11 0.10 DR 1219 3.21 1.03 0.86 0.16 0.23 0.39 0.54 0.16 0.11 0.09 DR 1222 3.08 1.08 0.85 0.16 0.23 0.39 0.54 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1223 3.01 1.06 0.83 0.15 0.23 0.40 0.52 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1227 3.18 1.10 0.89 0.16 0.23 0.42 0.55 0.15 0.12 0.10 DR 1257 3.01 1.07 0.86 0.14 0.24 0.39 0.53 0.15 0.11 0.10 DR 1258 2.82 1.07 0.81 0.13 0.23 0.42 0.50 0.15 0.11 0.09 DR 1316 3.31 1.12 0.88 0.13 0.23 0.41 0.54 0.15 0.11 0.09 DR 1317 3.29 1.13 0.86 0.12 0.23 0.40 0.53 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1339 3.24 1.09 0.86 0.13 0.23 0.39 0.54 0.15 0.12 0.10 DR 1355 2.85 0.98 0.80 0.12 0.22 0.37 0.48 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1516 3.04 1.00 0.80 0.15 0.23 0.37 0.50 0.15 0.10 0.08 DR 1532 3.28 1.13 0.86 0.12 0.23 0.40 0.53 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1541 3.07 1.08 0.85 0.12 0.22 0.39 0.52 0.14 0.10 0.09 DR 1598 3.43 1.07 0.85 0.16 0.23 0.40 0.52 0.15 0.11 0.08 DR 1934 2.92 1.08 0.86 0.13 0.24 0.39 0.53 0.14 0.11 0.09 Ano_G2 DR 971 3.03 0.99 0.78 0.12 0.21 0.36 0.51 0.14 0.10 0.09 DR 1166 2.90 1.01 0.78 0.12 0.18 0.35 0.50 0.15 0.10 0.10 DR 1167 3.03 0.98 0.76 0.13 0.18 0.35 0.49 0.14 0.10 0.09 DR 1168 3.16 0.99 0.76 0.11 0.18 0.35 0.50 0.13 0.10 0.09 DR 1173 2.85 0.97 0.75 0.12 0.18 0.34 0.49 0.14 0.10 0.10 DR 1505 2.90 0.99 0.78 0.12 0.18 0.35 0.50 0.14 0.10 0.09 DR 1979 2.64 0.92 0.74 0.12 0.19 0.34 0.47 0.14 0.10 0.09 DR 129 3.45 1.09 0.89 0.14 0.26 0.41 0.53 0.17 0.11 0.09 DR 456 3.31 1.08 0.85 0.12 0.26 0.40 0.51 0.16 0.10 0.09 DR 459 3.37 1.07 0.84 0.13 0.25 0.39 0.52 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 460 3.30 1.06 0.84 0.14 0.25 0.38 0.50 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 469 3.56 1.11 0.88 0.14 0.26 0.41 0.53 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 596 3.35 1.07 0.82 0.15 0.23 0.38 0.51 0.15 0.10 0.08 DR 601 3.24 1.13 0.86 0.14 0.27 0.39 0.52 0.15 0.10 0.10 DR 619 3.30 1.10 0.87 0.14 0.28 0.40 0.53 0.15 0.11 0.09 DR 721 3.17 0.95 0.75 0.15 0.25 0.36 0.47 0.15 0.11 0.08

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Table 2-2. Continued Sample BL HL HW CH CL CW PW FTW MTW HTW DR 754 3.02 1.09 0.84 0.15 0.26 0.39 0.50 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 911 3.43 1.10 0.88 0.13 0.26 0.41 0.53 0.15 0.11 0.09 DR 1180 3.48 1.15 0.89 0.12 0.23 0.40 0.54 0.15 0.10 0.10 DR 1191 3.44 1.15 0.87 0.12 0.23 0.39 0.53 0.15 0.10 0.10 DR 1283 3.39 1.01 0.81 0.10 0.24 0.38 0.49 0.15 0.10 0.08 DR 1287 3.39 1.06 0.83 0.14 0.27 0.38 0.52 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1288 3.40 1.06 0.85 0.13 0.27 0.39 0.51 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1291 3.35 1.05 0.84 0.14 0.27 0.39 0.50 0.16 0.12 0.10 DR 1313 3.21 1.07 0.85 0.13 0.25 0.38 0.52 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1320 3.32 1.11 0.82 0.13 0.24 0.38 0.52 0.16 0.11 0.09 DR 1338 3.49 1.07 0.84 0.12 0.23 0.38 0.53 0.15 0.10 0.08 DR 1354 3.20 1.11 0.82 0.12 0.22 0.36 0.51 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1527 3.13 1.08 0.84 0.13 0.23 0.38 0.52 0.15 0.11 0.10 DR 1528 2.98 1.12 0.84 0.13 0.23 0.38 0.52 0.16 0.11 0.08 DR 1663 3.17 0.94 0.79 0.10 0.20 0.36 0.50 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1775 3.05 1.03 0.81 0.10 0.24 0.37 0.49 0.15 0.10 0.08 DR 1784 3.54 1.10 0.89 0.15 0.28 0.42 0.53 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1790 3.38 1.03 0.83 0.13 0.24 0.38 0.50 0.15 0.11 0.09 DR 1796 3.07 1.04 0.82 0.12 0.25 0.37 0.48 0.15 0.10 0.08 DR 1803 3.48 1.03 0.83 0.11 0.25 0.37 0.52 0.15 0.10 0.08 DR 1827 3.23 1.04 0.83 0.13 0.23 0.37 0.51 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1853 3.43 1.08 0.86 0.13 0.26 0.39 0.52 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1854 3.51 1.05 0.87 0.12 0.26 0.39 0.52 0.15 0.10 0.10 DR 1866 3.13 1.06 0.86 0.13 0.26 0.41 0.52 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1867 2.98 1.07 0.85 0.10 0.23 0.38 0.49 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1885 3.25 1.06 0.85 0.13 0.24 0.38 0.52 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1886 2.86 1.01 0.80 0.13 0.24 0.37 0.49 0.16 0.11 0.10 DR 1887 2.95 1.03 0.80 0.13 0.24 0.37 0.50 0.15 0.11 0.10 DR 1905 2.98 1.03 0.80 0.13 0.23 0.37 0.49 0.15 0.10 0.08 DR 1922 3.15 1.03 0.82 0.12 0.23 0.37 0.50 0.15 0.10 0.09 Ang_G4 DR 125 3.41 1.13 0.88 0.12 0.12 0.40 0.54 0.15 0.11 0.10 DR 321 2.68 1.02 0.82 0.11 0.25 0.37 0.47 0.15 0.10 0.08 DR 328 2.74 0.99 0.80 0.12 0.25 0.37 0.47 0.14 0.10 0.08 DR 700 3.14 1.08 0.83 0.12 0.23 0.38 0.49 0.15 0.10 0.08 DR 1037 2.48 1.01 0.79 0.10 0.22 0.36 0.47 0.15 0.10 0.08 DR 1046 3.25 1.05 0.80 0.11 0.22 0.36 0.48 0.14 0.10 0.08 DR 1047 2.52 1.03 0.82 0.10 0.21 0.36 0.49 0.16 0.10 0.08 DR 1048 3.09 1.00 0.81 0.08 0.22 0.36 0.48 0.15 0.10 0.08 DR 1049 2.70 0.99 0.81 0.11 0.22 0.35 0.48 0.15 0.10 0.08 DR 1050 2.50 1.01 0.81 0.10 0.21 0.36 0.47 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1051 3.01 1.05 0.82 0.10 0.22 0.36 0.49 0.15 0.10 0.08 DR 1062 2.51 1.03 0.82 0.10 0.21 0.36 0.48 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1221 2.52 1.00 0.77 0.09 0.19 0.34 0.47 0.14 0.10 0.09

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Table 2-2. Continued Sample BL HL HW CH CL CW PW FTW MTW HTW DR 1225 2.86 1.02 0.80 0.10 0.20 0.36 0.47 0.14 0.10 0.08 DR 1262 2.60 0.95 0.78 0.09 0.21 0.35 0.44 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1264 2.50 1.09 0.83 0.08 0.21 0.36 0.48 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1295 3.28 1.09 0.84 0.12 0.24 0.39 0.50 0.15 0.11 0.08 DR 1319 3.20 1.08 0.83 0.12 0.22 0.37 0.50 0.15 0.10 0.09 DR 1324 3.39 1.09 0.82 0.11 0.21 0.36 0.50 0.15 0.10 0.08 DR 1333 2.86 1.04 0.82 0.11 0.20 0.36 0.49 0.15 0.10 0.08 DR 1533 3.05 1.06 0.82 0.11 0.21 0.37 0.49 0.14 0.09 0.08 DR 1960 3.10 1.19 0.91 0.13 0.23 0.40 0.55 0.15 0.10 0.10 Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Morphological Character Anoplotermes ss Anoplotermes ng

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Introduction Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Reticulitermes Reticulitermes Issues with DNA taxonomyand undescribed species

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a priori

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Genesused in DNA taxonomystudies

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Reticulitermes R. flavipes R. virginicus

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Materials and Methods TermiteSamples and DNA Extraction

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Anoplotermes inopinatus Anoplotermes bahamensis A.bahamensis A.inopinatus Anoplotermes A.bahamensis Anoplotermes Anoplotermes inopinatus A.bahamensis. PCR and Purification

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Sequence Analysis

PAGE 62

Results and Discussion D3 Sequence Variation

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COIISequence Variation forfirst replicate

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Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Microcerotermes Microcerotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Microcerotermes Patterns between genesand morpho groups in first replicate

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Reticulitermes. Reticulitermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes R. flavipes R. viriginicus R. flavipes R. santonensis R. flavipesR. viriginicus

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Anoplotermes Microcerotermes Anoplotermes

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Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes R. viriginicus R. flavipes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes R. flavipes R. virginicus, COIIsequence variation forsecond replicate Anoplotermes Anoplotermes

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A. inopinatus Anoplotermes A.bahamensis Anoplotermes Anoplotermes

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Patterns between genesand morphogroups in second replicate A inopinatus A. bahamensis R. flavipes R. virginicus

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Reticulitermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Incongruency with COIIand morphologyin previous studies

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Incisitermes Incisitermes Mastotermes Sources of incongruency

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A.inopinatus Anoplotermes A.inopinatus A.bahamenesis.

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Reticulitermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes

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Conclusion Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes

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Anoplotermes Anoplotermes

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Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Anoplotermes

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.

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Neighbor-joining tree for COII sequences for first replicate using bootstrap method Anoplotermes Microcerotermes G1 G2 G3G3/G4G4Ano OG G1 G2 0.015 G3 0.049 0.051 G3/G4 0.031 0.024 0.051 G4 0.015 0.000 0.0510.024 An OG 0.070 0.067 0.0720.0710.067 Mi OG 0.111 0.11 0.1140.1130.1100.109 Anoplotermes Microcerotermes

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Neighbor-joining tree for COII gene for second replicate using bootstrap method Anoplotermes Genotype 1 Genotype 2 Genotype 3 Genotype 4 Genotype 1 Genotype 2 0.079 Genotype 3 0.074 0.076 Genotype 4 0.079 0.083 0.074 Outgroup 0.100 0.120 0.102 0.116 Distance matrix for COII for second replicate for each genotype: Anoplotermes

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Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Sample_Sp_Date EV Contig P1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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Anoplotermes Anoplotermes Consensus Sequences Sample G1 G2 G3/G4(1) G3/G4(2) G3/G4(3) Single Sample

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Reticulitermes Reticulitermes flavipes Reticulitermessantonensis. Reticulitermes Hylaarenicolor Reticulitermes Xenopus laevis

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Apicotermes arquieri Euphausia

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Chelonia

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Reticulitermes Reticulitermes Drosophila melanogastor.

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Reticulitermes Journal of Zoological Systematics & Evol utionary Research. 45: 1-10. Bursaphelenchus