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Extent of Acculturation Experiences among High School Muslim Students in America

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022579/00001

Material Information

Title: Extent of Acculturation Experiences among High School Muslim Students in America
Physical Description: 1 online resource (105 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Podikunju, Shifa
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: acculturation, america, bicultural, counseling, educators, high, hussain, immigrant, muslim, podikunju, school
Counselor Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: School Counseling and Guidance thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Muslim high school students often face bi-cultural issues, which can be a source of additional stress while making the transition from childhood to adulthood. I explored the extent of acculturation issues experienced by Muslim students by using the Muslim Youth Acculturation Rating Questionnaire which is a questionnaire that was developed by the author for use in this study. A higher score on the MYARQ reflected greater extent to which the respondent experienced acculturation issues. Therefore, lower MYARQ scores are associated with higher acculturation (i.e., lesser extent of acculturation issues) while higher scores imply lower acculturation (i.e., greater extent of acculturation issues). This was a descriptive study based on a nationally representative geographic sample of high school students who were selected based on the criteria of being Muslim. Results from the 144 respondents indicated statistical significance in three areas. Boys had higher scores on the MYARQ than the girls, Urdu and Arabic speakers had higher scores than English and Other speakers, and the longer the length of residence for respondent?s father and mother, the higher the respondent?s scores. Results support previous research findings. However, new information also was found which may have potential impact on the study of acculturation trends especially among Muslims living in America. Implications and recommendations for counselors and educators are provided.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Shifa Podikunju.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Loesch, Larry C.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022579:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022579/00001

Material Information

Title: Extent of Acculturation Experiences among High School Muslim Students in America
Physical Description: 1 online resource (105 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Podikunju, Shifa
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: acculturation, america, bicultural, counseling, educators, high, hussain, immigrant, muslim, podikunju, school
Counselor Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: School Counseling and Guidance thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Muslim high school students often face bi-cultural issues, which can be a source of additional stress while making the transition from childhood to adulthood. I explored the extent of acculturation issues experienced by Muslim students by using the Muslim Youth Acculturation Rating Questionnaire which is a questionnaire that was developed by the author for use in this study. A higher score on the MYARQ reflected greater extent to which the respondent experienced acculturation issues. Therefore, lower MYARQ scores are associated with higher acculturation (i.e., lesser extent of acculturation issues) while higher scores imply lower acculturation (i.e., greater extent of acculturation issues). This was a descriptive study based on a nationally representative geographic sample of high school students who were selected based on the criteria of being Muslim. Results from the 144 respondents indicated statistical significance in three areas. Boys had higher scores on the MYARQ than the girls, Urdu and Arabic speakers had higher scores than English and Other speakers, and the longer the length of residence for respondent?s father and mother, the higher the respondent?s scores. Results support previous research findings. However, new information also was found which may have potential impact on the study of acculturation trends especially among Muslims living in America. Implications and recommendations for counselors and educators are provided.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Shifa Podikunju.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Loesch, Larry C.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022579:00001


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EXTENT OF ACCULTURATION EXPERIENCES AMONG HIGH SCHOOL MUSLIM
STUDENTS IN AMERICA




















By

SHIFA PODIKUNJU


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008

































2008 Shifa Podikunju



























To my daughters, Zamirah and Sabreen:
You are my inspiration for striving and reaching for my goals.
May God bless you with all things good in this world and in the hereafter
May you both always reach for the stars and strive for the best you can possibly be.
And to all the Muslim adolescents who grow up in dual cultures, I dedicate this work to you.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

"In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficient, the Most Merciful." I thank God for the

blessings I have been given all my life and the ability, courage and determination to pursue my

worldly goals. I am ALL that I am because of You.

I thank my advisor, Dr. Larry Loesch. I am forever grateful for his vision and belief in me

which are the sole reasons for this achievement. He saw in me what I could not. He is

incomparable in his mentorship and work ethic. I will work hard to continue his legacy to the

best of my ability to my students.

I thank my committee members, Dr. Mary Ann Clark, Dr. Sondra Smith, and Dr. Mary

Ann Burg. Their faith in my ability, encouragement and invaluable support with my work

inspires me to forge along on my future goals.

I thank my husband, Zide, for his constant and unconditional love, support and

encouragement in all my endeavors. He complements me in every way. Without him, I would

still be cowering in my shell, wondering how to do it. Without him, I would not have been able

to undertake this sometimes overwhelming achievement and complete it. He makes me feel like I

can do everything and more. I thank God everyday for the blessing of being his wife. I am what I

am today because of him. And he does complete me. I thank my beautiful daughters, Zamirah

and Sabreen. They are the reason for my achievements. May God bless them for their sacrifices

and patience while they waited for Mummy to be done.

I thank my mother, NoorJehan for her unconditional love and faith in me all my life. She

let me go when it was the hardest. I pray I can be as worthy a mother as she has been to me. Her

strength and spirituality have been my source of strength over the years and across the miles. I

love, respect and honor her for all her sacrifices as my mother. I thank my late father, Haji









Podikunju for his acceptance of who I was and who I wanted to be. Because of that, I have

become who I am today. I love and honor his memories every day of my life.

I thank my eldest sisters, Shahi and Saji. Their unconditional love, support and constant

presence in my life has guided me in all my journeys all my life. Words can never express my

love and gratitude for both of them. I thank my older sisters, Sali and Shiny for their love and

support all my life. I am always grateful for their continuous indulgence of my needs and my

ways. My sisters have been my defining role models for all I can be when I grow up. I love and

appreciate each of them for their special place in my life. I thank my elder brothers, Shajen and

Siraj for paving the way for my achievements. Without them, I would not be here in America.

The knocks were hard but I have achieved more than I every dreamed I was capable of because

of them. I love and am grateful to them for their support and indulgence of me the past nineteen

years.

I thank my darling nieces, Serene and Suhana. They have been my champions and my

cheerleaders since I was six! They are my nieces, my daughters, my sisters, and my friends. They

are my inspiration as I am theirs. May God bless them with all that is good in all their

achievements.

I thank my mother in law, Sheila and sister in law, Saudia for their love and constant

support of me and my endeavors. I am truly blessed to have such a unique and wonderful mother

in law who is generous and caring like no other. She inspires me with her strength, optimism and

loving generosity every time.

And I thank my dearest friends in America. They were my family when I was so far from

home. They were my crutches when life knocked me down. Nike, Lois, Vidhya, Jia Wei,

Amany, Leyla, Roxy, Julie, Nadia and Kitty: They were my sisters when my own were so far









away. They helped me build my utopia community. I will miss them. May God bless them and

always grant them good. I will forever cherish the memories of my time with them.

Finally, I thank members of the Muslim ummah for helping me with my study. They

understand the significance of what our children are experiencing growing up in America. With

their dedication and support, I hope to continue my work on informing the larger society on the

true state of Muslims' life in America. Jazak Allah Khairan.









TABLE OF CONTENTS



A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ..............................................................................................................4

L IST O F T A B L E S ........................................................................................................ ....... .. 10

A B S T R A C T .......................................................................................................... ..................... 1 1

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION .................................. .. ........... ..................................... 12

Scope of the P problem ..................................................................... .. .. ... ..... ......... 13
Significance of the stu dy .................................................. .............................................. 15
Purpose of the Study .................................. .. .......... ............................. 16
H y p oth eses ............................................................................................................. ....... .. 17
D definition of T erm s ........................................................ ................................................ 18
Overview of the Remainder of the Study ......................................................................19

2 REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE.................................................................. 20

B erry's Theory of A cculturation ................... .............................................................. 21
R research on A cculturation ................................................... ............................................. 23
The M uslim Population in A m erica ........................................ ....................... ................ 26
M u slim s an d R elig io n .............................................................................................................2 9
M uslim Cultural W orldview s ...................... ................................................................ 29
G en d er R o les .......................................................................................................... ........ .. 3 1
In div idu action .................. .. ..................... ............................................................ ....... .. 32
Interpersonal R relationships and D ating............................................................. ................ 33
R elig io sity ............................................................................................................... ........ .. 3 4
B elongingn ess ........................................................................................................ ....... .. 3 5
L language ......................................................................................................... 36
P perceived D iscrim ination............. .. .................. .................. ............ ........ .... ............... 37
O their R relevant V ariables ............. .. .................. .................. ........................ ................. 38
Sum m ary of the R elated L iterature......................................... ........................ ................ 39

3 METHODOLOGY .................................... .. .......... .............................41

Relevant Variables ................................ .. ........... ............................... 41
P o p u latio n ............................................................................................................. ........ .. 4 1
Sampling Procedures ................................. .. ........... ............................. 45
R e su ltan t S am p le .................................................................................................................. .. 4 7
Survey Development .................................. .. .......... ............................. 47
D ata A n aly ses ........................................................................................................ ....... .. 55
M ethodological L im itations.................................................. ............................................ 56









4 R E S U L T S ............................................................................................................................... 5 7

D em graphic C characteristics ........................................................................ ................ 57
R e sp o n se S u m m ary .................... ............... ...... .. .. ...... .................. ... .... ..................... 5 9
Hol: There is no difference in MYARQ Total Score based on respondent gender....... 59
Ho2: There is no difference in MYARQ Total Score based on respondent ethnicity. ...60
Ho3: There is no difference in MYARQ Total Score based on respondent country
o f b irth ..................... ....... ............... .. .... .. .. ................................... 6 1
Ho4: There is no difference in MYARQ Total Score based on respondent primary
language spoken in the hom e .............. ......... ... ......................... 62
Ho5: There is no difference in MYARQ Total Score based on respondent Muslim
b e lie f o rig in ............... .... ............... .. .... .. .................................... 6 4
Ho6: There is no difference in MYARQ Total Score based on respondent type of
h ig h sch o ol atten d ed ................................................. .. .............. ....... .... .......... .....64
Ho7: There are no statistically significant interactions for MYARQ Total Score
am ong respondent characteristics ........................................................... ................ 65
Ho8: There is no relationship between MYARQ Total Score and respondent age .......65
Ho9: There is no relationship between MYARQ total score and respondent years
in the U united States............................................... .. ...................... 66
Hol0: There is no relationship between MYARQ Total Score and respondent's
father's years in the United States. ........................ .... ..... ................ 66
Hol 1: There is no relationship between MYARQ Total Score and respondent's
m other's years in the U united States ........................................................ ................ 66

5 D ISC U S SIO N ...................................................................................................... ....... .. 68

G eneralizability L im stations ............................................................... .............................. 69
C o n clu sio n s........................................................................................................... ........ .. 7 0
Interpretation s ...................................................................................................... ....... .. 72
Im p location s .......................................................................................................... ........ .. 7 7
Recommendations ............. .................... .. ........... .....................................79
S u m m a ry ........................................................................................................ .................... 8 0

APPENDIX

A INVITATION TO SCHOOL COUN SELORS ......................................................................82

B INFORMATIONAL FLYER FOR PARENTS OF AMERICAN MUSLIM HIGH
SC H O O L ST U D E N T S .............. .......................................................................83

C ON LIN E PA REN TAL C ON SEN T ........................................................................................85

D PARENTAL INFORMED CONSENT (PAPER VERSION) ..................... ..................... 87

E REQUEST TO ISLAMIC CENTERS TO HELP DISSEMINATE RESEARCH
IN F O R M A T IO N ................................................................................................ ................... 8 9









F MUSLIM YOUTH ACCULTURATION RATING QUESTIONNAIRE (MYARQ)
P A P E R V E R S IO N ........................................................................................ ..................... 9 1

G MYARQ ITEM FREQUENCIES, MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS ................. 95

L IS T O F R E F E R E N C E S ...............................................................................................................96

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H .................................................... ............................................. 105









LIST OF TABLES


Table page
3-1. Referenced issues for the M YAR Q ................. ............................................................ 53

4-1. Respondents' D em graphic Characteristics...................................................... ................ 58

4-2. Respondent's Age and Length of Residence and Respondents' Parents length of
R e sid e n c e ...........................................................................................................................5 9

4-3. Response M eans for M YAR Q Total Score ...................................................... ................ 59

4-4. M eans by Gender for M YARQ Total Score ..................................................... ................ 60

4-5. Independent Samples t test for MYARQ Total Scores by Gender....................................60

4-6. M Y AR Q Total Score M eans by Ethnicity ........................................................ ................ 61

4-7. One Way Analysis of Variance for MYARQ Total Score by Ethnicity ..............................61

4-8. M eans for M YARQ Total Score by Country of Birth....................................... ................ 61

4-9. Independent Samples t test on MYARQ Total Score by Country of Birth ............................62

4-10. Means for MYARQ Total Score by Primary Language in the Home................................63

4-11. One Way Analysis of Variance for MYARQ Total Score by Primary Language in the
H om e .............................................................................................. ........ 63

4-12. Post Hoc LSD and Bonferroni Comparison of MYARQ Total Score by Primary
L language in the H om e ............. .. .................... .................. ...................... ..................63

4-13. Means Description of MYARQ Total Score and Type of School Attended..................... 65

4-14. One Way Analysis of Variance for MYARQ Total Score and Type of School................65

4-15. Spearman Correlation Coefficients of MYARQ Total Scores with Respondent Age,
Length of Residence, Respondent's Father's Length of Residence, and Respondent's
M other's L ength of R evidence ......................................... ......................... ................ 67

G-1. The MYARQ Item Frequencies Means and Standard Deviations...................................95









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

EXTENT OF ACCULTURATION EXPERIENCES AMONG HIGH SCHOOL MUSLIM
STUDENTS IN AMERICA

By

Shifa Podikunju

August 2008

Chair: Larry C. Loesch
Major: School Counseling and Guidance

Muslim high school students often face bi-cultural issues, which can be a source of

additional stress while making the transition from childhood to adulthood. I explored the extent

of acculturation issues experienced by Muslim students by using the Muslim Youth

Acculturation Rating Questionnaire which is a questionnaire that was developed by the author

for use in this study. A higher score on the MYARQ reflected greater extent to which the

respondent experienced acculturation issues. Therefore, lower MYARQ scores are associated

with higher acculturation (i.e., lesser extent of acculturation issues) while higher scores imply

lower acculturation (i.e., greater extent of acculturation issues). This was a descriptive study

based on a nationally representative geographic sample of high school students who were

selected based on the criteria of being Muslim. Results from the 144 respondents indicated

statistical significance in three areas. Boys had higher scores on the MYARQ than the girls, Urdu

and Arabic speakers had higher scores than English and Other speakers, and the longer the length

of residence for respondent's father and mother, the higher the respondent's scores. Results

support previous research findings. However, new information also was found which may have

potential impact on the study of acculturation trends especially among Muslims living in

America. Implications and recommendations for counselors and educators are provided.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Cultural conflict is a current concern for American society in general and the counseling

profession in particular as the number of immigrant families increases rapidly in the United

States (U.S.) (Ying, 1998). According to recent estimates, first generation immigrants and

second-generation children exceed 60 million, or 24 percent of the total population of the U.S.

(U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2003). Almost one in four Americans under age 18 is an immigrant

or a child of a recent immigrant and the proportion keeps growing (U.S. Bureau of the Census,

2003). The issues and problems that arise from linguistic, religious, cultural values, and other

differences impact not only the immigrant families themselves, but also societal and cultural

subsystems and social and other institutions in the U.S. (Ying, 1998). In particular, the problems

and issues associated with assimilation of immigrants into American society impact school

systems throughout the U.S. And by direct implication, they also impact educational

professionals, including so-called non-instruction professionals, which include school

counselors.

Acculturation is the process of adapting to a new cultural context (Berry, 1998; Berry &

Sam, 1996; Berry, Trimble, & Olmeda, 1986; Redfield, Linton, & Herskovits, 1936). Issues

related to acculturation that arise affect both parents and their children. However, it is important

to acknowledge that there is diversity within and among immigrant groups, and therefore there

also is diversity in their respective methods of and experiences in acculturation. Nonetheless,

there also are common themes evident among most families engaged in acculturation (Dugsin,

2001).

In the U.S., Muslims comprise three groups: (a) immigrants, including both naturalized

citizens and resident aliens;, (b) American citizens who have converted to Islam; and (c) those









born to either of these groups (Numan, 1992; Project MAPS, 2001). The total number of

Muslims currently residing in the U.S. is unknown. However, widely varying estimates report

the Muslim population as between three and seven million ("Islam in the United States," 2005).

Accordingly, it has been estimated that by the year 2010, Islam could be the second largest

religious denomination in the U.S. because of increased immigration of Muslims, a relatively

high birth rate among Muslims in the U.S., and new converts to Islam among current U.S.

residents (Bagby, 1994; U.S. Department of State, 2001).

Unfortunately, a stringent review of the literature yielded little professional commentary

and even less research on acculturation issues among Muslim adolescents. However, there is

some information in the professional literature about acculturation issues among Arab and South

Asian populations in the U.S. Therefore, given that the largest percentage of Muslims in the U.S.

come from Arab and South Asian countries (Pew Research Center, 2007), that literature and

research on Arabs and South Asians allow some inferences about acculturation issues among

Muslim families in the U.S. In particular, it yields some insight into the cultural and religious

worldviews of U.S.-resident Muslims, particularly in regard to differences and similarities within

and among various Muslim subpopulations in the U.S.

Scope of the Problem

The cultural adaptation, sometimes called "generation," gap between all parents and their

children widens (at least for a while) as young children mature developmentally, and is

particularly evident for children in adolescence. However, cultural adaptation (i.e., acculturation)

among Muslim youth in the U.S. is especially difficult because of the combination of societal,

familial, and developmental issues involved. Interestingly, children of immigrant parents

generally acculturate to the majority culture at a faster rate than do their parents (Sodowsky,

Kwan & Pannu, 1995; Szapocznik & Kurtines, 1993; Ying, 1998). Youth's rapid acculturation is









seen in their quicker ability to speak English as a primary language, faster adoption of Western

values and lifestyles, and earlier socialization into mainstream society (Sodowsky, et al., 1995).

Conversely, immigrant parents are more likely to hold onto their native language, cultural values,

and lifestyles despite the demands and pressures to socialize into mainstream society (Sodowsky,

et al., 1995; Ying, 1998).

In particular, Muslim immigrants' views of Americans are largely derived from the media

(Hedayat-Diba, 2000). For example, the Western cultural values of individuality; independence;

"natural," developmental separation from family; and openness of sexual expression are viewed

as morally corrupt at best, and sinful at worst by most Muslim adults (Hedayat-Diba, 2000).

Muslim parents also feel a religious obligation to protect their children and families from cultural

values different from their own (i.e., traditional Muslim family values). Therefore, their children

often experience having to "betray" their parents while they try to assimilate into the majority

culture. Conversely, other children feel that they betray themselves and their own personal

growth and freedom while they "protect" their parents' way of life (Hedayat-Diba, 2000).

Parents of Muslim youth often experience anxiety and frustration in their interactions with

their children. Typically, they come from backgrounds where they did not question their parents

or their elders who made career or personal life choices for them (Ibrahim & Ohnishi, 1997).

These parents must cope with raising their children in a new culture with which they are not

familiar while they try to raise their children as if they were in their home culture. Parenting in

such a context causes conflict and frustration for both child and parent. It is evident that most

Muslim parents are trying to find a balance between their own cultural and religious standards

and mainstream social norms so that their children will be successful (Ibrahim & Ohnishi, 1997).

In effect, they want to "do the right thing" both according to the dictates of their culture and to









the dictates of the larger society. There is a personal perspective in their attempts because among

traditional Asian immigrants including Muslims, a child's choices and successes are a direct

reflection of the parents' position in the community (Sodowsky, et al., 1995).

Many immigrant youth appear to oppose their family's native values and lifestyles, and

seek instead to assume Western, American mainstream values and lifestyles (Lee, Choe, Kim, &

Ngo, 2000). Interestingly, many Asian immigrants including Muslim parents recognize that they

themselves and their children need to adopt certain Western-oriented behaviors for all to be

successful in society and for the children to be successful in school (Ying, 1998). Nonetheless,

intrafamial differences in perspectives and approaches to children' acculturation often are a

major source of family conflict.

Significance of the study

As the ethnic minority populations increases counselors, teachers and other mental health

professionals are becoming more aware of the psychological and social effects of family

conflicts on students and their families (Ying, 1998). Within the counseling setting, Asian

American students attribute psychological distress to their relationships with their parents (Lee,

1997). School counselors often find that their role includes helping students adjust to the school

environment (Myrick, 1997). However, they often find that they lack sufficient knowledge of

Muslim populations (Carter, 1999) to provide effective interventions. A review of the literature

showed almost no research conducted concerning the acculturation issues and related

characteristics among Muslims adolescents. The results of this study identify the extent of

acculturation issues faced by the Muslim student in the acculturation process and their related

demographic characteristics and which can assist in the preparation of counselors as they expand

their knowledge for the problems of and need for interventions about this group of minority

individuals.









Purpose of the Study

The primary purpose of this study was to identify the related demographic characteristics

and the extent of acculturation issues faced by Muslim students. High school is a period of

choices and decisions that can impact future education and career plans in the adolescent's life.

During this time students learn to become independent of their parents and voice their own

opinions and choices (Carter, 1999). The Muslim culture is more restrictive than the mainstream

American culture. Thus, Muslim high school students often face bi-cultural issues, unknown to

American peers. For example, American adolescents as a whole have the freedom or flexibility

to make their own choices whereas such behavior is often prohibited in the Muslim family.

Muslim students often deal with a "home culture" and a "school culture" and lead double lives,

which can be a source of additional stress while making the transition from childhood to

adulthood (Carter, 1999; Ghuman, 2003).

This study will explore the extent of acculturation issues experienced by Muslim students

by using the Muslim Youth Acculturation Rating Questionnaire (MYARQ) which is a

questionnaire that was developed by the author for use in this study. The questionnaire is made

up of ten demographic questions, and thirty-one attitudinal questions that address different issues

that may impact acculturation, as found in the related literature regarding immigrants, South

Asians, Arabs and Muslims. A higher score on the MYARQ reflected greater extent to which the

respondent experienced acculturation issues. Therefore, lower MYARQ scores are associated

with higher acculturation (i.e., lesser extent of acculturation issues) while higher scores imply

lower acculturation (i.e., greater extent of acculturation issues)









Hypotheses

This was a descriptive study based on a nationally representative geographic sample of

high school students. The students were systematically selected based on the criteria of being

Muslim. The following null hypotheses were evaluated in this study:

H:01 There is no difference in MYARQ total score based on respondent gender.

H02: There is no difference in MYARQ total score based on respondent country of birth.

H03: There is no difference in MYARQ total score based on respondent ethnicity.

H04: There is no difference in MYARQ total score based on respondent principal

language spoken in the home.

H05: There is no difference in MYARQ total score based on respondent Muslim belief

origin (i.e., by birth or conversion).

H06: There is no difference in MYARQ total score based on respondent type of school

attended.

H07: There are no statistically significant interactions for MYARQ total score among

respondent characteristics.

H08: There is no relationship between MYARQ total score and respondent age.

H09: There is no relationship between MYARQ total score and respondent's years in the

United States.

H010: There is no relationship between MYARQ total score and respondent's father's

years in the United States.

H011: There is no relationship between MYARQ total score and respondent's mother's

years in the United States.









Definition of Terms

Acculturation refers to how ethnic minority individuals adapt to the dominant culture and

the associated changes in their attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors that result from contact

with the new culture and its members (Berry, 1998).

Adjustment: 1: to adapt or conform oneself (as to new conditions); 2 : to achieve mental

and behavioral balance between one's own needs and the demands of others (Merriam-Webster

Online Dictionary, n.d.)

Asian refers to people who are from the Asian continent, which includes the countries of

India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Iran, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq.

Bicultural refers to belonging or relating to two cultures.

Ethnicity refers to belonging to a particular cultural group, for example Arab or Indian.

Gender refers to male or female.

Generational status refers to the status of being born in the United States or in another

country. For example, first generation Muslims are Muslims born in another country and then

immigrated to the U.S. Second generation Muslims are Muslims born in the U.S. to immigrant

parents.

High school age refers to those students who are attending grade nine through twelve in a

secondary school in the U.S.

Issues refer to problems that Muslim students may have as a result of the process of

acculturation to two cultures.

Muslim refers to individuals who adhere to the religion of Islam, either by being born into

it or through conversion.

MYARQ refers to the Muslim Youth Acculturation Rating Questionnaire (see Appendix

F) that was created for this study by the author. The questionnaire is made up often demographic









questions, and thirty-one attitudinal questions that address different issues that may impact

acculturation, as found in the related literature regarding immigrants, South Asians, Arabs and

Muslims.

Overview of the Remainder of the Study

The introduction was presented in this chapter. The review of related literature is presented

in Chapter 2 and the methodology for the study is presented in Chapter 3. The results of the

study are shown in Chapter 4 and are discussed in Chapter 5.









CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

The primary purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics and the extent to which

high school-age Muslim students experience different issues presumed to be associated with the

acculturation process. A wide variety of potentially influencing factors (i.e., issues) have been

associated with acculturation processes among an equally wide variety of groups engaged in

acculturation. Demographic variables typically associated with acculturation effectiveness over

different age levels include gender, age, specific ethnicity, number of years in the country,

parental characteristics such as number of years in the country, and language spoken in the home

(Berry, Phinney, Sam, & Vedder, 2006). There are, however, many other issues that might

influence an individual's acculturation process, including those associated with perceptions and

interpretations of gender roles, belongingness, interpersonal relations (i.e., dating), peer relations,

religiosity, and individuation.

Unfortunately, there has been little attention in the professional counseling (and other,

related) literature to the cultural composition and other characteristics of Muslim students in

American schools (Alghorani, 2003) in general, and in particular as the characteristics relate to

acculturation of Muslims in the U.S. However, cultural and other considerations significantly

affect the academic, social, educational, and psychological welfare of Muslim students. Because

most Muslim students attend public schools, school staffs, including school counselors, need to

understand the cultural characteristics of this minority group to better help and serve them.

Therefore, this research serves to shed some light on the special needs of American Muslims,

and especially on Muslim youth in America's public schools.









Berry's Theory of Acculturation

Berry's (1974, 1980) theory of acculturation emphasized a multidimensional, interacting

system, which included individuals and their interactions with their respective environments. By

definition, acculturation is concerned with how ethnic minority individuals adapt to the dominant

culture and the associated changes in their beliefs, values, and behavior that result from contact

with the new culture and its members (Berry, 1998; Berry & Sam, 1996; Berry, Trimble, &

Olmeda, 1980). Berry's model included attention to influences such as Western education, wage

employment, urbanization, settlement patterns, population densities, changes in socialization

practices, and the pressures to change under the impact of these experiences.

Within Berry's theory, the acculturation of a minority person can be assessed by measuring

two presumably independent dimensions: the degree of assimilation to the majority culture and

the degree of retention of the minority culture (Berry, 1980, Berry, 1997; Berry & Sam, 1996;

LeVine & Padilla, 1980; Sanchez & Atkinson, 1983). Level of assimilation into the majority, or

host, culture describes the degree of contact and extent of participation that the individual has

with the host (sometimes called dominant) culture (Berry, 1997, 1998; Berry & Sam 1996). It

varies from full participation to complete rejection of the host culture's values, attitudes, and

behaviors (Berry & Sam, 1996). Retention of the minority culture includes the extent to which

individuals value and adhere to their culture of origin. It varies from strong adherence to the

culture of origin to total neglect or opposition to maintaining the culture of origin (Berry, 1997,

1998; Berry & Sam 1996).

Berry's (1974,1980) model of acculturation proposes four ways that ethnic group members

associate with their host culture: Individuals can assimilate (identify solely with the dominant

culture and sever ties with their own culture); separate (identify solely with their own ethnic

group and reject the host culture); marginalize (reject their own group and reject the host









culture); and integrate (become bicultural by maintaining characteristics of their own ethnic

group while selectively acquiring those of the host culture). A characterization of a low

acculturation person means that an ethnic minority person identifies more with native culture

than with host culture while high acculturation depicts a person who identifies with the host

culture. Different levels of acculturation correspond with different kinds of adjustment problems,

and neither high nor low acculturation can be categorized as "good" or "bad" (Sodowsky, et al.,

1991).

One of the difficulties of specifying the different domains (e.g., values, attitudes,

interpersonal relationships, language, or behaviors) affected by the acculturation process is that

acculturation can be viewed as either a group or individual phenomenon (Cabassa, 2003).

Acculturation has a dualistic effect. It affects the culture of a group as well as changes the

psychology of an individual (Berry & Sam, 1996). An example is a Mexican community in the

U.S. may be considered to have acculturated to American culture because a large group of its

members have learned to speak English. However, although this is technically correct,

individuals within the community may differ significantly in their level of acculturation and vary

in the ways they have adapted to American culture. It is the individual-level variability that most

acculturation measures try to capture (Cabassa, 2003).

Acculturation also is influenced by contextual factors such as the circumstances

surrounding immigration to a new culture (Berry, 1997; Berry & Sam 1998). Prior immigration

contextual factors include reason for immigration, role in the immigration decision, prior

knowledge or contact with host society, and separation and loss of significant others. The

immigration context involves the type of immigration group (e.g. refugee or alien resident), route

of immigration, level of danger in the immigration journey, and duration of the immigration









journey. In the new society, the settlement context includes societal attitudes toward immigrants,

social environment, age at time of settlement, legal and residency status, cultural distance

between culture of origin and culture of settlement, time spent in the new culture, and

expectations for life in the new culture (Berry, 1997; Berry & Sam, 1996). Attention to these

various contextual factors facilitates deeper understanding of how individuals adapt to a new

cultural environment (Cabassa, 2003).

Acculturation can be viewed as a developmental process that varies in intensity and form

over time (Berry, 1997). Individuals entering the acculturation process early in life, such as in

childhood or adolescence, may embrace the dominant cultural values and behaviors as a way of

fitting in, and therefore reject some aspects of their culture of origin. However, these same

individuals later in life may embrace their culture of origin and integrate the two cultural

orientations (Cabassa, 2003).

Research on Acculturation

The work of Berry and his colleagues (Berry, 1980; Berry, Kim, Minde, & Mok, 1987;

Berry, Kim, Power, Young, & Bujaki, 1989; Sam & Berry, 1995) in assessing the acculturation

strategies of various immigrant groups in North America demonstrate that integration is the most

psychologically adaptive pattern. Integrated or bicultural individuals experience less

acculturative stress and anxiety and manifest fewer psychological problems than those who have

been marginalized, separated, or assimilated (Berry, et al., 2006). Overall, marginalized

individuals suffered the most psychological distress, including problems with self-identification

and cultural alienation, which adversely affected their self-esteem (Farver, Narang, & Bhadha,

2002).

Acculturation may be more stressful for some ethnic groups than for others (Berry &

Kim, 1988; Keefe & Padilla, 1987). Generally, the greater the difference between the native and









the new culture, the higher the stress level (Heras & Revilla, 1994; Thomas, 1995) and the more

difficulty individuals experience in their psychological functioning (LaFromboise, Coleman, &

Gerton, 1993; Padilla, 1980; Phinney, 1990). For example, Amer (2005) studied acculturation

and the mental health experiences of 611 Arab Americans from 35 U.S. states post September

11. Participants reported significantly higher anxiety and depression compared to normative

samples and studies with other ethnic minority groups. Integrated and assimilated Arab

Americans reported less stress, anxiety, and depression compared to those who were separated or

marginalized. Acculturation stress correlated with anxiety and depression, and both family

functioning and social support related to less stress and less psychological distress. Also,

Christian Arabs showed significantly less acculturative stress, anxiety, and depression compared

to Muslims.

Horan (1996) studied the acculturation and assimilation of Muslim and Christian Arab

Americans into American culture and society. Among the 266 participants, the Christian Arab

Americans chose integration and acculturation into American culture whereas Muslim Arab

Americans were reluctant to adapt to the American culture and society and rejected America's

core values.

Ghuman (2003) conducted a massive study with participants in four countries. The focus

was on attitudes of second generation South Asians towards Western and home cultures. The

four locations were Birmingham, United Kingdom; Vancouver, Canada; Sacramento Valley,

U.S.A.; and Newcastle, Australia. The study was conducted over a period of eleven years from

1990 to 2001. The study investigated perceptions of parents and teachers on acculturation and

social issues, and the social and educational condition of South Asian adolescent girls, in

particular. A total of 951 students completed an acculturation questionnaire, and 125 also









participated in interviews. Seventy of their parents and 43 of their teachers also participated in

interviews. Ghuman (2003) found that in general, boys and girls (except for Muslim boys in

England) were in favor of integration into their host society as opposed to assimilation or

separation. In regard to gender differences, girls scored higher than boys on their attitude toward

acculturation. For religion and acculturation, Muslim (as opposed to Hindu and Sikh) boys and

girls were closer to the separation end of acculturation, while the Hindu adolescents were closer

to the assimilation end of the continuum. Sikhs were mainly in the middle. With regard to

comparisons across the four countries, English Muslim adolescents were found to be low on the

acculturation factor and high on the traditional factor, and therefore closer to the separation end

of the continuum. The Australian Hindus came closer to the assimilation end, which implies high

on acculturation and low on traditionalism.

In their study of American-born Asian Indian adolescents, Farver, et al. (2002) investigated

the influence of the family on adolescents' acculturation, ethnic identity achievement, and

psychological functioning. They found that parents with marginalized or separated acculturation

style reported more frequent and intense family conflict than did parents with an integrated or

assimilated acculturation style. In families where there was no acculturation gap, adolescents and

their parents reported higher self-esteem and less frequent and less intense conflict. Thus, parents

are instrumental in the successful functioning of their children in both cultural worlds based on

how the parents relate to the host culture.

The presence of acculturation differences, especially cultural value differences, can result

in misunderstandings, miscommunications, and eventual conflicts among family members. These

types of family conflicts are conceptualized as a domain specific form of acculturative stress in

that they reflect the difficulties in transitioning from one cultural environment to another (Sluzki,









1979). The psychological and social problems associated with acculturation conflicts include

general adjustment problems, low self-esteem, anxiety, depression, problems with sexuality,

physical abuse, and conduct disorders for immigrant populations (Cervantes, Padilla, & Salgado

de Snyder, 1990, 1991; Gil, Vega, & Dimas, 1994; Lee, 1997; Szapocznik, Santisteban,

Kurtines, Perez-Vidal, & Hervis, 1984; Uba, 1994; Vega, Khoury, Zimmerman, Gil, & Warheit,

1995). Unfortunately, there are few treatment models to address these culture-specific family

conflicts (Szapocznik et al., 1984; Ying, 1998).

It is obvious that a wide variety of factors influence how and to what extent people

acculturate into a new culture, including those specific to the individuals involved and those

characteristic of the contexts in which individuals find themselves. Thus, any study of what

factors affect the acculturation process must necessarily be multidimensional in nature.

The Muslim Population in America

American Muslims come from several countries. According to statistics provided by

Project MAPS (2001), the largest two groups of American Muslims are of South Asian (32%)

and Arab (26%) descent, followed by African-American (20%), African (7%) and other (14%).

The South Asian Muslim group emigrated primarily from Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh

(Project MAPS, 2001). The Arab Muslim group emigrated primarily from Egypt, Lebanon, and

Palestine (Arab American Institute, 2005). More recently, the Pew Research Center (2007)

reported the Arab Muslims to be the largest immigrant Muslim group (37%) and the South Asian

group to be only 27% according to their survey. This shift in numbers may be due to increased

immigration from the Gulf States in the Middle East in the past five years since the start of the

U.S.-Iraq war. Each group has its own underlying cultural norms that intertwine with their

religious perspectives. For example, the Arab subculture, in general, adheres more stringently to

Islam than does the South Asian subculture. Therefore, knowing the level of adherence to









Islamic values may be an indicator of which Arab culture a person belongs or from which the

person emigrated. However, some cultural norms are shared by both groups.

Many researchers expound on the need for research to identify the mental health stressors

of American Muslims (e.g., Daneshpour, 1998; Haque, 2004; Hedayat-Diba, 2000; Kelly, Aridi

& Bakhtiar, 1996; Khan, 2006), and have written elaborately on the beliefs and practices of

American Muslims. In particular, Haque (2004) wrote that Muslims face ongoing stressors in

America that may negatively affect their mental health and contended there are few therapists

well-grounded in the Islamic approach to mental health counseling. Generally, the imam (i.e., the

one who leads the prayer at a mosque and/or is an Islamic scholar) treats mental health problems

of Muslims in a community. Thus, Muslims may not feel comfortable working with secular

therapists who do not understand Muslim culture or the religious contexts of Muslim issues.

Importantly, mental health professionals must "understand the culture, customs, and religious

beliefs of Muslims in order to serve them on an equal footing with other Americans" (Haque,

2004, p. 57). Despite the growing number of Muslims in the U.S., American Muslims continue

to be understudied, widely misunderstood, and falsely stereotyped (Kelly, Aridi, & Bakhtiar,

1996). Among other negative repercussions, the neglect, misunderstandings, and negative

stereotypes have sensitized Muslims against seeking the services of Western counselors because

they feel they will not be understood and/or that counselors will try to impose Western values

upon them (Jaffari, 1993).

Even American-born children raised in Muslim homes may not feel themselves to be a part

of mainstream American society because some hold to their family's (traditional) religious and

cultural norms and values. However, in general, immigrants face more challenges upon entering

America, and so American-born children likely find it easier to assimilate into mainstream









culture. At school, American-born Muslim children generally are expected to comply with

cultural norms in regard to, for example, dress code, food habits, socialization, and even accent.

However, acculturation is not easy for them. For example, secular occasions such as Halloween

and Valentine's Day do not exist in Islam, and American Muslim children face a predicament

when their parents do not approve of partaking in such events (Haque, 2004). Similarly, during

adolescence, when dating becomes the typical American social norm, according to Muslim social

norms Muslim youth are supposed to stay away from activities such as premarital "free mixing"

between genders (Haque, 2004). Selecting partners for marriage is a serious issue because

parents prefer their grown-up children to marry in their own cultures (Haque, 2004). Thus, there

are a variety of cultural issues that influence the acculturation of American Muslim youth.

Because the American Muslim population is comprised of several cultural and ethnic

subgroups, it is important to delineate the Islamic religious beliefs and the cultural worldviews

dominant in each subgroup. Religious beliefs and cultural worldviews are interrelated yet

distinct. In some cases, religion dictates behavior while in others culture dictates the practice of

the religion, and therefore behavior.

American Muslims are misunderstood primarily because of the stereotypes and myths

about their religion and its purported practices. Therefore, it is timely, and indeed late, to obtain

empirical evidence about the American Muslim population in general and American Muslim

youth in particular because of their critical issues and needs, particularly those related to

acculturation. Further, it is especially important for mental health professionals and other

counselors to have information on American Muslim youth so that they will be able to provide

culturally sensitive interventions for these students.









Muslims and Religion

The basic teaching of Islam, as with most other religions, is to remember God and do good

things for others at all times. Presumably, life in this world is rewarded in the afterlife, which is

understood to be eternal. This is the governing principle for practicing Muslims, and is taught

from birth. Muslims express their beliefs through the practice of rituals called the Pillars of

Islam. The first expression of belief is the shahadah, which is the declaration of faith in one God

and that Mohammad is His Messenger. The second is the performance of the five obligatory

prayers every day. By performing a predetermined ritual of worship five times a day, Muslims

believe that they stay connected with God at all times. The third expression of belief is paying a

percentage of personal wealth as charity, or zakat, at least once a year. The fourth is fasting (for

healthy Muslims) between the hours of sunrise and sunset during the month of Ramadan. The

fifth expression of belief is the hajj, a pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca for those financially

and physically able.

Because of the preeminence of Islam in the lives of American Muslims, it necessarily is an

important factor and issue associated with acculturation. For American Muslim youth in

particular, the primary dilemma is coping with the discrepancies in the practice of Islam between

the former and new countries. Therefore, religious practices should be investigated in study of

the acculturation experiences American Muslim youth.



Muslim Cultural Worldviews

The behavior of the South Asian Muslim people reflects primarily Hindu traditions and

values (Ibrahim & Ohnishi, 1997). For example, for South Asian Muslims, married women

always wear bangles to signify their status as wives. Notably, in South Asian culture in general,

women only marry once, i.e., divorce is forbidden. In contrast, Islamic teachings allow divorce









for both men and women (Ibrahim & Ohnishi, 1997). Indeed, Islam gives Muslim women

several rights (not always practiced) not universally common in South Asia, including the right

to divorce without providing a reason and the right to remarry as often as she becomes single.

All South Asians, regardless of their religion, hold some basic worldviews attributable to

their common socio-historical culture. Ibrahim and Ohnishi (1997) presented a number of

worldviews important to South Asians and Muslims, including the importance of the family and

filial piety, respect and honor for parents, and strong emphasis on duty to the family. An

individual's responsibility and duty to family is even before duty to self.

Sodowsky, et al. (1995) elaborated upon the importance of family to both South Asian

and East Asian Americans including those who are Muslims in this group, and noted in particular

structured family roles and hierarchical relationships, self-control and dignity, respect for

community, and cordiality as commonly held family orientation emphases. Also within this

perspective, importance is placed on the role of the male as the head of household. Women may

work outside the home, but only to supplement family income. Sons rarely take part in the daily

chores and are valued more than daughters. Ibrahim and Ohnishi (1997) stressed that self-

expression, self-control, and personal modesty also are highly valued, as is not drawing attention

to self as being better than others. Unfortunately, this latter perspective can be misunderstood as

not having a high self-esteem.

Regardless of the country of origin or religion, however, the hallmarks of the Arab culture

are family cohesion and loyalty (Nassar-McMillan & Hakim-Larson, 2003). Final authority for

all family matters rests with the father, or in his absence, with the oldest male in the family.

Major decisions, such as choosing a marriage partner or a career, are influenced by family

expectations and requirements (Adudabbeh, 2005). Family privacy is of great significance









because it is connected to maintaining the honor and good name of the family. Elders in the

family are expected to be cared for by other family members; their place in the family requires

respect and payback for their roles as good parents. Talking negatively about a parent is

unacceptable and regarded almost as a sin (Abudabbeh, 2005).

Sexuality is a taboo subject in Arab families, rarely if ever discussed openly among

parents and children, and sexual "inappropriateness" is viewed as bringing shame to the family.

There is even less tolerance for homosexuality (Abudabbeh, 2005). Further, openness and

directness in a person's speech can be considered rudeness (Dwairy, 1998), and are avoided for

the sake of keeping a relationship intact. Lack of acknowledgment and discussion presents a

dilemma for a large number of immigrant Arab families because sexuality is blatant in American

society. Therefore, issues related to sexuality are often problematic for American Muslim youth.

Clearly worldviews influence how people behave in many, perhaps all, contexts (Ibrahim

& Ohnishi, 1997). Therefore, they necessarily influence the behaviors associated with

acculturation, and are important to consider in examining the acculturation of American Muslim

youth.

Gender Roles

According to Ghuman (2003), a pervasive issue among South Asians and South Asian

Muslims is gender equity and gender role specialization. South Asian families in the West, with

some exceptions, have been slow to adapt gender equality and gender role specialization because

of their history and traditions. For example, arranged marriages are still the norm among most

South Asians (Anwar, 1998; Drury, 1991; Shaw, 2000), and tend to disadvantage girls because

of the need for a bride's dowry. A bride's dowry can cost a family up to $30,000 in jewelry,

household goods, bride's clothes and gifts to the groom's relatives. There has been little

modification to this custom in America, and it also is still widely practiced in Canada, Australia,









and the U.K. (Ghuman, 2003). The necessity of a bride's dowry also helps perpetuate the lower

status of girls in South Asian families.

Boys are more "indulged" in South Asian families. For example, their breaking of social

norms, food taboos, dress codes, even dating and drinking are often "overlooked" in South Asian

families in the West (Ghuman, 2003). This "double standard" in the treatment of sons and

daughters often causes tension and anxiety in South Asian families (Shaw, 2000; Gibson, 1988).

Talbani and Hasanali (2000) interviewed 22 South Asian adolescent girls in Montreal,

Canada. The participants identified three important issues in Muslim girls' socialization,

including differential (a) treatment of boys and girls in the home, (b) decision-making power

(i.e., girls have far less), and (c) control over intermingling with the opposite sex (i.e., there is

considerable less freedom for girls). The girls also felt that there was high social cost associated

with being vocal or expressing dissent, so they "accepted" their conditions in the hope of

bringing gradual change as they became adults.

Because Western values typically include gender equity and women's rights, American

Muslim youth are clearly growing up hearing double messages about the place of the women in

the greater society and within the family. These double messages impact the acculturation

processes and behaviors of all American Muslim adolescents, both male and female, and

therefore should be investigated.

Individuation

Respect for community is emphasized in both South Asian and Arab Muslim cultural

groups. Immigrant Muslims in the (local) community are viewed as extended family and each

Muslim has responsibilities to them (El-Islam, 1983; Ibrahim & Ohnishi, 1997). Within most

Muslim cultural groups, individual needs and desires are to be subsumed to and/or sacrificed for

the good of the larger group (Sodowsky, et al., 1995). This belief system is considered to reflect









social consciousness. In turn, this social consciousness is reflected in very high regard for

learning. In particular, formal education is presumed to lead to financial security and success,

which are indicated by ability to take care of the family and to give back to the community. For

example, second generation South Asians, which includes the Muslims in this group, are taught

the importance of developing the self by thinking and behaving independently in schools and the

larger society. However, South Asian families interpret individualistic mentality as selfish

because it implies making personal choices of friends, hobbies, interests and aptitudes, and

careers, and may even be interpreted to mean experimenting with sexuality (Ghuman, 2003). The

belief that individual needs and desires are to be subsumed to those of the family and community

stands in opposition to the concept of individuation, that is, to the development of personal

independence and autonomy. However, individuation is generally accepted as a primary

developmental task for youth in America (Chodorow, 1978; Erikson, 1968; Gilligan, 1982;

Nelson, 1996). Therefore, American Muslim youth confront differing ideologies (i.e., those

within and outside of their historical culture) about what are appropriate developmental tasks and

associated behaviors. Obviously, then, issues related to individuation should be investigated in

any larger examination of the acculturation process of American Muslim youth.

Interpersonal Relationships and Dating

Dating and premarital sexual relations are considered important and relatively normal rites

of passage to adulthood and attaining independence within many Western value systems.

However, for most South Asian families, such activities would "smear the honor" and lower the

social status of the family (Ghuman, 2003.) Arab and South Asian Muslims value modesty

about sexuality, including that virginity is treasured. Thus, dating and/or unchaperoned

interaction between males and females is highly discouraged (Timimi, 1995). Arranged

marriages are still the norm in these cultural subgroups. Further, marrying within the









individual's ethnic group is part of the person's duty to family because it preserves stability in

the family, community, and religion (Sodowsky, et al., 1995).

Within most of American society, adolescence is a time when young people are

establishing relatively intense interpersonal relationships through dating behavior. Often, these

dating behaviors include experimentation with various degrees of intimacy vis-a-vis sexual

behaviors. American Muslim youth are thus confronted with the behaviors of their peers, and

can respond to those behaviors from any of a variety of perspectives. For example, they can

view those behaviors as "alright and appropriate" in the attempt to be like their (American) peers

or they can view them as "inappropriate" within the context of the belief systems of their cultural

heritage. Thus, dating and associated behaviors impact the nature of the acculturation process

for American Muslim youth, and should be examined in study of their acculturation process.

Religiosity

For Muslims, religion is a way of everyday life. Every act is performed with the underlying

notion of "only if God wills" (Insha Allah). Fatalism, i.e., the belief that no matter what one

does, certain events in life are pre-determined and must be dealt with appropriately, underlies all

behavior in every setting; what is meant to be will be. Based on Haddad and Lummis's (1987)

study of Muslims' values, characteristics such as a person's country of origin, length of stay in th

U.S., observation of the Pillars of Islam in every day life, attending Mosque or other religious

and social services at the Mosque and following a strict Islamic dress code, including wearing

the hijab (head-covering), have been noted as reliable indicators of religiosity and devoutness

among Muslim Americans (Hedayat-Diba, 2000).

Ahmed (2004) studied the impact of religious minority status on adolescent's religiosity

and psychosocial maturity among American youth, including some Muslim youth. Of the 174

participants, the Muslim youth were found to be significantly more religious than their non-









Muslim counterparts in the study. Ahmed (2004) concluded that this strong identification with a

religious status may positively impact their pro-social behavior and psychosocial maturity, and

also serve as protective factors during adolescent development.

Ghuman (2003) reported on the importance of religion as an issue that affects South Asian

families and noted that South Asian parents worry that their children are not committed to the

practice of and adherence to Islam. Modood, Berthoud, Lakey, Nazroo, Smith, Virdee, and

Beishon (1997), cited in Ghuman (2003), found that second-generation South Asian adolescents

did not consider religion to be as important as their fathers and mothers did, except specifically

for the Muslim adolescents who were more committed than were Hindu or Sikh adolescents.

Therefore, because of the salience of the practice of religion and the underlying continuity of

religion in everyday life, religiosity should be studied as part of the acculturation process of

Muslim adolescents.

Belongingness

The need to belong is considered a fundamental human motivation (Baumeister & Leary,

1995). Belonging is not just wanting to be a part of something, but also involves taking part in

that thing (Capra & Steindl-Rast, 1991). In a longitudinal study of identity development among

immigrant young adults, Arredondo (1984) found that a sense of belonging is crucial to feeling

positive about self, to feeling trust and positive regard from and for others, to making a

commitment to stay in the current country.

In Kim, Brenner, Liang and Asay's (2003) study on the adaptation experiences of Asian

Americans, 10 Asian-American college students who immigrated to the United States as a child

or adolescent were interviewed. They expounded on the process of negotiating between two

cultures as being difficult and making them feel marginalized from both cultures. More than half

of the participants reported that it was difficult to integrate the norms of both the U.S and









indigenous cultures; they experienced confusion about the use and appropriateness of each

culture's traditions and at which times to use either. Participants felt that they were not accepted

in their native culture because they grew up in America and also were not accepted in America

because they were immigrants having different cultural values and practices. They found it

difficult to fit into both worlds and cultures and felt they did not belong to either.

Belongingness is an important element to consider because it impacts the psychological

well-being of Muslim youth. Therefore, it is a significant part of the acculturation process and

should be explored further.

Language

Native and host language proficiency and use are generally regarded as key indicators of

level of acculturation (Birman & Tricket, 2001), and are addressed in most measures of

acculturation (Phinney, Berry, Vedder, & Liebkind, 2006). Development of language proficiency

speeds the acculturation process. The faster immigrants learn to use the host language, the faster

they adjust to the new culture. For example, Swaiden, Marshall and Smith (2001), in their study

of the acculturation strategies of Muslims in America, found that the more frequent the use of

native language, the greater the desire to retain native culture and remain separated and the lower

the desire to adopt American culture and integrate into the mainstream American culture.

Whereas immigrant adolescents face the task of learning the host language, second-

generation adolescents often lose the ability to speak their native language (Phinney, et.al, 2006).

Learning the host language and becoming fluent in it from a very early age is critical to the

adolescent's success in school, having positive peer interactions, and integrating with their peer

group members, all of which facilitate acculturation into the mainstream society. Conversely,

learning the adolescent's family's native language is voluntary, and less significant in the









adolescent's to the day-to-day functioning. Therefore, language is an important variable

associated with acculturation and warrants further investigation.

Perceived Discrimination

Experiences of prejudice and discrimination are major factors among those making the

acculturation process potentially stressful (Berry, 1997). However, stereotypes, prejudice, and

discrimination are rarely accounted for in acculturation research (Phinney, et al., 2006). They

contend that not enough is known about how widely adolescents in immigrant families perceive

discrimination and how such perceptions are related to the experience in their new country and to

their overall adaptation.

Research on discrimination among immigrants suggest that it has a reciprocal relationship

to acculturation attitudes; that is, the attitudes of members of the larger society toward

immigrants is likely to be reflected in the feelings of immigrants about the society (Kalin and

Berry, 1996). Therefore when immigrant adolescents feel that they are viewed negatively by

others, they will be more likely to view society negatively and reject being part of the larger

society; that is they would favor separation or marginalization over integration or assimilation.

Positive sense of belonging to one's ethnic group predicted more positive attitudes toward

other groups, which in turn predicted lower perceived discrimination (Romero & Roberts, 1998).

Only when people are secure in their own identity will they be in a position to accept those

different from them (Phinney, et.al, 2006). When people feel secure they are less prejudiced

toward others and when they feel threatened they are more prejudiced (Berry & Kalin, 1995).

Conversely, the perception of discrimination may strengthen one's ethnic group identification

and weaken ties to the national group (Phinney, et.al., 2006).

Since September 11, Muslims in America in particular are highly profiled on television

and other media. The increased negative attention can impact the acculturation process of









adolescent Muslims. Therefore, perceived discrimination based on being a Muslim in America

would be an important element to research in this study.

Other Relevant Variables

Length of residence in the U.S. is perhaps the most frequently used measure of exposure to

American (Western) culture (Faragallah, Schumm & Webb, 1997). In general, the greater the

exposure to U.S. culture, the more likely that an immigrant will acquire the American culture in

an adaptive manner or else reject it and depart the country. El-Badry and Poston (1990), El-

Sayed (1986) and Musleh (1983) all found a positive relationship between length of residence

and acculturation success for Arab immigrants to the United States. Immigrants who had been in

the U.S. for a shorter period suffered more problems than immigrants who had been in the U.S.

for longer periods of time (Penaloza, 1994; Swaiden, Marshall, & Smith, 2001). Age at

immigration also may be important, because younger immigrants may be more flexible with

respect to the changes required to adapt to a new culture (Faragallah, et.al., 1997).

Parents' sense of ethnic identity and level of acculturation can influence a child's sense of

identity and level of acculturation (Farver, et al., 2002). Parents are influential in setting the tone

for their children's behavior, attitudes, and successful functioning in both cultural worlds. In

their study of the ethnic identity, acculturation and conflict among Asian Indian families, Farver,

et al. (2002) found that the more separated or marginalized the parents were from the mainstream

(American) culture, the more conflict there was within the families. They also found that

adolescents were more likely to be assimilated than parents because of the socializing aspects of

the school environment. If the adolescents retain their heritage, they are more likely to be

alienated from their peers. Unfortunately, if immigrant adolescents reject their native culture,

they risk being alienated from their own ethnic group without assurance that they will be

accepted into the mainstream.









Farver, et al., (2002) also found that adolescents who had acculturated to a large extent

reported higher self-esteem than did the adolescents who had acculturated to lesser extents.

Acculturated adolescents also reported less anxiety and higher self-esteem. An acculturation gap

(i.e., the level of acculturation thus far achieved) is often widest between the first and second

generations. Therefore, immigrant parents and their American-born children may be at the

highest risk for psychological maladjustment (Farver, et.al., 2002).

Other researchers have found that parents' level of acculturation effects family functioning

and adolescent adjustment. For example, investigators have shown that adolescents whose

immigrant parents did not adapt well to the host culture (i.e., preferred separation) had more

psychological problems than did adolescents whose parents were more integrated or assimilated

(Barankin, Konstantareas & deBosset, 1989; Koplow & Messinger, 1990; Minde & Minde,

1976). Similarly, in families in which immigrant parents were overly identified with their ethnic

group, strong ties to the native culture served to separate or marginalize the family from the host

culture (Keefe & Padilla, 1987).

Therefore, each of these factors is important in the acculturation process of both parents

and children and should be investigated further.

Summary of the related literature

The review of the literature has highlighted Berry's theory of acculturation and the

research associated with acculturation. The Muslim population in America is made up of

different ethnic groups; therefore it is critical that both cultural and religious worldviews are

considered when counseling this group. Muslim view of mental health and counseling, Muslim

religious beliefs and cultural values were further examined to get a more in-depth understanding

of this population. Gender roles, individuation, interpersonal relationships and dating, religiosity,

belongingness, language, perceived discrimination and length of residence were considered









important factors of interest in the literature review as having important effects in the

acculturation process.









CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

The purpose of this study is to identify the demographic characteristics and the extent to

which high school-age Muslim students experience different issues presumed to be associated

with the acculturation process. This chapter provides a description of the methodology for the

study, including delineation of the relevant variables, population, sampling procedures,

instrumentation, research procedures, and data analyses.

Relevant Variables

The independent variables addressed in this study include the responding student's

gender, age, country of birth, ethnicity, number of years in the U.S., father's number of years in

the U.S., mother's number of years in the U.S., primary language spoken in the home, origin of

religion and type of high school. Gender was self-reported by the respondent as male or female.

Respondent students also self-reported their respective current age in years and country in which

they were born. Ethnicity was self-reported by the student as Indian, Arab, African American or

Other. Responding students also self-reported the numbers of years the student, student's father,

and student's mother, respectively, have lived in the U.S. Principal language spoken in the home

was self-reported by the responding students as English, Urdu, Arabic, or Other. Origin of

religion was reported as Muslim By Birth or By Conversion. The dependent variable addressed

in this study is the responding student's total score on the Muslim Youth Acculturation Rating

Questionnaire (MYARQ), a questionnaire developed by the author for this study (see Appendix

F).

Population

The sample for this study was drawn from the population of American Muslim students

attending public, private, and Islamic high (secondary) schools in the U.S. The U.S. Census









Bureau does not collect data on religious identification or affiliation. Therefore, there are no

official estimates of the Muslim population in the U.S census bureau data, and all reports of the

Muslim population in the U.S. are estimates from other sources (Pew Research Center, 2007).

Various institutions and organizations have given widely varying estimates about how

many Muslims live in the U.S. For example, recent studies reported 1.1 million (Kosmin &

Mayer, & Keysar 2001), 1.6 million (Glenmary Research Center, 2002), 1.9 million (Smith,

2002), 4.7 million (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2005), and 6.7 million (Ba-Yunus, 1997), 7.0

million (Hartford Institute for Religious Research, 2000) Muslims in the U.S. Discrepancies

among the estimated numbers of the U.S. Muslim population revolve usually around the survey

methodologies used to estimate that population (Smith, 2002). However, extant political opinions

influence some estimates (Smith, 2002). For example, some Muslim groups even contend that

population estimating surveys have undercounted the U.S. Muslim population due to

"Islamophobia," Muslims' fear of revealing their faith in a survey and/or Muslims identifying

themselves as Muslims even though they do not attend mosques (i.e., actually practice the faith)

("Muddle over Muslim census,"2001).

The Pew Muslim American study surveyed a national sample of 1,050 Muslims living in

the U.S. and projected the Muslim population to be 0.6% of the U.S. adult population. This

estimate suggests there are approximately 1.5 million Muslims 18 years old or older currently

living in the U.S. Extrapolating from those data and U.S. Census Bureau data, the Pew Research

Center therefore estimated that there are approximately 850,000 Muslim Americans under the

age of 18 nationwide, in addition to the 1.5 million adults, for a total of 2.35 million Muslims

(Pew Research Center, 2007).









The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) (2006) reported that the projected

total enrollment of secondary school students in public schools in the U.S. in 2007 will be

approximately 33% of the total number of students enrolled in public schools in the U.S.

Therefore, it can be estimated that the maximum number of Muslim students in the public and

private secondary schools in the U.S. would be approximately (850000 x .33 =) 280,500.

However, some proportion of the estimated total of 850,000 Muslim children has not yet entered

the school system. Therefore, the estimated maximum number of American Muslim students is

something less than 850,000, and correspondingly, the estimated number of American Muslim

students in secondary schools is something less than 280,500.

The Pew Muslim American Survey found that 54% of all adult Muslims in the U.S. are

male (Pew Research Center, 2007). According to NCES data (2004), males are more likely than

females to drop out of high school (11.6 percent compared to 9.0 percent). Therefore, it could be

suggested that there would be a higher percentage of Muslim females than males in secondary

schools in the U.S. However, as indicated, in the (American) Muslim population, great emphasis

and value are placed on education, which in turn would suggest that a relatively low percentage

of Muslim students drop out of school. Therefore, it is likely that the male to female ratio for

American Muslim students in secondary schools in the U.S. is approximately 54 to 46, as it is in

the general population of American Muslims.

Sixty-five percent of adult Muslims in the U.S. were born in another country (Pew

Research Center, 2007). Of the 35 percent (of so-called) American-born Muslims, 21 percent are

converts to Islam and only 14 percent were born Muslims in other countries (Pew Research

Center, 2007). Twenty one percent of the American-born (or 7% of all Muslims in the U.S.) are

second-generation, with one or both parents having been born outside of the U.S. The 65% who









were born outside of the U.S. come from at least 68 different nations, with no one country

accounting for more than 12% of the immigrants (Pew Research Center, 2007):

Thirty seven percent of all foreign born Muslim Americans arrived from the Arab region,

including Arabic-speaking countries in the Middle East and North Africa. An additional 27%

emigrated from the South Asian region, including Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Afghanistan.

Another 8% come from European countries and 6% from other parts of Africa. In terms of

specific countries, 12% of foreign-born Muslims arrived from Pakistan, and the same proportion

from Iran. No more than 7% of first generation immigrants were born in any single country.

(Pew Research Center, 2007, p. 16).

Most foreign born Muslims arrived in the U.S. in the 1990s (33%) or in the current decade

(28%). An additional 23% came during the 1980s, while just 16% came to the U.S. earlier than

that. The vast majority of immigrant Muslims who arrived prior to 1990 and during the 1990s

have become naturalized citizens (92% and 70%, respectively).

The Pew Muslim American Survey also found that the American Muslim population is

significantly younger than the non-Muslim population (Pew Research Center, 2007). More than

half of adult Muslims (56%) are between the ages of 18 and 39; 31% are between the ages of 40

and 54; and only13% of Muslim adults are ages 55 and older. Fully 33% of adult Muslims live in

households with no children.

The current study was focused in states reported to have the highest Muslim populations

(Kosmin, & Lachman, 1993) among state residents, including California (0.6%), New York

(0.8%), New Jersey (0.6%), Illinois (0.4%), Pennsylvania (0.3%), Texas (0.2%), Michigan

(0.3%), and Massachusetts (0.4% ). However, Muslims in a few other states (e.g., Florida) were

included to attempt to achieve the needed minimum sample.









Sampling Procedures

The sample for this study included (self-identified) American Muslim students currently

enrolled in public, private, and Islamic high schools in the U. S. Several different approaches

were used to identify, contact, and solicit participation from these students.

The primary method used to obtain participants was solicitation of assistance from

secondary school counselors in public high schools in the U.S. The American School Counselor

Association (ASCA) provides an (updated annually) online member directory of elementary and

secondary school counselors that includes the state in which they are located and their email

addresses. This directory is available to all ASCA members, and was used for initial contact with

potential assisting secondary school counselors in the nine states that have the highest Muslim

population.

Secondary school counselors identified from the ASCA directory were sent an email

inviting them to participate in this study (Appendix A). Those responding affirmatively to the

request were emailed the flyer as well as asked if they would like a packet of flyers sent to them

via the U.S. postal service. As per the requirements stipulated by the Institutional Review Board,

each counselor was asked to include in his/her reply that the school's administration had

approved for the flyer to be distributed to the Muslim students. The participating school

counselors were asked to distribute the flyers to Muslim students known to them and to request

that each student thus identified take the flyer home to her or his parentss. All school counselors

expressed that they did not want the flyers mailed to them, as they did not have more than a

range of ten to twenty Muslim students that they knew of in their schools. The flyer (Appendix

B) contains information about the study, an invitation for the parent of the student to contact the

primary researcher via email to get the URL address and the personal identification number

(PIN) needed to allow their student to participate. The primary researcher had an automatic









response set up at her email that replied immediately to any parental email asking for the study's

URL and Pin number. The URL address conveyed the informed consent for the parent

(Appendix C). Insertion of the provided PIN at the Informed Consent website (a) represented

informed consent by the parents) for the student to participate in the study and (b) allowed the

student to access the questionnaire MYARQ. The student gave his/her Child's Assent

(Appendix C) by typing in YES, and then proceeded to respond to the 31 survey items and 10

demographic questions of the MYARQ. Students who are 18 or older did not need to get parental

involvement and instead inserted the PIN number as their consent to participate in the study. A

paper version of the questionnaire was also made available for those who requested it.

Another sampling procedure included contacting Islamic centers and mosques in the states

with the highest Muslim populations and Florida via email to disperse information about the

study. The centers contacted were identified from directories provided by the leading Muslim

organization in North America, the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA). ISNA is "an

association of Muslim organizations and individuals that provides a common platform for

presenting Islam, supporting Muslim communities, developing educational, social and outreach

programs and fostering good relations with other religious communities, and civic and service

organizations" (http://www.isna.net/about/mission.html, retrieved August 22, 2007). The

directories provide the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of mosques and Islamic centers

that have registered with ISNA. The centers are listed alphabetically by state. Only the

metropolitan centers in the states with high Muslim populations (as listed previously) were

contacted for participation.

The request to the respective centers involved distribution of an announcement to adult

mosque attendees to invite parents of adolescent Muslims to encourage their respective children









to participate in the study (Appendix E). An email request sent to the director of an Islamic

center will request information about the study which will be attached to the end of the email

(Appendix F) be forwarded (e.g., via a listserv) to adult members of the center Also, the director

was requested to post a paper copy of the invitation to participate that could be viewed at

gatherings at the center (e.g., Friday afternoon prayers). This method also solicited interest from

Islamic school directors who were interested in the participating in the survey.

Resultant Sample

Shavelson (1996) provided a convenient method, and table, for determining desired

minimal sample size. He also indicated that an alpha level of .05 (a = .05) and a power level of

.90 (P = .90) are common values for social science research, with 0 = .90 actually being a

relatively stringent criterion. The remaining item needed to determine a suitable minimal sample

size is the size of the difference between means (i.e., effect size) in standard deviation units (A).

The effect size value can be determined a priori only on the basis of intuition, i.e., in

consideration of the ramifications of making incorrect decisions. For this research, the effect size

was set at A = .25 because it is a relatively stringent criterion. Applying these values to the table

provided in Shavelson (1996, p. 640), the minimum sample size for this study should be 168. In

addition, it is anticipated (based on data presented previously) that the gender ratio among

respondents will be approximately 1:1.

Survey Development

The Muslim Youth Acculturation Rating Questionnaire (MYARQ Appendix F) was

developed for the purposes of this research and used to allow American Muslim youth to indicate

the extent to which they have experienced various acculturation issues. The original version was

an online questionnaire. During the data collection phase, several Islamic centers and some

parents requested paper copies of the MYARQ. Therefore, the paper version of the survey was









created for those who requested it. The (attitudinal) subsection requires respondents to use a

Likert scale to indicate the extent to which they agree with the respective statements (which

reflect various acculturation issues) as they apply to the respondent. The attitudinal subsection of

the MYARQ is preceded by a subsection that asks respondents to provide the personal (i.e.,

demographic) information investigated in the study.

The demographic questions asked for the respondent for his/her gender (male or female,

age (write-in value), ethnicity (Indian, Arab, African American, Other), country of birth (U.S.,

Other), primary language spoken at home (English, Urdu, Arabic, Other), number of years lived

in the U.S. (Born in the U.S. write-in value), number of years Father has lived in the U.S.

(write-in value), number of years Mother has lived in the U.S. (write-in value), type of Muslim

(By Birth, By Conversion), and type of high school (Public high school, Private high school,

Islamic high school, Other). These variables were chosen for this study as being pertinent

variables related to acculturation from the literature (Berry, et al., 2006).

The attitudinal items (i.e., acculturation issues) in the MYARQ were derived from the

professional literature. The items themselves are declarative statements intended to reflect the

essence of a particular acculturation issue that has been presented in the professional literature.

The attitudinal subsection of the MYARQ includes items to address six types of acculturation

issues: (a) gender roles, (b) interpersonal and peer relations, (c) religiosity, (d) individuation

from family, (e) belongingness, and (f) perceived discrimination. The items are statements

relative to the respective acculturation issues. The item response choices are: (SA) Strongly

Agree, (A) Agree, (U) Undecided, (D) Disagree, and (SD) Strongly Disagree. The MYARQ is

presented in Appendix E.









For example, Ghuman's (2003) study, which was conducted on South Asian adolescents

living in four western countries (including Australia, Canada, England, and the U. S.), presented

a questionnaire with some relevance to this study Several items from that questionnaire

suggested topical statements for the MYARQ. Similarly, Berry, et al.'s (2006) study on

immigrant youth provided suggestions for topical statements in the MYARQ.

For the MYARQ questions relating to gender roles (GR), two sources were used to derive

each statement. MYARQ GR#1 Muslim women should be allowed personal freedom and

MYARQ GR#2 Muslim women should stay home and take care of their family when they get

married were derived from Faragallah, et al.'s (1997) question "Should women be allowed more

personal freedom or should they stay home more?" in their study on the acculturation of Arab-

American immigrants. The remaining GR questions in the MYARQ were derived from

Ghuman's (2003) questionnaire with South Asian adolescents. MYARQ GR#3 Muslim men

should make all the important decisions in the family ("Men should make all the decisions about

the affairs of the family" Ghuman, 2003, # 25); MYARQ GR#4 Muslim women should not work

outside the home ("A woman's place is in the home" Ghuman, 2003, #11); MYARQ GR#5

Muslim girls and boys are not treated the same ("Girls and boys should be treated the same"

Ghuman, 2003, #1).

Several sources in the literature were noted as relating the values that are inherent for

Muslims regarding interpersonal and peer relations (IPR). Notably, Abudabbeh (2005),

Sodowsky, Lai and Plake (1991) and Timimi (1995) noted the importance of marrying the same

religious and ethnic groups to continue the lineage for Muslims; therefore IPR # 1 Muslims

should marry only within their religious group was created. Ghuman (2003) and Wakil, Siddique

and Wakil (1983) stressed the importance of behavior with peers to be successful in school;









therefore IPR#2 Muslim teenagers should behave like non-Muslim American teenagers so that

they can be more successful in school was created. Ali, Liu and Humedian (2004), Hedayat-Diba

(2000), Talbani and Hasanali (2000), Timimi (1995), and Wakil, Siddique, and Wakil (1983)

emphasized the social restrictions placed on Muslim adolescents while interacting with the

opposite gender. Therefore, IPR#3 It is okay for Muslim girls and boys to talk to each other

whenever they want to was created. IPR #4 and IPR #5 were derived from Ghuman (2003): My

marriage should be arranged by my family ("Marriage should be arranged by the family"

Ghuman, 2003, #1); Muslim boys and girls should be allowed to go on group dates with other

Muslims. (Boys and girls should be allowed to meet each other in youth clubs" Ghuman, 2003,

#1).

For MYARQ questions on religiosity (RLG), two sources in the literature were used.

MYARQ RLG #1, RLG #2, RLG#3 were derived from Ghuman's (2003) questionnaire: I should

eat halal Muslim/ethnic food all the time ("I would rather eat Indian/Pakistani food all the time"

Ghuman, 2003, #6); I feel comfortable celebrating Christmas just as I celebrate Eid ("We should

celebrate Christmas as we celebrate our own religious festivals Ghuman, 2003, #8); I should

attend the Mosque and weekend religious school "(We should attend our places of worship

(gurdwara, mandir, mosque" Ghuman, 2003, #3). RLG #4 Muslims should be allowed to practice

their daily prayers in school or at work was created from Carter (1999) suggestion that Muslim

students should be permitted to pray at school as a recommendation to teachers and counselors

who want to help Muslim students be successful at school.

For MYARQ questions on individuation from family (IFF), Berry et al., (2006) and

Ghuman (2003) were the main sources. MYARQ IFF #1, IFF #2, IFF #3, IFF #4 were derived

from Berry, et al., (2006) Immigrant Adolescent Questionnaire: Muslim children should always









obey their parents ("Children should obey their parents" Berry, et al., 2006, #G-3).; I believe

parents know what is best for their children (Parents always know what is best" Berry, et al.,

2006, #G-10); Muslim children should look after the parents in their old age ("It is a child's

responsibility to look after the parents when they need help" Berry, et al., 2006, #G-8); Muslim

boys should live with their parents until they marry ("Boys should live at home until they marry"

Berry, et al., 2006, #G-14); Muslim girls should live with their parents until they marry ("Girls

should live at home until they marry" Berry, et al., 2006, #G-13). IFF #5 The interests of my

family should come before mine was derived from Ghuman's questionnaire ("The interest of the

family should come before the individual (self)" Ghuman, 2003, #31).

For MYARQ questions on belongingness (BLG), two questions were derived from

Ghuman's questionnaire: BLG #1 I should change my Muslim name so that others can say my

name easily ("We should change our names so that teachers can say them easily" Ghuman, 2003,

#16); and BLG #2 I am uncomfortable socializing with non-Muslim Americans ("I feel very

uneasy with white Australians" Ghuman, 2003, #23). In their study with 1.5 Asian American

college students, Kim, Brenner, Liang and Asay (2003) also indicated that many immigrants felt

uncomfortable socializing with the host population and often only made close relationships with

other Asians similar to them. Therefore, BLG #3 and BLG #4 "My closest friends are Muslims",

"I have both Muslim and American/non-Muslim friends" were created to address this issue.

BLG #5 and BLG#6 (I wish I lived in a Muslim country, not in America; I am not happy living

as a Muslim in America) were derived from several questions that Ghuman (2003) asked

regarding how respondents felt about living in ethnic communities versus host communities ("I

have no wish to go back to live in the country my parents came from," "We are better off living









with people from our community," I would prefer to live in an area where there are families

from our community," The quality of Australian life is better than that of India/Pakistan.")

For MYARQ questions on perceived discrimination (PD), PD#1 and PD#2 were derived

from Berry, et al., (2006) Immigrant Adolescent Questionnaire: I have been teased or insulted

because I am Muslim ("I have been teased or insulted because of my ethnic background" Berry,

et al., 2006, #H-4); I feel accepted by my non-Muslim American friends ("I don't feel accepted

by (national group)" Berry, et al., 2006, #H-2.) PD #3 and #4 (I and/or my family have been

discriminated against because we are Muslims; Being Muslim has had a negative impact on me

and/or my family) were created from the literature given by Berry, et. al., (2006) who

emphasized the impact of perceived discrimination in the acculturation experiences of immigrant

groups. Ali, Liu, and Humedian (2004), Kim, et al., (2003), and Roysircar (2003) espoused the

negative stereotyping that Muslims face living in America which led to the creation of PD #5:

Some non-Muslim Americans don't like my culture and religion.

Shown in Table 3-1 are primary sources for each of the items in the attitudinal subsection

of the MYARQ.

In order to inhibit response sets, positive and negative wordings, and associated forward

(SA=1, A=2, U=3, D=4, and SD=5) and backward (SA=5, A=4, U=3, D=2, and SD=1) item

response weightings are used such that higher scores indicate that the issue is more problematic

for the respondent. The MYARQ total score is achieved by summing the respective item

response weights. For the thirty one items of the MYARQ attitudinal section, the highest

possible score is 123 and the lowest possible score is 63. The assumption that this study makes

with the response sets is that the higher the total score, the more problems the respondent has

with regard to acculturation issues.









Prior to initiation of the sampling procedures for the study, a pilot study was conducted

with between eight American Muslim parents and youth in the Alachua County, Florida, area.

Solicitation of participants for this pilot study was made through a local Islamic center. The

purpose of the pilot study was to determine if the participant solicitation and online participation

procedures are fully functional; data from the pilot study was included in the final data set for

this study.

Table 3-1. Referenced issues for the MYARQ
Issues and MYARQ Item Numbers Reference(s)
Religiosity
Muslim youth should attend Mosque and weekend Ghuman (2003); Hedayat-Diba, 2000
religious school (#22)

Muslim youth should celebrate Christmas (#17) Ghuman (2003); Hedayat-Diba, 2000

Muslims should be allowed to practice their daily Carter (1999)
prayers in school or at work (#19)

Muslims should eat Halal Muslim/Ethnic food all the Ali, Liu, & Humedian (2004); Carter
time (#10) (1999); Roysircar (2003)

Gender Roles Ali, Liu, & Humedian (2004); Ghuman
Muslim girls and boys are treated the same in family (2003); Hedayat-Diba (2000); Shaw,
(#14) 2000; Talbani and Hasanali (2000)


Muslim men make all the important decisions (#15 )



Muslim women should be allowed more personal
freedom (# 6)

Muslim women should stay home and take care of
family (#11)

Muslim women should work outside the home (#16)


Ali, Liu, & Humedian (2004); Ghuman
(2003); Hedayat-Diba (2000); Shaw,
2000 Talbani and Hasanali (2000)

Faragallah, Schumm, & Webb (1997);
Musleh (1983); Shaw, 2000; Talbani
and Hasanali (2000)
Faragallah, Schumm, & Webb (1997);
Musleh (1983).

Faragallah, Schumm, & Webb (1997);
Musleh (1983).









Table 3-1 Continued.
Belongingness
Muslim students should change their names so that
others can say it easily (#3)

Muslim youth are uncomfortable socializing with
White Americans (#4)

Muslims should wish they lived in a Muslim country,
not America (#23)

Muslims are not happy living in America (#25)

Muslims' closest friends are Muslim (#20)


Muslims should have Muslim and American/non-
Muslim friends (#27)

Individuation from family
The interests of family should come before personal
interests (#12)





Muslim children should always obey their parents
(#9)




Muslim children should look after their parents in
their old age (#21)



Muslim parents always do what is best for their
children (#13)


Muslim boys should live with their parents until they
marry (#29)
Muslim boys should live with their parents until they
marry (#30)


Ghuman (2003)


Ghuman, (2003), Kim, Brenner, Liang,
& Asay (2003)

Ghuman (2003)


Berry, Phinney, Sam & Vedder (2006)


Berry, Phinney, Sam & Vedder (2006);
Kim, Brenner, Liang, & Asay (2003)

Berry, Phinney, Sam & Vedder (2006)


Ali, Liu & Humedian (2004); Berry,
Phinney, Sam & Vedder (2006);
Brilliant (2000); El-Islam, 1983;
Hedayat-Diba (2000); Ibrahim &
Ohnishi, 1997; Sodowsky, Lai & Plake
(1991)

Ali, Liu & Humedian (2004); Berry,
Phinney, Sam & Vedder (2006);
Brilliant (2000); El-Islam, 1983;
Hedayat-Diba (2000); Ibrahim &
Ohnishi, 1997

Ali, Liu & Humedian (2004); Berry,
Phinney, Sam & Vedder (2006) Brilliant
(2000); Hedayat-Diba (2000); Ibrahim
& Ohnishi, 1997

Ali, Liu & Humedian (2004); Berry,
Phinney, Sam & Vedder (2006) Brilliant
(2000); Hedayat-Diba (2000)

Ali, Liu & Humedian (2004); Berry,
Phinney, Sam & Vedder (2006);
Brilliant (2000); Hedayat-Diba (2000)









Table 3-1 Continued.
Interpersonal/Peer Relations
Muslims boys and girls should be allowed to go out
on group dates (#7)

Marriage should be arranged by my family (#8)



It is acceptable for Muslim girls and boys to talk to
each other (#31)



Muslims should marry within their ethnic group (#1)



Muslim teenagers should behave like "American
students" to be more successful in school (#2)


Ghuman, 2003; Timimi, 1995; Wakil,
Siddique, & Wakil (1983)

Adudabbeh, 2005; Ghuman, 2003;
Timimi, 1995; Wakil, Siddique, &
Wakil (1983)

Ali, Liu & Humedian (2004); Hedayat-
Diba (2000); Talbani and Hasanali
(2000); Timimi, 1995; Wakil, Siddique,
& Wakil (1983)

Adudabbeh, 2005; Ghuman, 2003;
Sodowsky, Lai & Plake (1991); Wakil,
Siddique, & Wakil (1983)

Ghuman, 2003; Wakil, Siddique, &
Wakil (1983)


Data Analyses

Two major but different types of data analyses were conducted using the current version

of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 16). Differences in MYARQ Total

scores based on (a) gender, (b) country of birth, (c) ethnicity, and (d) primary language spoken in

the home, and (e) type of high school were examined using one way Analysis of Variance

(ANOVA). Post hoc multiple comparisons for ethnicity, primary language and type of high

school were done using Least Significant Differences (LSD) and Bonferroni. The relationships

among MYARQ Total scores and (a) respondent's age, (b) respondent's number of years in the

U.S., (c) respondent's father's number of years in the U.S., and (d) respondent's mother's

number of years in the U.S. were examined using non-parametric pairwise correlations. For those

analyses that were statistically significant, univariate Analysis of Variance were done to examine

any significant interaction effects. Cronbach's alpha was computed to establish an internal

reliability coefficient for the MYARQ Total Score.









Methodological Limitations

A methodological limitation for this study is the participating students have no direct

incentive to respond to the MYARQ or to respond to it openly, honestly, or completely.

However, receiving the MYARQ materials from school counselors, who by virtue of their

positions in schools should be viewed as helpful and caring adults, should impart to potential

respondents that the survey and research are important and legitimate. In addition, the

requirement for parental permission for participation necessarily means that parents must be

aware of their children's participation and may serve to motivate their children to respond to the

MYARQ. This could also possibly affect the respondents to provide socially desirable

responses. Most important, however, is the realization among most American Muslims that there

is great need for better understanding of them and of their lives by the general population of the

U.S., which should serve as a strong motivation to participate in the study.

A similar limitation applies to the participating school counselors. That is, they too do

not have any direct incentive to assist with the study. However, most practicing school

counselors, as dedicated professionals, recognize the need for and value of substantive research

that has good potential for application in the school counseling profession. Therefore, it is likely

that those school counselors who agree to participate will do so to the best of their respective

abilities.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

The purpose of this study was to determine demographic characteristics and the extent to

which high school-age Muslim students experience different issues believed to be associated

with the acculturation process. Presented in this chapter are the results from the surveys used by

students to provide their perceptions of various, relevant acculturation issues presented in the

literature. Demographic data are presented, including age, gender, ethnicity, country of birth,

primary language spoken at home, Muslim by birth or conversion, type of high school attended,

number of years the student has lived in the country, and number of years the student's father

and mother have lived in this country. Next, the results of analyses of differences in MYARQ

total scores by gender, ethnicity, country of birth, primary language, Muslims by birth or

conversion and type of high school attended total are provided. Finally, the relationships among

MYARQ total score and age and number of years lived are provided.

Demographic Characteristics

The demographic data for the respondents are presented in Table 4-1. The total number

of respondents was N=144. However, data from only 143 were used because of incomplete data

from one of the respondents. Of the 143, 35% were male and 65% were female. In regard to

ethnicity, 40% indicated they were of South Asian descent (Indian, Pakistani, or Bangladeshi);

43% indicated they were of Arab descent (Egyptian, Iraqi, Yemeni or Lebanese); 5% indicated

they were African American; and 12% indicated they were of "Other" ethnicity (which included

American, Turkish, Albanian, Iranian, and Multi/Biracial). For their country of birth, 68% of the

respondents were born in the United States, while 32% were born in another country. Two of the

respondents did not provide this information. In regard to primary language spoken at home,









57% indicated English, 9% indicated Urdu, 23% indicated Arabic, and 11% indicated another

language (including Turkish, Farsi, Swahili, and Albanian).

In regard to origin of religion, 96% indicated they were Muslim by birth, and the

remaining 4% were Muslim by conversion. Two of the respondents did not provide this

information. In regard to type of high school attended, 67% indicated public schools, 24%

indicated Islamic high schools, 7% indicated private high schools, and 2% indicated "Other"

(e.g., home-schooled). One respondent did not report this information.

Table 4-1. Respondents' Demographic Characteristics
Variable Percentage (N)
Gender
Male 35% (50)
Female 65% (94)
Ethnicity
South Asian 40% (58)
Arab 43% (62)
African American 5% (7)
Other 12% (17)
Country birth
U.S. 68% (96)
Other 32% (46)
Primary language
English 57% (82)
Urdu 9% (13)
Arabic 23% (33)
Other 11% (16)
Origin of Religion
Birth 96% (137)
Conversion 4% (5)
Type of High School
Public 67% (96)
Islamic 24% (34)
Private 7% (10)
Other 2% (3)
Response frequencies for the 31 attitudinal items MYARQ is shown in Appendix G.









Table 4-2 shows the average age of the respondents, average number of years that the

respondents had lived in America, average number of years that the respondents' father had lived

in America, and average number of years the respondents' mother had lived in America.

Table 4-2. Respondent's Age and Length of Residence and Respondents' Parents length of
Residence
Minimum Maximum
Variable N M SD Yrs Years
Age 143 15.84 1.27 13.0 18.0
Years in U.S 142 13.16 4.58 1.0 18.0
Years Father 132 14.70 14.52 0.0 57.0
Years Mother 125 12.95 13.15 1.0 60.0


Response Summary

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used for all data

summarizations and analyses. The alpha level was p = .05 for all analyses. For the 144

participants, their mean MYARQ total score was 93.09 (SD = 11.29). Boxplot and Stem Leaf

analyses of the respondents' total scores showed that the sample had a relatively normal

distribution of MYARQ total scores.

Table 4-3. Response Means for MYARQ Total Score
Respondents Mean Score Lowest Score Highest Score
144 93.09 (SD=11.29) 64 114


H0l: There is no difference in MYARQ Total Score based on respondent gender.

Shown in Table 4-4 are the MYARQ Total score data by gender. An independent samples

t-test (see Table 4-5) was computed to determine if there was a statistically significant difference

in respondent MYARQ total scores based on gender. It was found that t = 2.28 (df = 142; p =

.024). Therefore, male respondents had a statistically significantly higher MYARQ total score

mean than did the female respondents, and the first null hypothesis was rejected.









Table 4-4. Means by Gender for MYARQ Total Score
Gender N Mean Std. Dev Std. Error Mean
Total Score M 50 96 10.5772 1.4958
F 94 91.5426 11.4118 1.177


Table 4-5. Independent Samples t test for MYARQ Total Scores by Gender
Levenes's
Test for
Equality
of
Variances t-test for Equality of Means
95%
Sig. Confidence
F Sig t Df (2- Mean Std. Error Interval of the
tailed) Difference Difference Difference
Lower Upper
Equal
variances .183 .669 2.288 142 .024 4.4574 1.9483 .6060 8.3089
Total assumed
Score Equal variances
qual variances 2.342 106.876 .021 4.4574 1.9034 .6841 8.2308
not assumed



H02: There is no difference in MYARQ Total Score based on respondent ethnicity.

Shown in Table 4-6 are the MYARQ Total Score data by ethnicity. A one way analysis

of variance (see Table 4-7) was calculated to compare respondent MYARQ total score means by

ethnicity. For this analysis, it was found that F = 1.64 (df =3,140) p = 0.182). Therefore, there

was no statistically significant difference based on ethnicity and the second null hypothesis was

not rejected.









Table 4-6. MYARQ Total Score Means by Ethnicity
95%
Confidence
Std. STD. Interval for
N Mean Deviation Error Mean Minimum Maximum
Lower Upper
bound bound
South 58 91.74 11.74 1.54 88.65 94.83 68.00 114.00
Asian
Arab 62 95.40 1.05 1.40 92.59 98.21 65.00 114.00
African 7 91.14 7.73 2.92 83.99 98.29 83.00 103.00
American
Other 17 90.06 11.03 2.67 84.38 95.73 64.00 109.00
Total 144 93.09 11.29 .94 91.23 94.95 64.00 114.00


Table 4-7. One Way Analysis of Variance for MYARQ Total Score by Ethnicity

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 619.988 3 206.663 1.642 .182
Within Groups 17621.838 140 125.870
Total 18241.826 143

H03: There is no difference in MYARQ Total Score based on respondent country of birth.

Table 4-8 shows MYARQ Total Score data by country of birth. An independent samples

t-test (see Table 4-9) was computed to compare respondent MYARQ total score means by

country of birth. It was found that t = -0.11 (df =140; p = .916). Therefore, there was not a

statistically significant difference in MYARQ total score means based on country of birth, and

the third null hypothesis was not rejected.

Table 4-8. Means for MYARQ Total Score by Country of Birth

COBIRTH N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean


United States 96 93.0938 11.1119 1.1341
Total score
Another Country 46 93.3043 11.2128 1.6532









Table 4-9. Independent Samples t test on MYARQ Total Score by Country of Birth
Levenes's
Test for
Equality t-test for Equality of Means
of
Variances
95%
Confidence
Sig. Interval of the
(2- Mean Std. Error Difference
F Sig. t Df tailed) Difference Difference Lower Upper
Equal
variances .026 .871 .105 140 .916 -.2106 1.9984 .-4.1616 3.7404
Total assumed
Score Equal variances
qual variances .105 88.079 .917 -.2106 2.0048 -4.1948 3.7736
not assumed


H04: There is no difference in MYARQ Total Score based on respondent primary
language spoken in the home.

Shown in Table 4-10 are the MYARQ Total Score data by primary language spoken in

the home. A one way analysis of variance (see Table 4-11) was calculated to compare MYARQ

total score means across categories of primary language spoken in the respondent's home. It was

found that F = 6.521 (df =3,140) p=0.000). Therefore, the fourth null hypothesis was rejected.

Subsequently, a Least Significant Difference (LSD) and Bonferroni post hoc comparison (see

Table 4-12) revealed that primary home language of English and "Other" language were not

statistically significant from each other and that the primary home languages of Urdu and Arabic

were not statistically significant from each other. However, the primary home languages of Urdu

and Arabic were statistically significant from the primary home language of English









Table 4-10. Means for MYARQ Total Score by Primary Language in the Home
95% Confidence Interval
for Mean


Std.


Std.


Lower
R lin r


n Mean Deviation Error
English 82 89.8171 1178.5866 1.2795 87.2712
Urdu 13 99.4615 12.3397 3.4224 92.0047


Arabic 33 98.0000 8.4668
Other 16 94.5625 8.2054
Total 114 93.0903 11.2945


1.4739 94.9978
2.0514 90.1901
.9412 91.2298


Upper
Bound
92.3629
106.9184
101.0022
98.9349
94.9508


Minimum Maximum
64.00 114.00
71.00 114.00
75.00 113.00
78.00 106.00
64.00 114.00


Table 4-11. One Way Analysis of Variance for MYARQ Total Score by Primary Language in
the Home


Between Groups
Within Groups
Total


Sum of Squares
2236.402
16005.424
18241.826


df Mean Square F Sig
3 745.467 6.521 .000
140 114.324
143


Table 4-12. Post Hoc LSD and Bonferroni Comparison of MYARQ Total Score by Primary
Language in the Home
95% Confidence
Interval


(I) (J)
PRIMLAN PRIMLAN
Urdu
English Arabic
Other
English
Urdu Arabic
Other
English
Arabic Urdu
Other
English
Other Urdu
Arabic


Mean
Difference
(I-J)
-9.6445(*)
-8.1829(*)
-4.7454
9.6445(*)
1.4615
4.8990
8.1829(*)
-1.4615
3.4375
4.7454
-4.8990
-3.4375


Std.
Error
3.1919
2.2042
2.9222
3.1919
3.5012
3.9924
2.2042
3.5012
3.2572
2.9222
3.9924
3.2572


Sig.
.003
.000
.107
.003
.677
.222
.000
.677
.293
.107
.222
.293


Lower
Bound
-15.9551
-12.5408
-10.5228
3.3339
-5.4606
-2.9942
3.8251
-8.3836
-3.0023
-1.0320
-12.7923
-9.8773


Upper
Bound
-3.3339
-3.8251
1.0320
15.9551
8.3836
12.7923
12.5408
5.4606
9.8773
10.5228
2.9942
3.0023


LSD









Table 4-12 Continued
Urdu -9.6445(*) 3.1919 .018 -18.1869 -1.1020
English Arabic -8.1829(*) 2.2042 .002 -14.0820 -2.2839
Other -4.7454 2.9222 .640 -12.5661 3.0753
English 9.6445(*) 3.1919 .018 1.1020 18.1869
Urdu Arabic 1.4615 3.5012 1.000 -7.9087 10.8317
Other 4.8990 3.9924 1.000 -5.7858 15.5838
English 8.1829(*) 2.2042 .002 2.2839 14.0820
Arabic Urdu -1.4615 3.5012 1.000 -10.8317 7.9087
Other 3.4375 3.2572 1.000 -5.2798 12.1548
English 4.7454 2.9222 .640 -3.0753 12.5661
Other Urdu -4.8990 3.9924 1.000 -15.5838 5.7858
Other -3.4375 3.2572 1.000 -12.1548 5.2798
The mean difference is significant at the .05 level.

H05: There is no difference in MYARQ Total Score based on respondent Muslim belief
origin.

Because such a small proportion of the respondents had become Muslim by conversion, the
data were insufficient to allow appropriate data analysis. Therefore, this hypothesis could not be
evaluated in this study

H06: There is no difference in MYARQ total score based on respondent type of high
school attended

Because there were so few respondents who attended private (other than Islamic) high

schools, the data from those respondents was combined with that of respondents who attended

public high schools. Shown in Table 4-13 are the MYARQ Total Score data by type of high

school following the clustering. A one way analysis of variance (see Table 4-14) was calculated

to compare respondent MYARQ total score means by school type. It was found that F = 0.223

(df =2,140; p =0.801). Therefore, there was not a statistically significant difference in MYARQ

total score means based on school type, and the sixth null hypothesis was not rejected









Table 4-13. Means Description of MYARQ Total Score and Type of School Attended
95%
Confidence Interval
for the Mean
n Mean Std. Std. Lower Upper Minimum Maximum
Deviation Error Bound Bound
1.00 106 92.9245 12.1167 1.1769 90.5910 95.2581 64.00 114.00

2.00 34 93.5000 8.3130 1.4257 90.5995 96.4005 78.00 113.00

4.00 3 89.0000 10.8167 6.2450 62.1299 115.8701 77.00 98.00

Total 143 92.9790 11.2547 .9412 91.1185 94.8395 64.00 114.00


Table 4-14.


One Way Analysis of Variance for MYARQ

Sum of Squares


Total

df


Score and Type of School

Mean Square f Sig.


Between Groups 57.041 2 28.520 .233 .801
Within Groups 17929.896 40 128.071
Total 17986.937 42

H07: There are no statistically significant interactions for MYARQ Total Score among
respondent characteristics

To examine the relationship between respondent gender and primary language spoken in

the home, a univariate ANOVA was conducted. Results revealed a significant main effect for

primary language F(3, 136) = 5.78, p < .001, although the gender, F (1, 136) = 1.88, p = .17, and

the gender by primary language interaction were not significant F (3,136) = .384, p =.77. Thus,

the null hypothesis was not rejected

H08: There is no relationship between MYARQ total score and respondent age.

Because the range of respondent ages was restricted, a Spearman rank order (rho)

correlation was computed (see Table 4-15) to determine the relationship between MYARQ total

score and respondent age. For this analysis, it was found that rho = -0.006 (df= 143; p =. 947).

Therefore, the eighth null hypothesis was not rejected.


1









H09: There is no relationship between MYARQ Total Score and respondent years in the
United States.

A Spearman correlation also was computed (see Table 4-15) to determine the relationship

between MYARQ total score and respondent length of residence in the United States. For this

analysis, it was found that rho = -0.024 (df = 142, p = .776). Therefore, the ninth null hypothesis

was not rejected.

H010: There is no relationship between MYARQ Total Score and respondent's father's
years in the United States.

A Spearman's rank correlation was computed (see Table 4-15) to determine the

relationship between MYARQ total score and respondent's father's length of residence in the

United States. It was found that rho =.296 (df = 132; p = .001). Therefore, the tenth null

hypothesis was rejected.

Holl: There is no relationship between MYARQ Total Score and respondent's mother's
years in the United States.

A Spearman's rank correlation was computed (see Table 4-15) to determine the

relationship between MYARQ total score and respondent's mother's length of residence in the

United States. It was found that rho =.217 (df = 125; p = .015). Therefore the eleventh null

hypothesis was rejected.









Table 4-15. Spearman Correlation Coefficients of MYARQ Total Scores with Respondent Age,
Length of Residence, Respondent's Father's Length of Residence, and Respondent's
Mother's Length of Residence.


Total score



AGE


Spearman's
rho


YRSLIVED


YRSF



YRSM


Correlation
Coefficient
Sig.(2-tailed)
N
Correlation
Coefficient
Sig.(2-tailed)
N
Correlation
Coefficient
Sig.(2-tailed)
N
Correlation
Coefficient
Sig.(2-tailed)
N
Correlation
Coefficient
Sig.(2-tailed)
N


Total
Score

1.000

144

-.006
.947
143

-.024
.776
142


.296(**)
.001
132

.217(*)
.015
125


**Correlation is significant at the .01 level (2-tailed)
*Correlation is significant at the .05 level (2-tailed)


AGE YRSLIVED


-.006
.947
143

1.000

143

.434(**)
.000
142


.064
.470
131

.054
.553
124


-.024
.776
142

.434(**)
.000
142

1.000

142

.255(**)
.003
131

.408(**)
.000
124


YRSF YRSM


.296(**)
.001
132

.064
.470
131

.255(**)
.003
131


.217(*)
.015
125

.054
.553
124

.408(**)
.000
124


1.000 .786(**)
.000
132 122


.786(**)
.000
122


1.000

125


Finally, a Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha was calculated to determine the internal

consistency of the MYARQ. It was found to be 0.70 for the MYARQ Total Score for this group

of respondents which is considered adequate in most social science research situations (Heppner,

Kivlighan, & Wampold, 1992).









CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

The primary purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which high school age

Muslim students experience various acculturation issues that have been presented in the

professional literature. In addition, differences in the extent to which they experienced the

various issues based on gender, ethnicity, country of birth, primary language, origin of religion

and type of high school attended were examined, as were the relationships between the extent to

which they experienced those issues and the number of years that the respondent and each of the

respondent's parents have lived in America. The extent to which the respondents experienced

acculturation issues was made operational as the total score on the Muslim Youth Acculturation

Rating Questionnaire (MYARQ), a self-report instrument developed by the author that

comprised of items that reflected acculturation issues as presented in the professional literature.

Although much research has been done about acculturation for immigrant adults (e.g.,

Amer, 2005; Berry, Kim, Minde, & Mok, 1987; Berry, Kim, Power, Young, & Bujaki, 1989;

Phinney, 1990; Sam & Berry, 1995), and some for immigrant youth (e.g., Ghuman, 2003; Portes

& Rumbaut, 2001), little attention has been focused on the cultural adaptation of Muslim youth

(Alghorani, 2003; Hedayat-Diba, 2000). However, Muslim youth face a distinct acculturation

process because of their "allegiance" to both traditional cultural values and religious beliefs and

the social influences of their American peers. Additionally, since the historic events of

September 11th, 2001, Muslims have had to endure intense scrutiny as members of the greater

American society. These unique stressors impact the acculturation process of Muslims,

especially adolescents who also are experiencing other developmental changes and engaging in

identity development. Therefore, this study surveyed Muslim adolescents to determine the extent

to which they experience various acculturation issues presumed to be common in the









acculturation process. Presented in this chapter are the limitations, conclusions, implications, and

recommendations that evolved from this research.

Generalizability Limitations

The purpose of this survey research was to gather information from high school age

Muslim students about their experiences of issues in their acculturation process. The initial plan

was to access the high school students by contacting high school counselors and Islamic centers

to disseminate information about the study by means of a flyer. The flyer requested that parents

contact the researcher for the link to the online survey (with the password provided as the

informed consent for their child to take the online survey). Therefore, high school counselors

who were members of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) and resided in the

nine states with the largest Muslim populations (i.e., California, Florida, Illinois, Massachusetts,

Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Texas) were contacted via email. Islamic

Centers in the same nine states also were sent email information about and participation requests

for the study. However, collectively these processes generated only twenty respondents over a

three-month period, even though a reminder email was sent to the school counselors and Islamic

centers every month. Therefore, thereafter "snowball sampling" was used to increase the

response rate. Snowball sampling is deliberate sampling that typically proceeds after a study

begins and takes place when the researcher asks participants to recommend other individuals to

participate in the study (Creswell, 2002). This method helped to increase the final sample to 144.

Although the desired sample size was not fully achieved, this sample is sufficient for valid data

analyses, and substantial relative to the restricted population from which it was drawn.

Another adjustment to the proposed procedures was to provide a paper version of the

survey for those participants who requested it. The third adjustment was an addition to the type

of high school attended by the respondents. Initially, it was intended that only students from









public high schools would be sampled, based on the assumption that those Muslim students who

were "main-streamed" adolescents would face the common acculturation issues. However,

feedback and interest from parents and directors of Islamic schools who received the information

about the study from their Islamic centers suggested that students in Islamic schools also

experienced acculturation issues frequently. Therefore, students from public, private, and

Islamic schools all were included in the study. Again, although this was a change from the

original plan, the inclusion of students from Islamic high schools in effect allowed the sample to

represent an even broader sample of Muslim adolescent students.

It was anticipated that the gender ratio among respondents would be approximately 50:50.

However, the gender ratio for the sample was 65% female and 35% male. It may be that more

females than males responded to the MYARQ as they tend to be more compliant and conforming

than males. However, while females are to some extent overrepresented among the respondents,

there were sufficient numbers of respondents for each gender to allow valid gender difference

analyses.

Conclusions

A higher score on the MYARQ reflected greater extent to which the respondent

experienced acculturation issues. Therefore, lower MYARQ scores are associated with higher

acculturation (i.e., lesser extent of acculturation issues) while higher scores imply lower

acculturation (i.e., greater extent of acculturation issues). The lowest possible MYARQ score

was 63 and the highest possible score was 123. For this study the lowest total score by a

respondent was 64 and the highest score was 114.

The first hypothesis addressed differences in MYARQ Total Score based on gender.

There was a statistically significant difference in mean MYARQ total score, with male

respondents having a higher mean score than female respondents. This result indicates that male









Muslim adolescents had greater intensity of acculturation issues than the female Muslim

adolescents.

A second major finding of this study was that the mean difference for primary language

spoken in the home was statistically significant. The primary difference was among respondents

from homes in which Urdu and Arabic were the main languages spoken at home and those in

which English was the main language spoken at home, with students in the former having greater

intensity of acculturation issues than in the latter.

The third major finding in this study was that of the positive and statistically significant

correlations between the number of years that both the respondent's father and mother had lived

in the U.S. and MYARQ Total Score. Apparently, parental duration in the U.S. is inversely

associated with their adolescent's experience of acculturation issues.

Statistically significant differences were not found for MYARQ Total Score based on

ethnicity, country of birth, and type of high school.

The variable "country of birth" was included to investigate whether there were

differences based on being born in the U.S. While a majority (68%) of the respondents was born

in the U.S., many of them had not lived in the U.S. their entire lives; the total number of years

lived in the U.S. for the respondents were often different than their actual age. Presumably,

discontinuity of time lived in the U.S. could have impacted the intensity of their experiences with

acculturation. However, there was not a statistically significant difference for this variable.

One of the initial assumptions of this study was that public school students have greater

exposure to mainstream America, and therefore would be a more accurate representation of the

average or typical Muslim adolescent in America. Islamic school students' educations follow

strict Islamic rules, which include segregation of the sexes, wearing a school uniform, intense









study of religion, and daily prescribed prayers (Alghorani, 2003). Therefore, it would be easy to

assume that these students have had a completely different experience of daily school,

interpersonal, religious, and social life than the public school students. However, there were no

statistically significant differences in intensity of acculturation experience based on school type.

Interpretations

The variables examined in this study were developed from the literature on theory and

research related to acculturation of immigrants. In particular, Berry's theory of acculturation

states that demographic variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, length of residence, and parents'

length of residence have been shown as possible sources of variation in the acculturation process

(Berry & Sam, 1997). Intercultural variables such as language proficiency and use, social

contacts, perceived discrimination and family relationship values have been researched within

the context of Berry's theory, and found to have substantive relationships with acculturation

process level of adaptation (Berry, et al., 1989; Berry, Phinney, Kwak, & Sam, 2006).

Berry's (1980) theory of acculturation includes that all issues are applicable to all persons

experiencing the acculturation process. Further, for adolescents in immigrant families,

acculturation attitudes are shaped by families, peers, their school experiences, and other adults

with whom they interact (Phinney, et al., 2006). Thus, differences in preferences for

acculturative change are dependent on contextual factors, any discrimination that they may

experience, and personal characteristics (Phinney, et al., 2006). Because both the nature and

extent of the acculturation issues with which a person is confronted change over time (Berry, et

al., 2006), it is important that research on adolescents be conducted before they become adults.

This study therefore contributes to the research and theory associated with the literature on

acculturation of adolescent immigrants.









The result of gender difference in acculturation found in this study is in accord with the

research of Berry, et al. (2006) and Ghuman (2003) who also found acculturation differences

based on gender. Interestingly, Berry, et al., (2006) found in their study of acculturation, identity,

and adaptation of immigrant youth living in 13 societies around the world that immigrant boys

had slightly better psychological adaptation than immigrant girls, but there was poorer

sociocultural adaptation for girls. Psychological adaptation in their study included factors such as

life satisfaction, self-esteem, and psychological problems and sociocultural adaptation included

factors such as school adjustment, and behavior problems. They concluded that:

"girls are more likely to internalize problems and have higher levels of depression,

whereas boys are more likely to externalize problems and act out. In schools, girls have the same

opportunity as boys for exposure to the new society. Girls are likely to find school a congenial

atmosphere, both because they typically do better in school than boys... and because a school

atmosphere that promotes gender equality may allow them greater freedom than they experience

at home. Positive attitudes toward school may contribute to the better school adjustment of

girls...an orientation toward integration might create more stress at home, especially when

parents want their daughters to remain close to the cultural traditions of the family.... Stress at

home may be a factor in the poorer psychological well-being of girls." (Phinney, et al., 2006,

p.221).

Ghuman's (2003) study on South Asian youth living in four Western countries reported

that girls had the most to gain from accepting the norms and practices of gender equality,

especially when the cultural and religious norms within their family did not allow for them to be

treated the same as the boys. This may explain why the girls in the present study scored lower on









the MYARQ (which implies lesser intensity of problems) because they stand to gain more by

adopting Western values with regard to gender equality and treatment from others.

In regard to primary language spoken in the home, previous research (Swaiden, et.al, 2001)

has shown that among Muslims in America, the more frequent the use of native language, the

greater the desire to retain native culture and remain "separated" from mainstream American

culture. Ghuman (2003) found that Muslims in particular in his study were more dedicated to

learning, speaking, and keeping their primary language than the other religious groups. Similarly,

Berry, et al., (2006) concluded that Muslim immigrant youth were the largest group among the

ethnic profile groups in which the orientation was toward high ethnic identity, ethnic language

proficiency and usage, and ethnic peer contacts.

Language proficiency speeds the acculturation process (Swaiden, et al., 2001), a

proposition supported by the respondents in this study having higher scores MYARQ scores

being the ones who were primarily speaking languages other than English at home.

Previous research by El-Badry and Poston (1990), El-Sayed (1986), and Musleh (1983)

found a positive relationship between length of residence and acculturation success for Arab

immigrants to the U. S. Immigrants who had been in the U.S. for a shorter period suffered more

problems than immigrants who had been in the U.S. for longer periods of time (Penaloza, 1994;

Swaiden, et al., 2001). However, apparently the potential acculturation adaptation benefits

derived from longer residence in the U.S. is not transmitted directly, or at least uniformly, from

parents to their children. A possible explanation is that, in general, the basic religious and

cultural values of Muslims espouse the authority of the father in the household. Further, gender

roles are clearly defined and hierarchical. Therefore, the father usually makes all the important

decisions in the household, which could include the amount of contact the family has with the









larger society, the activities in which the children are involved in at school or outside of school,

and the interpersonal relationships allowed for the children and/or the family in general.

Another plausible explanation for this finding may be the repercussions for Muslims in

general following the events of September 11th, 2001. September 11th has dramatically altered

the way Muslims live in the U.S. (Abdo, 2006). In the post "9-11 era," Muslims have become

more religious and more conservative because they feel an urgent need to embrace their beliefs

and to establish an Islamic identity as a unified community. For example, Abdo (2006) reported

that there are more mosques, more women wearing headscarves, and more Muslims taking time

to perform their daily prayers at work than in the decade prior to September 11th, 2001.

And finally, most of the previous studies that showed a positive relationship between

length of residence and acculturation success were conducted in the 1980s andl990s.

Acculturation success may have had different influences based on the historical events preceding

that time. Now, however, Muslims are more frequently "keeping to their own ethnic groups"

because of distrust and anxieties related to national and media propaganda against Muslims. On

September 11th, 2001, the respondents in this study were only between six and 11 years of age.

After that date, their parents may have tried to "protect" their children more by keeping them

separated from the larger society and the onslaught of negative stereotyping of Muslims. Abdo

(2006) reported that young Muslims who were born or raised in the U.S. are often more

observant of Islamic practices than their parents. Therefore, the respondents in this study may

have had more intensity of acculturation issues regardless of how long their parents have lived

longer in the U.S.

With regard to the lack of significant difference based on ethnicity, it is important to

recognize that not all Muslims are alike. In the world at large, Muslims are comprised of several









ethnic groups, but in the U.S. they are primarily comprised of three main groups: Arab Muslims,

South Asian Muslims, and African Americans Muslims (Pew Research Center, 2007).

Considering that these three groups are vastly different in primary language, cultural mores, and

historical background, it was expected that there would be differences in the intensity of their

acculturation issues as well. However, that was not the case in this study. There is no readily

apparent explanation for this lack of difference.

Most recent studies of Muslims (e.g., Ahmed, 2005; Barry, 2001, 2002, 2005; Ghuman,

2003; Mansour, 2000) have been focused only on one ethnic group (Arab or South Asian) or on

other mental health issues (such as identity development, religiosity, or depression), and

therefore did not address acculturation issues across different ethnic groups. An exception was

Berry, et al., (2006) who investigated ethnicity as a variable in the acculturation process of

immigrant youth in four of 13 different countries in their study. They concluded that there were

strong differences in ethnic orientation and ethnic behaviors, and in turn in predicted adaptation

outcomes. Therefore, the present study was distinctive in investigating potential differences in

intensity of acculturation issues based on ethnicity, and also in not finding differences based on

ethnicity.

The correlation between age and MYARQ score was not statistically significant. Berry,

et al., (2006) found no age differences in acculturation adaptation in their study. They suggested

that age may have been confounded with age of arrival which was not studied with their

participants. Therefore, although it might seem reasonable to suggest that older students would

have less intense experiences in acculturation, apparently that is not the case.

A basic issue in acculturation research is whether immigrants experience an essentially

linear change from complete identification and involvement with their original ethnic culture to









more or less complete identification and involvement with their new host culture (Berry, 1980,

1984). Berry, et al., (2006) found that change was not a linear progression, that is, that with

longer residence, adolescents are more likely to be bicultural and integrated rather than

assimilated. The majority of the respondents in this study were born in the U.S. It is possible that

there was not a statistically significant correlation because they had already integrated and

become bicultural to a large extent.

Implications

A gender difference in the extent to which Muslim adolescents experience acculturation

was found. Boys generally had higher scores, which indicate they had greater intensity of

involvements with acculturation issues. In addition, Muslim adolescents who primarily spoke

Urdu and Arabic at home had higher scores than those who primarily spoke English at home.

And finally, there was a positive correlation between intensity of issues experienced and the

length of time the parents had lived in the U.S. Therefore, the results of this study generally

support the generalized application of the theory of acculturation in regard to some demographic

factors, such as gender and length of residence and intercultural factors, such as languages)

used, but not others such as ethnicity and country of birth and contextual variables like type of

high school.

With regard to implications for research in acculturation, the results of this study support

previous research that showed gender differences in acculturation and the impact of language in

the acculturation process. However, also found in this was information that is contrary to

previous findings in regard to the relationship between length of residence and acculturation

adaptation. Thus this study contributes new information in regard to acculturation of second

generation Muslim adolescents.









With regard to implications for training of counselors, the results of this study are

beneficial to counselor educators because of its' results pertinent to gender, primary language,

and parents' length of residence and how those factors are associated with the acculturation

process of Muslim adolescents. Often in the counselor preparation, the emphasis is on

generalized multi-cultural education about an ethnic group, their worldviews, and their

presenting issues. This study adds further depth to the known information about Muslims and

their religious and cultural worldviews, and therefore contributes to better understanding of the

personal characteristics and contextual variables that impact Muslims adolescents' acculturation

and integration into their schools and the larger society. Also, because Muslims present in

different ethnicities, this study helps to clarify that across the different ethnicities, gender

differences impact how adolescents develop. For example, speaking two languages is potentially

beneficial for culture retention and ethno-cultural pride. Counselor educators should know that

primary language use impacts cultural adaptation and that school counselors should provide

services that support both the adolescent and their families. Because it was found that parents'

length of residence had a positive correlation with the intensity of experience of acculturation

issues, school counselors should be advised to consider the underlying reasons.

With regard to implications for practice, school counselors and other educators should take

into account their Muslim students' cultural values, religious beliefs, and acculturative influences

that impact their psychological and behavioral functioning in schools. While research on other

cultural groups has found acculturation to increase with time spent in the host society, found in

this study was that Muslims may be different in this regard, and in particular in regard to parents'

length of time in this country. Parents are always an obvious component in ensuring the success

of students in schools. Therefore, school counselors and other educators should always take into









consideration the potential impact of parental acculturative variables that may in turn impact

their child's acculturative experience and realize that it may vary among individuals.

Recommendations

This study is among the few that have investigated the acculturation experience of

immigrant adolescents, and possibly the only one that has specifically examined the

acculturation experiences of Muslim immigrant and second-generation adolescents post

September 11th, 2001, in the U. S. Some of the results from this study are supported in previous

literature but the new results found may be especially pertinent for future studies.

Existing acculturation theory takes into account the importance of gender and primary

language as impacting the acculturation process. However, from this study, it is recommended

that theory also take into account how Muslim parents' length of residence is associated with

acculturation of adolescents. While most immigrant parents achieve a have higher degree of

acculturation with a longer stay in the host country, Muslim parents may be seeking to shield

their adolescent children from having similar experiences. While September 11th, 2001, is

typically given only cursory attention in the professional literature related to discrimination

against Muslims, further research to explore the extent of the problems experienced by Muslims

relative to this tragic event is greatly needed to understand the full impact on their lives.

As indicated, this study is one of, if not the only one, on the acculturation of adolescent

Muslims. Clearly more studies in this regard are needed. In particular, studies having larger

sample sizes and/or samples from different populations are needed to broaden the basis of

cultural knowledge about adolescent Muslims in the U.S. Collaboration among Muslim

educators, counselors, and local leaders is highly recommended to systematically specify and

study pertinent acculturation issues. Also, more research is needed on the psychometric

properties of the MYARQ; specifically, the subscales of the MYARQ can be further developed









using factor analyses. Further research is also recommended in comparing immigrant Muslims

pre-September 11th and post-September 11th. This could identify more clearly the acculturation

experiences for Muslims related to this important event in America.

A strong recommendation is made for including Muslims as a distinct group within

multicultural education and training for school counselors and counselor educators. The Muslim

population is growing rapidly in the United States (Bagby, 1994; U.S. Department of State,

2001). Such training should include the differential experiences of immigrant Muslim adults and

second generation Muslim children. Increasing and correcting the information about Muslims in

the American society in general and acknowledging their unique issues would help Muslims

have better acculturation experiences.

In school settings, school counselors should take the initiative to learn about the adolescent

Muslim population, and then provide workshops to others about what they learned. Counselor

educators also can help by providing factual, research-based information about Muslim

adolescents to students in school counselor preparation programs and by encouraging further

relevant research. Research also can be used to provide community education workshops. If

society as a whole, including government and educational institutions, provide acceptance,

openness and support for Muslim adolescents to thrive, then adolescent Muslims can seek to be

more involved in the life of the larger society, which in turn promotes the integrative model of

acculturation (Berry, et al., 2006; Ghuman, 2003).

Summary

Muslims are fast becoming a significant and common component of the American

society. However, there is not yet enough accurate information about this population in general,

and about the youth of this population in particular. This study sought to determine the extent to

which Muslim adolescents are experiencing acculturation issues in the U.S. and to investigate









some variables associated with their acculturation experiences. In many respects, the results from

this study support previous research findings. However, new information also was found.

Therefore, further research is highly recommended to explore the nature of acculturation among

Muslim adolescents.









APPENDIX A
INVITATION TO SCHOOL COUNSELORS

Dear Colleague,

My name is Shifa Hussain. I am a doctoral candidate in the Department of Counselor Education
at the University of Florida. You may remember me from the April, 2007 issue of ACA's
Counseling Today that featured the article Muslim "Teens Leading Double Lives" for which I
was interviewed. As a high school counselor for over eight years, I have worked in a variety of
roles and with diverse populations, including Muslim students and parents. My dissertation
research is entitled, "Acculturation issues of Muslim high school students in the United States."
It involves American Muslim high-school-age students responding to an online and survey about
acculturation issues they may be facing. It should take the students approximately 10 minutes to
respond.

I am writing to ask if you would assist my research by distributing information about my
research and survey to any Muslim students in your school. All you are asked to do is to contact
any Muslim students in your school known to you and give each of them a flyer to take home to
their parentss. The flyer for the parent is attached for your perusal and for sharing with the
appropriate school administration for approval of distribution of the flyers.

Please reply to this email stating your interest and willingness to participate in this study. I
also request for you to please include in your reply your school administration's approval for
this flyer to be distributed to the Muslim students. I will send an appropriate number of flyers
about the research via the U.S. postal service as soon as possible. The flyer is intended for
distribution to the parents) of each Muslim student, so each student contacted should be asked to
take the flyer home to his/her parentss. If more convenient, you can print the flyer and give to
your student to take home to his or her parent.

This study is funded in part by the by the Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values
in Counseling (ASERVIC), a division of the American Counseling Association.

I would appreciate your response to this email.

Respectfully,

Shifw PoWcvuaviw R wai,&v


Shifa Podikunju Hussain, M.Ed., Ed.S., Larry Loesch, Ph.D., NCC.
Doctoral Candidate Professor, Counselor Education
University of Florida University of Florida
shifaph@ufl.edu or 352-339-4588









APPENDIX B
INFORMATIONAL FLYER FOR PARENTS OF AMERICAN MUSLIM HIGH SCHOOL
STUDENTS

In the tradition of greeting in the Muslim faith,
Assalaamu Alaikum
(Peace be upon you)

Dear Respected Parent,

My name is Shifa Podikunju Hussain. I am a doctoral candidate in the school counseling
program in the Department of Counselor Education at the University of Florida. I write to
request your help in my research on adolescent Muslim students living in the U.S.

My doctoral dissertation research is entitled, "Acculturation issues of Muslim high school
students in the U.S." This study received funding in part from the Association for Spiritual,
Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling, a division of the American Counseling Association.
The major research activity is completion of an approximately 10-minute, online survey by high
school-age Muslim students. I am contacting you because you are the parent of a student eligible
to participate in my study, and your consent is need for your student to participate.

As an American Muslim and a high school counselor for more than eight years, I have worked
with Muslim and other bi-cultural teens who face issues associated with adaptation to
mainstream American society. I am aware that parents often feel overwhelmed when faced with
the deluge of cultural differences that affect their children in schools and in society. This study is
intended to be a foundation of discovery for actual issues that young Muslims face growing up in
America. I am interested in learning about Muslim high school students' opinions in topics
such as relationships with peers including Muslims and non-Muslims, the roles of boys and
girls in family life growing up in America, how Muslims are treated in America, and how
connected Muslim boys and girls feel growing up in America.

The results from this study should be helpful to educators, parents, children, and educational
professionals in ways beneficial to all. It also may be that this research will help alleviate some
of the misconceptions that the larger society may have about Muslims living in America. If you
have any other questions or would like to contact me regarding this study or the survey, you
can welcome to call me at 352-339-4588 at any time, or my supervising professor at the
University of Florida, Dr. Larry Loesch at 352-392-0731, extension, 225.

This study is not connected to your school and will not impact the academic standing of your
student in any way. The school is asked to only distribute this informational flyer to Muslim
students known to the school counselor.
Muslim high school age students from across the United States are being requested to participate
in this research by completing an approximately 10-minute online survey.

If you are willing for your child to participate in this 10-minute survey, please e-mail me at
hussain. shifa@gmail. com for information on the survey website address and the Personal
Identification Number (PIN) needed to participate. All participants receive the same standard









PIN number and therefore cannot be identified by this PIN. Use of the PIN number is part of
the informed consent process. By providing the URL and PIN to your child, you are
acknowledging informed consent for your child to participate in my search. You may
withhold consent simply by not providing this information to your child. This procedure has
been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Florida (Protocol #2007-
U-1056).

I would appreciate your participation in this pioneering study on the acculturation issues
faced by the Muslim children growing up in America.
I thank you in advance for your generous participation and your contribution to the literature on
Muslims and their needs in America.

In the tradition of the Muslim faith,
Jazakallahu Khair,
(May God grant you good)



Shifa Podikunju Hussain M.Ed., Ed.,S., Larry Loesch, Ph.D., NCC
Doctoral Candidate Professor, Counselor Education
University of Florida University of Florida
shifaph@ufl.edu or 352-339-4588









APPENDIX C
ONLINE PARENTAL CONSENT



Dear Respected Parent,

I am a doctoral candidate in the school counseling program in the Department of Counselor
Education at the University of Florida under the supervision of Dr. Larry Loesch.

The purpose of this study is to find out how Muslim high school students feel about acculturation
issues related to growing up in the United States. The results from this study should be helpful to
educators, parents, children, and educational professionals in ways beneficial to all. It also may
be that this research will help alleviate some of the misconceptions that the larger society may
have about Muslims living in America. There are no known risks to your child.

This study is not connected to your school and will not impact the academic standing of your
student in any way. The school is asked to only distribute this informational flyer to Muslim
students known to the school counselor.

Muslim high school age students from across the United States are being requested to participate
in this research by completing an approximately 10-minute online survey. With your permission,
I would like to ask your child to participate in this research.
The survey asks the child to choose whether they agree or disagree with statements that the
research literature has stated as relating to acculturation issues of ethnic and religious minority
groups. I am interested in learning about Muslim high school students' opinions in topics
such as relationships with peers including Muslims and non-Muslims, the roles of boys and
girls in family life growing up Muslim in America, how Muslims are treated in America,
and how connected Muslim boys and girls feel growing up in America.

The email you received contains a standard personal identification number (PIN) that allows
access to the survey. Use of the PIN number is part of the informed consent process. By
entering the PIN to your child, you are acknowledging informed consent for your child to
participate in my search. You may withhold consent simply by not providing this information
to your child. This procedure has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the
University of Florida (protocol # 2007-U-1056).

There is no compensation for participation in the study. Your child's participation in this study is
completely voluntary. Your child does not have to answer any question that s/he does not wish to
answer. No school personnel will know if your child participated or not, and choosing not to
participate will in no way affect your child's academic standing.

The individual student responses will be anonymous as there are no personal identifiers in the
survey. Results will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law through a numerical
coding system. Only group results will be shared with the doctoral committee and any future
research publications and presentations. If you are interested to learn more about the results of
this study or have any other questions, you may contact me (shifaph@ufl.edu) or my supervisor,









Dr. Larry Loesch, at lloesch@coe.ufl.edu. Questions or concerns about your child's rights as
research participant may be directed to the IRB02 office, University of Florida, Box 112250,
Gainesville, FL 32611, (352) 392-0433.

Shifa Podikunju Hussain M.Ed., Ed.,S., Larry Loesch, Ph.D., NCC.
Doctoral Candidate Professor, Counselor Education
University of Florida University of Florida
shifaph@ufl.edu or 352-339-4588


I have read the procedure described above. By entering the PIN number, I voluntarily give my
consent for my child to participate in Shifa Podikunju Hussain's study of acculturation issues of
high school Muslim students in the United States.

Enter PIN here

CLICK to go to next page

Online Child's Assent

My name is Shifa Podikunju Hussain and I am a doctoral student at the University of Florida. I
am trying to learn about how high school Muslim students feel about growing up Muslim in
America. Muslim high school age students from across the United States are being requested to
participate in this research by completing an approximately 10-minute online survey.

There are no known risks to participation. The results from this study should be helpful to
teachers, parents, children, and other educational professionals in ways beneficial to all. It also
may be that this research will help lessen some of the misconceptions that the larger society may
have about Muslims living in America. You do not have to take part in this study or answer any
question that you don't want to. No one will know who you are as the students are not asked for
their personal information. Only group results will be shared with the researchers involved and
presented as such. No school personnel will know if you participated or not, and choosing
not to participate will in no way affect your academic standing.

Your parents have given their permission for you to participate. Would you be willing to
participate in this study?

YES [Click to continue]

NO [Click to end]









APPENDIX D
PARENTAL INFORMED CONSENT (PAPER VERSION)

Dear Respected Parent,

I am a doctoral candidate in the school counseling program in the Department of
Counselor Education at the University of Florida under the supervision of Dr. Larry Loesch.

The purpose of this study is to find out how Muslim high school students feel about
acculturation issues related to growing up in the United States. The results from this study should
be helpful to educators, parents, children, and educational professionals in ways beneficial to all.
It also may be that this research will help alleviate some of the misconceptions that the larger
society may have about Muslims living in America. There are no known risks to your child.
This study is not connected to your school and will not impact the academic standing of your
student in any way. The school is asked to only distribute this informational flyer to Muslim
students known to the school counselor.
Muslim high school age students from across the United States are being requested to
participate in this research by completing an approximately 10-minute online/paper survey. With
your permission, I would like to ask your child to participate in this research.
The survey asks the child to choose whether they agree or disagree with statements that the
research literature has stated as relating to acculturation issues of ethnic and religious minority
groups. I am interested in learning about Muslim high school students' opinions in topics
such as relationships with peers including Muslims and non-Muslims, the roles of boys and
girls in family life growing up Muslim in America, how Muslims are treated in America,
and how connected Muslim boys and girls feel growing up in America.
There is no compensation for participation in the study. Your child's participation in this
study is completely voluntary. Your child does not have to answer any question that s/he does
not wish to answer. No school personnel will know if your child participated or not, and
choosing not to participate will in no way affect your child's academic standing. Your child
should enclose the survey in the envelope that is attached to the survey, in order to ensure
confidentiality, before giving it back to the school counselor or the assigned personnel at
the Islamic Centers.
The individual student responses will be anonymous as there are no personal identifiers
in the survey. Results will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law through a numerical
coding system. Only group results will be shared with the doctoral committee and any future
research publications and presentations. If you are interested to learn more about the results of
this study or have any other questions, you may contact me (shifaph@ufl.edu) or my supervisor,
Dr. Larry Loesch, at lloesch@coe.ufl.edu. Questions or concerns about your child's rights as
research participant may be directed to the IRB02 office, University of Florida, Box 112250,
Gainesville, FL 32611, (352) 392-0433.

Shifa Podikunju Hussain M.Ed., Ed.,S., Larry Loesch, Ph.D., NCC.
Doctoral Candidate Professor, Counselor Education
University of Florida University of Florida
shifaph@ufl.edu or 352-339-4588
PARENT KEEPS THIS PAGE









PLEASE RETURN THIS PAGE TO:
SHIFA P. HUSSAIN,
2901 SW 13th Street, #217,
Gainesville, FL 32608

Parental Informed Consent

I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily give my consent for my child,
to participate in Shifa Podikunju Hussain's study of
acculturation issues of high school Muslim students in the United States. I have received a copy
of this description.


Parent's signature Date



Child's Assent

My name is Shifa Podikunju Hussain and I am a doctoral student at the University of Florida. I
am trying to learn about how high school Muslim students feel about growing up Muslim in
America. Muslim high school age students from across the United States are being requested to
participate in this research by completing an approximately 10-minute online/paper survey.

There are no known risks to participation. The results from this study should be helpful to
teachers, parents, children, and other educational professionals in ways beneficial to all. It also
may be that this research will help lessen some of the misconceptions that the larger society may
have about Muslims living in America. You do not have to take part in this study or answer any
question that you don't want to. No one will know who you are as the students are not asked for
their personal information. Only group results will be shared with the researchers involved and
presented as such. No school personnel will know if you participated or not, and choosing
not to participate will in no way affect your academic standing.
Please enclose the survey in the envelope that is attached to the survey, in order to ensure
confidentiality, before giving it back to the school counselor or the assigned personnel at
the Islamic Centers.

Your parents have given their permission for you to participate. Would you be willing to
participate in this study?



Child's Signature Date









APPENDIX E
REQUEST TO ISLAMIC CENTERS TO HELP DISSEMINATE RESEARCH
INFORMATION

Assalamu Alaikum
(Peace be upon you)

Dear Respected Islamic Center Director,

My name is Shifa Podikunju Hussain. I am a doctoral candidate in the Department of Counselor
Education at the University of Florida. I am writing to request your help in disseminating
information about my dissertation research on adolescent Muslim students living in the United
States to the Muslim ummah (community) living in your area. I would be very grateful if you
would pass this information along via your usual method of informing people, e.g., by email,
posting on bulletin boards, or announcement.

My dissertation research is entitled, "Acculturation issues of Muslim high school students in the
United States." This study received (partial) funding from the Association for Spiritual, Ethical,
and Religious Values in Counseling, a division of the American Counseling Association. The
major research activity is for high-school-age Muslim students to complete an approximately 10-
minute, online questionnaire about acculturation issues they may be facing.

As an American Muslim and a high school counselor for more than eight years, I have worked
with Muslim and other bi-cultural teens who face issues associated with adaptation to
mainstream American society. I am aware that parents often feel overwhelmed when faced with
the deluge of cultural differences that affect their children in schools and in society. This study is
intended to be a foundation of discovery for actual issues that young Muslims face growing up in
America. I am interested in learning about Muslim high school students' opinions in topics
such as relationships with peers including Muslims and non-Muslims, the roles of boys and
girls in family life growing up in America, how Muslims are treated in America, and how
connected Muslim boys and girls feel growing up in America.

The results from this study should be helpful to educators, parents, children, and educational
professionals in ways beneficial to all. Insha Allah (God Willing), it also may be that this
research will help alleviate some of the misconceptions that the larger society may have about
Muslims living in America.

Parents of Muslim students across the United States are being sent this flyer that invites their
child to participate in the online survey. Interested parents can contact me at
hussain.shifa@gmail.com I will email the parent a standard PIN NUMBER and the URL
that will allow access the online questionnaire. All participants receive the same standard
PIN number and therefore cannot be identified by this PIN. Use of the PIN number is part of
the informed consent process. A parent indicates informed consent by providing the PIN to the
student or withholding of consent by not providing it to the student. This procedure has been
approved by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board (Protocol # 2007-U-1056).









There is no risk associated with participating in this research. The benefits include having a
clearer understanding of issues involving growing up Muslim in America.

I thank you in advance for your generous participation and contribution to the literature on
Muslims and their needs in America.

In the tradition of the Muslim faith,
Jazakallahu Khair,
(May God grant you good)
/s/ Shifa Podikunju Hussain


Shifa Podikunju Hussain M.Ed., Ed.,S.,
Doctoral Candidate
University of Florida
shifaph@ufl.edu or 352-339-4588


Larry Loesch, Ph.D., NCC
Professor, Counselor Education
University of Florida









APPENDIX F
MUSLIM YOUTH ACCULTURATION RATING QUESTIONNAIRE (MYARQ) PAPER
VERSION

Please provide the following information about yourself.

1. Iam: male O female O
2. My age is:
3. My ethnicity is: Indian 0 Arab 0 Other 0 (Please specify)

4. I was born in: Unites States 0 Another country 0 (Please specify)

5. The primary language spoken in my home is: English 0 Urdu 0 Arabic 0 Other

0 (Please specify)_____

6. I have lived in the United States for years.

7. My father has lived in the United States for years.

8. My mother has lived in the United States for years.

9. I am a Muslim 0 By Birth 0 By Conversion.

10. I attend Public high school 0 Islamic high school 0O Private high school 0

Other 0 (Please specify)

Please read each of the following statements carefully and then mark the response that indicates
the extent to which you agree with each statement as it applies to you personally. Please be
as honest as possible. Remember that your personal responses will not be shared with anyone.
Use the following scale for your response to each item:

SA means STRONGLY AGREE
A means AGREE
U means UNDECIDED
D means DISAGREE
SD means STRONGLY DISAGREE

SA A U D SD
1. Muslims should marry only within their religious group. 0 0 0 0 0

2. Muslim teenagers should behave like non-Muslim 0 0 0 0 0
American teenagers so that they can be more successful
in school.











3. I should change my Muslim name so that others
can say my name easily.

4. I am uncomfortable socializing with non-Muslim
Americans.

5. Some non-Muslim Americans don't like my culture
and religion.

6. Muslim women should be allowed personal
freedom.

7. Muslim boys and girls should be allowed to go on
group dates with other Muslims.

8. My marriage should be arranged by my family.


9. Muslim children should always obey their parents.


10. I should eat halal Muslim/ethnic food all the time.


11. Muslim women should stay home and take care
of their family when they get married.

12. The interests of my family should come before mine.


13. Muslim parents know what is best for their children.


14. Muslim girls and boys are not treated the same.


15. Muslim men should make all the important decisions
in the family.

16. Muslim women should not work outside the home.


SA A
0 0


0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0











17. I should celebrate Christmas just as I celebrate Eid.


18. I and/or my family have been discriminated against
because we are Muslims.

19. Muslims should not be allowed to practice their daily
prayers in school or at work.

20. My closest friends are Muslim.


21. Muslim children should look after the parents in
their old age.

22. I should attend the Mosque and weekend religious
school.

23. I wish I lived in a Muslim country, not in America.


24. I have been teased or insulted because I am Muslim.


25. I am not happy living as a Muslim in America.

26. Being Muslim has had a negative impact on me
and/or my family.

27. I have both Muslim and American/non-Muslim
friends.

28. I don't feel accepted by my non-Muslim American friends
because I am Muslim.

29. Muslim boys should live with their parents
until they marry.

30. Muslim girls should live with their parents
until they marry.


SD
0


0


0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 0









31. It is okay for Muslim girls and boys to talk to each
other whenever they want to.


0 0 0 0 0









APPENDIX G
MYARQ ITEM FREQUENCIES, MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS

Table G-1. The MYARQ item frequencies means and standard deviations


Agree Undecided Disagree
# (%) # (%) # (%)


Item


Strongly
agree

8(5.6)
1(.7)
1(.7)
73(50.7)
12(8.3)
71(49.7)
15(10.5)
56(38.9)
2(1.4)
8(5.6)
51(35.4)
3(2.1)
0(0)
42(29.0)
41(28.5)
84(58.7)
5(3.5)
16(11.1)
47(32.6)
12(8.3)
0(0)
0(0)
37(25.7)
30(21.0)
84(58.3)
81(56.6)
91(62.8)
58(40.3)
23(16.0)
21(14.6)
13(9.0)


22(15.3)
2(1.4)
3(2.1)
53(36.8)
27(18.8)
45(31.5)
42(29.4)
31(21.5)
7(4.9)
19(13.3)
46(31.9)
21(14.6)
14(9.8)
51(29.4)
59(41.0)
47(32.9)
9(6.3)
49(34.0)
11(7.6)
29(20.1)
2(1.4)
7(4.9)
58(40.3)
38(26.6)
40(27.8)
46(32.2)
46(31.9)
22(15.3)
42(29.2)
34(23.6)
25(17.4)


19(13.2)
17(11.8)
6(4.2)
7(4.9)
22(15.3)
16(11.2)
29(20.3)
28(19.4)
10(6.9)
17(11.9)
30(20.8)
38(26.4)
28(19.6)
17(11.9)
16(11.1)
8(5.6)
19(13.2)
14(9.7)
13(9.0)
14(9.7)
4(2.8)
21(14.7)
23(16.0)
13(9.1)
14(9.7)
7(4.9)
1(.7)
10(6.9)
27(18.8)
21(14.6)
25(17.4)


M SD


47(32.6)
44(30.6)
33(27.1)
3(2.1)
71(49.3)
8(5.6)
27(18.9)
22(15.3)
55(38.2)
29(20.3)
12(8.3)
64(44.4)
67(46.9)
26(18.2)
19(13.2)
2(1.4)
31(21.5)
51(35.4)
35(24.3)
43(29.9)
35(24.3)
74(51.7)
17(11.8)
47(32.9)
1(.7)
6(4.2)
3(2.1)
24(16.7)
31(21.5)
37(25.7)
47(32.6)


Strongly
disagree

48(33.3)
80(55.6)
95(66.0)
8(5.6)
12(8.3)
3(2.1)
30(21.0)
7(4.9)
70(48.6)
70(49.0)
5(3.5)
18(12.5)
34(23.8)
7(4.9)
9(6.3)
2(1.4)
80(55.6)
14(9.7)
38(26.4)
46(31.9)
103(71.5)
41(28.7)
9(6.3)
15(10.5)
5(3.5)
3(2.1)
3(2.1)
30(20.8)
21(14.6)
31(21.5)
34(23.6)


3.73
4.09
4.56
1.75
3.31
1.79
3.10
2.26
4.28
3.94
2.13
3.51
3.85
2.34
2.28
1.54
4.19
2.99
3.04
3.57
4.66
4.04
2.33
2.85
1.63
1.63
1.48
2.63
2.90
3.16
3.44


1.23
.80
.74
1.04
1.12
.99
1.32
1.26
.90
1.28
1.10
.96
.90
1.22
1.19
.79
1.10
1.24
1.64
1.34
.60
.80
1.16
1.36
.94
.92
.80
1.63
1.32
1.39
1.27









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Wakil, S.P., Siddique, C.M., & Wakil, F.A. (1981). Between two cultures: A study in
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929-940.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Shifa Podikunju Hussain was born in 1972, in Kollam, India. The youngest of seven

children, she lived in India, Brunei, and Singapore before coming to the United States for higher

education. She earned her B.S. in psychology and her M.Ed. and specialist's degrees in school

counseling and guidance at the University of Florida.

Upon graduation in 1997, she began work as a high school counselor at Eastside High

School in Gainesville, Florida. Her work responsibilities included Testing Coordinator, College

and Career Counselor, Department Chair, International Baccalaureate counselor, site host and

supervisor for University of Florida counseling interns.

At the University of Florida, Shifa has taught undergraduate courses in Stress and

Anxiety Management, Interpersonal Communication Skills and Career Development over

Lifespan. She has also served as Teaching Assistant in graduate courses such as Multicultural

Counseling, Counseling Adolescents and Children and Supervision for Practicum and

Internships. Shifa has presented at the university, state, regional, national and international levels

in counseling and working with Muslims in America.

Shifa has been married to Mohammad Zaheed Hussain for 12 years. They have two

daughters: Zamirah, age 9; and Sabreen, age 4.





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1 EXTENT OF ACCULTURATION EXPERIEN CES AMONG HIGH SCHOOL MUSLIM STUDENTS IN AMERICA By SHIFA PODIKUNJU A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Shifa Podikunju

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3 To my daughters, Zamirah and Sabreen: You are my inspiration for stri ving and reaching for my goals. May God bless you with all things good in this worl d and in the hereafter May you both always reach for the stars and strive for the best you can possibly be. And to all the Muslim adolescen ts who grow up in dual cultures, I dedicate this work to you.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficient, the Most Mercif ul. I thank God for the blessings I have been given all my life and the ability, courage and dete rmination to pursue my worldly goals. I am ALL that I am because of You. I thank my advisor, Dr. Larry Loesch. I am fore ver grateful for his vision and belief in me which are the sole reasons for this achievemen t. He saw in me what I could not. He is incomparable in his mentorship and work ethic. I will work hard to continue his legacy to the best of my ability to my students. I thank my committee members, Dr. Mary Ann Clark, Dr. Sondra Smith, and Dr. Mary Ann Burg. Their faith in my ability, encouragem ent and invaluable support with my work inspires me to forge along on my future goals. I thank my husband, Zide, for his consta nt and unconditional love, support and encouragement in all my endeavors. He comple ments me in every way. Without him, I would still be cowering in my shell, wondering how to do it. Without him, I would not have been able to undertake this sometimes overwhelming achieveme nt and complete it. He makes me feel like I can do everything and more. I thank God everyday for the blessing of being his wife. I am what I am today because of him. And he does complete me. I thank my beautiful daughters, Zamirah and Sabreen. They are the reason for my achieveme nts. May God bless them for their sacrifices and patience while they waited for Mummy to be done. I thank my mother, NoorJehan for her unconditiona l love and faith in me all my life. She let me go when it was the hardest. I pray I can be as worthy a mother as she has been to me. Her strength and spirituality have been my source of strength over the years and across the miles. I love, respect and honor her for all her sacrifices as my mother. I thank my late father, Haji

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5 Podikunju for his acceptance of who I was and w ho I wanted to be. Because of that, I have become who I am today. I love and honor his memories every day of my life. I thank my eldest sisters, Shahi and Saji. Their unconditional love support and constant presence in my life has guided me in all my j ourneys all my life. Words can never express my love and gratitude for both of them. I thank my older sisters, Sali and Shiny for their love and support all my life. I am always grateful for their continuous indulgence of my needs and my ways. My sisters have been my defining role models for all I can be when I grow up. I love and appreciate each of them for thei r special place in my life. I thank my elder brothers, Shajen and Siraj for paving the way for my achievements. Wi thout them, I would not be here in America. The knocks were hard but I have achieved more than I every dreamed I was capable of because of them. I love and am grateful to them for th eir support and indulgence of me the past nineteen years. I thank my darling nieces, Serene and Suha na. They have been my champions and my cheerleaders since I was six! They are my nieces, my daughters, my sisters, and my friends. They are my inspiration as I am theirs. May God bl ess them with all that is good in all their achievements. I thank my mother in law, Sheila and sister in law, Saudia for their love and constant support of me and my endeavors. I am truly blessed to have such a unique and wonderful mother in law who is generous and caring like no other. She inspires me with he r strength, optimism and loving generosity every time. And I thank my dearest friends in America. Th ey were my family when I was so far from home. They were my crutches when life knocked me down. Nike, Lois, Vidhya, Jia Wei, Amany, Leyla, Roxy, Julie, Nadia and Kitty: They were my sisters when my own were so far

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6 away. They helped me build my utopia community. I will miss them. May God bless them and always grant them good. I will forever cherish the memories of my time with them. Finally, I thank members of the Muslim u mmah for helping me with my study. They understand the significance of what our children are experiencing growing up in America. With their dedication and support, I hope to continue my work on informing the larger society on the true state of Muslims life in America. Jazak Allah Khairan.

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7 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ........10 ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................11 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................12 Scope of the Problem........................................................................................................... ...13 Significance of the study...................................................................................................... ..15 Purpose of the Study........................................................................................................... ....16 Hypotheses..............................................................................................................................17 Definition of Terms................................................................................................................18 Overview of the Remainder of the Study............................................................................... 19 2 REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE..................................................................... 20 Berrys Theory of Acculturation............................................................................................ 21 Research on Acculturation......................................................................................................23 The Muslim Population in America....................................................................................... 26 Muslims and Religion.............................................................................................................29 Muslim Cultural Worldviews................................................................................................. 29 Gender Roles..........................................................................................................................31 Individuation...........................................................................................................................32 Interpersonal Relationships and Dating..................................................................................33 Religiosity.................................................................................................................... ...........34 Belongingness.........................................................................................................................35 Language.................................................................................................................................36 Perceived Discrimination........................................................................................................37 Other Relevant Variables........................................................................................................38 Summary of the Related Literature......................................................................................... 39 3 METHODOLOGY................................................................................................................. 41 Relevant Variables..................................................................................................................41 Population..................................................................................................................... ..........41 Sampling Procedures..............................................................................................................45 Resultant Sample....................................................................................................................47 Survey Development..............................................................................................................47 Data Analyses.........................................................................................................................55 Methodological Limitations.................................................................................................... 56

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8 4 RESULTS...............................................................................................................................57 Demographic Characteristics.................................................................................................. 57 Response Summary................................................................................................................59 H1: There is no difference in MYARQ To tal Score based on respondent gender....... 59 H2: There is no difference in MYARQ Tota l Score based on respondent ethnicity.... 60 H3: There is no difference in MYARQ To tal Score based on respondent country of birth..........................................................................................................................61 H4: There is no difference in MYARQ To tal Score based on respondent primary language spoken in the home.......................................................................................62 H5: There is no difference in MYARQ To tal Score based on respondent Muslim belief origin..................................................................................................................64 H6: There is no difference in MYARQ To tal Score based on respondent type of high school attended.................................................................................................... 64 H7: There are no statistically significant interactions for MYARQ Total Score among respondent characteristics................................................................................65 H8: There is no relationship between MYARQ Total Score and respondent age....... 65 H9: There is no relationship between MYARQ total score and respondent years in the United States...................................................................................................... 66 H10: There is no relationship between MYARQ Total Score and respondents fathers years in the United States...............................................................................66 H11: There is no relationship between MYARQ Total Score and respondents mothers years in the United States............................................................................. 66 5 DISCUSSION.........................................................................................................................68 Generalizability Limitations................................................................................................... 69 Conclusions.............................................................................................................................70 Interpretations.........................................................................................................................72 Implications................................................................................................................... .........77 Recommendations................................................................................................................ ...79 Summary.................................................................................................................................80 APPENDIX A INVITATION TO SCHOOL COUNSELORS...................................................................... 82 B INFORMATIONAL FLYER FOR PARE NTS OF AMERI CAN MUSLIM HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS...........................................................................................................83 C ONLINE PARENTAL CONSENT........................................................................................ 85 D PARENTAL INFORMED CONSENT (PAPER VERSION)................................................ 87 E REQUEST TO ISLAMIC CENTERS TO HE LP DISSEMINATE RESEARCH INFORMATION....................................................................................................................89

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9 F MUSLIM YOUTH ACCULTURATION RATI NG QUE STIONNAIRE (MYARQ) PAPER VERSION.................................................................................................................. 91 G MYARQ ITEM FREQUENCIES, ME ANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS .................95 LIST OF REFERENCES...............................................................................................................96 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................105

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10 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1. Referenced issues for the MYARQ........................................................................................53 4-1. Respondents Demographic Characteristics ...........................................................................58 4-2. Respondents Age and Length of Residence and Respondents Parents length of Residence ...........................................................................................................................59 4-3. Response Means for MYARQ Total Score ........................................................................... 59 4-4. Means by Gender for MYARQ Total Score .......................................................................... 60 4-5. Independent Samples t test for MYARQ Total Scores by Gender ......................................... 60 4-6. MYARQ Total Score Means by Ethnicity............................................................................. 61 4-7. One Way Analysis of Variance for MYARQ Total Score by Ethnicity ................................ 61 4-8. Means for MYARQ Total Score by Country of Birth............................................................ 61 4-9. Independent Samples t test on MYARQ Total Score by C ountry of Birth............................ 62 4-10. Means for MYARQ Total Score by Prim ary Language in the Home.................................. 63 4-11. One Way Analysis of Variance for MYARQ Total Score by Primary Language in the Hom e..................................................................................................................................63 4-12. Post Hoc LSD and Bonferroni Com parison of MYARQ Total Score by Primary Language in the Home.......................................................................................................63 4-13. Means Description of MYARQ Total Score and Type of School Attended ........................ 65 4-14. One Way Analysis of Variance for MYARQ Total Score and Type of School...................65 4-15. Spearman Correlation Coefficients of MYARQ Total Scores with Respondent Age, Length of Residence, Respondents Fathers Length of Residence, and R espondents Mothers Length of Residence...........................................................................................67 G-1. The MYARQ Item Frequencies Means and Standard Deviations ........................................ 95

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11 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy EXTENT OF ACCULTURATION EXPERIEN CES AMONG HIGH SCHOOL MUSLIM STUDENTS IN AMERICA By Shifa Podikunju August 2008 Chair: Larry C. Loesch Major: School Counseling and Guidance Muslim high school students often face bi-c ultural issues, which can be a source of additional stress while making the transition from childhood to adulthood. I explored the extent of acculturation issues experienced by Muslim students by using the Muslim Youth Acculturation Rating Questionnaire which is a qu estionnaire that was developed by the author for use in this study. A higher score on the M YARQ reflected greater extent to which the respondent experienced a cculturation issues. Therefore, lowe r MYARQ scores are associated with higher acculturation (i.e., le sser extent of acculturation issues) while higher scores imply lower acculturation (i.e., greater extent of accu lturation issues). This was a descriptive study based on a nationally representa tive geographic sample of high school students who were selected based on the criteria of being Mus lim. Results from the 144 respondents indicated statistical significance in three ar eas. Boys had higher scores on the MYARQ than the girls, Urdu and Arabic speakers had higher scores than Eng lish and Other speakers, and the longer the length of residence for respondents father and moth er, the higher the respondents scores. Results support previous research findings. However, new information also was found which may have potential impact on the study of acculturation trends especially among Muslims living in America. Implications and recommendations for counselors and educators are provided.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Cultural conflict is a current concern for Am er ican society in general and the counseling profession in particular as the number of immi grant families increases rapidly in the United States (U.S.) (Ying, 1998). According to recent estimates, first generation immigrants and second-generation children exceed 60 million, or 24 percent of the total p opulation of the U.S. (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2003). Almost one in four Americans under age 18 is an immigrant or a child of a recent immigrant and the proporti on keeps growing (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2003). The issues and problems that arise from li nguistic, religious, cultur al values, and other differences impact not only the immigrant families themselves, but also societal and cultural subsystems and social and other institutions in the U.S. (Ying, 1998). In particular, the problems and issues associated with assimilation of im migrants into American society impact school systems throughout the U.S. And by direct implication, they also impact educational professionals, including so-called non-instruction profe ssionals, which include school counselors. Acculturation is the process of adapting to a new cultural context (Berry, 1998; Berry & Sam, 1996; Berry, Trimble, & Olmeda, 1986; Redf ield, Linton, & Herskovits, 1936). Issues related to acculturation that arise affect both pare nts and their children. However, it is important to acknowledge that there is di versity within and among immigran t groups, and therefore there also is diversity in their respective methods of and experiences in acculturation. Nonetheless, there also are common themes evident among mo st families engaged in acculturation (Dugsin, 2001). In the U.S., Muslims comprise three groups: (a) immigrants, includ ing both naturalized citizens and resident aliens;, (b ) American citizens who have conve rted to Islam; and (c) those

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13 born to either of these groups (Numan, 1992; Project MAPS, 2001). The total number of Muslims currently residing in the U.S. is unknow n. However, widely varying estimates report the Muslim population as between three and seve n million (Islam in the United States, 2005). Accordingly, it has been estim ated that by the year 2010, Islam could be the second largest religious denomination in the U.S. because of in creased immigration of Muslims, a relatively high birth rate among Muslims in the U.S., a nd new converts to Islam among current U.S. residents (Bagby, 1994; U.S. De partment of State, 2001). Unfortunately, a stringent review of the litera ture yielded little pr ofessional commentary and even less research on acculturation issues among Muslim adolescents. However, there is some information in the professional literatur e about acculturation issues among Arab and South Asian populations in the U.S. Theref ore, given that the largest per centage of Muslims in the U.S. come from Arab and South Asia n countries (Pew Research Cent er, 2007), that literature and research on Arabs and South Asians allow some inferences about acculturation issues among Muslim families in the U.S. In particular, it yields some insight into the cultural and religious worldviews of U.S.-resident Muslims, particularly in regard to differences and similarities within and among various Muslim s ubpopulations in the U.S. Scope of the Problem The cultural adaptation, som etimes called generation, gap be tween all parents and their children widens (at least for a while) as young children mature developmentally, and is particularly evident for children in adolescence. However, cultural adaptation (i.e., acculturation) among Muslim youth in the U.S. is especially di fficult because of the combination of societal, familial, and developmental issues involved. Interestingly, children of immigrant parents generally acculturate to the majority culture at a faster rate than do their parents (Sodowsky, Kwan & Pannu, 1995; Szapocznik & Kurtines, 1 993; Ying, 1998). Youths rapid acculturation is

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14 seen in their quicker ability to speak English as a primary lan guage, faster adoption of Western values and lifestyles, and earlier socialization into mainstream society (Sodowsky, et al., 1995). Conversely, immigrant parents are more likely to hold onto their native la nguage, cultural values, and lifestyles despite the demands and pressures to socialize into mainstream society (Sodowsky, et al., 1995; Ying, 1998). In particular, Muslim immigrants views of Americans are largely de rived from the media (Hedayat-Diba, 2000). For example, the Western cu ltural values of indivi duality; independence; natural, developmental separation from family ; and openness of sexual expression are viewed as morally corrupt at best, a nd sinful at worst by most Musl im adults (Hedayat-Diba, 2000). Muslim parents also feel a religious obligation to protect their children and families from cultural values different from their own (i.e., traditional Mu slim family values). Therefore, their children often experience having to betray their parents while they try to assimilate into the majority culture. Conversely, other children feel that th ey betray themselves and their own personal growth and freedom while they protect thei r parents way of life (Hedayat-Diba, 2000). Parents of Muslim youth often experience anxiety and frustration in their interactions with their children. Typically, they come from backgr ounds where they did not question their parents or their elders who made career or personal life choices for them (Ib rahim & Ohnishi, 1997). These parents must cope with raising their chil dren in a new culture with which they are not familiar while they try to raise their children as if they were in their home culture. Parenting in such a context causes conflict and frustration for bot h child and parent. It is evident that most Muslim parents are trying to find a balance be tween their own cultural and religious standards and mainstream social norms so that their chil dren will be successful (Ibrahim & Ohnishi, 1997). In effect, they want to do the right thing both according to the dictates of their culture and to

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15 the dictates of the larger society. There is a pe rsonal perspective in their attempts because among traditional Asian immigrants including Muslims, a childs choices and successes are a direct reflection of the parents position in the community (Sodowsky, et al., 1995). Many immigrant youth appear to oppose their familys native values and lifestyles, and seek instead to assume Western, American mainstream values and lifestyl es (Lee, Choe, Kim, & Ngo, 2000). Interestingly, many Asian immigrants in cluding Muslim parents recognize that they themselves and their children need to adopt certain Western-oriented behaviors for all to be successful in society and for the children to be successful in school (Ying, 1998). Nonetheless, intrafamial differences in perspectives and appr oaches to childrens a cculturation often are a major source of family conflict. Significance of the study As the ethnic minority populations increases counselors, teachers and other mental health professionals are becoming more aware of the psychological and social effects of family conflicts on students and their families (Ying, 1998). Within the counseling setting, Asian American students attribute psycho logical distress to their relati onships with their parents (Lee, 1997). School counselors often find that their role includes helping students adjust to the school environment (Myrick, 1997). However, they often find that they lack sufficient knowledge of Muslim populations (Carter, 1999) to provide effec tive interventions. A revi ew of the literature showed almost no research conducted concerning the acculturation issues and related characteristics among Muslims adolescents. The re sults of this study iden tify the extent of acculturation issues faced by the Muslim student in the acculturation process and their related demographic characteristics and which can assist in the preparation of counselors as they expand their knowledge for the problems of and need fo r interventions about this group of minority individuals.

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16 Purpose of the Study The prim ary purpose of this study was to iden tify the related demographic characteristics and the extent of acculturation issues faced by Muslim students. High school is a period of choices and decisions that can impa ct future education and career plans in the adolescents life. During this time students learn to become independent of thei r parents and voice their own opinions and choices (Carter, 1999). The Muslim cultu re is more restrictive than the mainstream American culture. Thus, Muslim high school stud ents often face bi-cultural issues, unknown to American peers. For example, American adolescen ts as a whole have the freedom or flexibility to make their own choices whereas such behavior is often prohibited in the Muslim family. Muslim students often deal with a home culture and a school culture and lead double lives, which can be a source of additional stress while making the transition from childhood to adulthood (Carter, 1999; Ghuman, 2003). This study will explore the extent of accultur ation issues experienced by Muslim students by using the Muslim Youth Acculturation Ra ting Questionnaire (MYARQ) which is a questionnaire that was developed by the author for use in this study. The questionnaire is made up of ten demographic questions, an d thirty-one attitudinal questions that address different issues that may impact acculturation, as found in the related literature regarding immigrants, South Asians, Arabs and Muslims. A higher score on the MYARQ reflected greater extent to which the respondent experienced a cculturation issues. Therefore, lowe r MYARQ scores are associated with higher acculturation (i.e., le sser extent of acculturation issues) while higher scores imply lower acculturation (i.e., greater extent of acculturation issues)

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17 Hypotheses This was a descriptive study based on a natio nally representative geographic sample of high school students. The students were systematically selected based on the criteria of being Muslim. The following null hypotheses were evaluated in this study: H 1: There is no difference in MYARQ total score based on respondent gender. H 2: There is no difference in MYARQ total score based on respondent country of birth. H 3: There is no difference in MYARQ to tal score based on respondent ethnicity. H 4: There is no difference in MYARQ to tal score based on respondent principal language spoken in the home. H 5: There is no difference in MYARQ total score based on respondent Muslim belief origin (i.e., by birth or conversion). H 6: There is no difference in MYARQ total score based on respondent type of school attended. H 7: There are no statistically significant interactions for MYARQ total score among respondent characteristics. H 8: There is no relationship between MYARQ total score and respondent age. H 9: There is no relationship between MYARQ total score and respondents years in the United States. H 10: There is no relationship between MYAR Q total score and respondents fathers years in the United States. H 11: There is no relationship between MYAR Q total score and respondents mothers years in the United States.

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18 Definition of Terms Acculturation refers to how ethnic m inority individua ls adapt to the dominant culture and the associated changes in their attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors that result from contact with the new culture and its members (Berry, 1998). Adjustment: 1: to adapt or conform oneself (as to new conditions); 2 : to achieve mental and behavioral balance between one's own needs and the demands of others (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, n.d.) Asian refers to people who are from the Asian co ntinent, which includes the countries of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Iran, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq. Bicultural refers to belonging or re lating to two cultures. Ethnicity refers to belonging to a particular cultural group, for exampl e Arab or Indian. Gender refers to male or female. Generational status refers to the status of being born in the United States or in another country. For example, first generation Muslims are Muslims born in another country and then immigrated to the U.S. Second generation Muslims are Muslims born in the U.S. to immigrant parents. High school age refers to those students who are a ttending grade nine through twelve in a secondary school in the U.S. Issues refer to problems that Muslim students may have as a result of the process of acculturation to two cultures. Muslim refers to individuals who adhere to the religion of Islam, either by being born into it or through conversion. MYARQ refers to the Muslim Youth Accultu ration Rating Questionnaire (see Appendix F) that was created for this study by the author. The questionnaire is made up of ten demographic

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19 questions, and thirty-one attitudinal questions th at address different issues that may impact acculturation, as found in the related literature regarding immigrants, South Asians, Arabs and Muslims. Overview of the Remainder of the Study The introdu ction was presented in this chapter. The review of related li terature is presented in Chapter 2 and the methodology for the study is presented in Chapter 3. The results of the study are shown in Chapter 4 and are discussed in Chapter 5.

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20 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE The primary purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics a nd the extent to which high school-age Muslim students expe rience different issues presumed to be associated with the acculturation process. A wide variety of potentially influencing factors (i.e., issues) have been associated with acculturation processes among an equally wide variety of groups engaged in acculturation. Demographic variable s typically associated with acculturation effectiveness over different age levels include gender, age, speci fic ethnicity, number of years in the country, parental characteristics such as number of years in the country, and language spoken in the home (Berry, Phinney, Sam, & Vedder, 2006). There ar e, however, many other issues that might influence an individuals acculturation process, including those associated with perceptions and interpretations of gender roles, belongingness, inte rpersonal relations (i.e., dating), peer relations, religiosity, and individuation. Unfortunately, there has been little attenti on in the professional counseling (and other, related) literature to the cultural composition an d other characteristics of Muslim students in American schools (Alghorani, 2003) in general, and in particular as the char acteristics relate to acculturation of Muslims in the U.S. However, cultural and other considerations significantly affect the academic, social, educational, and ps ychological welfare of Mu slim students. Because most Muslim students attend public schools, school staffs, including school counselors, need to understand the cultural characteri stics of this minority group to better help and serve them. Therefore, this research serves to shed some light on the special needs of American Muslims, and especially on Muslim youth in Americas public schools.

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21 Berrys Theory of Acculturation Berrys (1974, 1980) theory of acculturation emphasized a multidimensional, interacting system, which included individual s and their interactions with their respective environments. By definition, acculturation is concer ned with how ethnic minority indi viduals adapt to the dominant culture and the associated changes in their belief s, values, and behavior that result from contact with the new culture and its members (Berry, 1998; Berry & Sam, 1996; Berry, Trimble, & Olmeda, 1980). Berrys model included attention to influences such as Western education, wage employment, urbanization, settlement patterns, population densities, changes in socialization practices, and the pressures to change under the impact of these experiences. Within Berrys theory, the acculturation of a minority person can be assessed by measuring two presumably independent dimensions: the degr ee of assimilation to the majority culture and the degree of retention of the minority cultu re (Berry, 1980, Berry, 1997; Berry & Sam, 1996; LeVine & Padilla, 1980; Sanchez & Atkinson, 1983). Level of assimilation in to the majority, or host, culture describes the degree of contact and extent of partic ipation that the individual has with the host (sometimes called dominant) cu lture (Berry, 1997, 1998; Berry & Sam 1996). It varies from full participation to complete rejec tion of the host cultures values, attitudes, and behaviors (Berry & Sam, 1996). Retention of the minority culture includes the extent to which individuals value and adhere to their culture of origin. It vari es from strong adherence to the culture of origin to to tal neglect or opposition to maintaini ng the culture of origin (Berry, 1997, 1998; Berry & Sam 1996). Berrys (1974,1980) model of acculturation propo ses four ways that ethnic group members associate with their host culture: Individuals can assimilate (identify solely with the dominant culture and sever ties with their own culture); separate (identify solely with their own ethnic group and reject the host culture); marginalize (reject their own group and reject the host

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22 culture); and integrate (become bicultural by ma intaining characteristics of their own ethnic group while selectively acquiring those of the host culture). A characterization of a low acculturation person means that an ethnic minorit y person identifies more with native culture than with host culture while high acculturation depicts a person who identifies with the host culture. Different levels of acculturation correspond with different kinds of adjustment problems, and neither high nor low acculturation can be ca tegorized as good or bad (Sodowsky, et al., 1991). One of the difficulties of specifying the different domains (e.g., values, attitudes, interpersonal relationships, language, or behaviors) affected by the acculturation process is that acculturation can be viewed as either a group or individual phenomenon (Cabassa, 2003). Acculturation has a dualistic effect. It affects the culture of a group as well as changes the psychology of an individual (Berry & Sam, 1996) An example is a Mexican community in the U.S. may be considered to have acculturated to American culture because a large group of its members have learned to speak English. Howe ver, although this is technically correct, individuals within the community may differ signi ficantly in their level of acculturation and vary in the ways they have adapted to American culture. It is the individual-leve l variability that most acculturation measures try to capture (Cabassa, 2003). Acculturation also is influenced by contex tual factors such as the circumstances surrounding immigration to a new culture (Berr y, 1997; Berry & Sam 1998). Prior immigration contextual factors include r eason for immigration, role in the immigration decision, prior knowledge or contact with host society, and se paration and loss of significant others. The immigration context involves the type of immigr ation group (e.g. refugee or alien resident), route of immigration, level of danger in the immigration journey, a nd duration of the immigration

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23 journey. In the new society, the se ttlement context includes societ al attitudes toward immigrants, social environment, age at time of settleme nt, legal and residency status, cultural distance between culture of origin and culture of settlement, time spent in the new culture, and expectations for life in the ne w culture (Berry, 1997; Berry & Sam, 1996). Attention to these various contextual factors facilitates deeper understanding of how individuals adapt to a new cultural environment (Cabassa, 2003). Acculturation can be viewed as a developmenta l process that varies in intensity and form over time (Berry, 1997). Individuals entering the acculturation proce ss early in life, such as in childhood or adolescence, may embrace the dominant cultural values and behaviors as a way of fitting in, and therefore reject some aspects of their culture of origin. However, these same individuals later in life may embrace their cult ure of origin and inte grate the two cultural orientations (Cabassa, 2003). Research on Acculturation The work of Berry and his colleagues (Berry, 1980; Berry, Kim, Minde, & Mok, 1987; Berry, Kim, Power, Young, & Bujaki, 1989; Sam & Berry, 1995) in assessing the acculturation strategies of various immigrant groups in North America demonstrat e that integration is the most psychologically adaptive pattern. Integrated or bicu ltural individuals experience less acculturative stress and anxiety a nd manifest fewer psychological problems than those who have been marginalized, separated, or assimilated (Berry, et al., 2006). Overall, marginalized individuals suffered the most psychological distress, including pr oblems with self-identification and cultural alienation, which adversely affected their self-esteem (Farver, Narang, & Bhadha, 2002). Acculturation may be more stressful for so me ethnic groups than for others (Berry & Kim, 1988; Keefe & Padilla, 1987). Generally, the greater the difference between the native and

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24 the new culture, the higher the stress level (Her as & Revilla, 1994; Thomas, 1995) and the more difficulty individuals experien ce in their psychological func tioning (LaFromboise, Coleman, & Gerton, 1993; Padilla, 1980; Phinney, 1990). For example, Amer (2005) studied acculturation and the mental health experien ces of 611 Arab Americans from 35 U.S. states post September 11. Participants reported signi ficantly higher anxiety and depr ession compared to normative samples and studies with other ethnic minority groups. Integrated and assimilated Arab Americans reported less stress, anxiety, and depre ssion compared to those who were separated or marginalized. Acculturation stress correlated w ith anxiety and depres sion, and both family functioning and social support re lated to less stress and less psychological distress. Also, Christian Arabs showed significantly less accultur ative stress, anxiety, and depression compared to Muslims. Horan (1996) studied the acculturation and a ssimilation of Muslim and Christian Arab Americans into American culture and society. Among the 266 participants, the Christian Arab Americans chose integration and acculturation into American culture whereas Muslim Arab Americans were reluctant to adapt to the Ameri can culture and society and rejected Americas core values. Ghuman (2003) conducted a massive study with pa rticipants in four countries. The focus was on attitudes of second generation South Asia ns towards Western and home cultures. The four locations were Birmingham, United Kingdom; Vancouver, Canada; Sacramento Valley, U.S.A.; and Newcastle, Australia. The study was conducted over a period of eleven years from 1990 to 2001. The study investigated perceptions of parents and teachers on acculturation and social issues, and the social and educational conditi on of South Asian adolescent girls, in particular. A total of 951 students completed an acculturation questi onnaire, and 125 also

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25 participated in interviews. Sevent y of their parents and 43 of their teachers also participated in interviews. Ghuman (2003) found that in genera l, boys and girls (except for Muslim boys in England) were in favor of integration into th eir host society as opposed to assimilation or separation. In regard to gender di fferences, girls scored higher th an boys on their attitude toward acculturation. For religion and acculturation, Mus lim (as opposed to Hindu and Sikh) boys and girls were closer to the separation end of accu lturation, while the Hindu adolescents were closer to the assimilation end of the continuum. Sikhs were mainly in the middle. With regard to comparisons across the four countries, English Mu slim adolescents were found to be low on the acculturation factor and high on the traditional factor, and therefor e closer to the separation end of the continuum. The Australian Hindus came cl oser to the assimilation end, which implies high on acculturation and low on traditionalism. In their study of American-born Asian Indian adolescents, Farver, et al. (2002) investigated the influence of the family on adolescents accu lturation, ethnic identity achievement, and psychological functioning. They found that parent s with marginalized or separated acculturation style reported more frequent and intense family c onflict than did parents w ith an integrated or assimilated acculturation style. In families wher e there was no acculturation gap, adolescents and their parents reported higher self-esteem and less frequent and less intense conflict. Thus, parents are instrumental in the successful functioning of their children in both cu ltural worlds based on how the parents relate to the host culture. The presence of acculturation differences, espe cially cultural value differences, can result in misunderstandings, miscommunications, and even tual conflicts among family members. These types of family conflicts are conc eptualized as a domain specific fo rm of acculturative stress in that they reflect the difficulties in transitioning from one cultural environment to another (Sluzki,

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26 1979). The psychological and social problems asso ciated with acculturation conflicts include general adjustment problems, low self-esteem anxiety, depression, pr oblems with sexuality, physical abuse, and conduct disorders for immi grant populations (Cervantes, Padilla, & Salgado de Snyder, 1990, 1991; Gil, Vega, & Dimas, 1994; Lee, 1997; Szapocznik, Santisteban, Kurtines, Perez-Vidal, & Hervis, 1984; Uba, 1994; Vega, Khoury, Zimmerman, Gil, & Warheit, 1995). Unfortunately, there are few treatment models to addr ess these culture-specific family conflicts (Szapocznik et al., 1984; Ying, 1998). It is obvious that a wide variety of factors influence how and to what extent people acculturate into a new culture, including those sp ecific to the individuals involved and those characteristic of the contexts in which indivi duals find themselves. Thus, any study of what factors affect the acculturation process must necessarily be multidimensional in nature. The Muslim Population in America Am erican Muslims come from several count ries. According to statistics provided by Project MAPS (2001), the largest two groups of American Muslims are of South Asian (32%) and Arab (26%) descent, followed by African-Ame rican (20%), African (7%) and other (14%). The South Asian Muslim group emigrated primar ily from Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh (Project MAPS, 2001). The Arab Muslim group emigrated primarily from Egypt, Lebanon, and Palestine (Arab American Institute, 2005). More recently, the Pew Research Center (2007) reported the Arab Muslims to be the largest immigrant Muslim group (37%) and the South Asian group to be only 27% according to their survey. This shift in nu mbers may be due to increased immigration from the Gulf States in the Middle Ea st in the past five years since the start of the U.S.Iraq war. Each group has its own underlyi ng cultural norms that intertwine with their religious perspectives. For example, the Arab subc ulture, in general, adhe res more stringently to Islam than does the South Asian subculture. Therefore, knowing the level of adherence to

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27 Islamic values may be an indictor of which Ar ab culture a person belongs or from which the person emigrated. However, some cultural norms are shared by both groups. Many researchers expound on the need for research to identify the mental health stressors of American Muslims (e.g., Daneshpour, 1998; Haque, 2004; Hedayat-Diba, 2000; Kelly, Aridi & Bakhtiar 1996; Khan, 2006), and have written elaborately on the beli efs and practices of American Muslims. In particular, Haque (2004) wrote that Muslims face ongoing stressors in America that may negatively affect their mental health and contended there are few therapists well-grounded in the Islamic approach to mental health counseling. Genera lly, the imam (i.e., the one who leads the prayer at a mosque and/or is an Islamic scholar) treats mental health problems of Muslims in a community. Thus, Muslims may not feel comfortable working with secular therapists who do not understand Mu slim culture or the religious contexts of Muslim issues. Importantly, mental health professionals must understand the culture, cu stoms, and religious beliefs of Muslims in order to serve them on an equal footing with ot her Americans (Haque, 2004, p. 57). Despite the growing number of Muslim s in the U.S., American Muslims continue to be understudied, widely misunderstood, and falsely stereotyped (Kelly Aridi, & Bakhtiar, 1996). Among other negative repercussions, the neglect, misunderstandings, and negative stereotypes have sensitized Muslims against seek ing the services of Western counselors because they feel they will not be understood and/or that counselors will try to impose Western values upon them (Jaffari, 1993). Even American-born children raised in Muslim homes may not feel themselves to be a part of mainstream American society because some hold to their familys (traditional) religious and cultural norms and values. However, in general, immigrants face more challenges upon entering America, and so American-born children likely find it easier to assimilate into mainstream

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28 culture. At school, American-born Muslim children generally are expected to comply with cultural norms in regard to, for example, dress code, food habits, socialization, and even accent. However, acculturation is not easy for them. For example, secular occasions such as Halloween and Valentines Day do not exist in Islam, a nd American Muslim children face a predicament when their parents do not approve of partaking in such events (Haque, 2004). Similarly, during adolescence, when dating becomes the typical American social norm, according to Muslim social norms Muslim youth are supposed to stay away fro m activities such as premarital free mixing between genders (Haque, 2004). Selecting partne rs for marriage is a serious issue because parents prefer their grown-up children to marry in their own cultures (Haque, 2004). Thus, there are a variety of cultural issues that influe nce the acculturation of American Muslim youth. Because the American Muslim population is comprised of several cultural and ethnic subgroups, it is important to delineate the Isla mic religious beliefs and the cultural worldviews dominant in each subgroup. Religious beliefs and cultural worldviews are interrelated yet distinct. In some cases, religion di ctates behavior while in others culture dictates the practice of the religion, and th erefore behavior. American Muslims are misunderstood primar ily because of the stereotypes and myths about their religion and its purporte d practices. Therefore, it is tim ely, and indeed late, to obtain empirical evidence about the American Muslim population in general and American Muslim youth in particular because of th eir critical issues and needs, particularly those related to acculturation. Further, it is especially importa nt for mental health professionals and other counselors to have information on American Muslim youth so that they will be able to provide culturally sensitive interventions for these students.

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29 Muslims and Religion The basic teaching of Islam as with most other religions, is to remember God and do good things for others at all times. Presumably, life in this world is rewarded in the afterlife, which is understood to be eternal. This is the governing principle for practicing Muslims, and is taught from birth. Muslims express their beliefs through the practice of rituals called the Pillars of Islam. The first expression of belie f is the shahadah, which is the declaration of faith in one God and that Mohammad is His Messenger. The second is the performance of the five obligatory prayers every day. By performing a predetermined ritual of worship five times a day, Muslims believe that they stay connected with God at a ll times. The third expression of belief is paying a percentage of personal wealth as charity, or zakat, at least once a y ear. The fourth is fasting (for healthy Muslims) between the hours of sunrise and sunset during the month of Ramadan. The fifth expression of belief is the hajj, a pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca for those financially and physically able. Because of the preeminence of Islam in the lives of American Muslims, it necessarily is an important factor and issue associated with acculturation. For American Muslim youth in particular, the primary dilemma is coping with th e discrepancies in the pr actice of Islam between the former and new countries. Therefore, religious practices should be in vestigated in study of the acculturation experiences American Muslim youth. Muslim Cultural Worldviews The behavior of the South Asian Muslim pe ople reflects primarily Hindu traditions and values (Ibrahim & Ohnishi, 1997). For exampl e, for South Asian Muslims, married women always wear bangles to signify th eir status as wives. Notably, in South Asian culture in general, women only marry once, i.e., divorce is forbidde n. In contrast, Islamic teachings allow divorce

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30 for both men and women (Ibrahim & Ohnishi, 1997). Indeed, Islam gives Muslim women several rights (not always pract iced) not universally common in South Asia, including the right to divorce without providing a reason and the righ t to remarry as often as she becomes single. All South Asians, regardless of their religion, hold some basic worldviews attributable to their common socio-historical culture. Ibrahim and Ohnishi (1997) presented a number of worldviews important to South As ians and Muslims, including the importance of the family and filial piety, respect and honor for parents, and strong emphasis on duty to the family. An individuals responsibility and duty to family is even before duty to self. Sodowsky, et al. (1995) elaborated upon the importance of family to both South Asian and East Asian Americans including those who are Muslims in this group, and noted in particular structured family roles and hierarchical rela tionships, self-control and dignity, respect for community, and cordiality as commonly held fa mily orientation emphases. Also within this perspective, importance is placed on the role of the male as the head of household. Women may work outside the home, but only to supplement family income. Sons rarely take part in the daily chores and are valued more than daughters. Ibrahim and Ohnishi (1997 ) stressed that selfexpression, self-control, and persona l modesty also are highly value d, as is not drawing attention to self as being better than othe rs. Unfortunately, this latter pe rspective can be misunderstood as not having a high self-esteem. Regardless of the country of origin or religion, however, the hallmarks of the Arab culture are family cohesion and loyalty (Nassar-McMi llan & Hakim-Larson, 2003). Final authority for all family matters rests with the father, or in hi s absence, with the oldest male in the family. Major decisions, such as choosing a marriage pa rtner or a career, are influenced by family expectations and requirements (Adudabbeh, 2005) Family privacy is of great significance

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31 because it is connected to maintaining the honor and good name of the family. Elders in the family are expected to be cared for by other family members; their place in the family requires respect and payback for their roles as good parents. Talking negatively about a parent is unacceptable and regarded almost as a sin (Abudabbeh, 2005). Sexuality is a taboo subject in Arab fam ilies, rarely if ever discussed openly among parents and children, and sexual i nappropriateness is viewed as bringing shame to the family. There is even less toleran ce for homosexuality (Abudabbeh, 2005). Further, openness and directness in a persons speech can be considered rudeness (Dwairy, 1998), and are avoided for the sake of keeping a relations hip intact. Lack of acknowledg ment and discussion presents a dilemma for a large number of immigrant Arab families because sexuality is blatant in American society. Therefore, issues rela ted to sexuality are often problem atic for American Muslim youth. Clearly worldviews influence how people beha ve in many, perhaps all, contexts (Ibrahim & Ohnishi, 1997). Therefore, th ey necessarily influence the behaviors associated with acculturation, and are important to consider in examining the acculturation of American Muslim youth. Gender Roles According to Ghuman (2003), a pervasive issue among South Asians and South Asian Muslims is gender equity and gender role specia lization. South Asian families in the West, with some exceptions, have been slow to adapt gender equality and gender role specialization because of their history and traditions. For example, a rranged marriages are still the norm among most South Asians (Anwar, 1998; Drury, 1991; Shaw, 2000) and tend to disadvantage girls because of the need for a brides dowry. A brides dow ry can cost a family up to $30,000 in jewelry, household goods, brides clothes and gifts to the grooms relatives. There has been little modification to this custom in America, and it also is still widely practiced in Canada, Australia,

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32 and the U.K. (Ghuman, 2003). The necessity of a br ides dowry also helps perpetuate the lower status of girls in South Asian families. Boys are more indulged in South Asian families. For example, their breaking of social norms, food taboos, dress codes, ev en dating and drinking are ofte n overlooked in South Asian families in the West (Ghuman, 2003). This double standard in the tr eatment of sons and daughters often causes tension and anxiety in S outh Asian families (Shaw, 2000; Gibson, 1988). Talbani and Hasanali (2000) interviewed 22 South Asian adolescent girls in Montreal, Canada. The participants identified three important issues in Muslim girls socialization, including differential (a) treatment of boys a nd girls in the home, (b) decision-making power (i.e., girls have far less), and (c) control over intermingling with the opposite sex (i.e., there is considerable less freedom for girls). The girls also felt that there was high social cost associated with being vocal or expressing dissent, so they accepted their conditions in the hope of bringing gradual change as they became adults. Because Western values typically include ge nder equity and womens rights, American Muslim youth are clearly growing up hearing do uble messages about the place of the women in the greater society and within the family. These double messages impact the acculturation processes and behaviors of all American Musl im adolescents, both male and female, and therefore should be investigated. Individuation Respect for community is em phasized in bot h South Asian and Arab Muslim cultural groups. Immigrant Muslims in th e (local) community are viewed as extended family and each Muslim has responsibilities to them (El-Islam, 1983; Ibrahim & Ohnishi, 1997). Within most Muslim cultural groups, individual needs and desires are to be subs umed to and/or sacrificed for the good of the larger group (Sodows ky, et al., 1995). This belief syst em is considered to reflect

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33 social consciousness. In turn, th is social consciousness is refl ected in very high regard for learning. In particular, formal edu cation is presumed to lead to financial security and success, which are indicated by ability to take care of the family and to give back to the community. For example, second generation South Asians, which includes the Muslims in this group, are taught the importance of developing the self by thinking and behaving independently in schools and the larger society. However, South Asian families in terpret individualistic mentality as selfish because it implies making personal choices of fri ends, hobbies, interests and aptitudes, and careers, and may even be interpreted to mean experimenting with sexuality (Ghuman, 2003). The belief that individual needs and de sires are to be subsumed to t hose of the family and community stands in opposition to the concept of individua tion, that is, to the de velopment of personal independence and autonomy. However, indivi duation is generally accepted as a primary developmental task for youth in America (Chodorow, 1978; Erikson, 1968; Gilligan, 1982; Nelson, 1996). Therefore, American Muslim youth confront differing ideo logies (i.e., those within and outside of their historical culture) ab out what are appropriate developmental tasks and associated behaviors. Obviousl y, then, issues related to indivi duation should be investigated in any larger examination of the accultura tion process of American Muslim youth. Interpersonal Relationships and Dating Dating and prem arital sexual relations are cons idered important and relatively normal rites of passage to adulthood and attaining indepe ndence within many Western value systems. However, for most South Asian families, such activities would smear the honor and lower the social status of the family (Ghuman, 2003.) Arab and South Asian Muslims value modesty about sexuality, including that virginity is treasured. Thus, dating and/or unchaperoned interaction between males and females is hi ghly discouraged (Timimi, 1995). Arranged marriages are still the norm in these cultural subgroups. Further, marrying within the

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34 individuals ethnic group is part of the persons duty to family because it preserves stability in the family, community, and reli gion (Sodowsky, et al., 1995). Within most of American society, ad olescence is a time when young people are establishing relatively intense in terpersonal relationships through dating behavior. Often, these dating behaviors include experi mentation with various degree s of intimacy vis--vis sexual behaviors. American Muslim yout h are thus confronted with the behaviors of their peers, and can respond to those behaviors from any of a vari ety of perspectives. For example, they can view those behaviors as alright and appropriate in the attempt to be like their (American) peers or they can view them as inappropriate within the context of the belief systems of their cultural heritage. Thus, dating and asso ciated behaviors impact the natu re of the acculturation process for American Muslim youth, and should be examin ed in study of their acculturation process. Religiosity For Muslim s, religion is a way of everyday life Every act is performe d with the underlying notion of only if God wills (Insha Allah). Fa talism, i.e., the belief that no matter what one does, certain events in life are pre-determined a nd must be dealt with a ppropriately, underlies all behavior in every setting; what is meant to be will be. Based on Haddad and Lummiss (1987) study of Muslims values, characteri stics such as a persons country of origin, length of stay in th U.S., observation of the Pillars of Islam in every day life, attending Mosque or other religious and social services at the Mosque and following a strict Islamic dress code, including wearing the hijab (head-covering), have been noted as reliable indicators of religiosity and devoutness among Muslim Americans (Hedayat-Diba, 2000). Ahmed (2004) studied the impact of religious minority status on adol escents religiosity and psychosocial maturity among American yout h, including some Muslim youth. Of the 174 participants, the Muslim youth were found to be significantly more re ligious than their non-

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35 Muslim counterparts in the study. Ahmed (2004) conc luded that this strong identification with a religious status may positively impact their pro-so cial behavior and psychosocial maturity, and also serve as protective factors du ring adolescent development. Ghuman (2003) reported on the importance of reli gion as an issue that affects South Asian families and noted that South Asian parents worry that their children are not committed to the practice of and adherence to Islam. Modood Berthoud, Lakey, Nazroo, Smith, Virdee, and Beishon (1997), cited in Ghuman (2003), found that second-generation So uth Asian adolescents did not consider religion to be as important as their fathers and mothers did, except specifically for the Muslim adolescents who were more co mmitted than were Hindu or Sikh adolescents. Therefore, because of the salience of the practi ce of religion and the underlying continuity of religion in everyday life, religi osity should be studied as part of the acculturation process of Muslim adolescents. Belongingness The need to belong is considered a fundam e ntal human motivation (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). Belonging is not just wanting to be a part of something, but also involves taking part in that thing (Capra & Steindl-Rast, 1991). In a longitudinal study of identity development among immigrant young adults, Arredondo (1984) found that a sense of belonging is crucial to feeling positive about self, to feeling trust and positive regard from and for others, to making a commitment to stay in the current country. In Kim, Brenner, Liang and Asays (2003) study on the adaptation experiences of Asian Americans, 10 Asian-American college students who immigrated to the United States as a child or adolescent were in terviewed. They expounded on the pro cess of negotiati ng between two cultures as being difficult and making them feel ma rginalized from both cultures. More than half of the participants reported that it was difficu lt to integrate the norms of both the U.S and

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36 indigenous cultures; they expe rienced confusion about the us e and appropriateness of each cultures traditions and at which times to use eith er. Participants felt that they were not accepted in their native culture because they grew up in America and also were not accepted in America because they were immigrants having differe nt cultural values and practices. They found it difficult to fit into both worlds and culture s and felt they did not belong to either. Belongingness is an important element to c onsider because it impacts the psychological well-being of Muslim youth. Therefore, it is a significant part of th e acculturation process and should be explored further. Language Native and host language proficiency and use ar e generally regarded as key indicators of level of accu lturation (Birman & Tricket, 2001), and are addressed in most measures of acculturation (Phinney, Berry, Vedder, & Liebkind, 2006). Development of language proficiency speeds the acculturation process. The faster immigran ts learn to use the host language, the faster they adjust to the new culture. For example, Swaiden, Marshall and Smith (2001), in their study of the acculturation strategies of Muslims in Amer ica, found that the more frequent the use of native language, the greater the desire to retain native culture and remain separated and the lower the desire to adopt American culture and inte grate into the mainstream American culture. Whereas immigrant adolescents face the ta sk of learning the host language, secondgeneration adolescents often lose the ability to speak their nati ve language (Phinney, et.al, 2006). Learning the host language and becoming fluent in it from a very early age is critical to the adolescents success in school, having positive peer interactions, and integrating with their peer group members, all of which facilitate accultur ation into the mainstream society. Conversely, learning the adolescents family s native language is voluntary, and less significant in the

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37 adolescents to the day-to-day functioning. Th erefore, language is an important variable associated with acculturation and warrants further investigation. Perceived Discrimination Experiences of prejudice a nd discrimination are m ajor factors among those making the acculturation process potentially stressful (Berry, 1997). However, stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination are rarely accounted for in accultu ration research (Phinney, et al., 2006). They contend that not enough is known about how widely adolescents in immigrant families perceive discrimination and how such percep tions are related to the experien ce in their new country and to their overall adaptation. Research on discrimination among immigrants s uggest that it has a r eciprocal relationship to acculturation attitudes; that is, the attitude s of members of the la rger society toward immigrants is likely to be reflected in the fee lings of immigrants about the society (Kalin and Berry, 1996). Therefore when immigrant adolescent s feel that they ar e viewed negatively by others, they will be more likely to view society negatively and reject being part of the larger society; that is they would fa vor separation or marginalization over integration or assimilation. Positive sense of belonging to ones ethnic group predicted more positive attitudes toward other groups, which in turn predicted lower pe rceived discrimination (Romero & Roberts, 1998). Only when people are secure in their own identity will they be in a position to accept those different from them (Phinney, et.al, 2006). When people feel secure they are less prejudiced toward others and when they feel threatened they are more prejudiced (Berry & Kalin, 1995). Conversely, the perception of discrimination may strengthen ones ethn ic group identification and weaken ties to the nationa l group (Phinney, et.al., 2006). Since September 11, Muslims in America in particular are highly profiled on television and other media. The increased negative atte ntion can impact the acculturation process of

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38 adolescent Muslims. Therefore, perceived disc rimination based on being a Muslim in America would be an important elemen t to research in this study. Other Relevant Variables Length of residence in the U.S. is perhaps the m ost frequently used measure of exposure to American (Western) culture (F aragallah, Schumm & Webb, 1997). In general, the greater the exposure to U.S. culture, the more likely that an immigrant will acquire th e American culture in an adaptive manner or else reject it and depa rt the country. El-Badry and Poston (1990), ElSayed (1986) and Musleh (1983) all found a positiv e relationship between length of residence and acculturation success for Arab immigrants to th e United States. Immigrants who had been in the U.S. for a shorter period suffered more problems than immigrants who had been in the U.S. for longer periods of time (Penaloza, 1994; Swaiden, Marshall, & Smith, 2001). Age at immigration also may be important, because younger immigrants may be more flexible with respect to the changes required to adapt to a new culture (Faragallah, et.al., 1997). Parents sense of ethnic identity and level of acculturation can influence a childs sense of identity and level of acculturation (Farver, et al., 2002). Parents are influential in setting the tone for their childrens behavior, attitudes, and successf ul functioning in both cultural worlds. In their study of the ethnic identity, acculturation an d conflict among Asian Indian families, Farver, et al. (2002) found that the more separated or marg inalized the parents were from the mainstream (American) culture, the more conflict there was within the families. They also found that adolescents were more likely to be assimilated th an parents because of the socializing aspects of the school environment. If the a dolescents retain their heritage, they are more likely to be alienated from their peers. Unfortunately, if im migrant adolescents reject their native culture, they risk being alienated from their own et hnic group without assuranc e that they will be accepted into the mainstream.

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39 Farver, et al., (2002) also found that adoles cents who had acculturate d to a large extent reported higher self-esteem than did the adoles cents who had acculturated to lesser extents. Acculturated adolescents also reported less anxiet y and higher self-esteem. An acculturation gap (i.e., the level of acculturation thus far achieved) is often widest betw een the first and second generations. Therefore, immigrant parents and th eir American-born children may be at the highest risk for psychological maladj ustment (Farver, et.al., 2002). Other researchers have found that parents level of acculturation effects family functioning and adolescent adjustment. For example, inve stigators have shown th at adolescents whose immigrant parents did not adapt well to the hos t culture (i.e., preferre d separation) had more psychological problems than did ad olescents whose parents were mo re integrated or assimilated (Barankin, Konstantareas & deBosset, 1989; Koplow & Messinger, 1990; Minde & Minde, 1976). Similarly, in families in which immigrant parents were overly identi fied with their ethnic group, strong ties to the native culture served to se parate or marginalize th e family from the host culture (Keefe & Padilla, 1987). Therefore, each of these fact ors is important in the acculturation process of both parents and children and should be investigated further. Summary of the related literature The review of the literature has high lighted Berrys theory of acculturation and the research associated with acculturation. The Muslim population in America is made up of different ethnic groups; therefore it is critical that both cultur al and religious worldviews are considered when counseling this group. Muslim vi ew of mental health and counseling, Muslim religious beliefs and cultural valu es were further examined to ge t a more in-depth understanding of this population. Gender roles, individuation, inte rpersonal relationships and dating, religiosity, belongingness, language, perceived discrimination and length of residence were considered

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40 important factors of interest in the literatu re review as having important effects in the acculturation process.

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41 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The purpose of this study is to identify the demographic characteristics and the extent to which high school-age Muslim students experience different issues presumed to be associated with the acculturation process. This chapter pr ovides a description of the methodology for the study, including delineation of the relevant variables, population, sampling procedures, instrumentation, research procedures, and data analyses. Relevant Variables The independent variables addressed in th is study include the responding students gender, age, country of birth, ethni city, number of years in the U. S., fathers number of years in the U.S., mothers number of years in the U.S., primary language spoken in the home, origin of religion and type of high school. Gender was self-reported by the respondent as male or female. Respondent students also self-report ed their respective current age in years and country in which they were born. Ethnicity was self-reported by the student as Indian, Arab African American or Other. Responding students also self-reported the numbers of year s the student, students father, and students mother, respectively, have lived in the U.S. Principal language spoken in the home was self-reported by the responding students as E nglish, Urdu, Arabic, or Other. Origin of religion was reported as Muslim By Birth or By Conversion. The dependent variable addressed in this study is the respondi ng students total score on the Mu slim Youth Acculturation Rating Questionnaire (MYARQ), a questionnaire develope d by the author for this study (see Appendix F). Population The sample for this study was drawn from the population of American Muslim students attending public, private, and Islamic high (seco ndary) schools in the U.S. The U.S. Census

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42 Bureau does not collect data on religious identification or affiliation. Therefore, there are no official estimates of the Muslim population in th e U.S census bureau data, and all reports of the Muslim population in the U.S. are estimates fr om other sources (Pew Research Center, 2007). Various institutions and organizations have given widely varying estimates about how many Muslims live in the U.S. For example, recent studies reported 1.1 million (Kosmin & Mayer, & Keysar 2001), 1.6 million (Glenmary Research Center, 2002) 1.9 million (Smith, 2002), 4.7 million (Encyclopaedia Britanni ca, 2005), and 6.7 million (Ba-Yunus, 1997), 7.0 million (Hartford Institute for Religious Resear ch, 2000) Muslims in the U.S. Discrepancies among the estimated numbers of the U.S. Musl im population revolve usually around the survey methodologies used to estimate that population (S mith, 2002). However, extant political opinions influence some estimates (Smith, 2002). For exam ple, some Muslim groups even contend that population estimating surveys have undercount ed the U.S. Muslim population due to Islamophobia, Muslims fear of revealing their faith in a survey and/or Muslims identifying themselves as Muslims even though they do not attend mosques (i.e., actually practice the faith) (Muddle over Muslim census,). The Pew Muslim American study surveyed a national sample of 1,050 Muslims living in the U.S. and projected the Muslim population to be 0.6% of the U.S. adult population. This estimate suggests there are approximately 1.5 mi llion Muslims 18 years ol d or older currently living in the U.S. Extrapolating from those data and U.S. Census Bureau data, the Pew Research Center therefore estimated that there are approximately 850,000 Muslim Americans under the age of 18 nationwide, in addition to the 1.5 m illion adults, for a total of 2.35 million Muslims (Pew Research Center, 2007).

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43 The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) (2006) reporte d that the projected total enrollment of secondary school students in public schools in the U.S. in 2007 will be approximately 33% of the total number of stude nts enrolled in public schools in the U.S. Therefore, it can be estimated that the maximu m number of Muslim students in the public and private secondary schools in the U.S. w ould be approximately (850000 x .33 =) 280,500. However, some proportion of the estimated tota l of 850,000 Muslim children has not yet entered the school system. Therefore, the estimated maximum number of American Muslim students is something less than 850,000, and correspondingly, the estimated number of American Muslim students in secondary schools is something less than 280,500. The Pew Muslim American Survey found that 54% of all adult Mus lims in the U.S. are male (Pew Research Center, 2007). According to NCES data (2004), males are more likely than females to drop out of high school (11.6 percent compared to 9.0 pe rcent). Therefore, it could be suggested that there would be a higher percenta ge of Muslim females than males in secondary schools in the U.S. However, as indicated, in the (American) Muslim population, great emphasis and value are placed on education, which in turn would suggest that a relatively low percentage of Muslim students drop out of sc hool. Therefore, it is likely that the male to female ratio for American Muslim students in secondary schools in th e U.S. is approximately 54 to 46, as it is in the general population of American Muslims. Sixty-five percent of adult Muslims in th e U.S. were born in another country (Pew Research Center, 2007). Of the 35 percent (of socalled) American-born Muslims, 21 percent are converts to Islam and only 14 percent were born Muslims in other countries (Pew Research Center, 2007). Twenty one percent of the American-born (or 7% of all Muslims in the U.S.) are second-generation, with one or bot h parents having been born outsi de of the U.S. The 65% who

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44 were born outside of the U.S. come from at least 68 different nations with no one country accounting for more than 12% of the immigrants (Pew Research Center, 2007): Thirty seven percent of all foreign born Muslim Americans arrived from the Arab region, including Arabic-speaking countries in the Midd le East and North Africa. An additional 27% emigrated from the South Asian region, includin g Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Another 8% come from European countries and 6% from other parts of Africa. In terms of specific countries, 12% of foreign-born Muslims arrived from Pakistan, and the same proportion from Iran. No more than 7% of first generation immigrants were born in any single country. (Pew Research Center, 2007, p.16). Most foreign born Muslims arrived in the U.S. in the 1990s (33%) or in the current decade (28%). An additional 23% came during the 1980s, wh ile just 16% came to the U.S. earlier than that. The vast majority of immigrant Muslim s who arrived prior to 1990 and during the 1990s have become naturalized citizens (92% and 70%, respectively). The Pew Muslim American Survey also f ound that the American Muslim population is significantly younger than the non-Muslim populati on (Pew Research Center, 2007). More than half of adult Muslims (56%) are between the ages of 18 and 39; 31% are between the ages of 40 and 54; and only13% of Muslim adults are ages 55 and older. Fully 33% of adult Muslims live in households with no children. The current study was focused in states re ported to have the highest Muslim populations (Kosmin, & Lachman, 1993) among state resident s, including California (0.6%), New York (0.8%), New Jersey (0.6%), Illinois (0.4%), Pennsylvania (0.3%), Texas (0.2%), Michigan (0.3%), and Massachusetts (0.4% ). However, Mus lims in a few other states (e.g., Florida) were included to attempt to achieve the needed minimum sample.

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45 Sampling Procedures The sample for this study included (self-identified) American Muslim students currently enrolled in public, private, and Islamic high scho ols in the U. S. Several different approaches were used to identify, contact, and so licit participation from these students. The primary method used to obtain partic ipants was solicitation of assistance from secondary school counselors in public high school s in the U.S. The American School Counselor Association (ASCA) provides an (updated annuall y) online member directory of elementary and secondary school counselors that includes the state in which they are located and their email addresses. This directory is ava ilable to all ASCA members, and wa s used for initial contact with potential assisting secondary school counselors in the nine states that have the highest Muslim population. Secondary school counselors identified from the ASCA directory were sent an email inviting them to participate in this study (Appendix A). Those re sponding affirmatively to the request were emailed the flyer as well as asked if they would like a packet of flyers sent to them via the U.S. postal service. As per the requireme nts stipulated by the Institutional Review Board, each counselor was asked to include in his/he r reply that the schools administration had approved for the flyer to be distributed to th e Muslim students. The participating school counselors were asked to distribut e the flyers to Muslim students known to them and to request that each student thus identified take the flyer home to her or his parent (s). All school counselors expressed that they did not want the flyers maile d to them, as they did not have more than a range of ten to twenty Muslim students that th ey knew of in their schools. The flyer (Appendix B) contains information about the study, an invitation for the parent of the student to contact the primary researcher via email to get the URL address and the personal identification number (PIN) needed to allow their stude nt to participate. The primary researcher had an automatic

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46 response set up at her email that replied immediat ely to any parental email asking for the studys URL and Pin number. The URL address conveyed the informed consent for the parent (Appendix C). Insertion of the provided PIN at the Informed Consent website (a) represented informed consent by the parent(s) for the student to participate in the study and (b) allowed the student to access the questionna ire MYARQ. The student ga ve his/her Childs Assent (Appendix C) by typing in YES, and then procee ded to respond to the 31 survey items and 10 demographic questions of the MYARQ. Students who are 18 or older did not need to get parental involvement and instead inserted the PIN number as their consent to participate in the study. A paper version of the questionnaire was also made available for those who requested it. Another sampling procedure incl uded contacting Islamic center s and mosques in the states with the highest Muslim populati ons and Florida via email to di sperse information about the study. The centers contacted were identified from directories pr ovided by the leading Muslim organization in North America, the Islamic So ciety of North America (ISNA). ISNA is an association of Muslim organizations and indi viduals that provides a common platform for presenting Islam, supporting Muslim communities, developing educational, social and outreach programs and fostering good relations with othe r religious communities, and civic and service organizations (http://www.isna.net/about/m ission.html, retrieved August 22, 2007). The directories provide the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of mosques and Islamic centers that have registered with ISNA. The centers are listed alphabetically by state. Only the metropolitan centers in the states with high Mu slim populations (as list ed previously) were contacted for participation. The request to the respective centers involve d distribution of an announcement to adult mosque attendees to invite parents of adolescent Muslims to encourage their respective children

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47 to participate in the study (Appe ndix E). An email request sent to the director of an Islamic center will request information about the study whic h will be attached to the end of the email (Appendix F) be forwarded (e.g., via a listserv) to adult members of the center Also, the director was requested to post a paper copy of the invita tion to participate that could be viewed at gatherings at the center (e.g., Fr iday afternoon prayers). This met hod also solicited interest from Islamic school directors who were interest ed in the participating in the survey. Resultant Sample Shavelson (1996) provided a convenient m et hod, and table, for determining desired minimal sample size. He also indi cated that an alpha level of .05 ( = .05) and a power level of .90 ( = .90) are common values for social science research, with = .90 actually being a relatively stringent criterion. The remaining item needed to determine a suitable minimal sample size is the size of the difference between means (i.e., effect size) in standard deviation units ( ). The effect size value can be de termined a priori only on the basis of intuition, i.e., in consideration of the ramifications of making incorrect decisions. Fo r this research, the effect size was set at = .25 because it is a relatively stringent criterion. Applying these values to the table provided in Shavelson (1996, p. 640) the minimum sample size for this study should be 168. In addition, it is anticipated (based on data pres ented previously) that the gender ratio among respondents will be approximately 1:1. Survey Development The Muslim Youth Acculturation Rati ng Questionnaire (MYARQ Appendix F) was developed for the purposes of this research and used to allow American Muslim youth to indicate the extent to which they have experienced vari ous acculturation issues. The original version was an online questionnaire. During the data collection phase, several Islamic centers and some parents requested paper copies of the MYARQ. Therefore, the paper version of the survey was

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48 created for those who requested it. The (attit udinal) subsection require s respondents to use a Likert scale to indicate the exte nt to which they agree with the respective statements (which reflect various acculturation issues) as they apply to the respondent. The a ttitudinal subsection of the MYARQ is preceded by a subsection that asks respondents to provide the personal (i.e., demographic) information investigated in the study. The demographic questions asked for the res pondent for his/her gender (male or female, age (write-in value), ethnicity (Indian, Arab, Af rican American, Other), country of birth (U.S., Other), primary language spoken at home (English, Urdu, Arabic, Ot her), number of years lived in the U.S. (Born in the U.S. write-in value), number of years Father has lived in the U.S. (write-in value), number of years Mother has lived in the U.S. (write-in value), type of Muslim (By Birth, By Conversion), and type of high school (Public high school, Private high school, Islamic high school, Other). These variables we re chosen for this study as being pertinent variables related to acculturation from the literature (Berry, et al., 2006). The attitudinal items (i.e., acculturation is sues) in the MYARQ were derived from the professional literature. The items themselves are declarative statements intended to reflect the essence of a particular accultura tion issue that has been presente d in the professional literature. The attitudinal subsection of the MYARQ include s items to address six types of acculturation issues: (a) gender roles, (b) interpersonal and peer relations, (c) religiosity, (d) individuation from family, (e) belongingness, and (f) percei ved discrimination. The items are statements relative to the respective acculturation issues. The item response choices are: (SA) Strongly Agree, (A) Agree, (U) Undecided, (D) Disagree and (SD) Strongly Disa gree. The MYARQ is presented in Appendix E.

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49 For example, Ghumans (2003) study, which was conducted on South Asian adolescents living in four western countries (including Australia, Canada, England, and the U. S.), presented a questionnaire with some relevance to this study Several items from that questionnaire suggested topical statements for the MYARQ. Similarly, Be rry, et al.s (2006) study on immigrant youth provided suggestions for topical statements in the MYARQ. For the MYARQ questions relating to gender role s (GR), two sources were used to derive each statement. MYARQ GR#1 Muslim women s hould be allowed personal freedom and MYARQ GR#2 Muslim women should stay home a nd take care of their family when they get married were derived from Faragallah, et al. s (1997) question Should women be allowed more personal freedom or should they stay home mo re? in their study on th e acculturation of ArabAmerican immigrants. The remaining GR ques tions in the MYARQ were derived from Ghumans (2003) questionnaire with South As ian adolescents. MYARQ GR#3 Muslim men should make all the important decisions in the fa mily (Men should make all the decisions about the affairs of the family Ghuman, 2003, # 25) ; MYARQ GR#4 Muslim women should not work outside the home (A womans place is in the home Ghuman, 2003, #11); MYARQ GR#5 Muslim girls and boys are not treated the same (Girls and boys should be treated the same Ghuman, 2003, #1). Several sources in the literature were noted as relating the values that are inherent for Muslims regarding interpersonal and peer relations (IPR). Notabl y, Abudabbeh (2005), Sodowsky, Lai and Plake (1991) and Timimi (1995) noted the importance of marrying the same religious and ethnic groups to continue the lineage for Muslims; therefore IPR # 1 Muslims should marry only within their religious group wa s created. Ghuman (2003) and Wakil, Siddique and Wakil (1983) stressed the importance of beha vior with peers to be successful in school;

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50 therefore IPR#2 Muslim teenagers should behave like non-Muslim American teenagers so that they can be more successful in school was created. Ali, Liu and Humedian (2004), Hedayat-Diba (2000), Talbani and Hasanali (2000), Timimi (19 95), and Wakil, Siddique, and Wakil (1983) emphasized the social restrictions placed on Mu slim adolescents while interacting with the opposite gender. Therefore, IPR#3 It is okay for Muslim girls and boys to talk to each other whenever they want to was created. IPR #4 a nd IPR #5 were derived from Ghuman (2003): My marriage should be arranged by my family ( Marriage should be arranged by the family Ghuman, 2003, #1); Muslim boys and girls should be allowed to go on group dates with other Muslims. (Boys and girls should be allowed to meet each other in youth clubs Ghuman, 2003, #1). For MYARQ questions on religiosity (RLG), two sources in the lite rature were used. MYARQ RLG #1, RLG #2, RLG#3 were derived from Ghumans (2003) questionnaire: I should eat halal Muslim/ethnic food all the time (I would rather eat Indian/Pakis tani food all the time Ghuman, 2003, #6); I feel comfortable celebrating Ch ristmas just as I celebrate Eid (We should celebrate Christmas as we celebrate our own religious festivals Ghuman, 2003, #8); I should attend the Mosque and weekend religious school (We should attend our places of worship (gurdwara, mandir, mosque Ghuman, 2003, #3). RL G #4 Muslims should be allowed to practice their daily prayers in school or at work was cr eated from Carter (1999) suggestion that Muslim students should be permitted to pray at school as a recommendation to teachers and counselors who want to help Muslim student s be successful at school. For MYARQ questions on indivi duation from family (IFF) Berry et al., (2006) and Ghuman (2003) were the main sources. M YARQ IFF #1, IFF #2, IFF #3, IFF #4 were derived from Berry, et al., (2006) Immigrant Adolescent Questionnaire: Muslim children should always

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51 obey their parents (Children s hould obey their parents Berry, et al., 2006, #G-3).; I believe parents know what is best for their children (Parents always know what is best Berry, et al., 2006, #G-10); Muslim children should look after the parents in thei r old age (It is a childs responsibility to look after the parents when they need help Berry, et al., 2006, #G-8); Muslim boys should live with their parents until they marry (Boys should live at home until they marry Berry, et al., 2006, #G-14); Muslim girls should liv e with their parents until they marry (Girls should live at home until they marry Berry, et al., 2006, #G-13). IFF #5 The interests of my family should come before mine was derived from Ghumans questionnaire (The interest of the family should come before the i ndividual (self) Ghuman, 2003, #31). For MYARQ questions on belongingness (BLG ), two questions were derived from Ghumans questionnaire: BLG #1 I should change my Muslim name so that others can say my name easily (We should change our names so that teachers can say them easily Ghuman, 2003, #16); and BLG #2 I am uncomfortable socializin g with non-Muslim Amer icans (I feel very uneasy with white Australians Ghuman, 2003, #23) In their study with 1.5 Asian American college students, Kim, Brenner, Liang and Asay (2003) also indicated that many immigrants felt uncomfortable socializing with the host populati on and often only made cl ose relationships with other Asians similar to them. Therefore, BLG #3 and BLG #4 My closest friends are Muslims, I have both Muslim and Ameri can/non-Muslim friends were crea ted to address this issue. BLG #5 and BLG#6 (I wish I lived in a Muslim country, not in America; I am not happy living as a Muslim in America) were derived from several questions that Ghuman (2003) asked regarding how respondents felt abou t living in ethnic communities versus host communities (I have no wish to go back to live in the country my parents came from, We are better off living

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52 with people from our community, I would pref er to live in an area where there are families from our community, The quality of Australian life is better than that of India/Pakistan.) For MYARQ questions on perc eived discrimination (PD), PD#1 and PD#2 were derived from Berry, et al., (2006) Immigrant Adolescent Qu estionnaire: I have been teased or insulted because I am Muslim (I have been teased or insulted because of my ethnic background Berry, et al., 2006, #H-4); I feel accepted by my non-Mu slim American friends (I dont feel accepted by (national group) Berry, et al ., 2006, #H-2.) PD #3 and #4 (I and/or my family have been discriminated against because we are Muslims; Being Muslim has had a negative impact on me and/or my family) were created from the literature given by Be rry, et. al., (2006) who emphasized the impact of perceived discriminati on in the acculturation ex periences of immigrant groups. Ali, Liu, and Humedian (2004), Kim, et al., (2003), and Roysircar (2003) espoused the negative stereotyping that Muslim s face living in America which le d to the creation of PD #5: Some non-Muslim Americans dont like my culture and religion. Shown in Table 3-1 are primary sources for each of the items in the attitudinal subsection of the MYARQ. In order to inhibit response sets, positive and negative wordings, and associated forward (SA=1, A=2, U=3, D=4, and SD=5) and backward (SA=5, A=4, U=3, D=2, and SD=1) item response weightings are used such that higher scores indicate that the issue is more problematic for the respondent. The MYARQ total score is achieved by summing the respective item response weights. For the thirty one items of the MYARQ attitudinal section, the highest possible score is 123 and the lowe st possible score is 63. The assu mption that this study makes with the response sets is that the higher the total score, the more problems the respondent has with regard to acculturation issues.

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53 Prior to initiation of the sampling proce dures for the study, a pilot study was conducted with between eight American Muslim parents an d youth in the Alachua County, Florida, area. Solicitation of participants for this pilot study was made throu gh a local Islamic center. The purpose of the pilot study was to determine if th e participant solicitation and online participation procedures are fully functional; data from the p ilot study was included in the final data set for this study. Table 3-1. Referenced issues for the MYARQ Issues and MYARQ Item Numbers Reference(s) Religiosity Muslim youth should attend Mosque and weekend religious school (#22) Muslim youth should celebrate Christmas (#17) Muslims should be allowed to practice their daily prayers in school or at work (#19) Muslims should eat Halal Muslim/Ethnic food all the time (#10) Ghuman (2003); Hedayat-Diba, 2000 Ghuman (2003); Hedayat-Diba, 2000 Carter (1999) Ali, Liu, & Humedian (2004); Carter (1999); Roysircar (2003) Gender Roles Muslim girls and boys are treated the same in family (#14) Muslim men make all the important decisions (#15 ) Muslim women should be allowed more personal freedom (# 6) Muslim women should stay home and take care of family (#11) Muslim women should work outside the home (#16) Ali, Liu, & Humedian (2004); Ghuman (2003); Hedayat-Diba (2000); Shaw, 2000; Talbani and Hasanali (2000) Ali, Liu, & Humedian (2004); Ghuman (2003); Hedayat-Diba (2000); Shaw, 2000 Talbani and Hasanali (2000) Faragallah, Schumm, & Webb (1997); Musleh (1983); Shaw, 2000; Talbani and Hasanali (2000) Faragallah, Schumm, & Webb (1997); Musleh (1983). Faragallah, Schumm, & Webb (1997); Musleh (1983).

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54 Table 3-1 Continued. Belongingness Muslim students should change their names so that others can say it easily (#3) Muslim youth are uncomfor table socializing with White Americans (#4) Muslims should wish they lived in a Muslim country, not America (#23) Muslims are not happy living in America (#25) Muslims closest friends are Muslim (#20) Muslims should have Muslim and American/nonMuslim friends (#27) Ghuman (2003) Ghuman, (2003), Kim, Brenner, Liang, & Asay (2003) Ghuman (2003) Berry, Phinney, Sam & Vedder (2006) Berry, Phinney, Sam & Vedder (2006); Kim, Brenner, Liang, & Asay (2003) Berry, Phinney, Sam & Vedder (2006) Individuation from family The interests of family should come before personal interests (#12) Muslim children should always obey their parents (#9) Muslim children should look after their parents in their old age (#21) Muslim parents always do what is best for their children (#13) Muslim boys should live with their parents until they marry (#29) Muslim boys should live with their parents until they marry (#30) Ali, Liu & Humedian (2004); Berry, Phinney, Sam & Vedder (2006); Brilliant (2000) ; El-Islam, 1983; Hedayat-Diba (2000); Ibrahim & Ohnishi, 1997; Sodowsky, Lai & Plake (1991) Ali, Liu & Humedian (2004); Berry, Phinney, Sam & Vedder (2006); Brilliant (2000) ; El-Islam, 1983; Hedayat-Diba (2000); Ibrahim & Ohnishi, 1997 Ali, Liu & Humedian (2004); Berry, Phinney, Sam & Vedder (2006) Brilliant (2000); Hedayat-Diba (2000); Ibrahim & Ohnishi, 1997 Ali, Liu & Humedian (2004); Berry, Phinney, Sam & Vedder (2006) Brilliant (2000); Hedayat-Diba (2000) Ali, Liu & Humedian (2004); Berry, Phinney, Sam & Vedder (2006); Brilliant (2000); He dayat-Diba (2000)

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55 Table 3-1 Continued. Interpersonal/Peer Relations Muslims boys and girls should be allowed to go out on group dates (#7) Marriage should be arranged by my family (#8) It is acceptable for Muslim girls and boys to talk to each other (#31) Muslims should marry within their ethnic group (#1) Muslim teenagers should behave like American students to be more successful in school (#2) Ghuman, 2003; Timimi, 1995; Wakil, Siddique, & Wakil (1983) Adudabbeh, 2005; Ghuman, 2003; Timimi, 1995; Wakil, Siddique, & Wakil (1983) Ali, Liu & Humedian (2004); HedayatDiba (2000); Talbani and Hasanali (2000); Timimi, 1995; Wakil, Siddique, & Wakil (1983) Adudabbeh, 2005; Ghuman, 2003; Sodowsky, Lai & Plake (1991); Wakil, Siddique, & Wakil (1983) Ghuman, 2003; Wakil, Siddique, & Wakil (1983) Data Analyses Two major but different types of data anal yses were conducted using the current version of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 16). Differences in MYARQ Total scores based on (a) gender, (b) c ountry of birth, (c) ethnicity, a nd (d) primary language spoken in the home, and (e) type of high school were examined using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Post hoc multiple comparisons for et hnicity, primary language and type of high school were done using Least Sign ificant Differences (LSD) and Bonferroni. The relationships among MYARQ Total scores and (a) respondents age, (b) respondents number of years in the U.S., (c) respondents fathers number of years in the U.S., and (d) respondents mothers number of years in the U.S. were examined us ing non-parametric pairwise correlations. For those analyses that were statistically significant, univariate Analysis of Variance were done to examine any significant interaction effects. Cronbachs alpha was computed to establish an internal reliability coefficient for the MYARQ Total Score.

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56 Methodological Limitations A methodological limitation for this study is the participa ting students have no direct incentive to respond to the MYARQ or to re spond to it openly, hone stly, or completely. However, receiving the MYARQ ma terials from school counselo rs, who by virtue of their positions in schools should be viewed as helpful and caring adults, should impart to potential respondents that the survey and research ar e important and legitimate. In addition, the requirement for parental permission for particip ation necessarily means that parents must be aware of their childrens participation and may serve to motivate their children to respond to the MYARQ. This could also possibly affect the respondents to provide socially desirable responses. Most important, however, is the reali zation among most American Muslims that there is great need for better understa nding of them and of their live s by the general population of the U.S., which should serve as a strong mo tivation to participate in the study. A similar limitation applies to the participa ting school counselors. That is, they too do not have any direct incentive to assist with the study. However, most practicing school counselors, as dedicated professi onals, recognize the need for and value of substantive research that has good potential for appli cation in the school c ounseling profession. Th erefore, it is likely that those school counselors who agree to particip ate will do so to the best of their respective abilities.

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57 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The purpose of this study was to determ ine de mographic characteristic s and the extent to which high school-age Muslim students experience different issues believed to be associated with the acculturation process. Presented in this chapter are the results from the surveys used by students to provide their perceptions of various relevant acculturation issues presented in the literature. Demographic data are presented, incl uding age, gender, ethnicity, country of birth, primary language spoken at home, Muslim by bi rth or conversion, type of high school attended, number of years the student has lived in the c ountry, and number of year s the students father and mother have lived in this country. Next, th e results of analyses of differences in MYARQ total scores by gender, ethnicity, country of birth, primary language, Muslims by birth or conversion and type of high school attended total are provided. Finally, the relationships among MYARQ total score and age and numbe r of years lived are provided. Demographic Characteristics The demographic data for the respondents are presented in Table 4-1. The total number of respondents was N=144. However, data from onl y 143 were used because of incomplete data from one of the respondents. Of the 143, 35% were male and 65% were female. In regard to ethnicity, 40% indicated they were of South Asia n descent (Indian, Pakist ani, or Bangladeshi); 43% indicated they were of Arab descent (Egyptian, Iraqi, Yemeni or Lebanese); 5% indicated they were African American; and 12% indicated th ey were of Other ethnicity (which included American, Turkish, Albanian, Iranian, and Multi/Bi racial). For their countr y of birth, 68% of the respondents were born in the Unite d States, while 32% were born in another country. Two of the respondents did not provide this information. In regard to primary language spoken at home,

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58 57% indicated English, 9% indicated Urdu, 23% indicated Arabic, and 11% indicated another language (including Turkish, Farsi, Swahili, and Albanian). In regard to origin of religion, 96% i ndicated they were Muslim by birth, and the remaining 4% were Muslim by conversion. Two of the respondents did not provide this information. In regard to type of high sc hool attended, 67% indicated public schools, 24% indicated Islamic high schools, 7% indicated pr ivate high schools, and 2% indicated Other (e.g., home-schooled). One respondent di d not report this information. Table 4-1. Respondents De mographic Characteristics Variable Percentage (N) Gender Male Female 35% (50) 65% (94) Ethnicity South Asian Arab African American Other 40% (58) 43% (62) 5% (7) 12% (17) Country birth U.S. Other 68% (96) 32% (46) Primary language English Urdu Arabic Other 57% (82) 9% (13) 23% (33) 11% (16) Origin of Religion Birth Conversion 96% (137) 4% (5) Type of High School Public Islamic Private Other 67% (96) 24% (34) 7% (10) 2% (3) Response frequencies for the 31 attitudina l items MYARQ is shown in Appendix G.

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59 Table 4-2 shows the average age of the res pondents, average number of years that the respondents had lived in America, average number of years that the respondents father had lived in America, and average number of years the respondents mo ther had lived in America. Table 4-2. Respondents Age and Length of Resi dence and Respondents Parents length of Residence Variable N M SD Minimum Yrs Maximum Years Age 143 15.84 1.27 13.0 18.0 Years in U.S 142 13.16 4.58 1.0 18.0 Years Father 132 14.70 14.52 0.0 57.0 Years Mother 125 12.95 13.15 1.0 60.0 Response Summary Statistical Package for the Social Scien ces (SPSS) software was used for all data summarizations and analyses. The alpha leve l was p = .05 for all analyses. For the 144 participants, their mean MYARQ total scor e was 93.09 (SD = 11.29). Boxplot and Stem Leaf analyses of the respondents total scores s howed that the sample had a relatively normal distribution of MY ARQ total scores. Table 4-3. Response Means for MYARQ Total Score Respondents Mean Score Lowe st Score Highest Score 144 93.09 (SD=11.29) 64 114 H1: There is no difference in MYARQ Total Score based on respondent gender. Shown in Table 4-4 are the MYARQ Total scor e data by gender. An independent samples t-test (see Table 4-5) was computed to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in respondent MYARQ total scores based on ge nder. It was found that t = 2.28 (df = 142; p = .024). Therefore, male respondent s had a statistically significa ntly higher MYARQ total score mean than did the female respondents, and the first null hypothesis was rejected.

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60 Table 4-4. Means by Gender for MYARQ Total Score Gender N Mean Std. Dev Std. Error Mean Total Score M 50 9610.5772 1.4958 F 94 91.542611.4118 1.177 Table 4-5. Independent Samples t test for MYARQ Total Scores by Gender Leveness Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference F Sig. t Df Sig. (2tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference Lower Upper Equal variances assumed .183 .669 2.288142 .024 4.4574 1.9483 .6060 8.3089 Total Score Equal variances not assumed 2.342106.876.021 4.4574 1.9034 .6841 8.2308 H2: There is no difference in MYARQ Total Score based on respondent ethnicity. Shown in Table 4-6 are the MYARQ Total Sc ore data by ethnicity. A one way analysis of variance (see Table 4-7) was calculated to compare respondent MYARQ total score means by ethnicity. For this analysis, it was found that F = 1.64 (df =3,140) p = 0.182). Therefore, there was no statistically significant difference based on ethnicity and the second null hypothesis was not rejected.

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61 Table 4-6. MYARQ Total Sc ore Means by Ethnicity N Mean Std. Deviation STD. Error 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Minimum Maximum Lower bound Upper bound South Asian 58 91.74 11.74 1.54 88.65 94.83 68.00 114.00 Arab 62 95.40 1.05 1.40 92.59 98.21 65.00 114.00 African American 7 91.14 7.73 2.92 83.99 98.29 83.00 103.00 Other 17 90.06 11.03 2.67 84.38 95.73 64.00 109.00 Total 144 93.09 11.29 .94 91.23 94.95 64.00 114.00 Table 4-7. One Way Analysis of Variance for MYARQ Total Score by Ethnicity Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 619.988 3 206.663 1.642 .182 Within Groups 17621.838 140 125.870 Total 18241.826 143 H3: There is no difference in MYARQ Total Score based on respondent country of birth. Table 4-8 shows MYARQ Total Score data by country of birth. An independent samples t-test (see Table 4-9) was computed to co mpare respondent MYARQ total score means by country of birth. It was found th at t = -0.11 (df =140; p = .916). Therefore, there was not a statistically significant differen ce in MYARQ total score means based on country of birth, and the third null hypothesis was not rejected. Table 4-8. Means for MYARQ Total Score by Country of Birth COBIRTH N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean United States 96 93.0938 11.1119 1.1341 Total score Another Country 46 93.3043 11.2128 1.6532

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62 Table 4-9. Independent Samples t test on MYARQ Total Score by Country of Birth Leveness Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference F Sig. t Df Sig. (2tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference Lower Upper Equal variances assumed .026 .871 .105140 .916 -.2106 1.9984 .-4.16163.7404 Total Score Equal variances not assumed .10588.079.917 -.2106 2.0048 -4.19483.7736 H4: There is no difference in MYARQ Total Score based on respondent primary language spoken in the home. Shown in Table 4-10 are the MYARQ Total Score data by primary language spoken in the home. A one way analysis of variance (see Table 4-11) was calculated to compare MYARQ total score means across categorie s of primary language spoken in the respondents home. It was found that F = 6.521 (df =3,140) p=0.000). Therefore, the fourth null hypot hesis was rejected. Subsequently, a Least Significant Difference (LSD) and Bonferroni post hoc comparison (see Table 4-12) revealed that primary home language of English and Other language were not statistically significant from each other and that the primary home languages of Urdu and Arabic were not statistically signifi cant from each other. However, the primary home languages of Urdu and Arabic were statistically significant from the primary home language of English

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63 Table 4-10. Means for MYAR Q Total Score by Primary Language in the Home 95% Confidence Interval for Mean n Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Lower Bound Upper Bound Minimum Maximum English 82 89.8171 1178.5866 1.279587.2712 92.3629 64.00 114.00 Urdu 13 99.4615 12.3397 3.422492.0047 106.9184 71.00 114.00 Arabic 33 98.0000 8.4668 1.473994.9978 101.0022 75.00 113.00 Other 16 94.5625 8.2054 2.051490.1901 98.9349 78.00 106.00 Total 114 93.0903 11.2945 .9412 91.2298 94.9508 64.00 114.00 Table 4-11. One Way Analysis of Variance fo r MYARQ Total Score by Primary Language in the Home Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig Between Groups 2236.402 3 745.467 6.521.000 Within Groups 16005.424 140114.324 Total 18241.826 143 Table 4-12. Post Hoc LSD and Bonferroni Comparison of MYARQ Total Score by Primary Language in the Home 95% Confidence Interval (I) PRIMLAN (J) PRIMLAN Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig. Lower Bound Upper Bound Urdu -9.6445(*)3.1919.003 -15.9551 -3.3339 Arabic -8.1829(*)2.2042.000 -12.5408 -3.8251 English Other -4.7454 2.9222.107 -10.5228 1.0320 English 9.6445(*) 3.1919.003 3.3339 15.9551 Arabic 1.4615 3.5012.677 -5.4606 8.3836 Urdu Other 4.8990 3.9924.222 -2.9942 12.7923 English 8.1829(*) 2.2042.000 3.8251 12.5408 Urdu -1.4615 3.5012.677 -8.3836 5.4606 Arabic Other 3.4375 3.2572.293 -3.0023 9.8773 English 4.7454 2.9222.107 -1.0320 10.5228 Urdu -4.8990 3.9924.222 -12.7923 2.9942 LSD Other Arabic -3.4375 3.2572.293 -9.8773 3.0023

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64 Table 4-12 Continued Urdu -9.6445(*)3.1919.018 -18.1869 -1.1020 Arabic -8.1829(*)2.2042.002 -14.0820 -2.2839 English Other -4.7454 2.9222.640 -12.5661 3.0753 English 9.6445(*) 3.1919.018 1.1020 18.1869 Arabic 1.4615 3.50121.000 -7.9087 10.8317 Urdu Other 4.8990 3.99241.000 -5.7858 15.5838 English 8.1829(*) 2.2042.002 2.2839 14.0820 Urdu -1.4615 3.50121.000 -10.8317 7.9087 Arabic Other 3.4375 3.25721.000 -5.2798 12.1548 English 4.7454 2.9222.640 -3.0753 12.5661 Urdu -4.8990 3.99241.000 -15.5838 5.7858 Bonferroni Other Other -3.4375 3.25721.000 -12.1548 5.2798 The mean difference is si gnificant at the .05 level. H5: There is no difference in MYARQ Tota l Score based on respondent Muslim belief origin. Because such a small proportion of the res pondents had become Muslim by conversion, the data were insufficient to allow a ppropriate data analysis. Therefor e, this hypothesis could not be evaluated in this study H6: There is no difference in MYARQ tota l score based on respondent type of high school attended Because there were so few respondents who at tended private (other than Islamic) high schools, the data from those respondents was co mbined with that of respondents who attended public high schools. Shown in Table 4-13 are the MYARQ Total Score data by type of high school following the clustering. A one way analysis of variance (see Table 4-14) was calculated to compare respondent MYARQ total score mean s by school type. It was found that F = 0.223 (df =2,140; p =0.801). Therefore, there was not a statistically significan t difference in MYARQ total score means based on school type, and the sixth null hypothesi s was not rejected

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65 Table 4-13. Means Description of MYARQ To tal Score and Type of School Attended 95% Confidence Interval for the Mean n Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Lower Bound Upper Bound Minimum Maximum 1.00 106 92.9245 12.1167 1.1769 90.5910 95.2581 64.00 114.00 2.00 34 93.5000 8.3130 1.4257 90.5995 96.4005 78.00 113.00 4.00 3 89.0000 10.8167 6.2450 62.1299 115.870177.00 98.00 Total 143 92.9790 11.2547 .9412 91.1185 94.8395 64.00 114.00 Table 4-14. One Way Analysis of Variance fo r MYARQ Total Score and Type of School Sum of Squaresdf Mean Square f Sig. Between Groups 57.041 2 28.520 .233.801 Within Groups 17929.896 40 128.071 Total 17986.937 42 H7: There are no statistically significan t interactions for MYARQ Total Score among respondent characteristics To examine the relationship between responde nt gender and primary language spoken in the home, a univariate ANOVA was conducted. Results revealed a significant main effect for primary language F(3, 136) = 5.78, p < .001, alt hough the gender, F (1, 136) = 1.88, p = .17, and the gender by primary language interaction we re not significant F (3,136) = .384, p =.77. Thus, the null hypothesis was not rejected H8: There is no relationship between MYARQ total score and respondent age. Because the range of respondent ages wa s restricted, a Spearman rank order (rho) correlation was computed (see Table 4-15) to de termine the relationship between MYARQ total score and respondent age. For this analysis, it was found that rho = -0.006 (df = 143; p =. 947). Therefore, the eighth null hypothesis was not rejected.

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66 H9: There is no relationship between MYAR Q Total Score and respondent years in the United States. A Spearman correlation also was computed (see Table 4-15) to determine the relationship between MYARQ total score and respondent length of residence in the United States. For this analysis, it was found that rho = -0.024 (df = 142, p = .776). Therefore, the ninth null hypothesis was not rejected. H10: There is no relationship between M YARQ Total Score and respondents fathers years in the United States. A Spearmans rank correlation was computed (see Table 4-15) to determine the relationship between MYARQ total score and respondents fathers length of residence in the United States. It was found that rho =.296 (df = 132; p = .001) Therefore, the tenth null hypothesis was rejected. H11: There is no relationship between M YARQ Total Score and respondents mothers years in the United States. A Spearmans rank correlation was computed (see Table 4-15) to determine the relationship between MYARQ total score and respondents mothers length of residence in the United States. It was found that rho =.217 (df = 125; p = .015). Therefore the eleventh null hypothesis was rejected.

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67 Table 4-15. Spearman Correlation Co efficients of MYARQ Total Sc ores with Respondent Age, Length of Residence, Respondents Fathers Length of Residence, and Respondents Mothers Length of Residence. Total Score AGE YRSLIVED YRSF YRSM Correlation Coefficient 1.000 -.006 -.024 .296(**) .217(*) Sig.(2-tailed). .947 .776 .001 .015 Total score N 144 143 142 132 125 Correlation Coefficient -.006 1.000 .434(**) .064 .054 Sig.(2-tailed).947 .000 .470 .553 AGE N 143 143 142 131 124 Correlation Coefficient -.024 .434(**) 1.000 .255(**) .408(**) Sig.(2-tailed).776 .000 .003 .000 YRSLIVED N 142 142 142 131 124 Correlation Coefficient .296(**).064 .255(**) 1.000 .786(**) Sig.(2-tailed).001 .470 .003 .000 YRSF N 132 131 131 132 122 Correlation Coefficient .217(*).054 .408(**) .786(**) 1.000 Sig.(2-tailed).015 .553 .000 .000 Spearmans rho YRSM N 125 124 124 122 125 **Correlation is sign ificant at the .01 level (2-tailed) *Correlation is significant at the .05 level (2-tailed) Finally, a Cronbachs Coefficient Alpha wa s calculated to determine the internal consistency of the MYARQ. It was found to be 0.70 for the MYARQ Total Score for this group of respondents which is considered adequate in most social scienc e research situations (Heppner, Kivlighan, & Wampold, 1992).

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68 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The primary purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which high school age Muslim students experience various acculturation issues that have been presented in the professional literature. In addi tion, differences in the extent to which they experienced the various issues based on gender, ethnicity, country of birth, prim ary language, origin of religion and type of high school attended were examined, as were the relationships between the extent to which they experienced those issues and the number of years that the resp ondent and each of the respondents parents have lived in America. Th e extent to which the respondents experienced acculturation issues was made ope rational as the tota l score on the Muslim Youth Acculturation Rating Questionnaire (MYARQ), a self-report instrument deve loped by the author that comprised of items that reflected acculturation issu es as presented in the professional literature. Although much research has been done about acculturation for immigrant adults (e.g., Amer, 2005; Berry, Kim, Minde, & Mok, 1987; Berry, Kim, Power, Young, & Bujaki, 1989; Phinney, 1990; Sam & Berry, 1995), and some for immigrant youth (e.g., Ghuman, 2003; Portes & Rumbaut, 2001), little attention has been fo cused on the cultural adap tation of Muslim youth (Alghorani, 2003; Hedayat-Diba, 2000). However, Muslim youth face a distinct acculturation process because of their allegiance to both traditional cultural values and religious beliefs and the social influences of their American peers. Additionally, since the historic events of September 11th, 2001, Muslims have had to endure intense scrutiny as me mbers of the greater American society. These unique stressors imp act the acculturation process of Muslims, especially adolescents who also are experiencing other devel opmental changes and engaging in identity development. Therefore, this study surv eyed Muslim adolescents to determine the extent to which they experience various accultura tion issues presumed to be common in the

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69 acculturation process. Presented in this chapter are the limitations, conclusions, implications, and recommendations that evol ved from this research. Generalizability Limitations The purpose of this survey research was to gather information from high school age Muslim students about their experi ences of issues in their accultu ration process. The initial plan was to access the high school students by contacti ng high school counselors and Islamic centers to disseminate information about the study by means of a flyer. The flyer requested that parents contact the researcher for the link to the online survey (with the password provided as the informed consent for their child to take the onl ine survey). Therefore, high school counselors who were members of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) and resided in the nine states with the largest Mu slim populations (i.e., California, Florida, Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Texas) were contacted via email. Islamic Centers in the same nine states also were sent email information about and participation requests for the study. However, collectively these proc esses generated only twenty respondents over a three-month period, even though a reminder email wa s sent to the school counselors and Islamic centers every month. Therefore, thereafter snowball sampling was used to increase the response rate. Snowball sampling is deliberate sampling that typically proceeds after a study begins and takes place when the researcher asks participants to recommend other individuals to participate in the study (Creswell, 2002). This method helped to increase the final sample to 144. Although the desired sample size was not fully achie ved, this sample is sufficient for valid data analyses, and substantial rela tive to the restricted populati on from which it was drawn. Another adjustment to the proposed procedures was to provide a paper version of the survey for those participants who requested it. The third adjustment was an addition to the type of high school attended by the re spondents. Initially, it was in tended that only students from

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70 public high schools would be sampled, based on the assumption that those Muslim students who were mainstreamed adolescents would face the common acculturation issues. However, feedback and interest from pare nts and directors of Islamic schools who received the information about the study from their Islamic centers sugg ested that students in Islamic schools also experienced acculturation issues frequently. Th erefore, students from public, private, and Islamic schools all were included in the study. Again, although this was a change from the original plan, the inclusion of students from Islamic high schools in effect allowed the sample to represent an even broader sample of Muslim adolescent students. It was anticipated that the gender ratio among respondents would be approximately 50:50. However, the gender ratio for the sample was 65% female and 35% male. It may be that more females than males responded to the MYARQ as they tend to be more compliant and conforming than males. However, while females are to so me extent overrepresented among the respondents, there were sufficient numbers of respondents fo r each gender to allow valid gender difference analyses. Conclusions A higher sco re on the MYARQ reflected great er extent to which the respondent experienced acculturation issues. Therefore, lo wer MYARQ scores are associated with higher acculturation (i.e., lesser extent of acculturation issues) while higher scores imply lower acculturation (i.e., greater extent of accultura tion issues). The lowest possible MYARQ score was 63 and the highest possible score was 123. Fo r this study the lowest total score by a respondent was 64 and the hi ghest score was 114. The first hypothesis addressed differences in MYARQ Total Score based on gender. There was a statistically significant differen ce in mean MYARQ total score, with male respondents having a higher mean score than female respondents. This result indicates that male

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71 Muslim adolescents had greater intensity of acculturation issues than the female Muslim adolescents. A second major finding of this study was th at the mean difference for primary language spoken in the home was statistically significan t. The primary difference was among respondents from homes in which Urdu and Arabic were the main languages spoken at home and those in which English was the main language spoken at ho me, with students in the former having greater intensity of acculturation issu es than in the latter. The third major finding in this study was that of the positive and sta tistically significant correlations between the number of years that both the respondents father and mother had lived in the U.S. and MYARQ Total Score. Apparently parental duration in the U.S. is inversely associated with their adolescents experience of acculturation issues. Statistically significant differences were not found for MYARQ Total Score based on ethnicity, country of birth, and type of high school. The variable country of birth was in cluded to investigate whether there were differences based on being born in the U.S. Whil e a majority (68%) of the respondents was born in the U.S., many of them had not lived in the U. S. their entire lives; the total number of years lived in the U.S. for the respondents were ofte n different than their actual age. Presumably, discontinuity of time lived in the U.S. could have impacted the intensity of their experiences with acculturation. However, there was not a statistically significant difference for this variable. One of the initial assumptions of this study was that public school students have greater exposure to mainstream America, and therefore would be a more accurate representation of the average or typical Muslim adoles cent in America. Islamic school students educations follow strict Islamic rules, which incl ude segregation of the sexes, w earing a school uniform, intense

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72 study of religion, and daily prescrib ed prayers (Alghorani, 2003). Th erefore, it would be easy to assume that these students have had a comp letely different experience of daily school, interpersonal, religious, and social life than th e public school students. However, there were no statistically significant differences in intensity of acculturation experience based on school type. Interpretations The variables examined in this study were developed from the literature on theory and research related to acculturation of immigrants In particular, Berrys theory of acculturation states that demographic variables such as age, ge nder, ethnicity, length of residence, and parents length of residence have been shown as possible sources of variation in the acculturation process (Berry & Sam, 1997). Intercultura l variables such as language proficiency and use, social contacts, perceived discrimination and family rela tionship values have been researched within the context of Berrys theory, and found to have substantive re lationships with acculturation process level of adaptation (Berry, et al., 1989; Berry, Phinney, Kwak, & Sam, 2006). Berrys (1980) theory of accult uration includes that all issues are applicable to all persons experiencing the acculturation process. Further, for adolescents in immigrant families, acculturation attitudes are shaped by families, pe ers, their school experiences, and other adults with whom they interact (Phinney, et al., 2006). Thus, differences in preferences for acculturative change are dependent on contextual factors, any discrimination that they may experience, and personal characteristics (Phinney, et al., 2006). Because both the nature and extent of the acculturation issues with which a pe rson is confronted change over time (Berry, et al., 2006), it is important that rese arch on adolescents be conducted before they become adults. This study therefore contributes to the research and theory associated with the literature on acculturation of adolescent immigrants.

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73 The result of gender difference in acculturati on found in this study is in accord with the research of Berry, et al. ( 2006) and Ghuman (2003) who also found acculturation differences based on gender. Interestingly, Berry et al., (2006) found in their study of acculturation, identity, and adaptation of immigrant youth living in 13 societies around the world that immigrant boys had slightly better psychological adaptation than immigrant girls, but there was poorer sociocultural adaptation for girls. Psychological adaptation in their study included factors such as life satisfaction, self-esteem, and psychological problems and sociocultural adaptation included factors such as school adjustment, and be havior problems. They concluded that: girls are more likely to internalize pr oblems and have higher levels of depression, whereas boys are more likely to externalize problem s and act out. In schools, girls have the same opportunity as boys for exposure to the new soci ety. Girls are likely to find school a congenial atmosphere, both because they typically do be tter in school than boys and because a school atmosphere that promotes gender equality may a llow them greater freedom than they experience at home. Positive attitudes toward school may cont ribute to the better school adjustment of girlsan orientation toward in tegration might create more st ress at home, especially when parents want their daughters to remain close to the cultural traditions of the family. Stress at home may be a factor in th e poorer psychological well-being of girls. (Phinney, et al., 2006, p.221). Ghumans (2003) study on South Asian youth liv ing in four Western countries reported that girls had the most to gain from accepting the norms and practices of gender equality, especially when the cultural and religious norms w ithin their family did not allow for them to be treated the same as the boys. This may explain w hy the girls in the present study scored lower on

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74 the MYARQ (which implies lesser intensity of problems) because they stand to gain more by adopting Western values with regard to gender equality and treatment from others. In regard to primary language spoken in the home, previous research (Swaiden, et.al, 2001) has shown that among Muslims in America, the mo re frequent the use of native language, the greater the desire to retain na tive culture and remain separated from mainstream American culture. Ghuman (2003) found that Muslims in part icular in his study were more dedicated to learning, speaking, and keeping their primary language than the ot her religious groups. Similarly, Berry, et al., (2006) concluded that Muslim immigrant youth were the largest group among the ethnic profile groups in which th e orientation was toward high ethnic identity, ethnic language proficiency and usage, a nd ethnic peer contacts. Language proficiency speeds the acculturation process (Swaiden, et al., 2001), a proposition supported by the respondents in this study having higher scores MYARQ scores being the ones who were primarily speaking languages other than English at home. Previous research by El-Badry and Poston (1990), El-Sayed (1986), and Musleh (1983) found a positive relationship betw een length of residence and acculturation success for Arab immigrants to the U. S. Immigrants who had been in the U.S. for a shorter period suffered more problems than immigrants who had been in the U.S. for longer periods of time (Penaloza, 1994; Swaiden, et al., 2001). However, apparently the potential acculturati on adaptation benefits derived from longer residence in the U.S. is not transmitted directly, or at least uniformly, from parents to their childre n. A possible explanation is that, in general, the basic religious and cultural values of Muslims espous e the authority of the father in the household. Further, gender roles are clearly defined and hier archical. Therefore, the father usually makes all the important decisions in the household, which could include th e amount of contact the family has with the

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75 larger society, the activities in which the children are involved in at sc hool or outside of school, and the interpersonal relationships allowed for the children and/or the family in general. Another plausible explanation for this findi ng may be the repercussions for Muslims in general following the events of September 11th, 2001. September 11th has dramatically altered the way Muslims live in the U.S. (Abdo, 2006). In the post -11 era, Muslims have become more religious and more conservative because they feel an urgent need to embrace their beliefs and to establish an Islamic id entity as a unified community. For example, Abdo (2006) reported that there are more mosques, more women wearing headscarves, and more Muslims taking time to perform their daily prayers at work than in the decade prior to September 11th, 2001. And finally, most of the previous studies that showed a positive relationship between length of residence and acculturation su ccess were conducted in the 1980s and1990s. Acculturation success may have had different influe nces based on the historical events preceding that time. Now, however, Muslims are more fr equently keeping to their own ethnic groups because of distrust and anxietie s related to national and media propaganda against Muslims. On September 11th, 2001, the respondents in this study were only between six and 11 years of age. After that date, their parents ma y have tried to protect thei r children more by keeping them separated from the larger society and the onslaug ht of negative stereoty ping of Muslims. Abdo (2006) reported that young Muslims who were bor n or raised in the U.S. are often more observant of Islamic practices than their parent s. Therefore, the res pondents in this study may have had more intensity of acculturation issues re gardless of how long their parents have lived longer in the U.S. With regard to the lack of significant diffe rence based on ethnicity, it is important to recognize that not all Muslims are alike. In the world at large, Muslims are comprised of several

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76 ethnic groups, but in the U.S. they are primarily comprised of three main groups: Arab Muslims, South Asian Muslims, and African American s Muslims (Pew Research Center, 2007). Considering that these three groups are vastly different in prim ary language, cultural mores, and historical background, it was expect ed that there would be differences in the intensity of their acculturation issues as well. However, that was not the case in this study. There is no readily apparent explanation for this lack of difference. Most recent studies of Muslims (e.g., Ahmed, 2005; Barry, 2001, 2002, 2005; Ghuman, 2003; Mansour, 2000) have been focused only on one ethnic group (Arab or South Asian) or on other mental health issues (such as identity development, religiosity, or depression), and therefore did not address acculturation issues across different ethnic groups. An exception was Berry, et al., (2006) who investigated ethnicity as a variable in th e acculturation process of immigrant youth in four of 13 diffe rent countries in their study. Th ey concluded that there were strong differences in ethnic orie ntation and ethnic behaviors, and in turn in predicted adaptation outcomes. Therefore, the present study was distinctive in investig ating potential differences in intensity of acculturation issues based on ethnicity, and also in not finding differences based on ethnicity. The correlation between age and MYARQ score was not statistically significant. Berry, et al., (2006) found no age differences in acculturation adaptation in their study. They suggested that age may have been confounded with age of arrival which was not studied with their participants. Therefore, although it might seem r easonable to suggest that older students would have less intense experiences in accultura tion, apparently that is not the case. A basic issue in acculturation research is wh ether immigrants experience an essentially linear change from complete identification and invol vement with their original ethnic culture to

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77 more or less complete identification and invol vement with their new host culture (Berry, 1980, 1984). Berry, et al., (2006) found th at change was not a linear pr ogression, that is, that with longer residence, adolescents are more likely to be bicultural and in tegrated rather than assimilated. The majority of the respondents in this study were born in the U. S. It is possible that there was not a statistically significant correla tion because they had already integrated and become bicultural to a large extent. Implications A gender difference in th e extent to which Muslim adolescents experience acculturation was found. Boys generally had hi gher scores, which indicate th ey had greater intensity of involvements with acculturation issues. In addi tion, Muslim adolescents who primarily spoke Urdu and Arabic at home had higher scores than those who primarily spoke English at home. And finally, there was a positive correlation between intensity of issues experienced and the length of time the parents had lived in the U.S. Therefore, the results of this study generally support the generalized application of the theory of acculturation in regard to some demographic factors, such as gender and length of residence and in tercultural factors, such as language(s) used, but not others such as ethn icity and country of birth and c ontextual variables like type of high school. With regard to implications for research in acculturation, the results of this study support previous research that showed gender differences in acculturation and the impact of language in the acculturation process. However, also found in this was information that is contrary to previous findings in regard to the relationship between length of residence and acculturation adaptation. Thus this study contributes new info rmation in regard to acculturation of second generation Muslim adolescents.

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78 With regard to implications for training of counselors, the results of this study are beneficial to counselor educator s because of its results pertin ent to gender, primary language, and parents length of residence and how those factors are associated with the acculturation process of Muslim adolescents. Often in th e counselor preparati on, the emphasis is on generalized multi-cultural education about an ethnic group, their worldviews, and their presenting issues. This study adds further dept h to the known information about Muslims and their religious and cultural worl dviews, and therefore contributes to better understanding of the personal characteristics and contextual variable s that impact Muslims adolescents acculturation and integration into their schools and the larg er society. Also, because Muslims present in different ethnicities, this study helps to clarify that across the different ethnicities, gender differences impact how adolescents develop. For example, speaking two languages is potentially beneficial for culture retention and ethno-cultural pride. Counse lor educators should know that primary language use impacts cultural adapta tion and that school c ounselors should provide services that support both the a dolescent and their families. Becau se it was found that parents length of residence had a positive correlation with the intensity of experience of acculturation issues, school counselors should be advi sed to consider the underlying reasons. With regard to implications for practice, sc hool counselors and other educators should take into account their Muslim students cultural values, reli gious beliefs, and accul turative influences that impact their psychological and behavioral functioning in schools. While research on other cultural groups has found acculturation to increase with time spent in th e host society, found in this study was that Muslims may be different in this regard, and in particular in regard to parents length of time in this country. Parents are alwa ys an obvious component in ensuring the success of students in schools. Therefore, school counselor s and other educators s hould always take into

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79 consideration the potential impact of parental acculturative variab les that may in turn impact their childs acculturative experience and re alize that it may vary among individuals. Recommendations This study is among the few that have investigated the acculturation experience of immigrant adolescents, and possibly the only one that has specifically examined the acculturation experiences of Muslim immigrant and second-generation adolescents post September 11th, 2001, in the U. S. Some of the re sults from this study are supported in previous literature but the new results found may be especially pertinent for future studies. Existing acculturation theory takes into account the importance of gender and primary language as impacting the acculturation process. However, from this study, it is recommended that theory also take into account how Muslim pa rents length of residen ce is associated with acculturation of adolescents. While most immi grant parents achieve a have higher degree of acculturation with a longer stay in the host country, Muslim parents may be seeking to shield their adolescent children from having simila r experiences. While September 11th, 2001, is typically given only cursory attention in the pr ofessional literature related to discrimination against Muslims, further research to explore th e extent of the problems experienced by Muslims relative to this tragic event is greatly need ed to understand the full impact on their lives. As indicated, this study is one of, if not the only one, on the acculturation of adolescent Muslims. Clearly more studies in this regard ar e needed. In particular, studies having larger sample sizes and/or samples from different popul ations are needed to broaden the basis of cultural knowledge about adol escent Muslims in the U.S. Collaboration among Muslim educators, counselors, and local leaders is highly recommended to systematically specify and study pertinent acculturation issues. Also, more research is needed on the psychometric properties of the MYARQ; specifically, the subs cales of the MYARQ can be further developed

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80 using factor analyses. Further research is also recommended in comparing immigrant Muslims pre-September 11th and post-September 11th. This could identify more clearly the acculturation experiences for Muslims related to th is important event in America. A strong recommendation is made for incl uding Muslims as a distinct group within multicultural education and training for school co unselors and counselor educators. The Muslim population is growing rapidly in the United States (Bagby, 1994; U.S. Department of State, 2001). Such training should include the differential experiences of immigr ant Muslim adults and second generation Muslim children. Increasing and correcting the informa tion about Muslims in the American society in general and acknowle dging their unique issues would help Muslims have better acculturation experiences. In school settings, school counsel ors should take the initiative to learn about the adolescent Muslim population, and then provide workshops to others about what they learned. Counselor educators also can help by providing factual, research-based information about Muslim adolescents to students in school counselor pr eparation programs and by encouraging further relevant research. Research al so can be used to provide community education workshops. If society as a whole, including government and educational institutions, provide acceptance, openness and support for Muslim adol escents to thrive, then adoles cent Muslims can seek to be more involved in the life of the larger society, which in turn promotes the integrative model of acculturation (Berry, et al., 2006; Ghuman, 2003). Summary Muslims are fast becoming a significant and common component of the American society. However, there is not yet enough accurate information about this population in general, and about the youth of this populatio n in particular. This study sought to determine the extent to which Muslim adolescents are experiencing accultur ation issues in the U.S. and to investigate

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81 some variables associated with their acculturation experiences. In many respects, the results from this study support previous research findings. However, new information also was found. Therefore, further research is highly recomm ended to explore the nature of acculturation among Muslim adolescents.

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82 APPENDIX A INVITATION TO SCHOOL COUNSELORS Dear Colleague, My nam e is Shifa Hussain. I am a doctoral candi date in the Department of Counselor Education at the University of Florida. You may reme mber me from the April, 2007 issue of ACAs Counseling Today that featured the article Muslim Teens Leading Double Lives for which I was interviewed. As a high school counselor for over eight years, I have worked in a variety of roles and with diverse populations, including Mu slim students and parents. My dissertation research is entitled, Acculturati on issues of Muslim high school st udents in the United States. It involves American Muslim high-school-age st udents responding to an online and survey about acculturation issues they may be facing. It should take the students approximately 10 minutes to respond. I am writing to ask if you would assist my research by distributing information about my research and survey to any Muslim students in your school. All you are aske d to do is to contact any Muslim students in your school known to you and give each of them a flyer to take home to their parent(s). The flyer for the parent is a ttached for your perusal a nd for sharing with the appropriate school administration for appr oval of distribution of the flyers. Please reply to this email stating your interest and willingness to participate in this study. I also request for you to please include in your reply your school administrations approval for this flyer to be distributed to the Muslim students I will send an appropriate number of flyers about the research via the U.S. postal service as soon as possible. The flyer is intended for distribution to the parent(s) of each Muslim student, so each student contacted should be asked to take the flyer home to his/her parent(s). If more convenient, you can print the flyer and give to your student to take home to his or her parent. This study is funded in part by th e by the Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling (ASERVIC), a division of the American Counseling Association. I would appreciate your response to this email. Respectfully, Shifa Podikunju Hussain Shifa Podikunju Hussain, M.Ed., Ed.S., Larry Loesch, Ph.D., NCC. Doctoral Candidate Professor, Counselor Education University of Florida University of Florida shifaph@ufl.edu or 352-339-4588

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83 APPENDIX B INFORMATIONAL FLYER FOR PARENTS OF AMERI CAN MUSLIM HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS In the tradition of greeting in the Muslim faith, Assalaamu Alaikum (Peace be upon you) Dear Respected Parent, My name is Shifa Podikunju Hussain. I am a doctoral candidate in the school counseling program in the Department of Counselor Educati on at the University of Florida. I write to request your help in my research on adoles cent Muslim students living in the U.S. My doctoral dissertation research is entitled Acculturation issues of Muslim high school students in the U.S. This study received funding in part from the Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling, a di vision of the American Counseling Association. The major research activity is completion of an approximately 10-minute, online survey by high school-age Muslim students. I am contacting you b ecause you are the parent of a student eligible to participate in my study, and your consent is need for your student to participate. As an American Muslim and a high school counselor for more than eight years, I have worked with Muslim and other bi-cultural teens who face issues associated with adaptation to mainstream American society. I am aware that pa rents often feel overwhe lmed when faced with the deluge of cultural differences that affect th eir children in schools and in society. This study is intended to be a foundation of discovery for act ual issues that young Muslims face growing up in America. I am interested in learning about Muslim high school students opinions in topics such as relationships with peers including Muslims and non-Muslims, the roles of boys and girls in family life growing up in America, how Muslims are treated in America, and how connected Muslim boys and girls f eel growing up in America. The results from this study should be helpful to educators, parents, children, and educational professionals in ways beneficial to all. It also may be that this research will help alleviate some of the misconceptions that the larger society may have about Muslims living in America. If you have any other questions or would like to contac t me regarding this study or the survey, you can welcome to call me at 352-339-4588 at any time, or my supervising professor at the University of Florida, Dr. Larry Lo esch at 352-392-0731, extension, 225. This study is not connected to your school an d will not impact the academic standing of your student in any way. The school is asked to only distribute this informational flyer to Muslim students known to the school counselor. Muslim high school age students from across the Un ited States are being requested to participate in this research by completing an ap proximately 10-minute online survey. If you are willing for your child to participat e in this 10-minute survey, please email me at hussain.shifa@gmail.com for information on the survey website address and the Personal Identification Number (PIN) needed to participate. All participants receive the same standard

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84 PIN number and therefore cannot be identified by this PIN. Use of the PIN number is part of the informed consent process. By providing the URL and PIN to your child, you are acknowledging informed consent for you r child to participate in my search You may withhold consent simply by not providing this information to your child. This procedure has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Florida ( Protocol #2007U-1056). I would appreciate your participation in this pi oneering study on the acculturation issues faced by the Muslim children growing up in America. I thank you in advance for your generous particip ation and your contribution to the literature on Muslims and their needs in America. In the tradition of the Muslim faith, Jazakallahu Khair, (May God grant you good) Shifa Podikunju Hussain M.Ed., Ed.,S., Larry Loesch, Ph.D., NCC Doctoral Candidate Professor, Counselor Education University of Florida University of Florida shifaph@ufl.edu or 352-339-4588

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85 APPENDIX C ONLINE PARENTAL CONSENT Dear Respected Paren t, I am a doctoral candidate in the school counse ling program in the Department of Counselor Education at the University of Florida unde r the supervision of Dr. Larry Loesch. The purpose of this study is to find out how Mu slim high school students feel about acculturation issues related to growing up in the United States. The results from this study should be helpful to educators, parents, children, and educational professionals in ways beneficial to all. It also may be that this research will help alleviate some of the misconcepti ons that the larger society may have about Muslims living in America. There are no known risks to your child. This study is not connected to your school an d will not impact the academic standing of your student in any way. The school is asked to only distribute this informational flyer to Muslim students known to the school counselor. Muslim high school age students from across the Un ited States are being requested to participate in this research by completing an approximately 10-minute online survey. With your permission, I would like to ask your child to pa rticipate in this research. The survey asks the child to c hoose whether they agree or disa gree with statements that the research literature has stated as relating to accu lturation issues of ethnic and religious minority groups. I am interested in learning about Muslim high school students opinions in topics such as relationships with peers including Mu slims and non-Muslims, the roles of boys and girls in family life growing up Muslim in America, how Muslims are treated in America, and how connected Muslim boys and gi rls feel growing up in America. The email you received contains a standard personal identification number (PIN ) that allows access to the survey. Use of the PIN number is part of the informed consent process. By entering the PIN to your child, you are acknow ledging informed consent for your child to participate in my search You may withhold consent simply by not providing this information to your child. This procedure has been appr oved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Florida (protocol # 2007-U-1056). There is no compensation for participation in the study. Your childs particip ation in this study is completely voluntary. Your child do es not have to answer any ques tion that s/he does not wish to answer No school personnel will know if your child participated or not, and choosing not to participate will in no way affect your childs academic standing. The individual student responses will be anonymous as there are no person al identifiers in the survey. Results will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law through a numerical coding system. Only group results will be shared with the doctoral comm ittee and any future research publications and presenta tions. If you are interested to learn more about the results of this study or have any other questions, you may contact me ( shifaph@ufl.edu) or m y supervisor,

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86 Dr. Larry Loesch, at lloesch@coe.ufl.edu Questions or concerns a bout your childs rights as research participant m ay be di rected to the IRB02 office, Un iversity of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611, (352) 392-0433. Shifa Podikunju Hussain M.Ed., Ed.,S., Larry Loesch, Ph.D., NCC. Doctoral Candidate Professor, Counselor Education University of Florida University of Florida shifaph@ufl.edu or 352-339-4588 I have read the procedure described above. By entering the P IN number, I voluntarily give my consent for my child to participate in Shifa P odikunju Hussains study of acculturation issues of high school Muslim students in the United States. Enter PIN here CLICK to go to next page Online Childs Assent My name is Shifa Podikunju Hussain and I am a doc toral student at the Univ ersity of Florida. I am trying to learn about how high school Muslim students feel about growing up Muslim in America. Muslim high school age students from acr oss the United States ar e being requested to participate in this research by completing an approximately 10-minute online survey. There are no known risks to par ticipation. The results from this study should be helpful to teachers, parents, children, and othe r educational professionals in ways beneficial to all. It also may be that this research will help lessen some of the misconceptions that the larger society may have about Muslims living in America. You do not ha ve to take part in th is study or answer any question that you dont want to. No one will know who you are as the students are not asked for their personal information. Only group results will be shared with the re searchers involved and presented as such. No school personnel will know if you participated or not, and choosing not to participate will in no way affect your academic standing. Your parents have given their permission for you to participate. W ould you be willing to participate in this study? YES [Click to continue] NO [Click to end]

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87 APPENDIX D PARENTAL INFORMED CONSENT (PAPER VERSION) Dear Respected Paren t, I am a doctoral candidate in the school counseling program in the Department of Counselor Education at the University of Florid a under the supervision of Dr. Larry Loesch. The purpose of this study is to find out how Muslim high school students feel about acculturation issues related to gr owing up in the United States. The results from this study should be helpful to educators, parents, children, and educational professiona ls in ways beneficial to all. It also may be that this resear ch will help alleviate some of the misconceptions that the larger society may have about Muslims living in Amer ica. There are no known risks to your child. This study is not connected to your school an d will not impact the academic standing of your student in any way. The school is asked to only distribute this informational flyer to Muslim students known to the school counselor. Muslim high school age students from across the United States are being requested to participate in this research by completing an ap proximately 10-minute online/paper survey. With your permission, I would like to ask your child to participate in this research. The survey asks the child to c hoose whether they agree or disa gree with statements that the research literature has stated as relating to accu lturation issues of ethnic and religious minority groups. I am interested in learning about Muslim high school students opinions in topics such as relationships with peers including Mu slims and non-Muslims, the roles of boys and girls in family life growing up Muslim in America, how Muslims are treated in America, and how connected Muslim boys and gi rls feel growing up in America. There is no compensation for participation in the study. Your childs participation in this study is completely voluntary. Your child does no t have to answer any question that s/he does not wish to answer No school personnel will know if your child participated or not, and choosing not to participate will in no w ay affect your childs academic standing. Your child should enclose the survey in the envelope that is attached to the survey, in order to ensure confidentiality, before giving it back to the school counselor or the assigned personnel at the Islamic Centers. The individual student responses will be a nonymous as there are no personal identifiers in the survey. Results will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law through a numerical coding system. Only group results will be shared with the doctoral comm ittee and any future research publications and presenta tions. If you are interested to learn more about the results of this study or have any other questions, you may contact me ( shifaph@ufl.edu) or m y supervisor, Dr. Larry Loesch, at lloesch@coe.ufl.edu Questions or concerns a bout your childs rights as research participant m ay be di rected to the IRB02 office, Un iversity of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611, (352) 392-0433. Shifa Podikunju Hussain M.Ed., Ed.,S., Larry Loesch, Ph.D., NCC. Doctoral Candidate Professor, Counselor Education University of Florida University of Florida shifaph@ufl.edu or 352-339-4588 PARE NT KEEPS THIS PAGE

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88 PLEASE RETURN THIS PAGE TO: SHIFA P. HUSSAIN, 2901 SW 13th Street, #217, Gainesville, FL 32608 Parental Informed Consent I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily give my consent for my child, ___________________________, to participate in Shifa Podikunju Hussains study of acculturation issues of high school Muslim student s in the United States. I have received a copy of this description. Parents signature Date Childs Assent My name is Shifa Podikunju Hussain and I am a doc toral student at the Univ ersity of Florida. I am trying to learn about how high school Muslim students feel about growing up Muslim in America. Muslim high school age students from acr oss the United States ar e being requested to participate in this research by completing an approximately 10-minute online/paper survey. There are no known risks to par ticipation. The results from this study should be helpful to teachers, parents, children, and othe r educational professionals in ways beneficial to all. It also may be that this research will help lessen some of the misconceptions that the larger society may have about Muslims living in America. You do not ha ve to take part in th is study or answer any question that you dont want to. No one will know who you are as the students are not asked for their personal information. Only group results will be shared with the re searchers involved and presented as such. No school personnel will know if you participated or not, and choosing not to participate will in no way affect your academic standing. Please enclose the survey in the envelope that is attached to the survey, in order to ensure confidentiality, before giving it back to the school counselor or the assigned personnel at the Islamic Centers. Your parents have given their permission for you to participate. W ould you be willing to participate in this study? Childs Signature Date

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89 APPENDIX E REQUEST TO ISLAMIC CENTERS TO HE LP DISSEMINATE RESEARCH INFORMATION Assalamu Alaikum (Peace be upon you) Dear Respected Islamic Center Director, My name is Shifa Podikunju Hussain. I am a doctoral candidate in the De partment of Counselor Education at the University of Florida. I am writing to request your help in disseminating information about my dissertation research on adolescent Muslim student s living in the United States to the Muslim ummah (c ommunity) living in your area. I would be very grateful if you would pass this information along via your usual method of informing people, e.g., by email, posting on bulletin boards, or announcement. My dissertation research is entitled, Acculturatio n issues of Muslim high school students in the United States. This study rece ived (partial) funding from the A ssociation for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling, a division of the American Counseling Association. The major research activity is for hi gh-school-age Muslim students to complete an approximately 10minute, online questionnaire about accultu ration issues they may be facing. As an American Muslim and a high school counselor for more than eight years, I have worked with Muslim and other bi-cultural teens who face issues associated with adaptation to mainstream American society. I am aware that pa rents often feel overwhe lmed when faced with the deluge of cultural differences that affect th eir children in schools and in society. This study is intended to be a foundation of di scovery for actual issues that young Muslims face growing up in America. I am interested in learning about Muslim high school students opinions in topics such as relationships with peers including Muslims and non-Muslims, the roles of boys and girls in family life growing up in America, how Muslims are treated in America, and how connected Muslim boys and girls f eel growing up in America. The results from this study should be helpful to educators, parents, children, and educational professionals in ways beneficial to all. Insha Allah (God Willing), it also may be that this research will help alleviate some of the miscon ceptions that the larger society may have about Muslims living in America. Parents of Muslim students across the United States are being sent this flyer that invites their child to participate in the online surve y. Interested parents can contact me at hussain.shifa@gmail.com I will e mail the parent a standard PIN NUMBER and the URL that will allow access the online questionnaire. All participants receive the same standard PIN number and therefore cannot be identified by this PIN. Use of the PIN number is part of the informed consent process. A parent indica tes informed consent by providing the PIN to the student or withholding of consen t by not providing it to the student. This procedure has been approved by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board ( Protocol # 2007-U-1056).

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90 There is no risk associated with participating in this research. The benefits include having a clearer understanding of issues involving growing up Muslim in America. I thank you in advance for your generous partic ipation and contribution to the literature on Muslims and their needs in America. In the tradition of the Muslim faith, Jazakallahu Khair, (May God grant you good) /s/ Shifa Podikunju Hussain Shifa Podikunju Hussain M.Ed., Ed.,S., Larry Loesch, Ph.D., NCC Doctoral Candidate Professor, Counselor Education University of Florida University of Florida shifaph@ufl.edu or 352-339-4588

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91 APPENDIX F MUSLIM YOUTH ACCULTURATION RATING QUE STIONNAIRE (MYARQ) PAPER VERSION Please provide the following information about yourself. 1. I am: male female 2. My age is: ___________. 3. My ethnicity is: Indian Arab Other (Please specify) _________________. 4. I was born in: Unites States Another country (Please specify) _______________. 5. The primary language spoken in my home is: English Urdu Arabic Other (Please specify)_____________. 6. I have lived in the United States for _______ years. 7. My father has lived in the United States for _______ years. 8. My mother has lived in the United States for ______ years. 9. I am a Muslim By Birth By Conversion. 10. I attend Public high school Islamic high school Private high school Other (Please specify)________________. ________________________________________________________________________ Please read each of the following statements carefu lly and then mark the response that indicates the extent to which you agree with each statement as it applies to you personally Please be as honest as possible. Remember that your personal responses will not be shared with anyone. Use the following scale for your response to each item: SA means STRONGLY AGREE A means AGREE U means UNDECIDED D means DISAGREE SD means STRONGLY DISAGREE SA A U D SD 1. Muslims should marry only within their religious group. 2. Muslim teenagers should behave like non-Muslim American teenagers so th at they can be more successful in school.

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92 SA A U D SD 3. I should change my Muslim name so that others can say my name easily 4. I am uncomfortable so cializing with non-Muslim Americans 5. Some non-Muslim Americans dont like my culture and religion 6. Muslim women should be allowed personal freedom. 7. Muslim boys and girls should be allowed to go on group dates with other Muslims 8. My marriage should be arranged by my family. 9. Muslim children should always obey their parents. 10. I should eat halal Muslim/ethnic food all the time 11. Muslim women should stay home and take care of their family when they get married. 12. The interests of my family should come before mine. 13. Muslim parents know what is best for their children. 14. Muslim girls and boys are not treated the same. 15. Muslim men should make all the important decisions in the family. 16. Muslim women should not work outside the home.

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93 SA A U D SD 17. I should celebrate Christmas just as I celebrate Eid. 18. I and/or my family have been discri minated against because we are Muslims. 19. Muslims should not be allowed to pr actice their daily prayers in school or at work 20. My closest friends are Muslim. 21. Muslim children should look after the parents in their old age. 22. I should attend the Mosque and weekend re ligious school. 23. I wish I lived in a Muslim country, not in America. 24. I have been teased or insulted because I am Muslim. 25. I am not happy living as a Muslim in America. 26. Being Muslim has had a negative impact on me and/or my family. 27. I have both Muslim and American/non-Muslim friends. 28. I dont feel accepted by my non-Mu slim American friends because I am Muslim. 29. Muslim boys should live with their parents until they marry. 30. Muslim girls should live with their parents until they marry.

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94 31. It is okay for Muslim girls and boys to ta lk to each other whenever they want to.

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95 APPENDIX G MYARQ ITEM FREQUENCIES, MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS Table G-1. The MYAR Q item frequencie s means and standard deviations Item Strongly agree # (%) Agree # (%) Undecided # (%) Disagree # (%) Strongly disagree # (%) M SD 1 8(5.6) 22(15.3) 19(13.2) 47(32.6) 48(33.3) 3.73 1.23 2 1(.7) 2(1.4) 17(11.8) 44(30.6) 80(55.6) 4.09 .80 3 1(.7) 3(2.1) 6(4.2) 33(27.1) 95(66.0) 4.56 .74 4 73(50.7) 53(36.8) 7(4.9) 3(2.1) 8(5.6) 1.75 1.04 5 12(8.3) 27(18.8) 22(15.3) 71(49.3) 12(8.3) 3.31 1.12 6 71(49.7) 45(31.5) 16(11.2) 8(5.6) 3(2.1) 1.79 .99 7 15(10.5) 42(29.4) 29(20.3) 27(18.9) 30(21.0) 3.10 1.32 8 56(38.9) 31(21.5) 28(19.4) 22(15.3) 7(4.9) 2.26 1.26 9 2(1.4) 7(4.9) 10(6.9) 55(38.2) 70(48.6) 4.28 .90 10 8(5.6) 19(13.3) 17(11.9) 29(20.3) 70(49.0) 3.94 1.28 11 51(35.4) 46(31.9) 30(20.8) 12(8.3) 5(3.5) 2.13 1.10 12 3(2.1) 21(14.6) 38(26.4) 64(44.4) 18(12.5) 3.51 .96 13 0(0) 14(9.8) 28(19.6) 67(46.9) 34(23.8) 3.85 .90 14 42(29.0) 51(29.4) 17(11.9) 26(18.2) 7(4.9) 2.34 1.22 15 41(28.5) 59(41.0) 16(11.1) 19(13.2) 9(6.3) 2.28 1.19 16 84(58.7) 47(32.9) 8(5.6) 2(1.4) 2(1.4) 1.54 .79 17 5(3.5) 9(6.3) 19(13.2) 31(21.5) 80(55.6) 4.19 1.10 18 16(11.1) 49(34.0) 14(9.7) 51(35.4) 14(9.7) 2.99 1.24 19 47(32.6) 11(7.6) 13(9.0) 35(24.3) 38(26.4) 3.04 1.64 20 12(8.3) 29(20.1) 14(9.7) 43(29.9) 46(31.9) 3.57 1.34 21 0(0) 2(1.4) 4(2.8) 35(24.3) 103(71.5) 4.66 .60 22 0(0) 7(4.9) 21(14.7) 74(51.7) 41(28.7) 4.04 .80 23 37(25.7) 58(40.3) 23(16.0) 17(11.8) 9(6.3) 2.33 1.16 24 30(21.0) 38(26.6) 13(9.1) 47(32.9) 15(10.5) 2.85 1.36 25 84(58.3) 40(27.8) 14(9.7) 1(.7) 5(3.5) 1.63 .94 26 81(56.6) 46(32.2) 7(4.9) 6(4.2) 3(2.1) 1.63 .92 27 91(62.8) 46(31.9) 1(.7) 3(2.1) 3(2.1) 1.48 .80 28 58(40.3) 22(15.3) 10(6.9) 24(16.7) 30(20.8) 2.63 1.63 29 23(16.0) 42(29.2) 27(18.8) 31(21.5) 21(14.6) 2.90 1.32 30 21(14.6) 34(23.6) 21(14.6) 37(25.7) 31(21.5) 3.16 1.39 31 13(9.0) 25(17.4) 25(17.4) 47(32.6) 34(23.6) 3.44 1.27

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96 LIST OF REFERENCES Abdo, G. (2006). Mecca and main street: Muslim Life in A merica after 9/11 New York: Oxford University Press. Abudabbeh, N. (2005). Arab families: an overv iew. In McGoldrick, M., Giordano, J., & Garcia-Preto, N. (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (pp. 423-436.). New York: Guilford Press. Ahmed, S. (2004). Religiosity, identity, and pr o-social values and behavior: A study of Muslim youth. Dissertation Abstracts International, 64 (12-B). Alghorani, M.A. (2003). Identity, Acculturati on, and adjustment of high school Muslim Students in Islamic schools in the U.S.A. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 2003). Dissertation Abstracts International, 64 12. Ali, S.R. Liu, W.M., & Humedian, M. ( 2004). Islam 101: Understanding th e religion and therapy implications. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35 635-642. Amer, M. M. (2005) Arab American mental health in the Post September 11 era: Acculturation, stress, and coping. Dissertation Abstracts International, 66 (4-B). Anwar, M. (1998). Between Cultures: Continuity and change in the lives of young Asians. London: Routledge. Arrendondo, P.M. (1984). Identity th emes for immigrant young adults. Adolescence, 19 977-93. Bagby, I. (Ed.) (1994). Muslim resource guide Fountain Valley, CA: Islamic Resource Institute. Barankin, T., Konstantareas, M., & deBosset, F. (1989). Adaptation of Soviet Jewish immigrants and their children in Toronto. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 34 512-518. Baumeister, R.F., & Leary, M.R. (1995). The ne ed to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117 497-529. Ba-Yunus, I. (1997). Muslims of Illinois: A demographic report Unpublished manuscript, East-West University, Chicago. Berry, J.W. (1974). Psychological as pects of cultural pluralism. Culture Learning, 2, 17-22.

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105 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Shifa Podikunju Hussain was born in 1972, in Kollam India. The youngest of seven children, she lived in India, Brunei, and Singapor e before coming to the United States for higher education. She earned her B.S. in psychology and her M.Ed. and specialists degrees in school counseling and guidance at the University of Florida. Upon graduation in 1997, she began work as a high school counselor at Eastside High School in Gainesville, Florida. Her work respon sibilities included Testin g Coordinator, College and Career Counselor, Department Chair, Internationa l Baccalaureate couns elor, site host and supervisor for University of Florida counseling interns. At the University of Florida, Shifa ha s taught undergraduate courses in Stress and Anxiety Management, Interpersonal Communica tion Skills and Car eer Development over Lifespan. She has also served as Teaching Assist ant in graduate courses such as Multicultural Counseling, Counseling Adolescents and Child ren and Supervision for Practicum and Internships. Shifa has presented at the university, state, regional, national and international levels in counseling and working with Muslims in America. Shifa has been married to Mohammad Zaheed Hussain for 12 years. They have two daughters: Zamirah, age 9; and Sabreen, age 4.