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Development and Evaluation of Safety Training for Hurricane Reconstruction

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022749/00001

Material Information

Title: Development and Evaluation of Safety Training for Hurricane Reconstruction
Physical Description: 1 online resource (111 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Hunter, Bradley
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this thesis was to create an effective training course (or curricula) for workers performing post-hurricane reconstruction activities. Hurricanes are associated with strong winds and water damage and often create construction hazards not encountered on typical construction sites. Construction hazards and safe remediation efforts associated with post-hurricane reconstruction work were researched and identified in a combined effort from the University of Florida OSHA Susan Hardwood Training Grant team (Dr. Hinze, Dr. Grosskopf, Josh Casart and this researcher). The intent of this thesis was not only to create an effective training course, preparing workers to perform work safely in disaster stricken areas, but also to evaluate the effectiveness of the training curricula created. An instructor evaluation form, a pre-test, and a post- test were created as assessment instruments to evaluate the effectiveness of the training curricula. The data from the assessment instruments were collected from eleven seminars in which the training course was presented to members of the construction industry. From the analysis of the data, it was concluded that the training course was effective as an educational module. Information was also obtained on areas in the curricula that would be improved through additional modifications.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Bradley Hunter.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Hinze, Jimmie W.
Local: Co-adviser: Grosskopf, Kevin R.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0022749:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022749/00001

Material Information

Title: Development and Evaluation of Safety Training for Hurricane Reconstruction
Physical Description: 1 online resource (111 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Hunter, Bradley
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this thesis was to create an effective training course (or curricula) for workers performing post-hurricane reconstruction activities. Hurricanes are associated with strong winds and water damage and often create construction hazards not encountered on typical construction sites. Construction hazards and safe remediation efforts associated with post-hurricane reconstruction work were researched and identified in a combined effort from the University of Florida OSHA Susan Hardwood Training Grant team (Dr. Hinze, Dr. Grosskopf, Josh Casart and this researcher). The intent of this thesis was not only to create an effective training course, preparing workers to perform work safely in disaster stricken areas, but also to evaluate the effectiveness of the training curricula created. An instructor evaluation form, a pre-test, and a post- test were created as assessment instruments to evaluate the effectiveness of the training curricula. The data from the assessment instruments were collected from eleven seminars in which the training course was presented to members of the construction industry. From the analysis of the data, it was concluded that the training course was effective as an educational module. Information was also obtained on areas in the curricula that would be improved through additional modifications.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Bradley Hunter.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Hinze, Jimmie W.
Local: Co-adviser: Grosskopf, Kevin R.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0022749:00001


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1 D EVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF SAFETY TRAINING FOR HURRICANE RECONSTRUCTION By BRADLEY DAVID HUNTER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D EGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009

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2 2009 Bradley David Hunter

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3 To my family, for without their encouragement and support th is thesis would not be possible

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my past and present teachers and professors whom have dedicated their lives to spreading positivity and knowledge, making this world a better place for all. I would also like to show appreciation to my fellow classma tes and friends for their humor and fun, c reating an academic environment enjoyable as possible Most importantly, without my family, my educational endeavor would not be possible. Instilling strong values and providing the necessary constructive criticis m when necessary they have provided me with the vision needed to sight and accomplish my goals. In life: If I have seen a little further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants, Sir Isa ac Newton understood. Last, but not least, I want to thank s pecifically Dr. Jimmie Hinze. Without his patience, guidance and positive attitude this contribution would not have been possible. It is an absolute great feeling knowing thi s work was used to train over 3 0 0 people in the construction industry.

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5 TAB LE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................................... 4 LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................................. 7 LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................................ 8 ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................................... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 10 Statement of th e Problem ............................................................................................................ 10 Objective ...................................................................................................................................... 10 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................................... 11 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 11 Training Curricula ....................................................................................................................... 11 Animals & Insects ................................................................................................................ 13 Carbon Monoxide Poisoning .............................................................................................. 14 Chain Saw Injuries ............................................................................................................... 14 Immunizations ...................................................................................................................... 14 Audience ...................................................................................................................................... 15 Evaluation of Training Curricula ............................................................................................... 17 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................... 20 Weekly Work Meetings .............................................................................................................. 20 Course Development ................................................................................................................... 20 Photos ........................................................................................................................................... 21 Course Evaluation ....................................................................................................................... 22 4 RESULTS .................................................................................................................................... 24 Training Course ........................................................................................................................... 24 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 24 General Health and Safety Precautions .............................................................................. 26 Focus Four Hazards ............................................................................................................. 30 Chemical and Biological Hazards ...................................................................................... 33 Equipment Hazards .............................................................................................................. 35 Training Sessions ........................................................................................................................ 36 Pre Test/Post Test Charts ........................................................................................................... 36 Missed Question Totals Chart .................................................................................................... 3 9

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6 Instructor Evaluations ................................................................................................................. 41 5 CONCLUSIONS ......................................................................................................................... 44 Course Effectiveness ................................................................................................................... 44 Missed Questions ........................................................................................................................ 44 Instructor Evaluations ................................................................................................................. 44 6 RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................................ 46 APPENDIX A TRAINING MODULE ............................................................................................................... 49 B INSTRUCTOR EVALUATION .............................................................................................. 106 C PRE/POST TEST ...................................................................................................................... 107 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................................................................................................. 110 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........................................................................................................... 111

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7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4 1 Pre -test vs. post test ............................................................................................................... 38 4 2 Test averages number of correct answers for 20 questions ............................................... 38 4 3 Missed question totals by percent ......................................................................................... 41

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Instructor evaluations ............................................................................................................. 43

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science i n Building Construction DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF SAFETY TRAINING FOR HURRICANE RECONSTRUCTION By Bradley David Hunter May 2009 Chair: Jimmie Hinze Cochair: Kevin Grosskopf Major: Building Construction The p urpose of this thesis was to create an effective t raining course (or curricula) for workers performing post hurricane reconstruction activities. Hurricanes are associated with strong winds and water damage and often create construction hazards not encount ered on typical construction sites. Construction hazards and safe remediation efforts associated with post hurricane reconstruction work were researched and identified in a combined effort from the University of Florida OSHA Susan Hardwood Training Grant team (Dr. Hinze, Dr Grosskopf, Josh Casart and this researcher ). The intent of this thesis was not only to create an effective training course preparing workers to perform work safely in disaster stricken areas, but also to evaluate the effe ctiveness of the training curricula created. An instructor evaluation form, a pre test and a post test were created as assessment instruments to evaluate the eff ectiveness of the training curricula The data from the assessment instruments were collected from elev en seminars in which t he training course was presented to members of the construction industry. From the analysis of the d ata it was concluded that the training course was effective as an educational module. Information was also obtained on areas in the curricula that would be improved through additional modifications.

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10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem In the wake of natural disasters that have occurred in recent years, the built environment has experienced damage on an unprecedented scale. Construction remediatio n efforts related to hurricane stricken areas are accompanied by unique hazards resulting from damage caused by a combination of strong winds and water. Significant damage to structures and building systems have created significan t confined space, fall, electrocution, caught in/between and struck -by hazards. Also, water and residue originating from floodwaters or storm surges have a strong potential to cause illness because of the presence of hazardous debris, and high -risk biolog ical and chemical contamina n ts. Unfortunately, the availability of training material related to the inherent haza rds associated with post -hurricane remediation efforts is limited. Objective The main objective of this thesis was to contribute positively t o the safety of the construction industry by creating an effective training course for post hurricane reconstruction Training workers about the unique hazards of natural disasters is of utmost importance This thesis was to consider the identified hazar ds related to post -hurricane construction remediation efforts and create a half-day (approxima tely four hours) training curricula consisting of modules that included an Overview, General Health and Safety Precautions, Focus -Four Hazards, Chemical and Biological Hazards and Equipment Hazards. The training presen tation was to be developed in Microsoft PowerPoint. In addition to creating a training course the effectiveness of the training curricula presented was evaluated through data analysis from assess ment instruments such as pre tests, post tests and instructor evaluation forms.

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11 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Understanding the extent and nature of specific construction hazards resulting from hurricanes was derived from reading a technical pr oposal prepared by the University of Florida for an OSHA Susan Hardwood Training Grant Program. The technical proposal provided the framework for this thesis. Because this thesis deals with the development and evaluation of a training course, multiple ar eas of literature were reviewed. Information related to the training curricula itself was contributed by all members of the Susan Hardwood Training Grant team. Aside from the information presented in the training curricula, adult learning strategies, His panic worker safety, and evaluating continuing education were additional areas of focus for review. Training Curricula Data from OSHA interventions made in Florida, Alabama and Mississippi between August 31, 2005 and March 10, 2006 provided information on the percentages and types of hazardous situations employees encountered during hurricane response efforts following Hurricanes Katrina, Rita and Wilma. This information is important because it identified the most hazardous areas for which safety training is needed. A total of 129 Situation Reports (SitReps) were examined. These are summarized as follows: Roof Inspection, Tarping, and Repair (26%) Debris Collection and Removal (26%) Tree Trimming (8%) Restoring Electrical Utilities (7%) Debris Reduction, Recycling, and Disposal (6%) Assessment, Cleanup, and Repair of Structures (2%) Restoring Communication Systems (2%) Restoring Water and Sewer Systems (1%) All others (21%)

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12 Note: All others includes operations that did not exceed 1% of the interventi ons or could not be classified. These interventions consisted of providing literature and guidance to individual employees and employers, to having employers remove employees from imminently dangerous situations, as stated by OSHA. The information repr esented in the SitReps suggest ed employers and employees, involved in post -hurricane remediation efforts, have not historically taken the necessary safety precautions critically needed to create the safest work environment possible ( Part I: Summary of Safe ty and Health Intervention Information from OSHA Situation Reports 2006). It was also noted that most of the interventions were related to activities that pertained to work that was performed on the exterior of buildings or on the site. This is where w ork conditions are most unlike those commonly encountered on new construc tion si tes. The training curricula related to this thesis is intended to pay particular attention to these activities. After Hurricane Katrina, the Louisiana Department of Health and H ospital, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and functioning emergency treatment resources combined their resources in order to monitor possible outbreaks of disease and post -hurricane illnesses and injuries. This information was presented in a Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. A total of 7,508 reports comprised this monitoring effort that was put forth. This resulted in data being used to identify injury patterns resulting from hurricanes. This information was used to establish a message f or relief workers and residents of disaster stricken areas concerning their safety. Of these 7,508 reports, 55.6% were related to illnesses, 26.9% were injuries and 17.5% were no n acute health related events ( Surveillance for Illness and Injury After Hurr icane Katrina New Orleans, Louisiana, September 825, 2005). These reports related to residents and relief workers in the disaster stricken area. It is important to understand the high percentage of illnesses that were reported. Because flood waters created a soup of possible infectious diseases, sewage,

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13 hazardous waste and other contaminated substances, the importance of dealing with floodwaters is a major concern. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) offered specific illness pr evention topics that were related to post -natural disaster exposures, such as remedial work following hurricanes or floods. Even though not all of these suggestions were tailored specifically for construction workers, they still provide relevant concerns when dealing with post hurricane disaster stricken areas. Relevant topics that will be discussed in greater detail include the following: Animals & Insects Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Chain Saw Injuries Immunizations Animals & Insects Wild or stray animals are to be avoided in a disaster stricken area. Authorities should be contacted to deal with these animals. Carcasses need to be removed in order to avoid rodent and disease infestation. Contact with mosquitoes should be actively avoided through the use of DEET containing insect repellents, screens on dwellings, long pants, socks and long-sleeved shirts. Diseases can be spread through mosquitoes, so any standing water outdoors in open containers should be drained in order to control mosquito populations Rodents also carry disease and should be controlled by removing food sources, water and items which could provide shelter for them. Snakes are a major concern as they may be poisonous. Found in water and on land (debris piles), snakes should be avoide d if discovered. Longpants, boots and gloves offer protection from being bit. If bitten, it is helpful to remember the color of the snake and the shape of its head as this will be helpful in determining the proper treatment measures for the victim. Rega rdless, medical attention should be sought immediately and in a calm manner. Keeping the

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14 bite victim calm helps slow down the spread of the poison ( Prevent Illness After a Disaster, n.d. ). Carbon Monoxide Poisoning The loss of power will stimulate the use of portable generators and other internal combustion engine driven devices. Such devices should never be operated indoors or in confined spaces. Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless gas that causes death or illness if inhaled. Outside in a well -ventilated area is the only place to run such machines ( Prevent Illness After a Disaster n.d. ). Chain Saw Injuries The CDC stated, Each year, approximately 36,000 people are treated in hospital emergency departments for injuries from using chain saws. The potential risk of injury increases after hurricanes and other natural disasters, when chain saws are widely used to remove fallen or partially fallen trees and tree branches. To avoid such injury, one should follow the chain saw manufacturers instru ctions regarding operation, adjustment and maintenance. Also, properly sharpened and lubricated blades adjusted to the correct tension yield the safest results. It is important to make sure that the correct size of chain saw is used for the job at hand. Protective equipment is also necessary, including hard hats, safety glasses, hearing protection, heavy gloves, boots, chain saw chaps and a face mask in some instances. Bystanders need to keep a safe distance from one using a chain saw as injury from the release of bent trees or branches is a major concern ( Prevent Illness After a Disaster n.d. ). Immunizations Information related to immunizations for post -disaster stricken areas is specific to relief workers. Prior to travel, it is recommended that an assessment by a health -care professional be administered at least 4 6 weeks before travel. In the case of immediate travel, there still is value

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15 in seeking a medical assessment. Beyond evaluating the general health of a relief worker, up to date immuniza tions are necessary (tetanus/diphtheria, polio, measles, influenza, typhoid, hepatitis and rabies). Some of these immunizations can be administered in a single dose while others require a series of injections. ( Prevent Illness After a Disaster n.d. ). Audience Because the training course being developed was intended to be presented to adults, understanding adult learning strategies was of interest and importance. One theory describing adult learning is the sensory stimulation theory that describes how se nses must be used in the adult learning process for change to occur (Galbraith, n.d. ). In the ca se of creating a training curricula pictures could appeal to the participants sense of sight, thereby emphasizing safety techniques. For example, pictures of ch ainsaw injuries inform workers or supervisors immediately about the seriousness of adequate pre task safety training and personal protective equipment in order to avoid such gruesome injuries Photos of this type were available from many sources. One of the most accessible sources wa s the Internet. Some of these photos were obtained by students who were fulfilling a homework assignment. Photos related to specific construction safety topics were obtained from junior and senior students enrolled in a construct ion safety class at the University of Florida School of Building Construction, during the spring semester of 2008 (Hinze 2007). Photos related to t he following safety topics were incorporated because they are particularly relevant to post hurricane reco nstruction and assist in adult learning: Personal Protective Equipment Ladders and Scaffolding Equipment Safety Reptiles, Insects and Animals Chainsaws Wood Chippers

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16 Generators An interesting passage from Principles of Adult Learning: Application to Safet y Training (n.d.) reinforced the importance of creating an effective training module. D.D. Galbraith stated, Each year, more than 40 million adults participate in educational activities including safety sessions. Effective training is an important comp etitive differentiator and those companies that focus an adult education may benefit financially. To address the impeding shortage of skilled workers, engaging adults through relevant training will help mitigate these deficiencies. Hispanic workers acco unt for 17% of the construction workforce. This figure is up from 15.1% in 1999 and 10.3% in 1995. With such a growing number of Spanish-speaking construction workers, there is a high potential of Hispanic audience members participating in the training. Hispanics workers also experience more dangerous working conditions than non Hispanic workers and yield an injur y rate 2 to 3 times higher tha n the average construction worker. As stated by Dr. Maria J. Brunette, Hispanics are underrepresented in the wa ys that the scientific, research, and academic communities reach them with appropriate safety and health research, education, and information. Hispanic construction laborers ranked among the top three occupations with the most nonfatal injuries resulting in time away from work. Thus, it is extremely important to have an effective safety training curricula targeting Hispanic workers. Hispanic workers, on average, typically have a very low level of education, if any, and speak little or no English (Brunette, 2005). To address these problems, specific measures need to be taken to ensure the creation of an effecti ve training course for Hispanics. It is important to understand the cultural backgrounds of Hispanic workers when creatin g training curricula for the m. Usually, Hispanics come to the U.S. with no understanding of health and safety standards enforced by the government. Latin American countries do not have the

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17 infrastructure socially to protect workers from chemical or biological hazards. As a result, Hispanic workers do not trust or place any reliance in government agencies intended to protect their rights. Hispanic workers are generally accustomed to unsafe working conditions such as exposure to dangerous tools and equipment, lack of personal protec tive equipment and abusive supervisors. Needless to say, they have little to no safety and health training. Since some Hispanic workers are working illegally in the U.S., they are often hesitant to speak up about unsafe working conditions for fear of being fired or deported. By incorporating Hispanics in the creation of the training course, these cultural issues must be taken into consideration when developing th e most effective training curricula possible (Brunette, 2005). Often, there is variability in the quality of training material targeted to Hispanic workers because the information presented is an inaccurate translation from English. Beyond the use of graphics, photos and workers images, a method for creating effective training material was sugge sted by Dr. Maria J. Brunette. Brunette recalls an effective method which she used, All materials were first developed in English (because of the required technical and specific terminology) and then translated into Spanish. Focus groups allowed the Spa nish versions to be tested among Hispanic workers. After their feedback was incorporated into a second Spanish version, the original English version was modified into a second version. A Spanish translation was made of this later English version and, agai n, tested among the workers. Generally, at this point the Spanish version was correct and no additional changes were made to the English version. This method takes time because of the continual evaluation of the material; however, it is useful in creating effective training curricula (Brunette, 2005 ). Evaluation of Training Curricula Information on evaluating continuing education was reviewed. Knox stated in Evaluation For Continuing Education (2002), Analyze data to produce useful conclusions. Data analysis

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18 typically results in evaluation conclusions that are useful for planning, improvement, and accountability. This entails interpretation of major trends that reflect both descriptive information and value judgments. The intent of most evaluations is to judge the value of one or more program aspects. Value is reflected in quality, effectiveness, and benefits. This information is important as it confirmed the need for evaluating the value of t he training course bec ause quality and effectiveness were goal s of the course This quote also helped describe the intent and benefits of data analysis. If data analysis could represent the ef fe ctiveness of a training course by revealing major trends, areas of improv ement, and quality of the course the teaching potent ial of the curricula could be strengthened. The intent of assessing the learning process was discussed in Assessing Adult Learning (1997). Moran stated, Assessing the learning process is one of the more intriguing and one of the more neglected aspects of informal assessment. The goal is to identify which aspects of the learning process are promoting and which are inhibiting learning. What is meant here by informal assessment refers to an assessment that is conducted by an educator that does not involve standardized published procedures for administering, scoring, and interpreting tests. The main point of this statement is related to how understanding promoting and inhibit i ng factors of training c urricula is important. This is how a training course can grow to become increasingly effective. An instructor evaluation fits this assessment and could help in the evolution of creating a s uccessful course After the significance of evaluating training curricula was understood, further methods of creating an effect ive way of evaluating the curricula were reviewed. Moran also stated, The first step toward a successful test is integrating the planning of the test with the planning of the learning activities. The integration begins by stating the lear ning objectives that the learners are

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19 to pursue. This statement coincided with the idea of creating a pre and post -test for the training module. Areas desired to be taught should be incorporated in both the training module and pre and post test. Mora n continued, Multiple -choice items are extremely versatile. They can be used to measure knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis at least as easily as other types of items. They are also among the most difficult to write. Despite the diffic ulty of writing a multiple -choice pre and post -test, this is a very viable means by which to determine whether or not a class participant gained knowledge and/or understood the module being presented. These items are extremely important when teaching. I f a class participant learned something from the p resenta tion of tr aining curricula the training course presented was effective and the goal of the educator was accomplished.

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20 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Weekly Work Meetings The first step of this the sis was reading the technical proposal for the Susan Hardwood Training Grant Program. After the issue at hand was clear and understood, work began. Weekly work meetings were held by the University of Florida Susan Hardwood Training Grant Program team. T hese weekly work meetings consisted of valuable brainstorming sessions necessary in developing the s tructure for the training curricula and course evaluation instruments. Course Development The training course was to be presented with the use of Microsoft PowerPoint. Formatting this PowerPoint presentation consisted of logistically displaying the information and data of the training curricula in an effective manner. An extensive assortment of post natural disaster hazards were identified through classroom a ssignments in which students were asked to prepare a Job Hazard Assessment (JHA) of different aspects of post natural disaster reconstruction activities. Th is JHA database, prepared in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, provided most of the input information and data incorporated into the training curricula Through mutual independent research efforts by the members of the University of Florida Susan Hardwood Training Grant Program team, hazard s were identified related to posthurricane reconstruction. Beyon d identifying these hazards, safe remediation measures were developed for each identified hazard. By utilizing the JHA database, additional classroom assignments consisted of the preparation of PowerPoint presentations on the identified hazards and the re mediation of those hazards. These PowerPoint presentations were prepared by juniors and seniors in an undergraduate construction safety class at the University of Florida, BCN 3735, in the spring semester 2008. These presentations provided specialized info rmation o n topics that

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21 were pertinent to this thesis. These presentations also contributed to the data/photo input for the course. When preparing the presentations for delivery as part of the Susan Harwood training grant, the undergraduate PowerPoint pres entations had to be re formatted and reduced in scope so only the most valuable and pertinent information was incorporated such as photos and researched facts. The following safety topics were specifically incorporated as they were deemed relevant to post -hurricane reconstruction work: Personal Protective Equipment Ladders & Scaffolding Equipment Safety Reptiles, Insects and Animals Chainsaws Wood Chippers Generators Photos Photos were selected by the Susan Harwood Training Grant Program team as they we re deemed important to incorpor ate into the training curricula, especially as a way to sustain the attention of the audience. Photos that were incorporated as part of the undergraduate BCN 3735 safety training PowerPoint presentations were used as a resou rce for creating the training course In addition to the photos obtained from the undergraduate students, personal photos taken after Hurricanes Katrina and Ivan were obtained from fellow UF students. Photos were also obtained from a training class that the Associated General Contractors had prepared on a previous Susan Harwood Training Grant. Cumulatively, t hese photos showed the devastation that hurricanes have on the built environment and also the remediation effor ts that accompany post natural disaste r reconstruction activities. Photos were an excellent way of showing firsthand the hazards one may encounter in a post -natural disaster stricken area These photos were inserted str ategically into relevant sections of the training course

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22 Course Evaluati on Pre -tests were developed to provide information on the audience s general unde rstanding of the training course information prior to attending the session ( Reference Appendix B ). The question development process took place during the weekly work meetings held by the University of Florida Susan Hardwood Training Grant Program team. Important or key points taught in the training course were used as a basis for the test question s The pre test consisted of 20 multiple -choice questions. The pre test questions were a lso used for the post test. The post test was designed to assess the level of learning that resu lted from the training curricula. Each test was graded with a score assigned to reflect the number of correctly answered questions ( out of 20). The results f rom these tests were graphed for each training session showing trend lines and the averages of both tests Also, an analysis of each question asked in the pre test and post -test was done in order to determine whether or not any questions were unclear or possibly not sufficiently emphasized in the training curricula Instructor evaluations provided feedback on the quality of the information presented in the training curricula along with feedback on the performance of the instructor(s) in delivering the cou rse (See Appendix C for the instructor evaluation form). For each question o n the instructor evaluation form, a score of 1 to 5 was solicited with 1 being poor and 5 being excellent. The score related to each q uestion was averaged for the evaluatio ns. The overall average was then computed to derive an overall instructor evaluation score for each course that was presented Strengths and w eaknesses of the training curricula were identified from the instructor evaluations. Attributes of the training course examined in the instructor evaluation forms were scored and averaged for all the tr aining sessions in order to calculate an average score

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23 representing that attribute as a whole. By doing this, attributes with a low average score w ould be viewed as a weakness for the course and attributes with a high average score w ould be viewed as a strength The attributes addressed in the evaluation forms were: The speakers knowledge of the subject Style of presentation Quality of information Ease of understanding Clearity of presention Usability of ideas Quality of handouts Presentation method Interest of information

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24 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Training Course The training course was developed with five modules : an overview, general health and safety, focus -four hazards, c hemical and biological hazards and equipment ha zards. In each of these modules the inherent hazards and adverse conditions associated with post hurricane reconstruction efforts were identified and suggestions were offered regarding safe work procedures a nd practice s The resulting training course was a result of mutual contributions from the entire Susan Hardwood Training Grant team. Thus, not all the course information was referenced in the Literature Review for this thesis. Refer to Appendix A to vie w the training course. Overview An overview was provided for the entire training course. This began with a descri ption of the General Duty Clause. The General Duty Clause requires employers to furnish to each of his (or her) employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his (or her) employees. The General Duty Clause is not in the OSHA regulations, but rather it is in the Occupational Safe ty and Health Act. This clause can be interpreted as saying that any known hazards must be addressed by employers, whether or not they are mentioned in the OSHA regulations. For post hurricane conditions, it would be difficult for all the possible hazards to be anticipated and included in the OSHA regulations, including all the physical, chemical and biological hazards to which workers might be exposed. Despite the fact that many of these hazards are not specifically addressed in the OSHA regulations, emp loyers must be aware of and anticipate these hazards as it is not acceptable to send workers into known unsafe work

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25 conditions. Reconstruction work performed in post hurricane areas is usually done by many small contractors and in many cases with a large percentage of nonEnglish speaking workers. The inability to effective ly communicate with the workers could be a hazard in itself when performing post -hurricane reconstruction work. Statistics were provided on the common types of work tasks for which OSHA interventions were implemented when performing post -hurricane work. Interve ntions were required when safety compliance wa s not satisfactory. Debris removal accounted for 32% of the interventions roofing 26%, utilities 10%, tree trimming 8%, building repa ir 2% and other post hurricane work 22%. It was important to identify these areas by percentage in order to understand those areas of work that are likely candidates for increased injury occurrences. These were also the areas that warranted additional att ention during the class presentations. Post -hurricane work is different from typical construction activities. A synopsis of these differences was presented last in the overvie w section of the training course These differences are as follows: Presence o f floodwater. Buildings may be structurally unstable. Debris will be everywhere. Power lines may be down (power may be out) and generators may be needed. Floodwater may be contaminated with fuels, oil, sewage, and other chemical or biological hazards. Tree s may have been blown down. Many roofs need to be made watertight with temporary membranes. Mold growth is a concern. Asbestos may be encountered. Animals or reptiles may be displaced from their natural habitats Understanding these differences in the post natural disaster work environment compared to a typical construction site was an importa nt focus of the training curricula. It was deemed important to emphasize these differences because many of these hazards are not experienced to

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26 any great extent, when performing construction activities on conventional construction projects Preparing for these new and often unusual hazards is crucial when undertaking work after a natural disaster The Overview module of the training course concluded with a brief summ ary of the contents of the remaining four training modules or sections. General Health and Safety Precautions The second module of the training curricula was related to general health and safety precautions. It was important to begin thi s section of t he training course by defining a competent person. A competent person is a person who: Is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions that are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and Has the authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them. It is mandatory that a competent person be assigned to the project. Of course, the focus of the competent person must also be on unsafe behavior, not just unsafe conditions. Safety prof essionals generally agree that u nsafe behavior accounts for 90% of all accidents as unsafe work conditions are rarely the sole cause. Beyond identifying unsafe work conditions, a competent person should identify unsafe behaviors and thus take corrective measures to ensure the safety of all workers It is widely accepted that supervisors have a significant impact on worker safety. Consequently, supervisors must be diligent in their efforts to bolster jobsite safety. Nonetheless, it is the w orkers themse lves who must ultimately assume a responsible role in helping to ensure their own safety While supervisors can influence safety performance, ultimately it is the workers who control their own actions and impact their own safety. After the introductory t opics, t he general health and safety section of the training module began to focus more specifically on the preparations that are to be made before entering a post hurricane work area. For example, the workers that are to be deployed to an area struck by

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27 disaster are to be healthy. Medical evaluations are important as physical fitness, immunizations and drug testing contributes to the safety of workers. Evaluating p hysical fitness is necessary to ensure that each worker is fit to safely perform potentiall y hazardous or stressful work. Also, pre event medical screening can provide a baseline for assessing health effects in workers returning from post -hurricane work. Immunizations can protect workers from polio, measles, influenza, tetanus, diphtheria, h epatitis A and B, encephalitis, rabies and cholera. If floodwaters are present, immunizations are especially important as these waters could contain chemical or biological contaminates. To more fully understand the conditions that are present in a post -hurricane work area, a reconnaissance survey is advised By sending a scout to assess work conditions, pre deployment planning can be structured accordingly. The reconnaissance should assess the availability of food supplies, potable water, shelter, san itary services, local electrical power, first aid and emergency services fuel, laundry services, construction materials, etc. Even when the public water supply is functioning, it might be advisable to bring safe drinking water and food to the work area. If potable water is not available, bottled, boiled, or disinfected water is the solution. Food needs to be carefully selected to avoid the risk of gastrointestinal illnesses or chemical poisoning. MREs (meals ready to eat) canned and instant foods are recommended as agricultural food products or those requiring refrigeration should be avoided. Since temporary shelter may not be available after a hurricane, daily travel to and from the work site to tents, RVs or trailers may be necessary. Portable toil ets, clothes washers and showers all may need to be provided in order to have adequate sanitary services. Portable power is often required and may be provided through portable electric, propane, gasoline and diesel generators. First aid emergency service s are vital to ensure the well being of reconstruction workers. If emergency

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28 services have been disrupted (e.g. 911), temporary emergency services may be provided by other agencies. Still, it is essential to be equipped and have trained individuals on si te to provide first aid and a means of evacuation if emergencies occur Cell phones and hand crank -operated radios are required as a means to provide communication and the means to deal with unforeseen circumstance s All of these issues are extremely imp ortant and should be well thought out and prepared for before a work force mobilizes into a post -hurricane work area. Properly stocking workers with personal gear ( k its) and personal protective equipment (PPE) are suggested pre -deployment practices. K its should include an extensive first aid kit, hygiene kit, insect repellant, sunscreen, and standard work and protective clothing. Personal protective equipment should consist of eye and face protection, hearing protection, head protection, hand protect ion, foot protection, respiratory protection and fall protection. Because 10% of all construction worker injuries are eye injuries, safety glasses goggles or face shields should be worn when working with harmful chemicals or when exposed to potential fly ing objects. Hearing damage can occur with extended exposure to noise at or above 90 decibels Ear plugs and ear muffs should be used when exposed to noise from heavy and hand-held equipment. Hard hats provide protection from falling debris, overhead obstructions and accidental head contact with electrical hazards. Hand injuries account for about 22% of all injuries and many of these injuries could easily be avoided with appropriate hand protection Gloves should fit snug and be applicable to the type of work being preformed. Foot protection should be slip resistant with puncture resistant soles and be safetytoed. The type of respirator used depends on the contaminate exposure. Because of life safety issues, separate training should be provided whe n respirator protection will be required. Dust masks are not designed to offer protection from hazardous atmospheres, but instead should be

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29 used for comfort from allergens. Dust masks are f iltering face-pieces that offer protect ion from dust and mists, h owever, they do not provide protection from lead, asbestos, gases or vapors. Half -face negative -pressure respirators can protect from most vapors and gases. The filter cartridge for these respirators should be changed regularly. Powered air purifying re spirators (PAPR) have a battery powered fan for breathing comfort and should also have the filter cartridge s changed regularly. Self -contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) is a closed system with bottled air and usually consists of a full -face respirator us ed for entry and escape from atmospheres that are immediately dangerous or oxygen deficient. These PPEs will not only help save lives, but also protect workers from potential injuries. Special conditions encountered in post hurricane work areas were desc ribed as a conclusion to the general health and safety section of the training module. Personal hygiene, heat stress, and critters ( animals, insects and snakes ) ma d e up these special concerns. Personal hygiene is important because floodwater s can be potential ly contaminated with microorganisms, sewage, industrial waste, chemicals and other substances that can cause illness and even death. Hand washing and disinfecting is mandatory. Soap and clean water, and waterless alcohol hand rubs should be used aft er performing clean up or decontamination work, after toilet use, before work breaks, before handling food and when eating to prevent disease transmission. Bleach disinfected water and rubbing alcohol with water can be used for hand washing and disinfecti on. Wounds need to be washed immediately and if they become infected, medical attention should be sought right away. Tools, surfaces and equipment may need decontamination which can be accomplished by using bleach disinfected water. Bleach disinfected w ater should be labeled bleach disinfected water DO NOT DRINK.

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30 Heat stress was another special concern in post hurricane work areas. When the body is unable to cool itself, heat exhaustion and heat stroke can occur. By providing shaded break areas, frequent breaks, ventilation (e.g. fans), sufficient potable water, and having lightweight, light -colored, loose -fitting clothes, heat stress can be prevented. Alcohol, caffeine and heavy meals can also contribute to heat stress. Proper hydration is perh aps the single most important preventative technique. It is also important to recognize the initial symptoms of heat exhaustion. Animals, insects and snakes were the last of the special concerns described in the general health and safety section of the tr aining module. Dead and live animals can spread diseases directly (bite or scratches) or indirectly (fleas, ticks and feces). Sometimes w ild animals become displaced from their home areas and are forced to seek shelter elsewhere (higher ground) When ma jor structural damage has occurred to buildings that provide access to animals, these animals might seek refuge in them. When the reconstruction workers show up and enter these damages buildings, they should anticipate the possibility of encountering thes e new inhabitants The presence of standing water in warm climates is the breeding ground for a common nemesis mosquitoes. While the bite of a mosquito is a nuisance in itself, a greater problem looms. Mosquitoes are a common vector for waterborne dis ease transmission. Venomous spiders and poisonous snakes could be concealed under debris. A wooden probe (e.g. stick or pole) should be used to check locations where these hazards may exist Heavy gloves, boots, long pants and long sleeves all can provi de protection from a potential bite. The proper identification of the poisonous spiders and snakes was included in the training. Focus -Four Hazards OSHA categorizes the basic causes of injury accidents. After collecting injury data for decades, four par ticular causes have been found to be associated with most construction injuries. These are known as f ocus -four hazards a nd include injuries/fatalities resulting from electrical

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31 shock s struck -by accident s, caught in / between accidents and fall s In constr uction work, focus four hazards account for 79% of all fatalities F atalities from e lectrocution can be caused by poorly maintained power cords and tools, contact with live circuits in panels, or contact with overhead (or downed) power lines. Groundf aul t c ircuit i nterrupters (GFCI) are devices that have been developed to prevent electric shock accidents. GFCIs monitor the current flow between the hot and neutral wires and the GFCI will trip (cut off power) between 4 6 mA in 1/40th of a second and there by protect workers from potential shock. GFCIs are to be used in virtually all construction operations where electrical power tools are used. Buildings damaged by hurricanes should be de -energized and locked out until inspections and repairs deem the elec trical distribution system safe. Downed power lines are of considerable concern after hurricanes. Never approach a downed power line because the electrical current can potentially radiate outward through the ground causing voltage differentials (step vo ltage). Note that it is also possible for measurements of a downed power line to indicate that there is no power in the line, but power may be re -introduced automatically. Never drive over downed power lines. Downed or low hanging power lines can energi ze other objects even without touching them (equipment, vehicles, buildings, trees, fencing, telephone lines, entangled debris, the ground or pipes). It is important to know that circuits do not always open (turn off) when a power line falls into a tree or on the ground. Struck -by hazards are mostly caused by falling objects or by moving vehicle s or equipment. Tree cutting causes falling objects and is pertinent to post -hurricane remediation efforts. Backing incidents and traffic are two common causes of vehicle s and equipment striking workers who are on foot. Shadows can hide workers on foot, so workers should always

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32 wear high visibility clothing. High visibility clothing (reflective garments) should be worn whenever the work place contains hazards r elated to low visibility or when workers perform their duties near vehicles or moving equipment. Because of the nature of post -hurricane reconstruction work, much debris is hauled off using heavy equipment. People who were displaced from their damaged ho mes are also likely to be frequent visitors to the neighborhood to monitor progress. There are also instances where people who have no business being in the neighborhoods just drive through devastated areas to sight -see. Th ese conditions can increase tra ffic considerably and preparations are needed to properly address these conditions. Caught -in / between hazards constitute another focus four hazard. Trenching is the major cause of death in caught in /between fatalities. This is of particular concern w hen working in post hurricane areas because of possible saturated soil conditions that increase the chances of cave ins Trench boxes can be used when excavating (e.g. placing new utilities) in order to protect workers from possible collapse of trench wall s. While trenching in a post -hurricane area is a concern, there is generally not very much trenching work that is done until a considerable time after the hurricane. Equipment rollover hazards also included in caught in/between accidents, also have a gr eater chance of occurrence due to saturated soil. When there are roll over hazards, there must be a seat belt for the operator of the machine. Always wear the seat belt and only ride in the seat provided. The most common of the focus four hazards are fa lls. Fall hazards were the fourth and last of the focus -four hazard s discussed The potential for falls should be a major concern during post hurricane reconstruction efforts. Causes of fall related fatalities are unprotected sides, edges and holes ; impro perly constructed walking/working surfaces ; improper use of access equipment ; failure to properly use body harnesses and lanyards ; and slips and trips. Hurricanes

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33 are known for their strong winds and how these wind forces destroy roofs. These damaged roof s are an enormous safety concern. Blue tarps are commonly used on roofs as a quick and temporary means to keep rain water out of buildings These tarps can be very slippery and are a n inherent potential fall hazard. Protective footwear with deck shoe or sneaker skid resistant soles is recommended when working on a roof. Never step or walk on roof tarps, especially if wet. Building demolition hazards were also presented in the focus -four hazard section of the training module. All focus -four hazards co uld potentially be encountered when performing post hurricane demolition work. There is a particularly increased risk of struck-by and caught in /between hazards. Chemical and Biological Hazards The third module of the training curricula described chemica l and biological hazards. High water levels resulting from a hurricane can create a soup of infectious bacterial organisms, infectious viral organisms and agricultural and industrial chemicals. Never assume water in flooded areas is safe. Safe floodwa ter removal was discussed in the module, followed by decontamination procedures, confined space considerations, and potential exposure to lead, asbestos and mold. Confined spaces may exist in forms that are not commonly encountered. A confined space ha s limited or restricted openings for entry and exit and is not designed for continuous worker occupancy. Implementing fall protection, air monitoring, ventilation, lighting, two-way communication and rescue procedures all need to be considered when dealing with a confined space. The major concern when working in confined spaces is that the environment may be oxygen deficient or it might contain toxins. The toxic gases of particular concern include hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide. Hydrogen sulfide is a colorless, flammable, extremely

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34 hazardous gas with a rotten egg smell. It is commonly associated with the presence of sewage. Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless and toxic gas that is produced by gasoline powered tools and equipment When carb on monoxide is generated in spaces without adequate ventilation severe i njuries or fatalities can occur Never use gasoline -powered tools in enclosed or partially enclosed spaces (e.g. garages). Although most uses of lead and asbestos have been banned, lead -based products and asbestos products remain in many older homes and buildings. Exposure to lead and asbestos is possible and even likely when performing reconstruction work. Lead fumes, such as cutting materials coated with lead -based paint are a particular concern. Lead can be immediately harmful to the exposed worker. The potential for a sbestos in any older building (built before the early 1980s) is high. Asbestos can cause lung cancer and mesothelioma, cancer of the lining of the lung. It is best to expect asbestos to be everywhere in a building and in any building material. S ignificant asbestos exposure can occur when asbestos products are removed or disturbed. Smokers have a higher risk of lung cancer when exposed to asbestos. Symptoms of exposure and prevent ative measures for lead and asbestos were identified and described in the training module. Also, workers must understand that l ead and asbestos can be taken off site on workers clothes, hair, skin, tools and vehicles. Mold is a c ommon problem when moist conditions exist. The potential harm of mold for healthy workers has not been conclusively established. There may be more media hype to the ill -effects of mold than actually exists. It is important not to breathe in mold spores. Molds have the potential to compromise the health of persons with asthma and other respiratory and immunity disorders. Symptoms of exposure and prevention measures for mold were also identified and described in the curricula.

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35 Equipment Hazards Equipmen t hazards were described in the last module present ed in the safety training course for hurricane reconstruction Cranes and aerial lifts, portable generators, wood chipper s chainsaws, portable electric powered tools and ladders were all discussed to som e extent Cranes and aerial lifts should always be kept a minimum of 10 feet away from power lines. If it is difficult for an operator to see the power lines, designate a spotter. I f adequate clearance cannot be kept from a power line, the contractor ne eds to insulate the line or the power company should move or de -energize the line. Cranes must be operated by qualified and trained personnel as struck -by and caught in/between incidents are potential hazards. Portable gas powered generators are commonl y used to generate electricity in post hurricane areas. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the biggest hazard because of possible confined spaces. Fuel should never be stored indoors, generator s should be cool (5 minutes) before refueling and one should never smoke while refueling. Wood c hipper s pose considerable hazard s if they are not properly used. Wood chippers receive wide use as vegetative debris comprises 50% 90% of all hurricane debris. Chipper s can cut tree limbs into small chips or mulch, reducing truck volume and allowing on-site disposal. Hazards include being caught -in blades and discs resulting in amputation or death; struck -by debris being drawn into or discharged from the machines ; hearing loss ; and face, eye, head or hand injuries. Manufact ure r s guidelines should be carefully followed to avoid injuries. Trained and experienced workers are critical to ensure safety when dealing with wood chippers. When dealing with tree trimming and removal, it is important to anticipate the worst. It is important to always work in pairs so someone is there to assist and strategize how a tree or limb might fall. Chainsaws are commonly selected for this type of work, but they are also one of the most dangerous portable power tools. The average chainsaw in jury averages 110 stitches.

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36 Chainsaw chaps can eliminate the severity of many injuries to the legs. Injury prevention measures were suggested in detail in the training course Portable electric tools that pose potential hazards are saws, drills, grinder s, welding equipment and nailers. Electrical shock, the absence of a protective guard or safety device, and unsafe techniques or practices are potential hazard s when using a portable electric tool. Injury prevention measures associated with the use of po rtable electric tools were discu ssed for each tool in the curricula Ladders were the last subject present ed in the safety training course for hurricane reconstruction. Most new ladders contain sufficient warning labels that an entire training class coul d be held by using this information as a class outline. Warning labels on ladders are there for a reason. These should be carefully followed. Failure to read and follow instructions on a ladder may result in injuries or death. Obey the labels! Training Sessions The training course was evaluated in depth a fter eleven sessions had been conducted. These training sessions were presented in 2008 on May 27, June 24, June 25, June 26, July 31, August 1, August 8, August 26, August 27, September 11 and September 16. The a ssessment of the training course was made on the basis of the pre -tests, post tests and instructor evaluations. Pre -Test/Post -Test Charts Each test was scored on the basis of the number of correct answers for the 20 questions in the pre test and pos t -test. The average pre -test score and th e post test score for each training session is shown on a vertical axis (See C hart 4 1). A total of 298 pre tests and 259 post -tests provided the data for analysis. The number of tests differs from pre -test to po st test as some class participants simply chose not to participate in the post -test. As one can see, the post test trend line is higher than the pre -test trend line. The overall average score on the pre test was

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37 12.96 and the average s core on the post te sts was 16.29 (See Chart 4 2). There is a 3.33 question improvement in the post test scores versus the pre -t est scores, an improvement of 25.7 percent. The data in Chart 4 1 shows the linear plot of the test scores from session to session This averag e score of the participants shows a general decline on June 25 and August 27 classes. Upon closer examination, it is evident that the lower test scores for the June 25 participants occurred because several of the participants were weak in English. Some h ad the questions translated for them from English to Spanish By oversight, the instructors had forgotten to bring copies of the Spanish version of the pre test and p ost -test. As for the August 27 training session, the training participants comprised of mostly inexperienced workers instead of managers which might explain their lower scores on the standardized tests. Perhaps these workers were not as well acquainted with standardized tests compared to safety managers who have most likely had a formal educ ation and more experience with test taking. When taking this into account it appears as if all classes performed comparably on the tests. Most notably, the post test scores of all classes improved. A statistical test of two means was run between the ave rage pre and post -test scores and concluded it is highly unlikely that chance caused the differnce between pre and post -test averages. There was strong confidence (99.9%) that training improved the knowledge base of the class attendants.

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38 Figure 4 1. Pre -test vs. p ost t est Figure 4 2. Test averages number of c orrect a nswers for 20 q uestions

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39 Missed Question Totals Chart The answers provided for each question in the pre/post -tests w ere examined to determine how many times each question was misse d (See Chart 4 3). The horizontal axis represents each of the 20 questions for the pre test and post test. The vertical axis represents the percentage of times the question was missed in total Because the number of class participants varied between the pre test and post -test, percentages were used to compare tests. Class participants missed more questions on the post -test than on the pre -test for questions 3 and16. 3 What major hazard is posed by standing stagnant water? a. Disease carrying mosquitoes c Toxic/bacteria contaminated water b. Electrical shock hazards d. All of the above 16. When fall arrest equipment is used, employers must assure that _________. a. All equipment is properly inspected before each use b. Users have calculated total fall di stance c. A rescue plan is in place to rescue a fallen employee d. All of the above These two questions were missed slightly more often on the post t est than on the pre test, but overall were missed a small percentage of times in total and thus t his was not considered to be an issue of concern. On the other hand, question 19 was a bigger concern. 19. Who has the most impact on improving safety at construction sites? a. Employers c. OSHA b. Employees d. Owners/Architects/Engineers This question wa s considered a major concern because, despite the improvement particpants exhibited on overall test scores, the question expressed inaccurate information. The correct answer for this question was assumed to be b. Employees. Because most class participant s turned out to be safety managers (not employees), this question shifted responsibility

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40 from them (managers) to employees. Even though employees do have the most impact on improving safety on an ongoing basis, it is ineffective to emphasize to the audien ce that they do not have the most impact on safety. Instead, it makes most sense to inform the audience they do have the most impact, in order to emphasize the importance of their knowledge and safe work practices. Questions 15 and 18 were also questions of some concern. 20. Guardrails used for perimeter fall protection must have toe boards when __________. a. People work near the guard rails b. People are working in or entering into the lower level near the area c T oe boards are not required on perimeter protection d All the time 21. The best way to protect workers from being struck by rotating equipment is to _______. a. Barricade swing radiuses c. Use audible swing alarms b. Have the operator warn workers d. All of the above Questions 15 and 18 were a concern as a high percentage of class participants missed the correct answers on the post test and the pre test. Even so, there was still a noticable improvement on the post -test on these questions. Questions 6,11 and 17 were not a major concern despit e the small improvement on the post -tests. 22. What is a major concern of being exposed to mold? a. Rash from skin contact c. Stomach disease from ingestion b. Inhalation of spores d. Slipping on slick surfaces 23. Which diseases would be major concerns when wor king in a post natural disaster areas in the U.S.? a. Small Pox & Polio c. Measles & Chicken Pox b. Hepatitis B, Tetanus and Diptheria d. Alzheimers & Parkinsons 24. To prevent worker run over accidents, which of the following should be used? a. Back up al arms c. Spotters for equipment

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41 b. High visibility clothing d. All of the above Approximatly the same percentage of participants missed questions 6 ,11 and 17 on the pre test and post -test. Because less than 10% of total participants missed these three questions for both pre -test and post test, they were not of major conern. Figure 4 3. Missed q uestion t otals b y p ercent Instructor Evaluations Two hundred and fifty -six instructor evaluations were completed which rated the training module and the instr uctors abiltiy to deliver it. Attributes of the instructor evaluation form a d dressed: The speakers knowledge of the subject Style of presentation Quality of information Ease of understanding Clarity of presention Usability of ideas Quality of handouts

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42 P resentation method Interest of information The intructor evaluations were used to identify any weaknesses of the training curricula (See Table 4 1). Ea ch attribute in the instructor evaluation was averaged representing that attribute for analysis for all eleven training sessions. Because each atttribute scored between 4.3 and 4.5, there were no major weaknesses. To support this, a cumulative average evaluation score of 4.4 was computed (out of a possible 5) for all eleven training sessions administered The instructor evaluations also asked the training participants whether or not they had any post natural disaster construction remediation work experience and if the presentation of the training module met their expectations The last 10 training sessions pro vided data for this portion of the instructor e valuations. Approximately 43% of the 191 participants stated they did have experience related to t he trainin g course and the remaining appro x imate 5 7 % of the participants stated they did not. Approximately 88% of the participants responded that their expectations had been met by the presentation of the training curricula with the remaining participants stating their expectations had not been met.

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43 Table 4 1. Instructor e valuations INSTRUCTOR EVA LUATIONS Date Knowledge Style Information Understanding Clarity Useful Handouts Presentation Interest 5/27/2008 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.4 6/24/2008 4.6 4.4 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.6 6/25/2008 4.6 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.7 4.6 4.4 6/26/2008 5 .0 4.8 4.8 4.8 5.0 4.8 4.8 5.0 4.5 7/31/2008 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.5 8/1/2008 4.2 3.8 4.0 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.0 8/8/2008 4.5 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.5 4.5 8/26/2008 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.6 8/27/2008 4.4 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.4 4.1 4.1 4.2 3.9 9/11/2008 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.2 9/16/2008 4.6 4.3 4.3 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.3 4.6 4.5 Averages 4.5 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.3

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44 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS Course Effectiveness Results showed that the training participants did l earn from the training course Trend lines analyzed from Chart 4 1 and test averages from Chart 4 2 confirmed this. Because the training curricula were informative, the class participants learned something from it and were able to perform better on the post -t est. A 25.7% learning improvement was achieved after the training course was presented. Missed Questions T he answers provided to the questions given in the pre/post te sts were analyzed (see Chart 4 3 ). Because questions 6, 11 and 17 were seld om missed i n both tests, even though they had more wrong answers on the post test, they were a minor concern. Question 19 was a greater concern because the question emphasized false information Q uestions 15 and 18, which were missed most often on both the pre and post -tests, were also a concern because the class participants still did not absorb the information related to the questions in the training course An ideal result of the post -test answers to question 15 and 18 would have shown a significant improvement in this knowledge, similar to the result of question 2 displayed on chart 4 3. Even though question 2 was missed a high percentage of times on the pre test, a significant improvement occurred on the post -test, conveying that the training participants lea rned the material. Instructor Evaluations Overall, a 4.4 score representing all the instructor evaluations ( out of 5) is a good sign the course was interesting, informative and delivered w ell to the audience. Since approximatley

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45 88% of the class particip ants had their expectations met, the presentation of the training course was deemed a success. Weaknesses of the training course were identified from the instructor evaluation averages for eac h attribute Because each attribute was rated at an average of more than 4, no real weaknesses could be identified in the training curricula or in the presentation of the information.

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46 CHAPTER 6 RECOMMENDATIONS Course Modifications : The development of additional customized training courses to prepar e construction worker s for post -natural disaster construction safety is needed As more training sessions take place, further analysis and critique of the training curricula could serve as a guide for evolving the module into even more meaningful and relevant training sessions Information addressed in Questions 6, 11, and 17 needs to be emphasized more in the presentation of the training module. 6 What is a major concern of being exposed to mold? a. Rash from skin contact c. Stomach disease from ingestion b. Inhalatio n of spores d. Slipping on slick surfaces 11. Which diseases would be major concerns when working in a post natural disaster area in the U.S.? a. Small Pox & Polio c. Measles & Chicken Pox b. Hepatitis B, Tetanus & Diptheria d. Alzheimers & Parkinsons 17. To prevent worker run over accidents, which of the following should be used? a. Back up alarms c. Spotters for equipment b. High visibility clothing d. All of the above Including additional information pertaining to these questions can enhance the trainin g class Enhancing information can be done by emphasizing the information in the font s used in the presentation presenting the information through specific question and answer sessions with participant s or sim ply adding information to the presentation. Questions 15 and 18 both need significantly more attention and emphasis compared to questions 6, 11 and 17. Lastly, question 19 should be replaced with a question that pertains more to the mainstream information presented in the training course.

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47 15. Guardra ils used for perimeter fall protection must have toeboards when __________. a. People work near the guard rails b. People are working in or entering into the lower level near the area c T oe boards are not required on perimeter protection d All the ti me 18. The best way to protect workers from being struck by rotating equipment is to _______. a. Barricade swing radiuses c. Use audible swing alarms b. Have the operator warn workers d. All of the above 19. Who has the most impact on improving safety at constr uction sites? a. Employers c. OSHA b. Employees d. Owners/Architects/Engineers By emphasizing this info in the module, the teaching potential of the training course can be strengthened. Also, if the pre and post -tests were longer, say 30 or more ques tions in total, a better measure of the curricula effectiveness could be achieved with more data becoming available for analysis. Sitting for four hours while someone lectures can be quite taxing on individuals who are not accustomed to sitting for any duration Pictures, video clips, question and answer sessions, breakout sessions, and so on can help to increase the inter e st of the training course The unfortunate reality in that these techniques, while effective, can consume additional time which would extend the training duration. A voice dub over for each slide i n the PowerPoint training course needs to incorporated to give the training curricula an extended life after training sessions have ended. Also, a training module translated into Spanish is strongly recommended to help protect the Spanish work force supplying post natural disaster reconstruction labor. Lastly, by attaching CEUs (Continuing Education Units) to the training session, an added benefit will be received by the training particip ants In order for Florida contractors to

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48 renew their licenses, every two years they must obtain 14 CEUs (equivalent to 14 hours) of in class course work taught by approved providers. If the safety training course for hurricane reconstruction was approve d to provide CEUs to contractors, there would be added m otivation for attendance at such sessions. A lso, this would lend additional seri ousness to the audience perception of the curricula for this tra ining course. Thi s would bolster the main objective of this thesis, to contribute positively to the safety of the construction industry. If more attendants perceive this training course critical, more members of the construction industry would be better prepared for post natural disaster reconstruction work. This could he lp protect workers from injury and most importantly it could save lives.

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49 APPENDIX A TRAINING MODULE

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106 APPENDIX B INSTRUCTOR EVALUATION Safety Training for Hurricane Reconstruction INSTRUCTOR EVAL UATION Susan Harwood Grant Training Seminar Location: __________________________________________________ Instructor(s): ______________________________________________ Did the information presented meet your expectations? YES____ NO____ What topics could have been explained in greater detail? ______________________________ Seminar Assessment BEST GOOD AVERAGE FAIR POOR Speakers knowledge of the subjects 5 4 3 2 1 Speakers style of presentation 5 4 3 2 1 Quality of information p resented 5 4 3 2 1 Ease of understanding the information 5 4 3 2 1 Ideas and examples presented clearly 5 4 3 2 1 Were ideas usable to you 5 4 3 2 1 Quality of handout material 5 4 3 2 1 Slide/Power Point Program 5 4 3 2 1 Was the information interesting 5 4 3 2 1 Comments? (Please be specific) ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Have you do ne any post -natural disaster remediation construction work? YES____ NO_____ ____________________________________________________________________________ What other types of topics would you be interested in learning about? ____________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

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107 APPENDIX C PRE/POST TEST Pre/Post Test Circle the correct answer 1 What hazard should be considered when deciding on the location of a portable generator? a. Carbon monoxide poisoning c. Tripping hazards b. Fall hazards d. Methane poisoning 2 On an average, how many construction workers are killed at construction sites each year? a. 100 200 c. 1,000 1,200 b. 500 700 d. 2,000 2,500 3 What major hazard is posed by standing stagna nt water? a. Disease carrying mosquitoes c. Toxic/bacteria contaminated water b. Electrical shock hazards d. All of the above 4 What are the two of the top four causes of death in construction site accidents? ______________________________ ______________________________ 5 What percentage of accidents is caused by unsafe behavior rather than by unsafe conditions? a. 50% c. 80% b. 65% d. 90% 6 What is a major concern of being exposed to mold? a. Rash from skin contact c. Stomach disease from ingestion b. Inhalation of spores d. Slipping on slick surfaces 7 Equipment such as cranes, forklifts, backhoes and scaffolding must maintain at least a __________ foot minimum clearance from overhead power lines. a. 6 c. 10 b. 12 d. 20 8 Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCI) are required by the National Electrical Code: a. When there are wet conditions c. On portable generators over 5,000W

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108 b. On all temporary power circuits d. All of the above 9 When may guards be removed from powered equipment? a. When proper PPE is us ed c. When something is stuck in it b. When equipment is off and locked out d. All of the above 10. Excavations over 6 feet deep and not obviously visible must, at minimum, be _____________. a. Barricaded or marked c. Protected by guardrails b. Covered with traffic plates d. No protection is required 11. Which diseases would be major concerns when working in a post -natural disaster areas in the U.S.? a. Small Pox & Polio c. Measles & Chicken Pox b. Hepatitis B, Tetanus and Diptheria d. Alzheimers & Parkinson s 12. Wall openings over 6 feet above the ground must be guarded when _____________. a. The window sill is less than 39" above the floor. b. Work occurs on stepladders near a window opening with a 42" sill height. c. Wall studs are on 24" spacing. d. All of the above 13. A floor hole wider than ______ must be protected. a. 12 inches c. 24 inches b. 2 inches d. 19 inches 14. What is the lowest noise level above which hearing damage can occur? a. 30 decibels c. 90 decibels b. 60 decibels d. 120 decibels 15. Guardr ails used for perimeter fall protection must have toe boards when __________. a. People work near the guard rails b. People are working in or entering into the lower level near the area c. Toe boards are not required on perimeter protection d. All the time 16. When fall arrest equipment is used, employers must assure that _________. a. All equipment is properly inspected before each use

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109 b. Users have calculated total fall distance c. A rescue plan is in place to rescue a fallen employee d. All of the a bove 17. To prevent worker run -over accidents, which of the following should be used? a. Back up alarms c. Spotters for equipment b. High visibility clothing d. All of the above 18. The best way to protect workers from being struck by rotating equipment is to __ _____. a. Barricade swing radiuses c. Use audible swing alarms b. Have the operator warn workers d. All of the above 19. Who has the most impact on improving safety at construction sites? a. Employers c. OSHA b. Employees d. Owners/Architects/Engineers 20. Wh at percentage of all construction worker injuries are eye injuries? a. 2% c. 5% b. 20% d. 10%

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110 LIST OF REFERENCES Brunette, M. J. (2005). Development of Educational and Training Materials on Safety & Health: Targeting Hispanic Workers in the C onstruction Industry. Family & Community Health 28, 253266. Galbraith, D. D. (2007) Principles of Adult Learning: Application to Safety Training. Professional Safety 52, 3540. Hinze, J (2007) BCN 3735 Construction Safety Retrieved March 26, 2008, from Rinker School of Building Construction at the University of Florida course Web Site: http://web.dcp.ufl.edu/hinze/BCN%204735%20Construction%20Safety.htm Kn ox, A B. (2002). Eva luation For Continuing Education San Francisco, CA : John Wiley & Sons Inc. Moran, Joseph J. (1997). Assessing Adult Lear ning: A Guide for Practitioner s. Malabar, FL : Krieger Part I: Summary of Safety and Health Intervention I nformati on from OSHA Situation Reports (2006). Retrieved September 12, 2008, from Occupational Safety and Health Administration Web Site: http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/hurrican e/sampling -part1.html Prevent Illness After a Disaster (n.d.) Retrieved October 6, 2008, from Center for Disease Control and Prevention Web Site: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/disease Surveilla nce for Illness and Injury After Hurricane Katrina New Orleans, Lousiana, September 8 -25, 2005. (2005). Retrieved September 16, 2008, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5440a4.htm

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Bradley David Hunter graduated from Boone High School in Orlando, Florida 2000. Classes at the University of Florida began shortly after, which eventually le d to a Bachelor of Scien ce in Business Administration, m ajor in f inance and Master of Science in Building Construction. Bradley will continue to strive for his Doctorate degree at the University of Florida in the College of Design, Construction and Planning wi th a focus on s ustainable c onstruction.