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Workforce Assessment of Trades Implicated in Moisture-Related Defect Claims in Residential Construction

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022685/00001

Material Information

Title: Workforce Assessment of Trades Implicated in Moisture-Related Defect Claims in Residential Construction
Physical Description: 1 online resource (47 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Upadhyaya, Chirag
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Construction defect litigation has increased dramatically in the residential market in the past 20 years, particularly in the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico due to their high precipitation rates and high relative humidity. A review of the literature indicates that more than half (53%) of all construction defects are due to faulty workmanship, improper installation, or poor supervision of trade contractors. The workforce in the Gulf States increasingly consists of low English literacy workers employed by non-unionized construction companies that traditionally do not provide formalized craft training. The focus of this research study was to identify the extent to which lack of craft training may be responsible for moisture-related construction defects among the trades responsible for weather-proofing the building envelope. A survey was administered to more than 120 envelope trade contractors in the southeast United States (U.S.). Results indicated that 59% of the companies hired entry-level workers with little or no prior experience. Eighty-two percent of the companies stated they provided no formal training to workers. Fifty-four percent of the companies surveyed stated that their workers primarily spoke a language other than English.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Chirag Upadhyaya.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Grosskopf, Kevin R.
Local: Co-adviser: Hinze, Jimmie W.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022685:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022685/00001

Material Information

Title: Workforce Assessment of Trades Implicated in Moisture-Related Defect Claims in Residential Construction
Physical Description: 1 online resource (47 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Upadhyaya, Chirag
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Construction defect litigation has increased dramatically in the residential market in the past 20 years, particularly in the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico due to their high precipitation rates and high relative humidity. A review of the literature indicates that more than half (53%) of all construction defects are due to faulty workmanship, improper installation, or poor supervision of trade contractors. The workforce in the Gulf States increasingly consists of low English literacy workers employed by non-unionized construction companies that traditionally do not provide formalized craft training. The focus of this research study was to identify the extent to which lack of craft training may be responsible for moisture-related construction defects among the trades responsible for weather-proofing the building envelope. A survey was administered to more than 120 envelope trade contractors in the southeast United States (U.S.). Results indicated that 59% of the companies hired entry-level workers with little or no prior experience. Eighty-two percent of the companies stated they provided no formal training to workers. Fifty-four percent of the companies surveyed stated that their workers primarily spoke a language other than English.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Chirag Upadhyaya.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Grosskopf, Kevin R.
Local: Co-adviser: Hinze, Jimmie W.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022685:00001


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1 WORKFORCE ASSESSMENT OF TRADES IMPLICATED IN MOISTURE-RELATED DEFECT CLAIMS IN RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION By CHIRAG N. UPADHYAYA A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Chirag N. Upadhyaya

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3 To my family and friends

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my family for supporting me emotionally and financially during my course of study at the University of Florida. I would like to thank my friends for their continued support. Special thanks go to Dr. Kevin Grosskopf for helping me focus on important issues of building construction and continued guiding support throughout my thesis program. I would like to thank Dr. Jimmie Hinze for providing guidance in writing the survey questions. Much appreciation goes to Dr. Douglas Lucas for helping me find contracting and subcontracting companies through the Blue Book of Building Construction

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ........................................................................................................... 4 LIST OF TABLES ...................................................................................................................... 7 LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................... 8 ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................... 9 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 10 Problem Statement .......................................................................................................... 10 Research Aims ................................................................................................................ 12 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................... 13 Construction Defects ....................................................................................................... 13 Moisture-Related Construction Defects ........................................................................... 13 Mold and Moistu re -Related Construction Defect Claims ................................................ 17 Construction Defect Claim Survey .................................................................................. 18 Workmanship and Construction Defects ......................................................................... 19 Summary of Literature Review ....................................................................................... 21 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................ 22 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 22 Questionnaire Development ............................................................................................ 22 Research Participants ...................................................................................................... 23 Survey Distribution ......................................................................................................... 24 Data Analysis ................................................................................................................. 24 4 RESULTS .......................................................................................................................... 26 Inferential Statistics ........................................................................................................ 34 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................................. 38 Conclusions .................................................................................................................... 38 Recommendations .......................................................................................................... 39 APPENDIX SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE .......................................................................... 40 LIST OF REFERENCES .......................................................................................................... 45

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6 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ..................................................................................................... 47

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Cost of training and inflation rate ................................................................................... 20 4-1 Correlation between number of field workers hired and projects in different states ........ 34 4-2 Correlation between number of field workers hired and entry-level workers; workers primarily speaking a language other than English and practical craft training provided by employers .................................................................................................. 35 4-3 Correlation between workers in a company for less than 1 year and workers primarily speaking a language other than English .......................................................... 36 4-4 Correlation between workers working in a company from 6 to 10 years and entrylevel workers ................................................................................................................. 36 4-5 claims ............................................................................................................................ 36 4-6 Correlation between number of workers who primarily speak a language other than English and defect claims attributed to roofing .............................................................. 37 4-7 Correlation between quality improvement in workmanship and construction defect claims attributed to envelope (exterior wall cladding) .................................................... 37

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4-1 Trade work distribution ................................................................................................ 26 4-2 Geographic distribution of projects performed by survey respondents during the past 10 years ......................................................................................................................... 27 4-3 Size of company by number of field workers ................................................................ 27 4-4 Tenure of field workers employment with current company ........................................... 28 4-5 Distribution of union, non-union (open-shop) and temporary labor ................................ 28 4-6 Worker education lev el .................................................................................................. 29 4-7 Entry-level workers hired during the past year ............................................................... 29 4-8 English vs. language other than English spoken by workers ........................................... 30 4-9 Practical craft training provided ..................................................................................... 30 4-10 Quality improvement in workmanship following practical craft training ........................ 31 4-11 Number of construction defect claims in past 10 years per company .............................. 31 4-13 Distribution of construction markets affected by defect claims ....................................... 33 4-14 Building components associated with construction defects ............................................ 33 4-15 Percentage of moisture-related construction defects ....................................................... 34

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9 ABSTRACT OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Workforce Assessment of Trades Implicated in Moisture-Related Defect Claims in Residential Construction By Chirag Upadhyaya December 2008 Chair: Kevin Grosskopf Co -chair: Jimmie Hinze Major: Building Construction Construction defect litigation has increased dramatically in the residential market in the past 20 years, particularly in the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico due to their high precipitation rates and high relative humidity. A review of the literature indicates that more than half (53%) of all construction defects are due to faulty workmanship, improper installation, or poor supervision of trade contractors The workforce in the Gulf States increasingly consists of low English literacy workers employed by non-unionized construction companies that traditionally do not provide formalized craft training The focus of this research study was to identify the extent to which lack of craft training may be responsible for moisture-related construction defects among the trades responsible for weather-proofing the building envelope. A survey was administered to more than 120 envelope trade contractors in the southeast United States (U.S.). Results indicated that 59% of the companies hired entry-level workers with little or no prior experience. Eighty-two percent of the companies stated they provided no formal training to workers. Fifty-four percent of the companies surveyed stated that their workers primarily spoke a language other than English.

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10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Problem Statement In the United States, construction defect litigation has increased dramatically in the pas t 20 years. Construction defects originate from several factors, such as design flaws, defective building materials, poor project management and poor quality of inspections, improper use or installation of materials, and poor workmanship. More than half (53%) of all construction defects are due to faulty workmanship, improper installation, or poor supervision of trade contractors Several geographical areas of the U.S. experiencing high growth rates and high levels of precipitation and relative humidity, for instance the Gulf States, are particularly vulnerable to moisture-related construction defect claims. Moreover, the construction workforce in these areas is increasingly populated by low English literacy workers employed by nonconstruction companies A non-unionized workforce traditionally lacks structured training or apprenticeship programs for entry-level craft workers. The problem of construction defects has been widespread among residential contractors as evidenced by the disproportionate number of liability claims in this market. Construction defects commonly result in litigation cases and rising insurance costs. While the residential construction industry grew in the early 1980 in litigious states such as California, Arizona, Nevada, Colorado, Texas, and Florida (Grosskopf and Lucas 2008) Construction defect claims in 2000 led to approximately $200 million in claims, which increased to $1 billion in 2001 and to $3 billion by 2003. Th e number of construction defect claims increased from 18,800 cases in 2001 to more than 107,500 in 2003 (Lennes and Holland 2002) Following such an increase in construction defect claims, insurance premiums increased

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11 significantly, which forced one-third of all contractors to stop working in those markets where they could not afford liability coverage (Krizan et al. 2003). A 2007 survey was sponsored by the Associated General Contractors of America (AGC) and conducted by the University of Florida to study the causes and effects of construction defects with a focus on moisture-related defect claims. It was found that approximately 78% of the respondents were involved in at least 10 construction defect claims. More than half (60%) of the construction defects observed by the respondents were in residential market (single-family, apartments, condominiums and others). Sixty-nine percent of the defect claims were due to moisture intrusion in the building envelope and other 15% were attributed to faulty mechanical system design, installation and operation Survey results showed that more than half (53%) of the construction defects occurred due to faulty workmanship improper installation, or poor supervision of trade contractors Approximately 90% of the respondents indicated that construction defects have increased 25% or more in the past 10 years (Grosskopf and Lucas 2008). Construction defects are usually claimed against commercial general liability (CGL) policies. CGL policies cover construction defect claims if and if the defect resulted in tangible property damage. CGL policies generally maintain that if a defect is caused by a foreseeable event or, an event that was within the effective control of the contractor, the defect is not covered. Most claims due to faulty workmanship are considered a foreseeable and controllable event and thus, expose the contractor to significant risk Among the most common type of construction defect is moisture intrusion in the building envelope often caused by improper material installation Moisture intrusion creates a favorable environment for

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12 mold growth. The average cost of residential mold remediation ranges from $50,000 to $100,000 More than 10,000 mold-related claims are currently unde r litigation (Fizgerald 2007). Research Aims In summary, preliminary research findings indicate that most construction defect claims are attributed to moisture-related defects in the building envelope, particularly in the southeastern U.S The literature also suggests that most construction defects are the result of improper material installation, poor project management, and faulty workmanship Moreover, the construction workforce in the Gulf States is increasingly populated by low English literacy workers who lack structured apprenticeship training To validate these findings, a survey was developed and administered to trade contractors with following aims: 1. To determine the demographic composition of the workforce of trades responsible for weather-proofing the building envelope in the southeastern U.S. 2. To identify the extent to which moisture-related construction defects can be attributed to the lack of training e specially among low English literacy workers.

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13 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Construction Defects A construction defect is a condition that reduces the function and value of the building or property. Construction defects range from simple aesthetic issues to complex structural defects. Construction defects often arise from non-confirming work, defective materials and equipment, design errors and omissions, and unstable subsurface conditions. Construction defects are classified into two groups ; patent defects and latent defects. Patent defects are easily visible during inspection and can be treated during the punch-list or warranty period. Latent defects are often concealed, and, when discovered years after building is complete, result in costly construction defect claims. Moisture-related construction defects often result in latent defects because water leaks, condensation and moisture trapped in foundation, wall and ceiling cavities may take years to become evident. Latent defects usually cause significant damage, reduce property value, and may even cause health problems (Grosskopf and Lucas 2008). Moisture-Related Construction Defects Moisture can enter the building envelope by three major paths: water leaks, infiltration of moist outside air, and water vapor diffusion. Water entering the building envelope can also travel along the top or bottom of the truss, rafter, I-beam, floor joist, or suspended ceiling for some distance before falling or being absorbed by porous material a phenomena known as bridging. Porous materials such as concrete, wood or brick veneer can wick water by capillary action, and transfer the moisture upwards or inwards in the building envelope (Grosskopf and Lucas 2008) Rain and ground water leaks often result in mold growth, peeling paint, wood decay, or corrosion. Leaks can be the result of poor design details, missing air barrier in walls and ceilings, incorrectly installed flashings and drainage planes, and improper site grading and drainage.

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14 Missing or improperly installed air barriers and vapor retarders can cause infiltration of warm, moisture laden air into the envelope cavity, resulting in condensation. Flashing is a continuous layer of impervious material installed either exposed or concealed that prevents water intrusion at material transitions in the building envelope. Flashing materials include but are not limited t o aluminum, copper, painted galvanized steel, stainless steel, sheet metal and plastic sheet material. Drainage planes are water repellent materials, like building paper, house-wrap and closed cell foam insulation, which are interconnected with flashings and overlap each other so as to direct the flow of water away from the building envelope. Improperly designed or installed roofing systems are among the leading causes of moisture-related construction defect claims. To ensure that the roofing system adequately sheds water away from the building, roofing materials must be installed according to manufacturer specified slope requirements. Shingle roof must not be more than 3 in 12 pitch (3:12). In addition, low-slope roofs require at least in 12 pitch (: 12) to have positive drainage. A ll downspouts must be connected to leaders with 5 percent (6 inches per 10 feet) minimum slope that extend at least 10 feet away from the foundation (Brennan 2006) Mechanical roof penetrations, obstructed roof drains and structural deflection causing water to pond on the roof are other common causes of construction defects. Plumbing and mechanical systems leaks, another major source of moisture related defects, can cause considerable damage over an extended period of time before being discovered. To reduce leaks, plumbing lines must be pressure tested. Supply lines must be pressurized to design values of 60 psi or greater for 24 hours and drain lines must hold standing water under 5 feet or greater head pressure for 24 hours or longer. In addition, placing plumbing lines, valves and

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15 drain lines in exterior walls that are vulnerable to freeze damage can result in leaks and subsequent moisture damage to porous insulation, wood framing and drywall (Brennan 2006) Condensation is also a common cause of moisture accumulation in the building envelope. Condensation occurs when water vapor in the air comes in contact with surfaces that are colder than the dew point of the air. Dew point is the temperature at which the air can no longer hold added water vapor (saturation point). In cold climates, water vapor from warm, moist indoor air exfiltr at ing from interior spaces into envelope cavities can cause condensation in the wall and ceiling if condensing surfaces are below the dew point of the air. Likewise, in hot humid climates, water vapor from warm, moist outside air infiltrating into the building envelope through cracks and holes can cause condensation on the inside of wall or ceiling cavities if no vapor retarder is provided, or if the building air pressure is negative. Air infiltration and exfiltration paths include door and window perimeters, electrical boxes, and joints between foundation, walls, floors and roofs. A vapor retarder is defined as a membrane that has perm rating of 1.0 or less and prevents water vapor transmission To avoid condensation, the vapor In cold climates, the vapor retarder is placed on the interior side of the insulation. Conversely, in hot humid climates, vapor retarder is placed on the exterior of the insulation (Grosskopf and Lucas 2008). Some envelope assemblies contain components that by their physical nature perform as retarders. These materials include but are not limited to sheet plastic, kraft paper facing on insulation batts, closed-cell styrofoam sheathing, asphalt-impregnated building paper, and solid vinyl wall covering. Care should be taken to avoid accidental placement of multiple vapor barriers, especially those separated by porous, moisture vulnerable materials. For example, moisture can become trapped between vinyl wall paper and the intended vapor barrier, resulting in moisture

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16 damage to insulation, wood framing and drywall. Similarly, in cold climates, metal siding and roofing can cause condensation and corrosion problems for dehumidified buildings (Cammalleri and Lyon 2003). Condensation also occurs on water lines when the pipes become cooler than the dew point of the air Missing or improperly installed insulation, especially with in wall and ceiling cavities, can cause condensation related defects Differences in air pressure can transport moist air between spaces. Pressure differences can be caused by wind pressure, stack effect and mechanical system operation. Air flow around the building creates positive pressure and infiltration on windward side, and negative pressure and exfiltration on the leeward side. Stack effect due to rising interior air temperature, exfiltrates through upper levels, while drawing in cooler air through the building envelope at lower levels. Stack effect causes significant pressure differences especially in multi-story buildings (Cammalleri and Lyon 2003). Construction defects due to mechanical system operation (e.g., HVAC) include inadequate dehumidification caused by oversized capacity and reduced airflow, inadequate exhaust for internal sources of moisture, and insufficient ventilation air to maintain positive building air pressure (Grosskopf et al. 2008) Moisture vulnerable materials, or materials that are porous and organic such as wood and drywall, can be wetted during transport and jobsite storage. Moisture vulnerable materials should be protected prior to and during installation, and should not be enclosed or in contact with other we tted materials. Moisture-related defects often arise when moisture vulnerable materials are installed with moisture content of 20% or greater. Apart from moisture intrusion, excessive moisture can also accumulate within the building when water used in kitchens, spas, and bathrooms is not properly exhuated to the outside. (Grosskopf and Lucas 2008) According to ASHRAE 62.2 -2004 (residential), local exhaust for

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17 kitchens must be at least 100 cfm (50 L/s) of air and bathrooms exhaust must be at least 50 cfm (25 L/s) (Sherman 2004). Building occupants are also a substantial source of moisture generation in the building envelope. Humans are around 60 percent water by weight and consume about a half a gallon of water per day. Humans release approximately 3 pounds of water per day per person by exhaled breathing and perspiration (Grosskopf et al. 2008) Moisture can also be entrained in building materials. According to Fitzgerald, an average, new 2,000 square feet home contains about 5 tons of moisture. Mold and Moisture-Related Construction Defect Claims Mold has become a prime concern for the building occupants in recent years. Molds can produce chemical compounds called mycotoxins that can be hazardous to building occupants having compromised immune systems. According to AGC (2003), molds can trigger a wide range of allergic reactions in sensitive individuals, including eye, nose and throat irritation, dermatitis, and a generalized worsening of asthma or respiratory distress. Molds can also trigger allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. Mold growth is supported by an organic food source, suitable climate (e.g., 40F to 100F), and moisture. Absence of any one or more of these conditions will suspend mold growth. In the buildings, mold growth can only be controlled by controlling moisture. Moisture control is a two-fold process consisting of preventing water intrusion or condensation in areas that must remain dry and managing water in areas of a building that are regularly wet as a result of their use (e.g., kitchens, bathrooms, etc.). Moisture control protects building occupants from adverse health effects of dampness and microbial growth, and, protects the building and things the building shelters from physical and chemical damage (Grosskopf and Lucas 2008) Mold litigation increased exponentially from 2000 to 2003 During this time, insurance premiums increased more than 50%, forcing more than one-third of the contractors to

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18 discontinue working in the construction markets where they could not afford insurance liability coverage (Grosskopf et al. 2008). Small construction companies with revenue between $1 million and $5 million had insurance premiums increase more than 75%. Insurance coverage cost per new home construction in 1998 was 2.5% of the total project cost and increased to 4% in 2003. In 1998, the $180 billion residential construction market paid $4.5 billion for CGL coverage. By 2003, the $283 billion residential market paid $11 billion, and increase of nearly 60%. As a result, more than $6 billion in added insurance costs were absorbed by consumers, resulting the delay or cancellation of several projects, and, the awarding of other projects to lesser qualified contractors with minimum bid qualification coverage (Ducker, 2005). Since 2000, more than $9 billion have been spent to correct construction defects each year and 80% of the defects are moisture-related. Of this total, $2 billion per year are paid to homeowners to replace damaged wood due to moisture problems (Fizgerald 2007) Construction defects are usually claimed against commercial general liability (CGL) policies. CGL policies cover the construction defect claims if the defect was due to an workmanship is not covered by commercial general liability policy (Fisher 2005). The defect is not considered as an insured occurrence by the policy if the defect is predictable or within the control of the insured. Construction Defect Claim Survey A 2007 surve y was sponsored by the AGC and conducted by the University of Florida to study the causes and effects of construction defects with a focus on moisture-related defect claims. The anonymous survey was administered to attendees of the annual AGC Surety Bonding and Risk Management Conference in Longboat Key, Florida who combined, had experience with more than 17,000 defect claims. With a total of 30 respondents, survey results

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19 showed that 78% of the respondents were involved in at least 10 construction defect claims. More than half (60%) of the construction defects observed by the respondents were in residential market (single-family, apartments, condominiums and others). Sixty-nine percent of the construction defects were moisture related. Fifteen percent of the defects were caused by faulty design, installation or operation of mechanical systems. More than half (53%) of the construction defect claims were due to poor supervision of trade contractors. Nineteen percent were due to design errors and omissions and 13% were caused by poor management. More than 90% of the respondents felt that construction defect claims had increased 25% or more in last 10 years (Grosskopf and Lucas 2008). Workmanship and Construction Defects Poor workmanship is the most common cause of construction defects Due to rising construction demand in the 1980s as well as increasing wages and shortages in skilled labor, many contractors began using less qualified (or unskilled) workers and less jobsite supervision (Green et al. 2001). As a result, latent defects related to poor workmanship began surfacing in growth. Formalized, structured craft training is least prevalent in nonmarkets in the U.S. Open shop is a way of employment where the worker is not required to be a member of a labor union as a condition of employment. Open shop hiring started in and grew with the demand of construction following the World War II, and is legal in 22 rightto -work states in the southern and western U.S. Training are run by Associated Builders and Contractors (ABC), AGC, and few large open shop industries. Open shop training programs take about three to four years to

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20 complete and the annual rate of completion is only 10 to 13 percent of total enrollment. The open shop market is about 60% of the total construction market in the U.S. According to Business-Roundtable (1990), the total cost for formal training including all books, tuition, instructors, classrooms, teaching aids and administrative costs, ranged from $300 to $600 per student per year. Accounting for inflation, the cost of formal training today would cost approximately from $470 to $950 per student per year. Completion of formal training takes participants per year at a cost of $8 $9 million. Table 2-1. Cost of training and inflation rate Year Inflation % Lowest cost of training (in $) Current low (in $) Highest cost of training (in $) Current high (in $) 1991 4.25 300.00 312.75 600.00 625.50 1992 3.03 312.75 322.23 625.50 644.45 199 3 2.96 322.23 331.76 644.45 663.53 1994 2.61 331.76 340.42 663.53 680.85 1995 2.81 340.42 349.99 680.85 699.98 1996 2.93 349.99 360.24 699.98 720.49 1997 2.34 360.24 368.67 720.49 737.35 1998 1.55 368.67 374.39 737.35 748.78 1999 2.19 374.39 382.59 7 48.78 765.17 2000 3.38 382.59 395.52 765.17 791.04 2001 2.83 395.52 406.71 791.04 813.42 2002 1.59 406.71 413.18 813.42 826.36 2003 2.27 413.18 422.56 826.36 845.12 2004 2.68 422.56 433.88 845.12 867.76 2005 3.39 433.88 448.59 867.76 897.18 2006 3.2 4 448.59 463.13 897.18 926.25 2007 2.85 463.13 476.32 926.25 952.65 However, only 10% of the funds are spent on training open shop workers (BusinessRoundtable 1990). In addition, researchers believe the quality of work is deteriorating in both

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21 union and non-union labor forces. Even if skills exist, the absence of a proper working environment degrades work habits, and eventually degrades the quality of work (Barrett 1998). Communication is the key to ensure th at work performed is according to specifications. The U.S. construction industry is composed of approximately 18% of Hispanic workers and is steadily increasing (Jaselskis 2006) Thirty percent of Hispanic workers in the U.S do not speak English (Thompson and Siddiqi 2007). According to Jaselskis (2006) language is one of the primary barriers in training. Summary of Literature Review A review of the literature indicates that construction defect claims are increasing in the residential market. Sixty-nine percent of the moisture-related defect claims are attributed to a building envelope, such as leaks or moisture migration through roofing, exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS), vapor barriers and seals around penetrations The most prominent causes of construction defects are poor workmanship an d poor supervision of trade workers. Moreover, poor workmanship originates from miscommunication and lack of practical craft training due in part to language barriers.

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22 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Introduction To determine the demographic composition of trades responsible for weather-proofing the building envelope, and, to identify the extent to which moisture-related construction defects can be attributed to lack of training, a survey questionnaire was developed. The survey was limited to trades responsible for installing the building envelope such as concrete, masonry, carpentry, painting, EIFS, dry wall and insulation in Gulf states, including Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina and Texas. The main focus of the survey was on workforce demographics associated with each trade, the frequency and duration of practical craft training provided to them, and the frequency of construction defect claims. Questionnaire Development Survey questions were developed to determine the demographic composition of the workforce associated with trades responsible for weather-proofing the building envelope and to identify the extent to which training may be responsible for moisture-related construction defect s with an emphasis on low English literacy workers. Referring to p re vious research analysis and data, the questions were developed with an understanding of problems that caused construction defects in the building envelope. A multiple-choice selection question method was used because the survey was intended to be internet-based with a simple point-and-click function to improve the response rate and assist in statistical analyses. An initial draft of survey questions was developed and screened to clarify any ambiguous questions and to modify the answer choices. Survey questions were finalized and sent to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Florida for approval.

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23 The survey instrument consisted of sixteen questions divided into three sections (Appendix A). The first subpart asked about the demographic composition of the responding contracting company. The demographic composition was focused on the type of work performed and the location where the company performed most of its work. The second subpart asked about workers demographics and the training provided to them. Workers information within the company was related to the number of workers employed, the duration that worker had been with the company, the type of workers (union shop/open shop or temporary) workers education level, and workers English language literacy Each responding company was asked about the type and length of training given to workers and any observed improvements in the quality of workmanship due to training. The third subpart asked about construction defect claims within the company and general knowledge of construction defect claims within the construction market. Companies were asked if they were involved in any of the construction defect claims due to a particular trade in the past 10 years. They were also asked questions about defect claims in the construction market, defect claims attributed to building components, and percentage of defect claims attributed to faulty design. Finally they were asked if they felt there was an increase or decrease in number of defect claims in the past 10 years. An Internet-based method of survey was developed using an HT ML protocol that allowed participants to go through the survey questions and answer the questions with a click of the mouse Research Participants The research focus was based on a geographic location, specific construction trades, the education al level of the workers, and the language capabilities of the workers. Since the study was related to the demographic composition of workers in a company, the prime target participants of the survey were senior-level company executives or company representatives with past experience in the construction industry. The Blue Book of Building Construction was used

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24 as the source, which provided information of various trade contractors in specific regions of the country. The participants for the survey were not randomly chosen and were selected from the Blue Book of Building Construction by filtering location and trades in which companies were involved. For example, subcontracting companies were selected by searching for concrete work trades in Florida from the Blue Book of Building Construction web-based directory. Participants were classified by trades and location, which constituted small and large subcontracting companies mostly dealing in residential construction. Survey participants included senior-level company executives such as the president or vice-president, and company representatives such as safety managers project manager s or superintendents of the subcontracting company. Survey Distribution Selected subwebsites were visited, and e-mail addresses and phone numbers of company executives or representatives were tabulated. The survey questionnaire along with a copy of cover letter was sent to the e-mail addresses of each respondent Due to less than 10% survey response rate, the survey distribution was switched from e-mail to phone. Two under-graduate students were hired from the M.E. Rinker. Sr. School of Building Construction at University of Florida for more than four weeks to conduct the survey over phone. The survey was made voluntary to participants and they could skip any question if they did not know the answer. After completion of survey, the responses were saved on the webbased server where the survey was created. Data Analysis The data was first analyzed using simple frequency distributions. Next, bivariate analyses were used to determine if statistically significant differences existed between demographic groups and, to determine the strength of correlation between respondent demographics and survey responses. Because several of the key variables in the survey are nominal or ordinal,

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25 cross-classification tables with inferential statistics were used to test for independence between variables at the bivariate level of analysis. Typically, chi-square tests are used to assess independence with nominal variables. The chi-square test is based on a comparison between the frequencies that are observed in the cells of the cross-classification table and those one would expect to observe if the null hypothesis of independence were true. However, because the chisquare test generally requires a frequency of at least five in each cell for two by two tables, this statistic requires large sample sizes. As the number of respondents for some questions in this survey was relatively low (e.g., not all sections of the survey were applicable to all respondents) Fisher's exact test was used to test for independence when necessary. Fisher's exact test gives the exact p-value for a cross-classification table. The measure of association for interval (or continuous) variables is known as the Pearson correlation (r). The Pearson correlation is a type of slope whose value does not depend on the units of measurement. In general, the correlation can be interpreted as the value one would get for the slope of the regression equation for Y and X if units for the two variables were used such that their standard deviations were equal. This measure is also referred to as the standardized regression coefficient for the bivariate regression model. This measure describes the strength of the association between the two variables, and the slope indicates the direction of the association. The Pearson correlation is appropriate for use with dichotomous variables when both X and Y are dichotomous or when one of the two variables is dichotomous and the other is "quantitative," such as interval data. All relationships are conside Correlation coefficient (r) values range from +/1.0, with +1.0 being a perfect positive correlation and, -1.0 being a perfect negative (opposite) correlation.

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26 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Descriptive Statistics A total of 121 survey completions were received, representing an estimated margin of error of +/7% at a 90% confidence interval. Respondents were first asked about the percentage of work performed in particular trades (Figure 4-1). Half of all envelope work performed by respondents was in roofing (33%) and painting/waterproofing (17%). Figure 4-1. Trade work distribution Each respondent was then asked to indicate what percentages of their projects were performed in the southeast and Gulf states during the past 10 years (Figure 42) The majority of projects performed by survey respondents were in the states of Florida (39%), Texas (24%) and Georgia (23%). When asked about the number of field workers employed, 78% of the respondents indicated their company employed less than 50 field workers (Figure 4-3).

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27 Figure 4-2. Geographic distribution of projects performed by survey respondents during the past 10 years Figure 4-3. Size of compan y by number of field workers Respondents were asked how long the field workers had been employed by the company. Respondents indicated that more than two-thirds (68%) of their workers had been employed with their company for five years or less (Figure 4-4). When asked about the type of labor force, the

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28 respondents indicated that 95% of the workers were permanent hire open shop workers (Figure 4-5). Figure 4-4. Tenure of field workers employment with current company Figure 4-5. Distribution of union, non-union (open-shop) and temporary labor The survey also inquired about the education level of the workers. Eighty-three percent of respondents indicated that field workers had high school or equivalent education (Figure 4-6).

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29 Respondents were asked about the practice of hiring entry-level workers in the company. Results showed that 41% of the respondents did not hire any entry-level workers in the past year, while 54% of the respondents hired 1 to 24 workers in the past year (Figure 4-7). Figure 4-6. Worker education level Figure 4-7. Entry-level workers hired during the past year

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30 Respondents were asked about the percentage of workers who spoke a language other than English. Fifty-four percent of the respondents stated their field workers primarily speak a language other than English (Figure 4-8). However, it is unknown how many of these workers speak English and to what extent. The survey also asked if companies provided practical craft training to their employees, and 82% of the respondents indicated that their company did not provide any formal training (Figure 4-9). Figure 4-8. English vs. language other than English spoken by workers Figure 4-9. Practical craft training provided

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31 Respondents who provided practical craft training were asked if they found any quality improvement in workmanship as a result of this training. Forty-eight percent of the respondents felt that they observed quality improvements of up to 25% after practical craft training and 52% felt that quality improved more than 25 % (Figure 4-10). When asked about construction defect claims in the past 10 years, 40% of the respondents stated their company was involved in at least one and perhaps several construction defect claims (Figure 4-11). Figure 4-10. Quality improvement in workmanship following practical craft training Figure 4-11. Number of construction defect claims in past 10 years per company

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32 Respondents indicated that 61% of construction defects were caused by poor workmanship, poor project management, and poor quality of inspection (Figure 4-12). From a list of construction markets, 57% of the respondents stated that the construction defects occurred in the residential market consisting of multi-family, single-family and other residential housing (Figure 4-13). Respondents also stated that a total of 54% of defects were envelope-related (including exterior wall cladding and roofing) construction defects (Figure 4-14). When asked about the percentage of moisture-related construction defects due to leaks, and faulty mechanical system design, installation or operation, 69% of the respondents stated more than 25% of all construction defects were moisture-related (Figure 4-15). Figure 4-12. Causes of construction defects

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33 Figure 4-13. Distribution of construction markets affected by defect claims Figure 4-14. Building components associated with construction defects

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34 Figure 4-15. Percentage of moisture-related construction defects Inferential Statistics A correlation between the number of field workers hired and projects in different states were examined. The numbers of field workers hired were negatively correlated with the projects in the states of Florida, Georgia, and Texas which suggests that projects in those three states have either a limited impact on hiring field workers, or more likely, that residential construction in these states has stagnated in the past year (Table 4-1). Table 4-1. Correlation between number of field workers hired and projects in different states Projects in Florida Projects in Georgia Projects in Texas Field Workers Hired Pearson Correlation Coefficient: r 0.267 0.410 0.348 Statistical Significance: p 0.029 0.0008 0.03 No. of Observation s 66 39 37 The hiring of field workers was analyzed with the number of entry-level workers hired the number of workers who primarily spoke language other than English, and workers receiving

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35 practical craft training. A strong correlation exists between the number of field workers hired and the number of entry-level workers hired as r = 0.6392, p < 0.0001 (Table 4-2). The data suggests that as the number of field workers hired increases, a proportionate number of entry-level workers also increase. The correlation between the number of field workers and workers primarily speaking a language other than English is statistically significant and suggests that larger firms hiring larger numbers of field workers also have a higher proportion of workers who primari ly speak a language other than English. The number of field workers and companies providing practical craft training are significantly related, suggesting that larger firms are more likely to provide practical craft training. Table 4-2. Correlation between number of field workers hired and entry-level workers; workers primarily speaking a language other than English and practical craft training provided by employers Entry level workers Workers primarily speaking language other than English Craft practical training Field Workers Hired Pearson Correlation Coefficient: r 0.6392 0.225 0.297 Statistical Significance: p <0.0001 0.01 0.0014 No. of Observations 112 113 113 A negative correlation exists between the number of workers employed in a company for less than one year and workers primarily speaking a language other than English (Table 43) The data suggests that if the number of workers employed in a company for less than one year increases, the number of workers who primarily speak a language other than English in a company is reduced. The slowdown in residential construction may be increasing the competitiveness for fewer entry-level jobs and causing a shift away from immigrant and undocumented labor

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36 Table 4-3. Correlation between workers in a company for less than 1 year and workers primarily speaking a language other than English Workers primarily speaking language other than English Workers working in a company for less than 1 year Pear son Correlation Coefficient: r 0.31545 Statistical Significance: p 0.0035 No. of Observations 84 A negative correlation was noted between the percentage of workers who had been employed in a company from 6 to 10 years and the percentage of entry-level workers employed (T able 4-4). A moderate correlation exists with p = 0.0604, which is not statistically significant but suggests that as worker tenure increases, fewer entry-level workers are being hired. A statistically significant negative relationship was noted between the education level of workers and the overall number of construction defect claims (Table 45) This suggests that when workers have received a higher level of education, construction defect claims are reduced. Table 4-4. Correlation between workers working in a company from 6 to 10 years and entrylevel workers Entry level workers Workers working in a company from 6 to 10 years Pearson Correlation Coefficient: r 0.22403 Statistical Significance: p 0.0 604 No. of Observations 71 Table 4-5. Correlation between workers education level and number of construction defect claims Number of Construction defect claims Workers education level Pearson Correlation Coefficient: r 0 .18098 Statistical Significance: p 0.0529 No. of Observations 115

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37 A positive correlation was noted between the number of workers primarily speaking a language other than English and the number of construction defect claims attributed to the building envelope (roofing) W hen the number of workers who primarily speak a language other than English increases, defect claims attributed to building envelope (roofing) also increases (Table 4-6). Table 4-6. Correlation between number of workers who primarily speak a language other than English and defect claims attributed to roofing Defect claims attributed to building envelope (roofing) Number of w orkers primarily speaking a language other than English Pearson Correlation Coeffic ient: r 0.26148 Statistical Significance: p 0.0288 No. of Observations 70 A negative linear correlation was noted between quality improvement noticed after training, and the construction defects attributed to the envelope (exterior wall cladding) Th e high statistical significance indicates that when the quality of workmanship decreases, construction defect claims in the envelope-related trade increase (Table 47) Table 4-7. Correlation between quality improvement in workmanship and construction defect claims attributed to envelope (exterior wall cladding) Construction defect claims attributed to envelope (exterior wall cladding) Quality improvement in workmanship Pearson Correlation Coefficient: r 0.53675 Stati stical Significance: p 0.0586 No. of Observations 13

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38 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions This research was undertaken to develop a better understanding about possible causes of construction defects in the building envelope. Most of these defects are presumed to be related to water or moisture intrusion. The two main objectives of this research were: (a) to find the demographic composition of the workforce associated with trades responsible for weatherproofing the building envelope, and (b) to identify the extent to which training may be responsible for moisture-related construction defects with an emphasis on low English literacy workers. Survey data from 121 respondents indicated that most construction defect claims are attributed to moisture intrusion in buildings. Respondents stated that 95% of their workforce consisted of open shop (non-union) workers that traditionally, do not have formal apprenticeship training. Eighty-two percent of respondents indicated that they did not provide practical craft training for their employees. Moreover, respondents stated that 54% of their workers spoke English as a second language or that they spoke no English at all. Respondents also indicated that 59% of the workers hired in the past year were entry-level workers, presumably with no prior training or experience. Respondents stated that 68% of field workers had been employed by their current company five years or less. Eighty-three percent of the employees had a high school diploma or a general education diploma (GED) and twelve percent had elementary education only. Research shows that as education level increases, the occurrence of construction defects decreases (p=0.05, r=-0.18). Responses suggested that most contactors worked in a building envelope-related trade, primarily in the southeastern U.S. which is associated with high relative humidity, and which increases the

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39 risk of moisture intrusion in interior spaces. Specifically, 50% of respondents were either roofing (33%) or painting/waterproofing (17%) trade contractors. More than one-third of respondents (39%) were from the state of Florida. Sixty-two percent of respondents were from smallto medium sized companies employing fewer than 50 field workers. Respondents also indicated more than half (57%) of all construction defects occurred in the residential market and that nearly three-quarters (71%) occurred as a result of poor workmanship, poor project management or poor inspection by trade contractors. Of respondents who indicated their company provides craft training, language barriers may be a factor in the effectiveness such as training. In fact, nearly half of respondents indicated only marginal improvement (25%) in quality of workmanship following craft training. Furthermore, research suggests that the incidence of construction defects may in part be influenced by language barriers. Research indicates that for roofing contractors, the incidence of construction defects increases as the number of field workers who primarily speak a language other than English, increases (p 0.03 r = 0.26). Recommendations To improve the quality of workmanship and productivity of field workers, companies must have proper training programs and materials. Future research is recommended to develop training materials for field workers, especially those who primarily speak a language other than English. A training module can be devised that may have effective training material translated in the language that non-English-speakers understand. Recommended is the development of training materials comprehensible at an 8 th grade reading level and complete with illustrations showing trade specific, code compliant methods, materials and safety practices. Particular attention should be devoted to identifying and preventing moisture-related construction defects, especially in residential construction.

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40 APPENDIX SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Workforce Assessment survey: 1. From your experience, please assign a percentage that best represents the amount of work your company performs in each trade (listed below) relative to the total amount of work your company performs. 01 20% 21 40% 41 60% 61 80% 81 100% % Concrete foundation/walls O O O O O % Masonry/pre cast O O O O O % Rough Carpentry/siding/trim O O O O O % Roofing/sheet metal O O O O O % Painting/waterproofing O O O O O % Windows/doors O O O O O % Stucco/EIFS O O O O O % Dry wall/plaster O O O O O % Insulation O O O O O % Other O O O O O 2. Approximately what percentages of your projects within the last 10 years were located in the following states? 01 20% 21 4 0% 41 60% 61 80% 81 100% AL % O O O O O FL % O O O O O GA % O O O O O LA % O O O O O MS % O O O O O

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41 NC % O O O O O SC % O O O O O TX % O O O O O Other O O O O O 3. Approximately how many field workers does your company employ? O None O 1-9 O 10-49 O 50-99 O 100-149 O 150-200 O 200+ 4. Approximately what percentages of workers have been with your company? 01 20% 21 40% 41 60% 61 80% 81 100% Less than 1 year O O O O O 1 5 years O O O O O 6 10 years O O O O O More than 10 years O O O O O 5. Approximately what percentage of your workforce is comprised of the following types of workers? 01 20% 21 40% 41 60% 61 80% 81 100% % Permanent hire, Union shop workers O O O O O % Permanent hire, Open shop workers O O O O O % Temporary or Day Labor O O O O O % Other (please specify) O O O O O

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42 6. Which of the following best describes the average education level of your field workers? O Elementary O GED/High school O Trade school O College 7. About how many entry-level workers did your company hire in the past year? O None O 1 24 O 25 49 O 50 74 O 75+ 8. Approximately what percentage of your field workers primarily speaks a language other than English? O None O 01% 20% O 21% 40% O 61% 80% O 81% 100% 9. About how often does your company provide practical craft training to workers? O On the day new workers are hired O Once a week O Once a month O Once every two months O Once every six months O Once a year O No formal training learn on the job 10. From your experience, what percent improvement in quality of workmanship occurs after learn in Q9) O 1% 25% O 26% 50% O 51% 75% O 75% 100% 11. To the best of your knowledge, how many construction defect claims has your company had in the past 10 years? O 0 O 1 9 O 10 24 O 25+

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43 12. From your experience, please assign a percentage to the following causes of construction defects according to the extent each were responsible for the claims listed in question 11. (Skip this question if you selected 0 in question 11) 01 20% 21 40% 41 60% 61 80% 81 100% % Design documents O O O O O % Poor workmanship by Subcontrac tors O O O O O % Defective building materials O O O O O % Poor project management O O O O O % Poor quality of inspection by codes enforcement O O O O O % Other O O O O O 13. From your experience, please assign a percentage to the following construction markets according to the number of claims attributed to that market: 01 20% 21 40% 41 60% 61 80% 81 100% % Multi family residential/ condo O O O O O % Single family residential O O O O O % Other residential (e.g. hospital, nursing homes, hotels, dormitories, etc.) O O O O O % O ffice buildings O O O O O % Poor quality of inspection by codes enforcement O O O O O % Other O O O O O 14. From your experience, please assign a percentage to the total number of construction defect claims attributed to the following building components:

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44 01 20% 21 4 0% 41 60% 61 80% 81 100% % Substructure and foundation O O O O O % Superstructure O O O O O % Envelope (exterior wall/ cladding) O O O O O % Envelope (roofing) O O O O O % Mechanical systems (plumbing and HVAC) O O O O O % Other O O O O O 15. In your opinion, moisture problems such as leaks in the building envelope and faulty mechanical system design or operation are responsible for _______ % of all construction defect claims: O <2 O 25% 50 O >50 16. In your opinion the number of construction claims has O Increased <25% O Increased 25% 50% O Increased >50% O Decreased <25% O Decreased 25% -50% O Decreased >50%

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45 LIST OF REFERENCES Associated General Contractors (AGC). (2003). Managing the risk of mold in the construction of buildings. The American Institure of Architects < www.aia.org/static/state_local_resources/liabilityreform/Managing_Risk_Of_Mold.pdf > (Feb. 12, 2008). Barrett, D. (1998). The renewal of trust in residential construction. Quality of condominium construction in British Columbia: < http://www.qp.gov.bc.ca/condo/c2_vii.htm > (Jan. 6, 2008) Brennan, T. (2006). Moisture control in public and commercial buildings: Guidance for design, construction and maintenance professionals. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. Business-Roundtable. (1990). Training problems in open shop construction. < http://www.curt.org/pdf/154.pdf > (May. 10, 2008). Cammalleri, V., and Lyon, E. G. (2003). Condensation in the building envelope: Expectations and realities. The American Institute of Architects < www.aia.org/SiteObjects/files/bsci_cammalleri.pdf > (Jun. 6, 2008). D contractor liability insurance cost and coverage problem solutions to i Utility Contractors Association < http://www.nuca.com/files/public/Contractor_Liability_Insurance_Report.pdf > (Mar. 7, 2008). Feld, J., and Carper, K. (1996). Construction Failure, Wiley, New York. Fisher, P. (2005). United States court of appeals tenth circuit. Findlaw for Legal Professionals < http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgibin/getcase.pl?court=10th&navby=case&no=041200 > (Jun. 10, 2008). Fitzgerald, J. (2007). Preventing moisture-related problems in residential wood framing. Continuing Education Center < http://continuingeducation.construction.com/article.php?L=94&C=265 > (Dec. 5, 2007). Green, D., Larrick, M., Wettstein, D., and Bennington, L. (2001). Reserving for construction defects. Casualty Actuarial Society < www.casact.org/pubs/forum/01fforum/01ff105.pdf > (Mar. 10, 2008). Grosskopf, K., and Lucas, E. (2008). "Identifying the Causes of Moisture-Related Defect Litigation in U.S. Building Construction," Proceedings of the 2008 Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS). Dublin (Ireland). Grosskopf, K., Oppenheim, P., and Brennan, T. (2008). Avoiding HVAC Defect Claims in Hot, Humid Climates. ASHRAE Journal. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers. Vol 50, No. 7. Atlanta, GA.

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46 Jaselskis, J. (2006). Effective language and cultural training for hispanic workers and american supervisors. National Concrete Pavement Technology Center < http://www.ctre.iastate.edu/pubs/t2summaries/hispanic3.pdf > (Jun. 6, 2008). Lennes, J., and J. Holland, K. (2002). The jonah perspective on construction defects A view from inside the fish. The Federation < http://www.thefederation.org/documents/LennesSu03.htm > (Feb. 7, 2008). Krizan, W., Angelo, W., and Tuchman, J. (2003) Mold l aw suits have industry feeling vulnerable as larger projects are e ye d. McGraw H ill Construction Engineering News Record < http://enr.construction.com/features/bizLabor/archives/030331.asp > (Dec. 5, 2007). Lstiburek, J. W. (2007). Small Sacrifices: Capillary Suction. ASHRAE Journal 58-61. Sherman, M. (2004). ASHRAE residential ventilation standard approved. EETD newsletter < http://eetdnews.lbl.gov/nl16/ASHRAE.html > (Jun. 6, 2008). Thompson, P., and Siddiqi, K. (2007). Best practices for improving safety among hispanic construction workers. 43rd Annual International Conference of Associated Schools of Construction at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, Arizona < http://www.agcga.org/galleries/newgallery/SPSU%20Hispanic%20Workforce%20Safety%20Practices.pdf > (Jan. 5, 2008).

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47 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Chirag Upadhyaya was born in Vadodara, India. In 2004, he received a Bachelor of architecture from the M.S. University of Baroda in India He was awarded a gold medal and a silver medal for achieving the highest number of marks in B. Arch. He worked for one year as an assistant architect in Vadodara India, one year as lecturer at the College of Architecture, SVIT Vasad, India, and one year part-time as project assistant at Aakruti Developers, Vadodara, India. After receiving his master s degree in building construction, Chirag have started working in commercial construction industry.