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The Reconsidered Cemetery

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022626/00001

Material Information

Title: The Reconsidered Cemetery An Architectural Seam
Physical Description: 1 online resource (91 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Ard, Kelly
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: architecture, cemetery, funerary, memorial
Architecture -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Architecture thesis, M.S.A.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Funerary architecture has historically held a strong role in human civilization, serving as both a cross-cultural ritual and pretext for architectural advancement. In recent Western tradition, however, it has fallen to the background of both cultural awareness and human ritual. Society's dead are now placed in the 'left-over' space of developed spatial fabric, with little reconsideration of their execution in light of contemporary architectural advancements or changing sense of place. This thesis proposes that architecture is not only inherently present within the cemetery (a necessary component of the human culture) but that funerary architecture can and should be re-injected into contemporary society. This investigation will (1) address the nature of the cemetery within a historic and cultural context and (2) test its architectural potential within a design curriculum. In regards to the spatial relationships between the living and dead, I will propose a set of spatial topoi that may reach to the nature of the seam between worlds. Architectural design proposals for the 'reconsidered cemetery' will be developed by a group of Design 4 students who are completing their second year of design curriculum. The program of the cemetery will be introduced into the 'desert project,' which will not only address the relationship between the living and dead (a program specific relationship) but the relationship between the living and the environment of the desert (a site specific consideration). This thesis not only tests the impact of the cemetery within an architectural design, but challenges the pedagogical incorporation of theoretical and architectural thinkers in order to shape and execute a design project.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Kelly Ard.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.A.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Hofer, Adeline.
Local: Co-adviser: Bitz, Diana H.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-12-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022626:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022626/00001

Material Information

Title: The Reconsidered Cemetery An Architectural Seam
Physical Description: 1 online resource (91 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Ard, Kelly
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: architecture, cemetery, funerary, memorial
Architecture -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Architecture thesis, M.S.A.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Funerary architecture has historically held a strong role in human civilization, serving as both a cross-cultural ritual and pretext for architectural advancement. In recent Western tradition, however, it has fallen to the background of both cultural awareness and human ritual. Society's dead are now placed in the 'left-over' space of developed spatial fabric, with little reconsideration of their execution in light of contemporary architectural advancements or changing sense of place. This thesis proposes that architecture is not only inherently present within the cemetery (a necessary component of the human culture) but that funerary architecture can and should be re-injected into contemporary society. This investigation will (1) address the nature of the cemetery within a historic and cultural context and (2) test its architectural potential within a design curriculum. In regards to the spatial relationships between the living and dead, I will propose a set of spatial topoi that may reach to the nature of the seam between worlds. Architectural design proposals for the 'reconsidered cemetery' will be developed by a group of Design 4 students who are completing their second year of design curriculum. The program of the cemetery will be introduced into the 'desert project,' which will not only address the relationship between the living and dead (a program specific relationship) but the relationship between the living and the environment of the desert (a site specific consideration). This thesis not only tests the impact of the cemetery within an architectural design, but challenges the pedagogical incorporation of theoretical and architectural thinkers in order to shape and execute a design project.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Kelly Ard.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.A.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Hofer, Adeline.
Local: Co-adviser: Bitz, Diana H.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-12-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022626:00001


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1 THE RECONSIDERED CEMETERY: AN ARCHITECTURAL SEAM By KELLY JEAN ARD A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Kelly Jean Ard

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3 To L.B.B., M.A.B., and J.L.H., who have show n me the presence of friendship beyond death. And to my Granny, who will not fe ar it for a single moment.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I first want to thank m y parents and family, who have instilled in me the beauty of smallness and value of returning. This has imp acted me as a person and a designer, and I am increasingly encouraged by them every single day. I also want to thank the professors who have inspired me over the years, sp ecifically Professor Gundersen, Professor Hofer, and Professor Bitz. They have significantly influenced my design, my teaching, and my architectural comprehension. I would also like to thank thos e who indulged my fascination for the cemetery: my students for their constant enthusiasm, those who spoke with me about death, and those who walked the cemeteries alongside me.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................................7ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................................9 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................11Cemetery as Architecture.......................................................................................................11Cemetery as Dwelling........................................................................................................... ..122 SPATIAL TOPOI AND PRECEDENTS............................................................................... 16The Relationships Defined..................................................................................................... 17Dead to Ground...............................................................................................................18Living to Dead.................................................................................................................19The Constructed Cemetery..................................................................................................... 22The Construction and the Monument.............................................................................. 22Cemetery Precedent: Brion-Vega Cemetery................................................................... 23The Celebrated Detail...................................................................................................... 23The Reoccurring Perspective........................................................................................... 24Dead Beside............................................................................................................................25Memorial Precedent: Vietnam Veterans Memorial....................................................... 25Evidence through the Artifact.........................................................................................26The Cemetery Plane................................................................................................................28Various Manifestations of the Plane................................................................................ 29Cemetery Precedent: Arlington National Cemetery........................................................ 29Dead Below............................................................................................................................30Memorial Precedent: Jewish Museum in Berlin............................................................. 31Phenomenological Intersection: Sound and Image......................................................... 32The Urban Cemetery............................................................................................................. ..34Cemetery Precedent: Mount Auburn Cemetery.............................................................. 34Juxtaposed Integration..................................................................................................... 35Dead Around...........................................................................................................................36Ritual Extension of Dead Around...................................................................................37Memorial Precedent: New England Holocaust Memorial............................................... 38Below, Beside, Within, and Onto.................................................................................... 38The Distant Memorial...................................................................................................... 39The Invisible Cemetery......................................................................................................... ..40Methods of Invisibility.................................................................................................... 40Cemetery Precedent: Washington Square Park............................................................... 41

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6 Dead Remembered..................................................................................................................43Memorial Precedent: Shanksville, PA....................................................................................433 PROGRAMMING PEDAGOGIES........................................................................................ 47Place within the Fo rmless Territory....................................................................................... 48Crossroads Narrative........................................................................................................... ...50Mapping the Narrative............................................................................................................55Focusing Design Issues: Seeking Vernacular Cues................................................................ 58Bachelard as Model for Investigation.............................................................................. 59Design Issues Focused.....................................................................................................59Spatial Issues..........................................................................................................................61Boundary and Edge.........................................................................................................61Living and Dead.............................................................................................................. 62Temporal Issues................................................................................................................ ......63Planned and Emergent..................................................................................................... 64Ageing and Wearing........................................................................................................65Pedagogical Translation..........................................................................................................65Situating Program and Itinerary.............................................................................................. 67Living, Dead, and Phenomenological Light........................................................................... 68Light as Marker and Indicator......................................................................................... 68The Layered Ground........................................................................................................69Ground Articulation: Seaming Two Worlds........................................................................... 70The Thick Plane............................................................................................................... 70Perspective Proposals...................................................................................................... 71Pedagogical Product...............................................................................................................72Reconsidered Spatial Topoi.............................................................................................72Student Work: Aniel Martinez........................................................................................ 74Student Work: Chris Chappell......................................................................................... 75Student Work: Carolina Valladares.................................................................................764 CONCLUSION..................................................................................................................... ..85LIST OF REFERENCES...............................................................................................................88BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................91

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7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 A series of diagrams that express the spatial topoi ............................................................ 442-2 The dead to ground series.................................................................................................. 452-3 The dead to living series.................................................................................................. ..452-4 The constructed cemetery spatial topos. ........................................................................... 452-5 The constructed cemetery spatial topos. ........................................................................... 452-6 The cemetery plane spatial topos. ..................................................................................... 452-7 The dead below spatial topos. ...........................................................................................452-8 The urban cemetery spatial topos. .................................................................................... 462-9 The dead around spatial topos. ......................................................................................... 462-10 The invisible cemetery spatial topos. ................................................................................ 462-11 The dead remembered spatial topos. .................................................................................463-1 Provided image for sublime desert.................................................................................... 773-2 Mapping the path through the line.....................................................................................773-3 Mapping the path th rough the context...............................................................................773-4 Mapping the path through the horizon............................................................................... 783-5 Programmatic components. ............................................................................................... 783-6 Programmatic situations.................................................................................................... .783-7 Light as threshold......................................................................................................... ......793-8 Light as marker............................................................................................................ ......793-9 Layered ground............................................................................................................. .....793-10 Thick plane............................................................................................................... ..........803-11 Perspective proposals..................................................................................................... ....803-12 The constructed cemetery reconsidered.............................................................................80

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8 3-13 The cemeter y plane reconsidered.......................................................................................813-14 The urban cemetery reconsidered...................................................................................... 813-15 The invisible cemetery reconsidered..................................................................................823-16 Martinez final cemetery design.......................................................................................... 823-17 Chappell final cemetery design.......................................................................................... 833-18 Valladares final cemetery design....................................................................................... 84

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Masters of Science in Arch itectural Studies THE RECONSIDERED CEMETERY: AN ARCHITECTURAL SEAM By Kelly Jean Ard December 2008 Chair: Nina Hofer Cochair: Diana Bitz Major: Architecture Funerary architecture has historically held a strong role in human civilization, serving as both a cross-cultural ritual and pretext for ar chitectural advancement. In recent Western tradition, however, it has fallen to the background of both cultural awareness and human ritual. Societys dead are now placed in the left-over space of devel oped spatial fabric, with little reconsideration of their execution in light of contemporary ar chitectural advancements or changing sense of place. This thesis proposes that architecture is not only inherently present within the cemetery (a necessary component of the human culture0 but that funerary arch itecture can and should be reinjected into contemporary societ y. This investigation will (1) a ddress the nature of the cemetery within a historic and cultural context and (2) test its architectural po tential within a design curriculum. In regards to the spatial relationships between the living and dead, I will propose a set of spatial topoi that may reach to the nature of the seam between worlds. Architectural design proposals for the reconsidered cemeter y will be developed by a group of Design 4 students who are completing their second year of design curriculum. The program of the cemetery will be introduced into the desert project, which will not only address the relationship between the living a nd dead (a program specific rela tionship) but the relationship

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10 between the living and the environmen t of the desert (a site specific consideration). This thesis not only tests the impact of the cemetery with in an architectural design, but challenges the pedagogical incorporation of theoretical and architectural thinke rs in order to shape and execute a design project.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Cemetery as Architecture If we find a mound in a forest, six feet long and three feet wide, heaped up with a spade in the shape of a pyram id then we become solemn and something tells us: somebody lies buried here.This is architecture! -Adolf Loos1 From the pyramids of the ancients to the recent intrigue of the natural burial, processes of caring for the dead have varied greatly throughout time. It is an inherently human program, saturated with memory and historically executed through a wide range of articulations. Funerary rites have been rooted in civilizations for millennia, yet the unfortunate reality is that contemporary Western culture ofte n disregards significance of this human ritual. Instead, many cemeteries have emerged from the haphazard and often arbitrary placement of bodies, retaining only faint evidence of generational development or car dinal directionality. Does this suggest that the cemetery should be left to the whims of the ch ance? Civilizations will inevitably establish a general place and strategy through which to bury their dead, but ought the architectural discipline ignore the potentialities that the cemetery affords? Shall it omit this final housing of a body on the earth? The living naturally remember their dea d, honor their dead, and join their dead. It is thus only appropriate for the archit ecture discipline to acknowledge this significance, to redefine role of the cemetery in the articulated consciousness. This thesis proposes that architecture is not only inherently present within the cemeterya necessary component of the human culturebut that funerary ar chitecture can and should be reinjected into contemporary societ y. This investigation will (1) a ddress the nature of the cemetery within a historic and cultural context and (2) test its architectural po tential within a design 1 Adolf Loos, Architektur (Ariadne Press). Referenced in Ken Worpol e, Last Landscapes: The architecture of the Cemetery in the West (London: Reaction Books, Ltd., 2003).

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12 curriculum. I propose to take what David Leat herbarrow calls the counter-postulate position.2 This position, he explained, is captured within th e statue of a goddess, figure moving everforward, eyes directed subtly behind. This glance behind does not reveal he r wish to retreat or remain within the familiar past; it is not evidence of her nostalgia. Rather, she seeks historical guidance in making steps toward her future; she maintains an awareness of the place from which she came, but nevertheless moves forward. Through assuming this position, we may identify the commonalities that seam cultures and span millennia, the historical evidence that may articulate fundamental needs. From this knowledge, we may step toward an architecture that can capture the significance and subtleties of the cemetery, redefine architectures potential in housing the dead. Cemetery as Dwelling The house m an lives in is temporary, since the real one, to the construction of which he dedicates his whole life, is his final resting place. -Herodotus3 The truth in this statement lies in an undeniable juxtaposition: the temporality of life and the permanence of death. Death is a threshold throug h which all humans enter, the point of leaving the familiar living world. Because the condi tion beyond death is unknown, it is grasped through various religious faiths; spirituality answers deaths uncertainties. Giambattista Vicos names the human response to these, spirituality a nd death, among the three basic human conditions: religion, matrimony, and burial: the human experience of death as the core of a universal language or code. Through the rituals and symbols that constitute this languag e people cope with the threat of death. The performance of death-related rituals is an attempt to mediate the opposition between life 2 David Leatherbarrow, ""Architecture Oriented Ot herwise"," University of Florida Lecture Series (Gainesville, 2008). 3 Quoted on p. 28 of Monica Gili, La Ultima Casa: The Last House (Barcelona: Ingoprint, SA, 1999).

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13 and death by asserting that death is an integr al part of life. Death, in fact, provides an opportunity to affirm the continuity of life itself.4 Life is comprehended only in its opposition to death. Therefore, the coexistence of the two within a single place distinguishes the realit ies of each, a condition that connects all cultures within the human species. Historically, the tomb assured the priority of the dwelling. Th e ancient house was regarded as a somewhat temporary porch or annex to the tomb, a threshold between the public civilization and private ancestry. In this, the dwelling for the liv ing was directly tied to the dwelling for the dead.5 While this regard has been altere d and reconsidered countless times, the closeness of a civilization with its progenitors typically retained regional proximity. It even remains customary within the current Chinese cult ure to maintain shrines for ancestry within the home, in order that the living mi ght worship, provide offerings, and dwell alongside their dead. This is no longer the case in We stern culture. Instead, we now find a globalized society that fears, ignores, or minimizes the impact of the ceme tery within a place. In the international and inter-cultural context, it is nearly impossible for a single cemetery to provide a collective place for the dead, as there remain so few alignments in the collective view of death itself. This leads to a crucial question for today s Western cultures: is the lack of attention for the cemetery evidence of a pre-occupation with life, a step aw ay from spiritual grounding, or as Pedro Azara maintains, based on a sense of decency, since d eath always disturbs a nd is not a subject for 4 Giambattista Vico, New Science trans. Thomas Goddard Bergin and Max Herald Fisch (Cornell University Press, 1984). 5 Pedro Azara, "The House and the Dead (On Modern Tombs)," La Ultima Casa: The Last House ed. Monica Gili (Barcelona: Ingoprint, SA, 1999) 24-39.

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14 gentleman?6 Does the incorporation of so many cultures into a single place lead to a weakening of the death ritual, or simply the loss of a traditi onal sense of place? The program of the cemetery itself provides the living a mysterious, co nstant, and essential component. As a fact of existence, all civiliza tions were created by civilizations before. The intrigue of the cemetery lies in the fact that it provides clues to our ancestry, our sole avenue for being. Robert Pogue Harrison stated: The awareness of death that de fines human nature is inseparable fromindeed, it arises fromour awareness that we are not self-author ed, that we follow in the footsteps of the dead. Everywhere one looks across the sp ectrum of human cu ltures one finds the foundational authority of the predecessor. N onhuman species obey only the law of vitality, but humanity in its distinctive features is thr ough and through necrocra tic. Whether we are conscious of it or not we do the will of the ancestors: our commandments come to us from their realm; their precedents ar e our law; we submit to their dictates, even when we rebel against themOnly the dead can grant us le gitimacyLike human dwelling, the afterlife needs places to take place in. If humans dw ell, the dead, as it were, indwelland very often in the same space.7 Recognizing the significan ce of this relationship affords huma nitys ability to gain historic legitimacy and establish present place. It lies inhe rent in the universal fa scination with death and religious beliefs that qualify th e hereafter. Why, then, the sile nt hesitation in dealing with todays dead? Why shy from integr ating the living and dead, as an cient civilizations did so long ago? The condition of the living coexisting witha nd gaining legitimacy fromits dead further supports Vicos inclusion of burial w ithin the basic human institutions: Thus by the graves of their buried dead the giants showed dominion over their lands, and Roman law called for burial of the dead in a pr oper place to make it religious. With truth 6 Pedro Azara, "The House and the Dead (On Modern Tombs)," La Ultima Casa: The Last House ed. Monica Gili (Barcelona: Ingoprint, SA, 1999) 24-39. 7 Robert Pogue Harrison, The Dominion of the Dead (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003). p. ix

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15 they could pronounce these heroic phrases: we are the sons of the earth, we are born from these oaks.8 People retain the wealth and th e culture of those who came be fore them through generational exchange. So while physical ownership may be shared between lifetim es, only human memory bridges the void between them, af fording simultaneous presence. Therefore, memory offers an emotional coexistence, death offers physic al coexistence, and the cemetery affords multigenerational dwelling within a fixed place. The following step in the investigation addre sses the typological di stinctions through the study of precedents. Through these, I pose the fundamental questions: how do the living dwell alongside their dead? Wh at are the consistencies and distin ctions between various funerary spaces and rituals? How are the dead mark ed, honored, and remembered? The following precedents constitute the counter-postulates glance behind. 8 Giambattista Vico, New Science trans. Thomas Goddard Bergin and Max Herald Fisch (Cornell University Press, 1984). p. 531

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16 CHAPTER 2 SPATIAL TOPOI AND PRECEDENTS Identifying the various typologies of the cem etery will provide a framework through which to focus the pedagogical investig ation. Reducing each condition to the root of its fundamental situation will allow for the identification of prece dents that may address the entire spectrum of the cemetery. The underlying spatial themes be hind these conditions, which I shall call the spatial topoi are supra-incidental cond itions that link and distingui sh the various types of funerary architecture. For these, I use the term topos a traditional theme or formula in literature1to describe each typological conditions. A spatial topos thus identifies a quintessential spatial theme that underlies many cemetery organizations. I shall attempt to define these topoi within this spectrum of spatial situations, through (1) the situating of dead to ground exemplified through a cemetery precedent of recent design and (2) the relationship of dead to living architecturally re-presented through a memorial. While I may supplement the argument further by looking at more historic or even archaic examples of burial, looking specifically at examples that have been designed or exte nded within the past century will place the discussion w ithin a contemporary scope. Indeed, ancient burials provide the foundation for current funerary practices, but this thesis addr esses the future of funerary architecture. Therefore, looking specifically at recent examples will establish a trajectory for programmatic reconsideration. The following cate gories establish the typological framework for initiating cemetery design. To identify the summation of all methods, Ken Worpole stated: There are three ways in which you can dispose of your loved ones and fellow citizens: burn them, bury them or build them a place of their own.2 1 Definition, Elizabeth J. Jewill and Frank R. Abate, The New Oxford American Dictionary First (Oxford University Press, 2001). 2 Ken Worpole, Last Landscapes: The ar chitecture of the Cemetery in the West (London: Reaction Books, Ltd., 2003). p. 8-9.

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17 The first set of spatial topoi, dead to ground located in the top row of Figure 2-1, directly relates to the application of th ese three methods: the constructed cemetery (built), the cemetery plane (buried), the urban cemetery (built and burie d), and the invisible cemetery (burned and/or forgotten). These four constitute the specific relationships of the dead to ground within overall cemetery organization, each with varying implica tions of density, experience, and proximity to the living. Through this spatial situation, we recognize the ability to see, touch, and step across the burial ground, the dead held with various associ ations to the human body, but we must ask how this impacts the experience between the living and dead. How do the living and dead dwell together? What is different a bout visiting and honoring a grave th at is placed at eye level and one that you look down upon? The second set of topoi, the dead to living located in the bottom row of Figure 2-1, seeks to answer these questions While these topoi are suggested within the first, the richness of human ritu al lays within the relationship between the living and dead. Not only must we identify the impacts of various experiential situations, we must find ways of designing funerary architecture that further enriches this. It is for this setthe architectural translation of dead to living topoithat I propose memorial precedents, for through the abstraction and cultural impact of the memorial, architects ha ve begun to capture the phenomena between the two worlds. The Relationships Defined The discuss ion will begin by defining the two primary relationships that will be addressed through both the precedent studie s and the pedagogical execution. The relationship between the dead and the surrounding world must be addresse d in a dual manner, considering both its spatial context of place and emotional threshold of conscience. The following categories, dead to ground and dead to living respectively address these notions. In categorizing the spatial topoi, I

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18 have identified a constant and a va riable through which to qualify the distinctions. In this first set, dead to ground ground is the constant. Dead to Ground It is the foundation upon which we dwell, the provider of food, the decomposer of bodies; it seam s the living world and the underworld at a surface, and simultaneously acts as a boundary and a threshold. As such, it is on ly appropriate that it provides the mediating constant between the living and the dead. There has always been a powerful relationshi p between the dead and ground, for the earth acts as the primary separatingor integratingelement between of the living and the dead. Italo Calvino describes the connectivity of the tw o worlds in his book, Invisible Cities: They say that this has not just now begun to happen: actually it was the dead who built the upper Eusapia, in the image of their city. They say that in the twin cities there is no longer any way of knowing who is alive and who is dead.3 The question that arises from this passage is, do the living construct the cemetery for the dead, or did the dead construct the city for the living? The interdependency between the living city and the dead city lies in this conditionhumans bu ild upon those who gave them life. Therefore, each world remains reliant on the other, though they remain extraordinary inversions. Not only does the earth provide a physical medi ator, it negotiates th e human perception of the dead. Above ground we find mausoleums columbaria, and sepulchers, below are graveyards, catacombs, and crypts. The juxtaposition of the two demonstrates the contrast of perception. A mausoleum is exposed within the world of the living, the scale of the body is evident, visible within the world of the living. We understand it as an object within a landscape, an architecture that monumentaliz es the placement of the dead. In the graveyard, however, the 3 Italo Calvino, Invisible Cities (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1974). p. 1.

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19 coffin is hidden from the living; we sense th e scale and placement of the dead only through markers that break the surface of the earth, into our own world. Removing the markers would obscure the cemeterys presence, a concealment th at is increasingly exaggerated in catacombs and crypts. In these, the dead are completely hidden from living, visible only to those who break the ground plane and travel into th e territory of the dead. Burials of the underworld thus remain the subject of mystery and lore, while those above are more revealed and comprehensible. To address the nature of the underworld from a different perspective, Calvino continues his Cities and the Dead with the description of anot her cemetery, Argia. His portrays Argia as an inverted spatial condition, how th e dead experience it from below: What makes Argia different from other cities is th at it has earth instead of air. The streets are completely filled with dirt, clay pack s the rooms to ceiling, on every stair another stairway is set in negative, over the roofs of the houses hang layers of rocky terrain like skies with clouds. We do not know if the inhabitants can move about the city, widening the worm tunnels and the crevices where roots twist: the dampness destroys peoples bodies and they have scant strength; everyone is better off remaining still, prone; anyway, it is dark. From up here, nothing of Argia can be seen; some say, Its better below there, and we can only believe them. The place is de serted. At night, putting your ear to the ground, you can sometimes hear a door slam.4 In dead to ground, the situating of the dead in re lation to the surf ace of ground will be presented within its four quintessential spatia l topoi, identified in Figure 2-2. The cemetery precedents will address these situat ions in their absolute forms, suggest spatial and architectural implications, and ultimately pose the fundame ntal question: how do the dead dwell above, between, and below the ground plane, the f oundational surface for the living world? Living to Dead Redefining funerary architecture m ust begin with reconsidering the human instinct to bury and honor their dead. The new cemetery must satisfy an array of issues, from physical body 4 Ibid.

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20 decay to societys awareness and embrace of death. It must address the fundamental relationship of the body to the earth, dead to ground, but also account for anothe r essential re lationshipdead to living How is human ritual impacted by dwel ling above, beside, or among the dead? How are components within the cemetery indicative of living occupation? How are the dead presenced within the cemetery? These questions establish a set of issues that must imbue funerary design, for they challenge the nature of physical and emotional space between the living and dead. This set of topoi (Figure 2-3) directly results from the dead to ground, but focused the investigation specifically on the r itual of human experience, not th e physical spatial situation. In these, I will specifically tie these relationships into contemporary memorial designs. Presenting memorial precedents to exemplify these topoi have a precise intention: memorials constitute an architecturally invested design t ypology that addresses fundamental issues within the cemetery. They express narratives through the convictions of phenomeno logical space and use human experience to redefine a historic event. Wh ile cemeteries allow for the presencing of the individual through literal placement of the d ead, memorials allow for the presencing of a collective body through the im pact of architectural decisions. In the words of Marita Sturken: A memorial refers to the life or lives sacrificed for a particul ar set of values. Memorials embody grief, loss, and tribute or obligation; in doing so, they serve to frame particular historical narratives.5 Also, cemeteries have become a relatively for gotten program in contem porary Western culture, but memorials are increasingly the focus of cont emporary design and cultural debates. The focus of this thesis is rein stituting cemetery design w ithin contemporary societ y. Therefore, studying 5 Marita Sturken, "The Wall, the Screen, and the Image: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial," Representations, Special Issue: Monumental Histories Summer 1991: 118-142. p. 122

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21 precedents that have already reconsidered the spatial situations of dead to living will facilitate the pedagogical transition into the architecture of the cemetery. The definition through which I regard the memo rial is an artifact that imposes meaning and order beyond the temporal and chaotic experiences of life.6 Memorials communicate historical narratives deeply rooted in the concep t of historical conscious ness, which societies and individuals hold as memory. In Memory, Distortion, and Hist ory in the Museum, Susan A. Crane explains: The phenomenon of historical consciousness continually exceeds those documentable momentsMany historians may ha ve anxiety about, or disdain for, the unincorporated realm of personal historical memory, seeing it as evidence of ignorance, willful prejudice, emotional needs, or lack of understanding This excess of memory, personal and yet publicly formed, complicates historical practi ce and creates a new object of historical study at the intersection of th e personal and the public.7 The memorial intersects the individual and colle ctive memory, transcending historical fact by layering symbolic and phenomenologically charged spaces. It incorporates the excess of memory into its narrative, providing unique experi ences for each visitor: a memorial will arouse much different emotions from a veteran from th at war than a civilian who experienced it as a child. A Holocaust Memorial wi ll undoubtedly evoke different sentiments from a German than an American. This plasticity allows for the visi tor to be simultaneously alone in his individual memory and unified within his greater context. While memorials do not hold the body of the dead, they are saturated with th e memory of people and events of the past, capturing historical significance and reinventing the way one remembers. Thus, memorials are invaluable to studies 6 Definition by Yi-Fu Tuan, in The Significance of the Artifact; quoted in James M. Mayo, "War Memorials as Political Memory," Geographical Review (American Geographical Society) 78, no. 1 (January 1988): 62-75. 7 Susan A. Crane, "Memory, Distortion, and History in the Museum," History and Theory: Studies in the Philosophy of History December 1997: 44-63.

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22 in redefining funerary architect ure within contemporary culture, for they have already provided that culture with architecture of memory. The Constructed Cemetery Constructin g a place to house the dead maintain s an explicitly architectural topos (Figure 2-4). It is not founded upon the physical decomposition of the human body within the earth, rather the tectonic holding and preserving of corp ses. Evidenced in mausoleums, sepulchers, and columbaria, this type is constructed accordi ng to the scale of the human body, many containing overheads for protection and chapels for worship. Placement above ground offers a physical coexistence upon the earth; the living and dead are similarly housed within the same space, objectified dwellings on the ground surface. It is architecture for the dead that resembles architecture for the living. The Construction and the Monument The use of a constructed monum e nt within funerary architecture is one of the oldest and perhaps most lasting of the burial practices. Mo numentality evidenced we alth, power, and eternal presence; it was a symbol of the eternal. The monu mentality that is attribut ed to kings, pharoahs, and beloved wives in death does not respond specifically to the intimacy between the living and dead; they do not outwardly reveal the scale or placement of the body within. Instead, these were instituted as iconic symbols, the presencing of an individual for an entire civilization to honor. Ignasi de Sola Morales explained: The idea of monument that I want to bring in here is that which we might find in an architectonic object: for all its being an opening, a window on a more intense reality, at the same time its representation is produced as a vestige, as the tremulous clangor of the bell that reverberates after it has ceased to ring; as that which is constituted as pure residuum, as recollection.8 8 Quoted in Ken Worpole, Last Landscapes: The architecture of the Cemetery in the West (London: Reaction Books, Ltd., 2003).

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23 To this effect, I align the physically monumental with th e experientially monumental. Constructing the monumental burial places, ei ther proportionately or phenomenologically, to emanate the power of the dead offers much po tential to the discipline of architecture. As Louis Kahn described: Monumentality in architecture may be defined as a quality, a spiritual quality inherent in a structure which conveys the feeling of its eternity, that it cannot be added to or changedMonumentality is enigmatic. It cann ot be intentionally created. Neither the finest material nor the most advanced t echnology need enter a work of monumental character for the same reason that the finest ink was not required to draw up the Magna Carter.9 Cemetery Precedent: Brion-Vega Cemetery Italys Brion-Vega Cem etery is an example of a constructed cemetery It is not monumental in a typical sense, rather it achieve s monumentality through deta il and perspective. Designed by architect Carlo Scarpa, it serves as a private burial ground for the Brion family, wrapped by a more traditional cemetery plane outside its boundary walls. Designed as a collection of objects in a fiel d, this cemetery includes progra mmatic components that offer the living a specific experience: a constructed entry, a chapel, a meditation pavilion, the tombs for and tombs for the Brions and their extended fam ily. Each programmatic component operates as an independent architecture, yet thresholds, reveals, and integrat ing water constantly lead the visitor across the grounds, through infinite potential itineraries. It isolates the living, presents them to the dead, and engages them with other living in order to worship together and honor and their shared patronage. The Celebrated Detail While the B rion Cemetery does not represent mo numentality in a traditional sense, it is expressed is through the nature of the celebrated detail. At each threshold into and between 9 On Monumentality included in Robert McCarter, Louis I Kahn (New York, NY: Phaidon Press, Inc., 2005).

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24 spaces, there lies a reveal, a symbolic recollection, or reorientation. One example of this lies in the gate between the entry and the meditation pavilion. The entry piece is a thick concrete structure that holds a gate, a window, and a th reshold, each leading toward an independent trajectory. Taking the trajectory that leads to the me ditation pavilion expre sses the monumental passage through the celebrated deta il. To access this pavilion, which seemingly floats within a pool of water, one must cross a glass gate that presses into the floor, submerged into the water below. This simultaneously foreshadows the wa ter that surrounds the pavilion and indicates the spaces current use. Also, the mechanism that allows for the door to submerge is exposed from the exterior of the thick entry, with a complex se ries of pulleys that allow the movement of the door to be revealed, though the living remain con cealed. It is a celebrat ion of the details and a preparation for the living to move into the pavi lion, which ultimately repositions them toward the most significant cemetery component: the exposed tombs of Mr. and Mrs. Guiseppe Brion, standing across the distant field. Each step thro ugh the cemetery is highlighted as an event, constructing a monumental experience through the articulation of detail. The Reoccurring Perspective In addition to the constructed itinerary through the series of construc ted spaces, the tom bs of the Brions are revealed as a monument of throughout the cemetery. The two leaning tombs stand in the field protected and identified by an arched piece that accentuates the union in death. It is a construction that stands out among its larger programmatic piec es, as it is formally distinct and constantly revealed through r ecurring perspectives. In the med itation pavilion, it is seen at a distance, through interlocking circle s that direct the eyes toward the tombs. From the chapel, a series of windows and doors provide glimpses of the arch, which is more fragmented but ever present.

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25 I thus cite the Brion-Vega Cemetery as a constructed cemetery, not because of the scale or proportion of the tombs, per se, but for the monum entality of experience and significant presence of the tomb. It is an example of architecture that allows the living to dwell beside, honor, and celebrate their dead. Dead Beside The relation ship that emerges from the placement of the dead within a construction or monument is that of the dead beside the living. Dwelling within the same world as the living offers the impact of the living facing the dead. It is this direct impact that must be captured to fully employ the potential of this spatial situation. Memorial Precedent: Vietnam Veterans Memorial A m emorial that re-presents the experiential impact of dead beside (Figure 2-5) is the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, desi gned by architect Maya Lin. Pl aced within the Mall lawn of Washington DC, this project i nverts the surrounding strategy of objectified white monuments, strengthening its experiential impact. Instead of a towering white presence, two black granite walls slice into the lawn, extending toward its two most significant juxtapositions, the Washington Monument and the Lincol n Memorial. Lin explained, I wanted to work with the land and not domin ate it. I had an impulse to cut open the earthan initial violence that in time would heal. The gra ss would grow back, but the cut would remain, a pure, flat surface.10 Lins conceptual process desc ribes a metaphorical wound that unlike the Washington and Lincoln, does not commemorate a triumph, but a nati onal tragedy. It is expr essed through a slice in the earth, healed and retained by two black walls. As Marita Sturken described, the metaphorical wound: 10 Quoted in Marita Sturken, "The Wall, the Screen, and the Image: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial," Representations, Special Issue: Monumental Histories Summer 1991: 118-142. p. 8.

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26 Evokes the many different bodiesthe bodies of the Vietnam War dead, the bodies of the veterans, and the body of the American public. The memorial is seen as representing a wound in the process of healing, one that wi ll leave a smooth scar in the earth. This wound in turn represents the process of memory.11 While the walls of Brion offer the module of the individual body, this memorial imparts the collective presence through cate gorized names. Lin transformed the spatial topos of dead below by inscribing the names of every fallen sold ier into the Wall, arra nged chronologically according to death. The living descend into the eart h and stand at eye level with countless dead; they may touch the names, see their image reflected in the blackness of the polished granite. Lin incorporated the spa tial relationship of dead beside in order to achieve the superimposition. In a single moment, the living and the dead are intersected as indi vidual and collective memories fuse. The phenomenological effect of this Wall is achieved through a single gesture that Marita Sturken calls a screen: A screen can be a surface that is projected upon; it is also an object that hides something from view, that shelters or protects. It can be a surface or even a bodyin military language a screen is a body of men who are used to cover the movements of an army. Freuds screen memory functions to hide highly emotiona l material, which the screen memory conceals while offering itself as a substit ute. The kinds of screens that converge in the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washi ngton, D.C., both shield and protect: the black walls of the memorial act as screens for innumerable projec tions of memory and history.12 Evidence through the Artifact Hum an ritual is not only evidenced thr ough the experience of th e Wall, but in the artifactual objects left behind. Sturken cites the need to transf er private memories into public sentiments as the primary reason for so many personal items to be left at this memorial, photographs, letters, teddy bears, MIA/POW bra celets, clothes, medals of honorare offered up 11 Ibid. p. 16. 12 Ibid.

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27 as testimony, transposed from person to cultural artifacts, to bear w itness to pain suffered.13 These items are not necessarily ex traordinary in quality or rarit y, but the individual selection by those grieving and their placement along the Wall give them national worth that they would otherwise not possess. They make public the private grieving, unifying people of all ages and affiliations within the cultural memory of the War. Two of the most commonly left items left at the Wall are soldiers dog tags and notes to the soldiers; one is an offering of a personal item, one of persona l sentiment. Kristin Ann Hass addressed this in Carried to the Wall: American Memory and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. She proposes explanations for the symbolic me aning behind leaving the tags at the Wall: These tags do not echo a name already on the wall; instead they add a new name. These new names are a different kind of intervention in the crisis of memory. They unofficially introduce the surviv ing veteran into the conversation; they establish a link between the status of the dead soldiers and the status of the living soldiers. They make it clear that it is not only the dead but also the survivors that are being mourned. You might leave your dog tags because you dont understand what it mean s to survive this war. You might leave your dog tags because you want to reject your generic military identity. You might leave them because you want to leave behind th e body that fought. You might leave them because your grief or your service needs to be remembered. You might leave hem because you dont understand why you survived. You might leave them because you feel as though you did not survive. Leaving a dog tag at the wall uses a literal token of citizenship to make an explicit assertion of the memory of a particular loss at the same that it lays open a series of questions about patriotism.14 Among the collection of symbolic offerings and cultural remnants lies the quiet presence of paper, the letters to the dead. The words evidence clarity of thought and confusion of reason, challenge the reality of death while narrating its acceptance; they are intimate and universal. The living do not write for the dead, they write for themselves; they say that which was left unsaid, share their pain with all who read their words. The national narrative lies in the fragments of 13 Ibid. p. 19 14 Kristin Ann Hass, Carried to the Wall: American Memory and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial (University of California Press, 1998). p. 98.

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28 these individual recollections; through the thinne ss of white paper contra sting the thickness of black granite, a nation once severe d by tragedy is reunited as one: Dear Smitty, Perhaps now I can bury you; at leas t in my soul. Perhaps, now I wont again see you night after night when the war reappear s and we are once more amidst the myriad hells that Vietnam engulfed us in. I never cr ied. My chest becomes unbearably painful and my throat tightens so I cant even croak, but I havent cried. I wanted to, just couldnt. I think I can today. Damn, Im cryi ng now. Bye Smitty. Get some rest. -Anonymous note at wall15 I came down today o pay respects to two good friends of mine. Go down to visit them sometime. They are on panel 42E lines 22 a nd 26. I think that you will like them. -Anonymous note at wall16 We did what we could but it was not enough be cause I found you here. You are not just a name on this wall. You are alive. You are blood in my hands. You are screams in my ears. You are eyes in my soul. I told you you d be all right, but I lied, and please forgive me. I see your face in my son, I cant bear the thought. You told me about your wife, your kids, your girl, your mother. And then you died. You pain is mine. I will never forget your face. I cant. Y ou are still alive. -Anonymous note at wall17 The Cemetery Plane That is one of the ironies of our life worlds: th ey receive their animation from the ones that underlie them. Robert Pogue Harrison18 In the cemetery plane topos (Figure 2-6) the dead lie re sting side by side within the same strata of earth. They occupy a plane of earth that parallels the living, dwelling within a subsurface of our world. Symbolic and cultural imp lications have developed throughout history that account for the use of this burial strategy. In the Hebrew faith, this expresses symbolic equality in death through the alignment of rabbis, ge ntlemen, and beggars. To the military, it demonstrates a collective purpose in life, as th e unit overshadows the indi vidual soldier. Yet, 15 Ibid. 16 Ibid. 17 Marita Sturken, "The Wall, the Screen, and the Image: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial," Representations, Special Issue: Monumental Histories Summer 1991: 118-142. p. 19. 18 Robert Pogue Harrison, The Dominion of the Dead (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2003). p. 36

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29 through each ideological purpose there remains a primitive motivation: the requirement of physical decomposition. While there are various symbolic and methodological rationales, burying within the horizontal stra tum of a cemetery plane remain s the most ubiquitous form of burial, providing a homogeneous relati onship between the dead the dead. Various Manifestations of the Plane The uniformity within this topos does not suggest that there are no variations. In fact, applying a consistent strategy with in contrasting contexts often m akes the differentiations more evident. Consequently, the cemetery plane o ffers a broad scope of examples, as each environment, culture, and site im pact the articulation. One juxt aposing distinction lies in the density of graves, evidenced through th e juxtaposition of the quintessential cemetery plane, Arlington National Cemetery (to be discussed further in the following section), with the inconsistency within the Jewish Cemetery in Prague. In th e Jewish Cemetery, a limited amount land leads to incredible densities of layers. Instead of each body being contained neatly below the surface of the ground, bodies are stacked into disorderly layers, sometimes up to seven corpses deep at a single point. The rise in population is evidenced through the rising ground plane, and most open space designated for the livi ngs circulation has been lost; the living visit their dead by walking over these layers. The consequential palimpsest of many generations has created a ground condition rich with mystery and hi storical depth. Cemetery Precedent: Arlington National Cemetery A cem etery precedent that captures the e ssence of the cemetery plane is Arlington National Cemetery. More than 300,000 dead evenly cover hundreds of acres, marked by fields of white tombstones in perfect alignment; the soldie rs lay in death as they stood together in life: consistent and steadfast, a single unit of many.

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30 The irony behind a national cemetery that embodies national patriotism lies in its establishment through a national rift. Passed th rough the lineage of Ma rtha Washington, this estate came into the possession of Confederate Officer Robert E. Lee through his first wife Mary Anna. Union General Montgomery C. Meigs seized the property in 1864, claimed for the sole detriment its owner. Through this exchange, a sacred family estate became a prize for the enemy, then later a sacred symbol for a unifi ed nation. Robert N. Bellah explained: The new symbolism soon found both physical and ritualistic expression. The great number of the war dead required the establishment of a number of national cemeteries. Of these, the Gettysburg national cemetery, which Lincoln s famous address served to dedicate, has been overshadowed only by the Arlington National Cemetery. Begun somewhat vindictively on the Lee estate across the river from Washington, partly with the end that the Lee family could never reclaim it, it has subsequently become the most hallowed monument to civil religion.19 In this cemetery, the dead of many battles and ar e placed within a single plane, honored today as a unified body. The individual and collective presencing with in Arlington both exemplifies the cemetery plane topos. The vast majority of graves are spaced at even intervals, sweeping across the landscape. This continuity offers a visual to the vast number of soldiers that are interred within a single landscape. New and old bur ials are only evident through the patchiness of dirt and grass, and the soldiers today are buried with no arrangement of ranking, race, or gender. This lack of hierarchy accentuates the collective dead, as the impact does not result from a single soldier, but soldiers in mass. Dead Below The ritual of burial arose from our natural intrigue of the dea d. We are drawn to the graves of those with whom we identify, for to honor th eir life is to honor our own. We are likewise 19 Robert N. Bellah, "Civil Religion in America," Daedalus Fall 2005: 40-55. p. 48

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31 drawn to the graves of the unknown, seeking to understand anothers histor y, culture, and past times. But while we may be inclined visit both extremes of emotional proximities, the impact would correspond with our relations hip to them. Transitioning fr om the spatial relationship of dead to ground to the experien tial dead to living relationship must begin by understanding nature of this connection. Were the living and dead friends, comrades, enemies? Did they share a common culture, a similar death, or are they simply curious strangers? By initiating the design to enhance this relati onship, the dead may be presenced in the most befitting way. Placing this as a foremost concern focuses the narrative to evoke a worthy sentiment, and is a primary motivation fo r the dead below precedent (Figure 2-7). Memorial Precedent: Jewish Museum in Berlin I propose the Jewish Museum in Berlin as th e example of a memorial that captures the experience of this spatial topos. Commemorating Jewish history within a place of Jewish absence is a challenge and an inspiration; it reca lls a history that is painful and dishonorable. The narrative of this museum expresses this pain, capturing the historic relationship between German and Jewish people. Architect Daniel Libeskind designed this museum to be crucially an architecture of memory20 as it does not commemorate an existing peopl e, but the absence of a people. This project, termed Between the Line s, is based geometrically the in terrelationship of two lines: One is a straight line, but broken into frag ments; the other is tortuous and complex, but continuing indefinitely. Thes e are the two lines of contemporary dichotomy, the lines which create the rift between faith and acti on, between political belief and architectural response.21 20 Andreas Huyssen, "The Voids of Berlin," Critical Inquiry Autumn 1997: 57-81. 21 Daniel Libeskind, "Between the Lines: The Jewish Museum, Berlin," Research In Phenomenology (BRILL) 22, no. 1 (1992): 82-87. p. 86

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32 Between and shared by these lines is the museum itself, which relies on Voids to express the projects narrative, the overwhelming absence of the Jewish population w ithin post-war Berlin. To this Libeskind noted that very little still Jewish presence remains in Berlin, small things, documents, archival materials, evocative of an absence rather than a presence.22, the fact which prompted his decision to physically construct this absen ce. I consider these Voids the memorial spaces that exemplify dead below. As Andreas Huyssen explained, The void thus becomes a space that nurtures memory and reflection for Jews and of Germans. Its very presence points to an absen ce that can never be overcome, a rupture that cannot be healed, and that certainly cannot be filled with museal stuff [it] may be a better memorial to German and Jewish history, the history of the livi ng and the dead, than any official funereal Holocau st monument could possibly be.23 Phenomenological Inters ection: Sound and Im age The acknowledgement of dead below most often occurs through the use of physical markers, tombstones, and ground undulations. In these, vision is the means through which one ascertains these burial cues. While traditional, we must question the depth of this effect and possibilities for sensual translations within an architectural design. How would dead below feel to the touch? How might it sound? Libeski nd uses phenomenological intersections within the Jewish Museum to express this relationship, isolating and integrating several senses. Dead below within the memorial Voids are increasing ly heightened through this programming of phenomena. Libeskind calls this the musical dimension of this work. The inspiration for this experiential strategy came from the unfinished opera Moses and Aaron, composed in Schonberg in Berlin. Libeskind found that the metaphoric al narrative of the opera aligned with the historical narrative of the project: the futility of Moses and Aaron, who were empowered by the 22 Ibid. 23 Andreas Huyssen, "The Voids of Berlin," Critical Inquiry Autumn 1997: 57-81. p. 80.

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33 gifts of knowledge and speech, to effectiv ely convey Gods message. The hopelessness expressed within this narrative extended beyond the metaphorical foundation of the Jewish museum, it provided a method of execution. The opera remained unfinished, a consequence of Schonbergs own loss of inspirat ion. Libeskind was impacted by both the futility of such a talented composer and his execution of the final note, the operas te rmination at the end of act II. He explained: Moses is left alone to sing the words I have fashioned an image too, false, as an image be. Thus I am defeated! Thus, all was but madness that I believed before, and can and must not be given voice. O word, thou word, that I lack! Al l this is sung; but the last line, O word, thou word that I lack! is not sung an ymore; it us just spoken. At the end of the opera you can understand the word because there is no music: the word, so to speak, has been isolated and given a completely nonmusica l expression. That is the end of the opera as Schonberg composed it.24 The opera is complete, the people of Israel remain in a state of unrest, and Moses is defeated, only expressed through the isolation of spoken word. Libeskind achieves this phenomenological isolat ion in the Void space pictured above. In order to move through this space, the visitor is fo rced to walk over hundreds of metal plates, into which are cast expressionless abstractions of a face. With each step sounds the clanging of metal, a cacophony that pierces the silence of the Void. Intersec ting the phenomenon of sound is the image of a lost people. The subtle variatio ns within the metal faces present a people once considered identical under the branding of Jew, proclaiming individuality within perceived sameness. At this point in the Void, dead below is inescapable: it is expressed through the echo of clanging and the sea of empty faces. Just as Schonberg emphasizes the importance of the final line, O word, thou word that I lack by terminating the musi cal context of the opera and 24 Daniel Libeskind, "Between the Lines: The Jewish Museum, Berlin," Research In Phenomenology (BRILL) 22, no. 1 (1992): 82-87. p. 84.

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34 isolating the word, Libeskind em phasizes the memory of a people through piercing the context of silence and isolating the image. The Urban Cemetery The two previously addressed topoi represen ted the cem etery within a singular form: dead above, and dead below However there is not always a singularity of burial method within a specific cemetery, as the expression of the cemet ery often relies on the intersection of the two situations. The dense integration of the first two topoi constitute the urban cemetery, which relies on the duality of both dead above and belo w. I term this spatial topos urban based on two principle characteristics: (1) vertical c onstructions within the urban condition creates interstitial and public spaces for the living to inhabit, and (2) zonal juxtapositions (horizontal/vertical, dense/sparse ) that offer coexisting typologies and accentuate variations. The urban cemetery thus constitutes a heterogeneous condition in which the dead may be presenced as individuals, within a familial unit, or according to their occupational nature. This results in a cemetery space deeply saturated with customs, relati onships, and traditions that offer a variety of experience to the living visitor. Cemetery Precedent: Mount Auburn Cemetery Mount Auburn Cem etery in Cambridge, Massachusetts is an example of the urban cemetery (Figure 2-8). It hosts a variety of burial types: toweri ng monuments, a miscellany of burial markers, and fields of nameplates flush with the earth. It was Americas first garden cemetery, thus termed for its picturesque inte gration of landscape with graves. Drawing from the Parisian Model of Pere-Lachaise Cemeter y, the burial of dead within an honored and maintained ground presented a new perspective of death and the ro le of the dead within the living culture. As Ken Worpole explained:

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35 The success of Mount Auburn also popularized the use of the word cemetery in North America for the first time, rather than burying ground or graveyard. The associations of the word cemetery with sleep, rather than with death and decay, was part of a sea-change in American attitudes towards these landscapes and sovereign places.25 One of the striking conditions of Mount A uburn is the method through which the living come dwell within the space. While many cemeter ies only offer a place for the dead to be mourned and honored by those with whom they sh ared life, Mount Auburn offers a place for the living to engage also with the living. Within th e gates, one might find visitors picnicking at the edge of a lake or wandering along the paths in conversat ion. It is not sole ly a place to visit briefly, but a park or garden-like space in which to be, a place that offers reprieve from the surrounding city. This effect assuages the fear that is instilled by many other cemeteries, offering the living a chance to commune with each other, and with the dead. Juxtaposed Integration Mount Auburn is probably best known as the first rural garden cem etery in the United States. For the two centuries before it was f ounded, life in Boston may have been hard, but death was even worse. The Puritans who first sett led New England were an apocalyptic lot who warned of fiery post-mortem fates in their serm ons and disposed of their dead accordingly. The bodies of Bostons dead were buried in urban graveyards that quickly became overcrowdednew bodies were often buried on top of old ones, sometimes marked and sometimes not. City graveyards often had distinctive pockmarks, since thin wooden caskets crumbled with age, causing the earth to collap se into the interred remains. -Susan Wilson26 25 Ken Worpole, Last Landscapes: The architectur e of the Cemetery in the West (London: Reaction Books, Ltd., 2003). p. 141. 26 Susan Wilson, Boston Sights and Insights: An Essential Guide to Historic Landmarks in and Around Boston (Beacon Press, 2004). p. 99

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36 Mount Auburn Cemetery emerged from the contex t of execrated burials and deep fear of death as a cemetery of extreme juxtaposition. Th e cemetery not only arose as a contrast to its surrounding cemetery precedents, but it integrated s cales and subjects to present an image of Bostons social history that accounts for all type s: a constructed mausoleum is framed by a field of tombstones (burial integration) obelisks stand before the view of the distant Boston skyline (urban integration), trees are named and scattered among the burials (envir onmental integration) and the wealthy are mixed within th e common (social integration). This presents to the living a multivalent expression of Boston, while the embr ace of such dynamic inclusions allows new burials to proceed without the pressure of conforming to a singular burial method. New is integrated within the old through large construc tions alongside fields of modest tombstones, offering the urban palimpsest th at befits its spatial topos. Dead Around In addition to the coexistence of the various burial typologies found in the urban cem etery (Figure 2-8), the dead around topos (Figure 2-9) includes notions of duality and time. In this, human ritual provides a complex ity that extends the relationshi p of this topos: temporal perception and memory. In the urban cemet ery topos I identified Mount Auburn as a quintessential spatial situation as it is de monstrated within a single precedent. Dead around addresses the same heterogeneity, though it exte nds to include heterogeneity in multiple locationsthe dead in a place, the memory of them elsewhere. This classification is different in the fact that the initial burial-pl ace is not the final resting place. The emergence of this topos is largely attributed to necessity and constrai nts, although the impact of this condition on each cemetery differs. It derives from the impossible in tersection of time, territory, and a place that is insufficient for the dead population it must hold: the cemetery must cycle its dead in order to maintain a constant capacity.

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37 Ritual Extension of Dead Around Cyclical duality within a cem etery involves th e temporary burial of a body in order to satisfy the requirement of decomposition. In time, when the body has decayed, the remaining bones are exhumed and relocated. This is the practice in the Venetian cemetery, San Michele Cemetery Island. Venice as a physical context ha s particular uniqueness, as ground is limited, isolated, and man-made. Sin ce land must be used prudently, bones of the decomposed are relocated to ossuaries that occ upy a different part of the islan d. The result is an extremely layered cemetery situationcycli ng generations of temporary inte rment with separated ossuaries for permanent containment. In contrast to perm anent graves, which afford the coexistence of many generations, San Michele holds the dead of only a very specific period of time. As Theophile Gautier recalled dur ing his Venetian travel, Dominating the prospects from the quay is the cemetery island of San Michele. Stravinsky, Diaghilev, and Ezra Pound all have their graves here. Before them Frederick Rolfe, Baron Corvo, had been buried here in 1913.27 The cemetery ritual in Hong Kong maintains th e same cyclical duality as San Michele, although each body placement provides a unique rela tionship with the living. While there is a change in the spatial positioning in San Michele, visiting the dead in each placement provides a similar impact. In Hong Kong, however, the expe rience of visiting the de ad buried within the earth and those who have been exhumed and placed into ossuary urns is quite different. At the point of exhumation, the family prepares the bon es through a ritual washing, placing them into a mountainside urn. The dead within the urns maintain a new relati onship with the living, as they are dispersed vertically into a mountainside that overlooks the city. In addition, the physical boundaries between the dead and living are differe nt in each position. When buried within the 27 Ian Littlewood, A Literary Companion to Venice: Including Seven Walking Tours (MacMillan, 1992).

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38 cemetery, the dead are sealed wi thin plane of earth, alongside ot her dead. Within the urns, however, the dead are visible, occupying pockets and nooks within the m ountainside. They are in backyards, along roadsides, and between houses, accessible and open-able to all. Memorial Precedent: New En gland Holocaust Memorial The New England Holocaust Mem orial in Boston, Massachusetts capt ures the essence of dead around by (1) encapsulating multiple phenomena through body in space, and (2) the distance from which the project memorializes an event. Located in Boston, Massachusetts, architect Stanley Saitowitz constructed the memorial of six steel and glass towerseach 54 highplaced at consistent intervals along an axis of ci rculation. This axis falls on the path of the Freedom Trail, which is deeply imbedded with American colonial history. Therefore, the placement of a modern internationa l memorial within a colonial na tional context distinguishes it thematically and architecturally, me diating between the old and new. Below, Beside, Within, and Onto Mem ory erupts into and shapes public space in various and often ambiguous ways, as a monumental public art. The erection of monuments is a central means of shaping memory.28 Dead around (Figure 2-9) within this memo rial is achieved through symbolic representation and the phenomenological relationsh ip to the living. Symbolically, the six towers reference the six concen tration camps in which the Jewish people perished, the symbol of tragedy. However, six is also the number of candles in a menor ah, the Jewish symbol for hope. The simultaneous symbolic meaning allows for a plasticity of interpretation, which may shape its experiential impact accordi ng to the individual: 28 Nathan Abrams and David Oettinger, "Taming Memory": Theming America's East Co ast Holocaust Memorials," An Interdisciplinary Journal of North American Studies (49th Parallel).

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39 Each of the six towers is engraved with a million prisoners identification numbersSince these numbers can tattoo any visitor to th e memorial, the Holocaust is universalized constructing a collective yet malleable group identity or a universal understanding of sufferinganyone passing through the memorialJe w or Gentile, foreigner or Americancan be subjected to such humiliation if fr eedom is not maintained. The memorial emphasizes American visions of universal freed om rather than simply memorializing those who died during the Holocaust.29 The spatial and symbolic construction direct s the shaping of this memory; through the phenomena of the senses and the historic international narrative The casting of the numbers onto the skin of the living and the rising space of the towers above the grated embers below offers an understanding of the dead around. The Distant Memorial Creating a memorial for an event such as th e Holocaust within America affords numerous reconsiderations of the historic al narrative. Peter Novick noted: throughout continental Europe, the great majori ty of the population has had close family ties to people connected to the Holocaust: mos tly as witnesses, but as perpetrators and survivors as well[but] For a great majority of Americans, the sense of the Holocaust as our historypart of our narrativelacks the human foundation that it has in Europe.30 The appropriation of such a memorial, however, is invaluable to a count ry that is founded upon the mixing of cultures, for it reca lls an event that impacted only a fraction of its populationin this case, the relocated Jewish Europeans who fled to America. This further recalls the dead around topos, as the present victims of a distant tragedy initiated it. The audience to which a memorial addresse s unquestionably impacts design execution. Just as Libeskind uses the near void of the Jewi sh presence, the architect Stanley Saitowitz used the excess of memory and symbolic overlaps to speak to the American population: 29 Ibid. 30 Peter Novick, "The American National Na rrative of the Holocaust: There Isn't Any," New German Critique Autumn 2003: 27-35.

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40 Look at these towers, passerby, and try to imag ine what they really mean what they symbolize what they evoke. They evoke an era of incommensurate darkness, an era in history when civilization lost its humanity and humanity its soul.31 Understanding the distance through which the Am erican culture experi enced the Holocaust presents the opportunity to reach beyond the histor ical narrative, to critique the fundamental human flaw from which the even ts originated. The ideological symbols accounted for in this memorial capture the emotion of a tragedy, offers a broader answer to the question of why. It is as intimate as a number cast on skin and as univer sal as evil, a duality that captures the impact of dead around. Elie Wiesel stated: We must look at these towers of memory and say to ourselves, No one should ever deprive a human being of his or her right to dignity. No one should ever deprive anyone of his or her right to be a sovereign human being. No one should ever speak again about racial superiority... We cannot gi ve evil another chance.32 The Invisible Cemetery I have id entified the initial three spatial t opoi according to the physical presencing of the dead within a context. Thes e spaces are recognizably buria l grounds, offering the living an opportunity to visit and honor their dead within a place. However the final topoi is, in a sense, the absence of the former three. The paradoxical situation in thisthe invisible cemetery is that it is not programmatically a cemetery at all (Figur e 2-10). Instead, the deads presence is hidden or forgotten, though the fact of the death remains. Methods of Invisibility The scattering of ashes is the prim ary cause for the invisible cemetery Through the process of cremation and the dispersal of remains throughout a landscape or body of water, there is literally no physical trace left of the dead upon the earth, only the memory of their presence 31 Elie Wiesel, http://nehm.org/intro.html 32 Ibid.

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41 within a specific context. As the individual of ten prescribes the site and method of scattering prior to his death, it deals much more with the relationship between the dead and a place, rather than dead and dead or a marker by which the living may honor and remember. This return to earth constitutes a burial practice that has been used for millennia, and imposes the least impact of the dead upon their final cont ext. Ken Worpole stated: It has been very difficult to produce a robus t, let alone grandiloquent, architectural response to the housing of very small amount s of human ash. Perhaps those who choose cremation prefer it this way: cremation is, af ter all, an anti-monumentalist impulse in a non-Heroic Age society.33 An additional burial method that results in an invisible cemetery is the natural burial, burying with little preservation to the corpse and within easily d ecomposable coffins or bags. This is a full circle return to the burial process initiated with the earliest human civilizations, a contradiction for cultures that are otherwise increasingly dependent on technology and scientific advancements. Natural burial affords the body a re turn to the earth, often marked by a tree or plant that precipitates the pr ocess of regeneration. Mar quis de Sade explained: Once the grave has been filled in, it will be plan ted with acorns so that in no time to come the site being covered over a nd the corpse being once again as thickly wooded as it was before, the traces of my grave will disappear from the surface of th e earth, just as I am pleased to think that my memory w ill be erased from the minds of men.34 Cemetery Precedent: Washington Square Park The exam ple to which I attribute the theme of the invisible cemetery is Washington Square Park, located in New York City. In reference to the nature of the Wash ington Square Park of today, author Emily Folpe wrote: It defies easy categorization, a nd critics have complained that is neither a park, a tranquil green, nor a town square. No sheep were intended to graze on its grounds, as the did on 33 Ken Worpole, Last Landscapes: The architectur e of the Cemetery in the West (London: Reaction Books, Ltd., 2003). 34 Ibid. quoted p. 90

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42 the commons of old New England towns, nor were any introduced later for pastoral effect, as the were at Central Park. The Square is leafier than most European plazas and piazzas, but like many public places of such older ci ties, it resembles a great outdoor room whose walls are formed by the buildings around itThrough nearly two centuries, the Square has been a place to linger, to play, to declai m; to celebrate, demonstrate, and mournIt functions as a campus green, a crossroads and a top spot for people watching. Washington Square is a place not to escap e from city life but to enter into it.35 Folpe did not address the forgotten bodies that lie below the surface of the park. Following the Revolutionary War and growth of New York City, it was in the custom to use public land for the interment of the poor a nd unclaimed. Washington Square Park was one such public domain, called a pot ters field, a primitive answer for the disposal of the many victims of yellow fever.36 By 1825, the east two-thirds of th e park were filled with burials, possibly as many as 20,000 bodies over 28 years. However, with the growth of the city came an increasing need for public land and park space; the burials were termin ated, but the bodies remain.37 A report prepared for the for the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation recalled the citys transformation of the square: The old Potters Field is now leveled, and is formed into a beautiful public square, called Washington Square, which is also used as a military parade ground.38 There is no current acknowledgement or marker for the 20,000 bodies that lie buried below the Square today. It is an invisible cemetery that offers a playground for the unaware living within New York City, built upon the forgotten dead of its past. 35 Emily Kies Folpe, It Happened on Washington Square (Baltimore, MD: JHU Press, 2002). p. 2. 36 Ph.D., LLC Joan H. Geismar, "Washington Square Pa rk: Phase 1A Archaeological Assessment," New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, Thomas Balsley Associates (New York, NY, August 2005), 97. p. 6. 37 Ibid. 38 Ibid.

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43 Dead Remembered When the programm ing for containing the dead is not assigned to or acknowledged within a place, the dead are honored thr ough the realm of private memory. It is the least articulate and most intimate form of memorial, as it exists only within the living, an anti-burial obscured by its placeless existence. Its inclusion of dead remembered (Figure 2-11) within the precedents of spatial topoi offers the absence that emphasizes the otherwise present. At th e end of his stay in a concentration camp, Holocaust survi vor Andre Schwartz-Bart wrote: So this story will not finish with some tomb to be visited in pious memory. For the smoke that rises from the cremator ia obeys physical laws like a ny other: the particles come together and disperse accordi ng to the wind, which propels them. The only pilgrimage, dear reader, would be to look sadl y at the stormy sky now and then. Memorial Precedent: Shanksville, PA Identifying a m emorial that operate s solely through the expression of dead remembered is a contradictory provocation, as a memorial relies on a physical structure or monument to recall memory. The un-memorial, therefore, offers the memory of the people as the constructed memorial; the pilgrimage is honor bestowed, and th e absence creates the impact. To demonstrate the presence of this, I cite an empty field where the victims of Flight 93 perished. Six-plus years after September 11, 2001, the memorials in New York and Washington are finally taking shape. But Shanksville, wher e Flight 93 crash-landed in rural Pennsylvania, is only a naked fieldthis story, brings thousands to Shanksville every year. Many expect to see something bigger, something greater. Something monumental. Instead, the community volunteersthe Flight 93 Ambassadorspoint to an American flag mounted on a fence about 500 yards away, ju st inside the tree line: That s where it happened. Thats where the plane came down. Sacred ground. See how the hemlocks are burned?39 With no physical structure, only a single flag and scarred earth to account for the event, what constitutes this as a memorial? Aftera ll, the absence of such markers might prove its insignificance, or the general forg otten state of the dead. Howeve r, the living response to this 39 Jesse Hicks, "The Architecture of Memory," The Next American City Winter 2007: 19-23. p. 20.

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44 place illustrates the honor that is bestowed upon th e dead. Thousands take the pilgrimage, pause at the field for remembrance, and leave artifactua l residues to evidence universal and individual honor: An oblong stone, painted black and inscribe d, We Remember 5000+ victims, shares ground with a purple My Little Pony and a plastic Pooh Bear Dozens of baseball caps hang from the fence, some personalized and ot hers only logosA laminated story of The tragedy of 9-11-01, by eighth grader Sarah Marie Reynolds. Stylized flags of the pentagon and Twin Towers. American flags. A stuffed lion. White plastic crosses.40 Without a constructed memorial to recall the events of the day, these artifacts alone capture the narrative of this national memory. Figure 2-1. A series of diagrams that express the spatial topoi. The top row address the dead to ground relationship, which will be addressed through the precedent of the cemetery. The bottom row address the dead to livi ng relationship, with l representing the position of the living, and d re presenting the posi tion of the dead. (Diagram by Kelly Ard) 40 Ibid. p. 21

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45 A B C D Figure 2-2. The dead to ground se ries. This collection express A) constructed cemetery B) the cemetery plane C) the urban cemetery D) the invisible cemetery. These will be explained and supported by precedents I will present in the se ctions to follow. (Diagrams by Kelly Ard) A B C D Figure 2-3. The dead to living series. A.) dead be side B.) dead below, C.) dead around, and D.) dead remembered. These will be explained and supported by precedents in the sections to follow. (Diagram by Kelly Ard) Figure 2-4. The constructed cemetery spatial topos. (Diagram by Kelly Ard) Figure 2-5. The constructed cemetery spatial topos. (Diagram by Kelly Ard) Figure 2-6. The cemetery plane spatial topos. (Diagram by Kelly Ard) Figure 2-7. The dead below spatial topos. (Diagram by Kelly Ard)

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46 Figure 2-8. The urban cemetery spatial topos. (Diagram by Kelly Ard) Figure 2-9. The dead around spatial topos. (Diagram by Kelly Ard) Figure 2-10. The invisible cemetery spatial topos. (Diagram by Kelly Ard) Figure 2-11. The dead remembered spatial topos. (Diagram by Kelly Ard)

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47 CHAPTER 3 PROGRAMMING PEDAGOGIES I have thus f ar presented two ideological stat ements: (1) the forgotten significance of the cemetery within the human consciousness, and (2) existing precedents that respond to that requirement, the spatial topoi. However, the simp le identification and explanation of our current state of cemetery design is not enough to fram e the potential for contemporary funerary architecture. We recognize the need, but we must be willing to propose a strategy for the trajectory of cemetery design. Th is provocation was the focus for a second year design studio. Through the following curriculum, the students e ngaged in a design methodology that addressed architectural design, but also pr oposed strategies for reintroducing cultural memory into the cemetery. The answers to the questions I have pr esented do not lie in a singular solution, but in an array of possibilities. The design was developed through a series of pro cesses, each step highlighting a particular aspect of architecture: the establishment of place, the serial reconsiderations of spatial programming, and the articulation of an architect ure that captures the phenomenological impact of the dead. While this is undoubtedly one of many possible desi gn processes, this proposes one method of responding to a forgotten cultural me mory, considering the reintroduction of an ancient program into the contemporary world. Robert Pogue Harrison stated, If cultural memory has a future, which at present seems doubtful, the twentieth century will one day be remembered as the fitful and prolonged continuation of a process that began in earnest a century earlier: the end of the Neolithic era. Throughout this era, which got under way with the domestica tion of animals and the discovery of agriculture, the great majority of human beings lived and toiled on the land where their ancestors were interred, where they and their children and their children s children would also be interred. This is no longer the case in Western societies. For the first time in millennia, most of us dont know where we will be buried, assuming we will be buried at all. The likelihood that it

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48 will be alongside any of our progenitors becomes increasingly remoteNothing speaks so eloquently of the loss of place in the pos t-Neolithic era as this indeterminacy.1 By recognizing the indeterminacy of our era, we may push reinstitute a determinant place for the dead. The following work strives to reintrodu ce cultural memory and place through the program of the cemetery. Place within the Formless Territory The application of the cem etery as an architectural context was integrated within the students fourth semester of arch itecture: the desert project. Th is project is placed within the curriculum in order to challenge contextual pr econceptions, to consider place-making within a place-less condition. The desert provid es for this. It is sublimeendless, formless, and rich with many layers of physical and phenomenological systems. The desert may simultaneously arouse terror, despair, freedom, and inspiration; its extents are ungraspable, evoking awe from the depths of human perception. As Edmund Burke explained the nature of the sublime: Whatever is fitted in any sort to excite the ideas of pain and danger; that is to say, whatever is in any sort terrible, or is conversant a bout terrible objects, or operates in a manner analogous to terror, is a source of the sublime; that is, it is productive of the strongest emotion the mind is capable of feeling. I say the strongest emotion, because I am satisfied that the ideas of pain are much more power ful than those which enter on the part of pleasureThe passion caused by the great and sublime in nature, when those causes operate post powerfully, is astonishment; and as tonishment is that state of the soul in which all its motions are suspe nded with some degree of horror.2 The sublime nature that is physically manifest ed within the desert is emotionally matched by the presencing of the dead. I shall use Burk es description of the sublime to further link context and program, desert and cemetery. When a ddressing the nature of the sublime in regards to many degrees of human pain, Burke distingui shes pain as the most extreme sublimity: 1 Robert Pogue Harrison, The Dominion of the Dead (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2003). p. 31. 2 Edmund Burke and Abraham Mills (New York NY: Harper & Brothe rs, 1844). p. 72.

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49 But, as pain is stronger in its operation than pl easure, so death is, in general, a much more affecting idea than pain; becau se there are very few pains, however exquisite, which are not preferred to death.3 Therefore, placing death (the mo st exquisitely sublime pain) w ithin the desert (the physical sublime) thematically links the two. In addition, if we look back to Harrisons expl anation for the loss of place within the Western world, we find further thematic precedent to place the cemetery within the desert. Harrison cites placelessness as a direct result of a current inability for people to remain in the place of their ancestors, the need for continuous relocation. Edward S Casey supports position in his book, Getting Back Into Place: Human beings are among the most mobile of an imals. We are beings of the between, always on the move between places. When one place threatens to become vacuous (uninteresting, unsatisfying, desolate, or empty), we hasten on to another. Pascal also remarked that all of human unhappiness stems from one thing: not to know how to remain in repose in a room.Rushing from place to place, we rarely li nger long enough in one particular place to savor its unique qualities a nd its local history. We pay a heavy price for capitalizing on our basic human mo bility. The price is the loss of places that can serve as lasting scenes of experien ce and reflection and memory.4 The inconsistency of location throughout a lifetime facilitates the inconsistency of burial. People scatter and settle throughout many places, a result of the increasing ease of travel, and in turn their remains often lie separated from their ancestr y or lineage. Therefore, if Western society has come to a point where generational burial is no t possible within a single place, providing the cemetery with a place of its own will ensure electi ve cohabitation in death. The desert cemetery thus provides a consistent place in deat h, in spite of inconsistency in life. The provided desert gave no formal human c ontext for the scale of interplay between program and place; it only subtly evidenced na tural systems and echoed human movement across 3 Ibid. 4 Edward S. Casey, Getting Back Into Place p. xiii.

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50 the plane of the horizon. Instea d, the desert environment provid ed a distinct phenomenological context for their projectssevere light, many de pths of shadow, the burning of skin, significance of the stars, the exposure and freedom of isolatio n. The formlessness of the desert challenged the students to design architecture from specifically abstracted perceptions of the sublime, to establish place at a point within a territory. To re turn to the words of Casey, To be in the world, to be situated at all, is to be in place. Place is the phenomenal particularization of being-in-theworld.5 This project assumed the responsibility of providing this particularization. The desert offered a sublime context, funerary architecture established a place for the living and dead to dwell. Crossroads Narrative The initial step in locatin g a point at wh ich to establish place began with a written crossroads narrative. The given circumstance wa s this: two characters are walking through the desert. They are alone, constructing a path across the arid plane, th e consequence of a story to be unfolded. The narratives are an acc ount of their intersecting situati ons, the series of events that led them to consequently forge a path through the desert. Each char acter moves along an independent trajectorysearching, relocating, escaping, fear ing, rejoicing. Eventu ally, there is an intersection of the two paths, the crossroads. What events mark this intersection? How does this alter the characters, the paths? This initiative was the unfolding of this narrative, the specificity of serial events that placed each ch aracter within the desert. Perh aps they were series that began at birth, perhaps mere hours before they journeyed into the desert, in eith er case these established two paths (line) and a resulting in tersection (point) within vastness of a territory (plane). From the associations between of thesepoint a nd line within the desert planeplace emerged. 5 Ibid. p. xv.

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51 The notion of a crossroads is both an ideologi cal and formal indicator : an intersection of two trajectories, a dialogue of proximities, and a narrative moment within an unidentified matrix. Literally the intersection of two roads, it has become a metaphorical re ference for many social, cultural, and even political circumstances. To pla ce this within a notable literary context, let us look to the writing of Michael Serres, whose use of spatial operators will be addressed in detail within the following section. In his writing, Language and Space: from Oedipus to Zola, Serres addresses the use of the crossroads as both a spat ial setting and narrative st rategy in the story of Oedipus, attributing the crossroads with the exec ution of multiple operations. In the example of Oedipus, it acts as a setting, a symbol, and an indicator, each one marking a pivotal threshold within the story. The multivalency of the crossroads therefore, offers the possibility of recurring at various moments within a story, seaming togeth er a series of distinct parts into a singular itinerary.6 During his journey and search for the truth be hind his paternity, Oedipus encounters three specific crossroads7: 1. Oedipus kills his father at a physical crossroads; both seek control, though neither achieve control. There a road passes between two high rocks, as in a crevice or a narrow defile. Crossroads: cross, passage of a road acro ss a ribbon that divides space, passing over a crack. Bridge: connection through the disconnect edTo be the son or to place oneself at the crossroads: two bifurcations and two catas trophes that the myth joins together by its very word. 2. The sphinx is a symbolic crossroads; she pr opels Oedipus into the role of king and the prophesized husband of his mother, Jocasta. She [the sphinx] is a chimera, half-lion and half-woman; half four-legged, also, and half two-legged, and perhaps partly bird. She is a body sewn back together, badly sewn: two 6 Michael Serres, Language and Space: From Oedipus to Zola 7 The following three exerpts were found on page 9 of Michael Serres, Language and Space: From Oedipus to Zola

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52 parts related by dichotomy, joined in the fo rm of a chi, crowned by wings; she is a crossroads, with wings that protrude for one who no longer needs feet. The Sphinx is a bifurcation, and conversely. And the crossroads is a chimera. 3. The scar is a crossroads indicator; through this, the crossi ng of character narratives is revealed. Oedipus is indeed the last descendant of the Spartoi, of disseminated spaces, of catastrophic separation, of the continuous that must be recovered. Everything is repeated once again when Jocasta recognizes her son by the scar on his feet, a scar in which the lips of a crevice connect. In the character narratives, the crossroads we re implemented as simultaneous resultant and generative operators; they resulted from the inters ection of two characters, and in turn generated a point at which to establish place. Thus, the crossroads acted a threshold between narrative and form. The following are abbreviated examples of these student narratives8: Student Narrative: Trevor Boyle Two souls wander the desert. One in search of beauty. The other in search of truth. Both quests seek the absolute. They seek the rawest form of their respect ive goals. Both quests require such a journey through the harshe st terrain, for through hardships one stereotypically can find spirit ual confirmation, and like coal under pressure one can find beauty in the most abra sive of environments. The one who searches for beauty started its hun t only a year ago. Two years before that it was inspired by an inventive piece of artwork. This person, an average socialite with no previous taste for the aesthetic, was waiti ng for a little white man to pop up at a busy intersection in the downtown of a major metropolis center. Lackadaisically, he looked around, in the large storefront wi ndows. It was there that he spotted it. He looked at it, transfixed, for minutes. The little man disappeared and a Do Not Cross sign for the street he had been waiting to cross flashed and st opped. He was still looking at a painting. No, not a painting. The painting. It was indescribabl e, but simple at the same time. At some time, he finally moved. At least physically. To this day there is a small piece of who he is, standing at that intersection, st aring off into the storefront The soul was overcome by its beauty. However, after admiring it for months the passion dwindled. Fleeting Beauty. But still, it came to that intersection, waiting for the feeling to return like one waits for a bus that doesn't come. Eventually, the soul moved on to other forms of art. It actively searched where art was to be found. But sti ll the original feeling never returned Which leads us, in this case, to the desert. 8 The following two narratives were results of the Charact er Narrative assignment. They are the works of Design Four students Trevor Boyle and Chris Chappell, respectively.

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53 Beauty is often found in the untouched nature. Space that has not been polluted, torn down, infected with fast food buildings like bacteriu m in an otherwise expertly designed and well machined organism. While there is a sort of ir onic beauty in the spoiled, the soul in the desert has sifted through the garbage already, and has yearned for the opposite side of the spectrum. Not beauty in something grossly pl aced. Not beauty in traditional forms. Not beauty in things people have eternally designate d as beautiful, such as rainbows, sunsets, and other postcard beauty. The soul searches for the most basic essence of beauty. Nothingness. Form at its more pure. No additives or extraneous measures. Nothing commercially designated. Simply beauty th at can only be stumbled upon in the most secluded of areas. A statistical anomaly created by nature. A beautiful accident, that has had years of natural wear and time to shape. Something not created by man to mimic beauty. But instead the absence of this artificial creation. This is what the soul wanders this bleak wasteland for. A beautiful emptiness The one who searches for truth is no stranger to the subject. From the earliest days of selfrealization, it has known the desire for something larger than itse lf. It is well versed in all religions, well visited to all religious cente rs. Whether it be God, or a Flying Spaghetti Monster, the soul has long searched for answer s that science can't find and religion calls its own. But through all the submersion in all things spiritual, the soul has yet to feel that connection, that feeling of cal mness and peacefulness that many religious figures have felt. Many questions, but not many answers... As a child, she looked through workbooks her school passed out. They had many questions, plenty of questions, but no answ ers. The answers had to be supplied by the person who possessed the book. She was not intere sted in these people's questions. She had her own questions. What she wanted was answ ers. School could only provide a portion of what she wanted to know. There were still larg e gaps left over, important things that her professors could not give a definitive answer to. So she looked elsewhere Her home became a storehouse of religious literature. She studied every belief system to the smallest detail, hoping each piece would he lp her figure out the entire puzzle. But all the pieces were to different puzzles, like someone dumped pieces from multiple puzzle boxes into a single container she had to si ft through. When nothing in her immediate environment could satisfy her craving for the Truth, she traveled. Each temple, each shrine, they all had a theory. But sh e did not feel the connection, that feeling that one has discovered actuality. She found plenty of paths to the truth, but no Truth. Until, while studying the gleeful, pudgy face of a golden Buddha, the soul found in itself the path to the Truth. It was not the statue that inspired it, but instead the realization of a common theme it had come across in its studies. Instead of looking for truth in the external environment, instead of interviewing others for the answers, it realized that there was only one way to the place that this Truth could be found. And that was through oneself. Like the workbook that the soul was given in grade school, others could not be relied upon to answer the soul's questions for it. It would have to supply its own answers. It is the discovery of this path to the Truth that moves the soul to come to the emptiness of the desert

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54 The soul takes a straightforward path through the blistering landscape. It does not concern itself with the physical objects around it. It is there to become one with the nature, not study its physical form. Its goals are in sight, and so the movement through the environment is only a measure for symbolically reaching a goal. Once again, there is no physical destination, simply a desired path thr ough the nothingness. It is not a hurried pace the soul moves through, but it is constant. Ther e is no reason to stop. To pause. This is not a journey about getting to a pa rticular place, but it is a bout moving forward. And so the soul moves forward. Presses onward. Searchi ng not the horizon for its answers, but searching within itself. Student Narrative: Chris Chappell Simon, the sixty-five year old, was born into a family that survived off the money they made from the lands they farmed. They were wine makers. Each day they would wake up to the sight of the morning sun sneaking into the dwelling, all knowing exactly what the day ahead has in store. The same as the day previous. Simons rooster repeats to news the sun has already told them When Simon began making wine with his parent s at a very early age, he was unable to connect on a friendship level with the kids at his school. He was highly teased by them for his low income background, and began to use the time mashing the grapes as an escape from the outside world. The secluded time of Zen used to clear his mind has proven to have helped Simon through hard times in hi s life but also helped to develop the well grounded mentality he has established for himself They had a family partnership with the bot tling company located 7 miles east of Reno, Nevada. Simons family and the bottling company came to an agreement after many months of negotiations, and decided to part ner in the profits. The bottle company was owned and operated by the former governor, Huck abee Grimes, of their area that wanted to begin a small business for a profit. The fam ily came into frequent contact with the governor and decided to ask if th ey could use their se rvice to help with their business. The family was already overloaded with the othe r tasks required, and could not afford to set aside time to bottle the product. The commissioner was reluctant at first, due to the nature of the reputation of small bus inesses being unable to hold their ground, but decided to do them a favor anyway. As time went on, months of hard work paid off for Simon and his family. The local village that Simons family was a part of grew fond of their rich wine and later became the biggest consumers of their family product. However, as the popularity grew, production had to increase in order to fulfill a man-kind concept: Supply and demand. Simon knew the familys land would need to expand in order to continue at the pace of their customers demand, so he decided that an expedition to find a larger plot of land for cultivation was needed. He took off the next morning right before the sun peaked over the horizon knowing that the journey he was about to take would be long and exhausting. However, he knew the

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55 possibility of his familys winery emergi ng into something much larger than it was currently rested on his journey. The sand was unforgiving on his feet, as the sa nds temperature grew higher and higher each hour that passed. He continued regardless of the natural constraint and found ways to keep his mind at ease. The notion that he was experiencing a change in his routine-driven life gave him the motivation to pr ess on, deeper into the desert Eight. Thats the number of years Steve has been selling pharmaceutical drugs to small companies around the great United States. He has a wife, Mary, in New Jersey with 2 kids, Pat and Riley. He is a business man at heart, which drives him to fly back and forth to California three times a week to meet with upcoming companies looking to buy into his ground-breaking medicines. He has grown quite the reputation across America not only because of the guarantee of a great product but also the quick delivery to his clients He loves to fly. Always has. As a child, he w ould always look forward to family vacations because his dad was a used cars salesman in the Panhandle of Florid a. He would fly him and his brother to Destin for a week to relax on the beach. But the reason he looked forward to this event was the plane ride. His fascinations with airplanes derived from his childhood and putting together model airplanes after school. He has always loved the concept of taki ng multiple pieces and putting them together to create something new. As he entered into his early 20s, Steve decided to take up flying lessons to fulfill one of his many aspirations of his short life. It took him months to understand the basic proce dures of flying, but slowly he progressed. He felt this would be a direct link into his career. He wanted something that would take years of teaching to understand but also eventually show a concrete product. Steve was able to join a pharmaceutical compa ny months after he graduated and continued to progress due to his ability to network with experienced t echnicians in the corporation. After only three years with the Walgreens ph armacy professionals in New Jersey, he felt equipped with what it took to start his own small business. He knew he was ready for the challenge, but stood at a stand still after hear ing from a coworker the expense required to start a company of that caliber. Steve was determined to make this dream a reality Steve knew how much he had riding on this a rrangement and chose to personally fly the new drug to the companies from New Jersey to San Juan, California. Rain and potential snowfall was projected in the area that he was headed to ward but chose to fly his companys two-seater personal plane. Its a shame he never got to California Mapping the Narrative The character narratives provide d three fundam ental Euclidean elements that directed the translation from written text into visual map: th e lines of path, the point of intersection, and the plane of the desert. Th rough unfolding these, a basic situational di agram was formed. To further

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56 articulate this and provide greater content of implied topology, we followed a conceptual foundation that Michael Serres ca lls the spatial operator: I have at my disposal operators taken fr om nave symbols, operators at work upon something unspoken (at least by philosophy), na mely, the accidents or catastrophes of space, and at work upon the multiplicity of spatial varities. What is closed? What is open? What is a connective path? What is a tear? What are the continuous and the discontinuous? What is a threshold, a limit? The elementary program of topology.9 Through this conceptual strategy, Se rres reduces all spatial situati onsboth within literature and within the worldinto seven symbols: 1. The bridge: a path that connect s two banks, makes a discontinu ity continuous, or crosses a fracture 2. The well: a hole in spacedisconnects the conn ected, but also connects the disconnected. 3. The prison: the enclosed space 4. The hotel: the threshold, relay, or renewal 5. The labyrinth: the sum of all emblem s as much closed as it is open 6. Death: differs in at least one respect in that it is not an artifactdeath is, but is not, all of that.10 Serres then assigned specific sp atial attributes to literary works through the use of these nave symbols, the operators: All are paradoxical spatial operator s indicating that we have given short shrift to space, that we shall never be fr ee of spaces. For this reason, all text holds spatial implications. Likewise, the character narrat ives were translated into graphic mappings. To specifically identify the transformation of narrative into mapping through these spatial operators, lets consider the st udent text, Two Souls. The narrative begins by presenting the characters: 9 Michael Serres, Language and Space: From Oedipus to Zola p. 6 10 Ibid. p. 4-5.

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57 Two souls wander the desert. One in search of beauty. The other in search of truth. Both quests seek the absolute. Immediately the similarity between the two charact ers, the bridge, was dire ctly stated: the quest for the absolute. Establishing this connection so early in the writing provided the opportunity to further qualify the nature of the bridge throughou t the remaining text. To continue, the search for beauty was initiated at a traffic intersecti on, when the soul spotted a painting in a window. He continuously returned to this place, a relay for his quest, the hotel within the narrative. The painting is a destination, a pause, and a threshold. The characters repetitious vi sits to the painting were re placed by inward and outward quests for unknown beauty, and the hotel was thereby transformed into a labyrinth: However, after admiring it for months the passion dwindled. Fleeting Beauty. But still, it came to that intersection, waiting for the fee ling to return like one waits for a bus that doesn't come. Eventually, the soul moved on to other forms of art. It actively searched where art was to be found. But still th e original feeling never returned. Here, within the first two paragraphs, we have identified three operato rs: bridge, hotel, and labyrinth. The use of Serresian spatial operators could likewise be applied to the remainder of the writing, each symbolic and narrative cue impregnated with spatial implications. The image of the desert only suggested rela tive scale through trac es of movement and wind, a subtle framework into which human scale could be ascribed. Consequently, the narrative itself determined human scale within the path. Th e line in the desert might express a journey of many months or several hours; pace could be marked according to steps taken or sunsets seen. Following the determination of human scale, the spatial operators layere d qualifying information into the articulated paths and nature of the crossroads. They informed the graphic translation: the bridging of the search might be captured in line thickness or execution, relay and repetition might be suggested through markings or voids. Physical or emo tional imprisonments that sped or slowed the pace might be indicated, along with events of disconnected connections, the well.

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58 The conditions were manifested within a path, a multiplicity of conditions within the singularity of line. (Figure 3-2) What was the directiona lity of each path? How is each path measured? Time scaled? Where are the pauses? Rests? What defines the crossroads ? How does this crossing alter the paths? The paths were then constructed as the resu ltants of contextual articulation. Having defined the narrative information within the line of path, this incorporated specifically contextual information into the mappings. This further ad dressed notions of scale and time, layering in sublime phenomena and perspective cues. The desert was no longer a provided image, but a qualified environment. (Figure 3-3) What desert conditions impact the lin e of path? How does the desert affect their emotiona l context? When and why are they driven, hopeless, or lost? When does the character look toward th e distance? Stop and see the stars? Similarly, the horizon was constructed as a resu lt of parts: the line of ground, the overhead plane of the sky, serial marks that measure of the characters journey. In these, the acknowledgement of the crossroads was identified at a point along the sec tion. (Figure 3-4) What is the experiential space between earth and sky? What are th e journey intervals and changes in pace? What marks the crossroa ds within the horizon? Focusing Design Issues: Seeking Vernacular Cues The search f or universal conditions that lie at the core of a ll burial-places must consider both the conscious and unconscious, the objective and subjective. Fundamental precedents have been previously addressed, but to truly study the nature of the cemetery, we must also look to those that have emerged from the unconscious human requirement, the vernacular cemetery. The cemetery cannot be comprehended through de scription alone, it must be visited, moved about, watched and touched. Placing ordinary vern acular alongside the extraordinary precedents offered a more encompassing strategy for identifying universal needs.

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59 Bachelard as Model for Investigation This investigational technique is founded upon the notion that one cannot exam ine spaces that are held intimately within the imagination and memory as objects of analytical scrutiny, but as evidence of significance to the being. This follows the guiding principles of Gaston Bachelard: The images I want to examine are the quite simple images of felicitous spaceThey seek to determine the human value of the sorts of space that may be grasped, that may be defended against adverse forces, the space we loveSpace that has been seized upon by the imagination cannot remain indifferent space subject to the measure and estimates of the surveyor. It has been lived in, not in its positivity, but with all the partiality of the imagination.11 This theoretical position was a de parture from the quantifiable research that occupied the early years of his career. Bachelard focused his later research to the im pact and worth of the intangible realms of the huma n memorydaydreams, musings, and poetry. This, he asserted, is critical for the understanding for the human psyche, as it is the basis for the way we see space. He explains this research strategy in Poetics of Space, using the program of dwelling, It is not a question of describing houses, or enumerating their pict uresque features and analyzing for which reasons they are comfortable. On the c ontrary, we must go beyond the problems of descriptionwhet her this description be objec tive or subjective, that is, whether it give facts or impressi onsin order to attain to th e primary virtues, those that reveal an attachment that is native in so me way to the primary function of inhabiting.12 This strategy is invaluable to the reconsider ation of any deeply rooted human program, as it reaches toward the intangible fact ors and echoes of human memory. Design Issues Focused The challenge for the students was sim ple: vis it and capture architectural conditions within local cemeteries and memorials. At this point in the project the cemeter y program was revealed, 11 Gaston Bachelard, Water and Dreams: An Essay on the Imagination of Matter (Dallas, Texas: The Pegasus Foundation, 1983). 12 Gaston Bachelard, Poetics of Space. p. 4.

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60 though not specified. Introducing program at this point of the process offered many additional design issues. Therefore, it was critical that the is sues be focused to facilitate the reconsideration of funerary architecture. The assignment was termed seven avenues of seeking and comprised of five visits (cemeteries, memo rials, and funerary architecture ) and two cultural findings (music, art, film, and literature). The method of capturing the conditions for a collective discussion was not specified, nor were the topoi yet provided. In stead, the search was prompted by a series of questions13: How are the dead buried/memorialized? How to the living engage with the burial-place? How are the dead named, identified, or marked? What constructs the boundary betwee n the dead & dead/ dead & living? What are the materials? Customs? Cultural and spiritual symbols? What do the living give to the dead? Wh at do the dead provide for the living? The distinction between these questions and spa tial topoi lie in one critical fact: the topoi quantify relationships between the dead, livi ng, and ground plane, the vernacular conditions qualify design issues. Without dictation of what mu st be found, the findings were responses to an inquiry, not proof of a predetermined set. Regarding the two research strategies, Bachelard wrote, In all psychological research, we can, of course, bear in mind psychoanalytical methods for determining the personality of a poet, and thus find a measure of the pressuresbut above all of the oppressionsthat of the poet has been subjected to in the c ourse of his life. But the poetic act itself, the sudden image, the flare-up of being in the imagination, are inaccessible to such investigations. In order to clarify the proble m of the poetic image philosophically, we shall have to recourse to a phenomenology of the imagination. By this should be understood a study of the phenomenon of the poetic image when it emerges into the consciousness as direct product of the hear t, soul, and being of man, apprehended in his actuality.14 13 The following questions were listed in the Seeking the Vernacular assignment given to the students. 14 Gaston Bachelard, Water and Dreams: An Essay on the Imagination of Matter (Dallas, Texas: The Pegasus Foundation, 1983).

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61 The poetic act itself was the focus of seeking the vernacular, the product of mans being. The findings were not from architect ural designs, per se, but were nevertheless emergent from the motivations of a community, offering many implications that are useful to th e critical designer. At the most elemental level, the issues fell into two types: spatial and temporal issues. Spatial Issues Any single spatial issue m ay be articulated in an unlimited number of ways, depending to the nature of the cemetery it is within. With nearly a hundred cemeteries and memorials explored in this investigati on, the challenge was twofold: wh at do you identify and extract as architectural issues, and how might these become artifactual operatives to influence design? Visiting, capturing, presenting, then collectively id entifying the consistent threads within the program led to two fundamental spatial cons iderations: boundary/edge and living/dead. Boundary and Edge The articulated boundaries of urban cem eteries ar e quite different than those within rural contexts. The thresholds, separations, and external boundaries directly affect the presence of the cemetery within its place. The cem etery territory might be strictly defined by a constructed edge or subtly implied, each sugges ting potential limits and degree of containment. Accordingly, external boundaries and edges ar e fundamentally large-scale c onditions, elements that form physical separations between cemetery and contex t. Identifying and qua lifying the nature of these conditions is critical if one intends to util ize them as architectural indicators. How does the cemetery reveal itself within its context? Is the boundary formed by a harsh edge or gentle fade? Is it a monumental landmark? Concealed within a pocket of landscape? Ho w does one step into, dwell within, or conceal himself from the cemetery? In addition to external edges, internal boundaries are formed within many cemeteries. Whether separated according to family lineage, po litical classifications, or historical eras,

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62 internal boundaries may be achie ved through physical barriers, gr ound articulations, or distinct changes in scale. These boundaries are softer than those at the outermost perimeter, though they significantly alter the hierarchy and organization of the cemetery. What are the classifications by which the dead are grouped or organized? Are th e internal edges implied through organizational strategies or the use additional elements? Are the boundaries traver sable or isolating? Living and Dead In addition to the large scale conditions of physical boundaries, there are traces of smaller scale intim ate boundaries: the re lationship between the living and dead. Unlike physically constructed boundaries, the relations hip between the living & dead do not exist within a physical realm, but within human consciousness. The emo tional thresholds that connect the two realms are only suggested through traces of the living. Consequently, to identify the existence of these conditions, one must look for evidence of this c ognitive boundary: how do the living visit, honor, and maintain the graves of their dead? How do the living approach? How often do they visit? How long do they remain? What do the living leave at the graveside? The objects left at the gravewh ether flowers, stones, toys, or lettersare artifactual clues to the deads pastimes, nationalities, or spiritual beliefs. In addition to a cultural expression of the dead, these gifts also provide evidence of the timing and fre quency of the livings visits. Fresh flowers indicate recent visi tation, faded flags show the wear of a long absence. Therefore, the aging and weathering of these offerings, alon g with the object itself, indicate the emotional boundaries that remain in the human consciousness. However, it is not only the living that provide fo r their dead. To consider this relationship inversely, there are many circumstances that im ply the dead reaching toward the living world. Graves provide places to sit beside, to worshi p within, and to someda y be joined in death. Through this, an additional dimension arises betw een the living and dead, for it no longer exists

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63 within the plane of the imagination or in the offe ring of perishable objects, but is concretized in space and architecture. While cemeteries inevitably imply the scale of the coffin, this circumstance also provides elements that are sc aled to the livings activity. As a result, there remains a juxtaposition of permanence and tempor ality, revealing the secr ets of the intangible boundaries and quiet exchanges between the living and dead. Temporal Issues The second set of issues that were identified during the coll ective focus involved tem poral issues: planned/emergent and ag eing/weathering. The rudime ntary question that recurred throughout these investigations: how does the ceme tery function as an artifact of society? Answering this question identifies the cemetery s historical timeline, which in turn offers historical clues to the place itself. It is important to understand the history and development of a place in order to ground future propositions, but how does this past surface within the contemporary place? How might the palimpsest of the cemetery offer up the secrets of its history? The derivative of this question arose from the study of Coloni al Park Cemetery, located in Savannah, Georgia. During the initial European se ttlement, a strict grid system was established to ensure the ideal military defense strategy. This complex array of wards provided multiple scales of circulation, space for cattle, and gathering places for the community. The settlers located their cemetery off-module, just outside the perimeter of the original six wards in order to prevent ground contamination. This was intende d to prevent the cemetery from impacting the city. However, over time the urban grid extend ed, swallowing the cemetery and adjusting to the break of the infrastructural grid. A program once tangent to the city edge now lies at the core, permanently impacting the way the city moves around it and the scale of the surrounding urban

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64 space. It is a disruption that whispers Savanna hs history and the memory of the original six wards. The interdependency of the cemetery and its c ontext provides an opportunity to investigate one through the other. Understa nding the programmatic adaptation or spatial reconsiderations that each experienced in order to maintain this connectivity gives information to the nature of the place itself. Therefore, identifying these elements, the temporal issues, are a critical step in the vernacular investigation. Planned and Emergent Identifying the difference between the planned an d the emergent cemetery indicates a great deal about the timeline of the cem etery: its point of establishm ent along its contexts timeline, the current activity or inactivity, a nd the collective characteristics of the dead themselves. Is the cemetery contained within buildings or sprawling within a landscape? What spatial conditions indicate contextual history? Are the edges fixed, locked, permeable, infinite? How do the organizational strategies reflect the dead within? To juxtapose two extremes, a military cemetery (the planned) with one that slowly surfaced over hundreds of years (the emergent), many organizational distinctions arise. One example is body arrangement within the military cemet ery: soldiers rest in consistent rows, equal in distance, identical in marker Burial within the military context labels them forever as a soldier and as such they will be honored as a collective unit, not according to individual characteristics. Contrasting this condition is the emergent cemetery, established and extended alongside the growth of the context. Without population certain ty, a defined perimeter, or similarity of dead, the tombstones are likely to assume various arrangements, materials, and measures; it grows concurrently with its context. As tec hnology provides new methods, the

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65 proportions and markings continuously adjust and meet the standards of the time; it is within this cemetery that generational separations are quite evident. Ageing and Wearing Traces of tim e are evident through the agei ng and wearing of the cemetery. Tombstones are overturned, the consequence of vandal or fo undational forces, carvings and ornament are eroded after many years of exposure. Markers are constructed of stone to retain the permanence of eternity, yet in this permanence is proof of te mporality; they inevitably exist upon an earth in a continuous cycle of reclamation. The aged cemetery results from the comple x intersection of cultural consciousness and environmental impacts. The funerary ruin is i ndicative of time and emotional distance, resulting from human abandonment and facilitating human disregard. Harrison explains this human fascination, as both inevitability and hope: The spectacle of ruins reveals the fact of dest ruction, yet at the same time it also reveals the fact of survivalthe survival not so much of the ruins themse lves as of the earth on which they stand or fall. I have insisted from the star t that this is the true correlation: time and earth. 15 Ruination can be either benefici al or detrimental to the imp act of funerary architecture, depending on its intended strate gy. Therefore, identifying the process through which the earth reclaims the cemetery will indicate the opportuni ties to resistor embracethis phenomena. Pedagogical Translation The subject of funerary architec ture within the research fram ework continually returned to the fundamental relationship between the living and the dead. The seam between these two dimensions may be a physical boundary between two worlds, a threshold into the emotional consciousness, or simply a necessary human institu tion. Therefore, architecture must be initiated 15 Robert Pogue Harrison, The Dominion of the Dead (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2003).

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66 and developed according to this relationship; it mu st be a place for the two to merge. Robert Pogue Harrison stated: If a house, a building, or a city is not palpably haunted in its architec tural featuresif the earths historicity and containment of the d ead do not pervade its articulated forms and constitutive matterthe that house, building, or city is dead to the world. Dead to the world means cut off from the earth and closed off from its underworlds.16 This project was intended to prevent this segregation, to integrate the world and its underworld. Accordingly, the project was entitled the buria l-place: marking, holding, and sojourning with the dead, as it addressed the liv ing and dead as a juxtaposing but interconnected pair. The purpose for the specified program was to establish a place of temporary co-dwelling between the living and the dead, a consistency of burial place fo r an indeterminate society. Therefore, the burial-place was designed accord ing to its experiential impact on the living, supplemented with programmatic components that provide for th e living human ritual. How would the dead wish to permanently dwell? How are their markings influe nced or facilitated by the desert? How does the experiential richness wa rrant the desert journe y? How is memory captured? The program is as follows (Figure 3-5): Two burial-places, based on individual narrative translations One gathering space (public) One meditation space (private One series of twenty dwellings (extended pause) One additional programmatic component of choice This point in the proj ect afforded two articulated contex ts: the character narratives and the physical mapping, conceptually integrated but proce durally distinct. Just as the mappings were a formal reconsideration of narrative the spatial qualities of the tw o burial spaces were translated 16 Ibid. p. 36.

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67 from a qualifying aspect of each character. Was the character grounded, internalized, or meandering? Did he bridge two cities, vent ure out in a lofty pursuit? How can these characterizations and motivations imply space or itinerary, the way one experiences the cemetery? This is the moment of architectural translation: A place emerges from the crossroads, a buria l-place for the dead. Perhaps a place of happenstance death, a place to return for the act of dying, or a relocation of such; regardless, it is simultaneously the conc lusion of a narrative and a beginning of a sojourners place. It holds & honors, remembers & envisions.17 Situating Program and Itinerary There were m any issues that provided architectural directives: a scaled mapping with an articulated itinerary, a horizon with imbedde d phenomenological condi tions, a series of vernacular cues, and highly developed characte r narratives from which cemetery typologies may be defined. Situating the program worked within this complex framework; the students identified the conditions within th e array that pertained specifically to their focus, weaving these with their programmatic proposal. This step is simultaneously the culminati on of the narrative processes, the initial architectural suggestion, and a pr oposal of creating that seam between the liv ing and the dead. Returning to Serresian principles, this is the step for the weaver: One must find the Weaver, the proto-worker of space, the prosopopeia of topology and nodes, the weaver who works loca lly to join two worlds that are separated, according to the autochtons myth, by a sudden stoppageHe untangles, interlaces, twists, assembles, passes above and below, rejoins the rational, the irrational, namely, the speakable and the unspeakable, communication and the incommunicable He is a worker of the single space, the space of measure and transport, the Eu clidean space of every possible displacement without change of state, royally substitute d one fine day in place f the proliferating multiplicities of unlinked morphologies. In or der to practice dichotomy and its connected paths, one must know that its clefts follow a nd overlap the ancient my thical narrative in which worlds are torn asunder by a catastr opheand only the Weaver knows how to link 17 Direct quote from a ssignment. (appendix)

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68 them again or can reunite them. Then and only then geometry is born and myth falls silent.18 In this situational proposal, the itinerary and horizon dictat ed the programmatic placement. How does the sojourner reach the dead? What is his proximity to the indwelling? What are the perspectives? What is the experiential impact of the burial determine its relationship to ground? In the given student proposal (Figure 3-6), the cemetery is submerged into the ground, bodies placed into the wall beneath the desert plane. Co ntrolled sunlight pierces into this chamber, lighting only a single grave at a time: each body owns a moment of the day. The sojourner moves along an itinerary, an orchestrated exchange of exposur e and protection, to reach their dead at their precise moment. The ceme tery is reached after an hours walk. Living, Dead, and Phenomenological Light Concurrent to the weaving of programma tic situations were the phenom enological propositions. At this point, th e vernacular images were categorized into their resp ective spatial topoi, each student having identi fied the architectural implicati ons in each of their images. Understanding thesethe relationships between the dead to ground and dead to livingthe students could reconsider funerary architecture. Light as Marker and Indicator Through a series of light studies, the students choreographed the interplay between light, space, and p henomena. How does light articulate the experience, lead an itinerary, and indicate the dead? What is the light of silence? Of reverence? These st udies proposed th e incorporation of light as a phenomenological tool as it fell along the horizon path s and marked the presence of the dead. 18 Michael Serres, Language and Space: From Oedipus to Zola

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69 This step orchestrated the relationship between the living a nd dead, engaging the phenomenological impact of the desert. Regarding the richness of phenomenological conditions of the desert, Paul Shepard wrote, The desert is the environment of revelation, ge netically and physiologically alien, sensorily austere, esthetically ab stract, historically inimical...Its forms are bold and suggestive. The mind is beset by light and space, the kinestheti c novelty of aridity, high temperature, and wind. The desert sky is encircli ng, majestic, terrible. In other habitats, the rim of the sky above the horizontal is broken and obscured; he re, together with the overhead portion, it is infinitely vaster than that of rolling countryside and forest lands...In an unobstructed sky the clouds seem more massive, sometimes gra ndly reflecting the earth s curvature on their concave undersides. The angularity of desert landforms imparts a monumental architecture to the clouds as well as to the land...To the desert go prophets and hermits; through deserts go pilgrims and exiles. Here the leaders of th e great religions have sought the therapeutic and spiritual values of retreat, not to escape but to find reality. 19 In the light studies shown in Figure 37, light becomes a component within the architecture, implying a threshold. Its impact on the itinerary corridor continuously transforms, distinguishing moments throughout the day and emptin ess at night. The slight proposal shown in Figure 3-8 captured the quality of a submerged plane of the dead. This cemetery is carved below the ground surface, placing the sojourned living be low with their dead. Streams of light pierce the ground plane above, marking each burial site. From the living world, the cemetery is only recognizable through a grid of pe rforations on the desert floor. The Layered Ground The layered ground was initiated by the previous articulations (Figure 3-9). Place emerged from the mapping and programmatic situations, space was qualified through the light studies, and altering skies marked of bodies. This first constructed ground was a three dimensional delamination of these layers. As evidenced in the image below, paper was structured and held by the wire framework, allowing the layers to float and weave together in space. The wire was a 19 Paul Shepard, Man in the Landscape: A Historic Vies of the Esthetis of Nature (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2002).

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70 physical manifestation of drawn construction line: measure, pace, and path were translated into this framework. Light revealed depths of earth, slipping of laye rs, and weaving of program. The paper was the earth, joining with the sky, accepti ng the architecture. How do the layers of ground conceal and reveal the dead to the living, living to dead? How is the experience of the living and dead woven, directed, and contained by the ground? What is the depth of the seams between the two worlds? Ground Articulation: Seaming Two Worlds The spatial topoi identified ground as the prim ary m ediator between the living and dead. While their diagrams represented this element as a single thin line, in reality ground is incredibly dynamic, with depressions and swellings from vari ous forces. It constantly shifts, solidifies, holds, and reveals. While it is quite common to see the living carve into the ground for structure and infrastructure, carving upward from below is rarely considered. This exercise recognized ground as the result of two inverse worlds. To refer back to Calvinos twin cities: What makes Argia different from other cities is th at it has earth instead of air. The streets are completely filled with dirt, clay pack s the rooms to ceiling, on every stair another stairway is set in negativeFrom up here, nothing of Argia can be seen.20 The Thick Plane The thick plane (Figure 3-10) accounts for th is dual im pact: the living carving into ground, the dead carving toward the sky. Beginning with a single sheet, each side of the plane is built up and carved into, worked and reworked from both si des. The students were thereby challenged to equally consider the program from above and below. The resulting plane held many depths, 20 Italo Calvino, Invisible Cities (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1974).

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71 scratchings of movement, thin perf orations, and pockets of space. It was the manifestation of the boundary between the living and the dead, in to which architecture could be placed. Perspective Proposals W ith the ground plane articulated, the desert contained the scal e of the person, the placement of the cemeteries, and suggested excha nge between living and dead. The architectural components that accounted for the imprints were th en initiated through a series of perspectives. Using photographs of the thick plane exerci se, the students proposed space and form: architecture locking into the dese rt, architecture folding out of the desert. Into these photographs they inscribed notions of overhead, materiality, and measure. Decisions about surface, view, proximity and relative scale preceded technical s cale, which focused the design on qualities of space. Thus, itinerary and phenomena were the foremost influences on the architectural language. Figure 3-11 presents a series of proposals. The first example within the set expresses a ground carved to several depths, spatial responses to programmatic placement. A constructed floor sits within the deepest carv ing, offering the foot a reprieve fr om the scorched earth. This is the ground fragment of an embedded refuge. The soj ourner dwells within this space, and then is returned to the desert proper through a single wall that disappears into the earth. The two remaining perspectives address the overhead cond ition as it responds to spatial thresholds. Notice the juxtaposing edges expre ssed in the third perspective. The edge for the living (left) falls along the itinerary and is protected by shade, while the edge for the dead (right) pulls away from the path and is fully lit by the sun. This co ntrasts the act of seeing/moving with the act of and being seen/contained, expressing the exchan ge between the constructed and carved. Form, enclosure, exposure, and thresholds are proposed through these perspectiv es. How do the living

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72 move through the burial-place? Ho w are the dead revealed to the living? How do they touch? What is the juxtaposition of s cales between the living and dead? Pedagogical Product Reconsidered Spatial Topoi Through the described methods, ea ch student determ ined the nature and sp atial execution of their burial-place. The precis e space and tectonics of the architecture were resolved through a series of drawings and models, which addresse d all programmatic compon ents. The final body of work constituted an array of possibilities that did not strictly adhere the spatial topoi, but transformed them through experience and ritual. The following projects exemplify each topos, achieving the typology of the cemetery through the translation of a designer. Following the reconsidered spatial topoi, I shall present three additional projects in greater detail. The constructed cemetery. The constructed cemetery constitutes the most singular typology; it is identifiably an obj ect within a field. The cons tructed cemetery reconsidered, therefore, is expressed in the same manner. In this burial-place, the itinerary approach is neither prescribed nor specific, but is suggested only through the tracks of those who have traveled before. The approaching sojourner sees the desert floor fold upward into a constructed object in the distance, the confirmation of a successful pursuit (Figur e 3-12, A). However, this construction does not hold the body of the dead, rather it floats above the living and dead, sheltering all programs beneath a si ngle common roof. The dead rest within a single thick wall beneath this floating overhead (Fig ure 3-12, B). The reconsideration of this spatial topos lies in the monumentality, or rather anti -monumentality, of the burial. While the approach presents the burial-place as a constructed object the experience of this containing wall is rather intimate, cradled within the folded roof and carved earth. The dead are not identified through nameplates,

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73 but through the etched sentiments of the living: it is a wall that is constructed to be worn. Thus, the dead are only presenced through the so journers who travel to honor them. The cemetery plane. The cemetery plane was the most commonly incorporated cemetery topos, as is the case in contemporary western soci ety. This particular burial-place, however, scripted the experience of the plane through vary ing relationships between body and grave. In this, the sojourner moves between programmatic components that interlock at a centralized programmatic knot. Moving along the intersecting itiner aries, the depth of the path rises and falls, offering changing perspectives of a cons istent horizon (Figure 3-13) Walking through the deepest level of path, theref ore, would place the dead beside the living, an unlikely body alignment for this spatial topos. At the moment the eye breaks the surface of the ground plane, the desert horizon infinitely ex tends, providing experien tial continuity with the markers of the dead. The success of this cemetery reconsiderati on is not achieved throug h redefining the grave, but through repositioning the eyes of the living. The urban cemetery. The duality that exits within this urban cemetery is not achieved through the placement of dead above and below, but through the density and the duality that was achieved above and within. In th is reconsideration, towers of dead sit within an underground chamber. The sojourner travels through a series of alleys to visit the d ead, which rise above him on either side (Figure 3-14, A). Sunlight pours in through a layere d overhead plane, drawing the eyes upward. In contrast, the living program s lie above the ground, viewing the dead only through interstitial reveals and a constructed roof within the seamless hor izon. In sunlight, the graves below are quietly suggested, though night o ffers a heightened awareness, as the chamber is lit and light pours upward. In the darkness, the dead lie unmistakably below (Figure 3-14, B).

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74 This duality, the eyes directed upward by day and downward by night, along with the burial chambers density, categorizes this burial-p lace as an urban cemetery reconsidered. The invisible cemetery. The invisible cemetery reconsidered does not mark the location of the dead, rather it memorializes the human ritual of honoring the dead. In this, the graves are placed at the end of an hours walk, quite re moved from the living program. The sojourner follows each of his visits to the burial-place by returning to the dwelling and planting a single cactus in the desert field (Figure 3-15) This ac t provides new life and marks each journey. It is this extending field that embodies the invisible cemetery, as the reconsideration is achieved through the presencing of memories, not the presen cing of the dead. It is a sublime territory, offering visual evidence of invisible memories. Student Work: Aniel Martinez The initial inspira tion of this final project aros e from the directive of a roadside memorial. In these, the location of a death is memorialized through a marker or cross that is placed at the site of the car crash. The juxta posing perspectives of the living and the deadthe static and the dynamicinspired the spatial expression of this pr oject. The roadside memorial typically occurs along an open stretch of road. Consequently, th e living experience this memorial as a point along a trajectory, with little or no time to pause for an exchange between the two. Reversing the perception from the passers-by to the memorial itself, we may inversel y understand the living trajectory from the static dead. This offers two methods of qualifying the relationship between the living and dead; although the components are exactly the same, the shifted perception evokes a dual effect. This concept was translated from the ideol ogy of perception to a c onstructed architecture through thisthe two understa ndings of the place for dead. Th e first comprehension of the dead was achieved through a high wall that initiated an elongated axis. In this, bodies are stacked at

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75 an exaggerated height, a thick edge that draw s the living along a singl e line of path, the trajectory. The wall reveals a path, conceals an d shields the living program, and offers one perception of the dead: beside and along the trajec tory of the living. The termination of the wall constructs the experiential exchange; an exagge rated wall concedes to an exaggerated ground. At this point, the cemetery shifts to an entire ly different nature of cemetery, a vast plane of graves. Within this plane, a field of markers exte nds into infinity, offering a delicacy of presence and vastness within the horizon. This field of mark ers structures an archit ectural plane that peels from the earths surface, the ground offering the pres ence of the dead below. The living may see the module of coffin below, yet maintain the separation through its conc ealed surface. This cemetery captures the exchange between two perceptions of the si ngular realm of dead. Student Work: Chris Chappell This second final project m aintains exclusively the dead beside relationship. The primary distinction between this and othe r cemetery proposals lies in its gift to the living, a well that provides water to desert dwellers. The cemetery is organized around a centr al spring that offers nourishment is all living, not just those who come to visit buried loved ones. Therefore, the impact of this cemetery lies not in the intim acy of personal relations hips, but in that the collective dead providing life to the collective living. The architecture phy sically structured by the dead, who are embedded within walls that retain the desert sand and orga nize space. It is both a physical and poetic relationship that is maintained between the living and dead. The relationship between water and death wa s expressed by Gaston Bachelard in his book, Water and Dreams: Water is truly the transitory element. It is the essential, ontological metamorphosis between fire and earth. A being dedicated to water is a being in flux. He dies every minute; something of his substance is constantly falling away. Daily death is not fires exuberant form of death, piercing heaven with it s arrows; daily death is the death of water. Water always flows, always falls, always e nds in the horizontal death. In innumerable

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76 examples, we shall see that for the materializ ing imagination, death associated with water is more dream-like than death associated w ith earth: the pain of water is infinite.21 This is a project that allows the permanence of death provide a space for a continuous flow of water, finite boundaries to in infinite cycle. Student Work: Carolina Valladares The juxtaposition between two cem etery positions the horizontal and verticalcharge the overall diagram of this project The articulation was born from an ideological position on the relationship between the living a nd the dead. The horizontal cemetery (Figure 3-18) draws from the notion that the dead dwell in the same fashi on as the living. It was therefore critical to similarly articulate the living and dead dwellings to align the two overh eads with the desert plane. Further expressing the likeness between the living and dead is th e upright positioning of coffins, with the dead held as they were in life. Separated from this horizontal plane of d ead is the tower of dead. Founded upon the notion that the true celebration of life begins in death, a glass tower rises from the carved desert floor, supported by a series of glass columns. It is not the intention to mark the human proportion in this cemetery, but to contain the ashes of the dead, placed into the glass columns by family. Through this, the striations that occur al ong the height of the columns present the history of a family, a timeline of memb ers etched into the glass. Together, this cemetery pair addresses the poetic s of the dead to dwell beside and structure the celebration of the living. Acknowledging the interplay between point (dead), line (tower), and plane (horizontal), the spat ial components provide a dynamic expression of the relationship between the living and dead. 21 Gaston Bachelard, Water and Dreams: An Essay on the Imagination of Matter (Dallas, Texas: The Pegasus Foundation, 1983). p. 6.

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77 Figure 3-1. Provided image for sublime desert. (Captured from Google Earth 3/01/08 by Kelly Ard) Figure 3-2. Mapping the path through th e line. (Drawing by Aubrey Charette) Figure 3-3. Mapping the path through the context. (Collage by Crystal Torres)

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78 Figure 3-4. Mapping the path through the horizon. (Drawings by Jennifer Gobitz) Figure 3-5. Programmatic Component s. (Diagram by Kelly Ard) Figure 3-6. Programmatic Situations. (Drawing by Aubrey Charette)

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79 Figure 3-7. Light as threshold. (Light studies by Jennifer Gobitz) Figure 3-8. Light as marker. (L ight studies by Nick Brow) Figure 3-9. Layered Ground. (M odel by Carolina Valladares)

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80 Figure 3-10. Thick Plane. (Model by Clay Anderson) Figure 3-11. Perspective Proposals. (Perspectives by Chris Chappell) Figure 3-12. The constructed cemetery reconsidered. A) model B) section drawing (Drawing and model by Lauren Sajek) A B

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81 Figure 3-13. The cemetery plane reconsidered. A) model B) section drawing (Drawing and model by Clay Anderson) Figure 3-14. The urban cemetery reconsidered. A) section draw ing B) model (Drawing and model by Michael Hilchey) A B A B

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82 Figure 3-15. The invisible cemetery reconsidered. A) mapping B) model (Drawing and model by Aubrey Charette) Figure 3-16. Martinez final cemet ery design. (Model by Aniel Martinez) A B

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83 Figure 3-17. Chappell final cemeter y design. (Model by Chris Chappell)

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84 Figure 3-18. Valladares final cemetery design. A) model B) drawings (Model and drawing by Carolina Valladares) A B

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85 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION We ought to reestablish the cult of the dead. Such a step m ay seem old-fashioned for an era that treats death with so much secrecy, so much dissimulation, so much awareness of its uselessness. With so much fear, in shortWe ought to honor the dead. Not so much for them but for us. -Rafael Arfullol1 It was the intention of this architectural thes isfrom its conceptionto identify the context of historical/ cross-cultural cemet ery typologies and formulate propos als for its reinstitution into contemporary Western culture. What is nature of the seam between the living worlds, and how might the architect influence that seam? How mi ght the architect design according to living/dead relationships, transforming the experiential impact of what the vernacular has already achieved? This is not research about a singular answer, but the series of questions that must precede the architectural formulation. How must we seek to thoughtfully articulate th is final dwelling-place? At the depth of all questions and provocations li es an intimacy that I find absolutely critical for the future of architecture: how does the arch itect use the people, customs, and environment around him to construct for the human condition? Architecture affords the opportunity to reinvigorate the content and craftsma nship within the built environm ent. The world we construct becomes context for life, and as such we must be accountable toand rigor ously involved inthe people for whom we build. This thesis uses the cemetery to begin this conversation, as it is a program that has experienced countless fluc tuations, yet remains an essential human requirement. Ken Worpole expl ains the growing silence that pushes the cemetery to the periphery of architectural consideration: Today, many architects seem silent on th e matter of death; landscape designers only slightly less so. Spiritual matters dont come easily to professions and practices that are increasingly computer-scored, technology driven and which too often stand aloof from the 1 Quoted in Ken Worpole, Last Landscapes: The architecture of the Cemetery in the West (London: Reaction Books, Ltd., 2003).

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86 quotidian forms of life and ritual. In an increasingly competitiv e global economy and culture, the big statement has replaced the thoughtful one, and size has often triumphed suitability. The human scale of designand its attentiveness to the cycles and rituals of human life and vulnerabilityhas been squeezed to the edges.2 As this program was given to students to be incorporated within the desert landscape, there were certain scales and spatial notions that were dictated by site. The pedagogical implication of this is that the cemeteries would be articulated qu ite differently if the project were placed within a dense urban city, a rainforest, or a valle y community. The diagrammatic typologiesthe spatial topoi are inclusive of the many cultures and environments throughout time. Therefore, the reconsideration of burial could transcend place and become mani fested through a variety of configurations. Furthermore, there was no dict ation during the design process of which spatial situations must be used; the students were free to propose th e cemetery according to their individual narrative process. The results were th us concentrated within the dead below/ dead around themes. Had this process initiated within a dense urban matrixnot an infinitely sublime open terrainthe incorporation of spatial th emes would have doubtless ly provided different proposals. This is expected, and what I find to be the required specificity for the integration of architecture, space, program, and site. To conclude, there are three th ings that have repeatedly em erged through the research and design that capture the programma tic impact of the cemetery: (1) there is an intimacy shared between the living and the dead that spatiall y, traditionally, artistically, and emotionally determines the qualities of the living culture (2) there remains an unspokenand perhaps unacknowledgedimportance in the wa y the dwell in regards to thei r dead, and (3) the nature of the marker, the artifact, and the space of the dead provide traces of memo ry and the relationship 2 Ibid.

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87 that seams the living and dead. It is for these co nditions that the reconsid ered cemetery must be integrated within the discipline of architecture. The architecture of death has both to remind us of the longevity of memory and human culture, as well as the brevity of the individual hu man life; to reflect on and respond to the febrile and at times explosive concatena tions of history as well as the more reassuring temporalities of the seasons and the natura l world generally. It has also to articulate the connection between the world above ground, and the world below.3 3 Ibid. p. 80.

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88 LIST OF REFERENCES Abram s, Nathan, and David Oettinger. ""Tami ng Memory": Theming America's East Coast Holocaust Memorials." An Interdisciplinary Journal of North American Studies (49th Parallel). Azara, Pedro. "The House and the Dead (On Modern Tombs)." In La Ultima Casa: The Last House edited by Monica Gili, 24-39. Barcelona: Ingoprint, SA, 1999. Bachelard, Gaston. Water and Dreams: An Essay on the Imagination of Matter. Dallas, Texas: The Pegasus Foundation, 1983. Bachelard, Gaston. Poetics of Space: The Classic Look at How We Experience Intimate Places. Translated by M. Jolas. Beacon Press, 1994. Bellah, Robert N. "Civil Religion in America." Daedalus, Fall 2005: 40-55. Burke, Edmund, and Abraham Mills. Ne w York, NY: Harper & Brothers, 1844. Calvino, Italo. Invisible Cities. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1974. Casey, Edward S. Getting Back Into Place: Toward a Renewed Understanding of the PlaceWorld. Indiana University Press, 1993. Crane, Susan A. "Memory, Distortio n, and History in the Museum." History and Theory: Studies in the Philosophy of History December 1997: 44-63. Danforth, Loring M., and Alexander Tsiaras. The Death Rituals of Rural Greece. Princeton University Press, 1982. Folpe, Emily Kies. It Happened on Washington Square. Baltimore, MD: JHU Press, 2002. Gili, Monica. La Ultima Casa: The Last House. Barcelona: Ingoprint, SA, 1999. Harrison, Robert Pogue. The Dominion of the Dead. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2003. Hass, Kristin Ann. Carried to the Wall: American Memory and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. University of California Press, 1998. Hicks, Jesse. "The Architecture of Memory." The Next American City Winter 2007: 19-23. Huyssen, Andreas. "The Voids of Berlin." Critical Inquiry Autumn 1997: 57-81. Jewill, Elizabeth J., and Frank R. Abate, The New Oxford American Dictionary. First. Oxford University Press, 2001.

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89 Joan H. Geismar, Ph.D., LLC. "Washington Square Park: Phase 1A Archaeological Assessment." New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, Thomas Balsley Associates, New York, NY, August 2005, 97. Leatherbarrow, David. "Archite cture Oriented Otherwise". University of Flor ida Lecture Series. Gainesville, FL, February 2008. Libeskind, Daniel. "Between the Line s: The Jewish Museum, Berlin." Research In Phenomenology (BRILL) 22, no. 1 (1992): 82-87. Littlewood, Ian. A Literary Companion to Venice: Including Seven Walking Tours. MacMillan, 1992. Loos, Adolf. Architektur. In Adolf Loos, Theory and Works, Idea Books Architectural Series. Idea Books Edizioni, Univer sity of Michigan, 1982. Mayo, James M. "War Memorials as Political Memory." Geographical Review (American Geographical Society) 78, no. 1 (January 1988): 62-75. McCarter, Robert. Louis I Kahn. New York, NY: Phaidon Press, Inc., 2005. Novick, Peter. "The American National Narr ative of the Holocaust: There Isn't Any." New German Critique Autumn 2003: 27-35. Scaramack, Emma E. "Between the Lines: Da niel Libeskind, Jewish Museum Berlin." Architectural Design 1997. Serres, Michael. Language and Space: From Oedipus to Zola. In Hermes: Literature, Science, Philosophy, by Michael Serres, Josue V. Haran, and Da vid F. Bell. John Hopkins University Press, 1982. Shepard, Paul. Man in the Landscape: A Historic Vi es of the Esthetics of Nature. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2002. Sturken, Marita. "The Wall, the Screen, and th e Image: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial." Representations, Special Issu e: Monumental Histories Summer 1991: 118-142. Vico, Giambattista. New Science. Translated by Thomas Goddard Bergin and Max Herald Fisch. Cornell University Press, 1984. Wagner-Pacifici, Robin, and Barry Schwartz. "V ietnam Veterans Memorial: Commemorating a Difficult Past." The American Journal of Sociology September 1991: 376-420. Wilson, Susan. Boston Sights and Insights: An Essential Guide to Historic Landmarks in and Around Boston. Beacon Press, 2004.

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90 Worpole, Ken. Last Landscapes: The architecture of the Cemetery in the West. London: Reaction Books, Ltd., 2003. Young, James Edward. The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning. Dexter MI: Yale University Press, 1993.

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91 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Kelly Jean Ard graduated from the University of Florida School of Architecture with a Master of Architecture in 2007 and a Bachelor of Design in 2005. Her interest in the intangible experience of human memory and the value of se eking vernacular cues directed much of her research, specifically this thesis and her maste rs research project, which focused on memory and dwelling-place. She further explored these in terests through her pedagogical studies, working with students to re-present ordinary progr am through the celebration of phenomena and experience. Currently residing in Boston, Massachusetts, Kelly works for designLAB architects, an office that offers her the opportunity to put her specific inte rests into practice.