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Inauthentic Self in Relationship

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022573/00001

Material Information

Title: Inauthentic Self in Relationship The Role of Attitudes toward Women and Mother's Nurturance
Physical Description: 1 online resource (125 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Jasser, Jaime
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: authenticity, college, counseling, daughter, gender, inauthenticity, mother, roles, women
Counselor Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mental Health Counseling thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among traditional college age women?s attitudes toward women?s roles in society, their perceived mother?s attitudes toward women?s roles, mother?s nurturance, and inauthentic self in relationship. This study was grounded in Relational-Cultural Theory. A sample of undergraduate women was drawn from two Southeastern U.S. universities. A total of 239 participants completed an online survey, including the Attitudes Toward Women Scale, the Perceived Mother's Attitudes Toward Women Scale, the Parental Nurturance Scale, the Inauthentic Self in Relationship subscale of the Adolescent Femininity Ideology Scale, and an eleven-item demographic questionnaire. The data were analyzed by means of Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses. Results indicated a significant negative association between attitudes toward women and inauthentic self in relationship implying that women with egalitarian or pro-feminist attitudes toward women's roles in society reported being less inauthentic in relationships. Results further indicated that attitudes toward women mediated the relationship between perceived mothers attitudes and inauthentic self in relationship. Findings suggest that perceived mother;s attitudes influence daughter's attitudes, which in turn influence daughters' inauthentic self in relationship. Results of the study are presented, limitations are addressed, and the implications with regard to theory, counseling practice, research and future directions are discussed.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jaime Jasser.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Smith, Sondra.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022573:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022573/00001

Material Information

Title: Inauthentic Self in Relationship The Role of Attitudes toward Women and Mother's Nurturance
Physical Description: 1 online resource (125 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Jasser, Jaime
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: authenticity, college, counseling, daughter, gender, inauthenticity, mother, roles, women
Counselor Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mental Health Counseling thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among traditional college age women?s attitudes toward women?s roles in society, their perceived mother?s attitudes toward women?s roles, mother?s nurturance, and inauthentic self in relationship. This study was grounded in Relational-Cultural Theory. A sample of undergraduate women was drawn from two Southeastern U.S. universities. A total of 239 participants completed an online survey, including the Attitudes Toward Women Scale, the Perceived Mother's Attitudes Toward Women Scale, the Parental Nurturance Scale, the Inauthentic Self in Relationship subscale of the Adolescent Femininity Ideology Scale, and an eleven-item demographic questionnaire. The data were analyzed by means of Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses. Results indicated a significant negative association between attitudes toward women and inauthentic self in relationship implying that women with egalitarian or pro-feminist attitudes toward women's roles in society reported being less inauthentic in relationships. Results further indicated that attitudes toward women mediated the relationship between perceived mothers attitudes and inauthentic self in relationship. Findings suggest that perceived mother;s attitudes influence daughter's attitudes, which in turn influence daughters' inauthentic self in relationship. Results of the study are presented, limitations are addressed, and the implications with regard to theory, counseling practice, research and future directions are discussed.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jaime Jasser.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Smith, Sondra.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022573:00001


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INAUTHE NTIC SELF IN RELATIONSHIP: THE ROLE OF ATTITUDES TOWARD WOMEN AND MOTHERS NURTURANCE By JAIME L. JASSER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008 1

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2008 Jaim e L. Jasser 2

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To m y grandmother, Wedad E. Saadeh, for all of her love and support throughout my lifeI will love her forever and miss her always. 3

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ACKNOWL EDGMENTS I would like to first and foremost thank my chair, Sondra Smith for her endless support throughout my graduate career. She has been a me ntor in my development as a professional and a woman. Her confidence in my abilities encourag ed me to persevere. She taught me the value of trusting and relying on my wis dom to guide me through this proc ess and my life. I would also like to thank the other members of my committee: Dr. Behar-Horenstein, for her encouragement, steadfast faith in me, and for being a phenomenal female role-model; Dr. Peter Sherrard, for his humor, wisdom, conversations, and for honoring me just as I am; and Dr. Larry Loesch, for his guidance, honesty, and leadership. I would like to thank my family for their love and support. I would espe cially like to thank my mother, Summer Jasser, for showing me what it means to be a woman of strength. Her steadiness, humility, and unconditional love have provided me with courage and determination. I would also like to thank my sister, Jacqui Jasse r, for loving me because of our differences; my uncle, Tony Saadeh, for his selflessness and endl ess technical support; my grandfather, Karim Saadeh, for his generosity; and my grandmothe r (Teta), Wedad Saadeh, for being an amazing woman who made me a better person thr ough her love, may she rest in peace. I would also like to thank Harry Daniels for aiding in my growth and development as a clinician; Dr. Ellen Amatea, for encouraging me to stay with my topic; Dr. James Algina, for his generous assistance with the st atistical analyses; and Dr. Wayn e Griffin for showing me more support than any other supervisor and teaching me so many valuable lessons that I will take with me and use to make a positive difference in the lives of others. It was an honor and a privilege to work with him and the members of the CIC team: Kim Fugate, Meggen Sixbey, and Keely Hope. My friends and classmates in the Counselor Education Department were invaluable throughout this process. Words do not exist that will allow me to express my gratitude to my 4

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personal tr easured trio: Teresa Le ibforth, Heather Hanney, and Kelcey Killingsworth. They have been my biggest cheerleaders and greatest frie nds throughout this process. Many thanks go out to Natalie Arce Indelicato. I could not have ma de it through this proce ss without her guidance and support. I would like to thank my dear frie nd Adriana Baratelli w ho paved the way for me and helped keep me sane with her huge heart and sisterly love. I would also like to thank Kelly Aissen, Stephanie Arriaza, Bhakti Cohen, Sandra Goodwin, Adrian Manley, Aparna Shanadi, Ruth-Ann Spinosa, and Katie Van Bussum for their never ending love, encouragement, and support. I would like to thank the women who took the time to complete my survey. Finally, I want to thank the University of Florida and the Gator Nation for eleven precious years. Go Gators! 5

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 TABLE OF CONTENTS.............................................................................................................. ...6 ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .12 Statement of the Problem....................................................................................................... .13 Theoretical Framework.......................................................................................................... .16 Feminist Theory...............................................................................................................16 Relational-Cultural Theory..............................................................................................17 A Feminist Model for Inauthenticity in Women....................................................................19 Attitudes toward Women.................................................................................................20 Perceived Mothers Atti tudes toward Women................................................................21 Mothers Nurturance.......................................................................................................22 Need for the Study..................................................................................................................23 Purpose of the Study........................................................................................................... ....24 Research Questions............................................................................................................. ....24 Definition of Terms................................................................................................................25 Organization of the Study.......................................................................................................26 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................27 Womens Identity Development during the College Years....................................................27 Gender Ideology: The Construction of Gender and Attitudes toward Women......................28 Cultural Messages and Femininity.........................................................................................30 Inauthenticity..........................................................................................................................33 Inauthenticity Outcomes.........................................................................................................35 Feminist Relational-Cultural Theoretical Framework............................................................37 Attitudes toward Women and Inauthenticity..........................................................................41 Mothers Attitudes..................................................................................................................44 Mothers Nurturance............................................................................................................ ...46 Implications................................................................................................................... .........49 Summary.................................................................................................................................50 3 METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................................5 2 Overview....................................................................................................................... ..........52 Research Design.....................................................................................................................52 Population..................................................................................................................... ..........52 6

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Protection of Confidentiality ..................................................................................................53 Instrumentation................................................................................................................ .......53 Attitudes Toward Women Scale......................................................................................53 Perceived Mothers Attit udes Toward Women Scale.....................................................54 Parental Nurturance Scale...............................................................................................54 Inauthentic Self in Relationship......................................................................................55 Demographic Questionnaire............................................................................................56 Data Collection Procedure......................................................................................................56 Data Analysis..........................................................................................................................58 Hypotheses..............................................................................................................................58 Summary.................................................................................................................................59 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................... .........60 Analysis of Instruments........................................................................................................ ..60 Sample Demographics............................................................................................................61 Descriptive Statistics......................................................................................................... .....63 Results.....................................................................................................................................64 Summary.................................................................................................................................70 5 DISCUSSION................................................................................................................... ......74 Overview of the Study and Discussion of Findings...............................................................74 Attitudes toward Women s Roles in Society...................................................................74 Perceived Mothers Attitude s toward Womens Roles...................................................77 Attitudes and Mothers Nurturance.................................................................................78 Factors Related to Inauthen tic Self in Relationship........................................................79 Limitations of the Study....................................................................................................... ..82 Implications................................................................................................................... .........84 Implications for Theory...................................................................................................84 Implications for Practice..................................................................................................86 Research Implications and Future Directions.........................................................................87 Summary.................................................................................................................................90 APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT........................................................................................................91 B FORMATTED ONLINE SURVEYS.....................................................................................93 C ATTITUDES TOWARD WOMEN SCALE........................................................................111 D INAUTHENTIC SELF IN RELATIONSHIP SUBSCALE.................................................113 E PARENTAL (MOTHERS) NURTURANCE SCALE.......................................................114 F DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONNAIRE................................................................................115 7

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LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................117 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................125 8

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1 Descriptive statistics for demographic information.................................................................71 4-2 Descriptive statistics for the studys variables........................................................................73 4-3 Pearson product moment correlati ons among the studys variables........................................73 4-4 Inauthentic self in relationship regression model summary....................................................73 9

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Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy INAUTHENTIC SELF IN RELATIONSHIP: THE ROLE OF ATTITUDES TOWARD WOMEN AND MOTHERS NURTURANCE By Jaime L. Jasser August 2008 Chair: Sondra Smith-Adcock Major: Mental Health Counseling The purpose of this study was to examine th e relationships among traditional college age womens attitudes toward womens roles in soci ety, their perceived mothers attitudes toward womens roles, mothers nurturance, and inau thentic self in relationship. This study was grounded in Relational-Cultural Theory. A samp le of undergraduate women was drawn from two Southeastern U.S. universities. A total of 239 participants comp leted an online survey, including the Attitudes Toward Women Scale, the Perceived Mothers Attitudes Toward Women Scale, the Parental Nurturance Scale, the Inau thentic Self in Relationship subscale of the Adolescent Femininity Ideology Scale, and an eleven-item demographic questionnaire. The data were analyzed by means of Pearson co rrelations and multiple regression analyses. Results indicated a significant negative association between attitudes toward women and inauthentic self in relationship implying that women with egalitarian or pro-feminist attitudes toward womens roles in society re ported being less inauthentic in relationships. Results further indicated that attitudes toward women mediated the relationship between perceived mothers attitudes and inauthentic self in relationship. Findings suggest th at perceived mothers attitudes influence daughters attitudes, which in turn infl uence daughters inauthentic self in relationship. 10

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11 Results of the study are presented, limitations are a ddressed, and the implications with regard to theory, counseling practice, research a nd future directions are discussed.

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CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION We live in a look-obsessed, sexist girl-poisoning culture. And despite the advances of feminism, girls continue to str uggle to find their true selves (Pipher, 1994, back cover). Though referring to American culture as poisoning young women may sound extreme, a close look at the changes that occur for females during adol escence illustrates many instances where girls struggle and exposes a society that may contribute to their struggle. During adolescence, rates of depression double for girls with one out of every four girls experiencing moderate to severe depressive symptoms. This statistic becomes more alarming because female adolescents are twice as likely to attempt suicide as their ma le peers (Stanard, 2000). The differences do not stop there. Adolescent females face academic, so cial, and emotional problems more often and more extensively than adolescen t males (Nolen-Hoeksema & Girgus 1994). The world in which girls come of age seems more damaging for them than for boys. A staggering 78 percent of 18year-old women are unhappy with their bodies (M aine, 2000) and over 90% of eating disorder cases occur in adolescent and young women (Renfrew Center). These sta tistics demonstrate that overall female adolescents are at risk for negative mental health outcomes. This may be, in part, due to the differences in our society be tween how girls and boys are raised up. Adolescent females face social pressures to be come what society views as feminine. The dominant U. S. culture in which women grow up can create an environment wherein womens roles are narrowly prescribed. Y oung women are taught a ppropriate roles and behaviors that are based on cultu ral standards of femininity, and their adherence to these standards is often viewed according to prevaili ng societal attitudes toward women (Bem, 1993; Crawford, 2006; Murnen & Smolak, 1997). Therefore, feminine roles are rooted in a system of patriarchy that often places wome n in a subordinate position to men. This system creates a 12

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culture that can be disempowering and oppressive to wom en (Brown, 1994). Male behavior, often associated with qualitie s such as independence, dominance, aggression, and ambition, has been viewed as the norm whereas female behavior, often associated with being dependent, emotional, and gentle, is viewed as a deviat ion from the male norm (Gilligan, 1982). Masculine roles and traits are valued and rewarded in Amer ican culture whereas prescribed feminine roles, which are in deference to masculine roles, are no t given value or a respec ted place in the realm of human experience (Bem, 1993; Gilligan, 1982). However, as Gilligan (1982) states, when women do not conform to the standards of psychological expectation, the conclusion has generally been that something is wrong with the women (p. 14). The expectation then becomes that women should embrace their undervalued feminine role. Statement of the Problem When patriarchy is deeply embedded in soci ety, women and men focus on men more often than women but still believe the society to be gender-neutral (Bem, 1993; Brown, 1994; Crawford, 2006). However, in America, men hold most of the positions of power and represent strength and vitality (Crawford, 2006). Women are more often found in supportive, caregiver roles and they are expected to be nurturing and docile. These gender di fferences become most problematic when rooted in a society that places greater value on one way of being over another. Women are taught to be nice and kind without being given room to express their anger and strength (Chodorow, 1989; Surrey, 1991). As a result, women who force themselves to fit into feminine roles may not allow for full expression of emotions and behaviors. Crawford (2006) states, the pressure to conform to an idealized femininity in which good girls are never angry or oppositional leads girls to doubt the truth of thei r own knowledge and feelings and to feel less positive about themselves (p. 192). 13

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As girls grow into women, they learn about th e cultures expectations f or how they are to behave, think, and feel. Y oung women receive messages from the world around them that dictate norms of femininity. Societys me ssages can be confusing and contribute to psychological and social problems for women a nd girls (Brown, 1994; Br own & Gilligan, 1992). For example, girls are to be beau tiful, but beauty is only skin de ep. Be sexy, but not sexual. Be honest, but dont hurt anyones feelingsBe smart, but not so smart that you threaten boys (Pipher, 1994, p. 24). Young women enter a worl d where they receive mixed messages about what it means to be feminine and how they s hould act as females. As they develop, many women will learn not to express their wants and n eeds in an effort to be pleasing to others (Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1990). As a result of the mixed messages that society sends to young women, they often struggle to get in touch with who they are or who they might be, and have difficulty accepting themselves as complex, contrasted beings. In their formative years, early and late adolescence, girls can become confused and too often learn that they need to suppress their own wants and needs to maintain im portant relationships. This confusing time can lead to a disconnection with ones self and to acting inauthentically in relationships (Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Jack, 1991; Tolman & Porche, 2000). Tolman, Impett, Tracy, and Michael (2006) st ate, one way in which girls and women maintain important relationships is to silence their own needs and desires. This pattern of behavior has been described as loss of voice (e.g., Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982), false-self behavior (e.g., Hart er, Waters, & Whitesell, 1997) or silencing the se lf (e.g., Jack & Dill, 1992) and has been more recently termed inauthentic self in relationship (Tolman & Porche, 2006, p.86). Inauthenticity or inauthentic self in relationship has been used to describe this process whereby young women censo r themselves to preserve rela tionships. To fit in and to 14

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be seen as a nice g irl, they stifle their ow n thoughts and feelings (Crawford, 2006; Tolman & Porche, 2000). Furthermore, inau thenticity manifests at the level of verbal behavior (e.g., not saying what you think, or expre ssing things you dont really belie ve or feel) (Neff & Harter, 2002, p. 840; Tolman, et al., 2006). When girls experience pressure to behave in feminine ways in their relationships with other people, they may do this by suppressing their voice (Impett, Schooler, & Tolman, 2006). In a society that restricts soci al roles for men and women, the nua nces of a person, regardless of their gender, may never be fully realized a nd their potential may be stifled (Brown, 1994; Gilligan, 1992; Worell & Remer, 2003). Conformi ng to prescribed roles causes men and women to disconnect from certain ways of being that may be more real or authentic (Brown, 1994; Gilligan, 1992). This potential disconnection crea tes a particular problem for females since they develop in a culture that tends to pathologize feminine qualiti es and sends conflicting messages about appropriate ways for wome n to think and act (Gilligan, 1982). Since forming connections is an important and difficult developmental ta sk (Hazler & Mellin, 2004), disconnecting and failing to experience important c onnections, along with suppressing wants and needs, may lead girls to act inauthentically in relationships. The cost of adopting the femini ne stereotype is high; girls subvert their sense of self and may feel trapped in more prescribed feminine roles. Inauthenticity in relationships has been li nked to negative psychological outcomes for women. According to Tolman et al., (2006), the paradoxical impact of [ina uthentic] behavior is to impair relationships by removing the self thus undermining the possibility of authentic connection. Difficulty in remain ing true to oneself, or [being] authentic in relationships, has been linked to depressed mood, hopelessness, and low self-esteem (p. 86). So the importance of relational authenticity is a crucial component of psychologica l health and healthy relational 15

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developm ent (Tolman, et al., 2006, p. 86). Given that inauthenticity in rela tionships is linked to many negative mental health outcomes, explorin g the factors contributing to inauthenticity becomes valuable for feminist scholars and practitioners. Theoretical Framework This study is based on a feminist theoretical framework that provides the context for inauthenticity in relati onships experienced by young women. The theoretical framework section that follows includes a discussion of Feminist Theory and Relational-Cultural Theory (RCT), originally termed Self-in-Relation Theory. RCT emerged from feminist work and explains the relational process of how authenticity may develop as an outcome of womens relationships and societal attitudes toward women. Feminist Theory Feminist theorists have asserted that social influence and culture provide a context from which men and women develop. Feminists attemp t to understand the nature of inequality in society and place a focus on gender politics, sexuality, and power relations. Feminist psychologists and counselors believe that placing people in positions of subordination creates psychological distress (Brown, 1994). Feminist theorists further asse rt that reality is constructed within the social discourse between oneself and ones emotional and interpersonal environment (Brown, 1994). Therefore, the focus of feminist theory is on sociological factors that affect human development such as the degr ee to which gender affects our views and social interactions (Sharf, 2000). Worell and Remer (2003) state that gender va riables intersect with ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, social class, and other social status markers that influence the personal and social self (p. 5). Feminist theories of personality examine issues such as how women and men are similar and di fferent in their moral decision making, how they contribute to and confront abuse and violence, and the wa y they relate to others (Sharf, 2000). 16

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No unif ied feminist theory exists, but multiple feminist theories provide a variety of different perspectives many of which overlap (E nns & Sinnacore, 2001). Feminist theories tend to focus on differences in power held by men and women, why knowledge has been gathered for men often to the exclusion of women, and how men and women can achieve equality (Corey, 2005; Indelicato & Springer, 2007). hooks (2000 ) provided an overarching definition of feminism as a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression (p. 1). Feminist theory and therapy focuses on the imp act that social expectations of mens and womens roles and multicultural backgrounds have on clients psychological development and concerns (Sharf, 2000). Feminists acknowledge the impact of sexism, sex role stereotypes and oppression as sources of peoples struggles (Worell & Remer, 2003). Feminist theory asserts that interpersonal relationships between men an d women should be equal with neither party dominating the other. Feminist th erapists and theorists examine social factors that contribute to psychological symptoms and emphasize the importan ce of working toward transforming not only the individual but society as a whole. People ar e viewed within the broader lens of our social and political culture and encouraged to explor e the sociocultural sources of their individual struggles. Relational-Cultural Theory Relational-Cultural Theory (RCT) has emerged out of the ideas from Jean Baker Millers book Toward a New Psychology of Women (Miller, 1976). The shift from Self-in-Relation Theory to Relational Theory and then to Relation al-Cultural Theory illust rates the evolution and expansion of the theory which stems from feminist theorists beliefs that the existing theories of self development did not capture womens liv ed experiences (Miller, 1984). RelationalCultural Theory emphasizes the contextual, resp onsive, and process factors involved in the relational nature of human experien ces (as cited in Arce, 2004, p. 28). 17

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The core id eas of the relational-cultural m odel developed by the theorists at the Stone Center, Wellesley College (J ordan et al., 1991) are that: People grow through and toward rela tionship throughout the life span Movement toward mutuality rather than movement toward separation characterizes mature functioning Relational differentiation and elaboration characterize growth Mutual empathy and mutual empowerment are at the core of growth-fostering relationships In growth-fostering relationships, all people contribute and grow or benefit; development is not a one-way street Therapy relationships are characteri zed by a special kind of mutuality Mutual empathy is the vehicle for change in therapy Real engagement and therapeutic authentici ty are necessary for the development of mutual empathy (Jordan, 2000, p. 1007) One central construct of RCT is mutuality or mutual empathy which is a two-way (or more) process of allowing oneself to be influe nced by others and sensi ng that one influences others. This exchange is necessary for psychological growth and i nvolves connection based on the authentic thoughts a nd feelings of all parties involve d in the relationship. Mutual empowerment results from a mutually empa thic relationship. RCT acknowledges that disconnection occurs in a ll relationships but encourages mutual empathy to buffer the effects of the disconnection. Relational-Cultural theorists belie ve that identity development occurs within the context of relationships. Furthermore, th ey believe that relati onships develop through differentiation while staying meaningfully c onnected rather than through separation and disengagement (Jordan, 1997; Jordan, Kaplan, M iller, Stiver, & Surrey, 1991). This model provides an alternative to traditional theories of psychological development by emphasizing a paradigm shift from the relationship as a periphera l element to the relationship as an integral 18

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com ponent of developmental progress, emotional health, and interpersonal life (Schultheiss, 2003). According to Relational-Cultural theorists, the self is rooted in relationships. In accordance with the tenets of RCT, women act inauthentically when they are not engaging in mutually empathic, growth-fostering relationships When people do not feel able to represent their own inner experiences in a relationship, inauthenticity ar ises. Authenticity evolves from a relationship where two people bala nce self-sacrificing and self-i nvolvement. Each person in a relationship characterized by mutuality commits to engage in the development and support of both people (Miller, Jordan, Kapl an, Stiver, & Surrey, 1997). A feminist Relational-Cultural approach provi des a context and framework for describing womens inauthenticity in relationships. A pr imary supposition of RCT is that people develop through and toward relationship and that this relationship occurs within and is influenced by a cultural context (Jordan & Hart ling, 2002). Women learn how to act in relationships based on the messages they receive about what it means to be a women. Women are socialized to value interpersonal relationships but they receive mixed messages about how to interact in those relationships. In an effort to preserve relationships, women may unintentionally foster disconnection. Disconnection, if not addressed properly, can lead to negative mental health outcomes, so being able to form growth-fosteri ng connections is crucial for womens mental health and development (Jordan, 2001; Tolman & Porche, 2000). A Feminist Model for Inauthenticity in Women Based on Feminist and Relational-Cultural theory, the following concepts will be addressed in the proposed study as they relate to inauthentic self in relationships (a) attitudes toward women, (b) perceived mothers attitude s toward women, and (c) mothers nurturance. 19

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The following sections provide a rationale for th e selection o f each of these factors and their relevance to a feminist model of inauthenticity. Attitudes toward Women Researchers have found that women who espous e more traditional roles and attitudes toward women are more likely to interact in more traditionally feminine ways in relationships and to experience higher rates of depression and lower feelings of self-worth than women who hold more egalitarian views (Brown, 1994; Sands, 1998; Smith & Self, 1981). During adolescence, girls often become aware of st ereotypes associated with women, which in the United States, can include being modest or pa ssive; feeling incompetent; blaming oneself; and placing the quest to be beautiful, married, and fe minine above all other concerns (Sands, 1998) (Hazler & Mellin, 2004, p.21). Once girls begin to a dopt more stereotypical roles, they may also act less authentically. That is, a young woman who holds egalitarian attitudes may be less inclined to act traditionally feminine, thus, allowing her more room to engage in authentic connection. Beliefs about femininity seem to play an important role in determining which women engage in their relationships inauthentically. Since research has lin ked traditional attitudes toward women with negative psychological h ealth outcomes (Yakushko, 2007) and traditional feminine roles support suppression of thoughts and feelings (e.g. Brown, 1994), looking at attitudes toward women in rela tion to inauthenticity becomes im portant. A connection between views of women or femininity and inauthenticity in relationships has not been clearly established in the literature. However, es pousing egalitarian attitudes would likely coincide with developing mutually empathic, growth-fostering relationships. A link between traditional attitudes toward wo men and inauthenticity in relationships may exist given that women who identify with prescrib ed feminine roles, fear of hurting others and 20

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wanting to be liked, are more likely to be less authentic. Research findings support the idea that changes in personality and behavior occur to m eet pres sures to become more feminine (Hazler & Mellin, 2004). In adolescence, a shift occu rs whereby adolescents focus more on their appearance, focus less on achievement, and give up in terests in activities such as sports, art, and music (Eder, 1985; Pipher, 1994). Ma ny girls at this stage give up these pursuits in an effort to gain acceptance from others (Pipher, 1994). Studies show that adolescent girls who do not readily accept gender-typed roles are frequently rejected by p eers and are at higher risk for psychological difficulties (Nolen-Hoeksema & Girgus, 1994) (Hazler & Mellin, 2004, p. 21). The extent to which women adopt gender-typed ro les may be related to their ability to be authentic in relationships. Perceived Mothers Attitudes toward Women According to Relational-Cultural theorists, attitudes and beliefs develop within relationships (Jordan, 2001). One of the stronge st attachments formed in childhood is between the child and the mother. The mother-daughter re lationship has been documented as one of the most crucial relationships in a persons development (Chodorow, 1989; Surrey, 1991). This relationship provides daughters with a model for how to interact with and think about others. Research shows that this relationship has effects that last well into ad ulthood (Ex & Janssens, 1998). Several psychological and sociological theorists have l ong proposed that parents are the most influential socializing agents for their children (as cited in Bohannon & Blanton, 1999). Parents teach their children how to behave and what to believe from the time they are born. Research on the intergenerational transmission of attitudes has indicated that parents attitudes in general, and mothers attitudes in particular, are significant pred ictors of the attitudes of their daughters (Bohannon & Blanton, 1999, p. 174). Studies show that women maintain their connectedness with their mothers whereas mens a ttachment to their mothers decreases over time 21

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(Calloni & Handal, 1992; Bohannon & Blanton, 1999) m aking the mother-daughter relationship of particular importance when looking at factors that contribute to inauthentic ity in relationships. Mothers can play a crucial role in the formati on of their daughters atti tudes. For example, mothers attitudes about marriage, children, and career are significantly related to their daughters attitudes (Rollins & White, 1982). Daughters learn and observe their mothers attitudes about womens roles to determine how they think about women in general and themselves in particular. Daught ers perception of their mothers attitudes relates directly to their own development of behaviors and attitude s. In fact, daughters perceptions of their mothers attitude may have more of an impact on their development of attitudes than the actual attitude expressed by the mother. Mothers Nurturance The mother-daughter relationship provides the foundation for future relationships. Relational-Cultural theorists emphasize that perceiving mutuality in relationships requires emotional vulnerability, attunement, and responsiv eness to the experience of the other person on an affective and cognitive level. In other word s, validating another pers ons experience is an important part of developing mutuality in a rela tionship making nurturance an important aspect of a growth-fostering relationship. Mutuality also requires acceptance of the entire person including differences and similarities between each anothe r (Tantillo, 2006). Mothers nur turance is defined as love, support, and acceptance that is experienced by the child in the context of the maternal relationship (Buri, Murphy, Richtsmeier & Koma r, 1992). When children develop in nurturing environments, they develop a higher self-esteem (Buri, 1989). Re search has shown that a lack of support, initially from parents, serves as a major factor leading children of both genders to suppress their true thoughts and feelings (Harter, Waters, & Whitesell, 1997, p. 164). 22

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Authenticity em erges out of in teraction and connection betwee n people and a growing body of research (Harter, Marold, Whitesell & Cobbs, 1996; Harter, Waters, Whitesell, & Kastelic, 1998; Neff & Harter, 2002) indicates that authentic se lf expression depends on feeling valued and accepted by others (Neff & Sui zzo, 2006, p.442). Whereas false self behavior results from caregivers who do not validate their childs true self, namely the expression of their thoughts, feelings, and needs (Harter et al., 1997). Usi ng the framework of RCT, it follows that women who experience high levels of mothers nurtu rance would be more likely to act more authentically in relationships. Need for the Study Research has neglected to examine factors that contribute to inauthenticity in young womens relationships. Most re search that has been conducted examines the negative mental health outcomes of inauthenticity. Studies are needed to identify what contributes to being inauthentic in relationships. Neff and Suizzo (2 006) state, although auth enticity is related to social interaction, it is unclear how socio-cultural fact ors shape processes related to authenticity (p. 442). Examining the relationship between at titudes toward women an d mothers nurturance and how they affect a womans ability to remain true to herself and develop authentic relationships may provide useful information fo r how to prevent the development of negative self worth, depression, and loss of voice. Failin g to examine factors that might contribute to inauthenticity would leave large gaps in the lite rature and impede the development of prevention strategies designed to enhance the psychological well-being of young women. Messages about being a woman are initially transmitted by families, which can perpetuate culturally prescribed definitions of what it mean s to be feminine and how women should behave. When these messages communicate to women that they are not okay as they are, they often elicit feelings of self-dissatisf action and the desire to change ones self or to ignore ones true thoughts 23

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and feelings. This problem is exacerbated by the fact that women are at a higher risk for developing low self-esteem, depr ession, and eating disorders than men. Much of the literature on inauthenticity examines the connection between womens inauthenticity in relationships and psychological problems. Far fewer studies addresse d the contribution of so ciocultural influences to womens ability to be authen tic in relationships. Looking at factors that cont ribute to women acting inauthentically in relationships will allow for the development of treatment and prevention programs aimed at individual and societal change. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to examine th e relationships between college age womens attitudes toward women, perceive d mothers attitudes toward wo men, mothers nurturance, and inauthentic self in relationship. The study will focus on undergraduate women of traditional college age attending two large south eastern conference universities. Research Questions The following research questions we re examined in this study: 1. What is the relationship between college age womens attitudes toward women and perceived mothers attitudes toward women? 2. What is the relationship between college age womens attitudes toward women and inauthenticity? 3. What is the relationship between perceived moth ers attitudes toward women and college age womens inauthenticity? 4. What is the relationship between college age womens attitudes toward women and mothers nurturance? 5. What is the relationship between perceived mo thers attitudes toward women and mothers nurturance? 6. What is the relationship between mother s nurturance and college age womens inauthenticity? 7. What is the relationship between college ag e womens attitudes toward women, perceived mothers attitudes toward women, and inauthenticity? 24

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8. W hat is the relationship between college ag e womens attitudes toward women, mothers nurturance, and inauthenticity? 9. What is the relationship between perceived mothers attitudes toward women, mothers nurturance, and inauthenticity? 10. What is the relationship between college ag e womens attitudes toward women, perceived mothers attitudes toward women, mother s nurturance, and inauthenticity? Definition of Terms The following terms are operationally defined co rresponding to how they will be used in this study. Attitudes toward Women: The way a person conceptualizes womens roles in society. Authenticity: Acting and expressing oneself in ways that are consistent with inwardly experienced values, desires, and emotions. Femininity: A social construct or cultural script that demands and organizes socially appropriate behavior, qualities, practices, identities, and expr ession of emotions needs and desires of a woman. Gender Role: The behavioral, cultural, or psychological traits a ssociated with being male or female. Gender Ideology: How one views what constitutes being a good, normal, and appropriate woman or man. Inauthenticity : Difficulty in remaining true to ones elf, or authentic in relationships Inauthentic self in relationship : An attempt to maintain important relationships by silencing ones own needs and desires. Mothers Nurturance: Mothers behaviors directed towa rd children with the intent of providing physical or psychological nourishment. Examples of mothers nurturance include 25

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26 love, warmth, acceptance, approval, affection, support, and concern communicated to children (Buri et al., 1992). Perceived Mothers Attitudes toward Women : A daughters perspective on her mothers attitudes toward womens roles in society. Self-Silencing: Stifling ones own feelings and thoughts in an effort to fit in and be seen as nice. This is also referred to as fa lse-self behavior and loss of voice. Sociocultural: Cultural scripts or patte rs of behaviors, valu es, and beliefs commonly shared among people belonging to specific groups. Organization of the Study The remainder of the study is organized into f our chapters. Chapter 2 provides a review of the relevant literature. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the methods used in the study. The succeeding chapter will discuss research results of the data analysis. The final chapter includes a discussion of the major findings, limitati ons, and implications of the results.

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CHAP TER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This review of the literature examines the relationship between at titudes toward women, college womens perceived mothers attitude s toward women, mothers nurturance, and inauthenticity in relationships posited within a relational-cultural framework. Womens Identity Development during the College Years Literature concerning college age women, because they are typically between the ages of 18-22 years, spans literature geared towa rd both adolescents and young adults. The developmental period of adolescence can range from 10-20 years of age where early adulthood comprises people in their 20s and 30s (Santrock, 2002). Therefore, traditional college-age women develop in a period of transition wherein they move from adolescence to early adulthood. Discrepancies in the literature arise when researchers attempt to define this period of life; therefore, relevant literatures regarding both a dolescents and adult women will be discussed in this review. In addition, this li terature review will address res earch related to the construct of inauthenticity in relationships and how this nega tive psychological constr ual can be ameliorated when young women hold egalitarian attitudes to ward women, their mothers hold egalitarian attitudes, and they enjoy a nurturi ng daughter to mother relationship. Traditional college-age students exist in a tim e of transition. Santrock (2002) states, many experts do believe that as individuals m ove into the traditional college-age years and make the transition from adolescence to adulthoo d, they begin to engage in more self-reflection about what they want to do with their lives (p. 346). Early adult hood or late adolescence consists of identity exploration, which involves further development of the self. The extended schooling of college provides time for furthe r self-reflection and self -understanding. This transition period is a critical time of identity development (Santrock, 2002). 27

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As young wom en navigate through adolescence in to adulthood, they face many challenges in developing their identities. Part of this difficulty may stem from an inadequate emphasis on the importance of relationship in U.S. society (Gilligan, 1990; Jordan, 1997). In U.S. culture, much importance is placed on separation and indi viduation as adolescents make the transition into early adulthood. Another struggle girls face in identity development may come from growing up in a culture where boys are favored in school, partic ularly in science and math (Santrock, 2002). Gender differences in self-esteem and depr ession also are apparent during early adolescence, with many more girls being affect ed by these negative psychological outcomes than boys (e.g., Tolman, et al., 2006). A meta-analysis of gender differences in self-esteem found a consistent difference between males and females, with males scoring higher on standard measures of global self-esteem than females (K ling, Hyde, Showers, & Buswell, 1999). This finding indicates that adolescence is a critical time in female deve lopment and furthermore, that girls psychological adjustment during this time is of concern. The observations girls make about themselves and their environment influen ce them as they begin to form their gender identity. This developmental pr ocess begins early in life and is of partic ular importance during adolescence (Santrock, 2002; Piphe r, 1994). This process also ex tends into early adulthood as young women make choices about their careers and continue to develop their identities. Gender Ideology: The Construction of Gender and Attitudes toward Women Gender ideology is different from gender or se x roles. Gender ideology can be defined as the beliefs or attitudes that a person has about gender roles. From childhood onwards, women and men acqui re gender role attitudes through the socialization process, including preferen ces for how women and men should behave. Unconsciously or not, they develop a ge nder strategy (Hochschild, 1997), which means making plans and emotional preparation for action that are in line with the learned gender ideology. When reaching adulthood, most women and men will act in line with the gender 28

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ideology they have been exposed to. Fo r exam ple women and men choose their work according to the gender roles they have learned. (Nordenmark, 2004, p. 234) Gender ideology, the way a person conceptualizes their gender, is diffe rentiated from gender identity, or how the person knows hi m or herself physically in relation to the categories male and female. Gender ideology focuses on how a person views the things that constitute being a good, appropriate, and normal woman or man (Striepe & Tolman, 2003). For women, Gilligan (1990) asserts that our society values a good woman who is unassertive, polite, pleasant, and quiet. This wo man puts others needs and desires ahead of her own. However, the cost of adopti ng this stereotype is subverting th e self. In the U.S., girls are socialized to value intimacy and relationships. Ho wever as they reach adolescence, they interact with a society that does not value or reward girl s for their relational strengths. Since society values independence, assertiven ess, and individualism, girls must often learn to devalue relationships and achieve independence and autonomy (Steiner-Adair, 1990). Sociocultural messages about gender ideology ar e pervasive and transmitted in overt and covert ways to both boys and girls. There is ample research show ing that by adolescence, girls--compared with boys--are likely to report greater concern about their a ppearance and behavior and to have lower selfesteem and career aspirations. In addition, they are less likel y to speak out in class, challenge others, or express angr y feelings. It appear s that by this stage in life, many girls have internalized cultural messages that their wo rth lies mainly in being seen as physically attractive, sociable, modest, and doc ile. (Worell & Goodheart, 2006, p. 262) Behavioral, attitudinal, and psychological differences ar ise and strengthen between adolescent girls and boys due to the increased so cialization pressures to conform to traditional masculine and feminine sex roles (Galambos, Almeida, & Petersen, 1990). Gender ideology constitutes a powerful driving force in many decisions men and women make throughout their lives. For example, women who hold more egalita rian gender roles are more likely to pursue a 29

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colleg e degree and higher paying careers while women who learned more traditional gender roles are more likely to work in the home (Corrigall & Konrad, 2007). Studies suggest that women who hold more trad itional views of their roles in society are likely to have a diminished sense of wellbeing and greater psychopathology whereas women who hold more egalitarian or feminist values tend to report more positive well-being (Yakushko, 2007). A study by Yakushko (2007) examined the imp act of relation to the feminist movement and life satisfaction. Feminist identity development and self-i dentification was studied in relation to psychological well-being. Using an online survey, 691 women, ages 18 to 83, were classified as having traditional, moderate, and feminist values. The research found that women who held moderate to feminist values scored significantly higher on a measure of psychological well-being than women with traditional valu es. The findings were most significant for psychological well-being subscales on purpose in life, autonomy, and personal growth (Yakushko, 2007). The researcher concluded that womens experiences with sexism and oppression have an impact on their life satisfaction (Yakushko, 2007). Cultural Messages and Femininity The role of femininity in womens and girls psychological health and behavior has been a subject of extensive study (B em, 1993; Murnen & Smolak, 1 997). Studies examine how the dictates of femininity influen ce girls development and the eff ects that trying to conform to a stereotype have on psychological well-being. Crawford and Unger (2004) state, feminist theories of personality development stress that characteristics such as passivity, excessive concern with pleasing others, lack of initiative and dependency are psychological consequences of subordination (p. 22). Th e traits associated with being feminine place women in a subordinate position to men in U.S. society. Tolman and Po rche (2000) report study findings that provide powerful evidence that internalized behaviors and belie fs about what it means to be 30

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appropriately fe minine are associ ated with girls (negative) psychological well-being as they enter adolescence (p. 91). Negative outcomes in womens mental health have been posited as being related to women who internalize a sense of devaluation and subordination (Crawford & Unger, 2004). The Gender system influences access to power and resources Men have more public power in most societies, cont rolling government, law, and public discourse. By and large, men make and enforce the laws that women a nd men must obey. To some extent, men and women come to accept gender dis tinctions visible at the social structural level and enacted at the interpersonal level as part of the self-concept. (Crawford and Unger, 2004, p. 21) Societal messages transmitted to women often include that they are a weaker sex and cannot do things as well as me n. Since women are not as physi cally strong, they are not as worthy as men. The degree to which a woman in ternalizes these messages about how she should be and act impacts how likely she is to experience disturbances with herself and relationships with others (Crawford, 2006; Harter, et al., 1997). Women who adopt more feminin e traits are considered by society to be well adjusted and those who dont are subject to violence, social reje ction, and psychiatric diagnosis. Reid and Burr (2000) state, gender is indirectly embedded in official categories of mental disorder (p. 205). Since it is considered mo re appropriate for women to express emotions such as fear, anxiety, and sadness, mental disord ers that identify pathology with these feelings are more likely to be attached to women (Reid & Burr, 2000). Pathologizing womens behavior in this manner leads to a prescription for ma ladaptive behavior that imp acts womens well-being. In adolescence, girls generally report more internalizing symptoms, such as depression and anxiety, than boys because girls more of ten identify with an expressive feminine, gender role, or the possession of expressive personality characteristics (e.g., emotionality, compassion) (Hoffmann, Powlishta, & White, 2004, p. 796). Embedded into sociocultural messages are prescriptions for being an appropriate female. However, acting in appropriately feminine ways 31

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can lead to n egative mental health outcomes. Thus, girls psychosocial development can be negatively impacted by societys gender expect ations (Tolman, Streipe, & Harmon, 2003) Much of the existing literature about socioc ultural influences on women has focused on the desire to be thin or to intern alize a thin ideal as a manifesta tion of being properly feminine. Dissatisfaction with weight and appearance is now being descri bed as normative discontent (Tiggeman & Lynch, 2001). Yet, wanting to be thin and obsessing about and being dissatisfied with ones appearance is not th e only way that young women str uggle. A related effect that societal messages can have on women is that they suppress their voices in order to meet societal or relational expectations. Additionally, women are expected to suppress their wants and needs to form connections with others. The paradoxical impact is that they suppress their voices in an effort to connect, which brings them farther away from engaging in meaningful, authentic connections. Therefore, for women, learning and acting in appropriate ways can create relationship difficulties for both men and women w ho are attempting to make connections with one another (Neff & Harter, 2002). Because women, in our society, are not as valued as men and their opinions are not taken as seriously, this suppression of voice becomes distressing and potentially damaging (H arter et al., 1997). The culture in which young women develop provid es a context wherein she creates a sense of self-in-relation to the various environments a nd feedback that she encounters. As stated, the young womans culture dictat es the norms of femininity, or th e predominant views that are held by members of a society regarding womanhood. In American culture, girls are under pressure to be seen and not heard (Impett, Schooler & Tolman, 2006, p. 131). Tolman and Porche (2000) believe that society places pressure on girls to behave in fe minine ways that require them to conform to prevailing images of beauty and conceal their authentic thoughts and feelings. 32

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W omen develop their gender ideology within a culture that socializes them to devalue these traits that define them within the culture. This cont ext often becomes detrimental to their identity development. Inauthenticity Gilligan and colleagues (1990) ar gue that the differences that arise between boys and girls during adolescence result from a loss of voice. They believe that girls lose touch with their true selves and adopt an inauthentic facade of niceness and compliance in order to build and maintain relationships (Smolak & Munstertieger, 2002, p. 234). They suppress their voices so often and so fully that they lose a sense of who they are and what they want and need. Relationship authenticity is defined by Surrey (1985) as the ongoing challenge to feel emotionally real, connected, vital, clear and purpo seful in a relationship. Tolman, et al., (2006) states, the importance of relational authenticityfeeling clear about ones own thoughts and feelings and thereby able to connect to another in a relationshipis a crucial component of psychological health and healthy relational de velopment (p. 86). Authenticity is everevolving, not achieved at any one momentit is a persons ongoing ab ility to represent her/himself in relationships more fully (Mille r, Jordan, Stiver, Walker, Surrey, & Eldridge, 2004, p. 72) with awareness of th e possible impact on the other person (Jordan, et al., 1991). When women believe that they cannot express th emselves authentically, they disconnect from what they want and need (Gilligan, 1990; Tolm an & Porche, 2000). Silencing ones desires, interests, and abilities in order to maintain relati onships actually serves to create inauthenticity in relationships (Gilligan, 1982; Brown & Gilligan, 1992). As young girls grow and progress through adolescen ce, a pattern of self-silencing behavior has been identified that can be detrimental to their psychologi cal well-being. Harter (1990) identified false self behavior as a change in the self-system that occurs during adolescence. False 33

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self behavior is defined as the ex te nt to which one is acting in wa ys that do not reflect ones true self as a person or the real me (Harter et al., 1996, p. 360). Re search related to false-self behavior has determined that adolescents who engage in false self behavior to please, impress, or win the approval of parents and peers have intermediate scores on depression, hope, self-worth, and knowledge of true self measures. Adolescents who devalue their true se lves exhibit the least adaptive outcomes and the most false-self behavior because they dont feel validated as they are and attempt to distort their true selves (Harter et al., 1996). Adolescents who believe that others do not value their true self can come to devalue themselves. In one study, girls who reported high levels of femininity also reported low levels of voice with male classmates and in public relational contex ts (Harter, et al., 1996) Harter, et al. (1998) found evidence of a more consistent gender role effect involving both femininity and masculinity. In both men and women, masculinit y or traditional masculine gender roles tended to be associated with higher voice whereas femi ninity was negatively related to voice. These findings show, as is consistent with other re search, that higher leve ls of masculinity are associated with better mental health (Murnen & Smolak, 1997; Whitley, 1985). Another example of how gender relates to in authenticity is found in a study by Simpson and Stroh (2004). These authors found that emotional dissonance generated by a feminine display-rule pattern was positively correlated with feelings of personal inauthenticity at work (Simpson & Stroh, 2004, abs) for both men and wome n. A display-rule dictates how, when and where emotions should be suppressed or expresse d. A feminine displayrule pattern requires stimulation of positive emotions such as enthusiasm and warmth and suppressing negative emotions such as anger and aggression. They state that women as a group may be more 34

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susceptible to experiencing feelings of inauth enticity at work since wom en are required to conform to a feminine display-rule pattern more often than men (Simpson & Stroh, 2004). An argument has been made that the very de finition of being a good woman is focusing on others and making connections in relationships (Gilligan, 1990). Being a good woman in relationships means placing focus on other peop le and stifling ones own wants and needs. Studies have shown that focusing mostly on the ot her person in a relationship has been linked to inauthenticity. In a study on re lationship styles by Neff and Ha rter (2002), th ree relationship styles, other-focused, self-focused, and mutual, were examined in relation to power, authenticity, and psychological health in 251 heterosexual couples. Relationship styles were related to power. They found that people with an other-focused connection rela tionship style were linked to subordinance whereas people with a self-focused autonomy in a relationship were linked to dominance. Participants espousi ng a style of mutuality were linke d to equality of power. Otherfocused connection participants described their styl e of relating as false-se lf behavior. Neff and Harter (2002) found that inaut henticity was linked to a lack of power and poorer psychological outcomes (abs) and mutual participants had the best outcomes. Findings of this study provide evidence that the expression of voi ce takes place within the context of relationships and that the nature of this expression contributes to relational and psychological outcomes. Inauthenticity Outcomes When authenticity is missing in relationships, the result is a lack of interpersonal connection and a sense of isolation, leading to psychological distress (Jordan & Dooley, 2001) (Frey, Tobin, & Beesley, 2004, p. 130). In fact some studies have demonstrated that inauthenticity in relati onships can lead to stress, depres sion, and job dissatisfaction (Simpson & Stroh, 2004). 35

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Tolm an and Porche (2000) examined the rela tionship of inauthenticity to self-esteem, depression, disordered eating, and early-adolescent sexual behavior. Tolman and Porche assert that as girls struggle to mainta in important relationships, their vulnerability to experiencing depressed mood and diminished self-esteem increase s. The authors predicted that inauthenticity in relationships would be uniquely and negatively associated w ith self-esteem and depression, after controlling for the eff ects of race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, early physical development, and religiosity. In the Tolman and Porche study, girls who were inauthentic in their relationships tended to have lower self-est eem scores and higher levels of depression. The relationship between self-esteem and depression were strongest for first year college women compared to the other two sampled populati ons: Eighth grade and high school adolescent females. Tolman and Porche also found, for the ISR (Inauthentic Self in Relationships) subscale, there is a weak but signif icant correlation to girls reports of feeling pressure to keep a boyfriend. However, more research is needed to support th e initial findings of Tolman and Porche (2000) because the authors acknowledge the scale needs refinement. In another study by Tolman, et al. 2006, they refined the subscale specifically for adolescents. Findings of this later study suggested a significant relationship between inauth enticity in relationships and self-esteem but not depression. Similarly to Tolman and Porche (2006), Harter et al. (1997) have asse rted that a lack of authenticity, and a lack of zest in relationships has negative outcomes that can manifest as depressive symptoms and low self -esteem. Harter et al. (1997) al so found that those highest in false self-behavior reported the lowest level of gl obal self-esteem and the most depressive affect. These authors believe that a failure to express on es opinions or true self may erode self-worth. If self-esteem is low, persons may feel as if they have nothing to sa y. Harter et al. (1997) 36

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conclude that lack of voice, as a f orm of false self-behavior, is cl early associated with liabilities that, in turn, may well interfere with the ad aptive functioning of a dolescents (pg 168). The relationship between inauthenticity and negative mental health outcomes has been established in literature. This research, considered together, suggests that the more authentic the person is, the less likely they are to experience negative mental he alth outcomes. To decrease levels of inauthenticity, it becomes important to look at factors th at contribute to being inauthentic. Many studies examine the negative effects of inauthenticity but few look at what factors contribute to inauthenticity. Researchers and theorists have proposed that sociocultural influences such as family, media, and peers influence young womens heal thy psychological development (Crawford, 2006; Maine, 2004). Studying the relati onship between sociocultural fact ors and authenticity may lead to creating interventions that are effective in fostering authenticity and improving psychological well-being for young women. Since holding more feminine traits has been linked to inauthenticity, looking at womens attitudes toward women and the origins of these attitudes becomes important. Since children are first expo sed to gender roles in the home, the relationship between parents and children, and particularly be tween mothers and daughters, is crucial when setting the stage for healthy development. Feminist Relational-Cultural Theoretical Framework Feminist theories provide some insight into how the sociocultural context of patriarchy influences how girls behave in relationships. Th e patriarchal society in which adolescent girls come of age shapes their identity developmen t and mental health (Worell & Remer, 2003). Impett, Schooler, and Tolman, (2006) state, a feminist developmental framework calls for attention to how girls develop an internalized recognition of themselves as women in their behavior, thoughts, and feelings and through others responses to them (p. 132). A Relational 37

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fra mework asserts that the self is embedded in relationships and that pe ople grow and develop within the context of relations hips (Jordan, 2000). Individuals do not need to separate from others to form a sense of self because intimacy is necessary ac ross the lifespan (Jordan, 2000). Closeness with others enhances the development of the self. In contrast to traditional theories of human development, which describe the key tasks of adolescence as achieving separati on and autonomy, feminist theories suggests that relationships are central to adolescent development (Impett, et al., 2006). A feminist theory that places emphasis on relationship development is Self-in-Re lation theory. Relational-Cultural theorists assert that a womans sense of self is based, in large part, on her ability to maintain important close relationships (e.g., Jordan, 2001). The Self-in-Relation model, more recently known as the Relational-Cultural model, provides an alternative to traditional theories of psychological development. Relational-Cultural theorists purport, originating in feminist theory, relationally base d practices have recently been advocated as a more inclusive approach for both genders. Feminist scholars have long asserted that a womans sense of self is a relational one an d that a womans need to feel related to others is a crucial aspect of her identity (as cited in Schultheiss, 2003, p. 303). Relational theories emphasize a paradigm shift from the relationship as a peripheral element to the relationship as an integral component of developmental progress, emotional health, and interpersonal life (Schultheiss, 2003). Jordan (1995) states, in th e existing paradigm of self-development the task is to internalize resources of love in order to create an ev er more unique, self-sufficient and separate structure: the self (p. 52). A Relational approach to th erapy asserts the need to grow through and toward relationship rather than to ward self-sufficiency and separation (Jordan, 1995). 38

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Evidence that wom en were being misunders tood and misrepresented by traditional psychodynamic models provided the impetus for th e Stone Center Relatio nal-Cultural model. RCT authors emphasize the importance of context. They believe that cultural issues and sociopolitical forces are central to a persons ability to functi on (Jordan, 2000). This model also places great emphasis on seeking a better understanding of both female and male development (Jordan, 2001). Relational-Cultural theory s uggests that maturity or mature functioning involves growth toward connecti on and relationship through the li fe span (Jordan, 2001, p. 1). The Stone Center relational perspective on hum an experience (sometimes referred to as self-in-relation theory) posits that: (1) we grow in, through and toward relationship; (2) for women, especially, connection with others is central to psychol ogical well-being; (3) movement toward relational mutuality optima lly occurs throughout life, through mutual empathy, responsiveness, and contribution to the growth of each i ndividual and to the relationship. (Jordan, 1995, p. 53) The Relational-Cultural model includes th e idea that self-ide ntity evolves through meaningful connections with ot hers rather than from a separa tion-individuation process, as proposed by traditional models. Characteristics th at comprise core aspects of growth-enhancing relationships are mutual engagement which is de fined as mutual involvement, commitment, and sensitivity to the relationship, authenticity which can be thought of as the freedom to be genuine in relationships, empowerment or sense of person al strength that emerges from the relationship, and the ability to receive, express, and proce ss diversity in the relationship (Frey, Tobin, & Beesley, 2004). Jordan (1995) stat es that the Stone Center model suggests that the need for connection and emotional joining is a primary need and traces the source of much human suffering to the experience of disc onnection and isolation (p. 2) This concept highlights the importance of forming relationships based on mutual respect and understanding. The model does not believe that suffering is unnecessary; however, the model posits that societal systems based on power and control, create further pain ful psychological and relational consequences. 39

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Ideally, applying this approach at a more system ic level would enab le adolescent girls to develop more fully. Being responsive to other individuals, and ha ving an impact on them, leads to our own growth (Jordan, 1995). A womans sense of me aning and well-being is anchored in the relationships throughout her life span. Yet, inevitable disconn ections occur and it becomes important to address them to strengthen the connection. When people fail each other empathically, do not understand, or let each ot her down, the way one person responds to the other will determine if each member finds him or herself relationally effective (can shape the relationship and move the other person). If a pe rson in relationship feels disconnected from his or her own experience, that person will hide him or herself or twist the experience to fit what is acceptable to the other person. In this situa tion, self-blame and disc onnection from certain aspects of inner experience and ones understanding of reality is altered (Jordan, 2001, p. 3). The person feels inauthentic, and may move into a place of isolation, self-blame, and immobilization. The desire for real connecti on remains, but the person (whose expression of feelings and needs has been negl ected, attacked, or deemed insignificant) feels that expressing the vulnerability needed to ente r authentic relationship is t oo dangerous (Jordan, 2001). As a result, when mutually empathic relationships ar e not available, we feel deadened, immobilized, less clear, worthless, and reluctant to seek further connections; this disconnection creates considerable pain (Jordan, 1995, p. 53). Adolescent s demonstrate this sense of disconnection by reaching out and then pulling away. Pipher (1994) be lieves that American culture forces girls to lay aside aspects of their ident ity and to adopt a false identi ty. This phenomenon occurs in relation to significant others in an adolescents life. 40

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Tantillo (2006) describes th at m utual relationships (i.e ., bidirectional movement of thoughts, feelings, and activity, Genero, et al., 1992) occur on ly when both difference and similarity are honored in the relationship a nd when there is space for each person in the relationship and attention to the integrity of the connection (p. 83). RCT emphasizes that perceiving mutuality in relationships, that is, al lowing oneself to be influenced by others and sensing that one influences others, require s attunement, emotional vulnerability, and responsiveness to the subj ective experience of the other on an affective and cognitive level, as well as an acceptance of the entire person (d ifferences and similarities). There is an understanding that all parties in the interaction are capable of growing through mutual relationships (Tantillo, 2006). Although disconnection is part of all relationships, RCT author s emphasize that persistent and severe disconnections interacting with other biopsychosocial risk factors can perpetuate and produce mental health problems such as eating disorders and depression (Garner, 1997; Johnson & Connors, 1987). Thus, focusing on rebuilding re lationships and learning about the self-inrelation will help adolescent females develop more fully. As they learn about themselves in relation to others and their environment, they will better understand and relate to others as well as other sociocultural influences such as the media. When women believe they can express themselves authentically and build relationshi ps, they will experience greater well-being. Attitudes toward Women and Inauthenticity Common language used in American culture and at home has been shown to create a space in which both women and men ar e socialized to think more about men (Crawford & Unger, 2004). For example, language uses the word he generically to refer to he or she; he is treated as universal, human, a nd genderless, and she is sp ecifically female (Bem, 2004, p. 10). Thinking more about men impacts the way that both women and men think about women 41

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and their ro les in society. Much of the exis ting research on attitudes toward womens roles examines traditional versus egalitarian or feminist views and how those views influence their behaviors. Feminists often support equality of roles and recognize the inequalities that exist in society (Unger & Crawford, 1996), whereas traditiona l women or anti-feminists may not believe that women are perceived as second class or do not see women's second class status as problematic (Marshall, 1995). People who es pouse more traditional views of women believe that a womans role is as the homemaker and th at men are the breadwinners. More egalitarian people believe that women should co ntribute financially to the fa mily and men should participate in childcare and other traditionally feminine household jobs. People with egalitarian views also more often support role interchangeability than adherence to narrowly prescribed roles (Corrigall & Konrad, 2007). Research studies have examined the relations hip between attitudes towards womens roles in society and level of edu cation and career choice. Cassi dy and Warren (1996) found that women employed full-time were most supportiv e of nontraditional family gender roles and women who were full-time homemakers views were more traditional. The relationship between employment and gender role attitudes also has be en found to extend to children. Research shows that daughters of employed and more educated mo thers are less traditional in their gender role attitudes than daughters of less e ducated and non-employed mothers (Booth & Amato, 1994). A study by Loo and Thorpe (2005) examined the connection between attitudes toward women and personal values. They found that more liberal attitudes were associated with placing higher value on altruism, personal development, a nd social relationships with lower value placed on physical prowess, risk, and advancement. Base d on their results, the researchers advocate for educators and practitioners to acknowledge traditiona l versus liberal orientations to gender roles 42

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in an effort to change attitudes, values, and ul timately behavior. Loo and Thorpe (2005) believe that educators and practitioners are key figures in prom oting change and encourage them to support more liberal attitudes in an effort to enact positive societ al change. A study by Smith and Self (1981) found that traditional women (i.e., women who held anti-feminist attitudes) were more likely to ad here to gender-role stereotypes and believe that adhering to those gender roles makes them prototypes of women who cont ribute positively to their role. Feminists tended to have a broade r definition of women's roles that included more egalitarian views of women in relationships with men and domestic roles. Feminist women felt that by endorsing a wider variety of roles, in cluding non-traditional, highly valued ones, they contributed positively to their gender. This study highlights how attitudes influence adherence to gender-role stereotypes and informs gender ideology. Smith (1999) examined feminist, anti-feminist, and those who identified themselves as having mixed views in relation to measures of collective self-esteem held toward gender. Results of this study showed that feminists scores were highest for identity self-esteem, which is described as the importance of ones group to ones self-concept. Women with anti-feminist beliefs scored highest in public self-esteem sugges ting they believe that ot hers view their gender group positively. Smith (1999) states, anti-femin ists apparently do not, on average, perceive that women are viewed negatively (para 28) wher eas feminists recognize that in a patriarchal culture women are not highly valued although fe minists themselves have a high regard for women (para 28). A study by Theran (2003) found that gender role socialization predicte d level of voice in 14 year-old girls. The author looked at girls with femini ne, masculine, and androgynous characteristics and found that feminine girls had lower levels of voice than masculine and 43

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androgynous girls. The results of this study supported an androgyny m odel of gender role socialization for increased level of voice with authority figures, while resu lts showed support for the masculinity model for level of voice with pe ers. That is, higher levels of androgyny were related to higher levels of voice with authority an d higher levels of masculinity related to higher levels of voice with peers. Harter et al. (1998) examined adolescent males and females level of self-reported voice with parents, teachers, male and female cla ssmates, and close friends. For both genders, the amount of social support they perceived to expre ss their voice was predic tive of their level of voice. The researchers examined feminine versus androgynous girls and found that feminine girls reported lower levels of voi ce in the public relati onal context of school but they did not demonstrate lower levels of voice in private contex ts with close friends and parents. The authors suggest that feminine girls may be compe lled to act in accordance with the good woman stereotype in more public re lational contexts (p. 893). Existing studies of attitudes toward women focus on the connection between attitudes and the way that gender roles are enacted. Tradit ional attitudes are linked with female gender stereotypes that promote self-s acrificing and being nice whereas egalitarian attitudes promote equality of roles. Although these study findings, taken together, suggest that attitudes toward women are likely related to inauthenticity, no st udies to date have di rectly related attitudes toward women with inauthenticity in relationships. Mothers Attitudes Since it has been asserted that parents are th e most influential socializing agents for their children (Rollins & White, 1982; Bohannon & Blanton, 1999), looking at the relationship between mothers and daughters may provide additional information as to how girls lose a sense of self. Bohannon & Blanton (1999) discuss rese arch on the intergenerational transmission of 44

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attitudes that have indicated that parents attitudes in general and m others attitudes in particular, are significant predictors of th e attitudes of their daughters (p.174). A study by Rollins and White (1982) found that mothers and daughters held similar attitudes about careers, marriage, and children. They examined the influence that mothers have on their 10 to 14-year-old daughters. They ex amined 75 mother-daughter dyads from three different intact family environments: traditi onal, dual-work, and dual-career. They found that mothers and daughters attitudes were significantly related to one another although the attitudes differed across the groups. The dual-career fa milies espoused the leas t traditional attitudes regarding careers, marriage, and children. Th e researchers suggested that mothers are the primary significant others in thei r daughters attitude formation. Bohannon and Blanton (1999) conducted a follow-up study, based on the Rollins and White study, 15 years later where they surveyed 40 mother-daughter dyads of the original 75 and compared their attitudes toward women and se x-role orientation. The follow-up showed no significant differences between mothers and thei r daughters attitudes about marriage, children, and careers. However, the study showed that each dyads attitudes differed from Time 1 to Time 2, becoming more egalitarian over time. The au thors believe that their findings lend further support for the concept of mothers as primary soci alizing agents for daughters and for the self-inrelation model regarding mothers and da ughters (Bohannon & Blanton, 1999, p. 173). Though researchers have suggested that parents begin to lose their infl uence on their child rens attitudes over time, this study shows that close relationships with parents continue to exist later in life. Bohannon and Blanton also theorized that th e mother-daughter relationship might be bidirectional later in life with daughters having an influence on their mothers. 45

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Since theory and research s upport a connection between m other s and daughters attitudes, examining daughters perceptions of their mo thers attitudes toward women may provide information regarding daughters gender role so cialization and the extent to which they are inauthentic in relationships. Mothers Nurturance When young women come into adolescence, th ey often find increased pressures from parents to become more feminin e (Hazler & Mellin, 2004). For ex ample, at this life stage, parents often begin to compliment daughters more on their weight and looks. This emphasis on the physical self sends the message to some young women that their looks are their greatest commodities and severs to devalue many other char acteristics of their daughters that make them valuable and unique (Pipher, 1994). Family relationships have a significant im pact on adolescent girls development and conception of femininity. Parent s participate in gender role soci alization from before the time that their children are born (Ex & Janssens, 1998) Because these gender socialization patterns are so prevalent and pervasive, parents may unintentiona lly socialize their da ughters to behave in ways that decrease their self-c onfidence and create psychological discomfort. When parents send their daughters messages either directly through conversation or indirectly through modeling that women are expected to suppress thei r true emotions and sacrifice themselves to benefit relationships, they can cr eate negative effects on girls development (Pipher, 1994). Psychological studies using nonclinical samp les have found that parents treat their daughters differently than their sons (Steinberg & Steinberg, 1994). Studies show that parents criticize and interrupt daughters more than sons and restrict their independence more. Parents react more negatively to their daughters emerging sexuality and assign them more household chores than their sons (Atwood, 2001). Though these socialization behaviors may not be 46

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conscious decisions on their part, parents m ay participate in creating an environment where young women feel subordinate and are expected not to honor th eir own wants and needs. Messages that girls receive from families can be damaging in that they may lead young women to believe that what they have to say is not valuable or wo rthwhile. As a result, young women may begin to act in false or inauthentic ways. Parents have a significant impact on the deve lopment of their children. The family is viewed as an essential place for gender-role id entity formation. For daughters, the relationship they have with their mothers is unique and complex (Chodorow, 1978). In infancy, mothers are typically the primary caregiver and make a secu re attachment through feeding and nurturing the child. Early bonds greatly impact the way that da ughters position themselves in relationships to others and how they think about themselves and what it means to be a woman (Surrey, 1991). Thus, mothers have a significant and unique relationship with their daught ers. According to researchers, the effect of the maternal role ma y be more significant for women and the paternal role may be more significant for men (Tu and Liao, 2006, p. 620). Numerous studies have found that parental nurtu rance is positively related to adolescents self-esteem (Buri, Kirchner, & Walsh, 1987; Buri 1989; Buri & Komar, 1992). A study by Buri (1989) found that mothers nurturance, which is composed of the mothers approval, acceptance, and affirmation as perceived by the child, was si gnificantly correlated with self-esteem. The study surveyed 128 college students from intact fa milies and their parents on parental nurturance and authority. They found that both mothers and fathers nurturance and authoritativeness positively correlated with self-esteem and parental authoritarianism negatively correlated with self-esteem. Adolescents apprai sals of parental nurturance a nd authority were more strongly related to their self-est eem than were their parents apprai sals. This finding suggests that the 47

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child s self-concept is more greatly affected by his or her perceptions of the relationship than what the parent reports. A study by Buri et al. (1992) found a significan t relationship between parental nurturance and self-esteem in college seniors living away from home demonstrati ng that nurturance could be a stable predictor of self-esteem over time. The researchers suggest th at parental nurturance provides a stabilizing influence for children dur ing the transitional year s of adolescence and early adulthood. These findings suggest that stro ng nurturing relationships enable children to develop higher self-esteem. Si nce studies also suggest that th e parent-child relationship is stronger than peers in predicting self-esteem (B rown & Lohr, 1987), this finding illustrates that more attention should be paid to parenting relationships, where girls are first socialized. Clinical literature also rela tes parental nurturance to inau thenticity (Harte r et al., 1996). Harter et al. (1996) propose that when a daughters true self is not adequately validated by parents or caregivers, she will silence and engage in false self-behavior to the extent that caregivers make their love contingent upon her liv ing up to their particul ar standards, [leading her to] adopt a socially implant ed self (Harter et al., 1997, p. 164). Low parental support and nurturance, therefore, leads to low le vels of voice and inauthenticity. Parents model behavior that contributes to expression of voice. Harter, et al. (1997) examined the relationship between level of valid ation from parents and peers and adolescents displays of true versus false self behavior. Perceived support was highly predictive of selfreported levels of true versus false self-behav ior. Adolescents who acknowledged that parents and peers respected who they were as a person reported high levels of true self-behavior, whereas, those who experienced lack of approval re ported high levels of false self-behavior. Harter et al. (1997) found that parents who modeled clear expression of their opinions to their 48

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children and provided support for their adolescent to express his or her own opinion had children who reported the highest level of voice. Childre n who did not feel supported by their parents suppressed their true tho ughts a nd feelings. Additionally, a study by Harter et al. (1998) found that parent support continues to correlate highl y with global self-worth throughout adolescence. In their examination of loss of voice they found that adolescents may attempt to obscure their true selves if they feel that they do not meas ure up to the standards se t by others whose opinions are critical and therefore may not meet with their approval (Harter et al., 1998, p. 893). One outcome of this relationship dynamic is that their self worth may be negatively affected. If significant others do not valida te the childs authentic experi ences and attributes, the true self goes into hiding as the child increasingly feels compelled to suppress expression of this true self. If having nurturing, supportive parents is likely to permit young women to be more authentic, then the relationship between mothers nurturance and inauthenticity in relationships is an area of study that is in need of further examination. Implications Counseling and societal interv entions that address the well -being of girls and societal change are needed to help promote womens deve lopment of positive sense of self-in-relation, as they are exposed to many conflicting messa ges that can promote disconnection from relationships and self. Since inauthenticity has been linked to poor psychological health outcomes, promoting authentic self-expres sion through developing mutually empowering interpersonal relationships will serve to decrease the negative e ffects of suppression of voice. Interpersonal relationships be tween young women and their pare nts, peers, teachers, and counselors need to become a focus of identity development because a pattern of destructive chronic disconnection can occur bot h at personal and societal le vels. According to Jordan (2001), all the ways that dominant groups shame and silence nondominant groups contribute to 49

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disconnection at a societal leve l (p. 3). The m edia reinfo rces oppression of non-dominant groups and promotes disconnection from authentic relationships in favor of relationships with products (Kilbourne, 1999). Kil bourne (1999) states, we know that women and girls are especially likely to seek conn ection through alcohol, food, and cigare ttes, partly as a response to disconnection in our human relationships (p. 29 ). The effect of ch ronic disconnection is withdrawal from social engagements, a decrease in energy, lack of clarity, increased feelings of depression, and lower levels of produc tivity and creativit y (Jordan, 2001). Relational Cultural therapists can help by focusing on fostering mutually empowering relationships where young women feel heard an d supported. Developing mutually empowering relationships would presumably increase creativity and produc tivity, decrease feelings of depression, and increase energy, social engageme nt, and clarity. Jordan and Hartling (2002) believe that people need to be in connection in order to change, open up, shift, transform, heal, and grow (p. 52). Focusing on the creation of c onnections will enable women to develop more authentically. The more fully young women can express themselves, the more connected they become with a genuine sense of self. Additionally, understanding the mother-daughter relationship and how it influences daughters authenticity, will inform treatment. Studies that focus on what fact ors contribute to inauthentic ity in relationships can guide treatment and intervention programs designed to help young women progress into adulthood. Examining the factors that en force suppression of voice can guide intervention and pinpoint areas to focus on in treatment planning. Therefore, this study will aid in understanding how to target these aspects of young wo mens growth in relationships. Summary Examining young women who are negotiating what can feel like an oppressive culture with limited choices, and investig ating the role of egalitaria n attitudes toward women and 50

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51 mothers nurturance in promoting psychological health will provide helpful information for practitioners providing services to young adult women. Results of this study may advance an emerging body of knowledge that focuses on factors that contribute to young womens inauthenticity. This review of literature high lights the importance of examining how traditional attitudes toward women and lack of mothers nur turance might contribute to inauthenticity in relationships.

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CHAP TER 3 METHODOLOGY Overview The purpose of this study is to examine th e relationships between college age womens attitudes toward women, their pe rceived mothers attitudes towa rd women, mothers nurturance, and inauthenticity in relationships. This ch apter includes a discussion of the population and participants, instrumentati on, data collection procedures and data analyses. Research Design This study used a cross-sectional survey de sign. This study examined the relationship between three explanatory variab les and one outcome variable. The three explanatory variables included (a) attitudes toward wo men, (b) perceived mothers at titudes toward women, and (c) mothers nurturance. The outcome variable is inauthentic self in relationship. Population The study surveyed undergraduate women, rangi ng in age from 18-22, attending two large southeastern conference uni versities. In fall 2007, the total university enrollment at University A was 52,271, of which, 36,385 (69.6%) were undergraduate students. Of the undergraduate students, 19,600 were female. The reported et hnicity of those women were White (62.7%), Hispanic (13.6%), Black (12%), Asian (7%), and Other (4%) (University of Florida, 2007). In fall 2007, the total university en rollment at University B was 33,832, of which, 24,995 (73.9%) were undergraduate students. Of the total students enrolled, 57.8% were female. Gender by undergraduate or graduate classification and the reported ethnicity of students by gender at University B was not provided (University of Georgia, 2007). Students who met the following inclusion criteria (a) th ey are female, (b) they are undergradu ate students, (c) they are between 52

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the ages of 18-22, and (d) they are enrolled as a f ull-time student, were eligible to participate in the study. Protection of Confidentiality The University of Floridas Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved the study. All participants received a description of the study and information about their rights as participants. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Once the participants clicked on the link to the online survey, they were asked to read the informed consent. If participants agreed to the terms of the informed consent, they clicked on the I ha ve read the instructions and agree to take the survey box and were forwarded to the online surv ey. Participants could not reach the survey unless they agreed to the term s of the informed consent. Instrumentation The survey consisted of four instruments and a demographic questionnaire. The four instruments were (a) the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS), (b) the Perceived Mothers Attitudes Toward Women Scale (PMAWS), (c) the Pa rental Nurturance Scale (PNS), and (d) the Inauthentic Self in Relationshi p (ISR) subscale of the Adoles cent Femininity Ideology Scale (AFIS). Attitudes Toward Women Scale The 15-item form of the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) was used to assess traditional versus egalitarian attitudes toward women (Spence & Helmreich, 1972, 1978). The AWS is subtitled, An Objective Instrument to Measure Attitudes Toward the Rights and Roles of Women in Contemporary Soci ety. Spence and Hahn (1997) stat e that the AWS is intended to assess peoples beliefs about the responsibilities, privileges, and behaviors in a variety of spheres that have traditionally be en divided along gender lines but could, in principle, be shared equally by men and women (p. 18) The scale originally consis ted of 55 items and was later 53

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revised to briefer versions including a 25-item short-form and the 15-item form which is highly correlated with the original vers ion. Both the 15 and 25-item short-forms have a unifactorial structure, Chronbach alphas in the mid-.80s or higher, and satisfactory test-retest reliability (Spence & Hahn, 1997, p. 21). All items are rated on a four point likert scale ranging from 1 ( Agree Strongly ) to 4 ( Disagree Strongly). Sample items include, Under modern economic conditions, with women active outside the home, men should share in household tasks such as washing dishes and doing laundr y and A woman should be as free as a man to propose marriage. Perceived Mothers Attitudes Toward Women Scale Perceived Mothers Attitudes Toward Wo men Scale (PMAWS) was measured using a modified version of the 15-item short form of the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS). This modified version asks participants, in the directi ons of the instrument, to rate how she thinks her mother would rate each item using the same four point likert scale ranging from 1 ( Agree Strongly ) to 4 ( Disagree Strongly ). This modified scale using the 25-item short form was used in a study by Brooks (2002) and Rodenheiser (1997). Brooks (2002) reported an alpha reliability coefficient of .82 for the mothers attitudes scale. Parental Nurturance Scale The Parental Nurturance Scale (PNS) is a 24-item scale designed to assess parental nurturance from the childs point of view (Buri et al., 1992). The instrument is designed for use with children of any age. Parental nurturance consists of parents behaviors or attitudes toward children with the intent to provide physical or psychological nourishment. Examples of parental nurturance include approval, acceptance, love, wa rmth, support, affection, and affirmation of their children. Identical forms of the PNS are used for both mothers and fathers; however, this study only assessed mothers nurtur ance. Participants responded to the 24 statements using a 554

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point Likert scale ranging from 1 ( Strongly disagree ) to 5 ( Strongly agree ). Examples of items from the mothers nurturance scale include: My mo ther seldom says nice things about me, My mother expresses her warmth and affection for me, and I receive a lot of affirmation from my mother. Half of the items are positively-state d and the other half are negatively-stated. The scale was normed on 128 undergraduate students in a large Midwestern libera l arts college (Buri, 1989). The PNS has an internal consistency alpha of .95 and .92 test-re test reliability for mothers. The scale has good concurrent validity and is significantly correlated with measures of self-esteem. Inauthentic Self in Relationship The Inauthentic Self in Relationships (IS R) subscale of the Adolescent Femininity Ideology Scale (AFIS) was used to measure th e extent to which college age women have internalized inauthentic relationships with others (Tolman & Porche, 2000). The scale was created and normed on a diverse sample of adolescent girls (ranging from 12-19 years old). The ISR comprises 10 of the 20-item self report instrument. The other 10 items measure body objectification in an independent scale making utilization of the ISR alone possible without compromising the integrity of the scale. When completing the ISR, participants respond to statements such as I would tell a friend I think she looks nice, even if I think she shouldnt go out of the house dressed like that on a 6-point scal e ranging from 1 (strongly disagree ) to 6 ( strongly agree ). The reliability estimate for the IS R subscale initially reported by Tolman and Porche (2000) was adequate (alpha = .67). They conducted a series of three studies to refine the subscale, responses were reviewed, and items that lacked variation were deleted. Cronbachs alpha scores were used to identify the best set of items. Once items were removed, the resulting alpha scores increased. Particip ants in the third study (which ai med to refine and validate the AFIS) were comprised of eighth-grade, high sc hool, and first year college students. The 55

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resulting instrum ent had 10 items for the ISR s ubscale with alpha scores of .67 for the eighthgrade site, .75 for the high school and .81 for the first-year college site. This scale was selected for use in this study because it has produced adequa te alpha reliability with first-year college women. Demographic Questionnaire A demographic questionnaire designed by the re searcher was used to gather information regarding individual characteristics of the study participants The questionnaire gathered information regarding age, race, year in college, academic major, geographic region where participant was raised, current uni versity attending, and residence (i.e., on/off campus versus at home). The questionnaire also gathered family -related information includ ing family structure, the primary caregiver, mothers level of education, and whether mother is living or deceased. Data Collection Procedure The study was conducted under the guidelines and protocol consistent with the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Florida. After obtaining IRB approval, a selected list of student organi zations representing different majors (e.g., Engineering, Education, Journalism, Business, and Psychology) were co ntacted via email with a letter requesting permission to contact eligible participants throug h organizational listserv and email addresses. Similar student organizations were found through each universitys website, such as the society for women engineers. The presidents of the organizations were cont acted with an email explaining the purpose of the study and asking perm ission to disseminate the survey on their respective listservs or through individual email addresses. Undergraduate female students attending two large public universities in the south eastern U. S. and meeting the inclusion criteria for the study were contacted th rough electronic mail by the resear cher or various organization leaders requesting study participation. 56

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Additionally, adm inistrative personnel in the university housing departments were contacted via email explaining the purpose of th e study and requesting that an email with the study description, inclusion criteria, and a link to th e research survey be forwarded to eligible participants and relevant lis tserv. The department of hous ing at University A provided researcher with a random sample of 150 eligible participant ema il addresses. The researcher emailed the 150 potential participants requesti ng study participation. The researcher also contacted a former University A employee currently working at University B to aid in recruiting participants. Additionally, class in structors within the college of Education at University A were contacted and asked to request stud ent participation. Interested st udents were sent the link to the study via email. The email included the online we b address to locate the survey and researcher contact information in the case that students had questions regarding participation in the study. Participants were encouraged to forward the surv ey link to any other stud ent who was eligible to participate. The women participating in the study went to the following link: http://plaza.ufl.edu/jljasser to complete the online survey. The online survey included an introduction to the study and directions, the informed consent, Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS), Perceived Mothers Attitudes Toward Wo men Scale (PMAWS), the Parental Nurturance Scale (PNS), the Inauthentic Self in Relationship (ISR) subscale of the Adolescent Femininity Ideology Scale (AFIS), and a demographic questionnaire respectively. The titles of the measures were not included (see Appendix B). The data obtained for this study was analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS). The data was collected online and stored in an internet database, which the researcher dow nloaded and transferred into an excel file and then imported into SAS once data collection was completed. 57

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Use of webs ites and the internet may be lim ited by involving use of listserv and obtaining email addresses, technology itsel f, lack of a population list, a nd questionable representativeness of the sample (Cresswell, 2005). The benefits of using an online survey included the elimination of postage, paper, mail-out, and data entry costs, as well as the reduced time required for survey implementation (Dillman, 2000). Additionally, rese archers have found the responses to internet surveys are received more quickly, the responses are more complete, and the non-item response rate is lower than those of postal surveys (Truell, Bar tlett, & Alexander, 2002). Data Analysis For all items within each scale, the freque ncy distributions were examined. After conducting reliability analyses, correlations among the study variables were determined. Pairwise relationships from a correlation matrix were used to examine Hypotheses 1-6. A sequence of multiple regressions was used to examine the relationships in Hypotheses 7-10 including interaction effects. Analyses for the research questions were tested at a .05 significance level. Additionally, basic statistics including per centages and frequencies were calculated from the data gathered fr om the demographic questionnaire. Hypotheses The following research hypotheses we re evaluated in this study: Ho1. There is no significant relationship between college age womens attitudes toward women and perceived mothers attitudes toward women. Ho2. There is no significant relationship between college age womens attitudes toward women and inauthenticity. Ho3. There is no significant relationship between pe rceived mothers attitudes toward women and college age womens inauthenticity. Ho4. There is no significant relationship between college age womens attitudes toward women and mothers nurturance. 58

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59 Ho5. There is no significant relationship between pe rceived mothers attitudes toward women and mothers nurturance. Ho6. There is no significant relationship between mo thers nurturance and college age womens inauthenticity. Ho7. There is no significant relationship between college age womens attitudes toward women, perceived mothers attitudes to ward women, and inauthenticity. Ho8. There is no significant relationship between college age womens attitudes toward women, mothers nurturance, and inauthenticity. Ho9. There is no significant relationship between pe rceived mothers attitudes toward women, mothers nurturance, and inauthenticity. Ho10. There is no significant relationship between college age womens attitudes toward women, perceived mothers attitudes to ward women, mothers nurturance, and inauthenticity. Summary The purpose of the current research study was to examine the relationship between attitudes toward womens roles in society, mothe rs nurturance, and inauthenticity in a diverse sample of college women. A sample of underg raduate women was drawn from campus listserv and email addresses, and participants complete d an online survey that included the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS), the Perceived Mothers Attitudes Toward Women Scale (PMAWS), the Parental Nurturance Scale (PNS), the Inauthentic self in Relationships (ISR) subscale, and demographic questions. Data was analyzed using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and multiple regressi on procedures. The results of the study are presented in Chapter 4. Conclusions drawn fr om the results are presented in Chapter 5.

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CHAP TER 4 RESULTS The results of surveys of traditional college age women at two large southeastern public universities are presented in this chapter. The survey assessed womens attitudes toward womens roles in society, their perceived mothe rs attitudes toward wome n, mothers nurturance, and inauthentic self in relationship. First, the an alyses of the instruments used for this study are reported. Next, the demographics of the sample are presented followed by descriptive statistics for the studys variables. Finally, the results of the data analysis for each of the studys hypotheses are addressed. Analysis of Instruments Prior to analyzing the data and testing the hypotheses for this study, a reliability analysis was conducted on the questionnaires used in this study. A measure of internal consistency was calculated for each instrument: Attitudes Toward Women Scale, Perceived Mothers Attitudes Toward Women Scale, Parental Nurturance Scale, and Inauthentic Self in Relationship subscale, to confirm that each scale or subscale consiste ntly measured a particular construct. While previous studies have confirmed that the orig inal scales and subscales were reliable and measured the identified constructs, validity and reliability are situation and person specific. While a scale might be valid and reliable for one group of subjects it might not be valid and reliable for another. Cronbachs alpha was used to determine inte rnal consistency of the four instruments administered to the participants. The Cronbach alpha for the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) was .76. The total alpha coefficient for the Perceived Mothers Attitudes Toward Women Scale (PMAWS), which measured participan ts assessment of their mothers attitudes, was .82. The total alpha coefficient for the Parent al Nurturance Scale (PNS), which was used to 60

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m easure mothers nurturance as reported by her daughter, was .97. Lastly, the total alpha coefficient for the Inauthentic Self in Relationship (ISR) subscale of the Adolescent Femininity Ideology Scale (AFIS), used to measure how inauthentic participants reported being in their relationships with others, was .73. Reliability co efficients at a level above .70 are considered acceptable (Schmitt, 1996). As these results have shown, the alpha coefficients for all four measures were above the .70 level. Alpha coefficients derived in this study are comparable to levels found in prior available studies for the AWS, PNS, and ISR (Spence & Hahn, 1997; Buri, 1989; Tolman & Porche, 2000). However, there have been no previous reliability analyses conducted on the 15-item short form of the PM AWS so there is no existing psychometric information upon which to compare the alpha coefficient. Sample Demographics A total of 248 women participated in the st udy. Of this sample, four were eliminated because they did not meet the inclusion criteria while five others were eliminated because they failed to complete more than half of the questions in one or more of the assessments. Thus, the final sample was comprised of 239 women. Table 4-1 reports percentage s and frequencies for the items on the demographic questionnaire. Par ticipants ranged in age from 18-22 years. The average age of respondents wa s 19.87 (SD=1.17), while 13.03% (n = 31) were 18 years of age, 27.73% ( n = 66) were 19 years of age, 26.47% ( n = 33) were 20 years of age, 24.37% ( n = 58) were 21 years of age, and 8.4% ( n = 20) were 22 years of age. On e respondent did not report her age. All participants were women attending a larg e university in the southeastern United States. The majority of the sample self-reported their race as White, Caucasian, or European American, 70.17% ( n = 167) followed by an equal number of Black, African American, or Caribbean American and Hispanic or Latina participants, 10.92% ( n = 26), and 4.20% ( n = 10) reported 61

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being Asian Am erican or Pa n-Asian American, 0.42% (n = 1) reported being Arab-American and 3.36% ( n = 8) reported Other. One res pondent did not report her race. The participants reported that the highest level of education completed by their mothers was middle school (1.70%, n = 4), High School (24.68%, n = 58), Junior College (24.26%, n = 57), 4-year College (30.21%, n = 71), and Masters Degree or Ph.D. (19.15%, n = 45). Four respondents did not report their mothers education level. A majo rity of participants reported having been raised in intact homes (67.09%, n = 157). The rest of participants identified being raised in divorced (15.38%, n = 36), blended (4.70%, n = 11), single parent family (7.26%, n = 17), or other family compositions (5.56%, n = 13). Five participants did not report the type of home in which they were raised. When asked to identify their primary car egiver, a majority of women 84.62% ( n = 198) reported their biologi cal mother, followed by 5.93% (n = 14) reporting their biological father. Adoptiv e mother was reported by 1.69% (n = 5) of women and .42% ( n = 1) reported grandmother. The remaining partic ipants (8.05%, n = 19) selected the category of other primary caregiver. Among the 19 participants that endorsed other for primary caregiver, 14 wrote both mother and father were the pr imary caregiver, 2 others indicated multiple caregivers, and 1 participant reported her sister as her primary caregiver. Three participants did not report a primary caregiver. About half of the pa rticipants (53.39%, n = 126) lived on campus, 44.92% ( n = 106) lived off campus, and 1.69% ( n = 4) reported living at home. Thr ee participants did not report their residence. All participants were currently enrolled in a major southeastern university. Participants were at various stag es of their educational careers. Almost a quarter of the sample (23.73%, n = 56) were in the first year of their studies, 23.73% ( n = 56) were in their second 62

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year, 33.05% ( n = 78) were in their third year, and 19.49% ( n = 46) were in their fourth year or beyond. Three participants did not report their year in school. Students with various academ ic majors were represented in the sample. The researcher grouped the participants majors into nine categories based on college divisions at the universities where participants were recruited. Table 4-1 presents the categories, frequencies, and percentages of the part icipants academic majors. Descriptive Statistics The survey used in this study consisted of three established measures and a demographic questionnaire. The means, ranges, and standard deviations for each of the study variables are presented in Table 4-2. In a fe w cases, participants did not provi de a response to an item. In these instances, these items were considered miss ing values and were replaced with the median response that other participants provided for that item. Median scores were used to replace missing data because average scores are more s ubject to outlier influences. As a methodology check, participants with missing data were deleted from the data used in each analysis. General agreement was found between the data using median replacement and the data analysis in which participants with missing data were deleted. Using median scores resulted in retaining a larger number of participan ts for analyses. For the inauthentic self in relationship subs cale, scores on the ten item subscale ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agre e). The mean score for inauthentic self in relationship was M = 3.02 with a st andard deviation of SD = .69. Higher scores on this scale indicate greater conventionality and/or being more inauthentic in relationship. Authors in the original study, Tolman & Porche (2000), did not provide mean scores for comparison purposes. Tolman et al. (2006) reported an average scor e of 3.21 (SD = .74) for the ISR subscale from a sample of eighth grade females. 63

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For the Attitudes toward Wom en Scale, th e mean score obtained was M = 34.87 and SD = 5.37, within a possible range of 0 to 45. Higher sc ores on this scale indi cate a pro-feminist, egalitarian attitude while low scores indicate a tr aditional, conservative attitude. This finding is similar to average AWS scores in a 1992 study conducted by the authors of the instrument where M = 36.34 and SD = 6.10 (Spence & Hahn, 1997). The average score for perceived mothers attitudes toward women (PMAWS) was M = 30.57 (SD = 6.90). Scoring for the PMAWS is the same as the scoring for the AWS. Mean scores for the PMAWS from other studies are not available. The average score obtained for mothers nurtu rance on the Parental Nurturance Scale was 102.73 (SD = 17.91), within a possible range of 24 to 120. High scores indi cate higher levels of mothers nurturance. The desc riptive statistics for the Parent al Nurturance Scale cannot be compared to findings from previous research because the questionnaires authors (Buri, et al., 1992) have not provided desc riptive statistics for th eir instrument. The scor es of participants in this study indicated a skew toward the positive with most partic ipants having scores between 94 and 120. Results The studys first six hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlations (see Table 4-3). Hypotheses seven through ten were tested using a sequence of multiple regression analyses (see Table 4-4). Hypothesis 1: There is no significant relationship between college age womens attitude toward women and perceived moth ers attitudes toward women. To test this hypothesis a Pear son correlation was calculated for scores on the AWS and the scores for the PMAWS. Table 4-3 presents the re sults of this analysis. There was a significant, positive association (r = .531, p < .0001) between college womens attitudes toward womens 64

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roles and their perceived mothers attitudes toward wom ens roles. The findings show that for most participants, the more egalitarian their at titudes toward womens roles, the more they perceive their mothers to hold egalitarian attit udes. Hence the null hypothesis is rejected for Hypothesis 1 because there is a significant re lationship between college womens attitudes toward womens roles and their perceived mothe rs attitudes toward womens roles in society. Hypothesis 2: There is no significant relationship between college age womens attitudes toward women and inauthenticity. To address this question a Pearson correlati on was calculated for scores on the AWS and the scores on the ISR subscale from the AFIS. There was a significant, inverse association ( r = .248, p = .0001) between college womens attitudes to ward womens roles and their ratings of inauthentic self in relationship (see Table 4-3), indicating that, for most participants, the more egalitarian attitudes the women held the lower thei r level of inauthenticity in relationships. Hence the null hypothesis is rejected for Hypothesi s 2 because there is a significant relationship between college womens attitudes toward womens roles and their ratings of inauthentic self in relationship. Hypothesis 3: There is no significant re lationship between perceived mothers attitudes toward women and college age womens inauthenticity. To address this question a Pearson correlati on was calculated for scores on the PMAWS and scores on the ISR subscale from the AFIS. Th ere was a significant, inverse association (r = .215, p = .0008) between perceived mothers attitudes toward women and inauthentic self in relationship (see Table 4-3), indicating that, for most participants, the more egalitarian attitudes participants believe that their mothers hold, the lower their daughters inauthenticity in relationships. Hence the null hypothesis is rejected for Hypot hesis 3 because there is a 65

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significant relationship between perceived m others attitudes toward women and inauthentic self in relationship. Hypothesis 4: There is no significant relationship between college age womens attitudes toward women and mothers nurturance. To address this question a Pearson correlati on was calculated for scores on the AWS and scores on the PNS for mothers. There was a non-significant association between college age womens attitudes toward wome n and mothers nurturance ( r = .067, p = .299). Hence the null hypothesis in not rejected for Hypothesis 4, as there was no association between college age womens attitudes toward wome n and mothers nurturance. Hypothesis 5: There is no significant re lationship between perceived mothers attitudes toward women and mothers nurturance. To address this question a Pearson correlati on was calculated for scores on the PMAWS and scores on the PNS for mothers. There was a significant, positive association between college womens scores on the PMAWS and the PNS for mothers ( r = .275, p < .0001). The findings show that for most participants, the more that daughters perceived their mothers to be egalitarian, the more nurturing they rated their mothers. Hence the null hypothesis is rejected for Hypothesis 5 because there was an association between college womens perceived mothers attitudes toward women a nd mothers nurturance. Hypothesis 6: There is no significant relationshi p between mothers nurturance and college age womens inauthenticity. To address this question a Pearson correlati on was calculated for scores on the PNS for mothers and scores on the ISR subscale from the AFIS. Table 4-3 presents the results of this analysis. There was a non-significant associati on between mothers nurturance and inauthentic 66

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self in relationship ( r = -.087, p = .180). Hence the null hypothesis is not rejected for Hypothesis 6, as there was no significant association betw een colleg e womens ratings of mothers nurturance and their inauthenticity in relationships. Hypothesis 7: There is no significant relationship between college age womens attitudes toward women, perceived mothers attit udes toward women, and inauthenticity. Hypothesis 7 was tested using a multiple regression procedure to determine whether attitudes toward women and perceived mothers attitudes toward women were significantly related to inauthenticity. For this analysis, in authenticity was considered the dependent variable and attitudes toward women and perceived mothe rs attitudes toward women were considered the independent variables. The scores reported by participants on the tw o attitudes toward women scales accounted for significant amount of vari ance in inauthen ticity scores, F (2, 236) = 9.07, p = .0002 (adj R = .064). The null hypothesis is rejected for Hypothesis 7 because p = .0002. The standardized beta coefficient for the college age womens attitudes toward women scale ( = -0.187) was negative and significant, t (236) = -2.53, p = .012. The standardized beta coefficient for the perceived mothers attitudes toward women scale ( = -0.116) was not significant, t (236) = -1.57, p = .119. Unstatndardized regression coeffici ents (B) and standard errors ( SE ) are reported in Table 4-4. When entered simultaneously, attitudes toward wo men continued to explain significant variance in inauthenticity while perceived mothers attitudes toward women no longer explained significant variance in inauthenticity. Hypothesis 8: There is no significant relationship between college age womens attitudes toward women, mothers nurturance, and inauthenticity. 67

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Hypothesis 8 was tested using a multiple regression procedure to determine whether attitudes toward women and mothe rs nurturance were significantly related to inauthenticity. For this analysis, inauthenticity was considered the dependent variable and attitudes toward women and mothers nurturance were considered the independent variables. The scores reported by participants on the attitudes toward women scale and mothers nurturance accounted for significant amount of the variance in inauthenticity scores, F (2, 236) = 8.43, p = .0003 (adj R = .059). The null hypothesis is re jected for Hypothesis 8. The standardized beta coefficient for the college age womens attitudes toward women scale ( = 0.244) was negative and significant, t (236) = -3.87, p = .0001. The standardized beta coefficient for the parental nurturance scale for mothers nurturance ( = -0.071) was not significant, t (236) = -1.12, p = .264 (see Table 4-4). When entered si multaneously, attitudes toward women continued to explain significan t variance in inauthenticity while mothers nurturance remained non-significant in explaining variance in inauthenticity. Hypothesis 9: There is no significant re lationship between perceived mothers attitudes toward women, mothers nurturance, and inauthenticity. Hypothesis 9 was tested using a multiple regression procedure to determine whether perceived mothers attitudes toward women and mothers nurtur ance were significantly related to inauthenticity. For this analysis, inauthenti city was considered the dependent variable and perceived mothers attitudes toward women a nd mothers nurturance were considered the independent variables. The scores reported by participants on the mothers attitudes toward women scale and mothers nurturance accounted for a significant amount of the vari ance in inauthen ticity scores, F (2, 236) = 5.83, p = .0034 (adj R = .039). The null hypothesis is rejected for Hypothesis 9. 68

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The standardized beta coefficient for the perceived m others attitude s toward women scale ( = 0.207) was negative and significant, t (236) = -3.13, p = .0020. The standardized beta coefficient for the parental nurturance scale for mothers nurturance ( = -0.030) was not significant, t (236) = -0.45, p = .651. When mothers nurturance was controlled, particip ants perceived mothers attitudes were more influential in explaining in authenticity, however, when mothers attitudes toward women were controlled; their mothers nurturance was not infl uential in explaining inauthenticity. When perceived mothers attit udes toward women and mothers nurturance are entered simultaneously, perceived mothers attitu des continued to explai n significant variance in inauthenticity while mothers nurturance remained non-significant in explaining variance in inauthenticity. Hypothesis 10: There is no significant re lationship between college age womens attitudes toward women, perceived mothers attitude s toward women, mothe rs nurturance, and inauthenticity. To test this hypothesis, a multiple linear regression analysis was conducted. The participants reported inauthenticity was designa ted as the dependent variable, and the other variables (attitudes toward womens roles in society, perceived mothers attitudes toward women, and mothers nurtur ance) were used as the independent variables. The scores reported on the AWS, PMAWS, and the PNS accounted for significant amount of the variance in Inauthentic Self in Relationship scores, F (3, 235) = 6.20, p = .0005 (adj R = .062). Hence the null hypothesis is rejected. The st andardized beta coefficient for the attitudes toward women scale ( = -0.192) was negativ e and significant, t (235) = -2.58, p = .011. The standardized beta coefficient for the percei ved mothers attitudes toward women scale ( = 0.101) was not significant, t (235) = -1.30, p = .195. Lastly, the standardized beta coefficient for 69

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the parental nurturan ce scale ( = -.046) was not significant, t (235) = -.71, p = .481. When the explanatory variables are entere d simultaneously, attitudes toward women continued to explain significant variance in inauthenti city while perceived mothers attitudes no longer explained significant variance in inauthen ticity and mothers nurturanc e remained non-significant in explaining variance in inauthenticity. Findings of the current study suggest that attitudes toward women mediate the relationship between perceived mothers attitudes and inauth entic self in relationship. According to a common method for testing mediation in psychol ogical research, there are four steps for establishing that a variable mediates the rela tionship between an expl anatory or predictor variable and an outcome variable (Barron & Kenny, 1986; Frazier, Tix, & Barron, 2004). The following four findings in this study suggest a mediating relationship: First, a significant relationship was found between perceived moth ers attitudes (predictor variable) and inauthenticity (outcome variable). Second, percei ved attitudes toward wome n were related to the mediator, attitudes toward women. Third, atti tudes toward women (mediator variable) was significantly related to inauthenticity (outcome variable). The fourth and final finding that indicates a mediating relationshi p is that the strength of the relationship between perceived attitudes toward women (predi ctor variable) and inauthenti city (outcome variable) was significantly reduced when the mediator, attitudes toward women, was added to the model. Taken together these results impl y that attitudes toward women mediate the relationship between mothers attitudes and inauth entic self in relationship. Summary In this chapter, the results of a survey of traditional college aged women attending two large southeastern universities were presented. Descriptive stat istics for the studys research variables and correlations between the variables we re presented. The studys research questions 70

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were answered by providing a detailed explanation of the resu lts of the data analyses. In chapter 5, the results will be discussed as well as the study limitations and implications for theory, counseling practice and policy. In addition, r ecommendations for future research will be presented. Table 4-1. Descriptive Statistics fo r Demographic Information Variable Frequency (f) Percentage (%) Mother Living Yes 230 98.29 No 4 1.71 Current University University A 198 83.9 University B 38 16.1 Academic Major Math, Science, and Engineering 23 9.91 Social Sciences/Liberal Arts and Science 75 32.33 Education 58 25 Business Related Careers 17 7.33 Communications/Journalism 18 7.76 Health and Human Performance 23 9.91 Undecided 5 2.16 Agriculture and Life Science 10 4.31 Design and Architecture 3 1.29 Geographic Location Raised Northeastern 18 7.66 Northwestern 2 0.85 Southeastern 197 83.83 Southwestern 10 4.26 Outside the US 8 3.4 Age 18 31 13.03 19 66 27.73 20 33 26.47 21 58 24.37 22 20 8.4 71

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Table 4-1. C ontinued Frequency (f) Percentage (%) Race White, Caucasian, or European American 167 70.17 Black, African American, or Caribbean Am. 26 10.92 Hispanic or Latina 26 10.92 Asian or Pan-Asian American 10 4.2 Arab-American 1 0.42 Other 8 3.36 Year in College First 56 23.73 Second 56 23.73 Third 78 33.05 Fourth and beyond 46 19.49 Residence On Campus 126 53.39 Off Campus 106 44.92 At home 4 1.69 Family Structure Intact 157 67.09 Divorced 36 15.38 Blended 11 4.7 Single Parent 17 7.26 Other 13 5.56 Primary Caregiver Biological mother 198 84.62 Biological father 14 5.93 Adoptive mother 5 1.69 Grandmother 1 0.42 Other 19 8.05 Mothers Education Middle school 4 1.7 High School 58 24.68 Junior College 57 24.26 4-year College 71 30.21 Master's Degree or Ph.D. 45 19.15 72

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73 Table 4-2. Descriptive Statis tics for the Studys Variables Range Variable Mean Low High Std. Deviation Inauthentic Self in Relationship (ISR) 3.02 1.40 5.20 .691 Attitudes Toward Women (ATW) 34.87 13.0 45.0 5.37 Mothers Attitudes Toward Women (MATW) 30.57 12.0 45.0 6.90 Mothers Nurturance (PNS) 102.73 36.0 120.0 17.91 Table 4-3. Pearson Product Moment Co rrelations among the Studys Variables Variables ISR ATW MATW PNS ISR ATW -.248** MATW -.215** .531** PNS -.087 .067 .275** Note: *p .05 (two-tailed), **p .01 (two-tailed), N = 239; ISR = Inauthentic Self in Relationship; ATW = Attitudes Toward Women; MATW = Perceived Moth ers Attitudes Toward Women; PNS = Mothers Nurturance. Table 4-4. Inauthentic Self in Re lationship Regression Model Summary Hypothesis 7 Hypothesis 8 Hypothesis9 Hypothesis 10 Independent Variable B (S.E.) B (S.E.) B (S.E.) B (S.E.) ATW -.024* (.010) -.031* (.008) -.025* (.010) MATW -.012 (.007) -.021* (.007) -.010 (.008) PNS -.003 (.002) -.001 (.003) -.002 (.003) Adjusted R2 .064* .060* .040* .062*

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CHAP TER 5 DISCUSSION Research has documented a relationship between inauthentic self in relationship and harmful mental health outcomes such as depression (Tolman & Porche, 2000). Far fewer studies have examined what factors contribute to inauthenticity. Examining factors related to inauthenticity in relation ships will guide theory, practice, and research in counseling women. The goal of the present study was to explore fa ctors associated with inauthentic self in relationship in college age women attendi ng two southeastern universities. In this chapter, the study and design is reviewed, and the findings are discussed. Limitations of the study are detailed. Then, impli cations of the findings for theory, research, and counseling practice are discussed. Finally, recommendations for fu ture research are presented. Overview of the Study and Discussion of Findings This study of traditional college-aged wo men included 239 women who ranged in age from 18 to 22 years and were predominately White/Caucasian (70.17%). The women in the sample attended two large universities in the so utheastern United States. Each participant completed a survey comprised of instruments meas uring (a) inauthentic self in relationship, (b) attitudes toward womens roles in society, (c) perceived mothers attitudes toward womens roles, (d) mothers nurturance and a demographic questionnaire. Scores were computed for each of the studys variables, allowing investigation of the relationsh ip among these variables. A nonexperimental, correlational design was utilized to test the resear ch hypotheses, which were stated in the null form and tested at the .05 significance level. Attitudes toward Womens Roles in Society The first hypothesis examined the associa tion between college age womens attitudes toward women and their perceived mothers atti tudes toward women. Th e Pearson correlations 74

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showed a strong, positiv e association between sc ores on the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and the Perceived Mothers Attitudes Toward Women Scale suggesting that women who reported having egalitarian attitudes toward women perceive d their mothers to hold eg alitarian attitudes as well. This finding was consistent with previous research examining the relationship between mothers and daughters attitudes. Studies have shown strong correlations between mothers and daughters gender-role attitudes (Rollins & White, 1982; Smith & Self, 1981). A study by Rollins and White (1982) examined 75 mother-daught er dyads and looked at the influence that mothers have on their 10 to 14-year-old daughter s. They found that mothers and daughters attitudes about children, marriage, and careers we re significantly relate d to one another. A follow-up study 15 years later conducted by Boha nnon and Blanton (1999) surveyed 40 motherdaughter dyads of the original 75 and compared their attitudes toward women and sex-role orientation. They also found th at the mothers and daughters at titudes were similar to one another. The second hypothesis examined the associa tion between college age womens attitudes toward womens roles in society a nd their reported inauthenticity. The data analysis revealed an inverse relationship between scor es on the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and the Inauthentic Self in Relationship subscale of the Adolescen t Femininity Ideology Scale. This finding indicated that women who are more traditional or conservative in their views toward women are more likely to be inauthentic in relationships or be lieve that they must behave in certain ways to protect their valued relationshi ps. The converse is also true indicating that the more egalitarian/pro-feminist attitudes held by the person; the less they suppress their voice or exhibit inauthenticity in relationships with others. 75

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Previous findings have suggested that a re lationship between egal itarian attitudes and authenticity in relationships m ight exist. In a study by Harter, et al. ( 1996) of male and female middle and high school students, 287 females were surveyed about their level, quality, and hope about support and their level of false-self be havior. They found that girls who reported high levels of femininity also reported low levels of voice with male cla ssmates and in public relational contexts. In another study by Harter, et al. (1998), 307 high school students were surveyed on level of voice in va rious relational contexts. In both men and women, masculinity or traditional masculine gende r roles tended to be associat ed with higher voice whereas femininity was negatively related to voice. Although the present study differs in how inauthenticity was measured, the findings of Harter et al.s study (1996, 1998) provided support for examining the relationship between egalitari an attitudes and womens inauthenticity. Additionally, a study by Theran (2003) found that gender role so cialization predicted level of voice in 108 fourteen y ear-old girls. The author examined girls with feminine, masculine, and androgynous characteristics and f ound that feminine girls reporte d lower levels of voice than girls who were masculine or androgynous. This finding also differs from the present study in that different measures are used for the study va riables. However, the study by Theran (2003) suggested that attitudes toward women would be related to inauth enticity. Results of the data analysis in the present study conf irmed a direct relationship betw een attitudes toward women and inauthentic self in relationship. Gilligan (1990) suggests that the cost of adopting the traditional feminine stereotype is subverti ng the self. The finding of this hypothesis, that more traditional attitudes are linked with great er inauthenticity, supports her controversial assertion. Women develop gender ideology within a culture that socializes them to devalue the feminine traits that define them within their culture such as dependency and nurturance. This 76

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cultu ral context may become detrimental to wo mens identity developm ent. People who hold more egalitarian attitudes more often support role interchangeability rather than adherence to narrowly prescribed roles (Corrigall & Konra d, 2007). Role flexibility may provide an explanation for why egalitarian at titudes are linked with higher leve ls of authenticity. Adopting less prescribed roles likely allows for expression of various aspects of self, thus contributing to greater authenticity. Harter et al. (1997) stat ed, the girls who buy into gender stereotypes about what is desirable behavior for women are likely to suffer (p. 163). They may suffer because they confine and limit themselves to what they ar e taught is acceptable or desirable. The society in which girls and women develop encourages them to avoid anger, conflict, and be nice (i.e., Brown & Gilligan, 1992). Suppressing aspects of th e self, therefore, may lead to disconnection and acting inauthentically. Perceived Mothers Attitudes toward Womens Roles The third hypothesis examined the associa tion between perceived mothers attitudes toward women and inauthenticity in relationships A significant invers e relationship between scores on the Perceived Mothers Attitudes Towa rd Women Scale and the Inauthentic Self in Relationship subscale was found, suggesting that women who perceive their mothers to hold more egalitarian attitudes reported being less inau thentic in their own re lationships. In other words, women who perceive their mothers to have more pro-femini st beliefs also reported acting more authentically in relationships with others. Existing theories that propose that daughters behaviors are impacted by mothers attitudes are well supported by the finding of this study. Gender-role socialization theories suggest that the daughters of nontraditional moth ers have lower depression, more effective coping strategies, and higher self-esteem (Buhrke, 1988; Smith & Self, 1981; Worell & Remer, 1992). A study by Oakley (2001), for example, found that moth ers gender-role att itudes and behaviors 77

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significan tly predicted daughters nontraditional gender-role attitudes. This finding taken together with the finding of the present study suggests that mothers may play a role in socializing their daughters to behave in ways that can affect their self-confidence and psychological comfort. Conversely, mothers may help to create an en vironment wherein young women feel subordinate and are expected not to honor their own wants and needs. One potential and harmful outcome could be that daughters of traditional mothers learn not to value themselves and have a difficult time establishing a sense of self. Attitudes and Mothers Nurturance The fourth and fifth hypotheses addressed the relationship betw een attitudes toward womens roles and mothers nurturance. A si gnificant positive relationship was found between perceived mothers attitudes toward women a nd mothers nurturance, suggesting that women who perceived their mothers to hold more eg alitarian/pro-feminist attitudes reported having highly nurturing mothers. The relationship be tween college age womens attitudes toward women and their mothers nurturance s howed a non-significant relationship. Previous research has examined the link between mothers and daughters gender-role attitudes. However, studies have not directly examined the rela tionship between attitudes toward women and mothers nurturance. Although previous research show s that mothers greatly impact their daughters and that supportiv e parents have healthier daught ers with higher self-esteem (Buri et al., 1992), little research examines feminist attitudes relate d to mothers nurturance. The prior finding that nurturing parents have health ier daughters may help to explain the connection between nurturing and pro-feminist or egalitari an mothers in this study. Stereotypes about traditional mothers include that they are ca ring and nurturing (e.g. Worell & Remer, 1992) However, findings in this study found a link be tween traditional mothers and nurturance that suggests that traditional mothers may not be pe rceived to be as nurtu ring as mothers who hold 78

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egalitarian beliefs. A m ajority of the study participants reported high mothers nurturance, which may explain why there were limited findings re lated to mothers nurtur ance in this study. The sixth hypothesis examined whether there is a link between mothers nurturance and inauthentic self in relationship. The data analysis showed that there was no significant relationship between the tw o variables. This result did not fi t with previous findings regarding a link between mothers support and loss of voice. Prior studies have shown that adolescents, with parents who both modeled the clear expression of their own opinions and provided support for the expression of their adolescents opinion re ported the highest level of voice (Harter et al., 1997, p. 166). Low parental support, therefore, leads to low levels of voice and greater inauthenticity. One explanation for the incons istency of findings may be attributed to a difference in measurement or constructs. It is lik ely that the measure of nurturance used in this study measures a different construct than previo us findings that examined parental support. Parental nurturance measures approval, acceptan ce, support, and affirmation, as perceived by the child. The Harter et al. ( 1997) study used a quality of support scale. Although parental nurturance includes parental support it is possible that it measures a different type of support. A study that uses both measures would help in de termining whether they are measuring a similar construct. Factors Related to Inauthentic Self in Relationship Hypotheses seven through ten were examined using multiple regression analyses. Results revealed that mothers nurturance remained non-significant in explaining variance in inauthenticity when examined si multaneously with daughters and pe rceived mothers attitudes. Results also indicated that pe rceived mothers attitudes towa rd women remained significant when examined simultaneously with mothers nurturance but was no longer significant when analyzed with participants attitudes toward women. 79

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Most wom en who were participants in this study viewed their mothers as nurturing, which may explain why mothers nurtu rance as reported by daughters did not directly relate to inauthenticity. Additionally, as measured in this study, mothers nurturance may not assess specific qualities that account fo r variance in inauthenticity, such as factors related to the other person in the relationship. For example, a young womans feeling supported by her mother may not directly relate to how comf ortable she feels authentically e xpressing herself with a male dating partner. Therefore, anot her potential reason why nurturance was not related to inauthentic self in relationship might be that the measure of inauthenticity used in this study does not specifically examine the level of inauthenti city in relationships with parents. Of the two factors related to mothers in the current study, pe rceived egalitarian attitudes plays a more substantial role in daughters inauth enticity than nurturance. A lack of detectable differences between nurturance, defined as accep tance, love, and support perceived by the child, and inauthenticity is not consistent with theo ry and previous research examining similar constructs. Furthermore, results showed that particip ants attitudes toward women continued to explain variance in inauthenticity when examined simultaneously with mothers nurturance and perceived mothers attitudes. Participants at titudes toward women accounted for approximately six percent of the variance in inauthenticity scores. This finding is consistent with findings of a previous study by Theran (2003) that reported a relationship between gender role socialization and level of voice. The finding that attitude s toward women accounted most strongly for the variance in inauthenticity provides support for pr ior research that draw s a connection between how a persons beliefs influence their behaviors (Theran, 2003). 80

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Finally, results showed that attitudes toward women m ediate the relationship between perceived mothers attitudes and inauthenticity. Results indicated that participants attitudes toward women were related significantly to th eir inauthenticity when mothers attitudes and nurturance were simultaneously examined. The variable, Attitudes toward Women was the only one that significantly influenced inauthenticity wh en all of the factors we re considered. This finding suggests that perceived moth ers attitudes influence their daughters attitudes, which in turn influence daughters inauthentic self in relationship. The finding that womens attitudes toward women are most significant in accounting for variance in inauthenticity is consistent with existing research that suggests childrens attit udes are formed through socialization in primary relationships ( Hochschild, 1997). A moderate correlation found in this study between mothers and daughters attitudes supports the research of Corrigall and Konrad (2007), which found that mothers and daughters hold similar attitudes regarding careers, marriage, and children. Additionally, in a study by Rollins and White (1982), dual-career families espous ed the least traditional attitudes regarding careers, marriage, and children. Having a mother who believes that men and women should have interchangeable roles and encourages flexib ility of roles may offer a connection for women feeling able to express their wants and needs accura tely. If one assumes that attitudes and beliefs develop within relationships, the finding that mothers attitudes only relate to inauthenticity when daughters attitudes are not account ed for begins to make sense. Two conclusions are drawn from these results. First, the association between the quality of the mother to daughter relationshi p and inauthenticity requires further attention, as findings in this study do not support prior re search. Second, an indirect re lationship is suggested between 81

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perceived mothers attitudes toward women and inauthenticity because th ere is a significant relationship between these two factors only wh en daughters attitudes are not considered. Limitations of the Study Prior to addressing directions for future re search, it is first important to discuss the limitations of the present study. Although the overall resu lts of this study may be generalizable to college-aged women in predominantly White institutions in the Southeastern U.S., they should be interpreted within the context of this study. Limitati ons of this study include sampling procedures, self-reportin g, and data collection techniques. A convenience sample was used for the study. In this study, participants were re cruited through classes and the department of housing at the institutio n, making self-selection a possible bias. The research design is another limitation. The correlational nature of the study means that causation cannot be implied. As such, relationshi ps found between the variables may potentially be affected by other variables that were not meas ured in this study. This study is cross-sectional and non-longitudinal. Therefore, findings are based on the assumption that the variables examined are stable throughout time. If these variables are seen as constantly changing (e.g., if inauthentic self in relationship is seen as a si tuational or fluid concept as the authors of the measure indicate), then a longitudinal study would be needed to obtain a more accurate picture of the construct over time. Add itionally, using a self -report measure provides another limitation. The accuracy of participant respon ses can never be known. It is pos sible that social desirability biases may have occurred in the participants res ponses. Due to the use of internet and email, it cannot be known for certain if the person who responded to the survey was the person intended from the email list. Additionally, a large numb er of participants had highly educ ated mothers. A relationship may exist between mothers education and participant responses. W omen who hold more 82

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egalitarian gender roles are m ore likely to pur sue a college degree and higher paying careers while women who learned more traditional gender roles are more likely to work in the home (Corrigall & Konrad, 2007). Research shows that daughters of more educated and employed mothers are less traditional in their gender role attitudes than daughters of non-employed and less educated mothers (Booth & Amato, 1994). Howeve r, there was sufficient variability in the sample to minimize a bias in the findings. Furthermore, this study was conducted in the Southeastern U.S. where more traditional valu es are often held (e.g. Twenge, 1997). Future studies might further examine the cultural and regi onal factors that contribute to mothers and daughters egalitarian or traditional values. Another limitation may be that the parental nurturance scale did not operationalize the variable of mothers nurtur ance (e.g. support and approval) as the researcher intended. Nurturance as defined by Buri (1989) is acceptance, approval, love, and support as perceived by the child. This construct may differ from quality of support measured in previous studies. Also, because the scores on the parental nurturance scal e were not significant, it may be important to find a different measure for nur turance in future studies. Another measurement issue in this study is that the ISR subscale of the Adolescent Feminity Ideology Scale used to measure inauthentic self in re lationship was developed for use with adolescents. However, the alpha reli ability coefficient reported by the instrument developers is greatest with first year college students (Tolman & Porche, 2000). Additionally, some of the items in the ISR empha size peer relationships as opposed to relationships in general. It may be that how young women relate to young me n and persons in authority will be different than how they relate with generalized others or peers (Tolman & Porche, 2000). Therefore, in 83

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f uture studies, it becomes important to examine inauthenticity in relationships other than motherdaughter. Finally, the small R2 in the present study suggests that other factors or constructs contribute to young womens inauthen ticity in relationships. This study examined sociocultural factors based on mothers influenc es and societal attitudes. Ma ny other sociocultural influences may relate to inauthentic self in relationship. In addition to sociocultural f actors, individual traits or characteristics may be important in predic ting inauthenticity. Ther efore, examining how womens individual traits affect internalization of beliefs about themselves, other women, and cultural attitudes toward women deserves further attention. Implications Implications of the current study are examin ed in the following sections. RelationalCultural theory is discussed in relation to the fi ndings and feminist therapy is used to frame implications for counseling practice. Implications for Theory The theoretical framework used in this study was a feminist Relational-Cultural theory. Feminist theorists assert that social influence and culture prov ides a context in which young men and women develop. People placed in positions of subordination are less psychologically healthy. The findings of this study support this theory by demonstrating a connection between attitudes toward womens roles and their level of inauthenticity. According to Feminist theory, women that hold more traditional views place them selves in a subordinate role to men. The women who reported more conservative attitude s toward women also were more inauthentic, which has been related to lower self-esteem a nd higher rates of depression in other studies (Tolman & Porche, 2000; Tolman et al., 2006). Relational-Cultural theorists believe that authentic connection is necessary for healthy deve lopment. Theorists would predict that women 84

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with m ore traditional attitudes would be less auth entic in their relationships because they are devaluing their true selves. A majority of research being guided by RCT is qualitative in nature or uses case studies to explore different aspects of the th eory. This research study adds to quantitative l iterature that examines inauthentic self in relationship. RCT a sserts that attitudes and beliefs develop within relationships. In this study, at titudes toward women mediate the relationship between perceived mothers attitudes and inauthentic self in relations hip. Therefore, this finding aligns with theories showing that mothers attitudes influence their daughters. The findings of Bohannon and Blanton (1999) revealed that the relationship between mothers and daughters attitudes holds constant over time. They found that whereas attitudes of the entir e group of mothers and daughters changed over time, b ecoming more egalitarian, moth ers and daughters attitudes remained similar to each other. This finding sugge sted to the authors that attitudes are developed relationally and that later in life daughters might influence their mo thers attitudes. The results of the present study also support the tene ts of Relational-Cultural theory. A central construct of RCT is mutuality or mutual empathy which is a two-way (or more) process of allowing oneself to be influenced by ot hers and sensing that one influences others. This central construct is also supported by the correlation between mothers and daughters attitudes. Additionally, the finding that wome n holding pro-feminist attitudes are less inauthentic supports feminist theo ry. Many feminist theorists belie ve that the patriarchal society in which women are raised encourages women to be seen and not heard and to suppress their wants and needs. The finding that women who ho ld traditional attitudes are more inauthentic lends further support to this proposition. 85

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Implica tions for Practice Studies have suggested that women who hold more traditiona l views of their roles in society are likely to have a diminished sense of well-being and greater psychopathology whereas women who hold more egalitarian or feminist values tend to report more positive well-being (Yakushko, 2007). The findings of this study demonstrated that holding more pro-feminist values may contribute to greater authenticity. Therefore, women s empowerment is an important aspect of psychological well-being and should be a focus of practitioners. The results of the current st udy have numerous implications for counseling practice. The finding that daughters pe rceptions of their mothers attit udes directly influences their own attitudes suggests that pract itioners should place adequate attention on mother-daughter relationships. Examining the role of mothers attitudes in daughters inauthenticity may be an important consideration in therapy. The importance of the mothers influence also suggests that practitioners should pay attenti on to how women are being influe nced by other relationships in their lives. The influence of ot her key relationships not investig ated in this study may also be important to examine in therapy. This study sugg ests that family influence is important in authenticity, however, it is not the end all be a ll. Because womens attitudes contribute more directly to the relationship with inauthenticity, focusing on the individual and paying attention to egalitarian or traditional belie fs held by the individual presenting for treatment is supported. Therapy can also focus directly on how authen tic young women believe they can be in their relationships. Focusing on authenticity in the therapeutic relationship is consistent with RCT. Therefore, utilizing feminist approaches to th erapy can be helpful for many women, especially those women having a difficult time being authentic or who act inauthentically in an attempt to maintain connection. 86

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Fe minist counseling approaches suggest th at practitioners de-m ystify the counseling process and establish an egalitar ian relationship with the client. Minimizing power differentials may help women who are inauthentic in their relati onships to feel more comfortable in authentic self-expression with the therapist. Being auth entic in the therapeuti c relationship has the potential to generalize to other relationships. Another important aspect of feminist thera py is engaging in gender-role analysis with clients. Practitioners can help women to unders tand their views about womens role in society and how their attitudes toward women may be influencing the degree to which they believe they can express themselves authentica lly with others. One outcome could be empowering the client to change the things that she does not like about her inauthenticity in relationships. Additionally, Sands (1998) stated that traditional sex-role socialization of women forbids female adolescents from acting assertively. By learning to st and up for herself, a young woman may become empowered to counteract patterns of helple ssness and submissiveness (Arredondo, 1992) (para 25). Gender-role analysis and assertiveness trai ning may empower clients, increase feelings of self-worth, and foster ps ychological well-being. Feminist therapy values the female perspectiv e and encourages clients to embrace femalecentered values in a society that may overlook th eir importance in fostering womens health. Providing a place where young women can honor the full range of emotions and thoughts they experience as they develop and where they feel valued enhances growth-fostering connection. From this framework therapists can work with clients to foster au thenticity and voice. Research Implications and Future Directions A review of literature concerning inauthentic self in relationship indicated that more qualitative and quantitative research is needed to fully understand the phenomenon of inauthenticity. The present st udy begins to examine sociocu ltural factors contributing to 87

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inauthentic self in relationship. Future rese archers should attempt to replicate and expand upon the findings of this study. Since previous res earch focuses on the negative outcom es associated with loss of voice or inauthenticity, future st udies should continue to focus on factors that contribute to womens inauthenticity. Additionally, future studies should examine what additi onal sociocultural factors contribute to the development of egalitarian attitudes. The connection between sociocultural influences found in the study suggests that it mi ght be helpful to examine other sociocultural influences such as popular media as well as other influential relations hips. This study only looked at relationship with mothers. Many other relationships may be c onsidered. The current study found that the mother-daughter relationship is important in influencing attitudes. Future studies may look at other important relationships such as fathers, boyfriends, best girlfriends, etc. with regard to attitude s and inauthenticity. Future research should continue to explore the process of intern alization of negative constructions of femininity and how internalizat ion of messages is linked to inauthenticity. Additionally, examining individual characteristics that contribute to inauthentic self in relationship could directly influe nce counseling practice interventi ons. One author suggests, in a genuine relationship, there is an outward flow of open, alert a ttention toward the other person in which there is no wanting whatsoever. That aler t attention is Presence. It is the prerequisite for any authentic relationship (Tolle, 2005, p.84). Using a measure that looks at individual level of presence or mindfulness may provide useful information about what characteristics influence authentic self-expression. Perceived mothers attitudes toward women we re examined in the current study because it was suspected that perceived mothers attitudes ma y be as impactful as mothers actual attitudes 88

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based on a study by Buri (1989). Buri found that a childs self-concept is more greatly affected by his or her perceptions of the parental relationship than what the parent reports about the rela tionship. To assess the extent to which mothers actual attitudes related to inauthenticity, future studies could directly assess mothers at titudes toward women. Due to same source bias, it is likely that the re searcher would not have found as hi gh of a correlation between mothers and daughters attitudes if mother s attitudes were measured di rectly. If the participants mothers had been polled and asked their attitudes directly, the finding of a mediating relationship between attitudes and inauthenticity might also differ. Therefore, future research is needed to determine if the interrelationship between these tw o variables exists when mothers attitudes are directly measured. Additionally, assessing relati onship quality from the perspective of both the mother and daughter could be used in future studies. This me thod would help further knowledge of the direct relationship betw een mothers views and daughters views and further clarify the relationship between womens attitudes in relationshi p to their mothers and their inauthenticity. The study obtained for the present study was fair ly homogeneous in race, age, and reported have a larger than average number of mothers w ith high levels of education. Future studies should examine a more racially diverse sample and groups with varying degrees of mothers education to determine if the findi ngs are related to those characteris tics. Also, the high levels of nurturance may have produced ceili ng effects with the data. This may not have occurred with a more heterogeneous sample. Future studies can build on the current study by investigating similar research questions with more diverse samp les that vary based on different regions of the U.S., ethnic and cultural groups, and socioeconomic status. Because a majority of participants reported ha ving highly nurturing mothers, it is possible that social desirability played a role in participants responses concerning their mothers 89

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90 nurturance. To determine the extent of social desirability, future stud ies could use the MarloweCrowne Social Desirability Scale. This w ould provide additional in formation about how the results may have been impacted by social desira bility. Examining the aforementioned areas of study will extend the present findings of this st udy and contribute to further knowledge that will inform theory, research, and practice in womens inauthenticity in relationships. Summary This chapter provided a discussion of the re sults, the study limitations, implications for theory and practice, and recommendations for future research. Overall, the findings indicated a significant association between egalitarian or pro-feminist attit udes toward women and inauthentic self in relationship. The findings fu rther suggested that perceived mothers attitudes influence daughters attitudes, which in turn infl uence daughters inauthentic self in relationship. These findings expand the body of literature on factor s related to inauthenticity in relationships among college women and emphasize the importance of egalitarian attitudes toward women on inauthenticity. Future studies should continue to focus on factors that contribute to womens inauthenticity in an effort to inform counseli ng interventions aimed at college age women. A clearer understanding of college ag e womens inauthenticity is a starting point for interventions aimed at developing authenticity and psychological well-being in young women.

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APPENDIX A INFORME D CONSENT Protocol Title: Inauthentic Self in Relationship: The Role of Attitudes Toward Women and Mothers Nurturance Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Inclusion criteria to participate in the study: You must be between the ages of 18-22 and you mu st be a currently full-time enrolled college female at the University of Florida or the Univer sity of Georgia to participate in this research study. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence womens feelings about themselves and how they relate to others. What you will be asked to do in the study: Your participation in this rese arch includes filling out a brief questionnaire that asks you to provide background information and complete 4 br ief online questionnaires. You do not have to answer any items that you do not wish to answer. Time required: Approximately 15 minutes Risks and Benefits: There are no anticipated risks, and no direct benefits for participating in this study. Compensation: No monetary compensation will be given as a result of participation in this study. Confidentiality: Your identity will be unknown to us. You will not be asked to provide your name on any of the questionnaires. Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. 91

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92 Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from th e study at anytime without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Jaime Jasser, Doctoral candidate 1313C Norman Hall, PO Box 117046, Gainesville FL 32611 jljasser@ufl.edu (352) 392-0731 Sondra Smith, Supervisor 1209 Norman Hall, PO Box 117046, Gainesville FL 32611 ssmith@coe.ufl.edu (352) 392-0731 x239 Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florid a, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; (352) 392-0433. If you consent to participate in this research study, agree to the terms above, and meet the participation criteria, please click on the agr ee button below. Please print this page for your records and/or bookmark it for future reference.

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APPENDIX B FORMAT TED ONLINE SURVEYS Please answer the survey questions below. When you are done, click on the button at the bottom of this page to submit your survey. (Sorry, but after submitting your survey, it will not be possible to change your answers.) Question 1. 1. The statements listed below (questions 1-15) describe attitudes toward the roles of women in society which different people have. There are no right or wrong answers, only opinions. You are asked to express your feeling about each statement by indicating whether you (1) agree stro ngly, (2) agree mildly, (3) disagree mildly, or (4) disagree strongly. Swearing and obscenity are more repulsive in the speech of a woman than a man. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 2. 2. Under modern economic conditions with wo men being active outsi de the home, men should share in household tasks such as washing dishes and doing laundry. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 3. 3. It is insulting to women to have the obey clause remain in the marriage service. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 4. 4. A woman should be free as a man to propose marriage. Agree strongly Agree mildly 93

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Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 5. 5. Women should worry less about their rights and more a bout becoming good wives and mothers. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 6. 6. Women should assume their rightful place in business and all the professions along with men. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 7. 7. A woman should not expect to go to exactly the same places or to have quite the same freedom of action as a man. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 8. 8. It is ridiculous for a woman to run a locomotive and for a man to darn socks. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 9. 9. The intellectual leadership of a community should be largely in the hands of men. Agree strongly Agree mildly 94

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Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 10. 10. Women should be given equal opportunity wi th men for apprenticeship in the various trades. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 11. 11. Women earning as much as their dates shoul d bear equally the expense when they go out together. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 12. 12. Sons in a family should be given more encouragement to go to college than daughters. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 13. 13. In general, the father should have greater au thority than the mother in the bringing up of the children. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 14. 14. Economic and social freedom is worth far more to women than acceptance of the ideal of femininity which has been set up by men. Agree strongly Agree mildly 95

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Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 15. 15. There are many jobs in which men should be given preference over women in being hired or promoted. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 16. 16. For items 16-25, select the answer that best describes how much you agree or disagree with each statement. I would tell a friend I think sh e looks nice, even if I thi nk she shouldnt go out of the house dressed like that. Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree Question 17. 17. I express my opinions only if I can think of a nice way of doing it. Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree 96

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Question 18. 18. I worry that I make others feel bad if I am successful. Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree Question 19. 19. I would not change the way I do things in order to please someone else. Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree Question 20. 20. I tell my friends what I honestly th ink even when it is an unpopular idea. Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree Question 21. 21. Often I look happy on the outside in order to please others, even if I dont feel happy on the inside. Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Somewhat agree 97

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Agree Strongly agree Question 22. 22. I wish I could say what I feel more often than I do. Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree Question 23. 23. I feel like its my fault when I have disagreements with my friends. Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree Question 24. 24. When my friends ignore my feelings, I think that my feelings werent very important anyway. Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree Question 25. 25. I usually tell my friends when they hurt my feelings. Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree 98

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Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree Question 26. 26. For items 26-40, select how you think you r MOTHER would rate each item using the four point scale ranging from (1) agree strongly to (4) disagree strongly. Note: These items are the same as 1-15 but you are asked to think about and answer based on how you think your MOTHER would respond to the items. Swearing and obscenity are more repulsive in the speech of a woman than a man. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 27. 27. Under modern economic conditions with wo men being active outsi de the home, men should share in household tasks such as washing dishes and doing laundry. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 28. 28. It is insulting to women to have the obey clause remain in the marriage service. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 29. 29. A woman should be free as a man to propose marriage. Agree strongly Agree mildly 99

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Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 30. 30. Women should worry less about their rights and more a bout becoming good wives and mothers. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 31. 31. Women should assume their rightful place in business and all the professions along with men. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 32. 32. A woman should not expect to go to exactly the same places or to have quite the same freedom of action as a man. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 33. 33. It is ridiculous for a woman to run a locomotive and for a man to darn socks. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 34. 34. The intellectual leadership of a community should be largely in the hands of men. Agree strongly Agree mildly 100

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Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 35. 35. Women should be given equal opportunity with men for apprenticeship in the various trades. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 36. 36. Women earning as much as their dates shoul d bear equally the expense when they go out together. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 37. 37. Sons in a family should be given more encouragement to go to college than daughters. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 38. 38. In general, the father should have greater au thority than the mother in the bringing up of the children. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 39. 39. Economic and social freedom is worth far more to women than acceptance of the ideal of femininity which has been set up by men. Agree strongly Agree mildly 101

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Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 40. 40. There are many jobs in which men should be given preference over women in being hired or promoted. Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly Question 41. 41. For each of the following statements (que stions 41-64), indicate the number on the 5-point scale below that best descri bes how that statement applies to y ou and y our mother. Try to read and think about each statement as it applies to you and your mother during your years growing up at home. There are no right or wrong answers, so dont spend a lot of time on any one item. We are looking for your overall impression regarding each statement. My mother seldom says nice things about me. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 42. 42. I am an important person in my mothers eyes. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree 102

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Question 43. 43. My mother often acts as if she doesnt care about me. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 44. 44. My mother enjoys spending time with me. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 45. 45. My mother expresses her warmth and affection for me. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 46. 46. My mother is easy for me to talk to. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 47. 47. I am tense and uneasy when my mother and I are together. Strongly disagree 103

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Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 48. 48. I feel that my mother finds fault with me more ofte n than I deserve. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 49. 49. My mother takes an active interest in my affairs. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 50. 50. I feel very close to my mother. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 51. 51. My mother does not understand me. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree 104

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Agree Strongly agree Question 52. 52. My mother believes in me. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 53. 53. I dont feel that my mother enjoys being with me. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 54. 54. My mother doesnt really know what kind of person I am. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 55. 55. My mother is a warm and caring individual. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree 105

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Question 56. 56. My mother does not feel that I am important and interesting. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 57. 57. My mother is very interested in those things that concern me. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 58. 58. My mother is often critical of me and nothing I do ever seems to please her. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 59. 59. My mother seldom shows me any affection. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree 106

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Question 60. 60. My mother consoles me and helps me when I am unhappy or in trouble. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 61. 61. My mother is generally cold and removed when I am with her. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 62. 62. I receive a lot of affirmation from my mother. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 63. 63. My mother is very understanding and sympathetic. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 64. 64. My mother does not really care much what happens to me. Strongly disagree 107

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Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Question 65. 65. Please select the box next to the racial group with which you most strongly identify: Black, African American, or Caribbean American White, Caucasian, or European American Hispanic or Latina Asian American or Pan-Asian American Native American Arab American Other: Question 66. 66. Please select the box next to your current year in college: First Second Third Fourth Fifth year or more Question 67. 67. What is your age? Question 68. 68. What is your major? Question 69. 69. Which of the following best describes th e geographic location where you were raised? Northeastern United States (US) Northwestern US 108

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Southeastern US Southwestern US Outside the US Question 70. 70. Where is your current place of residence? On Campus Off Campus At home Other: Question 71. 71. Is your mother: Living Deceased If deceased, for how long? Question 72. 72. What is your mother`s hi ghest level of education? Middle School High School Junior College (AA-AS) 4-year College (BA-BS) Master`s Degree or Ph.D. Question 73. 73. Which best describes the hom e in which you were raised? Intact family Divorced family Blended family Single parent family If Other, describe 109

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110 Question 74. 74. Growing up, who would you consider to be your primary caregiver? Biological Mother Biological Father Stepmother Stepfather Adoptive Mother Adoptive Father Grandmother Grandfather Other: Question 75. 75. Which university are yo u currently attending? University of Florida University of Georgia I'm finished. S tore my answers. (Step 4).

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APPENDIX C ATTITUDES TOWARD WOMEN SCALE Instru ctions: The statements listed below describe attitudes toward the roles of women in society which different people have. There are no right or wron g answers, only opinions. You are asked to express your feeling about each statement by i ndicating whether you (A) agree strongly, (B) agree mildly, (C) disagree mildly, or (D) disagree strongly. 1. Swearing and obscenity are more repulsive in the speech of a woman than a man. A B C D Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly 2.* Under modern economic conditions with women being active outside the home, men should share in household tasks such as washing dishes and doing laundry. A B C D Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly 3.* It is insulting to women to have the obey clause remain in the marriage service. A B C D Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly 4.* A woman should be free as a man to propose marriage. A B C D Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly 5. Women should worry less about their right s and more about becoming good wives and mothers. A B C D Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly 6.* Women should assume their rightful place in business and all the professions along with men. A B C D Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly 7. A woman should not expect to go to exactly the same places or to have quite the same freedom of action as a man. A B C D Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly 8. It is ridiculous for a wo man to run a locomotive and for a man to darn socks. A B C D Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly 111

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112 9. The intellectual lead ership of a community should be largely in the hands of men. A B C D Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly 10.* Women should be given equa l opportunity with men for a pprenticeship in the various trades. A B C D Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly 11.* Women earning as much as their dates shoul d bear equally the expense when they go out together. A B C D Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly 12. Sons in a family should be given more encouragement to go to college than daughters A B C D Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly 13. In general, the father should have greater au thority than the mother in the bringing up of the children. A B C D Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly 14.* Economic and social freedom is worth far more to women than acceptance of the ideal of femininity which has been set up by men. A B C D Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly 15. There are many jobs in which men should be given preference over women in being hired or promoted. A B C D Agree strongly Agree mildly Disagree mildly Disagree strongly In scoring items, A=0, B=1, C=2, D=3 except for the items with an asterisk where the scale is reversed. A high score indicates a profeminist, egalitarian attitude, while a low score indicates a traditional, conservative attitude. PERCEIVED MOTHERS ATTITUDES TOWARD WOMEN This scale is the same as the one above, however the instructions ask each participant to select how she thinks her mother would rate each item using the same four point likert scale ranging from 1 ( Agree Strongly ) to 4 ( Disagree Strongly ). Scoring is the same as above.

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APPENDIX D INAUTHE NTIC SELF IN RELATIONSHIP SUBSCALE Participants respond on a 6point scale ranging from 1 ( strongly disagree ) to 6 ( strongly agree ): 1. I would tell a friend I think sh e looks nice, even if I thi nk she shouldnt go out of the house dressed like that. 2. I express my opinions only if I can think of a nice way of doing it. 3. I worry that I make others feel bad if I am successful. 4.* I would not change the way I do things in order to please someone else. 5. *I tell my friends what I honestly th ink even when it is an unpopular idea. 6. Often I look happy on the outside in order to please others, even if I dont feel happy on the inside. 7. I wish I could say what I feel more often than I do. 8. I feel like its my fault when I have disagreements with my friends. 9. When my friends ignore my feelings, I thi nk that my feelings werent very important anyway. 10.* I usually tell my friends when they hurt my feelings. Scores are computed by summing up responses to each item (using reversed scoring) and then dividing by the number of items in the subscale. Items with an asterisk are reversed. Higher scores indicate greater conventiona lity, more inauthentic in relationships 113

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APPENDIX E PARE NTAL (MOTHERS) NURTURANCE SCALE For each of the following statements, indicate th e number on the 5-point scale below that best describes how that statement applies to you and your mother. Try to read and think about each statement as it applies to you and your mother during your years growing up at home. There are no right or wrong answers, so dont spend a lot of time on any one item. We are looking for your overall impression regarding each statement. 1. = Strongly disagree 2. = Disagree 3. = Neither agree nor disagree 4. = Agree 5. = Strongly agree 1. _____ My mother seldom says nice things about me. 2. _____ I am an important person in my mothers eyes. 3. _____ My mother often acts as if she doesnt care about me. 4. _____ My mother enjoys spending time with me. 5. _____ My mother expresses her warmth and affection for me. 6. _____ My mother is easy for me to talk to. 7. _____ I am tense and uneasy when my mother and I are together. 8. _____ I feel that my mother finds fault with me more often than I deserve. 9. _____ My mother takes an active interest in my affairs. 10._____ I feel very close to my mother. 11._____ My mother does not understand me. 12._____ My mother believes in me. 13._____ I dont feel that my moth er enjoys being with me. 14._____ My mother doesnt really know what kind of person I am. 15._____ My mother is a warm and caring individual. 16._____ My mother does not feel that I am important and interesting. 17._____ My mother is very interested in those things that concern me. 18._____ My mother is often critical of me and nothing I do ever seems to please her. 19._____ My mother seldom shows me any affection. 20._____ My mother consoles me and helps me when I am unhappy or in trouble. 21._____ My mother is generally cold and removed when I am with her. 22._____ I receive a lot of affi rmation from my mother. 23._____ My mother is very unde rstanding and sympathetic. 24._____ My mother does not really care much what happens to me. Description: Designed to measure parental nurturance from the pe rspective of the child (of any age). Identical forms are used for both mothers a nd fathers with only gender references changed. Scoring: Individual scores from each item are su mmed. Reverse scoring (1 = 5, etc.) for items 1, 3, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 21, and 24. 114

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APPENDIX F DEMOGRAPHIC QUE STIONNAIRE Please select the box next to the racial gr oup with which you most strongly identify: Black, African American, or Caribbean American White, Caucasian, or European American Hispanic or Latina Asian American or Pan-Asian American Native American Arab American Other Please select the box next to your current year in college: First Second Third Fourth Fifth year or more What is your age? What is your major? Which of the following best describes the geographic location where you were raised? Northeastern United States (US) Northwestern US Southeastern US Southwestern US Outside the US Where is your current place of residence? On campus Off Campus At home Other Is your mother: Living Deceased If deceased, for how long? 115

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116 What is your mothers highe st level of education? Middle School High School Junior College (AA-AS) 4-year College (BA-BS) Masters Degree or Ph.D. Which best describes the hom e in which you were raised? Intact family Divorced family Blended family Single parent family Other-Describe Growing up, who would you consider to be your primary caregiver? Biological Mother Biological Father Stepmother Stepfather Adoptive Mother Adoptive Father Grandmother Grandfather Aunt Uncle Other-Describe Which university are you currently attending? University of Florida University of Georgia

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BIOGR APHICAL SKETCH Jaime Lee Jasser was born on April 26, 1979 in Palm Beach Gardens, Florida. The older sister of Jacqui Jasser, she grew up in Jupite r and Melbourne Beach, Florida where she helped run her familys grocery store. She gra duated from Melbourne High School in 1997. She received her Bachelor of Science degree in ps ychology in 2001, her Master of Education and Specialist in Education degrees in marriage and family ther apy in 2004, and her Doctor of Philosophy in mental health counseling in 2008 from the University of Florida. After graduation, she will work as a Psychiatric Counsel or at The Ohio State Universitys Counseling and Consultation Service. 125