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Moving Balloon Algebra

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022558/00001

Material Information

Title: Moving Balloon Algebra Design, Implementation, and Database Integration of a Spatiotemporal Data Model for Historical and Predictive Moving Objects
Physical Description: 1 online resource (206 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Praing, Reasey
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: balloon, database, evolution, historical, model, movement, moving, predicates, predictive, spatiotemporal
Computer and Information Science and Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Computer Engineering thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Spatiotemporal databases deal with geometries changing over time. Recently, moving objects like moving points and moving regions have been the focus of research. They represent time-dependent geometries that continuously change their location and/or extent and are interesting for many disciplines including the geosciences, geographical information science, moving objects databases, location-based services, robotics, and mobile computing. So far, a few moving object data models and query languages have been proposed. Each of them supports either exclusively historical movements relating to the past or exclusively predicted movements relating to the future. Thus, the query support for each model is limited by the type of supported movements. This presents a problem in modeling the dynamic nature of a moving object when both its known historical movement and its predicted future movement are desired to be simultaneously managed and made available for spatiotemporal operations and queries. Furthermore, current definitions of moving objects are too general and rather vague. It is unclear how a moving object is allowed to move or evolve through space and time. That is, the properties of movement (like its continuity) have not been precisely specified. It is also unclear how, in a database context, future predictions of a moving object can be modeled taking into account the inherent uncertainty of future evolution. Moreover, implementations of spatiotemporal data types and operations are rare and their integration into extensible database management systems has been so far nonexistent. In this research, we present a new type system and query language called Moving Balloon Algebra consisting of a moving object model that is able to represent the dynamic nature of moving objects while providing integrated and seamless support for both historical and predicted movements of moving objects. The goal is to go beyond existing moving object models by collectively integrating existing functionalities as well as introducing new ones. From a conceptual standpoint, this algebra provides a formal definition of novel spatiotemporal data types, operations, and predicates as well as introduces new types of spatiotemporal queries. Beside these conceptual contributions, an implementation of the algebra is provided in the form of a database-independent type system library, and its integration into a relational database management system is demonstrated.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Reasey Praing.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Schneider, Markus.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022558:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022558/00001

Material Information

Title: Moving Balloon Algebra Design, Implementation, and Database Integration of a Spatiotemporal Data Model for Historical and Predictive Moving Objects
Physical Description: 1 online resource (206 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Praing, Reasey
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: balloon, database, evolution, historical, model, movement, moving, predicates, predictive, spatiotemporal
Computer and Information Science and Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Computer Engineering thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Spatiotemporal databases deal with geometries changing over time. Recently, moving objects like moving points and moving regions have been the focus of research. They represent time-dependent geometries that continuously change their location and/or extent and are interesting for many disciplines including the geosciences, geographical information science, moving objects databases, location-based services, robotics, and mobile computing. So far, a few moving object data models and query languages have been proposed. Each of them supports either exclusively historical movements relating to the past or exclusively predicted movements relating to the future. Thus, the query support for each model is limited by the type of supported movements. This presents a problem in modeling the dynamic nature of a moving object when both its known historical movement and its predicted future movement are desired to be simultaneously managed and made available for spatiotemporal operations and queries. Furthermore, current definitions of moving objects are too general and rather vague. It is unclear how a moving object is allowed to move or evolve through space and time. That is, the properties of movement (like its continuity) have not been precisely specified. It is also unclear how, in a database context, future predictions of a moving object can be modeled taking into account the inherent uncertainty of future evolution. Moreover, implementations of spatiotemporal data types and operations are rare and their integration into extensible database management systems has been so far nonexistent. In this research, we present a new type system and query language called Moving Balloon Algebra consisting of a moving object model that is able to represent the dynamic nature of moving objects while providing integrated and seamless support for both historical and predicted movements of moving objects. The goal is to go beyond existing moving object models by collectively integrating existing functionalities as well as introducing new ones. From a conceptual standpoint, this algebra provides a formal definition of novel spatiotemporal data types, operations, and predicates as well as introduces new types of spatiotemporal queries. Beside these conceptual contributions, an implementation of the algebra is provided in the form of a database-independent type system library, and its integration into a relational database management system is demonstrated.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Reasey Praing.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Schneider, Markus.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022558:00001


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36db6667405664081bd9331280a612940ad02406







MOVING BALLOON ALGEBRA:
DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION, AND DATABASE INTEGRATION OF
A SPATIOTEMPORAL DATA MODEL FOR
HISTORICAL AND PREDICTIVE MOVING OBJECTS


















By

REASEY PRAING


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008
































@ 2008 Reasey Praing


































To my dear family who provides me with love, encouragement, and support, making this

milestone possible









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank the chair and members of my supervisory committee for their mentoring, my

colleagues for their intellectual support, and the Computer Science department as well as the

National Science Foundation for their financial support. I thank my parents, my sisters and

brother for their loving encouragement, which motivated me to complete my study.









TABLE OF CONTENTS
page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .. ................ ................ 4

LIST OF TABLES ...................................... 8

LIST OF FIGURES ................. ............. ....... 9

ABSTRACT ................................... ....... 13

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION .................................. 15

1.1 Motivation ...................... .............. 15
1.2 Problem Statement ................... .......... 15
1.3 Goals and Solutions ................... .......... 17

2 RELATED WORK ..................... .............. 20

2.1 Spatial Data Modeling ................... ......... 20
2.1.1 Spatial Objects ................... ......... 20
2.1.2 Topological Relationships ......... ..... ........ 21
2.2 Spatiotemporal Data Modeling ................... ....... 23
2.2.1 Historical Movements of Moving Objects ................ 23
2.2.2 Predictive Movements of Moving Objects . . . .. 25
2.3 Implementation Aspects of Spatial and Spatiotemporal Data Models ...... 27
2.4 Database Integration .................. ............. .. 28

3 ABSTRACT MODEL OF THE MOVING BALLOON ALGEBRA ......... .. 30

3.1 Modeling Historical and Predicted Movements . . ..... 30
3.1.1 Continuity of Movement .................. .. .... .. 31
3.1.2 Modeling Historical Movements of Moving Objects . . .... 40
3.1.3 Modeling Future Predictions of Moving Objects . . .... 40
3.1.3.1 Handling the uncertainty of the future positions and extent of
moving objects .................. .. .... .. .. 41
3.1.3.2 Data types for future predictions of moving objects . 45
3.2 Modeling Moving Balloon Objects .................. ...... .. 47
3.2.1 Balloon Data types ...... . . . .. 47
3.2.2 Spatiotemporal Balloon Data Types .... . . .... 50
3.3 Operations of the Moving Balloon Algebra .... . . .... 53
3.3.1 Operations on Historical Movements ... . . .. 53
3.3.2 Operations on Future Predictions ................... ... 54
3.3.3 Operations on Balloon Objects ................ .... .. 58
3.3.4 Operations on Moving Balloon Objects . . . 59
3.4 Spatiotemporal Predicates .............. . . .... 62









3.4.1 Modeling Balloon Predicates ................... ..... ..63
3.4.1.1 General mechanism for balloon predicates . . ... 63
3.4.1.2 Specification based on traditional spatiotemporal predicates .65
3.4.1.3 Canonical collection of balloon predicates . . ... 68
3.4.2 Reasoning About Actual Future Interactions . . ..... 69
3.5 Querying Using the Moving Balloon Algebra .................. ..71
3.5.1 Interoperating with Prediction Models .................. ..71
3.5.2 Spatiotemporal Queries .................. ....... 72

4 DISCRETE MODEL OF THE MOVING BALLOON ALGEBRA ........... 77

4.1 Non-Temporal Data Types.... ........ ....... ......... .. 77
4.1.1 Base Data Types and Time Data Types .................. ..77
4.1.2 Spatial Data Types. .................. ........ 79
4.2 Basic Spatiotemporal Data Types .................. ....... .. 82
4.2.1 Temporal Units for Base Types ................... .... 84
4.2.2 Temporal Units for Spatial Data Types .................. ..85
4.2.2.1 Unit point .................. ......... .. 86
4.2.2.2 Unit line ............. . . .... 88
4.2.2.3 Unit region ......... . . . .... 90
4.3 Balloon Data Types and Spatiotemporal Balloon Data Types . . ... 91
4.3.1 Balloon Data Types ............. . . .... 91
4.3.2 Spatiotemporal Balloon Data Types .................. ..93

5 IMPLEMENTATION MODEL OF THE MOVING BALLOON ALGEBRA ...... 96

5.1 Data Structures .................. ................ ..96
5.1.1 General Requirements of Database-Compatible Data Structures . 97
5.1.2 Data Structures for Spatial Data Types .................. ..97
5.1.3 Data Structures for Spatiotemporal Data Types . . .... 103
5.1.3.1 Data structures for basic spatiotemporal data types ...... .104
5.1.3.2 Data structures for balloon and spatiotemporal balloon data
types ........ ..... .. .. ............ 106
5.2 Algorithms for Topological Predicates on Complex Spatial Objects . ... 108
5.2.1 Basic Algorithmic Concepts .................. ....... 109
5.2.1.1 Parallel object traversal .... . . . ..109
5.2.1.2 Overlap numbers. .......... . . .....111
5.2.1.3 Plane sweep ................. . . 111
5.2.2 The Exploration Phase for Collecting Topological Information . 117
5.2.2.1 The exploration algorithm for the point2D/point2D case . 119
5.2.2.2 The exploration algorithm for the point2D/line2D case . 119
5.2.2.3 The exploration algorithm for the point2D/region2D case 123
5.2.2.4 The exploration algorithm for the line2D/line2D case . 125
5.2.2.5 The exploration algorithm for the line2D/region2D case . 129
5.2.2.6 The exploration algorithm for the region2D/region2D case 133
5.2.3 The Evaluation Phase for Matching Topological Predicates . ... 137









5.2.3.1 Direct predicate characterization: a simple evaluation method 137
5.2.3.2 The 9-intersection matrix characterization method ....... .140
5.2.3.3 Type combination dependent 9-intersection matrix characteri-
zation ........ ....... .. ...... 141
5.2.3.4 The 9-intersection matrix characterization for region/region case 146
5.2.4 Optimized Evaluation Methods .................. ..... ..151
5.2.4.1 Matrix thinning for predicate verification . . .... 152
5.2.4.2 Minimum cost decision tree for predicate determination . 157
5.2.5 Interface Methods for Topological Predicates . . . 165
5.3 Algorithms for Spatiotemporal Predicates .... . . ... 166
5.3.1 The Algorithmic Scheme ............... ..... 166
5.3.2 Time-Synchronized Interval Refinement . . . 171
5.3.3 Function-Valued Interval Refinement and Development Determination 174
5.3.4 Pattern Matching with Query Predicate . . . 178
5.4 Algorithms for Balloon Predicates .................. ...... ..180
5.5 Database Integration ............... . . . ... 182
5.6 Case Study: Application to Hurricane Research . . . 185

6 MODEL AND IMPLEMENTATION ASSESSMENT . . . .... 191

6.1 Topological Predicates: Assessment, Testing, and Performance Study ....... .191
6.1.1 Qualitative Assessment .................. ....... 191
6.1.2 Testing ....... .. ......... ....... ....... 192
6.1.3 Performance Study and Analysis .............. . .. 193
6.2 Spatiotemporal Model Assessment ........ . . . ......196

7 CONCLUSIONS ................... . . ..... 199

REFERENCES ...................... . . . 201

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................. . . ..... 206









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

3-1 Operations on historical movements and future predictions of moving objects. . 55

3-2 Value of the operation pointsetconf(cp(o), 3, instant) for each combination of cp(a)
and 3 whether it is always 0, denoted by a value 0, or a meaningful value, denoted by
a value M. ...... ............. .................. .. 56

3-3 Operations on balloon objects and moving balloon objects. .. . ..... 60

3-4 Assigning naming prefixes to pairwise combinations of interactions. . ... 67

3-5 Number of balloon predicates between balloon-pp, balloonpr, and balloonrr objects. 69

3-6 Inferring the types of interaction between actual objects from the types of interaction
between their predictions. .................. ............ 70

5-1 Static and dynamic halfsegment sequences of the regions RI and R2 in Figure 5-6. 116

5-2 Possible segment class constellations between two consecutive segments in the sweep
line status ................... ........... ........ 136

5-3 Summary of complete and thinned out 9IMs for the topological predicates of all type
combinations ............... ............... . .. 156

5-4 MCDT pre-order representations for all type combinations on the basis of equal prob-
ability of occurrence of all topological predicates. ................... ..161

5-5 Summary of the MCDTs for all type combinations on the basis of equal probability
of occurrence of all topological predicates. ................... . 164

5-6 Interval endpoint ordering. .................. ........... 173









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

2-1 Examples of spatial objects. A) A simple point object. B) A simple line object. C)
A simple region object. D) A complex point object. E) A complex line object. F) A
complex region object. .................. .. ........... 21

2-2 The 9-intersection model and topological predicates. A) The 9-intersection matrix.
B) The numbers of topological predicates between two simple/complex spatial objects. 22

2-3 Examples of moving objects. A) A single-component moving point object. B) A single-
component moving region object. C) A multi-component moving point object. D) A
multi-component moving region object. ................ ........ 24

2-4 Examples of spatiotemporal functions for moving points. A) Partially disappear. B)
Instantly appear. C) Have instantaneous jumps. D) Have spatial outliers. Examples
of spatiotemporal functions for moving regions. E) Partially disappear. F) Instantly
appear. G) Have instantaneous jumps. H) An example of a spatiotemporal predicate. 26

3-1 Examples of 0-continuous temporal functions. A) simultaneous movement. B) A merg-
ing situation. C) A splitting situation. D) A combined merging and splitting situation. 35

3-2 Examples of 0-discontinuous temporal functions. A) An instantaneous jump in an
mreal object. B), C) Two constellations with time instants at which the function is
event-)-discontinuous. .................. .. ........... 36

3-3 Moving point object given by a temporal function with a local minimum and a local
maximum. ................... ............ ....... 38

3-4 Modeling potential future positions of spatiotemporal objects. A) For a hurricane's
eye at now+12 hours. B) Within the 12-hour period. C) For a vehicle at now+15 min-
utes. D) Within the 15-minute period. E) For a vehicle with a constant speed at now+15
minutes. F) Within the 15-minute period.. ................. ....... 42

3-5 Representing the future prediction of a hurricane's eye using a moving region with a
moving confidence distribution. The gradient indicates varied degree of confidence. .. 45

3-6 Examples of valid future predictions. A) A continuousfpoint object. B) A continu-
ousfregion object. C) A discontinuous region object. An example of invalid future
predictions. D) A dimensionally collapsed object with multiple types. . ... 46

3-7 Example of a historical temporal domain time that starts from -- and ends at tc in-
clusively. ................... ........... ..... ... 48

3-8 Example of a future temporal domain time that starts exclusively from tc and ex-
tends indefinitely towards +. .................. .......... 48

3-9 Example of a moving balloon object of type mballoonpr. .. . . 52









3-10 Examples of predictions at a time instant. A) A point-based prediction with a discrete
probability distribution. B) A line-based prediction with a one-dimensional contin-
uous distribution. C) A region-based prediction with a two-dimensional continuous
distribution. .................. .................. .. .. 57

3-11 Relations between traditional moving object data model and balloon data model. . 64

3-12 Possible relationships between parts of balloon objects A and B. A) When A's current
instant is earlier. B) At the same time. C) Later than that of B's. . . ... 65

3-13 Future crossing situation between a balloonpp object P and a balloonpr object R. 66

3-14 Movement of the eye of hurricane Katrina. ................... ....... 74

4-1 Representations of a line object. A) In the abstract model. B) In the discrete model. 80

4-2 Representations of a region object. A) In the abstract model. B) In the discrete model. 82

4-3 A discrete representation of a moving point object. A) A temporal unit. B) A sliced
representation .................. .................. .. 83

4-4 Representing a moving line object. A) A uline value. B) A discrete representation of
a moving line object. .................. .. ............ 89

4-5 Example of a region value. .................. ......... 90

5-1 Examples of the order relation on halfsegments: h < h2 . . ..... 100

5-2 A line2D object L and a region2D object R .................. ... .103

5-3 Example of the segment classification of two region2D objects . . ... 112

5-4 Changing overlap numbers after an intersection. ............... ..113

5-5 Splitting of segments. A) two intersecting segments. B) two partially coinciding seg-
ments (without symmetric counterparts). C) A segment whose interior is touched by
another segment. Digits indicate part numbers of segments after splitting. ...... .115

5-6 Sweep line status. A) Before the splitting (S4 to be inserted). B) After the splitting.
The vertical dashed line indicates the current position of the sweep line. . ... 115

5-7 Algorithm for computing the topological feature vectors for two point2D objects 120

5-8 Boundary point intersections. A) Boundary points (in black) and connector points (in
grey) of a line2D object. B) A scenario where a boundary point of a line2D object ex-
ists that is unequal to all points of a point2D object. C) A scenario where this is not
the case .................. ... ................... .... 120

5-9 Algorithm for computing the topological feature vectors for a point2D object and a
line2D object .................. ............. .. 122









5-10 Algorithm for computing the topological feature vectors for apoint2D object and a
region2D object ................. . . 125

5-11 Algorithm for computing the topological feature vectors for two line2D objects . 127

5-12 Algorithm for computing the topological feature vectors for a line2D object and a
region2D object ................. . . 131

5-13 Special case of the plane sweep. .................. ........ 132

5-14 Algorithm for computing the topological feature vectors for two region2D objects 135

5-15 The 9-intersection matrices. A) Matrix number 8 for the predicate meet between two
line objects. B) Matrix number 7 for the predicate inside between two region objects. 138

5-16 Algorithm for computing the thinned out versions of the n", intersection matrices
associated with the topological predicates between two spatial data types aX and 3 153

5-17 Complete and thinned out matrices for the 5 topological predicates of the point/point
case ............... .... ................. ..........154

5-18 Complete and thinned out matrices for the 14 topological predicates of the point/line
case ............... .... ................. ..........155

5-19 Complete and thinned out matrices for the 7 topological predicates of the point/region
case ............... .... ................. ..........155

5-20 Complete and thinned out matrices for the 33 topological predicates of the region/region
case ............... .... ................. ..........155

5-21 Minimum cost decision tree algorithm .................. ....... 159

5-22 Minimum cost decision trees. A) For the 5 topological predicates of the point/point
case. B) For the 7 topological predicates of the point/region case. C) For the 14 topo-
logical predicates of the point/line case under the assumption that all topological pred-
icates occur with equal probability. .................. ......... 162

5-23 Spatiotemporal predicate evaluator algorithm. .................. ..170

5-24 Time-synchronized refinement of two unit interval sequences: two sets of time inter-
vals on the left side, and their refinement partition for development evaluation on the
right side. ................... ........... ........ 171

5-25 Time-synchronized interval refinement algorithm. ................... ..172

5-26 Next Algorithm ................... . . .174

5-27 Intersecting unit segments of two moving points representing the development Dis-
joint > meet > Disjoint and thus requiring a further interval refinement. . ... 174

5-28 Function-valued interval refinement algorithm. .................. ..175









5-29 Unit intersection algorithm. .............. . . . 176

5-30 Pattern matching algorithm. ............... . . ....... 179

5-31 Balloon predicate evaluator algorithm. ................. ......... 181

5-32 Registration of a data type and an operation in Oracle. ..... . . ..... 183

5-33 The integration of algebra in extensible DBMSs ... . . ..... 185

5-34 Creating a table using a user-defined type. ................... ....... 185

5-35 Using a user-defined function in SQL query. ............. . 185

5-36 Visualization of hurricane Katrina using the Moving Balloon Algebra. . ... 187

5-37 Visualizing hurricane Katrina. A) Katrina's prediction #7 in object-based perspec-
tives. B) Temporal analysis perspective on August 27, 2005 at 12:00 GMT. ..... 189

5-38 Hurricane analysis. A) Hurricane prediction analysis between 2003 and 2007. B) Hur-
ricane Kate (#1312). C) Hurricane Lisa (#1329). ................ ..190

6-1 Predicate verification without and with matrix thinning ..... . . 194

6-2 Predicate determination without and with MCDT ................. ..196









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

MOVING BALLOON ALGEBRA:
DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION, AND DATABASE INTEGRATION OF
A SPATIOTEMPORAL DATA MODEL FOR
HISTORICAL AND PREDICTIVE MOVING OBJECTS

By

Reasey Praing

August 2008

Chair: Markus Schneider
Major: Computer Engineering

Spatiotemporal databases deal with geometries changing over time. Recently, moving

objects like moving points and moving regions have been the focus of research. They represent

time-dependent geometries that continuously change their location and/or extent and are

interesting for many disciplines including the geosciences, geographical information science,

moving objects databases, location-based services, robotics, and mobile computing. So far,

a few moving object data models and query languages have been proposed. Each of them

supports either exclusively historical movements relating to the past or exclusively predicted

movements relating to the future. Thus, the query support for each model is limited by the type

of supported movements. This presents a problem in modeling the dynamic nature of a moving

object when both its known historical movement and its predicted future movement are desired

to be simultaneously managed and made available for spatiotemporal operations and queries.

Furthermore, current definitions of moving objects are too general and rather vague. It is unclear

how a moving object is allowed to move or evolve through space and time. That is, the properties

of movement (like its continuity) have not been precisely specified. It is also unclear how, in

a database context, future predictions of a moving object can be modeled taking into account

the inherent uncertainty of future evolution. Moreover, implementations of spatiotemporal data

types and operations are rare and their integration into extensible database management systems









has been so far nonexistent. In this research, we present a new type system and query language

called Moving Balloon Algebra consisting of a moving object model that is able to represent

the dynamic nature of moving objects while providing integrated and seamless support for both

historical and predicted movements of moving objects. The goal is to go beyond existing moving

object models by collectively integrating existing functionalities as well as introducing new ones.

From a conceptual standpoint, this algebra provides a formal definition of novel spatiotemporal

data types, operations, and predicates as well as introduces new types of spatiotemporal queries.

Beside these conceptual contributions, an implementation of the algebra is provided in the form

of a database-independent type system library, and its integration into a relational database

management system is demonstrated.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Motivation

Within the past decades, we have seen significant changes in computing technology. One

of the most apparent changes is the propagation of computing from the stationary desktop

environment to the mobile outdoors. This revolutionary development has enabled many important

types of emerging applications including global positioning services, location-based services,

tracking systems, fleet management, and air traffic control. The property that these applications

have in common is that they all deal with objects that change their positions and/or extent over

time; they are commonly known as moving objects. The importance of moving objects in these

emerging applications has generated a lot of research interest across many disciplines including

the geosciences, geographical information science (GIS), artificial intelligence, robotics, and

mobile computing. Much of the research has also focused on modeling and managing moving

objects in database systems; these systems are termed moving objects database systems (MODS)

and are special instances of spatiotemporal database systems (STDBS).

1.2 Problem Statement

Although some important results have already been achieved with respect to the modeling

and management of moving objects in databases, the current state of the art still reveals a

number of shortcomings both at the conceptual and the implementation levels. At the conceptual

level, we have identified three main problems. The first problem concerns an appropriate

modeling of movement itself. Most approaches model moving objects as functions from time

to some non-temporal data type. For example, temperature curves are modeled as functions

from time to the real numbers. This concept is very useful since it can be used to define a type

constructor to construct temporally dependent data types from non-temporal data types. For

example, spatiotemporal data types such as moving point, moving line and moving region can

be constructed from the spatial data types point, line, and region respectively. However, these

temporal functions should not be arbitrary but appropriately restricted so that they accurately









and realistically represent the behavior of moving objects in the real world. For example, the

continuity property of movements must be specified such that an unrealistic behavior like

instantaneous, positional jumps are not allowed in the model. Unfortunately, restrictions like this

have been so far neglected in existing moving objects models.

The second problem relates to the modeling of predictive movements of moving objects. A

few specialized models have been proposed to support queries regarding future predictions of

moving objects. However, these models are restricted to moving points only and are tailored to

specific application domains and fixed prediction methods. All models anticipate future object

movements through certain assumptions on the objects' inertia, trajectories, and environmental

or contextual constraints. Their prediction methods are almost always entirely based on the

past and current movements of the objects, thus neglecting external factors or domain-specific

parameters which may significantly affect the future movements of moving objects. For instance,

information such as atmospheric pressures, temperature zones, wind and ocean currents plays a

major role in predicting the future evolution of a hurricane. This requires highly specialized and

sophisticated prediction models and algorithms beyond those in which only the past and current

object movements are considered as system parameters. In fact, the development effort for such

prediction models is a discipline by itself and a task of domain experts. In addition, different

application domains may require different prediction models. For example, to predict the

future spread of a forest fire, one may consider a different set of parameters such as the volume

of fire fuel (for example, dry brush), surface slope, and the capability of responsive actions

from firefighters in addition to atmospheric conditions such as wind and humidity. Thus, it is

impossible to define a one-size-fits-all prediction model for all applications. However, we can

assume that the nature of the outputs of different prediction models is the same, or at least very

similar. Such an output consists of a description of a predicted movement as well as a measure

of confidence (for example, probability, fuzziness, roughness) expressing the reliability of the

prediction. We can represent the predicted movement through spatiotemporal data types. We do

not see it as the capability and the task of a database system to predict the future movement of









a moving object. Hence, it is reasonable to emphasize the needed separation between moving

object models in databases and domain specific prediction models. Existing models inseparably

interlace both aspects with each other, are only able to deal with a specific problem area or object

motion, and lack the ability of a general treatment of predicted movement.

The third problem is the lack of an integrated, seamless, and unified model that can simul-

taneously represent the historical and the future movements of a moving object in databases.

At a time instant t, a moving object does not only have a history of its movement up to its state

at t but it can also have a future prediction starting at t. So far, existing models support either

historical movements or future movements only but not both together. But modeling the past and

future movements of an object requires both concepts. This means that special attention is needed

to accommodate both concepts in a single model so that they can be applied to the same object

without conflicting each other and so that spatiotemporal operations and predicates on moving

objects can be applied to the entire temporal domain.

At the implementation level, implementations of spatiotemporal data types are rare and are

generally done as part of research prototype database systems. A general problem is that many

useful concepts and their implementations in such research prototypes, which are tailor-made

for a certain problem area and utilize a specialized infrastructure, cannot be easily transferred

to commonly used commercial database management systems (CDBMS). Therefore, these

implementations and the prototypes offering them do not find an adequate appreciation due to

their incompatibility with commonly used CDBMS. This effectively limits the accessibility and

usability of such implementations. To address this problem, an implementation of spatiotemporal

data types and operations must be database-independent and at the same time can be integrated

into any extensible DBMS through its extensibility mechanism.

1.3 Goals and Solutions

The goal of this research is to solve these currently existing problems by introducing

a new concept called Moving Balloon Algebra (MBA) to support both historical and future

movements of moving objects in a homogeneous and integrated model. This algebra or type









system incorporates a complete framework of abstract data types for historical and predictive

moving objects and provides a precise and conceptually clean foundation for their representation

and querying. In such a framework, the definitions of the structure of entities (for example,

the values of spatial data types) and of the semantics of operations can be given at different

levels of abstraction. For example, the trajectory of a moving point can be described either as a

smooth curve or as a polyline (a set of singly connected line segments) in the two-dimensional

space. In the first case, a curve is defined as a (special) infinite set of points in the plane without

fixing any finite representation. In the second case, a polyline determines a specific finite

representation, which finitely approximates the infinite point set making up the trajectory of

the moving point. We distinguish these two kinds of design and call them abstract and discrete

modeling respectively (for a more detailed discussion, see [19]). Basically, the advantage of the

abstract level is that it focuses on the essence of the problem, is conceptually clean and simple,

and is not impeded by computer-specific constraints resulting from the finiteness of computer

systems. The advantage of the discrete level is that its finite representations are defined by taking

into account the limitation of computer systems while maintaining the conceptual constraints set

forth by the abstract model. In general, several finite representations are possible for the same

abstract concept. For example, curves could also be represented as splines at the discrete level.

Another design level also exists called implementation level. In this level of modeling, specific

data structures and algorithms can be defined based on the finite representation set forth by the

discrete model. For example, data structures such as arrays or lists of line segments may be

used to implement the polyline representation of curves, and algorithms such as the plane sweep

algorithm or other segment intersection algorithms can be used to implement operations between

polylines. The design of the Moving Balloon Algebra described in this research is presented at

each of these three abstraction levels.

The Moving Balloon Algebra is based on the metaphor of a balloon to model our knowledge

of a moving object at a specific time instant: the string and the body of a balloon object represent

the known past movement and the predicted future movement of a moving object respectively.









For example, the movement of the eye of a hurricane is usually illustrated using a shape that

resembles a balloon. The past movement of the eye (a moving point) can be seen over time as a

movement along a line or a curve which resembles the string of a balloon. The position of the

eye at a time instant in the future can be anywhere within an area of uncertainty. Thus, the future

prediction of the eye can be seen as a moving region of uncertainty that resembles the body of

a balloon. Finally, the connection point between the string and the body of a balloon object at a

time t represents the state of the moving object at t. Hence, a balloon object is static in the sense

that it represents the knowledge about the past and the predicted movements of a moving object

at a time t. As the object moves, a new present state is recorded as part of the string, and the body

of the balloon object is updated with a new prediction. This dynamic is represented by a moving

balloon object. The corresponding abstract data types may be used as attribute types in relational,

object-relational, or object-oriented DBMS.

With this model, we solve the first two conceptual problems by providing a precise and for-

mal definition of moving (balloon) objects along with appropriate specifications of the properties

of their movements. We solve the third conceptual problem by seamlessly modeling the dynamic

of both the past (as facts) and the future (as predictions) through balloon objects. Beside already

available concepts that we intend to preserve and refine (like the approaches in [22, 32]), we in-

troduce new functionality such as the ability to analyze the accuracy of predictions over time. We

also offer an interface for cooperating with specific (for example, probabilistic, fuzzy) prediction

models for moving objects. Finally, we address the implementation problem by designing an im-

plementation model of the Moving Balloon Algebra that can be used to implement the algebra as

a type system library which can be integrated into an extensible DBMS. In this research, we are

mainly interested in the fundamental models, semantics, and their implementations in databases.

Other optimization and filtering concepts such as spatiotemporal indexing techniques are beyond

the scope of this research.









CHAPTER 2
RELATED WORK

Besides the concept of time, spatial objects form the conceptual foundation of moving

objects. We summarize the state of the art of spatial data modeling and sketch the relevant

concepts of spatial data types and topological predicates in Section 2.1. Then, in Section 2.2, we

delineate the state of the art of spatiotemporal data modeling and present the important concepts

of spatiotemporal data types and spatiotemporal predicates. In Section 2.3, we discuss current

implementation aspects of spatial and spatiotemporal data types. Finally, in Section 2.4, we

explore the current integration of such implementation in database systems.

2.1 Spatial Data Modeling

Research on spatial data modeling has received a lot of interest in the past fifteen years due

to the fact that it is the foundation for many research directions in spatial and spatiotemporal

databases as well as GIS. We address the different types of spatial objects and the topological

relationships between these objects.

2.1.1 Spatial Objects

The development of data models for spatial data can be subdivided into two generations of

models. The first generation offers simple object structures like single points, continuous lines,

and simple regions (Figure 2-1A-C) [12, 29, 48]. Since these simple geometric structures are

unable to represent the variety and complexity of geographic phenomena, the second generation

of data models provides more expressive representations of spatial objects that allow support for

multi-component objects as well as objects with holes [5, 44, 59, 62]. They are represented by

complex spatial data types for complex points, complex lines, and complex regions (Figure 2-1D-

F). Their formal definition can, for example, be found in [59]. Informally, a complex point object

is a finite set of single points. A complex line is defined as an infinite point set that structurally

consists of a finite set of blocks. Each block contains a finite number of simple lines. A complex

region is defined as an infinite point set that structurally consists of a finite set of faces. Each face

has an outer simple region and contains a finite set of disjoint simple regions called holes.













A B C D E F

Figure 2-1. Examples of spatial objects. A) A simple point object. B) A simple line object. C) A
simple region object. D) A complex point object. E) A complex line object. F) A
complex region object.


The object definition of each spatial data type distinguishes three components: the interior,

boundary, and exterior. For example, the boundary of a line object consists of its endpoints. Its

interior consists of the line part that connects the endpoints. The exterior of a line object consists

of all points of the plane that are not part of the interior or boundary. The boundary of a region

object is the line object defining its border. The interior of a region object consists of all points

enclosed by the border. The exterior contains all points that are neither part of the boundary nor

the interior. These concepts, which are formally defined in [59], are leveraged for the modeling of

topological relationships discussed in the next subsection as well as the interactions of predicted

moving objects described in Section 3.4.2. We use this complex spatial data model as the basis

for our Moving Balloon Algebra due to its expressiveness of representation and its closure

property under spatial operations.

2.1.2 Topological Relationships

Topological relationships like overlap, disjoint, or inside refer to qualitative descriptions of

the relative positions of two spatial objects and are preserved under affine transformations such

as translation, rotation, and scaling. Quantitative measures such as distance or size measurements

are excluded in favor of modeling qualitative notions such as connectivity, adjacency, disjointed-

ness, inclusion, and exclusion. Some of the well known topological relationships models are the

RCC model [56] based on spatial logic and the 9-intersection model [13, 15] based on point set

topology. The 9-intersection model defines topological relationships based on the nine possible

intersections of the boundary (3A), the interior (A'), and the exterior (A ) of a spatial object A

with the corresponding components of another object B. Each intersection is tested with regard to









the topologically invariant criteria of non-emptiness. The topological relationship between two

spatial objects A and B can be expressed by evaluating the 3 x 3-matrix in Figure 2-2A.

Topological relationships have been first investigated for simple spatial objects (Figure 2-

2B), that is, for two simple regions (disjoint, meet, overlap, equal, inside, contains, covers,

coveredBy) [9, 14], for two simple lines [7, 15], and for a simple line and a simple region [16].

Topological predicates involving simple points are trivial. The two works in [8] and [17] are the

first but restricted attempts to a definition of topological relationships on complex spatial objects.

In [8], the TRCR (Topological Relationships for Composite Regions) model only allows sets of

disjoint, simple regions without holes. Topological relationships between these composite regions

are defined in an ad hoc manner and are not systematically derived from the underlying model.

The work in [17] only considers topological relationships of simple regions with holes; multi-part

regions are not permitted. A main problem of this approach is its dependence on the number of

holes of the operand objects.

The work in [59], with two precursors in [2] and [58], gives a thorough, systematic, and

complete specification of topological relationships for all combinations of complex spatial data

types. Details about the determination process and prototypical drawings of spatial scenarios

visualizing all topological relationships can be found in these publications. This approach, which

is also based on the 9-intersection model, is the basis of our topological predicate implementation

in Section 5.2. Figure 2-2B shows the increase of topological predicates for complex objects


AOnB # 0 AOnaBEB0 A nB -0\ point line region
A n BA 0 DAnOeB#0 A n B 0 point 2/5 3/14 3/7
NB ANB A NB line 3/14 33/82 19/43
A- nB" f A- naB / A- nB- f
region 3/7 19/43 8/33

A B

Figure 2-2. The 9-intersection model and topological predicates. A) The 9-intersection matrix.
B) The numbers of topological predicates between two simple/complex spatial
objects.









compared to simple objects and underpins the need for sophisticated and efficient predicate

execution techniques.

2.2 Spatiotemporal Data Modeling

Within the past decade, a number of spatiotemporal data models have been proposed [49].

Among them, a few moving object models have been recently designed that are of significant

interest for many new emerging applications [34]. Moving object models can be distinguished

with respect to the type of movement they support. In Section 2.2.1, we first discuss an existing

moving object model and a corresponding spatiotemporal predicate (STP) model that support

the past evolution of moving objects. Then, in Section 2.2.2, we take a look at a number of data

models as well as STP models that support specific types of near future developments of moving

objects.

2.2.1 Historical Movements of Moving Objects

An approach to represent the past movement of moving objects is proposed in [32, 61]. The

past development is a historical fact that is modeled as a function from time to space [18, 25].

For an arbitrary non-temporal data type a, its corresponding temporal data type is provided by a

type constructor t(a) which is a function type that maps from the temporal domain time to a, that

is, t(a) = time -- a. By applying the type constructor t to the spatial data types point, line, and

region, we obtain the corresponding spatiotemporal data types named point for moving points,

line for moving lines, and region for moving regions [19]:

point = t(point) = time point

line = t(line) = time line

region = (region) = time region
A moving object, in general, yields a complex (that is, possibly multi-component) spatial

object (Section 2.1.1) at each time instant at which it is defined; a single-component spatial

object as a function value at a time instant is thus a special case. Figures 2-3A and 2-3B show

single-component moving point and moving region objects respectively while Figures 2-3C and

















x x x x
A B C D

Figure 2-3. Examples of moving objects. A) A single-component moving point object. B) A
single-component moving region object. C) A multi-component moving point object.
D) A multi-component moving region object.


2-3D illustrate corresponding multi-component objects. An application example for Figure 2-3D

is a brush fire that originates at different locations at different times.

The type constructor z is defined in a very general way and allows any kind of temporal

function. For instance, we could define a function that maps each time instant represented by

a rational number to the point (1, 1) and each time instant represented by an irrational number

to the point (2,2). However, this does not describe movement, and hence the question is which

spatiotemporal functions represent valid movements. For example, the unrestricted definition of t

also allows a moving point to move continuously (Figures 2-3A, 2-3B), disappear for periods of

time (Figure 2-4A, 2-4E), appear instantly (Figures 2-4B, 2-4F), have spatial outliers (Figure 2-

4D), or have instantaneous jumps (Figures 2-4C, 2-4G). A definition is missing that precisely

states which spatiotemporal functions represent allowed movements and which functions do

not conform to our intuitive understanding of movement. Furthermore, this approach does not

support future predictions of moving objects. In our model, we employ a similar approach of

using a type constructor to construct spatiotemporal types for representing historical movements

of moving objects. However, we take the extra step of precisely specifying the properties of

object movements as well as describing how an object moves and evolves in the past and how its

future predicted movement and extension can be represented.

Based on the moving objects model just described, the STP model presented in [22]

provides spatiotemporal predicates for past movements and is able to characterize the temporal


time 1


time 1


time i









development and change of the topological relationship between spatial objects evolving over

time. A spatiotemporal predicate stp(a, b) between two moving objects a of type r(a) and b

of type T(3) is defined as an alternating sequence of topological predicates that only hold for a

period of time (1' ri ,d predicates) and that can hold for an instant of time (instant predicates).

For example, consider a predicate Cross that checks whether a moving point (for example, an

airplane) crosses a moving region (for example, a hurricane). Such a predicate can be defined as

Cross := Disjoint> meet >Inside> meet >Disjoint where Disjoint and Inside are period predicates,

meet is an instant predicate, and the symbol > is a temporal composition operator and signifies

a development or a temporal change of relationship. Figure 2-4H depicts the spatiotemporal

predicate Cross. In other words, a spatiotemporal predicate between two moving objects is a

temporal composition of period and instant predicates between the two objects. The STP model

is only able to capture the temporal development of topological relationships between historical

moving objects. But it is unable to represent the uncertainty of the topological relationships

between predicted moving objects as well as the combination of past and future developments of

topological relationships.

2.2.2 Predictive Movements of Moving Objects

With regard to the future movement of moving objects, current models are restricted to

specific types of motion. The MOST model [60], which is based on the concept of motion vector,

is able to represent near future developments of moving objects through the assumption on the

objects' inertia that the current motion direction does not change in the near future. Although this

model is able to represent the near future movement of a moving object, the predicted movement

is limited to a single motion concept that cannot be modified. The aspect of uncertainty such

as the probability of occurrence is not part of the model. Other models are able to capture the

uncertainty aspect of future movements through the use of a trajectory or motion plan with a

constant [26] or variable uncertainty threshold [43]. The approach in [38] makes use of a concept

called "space-time prism" to model the uncertainty of movement between known states of an

object's trajectory with certain assumptions on the object's velocity. Another approach presented




















A B C D
time time time time

Disjoint
-- ---meet
Inside
---------- Y -- Y Y Y




X X X X

E F G H

Figure 2-4. Examples of spatiotemporal functions for moving points. A) Partially disappear. B)
Instantly appear. C) Have instantaneous jumps. D) Have spatial outliers. Examples of
spatiotemporal functions for moving regions. E) Partially disappear. F) Instantly
appear. G) Have instantaneous jumps. H) An example of a spatiotemporal predicate.


in [36] models and predicts future movements of moving objects in a constrained network

environment. It is important to note that an aspect which all of these models have in common is

that either they try to predict the future movement by assuming a specific prediction technique

or they are designed to handle a specific type of motion only. As emphasized in the Introduction,

the goal of our effort here is not about how to predict a specific type of movement but about how

to provide general purpose data model support for movements (including future predictions) in

databases.

With regard to the modeling of spatiotemporal predicates for future predictions, the model

presented in [26] captures the uncertainty aspect of the future topological relationship between a

moving point and a static region. The future movement of a moving point is defined by a future

motion plan or trajectory and a threshold value signifying an acceptable deviation of the actual

movement from the trajectory. The application of a threshold around a future trajectory creates a

trajectory volume which represents the set of all possible future motion curves. A spatiotemporal

predicate (for example, sometimes inside) is then defined based on the topological relationship


time 4


time e


time A


time 4









(for example, inside) between the spatial projection of such a trajectory volume and a static

region. Depending on this relationship, the uncertainty of a future spatiotemporal predicate

can be captured and represented by using any combination of the prefixes sometimes, al a .

possibly, and definitely. While this model is able to model future spatiotemporal predicates to a

certain extent, it is limited to only those relationships between a moving point and a static region.

In contrast, our spatiotemporal predicate model is a general model which supports both the past

and future relationships between any combination of spatiotemporal data types.

2.3 Implementation Aspects of Spatial and Spatiotemporal Data Models

As far as spatial data model is concerned, so far only a few models have been developed

for complex spatial objects. The works by [6, 30, 31, 59, 62] are the only formal approaches;

they all share the same, main structural features. The OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) has proposed

similar geometric structures called simple features in its OGC Abstract Specification [45]

and in its Geography Markup Language (GML) [46], which is an XML encoding for the

transport and storage of geographic information. These geometric structures are described

informally and are called MultiPoint, MultiLineString, and MultiPolygon. Another similar but

also informally described spatial data type specification is provided by ESRI's Spatial Database

Engine (ArcSDE) [24]. Further, database vendors have added spatial extension packages that

include spatial data types through extensibility mechanisms to their database systems. Examples

are the Informix Geodetic DataBlade [35], the Oracle Spatial Cartridge [47], and DB2's Spatial

Extender [11]. These implementations offer limited sets of named topological predicates for

simple and complex spatial objects. But their definitions are unclear and their underlying

algorithms unpublished. The open source JTS Topology Suite [37] conforms to the simple

features specification [45] of the Open GIS Consortium and implements the aforementioned eight

topological predicates for complex spatial objects through topology graphs. A topology graph

stores topology explicitly and contains labeled nodes and edges corresponding to the endpoints

and segments of a spatial object's geometry. For each node and edge of a spatial object, one

determines whether it is located in the interior, in the exterior, or on the boundary of another









spatial object. Computing the topology graphs and deriving the 9-intersection matrix from them

require quadratic time and quadratic space in terms of the nodes and edges of the two operand

objects. This is rather inefficient and thus is not suitable for supporting the implementation of

high-level predicates such as spatiotemporal predicates. In Section 5.2, we prodive our solution

for an efficient implementation of topological predicates on complex spatial objects which

requires linearithmic (loglinear) time and linear space.

Unlike those of spatial data models, implementations of spatiotemporal data models are

very rare and, in most cases, only exist in the form of research prototypes. An example of

such an implementation can be found as part of the SECONDO prototype system [4]. The

spatiotemporal module of SECONDO is developed based on the approach in [32, 61, 18, 25]

which only supports the past movement of moving objects. However, our main interest here is on

the modeling and implementation of a moving object algebra which can support both the past and

predicted movements of moving objects.

2.4 Database Integration

Beside the conceptual modeling and implementation of spatial and spatiotemporal algebra,

an important yet often neglected aspect of algebra development is the ability to integrate such

algebra into a variety of extensiblee) DBMSs. Most of the existing implementations of spatial and

spatiotemporal data models are either database-incompatible (for example, JTS Topology Suite)

or database-specific (for example, Informix Geodetic DataBlade, Oracle Spatial Cartridge, DB2's

Spatial Extender, SECONDO spatiotemporal module). These database-specific implementations

are inflexible in the sense that users' data must be stored in the corresponding DBMS. This is

generally a proprietary issue on the part of database vendors or, in the case of SECONDO, a

design decision. It does not necessarily suggest any required storage dependency on the part of

the algebra. In fact, an implementation of an algebra can and should be storage-independent.

An attempt to address this problem and to make more flexible use of a spatial algebra can be

seen in the case of the ESRI's Spatial Database Engine which provides support for data storage

in a number of DBMSs including Oracle, DB2, and SQL Server. However, their proprietary









database integration mechanism is not published. As part of this research, we aim at providing an

implementation of the Moving Balloon Algebra which is storage-independent and describing a

mechanism for integrating the algebra into any extensible DBMS (Section 5.5).









CHAPTER 3
ABSTRACT MODEL OF THE MOVING BALLOON ALGEBRA

In this chapter, we describe the abstract model which is the highest level of abstraction of

the Moving Balloon Algebra' Here, we specifically focus on the essence of the conceptual

modeling problem without impeded by any representation constraint. We present the abstract

model by first describing how we can model and specify corresponding data types for historical

and predicted movements taking into account the continuity property of movement and the

inherent uncertainty of predicted movement. These concepts are then used to define high-

level data types for our algebra. This includes the introduction of balloon objects to represent

snapshots of the knowledge of movement and the concept of a moving balloon object to model

the continuous stream of these snapshots over time. Next, we present operations on the Moving

Balloon Algebra followed by our spatiotemporal predicate model. Finally, we describe how our

algebra can be used in different types of spatiotemporal queries.

3.1 Modeling Historical and Predicted Movements

In this section, we specify the characteristic features of spatial object movement and deal

with the problem of handling past and future movements in a database context. In Section 3.1.1,

we describe how spatial objects can move by identifying some fundamental properties of

movement. Especially, we define what continuous movement of a spatial object means. The

knowledge gained from this section enables us in Section 3.1.2 to directly derive (abstract) data

types for historical movements of moving objects. Modeling future movement means dealing

with the future and is inherently afflicted with the feature of uncertainty. In Section 3.1.3, we

present our view of this problem in a database context and present (abstract) data types for

predicted movements as a solution. All these concepts will be used in Section 3.2 to model



1 The research work in this chapter has been included in one of our technical reports [53] in
preparation for a journal submission.









balloon objects and eventually moving balloon objects for representing the dynamic development

of moving objects that potentially extend from the past into the future.

3.1.1 Continuity of Movement

Fundamental properties of movement and evolution are continuous location change,

continuous growing, and continuous shrinking of moving objects as well as the appearing,

disappearing, splitting, and merging of moving object components. Modeling these aspects

requires a concept of time and space. Since we are interested in continuously changing objects,

we define our data type time as isomorphic to the set R of real numbers. A special temporal

variable now keeps the permanently changing present time. In regard to space, we consider the

two-dimensional Euclidean space R2. Thus, we concern about moving objects describing the

development of two-dimensional spatial objects over time. We further take into account that

spatial data types also include the empty object (I) which represents the nonexistence of a spatial

object [59]. We can, for example, then express that the intersection of two disjoint region objects

is the empty region object.

To model the change of objects over time, we adopt our own modeling approach from

[19, 22, 32] and define a temporally changing entity as a function over time. That is, we model

values of a nontemporal type a that change over time as a function of type

t(a) = time -+ a

t is a type constructor that constructs the temporal counterpart for a given nontemporal

data type. Type r(a) then denotes all functions from time to a. We call an element of t(a) a

temporal function or a temporal object. In case that a = real holds, z(real) denotes a data type

for temporal real numbers. These can, for example, be used to represent temperature curves.

Similarly, we obtain data types for temporal Booleans, temporal integers, and temporal strings.

If ac E {point, line, region}, we obtain spatiotemporal data types for moving points, moving lines,

and moving regions. That is, we denote (spatial) change over time as movement. We also name all

mentioned types mbool, mint, string, real, point, line, and region respectively.









Temporal functions should not be arbitrary since they do not necessarily adequately model

change or movement. A first observation is that temporal objects can disappear or (re)appear.

Hence, temporal functions are, in principle, partial functions. However, we prefer that they

yield a value at each time. Therefore, we supplement them to total functions in the following

way. We say that f cE t() is defined at time t if f(t) 4 I, and we define the domain of f as

dom(f) = {t E time I f(t) 4 1}. Further, if f is undefined at time t, we set f(t) := I. This allows

us to comfortably model situations where temporal objects (re)appear (f(t) IL) or disappear

(f(t) = I).

A second observation is that temporal objects can show a continuous evolution. For moving

spatial objects, continuity is even the essential feature. Continuous evolution can, in general,

be described by a continuous function for which, intuitively, small changes in the input result

in small changes in the output. This leads us to the question how the change between two non-

spatial objects, that is, between two Boolean values, two integer numbers, and two real numbers,

can be specified, and, much more interestingly, how the change between two spatial objects, that

is, between two points, two lines, and two regions, can be characterized in the Euclidean space.

Each characterization should also capture discrete changes. For this purpose, Definition 3.1

introduces a dissimilarity measure 4 for each data type.


Definition 3.1 : Let dist(p, q) denote the Euclidean distance between two single points

p and q, and let dist(p, Q) be the distance from p to the closest point in a point object Q. Let

length(L) return the length of a line object L, and let area(R) return the area of a region object R.

For any type ca E {bool, int, string, real, point, line, region}, a dissimilarity measure 4 : ax o -+ R

is defined as follows:









0 ifx=y
(i) Vx,y a e {bool,int,string},x 7 I,y y 1: (x,y) = ifx
1 otherwise

(ii) Vx,y E o= real,x I ,y I : P (x,y) = x-yl
(iii) VPI,P2 E ot= point,Pi I,P2 : I (Pi,P2) = C dist(p,P2)+
pCP \P2
Sdist(pPI)
pCP2\P1
(iv) VL1,L2 E a = line,L1 I ,L2 I (L1, 2) = length(Li\L2)+

length(L2\L1)

(v) VR1,R2 a = region,R1 I,R2 I : )(RI,R2) = area(Ri\R2)+
area(R2\RI)

Next, by leveraging this notion of dissimilarity, we specify the concept of a limit of a

temporal function f at a time instant t. A one-sided or two-sided limit can only be defined if a

one-sided or two-sided time interval belongs to dom(f). Therefore, in Definition 3.2, we specify

two predicates dfb and dft that check whether f is defined at t from the bottom and from the top

respectively.

Definition 3.2 : Let R+ = {r R I r > 0}, ao E {bool, int, string, real,point, line, region},

f cE r() = time -+ a, and t E time.
(i) dfb(f,t) := 3 ER+VO <8 (ii) dft(f,t) := 3 ER+VO<8
Definition 3.3 now determines the limit of a temporal function f at a time instant t.

Definition 3.3 : Let oa E {bool, int, string, real,point, line, region}, f cE r() = time -+ a, and

t E time.









(i) We say the limit from the bottom off at t is L, and write lim o f(t ) = L
if, and only if, db(f,t) AVy R+ 3 cR+ VO < < : (f(t 8),L) < y

(ii) We say the limit from the top off at t is L, and write lim~ f(t + 6) = L

if, and only if, dft(f,t) AVy R+ 3e eR+ VO < < : V(f(t+ 8),L)
(iii) We say the limit off at t is L, and write lim o f(t 8) = L

if, and only if, lim 0 f(t 8) = limo0 f(t + 8) = L

Note that f does not have to be defined at t and that the limit specifications require the

existence of a one-sided or two-sided time interval for which f is defined. Based on the concept

of limit, we are now able to approach a definition of continuity for a temporal object at a

time instant. For temporal objects based on a non-spatial data type, the notion of continuity

is quite standard. These objects have the feature that, at each time instant of their domain,

we obtain a single value (like a single string value or a single integer value) that evolves over

time. For temporal objects based on the three (discrete) types bool, int, and string, we can

immediately conclude that there are no continuous changes possible since a smooth transition

is impossible. Either their values are stepwise constant for some time, or a discontinuity occurs

whenever a value changes. For real numbers, we apply the classical definition of real-valued

continuous functions. If a temporal object f based on any non-spatial data type has a jump

discontinuity at a time instant t, we assume that the function value f(t) = lim ,o f(t + ). Thus,

f(t) / lim-0 f(t 8). Figure 3-2A gives an example of this situation. The dashed line at time

t represents an instantaneous jump and connects the movement before and after the jump. The

hollow circle indicates that this is not the function value at time t; it is given by the full circle.

The situation is different for temporal objects based on spatial data types, that is, for moving

(spatial) objects. At each time instant of its domain, a moving object may include multiple simple

spatial values. A point object may consist of several single points, a line object may include

several blocks, and a region object may incorporate several faces (Section 2.1.1). This can,

for example, be illustrated with Figure 2-3C in which any plane parallel to the (x,y)-plane and

between the two dashed lines intersects the moving point object in a set of one, two, or three









points; each set forms a point object. Similarly, in Figure 2-3D, a plane parallel to the (x, y)-plane

between the two upper dashed lines intersects the moving region object in a set of two faces

making up a region object. The multiple simple values of a moving object at a time instant may

move simultaneously over time, stay separate from each other, interact, coincide, merge, split,

partially stop to exist, or partially start to exist. The goal of the following definitions is to allow

these different behaviors.

In Definition 3.4, we specify the important concept of continuity at a time instant for a

moving object. It rests on the limit concept of Definition 3.3.


Definition 3.4 : Let ao c {point, line, region}, f E t(a) = time oa, t E time, and f(t) # 1.

Then
(i) f is 0-continuous from the bottom at t if, and only if, lim 0 f(t ) f(t)

(ii) f is 0-continuous from the top at t if, and only if, lim 0 f(t + o) f(t)

(iii) f is O-continuous at t if, and only if, lim f(t ) f(t

(iv) f is O-discontinuous at t if, and only if, f is not 4-continuous at t


time time time time






x x x x
A B C D

Figure 3-1. Examples of 4-continuous temporal functions. A) simultaneous movement. B) A
merging situation. C) A splitting situation. D) A combined merging and splitting
situation.

This definition implies, for example, that the moving objects in Figure 2-3A and Fig-

ure 2-3B are 4-continuous on the open intervals indicated by the dashed lines. They are 4-

discontinuous at the time interval endpoints since they are 4-continuous from the top at the lower

endpoints, and O-continuous from the bottom at the upper endpoints. We find similar situations










in Figure 3-1A (simultaneous movement), 3-1B (a merging situation), 3-1C (a splitting situa-

tion), and 3-1D (a combined merging and splitting situation) which also satisfy the property of

4-continuity in the open time intervals and 4-discontinuity in the time interval endpoints. Note

that in Figure 3-1D, the moving point object is 4-continuous at the time instant when its two

components intersect.

time time time
- ---- --- ^ .


S. t-t Y



real x x
A B C

Figure 3-2. Examples of )-discontinuous temporal functions. A) An instantaneous jump in an
mreal object. B), C) Two constellations with time instants at which the function is
event-)-discontinuous.


The discontinuities at the time interval endpoints are allowed and are examples of topolog-

ical events. They arise here since the moving objects are undefined outside these time intervals.

Another view is that components of a moving object start to exist at lower interval endpoints and

cease to exist at upper interval endpoints. Discontinuities can also be found in Figures 2-3C and

2-3D as well as in Figures 2-4A to G. Surprisingly, most discontinuities describe a meaningful

and thus correct temporal behavior of moving objects and have to be permitted. The reason is that

multiple simple spatial values of the same moving object may evolve independently. Intuitively,

a topological event arises in Figures 2-3C and 2-3D when the number of basic simple values

changes at a time instant. Figures 3-2B and 3-2C illustrate this in more detail. The moving object

in Figure 3-2B is )-continuous from the top but not from the bottom at ti (change from zero to

one component) and t2 (change from one to two components) as well as )-continuous from the

bottom but not from the top at t3 (change from two to one component) and t4 (change from one

to zero components). Figure 3-2C shows a case when a moving object is neither )-continuous

from the top nor from the bottom at a time instant t (change from two components before t to









three components at t to two components after t). Figures 2-4A and 2-4E represent moving

objects that are alternately continuous and discontinuous on disjoint time intervals, that is, they

are represented by partial functions. Figures 2-4B and 2-4F illustrate the case of an instantly

appearing moving object with isolated (time, spatial object) pairs. We allow this kind of dis-

continuity although it is debatable whether a moving object can exist at a time instant only. Our

main motivation to allow this situation consists in desired closure properties of spatiotemporal

operations. If, for example, two moving point objects intersect in a single point at a time t, we

would like to be able to represent the intersection result as a moving point object. Similarly, a

time-slice operation should be able to yield a region object at time t as a moving region object.

We also permit the cases in Figures 2-4C and 2-4G as valid moving objects. The reason is that

instantaneous jumps can also be interpreted as the termination of one component and the emer-

gence of another component at the same time instant. Figure 2-4G also shows two interesting

situations where the bottom region of an upper component is located in the top region of a lower

adjacent component. The function value at such a time instant is the larger region. Again, it is

doubtful whether such an instantaneous shrinking (or growing) can happen in spatial reality but

closure properties require the acceptance of such situations. A union of three moving region

objects, each representing one of the three components, leads to the moving region in Figure 2-

4G. We denote all aforementioned situations of permitted discontinuous topological events as

event-4-discontinuous.

A situation we do not allow is a spatial outlier at a time instant t as in Figure 2-4D. It is

given by a temporal function that does not represent a realistic movement since intuitively it

deviates from its general route and returns to it for a time instant only. Definition 3.5 provides the

full definition of event-'-discontinuity.


Definition 3.5 : Let a E {point, line, region}, f E r(a) = time -- a, t E time, and f(t) # I.

Further, let 1 = limo 0 f(t 8) if it exists, and let u = limo 0 f(t + 8) if it exists. Then f is

event-o-discontinuous at t if one of the following conditions holds:










(i) -dfb(f,t) A mdft(f,t)

(ii) -dJ(f ,t) A dft(f,t) # uC f(t)

(iii) dJb(f,t) A -dft(f,t) C f(t)

(iv) dJb(f,t) A dft(f,t) A u l = uUlC f(t)

(v) dfb(f,t) A dft(f,t) A u = 1 uc f(t)

Definition 3.5(i) means that f is isolated at t. Definitions 3.5(ii) and (iii) prevent a spatial

outlier at an end point t of a time interval of the domain of f. In both cases, the limit must be

part of the function value at t. If a spatial outlier occurs in the middle of a time interval, we have

to distinguish two cases. If the limits from the top and from the bottom are different, they must

be part of or equal to the function value at time t (Definition 3.5(iv)). If the limits are equal, the

common limit must be properly contained in f(t) since equality would mean 4-continuity at t in

contrast to our assumption (Definition 3.5(v)).

time

t, --- y
ti -- -- -2


x
Figure 3-3. Moving point object given by a temporal function with a local minimum and a local
maximum.


An interesting observation is that the property of monotonicity with respect to the time axis

does not play a role for the definition of movement. The reason is that complex (and not simple)

spatial objects are the basis of constructing moving objects. Figure 3-3 shows a temporal function

of a moving point object with a local minimum at t, and a local maximum at t2. The only valid

interpretation of this figure is that at t\ two new components arise at the local minimum. The left

of these two components merges and terminates with the outermost left component at t2.









Based on Definitions 3.4 and 3.5, we are now able in Definition 3.6 to specify the desired

properties of the type constructor T for representing valid moving objects. The notations [a, b] and

]a, b[ represent closed and open intervals respectively with endpoints a and b.

Definition 3.6 : Let a E {point, line, region} and r(a) = time -- a. We restrict T to contain

only temporal functions f E (a) that fulfill the following conditions:
(i) 3n E N: dom(f) = UI [t2i1, t2]

(ii) V 1 < i < n :tzi- < tzi

(iii) V 1 < i < n : t2i < t2i+1

(iv) V 1 < i < n :t2i- = t2i t2i2 < t2i-

(v) V 1 < i < n :t2i-1 = t2i t2i < t2i+l

(vi) V 1 < i < n Vt2i < t < t2i : f is 4-continuous at t

(vii) V 1 < i < n Vt e {t2i-, t2i} : f is event-)-discontinuous at t
Function f is then called a moving object, and r(a) for some a is called a spatiotemporal data

type.

Definition 3.6(i) implies that the lifespan of a moving object must be given by a finite

number of time intervals. Definition 3.6(ii) allows that the endpoints of a time interval coincide.

Definition 3.6(iii) requires that the domain of a moving object is a sequence of adjacent or

disjoint time intervals. If a time interval should be degenerate and represent a time instant,

Definitions 3.6(iv) and (v) ensure that the instant does neither coincide with the right endpoint

of its preceding time interval nor with the left endpoint of its next time interval. The reason is

that a moving object component has to be isolated if it only exists for a time instant. The last two

definitions require 4-continuity within time intervals and event-)-discontinuity at time interval

endpoints.

From now on, we will use the type constructor T and all the types and concepts derived from

it in the sense of Definition 3.6.









3.1.2 Modeling Historical Movements of Moving Objects

Acquiring knowledge of the historical locations and movement (trajectories, routes) of

moving objects is important for many spatiotemporal analysis tasks in order to learn from the

past. For example, hurricane research benefits from the observation of former hurricanes in order

to understand their structure and behavior and to learn from them for the future. By studying the

past, fire management is able to identify critical areas having a high probability of a fire outbreak

and to analyze the spread, merge, and split of fires over time.

Our modeling of historical movement assumes full knowledge about the past locations and

extent of moving objects in their time domains (that is, when they are defined). By using partial

temporal functions, lacking knowledge is expressed by time intervals when such functions are

undefined. Spatiotemporal data types for historical moving objects can be directly modeled

on the basis of the t constructor. We define a type constructor 0 with 0(c() C t(a) for oa E

{point, line, region} in Definition 3.7.


Definition 3.7 : Let oa E {point, line, region}.

0(a) = {f e T(a) IVt e dom(f) : t < now}

We use the spatiotemporal data types point = O(point), line = O(line), and region =

O(region) to describe historical movements of moving points, moving lines, and moving regions

respectively. Due to their precise specification, these types replace the spatiotemporal data types

point, mline, and region discussed in Section 2.2.1.

3.1.3 Modeling Future Predictions of Moving Objects

Predicting the locations and movement of moving objects in the near future is of great

importance for many spatiotemporal applications and usually called location management [34].

Examples are the anticipation of possible terrorist activities, homeland security in general to

protect territory from hazards, fire outbreak and hurricane prediction to determine evacuation

areas, and disaster management to initiate emergency preparedness and mitigation efforts.









In Section 3.1.3.1, we present our approach for handling future predictions of moving

objects. Taking into account the inherent uncertainty of the future, we explore how the future

positions and extent of a moving object can be represented. We present corresponding spatiotem-

poral data types in Section 3.1.3.2.

3.1.3.1 Handling the uncertainty of the future positions and extent of moving objects

Unlike movements in the past for which we assume to have precise knowledge, future

predictions involve the inherent feature of uncertainty with regard to the future locations and/or

extent of moving objects. From a database perspective, this feature raises two main issues. The

first issue is how to predict future spatial evolution and deals with the development of prediction

methods that can be employed for the forecast of future movement. The second issue is how to

handle the computed data as the result of the prediction and deals with generic data modeling and

representation techniques for predictions. A general property of prediction methods is that they

are domain and application specific. For example, meteorology, fire management, and homeland

security all require quite different prediction models with different input parameters. Hence, it

is impossible to implement the large number of employed and future prediction methods from

different disciplines in a database context. Any selection of a particular collection of prediction

methods would be highly restrictive and unfavorable due to their limited applicability. Further,

we aim at providing a general purpose model, tool, and solution. We therefore think that only the

second issue should be supported by a database system but not the first issue. This means that

application domains should develop prediction models outside of the database system. However,

we consider it imperative that a database system provides data modeling and persistence support

for representing, storing and querying predicted spatiotemporal data. Based on this view, we

focus on the data modeling aspect of the future predictions of moving objects and how this

type of data can be represented and queried in databases; we leave the task of prediction to the

application domains.

We consider a few examples in order to understand the uncertain nature of moving objects

in the future and the requirements of their representation. The central issue is the representation










time area of potential positions time I potential positions over time time road segment
now+12h ---- hE Z now+12h ----- ---- now+15m ---
now +8h -
now +4h -
now -------- now --------- now --------



X X X
x x x
A B C
time road segments over time time potential positions time positions over time
now+15m ------------- -- now+15m ------------ now+15m
now+l0m I-------------- now+lOm
now+5m ------------ now+5m
now now now -



X X X
D E F

Figure 3-4. Modeling potential future positions of spatiotemporal objects. A) For a hurricane's
eye at now+12 hours. B) Within the 12-hour period. C) For a vehicle at now+15
minutes. D) Within the 15-minute period. E) For a vehicle with a constant speed at
now+15 minutes. F) Within the 15-minute period.


of the potential future positions and/or the extent of a predicted moving object since both its

positions and its extent are afflicted with uncertainty. For example, the position of the eye of a

hurricane at 12 hours from now may possibly be anywhere within a predicted region (Figure

3-4A). That is, this region represents all potential future positions of the hurricane's eye at 12

hours from now. Likewise, if we are interested in the future positions for a certain period in the

future, for example, from the present time to 12 hours in the future, then the actual position can

be anywhere within a predicted volume if we adopt a three-dimensional interpretation (Figure

3-4B). This volume represents the geometric union of the predicted regions at all time instants

during the 12-hour period. It can also be interpreted as the development of a predicted region

over a period of time. Hence, it resembles a moving region which can be represented by using

our spatiotemporal data type (region).

Similarly, if we want to model the future position of a vehicle traveling in a road network,

we can only state that the position of the vehicle at 15 minutes from now will be somewhere

between mile marker 10 and 15. That is, the corresponding segment of the road represents the









potential positions of the vehicle at 15 minutes from now (Figure 3-4C). Similar statements can

be made for other time instants such as at 5 minutes and 10 minutes. By forming the geometric

union of the predicted road segments at all time instants during the 15-minute period, we obtain

a surface in the three-dimensional space (Figure 3-4D). This surface represents all potential

positions of the vehicle during the 15-minute period. The surface can also be regarded as the

development of a predicted road segment over a period of time. Hence, it has the same feature as

a moving line and can thus be represented by using our spatiotemporal data type <(line).

In case that the vehicle always maintains a constant speed, we can more precisely say that its

position at 15 minutes from now will be at a specific point (if the road does not split) or among a

set of points (if the road splits) (Figure 3-4E). In this case, the potential positions of the vehicle

over a period of time can be modeled as a moving point and can thus be represented by our

spatiotemporal data type (point) (Figure 3-4F).

So far, we have assumed that a point object moves. If we consider an object with extent

like a line object, its future prediction over time can be described by either a moving line or a

moving region depending on the environment and the nature of its movement. For example, if

we treat a train as a line object due to its possibly very long length, the future prediction of its

extent in a railroad network at a time instant in the future can be represented by a line object. For

a period of time, the development of the prediction can be represented by a moving line object

of type <(line). If we consider the movement of the boundary between fresh water of a river and

salt water of an ocean where the river flows into, we may use a region to represent the potential

whereabout of the boundary at a time instant in the future. This is because the movement of the

boundary in an ocean is unrestricted. For a period of time, the development of this region can be

represented by a moving region object of type (region).

The other type of object with extent other than a line object is a region object. For a region

object such as a storm, a future prediction of its extent at an instant in the future is always a

region. This is because it is counter-intuitive to predict the extent of a storm to be a line object or









a point object. Thus, over a period of time in the future, the temporal evolution of this region can

be represented by a moving region object of type z(region).

In our discussion of future spatiotemporal evolution, we have exclusively concentrated on

its geometric aspects. Like historical spatiotemporal evolution, it can also be modeled by moving

objects of type z(a). However, we have so far completely neglected the uncertainty afflicted with

it. That is, our concept so far does not specify the relative chance or degree of cilfidi ld c with

which a point will eventually represent the position or part of the extent of a predicted moving

object at a future time instant.

To do this, we require a concept of ctlfid, l c distribution (C) in Definition 3.8 such that

each point of a predicted spatial object as the function value of a predicted moving object at a

particular time instant is associated with a degree of confidence.


Definition 3.8 : The confidence distribution C(c) of a spatial object of type a representing

the set of future positions or extent of a moving object at a time instant is defined as C(c) =

a -+ 2(0,1] such that the degree of confidence of every point of the spatial object is between 0

(exclusively) and 1 (inclusively).

The above definition allows any type of distribution for C(c). For example, C(c) can be a

probability distribution over a describing the probability density (confidence level) of each point

in o. Moreover, C(c) can also be a fuzzy set indicating the level of membership for each point

in a. To apply this concept of confidence distribution to a moving object for representing future

predictions over time, we can use the concept of spatiotemporal mapping to temporally lift C

over time to define a moving clr ifidn, ,c distribution (MC) as shown in Definition 3.9.


Definition 3.9 : The moving confidence distribution MC(c) of a spatial object of type

a representing the set of future positions or extent of a moving object is defined as MC(o) =

time -+ C(o) = time -- (a -- 2(0,1).

Here, we do not restrict how MC(u) develops over time since the confidence distribution

information is domain specific, thus it may take any shape or form depending on a given









prediction model. To adequately describe the future prediction of a spatial object, we need

two objects. The first object is a moving object representing the temporal evolution of the set

of potential positions or extent of a spatial object in the future. The second object is a moving

confidence distribution expressing the uncertainty of the movement.

time

now+12h -------



now .. y
now --------------- y



x

Figure 3-5. Representing the future prediction of a hurricane's eye using a moving region with a
moving confidence distribution. The gradient indicates varied degree of confidence.


To illustrate the concepts presented, consider the example of a hurricane. We can model the

set of potential positions of the eye of this hurricane using an region object (Figure 3-4B). By

applying a moving confidence distribution on the region object, we obtain a new kind of object

which represents the set of potential future positions, each with a degree of confidence, of the

hurricane's eye (Figure 3-5). This means that the future movement trajectory of the hurricane's

eye is predicted to be a part of this object. We define the data types for this kind of objects in the

next section.

3.1.3.2 Data types for future predictions of moving objects

Provided that a combination of a moving object and a moving confidence distribution

together represents the future prediction of a moving object, we can use this concept to define our

future prediction data types. Thus, a future prediction data type can be constructed using the type

constructor (p defined below.

Definition 3.10 : Let a be a spatial data type and MC(c) be a moving confidence distribu-

tion on a. The future prediction data type (p(a) is defined as (p(o) = t(a) x MC(o) such that for

each f = (m,p) E cp(o), m is defined whenever p is defined.










Applying this definition to the spatial data types point, line, and region, we obtain three

future prediction data types fpoint,fline, and region.




point = p(point) = z(point) x MC(point)

line = p(line) = z(line) x MC(line)

region = p(region) = z(region) x MC(region)


Since each future data type is defined partially using our spatiotemporal data type z(a), its

validity also depends on the validity of the moving object represented by z(a). Examples of valid

and invalid future movements are depicted in Figure 3-6.

time time time time
potential routes potential regions



now y now now y nOW OW -y


x x x x
A B C D

Figure 3-6. Examples of valid future predictions. A) A continuousfpoint object. B) A continuous
region object. C) A discontinuous region object. An example of invalid future
predictions. D) A dimensionally collapsed object with multiple types.


It is important to understand that these future data types are defined only for future pre-

dictions of moving objects. They do not make any reference or assumption on the historical

spatiotemporal data types of the moving objects. For example, an object of typefregion can

be used to represent the future prediction of either a moving point, a moving line, or a moving

region. To model the nature of movement of a moving object properly, we require both the past

model and the future model. We will see in the next section that not all combinations of the past

and future data types represent valid movements.









3.2 Modeling Moving Balloon Objects

In this section, we describe the development of the high-level data types for the Moving

Balloon Algebra. We first define balloon data types in Section 3.2.1 to represent snapshots (each

consisting of a history of movement and possibly a prediction) of our knowledge about moving

objects at specific time instants of their movement. Based on this concept, the spatiotemporal de-

velopment of this knowledge which is a continuous stream of these snapshots is then represented

by our spatiotemporal balloon data types defined in Section 3.2.2.

3.2.1 Balloon Data types

Generally speaking, to build a balloon, we first need to prepare the string and the body of the

balloon. Once all the parts are ready, they can then be connected to form a balloon. We perform

this step by integrating both of our historical and predictive movement concepts to define balloon

data types.

In Section 3.1.2, we have defined our model for historical movements resulting in a type

constructor 0(a). Since we use this type constructor to construct data types for historical

movements, all time intervals specified as the domain of these data types must be intervals in the

past. The latest known state of a moving object is assumed to be the current state of the object.

This means that the current state of the object changes for every update of the object's position.

Each update can either signify a continual movement of the last interval of knowledge or a period

of no knowledge followed by a new instant of knowledge. In any case, the current state of the

object is always defined as the state of the object at the last instant of the historical movement.

We denote the current state of an object by tc. It is possible that tc may be earlier (older) than the

absolute present (the current clock time now), denoted by ta. This situation can happen when

we do not have information about the state of the object at the absolute present (Figure 3-7)

possibly due to delay in obtaining sensor data. On the other hand, it is impossible for tc to be

later (younger) than the absolute present. This would mean that the object has already moved in

the future which is impossible. Hence, it is required that tc < ta holds for all moving objects. We










now define a temporal domain time for the historical movement of a moving object as a half-

infinite time domain that starts from -o and ends at tc inclusively. Thus, time = (--, tc]. We

choose to end time at tc instead of ta because if tc < ta, we may want to predict the movement

between tc and ta which is outside of time. Otherwise, this prediction would be a part of

time which contradicts our definition above. The temporal domain time is applied to all data

types representing the past movement of a moving object. It will be used as part of a temporal

composition to compose the entire temporal domain of a balloon object. Figure 3-7 illustrates an

example of a historical temporal domain time for a moving object.

defined intervals
ta time

time

Figure 3-7. Example of a historical temporal domain time that starts from -o and ends at tc
inclusively.


For future predictions of moving objects, we have defined a type constructor qp(3) which

accepts as a parameter a spatial type 3 whose value represents the set of future positions or extent

of a moving object at a specific instant in the future. Here, we would like to restrict the temporal

domain of the future data types produced by yp such that these data types describe only the future

predictions of moving objects.

prediction intervals
to ta /
t ta time

time

Figure 3-8. Example of a future temporal domain time that starts exclusively from tc and
extends indefinitely towards +-.


We define a temporal domain time for future predictions of a moving object as a half-

infinite open interval of time which starts exclusively from tc and extends indefinitely towards

+o. Hence, time =(tc, +). We choose to begin time from tc because this would allow a

prediction to be made as close to the latest known state of the object as desired irrespective to the









value of the absolute present. This temporal domain is applicable to all objects of both t(3) and

MC(3). Figure 3-8 depicts an example of time for a moving object.

Having defined time and time to restrict the temporal domains of historical movements

and future predictions of moving objects, we are now ready to define our balloon data types.

We integrate the past (0) and the future prediction (p) type constructors to form a new type

constructor Q for balloon objects which is defined on the entire time domain. This time domain

is a result of a temporal composition of time and time. Since the spatial type as the argument

of 0 refers to a different spatial object than that of the spatial type as the argument of p, we

denote the former by a and the latter by P. Thus, we have (c(a, 3) = 0(a) x qp(3). That is, for a

balloon object b = (h, f), h E 0(a) represents the past movement of a spatial object of type a and

f E q(p3) represents the future prediction of b given that the set of its potential future positions

at a future time instant is described by a spatial object of type P. As indicated earlier, not all

combinations of a and 3 constitute valid movements. For example, it is not possible to usefpoint

to represent the future extent of a moving region. If this were to be possible, this means that, at a

future time instant, the region object would have evolved into a point object. This is not possible

since our definition of movement does not allow movements involving dimensional collapse into

a different type. Therefore, the combination for which a is the region type and 3 is the point type

has been proved to be an invalid combination. The general idea here is that the set of potential

future positions or extent of a moving object at a future time instant must be a spatial object of

dimension greater than or equal to the dimension of the object that is moving. This means that

an object can move or evolve such that at a future time instant, it fits in or equal to its prediction

without collapsing its dimension. Let dim be a function that returns the dimension of a spatial

type. It is required that dim(3) > dim(a) holds for all valid combinations of a and 3. We now

define our type constructor n for balloon data types in Definition 3.11.


Definition 3.11 : The type constructor Q((a, 3) for a balloon data type describing a

balloon object whose past movement and future prediction are based on the spatial type a and 3

respectively, is defined as Q((a, 3) = 0(a) x qp(3) such that all of the following conditions hold:










(i) dim(p) > dim(a)
(ii) 0(c() represents the past movement and is defined on time

(iii) yp(3) represents the future prediction and is defined on time

In other words, Q(ca, p) is a total function defined on the complete time domain such that it

evaluates 0(a) for an instant t in time or qp(3) for t in time. By specifying a and 3, we obtain

six data types for balloon objects:


balloonpp = Q(point, point) = point xfpoint

balloonpl = Q(point, line) = point xfline

balloon_pr = Q(point, region) = point xfregion

balloon_11 = Q(line, line) = hline xfline

balloonlr = Q2(line, region) = line xfregion

balloonrr = 2(region, region) = region xfregion


Each of these balloon data types consists of a data type for past movements (the strings) and

a data type for future predictions (the bodies). Now we can use these balloon data types to

model balloon objects. A balloon object has the advantage of being able to capture both the

past movement and the future prediction of a moving object with respect to a specific time

instant representing the current state of the object. Examples of a balloon-pp, a balloonpl, and a

balloon-pr object are shown in Figure 3-6A, 3-4D, and 3-6B respectively.

3.2.2 Spatiotemporal Balloon Data Types

Having defined balloon data types to represent snapshots (including past developments and

future predictions) of a moving object with respect to a specific time instant (that is, its current

instant), we now need to model the dynamic of this object as it moves over time. It is clear that as

a moving object advances its movement, we obtain a new snapshot consisting of a new (updated)

past movement and possibly a new prediction with respect to the new current instant. Thus, the

dynamic of a moving object can be represented by a development of a balloon object. We called









this development a moving balloon object which can be represented by a spatiotemporal balloon

data type expressed as a function from time to a balloon data type. Furthermore, the property of

this function must be defined such that for each time instant t in the domain, we have a balloon

object that represents a valid snapshot of the object's dynamic. This means that (1) the current

instant tc of the balloon object at t must be the same as t and (2) The past movement history

of a balloon object at t + x (x is a positive number) is equal to the past movement history of a

balloon object at t augmented by the movement between t to t + x. We call this phenomenon

historical accumulation due to the obvious accumulation of movement. We do not make any

assumption about the dynamic of predictions since, in general, they are generated discretely and

independently by a prediction model. Due to the fact that prediction models are domain specific,

the output of these models may experience abrupt changes depending on input parameters or

the design of the models themselves. Hence, we do not pose any constraint on the dynamic of

predictions. We define a type constructor mQ for spatiotemporal balloon data types in Definition

3.12.


Definition 3.12 : A spatiotemporal balloon data type mn((a, P) describing a moving balloon

object whose past movements and future predictions are based on the spatial type a and P

respectively, is defined as:

mnl(a, 3) = time --- Qc(, (3)

such that Vf E m.Q(a, p), the followings are true:
(i) Vt E dom(f) : f(t).tc = t

(ii) VtI, t2 c dom(f), ti < t2 : the historical movement of f(t2) is a

historical accumulation of that of f(tI).









By applying the six balloon data types defined in the previous section to this definition, we

obtain six different spatiotemporal balloon data types:


mballoon pp

mballoon pl

mballoon pr

mballoon_11

mballoonlr

mballoonrr


time



t4
t3

history at t3
t2
story tl
history at tl
L to


time balloon_-p

time balloon pl

time balloon pr

time balloon_11

time balloon lr

time balloon_rr


Figure 3-9. Example of a moving balloon object of type mballoon_pr.


An example of a moving balloon object of type mballoonpr is depicted in Figure 3-9.

When working with moving balloon objects, we must distinguish the different meanings of a

time instant. With respect to a moving balloon object, a time instant t refers to an instant of the

domain of f at which we obtain a balloon object. We distinguish this time domain as the dynamic

time domain. With respect to a balloon object at a specific instant t of the dynamic time domain,

a time instant ts refers to an instant of the domain of f(t) which is the union of time and time

at which we obtain the position or extent of the object or its prediction. We distinguish this time

domain as the snapshot time domain. Now we can use these spatiotemporal balloon data types









to model not only the development of moving objects in term of historical movements but also

the development of their future predictions which are available at different time instants during

the course of the movements. This allows one to perform useful operations on these predictions

in addition to existing operations on moving objects. We discuss these operations in the next

section.

3.3 Operations of the Moving Balloon Algebra

Due to the fact that our Moving Balloon Algebra consists of a structured hierarchy of

different sets of data types, we defined operations that are applicable to these data types starting

from the most fundamental set, the data types for historical movements, to the most complex set,

the spatiotemporal balloon data types.

3.3.1 Operations on Historical Movements

The design of operations for the Moving Balloon Algebra follows the three principles set

forth in [32] which are: (i) Design operations as generic as possible; (ii) Achieve closure and

consistency between operations; (iii) Capture interesting phenomena. Each of these principles

is achieved in the existing operations defined in the traditional moving object model [32] which

is a vague, unrestrcited version of our historical movement model described in Section 3.1.2.

Thus, these operations are also applicable to our historical movement data types. Let the type

periods represents the set of all defined intervals and defined instants of a movement. Assume

also that the type intime(c) = a x instant represents the state of the movement of a spatial

object of type a at a specific instant in time. The function min(ac, 3) returns the spatial type a

or 3 whichever has the smaller dimension. The operations are classified into five categories:

projection, interaction, temporally lifted, rate of change, and predicate operations. Projection

operations return projections of the movement into either the time domain or the space range.

Interaction operations include decompositions and instantiations of the movement. Temporally

lifted operations are those non-temporal operations that have been lifted over time into temporal

operations. Rate of change operations include the different types of differentiations associated

with movement such as velocity and turning rate. Finally, predicate operations are used to answer









questions about the spatiotemporal relationship (development) between movements. Table 3-1

lists these operations along with their signatures. The semantics for these operations as they are

applied to historical movement data types are presented in [32].

Binary predicates include predicates between homogeneous types as well as heterogeneous

types. Some of the basic spatiotemporal predicates are Disjoint, Meet, Overlap, Equal, Covers,

CoveredBy, Contains, Inside, etc. Some of the complex spatiotemporal predicates include Touch,

Snap, Release, Bypass, Excurse, Into, OutOf, Enter, Leave, Cross, Melt, Separate, Spring,

Graze, etc. The detail modeling of these spatiotemporal predicates is described in [22]. For all

other operations, they have been defined in [32]. So we will not go into detail about them here.

However, what still need to be done here are: (1) determine whether and how these operations

can be applied to our newly introduced data types including the future prediction data types, the

balloon data types, and the spatiotemporal balloon data types; and (2) discover new operations for

these new data types.

3.3.2 Operations on Future Predictions

As defined in Section 3.1.3, each of our future prediction data types is composed of a

movement data type representing the moving geometry of a prediction and a moving confidence

distribution representing the uncertainty of the prediction. Thus, we can define two decomposi-

tion operations, mgeo and mconf, to obtain the moving geometry and the moving confidence from

a prediction respectively. By decomposing a prediction in this way, we can define all geometry

related operations on a prediction to have the same semantic as if these operations are applied to

the moving geometry component of the prediction. Similarly, all confidence related operations

are applicable to the moving confidence component of the prediction. These operations are

shown in Table 3-1. We only describe the modified and newly introduced operations here. Let

the type infutime(a) = a x C(a) x instant represents the state of a prediction at an instant in

time. The decomposition of this type can be done using the three operations inst, val, and conf

to obtain each of the component. The operations atinstant, initial, andfinal returns an object of

the type infutime(a) when applied to a prediction of type (p(a). The pointconf and pointsetconf










Table 3-1. Operations on historical movements and future predictions of moving objects.
Projection Operations Application to Historical Movements Application to Future Predictions
deftime, lifespan 0(a) periods (p(a) periods
locations O(point) point p(point) point
trajectory O(point) line p(point) line
traversed O(line) region (p(line) region
traversed O(region) region p(region) region
routes O(line) line (p(line) line
Interaction Operations Application to Historical Movements Application to Future Predictions
mgeo N/A q((a) r(a)
mconf N/A q((a) MC(a)
atinstant 0(a) x instant intime(a) (p(a) x instant infutime(a)
inst intime(ac) instant infutime(a) instant
val intime(ac) a infutime((a) a
conf N/A infutime(ac) C(a)
pointconf N/A qp(a) x point x instant real
pointsetconf N/A (p(a) x p x instant real
atperiods 0(a) x periods 0(a) (p(a) x periods (p(a)
initial, final 0(a) intime(a) (p(a) infutime(a)
present 0(a) x instant bool (p(a) x instant bool
present 0(a) x periods bool p(a) x periods bool
at 0(a) x p 0(min(a, )) (p(a) x p T(min(a, p))
passes 0(a) x p bool (p(a) x p bool
when 0(a) x (a bool) 0(a) (p(a) x (a bool) (p(a)
Temporally Lifted Operations Application to Historical Movements Application to Future Predictions
intersection 0(a) x p -- 0(min(a, P)) (p(a) x p T(min(a, p))
intersection 0(a) x 0(p) 0(min(a, )) (p(a) x (p(p) T(min(a, P))
union, minus 0(a) x a -- 0(a) q((a) x a t(a)
union, minus 0(a) x 0(a) 0(a) qp(a) x qp(a) t(a)
crossings O(line) x line O(point) (p(line) x line t(point)
crossings O(line) x O(line) O(point) (p(line) x (p(line) t(point)
touchpoints O(region) x line O(point) p(region) x line t(point)
touchpoints region x O(line) O(point) region x (p(line) t(point)
touchpoints O(region) x O(line) O(point) p(region) x (p(line) t(point)
commonborder O(region) x region O(line) p(region) x region t(line)
common_border O(region) x O(region) O(line) p(region) x (p(region) t(line)
nocomponents 0(a) O(int) (p(a) t(int)
length O(line) O(real) (p(line) t(real)
area O(region) O(real) p(region) -- (real)
perimeter O(region) O(real) p(region) -- (real)
distance 0(a) x p O(real) (p(a) x p t(real)
distance 0(a) x 0(p) O(real) (p(a) x (p(p) t(real)
direction O(point) x point O(real) (p(point) x point t(real)
Rate of Change Application to Historical Movements Application to Future Predictions
derivative O(real) O(real) (p(real) t(real)
turn, velocity O(point) O(real) (p(point) t(real)
Predicates Application to Historical Movements Application to Future Predictions
isempty 0(a) bool (p(a) bool
0(a) x 0(p) bool (p(a) x (p(p) bool
interaction_potential N/A p(a) x qp(p) t(real)
interactionpossible N/A qp(a) x qp(p) bool
interactionpossible N/A qp(a) x 0(p) bool









operations are domain specific operations that must be provided by the prediction model. The

semantics of these operations are different depending on the type of prediction model used.

In the case of a probability-based prediction model, the pointconf operation is used

to retrieve the density value of a given point at a given time instant during the prediction

period. Note that this density value is not necessarily the probability value of occurrence.

These two values are the same only in the case of a discrete probability distribution which is

applicable to a prediction of type p(point). This is not the case for a continuous probability

distribution which is applicable to a prediction of type p(line) or p(region). We use the operation

pointsetconf to determine the probability of occurrence (percentage of chance) that a point

as part of the moving object will fall within the given point-set at a given time instant. For a

continuous probability distribution over a line based (or region based) prediction, the probability

of occurrence is the integration of a probability distribution function (pdf) over a point-set, which

corresponds to either an area (for (p(line)) or a volume (for cp(region)) under the curve or surface,

respectively, of the pdf. Thus, the probability value for a point in these continuous distributions

is always 0 since we cannot obtain an area or a volume by integrating over a point. Similarly,

the probability value for a line in a two dimensional continuous distribution over a region-based

prediction is also always 0 since we cannot obtain a volume by integrating over a line. Table 3-2

shows the value of the operation pointsetconf(p(o), Jp, instant) when applied to different type

combinations of cp(u) and p for a, p E {point, line, region}.

Table 3-2. Value of the operation pointsetconf(p(oa), 3, instant) for each combination of cp(a)
and p whether it is always 0, denoted by a value 0, or a meaningful value, denoted by a
value M.
qp(o)\3 point line region
p(point) M M M
p(line) 0 M M
p(region) 0 0 M


To further clarify the meaning of these operations, consider predictions at a time instant

as shown in Figure 3-10. The density value of the point p in Figure 3-10A is 0.25. Since this

prediction is of the type cp(point), we have a discrete probability distribution over a finite set










of points. Thus, the probability that a point of the moving object will fall on p is 25%. Notice

that here we can only talk about the probability of a point as part of the moving object because

the probability distribution only models the probability of occurrence of a single point event.

Figure 3-10B illustrates a continuous probability distribution over a line-based prediction. The

density value of the point p in this case is 0.25. However, the probability of occurrence at p is 0

because we cannot obtain an area by integrating the pdf at p. A meaningful probability value can

only be obtained by integrating the pdf over a segment of line which is a subset of the prediction.

In this example, we show that the probability that a point of the moving object will be on the line

segment (p, q) is 30% (the area under the pdf curve between p and q). Similarly, Figure 3-10C

shows a probability of 20% that a point event will fall within a region A which is a subset of a

region-based prediction. Here, the probability value is the volume defined by A under the pdf

surface.

Pi P, P
pdf curve pdf surface


0.50 ........ .. 30% .\......... 3I

0.25 ..... 0.25 .::: ...... 2.


x x x
A B C

Figure 3-10. Examples of predictions at a time instant. A) A point-based prediction with a
discrete probability distribution. B) A line-based prediction with a one-dimensional
continuous distribution. C) A region-based prediction with a two-dimensional
continuous distribution.


Unlike a probability-based prediction model, a fuzzy-based prediction model is designed

to model the potential inclusion, called membership value, of each point of a prediction as part

of a point-set event. Thus, the point_conf operation returns the membership value for a given

point signifying the level of confidence that this point will be part of the moving object. The

pointsetconf returns the average membership value of a given point-set. Hence this operation









indicates the average degree of confidence that each point of the given point-set will be part of

the moving object.

For temporally lifted operations, all such operations produce basic spatiotemporal objects

instead of future predictions. This is because the future prediction is decomposed into its moving

geometry component before applying these operations.

With respect to predicates, the binary predicate operation between predictions has the

same semantic as the binary predicate operation between their moving geometry components.

However, with the confidence distribution information, we can also determine the degree in

which the actual moving objects can potentially interact (non-disjoint) with each other during

the period of the predictions. This is given by the interactionpotential operation which returns

a moving real number indicating the potential of interaction between the actual objects over

the prediction period. The possibility of the actual object interaction depends on the interaction

between their predictions and this is given by the interaction possible operation. This topic is

further discussed in Section 3.4.2.

3.3.3 Operations on Balloon Objects

One of the main advantages of balloon data types is that we can apply most of the operations

to the entire object (the entire time domain). These operations include deftime, lifespan, location,

trajectory, traversed, present, passes, nocomponents, length, area, perimeter distance, and

direction. The semantic of these operations can be expressed as the union, for non-temporal

return type, or temporal composition, for temporal return type, between the results of applying

the operations to both historical and future components of the balloon objects. Although most of

the operations on balloon data types can be applied to the entire object, a few of the operations,

that is, atinstant, initial, andfinal), can only be applied by first decomposing a balloon object into

its two components and then applying the corresponding operation to the component whose time

domain is relevant. For example, the atinstant operation is applied to the historical movement

component if the given instant is within the time domain of this component. Otherwise, it is

applied to the future prediction. In both cases, a decomposition operation must be applied in









advance. We define two decomposition operations, pastproj and future proj, to obtain the

historical movement and future prediction component of a balloon object respectively. By using

these decomposition operations, we can apply all supported operations described in previous

sections for these components. With respect to spatiotemporal predicates between balloon

objects, we describe a model for these predicates in Section 3.4.1. The interactionpossible and

interactionpotential operations determine whether there is any interaction and the degree of

interaction respectively between two balloon objects for the duration of their defined periods.

Let y be a spatial data type. The operations that are applicable to balloon data types are listed in

Table 3-3.

3.3.4 Operations on Moving Balloon Objects

Since spatiotemporal balloon data types represent the dynamic developments of balloon

objects over time, most of the operations on moving balloon objects operate on this dynamic

time domain. The operation deftime when applied to a moving balloon object returns the periods

of the dynamic time domain for which the moving balloon object is defined. Therefore, this

is the period of the actual movement up to the current instant and which does not include any

future prediction period beyond this instant. For example, in Figure 3-9, the defined period of

the moving balloon object is the period between to and t4. This ensures that at any instant of this

defined period, we can obtain a balloon object. In other words, the actual movement made by the

object during this defined period can be obtained from the past component of the current (latest)

balloon object (using the atperiods operation on this past component given the defined period of

the moving balloon object). In fact, this actual movement of the object which is of type 0(a) is

used to determine the results to many operations such as locations, trajectory; traversed, present,

passes, nocomponents, length, perimeter area, distance, direction, turn, and velocity.

Assuming that we have a type indytime(o, 3) := (o(a, 3) x instant representing a state

of a moving balloon object at a time instant of the dynamic time domain, the current balloon

object can be obtained by using thefinal operation and then applying the val function to extract

the balloon object from the resulting final state. Similarly, the initial state is provided by the
















Table 3-3. Operations on balloon objects and moving balloon objects.


Projection Operations
deftime, lifespan
locations
trajectory
traversed
traversed
traversed
Interaction Operations
pastproj
futureproj
atinstant
inst
val
atperiods
initial, final
present
present
passes
update
update
verify_prediction_at
has badprediction
accuracy_at
accuracy_at
Lifted Operations
nocomponents
length
area
perimeter
distance
distance
direction
Rate of Change
turn, velocity
Predicates
isempty


interactionpotential

interactionpossible


Application to Balloon Data Types
92(a, P) periods
2 (point, point) point
92(point, point) line
92(line,line) region
Q (line, region) region
2 (region,region) region
Application to Balloon Data Types
92(a,Up) N- (a)
2(a, ) N- p(p)
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
92(a, p) x instant bool
92(a, p) x periods bool
2(a, p) x bool
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Application to Balloon Data Types
i2(a, P) T(int)
92(line, line) t(real)
92(region, region) -- (real)
92(region, region) -- (real)
9(a, ) x 7- T(real)
20(a,I1) x XO(a2,2) T(real)
92(point, point) x point t(real)
Application to Balloon Data Types
92(point, point) -- (real)
Application to Balloon Data Types
2(a, ) bool
0(ai,p31) x 92(a2,p2) bool

90(a,3i) x 9O(a2, 2) T(real)

0((i,p31) x 92(a2,p2) bool


Application to Spatiotemporal Balloon Data Types
mi(a, p) periods
mQn(point, point) point
mn2(point, point) line
mn2(line, line) region
mKn(line, region) region
mKn(region, region) region
Application to Spatiotemporal Balloon Data Types
N/A
N/A
m(n(a, p) x instant indytime(a, 3)
indytime(a, ) -( instant
indytime(a, ) 2(a, P)
mi(a, p) x periods mi(a, p)
mn(a,p) -- indytime(a, P)
m9O(a, p) x instant bool
m9n(a, p) x periods bool
m9n(a,p) x y- bool
mi(a, p) x 9(a, p) mi(a, 3)
miO(a, ) x intime(a) x (p(p) mi2(a, p)
m9O(a, p) x instant bool
m9(a, p) bool
m~i(a, p) x instant t(real)
m~i(a, p) x instant x instant real
Application to Spatiotemporal Balloon Data Types
m~i(a, ) r(int)
mn(a, ) T(real)
mKn(region, region) -- t(real)
mKn(region, region) -- t(real)
mnO(a,P) x T7-r(real)
m0(ai, PI) x m(0(a2, p2) -- (real)
mKn(point, point) x point t(real)
Application to Spatiotemporal Balloon Data Types
mn (point, point) -- (real)
Application to Spatiotemporal Balloon Data Types
m9(a, p) bool
m9n(al,31) x mn(a2, P2) bool
miO(a, 31) x m~i(a2, P2) x instant bool
mnO(ai, P) x mno(a2, p2) T(real)
mnO(al,p3) x mnO(a2, P2) x instant t(real)
mnO(al, 1) x mn(a2, P2) bool
miO(al, p) x miO(a2, P2) x instant bool









operation initial. A more general way to access any state of a moving balloon object within its

defined period is through the use of the operation atinstant. To get a moving balloon object for a

specific period of time, we can use the atperiods operation. Other than these access operations,

an important operation that allows the realization of the dynamic of a moving balloon object is

the update operation. As the object moves in time, its history of movement is extended by a new

position or extent, and a new future prediction may be acquired. The new data can be in the form

of a new balloon object or a combination of a new state and a new prediction. In any case, the

update operation is used to update the moving balloon object to reflect the new movement.

Besides the normal set of operations, the spatiotemporal balloon data types support a special

set of operations that allows one to perform certain analysis about the accuracy of predictions.

This is one of the main features of this data model which can be of particular importance to

domain experts in research and development of prediction models. The moving balloon data

model allows one to verify whether or not, the object's actual movement stays within a specific

prediction made in the past. This is achieved by using the verify-predictionat operation. Given

a moving balloon object and a specific time instant, this operation intersects the prediction made

at this instant, if such a prediction exists, with a segment of the actual movement of the object

within the period of the prediction. If the resulting intersection is the same as the segment of the

actual movement, this means that the object's movement had always been within the confinement

of the prediction, and thus we say that this prediction provides full coverage of the movement.

Otherwise, the prediction provides only partial coverage which can be thought of as an inaccurate

or a bad prediction. An example of a partial coverage prediction is the prediction made at t2

as shown in Figure 3-9. Other predictions made at ti, t3, and t4 are full coverage predictions.

To determine whether a moving balloon object has any bad prediction, we use the operation

hasbadprediction. This operation is useful in persistent queries for monitoring the accuracy

of predictions as the object moves in time. We will discuss persistent queries and other types

of spatiotemporal queries in Section 3.5. So far, we have only discussed whether a prediction

provides partial or full coverage, but an even more interesting aspect is the quantification of the









accuracy of the prediction itself. However, there are many ways to define the semantic of such

accuracy. One way is to determine the density value of each point of the actual movement from

the prediction and then determine the mean value over the period of the prediction. We use the

accuracyat operation for this purpose.

As far as the predicate operations are concerned, the unary operation isempty is obvious.

The relationship between the entire moving balloon objects does not make much sense and is

difficult to find any practical meaning. However, the relationship between their balloon object

components such as their final balloon objects offers insight into the spatiotemporal relationship

between their past movements as well as their future predictions. Thus, we define the binary

predicate operation between two moving balloon objects to have the same semantic as the binary

predicate operation between their final balloon objects. If an instant of the dynamic time domain

is specified, the balloon objects at this instant will be used to determine the spatiotemporal

relationship. Similarly, the interaction-potential and interaction-possible operations also have

the same semantic as if they are applied to the final balloon objects or the corresponding balloon

objects at a specified dynamic time instant. Therefore, one can always determine or verify the

spatiotemporal relationship between any states (balloon objects) of moving balloon objects. We

discuss this topic in more detail in the next section.

3.4 Spatiotemporal Predicates

Since relationship between moving balloon objects does not make much sense and is very

difficult to find any practical meaning, we will only focus on the modeling of the relationship

between balloon objects.

Defining the relationship between uncertain movements of moving objects is a very complex

task. For instance, consider a prediction of an airplane that crosses a prediction of a hurricane.

It is not necessary that the airplane will always cross the hurricane; it may only get close to

or touch the actual hurricane even though its prediction crosses the hurricane's prediction.

However, there is a chance that the airplane would cross the hurricane as well. The quantification

of this chance of future interaction of the two objects depends on a complex calculation of the









moving confidence distributions of both objects. Thus, we can distinguish two different types

of information here. One is the spatiotemporal relationship between the moving geometries,

in this case the predictions, and another is the quantification of the chance that there will be an

interaction between the two (actual) objects (the plane and the hurricane) in the future. We treat

each of these types of relationship information separately so that we can present the model in

its most simplest and understandable form as possible. In Section 3.4.1, we define predicates

between balloon objects (balloon predicates) and explore their properties by focusing only on

the relationship between their moving geometries. Hence, we can treat the future prediction

component (p(3) as simply T(3). Therefore, the balloon data type constructor can be written for

this purpose as Q(ca, 3) = 0(c) x T(3). For a balloon object b = (bh, bp) E Q(ua, ), the first

moving object bh, called the history part, describes the historical movement of b. The second

moving object bp, called the prediction part, describes the moving geometry of a prediction of

the balloon object. For the treatment of the second type of information, we provide our reasoning

about the potential future interaction between the actual objects in Section 3.4.2.

3.4.1 Modeling Balloon Predicates

In order to help explaining the method for defining our balloon predicate model, we first

describe our general mechanism in Section 3.4.1.1. We then discuss how a balloon predicate

can be specified using traditional STPs in Section 3.4.1.2. Finally, we determine the canonical

collection of balloon predicates in Section 3.4.1.3.

3.4.1.1 General mechanism for balloon predicates

The approach we present here is based on two main goals. The first goal is to develop a

formalism that works independently of the balloon data types to which it is applied. It is desired

that the formalism can be equally applied to any pair of balloon objects irrespective of their

data types. The second goal concerns the importance of making use of existing definitions of

STPs [22]. Since balloon objects are constructed based on moving objects. It is only consistent

to have balloon predicates be constructed from STPs. With this goal, we can benefit from both

theoretical and implementation advantages such that the formalism and implementation of









balloon predicates can make use of the existing work done for traditional moving object data

model. Figure 3-11 shows the relationships between traditional moving object data model and

balloon object data model.

Basic Spatiotemporal Spatiotemporal
Data Types Predicate Model



Balloon Data Types Balloon Predicate Model


Figure 3-11. Relations between traditional moving object data model and balloon data model.


The general method we propose characterizes balloon predicates based on the idea that

as two spatial objects move over time, the relationship between them may also change over

time. By specifying this changing relationship as a predicate, we can ask a true/false question of

whether or not such a changing relationship (development) occurs. Thus, we can define a balloon

predicate as a function from balloon data types to a Boolean type.


Definition 3.13 : A balloon predicate is a function of the form Q(al, 31) x ((X2, P2) -

bool for ac, 13, U2, 32 C {point, line, region).

The change of relationship over time between two balloon objects indicates that there is a

sequence of relationships that hold at different times. This suggests that a balloon predicate can

also be modeled as a development (sequence) of spatial and spatiotemporal predicates. Due to the

fact that a balloon object consists of a history part followed by a prediction part, the specification

of a balloon predicate must take into account the relationships between both parts. To do this,

let us first explore how relationships between balloon objects can be modeled. Each balloon

object has a defined current state at its current instant tc which separates the history part and

the prediction part. Between two balloon objects A = (Ah,Ap) and B = (Bh,Bp), A's current

instant may either be earlier, at the same time, or later than B's current instant. In each of these

scenarios, certain sequences of spatiotemporal relationships are possible between the parts of A

and B. Here, we are only interested in the relationship between a part of A and another part of B










whose temporal domains overlap since, in this case, the two parts may be defined on the same

period of time. Figure 3-12 illustrates all the possible related pairs for each scenario between

parts of A and B.

Ah Ac Ap Ah Ac Ap Ah Ac Ap
A: I n A: I A: I t
time time time
Bh Bc Bp Bh Be Bp Bh Be Bp
B: B: I B: I-
time time time
possible pairs: (Ah,Bh), (Ap,Bh), (Ap,Bp) possible pairs: (Ah,Bh), (Ap,Bp) possible pairs: (Ah,Bh), (Ah,Bp), (Ap,Bp)
A B C

Figure 3-12. Possible relationships between parts of balloon objects A and B. A) When A's
current instant is earlier. B) At the same time. C) Later than that of B's.


Although there are four possible types of relationships between all parts of two balloon

objects, it turns out that in any case, there are at most three types of relationships that may exist

between parts of any two balloon objects. These include jhi\litr\ .7'i\l, ihi\it ,, 'pr di, lita

or prediction/history, and prediction/prediction relationships. The history/prediction and

prediction/history relationships cannot exist at the same time due to the temporal composition

between the history and prediction parts of a balloon object.

3.4.1.2 Specification based on traditional spatiotemporal predicates

If we observe more closely, all the relationships between the parts of two balloon objects

that may exist in a scenario form a development such that the entire relationship between the two

balloon objects can be seen as a sequence of these relationships between their parts. For example,

consider an airplane represented by a balloonpp object P = (Ph,Pp) and a hurricane represented

by a balloonpr object R = (Rh,Rp) (Figure 3-13). In the past, P has been disjoint from R's path

as well as part of R's prediction. However, the predicted route of P crosses the predicted future of

R.

The relationship between P and R can be described as a development or sequence

of uncertain spatial and spatiotemporal predicates which hold at different times, that is,









time
Disjoint(Pp,Rp)
meet(R -- - -
Inside(Pp,Rp) PP
meet(Pp,R -------- -----------
Disjoint(Pp,Rp) Rp
Disjoint(PRp) Y

Disjoint(PhRi Rh

x

Figure 3-13. Future crossing situation between a balloonpp object P and a balloonpr object R.


Disjoint, > meet, > Inside, > meet, > Disjoint, (the subscript indicates uncertain pred-

icates or predicates that involve predictions). However, these spatial and spatiotempo-

ral predicates may represent relationships between different parts of the balloon objects.

For instance, the first Disjoint, predicate is actually a temporal composition of three

different types of disjointedness between the corresponding parts of P and R, that is,

Disjoint (Ph,Rh) > Disjoint (Ph, Rp) > Disjoint,(Pp, Rp). The rest of the predicates represent

relationships between the prediction parts of both objects. Hence, we can expand the orig-

inal sequence as Disjoint (Ph, Rh) > Disjointu (Ph, Rp) > Disjoint, (Pp, Rp) > meet,,(Pp, Rp) >

Il\id, ,,(Pp,Rp) > meet,(Pp,Rp) > Disjoint,(Pp,Rp). In this sequence, the subsequence

Disjoint,,(Pp,Rp) > meet,,(Pp, Rp) > Inside,,(Pp,Rp) > meet,,(Pp, Rp) > Disjoint,,(Pp,Rp) can

be represented by an STP Cross,(Pp, Rp) since they are applied to the same prediction parts of

the two balloon objects. Thus, we have Disjoint(Ph, Rh) >Disjoint (Ph, Rp) > Cross,,(Pp,Rp).

As a result, we are left with a sequence of three STPs each applied to different combination

pairs of parts of the balloon objects. This example illustrates that balloon predicates can be

appropriately modeled by sequences of three STPs between the related parts of the objects.

Hence, we can specify balloon predicates based on the traditional STPs as follows:


Definition 3.14 : Let P and R be two balloon objects of type Q(ali, P1) and n((X2, 32)

respectively. A balloon predicate between P and R is a temporal composition of traditional

spatiotemporal predicates:









stp(T(al), T(a2)) > (stp(T(a1), T(32)) |st(Tr(P1), T(a2))) > stp(T(P1), T(32)).

We consider an STP between two moving objects to be meaningful if and only if there exists

a period of time for which both objects are defined. Hence, each element of the above sequence is

meaningful only if the relationship between the corresponding parts is meaningful. The predicate

of the first element in the sequence represents an interaction that did occur. The first and second

alternative predicates of the second element in the sequence represents an interaction that may

have occurred. These predicate options reflect the constraint described in Section 3.4.1.1 which

dictates that the two predicates cannot exist at the same time. The predicate of the third element

in the sequence denotes an interaction that probably will occur. Thus, the second and third

elements indicates whether there is a possibility that an interaction will occur whereas the first

element tells exactly whether or not an interaction has occurred. The combinations of multiple of

these interactions represents a more complex relationship between balloon objects. For example,

an interaction that did occur in the past and probably will occur in the future can indicate that

there is a chance that it probably oli ai \ occurs. Table 3-4 shows an example of assigning a

meaningful prefix to the name for each pairwise combination between these interactions. Other

Table 3-4. Assigning naming prefixes to pairwise combinations of interactions.
did may have probably will
did may have been probably always
may may have been probably will have
probably will probably always probably will have -


combinations with larger number of interactions also exist, but it is usually not obvious to name

these relationships. Here are some examples of balloon predicates:
didcross := Cross ((azi),t(a2))

probablywillcross := Crossu,(z(3),Z(2))

mayhave been_disjoint := Disjoint (z(at), Tz(a2)) > Disjoint, (z(a1), T(32))

probably _all\ o \_iilide := Inside(z(al),T(o2)) C>Insideu,(z(il),zT(2))









3.4.1.3 Canonical collection of balloon predicates

Having defined a model for balloon predicates, we can now search for a canonical collection

of balloon predicates. The use of traditional STPs in the definition of balloon predicates suggests

that the canonical collection of balloon predicates can be expressed in terms of the canonical

collection of traditional STPs, which is provided in [22]. Another important factor that affects the

canonical collection is whether dependencies exist between the three elements of the sequence.

More specifically, we need to investigate whether the existence of a STP as an element of the

sequence can prevent or restrict another STP from representing another element of the sequence.

According to [22], the dependency between STPs, which are parts of a continuous de-

velopment, is expressed using a development graph. This graph describes all the possible

developments of STPs which correspond to continuous topological changes of moving objects.

For example, if a moving point is inside a moving region, it must meet the boundary of the

moving region before it can be disjoint from the region. This constraint relies on the continuity

of the moving point. If we allow discontinuity such as a period of unknown movement as in the

case of the balloon model to model our limited knowledge of the movement, then such constraint

cannot be applied. Although the history part and the prediction part of a balloon object cannot

temporally overlap each other, it is possible that they can be separated by a period of unknown

movement. Further, there can also be periods of unknown movement within the history or the

prediction part of a balloon object. Due to the possible discontinuity of balloon objects, we can

deduce that each element of the predicate sequence, which is a STP between the parts of two

balloon objects, is independent of each other. Thus, all the combinations of the STPs involved

are possible. This means that the canonical collection of balloon predicates can be determined

solely based on the canonical collections of the traditional STPs involved. As provided in [22],

there are 13 distinct temporal evolutions between two moving points without repetitions, 28

between a moving point and a moving region, and 2,198 between two moving regions. With this

information, we can determine, for example, the number of distinct, non-repetitive balloon predi-

cates between two balloon)pp objects to be 13 x (13 + 13) x 13 = 4,394. Each of the three parts









Table 3-5. Number of balloon predicates between balloon pp, balloon pr, and balloonrr
objects.
balloonpp balloon-pr balloonrr
balloon-pp 4,394 14,924 43,904
balloon-pr 14,924 1,600,144 136,996,944
balloonrr 43,904 136,996,944 21,237,972,784


of the multiplication represents the number of distinct STPs for each element of the sequence.

Similarly, we can determine the number of balloon predicates between all type combinations of

balloonpp, balloonpr, and balloonrr as shown in Table 3-5. Since the numbers of STPs that

involve moving line objects are not specified in [22], we omit those calculations that involve

balloon objects which are based on moving line objects.

3.4.2 Reasoning About Actual Future Interactions

So far, we have modeled balloon predicates based on the relationships between the geome-

tries of the parts of balloon objects. This allows us to distinguish relationships involving future

predictions as uncertain relationships with respect to the moving objects themselves. Unlike

relationships between the past movement histories which indicate interactions (non-disjoint

relationship) or non-interactions (disjoint relationship) that had definitely occurred between

the moving objects, uncertain relationships only indicate the existence of a chance whether the

moving objects will interact with one another in the future. Thus in this section, we will study

how this chance of future interaction between the actual moving objects can be quantified based

on the given relationship of their predictions.

Recall that the future prediction of a balloon object represents the set of all potential future

positions or extents of the moving object. This means that a non-interaction relationship with this

future prediction component guarantees a non-interaction relationship with the actual object in

the future. However, an interaction relationship with this future prediction component can only

signify a potential interaction with the actual object in the future. For example, if the route of a

ship does not intersect the future prediction of a hurricane, this means that there is no chance that

the ship will encounter the hurricane in the future. However, if the route crosses the hurricane's









future prediction, a number of possibilities can happen. The ship will either cross, meet, or avoid

the hurricane all together. There are two interesting questions here that we need to investigate:

(1) "What are the different types of possible interactions between the actual objects in the future

given an interaction between their future predictions?" and (2) "How much of a chance that the

objects will interact in the future?"

The problem of the first question is similar to the problem of inferring the set of potential

topological relationships between two spatial objects given the topological relationship between

their bounding boxes as described in [10]. However, a future prediction is not a bounding box.

In fact, at any instant of a prediction, a moving object can be anywhere within its prediction.

This allows plenty of freedom for any possible configuration of the object within its prediction,

more specifically, within any divisible part of the interior of its prediction. This means that for an

interaction between two predictions where the interiors of the predictions intersect, all possible

types of interaction are possible between the actual objects. On the other hand, if the interiors

of the predictions do not intersect but their boundaries intersect, the actual moving objects can

either interact by sharing their boundaries or be disjoint. Finally, if the predictions are disjoint,

this implies that the actual moving objects will be disjoint as well. Table 3-6 summarizes these

interaction inferences.
Table 3-6. Inferring the types of interaction between actual objects from the types of interaction
between their predictions.
Prediction Interactions Possible Object Interactions
interior intersection any interaction possible
boundary intersection boundary intersection, disjoint
disjoint disjoint


In order to answer the second question, let us consider each type of prediction interactions.

For disjoint predictions, it is guaranteed that the object will be disjoint. Thus the chance of

interaction in this case is 0. For predictions with boundary intersection, the chance of the actual

objects sharing their boundaries at this intersection is proportional to the product of the point-set

confidence values of the intersection with respect to each object. This quantity is an infinitely

small positive number approaching 0 since the dimension of the boundary intersection is always









smaller than the dimension of the prediction. But there is still a possibility that the boundary

intersection interaction can occur between the actual objects. Similarly, in the case of predictions

with interior intersection, the chance that the actual objects will interact at this intersection

is proportional to the product of the point-set confidence values of the intersection of each

prediction. However, this quantity here is a meaningful quantity since each of the point-set

confidence values is a meaningful value. It is important to note that this quantity does not indicate

the probability of the interaction between the actual objects, but merely represents the probability

of both objects being in the intersection. But it is reasonable to say that the higher the probability

of both objects being in the intersection, the higher the chance that they will interact with one

another. We use the operation interactionpotential for this purpose. The result of this operation

is of type <(real) indicating the temporally dependent value of the chance that the objects will

be in the proximity (intersection) where interaction is possible. To determine whether there is a

possibility of interaction thus distinguishing the interior intersection and boundary intersection

cases from the disjoint case, we use the predicate interaction possible. By using the combination

of these operations together with the binary predicate operation, one can obtain the uncertainty

information of future interactions between moving objects.

3.5 Querying Using the Moving Balloon Algebra

To illustrate the query language resulting from our design, we first present how the query

procedure works by specifying the interoperability between our Moving Balloon Algebra and

prediction models in Section 3.5.1. Then we discuss how our data model supports different types

of spatiotemporal queries in Section 3.5.2.

3.5.1 Interoperating with Prediction Models

The concept of separating domain specific prediction modeling from moving object data

modeling in databases allows us to design a generic moving balloon data model which can be

used with any prediction model as long as it provides appropriate access operations for retrieving

prediction data. These operations include the pointconf and pointsetonf operations. The









signature for these operations is shown below.


pointconf : C(a) x point x instant -+ real

pointsetconf : C(a) x x instant -+ real


These two operations represent the connection point between our Moving Balloon Algebra

and domain specific prediction models. They are prediction model specific, and thus are required

to be provided by prediction models. Furthermore, they are used as a foundation for supporting

many other high level, prediction-related operations.

There are at least two types of prediction models, probability based models and fuzzy-based

models, which can be used in conjunction with our Moving Balloon Algebra. Therefore, in order

to pose queries that require retrievals of prediction data, we must first indicate the appropriate

prediction model to be used. For example, assuming that we have a moving balloon object of

type m2(point, region) representing a ship moving in an ocean. We can pose a query on this

object as follows:

USE Probability_Prediction_Model
SELECT pointset_conf(future_proj(val(final(Ship.movement))),QueryRegion.region,now(+3h)
FROM Ship, QueryRegion
WHERE Ship.name = 'SuperFreighter' and QueryRegion.name = 'RestrictedZonel'


Note that in this query, we use the pointsetconf operation as it is applied to the future

prediction data type p(region). This operation in turn invokes the pointsetconf operation for

C(region) which must be provided by the specified Probability_PredictionModel.

3.5.2 Spatiotemporal Queries

Traditionally, database queries are typically processed and answered using the current state

of the database, that is, the database state at the time the queries are entered (the concept of a

database state and database history is described in [60]). However, in spatiotemporal databases,

this is not necessarily always the case. Spatiotemporal databases manage temporally dependent

objects such as moving objects which are continuously changing. Thus, movement histories

and predictions can be stored such that they can be used to answer queries at different states of









the database. As defined in [60], there are three types of spatiotemporal queries: instantaneous,

continuous, and persistent queries. The same query can be entered as instantaneous, continuous,

or persistent, producing different results in each case. An instantaneous query entered at time t

is evaluated based on the current database state at t whereas a continuous query entered at time

t is a sequence of instantaneous queries at time t' > t evaluated at each time t'. On the other

hand, a persistent query entered at time t is a sequence of instantaneous queries at time t that

are evaluated at each time t' > t for which the database is updated. These query types can be

supported through the use of a Future Temporal Logic (FTL) query language as described in [60].

All that is needed to support these query types is an implementation of an FTL query processor

on top of our Moving Balloon Algebra. This is possible only if our algebra satisfies all the data

model requirements of FTL. It turns out that this is the case. FTL requires a data model that

can represent future developments of moving objects and that access to future states of moving

objects is available. Our Moving Balloon Algebra provides this functionality through the use of a

future prediction data type. In fact, the algebra offers much more data model support than that is

needed by FTL including historical movements as well as future uncertainty.

As an example, consider a scenario in which the U.S. coast guard rescue team needs to know

about all small ships with less that 100 feet in length which will intercept the storm Albert within

the next 3 hours. This query can be entered in FTL as follows:

RETRIEVE ship
WHERE ship.length < 100 AND storm.name = 'Albert' AND
Eventually_within_3h Inside(ship.position,storm.extent)


Here the ship is modeled as a moving balloon point with a moving point prediction, and the

storm is modeled using a moving balloon region with a moving region prediction. The temporal

operator Eventuallywithin_c (g) asserts that the predicate g will be satisfied within c time units

from the current instant. If the query is entered as an instantaneous query, the result will include

all less-than-100-feet ships that will be inside the storm within 3 hours from the current instant.

However, if the query is entered as a continuous query, this query will be evaluated continuously

as time moves on. The result will also include other small ships that do not satisfy the criteria










at the time of the query being entered, but satisfies the criteria at some future time. This kind of

continuous queries is similar to the concept of a database trigger which is useful for monitoring

certain conditions such that appropriate actions can be initiated.

Besides these query types, our data model design offers many new functionalities including

querying about the uncertainty of future predictions as well as the accuracy of such predictions.

For the purpose of illustrate these functionalities, we use a simple SQL like query language.

Consider an application scenario of a hurricane prediction. The movement of the eye of a

hurricane can be modeled as a moving balloon point with a moving region type prediction, that

is, an mballoonpr object. For the extent of the hurricane force wind, we model its movement

using an mballoonrr object. For cities, we represent their geography by a region object. Hence,

we have the following relations:

hurricanes(name:string, eye:mballoon_pr, extent:mballoon_rr)
cities(name:string, geography:region)




















Figure 3-14. Movement of the eye of hurricane Katrina.


Assuming that these relations have been previously populated with all necessary data. For

the purpose of our example, assume also that hurricane Katrina is currently making its way across

the Gulf of Mexico (Figure 3-14). We can ask a query about the future prediction of the hurricane

"What area will potentially be affected by the eye of hurricane Katrina at 12 hours from now?"









SELECT val(atinstant(future_proj(val(final(eye))),now()+12h))
FROM hurricanes WHERE name="Katrina"


Following the same trend, the total area that may be affected by the hurricane force wind at

any time in the future can be determined by using the traversed operation on the final prediction

of the extent of the hurricane. Beyond these queries, we can also ask questions relating to the

degree of confidence such as "What is the chance that Katrina's eye will be on the city of New

Orleans 24 hours from now?"

SELECT pointset_conf(val(future_proj(val(final(eye)))),geography,now()+24h)
FROM hurricanes, cities
WHERE hurricanes.name="Katrina" AND cities.name="New Orleans"


Assume that a meteorologist needs to analyze existing hurricane prediction data. She can,

for example, ask for all the hurricanes that have had any bad prediction for their eye movements.

The hasbadprediction operation can be used for this purpose.

SELECT hurricanes.name
FROM hurricanes WHERE has_bad_prediction(eye)


More interestingly, she can also determine the accuracy of a specific prediction, say

Katrina's prediction made 48 hours ago, at a specific time, say 1 hour ago. She can even compare

this data with the same data from a more recent prediction, say a prediction made 24 hours ago.

This allows her to verify whether, and to what degree, the prediction accuracy increases over

time. The ability to do this can help her in making necessary adjustments to the prediction model.

SELECT accuracy_at(eye,now()-48h,now()-lh), accuracy_at(eye,now()-24h,now()-lh)
FROM hurricanes WHERE hurricanes.name="Katrina"


Other than these operations, we can also use spatiotemporal predicates between moving

balloon objects. A number of approaches have been proposed for specifying and using spatiotem-

poral predicates in queries. One solution is to use the spatiotemporal query language (STQL)

[20] to support textual specifications of spatiotemporal predicates. STQL allows us to textually

formulate spatiotemporal queries that involve the use of spatiotemporal predicates. To illustrate










how spatiotemporal predicates between moving balloon objects can be used, consider the sce-

nario of airplanes which can be modeled as mballoonpp objects due to their well defined routes.

We can create the corresponding relations for these objects.

airplanes(flightNo:string, flight:mballoon_pp)


We may want to divert all airplanes whose flight will potentially cross the projected extent

of hurricane Katrina. This query requires the use of a spatiotemporal predicate potentiallycross

between moving balloon objects. For the purpose of this example, we assume that this predicate

has been defined between moving balloon objects of type mballoon-pp and mballoonrr.

SELECT flightNo
FROM airplanes, hurricanes
WHERE hurricanes.name="Katrina" AND potentiallycross(flight, extent)


Another approach for using spatiotemporal predicates between balloon objects in queries

is to employ the visual query language [23, 21]. This visual language allows a convenient and

intuitive graphical specification of spatiotemporal predicates as well as provides support for the

formulation of spatiotemporal queries with these predicates.









CHAPTER 4
DISCRETE MODEL OF THE MOVING BALLOON ALGEBRA

In this chapter, we describe how we can define a finite representation for all the data types

of the abstract model of the Moving Balloon Algebra. The main idea behind this chapter is to

determine a finite set of information (that is, defined by a discrete type) which can be used to

represent an infinite set of values (that is, defined by an abstract type). For example, we can

represent a segment which consists of an infinite set of points by two endpoints which is a

finite set of information; yet we can interpolate these two endpoints to obtain any points on the

segment. To define a finite representation for the Moving Balloon Algebra, we must define a

discrete type for each abstract type of the algebra. In doing so, our approach is to start from

the bottom, most basic level of the algebra's data type hierarchy and work our way to the top.

We describe a finite representation for non-temporal data types of the algebra in Section 4.1.

For movement over time, we make use of a concept called sliced representation to define a

finite representation for basic spatiotemporal data types in Section 4.2. Finally, we show how

the balloon data types and spatiotemporal balloon data types can be finitely represented in

Section 4.3. The work in this chapter has been included in one of our technical reports [52] in

preparation for a journal submission.

4.1 Non-Temporal Data Types

Non-temporal data types include base data types, time data types, and spatial data types. We

described their finite representation in the following subsections.

4.1.1 Base Data Types and Time Data Types

Base data types such as int, real, string, and bool normally have their corresponding discrete

types directly implemented in programming languages. The time data type instant can be

implemented using the real number implementation to express the continuous time domain. All

of the data types includes the undefined value denoted by I which represents the empty object.

The empty object is needed to represent the case that an operation yields an "empty" result.

For example, the intersection of two parallel segments yields an empty object. Therefore, any









operation such as distance involving this empty object would yield an empty value. We defined

the discrete data types for these base data types in Definition 4.1.

Definition 4.1 : Let int, real, string, and bool be the programming language types

provided for integers, real numbers, strings, and boolean values respectively. The discrete data

types int, real, string, bool, and instant are defined as:

int = int U {I} real = real U {I} string = string U {I}

bool = bool U {I} instant = real U {I}

Another time data type is the interval data type. We can represent a time interval by its

endpoints 1 (left) and r (right) and two boolean flags Ic and rc indicating whether it is left-closed

and right-closed respectively. We define the type interval in Definition 4.2.

Definition 4.2 : The type interval is defined as:

interval = {(1,r, c, rc) r E instant, c, rc E bool, < r, (1 = r) = (Ic = rc = true)}

Between two intervals, we are interested in two types of relationships namely disjointedness

and adjacency. We define interval relationships r_disjoint (right disjoint), disjoint, r_adjacent

(right adjacent), and adjacent in Definition 4.3.

Definition 4.3 : Given two time intervals i = (li, ri, Ici, rci) and j = (lj, rj, Icj, rcj), we define

their disjoint and adjacent relationships as follows:

rdisjoint(i, j) < ri < lj V (ri = lj A -(rci A lcj))

disjoint(i, j) rdisjoint(i, j) V r_disjoint(j, i)

r adjacent(i, j) + disjoint(i,j) A (ri = Ij A (rci V lcj))

adjacent(i, j) > r adjacent(i, j) V r_adjacent(j, i)









With these interval relationships, we can define, in Definition 4.4, a finite set of time

intervals (an interval set) such that it has a unique and minimal representation.


Definition 4.4 : The type intervalset is defined as:


interval-set = {U C interval (i,j E U A i # j) = disjoint(i,j) A -adjacent(i,j)}


Interval sets are useful for representing time periods of movements. For example, they are

used as the return values for the lifespan operation which determines the time periods during

which a movement is defined.

4.1.2 Spatial Data Types

Based on the abstract model of spatial data types given in [59], a finite representation for

spatial data types such as point, line, and region have been studied in our implementation of

topological predicates between complex spatial objects [54, 51]. Here, we give an overview of

this representation. Recall that the type point represents complex points (that is, collections of

single points). Hence, we first define how a single point, represented by the type poi, can be

described. In two-dimensional Euclidean space, a single point can be described by a pair of

coordinates (x,y) as shown in Definition 4.5.


Definition 4.5 : The type poi is defined as:


poi= {(x,y) x,y E real} U {I}


In Definition 4.6, a value of the type point is simply define as a set of single points.


Definition 4.6 : The type point is defined as:


point = 2po0


The type line and region can be described discretely by using linear approximations. A

value of the type line is essentially a finite set of line segments. The abstract type described in

[32] defines a line as a set of curves in the plane. We can discretely represent curves by polylines









which in turn are sets of line segments. However, we can also take a less structured view and

represent a line by a set of line segments. Definition 4.7 shows how the type seg representing a

line segment can be discretely defined by its two endpoints.


Definition 4.7 : A line segment with two endpoints p and q is represented by the type seg

which is defined as:


seg = {(p,q) P,q e poi, p < q} U {I}


Now we can define the type line based on line segments as in Definition 4.8.


Definition 4.8 : The type line is defined as:


line = {S C seg Vs, t E seg : s 4 t A collinear(s, t) = disjoint(s,t)}


The predicate collinear determines whether two line segments are on the same infinite

line in a plane. Thus, if there are such segments, they must be disjoint; otherwise, they can

be merged into a single line segment. This ensures the uniqueness of the line representation.

Figure 4-1 shows an example of a line object of the abstract model and its corresponding discrete

representation.








x x
A B

Figure 4-1. Representations of a line object. A) In the abstract model. B) In the discrete model.


A region object can be represented discretely as a collection of polygonal faces with

polygonal holes. They are defined based on the concept of cycles. A cycle is a simple polygon

and is defined in Definition 4.9.









Definition 4.9 : The type cycle is defined as:


cycle = {S C segl

(i) n > 3, ISI = n

(ii) Vs, t S : s 4 t = i iintersect(s,t) A -touch(s,t)

(iii) Vp E points(S) : card(p, S) = 2

(iv) 3(so,...,sn-1) : {so,...,s,n- = S A(Vi e {0,...,n- 1} :meet(si,s(i+l) modn))}

The predicate i_intersect checks whether two segments intersect in their interior. Two

segments touch if an endpoint of a segment lies in the interior of the other segment. The function

points(S) returns all the endpoints of the segments in S, thus points(S) = {p E poi ls E S : s =

(p, q) V s = (q, p) }. The number of occurrence of an endpoint p in S is given by the function

card(p, S) = I{s E S s = (p, q) V s = (q, p) }1. Therefore, a cycle is (i) a collection of 3 or more

segments where (ii) no segments intersect or touch one another, (iii) each endpoint occurs in

exactly two segments, and (iv) all the segments together form a single cycle.

Using the definition of cycle, we define, in Definition 4.10, a face as a pair consisting of an

outer cycle and a set of 0 or more hole cycles.

Definition 4.10 : The typeface is defined as:

face= {(c,H)

(i) c E cycle,H C cycle

(ii) Vh E H : edge_inside(h, c)

(iii) Vhi,h2 E H : hi 4 h2 = edge -disjoint(hi, h2)

(iv) any cycle that can be formed from the segments of c or H

is either c or one of the cycles of H}

A cycle c is edge-inside another cycle d if its interior is a subset of the interior of d and no

edges of c and d overlap. They are edge-disjoint if their interiors are disjoint and their edges do

not overlap. However, in both case, their edges may touch at single points. The last condition (iv)










ensures unique representation, that is, it does not allow a face to be decomposed into two or more

edge-disjoint faces.

A region is then defined in Definition 4.11 as a set of edge-disjoint faces.


Definition 4.11 : The type region is defined as:


region = {F C face Vf1, f2 e F : f" # f2 = edgedisjoint(fi, f2)}


Two faces are edge-disjoint if either their outer cycles are edge-disjoint, or one of the outer

cycles is edge-inside one of the holes of the other face. Thus, two faces in a region may touch

each other at single, isolated points but must not have overlapping edges. Figure 4-2 shows an

example of a region object in both abstract and discrete representation.

Y Y






X X
x x
A B

Figure 4-2. Representations of a region object. A) In the abstract model. B) In the discrete
model.


4.2 Basic Spatiotemporal Data Types

For a finite representation of spatiotemporal data types, we use the sliced representation

concept as introduced in [25]. The idea is to represent a movement of an object by a sequence

of simple movements called slices or temporal units. A temporal unit of a moving data type a

is a maximal time interval where values taken by an instant of a can be described by a "simple"

function. Thus, a temporal unit represents the evolution of a value v of some type a in a given

time interval i while maintaining type-specific constraints during such evolution. Figure 4-3A

shows a temporal unit of a moving point object consisting of two point moving independently.

Each temporal unit is a pair (i, v), where i is called the unit interval and v is called the unit









function. In Definition 4.12, temporal units are described as a generic concept to formulate the

definition of the sliced representation. Their specialization to various data types is provided in the

next subsections where we define unit types such as ureal, upoi, point, line, and region.

Definition 4.12 : Let S be a set of unit function representations. The temporal unit type of S

is defined as:


unit(S) = interval x S


time time



y y


x x
A B

Figure 4-3. A discrete representation of a moving point object. A) A temporal unit. B) A sliced
representation.

The sliced representation is provided by a mapping type constructor which represents a

moving object as a sequence of temporal units. Its type depends on the type of the temporal units

(that is, the unit type). Figure 4-3B illustrates a slice representation with three temporal units or

slices for a moving point object. We define the mapping type constructor in Definition 4.13.

Definition 4.13 : Let U be a temporal unit type. The temporal evolution of a moving object

based on the unit type U is a mapping of U and is defined as:

mapping(U) = {((il,vl), (i2v,2),...(in, n))I

(i) Vj {l,...,n} : (ij,vj) E U

(ii) Vj {1,...,n-1}:r_disjoint(ijij+1)

(iii) Vj e {1, ...,n 1} :adjacent(ij, ij+l) => vj vj+l}

Condition (i) requires that each unit of the slice representation is of the same unit type U.

Condition (ii) imposes a restriction that each unit must be rightdisjoint with respect to the next









unit in the sequence. Condition (iii) requires that any two consecutive, adjacent units must have

different unit function representations. This ensures a unique and minimal representation since

two adjacent units with the same unit function representation can be merged into a single unit

over the combined unit interval.

By defining this mapping type constructor, we can construct discrete spatiotemporal data

types for all of our abstract types. For instance, assuming that we have temporal unit types

point, uline, and region (which we will define later in the next section), we can construct

discrete spatiotemporal data types mapping(upoint), mapping(uline), and mapping(uregion) to

represent moving point, moving line, and moving region objects respectively. Although this is

somewhat straight forward, we must be careful to ensure that each temporal unit describes a valid

development of a moving object.

Since temporal units describe certain simple functions of time, we define, in Definition 4.14,

a generic function t on each unit type to evaluate the unit function at a given time instant. This

function is essential for defining semantic requirements of each unit type as we will see later.


Definition 4.14 : Let a be a non-temporal type (for example, point), and u, be the corre-

sponding unit type (for example, point) with ua = interval x Sa, where Sa is a suitably defined

set of unit function representations for a. The function t, is defined as:


ta = Sa x instant -+ a


The function t allows us to express constraints on the structure of a unit in terms of the

constraints on the structure of the corresponding non-temporal value. It also serves as a basis for

the implementation of the atinstant operation on the unit.

4.2.1 Temporal Units for Base Types

Unlike the domain of the real type which is continuous, the domains of the types int, string,

and bool are discrete in nature. This means that a value of these domains can only change in

discrete steps. For this reason, we introduce a type constructor const in Definition 4.15 that

produces a temporal unit for a non-temporal type a.









Definition 4.15 : Let a be a non-temporal type. The constant unit type of a is defined as:


const (c) = interval x o- {I}


A unit is not allowed to contain an undefined or empty value since for such interval, we

can simply let no unit exist within a mapping. The type constructor const is used for defining

temporal unit for int, string, and bool. However it can also be applied to other data types for

applications where values of such types change only in discrete steps. The value of a constant

unit function of value v at any time instant t of a unit is trivially given by t(v, t) = v.

For the real type, we introduce a unit type real in Definition 4.16 for the representation of

moving real numbers within a temporal unit. To balance the trade-off between the expressiveness

and simplicity of the representation, the "simple" function for this unit type is chosen to be either

a polynomial of degree less than or equal to two or a square root of such a polynomial. Such

square root functions are required to express the time-dependent distance functions in Euclidean

metric. Thus, with this choice, one can implement the temporally lifted versions of the size,

perimeter, and distance operations.


Definition 4.16 : The unit type real is defined as:


real = interval x {(a, b, c,r) a,b, c E real,r E bool}


The evaluation of a unit function of real is given as:

at2 + bt + c if-ir
t ((a, b, c, r), t) =
/at2 +bt+c ifr


4.2.2 Temporal Units for Spatial Data Types

The temporal evolution of spatial objects is characterized by its continuity and smoothness

properties similar to that of the real numbers and can be approximated in various ways. Although

complex functions like polynomials of degree higher than one can be used as the basis of

representation, to strike the balance between richness and simplicity of representation, we make









the design decision to base our approximations of the temporal behavior of moving spatial

objects on linear functions. This ensures simple and efficient representation for the data types and

a manageable complexity of algorithms.

In order to describe the permitted behavior of moving spatial objects within a temporal

unit, we need to specify how type-specific constraints are satisfied during such unit. We require

that constraints are satisfied only during the respective open interval of a unit interval since the

endpoints of a unit interval indicate a change in the description of the movement. For example,

a collapse of components of a moving object can occur at the endpoints of the unit interval.

Similarly, a birth of a new component can also occur at the beginning of a unit interval. This is

completely acceptable since one of the reasons for the introduction of the sliced representation

is to have "simple" and "continuous" description of the moving value within each unit interval

and to limit "discontinuities" in the description to a finite set of instants. Thus, the sliced

representation concept also allows one to model appearances and disappearances of object

components at endpoints of intervals. This means that the sliced representation can also represent

event points which are instances when the temporal function of a moving object is event-

4-discontinuous as specified in the abstract model. In this section, we define temporal unit

types point, uline, and region. They are used to construct the spatiotemporal mappings

mapping(upoint), mapping(uline), and mapping(uregion) which describe a finite representation

for the basic spatiotemporal data types point, line, and region respectively.

4.2.2.1 Unit point

Before we can define temporal units for point, we need to define how the temporal evolution

of single points can be represented. We introduce a set MPoi which defines 3D lines that describe

continuous, unlimited temporal evolution of 2D single points.


MPoi = {(ax,ay,bx,by) ax, ay,bx,by E real}


The 4-tuple (ax, ay, bx, by) is a representation of the linear functions of the coordinates of a single

point over time such that (ax, ay) is the position of the point at t = 0 and (bx, by) is the position of









the point at t = 1. The evaluation of this representation at an arbitrary time t is given by:


t((ax, ay, bx, by), t) = (a + (bx -ax)t,ay + (by ay)t) Vt E instant


The unit type upoi for the temporal evolution of single points can then be defined in Defini-

tion 4.17.


Definition 4.17 : The unit type upoi is defined as:


upoi = interval x MPoi


To describe a moving point (that is, a moving complex point), we define the unit type point

in Definition 4.18.


Definition 4.18 : Let i = (1, r, Ic, rc) E interval, M C MPoi and |M| > 1. The unit type

point is defined as:

point = {(i,M)

(i) Vt, I < t < rVp, q EM :p 4 q l t(p, t) 4 t(q, t)

(ii) s = e = (Vp,q E M: p ~q4 q=t(p,1) t(q,1))}

Condition (i) indicates that the type-specific constraint of a point object having distinct com-

ponents (that is, single points) must be satisfied over the open interval of the unit. Condition (ii)

requires that point units which are defined only in a single time instant have distinct components

at that instant. An example of a unit point object is shown in Figure 4-3A. For a unit point (i,M),

an evaluation at time t within the interval i is given by:


t(M, t)= U {t(mt)}
mCM

We assume that t distributes through sets and tuples such that t(M, t) is defined for any set M as

shown above, and for a tuple r = (r, ..., rn), we have t(r, t) = (t(ri, t),..., t(rn, t)).









4.2.2.2 Unit line

For moving lines, we introduce a unit type uline. Here, we restrict the movements of

segments of a line such that during the unit interval of a line unit, each segment only moves along

a plane. That is, segments are not allowed to rotate during their movement. Rotating segments

create curved surfaces in 3D space which can be approximated by a sequence of plane surfaces.

This constraint allows us to keep the representation simple and easy to deal with.

Before we can define uline, we define a set MSeg as the set of all pairs of coplanar lines

produced by a pair of moving single points in 3D space, which will be used to represent moving

segments.


MSeg = { (p, q) \p, q E MPoi, p # q, p is coplanar with q}


The definition of uline as shown in Definition 4.19 is based on a set of moving segments with the

above restriction and which never overlaps at any instant within the respective open interval.


Definition 4.19 : Let i = (1, r, Ic, rc) E interval, M C MSeg and |M| > 1. The unit type uline

is defined as:

uline= {(i, M)

(i) Vt,l < t < r : t(M, t) E line- {}

(ii) = r = t(M,) c line {l})}

Similar to the conditions for the definition of point, the first and second conditions above

specify data type constraints for the open time interval and for the case where a unit is defined

only at a single time instant respectively. Figure 4-4A shows an example of a valid uline object.

Since t distributes through sets and tuples, we can use t(M, t) which represents the value of a

unit line at a time instant t to define the structural constraint that requires this value to be a valid

line composed of segments. For instance, condition (i) requires that, at each time instant t of the









time time









x x
A B

Figure 4-4. Representing a moving line object. A) A uline value. B) A discrete representation of
a moving line object.


open interval, we can obtain a segment from each of the moving segments of M.


Vt, < t < rV(p,q) M : ((p, t),t(q, t)) E Seg


It is clear that the semantic of uline can be expressed using the t function for the open interval.

However, at the endpoints of an interval, a special consideration is needed since, in these points,

moving segments can degenerate into points and different moving segments can merge or

split as shown in Figure 4-4A. To handle these situations, a regularization process is needed.

We define a separate t functions denoted by tl which removes from t(i,M) segments that

have the same left and right endpoints (that is, segments degenerated into a single point) and

merge overlapping segments into maximal ones (this is defined by a mergesegs function). Let

((1, r, Ic, rc),M) E uline. Then, the instantiation of this unit at a time instant t of the interval is

defined as:


t(M,t) = mergesegs({(p,q) E t(M,t) p < q))


An example of a discrete representation of a moving line object containing a single unit line is

shown in Figure 4-4B. It is important to note that even though we restrict the moving segment

representation such that segments of a line cannot rotate, rotation can be approximated by

triangulation since moving segments are allowed to degenerate. Thus, many possible mappings










exist between segment endpoints of the lines at the start and the end of a unit line interval as

long as the non-rotating constraint is satisfied. To get a better approximation, this unit can be

divided into smaller units by introducing additional internal instants along with their discrete

representations. It can be easily seen that arbitrary precision of representation can be achieved

with this approach.

4.2.2.3 Unit region

To represent a temporal unit of a moving region, we introduce the unit type region. Similar

to line, the fundamental of the discrete representation of the region data type is also based on

segments. Thus, we can employ the same restriction on moving segments as for uline where

rotation of segments within unit intervals is not permitted. Therefore, we can base our definition

of region on the same set of all coplanar pairs of lines, that is, MSeg, with additional constraints

to ensure that we always obtain a valid region throughout the entire unit (validity constraints).

An example of a valid region value (with allowable degeneracies) is illustrated in Figure 4-5.

Following the same structured approach for defining the region data types, we can define a

time

time i' ,~----------------








x

Figure 4-5. Example of a region value.


region based on the concept of moving cycle (MCycle) and moving face (MFace). However,

we do not need to specify the validity constraints on MCycle and MFace here as this will be

done directly in the region definition. We introduce the sets MCycle and MFace to describe the









moving version of a cycle and a face respectively, without any restriction on time.


MCycle = {S C MSeg lSI > 3}

MFace = {(c,H) c e MCycle,H C MCycle}


We can now define region in Definition 4.20.


Definition 4.20 : Let i = (1, r, Ic, rc) E interval, F C MFace. The unit type region is

defined as:

region= {(i,F)l

(i) Vt, I < t < r: t(F, t) e region- {L}

(ii) 1 = r t(F, ) region {}}

For the endpoints of the unit interval, we again need to perform a regularization process

by providing a separate function tr to obtain a valid region value and handle the degeneracies.

This function works as follows. Evaluate t(F, 1) or t(F, r) and remove all pairs of points (p, q)

(segments) that are not valid segments. Then, for all collections of overlapping segments,

partition all participating segments into fragments (for example, two overlapping segments

(p, q) and (r,s) with the endpoints ordered on the line as < p, r, q, s > produce fragments (p, r),

(r, q), and (q, s)). For each fragment, if the number of segments containing it is even, remove the

fragment; otherwise, treat this fragment as a new segment of the result.

4.3 Balloon Data Types and Spatiotemporal Balloon Data Types

Having defined a finite representation for the basic spatiotemporal data types, we can now

use this concept to define a finite representation for the balloon data types in Section 4.3.1 as well

as the spatiotemporal balloon data types in Section 4.3.2.

4.3.1 Balloon Data Types

Since the balloon data types are composed of historical movement and future prediction data

types, we will discuss these data types first. The historical movement data types such as point,

line, and region are defined based on basic spatiotemporal data types such as point, line,









and region respectively. Therefore, the sliced representation for the basic spatiotemporal data

types is sufficient to represent the historical movement data types.

For the future prediction data types, only the geometry aspect of future predictions is

relevant here since the representation of the confidence distribution aspect is domain-specific

and can be assumed to be given by prediction models. The geometry aspect of the future

prediction data types is defined using the basic spatiotemporal data types. Hence, their discrete

representation is the same, that is, they can also be discretely represented using the sliced

representation concept.

A balloon data type which consists of both historical movement and future prediction

information can then be described as a spatiotemporal mapping of both the historical part and

the predicted part such that the mapping of the historical part precedes that of the predicted

part. In other words, the last unit interval of the historical part must be r_disjoint with the first

unit interval of the predicted part. This spatiotemporal mapping for a balloon object is formally

defined in Definition 4.21.

Definition 4.21 : Let mapping(uct) and mapping(up) be the sliced representations for

a historical movement based on a unit type uc and a future prediction based on a unit type up

respectively for a balloon object of type Q(ca, P). The sliced representation of this balloon object

is a mapping mapping(ua, up) which is defined as:

mapping(uot, up) = { ((il, vI), (i2, V2), .- (in, Vn), (in+l, Vn+l),(... in+m n+m))

(i) ((il, v), (i2,V2), .. (in, vn)) e mapping(uo)

(ii) ((in+l,Vn+1),..., (in+m, Vn+m)) mapping(up)
(iii) rdisjoint (in, in+) }

This representation describes a balloon object as a sequence of n + m temporal units where

the first n units represent its historical movement (condition (i)) and the last m units represent

its future prediction (condition (ii)). Finally, the constraint that the history part must precede the

future prediction part is specified in condition (iii).









4.3.2 Spatiotemporal Balloon Data Types

At the highest level of the Moving Balloon Algebra type system, we have the spatiotemporal

balloon data types. These data types describe the temporal development of balloon objects.

Thus, we can also say that they describe the temporal development of movement history as well

as future prediction with the constraint that, at any instant of this development, the movement

history and the future prediction, if available, together form a valid balloon object. This allows us

to treat the development of each part separately.

As mentioned in the abstract concept, the development of the movement history is a

historical accumulation phenomenon which means that, as an object moves or evolves over time,

new movement information is appended to the existing movement history. Thus, the movement

history at each time instant t in the past is a part of the current history. That is, it is the history

starting from the beginning instant up to the instant t. Therefore, it is sufficient to represent

the development of movement history by the latest known movement history and providing an

appropriate, separate instantiation function th (as opposed to ta which retrieve the position or

extent value) to obtain the movement history at any time instant t of the development. Let uc be a

unit type of a spatial type a. The development of movement history is discretely represented as a

sliced representation of a unit type uci with an th function defined as:


ht = mapping(ucc) x instant --- mapping(u)


The function th allows us to express constraints on a development of movement in terms of

the constraints on the corresponding movement value. In a way, it also serves as a basis for the

implementation of the atperiod operation.

The second part of the spatiotemporal balloon data types is the temporal development of

future prediction. Since each future prediction is provided by a prediction model which is a

concept outside the control of the algebra, we cannot make any assumption on the continuity

aspect between different predictions. However, we can safely assume that each prediction is

discretely made with respect to a specific time instant and provided by a prediction model either









on a regular basis or on a request basis. In any case, each prediction is to be stored and managed

in databases such that they can be later retrieved and used in query for various analysis. This

approach allows us to maintain a collection of predictions made over the past which may no

longer be available to be requested from a prediction model since this model may be tweaked

and modified over time by domain experts. Therefore, the development of the future prediction

part of a moving balloon object can be represented by a finite sequence of future predictions,

each made at a specific time instant of the history. Definition 4.22 formally describes a finite

representation of a development of prediction.


Definition 4.22 : Let a pair (t, mapping(ua)) represents a prediction of the unit type ua

with respect to a time instant t. The development of the future prediction of the unit type ua,

denoted by mPrediction(ua), is defined as:

mPrediction(uou) = {((t, pI), (t2,p2),...(tn, n)) Vi {1, 2,...,n} :

(i) ti E instant

(ii) pi E mapping(ua)

(iii) i < n = ti < ti+1}

Since this development of future prediction is a finite sequence of discrete values of

prediction, an instantiation of the development at any time instant other than those specified

would return an empty value. However, in query where the future prediction at time t of a moving

object is need, one can choose to use the most current prediction available whose prediction

period contains t. This is because each prediction is produced to describe the future prediction of

an object's movement for a certain period of time.

By discretely representing the development of the movement history and the future predic-

tion, we effectively obtain a representation for a moving balloon object, as defined in Defini-

tion 4.23, which is a combination of the two.









Definition 4.23 : A finite representation of the spatiotemporal balloon data types

mballoon(c, f) is defined as:


mballoon(uc, up) = mapping(uc) x mPrediction(up)


This definition also requires a constraint that any instantiation at a time instant t of a moving

balloon object results in a valid balloon object. This indicates that the instantiations at t of both

parts of the object must together produce a valid balloon object.

Having defined discrete data types for each of the abstract data types of our Moving Balloon

Algebra, we can now use this discrete model as a specification to develop implementable data

structures for supporting algorithmic design and implementation of operations.









CHAPTER 5
IMPLEMENTATION MODEL OF THE MOVING BALLOON ALGEBRA

In the implementation model, we are interested in how we can implement the finite rep-

resentation set forth in the discrete model. Thus, we are interested in defining data structures

for each data types of the algebra as well as algorithms for operations and predicates. Since the

implementation of spatiotemporal data types and spatiotemporal predicates requires the use of

spatial data types and topological predicates, we first present our data structures for spatial data

types and spatiotemporal data types (Section 5.1). Then, we present our topological predicate

implementation including the algorithms for determining the topological relationship between

two spatial objects' (Section 5.2). These algorithms are then used to support the implementation

of spatiotemporal predicates between moving objects (Section 5.3) which in turn is the basis for

implementing balloon predicates (Section 5.4). Since the algebra is to be made available for use

in a database system, we also describe our mechanism for integrating the algebra into a DBMS

(Section 5.5). Finally, we provide a case study describing an application of our algebra in the

field of hurricane research (Section 5.6).

5.1 Data Structures

In this section, we describe how we can translate the concepts specified in the discrete

model into appropriate data structures for implementation in a database system. The discrete

representation of the Moving Balloon Algebra is in fact a high level specification of such data

structures. The design of the data structures is also influenced by the context of the system where

the data structures are to be implemented as well as the efficiency requirements of algorithms to

be supported. We begin with some general requirements of the data structures due to their use in

a database context. Then, we proceed to define data structures for spatial data types and finally

spatiotemporal data types.



1 Our research work on the efficient implementation of topological predicates has been pub-
lished in two journal articles [51, 54].









5.1.1 General Requirements of Database-Compatible Data Structures

Data structures for spatial and spatiotemporal data types have to satisfy a number of

special requirements. First, it is our goal that the data structures implementing the data types

are to be used in a database system to represent attribute data types within some data model

implementation. Thus, data are placed into memory under control of the DBMS. This means

that one should not use main memory pointers in the design, and that the representations should

allows easy movements of the data between secondary and main memory. These requirements

can be fulfilled by implementing each data type using DBMS large objects (LOB) which may

consist of a number of fixed size components and arrays for varying size components. All

references are internal references with respect to a LOB.

Second, our spatial and spatiotemporal data types are set-valued. This requires that a unique

order is defined on the set domains and to store elements in the array in that order. Two spatial or

spatiotemporal values, respectively, are equal if their array representations are equal. This enables

efficient comparisons.

Third, the data structure design is also affected by the requirement of the algorithms. For

instance, in spatial data model, algorithms based on the plane sweep paradigm are essential

for efficient implementation of topological predicates and set operations. These algorithms

requires a data structure with data points or segments in lexicographical order. We describe data

structures for spatial data types in Section 5.1.2. In spatiotemporal data model, the algorithm

for the atinstant operation is the most fundamental, and it is the foundation for implementing

many other operations. Hence, it is important to consider the efficiency of this operation in the

design of the data structures. For this reason, the data structures for spatiotemporal data types are

designed with the temporal unit as the major order such that a search in the temporal domain can

be done efficiently. We describe this aspect in more detail in Section 5.1.3.

5.1.2 Data Structures for Spatial Data Types

At the lowest level, we assume a number system n ensuring robust geometric computation,

for example, by means of rational numbers allowing value representations of arbitrarily, finite









length, or by means of infinite precision numbers. At the next higher level, we introduce

some two-dimensional robust geometric primitives that we assume to be implemented on the

basis of n. The primitives serve as elementary building blocks for all higher-level structures

and contribute significantly to their behavior, performance, and robustness. All objects of

robust geometric primitive types are stored in records. Here, we define the robust geometric

primitive types poi2D and seg2D which correspond the discrete type poi and seg. The type

poi2D incorporates all single, two-dimensional points we can represent on the basis of our robust

number system. That is, this type is defined as

poi2D= {(x,y) x,y E }U{e}

The value e represents the empty object as described in the discrete model and is an element

of all data types. Given two points p, q e poi2D, we assume a predicate "=" (p = q > p.x =

q.x A p.y = q.y) and the lexicographic order relation "<" (p < q <> p.x < q.x V (p.x =

q.x A p.y < q.y)).

The type seg2D includes all straight segments bounded by two endpoints. That is

seg2D = {(p,q) p,q e poi2D, p < q} U {e}

The order defined on the endpoints normalizes segments and provides for a unique rep-

resentation. This enables us to speak of a left endpoint and a right end point of a segment.

The predicates on, in : poi2D x seg2D -+ bool check whether a point is located on a segment

including and excluding its endpoints respectively. The predicates poilntersect, seglntersect :

seg2D x seg2D -+ bool test whether two segments intersect in a point or a segment respectively.

The predicates collinear, equal, disjoint, meet : seg2D x seg2D -+ bool determine whether

two segments lie on the same infinite line, are identical, do not share any point, and touch each

other in exactly one common endpoint respectively. The function len : seg2D -+ real computes

the length of a segment. The type real is our own approximation type for the real numbers and

implemented on the basis of n. The operation poilntersection : seg2D x seg2D -+ poi2D returns

the intersection point of two segments.









The type mbb2D comprises all minimum bounding boxes, that is, axis-parallel rectangles. It

is defined as

mbb2D = {(p, q) p, q E poi2D, p.x < q.x, p.y < q.y} U {f}

Here, the predicate disjoint : mbb2D x mbb2D -+ bool checks whether two minimum

bounding boxes are disjoint; otherwise, they interfere with each other.

At the next higher level, we assume the geometric component data type half min-lltl2D that

introduces halfsegments as the basic implementation components of objects of the spatial data

types line2D and region2D. A halnf m,-itni. which is stored in a record, is a hybrid between a

point and a segment. That is, it has features of both geometric structures; each feature can be

inquired on demand. We define the set of all halfsegments as the component data type

halnCmNrlni2D {(s,d) |s seg2D- {e}, d E bool}

For a halfsegment h = (s, d), the Boolean flag d emphasizes one of the segment's end points,

which is called the dominating point of h. If d = true (d = false), the left (right) end point of

s is the dominating point of h, and h is called left (right) halnf :,in:lt. Hence, each segment s

is mapped to two halfsegments (s, true) and (s,false). Let dp be the function which yields the

dominating point of a halfsegment.

The representation of line2D and region2D objects requires an order relation on halfseg-

ments. For two distinct halfsegments hi and h2 with a common endpoint p, let a be the enclosed

angle such that 0 < a < 180'. Let a predicate rot be defined as follows: rot(hi, h2) is true if, and

only if, hi can be rotated around p through a to overlap h2 in counterclockwise direction. This

enables us now to define a complete order on halfsegments. For two halfsegments hi = (sl, dl)

and h2 = (S2, d2) we obtain:

hi < h2 # dp(hi) < dp(h2) V (case 1)

(dp(h) = dp(h2) A ((-dl A d2) V (case 2a)

(di = d2 A rot(hi,h2)) V (case 2b)

(dl = d2 A collinear(s1,s2) A len(si) < len(S2)))) (case 3)











hih h



2h,


case 1 case 2a case 2b case 3


Figure 5-1. Examples of the order relation on halfsegments: h\ < h2


Examples of the order relation on halfsegments are given in Figure 5-1. Case 1 is exclu-

sively based on the (x,y)-lexicographical order on dominating points. In the other cases the

dominating points of h, and h2 coincide. Case 2a deals with the situation that hi is a right half-

segment and h2 is a left halfsegment. Case 2b handles the situation that hi and h2 are either both

left halfsegments or both right halfsegments so that the angle criterion is applied. Finally, case 3

treats the situation that h, and h2 are collinear. Two halfsegments h, = (sl, dl) and h2 = (s2, d2)

are equal if, and only if, sl = s2 and dl = d2.

We will also need an order relation between a point v E poi2D and a halfsegment h E

ihanlf, iu, mi2)D. We define v < h # v < dp(h) and v = h # v = dp(h). This shows the hybrid

nature of halfsegments having point and segment features.

At the highest level, we have the three complex spatial data types point2D, line2D, and

region2D (see Section 2.1.1 for their intuitive description and [59] for their formal definition).

They are the input data types for topological predicates and are essentially represented as ordered

sequences of elements of variable length. We here ignore additionally stored information about

spatial objects since it is not needed for our purposes. The type of the elements is poi2D for

point2D objects, hinolf, if ,i' m2D for line2D objects, and attributed half mc-tni: l (see below) for

region2D objects. Ordered sequences are selected as representation structures, since they directly

and efficiently support parallel traversals (Section 5.2.1.1) and the plane sweep paradigm (see

Section 5.2.1.3).









We now have a closer look at the type definitions. Let No := N U {0}. We define the type

point2D as

point2D= {{(p,...,pn) n e No,V1
Since n = 0 is allowed, the empty sequence () represents the empty point2D object.

The spatial data type line2D is defined as

line2D= {(h1,...,h2n)

(i) n E No

(ii) V 1 < i < 2n : hi e holf\, v, u m2D

(iii) Vhi = (si,di) e {Jh,...,h2n} 3hj = (sj,dj) e {hi,...,h2n},

1
(iv) V1 < i < 2n: hi < hi+1

(v) Vhi = (si,di),hj = (sj,dj) e {hi,..., h2n},i 4 j: equal(si,sj) V
disjoint(si,sj) V meet(si,sj)}

The value n is equal to the number of segments of a line2D object. Since each segment is

represented by a left and a right halfsegment (condition (iii)), a line2D object has 2n halfseg-

ments. Since n = 0 is allowed (condition (i)), the empty sequence () represents the empty line2D

object. Condition (iv) expresses that a line2D object is given as an ordered halnfc-,i:rntll sequence.

Condition (v) requires that the segments of two distinct halfsegments are either equal (this only

holds for the left and right halfsegments of a segment), disjoint, or meet.

The internal representation of region2D objects is similar to that of line2D objects. But for

each halfsegment, we also need the information whether the interior of the region is above/left or

below/right of it. We denote such a halfsegment as attributed halnf-c.i:rlnt. Each element of the

sequence consists of a halfsegment that is augmented by a Boolean flag ia (for "interior above").

If ia = true holds, the interior of the region is above or, for vertical segments, left of the segment.

The type region2D is defined as











region2D

(i)
(ii)
(iii)


{((hi, iai),..., (h2n,ia2n))
n ENo

V1 < i < 2n : hi E half',t 'm ui2D, iai e bool

Vhi = (si,di) e {hl,...,h2n}
3hj = (sj,dj) {hli,..., h2n}, 1 < i < j < 2n :

si = sj A di = -dj A iai = iaj


(iv) V1 < i < 2n:hi < hi+

(v) "additional topological constraints"}

Condition (v) refers to some additional topological constraints that all components (faces)

of a region must be edge-disjoint from each other and that for each face its holes must be located

inside its outer polygon, be edge-disjoint to the outer polygon, and be edge-disjoint among each

other. We mention these constraints for reasons of completeness and assume their satisfaction.

As an example, Figure 5-2 shows a line2D object L (with two components (blocks)) and

a region2D object R (with a single face containing a hole). Both objects are annotated with

segment names si. We determine the halfsegment sequences of L and R and let hi = (si, true) and

h( = (si,false) denote the left halfsegment and right halfsegment of a segment si respectively. For
L we obtain the ordered halfsegment sequence

L=(h, h, h, h, h, hr,, hl, hr, h', h h', hl,, h', h r, hl, hr, hl )
For R we obtain the following ordered sequence of attributed halfsegments (t = true,

f false):
R= (h t), (h f), (h f), (hl4, t), (h t), (h t), (h', f), (hl6, f), (h t), (hr, f),
(hr', f), (h t))

Since inserting a halfsegment at an arbitrary position needs O(n) time, in our implementa-

tion we use an AVL-tree embedded into an array whose elements are linked in halfsegment order.

An insertion then requires O(log n) time.











S 7 S9 S2
S 2
S4
s, ss

L R

Figure 5-2. A line2D object L and a region2D object R


If we take into account that the segments of a line2D object as well as the segments of a

region2D object are not allowed to intersect each other or touch each other in their interiors

according to their type specifications, the definition of the order relation on halfsegments seems

to be too intricate. If, in Figure 5-1, we take away all subcases of case 1 except for the upper left

subcase as well as case 3, the restricted order relation can already be leveraged for complex lines

and complex regions. In case that all spatial objects of an application space are defined over the

same realm2 [30, 57], the restricted order relation can also be applied for a parallel traversal of

the sequences of two (or more) realm-based line2D or region2D objects. Only in the general

case of intersecting spatial objects, the full order relation on halfsegments is needed for a parallel

traversal of the objects' halfsegment sequences.

5.1.3 Data Structures for Spatiotemporal Data Types

The discrete version of the spatiotemporal data types presented in Section 4.2 and 4.3

offers a precise basis for the design of data structures which form the basis for describing

the algorithmic scheme employed for spatiotemporal predicate evaluations (Section 5.3). In

fact, the discrete model is a high level specification of such data structures. In this section, we




2 A realm provides a discrete geometric basis for the construction of spatial objects and con-
sists of a finite set of points and non-intersecting segments, called realm objects. That is, a seg-
ment inserted into the realm is intersected and split according to a special strategy with all realm
objects. All spatial objects like complex points, complex lines, and complex regions are then
defined in terms of these realm objects. Hence, all spatial objects defined over the same realm
become acquainted with each other beforehand.









describe how we can translate the discrete specification of the basic spatiotemporal data types and

spatiotemporal balloon data types into appropriate data structures for implementation.

5.1.3.1 Data structures for basic spatiotemporal data types

A moving point mp E mapping(upoint) is represented as a record containing some global

object information fields and an array of units ordered by their time interval. That is,

mp = (n, s,objpbb, (upi,...,upn))

= (n, (tii,..., tik), ((x1,yI), (Xu, u)), ((unit-pbbi,ci, i, vi),..., (unit_pbbn, cn,in,vn)))
The value n stores the number of units of mp. The value Is keeps the lifespan of mp, which is

given as the subarray of disjoint time intervals tij, 1 < j < k, k < n, for which mp is defined. The

lifespan is obtained by merging the time intervals of all units. Adjacent unit intervals are then

fused to a single time interval. For the evaluation of some operations it can be helpful to use an

approximation of mp. We use the object projection bounding box objpbb for this purpose, which

represents the minimum, axis-parallel rectangle with respect to all points in the 2D space that at

some time instant belong to mp.

At the end of mp, its unit sequence is stored in a subarray containing n unit points upi

with 1 < i < n. Each unit consists of four components. The first component contains the unit

projection bounding box (by analogy with the object projection bounding box). The second

component stores the number of moving unit single point in the unit. The third component is

the unit interval ik = (k, rk, ICk, rck) with 1 < k < n where lk, rk E instant denote the left (start)

and right (end) time instant of ik and the two Boolean flags Ick and rck indicate whether ik is left-

closed and/or right-closed. We require that ik < ii for all 1 < k < 1 < n where the "<"-relationship

on intervals is defined as:

ik < ii = rdisjoint(ik, i) V r_adjacent(ik, i)
The last component describes the unit function for a unit point. It is given by a sequence of

m quadruples vk = ((xl,A, l,B,y1,A,yl,B),..., ,(XmA,Xm,B,Ym,A,Ym,B)) where each quadruple

represents the function fj(t) = (xj(t),yj(t)) = (xj,o + xj, t,yj,o + Yj,lt) with 1 < j < m. Such

functions describe a linearly moving single point. Thus, each quadruple corresponds to an









element of the set MPoi, and the sequence vk corresponds to the an element of the type point

defined in the discrete model (Section 4.2.2.1). For uniqueness and minimality of representation

we require in addition that

radjacent(ik, ii) = (Vk # V1)

The reason for this requirement is that we can merge two adjacent units with the same unit

function representation into a single unit over the merged time interval.

The representation of a moving line or a moving region is in principle the same as for

moving points. But due to the higher complexity of these types, the unit function of a uline

or a region value is more complex. It essentially describes a line or a region whose vertices

move linearly (i.e., whose vertex positions are linear functions of time), such that for all instants

in the unit interval the evaluation of the vertex functions yields a correct line or region value

respectively.

In general, a uline unit consists of a sequence of moving unit segments where each moving

unit segment is an element of the set MSeg defined in Section 4.2.2.2. A moving unit segment

ms = (u, v) with u, vE MPoi is a pair of moving unit single points that are coplanar in the

3D space. Consequently, a moving unit segment that is restricted to a time interval forms a

trapezium, or, in the degenerate case, a triangle in the 3D space. Rotations of segments are not

permitted since this leads to curvilinear lateral surfaces (viewed from the 3D perspective) whose

computational treatment is rather difficult (see Figure 4-4 and Section 4.2.2.2). The data structure

of a moving line ml E mapping(uline) and a moving region mr E mapping(uregion) can now be

described as follows:

ml = (n, s,objpbb, ul,...,uln))

= (n, (til,.. .,tik), ((xl, ), (Xuyu)), ((unitpbbl,cl, i,vi), ..., (unitpbbn, cn,in,n)))

mr = (n, Is,obj pbb, (url,..., urn))

= (n, (til,... tik), ((x, Y), (Xu, Yu)), ((unit-pbbl, c, ii,vi),... (unit-_pbbn, cn, in, Vn)))
The values n, Is, objpbb, tij, unitpbbl, and il have the same meaning and properties as for

moving points. In particular, we have the same order on unit intervals as for moving points, and









if two consecutive unit intervals are adjacent, their unit function representations are different.

The value cl denotes the number of moving unit segments in each unit. What remains to be

explained is the structure of the unit function vi. In both cases of the moving line ml and the

moving region mr, we take the unstructured approach by representing the unit function vi as a

sequence of moving unit segments msk with 1 < k < cl for a moving line or with 3 < k < cl for

a moving region (since a region must be composed from a minimum of 3 segments). Thus, we

have vi = (msi,..., msc ). We can take this unstructured approach instead of a structured one

(with intermediate structures such as moving blocks for a moving line or moving face and hole

cycles for a moving region) because, at the spatial level, we have devised methods for validating

and computing the structure of an unstructured line or region object (which are based directly

on segments). For example, given a set of segments, we can validate whether it is a valid line

object by using a plane sweep process to check for intersecting or overlapping segments, or we

can validate whether it is a valid region object by using our cycle walk algorithm as presented

in [41]. This eliminates the need to represent intermediate structures such as blocks for a line

object or face and hole cycles for a region object since these structures are generally used for

validation purposes, and if they are needed, they can be computed from the set of segments by

using a similar flavor of our validation algorithms. Another important difference between the

representation of a moving line and that of a moving region is that a moving unit segment msk

in the case of a moving region contains an additional information ia which is a Boolean value

indicating whether the interior of the region is above the segment at all time instants of the unit

interval. This allows one to derive a region data structure representation at any time instant

of the unit interval since such a data structure are composed of attributed halfsegments (see

Section 5.1.2) which can be constructed by using this information.

5.1.3.2 Data structures for balloon and spatiotemporal balloon data types

Spatiotemporal balloon data types are defined based on basic spatiotemporal data types.

Consequently their data structures are also based on those of basic spatiotemporal data types. The

data structure of a balloon object b E mapping(uct, up) can be described as follows:










b = (t,ls,obj pbb,h,p)

The value t is the time instant of the knowledge that defines the balloon object. This instant

is typically the time instant of the last known position or extent of the moving object or the

time instant when the future prediction is produced. The components Is and objpbb represent

the combined/merged lifespan and projection bounding box respectively of both the historical

movement and the predicted movement of the balloon object. The component h represents

the historical movement which is of the type mapping(uca) and has a data structure of the

corresponding basic spatiotemporal data type. Similarly, the component p describes the predicted

movement of type mapping(up) and also has a data structure of the corresponding basic

spatiotemporal data type. As specified in the discrete model, a restriction between h and p must

be preserved such that the lifespan of h must precede that of p.

For a moving balloon object mb E mballoon(uc, up), its data structure is slightly more

complex than that of a balloon object since now we need to represent a sequence of predicted

movements. The data structure of mb can be described as follows:

mb = (n, Is, obj_pbb, h, ((ti,pl),..., (tn,pn)))

The value n stores the number of predicted movements available. The components Is and

objpbb represent the combined/merged lifespan and projection bounding box respectively

of the historical movement and all of the predicted movements. The component h represents

the development of the historical movement. Since we assume that this development obeys the

historical accumulation phenomenon stated in the abstract and discrete models, we can represent

this development by using the data structure of a corresponding basic spatiotemporal data type

and provide a special temporal instantiation function th (Section 4.3.2) to obtain any historical

movement knowledge at any instant in the past. In the last component, each of the tuple (tk pk)

with 0 < k < n represents a predicted movement pk produced at time tk. Note that the predicted

movements are optional. This is the case when k = 0 for which the sequence of predicted

movements is empty. In such case, the moving balloon object is nothing more than a basic

moving object. Hence, a moving balloon object can be classified as a high level, generalized









version of a moving object with the ability to retain the development over time of the knowledge

of the past movement and predicted movements.

5.2 Algorithms for Topological Predicates on Complex Spatial Objects

In the implementation of topological predicates on complex spatial objects, we are espe-

cially interested in answering two kinds of queries. Given two objects A and B of any complex

spatial data type point2D, line2D, or region2D, we can pose at least two kinds of topological

queries: (1) "Do A and B satisfy the topological predicate p?" and (2) "What is the topological

predicate p between A and B?". Only query 1 yields a Boolean value, and we call it hence a

vn ii ifli, tii query. This kind of query is of large interest for the query processing of spatial joins

and spatial selections in spatial databases and GIS. Query 2 returns a predicate (name), and we

call it hence a determination query. This kind of query is interesting for spatial reasoning and all

applications analyzing the topological relationships of spatial objects. It is especially important in

the implementation of spatiotemporal predicates as we will see later.

Our goal in this section is to develop and present efficient implementation strategies for

topological predicates between all combinations of the three complex spatial data types point2D,

line2D, and region2D. We distinguish two phases of predicate execution: In an exploration

phase (Section 5.2.2), a plane sweep scans a given configuration of two spatial objects, detects

all topological events (like intersections), and records them in so-called topological feature

vectors. These vectors serve as input for the evaluation phase (Section 5.2.3) which analyzes

these topological data and determines the Boolean result of a topological predicate (query 1)

or the kind of topological predicate (query 2). To speed up the evaluation process, we also

present, in Section 5.2.4, two fine-tuned and optimized approaches of matrix thinning for

predicate verification and minimum cost decision trees for predicate determination. The two-

phase approach provides a direct and sound interaction and synergy between conceptual work

(9-intersection model) and implementation (algorithmic design). Interface methods for accessing

our implementation of this concept is given in Section 5.2.5. We begin by presenting some basic

algorithmic concepts needed for the exploration algorithms in Section 5.2.1.









5.2.1 Basic Algorithmic Concepts

In this section, we describe three algorithmic concepts that serve as the foundation of the

exploration nlgiiliuid in Section 5.2.2. These concepts are the parallel object traversal (Sec-

tion 5.2.1.1), overlap numbers (Section 5.2.1.2), and the plane sweep paradigm (Section 5.2.1.3).

Parallel object traversal and overlap numbers are employed during a plane sweep. We will not

describe these three concepts in full detail here, since they are well known methods in Compu-

tational Geometry [3] and spatial databases [33]. However, we will focus on the specialties of

these concepts in our setting, including some improvements compared to standard plane sweep

implementations. These comprise a smoothly integrated handling of general (that is, intersecting)

and realm-based (that is, non-intersecting) pairs of spatial objects. An objective of this section is

also to introduce a number of auxiliary operations and predicates that make the description of the

exploration algorithms later much easier and more comprehensible.

5.2.1.1 Parallel object traversal

For a plane sweep, the representation elements (points or segments) of the spatial operand

objects have usually to be merged together and sorted afterwards according to some order

relation (for example, the order on x-coordinates). This initial merging and sorting is rather

expensive and requires O(n log n) time, if n is the number of representation elements of both

operand objects. Our approach avoids this initial oirling. since the representation elements of

point2D, line2D, and region2D objects are already stored in the order we need (point order or

halfsegment order). We also do not have to merge the object representations, since we can deploy

a parallel object traversal that allows us to traverse the point or halfsegment sequences of both

operand objects in parallel. Hence, by employing a cursor on both sequences, it is sufficient to

check the point or halfsegment at the current cursor positions of both sequences and to take the

lower one with respect to the point order or halfsegment order for further computation.

If the operand objects have already been intersected with each other, like in the realm

case [30], the parallel object traversal has only to operate on two static point or halfsegment

sequences. But in the general case, intersections between both objects can exist and are detected









during the plane sweep. A purely static sequence structure is insufficient in this case, since

detected intersections have to be stored and handled later during the plane sweep. In order

to avoid a change of the original object representations, which would be very expensive and

only temporarily needed, each object is associated with an additional and temporary dynamic

sequence, which stores newly detected points or halfsegments of interest. Hence, our parallel

object traversal has to handle a static and a dynamic sequence part for each operand object

and thus four instead of two point or halfsegment sequences. It returns the smallest point or

halfsegment from the four current cursor positions. We will give an example of the parallel object

traversal when we discuss our plane sweep approach in Section 5.2.1.3.

To simplify the description of this parallel scan, two operations are provided. Let 01 E o and

02 E p with a, 3 E {point2D, line2D, region2D}. The operation \c I 1fi [iri\(O1, 02, object, status)

selects the first point or halfsegment of each of the operand objects 01 and 02 and positions a

logical pointer on both of them. The parameter object with a possible value out of the set {none,

first, second, both} indicates which of the two object representations contains the smaller point

or halfsegment. If the value of object is none, no point or halfsegment is selected, since 01 and

02 are empty. If the value is first (second), the smaller point or halfsegment belongs to 01 (02).

If it is both, the first point or halfsegment of 01 and 02 are identical. The parameter status with

a possible value out of the set {endof-none, endof-first, endofsecond, endofboth} describes

the state of both object representations. If the value of status is endofnone, both objects still

have points or halfsegments. If it is endof-first (endofsecond), 01 (02) is exhausted. If it is

endofboth, both object representations are exhausted.

The operation selectnext(Oi, 02, object, status), which has the same parameters as

select-first, searches for the next smallest point or halfsegment of 01 and 02. Two points

(halfsegments) are compared with respect to the lexicographic (halfsegment) order. For the

comparison between a point and a halfsegment, the dominating point of the halfsegment

and hence the lexicographic order is used. If before this operation object was equal to both,

selectnext moves forward the logical pointers of both sequences; otherwise, if object was equal









to first (second), it only moves forward the logical pointer of the first (second) sequence. In

contrast to the first operation, which only has to consider the static sequence part of an object,

this operation also has to check the dynamic sequence part of each object. Both operations

together allow one to scan in linear time two object representations like one ordered sequence.

5.2.1.2 Overlap numbers

The concept of overlap numbers is exclusively needed for the computation of the topological

relationships between two region2D objects. The reason is that we have to find out the degree

of overlapping of region parts. Points in the plane that are shared by both region2D objects

obtain the overlap number 2. Points that are shared only by one of the objects obtain the overlap

number 1. All other points are outside of both objects and obtain the overlap number 0. In our

implementation, since a segment sh of an attributed halfsegment (h, iah) = ((sh, dh), iah) of a

region object separates space into two parts, an interior and an exterior one, during a plane sweep

each such segment is associated with a segment class which is a pair (m/n) of overlap numbers,

a lower (or right) one m and an upper (or left) one n (m, n E No). The lower (upper) overlap

number indicates the number of overlapping region2D objects below (above) the segment. In

this way, we obtain a segment ( n \ \ifi, niit of two region2D objects and speak about (m/n)-

segments. Obviously, 0 < m, n < 2 holds. Of the nine possible combinations only seven describe

valid segment classes. This is because a (0/0)-segment contradicts the definition of a complex

region2D object, since then at least one of both regions would have two holes or an outer cycle

and a hole with a common border segment. Similarly, (2/2)-segments cannot exist, since then at

least one of the two regions would have a segment which is common to two outer cycles of the

object. Hence, possible (m/n)-segments are (0/1)-, (0/2)-, (1/0)-, (1/1)-, (1/2)-, (2/0)-, and

(2/1)-segments. Figure 5-3 gives an example.

5.2.1.3 Plane sweep

The plane sweep technique [3, 55] is a well known algorithmic scheme in Computational

Geometry. Its central idea is to reduce a two-dimensional geometric problem to a simpler one-

dimensional geometric problem. A vertical sweep line traversing the plane from left to right









0



11 1
-0------



Figure 5-3. Example of the segment classification of two region2D objects


stops at special event points which are stored in a queue called event point schedule. The event

point schedule must allow one to insert new event points discovered during processing; these

are normally the initially unknown intersections of line segments. The state of the intersection

of the sweep line with the geometric structure being swept at the current sweep line position is

recorded in vertical order in a data structure called sweep line status. Whenever the sweep line

reaches an event point, the sweep line status is updated. Event points which are passed by the

sweep line are removed from the event point schedule. Note that, in general, an efficient and

fully dynamic data structure is needed to represent the event point schedule and that, in many

plane-sweep algorithms, an initial sorting step is needed to produce the sequence of event points

in (x, y)-lexicographical order.

In our case, the event points are either the points of the static point sequences of point2D

objects or the (attributed) halfsegments of the static halfsegment sequences of line2D (region2D)

objects. This especially holds and is sufficient for the realm case. In addition, in the general case,

new event points are determined during the plane sweep as intersections of line segments; they

are stored as points or halfsegments in the dynamic sequence parts of the operand objects and are

needed only temporarily for the plane sweep. As we have seen in Section 5.2.1.1, the concepts

of point order, halfsegment order, and parallel object traversal avoid an expensive initial sorting

at the beginning of the plane sweep. We use the operation getevent to provide the element to

which the logical pointer of a point or halfsegment sequence is currently pointing. The Boolean

predicate lookahead tests whether the dominating points of a given halfsegment and the next

halfsegment after the logical pointer of a given halfsegment sequence are equal.









Several operations are needed for managing the sweep line status. The operation newsweep

creates a new, empty sweep line status. If a left (right) halfsegment of a line2D or region2D

object is reached during a plane-sweep, the operation addleft (delright) stores (removes) its

segment component into (from) the segment sequence of the sweep line status. The predicate

coincident checks whether the just inserted segment partially coincides with a segment of the

other object in the sweep line status. The operation setattr (get-attr) sets (gets) an attribute

for (from) a segment in the sweep line status. This attribute can be either a Boolean value

indicating whether the interior of the region is above the segment or not (the "Interior Above"

flag), or it can be an assigned segment classification. The operation get-predattr yields the

attribute from the predecessor of a segment in the sweep line status. The operation predexists

(common pointexists) checks whether for a segment in the sweep line status a predecessor

according to the vertical y-order (a neighbored segment of the other object with a common end

point) exists. The operation predofp searches the nearest segment below a given point in the

sweep line status. The predicate currentexists tests whether such a segment exists. The predicate

poion-seg (poiin-seg) checks whether a given point lies on (in) any segment of the sweep line

status.

2 2


S, 0 0 s

Figure 5-4. Changing overlap numbers after an intersection.


Intersections of line segments stemming from two lines2D objects, two region2D objects,

or a line2D object and a region2D object are of special interest, since they indicate topological

changes. If two segments of two line2D objects intersect, this can, for example, indicate a proper

intersection, or a meeting situation between both segments, or an overlapping of both segments.

If a segment of a line2D object intersects a segment of a region2D object, the former segment

can, for example, "enter" the region, "leave" the region, or overlap with the latter segment.

Overlap numbers can be employed here to determine entering and leaving situations. If segments









of two region2D objects intersect, this can, for example, indicate that they share a common area

and/or a common boundary. In this case, intersecting line segments have especially an effect

on the overlap numbers of the segments of both region2D objects. In Section 5.2.1.2 we have

tacitly assumed that any two segments from both region2D objects are either disjoint, or equal,

or meet solely in a common end point. Only if these topological constraints are satisfied, we

can use the concepts of overlap numbers and segment classes for a plane sweep. But the general

case in particular allows intersections. Figure 5-4 shows the problem of segment classes for two

intersecting segments. The segment class of s [s2] left of the intersection point is (0/1) [(1/2)].

The segment class of si [s2] right of the intersection point is (1/2) [(0/1)]. That is, after the

intersection point, seen from left to right, s, and s2 exchange their segment classes. The reason

is that the topology of both segments changes. Whereas, to the left of the intersection, s, (s2)

is outside (inside) the region to which s2 (sl) belongs, to the right of the intersection, sl (s2) is

inside (outside) the region to which s2 (sl) belongs.

In order to be able to make the needed topological detections and to enable the use of

overlap numbers for two general regions, in case that two segments from two different regions

intersect, partially coincide, or touch each other within the interior of a segment, we pursue a

splitting strategy that is executed during the plane sweep "on the fly". If segments intersect,

they are temporarily split at their common intersection point so that each of them is replaced

by two segments (that is, four halfsegments) (Figure 5-5A). If two segments partially coincide,

they are split each time the endpoint of one segment lies inside the interior of the other segment.

Depending on the topological situations, which can be described by Allen's thirteen basic

relations on intervals [1], each of the two segments either remains unchanged or is replaced

by up to three segments (that is, six halfsegments). From the thirteen possible relations, eight

relations (four pairs of symmetric relations) are of interest here (Figure 5-5B). If an endpoint of

one segment touches the interior of the other segment, the latter segment is split and replaced by

two segments (that is, four halfsegments) (Figure 5-5C). This splitting strategy is numerically

stable and thus feasible from an implementation standpoint since we assume numerically










1 2

1 2 3 1
2 1 2

1 2
---------
1 2
A B C

Figure 5-5. Splitting of segments. A) two intersecting segments. B) two partially coinciding
segments (without symmetric counterparts). C) A segment whose interior is touched
by another segment. Digits indicate part numbers of segments after splitting.


robust geometric computation that ensures topological consistency of intersection operations.

Intersecting and touching points can then be exactly computed, lead to representable points, and

are thus precisely located on the intersecting or touching segments.

However, as indicated before, the splitting of segments entails some algorithmic effort. On

the one hand, we want to keep the halfsegment sequences of the line2D and region2D objects

unchanged, since their update is expensive and only temporarily needed for the plane sweep. On

the other hand, the splitting of halfsegments has an effect on these sequences. As a compromise,

for each line2D or region2D object, we maintain its "static" representation, and the halfsegments

obtained by the splitting process are stored in an additional "dynamic" halfsegment sequence.

The dynamic part is also organized as an AVL tree which is embedded in an array and whose

elements are linked in sequence order. Assuming that k splitting points are detected during the

plane sweep, we need O(k) additional space, and to insert them requires O(klog k) time. After

the plane sweep, this additional space is released.










A B

Figure 5-6. Sweep line status. A) Before the splitting (s4 to be inserted). B) After the splitting.
The vertical dashed line indicates the current position of the sweep line.








Table 5-1. Static and dynamic halfsegment sequences of the regions R1 and R2 in Figure 5-6.
RI dynamic sequence part (h41, f) (h (42 )
RI static sequence part (h t) (h2, f) (h3, t) (h, f) (h t)
(h 2,f) (h4, f) (hs,, f) (h,,, f) (h t)
R2 static sequence part (h/ t) (hV2, f) (h2, f) (h3, f) (h3,f)
(h ,t)
R2 dynamic sequence part (hl, t) (h1,2, t) (h1,2 t)


To illustrate the splitting process in more detail, we consider two region2D objects RI and
R2. In general, we have to deal with the three cases in Figure 5-5. We first consider the case

that the plane sweep detects an intersection. This leads to a situation like in Figure 5-6A. The
two static and the two dynamic halfsegment sequences of R1 and R2 are shown in Table 5-1.
Together they form the event point schedule of the plane sweep and are processed by a parallel
object traversal. Before the current position of the sweep line (indicated by the vertical dashed
line in Figure 5-6), the parallel object traversal has already processed the attributed halfsegments
(h1 ,t), (h2,f), (hl ,t), and (hl2,f) in this order. At the current position of the sweep line,

the parallel object traversal encounters the halfsegments (h3, t) and (hl4, f). For each left
halfsegment visited, the corresponding segment is inserted into the sweep line status according

to the y-coordinate of its dominating point and checked for intersections with its direct upper
and lower neighbors. In our example, the insertion of s4 leads to an intersection with its upper
neighbor v1. This requires segment splitting; we split v, into the two segments v1,1 and v1,2 and

s4 into the two segments s4,1 and S4,2. In the sweep line status, we have to replace v1 by vi,i and

S4 by s4,1 (Figure 5-6B). The new halfsegments (h 4,1, f), (h4,2, f), and (h4,2, f) are inserted
into the dynamic halfsegment sequence of R1. Into the dynamic halfsegment sequence of R2, we
insert the halfsegments (h1, t), (h1,2 t), and (h1,2, t). We need not store the two halfsegments

(h,1, f) and (h1 t) since they refer to the "past" and have already been processed.
On purpose we have accepted a little inconsistency in this procedure, which can fortunately
be easily controlled. Since, for the duration of the plane sweep, s4 (v1) has been replaced by s4,1

(vi,l) and s4,2 (V1,2), the problem is that the static sequence part of Ri (R2) still includes the now
invalid halfsegment (hr4, f) ((hl, t)), which we may not delete (see Figure 5-6B). However, this









is not a problem due to the following observation. If we find a right halfsegment in the dynamic

sequence part of a region2D object, we know that it stems from splitting a longer, collinear, right

halfsegment that is stored in the static sequence part of this object, has the same right end point,

and has to be skipped during the parallel object traversal.

For the second and third case in Figure 5-5, the procedure is the same but more splits can

occur. In case of overlapping, collinear segments, we obtain up to six new halfsegments. In case

of a touching situation, the segment whose interior is touched is split.

5.2.2 The Exploration Phase for Collecting Topological Information

For a given scene of two spatial objects, the goal of the exploration phase is to discover

appropriate topological information that is characteristic and unique for this scene and that is

suitable both for verification queries (query type 1) and determination queries (query type 2). Our

approach is to scan such a scene from left to right by a plane sweep and to collect topological

data during this traversal that later in the evaluation phase helps us confirm, deny, or derive the

topological relationship between both objects. From both phases, the exploration phase is the

computationally expensive one since topological information has to be explicitly derived by

geometric computation.

Our research shows that it is unfavorable to aim at designing a universal exploration

algorithm that covers all combinations of spatial data types. This has three main reasons.

First, each of the data types point2D, line2D, and region2D has very type-specific, well known

properties that are different from each other (like different dimensionality). Second, for each

combination of spatial data types, the topological information we have to collect is very specific

and especially different from all other type combinations. Third, the topological information

we collect about each spatial data type is different in different type combinations. Therefore,

using the basic algorithmic concepts of Section 5.2.1, in this section, we present exploration

algorithms for all combinations of complex spatial data types. Between two objects of types

point2D, line2D, or region2D, we have to distinguish six different cases, if we assume that the









first operand has an equal or lower dimension than the second operand3 All algorithms except

for the pt'ii2D/point2D case require the plane sweep technique.

Depending on the types of spatial objects involved, a boolean vector VF consisting of a

special set of topologicall flags" is assigned to each object F. We call it a topological feature

vector. Its flags are all initialized to false. Once certain topological information about an

object has been discovered, the corresponding flag of its topological feature vector is set to

true. Topological flags represent topological facts of interest. We obtain them by analyzing

the topological intersections between the exterior, interior and boundary of a complex spatial

object with the corresponding components of another complex spatial object according to

the 9-intersection matrix (Figure 2-2A). That is, the concept is to map the matrix elements

of the 9-intersection matrix, which are predicates, into a topological feature vector and to

eliminate redundancy given by symmetric matrix elements. For all type combinations, we aim at

minimizing the number of topological flags of both spatial argument objects. In symmetric cases,

only the first object gets the flag. The topological feature vectors are later used in the evaluation

phase for predicate matching. Hence, the selection of topological flags is highly motivated by the

requirements of the evaluation phase (Section 5.2.3,[51]).

Let P(F) be the set of all points of a point2D object F, H(F) be the set of all (attributed)

halfsegments [including those resulting from our splitting strategy] of a line2D (region2D) object

F, and B(F) be the set of all boundary points of a line2D object F. For f E H(F), let f.s denote

its segment component, and, if F is a region2D object, letf.ia denote its attribute component.

The definitions in the next subsections make use of the operations on robust geometric primitives

and halfsegments (Section 5.1.2).



3 If, in the determination query case, a predicate p(A,B) has to be processed, for which the
dimension of object A is higher than the dimension of object B, we process the converse predicate
pCOnV(B,A) where pCOnV has the transpose of the 9-intersection matrix (see Figure 2-2A) of p.









5.2.2.1 The exploration algorithm for the point2D/point2D case

The first and simplest case considers the exploration of topological information for two

point2D objects F and G. Here, the topological facts of interest are whether (i) both objects

have a point in common and (ii) F (G) contains a point that is not part of G (F). Hence, both

topological feature vectors VF and VG get the flag poi_disjoint. But only VF in addition gets the

flag poishared since the sharing of a point is symmetric. We obtain (the symbol ":,#>" means

"equivalent by definition"):


Definition 5.1 : Let F, G E point2D, and let VF and VG be their topological feature vectors.

Then

(i) vFpoi-shared] : 3 f e P(F) 3g e P(G) : f = g

(ii) VFpoidisiui1] : E 3f e P(F) Vg e P(G) : f 4 g

(iii) VG[poi-divi,,i1] :@ 3g e P(G) Vf e P(F) :f / g

For the computation of the topological feature vectors, a plane sweep is not needed; a

parallel traversal suffices, as the algorithm in Figure 5-7 shows. The while-loop terminates if

either the end of one of the objects has been reached or all topological flags have been set to

true (lines 7 and 8). In the worst case, the loop has to be traversed I + m times where 1 (m) is the

number of points of the first (second) point2D object. Since the body of the while-loop requires

constant time, the overall time complexity is O(1 + m).

5.2.2.2 The exploration algorithm for the point2D/line2D case

In case of a point2D object F and a line2D object G, at the lowest level of detail, we

are interested in the possible relative positions between the individual points of F and the

halfsegments of G. This requires a precise understanding of the definition of the boundary of

a line2D object, as it has been given in [59]. It follows from this definition that each boundary

point of G is an endpoint of a (half)segment of G and that this does not necessarily hold vice

versa, as Figure 5-8A indicates. The black segment endpoints belong to the boundary of G, since

exactly one segment emanates from each of them. Intuitively, they "bound" G. In contrast, the









01 algorithm ExplorePoint2DPoint2D
02 input: point2D objects F and G, topological feature
03 vectors VF and VG initialized with false
04 output: updated vectors VF and VG
05 begin
06 ', /, i- ii,\i(F, G, object, status);
07 while status = endofnone and not (F [poidii\ 'iiil]
08 and VG poi_ di\tii il] and vF [poishared]) do
09 if object =first then VF [poidii\'ii 111 := true
10 else if object = second then VG poidi\iit iii := true
11 else /* object = both */
12 VF[poishared] := true;
13 endif
14 select Jext(F, G, object, status);
15 endwhile;
16 if status = endof-first then VG[poidi\it'ii'] := true
17 else if status = end ofsecond then
18 VF poidi\_liiiiu] := true
19 endif
20 end ExplorePoint2DPoint2D.

Figure 5-7. Algorithm for computing the topological feature vectors for two point2D objects


grey segment endpoints belong to the interior of G, since several segments emanate from each of

them. Intuitively, they are "connector points" between different segments of G.

G m G G
Fm Fm



A B C

Figure 5-8. Boundary point intersections. A) Boundary points (in black) and connector points (in
grey) of a line2D object. B) A scenario where a boundary point of a line2D object
exists that is unequal to all points of a point2D object. C) A scenario where this is not
the case.


The following argumentation leads to the needed topological flags for F and G. Seen from

the perspective of F, we can distinguish three cases since the boundary of F is empty [59] and

the interior of F can interact with the exterior, interior, or boundary of G. First, (the interior of)

a point f of F can be disjoint from G (flag poi_disjoint). Second, a point f can lie in the interior









of a segment of G (flag poioninterior). This includes an endpoint of such a segment, if the

endpoint is a connector point of G. Third, a point f can be equal to a boundary point of G (flag

poionbound). Seen from the perspective of G, we can distinguish four cases since the boundary

and the interior of G can interact with the interior and exterior of F. First, G can contain a

boundary point that is unequal to all points in F (flag bound-poidisjoint). Second, G can have a

boundary point that is equal to a point in F. But the flag poionbound already takes care of this

situation. Third, the interior of a segment of G (including connector points) can comprehend a

point of F. This situation is already covered by the flag poioninterior. Fourth, the interior of a

segment of G can be part of the exterior of F. This is always true since a segment of G represents

an infinite point set that cannot be covered by the finite number of points in F. Hence, we need

not handle this as a special situation. Formally, we define the semantics of the topological flags as

follows:


Definition 5.2 : Let F E pt'im2lD, G E line2D, and VF and VG be their topological feature

vectors. Then,

(i) VFpoidisi,,i1u] :> 3f e P(F) Vg E H(G) : -on(f,g.s)

(ii) vF poioninterior] : 3 f e P(F) 3g E H(G) Vb e B(G) : on(f,g.s) A f 4 b

(iii) vF[poionbound] : 3 f e P(F) 3g e B(G): f =g

(iv) vG[boundpoi_diiiiu] :> g 3g e B(G) Vf E P(F) : f g

Our algorithm for computing the topological information for this case is shown in Figure 5-

9. The while-loop is executed until the end of the line2D object (line 9) and as long as not all

topological flags have been set to true (lines 10 to 11). The operations '. l tlrfirst and select-next

compare a point and a halfsegment according to the order relation defined in Section 5.1.2 in

order to determine the next elements) to be processed. If only a point has to be processed (line

12), we know that it does not coincide with an endpoint of a segment of G and hence not with a

boundary point of G. But we have to check whether the point lies in the interior of a segment in

the sweep line status structure S. This is done by the search operation poiinseg on S (line 13). If

this is not the case, the point must be located outside the segment (line 14). If only a halfsegment












01 algorithm ExplorePoint2DLine2D
02 input: point2D object F and line2D object G,
03 topological feature vectors VF and VG
04 initialized with false
05 output: updated vectors VF and VG
06 begin
07 S := newsweep(); lastdp := e;
08 ', /, i- ,ii i(F, G, object, status);
09 while status 4 end ofsecond and status 4 end ofiboth and
10 not (VF [poi_di\itiiii] and VF [poion_interior] and
11 VF[poionibound] and VG[boundpoi _di\iiii]) do
12 if object =first then p := getevent(F);
13 if poiinseg(S, p) then vF [poioninterior] := true
14 else VF poidi\ it'ii] := true endif
15 else if object = second then
16 h := getevent(G); /* h = (s, d) */
17 if d then addleft(S, s) else del_rigln(S, s) endif;
18 if dp(h) 7 lastdp then lastdp := dp(h);
19 if not lookahead(h, G) then
20 vG[boundpoi_di\iiim] := true
21 endif
22 endif
23 else /* object = both */
24 h := getevent(G); /* h = (s, d) */
25 if d then addleft(S, s) else del_rigl,(S, s) endif;
26 last_dp := dp(h);
27 if lookahead(h, G) then
28 VF poioninterior] := true
29 else VF [poion-bound] := true endif
30 endif
31 select_next(F, G, object, status);
32 endwhile;
33 if status = end ofsecond then
34 vF[poi_di\iiim] := true
35 endif
36 end ExplorePoint2DLine2D.

Figure 5-9. Algorithm for computing the topological feature vectors for a point2D object and a
line2D object









h has to be processed (line 15), its segment component is inserted into (deleted from) S if h is

a left (right) halfsegment (line 17). We also have to test if the dominating point of h, say v, is

a boundary point of G. This is the case if v is unequal to the previous dominating point stored

in the variable lastdp (line 18) and if the operation lookahead finds out that v does also not

coincide with the dominating point of the next halfsegment (lines 19 to 20). In case that a point

v of F is equal to a dominating point of a halfsegment h in G (line 23), we know that v has never

been visited before and that it is an end point of the segment component of h. Besides the update

of S (line 25), it remains to decide whether v is an interior point (line 28) or a boundary point

(line 29) of h. For this, we look ahead (line 27) to see whether the next halfsegment's dominating

point is equal to v or not.

If I is the number of points of F and m is the number of halfsegments of G, the while-loop

is executed at most 1 + m times. The insertion of a left halfsegment into and the removal of a

right halfsegment from the sweep line status needs O(log m) time. The check whether a point lies

within or outside a segment (predicate poiinseg) also requires O(log m) time. Altogether, the

worst time complexity is O((l + m) logm). The while-loop has to be executed at least m times for

processing the entire line2D object in order to find out if a boundary point exists that is unequal

to all points of the point2D object (Figures 5-8B and C).

5.2.2.3 The exploration algorithm for the point2Dlregion2D case

In case of a point2D object F and a region2D object G, the situation is simpler than in the

previous case. Seen from the perspective of F, we can again distinguish three cases between

(the interior of) a point of F and the exterior, interior, or boundary of G. First, a point of F

lies either inside G (flag poiinside), on the boundary of G (flag poionbound), or outside

of region G (flag poioutside). Seen from the perspective of G, we can distinguish four cases

between the boundary and the interior of G with the interior and exterior of F. The intersection

of the boundary (interior) of G with the interior of F implies that a point of F is located on the

boundary (inside) of G. This situation is already covered by the flag poionbound (poiinside).

The intersection of the boundary (interior) of G with the exterior of F is always true, since F









as a finite point set cannot cover G's boundary segments (interior) representing an infinite point

set. More formally, we define the semantics of the topological flags as follows (we assume

poilnRegion to be a predicate which checks whether a point lies inside a region2D object):


Definition 5.3 : Let F E pi'niiD, G E region2D, and VF and VG be their topological feature

vectors. Then,

(i) VF poiinside] : #> 3 f E P(F) : poilnRegion (f, G)

(ii) VF poion2bound] :> 3f E P(F) 3g E H(G) : on(f,g.s)

(iii) VF poioutside] : E 3f E P(F) Vg E H(G) : -poilnRegion(f, G) A -on(f,g.s)

We see that VG is not needed. The algorithm for this case is shown in Figure 5-10. The

while-loop is executed as long as none of the two objects has been processed (line 9) and as long

as not all topological flags have been set to true (lines 9 to 10). If only a point has to be processed

(line 11), we must check its location. The first case is that it lies on a boundary segment; this is

checked by the sweep line status predicate poionseg (line 12). Otherwise, it must be located

inside or outside of G. We use the operation predof-p (line 13) to determine the nearest segment

in the sweep line status whose intersection point with the sweep line has a lower y-coordinate

than the y-coordinate of the point. The predicate currentexists checks whether such a segment

exists (line 14). If this is not the case, the point must be outside of G (line 17). Otherwise, we ask

for the information whether the interior of G is above the segment (line 14). We can then derive

whether the point is inside or outside the region (lines 15 to 16). If only a halfsegment h has to

be processed or a point v of F is equal to a dominating point of a halfsegment h in G (line 20),

h's segment component is inserted into (deleted from) S if h is a left (right) halfsegment (line

20 to 21). In case of a left halfsegment, in addition, the information whether the interior of G is

above the segment is stored in the sweep line status (line 21). If v and the dominating point of h

coincide, we know that the point is on the boundary of G (line 23).

If I is the number of points of F and m is the number of halfsegments of G, the while-loop

is executed at most 1 + m times. Each of the sweep line status operations addleft, del_right,









01 algorithm ExplorePoint2DRegion2D
02 input: point2D object F and region2D object G,
03 topological feature vectors VF and VG
04 initialized with false
05 output: updated vectors VF and VG
06 begin
07 S := newsweep();
08 selea ,ir\ni(F, G, object, status);
09 while status = end ofnone and not (vF [poi inside]
10 and VF [poionbound] and F [poioutside]) do
11 if object =first then p := getevent(F);
12 if poionseg(S, p) then VF [poionbound] := true
13 else pred_ofp(S, p);
14 if currentexists(S) then ia := getattr(S);
15 if ia then VF [poi inside] := true
16 else VF poioutside] := true endif
17 else VF [poi_outside] := true
18 endif
19 endif
20 else h := getevent(G); ia := getattr(G); /* h = (s, d) */
21 if d then addleft(S, s); setattr(S, ia)
22 else del_righlt(S, s) endif;
23 if object = both then vF [poionbound] := true endif
24 endif
25 select Jiext(F, G, object, status);
26 endwhile;
27 if status = end ofsecond then
28 F [poioutside] := true
29 endif
30 end ExplorePoint2DRegion2D.

Figure 5-10. Algorithm for computing the topological feature vectors for a point2D object and a
region2D object


poionseg, predof-p, currentexists, getattr, and setattr needs O(logm) time. The total worst

time complexity is O((1 + m)logm).

5.2.2.4 The exploration algorithm for the line2D/line2D case

We now consider the exploration algorithm for two line2D objects F and G. Seen from

the perspective of F, we can differentiate six cases between the interior and boundary of F and

the interior, boundary, and exterior of G. First, the interiors of two segments of F and G can









partially or completely coincide (flag segshared). Second, if a segment of F does not partially
or completely coincide with any segment of G, we register this in the flag segunshared. Third,
we set the flag interiorpoishared if two segments intersect in a single point that does not belong
to the boundaries of F or G. Fourth, a boundary endpoint of a segment of F can be located in
the interior of a segment (including connector points) of G (flag boundoninterior). Fifth, both
objects F and G can share a boundary point (flag boundshared). Sixth, if a boundary endpoint
of a segment of F lies outside of all segments of G, we set the flag bounddisioint. Seen from
the perspective of G, we can identify the same cases. But due to the symmetry of three of the
six topological cases, we do not need all flags for G. For example, if a segment of F partially
coincides with a segment of G, this also holds vice versa. Hence, it is sufficient to introduce the
flags segunshared, boundoninterior, and bounddisioint for G. We define the semantics of the
topological flags as follows:

Definition 5.4 : Let F, G E line2D, and let VF and VG be their topological feature vectors.
Then,


(i) VF [seg-shared]
(ii) VF [interior-poishared]


(iii) VF [segunshared]

(iv) VF [boundoninterior]


(v) VF [boundshared]
(vi) VF[bouiiid-di\itii]
(vii) VG[segunshared]
(viii) vG[boundoninterior]


(ix) VG[bouitddi\ i'im]i


: 3lf C H(F) 3g e H(G) : g : E 3f C H(F) 3g C H(G) Vp E B(F) UB(G):

poilntersect(f.s,g.s) A poilntersection(f.s, g.s) # p
:= 3f e H(F) Vg E H(G) : ic\, gl <, i(f.s,g.s)
:= Ef E H(F) Eg E H(G) p E B(F) \ B(G) :
poilntersection(f.s,g.s) = p
:z 3pc B(F) 3q B(G):p = q
: 3p E B(F) Vg E H(G) : on(p,g.s)
:~ 3g E H(G) Vf e H(F) : l I., I(f.s,g.s)
: E 3f E H(F) 3g E H(G) 3p B(G) \ B(F) :
poilntersection(f.s,g.s) = p
:= 3Eq e B(G) Vf e H(F) : -on(q,f.s)
















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The exploration algorithm for this case is given in Figure 5-11. The while-loop is executed

until both objects have been processed (line 9) and as long as not all topological flags have been

set to true (lines 9 to 13). If a single left (right) halfsegment of F (line 14) has to be processed

(the same for G (line 36)), we insert it into (delete it from) the sweep line status (lines 15 and 16).

The deletion of a single right halfsegment further indicates that it is not shared by G (line 16). If

the current dominating point, say v, is unequal to the previous dominating point of F (line 17)

and if the operation lookahead finds out that v is also unequal to the dominating point of the next

halfsegment ofF (line 18), v must be a boundary point ofF (line 19). In this case, we perform

three checks. First, if v coincides with the current boundary point in G, both objects share a part

of their boundary (lines 20 to 21). Second, otherwise, if v is equal to the current dominating

point, say w, in G, w must be an interior point of G, and the boundary of F and the interior of G

share a point (lines 22 to 23). Third, otherwise, if v is different from the dominating point of the

next halfsegment in G, F contains a boundary point that is disjoint from G (lines 24 to 25). If v

has not been identified as a boundary point in the previous step (line 29), it must be an interior

point of F. In this case, we check whether it coincides with the current boundary point in G (lines

30 to 31) or whether it is also an interior point in G (lines 32 to 33). If a halfsegment belongs to

both objects (line 38), we can conclude that it is shared by them (line 39). Depending on whether

it is a left or right halfsegment, it is inserted into or deleted from the sweep line status (line 40).

Lines 41 to 45 (46 to 50) test whether the dominating point v of the halfsegment is a boundary

point of F (G). Afterwards, we check whether v is a boundary point of both objects (lines 51 to

52). If this is not the case, we examine whether one of them is a boundary point and the other

one is an interior point (lines 54 to 59). Lines 62 to 66 handle the case that exactly one of the two

halfsegment sequences is exhausted.

Let 1 (m) be the number of halfsegments of F (G). Segments of both objects can intersect

or partially coincide (Figure 5-5), and we handle these topological situations with the splitting

strategy described in Section 5.2.1.3. If, due to splitting, k is the total number of additional

halfsegments stored in the dynamic halfsegment sequences of both objects, the while-loop is









executed at most + m + k times. The only operations needed on the sweep line status are addleft

and delright for inserting and deleting halfsegments; they require O(log(l + m + k)) time each.

No special predicates have to be deployed for discovering topological information. Due to the

splitting strategy, all dominating end points either are already endpoints of existing segments or

become endpoints of newly created segments. The operation look_ahead needs constant time. In

total, the algorithm requires O((l + m+ k) log(l + m+ k)) time and O(l + m+ k) space.

5.2.2.5 The exploration algorithm for the line2Dlregion2D case

Next, we describe the exploration algorithm for a line2D object F and a region2D object G.

Seen from the perspective of F, we can distinguish six cases between the interior and boundary

of F and the interior, boundary, and exterior of G. First, the intersection of the interiors of F

and G means that a segment of F lies in G (flag seginside). Second, the interior of a segment

of F intersects with a boundary segment of G if either both segments partially or fully coincide

(flag seg-shared), or if they properly intersect in a single point (flag poishared). Third, the

interior of a segment of F intersects with the exterior of G if the segment is disjoint from G

(flag segoutside). Fourth, a boundary point of F intersects the interior of G if the boundary

point lies inside of G (flag boundinside). Fifth, if it lies on the boundary of G, we set the flag

boundshared. Sixth, if it lies outside of G, we set the flag bounddisioint.

Seen from the perspective of G, we can differentiate the same six cases as before and obtain

most of the topological flags as before. First, if the interiors of G and F intersect, a segment of

F must partially or totally lie in G (already covered by flag seginside). Second, if the interior

of G and the boundary of F intersect, the boundary point of a segment of F must be located in

G (already covered by flag boundinside). Third, the case that the interior of G intersects the

exterior of F is always true due to the different dimensionality of both objects; hence, we do

not need a flag. Fourth, if the boundary of G intersects the interior of F, a segment of F must

partially or fully coincide with a boundary segment of G (already covered by flag segshared).

Fifth, if the boundary of G intersects the boundary of F, a boundary point of a segment of F must

lie on a boundary segment of G (already covered by flag boundshared). Sixth, if the boundary









of G intersects the exterior of F, a boundary segment of G must be disjoint from F (new flag

segunshared). More formally, we define the semantics of the topological flags as follows:

Definition 5.5 : Let F E line2D, G E region2D, and VF and VG be their topological feature


vectors. Then,

(i) VF [seginside]


(ii)
(iii)


VF [segshared]

VF [segoutside]


(iv) vF[poishared]


(v)
(vi)


VF [boundinside]

VF [boundshared]


(vii) VF[botud _dii'iiu]i


(viii) VG[seg unshared]


: E 3f E H(F) Vg E H(G):
-seglntersect(f.s,g.s) A seglnRegion(f.s,G)

: E 3lf e H(F) 3g e H(G) : \,,l r i, I(f.s,g.s)

: E 3f E H(F) Vg E H(G):

-seglntersect(f.s,g.s) A -seglnRegion(f.s,G)

:< 3lf e H(F) 3g e H(G) :poilntersect(f.s,g.s) A

poilntersection(f.s,g.s) V B(F)

: 3 fE H(F) : poilnRegion(dp(f),G) A dp(f) e B(F)

: 3lf e H(F) 3g e H(G) :poilntersect(f.s,g.s) A

poilntersection(f.s,g.s) E B(F)

: E 3f c H(F) Vg E H(G): -poilnRegion(dp(f), G) A

dp(f) e B(F) A -on(dp(f),g.s)
:

The operation seglnRegion is assumed to check whether a segment is located inside a region;
it is an imaginary predicate and not implemented as a robust geometric primitive.

The exploration algorithm for this case is given in Figure 5-12. The while-loop is executed

until at least the first object has been processed (line 10) and as long as not all topological flags

have been set to true (lines 11 to 14). In case that we only encounter a halfsegment h of F (line

15), we insert its segment component s into the sweep line status if it is a left halfsegment (line

16). If it is a right halfsegment, we find out whether h is located inside or outside of G (lines 18

to 23). We know that it cannot coincide with a boundary segment of G, since this is another case.

The predicate predexists checks whether s has a predecessor in the sweep line status (line 18);

it ignores segments in the sweep line status that stem from F. If this is not the case (line 22), s














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must lie outside of G. Otherwise, we check the upper overlap number of s's predecessor (line 19).

The overlap number 1 indicates that s lies inside G (line 20); otherwise, it is outside of G (line

21). After this check, we remove s from the sweep line status (line 23). Next we test whether the

dominating point of h is a boundary point of F (line 26) by using the predicate lookahead. If

this is the case, we determine whether this point is shared by G (lines 28 to 30) or whether this

point is located inside or outside of G (lines 31 to 38). Last, if the dominating point turns out not

to be a boundary point of F, we check whether it is an interior point that shares a boundary point

with G (lines 40 to 43). In case that we only obtain a halfsegment h of G (line 44), we insert its

segment component s into the sweep line status and attach the Boolean flag ia indicating whether

the interior of G is above s or not (line 46). Otherwise, we delete a right halfsegment h from the

sweep line status and know that it is not shared by F (line 47). In case that both F and G share

a halfsegment, we know that they also share their segment components (line 50). The sweep

line status is then modified depending on the status of h (lines 52 to 53). If we encounter a new

dominating point of F, we have to check whether F shares a boundary point (lines 55 to 56) or

an interior point (line 57) with the boundary of G. If the halfsegment sequence of G should be

exhausted (line 62), we know that F must have a segment whose interior is outside of G (line 63).

If after the while-loop only F is exhausted but not G (line 66), G must have a boundary segment

that is disjoint from F (line 67).

Let I be the number of halfsegments of F, m be the number of attributed halfsegments

of G, and k be the total number of new halfsegments created due to our splitting strategy.

The while-loop is then executed at most 1 + m + k times. All operations needed on the sweep

line status require O(log(l + m + k)) time each. Due to the splitting strategy, all dominating

end points are already endpoints of existing segments or become endpoints of newly created


Figure 5-13. Special case of the plane sweep.
F G G



Figure 5-13. Special case of the plane sweep.









segments. The operation lookahead needs constant time. In total, the algorithm requires
O((l+m+ k) log(l +m+k)) time and O( l+m+k) space.
5.2.2.6 The exploration algorithm for the region2Dlregion2D case

The exploration algorithm for the region2D/region2D case is quite different from the
preceding five cases, since it has to take into account the areal extent of both objects. The
indices of the vector fields, with one exception described below, are not flags as before but
segment classes. The fields of the vectors again contain Boolean values that are initialized
with false. The main goal of the exploration algorithm is to determine the existing segment
classes in each region2D object. Hence, the topological feature vector for each object is a
segment classification vector. Each vector contains a field for the segment classes (0/1), (1/0),

(0/2), (2/0), (1/2), (2/1), and (1/1). The following definition makes a connection between
representational concepts and point set topological concepts as it is later needed in the evaluation
phase. For a segment s = (p, q) E seg2D, the function pts yields the infinite point set of s as

pts(s) = {r e R2 r = p + X(q p), X e R, 0 < X < 1}. Further, for F E region2D, we define
3F = UfeH(F)pts(f.s), F = {p e R2 poilnRegion(p, F)}, and F- = R2 3F F. We can now
define the semantics of this vector as follows:

Definition 5.6 : Let F, G E region2D and VF be the segment classification vector of F. Then,

(i) vF[(0/1)] :#z 3 f H(F) :f.ia A pts(f.s) C G
(ii) vF[(1/0)] : E 3f e H(F) : f .ia A pts(f.s) C G
(iii) VF[(1/2)] : E 3f e H(F) :f.ia A pts(f.s) C G
(iv) vF[(2/1)] : 3 f e H(F) : -f .ia A pts(f.s) C G

(v) vF[(0/2)] : 3 f e H(F) 3g e H(G) : f.s = g.s A f.ia A g.ia
(vi) vF[(2/0)] : E 3f e H(F) 3g e H(G) : f.s = g.s A -f.ia A -g.ia
(vii) vF[(1/1)] : E 3f e H(F) 3g E H(G) : f.s = g.s A ((f.ia A -g.ia)
V (-f.ia A g.ia))

(viii) vF[bound poishared] : E 3f c H(F) 3g E H(G) : f.s 4 g.s A dp(f) = dp(g)









The segment classification vector VG of G includes the cases (i) to (iv) with F and G

swapped; we omit the flags for the cases (v) to (viii) due to their symmetry (or equivalence) to

flags of F. The flag boundpoishared indicates whether any two unequal boundary segments of

both objects share a common point. Before the splitting, such a point may have been a segment

endpoint or a proper segment intersection point for each object. The determination of the boolean

value of this flag also includes the treatment of a special case illustrated in Figure 5-13. If two

regions F and G meet in a point like in the example, such a topological meeting situation cannot

be detected by a usual plane sweep. The reason is that the plane sweep forgets completely about

the already visited segments (right halfsegments) left of the sweep line. In our example, after sl

and s2 have been removed from the sweep line status, any information about them is lost. When

S3 is inserted into the status sweep line, its meeting with s2 cannot be detected. Our solution is

to look ahead in object G for a next halfsegment with the same dominating point before s2 is

removed from the sweep line status.

The segment classification is computed by the algorithm in Figure 5-14. The while-loop

is executed as long as none of the two objects has been processed (line 8) and as long as not

all topological flags have been set to true (lines 8 to 12). Then, according to the halfsegment

order, the next halfsegment h is obtained, which belongs to one or both objects, and the variables

for the last considered dominating points in F and/or G are updated (lines 13 to 20). Next, we

check for a possible common boundary point in F and G (lines 21 to 25). This is the case if the

last dominating points of F and G are equal, or the last dominating point in F (G) coincides

with the next dominating point in G (F). The latter algorithmic step, in particular, helps us

solve the special situation in Figure 5-13. If h is a right halfsegment (line 26), we update the

topological feature vectors of F and/or G correspondingly (lines 27 to 32) and remove its

segment component s from the sweep line status (line 33). In case that h is a left halfsegment, we

insert its segment component s into the sweep line status (line 34) according to the y-order of its

dominating point and the y-coordinates of the intersection points of the current sweep line with

the segments momentarily in the sweep line status. If h's segment component s either belongs to
















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F or to G, but not to both objects, and partially coincides with a segment from the other object in

the sweep lines status, our splitting strategy is applied. Its effect is that the segment we currently

consider suddenly belongs to both objects. Therefore, we modify the object variable in line

35 correspondingly. Next, we compute the segment class of s. For this purpose, we determine

the lower and upper overlap numbers mp and np of the predecessor p of s (lines 36 to 37). If

there is no predecessor, mp gets the 'undefined' value '*'. The segment classification of the

predecessor p is important since the lower overlap number ms of s is assigned the upper overlap

number np of p, and the upper overlap number ns of s is assigned its incremented or decremented

lower overlap number, depending on whether the Boolean flag 'Interior Above' obtained by the

predicate get_attr is true or false respectively (lines 39 to 46). The newly computed segment

classification is then attached to s (line 47). The possible 19 segment class constellations between

two consecutive segments in the sweep line status are shown in Table 5-2. The table shows which

segment classes (ms/ns) a new segment s just inserted into the sweep line status can get, given

a certain segment class (mp/np) of a predecessor segment p. The first two columns show the

special case that at the beginning the sweep line status is empty and the first segment is inserted.

This segment can either be shared by both region objects ((0/2)-segment) or stems from one of

them ((0/1)-segment). In all these cases (except the first two cases), np = ms must hold.

Let I be the number of attributed halfsegments of F, m be the number of attributed halfseg-

ments of G, and k be the total number of new halfsegments created due to our splitting strategy.

The while-loop is then executed at most 1+ m + k times. All operations needed on the sweep line

status require at most O(log(l + m+ k)) time each. The operations on the halfsegment sequences

Table 5-2. Possible segment class constellations between two consecutive segments in the sweep
line status.


ns 1 2 1 2 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 0 1
ms 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
np 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
mp 1 1 2 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 0 0 1 1









of F and G need constant time. In total, the algorithm requires O((l + m+ k) log(l+ m+ k)) time

and O(1 + m+ k) space.

5.2.3 The Evaluation Phase for Matching Topological Predicates

In the previous section, we have determined the topological feature vectors VF and VG of

two complex spatial objects F E a and G E 3 with a, 3 E {point, line, region}. The vectors VF

and VG contain specific topological feature flags for each type combination. The flags capture all

topological situations between F and G and are different for different type combinations. The

goal of the evaluation phase is to leverage the output of the exploration phase, that is, VF and VG,

either for verifying a given topological predicate or for determining such a predicate. Our general

evaluation strategy is to accommodate the objects' topological feature vectors with an existing

topological predicate for both predicate verification and predicate determination.

Section 5.2.3.1 presents an ad hoc evaluation method called direct predicate character-

ization. Learning from its shortcomings, in Section 5.2.3.2, we propose a novel, systematic,

provably correct, and general evaluation method called 9-intersection matrix characterization.

The next two subsections elaborate on a particular step of the general method that is dependent

on the type combination under consideration. Section 5.2.3.4 deals with the special region/region

case while Section 5.2.3.3 handles the cases of all other type combinations.

5.2.3.1 Direct predicate characterization: a simple evaluation method

The first method provides a direct predicate characterization of all n topological predicates

of each type combination (see Table 2-2B for the different values of n) and is based on the topo-

logical feature flags of VF and VG of the two spatial argument objects F and G. That is, for the

line/line case, we have to determine which topological feature flags of VF and VG must be turned

on and which flags must be turned off so that a given topological predicate (verification query) or

a predicate to be found (determination query) is fulfilled. For the region/region case, the central

question is to which segment classes the segments of both objects must belong so that a given

topological predicate or a predicate to be found is satisfied. The direct predicate characterization

gives an answer for each individual predicate of each individual type combination. This means









that we obtain 184 individual predicate characterizations without converse predicates and 248

individual predicate characterizations with converse predicates. In general, each characterization

is a Boolean expression in conjunctive normal form and expressed in terms of the topological

feature vectors VF and vG.

We give two examples of direct predicate characterizations. As a first example, we consider

the topological predicate number 8 (meet) between two line objects F and G (Figure 5-15A and

[59]) and see how the flags of the topological feature vectors (Definition 5.4) are used.

P8 (F, G) :4z -wVF [segshared] A -vF [interior-poishared] A vF [segunshared] A

1VF [boundoninterior] A VF[bound shared] A VF[boitd _di\iiim] A

VG[seg unshared] A vG[boundoninterior] A vG[botmd _di\iiim]
If we take into account the semantics of the topological feature flags, the right side of the

equivalence means that both objects may only and must share boundary parts. More precisely and

by considering the matrix in Figure 5-15A, intersections between both interiors (-vF[seg shared],

1VF [interior-poishared]) as well as between the boundary of one object and the interior of the

other object (-VF [bound-on -interior], 1VG [bound-on interior]) are not allowed; besides intersec-

tions between both boundaries (VF [bound-shared), each component of one object must interact

with the exterior of the other object (F [seg unshared], vG[segunshared], F [bout1d _di\i'iiim].

VG[boutmd_di\ii im]).

( 0 0 1 1 0 0
0 1 1 1 0 0
S1 11 1 1 1

A B

Figure 5-15. The 9-intersection matrices. A) Matrix number 8 for the predicate meet between
two line objects. B) Matrix number 7 for the predicate inside between two region
objects.


Next, we view the topological predicate number 7 (inside) between two region objects F

and G (Figure 5-15B and [59]) and see how the segment classes kept in the topological feature

vectors (Definition 5.6) are used.










p7(F,G) :# -lVF[(O/1)] A -VF[(1/0)] A -VF[(0/2)] A -VF[(2/0)] A -VF[(1/1)] A

-vF[boundpoi-shared] A (vF[(1/2)] V vF[(2/1)]) A

-VG[(1/2)] A -VG[(2/1)] A (VG[(O/1)] V VG[(1/O)])
For the inside predicate, the segments of F must be located inside of G since the interior and

boundary of F must be located in the interior of G; hence they must all have the segment classes

(1/2) or (2/1). This "for all" quantification is tested by checking whether vF [(1/2)] or vF [(2/1)]

are true and whether all other vector fields are false. The fact that all other vector fields are false

means that the interior and boundary of F do not interact with the boundary and exterior of G.

That is, the segments of G must be situated outside of F, and thus they all must have the segment

classes (0/1) or (1/0); other segment classes are forbidden for G. Further, we must ensure that

no segment of F shares a common point with any segment of G (-VF [boundpoishared]).

The predicate characterizations can be read in both directions. If we are interested in

predicate vn ,ifi, niitn. that is, in evaluating a specific topological predicate, we look from

left to right and check the respective right side of the predicate's direct characterization. This

corresponds to an explicit implementation of each individual predicate. If we are interested in

predicate determination, that is, in deriving the topological relationship from a given spatial

configuration of two spatial objects, we have to look from right to left. That is, consecutively

we evaluate the right sides of the predicate characterizations by applying them to the given

topological feature vectors VF and VG. For the characterization that matches we look on its left

side to obtain the name or number of the predicate.

The direct predicate characterization demonstrates how we can leverage the concept

of topological feature vectors. However, this particular evaluation method has three main

drawbacks. First, the method depends on the number of topological predicates. That is, each

of the 184 (248) topological predicates between complex spatial objects requires an own

specification. Second, in the worst case, all direct predicate characterizations with respect

to a particular type combination have to be checked for predicate determination. Third, the

direct predicate characterization is error-prone. It is difficult to ensure that each predicate









characterization is correct and unique and that all predicate characterizations together are

mutually exclusive and cover all topological predicates. From this standpoint, this solution is an

ad hoc approach.

5.2.3.2 The 9-intersection matrix characterization method

The drawbacks of the direct predicate characterization are the motivation for another, novel

approach called 9-intersection matrix characterization (9IMC) that avoids these shortcomings.

In particular, its correctness can be formally proved. Instead of characterizing each topological

predicate directly, the central idea of our second approach is to uniquely characterize each

element of the 3 x 3-matrix of the 9-intersection model (Figure 2-2A) by means of the topological

feature vectors VF and VG. As we know, each matrix element is a predicate called matrix

predicate that checks one of the nine intersections between the boundary aF, interior F or

exterior F of a spatial object F with the boundary aG, interior G or exterior G of another

spatial object G for inequality to the empty set. For each topological predicate, its specification

is then given as the logical conjunction of the characterizations of the nine matrix predicates.

Since the topological feature vectors are different for each type combination, the characterization

of each matrix predicate is different for each type combination too. The characterizations

themselves are the themes of the next subsections.

The general method for predicate Vn ,rifit aiiin works as follows. Based on the topological

predicate p to be verified as well as VF and VG as input, we evaluate in a loop the characteri-

zations of all matrix predicates numbered from left to right and from top to bottom. The ninth

matrix predicate F n G- 4 0 always yields true [59]; hence, we do not have to check it. After

the computation of the value of the matrix predicate i (1 < i < 8), we compare it to the corre-

sponding value of the matrix predicate p(i) of p. If the values are equal, we proceed with the next

matrix predicate i + 1. Otherwise, we stop, and p yields false. If there is a coincidence between

the computed values of all matrix predicates with the corresponding values of p's matrix, p yields

true. The benefit of this approach is that it only requires eight predicate characterizations and

that these characterizations are the same for each of the n topological predicates of the same type









combination. In particular, an individual characterization of all n topological predicates is not

needed. In Section 5.2.4.1, we show that this method can be even further improved.

The general method for predicate determination works as follows. Based on VF and VG as

input, we evaluate the 9IM characterizations of all eight matrix predicates and insert the Boolean

values into an intersection matrix m initialized with true for each matrix predicate. Matrix m is

then compared against the matrices pi (1 < i < n) of all n topological predicates. We know that

one of them must match m. The merit of this approach is that only eight characterizations are

needed to determine the intersection matrix of the topological predicate. But unfortunately we

need n matrix comparisons to determine the pertaining topological predicate in the worst case.

In Section 5.2.4.2, we introduce a method that eliminates this problem. But the method here is

already a significant improvement compared with the necessity to compute all n direct predicate

characterizations.

5.2.3.3 Type combination dependent 9-intersection matrix characterization

The last, missing step refers to the characterizations of the eight matrix predicates of

the 9-intersection matrix for all spatial data type combinations. A 9IMC means that each

matrix predicate, which takes abstract, infinite point sets F and G representing spatial objects

as arguments, is uniquely characterized by the topological feature vectors VF and VG, which

are discrete implementation concepts. For this purpose, for each discrete spatial object F E

oa E {point, line, region}, we determine the corresponding abstract point sets of its boundary,

interior, and exterior. For the region data type, we have already done this for Definition 5.6.

For F E point, we define DF = 0, F = P(F), and F = R2 P(F). For F E line, we

define DF = {p e R2 card({f c H(F) p = dp(f)}) = 1}, F = UfCH(F)Pts(f.s) DF,

and F = R2 DF F As we will see, each characterization can be performed in constant

time, and its correctness can be shown by a simple proof. In this subsection, we present the

characterizations for all type combinations except for the more complicated case of two region

objects; this case is dealt with in the next subsection. The central idea in the proofs of the lemmas

below is to accomplish a correspondence between a matrix predicate based on the point sets DF,









F, F aG, G', and G and an equivalent Boolean expression based on finite representations

like P(F),H(F), B(F), P(G),H(G), and B(G).

In case of two point objects, the 3 x 3-matrix is reduced to a 2 x 2-matrix since the boundary

of a point object is defined to be empty [59]. We obtain the following statement:

Lemma 5.1 : Let F, G E point. Then the characterization of the matrix predicates of the

(reduced) 9-intersection matrix is as follows:

(i) F n G 0 > VF [poishared]

(ii) F n G 4 0 > VF [poidisjoint]

(iii) F n Go 0 vG[poiLdisjoint]

(iv) F n G 0 < true

Proof. In (i), the intersection of the interiors of F and G is non-empty if, and only if, both

objects share a point. That is, Ef E P(F) 3g E P(G) : equal(f,g). This matches directly the

definition of vF [poishared] in Definition 5.1(i). In (ii), a point of F can only be part of the

exterior of G if it does not belong to G. That is, Ef E P(F) Vg E P(G) : -equal(f,g). This fits

directly to the definition of VF [poidisjoint] in Definition 5.1(ii). Case (iii) is symmetric to (ii).

Case (iv) follows from Lemma 5.1.2 in [59]. o

In case of a point object and a line object, the 3 x 3-matrix is reduced to a 2 x 3-matrix since

the boundary of a point object is defined to be empty. We obtain the following statement:

Lemma 5.2 : Let F E point and G E line. Then the characterization of the matrix predicates

of the (reduced) 9-intersection matrix is as follows:

(i) F n G # 0 VF [poion interior]

(ii) F n 3G # 0 > VF [poionbound]

(iii) F n G- # 0 VF [poidisjoint]

(iv) F n G # 0 true

(v) F- n GG # 0 VG [bound poi_disjoint]

(vi) F G n 0 4 true









Proof. In (i), the intersection of the interiors of F and G is non-empty if, and only if, a

point ofF is located on G but is not a boundary point of G. That is, Ef E P(F) 3g E H(G) Vb E

B(G) : on(f,g.s) A f 7 b. This corresponds directly to the definition of vF[poioninterior] in

Definition 5.2(ii). In (ii), the intersection of the interior of F and the boundary of G is non-empty

if, and only if, a point ofF coincides with a boundary point of G. That is, 3f E P(F) 3g E B(G) :

f = g. But this matches the definition of VF [poionbound] in Definition 5.2(iii). Statement (iii) is

satisfied if, and only if, a point ofF is outside of G. That is, 3f E P(F) Vg E H(G) : -on(f,g.s).

But this is just the definition of VF [poi_disjoint] in Definition 5.2(i). Statement (iv) always holds

according to Lemma 6.1.2 in [59]. To be fulfilled, statement (v) requires that a boundary point of

G lies outside ofF. That is, 3g E B(G) Vf E P(F) : f 4 g. This corresponds to the definition

of vG[boundpoi_di\it'iui] in Definition 5.2(iv). The last statement follows from Lemma 6.1.3 in

[59]. D

In case of a point object and a region object, we also obtain a reduction of the 3 x 3-matrix

to a 2 x 3-matrix. We obtain the following statement:

Lemma 5.3 : Let F E point and G E region. Then the characterization of the matrix

predicates of the (reduced) 9-intersection matrix is as follows:

(i) F n G' # 0 = VF[poi-inside]

(ii) F n 3G 4 0 = VF[poi-on-bound]

(iii) F n G- 0 VF [poioutside]

(iv) F n G # 0 true

(v) F n BG 0 0 true

(vi) F n G # 0 < true

Proof. Statement (i) requires that a point of F is located inside G but not on the boundary

of G. That is, Ef E P(F) : poilnRegion(f, G) (where poilnRegion is the predicate which checks

whether a single point lies inside a region object). This corresponds directly to the definition

of VF [poiinside] in Definition 5.3(i). In (ii), the intersection of F and the boundary of G is
non-empty if, and only if, a point of F lies on one of the boundary segments of G. That is,









3 f E P(F) 3 (g,ia) E H(G) : on(f,g.s). This matches the definition of VF[poionibound] in
Definition 5.3(ii). Statement (iii) is satisfied if, and only if, a point of F is outside of G. That

is, Ef E P(F) V (g, ia) E H(G) : poilnRegion(f, G) A -on(f,g.s). This corresponds to the

definition of vF [oi_outside] in Definition 5.3(iii). Statements (iv) and (v) follow from Lemma

6.2.3 in [59]. The last statement follows from Lemma 6.2.1 in [59]. o

In case of two line objects, we obtain the following statement:

Lemma 5.4 : Let F, G E line. Then the characterization of the matrix predicates of the

9-intersection matrix is as follows:

(i) F n G 0 VF [segshared] V vF [interiorpoishared]

(ii) F n G 0 0 vG[boundoninterior]

(iii) F nG 0 VF [segunshared]

(iv) aF n G 0 VF [boundoninterior]

(v) aF n aG 7 0 VF [boundshared]

(vi) aF nG 7 0 vF [bound disjoint]

(vii) F nG ~ 0 4 VG [segunshared]

(viii) F n G 0 vG[bounddisjoint]

(ix) F nG 0 < true

Proof. In (i), the interiors of two line objects intersect if, and only if, any two segments

partially or completely coincide or if two segments share a single point that does not belong to

the boundaries ofF and G. That is, 3f e H(F) 3g E H(G) : seglntersect(f.s,g.s) V 3f e

H(F) 3g e H(G) Vp E B(F) UB(G) : piiJit ,i i (f.s,g.s) A poilntersection(f.s,g.s) # p.

The first expression corresponds to the definition of VF [segshared] in Definition 5.4(i). The

second expression is the definition of VF [interiorpoishared] in Definition 5.4(ii). Statement

(ii) requires that an intersection point p of F and G exists such that p is a boundary point

of G but not a boundary point of F. That is, f e H(F) 3g E H(G) 3p e B(G) \ B(F) :

poilntersection(f.s, g.s) = p. This matches the definition of vG [bound on interior] in Defini-

tion 5.4(viii). Statement (iii) is satisfied if, and only if, there is a segment of F that is outside of









G. That is, 3f E H(F) Vg E H(G) : -seglntersect(f.s,g.s). This corresponds to the definition of

VF [segunshared] in Definition 5.4(iii). Statement (iv) is symmetric to statement (ii) and based on
Definition 5.4(iv). In (v), the boundaries of F and G intersect if, and only if, they share a bound-

ary point. That is, 3p E B(F) 3 q E B(G) : p = q. This matches the definition of VF [boundshared]

in Definition 5.4(v). Statement (vi) requires the existence of a boundary point of F that is not lo-

cated on any segment of G. That is, 3p E B(F) Vg E H(G) : -on(p,g.s). This corresponds to the

definition of VF [boutid_di\i',im] in Definition 5.4(vi). Statement (vii) is symmetric to statement

(iii) and based on Definition 5.4(vii). Statement (viii) is symmetric to statement (vi) and based on

Definition 5.4(ix). The last statement follows from Lemma 5.2.1 in [59]. D

In case of a line object and a region object, we obtain the following statement:

Lemma 5.5 : Let F E line and G E region. Then the characterization of the matrix

predicates of the 9-intersection matrix is as follows:

(i) F nG '0 = VF[seginside]

(ii) F n aG 0 0 VF [segshared] VF [poishared]

(iii) F nG G- 0 VF [segoutside]

(iv) aF n G 4 0 vF [boundinside]

(v) F n0 G 4 0 = VF[bound shared]

(vi) aF nG 0 4 vF [bound disjoint]

(vii) F n G 0 2 true

(viii) F- n aG 4 0 + vG[segunshared]

(ix) F n G # 0 = true

Proof. In (i), the interiors of F and G intersect if, and only if, a segment of F is lo-

cated in G but does not coincide with a boundary segment of G. That is, Ef E H(F) Vg E

H(G) : -seglntersect(f.s,g.s) A seglnRegion(f.s, G). This corresponds to the defini-

tion of VF [seginside] in Definition 5.5(i). Statement (ii) requires that either F and G share

a segment, or they share an intersection point that is not a boundary point of F. That is,

3f H(F) 3g e H(G) : ',glI, i ,. i(f.s,g.s) V 3f e H(F) 3g e H(G) :poilntersect(f.s,g.s) A









poilntersection(f.s, g.s) B(F). The first argument of the disjunction matches the defini-

tion of VF [seg shared] in Definition 5.5(ii). The second argument matches the definition of

VF [poishared] in Definition 5.5(iv). Statement (iii) is satisfied if, and only if, a segment
ofF is located outside of G. That is, Ef E H(F) Vg E H(G) : -seglntersect(f.s,g.s) A

-seglnRegion(f.s, G). This corresponds to the definition of VF [segoutside] in Definition 5.5(iii).

Statement (iv) holds if, and only if, a segment of F lies inside G and one of the end points of the

segment is a boundary point. That is, 3f E H(F) : poilnRegion(dp(f), G) A dp(f) E B(F).

This corresponds to the definition of VF [boundinside] in Definition 5.5(v). In (v), we must find

a segment of F and a segment of G which intersect in a point that is a boundary point of F. That

is, 3f E H(F) 3g E H(G) : poilntersect(f.s,g.s) A poilntersection(f.s,g.s) E B(F). This

matches the definition of vF [boundshared] in Definition 5.5(vi). Statement (vi) requires the

existence of an endpoint of a segment of F that is a boundary point and not located inside or

on any segment of G. That is, 3f e H(F) Vg E H(G) : poilnRegion(dp(f), G) A dp(f) e

B(F) A -on(dp(f),g.s). This corresponds to the definition of VF[boumd di\'iiiu] in Defini-

tion 5.5(vii). Statement (vii) always holds according to Lemma 6.3.2 in [59]. Statement (viii)

is satisfied if, and only if, a segment of G does not coincide with any segment of F. That is,

3g E H(G) Vf E H(F) : -seglntersect(f.s,g.s). This fits to the definition of vF [segunshared] in

Definition 5.5(viii). The last statement follows from Lemma 6.3.1 in [59]. D

5.2.3.4 The 9-intersection matrix characterization for region/region case

As shown in Section 5.2.2.6, exploring the region/region case is quite different from

exploring the other type combinations and requires another kind of exploration algorithm. It has

to take into account the areal extent of both objects and has resulted in the concepts of overlap

number, segment classes, and segment classification vector. In this subsection, we deal with

the 9IMC based on two segment classification vectors. The goal of the following lemmas is

to prepare the unique characterization of all matrix predicates by means of segment classes.

The first lemma provides a translation of each segment class into a Boolean matrix predicate

expression.








Lemma 5.6 : Let F, G E region and VF and VG be their segment classification vectors. Then
we can infer the following implications and equivalences between segment classes and matrix
predicates:

(i) vF[(0/1)] V vF[(1/0)] a aFnG- 0
(ii) VG[(O/1)] V VG[(1/0)] F Fn G G 0

(iii) vF[(1/2)] V vF[(2/1)] = F n G' o0
(iv) VG[(1/2)] V VG[(2/1)] F FnoG 0

(v) VF[(0/2)] V VF[(2/0)] j F n aG 0 A F nGO 0w
(vi) VF[(1/1)] ~ F n G 0 A Fn G- 0 A F- n G 4
Proof. According to Definition 5.6(i) and (ii), the left side of (i) is equivalent to the
expression 3f E H(F) : pts(f.s) C G This is equivalent to 3F n G- # 0. The proof of
(iii) is similar and based on Definition 5.6(iii) and (iv); only the term G has to be replaced
by G. The proof of (ii) can be obtained by swapping the roles of F and G in (i). Similarly,
the proof of (iv) requires a swapping of F and G in (iii). According to Definition 5.6(v) and
(vi), the left side of (v) is equivalent to the expression 3f E H(F) 3g E H(G) : f.s = g.s A
((f.ia A g.ia) V (-f.ia A -g.ia)). From the first element of the conjunction, we can (only)
conclude that 3F n 3G # 0. Equivalence does not hold since two boundaries can also intersect
if they only share single intersection or meeting points but not (half)segments. The second
element of the conjunction requires that the interiors of both region objects are located on
the same side. Hence, F n G # 0 must hold. Also this is only an implication since an
intersection of both interiors is possible without having any (0/2)- or (2/0)-segments. According
to Definition 5.6(vii), the left side of (vi) is equivalent to the expression 3f E H(F) 3g E H(G) :
f.s = g.s A ((f.ia A -lg.ia) V (-if.ia A g.ia)). The first element of the conjunction implies
that aF n aG # 0. The second element of the conjunction requires that the interiors of both
region objects are located on different sides. Since the definition of type region disallows (1/1)-
segments for single objects, the interior of F must intersect the exterior of G, and vice versa. This









is only an implication since an intersection of the interior of one region object with the exterior of

another region object is possible without having (1/1)-segments. o

The second lemma provides a translation of some matrix predicates into segment classes.

Lemma 5.7 : Let F, G E region and VF and VG be their segment classification vectors. Then

we can infer the following implications between matrix predicates and segment classes:

(i) F n G' 0 vF[(0/2)] V VF[(2/0)] V VF[(1/2)] V VF[(2/1)] V

vG[(1/2)] V vG[(2/1)]
(ii) F nG # 0 VF[(O/1)] V VF[(1/0)] V VF[(1/1)]V

vG[(1/2)] V vG[(2/1)]
(iii) F nG' 0 vF[(1/2)] V vF[(2/1) V vF[(1/1) V

VG[(O/1)] V G[(1/0)]
Proof. In (i), the intersection of the interiors of F and G implies that both objects share a

common area. Consequently, this area must have overlap number 2 so that at least one of the two

objects must have a (a/2)- or (2/a)-segment with a E {0, 1}. In (ii), the fact that F intersects

G means that F contains an area which it does not share with G. That is, the overlap number

of this area is 1, and F must have a (a/l)- or a (1/a)-segment with a E {0, 1}. The fact that a

part of the interior of F is located outside of G implies two possible topological situations for G:

either both objects share a common segment and their interiors are on different sides, i.e., G has a

(1/1)-segment (covered by VF [(1/1)]), or the interior of F is intersected by the boundary and the
interior of G so that G has a (1/2)- or (2/1)-segment. We prove (iii) by swapping F and G in (ii).


The third lemma states some implications between matrix predicates.

Lemma 5.8 : Let F, G E region. Then we can infer the following implications between

matrix predicates:









(i) VF [boundpoi-shared] = 3F n aG 7 0
(ii) aF G #n G- 0 F nG G 0 A F nG # 0
(iii) F nOaG#0 = F nGo 0 AF nG #0
(iv) aF n G #0 = FO n G 0 A F n G 7 0
(v) FO n G 0 = F n G 0 A F n G # 0
Proof. Statement (i) can be shown by considering the definition of boundpoishared. This
flag is true if any two halfsegments of F and G share a single meeting or intersection point.
Hence, the intersection of both boundaries is non-empty. The proofs for (ii) to (v) require point
set topological concepts. Statements (ii) and (iii) follow from Lemma 5.3.6 in [59]. Statements
(iv) and (v) result from Lemma 5.3.5 in [59]. o
The following theorem collects the results we have already obtained so far and proves the
lacking parts of the nine matrix predicate characterizations.

Theorem 5.1 : Let F, G E region and VF and VG be their segment classification vectors.
Then the matrix predicates of the 9-intersection matrix are equivalent to the following segment
class characterizations:
(i) FnG n G 0 # vF[(0/2)] V VF[(2/0)] V VF[(1/2)] V VF[(2/1)] V

vG[(1/2)] V vG[(2/1)]
(ii) FnaOG 0 vG[(1/2)] V vG[(2/1)]
(iii) FnG 0 vF[(0/1)] V vF[(1/0)] V VF[(1/1)] V VG[(1/2)] V VG[(2/1)]
(iv) 3F n G 0 vF[(1/2)] V vF[(2/1)]
(v) F n OG 4 0 = VF[(0/2)] V VF[(2/0)] V VF[(1/1)] V vF[boundpoi shared]
(vi) 3F n G 0 VF[(0/1)] V VF[(1/0)]
(vii) F- G # 0 vF[(1/2)] V VF[(2/1)] V VF[(1/1)] V VG[(O/1)] V VG[(1/O)]
(viii) F-n GJ 0 + VG[(O/1)] V VG[(1/O)]
(ix) F n G # 0 < true
Proof. For (i), the forward implication corresponds to Lemma 5.7(i). The backward
implication can be derived from Lemma 5.6(v) for (0/2)- and (2/0)-segments of F (and G). For









(1/2)- and (2/1)-segments, Lemma 5.6(iii) and 5.6(iv) imply DF n G 4 0 and F n G 4 0,

respectively. From these two implications, by using Lemma 5.8(iv) and 5.8(v), we can derive

in both cases F n G 4 0. Statements (ii) and (iv) correspond to Lemma 5.6(iv) and 5.6(iii),

respectively. For (iii) [(vii)], the forward implication corresponds to Lemma 5.7(ii) [5.7(iii)]. The

backward implication for (iii) [(vii)] requires Lemma 5.6(i) [5.6(ii)] and Lemma 5.8(ii) [5.8(iii)]

for the (0/1)- and (1/0)-segments ofF [G], Lemma 5.6(vi) [5.6(vi)] for the (1/1)-segments of

F (and hence G), as well as Lemma 5.6(iv) [5.6(iii)] and Lemma 5.8(v) [5.8(iv)] for the (1/2)-

and (2/1)-segments of G [F]. For (v), the forward implication can be shown as follows: if the

boundaries of F and G intersect, then either they share a common meeting or intersection point,

that is, the flag VF [boundpoishared] is set, or there are two halfsegments of F and G whose

segment components are equal. No other alternative is possible due to our splitting strategy

for halfsegments during the plane sweep. As we know, equal segments of F and G must have

the segment classes (0/2), (2/0), or (1/1). The backward implication requires Lemma 5.6(v)

for (0/2)- and (2/0)-segments ofF (and hence G), Lemma 5.6(vi) for (1/1)-segments ofF

(and hence G), and Lemma 5.8(i) for single meeting and intersection points. Statement (vi)

[(viii)] corresponds to Lemma 5.6(i) [5.6(ii)]. Statement (ix) turns out to be always true since our

assumption in an implementation is that our universe of discourse U is always properly larger

than the union of spatial objects contained in it. This means for F and G that always F U G C U

holds. We can conclude that U (F U G) 7 0. According to DeMorgan's Laws, this is equivalent

to (U F) n (U G) 4 0. But this leads us to the statement that F n G- 0. o

Summarizing our results from the last two subsections, we see that Lemmas 5.1 to 5.5,

and Theorem 5.1 provide us with a unique characterization of each individual matrix predicate

of the 9-intersection matrix for each type combination. This approach has several benefits.

First, it is a systematically developed and not an ad hoc approach. Second, it has a formal

and sound foundation. Hence, we can be sure about the correctness of topological feature

flags and segment classes assigned to matrix predicates, and vice versa. Third, this evaluation

method is independent of the number of topological predicates and only requires a constant









number of evaluations for matrix predicate characterizations. Instead of nine, even only eight

matrix predicates have to be checked since the predicate F n G 0 yields true for all type

combinations. Fourth, we have proved the correctness of our provided implementation.

Based on this result, we accomplish the predicate n -,i alii 'ii of a topological predicate p

with respect to a particular spatial data type combination on the basis of p's 9-intersection matrix

(as an example, see the complete matrices of the 33 topological predicates of the region/region

case in Figure 5-20 and the complete matrices for the remaining cases in [50]) and the topolog-

ical feature vectors VF and VG as follows: Depending on the spatial data type combination, we

evaluate the logical expression (given in terms of VF and vG) on the right side of the first 9IMC

according to Lemma 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, or Theorem 5.1, respectively. We then match the

Boolean result with the Boolean value at the respective position in p's intersection matrix. If both

Boolean values are equal, we proceed with the next matrix predicate in the 9-intersection matrix;

otherwise p is false, and the algorithm terminates. Predicate p yields true if the Boolean results

of the evaluated logical expressions of all 9IMCs coincide with the corresponding Boolean values

in p's intersection matrix. This requires constant time.

Predicate determination also depends on a particular combination of spatial data types and

leverages 9-intersection matrices and topological feature vectors. In a first step, depending on

the spatial data type combination and by means of VF and VG, we evaluate the logical expressions

on all right sides of the 9IMCs according to Lemma 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, or Theorem 5.1,

respectively. This yields a Boolean 9-intersection matrix. In a second step, this Boolean matrix

is checked consecutively for equality against all 9-intersection matrices of the topological

predicates of the particular type combination. If n,,p with a, P3 {point, line, region} is the

number of topological predicates between the types a and 3, this requires naB, tests in the worst

case.

5.2.4 Optimized Evaluation Methods

Based on the exploration phase and leveraging the 9-intersection matrix characterization,

we have found a universal, correct, complete, and effective method for both predicate verification









and predicate determination of topological predicates. So far, we have focused on the general

applicability and universality of our overall approach. In this section, we show that it is even

possible to fine-tune and thus improve our 9IMC approach with respect to efficiency if we look at

predicate verification and predicate determination separately. Section 5.2.4.1 delineates a novel

method called matrix ;:himiiiig for speeding up predicate verification. Section 5.2.4.2 describes a

fine-tuned method called minimum cost decision tree for accelerating predicate determination.

5.2.4.1 Matrix thinning for predicate verification

The approach of matrix ;himi;ii'i (MT) described in this subsection is based on the observa-

tion that for predicate verification only a subset of the nine matrix predicates has to be evaluated

in order to determine the validity of a given topological relationship between two spatial objects

F and G. For example, for the predicate 1 (disjoint) of the region/region case, the combination

that F n G = 0 A 3F n 3G = 0 holds (indicated by two O's) is unique among the 33 predicates.

Consequently, only these two matrix predicates have to be tested in order to decide about true or

false of this topological predicate.

The question arises how the 9-intersection matrices can be systematically "thinned out" and

nevertheless remain unique among the n,p topological predicates between two spatial data types

oc and 3. We use a brute-force algorithm (Figure 5-16) that is applicable to all type combinations

and that determines the thinned out version of each intersection matrix associated with one of

the n,,p topological predicates. Since this algorithm only has to be executed once for each type

combination, runtime performance and space efficiency are not so important here.

In a first step (lines 8 to 10), we create a matrix pos of so-called position matrices corre-

sponding to all possible 9-intersection matrices, that is, to the binary versions of the decimal

numbers 1 to 511 if we read the 9-intersection matrix (9IM) entries row by row. Each "1" in

a position matrix indicates a position or entry that is later used for checking two intersection

matrices against each other. A "0" in a position matrix means that the corresponding entries in

two compared intersection matrices are not compared and hence ignored.














01 algorithm MatrixThinning
02 input: Three-dimensional 9IM im. im[i, m] c {0, 1}
03 denotes entry (, m) (1 < 1,m < 3) of the ith
04 9IM (1 < i < na,)-
05 output: Three-dimensional thinned out 9IM tim.
06 tim[i,l,m] c {0,1,*}. '*' is 'don't care' symbol.
07 begin
08 Create three-dimensional matrix pos of 'position'
09 matrices where pos[j, ,m] E {0, 1} denotes entry
10 (l,m) of the jth possible 9IM (1 < < 511);
11 Sort pos increasingly with respect to the number of
12 ones in a matrix;
13 Initialize all entries of matrices of tim with '*'; r := 1;
14 // Compute thinned out matrices
15 for each i in 1... na,p do
16 j := 1; stop := false;
17 while j < 511 and not stop do
18 k:= 1; unequal : true;
19 while 1 < k < na,p and i 4 k and unequal do
20 equal := im[i] and im[k] have the same values
21 at all positions (1, m) where pos [j, m] = 1;
22 unequal : unequal and not equal; inc(k);
23 endwhile;
24 if unequal then // Thin out im[i] by pos [j].
25 for each 1, m in 1... 3 do
26 ifpos[j,l,m] = 1
27 then tim[r, m] := im[i,l, m] endif
28 endfor;
29 inc(r); stop := true;
30 else inc(j);
31 endif
32 endwhile
33 endfor
34 end MatrixThinning.

Figure 5-16. Algorithm for computing the thinned out versions of the nR,p intersection matrices
associated with the topological predicates between two spatial data types ca and P









Because our goal is to minimize the number of matrix predicates that have to be evaluated,

in a second step, we sort the position matrices with respect to the number of ones in increasing

order (lines 11 to 12). That is, the list of position matrices will first contain all matrices with a

single "1", then the matrices with two ones, etc., until we reach the matrix with nine ones. At

the latest here, it is guaranteed that an intersection matrix is different to all the other np 1

intersection matrices. Hence, our algorithm terminates.

In a third step, we initialize the entries of all nap thinned out intersection matrices with the

"don't care" symbol "*".

The fourth and final step computes the thinned out matrices (lines 15 to 33). The idea is to

find for each intersection matrix (line 15) a minimal number of entries that together uniquely

differ from the corresponding entries of all the other ncp 1 intersection matrices. Therefore,

we start traversing the 511 position matrices (line 17). For all "1"-positions of a position matrix

we find out whether for the intersection matrix under consideration another intersection matrix

exists that has the same matrix values at these positions (lines 20 to 21). As long as no equality

has been found, the intersection matrix under consideration is compared to the next intersection

matrix (lines 19 to 23). If an equality is found, the next position matrix is taken (line 30).

Otherwise, we have found a minimal number of matrix predicates that are sufficient and unique

for evaluation (line 24). It remains to copy the corresponding values of the 9-intersection matrix

into the thinned out matrix (lines 25 to 28).

0|0 0|* 1 1* 0| 0|0 1|* 0* 00 1|* 0* 11 1|1 0|* 1|1
1: 0|* 0|* 0* 2: 0|* 0* 0* 3: 0|* 0|* 0| 4: 0 |* 0 5: 0 0 0*
1|* 0|* 1|* 0|0 0|* 1|* 11 0 1|* 0|0 0|* 1|* 1|1 0|* 1|*

Figure 5-17. Complete and thinned out matrices for the 5 topological predicates of the
point/point case.


Note that for the same intersection matrix it may be possible to find several thinned out

matrices with the same number of matrix predicates to be checked such that each of them

represents the intersection matrix uniquely among the np intersection matrices. Our algorithm

always computes the thinned out matrix with the "lowest numerical value". The complete and










00 00 1|*\
1: 0* 0|* 0 2:
1|* 00 1*
0|0 1|1 1|1
6: 0* 0* 0|* 7:
1* 11 1|*
( 1|1 1|1 0|0
11: 0| 0| 12:
1|* 00 1|*


1|*
0|*

0|0
0|*
1|*
0|0
0|*
1|*


0|0
3: o0|
1|*

8: 0|*
S1|*
111
13: 0|*
S1|*


0|0 0|0 1|* 0|0
0|* 4: 0|* 0* 0|*
1| 9 1|* 11 1|*


1|* 1|* 0|0 1|*

0|* 14: 0|* 0|* 0|*
1|* 1|* 1|1 1|*


0|0 1|1 1
5: 0* 0* 0|*
1|* 00 1*
1|1 0|0 1|1
10: 0|* 0* 0*
1|* 1 1 1|*


Figure 5-18. Complete and thinned out matrices for the 14 topological predicates of the
point/line case.


0|0 0|0 11 11 1|* 0|0 00 N
0|* 3: 0|* 0|* 10 4: 0|* 0* 0*
1|* 1| 1| 1 1|* 1|* 1*
11 1
0|*
1|*


1|1 00 1|1
5: 0* 0* 0|*
1* 1| 11*


Figure 5-19. Complete and thinned out matrices for the 7 topological predicates of the
point/region case.


thinned out matrices for the point/point case are shown in Figure 5-17, for the point/line case in

Figure 5-18, for the point/region case in Figure 5-19, and for the region/region case in Figure 5-

20. The complete and thinned out matrices for the line/line case and the line/region case can

be found in [50]. Definition 5.7 defines the measures we use to summarize and interpret these

results.


00
1 1|*
1,*
6: 0|0
1\.
S1|*
11: 0|*
S0|0
/I*
16: 1|1
S1|*
1.*
21: 0|*
S0|0
1|*
26: 0|0
1 1|*

31: 1|1
S1|1,


1* \
1*
1* /
0|0
0|*
11*
11* \
11
1* /
11)





111* )
0|0

11
0|0

1|,
111


1*
0|0
1*
0|0
0|*
1|*
1* \
1I*
11
1'* \
11 N
11* /
1*
0|0
1|*

11)
0|0
1|*
11* \
111
1* /


0|0
3: 0| *





13: o(,
1|8
1|*
8: 1|1
S 1|1
/111
13: 0|0
1|*
11.
1|*
1|*

23: 0|0
1|.
1|*
28: 1|.
1|1
/1|*
33: 1|1
1|1.


1* \
1*
1* /
0|0
0|*
1* /
1* \
11
1* /
1* \
111
1* /
1|*
0|0
1* /
1* \
1*
1* /
111
1|*
11
1* /


0|0
4: 0|*
1|*

9: 1|1
1 *
1|*
14: 1|1
1|*
1|0*
19: 0|*

1|*
24: 0|*
0|0
1|*
29: 1|1
S1|*


ii)\

1Y )

i* )

i0

ii)

U)


1*
5: 0*
0|0
111
10: 0|0
1 *
1 *
15: 1|
1|*
1|*
20: 0|0
1|*
1|1.
25: 0|0
S 1|1
S1|*
30: 1|1
S1|*


0|0
0|*
1*
11
0|0
1* )



1|* )
1* \
1*|
1* /
1* \
111
1i*
1|*
0|0
1I*


Figure 5-20. Complete and thinned out matrices for the 33 topological predicates of the
region/region case.


(00
1: 0|*
(1*

6: 0|
( 1|*


1)*
0|*
1|*
0|0
0|*
1|*


0|0
2: o0|
S1|*
111
7: 0|*
S1|*









Definition 5.7 : Let IMMT be a thinned out 9IM, and cnt be a function that counts the

number of relevant matrix predicates of IMMT. Let n(,p with a, P E {point, line, region} be the

number of (thinned out) 9IMs of the topological predicates between the types a and 3, and nk

be the number of thinned out 9IMs for which k (with 1 < k < 9) matrix predicates have to be

evaluated. Let the cost, that is, the total number of matrix predicates to be evaluated for a and 3,

be Cc,p without matrix thinning and CMT with matrix thinning. We then denote with RACMT the

reduced average cost in percent when using matrix thinning. We obtain:

(i) cnt(IMMT) = {(l,m) 11 < l,m < 3,IMMT[1, m] e {0, 1}}|

(ii) nk = IM 1 < i (iii) na,p = l9 k

(iv) CC,p = 8 n,p
(v) ACa,p = C,p/na,p = 8

(vi) Cc = 1 k ,p
(vii) AC, = Cf,/na,p
(vii) ACMT CMT /0 MT

(viii) RAMT = 100 ACA/ACa,p = 100.C /CaM ,

ACM denotes the average number of matrix predicates to be evaluated. Table 5-3 shows a

summary of the results and in the last two columns the considerable performance enhancement

of matrix thinning. The reduction of matrix predicate computations ranges from 27% for the

line/line case to 75% for the point/point case.

Table 5-3. Summary of complete and thinned out 9IMs for the topological predicates of all type
combinations.
n with k
Type combination nc,p 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 C,p ACa,p CMT ACMT RACM
point/point 5 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 8 10 2.00 25.00
line / line 82 0 0 2 12 4 50 12 2 0 656 8 474 5.78 72.26
region/region 33 0 6 6 10 11 0 0 0 0 264 8 125 3.79 47.35
point/line 14 0 0 6 8 0 0 0 0 0 112 8 50 3.57 44.64
point/region 7 0 3 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 56 8 18 2.57 32.14
line / region 43 0 0 5 18 12 7 1 0 0 344 8 196 4.56 56.98









5.2.4.2 Minimum cost decision tree for predicate determination

In Section 5.2.3, we have seen that, in the worst case, n,,p matching tests are needed to

determine the topological relationship between any two spatial objects. For each test, Boolean

expressions have to be evaluated that are equivalent to the eight matrix predicates and based

on topological feature vectors. We propose two methods to improve the performance. The

first method reduces the number of matrix predicates to be evaluated. This goal can be directly

achieved by applying the method of matrix thinning described in Section 5.2.4.1. That is, the

number n,,p of tests remains the same but for each test we can reduce the number of matrix pred-

icates that have to be evaluated by taking the thinned out instead of the complete 9-intersection

matrices.

The second method, which will be our focus in this subsection, aims at reducing the number

n,,p of tests. This method is based on the complete 9-intersection matrices but also manages to

reduce the number of matrix predicates that have to be evaluated. We propose a global concept

called minimum cost decision tree (MCDT) for this purpose. The term "global" means that we

do not look at each intersection matrix individually but consider all n,,p intersection matrices

together. The idea is to construct a full binary decision tree whose inner nodes represent all

matrix predicates, whose edges represent the Boolean values true or false, and whose leaf nodes

are the n,,p topological predicates. Note that, in a full binary tree, each node has exactly zero

or two children. For searching, we employ a depth-first search procedure that starts at the root

of the tree and proceeds down to one of the leaves which represents the matching topological

predicate. The performance gain through the use of a decision tree is significant since the tree

partitions the search space at each node and gradually excludes more and more topological

predicates. In the best case, at each node of the decision tree, the search space, which comprises

the remaining topological predicates to be assigned to the remaining leaves of the node's subtree,

is partitioned into two halves so that we obtain a perfectly balanced tree. This would guarantee a

search time of O(lognci,p). But in general, we cannot expect to obtain a bisection of topological

predicates at each node since the number of topological predicates yielding true for the node's









matrix predicate will be different from the number of topological predicates yielding false for that

matrix predicate. An upper bound is the number 8, since at most eight matrix predicates have to

be checked to identify a topological predicate uniquely; the ninth matrix predicate yields always

true. Hence, our goal is to determine a nearly balanced, cost-optimal, full binary decision tree for

each collection of nB,p intersection matrices.

If we do not have specific knowledge about the probability distribution of topological

predicates in an application (area), we can only assume that they occur with equal distribution.

But sometimes we have more detailed information. For example, in cadastral map applications,

an adequate estimate is that 95% (or even more) of all topological relationships between regions

are disjoint and the remaining 5% are meet. Our algorithm for constructing MCDTs considers

these frequency distributions. It is based on the following cost model:


Definition 5.8 : Let Mcp be an MCDT for the spatial data types a, P3 {point, line, region},

wi be the weight of the topological predicate pi with 1 < i < na,p and 0 < wi < 1, and di with

1 < di < 8 be the depth of a node in Mcp at which pi is identified. We define the total cost CMCDT

of Mc,p as
cMCD p n,,p
CAf D= E wi di with L wi = 1
i=1 i=1

That is, our cost model is to sum up all the weighted path lengths from each leaf node

representing a topological predicate to the root of the MCDT. If all topological predicates occur

with equal probability, we set wi = The issue now is how to find and build an optimal

MCDT with minimal total cost C"CDT on the basis of a given probability distribution (weighting)

for the topological predicates. If all topological predicates occur with equal probability, this

problem corresponds to finding an optimal MCDT that requires the minimal average number of

matrix predicate evaluations to arrive at an answer.

Figure 5-21 shows our recursive algorithm MCDT for computing a minimum cost decision

tree for a set im of na,p 9-intersection matrices that are annotated with a weight representing

the corresponding predicates's probability of occurrence, as it is characteristic in a particular









01 algorithm MCDT
02 input: list im= ((imi,wi),..., (imn,,, ,)) of 9IMs
03 with weights, list mp of the eight matrix predicates
04 output: MCDT Mp,p
05 begin
06 best_node := new_node(); stop :=false;
07 discriminator := \, /, tui \i,(mp);
08 while not eol(mp) and not stop do
09 node := new node);
10 node.discr := discriminator; node.im := im;
11 if noofelem(im) = 1 then /* leaf node */
12 best-node := node; bestjnode.cost := 0;
13 stop := true;
14 else
15 /* Let im = ((imk, Wk),.. .,(im,, Wk)
16 with 1 < ki < ... < kn < na,p- */
17 partition(im, discriminator, iml, imr);
18 if no of elem(im) # 0 and
19 noofelem(imr) # 0 then
20 copy(mp, new-mp); del(newmp, discriminator);
21 node.lchild := MCDT(iml, newmip);
22 node.rchild := MCDT(imr, newmp);
23 node.cost := node.lchild. cost + node.rchild.cost
24 + k wi;
25 if node.cost < bestnode.cost
26 then bestjnode := node; endif;
27 endif;
28 discriminator := select _ne.t(imp);
29 endif
30 endwhile;
31 return bestnode;
32 end MCDT.

Figure 5-21. Minimum cost decision tree algorithm


application (line 2). Later these matrices become the leaves of the decision tree. In addition,

the algorithm takes as an input the list mp of eight matrix predicates (we remember that the

exterior/exterior intersection yields always true) that serve as discriminators and are attached

to the inner nodes (line 3). This list is necessary to ensure that a matrix predicate is not used

more than once as a discriminator in a search path. During the recursion, the while-loop (lines

8 to 30) terminates if either the list mp of matrix predicates to be processed is empty or the list









im of 9-intersection matrices contains only a single element. For each matrix predicate used

as a discriminator, the operation newnode creates a new tree node node (line 9). The matrix

predicate discriminator as well as the list im annotate the tree node node (line 10). If im has only

one element (line 11), we know that node is a leaf node representing the topological predicate

pertaining to the single element in im. The cost for this leaf node is 0 since its current depth is

0 (line 12). Otherwise, if im consists of more than one element, we partition it into two lists imi

and imr (line 17). The partitioning is based on the values of each 9-intersection matrix in im

with respect to the matrix predicate serving as the discriminator. If such a value is 0 (false), the

corresponding 9-intersection matrix is added to the list iml; otherwise, it is added to the list imr.

A special case now is that im has not been partitioned so that either iml or imr is empty (condition

in lines 18 to 19 yields false). In this case, the discriminator does not contribute to a decision

and is skipped; the next discriminator is selected (line 28). If both lists imi and imr are nonempty

(lines 18 to 19), we remove the discriminator from a new copy newmp of the list mp (line 20)

and recursively find the minimum cost decision trees for the 9-intersection matrices in iml (line

21) and in imr (line 22). Eventually, all recursions will reach all leaf nodes and begin returning

while recursively calculating the cost of each subtree found. The cost of a leaf node is 0. The

cost of an inner node node can be expressed in terms of the cost of its two nonempty subtrees

node.lchild and node.rchild processing the lists iml and imr respectively. The depth of each leaf

node with respect to node is exactly one larger than the depth of the same leaf node with respect

to either node.lchild or node.rchild. Therefore, besides the costs of these two subtrees, for each

leaf node of the subtree with root node, we have to add the leaf node's cost (weight) one time

(lines 23 to 24). These weights are stored in node.im. The cost of node is then compared with

the best cost determined so far, and the minimum will be the new best option (lines 25 to 26).

Eventually, when all the matrix predicates have been considered, we obtain the best choice and

return the corresponding minimum cost decision tree (line 31).

Table 5-4 shows the results of this algorithm by giving a textual pre-order (depth-first

search) encoding of all MCDTs for all type combinations on the basis of equal probability










Table 5-4. MCDT pre-order representations for all type combinations on the basis of equal
probability of occurrence of all topological predicates.
Type combination MCDT pre-order representation
point/point 2 3 0 1 4 5
line /line a 0- 33 a 34 35 1 2 43 a 44 45
S3 4 46 a 47 48 0- 0- 36 37 38 5 6 -
49 a 50 51 7 8 52 53 54 0 9 10 a
11 12 13 14 15 16 0- 39 40 O 41 42 -
55 56 a 57 58 0- 59 60 a 61 62 0 0- 17 18
19 20 0- 21 22 a 23 24 D 0- 25 26 a 27 28 0- 29
30 31 32 o 0- 63 64 65 66 67 68 69
a 70 71 72 73 74 a 0- -a 75 76 77 78 -a 79 80
a 81 82
region / region a 0- 0- 5 6 2 10 1 3 4 11 12
13 7 a 8 9 0- 15 16 14 17 18 o 0- 21
-22 23 -0 19 20 24 25 26 0- 27 28 29 0-
30 31 3 32 33
point/line a 1 2 3 4 5 6 0- 7 8 a 9 10
S- 11 12 13 14
point/region 0 1 0- 2 3 0- 4 5 0- 6 7
line /region 0- 5 6 o 1 8 9 o 2 10 11 0-
3 4 7 0- 12 13 a 0- 14 15 0- 18 19 0- 20 21
a -a 26 27 28 0- 32 33 a 34 35 0- 36 37 a 0- 16
17 0- 22 23 0-24 25 0- 29 30 31 0- 38 39
40 41 42 43


of occurrence of all topological predicates. The encodings allow an easy construction of the

MCDTs. Since MCDTs are full binary trees, each node has exactly zero or two child nodes. We

leverage this feature by representing an MCDT as the result of a pre-order tree traversal. The pre-

order sequence of nodes is unique in this case for constructing the decision tree since inner nodes

with only one child node cannot occur. Each inner node in the pre-order sequence is described as

a term XY where X, Y E {, -, }. Such a term represents a matrix predicate AX n BY 4 0 serving

as a discriminator. For example, the term XY = a denotes the matrix predicate A n aB 4 0

(prefix notation for boundary). Each leaf node represents the 9-intersection matrix number of a

topological predicate. The matrix numbers are specified in the Figures 5-17, 5-18, 5-19 and 5-20

as well as in [50, 59].

Figures 5-22 shows a visualization of the MCDTs of three spatial data type combinations

on the assumption that all topological predicates occur with equal probability. The MCDTs for

the other type combinations have been omitted due to their very large size. Each inner node is










annotated with a label XY where X e {A aA,A } and Y E {B 3B,B }. A label represents a

matrix predicate X n Y 4 0 serving as a discriminator. For example, the label XY = A B denotes

the matrix predicate A n aB 4 0. If the evaluation of a matrix predicate yields false, we move to

the left child; otherwise, we move to the right child. Each leaf node represents the 9-intersection

matrix number of a topological predicate.

The following definition specifies measures that we use to summarize and interpret these

results. We are especially interested in the average number of matrix predicates to be evaluated.

AOB AOBo

A AB
SAaB AOaB
2 3 1 ARB
1 AB AB AB-
4 5
2 3 4 5 6 7

A B
AOBo



AOaB AOaB

A aB AB
AOR A AB
1 2 A aB A aB
A aB A aB A- B A-aB
3 4 5 6
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

C

Figure 5-22. Minimum cost decision trees. A) For the 5 topological predicates of the point/point
case. B) For the 7 topological predicates of the point/region case. C) For the 14
topological predicates of the point/line case under the assumption that all
topological predicates occur with equal probability.



Definition 5.9 : Let CMCDT denote the total cost of an MCDT Mcp according to Def-

inition 5.8. Let nc,p with a, 3 E {point2D, line2D, region2D} be the number of 9IMs of the

topological predicates between the types a( and 3, IMi with 1 < i < n(,p be a 9IM, and dk be the
cP,









number of topological predicates associated with leaf nodes in Mp of depth k (with 1 < k < 9).

Further, let Ca,p be the cost without using an MCDT, ACQ,p be the average cost without using

an MCDT, AC"MDT be the average cost when using an MCDT, and RACMCDT be the reduced

average cost in percent when using an MCDT. The measures are defined as:

(i) d, = I{IMi ll (ii) na,p = l0 dl,p

(iii) C,p = 8 n,p

(iv) ACa,p = 4.(n,p + 1)

(v) AClMDT = CMCDT /n

(vi) RACMCDT 100 ACMCDT/ACp

To determine the average cost ACB,p without using an MCDT in (iv), we observe that

the best case is to check 8 matrix predicates, the second best case is to check 16 matrix

predicates, etc., and the worst case is to check all 8 na,p matrix predicates. The average

number of matrix predicates that has to be checked without using an MCDT is therefore

8 (1 + 2 + ... + na,p)/n, = 4 (na,p + 1). ACMDT in (v) yields the average number of

matrix predicates to be evaluated. Table 5-5 shows a summary of the results and in the last two

columns the considerable performance enhancement of minimum cost decision trees. The reduc-

tion of matrix predicate computations ranges from 90% for the point/point case to 98% for the

line/line case.

The MCDT approach is similar to a technique introduced in [10] for topological predicates

between simple regions. However, their method of determining a binary decision tree rests on

the thinned out 9-intersection matrices and results in a near optimal algorithm and solution.

The reason why optimality is not achieved is that a topological predicate can have multiple,

equipollent thinned out matrices, that is, thinned out matrices are not unique. Therefore, using

a specific set of thinned out matrices as the basis for partitioning the search space can only lead

to an optimal decision tree for this set of thinned out matrices and may not be optimal in the

general case. Our algorithm rests on the complete 9-intersection matrices. It produces an optimal









Table 5-5. Summary of the MCDTs for all type combinations on the basis of equal probability of
occurrence of all topological predicates.
d, with k
Type combination na,p 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 C,p AC,p CMCDT ACADT RACCDT
point/point 5 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 24 12 2.40 10.00
line / line 82 0 0 0 0 0 48 30 4 0 656 332 530 6.46 1.95
region / region 33 0 0 0 3 22 8 0 0 0 264 136 170 5.15 3.79
point/line 14 0 0 2 12 0 0 0 0 0 112 60 54 3.86 6.43
point/region 7 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 56 32 20 2.86 8.94
line / region 43 0 0 0 3 15 19 6 0 0 344 176 243 5.65 3.21


decision tree (several optimal trees with the same total cost may exist) for the specified set of

9-intersection matrices and the given probability distribution. One can verify this by applying our

algorithm to the eight 9-intersection matrices for two simple regions and the same probability

distribution as specified in [10]. Our algorithm produces an optimal tree with the total cost of

2.13 while the so-called "refined cost method" in [10], which uses thinned out matrices, produces

a tree with the total cost of 2.16.

We can observe the following relationship between MCDTs and thinned out matrices:


Lemma 5.9 : For each combination of spatial data types a and 3, the total cost of its

minimum cost decision tree (given in Table 5-5) is greater than or equal to the total cost of all its

thinned out matrices (given in Table 5-3), that is,

CMCDT > CMT
aP -aP

Proof. The proof is given by contradiction. Assume that for a spatial data type combination

the total cost of its MCDT is less than the total cost of all its thinned out matrices. Consequently,

there must be at least one path from the root to a leaf in the MCDT that contains a smaller

number of matrix predicates than the number of matrix predicates in the thinned out matrix

for the topological predicate associated with that leaf. This implies that we can identify this

topological predicate with a smaller number of matrix predicate decisions than the number of

matrix predicates in its thinned out matrix. But this contradicts the definition of a thinned out

matrix. O









5.2.5 Interface Methods for Topological Predicates

To verify the feasibility, practicality, correctness, and efficiency of the concepts presented,

we have implemented and tested our approach. Details of our topological predicate implementa-

tion is provided later in Section 5.5. A qualitative assessment, performance study and analysis of

this implementation is presented in Section 6.1. Here, we specify a set of function interfaces for

our topological predicate implementation so that they can be used to support our spatiotemporal

predicate implementation to be described in the next section.

The topological predicate implementation provides three specific interface methods

TopPredExploration, TopPredl, rif aniiri. and TopPredDetermination and one universal interface

method TopPred for providing the functionality of the exploration phase and the evaluation phase

as well as the combined effect of both phases. The method TopPredExploration explores the

topological data of interest for two interacting spatial objects. This interface is overloaded to

accept two spatial objects of any type combination as input. Depending on the input object types,

it executes one of the six plane sweep based exploration algorithms from Section 5.2.2. The

output consists of two topological feature vectors which hold the relevant topological information

for both argument objects.

The methods TopPredl', rvi aniiin and TopPredDetermination handle predicate verification

and predicate determination queries respectively. Both interfaces are overloaded and take two

topological feature vectors as input. Both methods leverage the general evaluation method of

9-intersection matrix characterization from Section 5.2.3. The interface method TopPredVerifi-

cation takes a predicate identification number as an additional input parameter. It corresponds

to the matrix number (specified in [59] and used in Figures 5-17 to 5-19 and 5-20) of the topo-

logical predicate to be evaluated. The method implements the optimized evaluation technique

of matrix thinning from Section 5.2.4. The output is the Boolean value true if the topological

relationship between the two spatial objects corresponds to the specified predicate; otherwise, the

value is false. The interface method TopPredDetermination implements the optimized evaluation

technique of minimum cost decision trees from Section 5.2.4 and outputs the matrix number of









the topological predicate corresponding to the topological relationship between the two spatial

objects.

The universal interface method TopPred is overloaded to accept two spatial objects of

any type combination and an optional predicate identification number as input. If the optional

argument is specified, it triggers a predicate verification process by invoking TopPredExploration

followed by TopPred', riifit aniii and returns a Boolean value as a result. Otherwise, a predicate

determination process is to be executed, and thus it invokes TopPredExploration followed by

TopPredDetermination and returns a predicate identification number corresponding to the

topological relationship between the two spatial objects. This universal interface will be used in

the next section to leverage the support for our spatiotemporal predicate implementation.

5.3 Algorithms for Spatiotemporal Predicates

Spatiotemporal predicates between moving objects are not limited in their number since

more elementary predicates can always be combined to more complex predicates and thus

describe more complicated developments through specific construction operators like temporal

composition, temporal alternative, and others (Section 2.2 and [22]). To formulate a specific

algorithm for each newly constructed predicate would thus be very inefficient and troublesome.

Hence, the idea is to devise a generic algorithmic scheme that can be leveraged for query

evaluation and that is applicable also to developments which have so far not been defined.

5.3.1 The Algorithmic Scheme

For the evaluation of a spatiotemporal predicate describing a development of topological

relationship, it is helpful to conceptually consider moving objects as entities in the three-

dimensional (3D) space. A moving region is then considered as a volume, a moving line as a

\lurf, ,. and a moving point as a (3D) curve4 A first, coarse approach to a generic algorithmic



4 Note that volumes, surfaces, and curves do not have an arbitrary structure in our case. That
is, each moving region, moving line, or moving point can be mapped to a volume, surface, or
curve respectively, but not vice versa. For a discussion, see [22].









scheme works as follows: Taking the 3D counterparts of two moving objects being the operands

of a spatiotemporal predicate, we compute their 3D geometric intersection. We do this in a

way so that we obtain a sequence of time intervals together with the information about the

corresponding parts of the two moving objects (each of which might be undefined), of their

intersection, and of their topological relationship for each time interval. For example, in the

moving point/moving region case, in a specific time interval (that can degenerate to a time

instant), either the curve is inside the volume, or the curve runs along the volume border, or the

curve is outside the volume, or one or even both objects are undefined. The essential point is that

for each change in the topological relationship a new time interval is reported. The intersection

procedures for other combinations of volumes, surfaces, and curves are analogous. This means

that in principle we could compute the evolution of topological relationships between two spatial

objects over time by using algorithms from computational geometry and from constructive solid

geometry. We aim at avoiding their, though logarithmic, still considerable complexity and to

find a more efficient solution. In any case, the validity of a spatiotemporal predicate can then be

checked by matching the predicate against the computed evolution.

Due to our sliced representation of moving objects as a sequence of units, from a 3D

perspective a region value corresponds to a unit volume, a uline value to a unit \IIr/'lI and a

point value to a unit curve. Together with some optimizations, a spatiotemporal query predicate

can be evaluated by a refined algorithmic scheme including the following steps:

1. Time-synchronized interval refinement: Since the unit intervals of both operand objects
are usually incompatible, meaning that the start and end points of the intervals of the first
operand often do not coincide with any start and end points of the intervals of the second
operand, an interval refinement has to be computed covering all start and end points of
unit intervals of both operands. An optimization is based on the fact that a spatiotemporal
predicate is only defined at time instants and during periods in which both operand objects
are defined. Hence, those time intervals can be skipped in which only one of the operands
is defined5 Finally, both operand objects are synchronized in the sense that for each unit



5 The case that both objects are undefined cannot occur because these time intervals are not
explicitly stored in the object representations.









in the first object there exists a matching unit in the second object with the same, possibly
reduced unit interval, and vice versa.

2. Function-valued interval refinement: Each pair of matching units in both objects has
possibly to be further refined depending on the evolutions represented by the two unit
functions. This is the case if both 3D unit objects intersect or touch each other and thus
change their topological relationship. As a result, we will have computed the finest interval
granularity needed for the determination of the topological relationship between two
matching units.

3. Development determination: For each pair of matching units we now determine the
unique, basic spatiotemporal predicate (period predicate) or topological relationship (instant
predicate). We then sequentially collect the topological relationships of all matching units
and in total obtain the development of the two operand objects of the spatiotemporal query
predicate.

4. Pattern matching with query predicate: This step includes a pattern matching process
between the development computed and the query predicate asking for evaluation. It results
in one of the Boolean values true orfalse. Note that this step is not required for a query to
determine the development.

To enhance the comprehensibility of the algorithmic scheme, we have deliberately delin-

eated its steps in a consecutive and separated manner. For example, steps 2 and 3 can easily be

combined because during the computation of the intersection of two 3D unit objects (step 2)

the spatiotemporal predicates can be directly derived (step 3). Even a completely interleaved

execution of the algorithmic steps is possible since steps 1 to 4 can be nested. This leads to a

slight increase in the algorithmic complexity but is a little faster by a constant factor, although it

does not change the runtime complexity, as we will see later.

The algorithmic scheme is independent of the predicate sequence of the development

induced by the operand objects of the query predicate, and it also does not depend on the query

predicate itself. Steps 1 and 4 are generic in the sense that they do not depend on the types of the

operand objects. For steps 2 and 3, type combination-specific intersection detection algorithms

and type combination-specific topological predicate determination are needed respectively.

The fact that we employ a single algorithmic scheme for computing all spatiotemporal pred-

icates necessitates and implies that their evaluation procedure during query processing is different









from other, built-in or user-defined predicates. At the descriptive level, both spatiotemporal pred-

icates (like Disjoint, Cross) and other predicates (like the comparison operators <, <, >, >) are

used in selection and join conditions of SQL queries and are syntactically represented as boolean

functions. At the physical level, other predicates are usually implemented by executable boolean

functions, i.e., program code fragments, which explicitly calculate the predicates. However, spa-

tiotemporal predicates describing developments represent topological patterns and are mapped

to string patterns. We assume that the query string pattern of a spatiotemporal predicate being

asked is a sequence of basic spatiotemporal predicates and topological predicates in development

normal form (see [22]). In step 4, such a query string pattern is then matched against the actual

development of two moving objects under consideration, which is also represented by a string.

In the following, we describe a version of the algorithmic scheme, called STPredEvaluator

(Figure 5-23), where first step 1, then steps 2 and 3 together, and finally step 4 are executed

consecutively. The starting point is a given spatiotemporal query predicate Q(mol, mo2) applied

to two moving objects mok E {mapping(upoint), mapping(uline), mapping(uregion) } with

k E {1, 2}. We assume that the DBMS first checks and keeps in the flag qwc whether Q contains

either the instant predicate true or period predicate True. These predicates are defined as a kind of

"wildcard" predicates to express "don't care" parts of developments in case that a development is

only partially defined.

First we perform a prechecking on the input objects. In case that one of the operand

objects is empty, or their lifespans do not intersect (operation Tlntersects), we return false as

the result. All checks can be done in constant time, except for the lifespan check which takes

O(di + d2) time if di and d2 denote the numbers of intervals of lsi and Is2. Note that checking

their projection bounding boxes for disjointedness is not sufficient to return a false value here if

they are disjoint. This is because the predicates disjoint and Disjoint are also relationships that

can be asked to be evaluated. Furthermore, there are also different types of disjoint relationships

between complex objects as identified in [59].









algorithm STPredEvaluator(mo\ mo2, Q, qwc)
input: two moving objects mo ( = (n, ls, objpbbi,...) and mo2 = (n, s2, objpbb2,...),
topological string pattern Q that has to be checked with respect to mo\ and mo2, flag
qwc indicating whether Q includes wildcards true or True
output: true if Q matches actual development; false, otherwise
begin
if n = 0 or m = 0 or not Tlntersects(lss, 1s2)
then return false
else
Rfihi dlii, i 'al\ := TimeSynchronizelntervals(mo\, mo2);
(O'bi, \Development,owc) := FunctionValuedR, fii ( m, mu(Rlfim, dini, nia'l\o
return PatternMatching(Q,qwc,Oli, iDevelopment,owc)
endif
end STPredEvaluator.

Figure 5-23. Spatiotemporal predicate evaluator algorithm.


The algorithm TimeSynchronizelntervals yields a sequence of matching units with concor-

dant, possibly reduced unit intervals. As we will see in Section 5.3.2, its runtime complexity is

O(n + m+ b) where n and m are the numbers of unit intervals of mo\ and mo2, respectively, and b

is the number of matching unit intervals.

The algorithm FunctionVl h, dR, fin, i, nt further refines this sequence depending on the unit

functions; it returns the so-called object development and a boolean flag indicating the existence

of the wildcards true or True in the unit development. In Section 5.3.3, we will show that this

takes O(bnmax (z2ax -+ log nmax)) where Zmax is the maximum number of moving unit segments or

moving unit single points (both also known as unit elements) in a unit of mo\ and mo2 and nmax

is the maximum number of changes in the topological relationships between unit elements of

matching units.

The algorithm PatternMatching checks the query string and the actual object development

string for matching pattern. The flags qwc and owc indicate whether the corresponding strings

contain wildcards. In Section 5.3.4, we will show that for the case that both strings do not

comprise wildcards this requires O(v + w) time where v and w are the lengths of the strings.

Finally, the runtime complexity of the algorithm STPredEvaluator is the sum of the runtime

complexities of its subalgorithms.









5.3.2 Time-Synchronized Interval Refinement

It is obvious that the computation of the time-synchronized interval refinement requires

a parallel scan through the unit sequences and hence unit interval sequences of both object

representations. During the traversal, intersections of unit intervals of both moving objects have

to be detected. The effect is that temporally overlapping and thus matching units of both objects

are reduced to their common time interval and that some intervals of both objects are totally or

partially dropped (Figure5-24). But due to reasons of efficiency, we will not copy matching parts

and construct two reduced moving objects. Instead, we will take an additional interval sequence

data structure and only store common intervals with pointers to the matching units of the two

moving objects for later use.

time




Ti : III


Figure 5-24. Time-synchronized refinement of two unit interval sequences: two sets of time
intervals on the left side, and their refinement partition for development evaluation
on the right side.


The implementation of the parallel scan through the unit interval sequences of both moving

objects turns out to be not so trivial as it seems at first glance. For example, the deployment

of Allen's thirteen different temporal predicates [1], which uniquely characterize the possible

topological relationships between two intervals, is feasible but leads to a large number of case

distinctions and predicate evaluations that make a complete treatment error-prone and lengthy.

Our approach leads to shorter, faster (by a constant factor), and more comprehensible code and

is able to handle closed, half-open, and open intervals. It collects the start and end points of the

intervals of both objects in temporal order and then determines the intersection intervals. In the

following algorithm (Figure 5-25), the notation "()" denotes the empty sequence, "o" sequence

concatenation, the function eos tests whether the end of a sequence has been reached, the









algorithm TimeSynchronizelntervals(mol mo2)
input: two moving objects mol = (n,..., ((..., ii,...),..., (..., in,...))) and
Mo 2 = (m ..., ((.... ...), ..., (..., ia,...)))
output: a list R, fii, dii, i i in\ containing all intersection intervals of matching units of both
objects together with pointers (i.e., unit numbers) to these units
begin
// Step 1: Create the temporally ordered list of all interval left and right endpoints
TList := ();
// Let ki be the current unit number of object i with i E {1,2}, left be a flag indicating
// whether the left or right interval endpoint is considered, ti be the start or end time of the
// interval, and cli be a flag indicating whether the interval is left-closed or right-closed.
(ki, left1, ti, cl1) := (1, true, mol.il.l, mtol.i .lc); (k2, left2, t2, 2) := (1, true, mo2.i1.1, mo2.i.l c);
while kl < n and k2 < m do
if tI < t2 then TList := TList o((1, ki, left1, ti, cll)); next(1, ki, left1, ti, cll)
else if tl > t2 then TList := TList o((2, k2, left2,t2, 12)); next(2, k2, left2, t2, c2)
else // t = t2
if left1 and cll and not ( not left2 and not C12)) or
(not left1 and cll and left2 and not C12) or (not left1 and not c11) then
TList := TList o((l, ki, left,, ti, cli)); TList := TList o ((2, k2, left, t2, c12));
else TList := TList o((2, k2, left2, t2, c2)); TList := TList o ((1, k, left, ti, cll)); endif
next(l, ki, left1, tI, cli); next(2, k2, left2 t2, 12)
endif
endwhile;
// Step 2: Compute the intersection intervals of the matching units of both moving objects
R, fiii, dbli r al\ := (); OverlapNo := 0;
while not eos(TList) do
(id, k, left, t, cl) := GetNextElem(TList);
if left then
Incr(OverlapNo);
if OverlapNo = 1 then
if id = 1 then kl := k else k2 := k endif
else //OverlapNo = 2
if id = 1 then (1,p, q, cl) := (t,k, k2,cl) else (1,p, q, cl) := (t, k, k, cl) endif
endif
else
Decr(OverlapNo);
if OverlapNo = 1 then
(r, cl) := (t, cl); R, enfidi dlf, i r := Rfiii, di, rol\ o((, r, ,cl, p,q))
endif
endif
endwhile;
return R, fii dlri ii 'nl\
end TimeSynchronizelntervals.

Figure 5-25. Time-synchronized interval refinement algorithm.









operation GetNextElem yields the next element of a sequence, the term (al,..., an) := (b, ..., bn)

stands for the statement list a1 := bl;...; an : bn, and the operations Incr and Decr increment and

decrement an integer value respectively. The operation next positions on the next time instant of

an ordered interval sequence and is discussed in more detail below.

In step 1 of the algorithm, in the case where t, and t2 coincide, each of both time instants

may indicate a left-closed ("["), left-open ("("), right-closed ("]"), or right-open (")") interval.

This results in 16 possible combinations for both time instants. For each combination we have to

decide the order of the two time instants in the list TList of interval endpoints. This is needed in

step 2 of the algorithm to determine the refined intervals and, in particular, to detect time intervals

which have degenerated to time instants. The decision process is illustrated in Table 5-6 which in

the first two lines lists all combinations of closed and open, left and right interval endpoints and

which in the third line determines their order. The notation "1, 2" means ti must precede t2 "2,

1" means the inverse, and "112" means that the order is arbitrary.

Table 5-6. Interval endpoint ordering.
th [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ( ( ( ( ) ) ) )
t2 [ ] ( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )
order 1,2 1,2 1,2 2,1 2,1 112 1,2 2,1 2,1 2,1 112 2,1 1,2 1,2 1,2 112


Due to at most 2 (n + m) different interval endpoints, the runtime complexity for step 1

is O(n + m) where n and m are the numbers of intervals of mo\ and mo2, respectively. We now

present the algorithm Next for the next operation (Figure 5-26) which positions on the next time

instant of the unit interval sequence of one of both moving objects and which needs 0(1) time.

In step 2 of the algorithm, the temporally ordered list of all interval left and right endpoints

is traversed for determining the intersection intervals. This is done by computing overlap

numbers (see Section 5.2.1.2, here applied to the one-dimensional case) indicating the number

of intervals covering a time instant. Only time instants and intervals with overlap number

2 belong to the result. The runtime complexity for step 2 and also for the whole algorithm

TimeSynchronizelntervals is O(n + m + b) (= O(n + m) since bn + m) where b is the ascertained

number of matching unit intervals.









algorithm Next(id, k, left, t, cl)
input: id E { 1,2} indicating moving object mo\ or mo2, current unit number k
output: updated unit number k, left or right end time t of an interval, flag left indicating whether
t is the left boundary of an interval, flag cl indicating whether the interval is closed at t
begin
if left then
left =false;
if id = 1 then t := mol .ik.r; cl := mo1 ik.rc else t := m02.ik.r; cl := mo2.ik.rc endif
else
left = true; k := k+ 1;
if id = 1 and k < n then t := mo .ik.1; cl := mo .ik-l
else if id = 2 and k < m then t := mo2.ik.1; cl := mo2ik.lc endif
endif
end Next.

Figure 5-26. Next Algorithm.


5.3.3 Function-Valued Interval Refinement and Development Determination

So far, we have identified b matching units of mo\ and mo2 together with their common time

intervals. But each pair of matching units has possibly to be further refined due to intersecting

or touching 3D unit objects. These situations imply a change of their topological relationships

and have thus to be taken into account for the computation of the development (Figure 5-27). We

do not store this further refinement explicitly but only make our conclusions with respect to the

development in the respective unit.

time







x
Figure 5-27. Intersecting unit segments of two moving points representing the development
Disjoint > meet > Disjoint and thus requiring a further interval refinement.


We also have to take into account that parts of the whole development to be computed may

be undefined. Hence, two consecutive time intervals may be separated by "temporal gaps". In









this case, we have to use the "wildcard" period predicate True or the "wildcard" instant predicate

true for expressing this. The algorithmic schema can be formulated as shown in Figure 5-28.

algorithm FunctionValuedRefinement(R, fiih dWiii i oal\)
input: Rfini dlul it nl\ = ((li, ri, ci, rci, pi, qi),..., (lb, rb, Icb, rcb, Pb, qb)) where li and
ri denote the left and right endpoints of the possibly reduced intervals of matching units, Ici and
rci whether the intervals are left-closed and right-closed respectively, and pi and qi are
pointers (unit numbers) to the matching units of mor or mo2 respectively
output: ObjectDevelopment as a string containing the development of mor and mo2
begin
ObjectDevelopment := ""
for each j in 1...b do
UnitDevelopment := Unitlntersect(lj, rj, lcj, rcj, pj, qj)
if j > 1 then
if rj = lj and not rcj 1 and not Icj then
ObjectDevelopment := ObjectDevelopment o "true"
else if rj 1 < lj then
ObjectDevelopment := ObjectDevelopment o "True"
endif
endif;
ObjectDevelopment := ObjectDevelopment o UnitDevelopment;
endfor;
(ObjectDevelopment,owc) := NormalizeDev(UnitDevelopment);
return (ObjectDevelopment,owc);
end FunctionVatlldRfin, nit l.

Figure 5-28. Function-valued interval refinement algorithm.


For each refined interval, we determine the unit development of the corresponding units of

the two moving objects by calling the Unitlntersect algorithm. This algorithm returns the unit

development specified by the two 3D unit objects. The algorithm are described in Figure 5-29. It,

in particular, have to take care of the degenerate case that the unit interval is a time instant. The

function NormalizeDev transforms the computed development into development normal form

(see [22]) and simultaneously checks whether the development contains the wildcards true or

True.

In the algorithm Unitlntersect, the term eval(vj, t) denotes an evaluation function that is

applied to the unit function vj for unit j at time t. This function yields a 2D spatial object. The

function InstantPred and PeriodPred annotates a topological predicate identification number











algorithm Unitlntersect(l, r, Ic, rc, p, q)
input: left endpoint I and right endpoint r of the common time interval of two matching units,
flags Ic and re whether the interval is left-closed and right-closed respectively,
and pointers p and q to the matching units
output: a string representing the unit development of the two matching units
begin
o1 := eval (vyp, 1); o := eval (vyp, r); o\ := eval(vq, 1) ; or := eval(vq, r);
if I = r then // Ic and re must be true
return InstantPred(TopRel(ol, o1))
else if not BBIntersects (unit pbbp, unit pbbq) then
/Take a sample at half way of the interval to determine the type of disjoint
return PeriodPred(TopRel(eval (vp, (1 + r)/2), eval(vq, (1 + r)/2)))
else
// Step 1: Compute contacts between any pair of moving unit segments and/or
// moving unit single points (unit elements)
TList := (1, r);
for each i in 1...zi do // z is the number of unit elements of the first unit
for each j in 1...Z2 do // Z2 is the number of unit elements of the second unit
(c, t, t2) := Contact(p, i, Vq, j); ith resp. jth unit element of vp resp. Vq
if c then TList := TList o(ti); TList := TList o(t2) endif
endfor
endfor;
// Step 2: Sort list of time instants (events) and remove duplicates
TList := sort(TList); TList := rdup(TList);
I Step 3: Evaluate TList (we assume it has n elements) and determine development
UnitDevelopment := "";
if Ic then UnitDevelopment := InstantPred(TopRel(o1 o~)) endif
for each j in 2...n do
// Take a sample at a time between tj and tj
tp := TopRel(eval(vp, (tj 1 +tj)/2), eval(vq, (tj + t)/2));
UnitDevelopment := UnitDevelopment o PeriodPred(tp);
I Determine the topological relationship at tj
if tj < r or (tj = r and re) then
tp := TopRel(eval(vp, tj), eval(vq,tj));
UnitDevelopment := UnitDevelopment o InstantPred(tp)
endif
endfor;
return UnitDevelopment;
endif
end Unitlntersect.

Figure 5-29. Unit intersection algorithm.









(returned by TopRel) to indicate an instant predicate or a period predicate respectively and returns

its string value. In the first step, for each unit element of Vp, we scan the unit elements of vq to

find time intervals when such two unit elements intersect or meet each other.

The time instants when two unit elements start and stop to intersect or meet each other

represent topologicall events" since they indicate possible changes of topological relationships

between the two units. That is, a local change of the topological relationship between two

unit elements does not necessarily imply a global change in the topological relationship of the

two units of the moving objects. This depends on the definition of the topological predicates

(Section 2.1.2 and [39, 42]). For example, if two components of two region values overlap for

some period within the common unit interval, a local change of the topological relationship of

two other components from Disjoint to meet in the same period will not have a global effect

on the topological relationship of the two region values; it is still Overlap. The topological

relationship of two unit elements does not change between the start time and end time of their

"contact". For all pairs of unit elements, the function Contact returns a triple (c, ti, t2) where c is

a flag which indicates whether both unit elements intersect or touch or meet, i.e., contact, each

other. The values ti and t2 are the start and end times of a contact which are stored in a list for

further processing. The exact nature of the contact is not relevant here, because it is only a local

event and has to be globally evaluated anyway.

In a second step, the list of time instants obtained from the first step is sorted (function sort),

and duplicates are removed (function rdup).

In a third step, the list TList of topological events is evaluated and the unit development is

determined. Since a temporal unit value can consist of several components, the components of

two unit values may be spatially arranged in many different ways and thus lead to many different

unit developments. Therefore, we employ the following global algorithmic strategy: We apply

the algorithm TopRel to all time instants of TList and hence obtain the topological relationships at

these times. We know that the topological behavior between two consecutive time instants ti and

t2 in TList is constant because a topological change would otherwise entail a contact situation at









a time between t\ and t2. However, we do not know and also cannot uniquely infer what kind of

basic spatiotemporal relationship exists between t\ and t2. As an example, let us assume that at

both times t, and t2 we find the topological relationship meet between two region values. What

can have happened in between? Three alternatives are possible leading to either the development

meet > Disjoint > meet or the development meet > Overlap > meet or the development meet >

Meet > meet, which is equal to Meet. To solve this problem, we take a "sample" and compute

the topological relationship at time (t\ + t2)/2. Then we determine the corresponding period

predicate by means of the function PeriodPred. This is done for all consecutive pairs of time

instants in TList.

The computation of the spatial object at times I and r at the beginning of the algorithm

takes time O(zi logzi) and O(2 logz2), respectively, where zi and Z2 denote the number of unit

elements of the two units. Hence, the algorithm TopRel requires time O((zi + Z2) log(zi + z2)).

Step 1 includes two nested loops executing the function Contact, which runs in constant time.

In total, this step requires O(zi Z2) time. Step 2 needs O(nlogn) time for sorting the n elements

of TList and removing the duplicates. Step 3 computes approximately n times the function

TopRel, which requires O(n (zi + z2) log(zi + z2)) time. Hence, the algorithm Unitlntersect

needs time O(zi -Z2 + nlogn + n (zi + Z2) log(zi + Z2)). With z = max(zl, z2), this is equal to

O(z2 + nlogn + n zlogz) = O(n (z2 + log n)). In this case, this leads to a runtime complexity of

O(bnmax (ziax + lognmax)) for the algorithm FunctionlValut dRtfin mn, nt where b is the number

of matching unit intervals, Zmax is the maximum number of unit elements in a unit of both moving

objects, and nmax is the maximum number of changes in the topological relationships between

unit elements of matching units.

5.3.4 Pattern Matching with Query Predicate

At this stage, the actual temporal topological behavior, i.e., the development, of the two

moving objects under consideration is known and represented as a string, called the development

string. The reason for this kind of representation is to reduce the problem of evaluating a









spatiotemporal predicate finally to a string matching problem between the development string

and the query string.

The string matching problem can arise in four variants with different algorithmic and

runtime complexities depending on the existence of the wildcards true (t) and True (T) in the

development string and/or the query string. First, both the development string and the query

string do not contain wildcards. Second, the development string but not the query string includes

wildcards. Third, the query string but not the development string includes wildcards. Fourth, both

strings contain wildcards. This leads to the algorithm PatternMatching shown in Figure 5-30.

algorithm PatternMatching(Q, qwc, D, dwc)
input: a query string Q which is checked against a development string D, flags qwc and
dwc indicating whether Q and D, respectively, contain wildcards
output: a boolean value indicating whether the query string matches the development string
begin
if not qwc and not dwc then // case 1
return (Q = D)
else if not qwc and dwc then // case 2
return REPM(Q,D)
else if qwc and not dwc then // case 3
return REPM(D, Q)
else if qwc and dwc then // case 4
return EqualRegExpr(Q, D)
endif
end PatternMatching.

Figure 5-30. Pattern matching algorithm.


In the first case, the string matching problem can be solved by a string equality test and

needs time O(v + w) where v is the length of Q and w is the length of D. All other cases

incorporate the wildcards true and True. We can therefore consider strings containing these

wildcards as (simplified) regular expressions. The cases 2 and 3 are special instances of exact

regular expression pattern matching problems where exactly one of the argument strings, either

the query string or the development string, includes wildcards. The problem here is to find

out whether the string without wildcards matches one of the strings specified by the regular

expression. This is computed by a predicate REPM (see [28] for detail) and requires O(vw) time









if v is the length of the string and w is the number of symbols contained in the regular expression.

The fourth case takes two regular expressions and determines whether they are equal. Two

regular expression are equal if and only if they produce the same language. An algorithm for this

problem, EqualRegExpr, is given in [27] (unfortunately without runtime complexity analysis).

5.4 Algorithms for Balloon Predicates

Balloon predicates between balloon objects are defined as a sequence of certain and un-

certain spatiotemporal predicates. Certain spatiotemporal predicates denote developments of

relationship between historical movements of balloon objects whereas uncertain spatiotemporal

predicates represent developments of relationship that involves predicted movements. Therefore,

the evaluation of a balloon predicate between two balloon objects rests heavily on the determina-

tion of spatiotemporal predicates. In any case, the development between two balloon objects can

be obtained by determining the developments between their historical and predicted components.

An algorithm for evaluating a balloon predicate essentially consists of two steps:

1. Development determination: First, we determine the development between the historical
movements of the two balloon objects and mark it as certain development. Then, we
determine the development between the historical movement of the first balloon object and
the predicted movement of the second balloon object, or vice versa, and mark it as uncertain
development. Finally, the uncertain development between the predicted movements are
determined. The temporal composition of these developments produces the development of
the balloon objects.

2. Pattern matching with query predicate: This step consists of a pattern matching process
between the development computed and the query predicate asking for evaluation. It results
in one of the Boolean values true or false. Note that this step is not required for a query to
determine the development.

Figure 5-31 shows an algorithm BPredEvaluator for evaluating a balloon predicate. In

the first step, we determine the development between the historical movements by calling

the operation STDevDetermination. This operation works the same way as the algorithm

STPredEvaluator presented in Section 5.3.1 with the exception that it does not employ the

pattern matching process at the end. Thus, it returns the development between the two argument

objects. The function CertainDev and UncertainDev annotate the development as a certain and









algorithm BPredEvaluator(bol, bo2, Q, qwc)
input: two balloon objects bo1 = (tt,ls, ob jpbbl,hi, pi) and bo2 = (t2, ls2,objpbb2, h2 P2),
topological string pattern Q that has to be checked with respect to bol and bo2, flag
qwc indicating whether Q includes wildcards true or True
output: true if Q matches actual development; false, otherwise
begin
if not Tlntersects(lsl, ls2)
then return false
else
ObjectDevelopment := CertainDev(STDevDetermination(h1,h2));
dev := ""
if tl < t2 then
dev := UncertainDev(STDevDetermination(pl,h2));
else if tl > t2 then
dev := UncertainDev(STDevDetermination(hl,p2));
endif; ObjectDevelopment := ObjectDevelopment o dev;
ObjectDevelopment := ObjectDevelopment o UncertainDev(STDevDetermination(pl,p2));
(ObjectDevelopment,owc) := NormalizeDev(ObjectDevelopment);
return PatternMatching(Q,qwc,ObjectDevelopment,owc)
endif
end BPredEvaluator.

Figure 5-31. Balloon predicate evaluator algorithm.


uncertain development respectively and then returns the corresponding string value. Depending

on the relative comparison between tl and t2 (local present instants that separate the historical

and predicted movements), the corresponding development between the historical movement

of an object and a predicted movement of the other object is determined and appended to the

object development. Next, we append the development between the predicted movements of both

balloon objects and normalize the object development. The final step is to employ the pattern

matching process by calling PatternMatching and return the final result.

With an implementation of this algorithm, one can pose a query consisting of both tempo-

rally certain and uncertain developments. For example, assume that the prefixes c and u denote

certain and uncertain development respectively. A query string "cDisjoint uDi\iim'" asked to

verify whether the development has always been and will always be disjoint. A query string

"True ulnside True" asked whether the development Inside exists sometimes in the future.









These are just a few simple examples. Many more elaborated and complex query strings can be

constructed to express more complex scenarios.

5.5 Database Integration

It is one of our main objectives that our implementation of the Moving Balloon Algebra

would be available as an extension package to any extensible DBMS. The benefit of this feature

is not only to broaden the availability and usability of the algebra but also to show a way for other

algebra to be database system independent as well. This requirement entails a number of design

criteria that need to be taken into account when developing such an algebra.

First, one should design and develop an algebra, its data types and operations from an

abstract data types point of view. This allows a clear and comprehensible design of the data types

and operations as well as a seamless transformation of the design into implementable classes and

methods.

Second, one should consider a number of requirements pertaining to the extensibility

option of DBMSs of interest. These includes the ability to create user-defined types (UDT) and

user-defined functions (UDF), large object (LOB) management, external procedure invocations,

programming language and type library compatibility, and storage or object size limitations.

Third, the mechanism and the environment in which operations are executed should be taken

into account. Some criteria includes whether operations will be internally executed in memory

by requiring all argument objects to be entirely loaded in main memory (memory execution) or

externally executed by loading only required parts of argument objects from a database at a time

(database execution). Both alternatives have advantages and disadvantages depending on other

factors such as the nature of the operations, the amount of available main memory, the size of

argument objects, the speed of the database communication link, etc.

With these criteria in mind, our approach has been to develop the algebra in three abstraction

levels (abstract, discrete, and implementation levels) to allow for a clear and comprehensible

specification of the data types and operations. Our specific implementation of the Moving

Balloon Algebra, which results in a software library package called MBA, is done by using an










object-oriented approach. As far as DBMS extensibility mechanism is concerned, most of today's

popular commercial DBMSs satisfy most of our extensibility requirements. For example, Oracle

DBMS allows users to create and register UDTs and UDFs which can be implemented externally

in a type library system. It also provides an application programming interface called Oracle Call

Ili, i~r, c (OCI) to facilitate such implementation. In Figure 5-32, we show how we can register

one of our moving balloon data types mballoonpp and an operation getFunctionCount (returns

the number of unit functions in a moving balloon object) in Oracle.

CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY MBA_lib AS 'libMBAOra.so';

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE MBA_pkg AS
function mballoonpp_getFunctionCount(b blob) return pls_integer;
END;

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY MBA_pkg AS
function mballoonpp_getFunctionCount(b blob) return pls_integer
as external
language C WITH CONTEXT
name "mballoonpp_getFunctionCount"
library MBA_lib
parameters(CONTEXT, b OCILobLocator);
END;

CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE mballoonpp AS Object (
stData blob,
member function getFunctionCount return pls_integer



CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY mballoonpp is
member function getFunctionCount return pls_integer is
num pls_integer := MBA_pkg.mballoonpp_getFunctionCount(stData);
BEGIN
return num;
END;
END;

Figure 5-32. Registration of a data type and an operation in Oracle.


In this case, our moving balloon objects are stored in binary large objects (blob). An

invocation of the getFunctionCount operation requires a locator (a pointer to a blob) to be passed









as an argument. Since only a locator to a blob is passed instead of the entire blob, this allows for

a flexible execution of the operation in either memory execution or database execution mode. To

take advantage of this, our algebra implementation allows both types of execution for operations

on objects stored in a database. The type of execution, specifically how an object is loaded to

perform an operation, is dictated by the choice of storage option for the object at construction.

Our implementation offers three different storage options for our moving balloon objects namely

memory, blob, and mSLOB options.

In the memory storage option, objects are not persistent in that they only exist in memory

for the duration of the program execution. This option is also required for memory execution

mode of database objects where objects are loaded entirely into memory. The blob storage option

allows objects to be stored persistently and directly in database blobs. This option facilitates

memory execution mode since each blob needs to be loaded completely into memory to construct

a memory based object through a deserialization process. This option is preferable for small-

sized objects that do not require frequent update (update operations require writing back to

database blobs through a serialization process). To enable database execution mode, our mSLOB

storage option makes use of an intermediate layer called mSLOB for storage management.

mSLOB is our implementation of a multi-structured large object management concept for

database blobs [40]. mSLOB provides component-based read and write access to structured and

multi-structured objects stored in blobs. Thus, it allows us to read and write any component of

our objects on demand without the need to load the entire objects into main memory. Therefore,

the mSLOB storage option is preferable for large objects and frequently updated objects.

Figure 5-33 illustrates the application system architecture in which a number of algebra can be

integrated in a DBMS with or without mSLOB.

With our algebra integrated in a DBMS and our UDTs and UDFs registered, we can now

create tables using our registered types, populate data, and pose query using our registered

functions. For example, we can create a simple table to store our mballoonpp objects as shown in

Figure 5-34.










Application


Figure 5-33. The integration of algebra in extensible DBMSs

CREATE TABLE mbpptable(
id integer primary key,
description varchar2(64),
mbpp mballoonpp


Figure 5-34. Creating a table using a user-defined type.


Assuming that we have populated this table with a few moving balloon objects. We can

then pose a query (Figure 5-35) on this table in SQL using our UDF getFunctionCount to get the

number of unit functions in each object.

SELECT id, description, mb.mbpp.getFunctionCount()
FROM mbpptable mb;

Figure 5-35. Using a user-defined function in SQL query.


5.6 Case Study: Application to Hurricane Research

So far, we have presented our Moving Balloon Algebra at all abstraction levels as well

as its implementation in a software package MBA which is integrated into an Oracle DBMS.

Thus, we have effectively made our algebra available for use in many real world applications. In

this section, we show how our algebra can be used in the field of hurricane research and how it

transforms the way we look at hurricane data.

Hurricanes are some of the most powerful and deadliest forces of nature. According to the

National Hurricane Center, 1385 tropical storms and hurricanes had been recorded between 1851









and 2007 in the Atlantic region alone. One of the main objectives of hurricane research is to

study the behavior of tropical cyclones (tropical storms and hurricanes) in order to anticipate their

movements and provide necessary advisories (storm warnings and watches) to the general public.

The research is a part of the efforts to reduce the effect of these deadly storms on humanity.

Traditionally, storm data including its movements (also known as best track data) are

collected and stored in a text file in a specific format called HURDAT. From this data, researchers

employ sophisticated prediction models to predict the position of the storm at every 12-hour

interval within up to 120 hours in the future. This is essentially a prediction which is used to

produce a public advisory. This is done every 6 hours for which the best track information of

the storm is available. Thus, for a storm that lasts for a week or so, there can be as many as 20

advisories or predictions. As one may have noticed, this type of data fits very well with our

model of moving balloon objects.

It is important to notice also that the limitations of currently existing moving object

management technology have a big impact on the complexity of prediction data and their

management. Due to the lack of a comprehensive moving object model with support for

predicted movements and the lack of moving object management in database, so far, hurricane

predictions have only been made in regards to the future positions of the center of a storm (the

movement of which is a moving point), and these data are generally stored in normal files. This

effectively limits richness of representation as well as limits the querying possibility for the

predicted data.

With the use of our Moving Balloon Algebra in a database system, a more complex

representation of hurricane predictions can be supported, managed, and offered for querying

purposes. For example, instead of providing a prediction as a series of positions, researchers

can now provide a prediction as a moving region. Therefore, the movement of the eye of a

hurricane can be represented as a moving balloon object based on a moving point history and

moving region predictions. So far, this has not been available in hurricane research, and thus

researchers frequently use the average errors between their predictions in the past and the best










track information to visualize their current prediction of a storm and show the area of uncertainty

around their predicted positions (which would otherwise be modeled as regions of uncertainty

in our algebra). By using this approach, we can construct a moving balloon object with moving

region predictions for each storm data available.


II'


Figure 5-36. Visualization of hurricane Katrina using the Moving Balloon Algebra.


I STALrim (Spatio-Tempoml Algebm Viemr) <


I STAL~im (SpstiTpoml Algebm Vi-) 42berfin>


STAL~iew (Spatio-Temporal Algebr Vimer)


STALPim (Spatio-Temp-l Algebm Vi-)








Using our visualization program to view hurricane data represented using our algebra in an

Oracle DBMS, we can obtain at least two different perspectives which allow for a detail analysis

of the data. For example, in an object-based perspective, Figure 5-36A and 5-36B show hurricane

Katrina as a balloon object on August 26, 2005 at 00:00 GMT and August 29, 2005 at 00:00

GMT respectively. Figure 5-36C shows Katrina as a moving balloon object consisting of her

track and all 28 of her predictions over the course of her lifetime drawn on top of one another.

We can switch the visualization to a temporal oincl \i\ perspective mode where we can analyze,

at any specific instant, the position of the eye as well as the state of the predictions. Figure 5-36D

shows Katrina's eye position when making landfall in New Orleans on August 29, 2005 at 11:00

GMT and the state of all of its available predictions at the time. In this particular figure, we take

a snapshot of the movement and all available predictions at the instant of the landfall. Each ring

represents a predicted uncertainty region with respect to a specific prediction. As one may notice,

here we see that the position of Katrina's eye is in the intersection of all the rings meaning that all

of these previous predictions are valid and accurate to some degree at this instant. If at any instant

the eye's position is outside of a ring, this means that the previous prediction corresponding

to the ring is not accurate. As part of our algebra, we provide an operation hasbadprediction

to check for inaccurate predictions within a moving balloon object. This operation makes use

of our spatiotemporal predicate implementation to determine whether the eye's position ever

leaves any of the predicted regions. In the case of hurricane Katrina, prediction #7, #8, and #9 has

been found to be inaccurate. Figure 5-37A shows an object-based perspective of the complete

track and prediction #7 which was produced on August 25, 2005 at 12:00 GMT. Figure 5-37B

illustrates a temporal analysis perspective of the eye's position and the uncertainty region of

prediction #7 on August 27, 2005 at 12:00 GMT when the actual position of the eye starts to

stray outside of the predicted region.

By performing this kind of analysis for all of the North Atlantic storms over the past 5

years (2003 2007 for which prediction data are available), we can determine for each storm

the number of accurate and inaccurate predictions as shown in Figure 5-38A. In total, 82 storms
























847,244)


A B

Figure 5-37. Visualizing hurricane Katrina. A) Katrina's prediction #7 in object-based
perspectives. B) Temporal analysis perspective on August 27, 2005 at 12:00 GMT.


have been recorded, and 1863 predictions have been produced of which 655 (or about 35%) have

been found to be inaccurate. We have also discovered that most of the storms that have high

percentage of inaccurate predictions often experience certain behaviors such as making 90 degree

turns and u-turns (e.g., hurricane Kate (#1312) as shown in Figure 5-38B), or forming a loop

(e.g., hurricane Lisa (#1329) as shown in Figure 5-38C). It is clear that this type of information

would be useful for researchers to study such behaviors and make necessary adjustments to their

prediction model.


I STL~i (SptioT~p~al lgera Ve-)belin 1


-Mr~ l~rr~y~sm~ru -Te;nmpora Alebr Vi













Hurricane Prediction Accuracy (2003 2007)
65
S60 g Total Inaccurate Predictions
STotal Accurate Predictions
55

50
45--

40-

35-

30-
25-

20-

15-
10-

5-


1302 104 1306 138 1310 1312 1314 1316 131 138 0 1322 1334135 213 1330 1332 1334 1336 1340 1342 13441B 134 135 1353 135 1357 i3 13 13 4 1366 137 10 1372 1374 1376 137 130 1B 2 13
1303 1305 1307 139 1311 1313 1315 1317 1319 1331 133 13 27 13 13 1331 1331335 1337 133 1341 1343 1345 1347 1347 1353 41356 1359 13 3M 1363 1357 1 379 1371 1373 5 1377 17 1301 1331 S 135
Storm ID


Figure 5-38. Hurricane analysis. A) Hurricane prediction analysis between 2003 and 2007. B)
Hurricane Kate (#1312). C) Hurricane Lisa (#1329).


0
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CHAPTER 6
MODEL AND IMPLEMENTATION ASSESSMENT

In this chapter, we provide an assessment of our Moving Balloon Algebra and its imple-

mentation. The assessment is presented at two levels. We first provide an assessment of our

topological predicate implementation concept. Then we discuss an assessment of our spatiotem-

poral model.

6.1 Topological Predicates: Assessment, Testing, and Performance Study

Since an efficient topological predicate implementation is essential for supporting a

spatiotemporal predicate implementation, we have given a considerable attention to this part

of our implementation. To verify the feasibility, practicality, correctness, and efficiency of the

topological predicate implementation concepts presented, we have implemented and tested our

approach. In order to have full control over the implementation and the testing of our concepts,

we have implemented them in our own algebra package SPAL2D (Spatial Algebra 2D) for

handling two-dimensional spatial data. This package is then used to provide support for our

spatiotemporal predicate implementation as part of the Moving Balloon Algebra (MBA) package.

6.1.1 Qualitative Assessment

Although it is usually accepted that some kind of plane-sweep algorithm is sufficient for

implementing topological predicates, our research has demonstrated that the decision on an

appropriate and sophisticated implementation strategy is of crucial importance. The possible ad

hoc approach of implementing a separate algorithm for each of the topological predicates results

in a large number of algorithms possibly up to the total number of topological predicates of a

type combination. Even though this approach is relatively straightforward, it suffers from many

problems including large system implementation, non-guaranteed correctness of the algorithms,

error-proneness, redundancy, testing and evaluation difficulties, and performance degradation.

An essential problem of the ad hoc approach is the difficulty in handling predicate determination

queries. No particular algorithm is suitable for this task, thus requiring a linear iteration through

the large number of algorithms for all topological predicates.









Unlike the ad hoc approach, our approach does not suffer from these problems. In our

implementation, only a single, generic, and parameterized plane-sweep algorithm is employed

for all exploration algorithms. Only a single exploration algorithm is implemented for all

topological predicates of each type combination. This implementation strategy allows us to

take advantage of significantly smaller system implementation, widespread code reusability and

sharing, manageable system testing, and efficient handling of both predicate determination and

verification queries. This centralized approach is possible because, instead of considering each

topological predicate individually, we look deeper into their common definition blocks which are

the nine matrix predicates of the 9-intersection matrix. This leads us to a systematic method. By

creating a bidirectional link between the matrix predicates and topological feature vectors, we

are able to give a unique characterization for each matrix predicate. This unique characterization

frees us from providing algorithms for each topological predicate in case of predicate verification

and from evaluating all topological predicates in case of predicate determination. Furthermore,

the correctness of the method is formally proven. Last but not least, based on the concept of

topological feature vectors, predicate matching techniques such as matrix thinning and minimum

cost decision trees can be used to increase the efficiency of answering predicate verification and

predicate determination queries respectively.

6.1.2 Testing

For testing the results of the exploration phase, our collection of test cases consists of 184

different scenes corresponding to the total number of topological predicates between spatial

objects. A special test case generation technique has been leveraged to check the functionality of

the exploration algorithms and the correctness of the resulting values of the topological feature

vectors. The vector values have to be independent of the location of the two spatial objects

involved. In order to check this, this technique is able to generate arbitrarily many different

orientations of a topologically identical scene of two spatial objects with respect to the same

sweep line and coordinate system. The idea is to rotate such a scene iteratively by a random

angle around a central reference point. Special test cases like vertical segments are considered









too. For the 184 explicitly constructed base cases, we have generated at least 20,000 test cases

for the topological predicates of each of the six type combinations by our random scene rotation

technique. In total, more than 120,000 test cases have been successfully generated, tested, and

checked for predicate verification and predicate determination and indicate the correctness

of our concepts and the ability of our algorithms to correctly discover the needed topological

information from any given scene.

For testing the results of the evaluation phase, we take the topological feature vectors as

input for the 9-intersection matrix characterization method and the optimization methods of

matrix thinning and minimum cost decision trees. The correctness of all methods has been

checked by a technique known as gray-box testing, which combines the advantages of two other

techniques called black-box testing and white-box testing. The black-box testing technique

arranges for well defined input and output objects. In our case, the input consists of two correct

topological feature vectors as well as a matrix number of the topological predicate to be verified

in case of predicate verification. This enables us to test the functional behavior of the three

method implementations. The output is guaranteed to be either a Boolean value (predicate

verification) or a valid matrix number of a topological relationship predefined for the type

combination under consideration (predicate determination). The white-box testing technique

considers every single execution path and guarantees that each statement is executed at least

once. This ensures that all cases that are specified and handled by the algorithms are properly

tested.

All cases have been successfully tested and indicate the correctness of our concepts and the

ability of our algorithms to correctly verify or determine a topological predicate.

6.1.3 Performance Study and Analysis

Three main reasons impede a comparison of our concepts with available commercial

and public domain implementations of topological relationships. First, in Section 2.3 we have

seen that all available implementations of topological relationships mainly focus on the eight

predicates disjoint, meet, overlap, equal, inside, contains, covers, and coveredBy that have
















80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

00
PP PV PP PV PL PV PL PV PR PV PR PV LL PV LL PV LR PV LR PV RR RR
MT MT MT MT MT PV PV MT


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Predicate number

B


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1234567891111111111222222222233333333334444444444555555555566666666667777777777888
0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012
Predicate number

C


Figure 6-1. Predicate verification without and with matrix thinning




been generalized to and unified for all combinations of complex spatial data types. Hence,


a comparison to our much more fine-grained collection of 184 (248) topological predicates


(Section 2.1.2) is not possible. Second, studying the corresponding documentation, we have


not found a formal definition of the semantics of these eight generic predicates for all type


combinations. Third, an implementation of our collection of topological predicates and predicate


execution techniques is not trivial in the context of commercial implementations since their


algorithms and program code are not publicly available and their system environments are very


special. For example, the algorithms for the eight topological predicates have not been published.


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Instead, we have performed a performance study that underpins the strengths of our ap-

proach by quantitatively comparing the performance of our non-optimized alternative (only

9IMC) with our optimized evaluation techniques (9IMC plus matrix thinning, 9IMC plus min-

imum cost decision tree). Our study shows that our approach does not only provide qualitative

(in terms of correctness) but also quantitative benefits by applying optimization methods for

the evaluation of topological predicates. For each type combination, we measure and calculate

the average execution time for verifying and determining each predicate both without and with

optimization. Of course, we cannot expect a time gain of one or more orders of magnitude since a

plane sweep is involved in all exploration algorithms, which prevents a better performance [50].

For predicate verification (PV), Figures 6-1B and 6-1C illustrate the average execution time

for each predicate of each type combination without and with matrix thinning (MT). The overall

average for each type combination is shown in Figure 6-1A. The performance improvements

from using matrix thinning are quite noticeable and range from 13% execution time reduction for

the line/line case up to 55% for the point/point case.

Similarly, for predicate determination (PD), Figures 6-2B and 6-2C show the average

execution time for each predicate of each type combination without and with the use of minimum

cost decision trees. The overall average for each type combination is shown in Figure 6-2A. The

results indicate significant performance improvements from using minimum cost decision trees.

The improvements range from 75% execution time reduction for the point/region case up to 91%

for the line/line case.

Although the execution time reductions are remarkable for both predicate verification and

especially predicate determination and clearly reflect the trend, the empirical results shown in

Figures 6-1 and 6-2 are not as optimistic as the computational results given in Tables 5-3 and

5-5. The reason that we cannot reach these lower bounds in practice consists in programming

and runtime overheads such as extra conditional checks, construction of thinned out matrices

and minimum cost decision trees, and their traversals. However, even with these overheads, it is

evident that our approach provides considerable performance optimizations.















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Predicate number


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5 ------- --- f 4 ^ T X \---------------- / ^ ^------------------------------H LR PD M CDT -

4No z RR PD MCDT


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0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012
Predicate number

C


Figure 6-2. Predicate determination without and with MCDT




6.2 Spatiotemporal Model Assessment


So far, we have presented our Moving Balloon Algebra as a generic spatiotemporal data


model that provides modeling and querying support for historical and predicted movements of


moving objects in databases. To our knowledge, our algebra is the first of its kind to provide


such modeling capability along with the corresponding implementation. Since there has been no


existing model let alone implementation that provides the features offered in our algebra, it is not


possible to make any direct comparison. Most of the existing models (Section 2.2) only provide a


small subset of features, and their modeling capability is generally very restrictive. Furthermore,


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PP PD PP PD PLPD PL PD PRPD PRPD LLPD LL PD LR PD LR PD RRPD RR PD


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MCDT MCDT MCDT


MCDT MCDT MCDT









these models are frequently presented in conceptual terms without any supporting implementa-

tion. Even if we want to compare only the common features, there is no implementation to based

upon. Hence, the only thing we can do is to provide a qualitative assessment of our model and

discuss its modeling capability against that of the existing models.

With respect to the traditional moving object model defined in [32, 61], our historical

movement model is a restricted version of this model. We defined a more precise and appropriate

model for representing the reality of moving objects. This is done by imposing the continuity

property on movements of moving objects. As far as the MOST model [60] is concerned,

this model uses a specific technique/concept, that is, motion vector, to provide the near future

positions of moving points without taking into account the uncertainty aspect of the future

prediction. In fact, this model can be considered as a prediction model for moving points that

provides moving point type predictions. Thus, we can support the MOST model through the

use of our spatiotemporal balloon data type mballoonpp. In addition to the capability of the

MOST model which can keep track of the current position and the current prediction of a moving

point, our algebra can also keep track of the past positions as well as past predictions. Since the

algebra provides data modeling support for the MOST model, this means that it also supports the

FTL query language which is used for entering different types of spatiotemporal queries such as

continuous and persistent queries.

In regard to the uncertainty modeling of moving objects, the model described in [26]

provides data modeling support for the future prediction of a moving point through the use

of an uncertainty threshold. This threshold is applied to a future trajectory or a future motion

plan of a moving point creating a trajectory volume representing the set of all possible future

motion curves. It is obvious that this trajectory volume can be represented in our Moving

Balloon Algebra using the future prediction data typefregion. Thus, the dynamic of the moving

point in this model can be represented in our algebra using the spatiotemporal balloon data

type mballoonpr. Consequently, the spatiotemporal predicate model defined in [26] is a

subset of our balloon predicate model since it is only defined between the future movement









of a moving point and a static region. A static region is just a special case of a moving region.

Our balloon predicate model can express the spatiotemporal relationship between all types of

moving objects. Thus, our model has a higher expressive power and is able to express every

relationship that is expressible by this model. For instance, consider the spatiotemporal predicate

Sometime-DefinitelyInside between an uncertain trajectory UTr = (T, r) and a static region R

where T is the future trajectory and r is the uncertainty threshold. Let PMCT denote a possible

motion curve of UTr. The spatiotemporal predicate Sometime -efinitelyinside is defined in

[26] as Sometime JefinitelyJnside(UTr, R) = (t) (VPMCT) : inside(R, PMC, t). The spatial

predicate inside determines whether the value of PMC7 at t is inside the region R. In our model,

the object UTr can be modeled as anfregion object with a uniform confidence distribution.

Likewise the static region R can be temporally lifted into an object of type region as well.

Thus, the spatiotemporal predicate Sometime DefinitelyJnside can be characterized in our

model as SometimeJ)efinitelyJnside(UTr, R) = (3t E time)(Vp E val(atinstant(UTr,t))) :

inside(p,val(atinstant(R,t))). By following this approach, we can also characterize other

spatiotemporal predicates found in [26] in our model.

As a result of this discussion, we have shown the relationship between our Moving Balloon

Algebra and the currently existing moving object models. In addition to providing a more precise

and appropriate way to represent the reality of moving objects, our data model also provides a

more generic set of spatiotemporal data types, in comparison to existing moving object models,

to support a wide variety of moving objects. Furthermore, our algebra can support existing

functionalities which are available in existing models as well as introduce new ones.









CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSIONS

Although there have been several spatiotemporal data models proposed in the past for

handling moving objects, each of them supports either historical movements relating to the

past or predicted movements relating to the future but not both together. Furthermore, their

model specifications are either too general and vague or too specific and restricted to only a

certain problem. The existing moving object model for historical movements is rather vague in

their definition of moving types. The models for future movements of moving objects tend to

emphasize on using specific prediction methods and combining prediction methods with moving

object models in a top-down vertical approach to address a specific problem only. To properly

model the development and evolution of historical and predicted movements of moving objects,

it is required that we have a clear understanding of how objects move or evolve. Furthermore,

modeling the future predictions of moving objects requires that we take into account the inherent

uncertainty aspect of the future. Finally, modeling the dynamic movements including both the

past histories and the future predictions of moving objects requires that we additionally maintain

the consistency of the movements at all time.

The Moving Balloon Algebra presented in this research satisfies these criteria while

addressing all of the shortcomings of current models. Our main contribution is a new integrative

spatiotemporal data model for supporting both historical and predicted movements of moving

objects in databases. As part of the model, we present new sets of spatiotemporal data types

including balloon and spatiotemporal balloon data types for representing all types of movements.

With these data types, new sets of spatiotemporal predicates and operations become available

which open up a new realm of querying possibility. Furthermore, the separation between

our data model and domain specific prediction models allows for flexible interoperability

with different kinds of prediction models without sacrificing the genericity of the model. The

algebra is presented in three different levels of abstraction in order to provide a clear and

comprehensive specification for implementation. This approach has proved beneficial for









developing a conceptually clean and implementation friendly algebra. We have also shown, as

part of our contribution, a mechanism for developing a storage-independent algebra such that

it can be integrated into any extensible DBMS. This effectively increases the accessibility and

usability of an algebra.

Given the lack of a comprehensive moving object model and corresponding implementation,

this research and hence our contribution can be considered as a substantial advancement in

the field of spatial and spatiotemporal database systems research. The result of this research

offers unprecedented support for moving object management. Such support is often desperately

needed in many disciplines including the geosciences, geographical information science (GIS),

artificial intelligence, robotics, mobile computing, and climatology. Among many potential

applications, as an example, we have shown how our research can provide leverage for moving

object management in the field of hurricane research. Such leverage can provide a whole new

perspective to approach existing problems and thus can potentially open up a whole new realm of

research.

Although it is evident that our contribution may have already been of much beneficial to the

research community, a number of topics may be of interest for future investigations. It would also

be interesting to see how such a Moving Balloon Algebra can handle the vagueness or fuzziness

aspects of imprecise spatial model. Furthermore, whether such an algebra and it corresponding

concepts can be used to support other related research topics such as spatiotemporal data

warehousing and spatiotemporal data mining still remains to be explored.









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ness of Complex Regions. In 1st Int. Workshop on Semantic and Conceptual Issues in
Geographic Information Systems (SeCoGIS), pages 409-418, 2007.

[42] M. McKenney, A. Pauly, R. Praing, and M. Schneider. Local Topological Relationships for
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[43] H. Mokhtar and J. Su. Universal Trajectory Queries for Moving Object Databases. In Int.
Conf on Mobile Data Management (MDM). IEEE Computer Society, 2004.

[44] V.H. Nguyen, C. Parent, and S. Spaccapietra. Complex Regions in Topological Queries. In
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[45] OGC Abstract Specification. OpenGIS Consortium (OGC), 1999. URL:
http://www.opengis.org/techno/specs.htm.

[46] OGC Geography Markup Language (GML) 2.0. OpenGIS Consortium (OGC), 2001. URL:
http://www.opengis.net/gml/01-029/GML2.html.

[47] Oracle8: Spatial Cartridge. An Oracle Technical White Paper. Oracle Corporation, 1997.

[48] J. A. Orenstein and F. A. Manola. PROBE Spatial Data Modeling and Query Processing in
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[49] N. Pelekis, B. Theodoulidis, I. Kopanakis, and Y. Theodoridis. Literature Review of
Spatio-Temporal Database Models. Knowledge Engineering Review, 2005.

[50] R. Praing and M. Schneider. Efficient Implementation Techniques for Topological
Predicates on Complex Spatial Objects: The Evaluation Phase. Technical report, University
of Florida, Department of Computer & Information Science & Engineering, 2006.

[51] R. Praing and M. Schneider. Efficient Implementation Techniques for Topological
Predicates on Complex Spatial Objects. Geolnfornnatica. 2008. (In press).

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Reasey Praing was born on December 5, 1980 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The third child of

four children, he grew up in Phnom Penh, graduating with high distinction from Indradevi High

School in 1996. Then, he attended the Faculty of Business and Norton University and received a

Small Business Management degree in 1997. Later that year, he came to visit the United States

with his sisters in Miami, Florida, and there he found a great opportunity for higher education.

He earned his Bachelor of Science in Computer Science and graduation with honors from Florida

International University in 2001. He then attended the University of Southern California in Los

Angeles, California and earned his Master of Science in Computer Science in 2002.

Upon receiving his Master of Science degree, Reasey joined the Computer & Information

Science & Engineering department at the University of Florida as a Ph.D. student and teaching

assistant in 2003. During the first two years as a teaching assistant, Reasey helped with teaching

responsibilities and leading discussion sections for many graduate and undergraduate classes

including Java programming, computer simulation, and database systems. For the last 3 years of

his Ph.D. program, Reasey worked as a research assistant for his adviser Dr. Markus Schneider in

a National Science Foundation research project.

Upon completion of his Ph.D. program, Reasey will be joining Ultimate Software Group

Inc. in Weston, Florida. In the future, Reasey plans to return to Cambodia and teach at a

university there.





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Ithankthechairandmembersofmysupervisorycommitteefortheirmentoring,mycolleaguesfortheirintellectualsupport,andtheComputerSciencedepartmentaswellastheNationalScienceFoundationfortheirnancialsupport.Ithankmyparents,mysistersandbrotherfortheirlovingencouragement,whichmotivatedmetocompletemystudy. 4

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page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................... 4 LISTOFTABLES ....................................... 8 LISTOFFIGURES ....................................... 9 ABSTRACT ........................................... 13 CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION .................................... 15 1.1Motivation ...................................... 15 1.2ProblemStatement ................................. 15 1.3GoalsandSolutions ................................. 17 2RELATEDWORK .................................... 20 2.1SpatialDataModeling ............................... 20 2.1.1SpatialObjects ............................... 20 2.1.2TopologicalRelationships .......................... 21 2.2SpatiotemporalDataModeling ........................... 23 2.2.1HistoricalMovementsofMovingObjects ................. 23 2.2.2PredictiveMovementsofMovingObjects ................. 25 2.3ImplementationAspectsofSpatialandSpatiotemporalDataModels ....... 27 2.4DatabaseIntegration ................................ 28 3ABSTRACTMODELOFTHEMOVINGBALLOONALGEBRA ........... 30 3.1ModelingHistoricalandPredictedMovements .................. 30 3.1.1ContinuityofMovement .......................... 31 3.1.2ModelingHistoricalMovementsofMovingObjects ............ 40 3.1.3ModelingFuturePredictionsofMovingObjects .............. 40 3.1.3.1Handlingtheuncertaintyofthefuturepositionsandextentofmovingobjects .......................... 41 3.1.3.2Datatypesforfuturepredictionsofmovingobjects ...... 45 3.2ModelingMovingBalloonObjects ......................... 47 3.2.1BalloonDatatypes ............................. 47 3.2.2SpatiotemporalBalloonDataTypes ..................... 50 3.3OperationsoftheMovingBalloonAlgebra ..................... 53 3.3.1OperationsonHistoricalMovements .................... 53 3.3.2OperationsonFuturePredictions ...................... 54 3.3.3OperationsonBalloonObjects ....................... 58 3.3.4OperationsonMovingBalloonObjects ................... 59 3.4SpatiotemporalPredicates .............................. 62 5

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........................ 63 3.4.1.1Generalmechanismforballoonpredicates ........... 63 3.4.1.2Specicationbasedontraditionalspatiotemporalpredicates .. 65 3.4.1.3Canonicalcollectionofballoonpredicates ........... 68 3.4.2ReasoningAboutActualFutureInteractions ................ 69 3.5QueryingUsingtheMovingBalloonAlgebra ................... 71 3.5.1InteroperatingwithPredictionModels ................... 71 3.5.2SpatiotemporalQueries ........................... 72 4DISCRETEMODELOFTHEMOVINGBALLOONALGEBRA ........... 77 4.1Non-TemporalDataTypes ............................. 77 4.1.1BaseDataTypesandTimeDataTypes ................... 77 4.1.2SpatialDataTypes .............................. 79 4.2BasicSpatiotemporalDataTypes .......................... 82 4.2.1TemporalUnitsforBaseTypes ....................... 84 4.2.2TemporalUnitsforSpatialDataTypes ................... 85 4.2.2.1Unitpoint ............................ 86 4.2.2.2Unitline ............................. 88 4.2.2.3Unitregion ............................ 90 4.3BalloonDataTypesandSpatiotemporalBalloonDataTypes ........... 91 4.3.1BalloonDataTypes ............................. 91 4.3.2SpatiotemporalBalloonDataTypes ..................... 93 5IMPLEMENTATIONMODELOFTHEMOVINGBALLOONALGEBRA ...... 96 5.1DataStructures ................................... 96 5.1.1GeneralRequirementsofDatabase-CompatibleDataStructures ...... 97 5.1.2DataStructuresforSpatialDataTypes ................... 97 5.1.3DataStructuresforSpatiotemporalDataTypes ............... 103 5.1.3.1Datastructuresforbasicspatiotemporaldatatypes ....... 104 5.1.3.2Datastructuresforballoonandspatiotemporalballoondatatypes ............................... 106 5.2AlgorithmsforTopologicalPredicatesonComplexSpatialObjects ........ 108 5.2.1BasicAlgorithmicConcepts ........................ 109 5.2.1.1Parallelobjecttraversal ..................... 109 5.2.1.2Overlapnumbers ......................... 111 5.2.1.3Planesweep ........................... 111 5.2.2TheExplorationPhaseforCollectingTopologicalInformation ...... 117 5.2.2.1Theexplorationalgorithmforthepoint2D/point2Dcase .... 119 5.2.2.2Theexplorationalgorithmforthepoint2D/line2Dcase ..... 119 5.2.2.3Theexplorationalgorithmforthepoint2D/region2Dcase ... 123 5.2.2.4Theexplorationalgorithmfortheline2D/line2Dcase ..... 125 5.2.2.5Theexplorationalgorithmfortheline2D/region2Dcase .... 129 5.2.2.6Theexplorationalgorithmfortheregion2D/region2Dcase ... 133 5.2.3TheEvaluationPhaseforMatchingTopologicalPredicates ........ 137 6

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. 137 5.2.3.2The9-intersectionmatrixcharacterizationmethod ....... 140 5.2.3.3Typecombinationdependent9-intersectionmatrixcharacteri-zation ............................... 141 5.2.3.4The9-intersectionmatrixcharacterizationforregion/regioncase 146 5.2.4OptimizedEvaluationMethods ....................... 151 5.2.4.1Matrixthinningforpredicateverication ............ 152 5.2.4.2Minimumcostdecisiontreeforpredicatedetermination .... 157 5.2.5InterfaceMethodsforTopologicalPredicates ............... 165 5.3AlgorithmsforSpatiotemporalPredicates ..................... 166 5.3.1TheAlgorithmicScheme .......................... 166 5.3.2Time-SynchronizedIntervalRenement .................. 171 5.3.3Function-ValuedIntervalRenementandDevelopmentDetermination .. 174 5.3.4PatternMatchingwithQueryPredicate ................... 178 5.4AlgorithmsforBalloonPredicates ......................... 180 5.5DatabaseIntegration ................................ 182 5.6CaseStudy:ApplicationtoHurricaneResearch .................. 185 6MODELANDIMPLEMENTATIONASSESSMENT .................. 191 6.1TopologicalPredicates:Assessment,Testing,andPerformanceStudy ....... 191 6.1.1QualitativeAssessment ........................... 191 6.1.2Testing .................................... 192 6.1.3PerformanceStudyandAnalysis ...................... 193 6.2SpatiotemporalModelAssessment ......................... 196 7CONCLUSIONS ..................................... 199 REFERENCES ......................................... 201 BIOGRAPHICALSKETCH .................................. 206 7

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Table page 3-1Operationsonhistoricalmovementsandfuturepredictionsofmovingobjects. ..... 55 3-2Valueoftheoperationpointset conf(j(a);b;instant)foreachcombinationofj(a)andbwhetheritisalways0,denotedbyavalue0,orameaningfulvalue,denotedbyavalueM. ......................................... 56 3-3Operationsonballoonobjectsandmovingballoonobjects. ............... 60 3-4Assigningnamingprexestopairwisecombinationsofinteractions. .......... 67 3-5Numberofballoonpredicatesbetweenballoon pp,balloon pr,andballoon rrobjects. 69 3-6Inferringthetypesofinteractionbetweenactualobjectsfromthetypesofinteractionbetweentheirpredictions. ................................. 70 5-1StaticanddynamichalfsegmentsequencesoftheregionsR1andR2inFigure 5-6 ... 116 5-2Possiblesegmentclassconstellationsbetweentwoconsecutivesegmentsinthesweeplinestatus. ......................................... 136 5-3Summaryofcompleteandthinnedout9IMsforthetopologicalpredicatesofalltypecombinations. ....................................... 156 5-4MCDTpre-orderrepresentationsforalltypecombinationsonthebasisofequalprob-abilityofoccurrenceofalltopologicalpredicates. .................... 161 5-5SummaryoftheMCDTsforalltypecombinationsonthebasisofequalprobabilityofoccurrenceofalltopologicalpredicates. ........................ 164 5-6Intervalendpointordering. ................................ 173 8

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Figure page 2-1Examplesofspatialobjects.A)Asimplepointobject.B)Asimplelineobject.C)Asimpleregionobject.D)Acomplexpointobject.E)Acomplexlineobject.F)Acomplexregionobject. .................................. 21 2-2The9-intersectionmodelandtopologicalpredicates.A)The9-intersectionmatrix.B)Thenumbersoftopologicalpredicatesbetweentwosimple/complexspatialobjects. 22 2-3Examplesofmovingobjects.A)Asingle-componentmovingpointobject.B)Asingle-componentmovingregionobject.C)Amulti-componentmovingpointobject.D)Amulti-componentmovingregionobject. ......................... 24 2-4Examplesofspatiotemporalfunctionsformovingpoints.A)Partiallydisappear.B)Instantlyappear.C)Haveinstantaneousjumps.D)Havespatialoutliers.Examplesofspatiotemporalfunctionsformovingregions.E)Partiallydisappear.F)Instantlyappear.G)Haveinstantaneousjumps.H)Anexampleofaspatiotemporalpredicate. 26 3-1Examplesoff-continuoustemporalfunctions.A)simultaneousmovement.B)Amerg-ingsituation.C)Asplittingsituation.D)Acombinedmergingandsplittingsituation. 35 3-2Examplesoff-discontinuoustemporalfunctions.A)Aninstantaneousjumpinanmrealobject.B),C)Twoconstellationswithtimeinstantsatwhichthefunctionisevent-f-discontinuous. .................................. 36 3-3Movingpointobjectgivenbyatemporalfunctionwithalocalminimumandalocalmaximum. ........................................ 38 3-4Modelingpotentialfuturepositionsofspatiotemporalobjects.A)Forahurricane'seyeatnow+12hours.B)Withinthe12-hourperiod.C)Foravehicleatnow+15min-utes.D)Withinthe15-minuteperiod.E)Foravehiclewithaconstantspeedatnow+15minutes.F)Withinthe15-minuteperiod. ......................... 42 3-5Representingthefuturepredictionofahurricane'seyeusingamovingregionwithamovingcondencedistribution.Thegradientindicatesvarieddegreeofcondence. .. 45 3-6Examplesofvalidfuturepredictions.A)Acontinuousfpointobject.B)Acontinu-ousfregionobject.C)Adiscontinuousfregionobject.Anexampleofinvalidfuturepredictions.D)Adimensionallycollapsedobjectwithmultipletypes. ......... 46 3-7Exampleofahistoricaltemporaldomaintimehthatstartsfromandendsattcin-clusively. ......................................... 48 3-8Exampleofafuturetemporaldomaintimefthatstartsexclusivelyfromtcandex-tendsindenitelytowards+. .............................. 48 3-9Exampleofamovingballoonobjectoftypemballoon pr. ............... 52 9

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........................................ 57 3-11Relationsbetweentraditionalmovingobjectdatamodelandballoondatamodel. .... 64 3-12PossiblerelationshipsbetweenpartsofballoonobjectsAandB.A)WhenA'scurrentinstantisearlier.B)Atthesametime.C)LaterthanthatofB's. ............. 65 3-13Futurecrossingsituationbetweenaballoon ppobjectPandaballoon probjectR. .. 66 3-14MovementoftheeyeofhurricaneKatrina. ........................ 74 4-1Representationsofalineobject.A)Intheabstractmodel.B)Inthediscretemodel. .. 80 4-2Representationsofaregionobject.A)Intheabstractmodel.B)Inthediscretemodel. 82 4-3Adiscreterepresentationofamovingpointobject.A)Atemporalunit.B)Aslicedrepresentation. ....................................... 83 4-4Representingamovinglineobject.A)Aulinevalue.B)Adiscreterepresentationofamovinglineobject. ................................... 89 4-5Exampleofauregionvalue. ............................... 90 5-1Examplesoftheorderrelationonhalfsegments:h1


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...................................... 125 5-11Algorithmforcomputingthetopologicalfeaturevectorsfortwoline2Dobjects .... 127 5-12Algorithmforcomputingthetopologicalfeaturevectorsforaline2Dobjectandaregion2Dobject ...................................... 131 5-13Specialcaseoftheplanesweep. ............................. 132 5-14Algorithmforcomputingthetopologicalfeaturevectorsfortworegion2Dobjects ... 135 5-15The9-intersectionmatrices.A)Matrixnumber8forthepredicatemeetbetweentwolineobjects.B)Matrixnumber7forthepredicateinsidebetweentworegionobjects. 138 5-16Algorithmforcomputingthethinnedoutversionsofthena;bintersectionmatricesassociatedwiththetopologicalpredicatesbetweentwospatialdatatypesaandb 153 5-17Completeandthinnedoutmatricesforthe5topologicalpredicatesofthepoint/pointcase. ............................................ 154 5-18Completeandthinnedoutmatricesforthe14topologicalpredicatesofthepoint/linecase. ............................................ 155 5-19Completeandthinnedoutmatricesforthe7topologicalpredicatesofthepoint/regioncase. ............................................ 155 5-20Completeandthinnedoutmatricesforthe33topologicalpredicatesoftheregion/regioncase. ............................................ 155 5-21Minimumcostdecisiontreealgorithm .......................... 159 5-22Minimumcostdecisiontrees.A)Forthe5topologicalpredicatesofthepoint/pointcase.B)Forthe7topologicalpredicatesofthepoint/regioncase.C)Forthe14topo-logicalpredicatesofthepoint/linecaseundertheassumptionthatalltopologicalpred-icatesoccurwithequalprobability. ............................ 162 5-23Spatiotemporalpredicateevaluatoralgorithm. ...................... 170 5-24Time-synchronizedrenementoftwounitintervalsequences:twosetsoftimeinter-valsontheleftside,andtheirrenementpartitionfordevelopmentevaluationontherightside. ......................................... 171 5-25Time-synchronizedintervalrenementalgorithm. .................... 172 5-26NextAlgorithm. ...................................... 174 5-27IntersectingunitsegmentsoftwomovingpointsrepresentingthedevelopmentDis-joint.meet.Disjointandthusrequiringafurtherintervalrenement. ......... 174 5-28Function-valuedintervalrenementalgorithm. ...................... 175 11

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................................ 176 5-30Patternmatchingalgorithm. ................................ 179 5-31Balloonpredicateevaluatoralgorithm. .......................... 181 5-32RegistrationofadatatypeandanoperationinOracle. .................. 183 5-33TheintegrationofalgebrainextensibleDBMSs ..................... 185 5-34Creatingatableusingauser-denedtype. ........................ 185 5-35Usingauser-denedfunctioninSQLquery. ....................... 185 5-36VisualizationofhurricaneKatrinausingtheMovingBalloonAlgebra. ......... 187 5-37VisualizinghurricaneKatrina.A)Katrina'sprediction#7inobject-basedperspec-tives.B)TemporalanalysisperspectiveonAugust27,2005at12:00GMT. ...... 189 5-38Hurricaneanalysis.A)Hurricanepredictionanalysisbetween2003and2007.B)Hur-ricaneKate(#1312).C)HurricaneLisa(#1329). ..................... 190 6-1Predicatevericationwithoutandwithmatrixthinning ................. 194 6-2PredicatedeterminationwithoutandwithMCDT .................... 196 12

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Spatiotemporaldatabasesdealwithgeometrieschangingovertime.Recently,movingobjectslikemovingpointsandmovingregionshavebeenthefocusofresearch.Theyrepresenttime-dependentgeometriesthatcontinuouslychangetheirlocationand/orextentandareinterestingformanydisciplinesincludingthegeosciences,geographicalinformationscience,movingobjectsdatabases,location-basedservices,robotics,andmobilecomputing.Sofar,afewmovingobjectdatamodelsandquerylanguageshavebeenproposed.Eachofthemsupportseitherexclusivelyhistoricalmovementsrelatingtothepastorexclusivelypredictedmovementsrelatingtothefuture.Thus,thequerysupportforeachmodelislimitedbythetypeofsupportedmovements.Thispresentsaprobleminmodelingthedynamicnatureofamovingobjectwhenbothitsknownhistoricalmovementanditspredictedfuturemovementaredesiredtobesimultaneouslymanagedandmadeavailableforspatiotemporaloperationsandqueries.Furthermore,currentdenitionsofmovingobjectsaretoogeneralandrathervague.Itisunclearhowamovingobjectisallowedtomoveorevolvethroughspaceandtime.Thatis,thepropertiesofmovement(likeitscontinuity)havenotbeenpreciselyspecied.Itisalsounclearhow,inadatabasecontext,futurepredictionsofamovingobjectcanbemodeledtakingintoaccounttheinherentuncertaintyoffutureevolution.Moreover,implementationsofspatiotemporaldatatypesandoperationsarerareandtheirintegrationintoextensibledatabasemanagementsystems 13

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Thesecondproblemrelatestothemodelingofpredictivemovementsofmovingobjects.Afewspecializedmodelshavebeenproposedtosupportqueriesregardingfuturepredictionsofmovingobjects.However,thesemodelsarerestrictedtomovingpointsonlyandaretailoredtospecicapplicationdomainsandxedpredictionmethods.Allmodelsanticipatefutureobjectmovementsthroughcertainassumptionsontheobjects'inertia,trajectories,andenvironmentalorcontextualconstraints.Theirpredictionmethodsarealmostalwaysentirelybasedonthepastandcurrentmovementsoftheobjects,thusneglectingexternalfactorsordomain-specicparameterswhichmaysignicantlyaffectthefuturemovementsofmovingobjects.Forinstance,informationsuchasatmosphericpressures,temperaturezones,windandoceancurrentsplaysamajorroleinpredictingthefutureevolutionofahurricane.Thisrequireshighlyspecializedandsophisticatedpredictionmodelsandalgorithmsbeyondthoseinwhichonlythepastandcurrentobjectmovementsareconsideredassystemparameters.Infact,thedevelopmenteffortforsuchpredictionmodelsisadisciplinebyitselfandataskofdomainexperts.Inaddition,differentapplicationdomainsmayrequiredifferentpredictionmodels.Forexample,topredictthefuturespreadofaforestre,onemayconsideradifferentsetofparameterssuchasthevolumeofrefuel(forexample,drybrush),surfaceslope,andthecapabilityofresponsiveactionsfromreghtersinadditiontoatmosphericconditionssuchaswindandhumidity.Thus,itisimpossibletodeneaone-size-ts-allpredictionmodelforallapplications.However,wecanassumethatthenatureoftheoutputsofdifferentpredictionmodelsisthesame,oratleastverysimilar.Suchanoutputconsistsofadescriptionofapredictedmovementaswellasameasureofcondence(forexample,probability,fuzziness,roughness)expressingthereliabilityoftheprediction.Wecanrepresentthepredictedmovementthroughspatiotemporaldatatypes.Wedonotseeitasthecapabilityandthetaskofadatabasesystemtopredictthefuturemovementof 16

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Thethirdproblemisthelackofanintegrated,seamless,anduniedmodelthatcansimul-taneouslyrepresentthehistoricalandthefuturemovementsofamovingobjectindatabases.Atatimeinstantt,amovingobjectdoesnotonlyhaveahistoryofitsmovementuptoitsstateattbutitcanalsohaveafuturepredictionstartingatt.Sofar,existingmodelssupporteitherhistoricalmovementsorfuturemovementsonlybutnotbothtogether.Butmodelingthepastandfuturemovementsofanobjectrequiresbothconcepts.Thismeansthatspecialattentionisneededtoaccommodatebothconceptsinasinglemodelsothattheycanbeappliedtothesameobjectwithoutconictingeachotherandsothatspatiotemporaloperationsandpredicatesonmovingobjectscanbeappliedtotheentiretemporaldomain. Attheimplementationlevel,implementationsofspatiotemporaldatatypesarerareandaregenerallydoneaspartofresearchprototypedatabasesystems.Ageneralproblemisthatmanyusefulconceptsandtheirimplementationsinsuchresearchprototypes,whicharetailor-madeforacertainproblemareaandutilizeaspecializedinfrastructure,cannotbeeasilytransferredtocommonlyusedcommercialdatabasemanagementsystems(CDBMS).Therefore,theseimplementationsandtheprototypesofferingthemdonotndanadequateappreciationduetotheirincompatibilitywithcommonlyusedCDBMS.Thiseffectivelylimitstheaccessibilityandusabilityofsuchimplementations.Toaddressthisproblem,animplementationofspatiotemporaldatatypesandoperationsmustbedatabase-independentandatthesametimecanbeintegratedintoanyextensibleDBMSthroughitsextensibilitymechanism. 17

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19 ]).Basically,theadvantageoftheabstractlevelisthatitfocusesontheessenceoftheproblem,isconceptuallycleanandsimple,andisnotimpededbycomputer-specicconstraintsresultingfromthenitenessofcomputersystems.Theadvantageofthediscretelevelisthatitsniterepresentationsaredenedbytakingintoaccountthelimitationofcomputersystemswhilemaintainingtheconceptualconstraintssetforthbytheabstractmodel.Ingeneral,severalniterepresentationsarepossibleforthesameabstractconcept.Forexample,curvescouldalsoberepresentedassplinesatthediscretelevel.Anotherdesignlevelalsoexistscalledimplementationlevel.Inthislevelofmodeling,specicdatastructuresandalgorithmscanbedenedbasedontheniterepresentationsetforthbythediscretemodel.Forexample,datastructuressuchasarraysorlistsoflinesegmentsmaybeusedtoimplementthepolylinerepresentationofcurves,andalgorithmssuchastheplanesweepalgorithmorothersegmentintersectionalgorithmscanbeusedtoimplementoperationsbetweenpolylines.ThedesignoftheMovingBalloonAlgebradescribedinthisresearchispresentedateachofthesethreeabstractionlevels. TheMovingBalloonAlgebraisbasedonthemetaphorofaballoontomodelourknowledgeofamovingobjectataspecictimeinstant:thestringandthebodyofaballoonobjectrepresenttheknownpastmovementandthepredictedfuturemovementofamovingobjectrespectively. 18

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Withthismodel,wesolvethersttwoconceptualproblemsbyprovidingapreciseandfor-maldenitionofmoving(balloon)objectsalongwithappropriatespecicationsofthepropertiesoftheirmovements.Wesolvethethirdconceptualproblembyseamlesslymodelingthedynamicofboththepast(asfacts)andthefuture(aspredictions)throughballoonobjects.Besidealreadyavailableconceptsthatweintendtopreserveandrene(liketheapproachesin[ 22 32 ]),wein-troducenewfunctionalitysuchastheabilitytoanalyzetheaccuracyofpredictionsovertime.Wealsoofferaninterfaceforcooperatingwithspecic(forexample,probabilistic,fuzzy)predictionmodelsformovingobjects.Finally,weaddresstheimplementationproblembydesigninganim-plementationmodeloftheMovingBalloonAlgebrathatcanbeusedtoimplementthealgebraasatypesystemlibrarywhichcanbeintegratedintoanextensibleDBMS.Inthisresearch,wearemainlyinterestedinthefundamentalmodels,semantics,andtheirimplementationsindatabases.Otheroptimizationandlteringconceptssuchasspatiotemporalindexingtechniquesarebeyondthescopeofthisresearch. 19

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Besidestheconceptoftime,spatialobjectsformtheconceptualfoundationofmovingobjects.WesummarizethestateoftheartofspatialdatamodelingandsketchtherelevantconceptsofspatialdatatypesandtopologicalpredicatesinSection 2.1 .Then,inSection 2.2 ,wedelineatethestateoftheartofspatiotemporaldatamodelingandpresenttheimportantconceptsofspatiotemporaldatatypesandspatiotemporalpredicates.InSection 2.3 ,wediscusscurrentimplementationaspectsofspatialandspatiotemporaldatatypes.Finally,inSection 2.4 ,weexplorethecurrentintegrationofsuchimplementationindatabasesystems. 2-1 A-C)[ 12 29 48 ].Sincethesesimplegeometricstructuresareunabletorepresentthevarietyandcomplexityofgeographicphenomena,thesecondgenerationofdatamodelsprovidesmoreexpressiverepresentationsofspatialobjectsthatallowsupportformulti-componentobjectsaswellasobjectswithholes[ 5 44 59 62 ].Theyarerepresentedbycomplexspatialdatatypesforcomplexpoints,complexlines,andcomplexregions(Figure 2-1 D-F).Theirformaldenitioncan,forexample,befoundin[ 59 ].Informally,acomplexpointobjectisanitesetofsinglepoints.Acomplexlineisdenedasaninnitepointsetthatstructurallyconsistsofanitesetofblocks.Eachblockcontainsanitenumberofsimplelines.Acomplexregionisdenedasaninnitepointsetthatstructurallyconsistsofanitesetoffaces.Eachfacehasanoutersimpleregionandcontainsanitesetofdisjointsimpleregionscalledholes. 20

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Figure2-1. Examplesofspatialobjects.A)Asimplepointobject.B)Asimplelineobject.C)Asimpleregionobject.D)Acomplexpointobject.E)Acomplexlineobject.F)Acomplexregionobject. Theobjectdenitionofeachspatialdatatypedistinguishesthreecomponents:theinterior,boundary,andexterior.Forexample,theboundaryofalineobjectconsistsofitsendpoints.Itsinteriorconsistsofthelinepartthatconnectstheendpoints.Theexteriorofalineobjectconsistsofallpointsoftheplanethatarenotpartoftheinteriororboundary.Theboundaryofaregionobjectisthelineobjectdeningitsborder.Theinteriorofaregionobjectconsistsofallpointsenclosedbytheborder.Theexteriorcontainsallpointsthatareneitherpartoftheboundarynortheinterior.Theseconcepts,whichareformallydenedin[ 59 ],areleveragedforthemodelingoftopologicalrelationshipsdiscussedinthenextsubsectionaswellastheinteractionsofpredictedmovingobjectsdescribedinSection 3.4.2 .WeusethiscomplexspatialdatamodelasthebasisforourMovingBalloonAlgebraduetoitsexpressivenessofrepresentationanditsclosurepropertyunderspatialoperations. 56 ]basedonspatiallogicandthe9-intersectionmodel[ 13 15 ]basedonpointsettopology.The9-intersectionmodeldenestopologicalrelationshipsbasedontheninepossibleintersectionsoftheboundary(A),theinterior(A),andtheexterior(A)ofaspatialobjectAwiththecorrespondingcomponentsofanotherobjectB.Eachintersectionistestedwithregardto 21

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2-2 A. Topologicalrelationshipshavebeenrstinvestigatedforsimplespatialobjects(Figure 2-2 B),thatis,fortwosimpleregions(disjoint,meet,overlap,equal,inside,contains,covers,coveredBy)[ 9 14 ],fortwosimplelines[ 7 15 ],andforasimplelineandasimpleregion[ 16 ].Topologicalpredicatesinvolvingsimplepointsaretrivial.Thetwoworksin[ 8 ]and[ 17 ]aretherstbutrestrictedattemptstoadenitionoftopologicalrelationshipsoncomplexspatialobjects.In[ 8 ],theTRCR(TopologicalRelationshipsforCompositeRegions)modelonlyallowssetsofdisjoint,simpleregionswithoutholes.Topologicalrelationshipsbetweenthesecompositeregionsaredenedinanadhocmannerandarenotsystematicallyderivedfromtheunderlyingmodel.Theworkin[ 17 ]onlyconsiderstopologicalrelationshipsofsimpleregionswithholes;multi-partregionsarenotpermitted.Amainproblemofthisapproachisitsdependenceonthenumberofholesoftheoperandobjects. Theworkin[ 59 ],withtwoprecursorsin[ 2 ]and[ 58 ],givesathorough,systematic,andcompletespecicationoftopologicalrelationshipsforallcombinationsofcomplexspatialdatatypes.Detailsaboutthedeterminationprocessandprototypicaldrawingsofspatialscenariosvisualizingalltopologicalrelationshipscanbefoundinthesepublications.Thisapproach,whichisalsobasedonthe9-intersectionmodel,isthebasisofourtopologicalpredicateimplementationinSection 5.2 .Figure 2-2 Bshowstheincreaseoftopologicalpredicatesforcomplexobjects point 2/53/143/7line 3/1433/8219/43region 3/719/438/33AB Figure2-2. The9-intersectionmodelandtopologicalpredicates.A)The9-intersectionmatrix.B)Thenumbersoftopologicalpredicatesbetweentwosimple/complexspatialobjects. 22

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49 ].Amongthem,afewmovingobjectmodelshavebeenrecentlydesignedthatareofsignicantinterestformanynewemergingapplications[ 34 ].Movingobjectmodelscanbedistinguishedwithrespecttothetypeofmovementtheysupport.InSection 2.2.1 ,werstdiscussanexistingmovingobjectmodelandacorrespondingspatiotemporalpredicate(STP)modelthatsupportthepastevolutionofmovingobjects.Then,inSection 2.2.2 ,wetakealookatanumberofdatamodelsaswellasSTPmodelsthatsupportspecictypesofnearfuturedevelopmentsofmovingobjects. 32 61 ].Thepastdevelopmentisahistoricalfactthatismodeledasafunctionfromtimetospace[ 18 25 ].Foranarbitrarynon-temporaldatatypea,itscorrespondingtemporaldatatypeisprovidedbyatypeconstructort(a)whichisafunctiontypethatmapsfromthetemporaldomaintimetoa,thatis,t(a)=time!a.Byapplyingthetypeconstructorttothespatialdatatypespoint,line,andregion,weobtainthecorrespondingspatiotemporaldatatypesnamedmpointformovingpoints,mlineformovinglines,andmregionformovingregions[ 19 ]: 2.1.1 )ateachtimeinstantatwhichitisdened;asingle-componentspatialobjectasafunctionvalueatatimeinstantisthusaspecialcase.Figures 2-3 Aand 2-3 Bshowsingle-componentmovingpointandmovingregionobjectsrespectivelywhileFigures 2-3 Cand 23

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Figure2-3. Examplesofmovingobjects.A)Asingle-componentmovingpointobject.B)Asingle-componentmovingregionobject.C)Amulti-componentmovingpointobject.D)Amulti-componentmovingregionobject. 2-3 Dillustratecorrespondingmulti-componentobjects.AnapplicationexampleforFigure 2-3 Disabrushrethatoriginatesatdifferentlocationsatdifferenttimes. Thetypeconstructortisdenedinaverygeneralwayandallowsanykindoftemporalfunction.Forinstance,wecoulddeneafunctionthatmapseachtimeinstantrepresentedbyarationalnumbertothepoint(1;1)andeachtimeinstantrepresentedbyanirrationalnumbertothepoint(2;2).However,thisdoesnotdescribemovement,andhencethequestioniswhichspatiotemporalfunctionsrepresentvalidmovements.Forexample,theunrestricteddenitionoftalsoallowsamovingpointtomovecontinuously(Figures 2-3 A, 2-3 B),disappearforperiodsoftime(Figure 2-4 A, 2-4 E),appearinstantly(Figures 2-4 B, 2-4 F),havespatialoutliers(Figure 2-4 D),orhaveinstantaneousjumps(Figures 2-4 C, 2-4 G).Adenitionismissingthatpreciselystateswhichspatiotemporalfunctionsrepresentallowedmovementsandwhichfunctionsdonotconformtoourintuitiveunderstandingofmovement.Furthermore,thisapproachdoesnotsupportfuturepredictionsofmovingobjects.Inourmodel,weemployasimilarapproachofusingatypeconstructortoconstructspatiotemporaltypesforrepresentinghistoricalmovementsofmovingobjects.However,wetaketheextrastepofpreciselyspecifyingthepropertiesofobjectmovementsaswellasdescribinghowanobjectmovesandevolvesinthepastandhowitsfuturepredictedmovementandextensioncanberepresented. Basedonthemovingobjectsmodeljustdescribed,theSTPmodelpresentedin[ 22 ]providesspatiotemporalpredicatesforpastmovementsandisabletocharacterizethetemporal 24

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2-4 HdepictsthespatiotemporalpredicateCross.Inotherwords,aspatiotemporalpredicatebetweentwomovingobjectsisatemporalcompositionofperiodandinstantpredicatesbetweenthetwoobjects.TheSTPmodelisonlyabletocapturethetemporaldevelopmentoftopologicalrelationshipsbetweenhistoricalmovingobjects.Butitisunabletorepresenttheuncertaintyofthetopologicalrelationshipsbetweenpredictedmovingobjectsaswellasthecombinationofpastandfuturedevelopmentsoftopologicalrelationships. 60 ],whichisbasedontheconceptofmotionvector,isabletorepresentnearfuturedevelopmentsofmovingobjectsthroughtheassumptionontheobjects'inertiathatthecurrentmotiondirectiondoesnotchangeinthenearfuture.Althoughthismodelisabletorepresentthenearfuturemovementofamovingobject,thepredictedmovementislimitedtoasinglemotionconceptthatcannotbemodied.Theaspectofuncertaintysuchastheprobabilityofoccurrenceisnotpartofthemodel.Othermodelsareabletocapturetheuncertaintyaspectoffuturemovementsthroughtheuseofatrajectoryormotionplanwithaconstant[ 26 ]orvariableuncertaintythreshold[ 43 ].Theapproachin[ 38 ]makesuseofaconceptcalledspace-timeprismtomodeltheuncertaintyofmovementbetweenknownstatesofanobject'strajectorywithcertainassumptionsontheobject'svelocity.Anotherapproachpresented 25

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EFGH Figure2-4. Examplesofspatiotemporalfunctionsformovingpoints.A)Partiallydisappear.B)Instantlyappear.C)Haveinstantaneousjumps.D)Havespatialoutliers.Examplesofspatiotemporalfunctionsformovingregions.E)Partiallydisappear.F)Instantlyappear.G)Haveinstantaneousjumps.H)Anexampleofaspatiotemporalpredicate. in[ 36 ]modelsandpredictsfuturemovementsofmovingobjectsinaconstrainednetworkenvironment.Itisimportanttonotethatanaspectwhichallofthesemodelshaveincommonisthateithertheytrytopredictthefuturemovementbyassumingaspecicpredictiontechniqueortheyaredesignedtohandleaspecictypeofmotiononly.AsemphasizedintheIntroduction,thegoalofourefforthereisnotabouthowtopredictaspecictypeofmovementbutabouthowtoprovidegeneralpurposedatamodelsupportformovements(includingfuturepredictions)indatabases. Withregardtothemodelingofspatiotemporalpredicatesforfuturepredictions,themodelpresentedin[ 26 ]capturestheuncertaintyaspectofthefuturetopologicalrelationshipbetweenamovingpointandastaticregion.Thefuturemovementofamovingpointisdenedbyafuturemotionplanortrajectoryandathresholdvaluesignifyinganacceptabledeviationoftheactualmovementfromthetrajectory.Theapplicationofathresholdaroundafuturetrajectorycreatesatrajectoryvolumewhichrepresentsthesetofallpossiblefuturemotioncurves.Aspatiotemporalpredicate(forexample,sometimesinside)isthendenedbasedonthetopologicalrelationship 26

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6 30 31 59 62 ]aretheonlyformalapproaches;theyallsharethesame,mainstructuralfeatures.TheOpenGISConsortium(OGC)hasproposedsimilargeometricstructurescalledsimplefeaturesinitsOGCAbstractSpecication[ 45 ]andinitsGeographyMarkupLanguage(GML)[ 46 ],whichisanXMLencodingforthetransportandstorageofgeographicinformation.ThesegeometricstructuresaredescribedinformallyandarecalledMultiPoint,MultiLineString,andMultiPolygon.AnothersimilarbutalsoinformallydescribedspatialdatatypespecicationisprovidedbyESRI'sSpatialDatabaseEngine(ArcSDE)[ 24 ].Further,databasevendorshaveaddedspatialextensionpackagesthatincludespatialdatatypesthroughextensibilitymechanismstotheirdatabasesystems.ExamplesaretheInformixGeodeticDataBlade[ 35 ],theOracleSpatialCartridge[ 47 ],andDB2'sSpatialExtender[ 11 ].Theseimplementationsofferlimitedsetsofnamedtopologicalpredicatesforsimpleandcomplexspatialobjects.Buttheirdenitionsareunclearandtheirunderlyingalgorithmsunpublished.TheopensourceJTSTopologySuite[ 37 ]conformstothesimplefeaturesspecication[ 45 ]oftheOpenGISConsortiumandimplementstheaforementionedeighttopologicalpredicatesforcomplexspatialobjectsthroughtopologygraphs.Atopologygraphstorestopologyexplicitlyandcontainslabelednodesandedgescorrespondingtotheendpointsandsegmentsofaspatialobject'sgeometry.Foreachnodeandedgeofaspatialobject,onedetermineswhetheritislocatedintheinterior,intheexterior,orontheboundaryofanother 27

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5.2 ,weprodiveoursolutionforanefcientimplementationoftopologicalpredicatesoncomplexspatialobjectswhichrequireslinearithmic(loglinear)timeandlinearspace. Unlikethoseofspatialdatamodels,implementationsofspatiotemporaldatamodelsareveryrareand,inmostcases,onlyexistintheformofresearchprototypes.AnexampleofsuchanimplementationcanbefoundaspartoftheSECONDOprototypesystem[ 4 ].ThespatiotemporalmoduleofSECONDOisdevelopedbasedontheapproachin[ 32 61 18 25 ]whichonlysupportsthepastmovementofmovingobjects.However,ourmaininteresthereisonthemodelingandimplementationofamovingobjectalgebrawhichcansupportboththepastandpredictedmovementsofmovingobjects. 28

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5.5 ). 29

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Inthischapter,wedescribetheabstractmodelwhichisthehighestlevelofabstractionoftheMovingBalloonAlgebra 3.1.1 ,wedescribehowspatialobjectscanmovebyidentifyingsomefundamentalpropertiesofmovement.Especially,wedenewhatcontinuousmovementofaspatialobjectmeans.TheknowledgegainedfromthissectionenablesusinSection 3.1.2 todirectlyderive(abstract)datatypesforhistoricalmovementsofmovingobjects.Modelingfuturemovementmeansdealingwiththefutureandisinherentlyafictedwiththefeatureofuncertainty.InSection 3.1.3 ,wepresentourviewofthisprobleminadatabasecontextandpresent(abstract)datatypesforpredictedmovementsasasolution.AlltheseconceptswillbeusedinSection 3.2 tomodel 53 ]inpreparationforajournalsubmission. 30

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59 ].Wecan,forexample,thenexpressthattheintersectionoftwodisjointregionobjectsistheemptyregionobject. Tomodelthechangeofobjectsovertime,weadoptourownmodelingapproachfrom[ 19 22 32 ]anddeneatemporallychangingentityasafunctionovertime.Thatis,wemodelvaluesofanontemporaltypeathatchangeovertimeasafunctionoftype tisatypeconstructorthatconstructsthetemporalcounterpartforagivennontemporaldatatype.Typet(a)thendenotesallfunctionsfromtimetoa.Wecallanelementoft(a)atemporalfunctionoratemporalobject.Incasethata=realholds,t(real)denotesadatatypefortemporalrealnumbers.Thesecan,forexample,beusedtorepresenttemperaturecurves.Similarly,weobtaindatatypesfortemporalBooleans,temporalintegers,andtemporalstrings.Ifa2fpoint;line;regiong,weobtainspatiotemporaldatatypesformovingpoints,movinglines,andmovingregions.Thatis,wedenote(spatial)changeovertimeasmovement.Wealsonameallmentionedtypesmbool,mint,mstring,mreal,mpoint,mline,andmregionrespectively. 31

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Asecondobservationisthattemporalobjectscanshowacontinuousevolution.Formovingspatialobjects,continuityiseventheessentialfeature.Continuousevolutioncan,ingeneral,bedescribedbyacontinuousfunctionforwhich,intuitively,smallchangesintheinputresultinsmallchangesintheoutput.Thisleadsustothequestionhowthechangebetweentwonon-spatialobjects,thatis,betweentwoBooleanvalues,twointegernumbers,andtworealnumbers,canbespecied,and,muchmoreinterestingly,howthechangebetweentwospatialobjects,thatis,betweentwopoints,twolines,andtworegions,canbecharacterizedintheEuclideanspace.Eachcharacterizationshouldalsocapturediscretechanges.Forthispurpose,Denition 3.1 introducesadissimilaritymeasurefforeachdatatype. 32

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3.2 ,wespecifytwopredicatesdfbanddftthatcheckwhetherfisdenedattfromthebottomandfromthetoprespectively. (i)dfb(f;t):=9e2R+80
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3-2 Agivesanexampleofthissituation.Thedashedlineattimetrepresentsaninstantaneousjumpandconnectsthemovementbeforeandafterthejump.Thehollowcircleindicatesthatthisisnotthefunctionvalueattimet;itisgivenbythefullcircle. Thesituationisdifferentfortemporalobjectsbasedonspatialdatatypes,thatis,formoving(spatial)objects.Ateachtimeinstantofitsdomain,amovingobjectmayincludemultiplesimplespatialvalues.Apointobjectmayconsistofseveralsinglepoints,alineobjectmayincludeseveralblocks,andaregionobjectmayincorporateseveralfaces(Section 2.1.1 ).Thiscan,forexample,beillustratedwithFigure 2-3 Cinwhichanyplaneparalleltothe(x;y)-planeandbetweenthetwodashedlinesintersectsthemovingpointobjectinasetofone,two,orthree 34

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2-3 D,aplaneparalleltothe(x;y)-planebetweenthetwoupperdashedlinesintersectsthemovingregionobjectinasetoftwofacesmakinguparegionobject.Themultiplesimplevaluesofamovingobjectatatimeinstantmaymovesimultaneouslyovertime,stayseparatefromeachother,interact,coincide,merge,split,partiallystoptoexist,orpartiallystarttoexist.Thegoalofthefollowingdenitionsistoallowthesedifferentbehaviors. InDenition 3.4 ,wespecifytheimportantconceptofcontinuityatatimeinstantforamovingobject.ItrestsonthelimitconceptofDenition 3.3 (i)fisf-continuousfromthebottomattif,andonlyif,limfd!0f(td)=f(t)(ii)fisf-continuousfromthetopattif,andonlyif,limfd!0f(t+d)=f(t)(iii)fisf-continuousattif,andonlyif,limfd!0f(td)=f(t)(iv)fisf-discontinuousattif,andonlyif,fisnotf-continuousatt Figure3-1. Examplesoff-continuoustemporalfunctions.A)simultaneousmovement.B)Amergingsituation.C)Asplittingsituation.D)Acombinedmergingandsplittingsituation. Thisdenitionimplies,forexample,thatthemovingobjectsinFigure 2-3 AandFig-ure 2-3 Baref-continuousontheopenintervalsindicatedbythedashedlines.Theyaref-discontinuousatthetimeintervalendpointssincetheyaref-continuousfromthetopatthelowerendpoints,andf-continuousfromthebottomattheupperendpoints.Wendsimilarsituations 35

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3-1 A(simultaneousmovement), 3-1 B(amergingsituation), 3-1 C(asplittingsitua-tion),and 3-1 D(acombinedmergingandsplittingsituation)whichalsosatisfythepropertyoff-continuityintheopentimeintervalsandf-discontinuityinthetimeintervalendpoints.NotethatinFigure 3-1 D,themovingpointobjectisf-continuousatthetimeinstantwhenitstwocomponentsintersect. ABC Figure3-2. Examplesoff-discontinuoustemporalfunctions.A)Aninstantaneousjumpinanmrealobject.B),C)Twoconstellationswithtimeinstantsatwhichthefunctionisevent-f-discontinuous. Thediscontinuitiesatthetimeintervalendpointsareallowedandareexamplesoftopolog-icalevents.Theyariseheresincethemovingobjectsareundenedoutsidethesetimeintervals.Anotherviewisthatcomponentsofamovingobjectstarttoexistatlowerintervalendpointsandceasetoexistatupperintervalendpoints.DiscontinuitiescanalsobefoundinFigures 2-3 Cand 2-3 DaswellasinFigures 2-4 AtoG.Surprisingly,mostdiscontinuitiesdescribeameaningfulandthuscorrecttemporalbehaviorofmovingobjectsandhavetobepermitted.Thereasonisthatmultiplesimplespatialvaluesofthesamemovingobjectmayevolveindependently.Intuitively,atopologicaleventarisesinFigures 2-3 Cand 2-3 Dwhenthenumberofbasicsimplevalueschangesatatimeinstant.Figures 3-2 Band 3-2 Cillustratethisinmoredetail.ThemovingobjectinFigure 3-2 Bisf-continuousfromthetopbutnotfromthebottomatt1(changefromzerotoonecomponent)andt2(changefromonetotwocomponents)aswellasf-continuousfromthebottombutnotfromthetopatt3(changefromtwotoonecomponent)andt4(changefromonetozerocomponents).Figure 3-2 Cshowsacasewhenamovingobjectisneitherf-continuousfromthetopnorfromthebottomatatimeinstantt(changefromtwocomponentsbeforetto 36

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2-4 Aand 2-4 Erepresentmovingobjectsthatarealternatelycontinuousanddiscontinuousondisjointtimeintervals,thatis,theyarerepresentedbypartialfunctions.Figures 2-4 Band 2-4 Fillustratethecaseofaninstantlyappearingmovingobjectwithisolated(time,spatialobject)pairs.Weallowthiskindofdis-continuityalthoughitisdebatablewhetheramovingobjectcanexistatatimeinstantonly.Ourmainmotivationtoallowthissituationconsistsindesiredclosurepropertiesofspatiotemporaloperations.If,forexample,twomovingpointobjectsintersectinasinglepointatatimet,wewouldliketobeabletorepresenttheintersectionresultasamovingpointobject.Similarly,atime-sliceoperationshouldbeabletoyieldaregionobjectattimetasamovingregionobject.WealsopermitthecasesinFigures 2-4 Cand 2-4 Gasvalidmovingobjects.Thereasonisthatinstantaneousjumpscanalsobeinterpretedastheterminationofonecomponentandtheemer-genceofanothercomponentatthesametimeinstant.Figure 2-4 Galsoshowstwointerestingsituationswherethebottomregionofanuppercomponentislocatedinthetopregionofaloweradjacentcomponent.Thefunctionvalueatsuchatimeinstantisthelargerregion.Again,itisdoubtfulwhethersuchaninstantaneousshrinking(orgrowing)canhappeninspatialrealitybutclosurepropertiesrequiretheacceptanceofsuchsituations.Aunionofthreemovingregionobjects,eachrepresentingoneofthethreecomponents,leadstothemovingregioninFigure 2-4 G.Wedenoteallaforementionedsituationsofpermitteddiscontinuoustopologicaleventsasevent-f-discontinuous. AsituationwedonotallowisaspatialoutlieratatimeinstanttasinFigure 2-4 D.Itisgivenbyatemporalfunctionthatdoesnotrepresentarealisticmovementsinceintuitivelyitdeviatesfromitsgeneralrouteandreturnstoitforatimeinstantonly.Denition 3.5 providesthefulldenitionofevent-f-discontinuity. 37

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3.5 (i)meansthatfisisolatedatt.Denitions 3.5 (ii)and(iii)preventaspatialoutlieratanendpointtofatimeintervalofthedomainoff.Inbothcases,thelimitmustbepartofthefunctionvalueatt.Ifaspatialoutlieroccursinthemiddleofatimeinterval,wehavetodistinguishtwocases.Ifthelimitsfromthetopandfromthebottomaredifferent,theymustbepartoforequaltothefunctionvalueattimet(Denition 3.5 (iv)).Ifthelimitsareequal,thecommonlimitmustbeproperlycontainedinf(t)sinceequalitywouldmeanf-continuityattincontrasttoourassumption(Denition 3.5 (v)). Figure3-3. Movingpointobjectgivenbyatemporalfunctionwithalocalminimumandalocalmaximum. Aninterestingobservationisthatthepropertyofmonotonicitywithrespecttothetimeaxisdoesnotplayaroleforthedenitionofmovement.Thereasonisthatcomplex(andnotsimple)spatialobjectsarethebasisofconstructingmovingobjects.Figure 3-3 showsatemporalfunctionofamovingpointobjectwithalocalminimumatt1andalocalmaximumatt2.Theonlyvalidinterpretationofthisgureisthatatt1twonewcomponentsariseatthelocalminimum.Theleftofthesetwocomponentsmergesandterminateswiththeoutermostleftcomponentatt2. 38

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3.4 and 3.5 ,wearenowableinDenition 3.6 tospecifythedesiredpropertiesofthetypeconstructortforrepresentingvalidmovingobjects.Thenotations[a;b]and]a;b[representclosedandopenintervalsrespectivelywithendpointsaandb. (i)9n2N:dom(f)=Sni=1[t2i1;t2i](ii)81in:t2i1t2i(iii)81i
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Ourmodelingofhistoricalmovementassumesfullknowledgeaboutthepastlocationsandextentofmovingobjectsintheirtimedomains(thatis,whentheyaredened).Byusingpartialtemporalfunctions,lackingknowledgeisexpressedbytimeintervalswhensuchfunctionsareundened.Spatiotemporaldatatypesforhistoricalmovingobjectscanbedirectlymodeledonthebasisofthetconstructor.Wedeneatypeconstructorqwithq(a)t(a)fora2fpoint;line;regionginDenition 3.7 2.2.1 34 ].Examplesaretheanticipationofpossibleterroristactivities,homelandsecurityingeneraltoprotectterritoryfromhazards,reoutbreakandhurricanepredictiontodetermineevacuationareas,anddisastermanagementtoinitiateemergencypreparednessandmitigationefforts. 40

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3.1.3.1 ,wepresentourapproachforhandlingfuturepredictionsofmovingobjects.Takingintoaccounttheinherentuncertaintyofthefuture,weexplorehowthefuturepositionsandextentofamovingobjectcanberepresented.Wepresentcorrespondingspatiotem-poraldatatypesinSection 3.1.3.2 Weconsiderafewexamplesinordertounderstandtheuncertainnatureofmovingobjectsinthefutureandtherequirementsoftheirrepresentation.Thecentralissueistherepresentation 41

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DEF Figure3-4. Modelingpotentialfuturepositionsofspatiotemporalobjects.A)Forahurricane'seyeatnow+12hours.B)Withinthe12-hourperiod.C)Foravehicleatnow+15minutes.D)Withinthe15-minuteperiod.E)Foravehiclewithaconstantspeedatnow+15minutes.F)Withinthe15-minuteperiod. ofthepotentialfuturepositionsand/ortheextentofapredictedmovingobjectsincebothitspositionsanditsextentareafictedwithuncertainty.Forexample,thepositionoftheeyeofahurricaneat12hoursfromnowmaypossiblybeanywherewithinapredictedregion(Figure 3-4 A).Thatis,thisregionrepresentsallpotentialfuturepositionsofthehurricane'seyeat12hoursfromnow.Likewise,ifweareinterestedinthefuturepositionsforacertainperiodinthefuture,forexample,fromthepresenttimeto12hoursinthefuture,thentheactualpositioncanbeanywherewithinapredictedvolumeifweadoptathree-dimensionalinterpretation(Figure 3-4 B).Thisvolumerepresentsthegeometricunionofthepredictedregionsatalltimeinstantsduringthe12-hourperiod.Itcanalsobeinterpretedasthedevelopmentofapredictedregionoveraperiodoftime.Hence,itresemblesamovingregionwhichcanberepresentedbyusingourspatiotemporaldatatypet(region). Similarly,ifwewanttomodelthefuturepositionofavehicletravelinginaroadnetwork,wecanonlystatethatthepositionofthevehicleat15minutesfromnowwillbesomewherebetweenmilemarker10and15.Thatis,thecorrespondingsegmentoftheroadrepresentsthe 42

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3-4 C).Similarstatementscanbemadeforothertimeinstantssuchasat5minutesand10minutes.Byformingthegeometricunionofthepredictedroadsegmentsatalltimeinstantsduringthe15-minuteperiod,weobtainasurfaceinthethree-dimensionalspace(Figure 3-4 D).Thissurfacerepresentsallpotentialpositionsofthevehicleduringthe15-minuteperiod.Thesurfacecanalsoberegardedasthedevelopmentofapredictedroadsegmentoveraperiodoftime.Hence,ithasthesamefeatureasamovinglineandcanthusberepresentedbyusingourspatiotemporaldatatypet(line). Incasethatthevehiclealwaysmaintainsaconstantspeed,wecanmorepreciselysaythatitspositionat15minutesfromnowwillbeataspecicpoint(iftheroaddoesnotsplit)oramongasetofpoints(iftheroadsplits)(Figure 3-4 E).Inthiscase,thepotentialpositionsofthevehicleoveraperiodoftimecanbemodeledasamovingpointandcanthusberepresentedbyourspatiotemporaldatatypet(point)(Figure 3-4 F). Sofar,wehaveassumedthatapointobjectmoves.Ifweconsideranobjectwithextentlikealineobject,itsfuturepredictionovertimecanbedescribedbyeitheramovinglineoramovingregiondependingontheenvironmentandthenatureofitsmovement.Forexample,ifwetreatatrainasalineobjectduetoitspossiblyverylonglength,thefuturepredictionofitsextentinarailroadnetworkatatimeinstantinthefuturecanberepresentedbyalineobject.Foraperiodoftime,thedevelopmentofthepredictioncanberepresentedbyamovinglineobjectoftypet(line).Ifweconsiderthemovementoftheboundarybetweenfreshwaterofariverandsaltwaterofanoceanwheretheriverowsinto,wemayusearegiontorepresentthepotentialwhereaboutoftheboundaryatatimeinstantinthefuture.Thisisbecausethemovementoftheboundaryinanoceanisunrestricted.Foraperiodoftime,thedevelopmentofthisregioncanberepresentedbyamovingregionobjectoftypet(region). Theothertypeofobjectwithextentotherthanalineobjectisaregionobject.Foraregionobjectsuchasastorm,afuturepredictionofitsextentataninstantinthefutureisalwaysaregion.Thisisbecauseitiscounter-intuitivetopredicttheextentofastormtobealineobjector 43

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Inourdiscussionoffuturespatiotemporalevolution,wehaveexclusivelyconcentratedonitsgeometricaspects.Likehistoricalspatiotemporalevolution,itcanalsobemodeledbymovingobjectsoftypet(a).However,wehavesofarcompletelyneglectedtheuncertaintyafictedwithit.Thatis,ourconceptsofardoesnotspecifytherelativechanceordegreeofcondencewithwhichapointwilleventuallyrepresentthepositionorpartoftheextentofapredictedmovingobjectatafuturetimeinstant. Todothis,werequireaconceptofcondencedistribution(C)inDenition 3.8 suchthateachpointofapredictedspatialobjectasthefunctionvalueofapredictedmovingobjectataparticulartimeinstantisassociatedwithadegreeofcondence. TheabovedenitionallowsanytypeofdistributionforC(a).Forexample,C(a)canbeaprobabilitydistributionoveradescribingtheprobabilitydensity(condencelevel)ofeachpointina.Moreover,C(a)canalsobeafuzzysetindicatingthelevelofmembershipforeachpointina.Toapplythisconceptofcondencedistributiontoamovingobjectforrepresentingfuturepredictionsovertime,wecanusetheconceptofspatiotemporalmappingtotemporallyliftCovertimetodeneamovingcondencedistribution(MC)asshowninDenition 3.9 Here,wedonotrestricthowMC(a)developsovertimesincethecondencedistributioninformationisdomainspecic,thusitmaytakeanyshapeorformdependingonagiven 44

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Figure3-5. Representingthefuturepredictionofahurricane'seyeusingamovingregionwithamovingcondencedistribution.Thegradientindicatesvarieddegreeofcondence. Toillustratetheconceptspresented,considertheexampleofahurricane.Wecanmodelthesetofpotentialpositionsoftheeyeofthishurricaneusinganhregionobject(Figure 3-4 B).Byapplyingamovingcondencedistributiononthehregionobject,weobtainanewkindofobjectwhichrepresentsthesetofpotentialfuturepositions,eachwithadegreeofcondence,ofthehurricane'seye(Figure 3-5 ).Thismeansthatthefuturemovementtrajectoryofthehurricane'seyeispredictedtobeapartofthisobject.Wedenethedatatypesforthiskindofobjectsinthenextsection. 45

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3-6 ABCD Figure3-6. Examplesofvalidfuturepredictions.A)Acontinuousfpointobject.B)Acontinuousfregionobject.C)Adiscontinuousfregionobject.Anexampleofinvalidfuturepredictions.D)Adimensionallycollapsedobjectwithmultipletypes. Itisimportanttounderstandthatthesefuturedatatypesaredenedonlyforfuturepre-dictionsofmovingobjects.Theydonotmakeanyreferenceorassumptiononthehistoricalspatiotemporaldatatypesofthemovingobjects.Forexample,anobjectoftypefregioncanbeusedtorepresentthefuturepredictionofeitheramovingpoint,amovingline,oramovingregion.Tomodelthenatureofmovementofamovingobjectproperly,werequireboththepastmodelandthefuturemodel.Wewillseeinthenextsectionthatnotallcombinationsofthepastandfuturedatatypesrepresentvalidmovements. 46

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3.2.1 torepresentsnapshots(eachconsistingofahistoryofmovementandpossiblyaprediction)ofourknowledgeaboutmovingobjectsatspecictimeinstantsoftheirmovement.Basedonthisconcept,thespatiotemporalde-velopmentofthisknowledgewhichisacontinuousstreamofthesesnapshotsisthenrepresentedbyourspatiotemporalballoondatatypesdenedinSection 3.2.2 InSection 3.1.2 ,wehavedenedourmodelforhistoricalmovementsresultinginatypeconstructorq(a).Sinceweusethistypeconstructortoconstructdatatypesforhistoricalmovements,alltimeintervalsspeciedasthedomainofthesedatatypesmustbeintervalsinthepast.Thelatestknownstateofamovingobjectisassumedtobethecurrentstateoftheobject.Thismeansthatthecurrentstateoftheobjectchangesforeveryupdateoftheobject'sposition.Eachupdatecaneithersignifyacontinualmovementofthelastintervalofknowledgeoraperiodofnoknowledgefollowedbyanewinstantofknowledge.Inanycase,thecurrentstateoftheobjectisalwaysdenedasthestateoftheobjectatthelastinstantofthehistoricalmovement.Wedenotethecurrentstateofanobjectbytc.Itispossiblethattcmaybeearlier(older)thantheabsolutepresent(thecurrentclocktimenow),denotedbyta.Thissituationcanhappenwhenwedonothaveinformationaboutthestateoftheobjectattheabsolutepresent(Figure 3-7 )possiblyduetodelayinobtainingsensordata.Ontheotherhand,itisimpossiblefortctobelater(younger)thantheabsolutepresent.Thiswouldmeanthattheobjecthasalreadymovedinthefuturewhichisimpossible.Hence,itisrequiredthattctaholdsforallmovingobjects.We 47

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3-7 illustratesanexampleofahistoricaltemporaldomaintimehforamovingobject. Figure3-7. Exampleofahistoricaltemporaldomaintimehthatstartsfromandendsattcinclusively. Forfuturepredictionsofmovingobjects,wehavedenedatypeconstructorj(b)whichacceptsasaparameteraspatialtypebwhosevaluerepresentsthesetoffuturepositionsorextentofamovingobjectataspecicinstantinthefuture.Here,wewouldliketorestrictthetemporaldomainofthefuturedatatypesproducedbyjsuchthatthesedatatypesdescribeonlythefuturepredictionsofmovingobjects. Figure3-8. Exampleofafuturetemporaldomaintimefthatstartsexclusivelyfromtcandextendsindenitelytowards+. Wedeneatemporaldomaintimefforfuturepredictionsofamovingobjectasahalf-inniteopenintervaloftimewhichstartsexclusivelyfromtcandextendsindenitelytowards+.Hence,timef=(tc;+).Wechoosetobegintimeffromtcbecausethiswouldallowapredictiontobemadeasclosetothelatestknownstateoftheobjectasdesiredirrespectivetothe 48

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3-8 depictsanexampleoftimefforamovingobject. Havingdenedtimehandtimeftorestrictthetemporaldomainsofhistoricalmovementsandfuturepredictionsofmovingobjects,wearenowreadytodeneourballoondatatypes.Weintegratethepast(q)andthefutureprediction(j)typeconstructorstoformanewtypeconstructorWforballoonobjectswhichisdenedontheentiretimedomain.Thistimedomainisaresultofatemporalcompositionoftimehandtimef.Sincethespatialtypeastheargumentofqreferstoadifferentspatialobjectthanthatofthespatialtypeastheargumentofj,wedenotetheformerbyaandthelatterbyb.Thus,wehaveW(a;b)=q(a)j(b).Thatis,foraballoonobjectb=(h;f),h2q(a)representsthepastmovementofaspatialobjectoftypeaandf2j(b)representsthefuturepredictionofbgiventhatthesetofitspotentialfuturepositionsatafuturetimeinstantisdescribedbyaspatialobjectoftypeb.Asindicatedearlier,notallcombinationsofaandbconstitutevalidmovements.Forexample,itisnotpossibletousefpointtorepresentthefutureextentofamovingregion.Ifthisweretobepossible,thismeansthat,atafuturetimeinstant,theregionobjectwouldhaveevolvedintoapointobject.Thisisnotpossiblesinceourdenitionofmovementdoesnotallowmovementsinvolvingdimensionalcollapseintoadifferenttype.Therefore,thecombinationforwhichaistheregiontypeandbisthepointtypehasbeenprovedtobeaninvalidcombination.Thegeneralideahereisthatthesetofpotentialfuturepositionsorextentofamovingobjectatafuturetimeinstantmustbeaspatialobjectofdimensiongreaterthanorequaltothedimensionoftheobjectthatismoving.Thismeansthatanobjectcanmoveorevolvesuchthatatafuturetimeinstant,ittsinorequaltoitspredictionwithoutcollapsingitsdimension.Letdimbeafunctionthatreturnsthedimensionofaspatialtype.Itisrequiredthatdim(b)dim(a)holdsforallvalidcombinationsofaandb.WenowdeneourtypeconstructorWforballoondatatypesinDenition 3.11 49

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pp=W(point;point)=hpointfpointballoon pl=W(point;line)=hpointineballoon pr=W(point;region)=hpointfregionballoon ll=W(line;line)=hlineineballoon lr=W(line;region)=hlinefregionballoon rr=W(region;region)=hregionfregion pp,aballoon pl,andaballoon probjectareshowninFigure 3-6 A, 3-4 D,and 3-6 Brespectively. 50

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3.12 (i)8t2dom(f):f(t):tc=t(ii)8t1;t22dom(f);t1
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pp=time!balloon ppmballoon pl=time!balloon plmballoon pr=time!balloon prmballoon ll=time!balloon llmballoon lr=time!balloon lrmballoon rr=time!balloon rr Exampleofamovingballoonobjectoftypemballoon pr. Anexampleofamovingballoonobjectoftypemballoon prisdepictedinFigure 3-9 .Whenworkingwithmovingballoonobjects,wemustdistinguishthedifferentmeaningsofatimeinstant.Withrespecttoamovingballoonobject,atimeinstanttreferstoaninstantofthedomainoffatwhichweobtainaballoonobject.Wedistinguishthistimedomainasthedynamictimedomain.Withrespecttoaballoonobjectataspecicinstanttofthedynamictimedomain,atimeinstanttsreferstoaninstantofthedomainoff(t)whichistheunionoftimehandtimefatwhichweobtainthepositionorextentoftheobjectoritsprediction.Wedistinguishthistimedomainasthesnapshottimedomain.Nowwecanusethesespatiotemporalballoondatatypes 52

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32 ]whichare:(i)Designoperationsasgenericaspossible;(ii)Achieveclosureandconsistencybetweenoperations;(iii)Captureinterestingphenomena.Eachoftheseprinciplesisachievedintheexistingoperationsdenedinthetraditionalmovingobjectmodel[ 32 ]whichisavague,unrestrcitedversionofourhistoricalmovementmodeldescribedinSection 3.1.2 .Thus,theseoperationsarealsoapplicabletoourhistoricalmovementdatatypes.Letthetypeperiodsrepresentsthesetofalldenedintervalsanddenedinstantsofamovement.Assumealsothatthetypeintime(a)=ainstantrepresentsthestateofthemovementofaspatialobjectoftypeaataspecicinstantintime.Thefunctionmin(a;b)returnsthespatialtypeaorbwhicheverhasthesmallerdimension.Theoperationsareclassiedintovecategories:projection,interaction,temporallylifted,rateofchange,andpredicateoperations.Projectionoperationsreturnprojectionsofthemovementintoeitherthetimedomainorthespacerange.Interactionoperationsincludedecompositionsandinstantiationsofthemovement.Temporallyliftedoperationsarethosenon-temporaloperationsthathavebeenliftedovertimeintotemporaloperations.Rateofchangeoperationsincludethedifferenttypesofdifferentiationsassociatedwithmovementsuchasvelocityandturningrate.Finally,predicateoperationsareusedtoanswer 53

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3-1 liststheseoperationsalongwiththeirsignatures.Thesemanticsfortheseoperationsastheyareappliedtohistoricalmovementdatatypesarepresentedin[ 32 ]. Binarypredicatesincludepredicatesbetweenhomogeneoustypesaswellasheterogeneoustypes.SomeofthebasicspatiotemporalpredicatesareDisjoint,Meet,Overlap,Equal,Covers,CoveredBy,Contains,Inside,etc.SomeofthecomplexspatiotemporalpredicatesincludeTouch,Snap,Release,Bypass,Excurse,Into,OutOf,Enter,Leave,Cross,Melt,Separate,Spring,Graze,etc.Thedetailmodelingofthesespatiotemporalpredicatesisdescribedin[ 22 ].Forallotheroperations,theyhavebeendenedin[ 32 ].Sowewillnotgointodetailaboutthemhere.However,whatstillneedtobedonehereare:(1)determinewhetherandhowtheseoperationscanbeappliedtoournewlyintroduceddatatypesincludingthefuturepredictiondatatypes,theballoondatatypes,andthespatiotemporalballoondatatypes;and(2)discovernewoperationsforthesenewdatatypes. 3.1.3 ,eachofourfuturepredictiondatatypesiscomposedofamovementdatatyperepresentingthemovinggeometryofapredictionandamovingcondencedistributionrepresentingtheuncertaintyoftheprediction.Thus,wecandenetwodecomposi-tionoperations,mgeoandmconf,toobtainthemovinggeometryandthemovingcondencefromapredictionrespectively.Bydecomposingapredictioninthisway,wecandeneallgeometryrelatedoperationsonapredictiontohavethesamesemanticasiftheseoperationsareappliedtothemovinggeometrycomponentoftheprediction.Similarly,allcondencerelatedoperationsareapplicabletothemovingcondencecomponentoftheprediction.TheseoperationsareshowninTable 3-1 .Weonlydescribethemodiedandnewlyintroducedoperationshere.Letthetypeinfutime(a)=aC(a)instantrepresentsthestateofapredictionataninstantintime.Thedecompositionofthistypecanbedoneusingthethreeoperationsinst,val,andconftoobtaineachofthecomponent.Theoperationsatinstant,initial,andnalreturnsanobjectofthetypeinfutime(a)whenappliedtoapredictionoftypej(a).Thepoint confandpointset conf

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Operationsonhistoricalmovementsandfuturepredictionsofmovingobjects. deftime,lifespanq(a)!periodsj(a)!periodslocationsq(point)!pointj(point)!pointtrajectoryq(point)!linej(point)!linetraversedq(line)!regionj(line)!regiontraversedq(region)!regionj(region)!regionroutesq(line)!linej(line)!line mgeoN/Aj(a)!t(a)mconfN/Aj(a)!MC(a)atinstantq(a)instant!intime(a)j(a)instant!infutime(a)instintime(a)!instantinfutime(a)!instantvalintime(a)!ainfutime(a)!aconfN/Ainfutime(a)!C(a)point confN/Aj(a)pointinstant!realpointset confN/Aj(a)binstant!realatperiodsq(a)periods!q(a)j(a)periods!j(a)initial,nalq(a)!intime(a)j(a)!infutime(a)presentq(a)instant!boolj(a)instant!boolpresentq(a)periods!boolj(a)periods!boolatq(a)b!q(min(a;b))j(a)b!t(min(a;b))passesq(a)b!boolj(a)b!boolwhenq(a)(a!bool)!q(a)j(a)(a!bool)!j(a) intersectionq(a)b!q(min(a;b))j(a)b!t(min(a;b))intersectionq(a)q(b)!q(min(a;b))j(a)j(b)!t(min(a;b))union,minusq(a)a!q(a)j(a)a!t(a)union,minusq(a)q(a)!q(a)j(a)j(a)!t(a)crossingsq(line)line!q(point)j(line)line!t(point)crossingsq(line)q(line)!q(point)j(line)j(line)!t(point)touch pointsq(region)line!q(point)j(region)line!t(point)touch pointsregionq(line)!q(point)regionj(line)!t(point)touch pointsq(region)q(line)!q(point)j(region)j(line)!t(point)common borderq(region)region!q(line)j(region)region!t(line)common borderq(region)q(region)!q(line)j(region)j(region)!t(line)no componentsq(a)!q(int)j(a)!t(int)lengthq(line)!q(real)j(line)!t(real)areaq(region)!q(real)j(region)!t(real)perimeterq(region)!q(real)j(region)!t(real)distanceq(a)b!q(real)j(a)b!t(real)distanceq(a)q(b)!q(real)j(a)j(b)!t(real)directionq(point)point!q(real)j(point)point!t(real) derivativeq(real)!q(real)j(real)!t(real)turn,velocityq(point)!q(real)j(point)!t(real) isemptyq(a)!boolj(a)!boolq(a)q(b)!boolj(a)j(b)!boolinteraction potentialN/Aj(a)j(b)!t(real)interaction possibleN/Aj(a)j(b)!boolinteraction possibleN/Aj(a)q(b)!bool

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Inthecaseofaprobability-basedpredictionmodel,thepoint confoperationisusedtoretrievethedensityvalueofagivenpointatagiventimeinstantduringthepredictionperiod.Notethatthisdensityvalueisnotnecessarilytheprobabilityvalueofoccurrence.Thesetwovaluesarethesameonlyinthecaseofadiscreteprobabilitydistributionwhichisapplicabletoapredictionoftypej(point).Thisisnotthecaseforacontinuousprobabilitydistributionwhichisapplicabletoapredictionoftypej(line)orj(region).Weusetheoperationpointset conftodeterminetheprobabilityofoccurrence(percentageofchance)thatapointaspartofthemovingobjectwillfallwithinthegivenpoint-setatagiventimeinstant.Foracontinuousprobabilitydistributionoveralinebased(orregionbased)prediction,theprobabilityofoccurrenceistheintegrationofaprobabilitydistributionfunction(pdf)overapoint-set,whichcorrespondstoeitheranarea(forj(line))oravolume(forj(region))underthecurveorsurface,respectively,ofthepdf.Thus,theprobabilityvalueforapointinthesecontinuousdistributionsisalways0sincewecannotobtainanareaoravolumebyintegratingoverapoint.Similarly,theprobabilityvalueforalineinatwodimensionalcontinuousdistributionoveraregion-basedpredictionisalsoalways0sincewecannotobtainavolumebyintegratingoveraline.Table 3-2 showsthevalueoftheoperationpointset conf(j(a);b;instant)whenappliedtodifferenttypecombinationsofj(a)andbfora;b2fpoint;line;regiong. Table3-2. Valueoftheoperationpointset conf(j(a);b;instant)foreachcombinationofj(a)andbwhetheritisalways0,denotedbyavalue0,orameaningfulvalue,denotedbyavalueM. Tofurtherclarifythemeaningoftheseoperations,considerpredictionsatatimeinstantasshowninFigure 3-10 .ThedensityvalueofthepointpinFigure 3-10 Ais0.25.Sincethispredictionisofthetypej(point),wehaveadiscreteprobabilitydistributionoveraniteset 56

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3-10 Billustratesacontinuousprobabilitydistributionoveraline-basedprediction.Thedensityvalueofthepointpinthiscaseis0.25.However,theprobabilityofoccurrenceatpis0becausewecannotobtainanareabyintegratingthepdfatp.Ameaningfulprobabilityvaluecanonlybeobtainedbyintegratingthepdfoverasegmentoflinewhichisasubsetoftheprediction.Inthisexample,weshowthattheprobabilitythatapointofthemovingobjectwillbeonthelinesegment(p;q)is30%(theareaunderthepdfcurvebetweenpandq).Similarly,Figure 3-10 Cshowsaprobabilityof20%thatapointeventwillfallwithinaregionAwhichisasubsetofaregion-basedprediction.Here,theprobabilityvalueisthevolumedenedbyAunderthepdfsurface. ABC Figure3-10. Examplesofpredictionsatatimeinstant.A)Apoint-basedpredictionwithadiscreteprobabilitydistribution.B)Aline-basedpredictionwithaone-dimensionalcontinuousdistribution.C)Aregion-basedpredictionwithatwo-dimensionalcontinuousdistribution. Unlikeaprobability-basedpredictionmodel,afuzzy-basedpredictionmodelisdesignedtomodelthepotentialinclusion,calledmembershipvalue,ofeachpointofapredictionaspartofapoint-setevent.Thus,thepoint confoperationreturnsthemembershipvalueforagivenpointsignifyingthelevelofcondencethatthispointwillbepartofthemovingobject.Thepointset confreturnstheaveragemembershipvalueofagivenpoint-set.Hencethisoperation 57

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Fortemporallyliftedoperations,allsuchoperationsproducebasicspatiotemporalobjectsinsteadoffuturepredictions.Thisisbecausethefuturepredictionisdecomposedintoitsmovinggeometrycomponentbeforeapplyingtheseoperations. Withrespecttopredicates,thebinarypredicateoperationbetweenpredictionshasthesamesemanticasthebinarypredicateoperationbetweentheirmovinggeometrycomponents.However,withthecondencedistributioninformation,wecanalsodeterminethedegreeinwhichtheactualmovingobjectscanpotentiallyinteract(non-disjoint)witheachotherduringtheperiodofthepredictions.Thisisgivenbytheinteraction potentialoperationwhichreturnsamovingrealnumberindicatingthepotentialofinteractionbetweentheactualobjectsoverthepredictionperiod.Thepossibilityoftheactualobjectinteractiondependsontheinteractionbetweentheirpredictionsandthisisgivenbytheinteraction possibleoperation.ThistopicisfurtherdiscussedinSection 3.4.2 components,length,area,perimeter,distance,anddirection.Thesemanticoftheseoperationscanbeexpressedastheunion,fornon-temporalreturntype,ortemporalcomposition,fortemporalreturntype,betweentheresultsofapplyingtheoperationstobothhistoricalandfuturecomponentsoftheballoonobjects.Althoughmostoftheoperationsonballoondatatypescanbeappliedtotheentireobject,afewoftheoperations,thatis,atinstant,initial,andnal),canonlybeappliedbyrstdecomposingaballoonobjectintoitstwocomponentsandthenapplyingthecorrespondingoperationtothecomponentwhosetimedomainisrelevant.Forexample,theatinstantoperationisappliedtothehistoricalmovementcomponentifthegiveninstantiswithinthetimedomainofthiscomponent.Otherwise,itisappliedtothefutureprediction.Inbothcases,adecompositionoperationmustbeappliedin 58

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projandfuture proj,toobtainthehistoricalmovementandfuturepredictioncomponentofaballoonobjectrespectively.Byusingthesedecompositionoperations,wecanapplyallsupportedoperationsdescribedinprevioussectionsforthesecomponents.Withrespecttospatiotemporalpredicatesbetweenballoonobjects,wedescribeamodelforthesepredicatesinSection 3.4.1 .Theinteraction possibleandinteraction potentialoperationsdeterminewhetherthereisanyinteractionandthedegreeofinteractionrespectivelybetweentwoballoonobjectsforthedurationoftheirdenedperiods.Letgbeaspatialdatatype.TheoperationsthatareapplicabletoballoondatatypesarelistedinTable 3-3 3-9 ,thedenedperiodofthemovingballoonobjectistheperiodbetweent0andt4.Thisensuresthatatanyinstantofthisdenedperiod,wecanobtainaballoonobject.Inotherwords,theactualmovementmadebytheobjectduringthisdenedperiodcanbeobtainedfromthepastcomponentofthecurrent(latest)balloonobject(usingtheatperiodsoperationonthispastcomponentgiventhedenedperiodofthemovingballoonobject).Infact,thisactualmovementoftheobjectwhichisoftypeq(a)isusedtodeterminetheresultstomanyoperationssuchaslocations,trajectory,traversed,present,passes,no components,length,perimeter,area,distance,direction,turn,andvelocity. Assumingthatwehaveatypeindytime(a;b):=W(a;b)instantrepresentingastateofamovingballoonobjectatatimeinstantofthedynamictimedomain,thecurrentballoonobjectcanbeobtainedbyusingthenaloperationandthenapplyingthevalfunctiontoextracttheballoonobjectfromtheresultingnalstate.Similarly,theinitialstateisprovidedbythe 59

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Operationsonballoonobjectsandmovingballoonobjects. deftime,lifespanW(a;b)!periodsmW(a;b)!periodslocationsW(point;point)!pointmW(point;point)!pointtrajectoryW(point;point)!linemW(point;point)!linetraversedW(line;line)!regionmW(line;line)!regiontraversedW(line;region)!regionmW(line;region)!regiontraversedW(region;region)!regionmW(region;region)!region past projW(a;b)!q(a)N/Afuture projW(a;b)!j(b)N/AatinstantN/AmW(a;b)instant!indytime(a;b)instN/Aindytime(a;b)!instantvalN/Aindytime(a;b)!W(a;b)atperiodsN/AmW(a;b)periods!mW(a;b)initial,nalN/AmW(a;b)!indytime(a;b)presentW(a;b)instant!boolmW(a;b)instant!boolpresentW(a;b)periods!boolmW(a;b)periods!boolpassesW(a;b)g!boolmW(a;b)g!boolupdateN/AmW(a;b)W(a;b)!mW(a;b)updateN/AmW(a;b)intime(a)j(b)!mW(a;b)verify prediction atN/AmW(a;b)instant!boolhas bad predictionN/AmW(a;b)!boolaccuracy atN/AmW(a;b)instant!t(real)accuracy atN/AmW(a;b)instantinstant!real no componentsW(a;b)!t(int)mW(a;b)!t(int)lengthW(line;line)!t(real)mW(a;b)!t(real)areaW(region;region)!t(real)mW(region;region)!t(real)perimeterW(region;region)!t(real)mW(region;region)!t(real)distanceW(a;b)g!t(real)mW(a;b)g!t(real)distanceW(a1;b1)W(a2;b2)!t(real)mW(a1;b1)mW(a2;b2)!t(real)directionW(point;point)point!t(real)mW(point;point)point!t(real) turn,velocityW(point;point)!t(real)mW(point;point)!t(real) isemptyW(a;b)!boolmW(a;b)!boolW(a1;b1)W(a2;b2)!boolmW(a1;b1)mW(a2;b2)!boolmW(a1;b1)mW(a2;b2)instant!boolinteraction potentialW(a1;b1)W(a2;b2)!t(real)mW(a1;b1)mW(a2;b2)!t(real)mW(a1;b1)mW(a2;b2)instant!t(real)interaction possibleW(a1;b1)W(a2;b2)!boolmW(a1;b1)mW(a2;b2)!boolmW(a1;b1)mW(a2;b2)instant!bool

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Besidesthenormalsetofoperations,thespatiotemporalballoondatatypessupportaspecialsetofoperationsthatallowsonetoperformcertainanalysisabouttheaccuracyofpredictions.Thisisoneofthemainfeaturesofthisdatamodelwhichcanbeofparticularimportancetodomainexpertsinresearchanddevelopmentofpredictionmodels.Themovingballoondatamodelallowsonetoverifywhetherornot,theobject'sactualmovementstayswithinaspecicpredictionmadeinthepast.Thisisachievedbyusingtheverify prediction atoperation.Givenamovingballoonobjectandaspecictimeinstant,thisoperationintersectsthepredictionmadeatthisinstant,ifsuchapredictionexists,withasegmentoftheactualmovementoftheobjectwithintheperiodoftheprediction.Iftheresultingintersectionisthesameasthesegmentoftheactualmovement,thismeansthattheobject'smovementhadalwaysbeenwithintheconnementoftheprediction,andthuswesaythatthispredictionprovidesfullcoverageofthemovement.Otherwise,thepredictionprovidesonlypartialcoveragewhichcanbethoughtofasaninaccurateorabadprediction.Anexampleofapartialcoveragepredictionisthepredictionmadeatt2asshowninFigure 3-9 .Otherpredictionsmadeatt1,t3,andt4arefullcoveragepredictions.Todeterminewhetheramovingballoonobjecthasanybadprediction,weusetheoperationhas bad prediction.Thisoperationisusefulinpersistentqueriesformonitoringtheaccuracyofpredictionsastheobjectmovesintime.WewilldiscusspersistentqueriesandothertypesofspatiotemporalqueriesinSection 3.5 .Sofar,wehaveonlydiscussedwhetherapredictionprovidespartialorfullcoverage,butanevenmoreinterestingaspectisthequanticationofthe 61

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atoperationforthispurpose. Asfarasthepredicateoperationsareconcerned,theunaryoperationisemptyisobvious.Therelationshipbetweentheentiremovingballoonobjectsdoesnotmakemuchsenseandisdifculttondanypracticalmeaning.However,therelationshipbetweentheirballoonobjectcomponentssuchastheirnalballoonobjectsoffersinsightintothespatiotemporalrelationshipbetweentheirpastmovementsaswellastheirfuturepredictions.Thus,wedenethebinarypredicateoperationbetweentwomovingballoonobjectstohavethesamesemanticasthebinarypredicateoperationbetweentheirnalballoonobjects.Ifaninstantofthedynamictimedomainisspecied,theballoonobjectsatthisinstantwillbeusedtodeterminethespatiotemporalrelationship.Similarly,theinteraction potentialandinteraction possibleoperationsalsohavethesamesemanticasiftheyareappliedtothenalballoonobjectsorthecorrespondingballoonobjectsataspecieddynamictimeinstant.Therefore,onecanalwaysdetermineorverifythespatiotemporalrelationshipbetweenanystates(balloonobjects)ofmovingballoonobjects.Wediscussthistopicinmoredetailinthenextsection. Deningtherelationshipbetweenuncertainmovementsofmovingobjectsisaverycomplextask.Forinstance,considerapredictionofanairplanethatcrossesapredictionofahurricane.Itisnotnecessarythattheairplanewillalwayscrossthehurricane;itmayonlygetclosetoortouchtheactualhurricaneeventhoughitspredictioncrossesthehurricane'sprediction.However,thereisachancethattheairplanewouldcrossthehurricaneaswell.Thequanticationofthischanceoffutureinteractionofthetwoobjectsdependsonacomplexcalculationofthe 62

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3.4.1 ,wedenepredicatesbetweenballoonobjects(balloonpredicates)andexploretheirpropertiesbyfocusingonlyontherelationshipbetweentheirmovinggeometries.Hence,wecantreatthefuturepredictioncomponentj(b)assimplyt(b).Therefore,theballoondatatypeconstructorcanbewrittenforthispurposeasW(a;b)=q(a)t(b).Foraballoonobjectb=(bh;bp)2W(a;b),therstmovingobjectbh,calledthehistorypart,describesthehistoricalmovementofb.Thesecondmovingobjectbp,calledthepredictionpart,describesthemovinggeometryofapredictionoftheballoonobject.Forthetreatmentofthesecondtypeofinformation,weprovideourreasoningaboutthepotentialfutureinteractionbetweentheactualobjectsinSection 3.4.2 3.4.1.1 .WethendiscusshowaballoonpredicatecanbespeciedusingtraditionalSTPsinSection 3.4.1.2 .Finally,wedeterminethecanonicalcollectionofballoonpredicatesinSection 3.4.1.3 22 ].Sinceballoonobjectsareconstructedbasedonmovingobjects.ItisonlyconsistenttohaveballoonpredicatesbeconstructedfromSTPs.Withthisgoal,wecanbenetfromboththeoreticalandimplementationadvantagessuchthattheformalismandimplementationof 63

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3-11 showstherelationshipsbetweentraditionalmovingobjectdatamodelandballoonobjectdatamodel. Figure3-11. Relationsbetweentraditionalmovingobjectdatamodelandballoondatamodel. Thegeneralmethodweproposecharacterizesballoonpredicatesbasedontheideathatastwospatialobjectsmoveovertime,therelationshipbetweenthemmayalsochangeovertime.Byspecifyingthischangingrelationshipasapredicate,wecanaskatrue/falsequestionofwhetherornotsuchachangingrelationship(development)occurs.Thus,wecandeneaballoonpredicateasafunctionfromballoondatatypestoaBooleantype. Thechangeofrelationshipovertimebetweentwoballoonobjectsindicatesthatthereisasequenceofrelationshipsthatholdatdifferenttimes.Thissuggeststhataballoonpredicatecanalsobemodeledasadevelopment(sequence)ofspatialandspatiotemporalpredicates.Duetothefactthataballoonobjectconsistsofahistorypartfollowedbyapredictionpart,thespecicationofaballoonpredicatemusttakeintoaccounttherelationshipsbetweenbothparts.Todothis,letusrstexplorehowrelationshipsbetweenballoonobjectscanbemodeled.Eachballoonobjecthasadenedcurrentstateatitscurrentinstanttcwhichseparatesthehistorypartandthepredictionpart.BetweentwoballoonobjectsA=(Ah;Ap)andB=(Bh;Bp),A'scurrentinstantmayeitherbeearlier,atthesametime,orlaterthanB'scurrentinstant.Ineachofthesescenarios,certainsequencesofspatiotemporalrelationshipsarepossiblebetweenthepartsofAandB.Here,weareonlyinterestedintherelationshipbetweenapartofAandanotherpartofB

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3-12 illustratesallthepossiblerelatedpairsforeachscenariobetweenpartsofAandB. ABC Figure3-12. PossiblerelationshipsbetweenpartsofballoonobjectsAandB.A)WhenA'scurrentinstantisearlier.B)Atthesametime.C)LaterthanthatofB's. Althoughtherearefourpossibletypesofrelationshipsbetweenallpartsoftwoballoonobjects,itturnsoutthatinanycase,thereareatmostthreetypesofrelationshipsthatmayexistbetweenpartsofanytwoballoonobjects.Theseincludehistory/history,history/predictionorprediction/history,andprediction/predictionrelationships.Thehistory/predictionandprediction/historyrelationshipscannotexistatthesametimeduetothetemporalcompositionbetweenthehistoryandpredictionpartsofaballoonobject. ppobjectP=(Ph;Pp)andahurricanerepresentedbyaballoon probjectR=(Rh;Rp)(Figure 3-13 ).Inthepast,PhasbeendisjointfromR'spathaswellaspartofR'sprediction.However,thepredictedrouteofPcrossesthepredictedfutureofR. TherelationshipbetweenPandRcanbedescribedasadevelopmentorsequenceofuncertainspatialandspatiotemporalpredicateswhichholdatdifferenttimes,thatis, 65

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Futurecrossingsituationbetweenaballoon ppobjectPandaballoon probjectR. Asaresult,weareleftwithasequenceofthreeSTPseachappliedtodifferentcombinationpairsofpartsoftheballoonobjects.ThisexampleillustratesthatballoonpredicatescanbeappropriatelymodeledbysequencesofthreeSTPsbetweentherelatedpartsoftheobjects.Hence,wecanspecifyballoonpredicatesbasedonthetraditionalSTPsasfollows: 66

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WeconsideranSTPbetweentwomovingobjectstobemeaningfulifandonlyifthereexistsaperiodoftimeforwhichbothobjectsaredened.Hence,eachelementoftheabovesequenceismeaningfulonlyiftherelationshipbetweenthecorrespondingpartsismeaningful.Thepredicateoftherstelementinthesequencerepresentsaninteractionthatdidoccur.Therstandsecondalternativepredicatesofthesecondelementinthesequencerepresentsaninteractionthatmayhaveoccurred.ThesepredicateoptionsreecttheconstraintdescribedinSection 3.4.1.1 whichdictatesthatthetwopredicatescannotexistatthesametime.Thepredicateofthethirdelementinthesequencedenotesaninteractionthatprobablywilloccur.Thus,thesecondandthirdelementsindicateswhetherthereisapossibilitythataninteractionwilloccurwhereastherstelementtellsexactlywhetherornotaninteractionhasoccurred.Thecombinationsofmultipleoftheseinteractionsrepresentsamorecomplexrelationshipbetweenballoonobjects.Forexample,aninteractionthatdidoccurinthepastandprobablywilloccurinthefuturecanindicatethatthereisachancethatitprobablyalwaysoccurs.Table 3-4 showsanexampleofassigningameaningfulprextothenameforeachpairwisecombinationbetweentheseinteractions.Other Table3-4. Assigningnamingprexestopairwisecombinationsofinteractions. didmayhaveprobablywill did-mayhavebeenprobablyalwaysmaymayhavebeen-probablywillhaveprobablywillprobablyalwaysprobablywillhavecombinationswithlargernumberofinteractionsalsoexist,butitisusuallynotobvioustonametheserelationships.Herearesomeexamplesofballoonpredicates: cross:=Cross(t(a1);t(a2))probably will cross:=Crossu(t(b1);t(b2))may have been disjoint:=Disjoint(t(a1);t(a2)).Disjointu(t(a1);t(b2))probably always inside:=Inside(t(a1);t(a2)).Insideu(t(b1);t(b2))

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22 ].Anotherimportantfactorthataffectsthecanonicalcollectioniswhetherdependenciesexistbetweenthethreeelementsofthesequence.Morespecically,weneedtoinvestigatewhethertheexistenceofaSTPasanelementofthesequencecanpreventorrestrictanotherSTPfromrepresentinganotherelementofthesequence. Accordingto[ 22 ],thedependencybetweenSTPs,whicharepartsofacontinuousde-velopment,isexpressedusingadevelopmentgraph.ThisgraphdescribesallthepossibledevelopmentsofSTPswhichcorrespondtocontinuoustopologicalchangesofmovingobjects.Forexample,ifamovingpointisinsideamovingregion,itmustmeettheboundaryofthemovingregionbeforeitcanbedisjointfromtheregion.Thisconstraintreliesonthecontinuityofthemovingpoint.Ifweallowdiscontinuitysuchasaperiodofunknownmovementasinthecaseoftheballoonmodeltomodelourlimitedknowledgeofthemovement,thensuchconstraintcannotbeapplied.Althoughthehistorypartandthepredictionpartofaballoonobjectcannottemporallyoverlapeachother,itispossiblethattheycanbeseparatedbyaperiodofunknownmovement.Further,therecanalsobeperiodsofunknownmovementwithinthehistoryorthepredictionpartofaballoonobject.Duetothepossiblediscontinuityofballoonobjects,wecandeducethateachelementofthepredicatesequence,whichisaSTPbetweenthepartsoftwoballoonobjects,isindependentofeachother.Thus,allthecombinationsoftheSTPsinvolvedarepossible.ThismeansthatthecanonicalcollectionofballoonpredicatescanbedeterminedsolelybasedonthecanonicalcollectionsofthetraditionalSTPsinvolved.Asprovidedin[ 22 ],thereare13distincttemporalevolutionsbetweentwomovingpointswithoutrepetitions,28betweenamovingpointandamovingregion,and2,198betweentwomovingregions.Withthisinformation,wecandetermine,forexample,thenumberofdistinct,non-repetitiveballoonpredi-catesbetweentwoballoon ppobjectstobe13(13+13)13=4;394.Eachofthethreeparts 68

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Numberofballoonpredicatesbetweenballoon pp,balloon pr,andballoon rrobjects. ppballoon prballoon rr balloon pp4,39414,92443,904balloon pr14,9241,600,144136,996,944balloon rr43,904136,996,94421,237,972,784 ofthemultiplicationrepresentsthenumberofdistinctSTPsforeachelementofthesequence.Similarly,wecandeterminethenumberofballoonpredicatesbetweenalltypecombinationsofballoon pp,balloon pr,andballoon rrasshowninTable 3-5 .SincethenumbersofSTPsthatinvolvemovinglineobjectsarenotspeciedin[ 22 ],weomitthosecalculationsthatinvolveballoonobjectswhicharebasedonmovinglineobjects. Recallthatthefuturepredictionofaballoonobjectrepresentsthesetofallpotentialfuturepositionsorextentsofthemovingobject.Thismeansthatanon-interactionrelationshipwiththisfuturepredictioncomponentguaranteesanon-interactionrelationshipwiththeactualobjectinthefuture.However,aninteractionrelationshipwiththisfuturepredictioncomponentcanonlysignifyapotentialinteractionwiththeactualobjectinthefuture.Forexample,iftherouteofashipdoesnotintersectthefuturepredictionofahurricane,thismeansthatthereisnochancethattheshipwillencounterthehurricaneinthefuture.However,iftheroutecrossesthehurricane's 69

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Theproblemoftherstquestionissimilartotheproblemofinferringthesetofpotentialtopologicalrelationshipsbetweentwospatialobjectsgiventhetopologicalrelationshipbetweentheirboundingboxesasdescribedin[ 10 ].However,afuturepredictionisnotaboundingbox.Infact,atanyinstantofaprediction,amovingobjectcanbeanywherewithinitsprediction.Thisallowsplentyoffreedomforanypossiblecongurationoftheobjectwithinitsprediction,morespecically,withinanydivisiblepartoftheinteriorofitsprediction.Thismeansthatforaninteractionbetweentwopredictionswheretheinteriorsofthepredictionsintersect,allpossibletypesofinteractionarepossiblebetweentheactualobjects.Ontheotherhand,iftheinteriorsofthepredictionsdonotintersectbuttheirboundariesintersect,theactualmovingobjectscaneitherinteractbysharingtheirboundariesorbedisjoint.Finally,ifthepredictionsaredisjoint,thisimpliesthattheactualmovingobjectswillbedisjointaswell.Table 3-6 summarizestheseinteractioninferences. Table3-6. Inferringthetypesofinteractionbetweenactualobjectsfromthetypesofinteractionbetweentheirpredictions. PredictionInteractionsPossibleObjectInteractions interiorintersectionanyinteractionpossibleboundaryintersectionboundaryintersection,disjointdisjointdisjoint Inordertoanswerthesecondquestion,letusconsidereachtypeofpredictioninteractions.Fordisjointpredictions,itisguaranteedthattheobjectwillbedisjoint.Thusthechanceofinteractioninthiscaseis0.Forpredictionswithboundaryintersection,thechanceoftheactualobjectssharingtheirboundariesatthisintersectionisproportionaltotheproductofthepoint-setcondencevaluesoftheintersectionwithrespecttoeachobject.Thisquantityisaninnitelysmallpositivenumberapproaching0sincethedimensionoftheboundaryintersectionisalways 70

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potentialforthispurpose.Theresultofthisoperationisoftypet(real)indicatingthetemporallydependentvalueofthechancethattheobjectswillbeintheproximity(intersection)whereinteractionispossible.Todeterminewhetherthereisapossibilityofinteractionthusdistinguishingtheinteriorintersectionandboundaryintersectioncasesfromthedisjointcase,weusethepredicateinteraction possible.Byusingthecombinationoftheseoperationstogetherwiththebinarypredicateoperation,onecanobtaintheuncertaintyinformationoffutureinteractionsbetweenmovingobjects. 3.5.1 .ThenwediscusshowourdatamodelsupportsdifferenttypesofspatiotemporalqueriesinSection 3.5.2 confandpointset confoperations.The 71

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conf:C(a)pointinstant!realpointset conf:C(a)binstant!real Thereareatleasttwotypesofpredictionmodels,probabilitybasedmodelsandfuzzy-basedmodels,whichcanbeusedinconjunctionwithourMovingBalloonAlgebra.Therefore,inordertoposequeriesthatrequireretrievalsofpredictiondata,wemustrstindicatetheappropriatepredictionmodeltobeused.Forexample,assumingthatwehaveamovingballoonobjectoftypemW(point;region)representingashipmovinginanocean.Wecanposeaqueryonthisobjectasfollows: confoperationasitisappliedtothefuturepredictiondatatypej(region).Thisoperationinturninvokesthepointset confoperationforC(region)whichmustbeprovidedbythespeciedProbability Prediction Model. 60 ]).However,inspatiotemporaldatabases,thisisnotnecessarilyalwaysthecase.Spatiotemporaldatabasesmanagetemporallydependentobjectssuchasmovingobjectswhicharecontinuouslychanging.Thus,movementhistoriesandpredictionscanbestoredsuchthattheycanbeusedtoanswerqueriesatdifferentstatesof 72

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60 ],therearethreetypesofspatiotemporalqueries:instantaneous,continuous,andpersistentqueries.Thesamequerycanbeenteredasinstantaneous,continuous,orpersistent,producingdifferentresultsineachcase.Aninstantaneousqueryenteredattimetisevaluatedbasedonthecurrentdatabasestateattwhereasacontinuousqueryenteredattimetisasequenceofinstantaneousqueriesattimet0>tevaluatedateachtimet0.Ontheotherhand,apersistentqueryenteredattimetisasequenceofinstantaneousqueriesattimetthatareevaluatedateachtimet0>tforwhichthedatabaseisupdated.ThesequerytypescanbesupportedthroughtheuseofaFutureTemporalLogic(FTL)querylanguageasdescribedin[ 60 ].AllthatisneededtosupportthesequerytypesisanimplementationofanFTLqueryprocessorontopofourMovingBalloonAlgebra.ThisispossibleonlyifouralgebrasatisesallthedatamodelrequirementsofFTL.Itturnsoutthatthisisthecase.FTLrequiresadatamodelthatcanrepresentfuturedevelopmentsofmovingobjectsandthataccesstofuturestatesofmovingobjectsisavailable.OurMovingBalloonAlgebraprovidesthisfunctionalitythroughtheuseofafuturepredictiondatatype.Infact,thealgebraoffersmuchmoredatamodelsupportthanthatisneededbyFTLincludinghistoricalmovementsaswellasfutureuncertainty. Asanexample,considerascenarioinwhichtheU.S.coastguardrescueteamneedstoknowaboutallsmallshipswithlessthat100feetinlengthwhichwillinterceptthestormAlbertwithinthenext3hours.ThisquerycanbeenteredinFTLasfollows: within c(g)assertsthatthepredicategwillbesatisedwithinctimeunitsfromthecurrentinstant.Ifthequeryisenteredasaninstantaneousquery,theresultwillincludeallless-than-100-feetshipsthatwillbeinsidethestormwithin3hoursfromthecurrentinstant.However,ifthequeryisenteredasacontinuousquery,thisquerywillbeevaluatedcontinuouslyastimemoveson.Theresultwillalsoincludeothersmallshipsthatdonotsatisfythecriteria 73

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Besidesthesequerytypes,ourdatamodeldesignoffersmanynewfunctionalitiesincludingqueryingabouttheuncertaintyoffuturepredictionsaswellastheaccuracyofsuchpredictions.Forthepurposeofillustratethesefunctionalities,weuseasimpleSQLlikequerylanguage.Consideranapplicationscenarioofahurricaneprediction.Themovementoftheeyeofahurricanecanbemodeledasamovingballoonpointwithamovingregiontypeprediction,thatis,anmballoon probject.Fortheextentofthehurricaneforcewind,wemodelitsmovementusinganmballoon rrobject.Forcities,werepresenttheirgeographybyaregionobject.Hence,wehavethefollowingrelations: MovementoftheeyeofhurricaneKatrina. Assumingthattheserelationshavebeenpreviouslypopulatedwithallnecessarydata.Forthepurposeofourexample,assumealsothathurricaneKatrinaiscurrentlymakingitswayacrosstheGulfofMexico(Figure 3-14 ).WecanaskaqueryaboutthefuturepredictionofthehurricaneWhatareawillpotentiallybeaffectedbytheeyeofhurricaneKatrinaat12hoursfromnow? 74

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bad predictionoperationcanbeusedforthispurpose. 20 ]tosupporttextualspecicationsofspatiotemporalpredicates.STQLallowsustotextuallyformulatespatiotemporalqueriesthatinvolvetheuseofspatiotemporalpredicates.Toillustrate 75

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ppobjectsduetotheirwelldenedroutes.Wecancreatethecorrespondingrelationsfortheseobjects. crossbetweenmovingballoonobjects.Forthepurposeofthisexample,weassumethatthispredicatehasbeendenedbetweenmovingballoonobjectsoftypemballoon ppandmballoon rr. 23 21 ].Thisvisuallanguageallowsaconvenientandintuitivegraphicalspecicationofspatiotemporalpredicatesaswellasprovidessupportfortheformulationofspatiotemporalquerieswiththesepredicates. 76

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Inthischapter,wedescribehowwecandeneaniterepresentationforallthedatatypesoftheabstractmodeloftheMovingBalloonAlgebra.Themainideabehindthischapteristodetermineanitesetofinformation(thatis,denedbyadiscretetype)whichcanbeusedtorepresentaninnitesetofvalues(thatis,denedbyanabstracttype).Forexample,wecanrepresentasegmentwhichconsistsofaninnitesetofpointsbytwoendpointswhichisanitesetofinformation;yetwecaninterpolatethesetwoendpointstoobtainanypointsonthesegment.TodeneaniterepresentationfortheMovingBalloonAlgebra,wemustdeneadiscretetypeforeachabstracttypeofthealgebra.Indoingso,ourapproachistostartfromthebottom,mostbasiclevelofthealgebra'sdatatypehierarchyandworkourwaytothetop.Wedescribeaniterepresentationfornon-temporaldatatypesofthealgebrainSection 4.1 .Formovementovertime,wemakeuseofaconceptcalledslicedrepresentationtodeneaniterepresentationforbasicspatiotemporaldatatypesinSection 4.2 .Finally,weshowhowtheballoondatatypesandspatiotemporalballoondatatypescanbenitelyrepresentedinSection 4.3 .Theworkinthischapterhasbeenincludedinoneofourtechnicalreports[ 52 ]inpreparationforajournalsubmission. 77

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4.1 4.2 disjoint(rightdisjoint),disjoint,r adjacent(rightadjacent),andadjacentinDenition 4.3 disjoint(i;j),ri
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4.4 ,anitesetoftimeintervals(anintervalset)suchthatithasauniqueandminimalrepresentation. setisdenedas:interval set=fUintervalj(i;j2U^i6=j))disjoint(i;j)^:adjacent(i;j)g 59 ],aniterepresentationforspatialdatatypessuchaspoint,line,andregionhavebeenstudiedinourimplementationoftopologicalpredicatesbetweencomplexspatialobjects[ 54 51 ].Here,wegiveanoverviewofthisrepresentation.Recallthatthetypepointrepresentscomplexpoints(thatis,collectionsofsinglepoints).Hence,werstdenehowasinglepoint,representedbythetypepoi,canbedescribed.Intwo-dimensionalEuclideanspace,asinglepointcanbedescribedbyapairofcoordinates(x;y)asshowninDenition 4.5 4.6 ,avalueofthetypepointissimplydeneasasetofsinglepoints. 32 ]denesalineasasetofcurvesintheplane.Wecandiscretelyrepresentcurvesbypolylines 79

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4.7 showshowthetypesegrepresentingalinesegmentcanbediscretelydenedbyitstwoendpoints. 4.8 4-1 showsanexampleofalineobjectoftheabstractmodelanditscorrespondingdiscreterepresentation. AB Figure4-1. Representationsofalineobject.A)Intheabstractmodel.B)Inthediscretemodel. Aregionobjectcanberepresenteddiscretelyasacollectionofpolygonalfaceswithpolygonalholes.Theyaredenedbasedontheconceptofcycles.AcycleisasimplepolygonandisdenedinDenition 4.9 80

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intersect(s;t)^:touch(s;t)(iii)8p2points(S):card(p;S)=2(iv)9hs0;:::;sn1i:fs0;:::;sn1g=S^(8i2f0;:::;n1g:meet(si;s(i+1)modn))g intersectcheckswhethertwosegmentsintersectintheirinterior.Twosegmentstouchifanendpointofasegmentliesintheinterioroftheothersegment.Thefunctionpoints(S)returnsalltheendpointsofthesegmentsinS,thuspoints(S)=fp2poij9s2S:s=(p;q)_s=(q;p)g.ThenumberofoccurrenceofanendpointpinSisgivenbythefunctioncard(p;S)=jfs2Sjs=(p;q)_s=(q;p)gj.Therefore,acycleis(i)acollectionof3ormoresegmentswhere(ii)nosegmentsintersectortouchoneanother,(iii)eachendpointoccursinexactlytwosegments,and(iv)allthesegmentstogetherformasinglecycle. Usingthedenitionofcycle,wedene,inDenition 4.10 ,afaceasapairconsistingofanoutercycleandasetof0ormoreholecycles. inside(h;c)(iii)8h1;h22H:h16=h2)edgedisjoint(h1;h2)(iv)anycyclethatcanbeformedfromthesegmentsofcorHiseithercoroneofthecyclesofHg 81

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AregionisthendenedinDenition 4.11 asasetofedge-disjointfaces. disjoint(f1;f2)g 4-2 showsanexampleofaregionobjectinbothabstractanddiscreterepresentation. AB Figure4-2. Representationsofaregionobject.A)Intheabstractmodel.B)Inthediscretemodel. 25 ].Theideaistorepresentamovementofanobjectbyasequenceofsimplemovementscalledslicesortemporalunits.Atemporalunitofamovingdatatypeaisamaximaltimeintervalwherevaluestakenbyaninstantofacanbedescribedbyasimplefunction.Thus,atemporalunitrepresentstheevolutionofavaluevofsometypeainagiventimeintervaliwhilemaintainingtype-specicconstraintsduringsuchevolution.Figure 4-3 Ashowsatemporalunitofamovingpointobjectconsistingoftwopointmovingindependently.Eachtemporalunitisapair(i;v),whereiiscalledtheunitintervalandviscalledtheunit

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4.12 ,temporalunitsaredescribedasagenericconcepttoformulatethedenitionoftheslicedrepresentation.Theirspecializationtovariousdatatypesisprovidedinthenextsubsectionswherewedeneunittypessuchasureal,upoi,upoint,uline,anduregion. Figure4-3. Adiscreterepresentationofamovingpointobject.A)Atemporalunit.B)Aslicedrepresentation. Theslicedrepresentationisprovidedbyamappingtypeconstructorwhichrepresentsamovingobjectasasequenceoftemporalunits.Itstypedependsonthetypeofthetemporalunits(thatis,theunittype).Figure 4-3 Billustratesaslicerepresentationwiththreetemporalunitsorslicesforamovingpointobject.WedenethemappingtypeconstructorinDenition 4.13 disjoint(ij;ij+1)(iii)8j2f1;:::;n1g:adjacent(ij;ij+1))vj6=vj+1g disjointwithrespecttothenext 83

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Bydeningthismappingtypeconstructor,wecanconstructdiscretespatiotemporaldatatypesforallofourabstracttypes.Forinstance,assumingthatwehavetemporalunittypesupoint,uline,anduregion(whichwewilldenelaterinthenextsection),wecanconstructdiscretespatiotemporaldatatypesmapping(upoint),mapping(uline),andmapping(uregion)torepresentmovingpoint,movingline,andmovingregionobjectsrespectively.Althoughthisissomewhatstraightforward,wemustbecarefultoensurethateachtemporalunitdescribesavaliddevelopmentofamovingobject. Sincetemporalunitsdescribecertainsimplefunctionsoftime,wedene,inDenition 4.14 ,agenericfunctionioneachunittypetoevaluatetheunitfunctionatagiventimeinstant.Thisfunctionisessentialfordeningsemanticrequirementsofeachunittypeaswewillseelater. 4.15 thatproducesatemporalunitforanon-temporaltypea. 84

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Fortherealtype,weintroduceaunittypeurealinDenition 4.16 fortherepresentationofmovingrealnumberswithinatemporalunit.Tobalancethetrade-offbetweentheexpressivenessandsimplicityoftherepresentation,thesimplefunctionforthisunittypeischosentobeeitherapolynomialofdegreelessthanorequaltotwoorasquarerootofsuchapolynomial.Suchsquarerootfunctionsarerequiredtoexpressthetime-dependentdistancefunctionsinEuclideanmetric.Thus,withthischoice,onecanimplementthetemporallyliftedversionsofthesize,perimeter,anddistanceoperations. 85

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Inordertodescribethepermittedbehaviorofmovingspatialobjectswithinatemporalunit,weneedtospecifyhowtype-specicconstraintsaresatisedduringsuchunit.Werequirethatconstraintsaresatisedonlyduringtherespectiveopenintervalofaunitintervalsincetheendpointsofaunitintervalindicateachangeinthedescriptionofthemovement.Forexample,acollapseofcomponentsofamovingobjectcanoccurattheendpointsoftheunitinterval.Similarly,abirthofanewcomponentcanalsooccuratthebeginningofaunitinterval.Thisiscompletelyacceptablesinceoneofthereasonsfortheintroductionoftheslicedrepresentationistohavesimpleandcontinuousdescriptionofthemovingvaluewithineachunitintervalandtolimitdiscontinuitiesinthedescriptiontoanitesetofinstants.Thus,theslicedrepresentationconceptalsoallowsonetomodelappearancesanddisappearancesofobjectcomponentsatendpointsofintervals.Thismeansthattheslicedrepresentationcanalsorepresenteventpointswhichareinstanceswhenthetemporalfunctionofamovingobjectisevent-f-discontinuousasspeciedintheabstractmodel.Inthissection,wedenetemporalunittypesupoint,uline,anduregion.Theyareusedtoconstructthespatiotemporalmappingsmapping(upoint),mapping(uline),andmapping(uregion)whichdescribeaniterepresentationforthebasicspatiotemporaldatatypesmpoint,mline,andmregionrespectively. 86

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4.17 4.18 4-3 A.Foraunitpoint(i;M),anevaluationattimetwithintheintervaliisgivenby:i(M;t)=[m2Mfi(m;t)g 87

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Beforewecandeneuline,wedeneasetMSegasthesetofallpairsofcoplanarlinesproducedbyapairofmovingsinglepointsin3Dspace,whichwillbeusedtorepresentmovingsegments.MSeg=f(p;q)jp;q2MPoi;p6=q;piscoplanarwithqg 4.19 isbasedonasetofmovingsegmentswiththeaboverestrictionandwhichneveroverlapsatanyinstantwithintherespectiveopeninterval. 4-4 Ashowsanexampleofavalidulineobject. Sinceidistributesthroughsetsandtuples,wecanusei(M;t)whichrepresentsthevalueofaunitlineatatimeinstantttodenethestructuralconstraintthatrequiresthisvaluetobeavalidlinecomposedofsegments.Forinstance,condition(i)requiresthat,ateachtimeinstanttofthe 88

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Figure4-4. Representingamovinglineobject.A)Aulinevalue.B)Adiscreterepresentationofamovinglineobject. openinterval,wecanobtainasegmentfromeachofthemovingsegmentsofM.8t;l
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4-5 .Followingthesamestructuredapproachfordeningtheregiondatatypes,wecandenea Figure4-5. Exampleofauregionvalue. 90

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4.20 4.3.1 aswellasthespatiotemporalballoondatatypesinSection 4.3.2 91

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Forthefuturepredictiondatatypes,onlythegeometryaspectoffuturepredictionsisrelevantheresincetherepresentationofthecondencedistributionaspectisdomain-specicandcanbeassumedtobegivenbypredictionmodels.Thegeometryaspectofthefuturepredictiondatatypesisdenedusingthebasicspatiotemporaldatatypes.Hence,theirdiscreterepresentationisthesame,thatis,theycanalsobediscretelyrepresentedusingtheslicedrepresentationconcept. Aballoondatatypewhichconsistsofbothhistoricalmovementandfuturepredictioninformationcanthenbedescribedasaspatiotemporalmappingofboththehistoricalpartandthepredictedpartsuchthatthemappingofthehistoricalpartprecedesthatofthepredictedpart.Inotherwords,thelastunitintervalofthehistoricalpartmustber disjointwiththerstunitintervalofthepredictedpart.ThisspatiotemporalmappingforaballoonobjectisformallydenedinDenition 4.21 disjoint(in;in+1)g 92

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Asmentionedintheabstractconcept,thedevelopmentofthemovementhistoryisahistoricalaccumulationphenomenonwhichmeansthat,asanobjectmovesorevolvesovertime,newmovementinformationisappendedtotheexistingmovementhistory.Thus,themovementhistoryateachtimeinstanttinthepastisapartofthecurrenthistory.Thatis,itisthehistorystartingfromthebeginninginstantuptotheinstantt.Therefore,itissufcienttorepresentthedevelopmentofmovementhistorybythelatestknownmovementhistoryandprovidinganappropriate,separateinstantiationfunctioniha(asopposedtoiawhichretrievethepositionorextentvalue)toobtainthemovementhistoryatanytimeinstanttofthedevelopment.Letuabeaunittypeofaspatialtypea.Thedevelopmentofmovementhistoryisdiscretelyrepresentedasaslicedrepresentationofaunittypeuawithanihafunctiondenedas:iha=mapping(ua)instant!mapping(ua) Thesecondpartofthespatiotemporalballoondatatypesisthetemporaldevelopmentoffutureprediction.Sinceeachfuturepredictionisprovidedbyapredictionmodelwhichisaconceptoutsidethecontrolofthealgebra,wecannotmakeanyassumptiononthecontinuityaspectbetweendifferentpredictions.However,wecansafelyassumethateachpredictionisdiscretelymadewithrespecttoaspecictimeinstantandprovidedbyapredictionmodeleither 93

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4.22 formallydescribesaniterepresentationofadevelopmentofprediction. Bydiscretelyrepresentingthedevelopmentofthemovementhistoryandthefuturepredic-tion,weeffectivelyobtainarepresentationforamovingballoonobject,asdenedinDeni-tion 4.23 ,whichisacombinationofthetwo. 94

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HavingdeneddiscretedatatypesforeachoftheabstractdatatypesofourMovingBalloonAlgebra,wecannowusethisdiscretemodelasaspecicationtodevelopimplementabledatastructuresforsupportingalgorithmicdesignandimplementationofoperations. 95

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Intheimplementationmodel,weareinterestedinhowwecanimplementtheniterep-resentationsetforthinthediscretemodel.Thus,weareinterestedindeningdatastructuresforeachdatatypesofthealgebraaswellasalgorithmsforoperationsandpredicates.Sincetheimplementationofspatiotemporaldatatypesandspatiotemporalpredicatesrequirestheuseofspatialdatatypesandtopologicalpredicates,werstpresentourdatastructuresforspatialdatatypesandspatiotemporaldatatypes(Section 5.1 ).Then,wepresentourtopologicalpredicateimplementationincludingthealgorithmsfordeterminingthetopologicalrelationshipbetweentwospatialobjects 5.2 ).Thesealgorithmsarethenusedtosupporttheimplementationofspatiotemporalpredicatesbetweenmovingobjects(Section 5.3 )whichinturnisthebasisforimplementingballoonpredicates(Section 5.4 ).Sincethealgebraistobemadeavailableforuseinadatabasesystem,wealsodescribeourmechanismforintegratingthealgebraintoaDBMS(Section 5.5 ).Finally,weprovideacasestudydescribinganapplicationofouralgebraintheeldofhurricaneresearch(Section 5.6 ). 51 54 ]. 96

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Second,ourspatialandspatiotemporaldatatypesareset-valued.Thisrequiresthatauniqueorderisdenedonthesetdomainsandtostoreelementsinthearrayinthatorder.Twospatialorspatiotemporalvalues,respectively,areequaliftheirarrayrepresentationsareequal.Thisenablesefcientcomparisons. Third,thedatastructuredesignisalsoaffectedbytherequirementofthealgorithms.Forinstance,inspatialdatamodel,algorithmsbasedontheplanesweepparadigmareessentialforefcientimplementationoftopologicalpredicatesandsetoperations.Thesealgorithmsrequiresadatastructurewithdatapointsorsegmentsinlexicographicalorder.WedescribedatastructuresforspatialdatatypesinSection 5.1.2 .Inspatiotemporaldatamodel,thealgorithmfortheatinstantoperationisthemostfundamental,anditisthefoundationforimplementingmanyotheroperations.Hence,itisimportanttoconsidertheefciencyofthisoperationinthedesignofthedatastructures.Forthisreason,thedatastructuresforspatiotemporaldatatypesaredesignedwiththetemporalunitasthemajorordersuchthatasearchinthetemporaldomaincanbedoneefciently.WedescribethisaspectinmoredetailinSection 5.1.3 97

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Thetypeseg2Dincludesallstraightsegmentsboundedbytwoendpoints.Thatis 98

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Atthenexthigherlevel,weassumethegeometriccomponentdatatypehalfsegment2Dthatintroduceshalfsegmentsasthebasicimplementationcomponentsofobjectsofthespatialdatatypesline2Dandregion2D.Ahalfsegment,whichisstoredinarecord,isahybridbetweenapointandasegment.Thatis,ithasfeaturesofbothgeometricstructures;eachfeaturecanbeinquiredondemand.Wedenethesetofallhalfsegmentsasthecomponentdatatype Therepresentationofline2Dandregion2Dobjectsrequiresanorderrelationonhalfseg-ments.Fortwodistincthalfsegmentsh1andh2withacommonendpointp,letabetheenclosedanglesuchthat0
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Examplesoftheorderrelationonhalfsegments:h1


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Thespatialdatatypeline2Disdenedasline2D=fhh1;:::;h2nij(i)n2N0(ii)81i2n:hi2halfsegment2D(iii)8hi=(si;di)2fh1;:::;h2ng9hj=(sj;dj)2fh1;:::;h2ng;1i
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Asanexample,Figure 5-2 showsaline2DobjectL(withtwocomponents(blocks))andaregion2DobjectR(withasinglefacecontainingahole).Bothobjectsareannotatedwithsegmentnamessi.WedeterminethehalfsegmentsequencesofLandRandlethli=(si;true)andhri=(si;false)denotethelefthalfsegmentandrighthalfsegmentofasegmentsirespectively.ForLweobtaintheorderedhalfsegmentsequence 102

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Aline2DobjectLandaregion2DobjectR 5-1 ,wetakeawayallsubcasesofcase1exceptfortheupperleftsubcaseaswellascase3,therestrictedorderrelationcanalreadybeleveragedforcomplexlinesandcomplexregions.Incasethatallspatialobjectsofanapplicationspacearedenedoverthesamerealm 30 57 ],therestrictedorderrelationcanalsobeappliedforaparalleltraversalofthesequencesoftwo(ormore)realm-basedline2Dorregion2Dobjects.Onlyinthegeneralcaseofintersectingspatialobjects,thefullorderrelationonhalfsegmentsisneededforaparalleltraversaloftheobjects'halfsegmentsequences. 4.2 and 4.3 offersaprecisebasisforthedesignofdatastructureswhichformthebasisfordescribingthealgorithmicschemeemployedforspatiotemporalpredicateevaluations(Section 5.3 ).Infact,thediscretemodelisahighlevelspecicationofsuchdatastructures.Inthissection,we 103

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pbb;hup1;:::;upnii=hn;hti1;:::;tiki;((xl;yl);(xu;yu));h(unit pbb1;c1;i1;v1);:::;(unit pbbn;cn;in;vn)ii Attheendofmp,itsunitsequenceisstoredinasubarraycontainingnunitpointsupiwith1in.Eachunitconsistsoffourcomponents.Therstcomponentcontainstheunitprojectionboundingbox(byanalogywiththeobjectprojectionboundingbox).Thesecondcomponentstoresthenumberofmovingunitsinglepointintheunit.Thethirdcomponentistheunitintervalik=(lk;rk;lck;rck)with1knwherelk;rk2instantdenotetheleft(start)andright(end)timeinstantofikandthetwoBooleanagslckandrckindicatewhetherikisleft-closedand/orright-closed.Werequirethatik
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4.2.2.1 ).Foruniquenessandminimalityofrepresentationwerequireinadditionthat adjacent(ik;il))(vk6=vl) Therepresentationofamovinglineoramovingregionisinprinciplethesameasformovingpoints.Butduetothehighercomplexityofthesetypes,theunitfunctionofaulineorauregionvalueismorecomplex.Itessentiallydescribesalineoraregionwhoseverticesmovelinearly(i.e.,whosevertexpositionsarelinearfunctionsoftime),suchthatforallinstantsintheunitintervaltheevaluationofthevertexfunctionsyieldsacorrectlineorregionvaluerespectively. Ingeneral,aulineunitconsistsofasequenceofmovingunitsegmentswhereeachmovingunitsegmentisanelementofthesetMSegdenedinSection 4.2.2.2 .Amovingunitsegmentms=(u;v)withu;v2MPoiisapairofmovingunitsinglepointsthatarecoplanarinthe3Dspace.Consequently,amovingunitsegmentthatisrestrictedtoatimeintervalformsatrapezium,or,inthedegeneratecase,atriangleinthe3Dspace.Rotationsofsegmentsarenotpermittedsincethisleadstocurvilinearlateralsurfaces(viewedfromthe3Dperspective)whosecomputationaltreatmentisratherdifcult(seeFigure 4-4 andSection 4.2.2.2 ).Thedatastructureofamovinglineml2mapping(uline)andamovingregionmr2mapping(uregion)cannowbedescribedasfollows: pbb;hul1;:::;ulnii=hn;hti1;:::;tiki;((xl;yl);(xu;yu));h(unit pbb1;c1;i1;v1);:::;(unit pbbn;cn;in;vn)ii pbb;hur1;:::;urnii=hn;hti1;:::;tiki;((xl;yl);(xu;yu));h(unit pbb1;c1;i1;v1);:::;(unit pbbn;cn;in;vn)ii pbb,tij,unit pbbl,andilhavethesamemeaningandpropertiesasformovingpoints.Inparticular,wehavethesameorderonunitintervalsasformovingpoints,and 105

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41 ].Thiseliminatestheneedtorepresentintermediatestructuressuchasblocksforalineobjectorfaceandholecyclesforaregionobjectsincethesestructuresaregenerallyusedforvalidationpurposes,andiftheyareneeded,theycanbecomputedfromthesetofsegmentsbyusingasimilaravorofourvalidationalgorithms.AnotherimportantdifferencebetweentherepresentationofamovinglineandthatofamovingregionisthatamovingunitsegmentmskinthecaseofamovingregioncontainsanadditionalinformationiawhichisaBooleanvalueindicatingwhethertheinterioroftheregionisabovethesegmentatalltimeinstantsoftheunitinterval.Thisallowsonetoderivearegiondatastructurerepresentationatanytimeinstantoftheunitintervalsincesuchadatastructurearecomposedofattributedhalfsegments(seeSection 5.1.2 )whichcanbeconstructedbyusingthisinformation. 106

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pbb;h;pi pbbrepresentthecombined/mergedlifespanandprojectionboundingboxrespectivelyofboththehistoricalmovementandthepredictedmovementoftheballoonobject.Thecomponenthrepresentsthehistoricalmovementwhichisofthetypemapping(ua)andhasadatastructureofthecorrespondingbasicspatiotemporaldatatype.Similarly,thecomponentpdescribesthepredictedmovementoftypemapping(ub)andalsohasadatastructureofthecorrespondingbasicspatiotemporaldatatype.Asspeciedinthediscretemodel,arestrictionbetweenhandpmustbepreservedsuchthatthelifespanofhmustprecedethatofp. Foramovingballoonobjectmb2mballoon(ua;ub),itsdatastructureisslightlymorecomplexthanthatofaballoonobjectsincenowweneedtorepresentasequenceofpredictedmovements.Thedatastructureofmbcanbedescribedasfollows: pbb;h;h(t1;p1);:::;(tn;pn)ii pbbrepresentthecombined/mergedlifespanandprojectionboundingboxrespectivelyofthehistoricalmovementandallofthepredictedmovements.Thecomponenthrepresentsthedevelopmentofthehistoricalmovement.Sinceweassumethatthisdevelopmentobeysthehistoricalaccumulationphenomenonstatedintheabstractanddiscretemodels,wecanrepresentthisdevelopmentbyusingthedatastructureofacorrespondingbasicspatiotemporaldatatypeandprovideaspecialtemporalinstantiationfunctioniha(Section 4.3.2 )toobtainanyhistoricalmovementknowledgeatanyinstantinthepast.Inthelastcomponent,eachofthetuple(tk;pk)with0knrepresentsapredictedmovementpkproducedattimetk.Notethatthepredictedmovementsareoptional.Thisisthecasewhenk=0forwhichthesequenceofpredictedmovementsisempty.Insuchcase,themovingballoonobjectisnothingmorethanabasicmovingobject.Hence,amovingballoonobjectcanbeclassiedasahighlevel,generalized 107

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Ourgoalinthissectionistodevelopandpresentefcientimplementationstrategiesfortopologicalpredicatesbetweenallcombinationsofthethreecomplexspatialdatatypespoint2D,line2D,andregion2D.Wedistinguishtwophasesofpredicateexecution:Inanexplorationphase(Section 5.2.2 ),aplanesweepscansagivencongurationoftwospatialobjects,detectsalltopologicalevents(likeintersections),andrecordstheminso-calledtopologicalfeaturevectors.Thesevectorsserveasinputfortheevaluationphase(Section 5.2.3 )whichanalyzesthesetopologicaldataanddeterminestheBooleanresultofatopologicalpredicate(query1)orthekindoftopologicalpredicate(query2).Tospeeduptheevaluationprocess,wealsopresent,inSection 5.2.4 ,twone-tunedandoptimizedapproachesofmatrixthinningforpredicatevericationandminimumcostdecisiontreesforpredicatedetermination.Thetwo-phaseapproachprovidesadirectandsoundinteractionandsynergybetweenconceptualwork(9-intersectionmodel)andimplementation(algorithmicdesign).InterfacemethodsforaccessingourimplementationofthisconceptisgiveninSection 5.2.5 .WebeginbypresentingsomebasicalgorithmicconceptsneededfortheexplorationalgorithmsinSection 5.2.1 108

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5.2.2 .Theseconceptsaretheparallelobjecttraversal(Sec-tion 5.2.1.1 ),overlapnumbers(Section 5.2.1.2 ),andtheplanesweepparadigm(Section 5.2.1.3 ).Parallelobjecttraversalandoverlapnumbersareemployedduringaplanesweep.Wewillnotdescribethesethreeconceptsinfulldetailhere,sincetheyarewellknownmethodsinCompu-tationalGeometry[ 3 ]andspatialdatabases[ 33 ].However,wewillfocusonthespecialtiesoftheseconceptsinoursetting,includingsomeimprovementscomparedtostandardplanesweepimplementations.Thesecompriseasmoothlyintegratedhandlingofgeneral(thatis,intersecting)andrealm-based(thatis,non-intersecting)pairsofspatialobjects.Anobjectiveofthissectionisalsotointroduceanumberofauxiliaryoperationsandpredicatesthatmakethedescriptionoftheexplorationalgorithmslatermucheasierandmorecomprehensible. Iftheoperandobjectshavealreadybeenintersectedwitheachother,likeintherealmcase[ 30 ],theparallelobjecttraversalhasonlytooperateontwostaticpointorhalfsegmentsequences.Butinthegeneralcase,intersectionsbetweenbothobjectscanexistandaredetected 109

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5.2.1.3 Tosimplifythedescriptionofthisparallelscan,twooperationsareprovided.LetO12aandO22bwitha;b2fpoint2D;line2D;region2Dg.Theoperationselect rst(O1,O2,object,status)selectstherstpointorhalfsegmentofeachoftheoperandobjectsO1andO2andpositionsalogicalpointeronbothofthem.Theparameterobjectwithapossiblevalueoutofthesetfnone,rst,second,bothgindicateswhichofthetwoobjectrepresentationscontainsthesmallerpointorhalfsegment.Ifthevalueofobjectisnone,nopointorhalfsegmentisselected,sinceO1andO2areempty.Ifthevalueisrst(second),thesmallerpointorhalfsegmentbelongstoO1(O2).Ifitisboth,therstpointorhalfsegmentofO1andO2areidentical.Theparameterstatuswithapossiblevalueoutofthesetfend of none,end of rst,end of second,end of bothgdescribesthestateofbothobjectrepresentations.Ifthevalueofstatusisend of none,bothobjectsstillhavepointsorhalfsegments.Ifitisend of rst(end of second),O1(O2)isexhausted.Ifitisend of both,bothobjectrepresentationsareexhausted. Theoperationselect next(O1,O2,object,status),whichhasthesameparametersasselect rst,searchesforthenextsmallestpointorhalfsegmentofO1andO2.Twopoints(halfsegments)arecomparedwithrespecttothelexicographic(halfsegment)order.Forthecomparisonbetweenapointandahalfsegment,thedominatingpointofthehalfsegmentandhencethelexicographicorderisused.Ifbeforethisoperationobjectwasequaltoboth,select nextmovesforwardthelogicalpointersofbothsequences;otherwise,ifobjectwasequal 110

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5-3 givesanexample. 3 55 ]isawellknownalgorithmicschemeinComputationalGeometry.Itscentralideaistoreduceatwo-dimensionalgeometricproblemtoasimplerone-dimensionalgeometricproblem.Averticalsweeplinetraversingtheplanefromlefttoright 111

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Exampleofthesegmentclassicationoftworegion2Dobjects stopsatspecialeventpointswhicharestoredinaqueuecalledeventpointschedule.Theeventpointschedulemustallowonetoinsertneweventpointsdiscoveredduringprocessing;thesearenormallytheinitiallyunknownintersectionsoflinesegments.Thestateoftheintersectionofthesweeplinewiththegeometricstructurebeingsweptatthecurrentsweeplinepositionisrecordedinverticalorderinadatastructurecalledsweeplinestatus.Wheneverthesweeplinereachesaneventpoint,thesweeplinestatusisupdated.Eventpointswhicharepassedbythesweeplineareremovedfromtheeventpointschedule.Notethat,ingeneral,anefcientandfullydynamicdatastructureisneededtorepresenttheeventpointscheduleandthat,inmanyplane-sweepalgorithms,aninitialsortingstepisneededtoproducethesequenceofeventpointsin(x;y)-lexicographicalorder. Inourcase,theeventpointsareeitherthepointsofthestaticpointsequencesofpoint2Dobjectsorthe(attributed)halfsegmentsofthestatichalfsegmentsequencesofline2D(region2D)objects.Thisespeciallyholdsandissufcientfortherealmcase.Inaddition,inthegeneralcase,neweventpointsaredeterminedduringtheplanesweepasintersectionsoflinesegments;theyarestoredaspointsorhalfsegmentsinthedynamicsequencepartsoftheoperandobjectsandareneededonlytemporarilyfortheplanesweep.AswehaveseeninSection 5.2.1.1 ,theconceptsofpointorder,halfsegmentorder,andparallelobjecttraversalavoidanexpensiveinitialsortingatthebeginningoftheplanesweep.Weusetheoperationget eventtoprovidetheelementtowhichthelogicalpointerofapointorhalfsegmentsequenceiscurrentlypointing.TheBooleanpredicatelook aheadtestswhetherthedominatingpointsofagivenhalfsegmentandthenexthalfsegmentafterthelogicalpointerofagivenhalfsegmentsequenceareequal. 112

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sweepcreatesanew,emptysweeplinestatus.Ifaleft(right)halfsegmentofaline2Dorregion2Dobjectisreachedduringaplane-sweep,theoperationadd left(del right)stores(removes)itssegmentcomponentinto(from)thesegmentsequenceofthesweeplinestatus.Thepredicatecoincidentcheckswhetherthejustinsertedsegmentpartiallycoincideswithasegmentoftheotherobjectinthesweeplinestatus.Theoperationset attr(get attr)sets(gets)anattributefor(from)asegmentinthesweeplinestatus.ThisattributecanbeeitheraBooleanvalueindicatingwhethertheinterioroftheregionisabovethesegmentornot(theInteriorAboveag),oritcanbeanassignedsegmentclassication.Theoperationget pred attryieldstheattributefromthepredecessorofasegmentinthesweeplinestatus.Theoperationpred exists(common point exists)checkswhetherforasegmentinthesweeplinestatusapredecessoraccordingtotheverticaly-order(aneighboredsegmentoftheotherobjectwithacommonendpoint)exists.Theoperationpred of psearchesthenearestsegmentbelowagivenpointinthesweeplinestatus.Thepredicatecurrent existstestswhethersuchasegmentexists.Thepredicatepoi on seg(poi in seg)checkswhetheragivenpointlieson(in)anysegmentofthesweeplinestatus. Figure5-4. Changingoverlapnumbersafteranintersection. Intersectionsoflinesegmentsstemmingfromtwolines2Dobjects,tworegion2Dobjects,oraline2Dobjectandaregion2Dobjectareofspecialinterest,sincetheyindicatetopologicalchanges.Iftwosegmentsoftwoline2Dobjectsintersect,thiscan,forexample,indicateaproperintersection,orameetingsituationbetweenbothsegments,oranoverlappingofbothsegments.Ifasegmentofaline2Dobjectintersectsasegmentofaregion2Dobject,theformersegmentcan,forexample,entertheregion,leavetheregion,oroverlapwiththelattersegment.Overlapnumberscanbeemployedheretodetermineenteringandleavingsituations.Ifsegments 113

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5.2.1.2 wehavetacitlyassumedthatanytwosegmentsfrombothregion2Dobjectsareeitherdisjoint,orequal,ormeetsolelyinacommonendpoint.Onlyifthesetopologicalconstraintsaresatised,wecanusetheconceptsofoverlapnumbersandsegmentclassesforaplanesweep.Butthegeneralcaseinparticularallowsintersections.Figure 5-4 showstheproblemofsegmentclassesfortwointersectingsegments.Thesegmentclassofs1[s2]leftoftheintersectionpointis(0=1)[(1=2)].Thesegmentclassofs1[s2]rightoftheintersectionpointis(1=2)[(0=1)].Thatis,aftertheintersectionpoint,seenfromlefttoright,s1ands2exchangetheirsegmentclasses.Thereasonisthatthetopologyofbothsegmentschanges.Whereas,totheleftoftheintersection,s1(s2)isoutside(inside)theregiontowhichs2(s1)belongs,totherightoftheintersection,s1(s2)isinside(outside)theregiontowhichs2(s1)belongs. Inordertobeabletomaketheneededtopologicaldetectionsandtoenabletheuseofoverlapnumbersfortwogeneralregions,incasethattwosegmentsfromtwodifferentregionsintersect,partiallycoincide,ortoucheachotherwithintheinteriorofasegment,wepursueasplittingstrategythatisexecutedduringtheplanesweeponthey.Ifsegmentsintersect,theyaretemporarilysplitattheircommonintersectionpointsothateachofthemisreplacedbytwosegments(thatis,fourhalfsegments)(Figure 5-5 A).Iftwosegmentspartiallycoincide,theyarespliteachtimetheendpointofonesegmentliesinsidetheinterioroftheothersegment.Dependingonthetopologicalsituations,whichcanbedescribedbyAllen'sthirteenbasicrelationsonintervals[ 1 ],eachofthetwosegmentseitherremainsunchangedorisreplacedbyuptothreesegments(thatis,sixhalfsegments).Fromthethirteenpossiblerelations,eightrelations(fourpairsofsymmetricrelations)areofinteresthere(Figure 5-5 B).Ifanendpointofonesegmenttouchestheinterioroftheothersegment,thelattersegmentissplitandreplacedbytwosegments(thatis,fourhalfsegments)(Figure 5-5 C).Thissplittingstrategyisnumericallystableandthusfeasiblefromanimplementationstandpointsinceweassumenumerically 114

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Splittingofsegments.A)twointersectingsegments.B)twopartiallycoincidingsegments(withoutsymmetriccounterparts).C)Asegmentwhoseinterioristouchedbyanothersegment.Digitsindicatepartnumbersofsegmentsaftersplitting. robustgeometriccomputationthatensurestopologicalconsistencyofintersectionoperations.Intersectingandtouchingpointscanthenbeexactlycomputed,leadtorepresentablepoints,andarethuspreciselylocatedontheintersectingortouchingsegments. However,asindicatedbefore,thesplittingofsegmentsentailssomealgorithmiceffort.Ontheonehand,wewanttokeepthehalfsegmentsequencesoftheline2Dandregion2Dobjectsunchanged,sincetheirupdateisexpensiveandonlytemporarilyneededfortheplanesweep.Ontheotherhand,thesplittingofhalfsegmentshasaneffectonthesesequences.Asacompromise,foreachline2Dorregion2Dobject,wemaintainitsstaticrepresentation,andthehalfsegmentsobtainedbythesplittingprocessarestoredinanadditionaldynamichalfsegmentsequence.ThedynamicpartisalsoorganizedasanAVLtreewhichisembeddedinanarrayandwhoseelementsarelinkedinsequenceorder.Assumingthatksplittingpointsaredetectedduringtheplanesweep,weneedO(k)additionalspace,andtoinsertthemrequiresO(klogk)time.Aftertheplanesweep,thisadditionalspaceisreleased. Figure5-6. Sweeplinestatus.A)Beforethesplitting(s4tobeinserted).B)Afterthesplitting.Theverticaldashedlineindicatesthecurrentpositionofthesweepline. 115

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StaticanddynamichalfsegmentsequencesoftheregionsR1andR2inFigure 5-6 (hls4;2;f) (hrs4;2;f) (hls2;f) (hls3;t) (hls4;f) (hrs3;t) (hrs2;f) (hrs4;f) (hls5;f) (hrs5;f) (hrs1;t) (hlv2;f) (hrv2;f) (hlv3;f) (hrv3;f) (hrv1;t) (hlv1;2;t) (hrv1;2;t) 5-5 .Werstconsiderthecasethattheplanesweepdetectsanintersection.ThisleadstoasituationlikeinFigure 5-6 A.ThetwostaticandthetwodynamichalfsegmentsequencesofR1andR2areshowninTable 5-1 .Togethertheyformtheeventpointscheduleoftheplanesweepandareprocessedbyaparallelobjecttraversal.Beforethecurrentpositionofthesweepline(indicatedbytheverticaldashedlineinFigure 5-6 ),theparallelobjecttraversalhasalreadyprocessedtheattributedhalfsegments(hls1;t),(hls2;f),(hlv1;t),and(hlv2;f)inthisorder.Atthecurrentpositionofthesweepline,theparallelobjecttraversalencountersthehalfsegments(hls3;t)and(hls4;f).Foreachlefthalfsegmentvisited,thecorrespondingsegmentisinsertedintothesweeplinestatusaccordingtothey-coordinateofitsdominatingpointandcheckedforintersectionswithitsdirectupperandlowerneighbors.Inourexample,theinsertionofs4leadstoanintersectionwithitsupperneighborv1.Thisrequiressegmentsplitting;wesplitv1intothetwosegmentsv1;1andv1;2ands4intothetwosegmentss4;1ands4;2.Inthesweeplinestatus,wehavetoreplacev1byv1;1ands4bys4;1(Figure 5-6 B).Thenewhalfsegments(hrs4;1;f),(hls4;2;f),and(hrs4;2;f)areinsertedintothedynamichalfsegmentsequenceofR1.IntothedynamichalfsegmentsequenceofR2,weinsertthehalfsegments(hrv1;1;t),(hlv1;2;t),and(hrv1;2;t).Weneednotstorethetwohalfsegments(hls4;1;f)and(hlv1;1;t)sincetheyrefertothepastandhavealreadybeenprocessed. Onpurposewehaveacceptedalittleinconsistencyinthisprocedure,whichcanfortunatelybeeasilycontrolled.Since,forthedurationoftheplanesweep,s4(v1)hasbeenreplacedbys4;1(v1;1)ands4;2(v1;2),theproblemisthatthestaticsequencepartofR1(R2)stillincludesthenowinvalidhalfsegment(hrs4;f)((hrv1;t)),whichwemaynotdelete(seeFigure 5-6 B).However,this 116

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ForthesecondandthirdcaseinFigure 5-5 ,theprocedureisthesamebutmoresplitscanoccur.Incaseofoverlapping,collinearsegments,weobtainuptosixnewhalfsegments.Incaseofatouchingsituation,thesegmentwhoseinterioristouchedissplit. Ourresearchshowsthatitisunfavorabletoaimatdesigningauniversalexplorationalgorithmthatcoversallcombinationsofspatialdatatypes.Thishasthreemainreasons.First,eachofthedatatypespoint2D,line2D,andregion2Dhasverytype-specic,wellknownpropertiesthataredifferentfromeachother(likedifferentdimensionality).Second,foreachcombinationofspatialdatatypes,thetopologicalinformationwehavetocollectisveryspecicandespeciallydifferentfromallothertypecombinations.Third,thetopologicalinformationwecollectabouteachspatialdatatypeisdifferentindifferenttypecombinations.Therefore,usingthebasicalgorithmicconceptsofSection 5.2.1 ,inthissection,wepresentexplorationalgorithmsforallcombinationsofcomplexspatialdatatypes.Betweentwoobjectsoftypespoint2D,line2D,orregion2D,wehavetodistinguishsixdifferentcases,ifweassumethatthe 117

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Dependingonthetypesofspatialobjectsinvolved,abooleanvectorvFconsistingofaspecialsetoftopologicalagsisassignedtoeachobjectF.Wecallitatopologicalfeaturevector.Itsagsareallinitializedtofalse.Oncecertaintopologicalinformationaboutanobjecthasbeendiscovered,thecorrespondingagofitstopologicalfeaturevectorissettotrue.Topologicalagsrepresenttopologicalfactsofinterest.Weobtainthembyanalyzingthetopologicalintersectionsbetweentheexterior,interiorandboundaryofacomplexspatialobjectwiththecorrespondingcomponentsofanothercomplexspatialobjectaccordingtothe9-intersectionmatrix(Figure 2-2 A).Thatis,theconceptistomapthematrixelementsofthe9-intersectionmatrix,whicharepredicates,intoatopologicalfeaturevectorandtoeliminateredundancygivenbysymmetricmatrixelements.Foralltypecombinations,weaimatminimizingthenumberoftopologicalagsofbothspatialargumentobjects.Insymmetriccases,onlytherstobjectgetstheag.Thetopologicalfeaturevectorsarelaterusedintheevaluationphaseforpredicatematching.Hence,theselectionoftopologicalagsishighlymotivatedbytherequirementsoftheevaluationphase(Section 5.2.3 ,[ 51 ]). LetP(F)bethesetofallpointsofapoint2DobjectF,H(F)bethesetofall(attributed)halfsegments[includingthoseresultingfromoursplittingstrategy]ofaline2D(region2D)objectF,andB(F)bethesetofallboundarypointsofaline2DobjectF.Forf2H(F),letf:sdenoteitssegmentcomponent,and,ifFisaregion2Dobject,letf:iadenoteitsattributecomponent.Thedenitionsinthenextsubsectionsmakeuseoftheoperationsonrobustgeometricprimitivesandhalfsegments(Section 5.1.2 ). 2-2 A)ofp. 118

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disjoint.ButonlyvFinadditiongetstheagpoi sharedsincethesharingofapointissymmetric.Weobtain(thesymbol:,meansequivalentbydenition): (i)vF[poi shared]:,9f2P(F)9g2P(G):f=g(ii)vF[poi disjoint]:,9f2P(F)8g2P(G):f6=g(iii)vG[poi disjoint]:,9g2P(G)8f2P(F):f6=g 5-7 shows.Thewhile-loopterminatesifeithertheendofoneoftheobjectshasbeenreachedoralltopologicalagshavebeensettotrue(lines7and8).Intheworstcase,theloophastobetraversedl+mtimeswherel(m)isthenumberofpointsoftherst(second)point2Dobject.Sincethebodyofthewhile-looprequiresconstanttime,theoveralltimecomplexityisO(l+m). 59 ].ItfollowsfromthisdenitionthateachboundarypointofGisanendpointofa(half)segmentofGandthatthisdoesnotnecessarilyholdviceversa,asFigure 5-8 Aindicates.TheblacksegmentendpointsbelongtotheboundaryofG,sinceexactlyonesegmentemanatesfromeachofthem.Intuitively,theyboundG.Incontrast,the 119

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rst(F,G,object,status);07whilestatus=end of noneandnot(vF[poi disjoint]08andvG[poi disjoint]andvF[poi shared])do09ifobject=rstthenvF[poi disjoint]:=true10elseifobject=secondthenvG[poi disjoint]:=true11else/*object=both*/12vF[poi shared]:=true;13endif14select next(F,G,object,status);15endwhile;16ifstatus=end of rstthenvG[poi disjoint]:=true17elseifstatus=end of secondthen18vF[poi disjoint]:=true19endif20endExplorePoint2DPoint2D. Figure5-7. Algorithmforcomputingthetopologicalfeaturevectorsfortwopoint2Dobjects greysegmentendpointsbelongtotheinteriorofG,sinceseveralsegmentsemanatefromeachofthem.Intuitively,theyareconnectorpointsbetweendifferentsegmentsofG. ABC Figure5-8. Boundarypointintersections.A)Boundarypoints(inblack)andconnectorpoints(ingrey)ofaline2Dobject.B)Ascenariowhereaboundarypointofaline2Dobjectexiststhatisunequaltoallpointsofapoint2Dobject.C)Ascenariowherethisisnotthecase. ThefollowingargumentationleadstotheneededtopologicalagsforFandG.SeenfromtheperspectiveofF,wecandistinguishthreecasessincetheboundaryofFisempty[ 59 ]andtheinteriorofFcaninteractwiththeexterior,interior,orboundaryofG.First,(theinteriorof)apointfofFcanbedisjointfromG(agpoi disjoint).Second,apointfcanlieintheinterior 120

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on interior).Thisincludesanendpointofsuchasegment,iftheendpointisaconnectorpointofG.Third,apointfcanbeequaltoaboundarypointofG(agpoi on bound).SeenfromtheperspectiveofG,wecandistinguishfourcasessincetheboundaryandtheinteriorofGcaninteractwiththeinteriorandexteriorofF.First,GcancontainaboundarypointthatisunequaltoallpointsinF(agbound poi disjoint).Second,GcanhaveaboundarypointthatisequaltoapointinF.Buttheagpoi on boundalreadytakescareofthissituation.Third,theinteriorofasegmentofG(includingconnectorpoints)cancomprehendapointofF.Thissituationisalreadycoveredbytheagpoi on interior.Fourth,theinteriorofasegmentofGcanbepartoftheexteriorofF.ThisisalwaystruesinceasegmentofGrepresentsaninnitepointsetthatcannotbecoveredbythenitenumberofpointsinF.Hence,weneednothandlethisasaspecialsituation.Formally,wedenethesemanticsofthetopologicalagsasfollows: (i)vF[poi disjoint]:,9f2P(F)8g2H(G)::on(f;g:s)(ii)vF[poi on interior]:,9f2P(F)9g2H(G)8b2B(G):on(f;g:s)^f6=b(iii)vF[poi on bound]:,9f2P(F)9g2B(G):f=g(iv)vG[bound poi disjoint]:,9g2B(G)8f2P(F):f6=g 5-9 .Thewhile-loopisexecuteduntiltheendoftheline2Dobject(line9)andaslongasnotalltopologicalagshavebeensettotrue(lines10to11).Theoperationsselect rstandselect nextcompareapointandahalfsegmentaccordingtotheorderrelationdenedinSection 5.1.2 inordertodeterminethenextelement(s)tobeprocessed.Ifonlyapointhastobeprocessed(line12),weknowthatitdoesnotcoincidewithanendpointofasegmentofGandhencenotwithaboundarypointofG.ButwehavetocheckwhetherthepointliesintheinteriorofasegmentinthesweeplinestatusstructureS.Thisisdonebythesearchoperationpoi in segonS(line13).Ifthisisnotthecase,thepointmustbelocatedoutsidethesegment(line14).Ifonlyahalfsegment 121

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sweep();last dp:=e;08select rst(F,G,object,status);09whilestatus6=end of secondandstatus6=end of bothand10not(vF[poi disjoint]andvF[poi on interior]and11vF[poi on bound]andvG[bound poi disjoint])do12ifobject=rstthenp:=get event(F);13ifpoi in seg(S,p)thenvF[poi on interior]:=true14elsevF[poi disjoint]:=trueendif15elseifobject=secondthen16h:=get event(G);/*h=(s;d)*/17ifdthenadd left(S,s)elsedel right(S,s)endif;18ifdp(h)6=last dpthenlast dp:=dp(h);19ifnotlook ahead(h;G)then20vG[bound poi disjoint]:=true21endif22endif23else/*object=both*/24h:=get event(G);/*h=(s;d)*/25ifdthenadd left(S,s)elsedel right(S,s)endif;26last dp:=dp(h);27iflook ahead(h;G)then28vF[poi on interior]:=true29elsevF[poi on bound]:=trueendif30endif31select next(F,G,object,status);32endwhile;33ifstatus=end of secondthen34vF[poi disjoint]:=true35endif36endExplorePoint2DLine2D. Figure5-9. Algorithmforcomputingthetopologicalfeaturevectorsforapoint2Dobjectandaline2Dobject 122

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dp(line18)andiftheoperationlook aheadndsoutthatvdoesalsonotcoincidewiththedominatingpointofthenexthalfsegment(lines19to20).IncasethatapointvofFisequaltoadominatingpointofahalfsegmenthinG(line23),weknowthatvhasneverbeenvisitedbeforeandthatitisanendpointofthesegmentcomponentofh.BesidestheupdateofS(line25),itremainstodecidewhethervisaninteriorpoint(line28)oraboundarypoint(line29)ofh.Forthis,welookahead(line27)toseewhetherthenexthalfsegment'sdominatingpointisequaltovornot. IflisthenumberofpointsofFandmisthenumberofhalfsegmentsofG,thewhile-loopisexecutedatmostl+mtimes.TheinsertionofalefthalfsegmentintoandtheremovalofarighthalfsegmentfromthesweeplinestatusneedsO(logm)time.Thecheckwhetherapointlieswithinoroutsideasegment(predicatepoi in seg)alsorequiresO(logm)time.Altogether,theworsttimecomplexityisO((l+m)logm).Thewhile-loophastobeexecutedatleastmtimesforprocessingtheentireline2Dobjectinordertondoutifaboundarypointexiststhatisunequaltoallpointsofthepoint2Dobject(Figures 5-8 BandC). inside),ontheboundaryofG(agpoi on bound),oroutsideofregionG(agpoi outside).SeenfromtheperspectiveofG,wecandistinguishfourcasesbetweentheboundaryandtheinteriorofGwiththeinteriorandexteriorofF.Theintersectionoftheboundary(interior)ofGwiththeinteriorofFimpliesthatapointofFislocatedontheboundary(inside)ofG.Thissituationisalreadycoveredbytheagpoi on bound(poi inside).Theintersectionoftheboundary(interior)ofGwiththeexteriorofFisalwaystrue,sinceF

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(i)vF[poi inside]:,9f2P(F):poiInRegion(f;G)(ii)vF[poi on bound]:,9f2P(F)9g2H(G):on(f;g:s)(iii)vF[poi outside]:,9f2P(F)8g2H(G)::poiInRegion(f;G)^:on(f;g:s) 5-10 .Thewhile-loopisexecutedaslongasnoneofthetwoobjectshasbeenprocessed(line9)andaslongasnotalltopologicalagshavebeensettotrue(lines9to10).Ifonlyapointhastobeprocessed(line11),wemustcheckitslocation.Therstcaseisthatitliesonaboundarysegment;thisischeckedbythesweeplinestatuspredicatepoi on seg(line12).Otherwise,itmustbelocatedinsideoroutsideofG.Weusetheoperationpred of p(line13)todeterminethenearestsegmentinthesweeplinestatuswhoseintersectionpointwiththesweeplinehasalowery-coordinatethanthey-coordinateofthepoint.Thepredicatecurrent existscheckswhethersuchasegmentexists(line14).Ifthisisnotthecase,thepointmustbeoutsideofG(line17).Otherwise,weaskfortheinformationwhethertheinteriorofGisabovethesegment(line14).Wecanthenderivewhetherthepointisinsideoroutsidetheregion(lines15to16).IfonlyahalfsegmenthhastobeprocessedorapointvofFisequaltoadominatingpointofahalfsegmenthinG(line20),h'ssegmentcomponentisinsertedinto(deletedfrom)Sifhisaleft(right)halfsegment(line20to21).Incaseofalefthalfsegment,inaddition,theinformationwhethertheinteriorofGisabovethesegmentisstoredinthesweeplinestatus(line21).Ifvandthedominatingpointofhcoincide,weknowthatthepointisontheboundaryofG(line23). IflisthenumberofpointsofFandmisthenumberofhalfsegmentsofG,thewhile-loopisexecutedatmostl+mtimes.Eachofthesweeplinestatusoperationsadd left,del right, 124

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sweep();08select rst(F,G,object,status);09whilestatus=end of noneandnot(vF[poi inside]10andvF[poi on bound]andvF[poi outside])do11ifobject=rstthenp:=get event(F);12ifpoi on seg(S,p)thenvF[poi on bound]:=true13elsepred of p(S,p);14ifcurrent exists(S)thenia:=get attr(S);15ifiathenvF[poi inside]:=true16elsevF[poi outside]:=trueendif17elsevF[poi outside]:=true18endif19endif20elseh:=get event(G);ia:=get attr(G);/*h=(s;d)*/21ifdthenadd left(S,s);set attr(S,ia)22elsedel right(S,s)endif;23ifobject=boththenvF[poi on bound]:=trueendif24endif25select next(F,G,object,status);26endwhile;27ifstatus=end of secondthen28vF[poi outside]:=true29endif30endExplorePoint2DRegion2D. Figure5-10. Algorithmforcomputingthetopologicalfeaturevectorsforapoint2Dobjectandaregion2Dobject on seg,pred of p,current exists,get attr,andset attrneedsO(logm)time.ThetotalworsttimecomplexityisO((l+m)logm). 125

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shared).Second,ifasegmentofFdoesnotpartiallyorcompletelycoincidewithanysegmentofG,weregisterthisintheagseg unshared.Third,wesettheaginterior poi sharediftwosegmentsintersectinasinglepointthatdoesnotbelongtotheboundariesofForG.Fourth,aboundaryendpointofasegmentofFcanbelocatedintheinteriorofasegment(includingconnectorpoints)ofG(agbound on interior).Fifth,bothobjectsFandGcanshareaboundarypoint(agbound shared).Sixth,ifaboundaryendpointofasegmentofFliesoutsideofallsegmentsofG,wesettheagbound disjoint.SeenfromtheperspectiveofG,wecanidentifythesamecases.Butduetothesymmetryofthreeofthesixtopologicalcases,wedonotneedallagsforG.Forexample,ifasegmentofFpartiallycoincideswithasegmentofG,thisalsoholdsviceversa.Hence,itissufcienttointroducetheagsseg unshared,bound on interior,andbound disjointforG.Wedenethesemanticsofthetopologicalagsasfollows: (i)vF[seg shared]:,9f2H(F)9g2H(G):segIntersect(f:s;g:s)(ii)vF[interior poi shared]:,9f2H(F)9g2H(G)8p2B(F)[B(G):poiIntersect(f:s;g:s)^poiIntersection(f:s;g:s)6=p(iii)vF[seg unshared]:,9f2H(F)8g2H(G)::segIntersect(f:s;g:s)(iv)vF[bound on interior]:,9f2H(F)9g2H(G)9p2B(F)nB(G):poiIntersection(f:s;g:s)=p(v)vF[bound shared]:,9p2B(F)9q2B(G):p=q(vi)vF[bound disjoint]:,9p2B(F)8g2H(G)::on(p;g:s)(vii)vG[seg unshared]:,9g2H(G)8f2H(F)::segIntersect(f:s;g:s)(viii)vG[bound on interior]:,9f2H(F)9g2H(G)9p2B(G)nB(F):poiIntersection(f:s;g:s)=p(ix)vG[bound disjoint]:,9q2B(G)8f2H(F)::on(q;f:s)

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sweep();last dp in F:=e;last dp in G:=e;07last bound in F:=e;last bound in G:=e;08select rst(F,G,object,status);09whilestatus6=end of bothandnot(vF[seg shared]10andvF[interior poi shared]andvF[seg unshared]11andvF[bound on interior]andvF[bound shared]12andvF[bound disjoint]andvG[bound disjoint]13andvG[bound on interior]andvG[seg unshared])do14ifobject=rstthenh:=get event(F);/*h=(s;d)*/15ifdthenadd left(S,s)16elsedel right(S,s);vF[seg unshared]:=trueendif;17ifdp(h)6=last dp in Fthenlast dp in F:=dp(h);18ifnotlook ahead(h;F)then19last bound in F:=dp(h);20iflast bound in F=last bound in Gthen21vF[bound shared]:=true22elseiflast bound in F=last dp in Gthen23vF[bound on interior]:=true24elseifnotlook ahead(h;G)then25vF[bound disjoint]:=true26endif27endif28endif;29ifdp(h)6=last bound in Fthen30ifdp(h)=last bound in Gthen31vG[bound on interior]:=true32elseifdp(h)=last dp in Gthen33vF[interior poi shared]:=true34endif35endif event(G);37:::/*likelines15to35withFandGswapped*/38else/*object=both*/39h:=get event(F);vF[seg shared]:=true;40ifdthenadd left(S,s)elsedel right(S,s)endif;41ifdp(h)6=last dp in Fthenlast dp in F:=dp(h);42ifnotlook ahead(h;F)then43last bound in F:=dp(h)44endif45endif;46ifdp(h)6=last dp in Gthenlast dp in G:=dp(h);47ifnotlook ahead(h;G)then48last bound in G:=dp(h)49endif50endif;51iflast bound in F=last bound in Gthen52vF[bound shared]:=true53else54iflast bound in F=last dp in Gthen55vF[bound on interior]:=true56endif;57iflast bound in G=last dp in Fthen58vG[bound on interior]:=true59endif60endif61endif;62ifstatus=end of rstthen63vG[seg unshared]:=true;64elseifstatus=end of secondthen65vF[seg unshared]:=true;66endif67select next(F,G,object,status);68endwhile;69endExploreLine2DLine2D. Algorithmforcomputingthetopologicalfeaturevectorsfortwoline2Dobjects

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5-11 .Thewhile-loopisexecuteduntilbothobjectshavebeenprocessed(line9)andaslongasnotalltopologicalagshavebeensettotrue(lines9to13).Ifasingleleft(right)halfsegmentofF(line14)hastobeprocessed(thesameforG(line36)),weinsertitinto(deleteitfrom)thesweeplinestatus(lines15and16).ThedeletionofasinglerighthalfsegmentfurtherindicatesthatitisnotsharedbyG(line16).Ifthecurrentdominatingpoint,sayv,isunequaltothepreviousdominatingpointofF(line17)andiftheoperationlook aheadndsoutthatvisalsounequaltothedominatingpointofthenexthalfsegmentofF(line18),vmustbeaboundarypointofF(line19).Inthiscase,weperformthreechecks.First,ifvcoincideswiththecurrentboundarypointinG,bothobjectsshareapartoftheirboundary(lines20to21).Second,otherwise,ifvisequaltothecurrentdominatingpoint,sayw,inG,wmustbeaninteriorpointofG,andtheboundaryofFandtheinteriorofGshareapoint(lines22to23).Third,otherwise,ifvisdifferentfromthedominatingpointofthenexthalfsegmentinG,FcontainsaboundarypointthatisdisjointfromG(lines24to25).Ifvhasnotbeenidentiedasaboundarypointinthepreviousstep(line29),itmustbeaninteriorpointofF.Inthiscase,wecheckwhetheritcoincideswiththecurrentboundarypointinG(lines30to31)orwhetheritisalsoaninteriorpointinG(lines32to33).Ifahalfsegmentbelongstobothobjects(line38),wecanconcludethatitissharedbythem(line39).Dependingonwhetheritisaleftorrighthalfsegment,itisinsertedintoordeletedfromthesweeplinestatus(line40).Lines41to45(46to50)testwhetherthedominatingpointvofthehalfsegmentisaboundarypointofF(G).Afterwards,wecheckwhethervisaboundarypointofbothobjects(lines51to52).Ifthisisnotthecase,weexaminewhetheroneofthemisaboundarypointandtheotheroneisaninteriorpoint(lines54to59).Lines62to66handlethecasethatexactlyoneofthetwohalfsegmentsequencesisexhausted. Letl(m)bethenumberofhalfsegmentsofF(G).Segmentsofbothobjectscanintersectorpartiallycoincide(Figure 5-5 ),andwehandlethesetopologicalsituationswiththesplittingstrategydescribedinSection 5.2.1.3 .If,duetosplitting,kisthetotalnumberofadditionalhalfsegmentsstoredinthedynamichalfsegmentsequencesofbothobjects,thewhile-loopis 128

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leftanddel rightforinsertinganddeletinghalfsegments;theyrequireO(log(l+m+k))timeeach.Nospecialpredicateshavetobedeployedfordiscoveringtopologicalinformation.Duetothesplittingstrategy,alldominatingendpointseitherarealreadyendpointsofexistingsegmentsorbecomeendpointsofnewlycreatedsegments.Theoperationlook aheadneedsconstanttime.Intotal,thealgorithmrequiresO((l+m+k)log(l+m+k))timeandO(l+m+k)space. inside).Second,theinteriorofasegmentofFintersectswithaboundarysegmentofGifeitherbothsegmentspartiallyorfullycoincide(agseg shared),oriftheyproperlyintersectinasinglepoint(agpoi shared).Third,theinteriorofasegmentofFintersectswiththeexteriorofGifthesegmentisdisjointfromG(agseg outside).Fourth,aboundarypointofFintersectstheinteriorofGiftheboundarypointliesinsideofG(agbound inside).Fifth,ifitliesontheboundaryofG,wesettheagbound shared.Sixth,ifitliesoutsideofG,wesettheagbound disjoint. SeenfromtheperspectiveofG,wecandifferentiatethesamesixcasesasbeforeandobtainmostofthetopologicalagsasbefore.First,iftheinteriorsofGandFintersect,asegmentofFmustpartiallyortotallylieinG(alreadycoveredbyagseg inside).Second,iftheinteriorofGandtheboundaryofFintersect,theboundarypointofasegmentofFmustbelocatedinG(alreadycoveredbyagbound inside).Third,thecasethattheinteriorofGintersectstheexteriorofFisalwaystrueduetothedifferentdimensionalityofbothobjects;hence,wedonotneedaag.Fourth,iftheboundaryofGintersectstheinteriorofF,asegmentofFmustpartiallyorfullycoincidewithaboundarysegmentofG(alreadycoveredbyagseg shared).Fifth,iftheboundaryofGintersectstheboundaryofF,aboundarypointofasegmentofFmustlieonaboundarysegmentofG(alreadycoveredbyagbound shared).Sixth,iftheboundary 129

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unshared).Moreformally,wedenethesemanticsofthetopologicalagsasfollows: (i)vF[seg inside]:,9f2H(F)8g2H(G)::segIntersect(f:s;g:s)^segInRegion(f:s;G)(ii)vF[seg shared]:,9f2H(F)9g2H(G):segIntersect(f:s;g:s)(iii)vF[seg outside]:,9f2H(F)8g2H(G)::segIntersect(f:s;g:s)^:segInRegion(f:s;G)(iv)vF[poi shared]:,9f2H(F)9g2H(G):poiIntersect(f:s;g:s)^poiIntersection(f:s;g:s)=2B(F)(v)vF[bound inside]:,9f2H(F):poiInRegion(dp(f);G)^dp(f)2B(F)(vi)vF[bound shared]:,9f2H(F)9g2H(G):poiIntersect(f:s;g:s)^poiIntersection(f:s;g:s)2B(F)(vii)vF[bound disjoint]:,9f2H(F)8g2H(G)::poiInRegion(dp(f);G)^dp(f)2B(F)^:on(dp(f);g:s)(viii)vG[seg unshared]:,9g2H(G)8f2H(F)::segIntersect(f:s;g:s) TheexplorationalgorithmforthiscaseisgiveninFigure 5-12 .Thewhile-loopisexecuteduntilatleasttherstobjecthasbeenprocessed(line10)andaslongasnotalltopologicalagshavebeensettotrue(lines11to14).IncasethatweonlyencounterahalfsegmenthofF(line15),weinsertitssegmentcomponentsintothesweeplinestatusifitisalefthalfsegment(line16).Ifitisarighthalfsegment,wendoutwhetherhislocatedinsideoroutsideofG(lines18to23).WeknowthatitcannotcoincidewithaboundarysegmentofG,sincethisisanothercase.Thepredicatepred existscheckswhethershasapredecessorinthesweeplinestatus(line18);itignoressegmentsinthesweeplinestatusthatstemfromF.Ifthisisnotthecase(line22),s

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sweep();last dp in F:=e;last dp in G:=e;08last bound in F:=e;09select rst(F,G,object,status);10whilestatus6=end of rstandstatus6=end of both11andnot(vF[seg inside]andvF[seg shared]12andvF[seg outside]andvF[poi shared]13andvF[bound inside]andvF[bound shared]14andvG[bound disjoint]andvG[seg unshared])do15ifobject=rstthenh:=get event(F);/*h=(s;d)*/16ifdthenadd left(S,s)17else18ifpred exists(S;s)then19(mp=np):=get pred attr(S,s);20ifnp=1thenvF[seg inside]:=true21elsevF[seg outside]:=trueendif22elsevF[seg outside]:=trueendif;23del right(S,s);24endif;25ifdp(h)6=last dp in Fthenlast dp in F:=dp(h);26ifnotlook ahead(h;F)then27last bound in F:=dp(h);28iflast bound in F=last dp in G29orlook ahead(h;G)then30vF[bound shared]:=true31else32ifpred exists(S;s)then33(mp=np):=get pred attr(S,s);34ifnp=1thenvF[bound inside]:=true outside]:=trueendif36elsevF[bound outside]:=trueendif37endif38endif39endif;40ifdp(h)6=last bound in Fand41(dp(h)=last dp in Gorlook ahead(h;G))then42vF[poi shared]:=true43endif44elseifobject=secondthen45h:=get event(G);ia:=get attr(G);46ifdthenadd left(S,s);set attr(S,ia)47elsedel right(S,s);vG[seg unshared]:=trueendif;48ifdp(h)6=last dp in Gthen49last dp in G:=dp(h)endif;50else/*object=both*/vF[seg shared]:=true;51h:=get event(G);ia:=get attr(G);52ifdthenadd left(S,s);set attr(S,ia)53elsedel right(S,s)endif;54ifdp(h)6=last dp in Fthenlast dp in F:=dp(h);55ifnotlook ahead(h;F)then56vF[bound shared]:=true57elsevF[poi shared]:=trueendif58endif;59ifdp(h)6=last dp in Gthen60last dp in G:=dp(h)endif;61endif;62ifstatus=end of secondthen63vF[seg outside]:=trueendif;64select next(F,G,object,status);65endwhile;66ifstatus=end of rstthen67vG[seg unshared]:=trueendif68endExploreLine2DRegion2D. Algorithmforcomputingthetopologicalfeaturevectorsforaline2Dobjectandaregion2Dobject

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ahead.Ifthisisthecase,wedeterminewhetherthispointissharedbyG(lines28to30)orwhetherthispointislocatedinsideoroutsideofG(lines31to38).Last,ifthedominatingpointturnsoutnottobeaboundarypointofF,wecheckwhetheritisaninteriorpointthatsharesaboundarypointwithG(lines40to43).IncasethatweonlyobtainahalfsegmenthofG(line44),weinsertitssegmentcomponentsintothesweeplinestatusandattachtheBooleanagiaindicatingwhethertheinteriorofGisabovesornot(line46).Otherwise,wedeletearighthalfsegmenthfromthesweeplinestatusandknowthatitisnotsharedbyF(line47).IncasethatbothFandGshareahalfsegment,weknowthattheyalsosharetheirsegmentcomponents(line50).Thesweeplinestatusisthenmodieddependingonthestatusofh(lines52to53).IfweencounteranewdominatingpointofF,wehavetocheckwhetherFsharesaboundarypoint(lines55to56)oraninteriorpoint(line57)withtheboundaryofG.IfthehalfsegmentsequenceofGshouldbeexhausted(line62),weknowthatFmusthaveasegmentwhoseinteriorisoutsideofG(line63).Ifafterthewhile-looponlyFisexhaustedbutnotG(line66),GmusthaveaboundarysegmentthatisdisjointfromF(line67). LetlbethenumberofhalfsegmentsofF,mbethenumberofattributedhalfsegmentsofG,andkbethetotalnumberofnewhalfsegmentscreatedduetooursplittingstrategy.Thewhile-loopisthenexecutedatmostl+m+ktimes.AlloperationsneededonthesweeplinestatusrequireO(log(l+m+k))timeeach.Duetothesplittingstrategy,alldominatingendpointsarealreadyendpointsofexistingsegmentsorbecomeendpointsofnewlycreated Figure5-13. Specialcaseoftheplanesweep. 132

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aheadneedsconstanttime.Intotal,thealgorithmrequiresO((l+m+k)log(l+m+k))timeandO(l+m+k)space. (i)vF[(0=1)]:,9f2H(F):f:ia^pts(f:s)G(ii)vF[(1=0)]:,9f2H(F)::f:ia^pts(f:s)G(iii)vF[(1=2)]:,9f2H(F):f:ia^pts(f:s)G(iv)vF[(2=1)]:,9f2H(F)::f:ia^pts(f:s)G(v)vF[(0=2)]:,9f2H(F)9g2H(G):f:s=g:s^f:ia^g:ia(vi)vF[(2=0)]:,9f2H(F)9g2H(G):f:s=g:s^:f:ia^:g:ia(vii)vF[(1=1)]:,9f2H(F)9g2H(G):f:s=g:s^((f:ia^:g:ia)_(:f:ia^g:ia))(viii)vF[bound poi shared]:,9f2H(F)9g2H(G):f:s6=g:s^dp(f)=dp(g)

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poi sharedindicateswhetheranytwounequalboundarysegmentsofbothobjectsshareacommonpoint.Beforethesplitting,suchapointmayhavebeenasegmentendpointorapropersegmentintersectionpointforeachobject.ThedeterminationofthebooleanvalueofthisagalsoincludesthetreatmentofaspecialcaseillustratedinFigure 5-13 .IftworegionsFandGmeetinapointlikeintheexample,suchatopologicalmeetingsituationcannotbedetectedbyausualplanesweep.Thereasonisthattheplanesweepforgetscompletelyaboutthealreadyvisitedsegments(righthalfsegments)leftofthesweepline.Inourexample,afters1ands2havebeenremovedfromthesweeplinestatus,anyinformationaboutthemislost.Whens3isinsertedintothestatussweepline,itsmeetingwiths2cannotbedetected.OursolutionistolookaheadinobjectGforanexthalfsegmentwiththesamedominatingpointbefores2isremovedfromthesweeplinestatus. ThesegmentclassicationiscomputedbythealgorithminFigure 5-14 .Thewhile-loopisexecutedaslongasnoneofthetwoobjectshasbeenprocessed(line8)andaslongasnotalltopologicalagshavebeensettotrue(lines8to12).Then,accordingtothehalfsegmentorder,thenexthalfsegmenthisobtained,whichbelongstooneorbothobjects,andthevariablesforthelastconsidereddominatingpointsinFand/orGareupdated(lines13to20).Next,wecheckforapossiblecommonboundarypointinFandG(lines21to25).ThisisthecaseifthelastdominatingpointsofFandGareequal,orthelastdominatingpointinF(G)coincideswiththenextdominatingpointinG(F).Thelatteralgorithmicstep,inparticular,helpsussolvethespecialsituationinFigure 5-13 .Ifhisarighthalfsegment(line26),weupdatethetopologicalfeaturevectorsofFand/orGcorrespondingly(lines27to32)andremoveitssegmentcomponentsfromthesweeplinestatus(line33).Incasethathisalefthalfsegment,weinsertitssegmentcomponentsintothesweeplinestatus(line34)accordingtothey-orderofitsdominatingpointandthey-coordinatesoftheintersectionpointsofthecurrentsweeplinewiththesegmentsmomentarilyinthesweeplinestatus.Ifh'ssegmentcomponentseitherbelongsto 134

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sweep();last dp in F:=e;last dp in G:=e;07select rst(F,G,object,status);08whilestatus=end of noneandnot(vF[(0=1)]andvF[(1=0)]09andvF[(1=2)]andvF[(2=1)]andvF[(0=2)]and10vF[(2=0)]andvF[(1=1)]andvF[bound poi shared]11andvG[(0=1)]andvG[(1=0)]andvG[(1=2)]and12vG[(2=1)])do13ifobject=rstthen/*h=(s;d)*/14h:=get event(F);last dp in F:=dp(h)15elseifobject=secondthen16h:=get event(G);last dp in G:=dp(h)17else/*object=both*/18h:=get event(F);19last dp in F:=dp(h);last dp in G:=dp(h)20endif;21iflast dp in F=last dp in G22orlast dp in F=look ahead(h,G)23orlast dp in G=look ahead(h,F)then24vF[bound poi shared]:=true25endif;26ifd=rightthen27f(ms=ns)g:=get attr(S);28ifobject=rstthenvF[(ms=ns)]:=true right(S,s)34elseadd left(S,s);35ifcoincident(S,s)thenobject:=bothendif;36ifnotpred exists(S,s)then(mp=np):=(=0)37elsef(mp=np)g:=get pred attr(S)endif;38ms:=np;ns:=np;39ifobject=rstorobject=boththen40ifget attr(F)thenns:=ns+141elsens:=ns1endif42endif;43ifobject=secondorobject=boththen44ifget attr(G)thenns:=ns+145elsens:=ns1endif46endif;47set attr(S,f(ms=ns)g);48endif;49select next(F,G,object,status);50endwhile;51ifstatus=end of rstthen52vG[(0=1)]:=true;vG[(1=0)]:=true53elseifstatus=end of secondthen54vF[(0=1)]:=true;vF[(1=0)]:=true55endif56endExploreRegion2DRegion2D. Algorithmforcomputingthetopologicalfeaturevectorsfortworegion2Dobjects

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attristrueorfalserespectively(lines39to46).Thenewlycomputedsegmentclassicationisthenattachedtos(line47).Thepossible19segmentclassconstellationsbetweentwoconsecutivesegmentsinthesweeplinestatusareshowninTable 5-2 .Thetableshowswhichsegmentclasses(ms=ns)anewsegmentsjustinsertedintothesweeplinestatuscanget,givenacertainsegmentclass(mp=np)ofapredecessorsegmentp.Thersttwocolumnsshowthespecialcasethatatthebeginningthesweeplinestatusisemptyandtherstsegmentisinserted.Thissegmentcaneitherbesharedbybothregionobjects((0=2)-segment)orstemsfromoneofthem((0=1)-segment).Inallthesecases(exceptthersttwocases),np=msmusthold. LetlbethenumberofattributedhalfsegmentsofF,mbethenumberofattributedhalfseg-mentsofG,andkbethetotalnumberofnewhalfsegmentscreatedduetooursplittingstrategy.Thewhile-loopisthenexecutedatmostl+m+ktimes.AlloperationsneededonthesweeplinestatusrequireatmostO(log(l+m+k))timeeach.Theoperationsonthehalfsegmentsequences Table5-2. Possiblesegmentclassconstellationsbetweentwoconsecutivesegmentsinthesweeplinestatus.

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Section 5.2.3.1 presentsanadhocevaluationmethodcalleddirectpredicatecharacter-ization.Learningfromitsshortcomings,inSection 5.2.3.2 ,weproposeanovel,systematic,provablycorrect,andgeneralevaluationmethodcalled9-intersectionmatrixcharacterization.Thenexttwosubsectionselaborateonaparticularstepofthegeneralmethodthatisdependentonthetypecombinationunderconsideration.Section 5.2.3.4 dealswiththespecialregion/regioncasewhileSection 5.2.3.3 handlesthecasesofallothertypecombinations. 2-2 Bforthedifferentvaluesofn)andisbasedonthetopo-logicalfeatureagsofvFandvGofthetwospatialargumentobjectsFandG.Thatis,fortheline/linecase,wehavetodeterminewhichtopologicalfeatureagsofvFandvGmustbeturnedonandwhichagsmustbeturnedoffsothatagiventopologicalpredicate(vericationquery)orapredicatetobefound(determinationquery)isfullled.Fortheregion/regioncase,thecentralquestionistowhichsegmentclassesthesegmentsofbothobjectsmustbelongsothatagiventopologicalpredicateorapredicatetobefoundissatised.Thedirectpredicatecharacterizationgivesananswerforeachindividualpredicateofeachindividualtypecombination.Thismeans 137

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Wegivetwoexamplesofdirectpredicatecharacterizations.Asarstexample,weconsiderthetopologicalpredicatenumber8(meet)betweentwolineobjectsFandG(Figure 5-15 Aand[ 59 ])andseehowtheagsofthetopologicalfeaturevectors(Denition 5.4 )areused. shared]^:vF[interior poi shared]^vF[seg unshared]^:vF[bound on interior]^vF[bound shared]^vF[bound disjoint]^vG[seg unshared]^:vG[bound on interior]^vG[bound disjoint] 5-15 A,intersectionsbetweenbothinteriors(:vF[seg shared],:vF[interior poi shared])aswellasbetweentheboundaryofoneobjectandtheinterioroftheotherobject(:vF[bound on interior],:vG[bound on interior])arenotallowed;besidesintersec-tionsbetweenbothboundaries(vF[bound shared),eachcomponentofoneobjectmustinteractwiththeexterioroftheotherobject(vF[seg unshared],vG[seg unshared],vF[bound disjoint],vG[bound disjoint]). Figure5-15. The9-intersectionmatrices.A)Matrixnumber8forthepredicatemeetbetweentwolineobjects.B)Matrixnumber7forthepredicateinsidebetweentworegionobjects. Next,weviewthetopologicalpredicatenumber7(inside)betweentworegionobjectsFandG(Figure 5-15 Band[ 59 ])andseehowthesegmentclasseskeptinthetopologicalfeaturevectors(Denition 5.6 )areused. 138

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poi shared]^(vF[(1=2)]_vF[(2=1)])^:vG[(1=2)]^:vG[(2=1)]^(vG[(0=1)]_vG[(1=0)]) poi shared]). Thepredicatecharacterizationscanbereadinbothdirections.Ifweareinterestedinpredicateverication,thatis,inevaluatingaspecictopologicalpredicate,welookfromlefttorightandchecktherespectiverightsideofthepredicate'sdirectcharacterization.Thiscorrespondstoanexplicitimplementationofeachindividualpredicate.Ifweareinterestedinpredicatedetermination,thatis,inderivingthetopologicalrelationshipfromagivenspatialcongurationoftwospatialobjects,wehavetolookfromrighttoleft.Thatis,consecutivelyweevaluatetherightsidesofthepredicatecharacterizationsbyapplyingthemtothegiventopologicalfeaturevectorsvFandvG.Forthecharacterizationthatmatcheswelookonitsleftsidetoobtainthenameornumberofthepredicate. Thedirectpredicatecharacterizationdemonstrateshowwecanleveragetheconceptoftopologicalfeaturevectors.However,thisparticularevaluationmethodhasthreemaindrawbacks.First,themethoddependsonthenumberoftopologicalpredicates.Thatis,eachofthe184(248)topologicalpredicatesbetweencomplexspatialobjectsrequiresanownspecication.Second,intheworstcase,alldirectpredicatecharacterizationswithrespecttoaparticulartypecombinationhavetobecheckedforpredicatedetermination.Third,thedirectpredicatecharacterizationiserror-prone.Itisdifculttoensurethateachpredicate 139

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2-2 A)bymeansofthetopologicalfeaturevectorsvFandvG.Asweknow,eachmatrixelementisapredicatecalledmatrixpredicatethatchecksoneofthenineintersectionsbetweentheboundaryF,interiorF,orexteriorFofaspatialobjectFwiththeboundaryG,interiorG,orexteriorGofanotherspatialobjectGforinequalitytotheemptyset.Foreachtopologicalpredicate,itsspecicationisthengivenasthelogicalconjunctionofthecharacterizationsoftheninematrixpredicates.Sincethetopologicalfeaturevectorsaredifferentforeachtypecombination,thecharacterizationofeachmatrixpredicateisdifferentforeachtypecombinationtoo.Thecharacterizationsthemselvesarethethemesofthenextsubsections. Thegeneralmethodforpredicatevericationworksasfollows.BasedonthetopologicalpredicateptobeveriedaswellasvFandvGasinput,weevaluateinaloopthecharacteri-zationsofallmatrixpredicatesnumberedfromlefttorightandfromtoptobottom.TheninthmatrixpredicateF\G6=?alwaysyieldstrue[ 59 ];hence,wedonothavetocheckit.Afterthecomputationofthevalueofthematrixpredicatei(1i8),wecompareittothecorre-spondingvalueofthematrixpredicatep(i)ofp.Ifthevaluesareequal,weproceedwiththenextmatrixpredicatei+1.Otherwise,westop,andpyieldsfalse.Ifthereisacoincidencebetweenthecomputedvaluesofallmatrixpredicateswiththecorrespondingvaluesofp'smatrix,pyieldstrue.Thebenetofthisapproachisthatitonlyrequireseightpredicatecharacterizationsandthatthesecharacterizationsarethesameforeachofthentopologicalpredicatesofthesametype 140

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5.2.4.1 ,weshowthatthismethodcanbeevenfurtherimproved. Thegeneralmethodforpredicatedeterminationworksasfollows.BasedonvFandvGasinput,weevaluatethe9IMcharacterizationsofalleightmatrixpredicatesandinserttheBooleanvaluesintoanintersectionmatrixminitializedwithtrueforeachmatrixpredicate.Matrixmisthencomparedagainstthematricespi(1in)ofallntopologicalpredicates.Weknowthatoneofthemmustmatchm.Themeritofthisapproachisthatonlyeightcharacterizationsareneededtodeterminetheintersectionmatrixofthetopologicalpredicate.Butunfortunatelyweneednmatrixcomparisonstodeterminethepertainingtopologicalpredicateintheworstcase.InSection 5.2.4.2 ,weintroduceamethodthateliminatesthisproblem.Butthemethodhereisalreadyasignicantimprovementcomparedwiththenecessitytocomputeallndirectpredicatecharacterizations. 5.6 .ForF2point,wedeneF=?,F=P(F),andF=R2P(F).ForF2line,wedeneF=fp2R2jcard(ff2H(F)jp=dp(f)g)=1g,F=Sf2H(F)pts(f:s)F,andF=R2FF.Aswewillsee,eachcharacterizationcanbeperformedinconstanttime,anditscorrectnesscanbeshownbyasimpleproof.Inthissubsection,wepresentthecharacterizationsforalltypecombinationsexceptforthemorecomplicatedcaseoftworegionobjects;thiscaseisdealtwithinthenextsubsection.ThecentralideaintheproofsofthelemmasbelowistoaccomplishacorrespondencebetweenamatrixpredicatebasedonthepointsetsF, 141

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Incaseoftwopointobjects,the33-matrixisreducedtoa22-matrixsincetheboundaryofapointobjectisdenedtobeempty[ 59 ].Weobtainthefollowingstatement: (i)F\G6=?,vF[poi shared](ii)F\G6=?,vF[poi disjoint](iii)F\G6=?,vG[poi disjoint](iv)F\G6=?,trueProof.In(i),theintersectionoftheinteriorsofFandGisnon-emptyif,andonlyif,bothobjectsshareapoint.Thatis,9f2P(F)9g2P(G):equal(f;g).ThismatchesdirectlythedenitionofvF[poi shared]inDenition 5.1 (i).In(ii),apointofFcanonlybepartoftheexteriorofGifitdoesnotbelongtoG.Thatis,9f2P(F)8g2P(G)::equal(f;g).ThistsdirectlytothedenitionofvF[poi disjoint]inDenition 5.1 (ii).Case(iii)issymmetricto(ii).Case(iv)followsfromLemma5.1.2in[ 59 ].2 (i)F\G6=?,vF[poi on interior](ii)F\G6=?,vF[poi on bound](iii)F\G6=?,vF[poi disjoint](iv)F\G6=?,true(v)F\G6=?,vG[bound poi disjoint](vi)F\G6=?,true

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on interior]inDenition 5.2 (ii).In(ii),theintersectionoftheinteriorofFandtheboundaryofGisnon-emptyif,andonlyif,apointofFcoincideswithaboundarypointofG.Thatis,9f2P(F)9g2B(G):f=g.ButthismatchesthedenitionofvF[poi on bound]inDenition 5.2 (iii).Statement(iii)issatisedif,andonlyif,apointofFisoutsideofG.Thatis,9f2P(F)8g2H(G)::on(f;g:s).ButthisisjustthedenitionofvF[poi disjoint]inDenition 5.2 (i).Statement(iv)alwaysholdsaccordingtoLemma6.1.2in[ 59 ].Tobefullled,statement(v)requiresthataboundarypointofGliesoutsideofF.Thatis,9g2B(G)8f2P(F):f6=g.ThiscorrespondstothedenitionofvG[bound poi disjoint]inDenition 5.2 (iv).ThelaststatementfollowsfromLemma6.1.3in[ 59 ].2 (i)F\G6=?,vF[poi inside](ii)F\G6=?,vF[poi on bound](iii)F\G6=?,vF[poi outside](iv)F\G6=?,true(v)F\G6=?,true(vi)F\G6=?,trueProof.Statement(i)requiresthatapointofFislocatedinsideGbutnotontheboundaryofG.Thatis,9f2P(F):poiInRegion(f;G)(wherepoiInRegionisthepredicatewhichcheckswhetherasinglepointliesinsidearegionobject).ThiscorrespondsdirectlytothedenitionofvF[poi inside]inDenition 5.3 (i).In(ii),theintersectionofFandtheboundaryofGisnon-emptyif,andonlyif,apointofFliesononeoftheboundarysegmentsofG.Thatis, 143

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on bound]inDenition 5.3 (ii).Statement(iii)issatisedif,andonlyif,apointofFisoutsideofG.Thatis,9f2P(F)8(g;ia)2H(G)::poiInRegion(f;G)^:on(f;g:s).ThiscorrespondstothedenitionofvF[poi outside]inDenition 5.3 (iii).Statements(iv)and(v)followfromLemma6.2.3in[ 59 ].ThelaststatementfollowsfromLemma6.2.1in[ 59 ].2 (i)F\G6=?,vF[seg shared]_vF[interior poi shared](ii)F\G6=?,vG[bound on interior](iii)F\G6=?,vF[seg unshared](iv)F\G6=?,vF[bound on interior](v)F\G6=?,vF[bound shared](vi)F\G6=?,vF[bound disjoint](vii)F\G6=?,vG[seg unshared](viii)F\G6=?,vG[bound disjoint](ix)F\G6=?,trueProof.In(i),theinteriorsoftwolineobjectsintersectif,andonlyif,anytwosegmentspartiallyorcompletelycoincideoriftwosegmentsshareasinglepointthatdoesnotbelongtotheboundariesofFandG.Thatis,9f2H(F)9g2H(G):segIntersect(f:s;g:s)_9f2H(F)9g2H(G)8p2B(F)[B(G):poiIntersect(f:s;g:s)^poiIntersection(f:s;g:s)6=p.TherstexpressioncorrespondstothedenitionofvF[seg shared]inDenition 5.4 (i).ThesecondexpressionisthedenitionofvF[interior poi shared]inDenition 5.4 (ii).Statement(ii)requiresthatanintersectionpointpofFandGexistssuchthatpisaboundarypointofGbutnotaboundarypointofF.Thatis,9f2H(F)9g2H(G)9p2B(G)nB(F):poiIntersection(f:s;g:s)=p.ThismatchesthedenitionofvG[bound on interior]inDeni-tion 5.4 (viii).Statement(iii)issatisedif,andonlyif,thereisasegmentofFthatisoutsideof 144

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unshared]inDenition 5.4 (iii).Statement(iv)issymmetrictostatement(ii)andbasedonDenition 5.4 (iv).In(v),theboundariesofFandGintersectif,andonlyif,theyshareabound-arypoint.Thatis,9p2B(F)9q2B(G):p=q.ThismatchesthedenitionofvF[bound shared]inDenition 5.4 (v).Statement(vi)requirestheexistenceofaboundarypointofFthatisnotlo-catedonanysegmentofG.Thatis,9p2B(F)8g2H(G)::on(p;g:s).ThiscorrespondstothedenitionofvF[bound disjoint]inDenition 5.4 (vi).Statement(vii)issymmetrictostatement(iii)andbasedonDenition 5.4 (vii).Statement(viii)issymmetrictostatement(vi)andbasedonDenition 5.4 (ix).ThelaststatementfollowsfromLemma5.2.1in[ 59 ].2 (i)F\G6=?,vF[seg inside](ii)F\G6=?,vF[seg shared]_vF[poi shared](iii)F\G6=?,vF[seg outside](iv)F\G6=?,vF[bound inside](v)F\G6=?,vF[bound shared](vi)F\G6=?,vF[bound disjoint](vii)F\G6=?,true(viii)F\G6=?,vG[seg unshared](ix)F\G6=?,trueProof.In(i),theinteriorsofFandGintersectif,andonlyif,asegmentofFislo-catedinGbutdoesnotcoincidewithaboundarysegmentofG.Thatis,9f2H(F)8g2H(G)::segIntersect(f:s;g:s)^segInRegion(f:s;G).Thiscorrespondstothedeni-tionofvF[seg inside]inDenition 5.5 (i).Statement(ii)requiresthateitherFandGshareasegment,ortheyshareanintersectionpointthatisnotaboundarypointofF.Thatis,9f2H(F)9g2H(G):segIntersect(f:s;g:s)_9f2H(F)9g2H(G):poiIntersect(f:s;g:s)^

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shared]inDenition 5.5 (ii).ThesecondargumentmatchesthedenitionofvF[poi shared]inDenition 5.5 (iv).Statement(iii)issatisedif,andonlyif,asegmentofFislocatedoutsideofG.Thatis,9f2H(F)8g2H(G)::segIntersect(f:s;g:s)^:segInRegion(f:s;G).ThiscorrespondstothedenitionofvF[seg outside]inDenition 5.5 (iii).Statement(iv)holdsif,andonlyif,asegmentofFliesinsideGandoneoftheendpointsofthesegmentisaboundarypoint.Thatis,9f2H(F):poiInRegion(dp(f);G)^dp(f)2B(F).ThiscorrespondstothedenitionofvF[bound inside]inDenition 5.5 (v).In(v),wemustndasegmentofFandasegmentofGwhichintersectinapointthatisaboundarypointofF.Thatis,9f2H(F)9g2H(G):poiIntersect(f:s;g:s)^poiIntersection(f:s;g:s)2B(F).ThismatchesthedenitionofvF[bound shared]inDenition 5.5 (vi).Statement(vi)requirestheexistenceofanendpointofasegmentofFthatisaboundarypointandnotlocatedinsideoronanysegmentofG.Thatis,9f2H(F)8g2H(G)::poiInRegion(dp(f);G)^dp(f)2B(F)^:on(dp(f);g:s).ThiscorrespondstothedenitionofvF[bound disjoint]inDeni-tion 5.5 (vii).Statement(vii)alwaysholdsaccordingtoLemma6.3.2in[ 59 ].Statement(viii)issatisedif,andonlyif,asegmentofGdoesnotcoincidewithanysegmentofF.Thatis,9g2H(G)8f2H(F)::segIntersect(f:s;g:s).ThiststothedenitionofvF[seg unshared]inDenition 5.5 (viii).ThelaststatementfollowsfromLemma6.3.1in[ 59 ].2 5.2.2.6 ,exploringtheregion/regioncaseisquitedifferentfromexploringtheothertypecombinationsandrequiresanotherkindofexplorationalgorithm.Ithastotakeintoaccountthearealextentofbothobjectsandhasresultedintheconceptsofoverlapnumber,segmentclasses,andsegmentclassicationvector.Inthissubsection,wedealwiththe9IMCbasedontwosegmentclassicationvectors.Thegoalofthefollowinglemmasistopreparetheuniquecharacterizationofallmatrixpredicatesbymeansofsegmentclasses.TherstlemmaprovidesatranslationofeachsegmentclassintoaBooleanmatrixpredicateexpression. 146

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5.6 (i)and(ii),theleftsideof(i)isequivalenttotheexpression9f2H(F):pts(f:s)G.ThisisequivalenttoF\G6=?.Theproofof(iii)issimilarandbasedonDenition 5.6 (iii)and(iv);onlythetermGhastobereplacedbyG.Theproofof(ii)canbeobtainedbyswappingtherolesofFandGin(i).Similarly,theproofof(iv)requiresaswappingofFandGin(iii).AccordingtoDenition 5.6 (v)and(vi),theleftsideof(v)isequivalenttotheexpression9f2H(F)9g2H(G):f:s=g:s^((f:ia^g:ia)_(:f:ia^:g:ia)).Fromtherstelementoftheconjunction,wecan(only)concludethatF\G6=?.Equivalencedoesnotholdsincetwoboundariescanalsointersectiftheyonlysharesingleintersectionormeetingpointsbutnot(half)segments.Thesecondelementoftheconjunctionrequiresthattheinteriorsofbothregionobjectsarelocatedonthesameside.Hence,F\G6=?musthold.Alsothisisonlyanimplicationsinceanintersectionofbothinteriorsispossiblewithouthavingany(0=2)-or(2=0)-segments.AccordingtoDenition 5.6 (vii),theleftsideof(vi)isequivalenttotheexpression9f2H(F)9g2H(G):f:s=g:s^((f:ia^:g:ia)_(:f:ia^g:ia)).TherstelementoftheconjunctionimpliesthatF\G6=?.Thesecondelementoftheconjunctionrequiresthattheinteriorsofbothregionobjectsarelocatedondifferentsides.Sincethedenitionoftyperegiondisallows(1=1)-segmentsforsingleobjects,theinteriorofFmustintersecttheexteriorofG,andviceversa.This 147

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poi shared])F\G6=?(ii)F\G6=?)F\G6=?^F\G6=?(iii)F\G6=?)F\G6=?^F\G6=?(iv)F\G6=?)F\G6=?^F\G6=?(v)F\G6=?)F\G6=?^F\G6=?Proof.Statement(i)canbeshownbyconsideringthedenitionofbound poi shared.ThisagistrueifanytwohalfsegmentsofFandGshareasinglemeetingorintersectionpoint.Hence,theintersectionofbothboundariesisnon-empty.Theproofsfor(ii)to(v)requirepointsettopologicalconcepts.Statements(ii)and(iii)followfromLemma5.3.6in[ 59 ].Statements(iv)and(v)resultfromLemma5.3.5in[ 59 ].2 poi shared](vi)F\G6=?,vF[(0=1)]_vF[(1=0)](vii)F\G6=?,vF[(1=2)]_vF[(2=1)]_vF[(1=1)]_vG[(0=1)]_vG[(1=0)](viii)F\G6=?,vG[(0=1)]_vG[(1=0)](ix)F\G6=?,trueProof.For(i),theforwardimplicationcorrespondstoLemma 5.7 (i).ThebackwardimplicationcanbederivedfromLemma 5.6 (v)for(0=2)-and(2=0)-segmentsofF(andG).For 149

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5.6 (iii)and 5.6 (iv)implyF\G6=?andF\G6=?,respectively.Fromthesetwoimplications,byusingLemma 5.8 (iv)and 5.8 (v),wecanderiveinbothcasesF\G6=?.Statements(ii)and(iv)correspondtoLemma 5.6 (iv)and 5.6 (iii),respectively.For(iii)[(vii)],theforwardimplicationcorrespondstoLemma 5.7 (ii)[ 5.7 (iii)].Thebackwardimplicationfor(iii)[(vii)]requiresLemma 5.6 (i)[ 5.6 (ii)]andLemma 5.8 (ii)[ 5.8 (iii)]forthe(0=1)-and(1=0)-segmentsofF[G],Lemma 5.6 (vi)[ 5.6 (vi)]forthe(1=1)-segmentsofF(andhenceG),aswellasLemma 5.6 (iv)[ 5.6 (iii)]andLemma 5.8 (v)[ 5.8 (iv)]forthe(1=2)-and(2=1)-segmentsofG[F].For(v),theforwardimplicationcanbeshownasfollows:iftheboundariesofFandGintersect,theneithertheyshareacommonmeetingorintersectionpoint,thatis,theagvF[bound poi shared]isset,ortherearetwohalfsegmentsofFandGwhosesegmentcomponentsareequal.Nootheralternativeispossibleduetooursplittingstrategyforhalfsegmentsduringtheplanesweep.Asweknow,equalsegmentsofFandGmusthavethesegmentclasses(0=2),(2=0),or(1=1).ThebackwardimplicationrequiresLemma 5.6 (v)for(0=2)-and(2=0)-segmentsofF(andhenceG),Lemma 5.6 (vi)for(1=1)-segmentsofF(andhenceG),andLemma 5.8 (i)forsinglemeetingandintersectionpoints.Statement(vi)[(viii)]correspondstoLemma 5.6 (i)[ 5.6 (ii)].Statement(ix)turnsouttobealwaystruesinceourassumptioninanimplementationisthatouruniverseofdiscourseUisalwaysproperlylargerthantheunionofspatialobjectscontainedinit.ThismeansforFandGthatalwaysF[GUholds.WecanconcludethatU(F[G)6=?.AccordingtoDeMorgan'sLaws,thisisequivalentto(UF)\(UG)6=?.ButthisleadsustothestatementthatF\G6=?.2 5.1 to 5.5 ,andTheorem 5.1 provideuswithauniquecharacterizationofeachindividualmatrixpredicateofthe9-intersectionmatrixforeachtypecombination.Thisapproachhasseveralbenets.First,itisasystematicallydevelopedandnotanadhocapproach.Second,ithasaformalandsoundfoundation.Hence,wecanbesureaboutthecorrectnessoftopologicalfeatureagsandsegmentclassesassignedtomatrixpredicates,andviceversa.Third,thisevaluationmethodisindependentofthenumberoftopologicalpredicatesandonlyrequiresaconstant 150

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Basedonthisresult,weaccomplishthepredicatevericationofatopologicalpredicatepwithrespecttoaparticularspatialdatatypecombinationonthebasisofp's9-intersectionmatrix(asanexample,seethecompletematricesofthe33topologicalpredicatesoftheregion/regioncaseinFigure 5-20 andthecompletematricesfortheremainingcasesin[ 50 ])andthetopolog-icalfeaturevectorsvFandvGasfollows:Dependingonthespatialdatatypecombination,weevaluatethelogicalexpression(givenintermsofvFandvG)ontherightsideoftherst9IMCaccordingtoLemma 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 ,orTheorem 5.1 ,respectively.WethenmatchtheBooleanresultwiththeBooleanvalueattherespectivepositioninp'sintersectionmatrix.IfbothBooleanvaluesareequal,weproceedwiththenextmatrixpredicateinthe9-intersectionmatrix;otherwisepisfalse,andthealgorithmterminates.PredicatepyieldstrueiftheBooleanresultsoftheevaluatedlogicalexpressionsofall9IMCscoincidewiththecorrespondingBooleanvaluesinp'sintersectionmatrix.Thisrequiresconstanttime. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 ,orTheorem 5.1 ,respectively.ThisyieldsaBoolean9-intersectionmatrix.Inasecondstep,thisBooleanmatrixischeckedconsecutivelyforequalityagainstall9-intersectionmatricesofthetopologicalpredicatesoftheparticulartypecombination.Ifna;bwitha;b2fpoint;line;regiongisthenumberoftopologicalpredicatesbetweenthetypesaandb,thisrequiresna;btestsintheworstcase. 151

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5.2.4.1 delineatesanovelmethodcalledmatrixthinningforspeedinguppredicateverication.Section 5.2.4.2 describesane-tunedmethodcalledminimumcostdecisiontreeforacceleratingpredicatedetermination. Thequestionariseshowthe9-intersectionmatricescanbesystematicallythinnedoutandneverthelessremainuniqueamongthena;btopologicalpredicatesbetweentwospatialdatatypesaandb.Weuseabrute-forcealgorithm(Figure 5-16 )thatisapplicabletoalltypecombinationsandthatdeterminesthethinnedoutversionofeachintersectionmatrixassociatedwithoneofthena;btopologicalpredicates.Sincethisalgorithmonlyhastobeexecutedonceforeachtypecombination,runtimeperformanceandspaceefciencyarenotsoimportanthere. Inarststep(lines8to10),wecreateamatrixposofso-calledpositionmatricescorre-spondingtoallpossible9-intersectionmatrices,thatis,tothebinaryversionsofthedecimalnumbers1to511ifwereadthe9-intersectionmatrix(9IM)entriesrowbyrow.Eachinapositionmatrixindicatesapositionorentrythatislaterusedforcheckingtwointersectionmatricesagainsteachother.Ainapositionmatrixmeansthatthecorrespondingentriesintwocomparedintersectionmatricesarenotcomparedandhenceignored. 152

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Figure5-16. Algorithmforcomputingthethinnedoutversionsofthena;bintersectionmatricesassociatedwiththetopologicalpredicatesbetweentwospatialdatatypesaandb

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Inathirdstep,weinitializetheentriesofallna;bthinnedoutintersectionmatriceswiththedon'tcaresymbol. Thefourthandnalstepcomputesthethinnedoutmatrices(lines15to33).Theideaistondforeachintersectionmatrix(line15)aminimalnumberofentriesthattogetheruniquelydifferfromthecorrespondingentriesofalltheotherna;b1intersectionmatrices.Therefore,westarttraversingthe511positionmatrices(line17).Forall-positionsofapositionmatrixwendoutwhetherfortheintersectionmatrixunderconsiderationanotherintersectionmatrixexiststhathasthesamematrixvaluesatthesepositions(lines20to21).Aslongasnoequalityhasbeenfound,theintersectionmatrixunderconsiderationiscomparedtothenextintersectionmatrix(lines19to23).Ifanequalityisfound,thenextpositionmatrixistaken(line30).Otherwise,wehavefoundaminimalnumberofmatrixpredicatesthataresufcientanduniqueforevaluation(line24).Itremainstocopythecorrespondingvaluesofthe9-intersectionmatrixintothethinnedoutmatrix(lines25to28). Completeandthinnedoutmatricesforthe5topologicalpredicatesofthepoint/pointcase. Notethatforthesameintersectionmatrixitmaybepossibletondseveralthinnedoutmatriceswiththesamenumberofmatrixpredicatestobecheckedsuchthateachofthemrepresentstheintersectionmatrixuniquelyamongthena;bintersectionmatrices.Ouralgorithmalwayscomputesthethinnedoutmatrixwiththelowestnumericalvalue.Thecompleteand 154

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Completeandthinnedoutmatricesforthe14topologicalpredicatesofthepoint/linecase. Completeandthinnedoutmatricesforthe7topologicalpredicatesofthepoint/regioncase. thinnedoutmatricesforthepoint/pointcaseareshowninFigure 5-17 ,forthepoint/linecaseinFigure 5-18 ,forthepoint/regioncaseinFigure 5-19 ,andfortheregion/regioncaseinFigure 5-20 .Thecompleteandthinnedoutmatricesfortheline/linecaseandtheline/regioncasecanbefoundin[ 50 ].Denition 5.7 denesthemeasuresweusetosummarizeandinterprettheseresults. Completeandthinnedoutmatricesforthe33topologicalpredicatesoftheregion/regioncase. 155

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(i)cnt(IMMT)=jf(l;m)j1l;m3;IMMT[l;m]2f0;1ggj(ii)nka;b=jfIMMTij1ina;b;1k9;cnt(IMMTi)=kgj(iii)na;b=9k=1nka;b(iv)Ca;b=8na;b(v)ACa;b=Ca;b=na;b=8(vi)CMTa;b=9k=1knka;b(vii)ACMTa;b=CMTa;b=na;b(viii)RACMTa;b=100ACMTa;b=ACa;b=100CMTa;b=Ca;b 5-3 showsasummaryoftheresultsandinthelasttwocolumnstheconsiderableperformanceenhancementofmatrixthinning.Thereductionofmatrixpredicatecomputationsrangesfrom27%fortheline/linecaseto75%forthepoint/pointcase. Table5-3. Summaryofcompleteandthinnedout9IMsforthetopologicalpredicatesofalltypecombinations. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 8 10 2.00 25.00 0 0 2 12 4 50 12 2 0 656 8 474 5.78 72.26 0 6 6 10 11 0 0 0 0 264 8 125 3.79 47.35 0 0 6 8 0 0 0 0 0 112 8 50 3.57 44.64 0 3 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 56 8 18 2.57 32.14 0 0 5 18 12 7 1 0 0 344 8 196 4.56 56.98 156

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5.2.3 ,wehaveseenthat,intheworstcase,na;bmatchingtestsareneededtodeterminethetopologicalrelationshipbetweenanytwospatialobjects.Foreachtest,Booleanexpressionshavetobeevaluatedthatareequivalenttotheeightmatrixpredicatesandbasedontopologicalfeaturevectors.Weproposetwomethodstoimprovetheperformance.Therstmethodreducesthenumberofmatrixpredicatestobeevaluated.ThisgoalcanbedirectlyachievedbyapplyingthemethodofmatrixthinningdescribedinSection 5.2.4.1 .Thatis,thenumberna;boftestsremainsthesamebutforeachtestwecanreducethenumberofmatrixpred-icatesthathavetobeevaluatedbytakingthethinnedoutinsteadofthecomplete9-intersectionmatrices. Thesecondmethod,whichwillbeourfocusinthissubsection,aimsatreducingthenumberna;boftests.Thismethodisbasedonthecomplete9-intersectionmatricesbutalsomanagestoreducethenumberofmatrixpredicatesthathavetobeevaluated.Weproposeaglobalconceptcalledminimumcostdecisiontree(MCDT)forthispurpose.Thetermglobalmeansthatwedonotlookateachintersectionmatrixindividuallybutconsiderallna;bintersectionmatricestogether.Theideaistoconstructafullbinarydecisiontreewhoseinnernodesrepresentallmatrixpredicates,whoseedgesrepresenttheBooleanvaluestrueorfalse,andwhoseleafnodesarethena;btopologicalpredicates.Notethat,inafullbinarytree,eachnodehasexactlyzeroortwochildren.Forsearching,weemployadepth-rstsearchprocedurethatstartsattherootofthetreeandproceedsdowntooneoftheleaveswhichrepresentsthematchingtopologicalpredicate.Theperformancegainthroughtheuseofadecisiontreeissignicantsincethetreepartitionsthesearchspaceateachnodeandgraduallyexcludesmoreandmoretopologicalpredicates.Inthebestcase,ateachnodeofthedecisiontree,thesearchspace,whichcomprisestheremainingtopologicalpredicatestobeassignedtotheremainingleavesofthenode'ssubtree,ispartitionedintotwohalvessothatweobtainaperfectlybalancedtree.ThiswouldguaranteeasearchtimeofO(logna;b).Butingeneral,wecannotexpecttoobtainabisectionoftopologicalpredicatesateachnodesincethenumberoftopologicalpredicatesyieldingtrueforthenode's 157

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Ifwedonothavespecicknowledgeabouttheprobabilitydistributionoftopologicalpredicatesinanapplication(area),wecanonlyassumethattheyoccurwithequaldistribution.Butsometimeswehavemoredetailedinformation.Forexample,incadastralmapapplications,anadequateestimateisthat95%(orevenmore)ofalltopologicalrelationshipsbetweenregionsaredisjointandtheremaining5%aremeet.OuralgorithmforconstructingMCDTsconsidersthesefrequencydistributions.Itisbasedonthefollowingcostmodel: Figure 5-21 showsourrecursivealgorithmMCDTforcomputingaminimumcostdecisiontreeforasetimofna;b9-intersectionmatricesthatareannotatedwithaweightrepresentingthecorrespondingpredicates'sprobabilityofoccurrence,asitischaracteristicinaparticular 158

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node:=new node();stop:=false;07discriminator:=select rst(mp);08whilenoteol(mp)andnotstopdo09node:=new node();10node.discr:=discriminator;node.im:=im;11ifno of elem(im)=1then/*leafnode*/12best node:=node;best node.cost:=0;13stop:=true;14else15/*Letim=h(imk1;wk1);:::;(imkn;wkn)i16with1k1:::knna;b.*/17partition(im,discriminator,iml,imr);18ifno of elem(iml)6=0and19no of elem(imr)6=0then20copy(mp,new mp);del(new mp,discriminator);21node.lchild:=MCDT(iml,new mp);22node.rchild:=MCDT(imr,new mp);23node.cost:=node.lchild.cost+node.rchild.cost24+kni=k1wi;25ifnode.cost
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nodecreatesanewtreenodenode(line9).Thematrixpredicatediscriminatoraswellasthelistimannotatethetreenodenode(line10).Ifimhasonlyoneelement(line11),weknowthatnodeisaleafnoderepresentingthetopologicalpredicatepertainingtothesingleelementinim.Thecostforthisleafnodeis0sinceitscurrentdepthis0(line12).Otherwise,ifimconsistsofmorethanoneelement,wepartitionitintotwolistsimlandimr(line17).Thepartitioningisbasedonthevaluesofeach9-intersectionmatrixinimwithrespecttothematrixpredicateservingasthediscriminator.Ifsuchavalueis0(false),thecorresponding9-intersectionmatrixisaddedtothelistiml;otherwise,itisaddedtothelistimr.Aspecialcasenowisthatimhasnotbeenpartitionedsothateitherimlorimrisempty(conditioninlines18to19yieldsfalse).Inthiscase,thediscriminatordoesnotcontributetoadecisionandisskipped;thenextdiscriminatorisselected(line28).Ifbothlistsimlandimrarenonempty(lines18to19),weremovethediscriminatorfromanewcopynew mpofthelistmp(line20)andrecursivelyndtheminimumcostdecisiontreesforthe9-intersectionmatricesiniml(line21)andinimr(line22).Eventually,allrecursionswillreachallleafnodesandbeginreturningwhilerecursivelycalculatingthecostofeachsubtreefound.Thecostofaleafnodeis0.Thecostofaninnernodenodecanbeexpressedintermsofthecostofitstwononemptysubtreesnode.lchildandnode.rchildprocessingthelistsimlandimrrespectively.Thedepthofeachleafnodewithrespecttonodeisexactlyonelargerthanthedepthofthesameleafnodewithrespecttoeithernode.lchildornode.rchild.Therefore,besidesthecostsofthesetwosubtrees,foreachleafnodeofthesubtreewithrootnode,wehavetoaddtheleafnode'scost(weight)onetime(lines23to24).Theseweightsarestoredinnode.im.Thecostofnodeisthencomparedwiththebestcostdeterminedsofar,andtheminimumwillbethenewbestoption(lines25to26).Eventually,whenallthematrixpredicateshavebeenconsidered,weobtainthebestchoiceandreturnthecorrespondingminimumcostdecisiontree(line31). Table 5-4 showstheresultsofthisalgorithmbygivingatextualpre-order(depth-rstsearch)encodingofallMCDTsforalltypecombinationsonthebasisofequalprobability 160

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MCDTpre-orderrepresentationsforalltypecombinationsonthebasisofequalprobabilityofoccurrenceofalltopologicalpredicates. MCDTpre-orderrepresentation 3446474836373856 30313263646566676869 13789151614171821 17222324252930313839 5-17 5-18 5-19 and 5-20 aswellasin[ 50 59 ]. Figures 5-22 showsavisualizationoftheMCDTsofthreespatialdatatypecombinationsontheassumptionthatalltopologicalpredicatesoccurwithequalprobability.TheMCDTsfortheothertypecombinationshavebeenomittedduetotheirverylargesize.Eachinnernodeis 161

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Thefollowingdenitionspeciesmeasuresthatweusetosummarizeandinterprettheseresults.Weareespeciallyinterestedintheaveragenumberofmatrixpredicatestobeevaluated. 3 5 3 AB 5 7 AB 2 4 6 AB 8 10 12 14 Figure5-22. Minimumcostdecisiontrees.A)Forthe5topologicalpredicatesofthepoint/pointcase.B)Forthe7topologicalpredicatesofthepoint/regioncase.C)Forthe14topologicalpredicatesofthepoint/linecaseundertheassumptionthatalltopologicalpredicatesoccurwithequalprobability. 5.8 .Letna;bwitha;b2fpoint2D;line2D;region2Dgbethenumberof9IMsofthetopologicalpredicatesbetweenthetypesaandb,IMiwith1ina;bbea9IM,anddka;bbethe 162

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(i)dka;b=jfIMij1ina;b;1k9;depth(IMi;Ma;b)=kgj(ii)na;b=9k=1dka;b(iii)Ca;b=8na;b(iv)ACa;b=4(na;b+1)(v)ACMCDTa;b=CMCDTa;b=na;b(vi)RACMCDTa;b=100ACMCDTa;b=ACa;b 5-5 showsasummaryoftheresultsandinthelasttwocolumnstheconsiderableperformanceenhancementofminimumcostdecisiontrees.Thereduc-tionofmatrixpredicatecomputationsrangesfrom90%forthepoint/pointcaseto98%fortheline/linecase. TheMCDTapproachissimilartoatechniqueintroducedin[ 10 ]fortopologicalpredicatesbetweensimpleregions.However,theirmethodofdeterminingabinarydecisiontreerestsonthethinnedout9-intersectionmatricesandresultsinanearoptimalalgorithmandsolution.Thereasonwhyoptimalityisnotachievedisthatatopologicalpredicatecanhavemultiple,equipollentthinnedoutmatrices,thatis,thinnedoutmatricesarenotunique.Therefore,usingaspecicsetofthinnedoutmatricesasthebasisforpartitioningthesearchspacecanonlyleadtoanoptimaldecisiontreeforthissetofthinnedoutmatricesandmaynotbeoptimalinthegeneralcase.Ouralgorithmrestsonthecomplete9-intersectionmatrices.Itproducesanoptimal 163

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SummaryoftheMCDTsforalltypecombinationsonthebasisofequalprobabilityofoccurrenceofalltopologicalpredicates. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 24 12 2.40 10.00 0 0 0 0 0 48 30 4 0 656 332 530 6.46 1.95 0 0 0 3 22 8 0 0 0 264 136 170 5.15 3.79 0 0 2 12 0 0 0 0 0 112 60 54 3.86 6.43 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 56 32 20 2.86 8.94 0 0 0 3 15 19 6 0 0 344 176 243 5.65 3.21 10 ].Ouralgorithmproducesanoptimaltreewiththetotalcostof2:13whiletheso-calledrenedcostmethodin[ 10 ],whichusesthinnedoutmatrices,producesatreewiththetotalcostof2:16. WecanobservethefollowingrelationshipbetweenMCDTsandthinnedoutmatrices: 5-5 )isgreaterthanorequaltothetotalcostofallitsthinnedoutmatrices(giveninTable 5-3 ),thatis,

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5.5 .Aqualitativeassessment,performancestudyandanalysisofthisimplementationispresentedinSection 6.1 .Here,wespecifyasetoffunctioninterfacesforourtopologicalpredicateimplementationsothattheycanbeusedtosupportourspatiotemporalpredicateimplementationtobedescribedinthenextsection. ThetopologicalpredicateimplementationprovidesthreespecicinterfacemethodsTopPredExploration,TopPredVerication,andTopPredDeterminationandoneuniversalinterfacemethodTopPredforprovidingthefunctionalityoftheexplorationphaseandtheevaluationphaseaswellasthecombinedeffectofbothphases.ThemethodTopPredExplorationexploresthetopologicaldataofinterestfortwointeractingspatialobjects.Thisinterfaceisoverloadedtoaccepttwospatialobjectsofanytypecombinationasinput.Dependingontheinputobjecttypes,itexecutesoneofthesixplanesweepbasedexplorationalgorithmsfromSection 5.2.2 .Theoutputconsistsoftwotopologicalfeaturevectorswhichholdtherelevanttopologicalinformationforbothargumentobjects. ThemethodsTopPredVericationandTopPredDeterminationhandlepredicatevericationandpredicatedeterminationqueriesrespectively.Bothinterfacesareoverloadedandtaketwotopologicalfeaturevectorsasinput.Bothmethodsleveragethegeneralevaluationmethodof9-intersectionmatrixcharacterizationfromSection 5.2.3 .TheinterfacemethodTopPredVeri-cationtakesapredicateidenticationnumberasanadditionalinputparameter.Itcorrespondstothematrixnumber(speciedin[ 59 ]andusedinFigures 5-17 to 5-19 and 5-20 )ofthetopo-logicalpredicatetobeevaluated.ThemethodimplementstheoptimizedevaluationtechniqueofmatrixthinningfromSection 5.2.4 .TheoutputistheBooleanvaluetrueifthetopologicalrelationshipbetweenthetwospatialobjectscorrespondstothespeciedpredicate;otherwise,thevalueisfalse.TheinterfacemethodTopPredDeterminationimplementstheoptimizedevaluationtechniqueofminimumcostdecisiontreesfromSection 5.2.4 andoutputsthematrixnumberof 165

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TheuniversalinterfacemethodTopPredisoverloadedtoaccepttwospatialobjectsofanytypecombinationandanoptionalpredicateidenticationnumberasinput.Iftheoptionalargumentisspecied,ittriggersapredicatevericationprocessbyinvokingTopPredExplorationfollowedbyTopPredVericationandreturnsaBooleanvalueasaresult.Otherwise,apredicatedeterminationprocessistobeexecuted,andthusitinvokesTopPredExplorationfollowedbyTopPredDeterminationandreturnsapredicateidenticationnumbercorrespondingtothetopologicalrelationshipbetweenthetwospatialobjects.Thisuniversalinterfacewillbeusedinthenextsectiontoleveragethesupportforourspatiotemporalpredicateimplementation. 2.2 and[ 22 ]).Toformulateaspecicalgorithmforeachnewlyconstructedpredicatewouldthusbeveryinefcientandtroublesome.Hence,theideaistodeviseagenericalgorithmicschemethatcanbeleveragedforqueryevaluationandthatisapplicablealsotodevelopmentswhichhavesofarnotbeendened. 22 ]. 166

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Duetoourslicedrepresentationofmovingobjectsasasequenceofunits,froma3Dperspectiveauregionvaluecorrespondstoaunitvolume,aulinevaluetoaunitsurface,andaupointvaluetoaunitcurve.Togetherwithsomeoptimizations,aspatiotemporalquerypredicatecanbeevaluatedbyarenedalgorithmicschemeincludingthefollowingsteps: 1.Time-synchronizedintervalrenement:Sincetheunitintervalsofbothoperandobjectsareusuallyincompatible,meaningthatthestartandendpointsoftheintervalsoftherstoperandoftendonotcoincidewithanystartandendpointsoftheintervalsofthesecondoperand,anintervalrenementhastobecomputedcoveringallstartandendpointsofunitintervalsofbothoperands.Anoptimizationisbasedonthefactthataspatiotemporalpredicateisonlydenedattimeinstantsandduringperiodsinwhichbothoperandobjectsaredened.Hence,thosetimeintervalscanbeskippedinwhichonlyoneoftheoperandsisdened 167

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2.Function-valuedintervalrenement:Eachpairofmatchingunitsinbothobjectshaspossiblytobefurtherreneddependingontheevolutionsrepresentedbythetwounitfunctions.Thisisthecaseifboth3Dunitobjectsintersectortoucheachotherandthuschangetheirtopologicalrelationship.Asaresult,wewillhavecomputedthenestintervalgranularityneededforthedeterminationofthetopologicalrelationshipbetweentwomatchingunits. 3.Developmentdetermination:Foreachpairofmatchingunitswenowdeterminetheunique,basicspatiotemporalpredicate(periodpredicate)ortopologicalrelationship(instantpredicate).Wethensequentiallycollectthetopologicalrelationshipsofallmatchingunitsandintotalobtainthedevelopmentofthetwooperandobjectsofthespatiotemporalquerypredicate. 4.Patternmatchingwithquerypredicate:Thisstepincludesapatternmatchingprocessbetweenthedevelopmentcomputedandthequerypredicateaskingforevaluation.ItresultsinoneoftheBooleanvaluestrueorfalse.Notethatthisstepisnotrequiredforaquerytodeterminethedevelopment. Toenhancethecomprehensibilityofthealgorithmicscheme,wehavedeliberatelydelin-eateditsstepsinaconsecutiveandseparatedmanner.Forexample,steps2and3caneasilybecombinedbecauseduringthecomputationoftheintersectionoftwo3Dunitobjects(step2)thespatiotemporalpredicatescanbedirectlyderived(step3).Evenacompletelyinterleavedexecutionofthealgorithmicstepsispossiblesincesteps1to4canbenested.Thisleadstoaslightincreaseinthealgorithmiccomplexitybutisalittlefasterbyaconstantfactor,althoughitdoesnotchangetheruntimecomplexity,aswewillseelater. Thealgorithmicschemeisindependentofthepredicatesequenceofthedevelopmentinducedbytheoperandobjectsofthequerypredicate,anditalsodoesnotdependonthequerypredicateitself.Steps1and4aregenericinthesensethattheydonotdependonthetypesoftheoperandobjects.Forsteps2and3,typecombination-specicintersectiondetectionalgorithmsandtypecombination-specictopologicalpredicatedeterminationareneededrespectively. Thefactthatweemployasinglealgorithmicschemeforcomputingallspatiotemporalpred-icatesnecessitatesandimpliesthattheirevaluationprocedureduringqueryprocessingisdifferent 168

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22 ]).Instep4,suchaquerystringpatternisthenmatchedagainsttheactualdevelopmentoftwomovingobjectsunderconsideration,whichisalsorepresentedbyastring. Inthefollowing,wedescribeaversionofthealgorithmicscheme,calledSTPredEvaluator(Figure 5-23 ),whererststep1,thensteps2and3together,andnallystep4areexecutedconsecutively.ThestartingpointisagivenspatiotemporalquerypredicateQ(mo1;mo2)appliedtotwomovingobjectsmok2fmapping(upoint);mapping(uline);mapping(uregion)gwithk2f1;2g.WeassumethattheDBMSrstchecksandkeepsintheagqwcwhetherQcontainseithertheinstantpredicatetrueorperiodpredicateTrue.Thesepredicatesaredenedasakindofwildcardpredicatestoexpressdon'tcarepartsofdevelopmentsincasethatadevelopmentisonlypartiallydened. Firstweperformaprecheckingontheinputobjects.Incasethatoneoftheoperandobjectsisempty,ortheirlifespansdonotintersect(operationTIntersects),wereturnfalseastheresult.Allcheckscanbedoneinconstanttime,exceptforthelifespancheckwhichtakesO(d1+d2)timeifd1andd2denotethenumbersofintervalsofls1andls2.Notethatcheckingtheirprojectionboundingboxesfordisjointednessisnotsufcienttoreturnafalsevaluehereiftheyaredisjoint.ThisisbecausethepredicatesdisjointandDisjointarealsorelationshipsthatcanbeaskedtobeevaluated.Furthermore,therearealsodifferenttypesofdisjointrelationshipsbetweencomplexobjectsasidentiedin[ 59 ]. 169

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pbb1;:::iandmo2=hn;ls2;obj pbb2;:::i,topologicalstringpatternQthathastobecheckedwithrespecttomo1andmo2,agqwcindicatingwhetherQincludeswildcardstrueorTrueoutput:trueifQmatchesactualdevelopment;false,otherwisebeginifn=0orm=0ornotTIntersects(ls1;ls2)thenreturnfalseelseRenedIntervals:=TimeSynchronizeIntervals(mo1;mo2);(ObjectsDevelopment,owc):=FunctionValuedRenement(RenedIntervals);returnPatternMatching(Q,qwc,ObjectsDevelopment,owc)endifendSTPredEvaluator. Figure5-23. Spatiotemporalpredicateevaluatoralgorithm. ThealgorithmTimeSynchronizeIntervalsyieldsasequenceofmatchingunitswithconcor-dant,possiblyreducedunitintervals.AswewillseeinSection 5.3.2 ,itsruntimecomplexityisO(n+m+b)wherenandmarethenumbersofunitintervalsofmo1andmo2,respectively,andbisthenumberofmatchingunitintervals. ThealgorithmFunctionValuedRenementfurtherrenesthissequencedependingontheunitfunctions;itreturnstheso-calledobjectdevelopmentandabooleanagindicatingtheexistenceofthewildcardstrueorTrueintheunitdevelopment.InSection 5.3.3 ,wewillshowthatthistakesO(bnmax(z2max+lognmax))wherezmaxisthemaximumnumberofmovingunitsegmentsormovingunitsinglepoints(bothalsoknownasunitelements)inaunitofmo1andmo2andnmaxisthemaximumnumberofchangesinthetopologicalrelationshipsbetweenunitelementsofmatchingunits. ThealgorithmPatternMatchingchecksthequerystringandtheactualobjectdevelopmentstringformatchingpattern.Theagsqwcandowcindicatewhetherthecorrespondingstringscontainwildcards.InSection 5.3.4 ,wewillshowthatforthecasethatbothstringsdonotcomprisewildcardsthisrequiresO(v+w)timewherevandwarethelengthsofthestrings. Finally,theruntimecomplexityofthealgorithmSTPredEvaluatoristhesumoftheruntimecomplexitiesofitssubalgorithms. 170

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5-24 ).Butduetoreasonsofefciency,wewillnotcopymatchingpartsandconstructtworeducedmovingobjects.Instead,wewilltakeanadditionalintervalsequencedatastructureandonlystorecommonintervalswithpointerstothematchingunitsofthetwomovingobjectsforlateruse. Figure5-24. Time-synchronizedrenementoftwounitintervalsequences:twosetsoftimeintervalsontheleftside,andtheirrenementpartitionfordevelopmentevaluationontherightside. Theimplementationoftheparallelscanthroughtheunitintervalsequencesofbothmovingobjectsturnsouttobenotsotrivialasitseemsatrstglance.Forexample,thedeploymentofAllen'sthirteendifferenttemporalpredicates[ 1 ],whichuniquelycharacterizethepossibletopologicalrelationshipsbetweentwointervals,isfeasiblebutleadstoalargenumberofcasedistinctionsandpredicateevaluationsthatmakeacompletetreatmenterror-proneandlengthy.Ourapproachleadstoshorter,faster(byaconstantfactor),andmorecomprehensiblecodeandisabletohandleclosed,half-open,andopenintervals.Itcollectsthestartandendpointsoftheintervalsofbothobjectsintemporalorderandthendeterminestheintersectionintervals.Inthefollowingalgorithm(Figure 5-25 ),thenotationhidenotestheemptysequence,sequenceconcatenation,thefunctioneostestswhethertheendofasequencehasbeenreached,the 171

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Figure5-25. Time-synchronizedintervalrenementalgorithm. 172

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Instep1ofthealgorithm,inthecasewheret1andt2coincide,eachofbothtimeinstantsmayindicatealeft-closed([),left-open((),right-closed(]),orright-open())interval.Thisresultsin16possiblecombinationsforbothtimeinstants.ForeachcombinationwehavetodecidetheorderofthetwotimeinstantsinthelistTListofintervalendpoints.Thisisneededinstep2ofthealgorithmtodeterminetherenedintervalsand,inparticular,todetecttimeintervalswhichhavedegeneratedtotimeinstants.ThedecisionprocessisillustratedinTable 5-6 whichinthersttwolineslistsallcombinationsofclosedandopen,leftandrightintervalendpointsandwhichinthethirdlinedeterminestheirorder.Thenotation,2meanst1mustprecedet2,,1meanstheinverse,andj2meansthattheorderisarbitrary. Table5-6. Intervalendpointordering. [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ( ( ( ( ) ) ) )t2 ] ( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] ( ) 1,2 1,2 2,1 2,1 1j2 1,2 2,1 2,1 2,1 1j2 2,1 1,2 1,2 1,2 1j2 Duetoatmost2(n+m)differentintervalendpoints,theruntimecomplexityforstep1isO(n+m)wherenandmarethenumbersofintervalsofmo1andmo2,respectively.WenowpresentthealgorithmNextforthenextoperation(Figure 5-26 )whichpositionsonthenexttimeinstantoftheunitintervalsequenceofoneofbothmovingobjectsandwhichneedsO(1)time. Instep2ofthealgorithm,thetemporallyorderedlistofallintervalleftandrightendpointsistraversedfordeterminingtheintersectionintervals.Thisisdonebycomputingoverlapnumbers(seeSection 5.2.1.2 ,hereappliedtotheone-dimensionalcase)indicatingthenumberofintervalscoveringatimeinstant.Onlytimeinstantsandintervalswithoverlapnumber2belongtotheresult.Theruntimecomplexityforstep2andalsoforthewholealgorithmTimeSynchronizeIntervalsisO(n+m+b)(=O(n+m)sincebn+m)wherebistheascertainednumberofmatchingunitintervals. 173

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Figure5-26. 5-27 ).Wedonotstorethisfurtherrenementexplicitlybutonlymakeourconclusionswithrespecttothedevelopmentintherespectiveunit. Figure5-27. IntersectingunitsegmentsoftwomovingpointsrepresentingthedevelopmentDisjoint.meet.Disjointandthusrequiringafurtherintervalrenement. Wealsohavetotakeintoaccountthatpartsofthewholedevelopmenttobecomputedmaybeundened.Hence,twoconsecutivetimeintervalsmaybeseparatedbytemporalgaps.In 174

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5-28 Figure5-28. Function-valuedintervalrenementalgorithm. Foreachrenedinterval,wedeterminetheunitdevelopmentofthecorrespondingunitsofthetwomovingobjectsbycallingtheUnitIntersectalgorithm.Thisalgorithmreturnstheunitdevelopmentspeciedbythetwo3Dunitobjects.ThealgorithmaredescribedinFigure 5-29 .It,inparticular,havetotakecareofthedegeneratecasethattheunitintervalisatimeinstant.ThefunctionNormalizeDevtransformsthecomputeddevelopmentintodevelopmentnormalform(see[ 22 ])andsimultaneouslycheckswhetherthedevelopmentcontainsthewildcardstrueorTrue. InthealgorithmUnitIntersect,thetermeval(vj;t)denotesanevaluationfunctionthatisappliedtotheunitfunctionvjforunitjattimet.Thisfunctionyieldsa2Dspatialobject.ThefunctionInstantPredandPeriodPredannotatesatopologicalpredicateidenticationnumber 175

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pbbp;unit pbbq)then//TakeasampleathalfwayoftheintervaltodeterminethetypeofdisjointreturnPeriodPred(TopRel(eval(vp;(l+r)=2);eval(vq;(l+r)=2)))else//Step1:Computecontactsbetweenanypairofmovingunitsegmentsand/or//movingunitsinglepoints(unitelements)TList:=hl;ri;foreachiin1:::z1do//z1isthenumberofunitelementsoftherstunitforeachjin1:::z2do//z2isthenumberofunitelementsofthesecondunit(c;t1;t2):=Contact(vp;i;vq;j);//ithresp.jthunitelementofvpresp.vqifcthenTList:=TListht1i;TList:=TListht2iendifendforendfor;//Step2:Sortlistoftimeinstants(events)andremoveduplicatesTList:=sort(TList);TList:=rdup(TList);//Step3:EvaluateTList(weassumeithasnelements)anddeterminedevelopmentUnitDevelopment:=;iflcthenUnitDevelopment:=InstantPred(TopRel(olp;olq))endifforeachjin2:::ndo//Takeasampleatatimebetweentj1andtjtp:=TopRel(eval(vp;(tj1+tj)=2);eval(vq;(tj1+tj)=2));UnitDevelopment:=UnitDevelopmentPeriodPred(tp);//Determinethetopologicalrelationshipattjiftj
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Thetimeinstantswhentwounitelementsstartandstoptointersectormeeteachotherrepresenttopologicaleventssincetheyindicatepossiblechangesoftopologicalrelationshipsbetweenthetwounits.Thatis,alocalchangeofthetopologicalrelationshipbetweentwounitelementsdoesnotnecessarilyimplyaglobalchangeinthetopologicalrelationshipofthetwounitsofthemovingobjects.Thisdependsonthedenitionofthetopologicalpredicates(Section 2.1.2 and[ 39 42 ]).Forexample,iftwocomponentsoftwouregionvaluesoverlapforsomeperiodwithinthecommonunitinterval,alocalchangeofthetopologicalrelationshipoftwoothercomponentsfromDisjointtomeetinthesameperiodwillnothaveaglobaleffectonthetopologicalrelationshipofthetwouregionvalues;itisstillOverlap.Thetopologicalrelationshipoftwounitelementsdoesnotchangebetweenthestarttimeandendtimeoftheircontact.Forallpairsofunitelements,thefunctionContactreturnsatriple(c;t1;t2)wherecisaagwhichindicateswhetherbothunitelementsintersectortouchormeet,i.e.,contact,eachother.Thevaluest1andt2arethestartandendtimesofacontactwhicharestoredinalistforfurtherprocessing.Theexactnatureofthecontactisnotrelevanthere,becauseitisonlyalocaleventandhastobegloballyevaluatedanyway. Inasecondstep,thelistoftimeinstantsobtainedfromtherststepissorted(functionsort),andduplicatesareremoved(functionrdup). Inathirdstep,thelistTListoftopologicaleventsisevaluatedandtheunitdevelopmentisdetermined.Sinceatemporalunitvaluecanconsistofseveralcomponents,thecomponentsoftwounitvaluesmaybespatiallyarrangedinmanydifferentwaysandthusleadtomanydifferentunitdevelopments.Therefore,weemploythefollowingglobalalgorithmicstrategy:WeapplythealgorithmTopReltoalltimeinstantsofTListandhenceobtainthetopologicalrelationshipsatthesetimes.Weknowthatthetopologicalbehaviorbetweentwoconsecutivetimeinstantst1andt2inTListisconstantbecauseatopologicalchangewouldotherwiseentailacontactsituationat 177

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ThecomputationofthespatialobjectattimeslandratthebeginningofthealgorithmtakestimeO(z1logz1)andO(z2logz2),respectively,wherez1andz2denotethenumberofunitelementsofthetwounits.Hence,thealgorithmTopRelrequirestimeO((z1+z2)log(z1+z2)).Step1includestwonestedloopsexecutingthefunctionContact,whichrunsinconstanttime.Intotal,thissteprequiresO(z1z2)time.Step2needsO(nlogn)timeforsortingthenelementsofTListandremovingtheduplicates.Step3computesapproximatelyntimesthefunctionTopRel,whichrequiresO(n(z1+z2)log(z1+z2))time.Hence,thealgorithmUnitIntersectneedstimeO(z1z2+nlogn+n(z1+z2)log(z1+z2)).Withz=max(z1;z2),thisisequaltoO(z2+nlogn+nzlogz)=O(n(z2+logn)).Inthiscase,thisleadstoaruntimecomplexityofO(bnmax(z2max+lognmax))forthealgorithmFunctionValuedRenementwherebisthenumberofmatchingunitintervals,zmaxisthemaximumnumberofunitelementsinaunitofbothmovingobjects,andnmaxisthemaximumnumberofchangesinthetopologicalrelationshipsbetweenunitelementsofmatchingunits. 178

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Thestringmatchingproblemcanariseinfourvariantswithdifferentalgorithmicandruntimecomplexitiesdependingontheexistenceofthewildcardstrue(t)andTrue(T)inthedevelopmentstringand/orthequerystring.First,boththedevelopmentstringandthequerystringdonotcontainwildcards.Second,thedevelopmentstringbutnotthequerystringincludeswildcards.Third,thequerystringbutnotthedevelopmentstringincludeswildcards.Fourth,bothstringscontainwildcards.ThisleadstothealgorithmPatternMatchingshowninFigure 5-30 Figure5-30. Patternmatchingalgorithm. Intherstcase,thestringmatchingproblemcanbesolvedbyastringequalitytestandneedstimeO(v+w)wherevisthelengthofQandwisthelengthofD.AllothercasesincorporatethewildcardstrueandTrue.Wecanthereforeconsiderstringscontainingthesewildcardsas(simplied)regularexpressions.Thecases2and3arespecialinstancesofexactregularexpressionpatternmatchingproblemswhereexactlyoneoftheargumentstrings,eitherthequerystringorthedevelopmentstring,includeswildcards.Theproblemhereistondoutwhetherthestringwithoutwildcardsmatchesoneofthestringsspeciedbytheregularexpression.ThisiscomputedbyapredicateREPM(see[ 28 ]fordetail)andrequiresO(vw)time 179

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27 ](unfortunatelywithoutruntimecomplexityanalysis). 1.Developmentdetermination:First,wedeterminethedevelopmentbetweenthehistoricalmovementsofthetwoballoonobjectsandmarkitascertaindevelopment.Then,wedeterminethedevelopmentbetweenthehistoricalmovementoftherstballoonobjectandthepredictedmovementofthesecondballoonobject,orviceversa,andmarkitasuncertaindevelopment.Finally,theuncertaindevelopmentbetweenthepredictedmovementsaredetermined.Thetemporalcompositionofthesedevelopmentsproducesthedevelopmentoftheballoonobjects. 2.Patternmatchingwithquerypredicate:Thisstepconsistsofapatternmatchingprocessbetweenthedevelopmentcomputedandthequerypredicateaskingforevaluation.ItresultsinoneoftheBooleanvaluestrueorfalse.Notethatthisstepisnotrequiredforaquerytodeterminethedevelopment. Figure 5-31 showsanalgorithmBPredEvaluatorforevaluatingaballoonpredicate.Intherststep,wedeterminethedevelopmentbetweenthehistoricalmovementsbycallingtheoperationSTDevDetermination.ThisoperationworksthesamewayasthealgorithmSTPredEvaluatorpresentedinSection 5.3.1 withtheexceptionthatitdoesnotemploythepatternmatchingprocessattheend.Thus,itreturnsthedevelopmentbetweenthetwoargumentobjects.ThefunctionCertainDevandUncertainDevannotatethedevelopmentasacertainand 180

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pbb1;h1;p1iandbo2=ht2;ls2;obj pbb2;h2;p2i,topologicalstringpatternQthathastobecheckedwithrespecttobo1andbo2,agqwcindicatingwhetherQincludeswildcardstrueorTrueoutput:trueifQmatchesactualdevelopment;false,otherwisebeginifnotTIntersects(ls1;ls2)thenreturnfalseelseObjectDevelopment:=CertainDev(STDevDetermination(h1,h2));dev:=;ift1t2thendev:=UncertainDev(STDevDetermination(h1,p2));endif;ObjectDevelopment:=ObjectDevelopmentdev;ObjectDevelopment:=ObjectDevelopmentUncertainDev(STDevDetermination(p1,p2));(ObjectDevelopment,owc):=NormalizeDev(ObjectDevelopment);returnPatternMatching(Q,qwc,ObjectDevelopment,owc)endifendBPredEvaluator. Figure5-31. Balloonpredicateevaluatoralgorithm. uncertaindevelopmentrespectivelyandthenreturnsthecorrespondingstringvalue.Dependingontherelativecomparisonbetweent1andt2(localpresentinstantsthatseparatethehistoricalandpredictedmovements),thecorrespondingdevelopmentbetweenthehistoricalmovementofanobjectandapredictedmovementoftheotherobjectisdeterminedandappendedtotheobjectdevelopment.Next,weappendthedevelopmentbetweenthepredictedmovementsofbothballoonobjectsandnormalizetheobjectdevelopment.ThenalstepistoemploythepatternmatchingprocessbycallingPatternMatchingandreturnthenalresult. Withanimplementationofthisalgorithm,onecanposeaqueryconsistingofbothtempo-rallycertainanduncertaindevelopments.Forexample,assumethattheprexescandudenotecertainanduncertaindevelopmentrespectively.AquerystringcDisjointuDisjointaskedtoverifywhetherthedevelopmenthasalwaysbeenandwillalwaysbedisjoint.AquerystringTrueuInsideTrueaskedwhetherthedevelopmentInsideexistssometimesinthefuture. 181

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First,oneshoulddesignanddevelopanalgebra,itsdatatypesandoperationsfromanabstractdatatypespointofview.Thisallowsaclearandcomprehensibledesignofthedatatypesandoperationsaswellasaseamlesstransformationofthedesignintoimplementableclassesandmethods. Second,oneshouldconsideranumberofrequirementspertainingtotheextensibilityoptionofDBMSsofinterest.Theseincludestheabilitytocreateuser-denedtypes(UDT)anduser-denedfunctions(UDF),largeobject(LOB)management,externalprocedureinvocations,programminglanguageandtypelibrarycompatibility,andstorageorobjectsizelimitations. Third,themechanismandtheenvironmentinwhichoperationsareexecutedshouldbetakenintoaccount.Somecriteriaincludeswhetheroperationswillbeinternallyexecutedinmemorybyrequiringallargumentobjectstobeentirelyloadedinmainmemory(memoryexecution)orexternallyexecutedbyloadingonlyrequiredpartsofargumentobjectsfromadatabaseatatime(databaseexecution).Bothalternativeshaveadvantagesanddisadvantagesdependingonotherfactorssuchasthenatureoftheoperations,theamountofavailablemainmemory,thesizeofargumentobjects,thespeedofthedatabasecommunicationlink,etc. Withthesecriteriainmind,ourapproachhasbeentodevelopthealgebrainthreeabstractionlevels(abstract,discrete,andimplementationlevels)toallowforaclearandcomprehensiblespecicationofthedatatypesandoperations.OurspecicimplementationoftheMovingBalloonAlgebra,whichresultsinasoftwarelibrarypackagecalledMBA,isdonebyusingan 182

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5-32 ,weshowhowwecanregisteroneofourmovingballoondatatypesmballoonppandanoperationgetFunctionCount(returnsthenumberofunitfunctionsinamovingballoonobject)inOracle. RegistrationofadatatypeandanoperationinOracle. Inthiscase,ourmovingballoonobjectsarestoredinbinarylargeobjects(blob).AninvocationofthegetFunctionCountoperationrequiresalocator(apointertoablob)tobepassed 183

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Inthememorystorageoption,objectsarenotpersistentinthattheyonlyexistinmemoryforthedurationoftheprogramexecution.Thisoptionisalsorequiredformemoryexecutionmodeofdatabaseobjectswhereobjectsareloadedentirelyintomemory.Theblobstorageoptionallowsobjectstobestoredpersistentlyanddirectlyindatabaseblobs.Thisoptionfacilitatesmemoryexecutionmodesinceeachblobneedstobeloadedcompletelyintomemorytoconstructamemorybasedobjectthroughadeserializationprocess.Thisoptionispreferableforsmall-sizedobjectsthatdonotrequirefrequentupdate(updateoperationsrequirewritingbacktodatabaseblobsthroughaserializationprocess).Toenabledatabaseexecutionmode,ourmSLOBstorageoptionmakesuseofanintermediatelayercalledmSLOBforstoragemanagement.mSLOBisourimplementationofamulti-structuredlargeobjectmanagementconceptfordatabaseblobs[ 40 ].mSLOBprovidescomponent-basedreadandwriteaccesstostructuredandmulti-structuredobjectsstoredinblobs.Thus,itallowsustoreadandwriteanycomponentofourobjectsondemandwithouttheneedtoloadtheentireobjectsintomainmemory.Therefore,themSLOBstorageoptionispreferableforlargeobjectsandfrequentlyupdatedobjects.Figure 5-33 illustratestheapplicationsystemarchitectureinwhichanumberofalgebracanbeintegratedinaDBMSwithorwithoutmSLOB. WithouralgebraintegratedinaDBMSandourUDTsandUDFsregistered,wecannowcreatetablesusingourregisteredtypes,populatedata,andposequeryusingourregisteredfunctions.Forexample,wecancreateasimpletabletostoreourmballoonppobjectsasshowninFigure 5-34 184

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TheintegrationofalgebrainextensibleDBMSs Creatingatableusingauser-denedtype. Assumingthatwehavepopulatedthistablewithafewmovingballoonobjects.Wecanthenposeaquery(Figure 5-35 )onthistableinSQLusingourUDFgetFunctionCounttogetthenumberofunitfunctionsineachobject. Usingauser-denedfunctioninSQLquery. Hurricanesaresomeofthemostpowerfulanddeadliestforcesofnature.AccordingtotheNationalHurricaneCenter,1385tropicalstormsandhurricaneshadbeenrecordedbetween1851 185

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Traditionally,stormdataincludingitsmovements(alsoknownasbesttrackdata)arecollectedandstoredinatextleinaspecicformatcalledHURDAT.Fromthisdata,researchersemploysophisticatedpredictionmodelstopredictthepositionofthestormatevery12-hourintervalwithinupto120hoursinthefuture.Thisisessentiallyapredictionwhichisusedtoproduceapublicadvisory.Thisisdoneevery6hoursforwhichthebesttrackinformationofthestormisavailable.Thus,forastormthatlastsforaweekorso,therecanbeasmanyas20advisoriesorpredictions.Asonemayhavenoticed,thistypeofdatatsverywellwithourmodelofmovingballoonobjects. Itisimportanttonoticealsothatthelimitationsofcurrentlyexistingmovingobjectmanagementtechnologyhaveabigimpactonthecomplexityofpredictiondataandtheirmanagement.Duetothelackofacomprehensivemovingobjectmodelwithsupportforpredictedmovementsandthelackofmovingobjectmanagementindatabase,sofar,hurricanepredictionshaveonlybeenmadeinregardstothefuturepositionsofthecenterofastorm(themovementofwhichisamovingpoint),andthesedataaregenerallystoredinnormalles.Thiseffectivelylimitsrichnessofrepresentationaswellaslimitsthequeryingpossibilityforthepredicteddata. WiththeuseofourMovingBalloonAlgebrainadatabasesystem,amorecomplexrepresentationofhurricanepredictionscanbesupported,managed,andofferedforqueryingpurposes.Forexample,insteadofprovidingapredictionasaseriesofpositions,researcherscannowprovideapredictionasamovingregion.Therefore,themovementoftheeyeofahurricanecanberepresentedasamovingballoonobjectbasedonamovingpointhistoryandmovingregionpredictions.Sofar,thishasnotbeenavailableinhurricaneresearch,andthusresearchersfrequentlyusetheaverageerrorsbetweentheirpredictionsinthepastandthebest 186

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AB CD Figure5-36. VisualizationofhurricaneKatrinausingtheMovingBalloonAlgebra. 187

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5-36 Aand 5-36 BshowhurricaneKatrinaasaballoonobjectonAugust26,2005at00:00GMTandAugust29,2005at00:00GMTrespectively.Figure 5-36 CshowsKatrinaasamovingballoonobjectconsistingofhertrackandall28ofherpredictionsoverthecourseofherlifetimedrawnontopofoneanother.Wecanswitchthevisualizationtoatemporalanalysisperspectivemodewherewecananalyze,atanyspecicinstant,thepositionoftheeyeaswellasthestateofthepredictions.Figure 5-36 DshowsKatrina'seyepositionwhenmakinglandfallinNewOrleansonAugust29,2005at11:00GMTandthestateofallofitsavailablepredictionsatthetime.Inthisparticulargure,wetakeasnapshotofthemovementandallavailablepredictionsattheinstantofthelandfall.Eachringrepresentsapredicteduncertaintyregionwithrespecttoaspecicprediction.Asonemaynotice,hereweseethatthepositionofKatrina'seyeisintheintersectionofalltheringsmeaningthatallofthesepreviouspredictionsarevalidandaccuratetosomedegreeatthisinstant.Ifatanyinstanttheeye'spositionisoutsideofaring,thismeansthatthepreviouspredictioncorrespondingtotheringisnotaccurate.Aspartofouralgebra,weprovideanoperationhas bad predictiontocheckforinaccuratepredictionswithinamovingballoonobject.Thisoperationmakesuseofourspatiotemporalpredicateimplementationtodeterminewhethertheeye'spositioneverleavesanyofthepredictedregions.InthecaseofhurricaneKatrina,prediction#7,#8,and#9hasbeenfoundtobeinaccurate.Figure 5-37 Ashowsanobject-basedperspectiveofthecompletetrackandprediction#7whichwasproducedonAugust25,2005at12:00GMT.Figure 5-37 Billustratesatemporalanalysisperspectiveoftheeye'spositionandtheuncertaintyregionofprediction#7onAugust27,2005at12:00GMTwhentheactualpositionoftheeyestartstostrayoutsideofthepredictedregion. ByperformingthiskindofanalysisforalloftheNorthAtlanticstormsoverthepast5years(2003-2007forwhichpredictiondataareavailable),wecandetermineforeachstormthenumberofaccurateandinaccuratepredictionsasshowninFigure 5-38 A.Intotal,82storms 188

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Figure5-37. VisualizinghurricaneKatrina.A)Katrina'sprediction#7inobject-basedperspectives.B)TemporalanalysisperspectiveonAugust27,2005at12:00GMT. havebeenrecorded,and1863predictionshavebeenproducedofwhich655(orabout35%)havebeenfoundtobeinaccurate.Wehavealsodiscoveredthatmostofthestormsthathavehighpercentageofinaccuratepredictionsoftenexperiencecertainbehaviorssuchasmaking90degreeturnsandu-turns(e.g.,hurricaneKate(#1312)asshowninFigure 5-38 B),orformingaloop(e.g.,hurricaneLisa(#1329)asshowninFigure 5-38 C).Itisclearthatthistypeofinformationwouldbeusefulforresearcherstostudysuchbehaviorsandmakenecessaryadjustmentstotheirpredictionmodel. 189

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BC Figure5-38. Hurricaneanalysis.A)Hurricanepredictionanalysisbetween2003and2007.B)HurricaneKate(#1312).C)HurricaneLisa(#1329). 190

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Inthischapter,weprovideanassessmentofourMovingBalloonAlgebraanditsimple-mentation.Theassessmentispresentedattwolevels.Werstprovideanassessmentofourtopologicalpredicateimplementationconcept.Thenwediscussanassessmentofourspatiotem-poralmodel. 191

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192

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Fortestingtheresultsoftheevaluationphase,wetakethetopologicalfeaturevectorsasinputforthe9-intersectionmatrixcharacterizationmethodandtheoptimizationmethodsofmatrixthinningandminimumcostdecisiontrees.Thecorrectnessofallmethodshasbeencheckedbyatechniqueknownasgray-boxtesting,whichcombinestheadvantagesoftwoothertechniquescalledblack-boxtestingandwhite-boxtesting.Theblack-boxtestingtechniquearrangesforwelldenedinputandoutputobjects.Inourcase,theinputconsistsoftwocorrecttopologicalfeaturevectorsaswellasamatrixnumberofthetopologicalpredicatetobeveriedincaseofpredicateverication.Thisenablesustotestthefunctionalbehaviorofthethreemethodimplementations.TheoutputisguaranteedtobeeitheraBooleanvalue(predicateverication)oravalidmatrixnumberofatopologicalrelationshippredenedforthetypecombinationunderconsideration(predicatedetermination).Thewhite-boxtestingtechniqueconsiderseverysingleexecutionpathandguaranteesthateachstatementisexecutedatleastonce.Thisensuresthatallcasesthatarespeciedandhandledbythealgorithmsareproperlytested. Allcaseshavebeensuccessfullytestedandindicatethecorrectnessofourconceptsandtheabilityofouralgorithmstocorrectlyverifyordetermineatopologicalpredicate. 2.3 wehaveseenthatallavailableimplementationsoftopologicalrelationshipsmainlyfocusontheeightpredicatesdisjoint,meet,overlap,equal,inside,contains,covers,andcoveredBythathave 193

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Figure6-1. Predicatevericationwithoutandwithmatrixthinning beengeneralizedtoanduniedforallcombinationsofcomplexspatialdatatypes.Hence,acomparisontoourmuchmorene-grainedcollectionof184(248)topologicalpredicates(Section 2.1.2 )isnotpossible.Second,studyingthecorrespondingdocumentation,wehavenotfoundaformaldenitionofthesemanticsoftheseeightgenericpredicatesforalltypecombinations.Third,animplementationofourcollectionoftopologicalpredicatesandpredicateexecutiontechniquesisnottrivialinthecontextofcommercialimplementationssincetheiralgorithmsandprogramcodearenotpubliclyavailableandtheirsystemenvironmentsareveryspecial.Forexample,thealgorithmsfortheeighttopologicalpredicateshavenotbeenpublished. 194

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50 ]. Forpredicateverication(PV),Figures 6-1 Band 6-1 Cillustratetheaverageexecutiontimeforeachpredicateofeachtypecombinationwithoutandwithmatrixthinning(MT).TheoverallaverageforeachtypecombinationisshowninFigure 6-1 A.Theperformanceimprovementsfromusingmatrixthinningarequitenoticeableandrangefrom13%executiontimereductionfortheline/linecaseupto55%forthepoint/pointcase. Similarly,forpredicatedetermination(PD),Figures 6-2 Band 6-2 Cshowtheaverageexecutiontimeforeachpredicateofeachtypecombinationwithoutandwiththeuseofminimumcostdecisiontrees.TheoverallaverageforeachtypecombinationisshowninFigure 6-2 A.Theresultsindicatesignicantperformanceimprovementsfromusingminimumcostdecisiontrees.Theimprovementsrangefrom75%executiontimereductionforthepoint/regioncaseupto91%fortheline/linecase. Althoughtheexecutiontimereductionsareremarkableforbothpredicatevericationandespeciallypredicatedeterminationandclearlyreectthetrend,theempiricalresultsshowninFigures 6-1 and 6-2 arenotasoptimisticasthecomputationalresultsgiveninTables 5-3 and 5-5 .Thereasonthatwecannotreachtheselowerboundsinpracticeconsistsinprogrammingandruntimeoverheadssuchasextraconditionalchecks,constructionofthinnedoutmatricesandminimumcostdecisiontrees,andtheirtraversals.However,evenwiththeseoverheads,itisevidentthatourapproachprovidesconsiderableperformanceoptimizations. 195

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Figure6-2. PredicatedeterminationwithoutandwithMCDT 2.2 )onlyprovideasmallsubsetoffeatures,andtheirmodelingcapabilityisgenerallyveryrestrictive.Furthermore, 196

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Withrespecttothetraditionalmovingobjectmodeldenedin[ 32 61 ],ourhistoricalmovementmodelisarestrictedversionofthismodel.Wedenedamorepreciseandappropriatemodelforrepresentingtherealityofmovingobjects.Thisisdonebyimposingthecontinuitypropertyonmovementsofmovingobjects.AsfarastheMOSTmodel[ 60 ]isconcerned,thismodelusesaspecictechnique/concept,thatis,motionvector,toprovidethenearfuturepositionsofmovingpointswithouttakingintoaccounttheuncertaintyaspectofthefutureprediction.Infact,thismodelcanbeconsideredasapredictionmodelformovingpointsthatprovidesmovingpointtypepredictions.Thus,wecansupporttheMOSTmodelthroughtheuseofourspatiotemporalballoondatatypemballoon pp.InadditiontothecapabilityoftheMOSTmodelwhichcankeeptrackofthecurrentpositionandthecurrentpredictionofamovingpoint,ouralgebracanalsokeeptrackofthepastpositionsaswellaspastpredictions.SincethealgebraprovidesdatamodelingsupportfortheMOSTmodel,thismeansthatitalsosupportstheFTLquerylanguagewhichisusedforenteringdifferenttypesofspatiotemporalqueriessuchascontinuousandpersistentqueries. Inregardtotheuncertaintymodelingofmovingobjects,themodeldescribedin[ 26 ]providesdatamodelingsupportforthefuturepredictionofamovingpointthroughtheuseofanuncertaintythreshold.Thisthresholdisappliedtoafuturetrajectoryorafuturemotionplanofamovingpointcreatingatrajectoryvolumerepresentingthesetofallpossiblefuturemotioncurves.ItisobviousthatthistrajectoryvolumecanberepresentedinourMovingBalloonAlgebrausingthefuturepredictiondatatypefregion.Thus,thedynamicofthemovingpointinthismodelcanberepresentedinouralgebrausingthespatiotemporalballoondatatypemballoon pr.Consequently,thespatiotemporalpredicatemodeldenedin[ 26 ]isasubsetofourballoonpredicatemodelsinceitisonlydenedbetweenthefuturemovement 197

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Denitely InsidebetweenanuncertaintrajectoryUTr=(T;r)andastaticregionRwhereTisthefuturetrajectoryandristheuncertaintythreshold.LetPMCTdenoteapossiblemotioncurveofUTr.ThespatiotemporalpredicateSometime Denitely Insideisdenedin[ 26 ]asSometime Denitely Inside(UTr;R)=(9t)(8PMCT):inside(R;PMCT;t).ThespatialpredicateinsidedetermineswhetherthevalueofPMCTattisinsidetheregionR.Inourmodel,theobjectUTrcanbemodeledasanfregionobjectwithauniformcondencedistribution.LikewisethestaticregionRcanbetemporallyliftedintoanobjectoftypefregionaswell.Thus,thespatiotemporalpredicateSometime Denitely InsidecanbecharacterizedinourmodelasSometime Denitely Inside(UTr;R)=(9t2time)(8p2val(atinstant(UTr;t))):inside(p;val(atinstant(R;t))).Byfollowingthisapproach,wecanalsocharacterizeotherspatiotemporalpredicatesfoundin[ 26 ]inourmodel. Asaresultofthisdiscussion,wehaveshowntherelationshipbetweenourMovingBalloonAlgebraandthecurrentlyexistingmovingobjectmodels.Inadditiontoprovidingamorepreciseandappropriatewaytorepresenttherealityofmovingobjects,ourdatamodelalsoprovidesamoregenericsetofspatiotemporaldatatypes,incomparisontoexistingmovingobjectmodels,tosupportawidevarietyofmovingobjects.Furthermore,ouralgebracansupportexistingfunctionalitieswhichareavailableinexistingmodelsaswellasintroducenewones. 198

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Althoughtherehavebeenseveralspatiotemporaldatamodelsproposedinthepastforhandlingmovingobjects,eachofthemsupportseitherhistoricalmovementsrelatingtothepastorpredictedmovementsrelatingtothefuturebutnotbothtogether.Furthermore,theirmodelspecicationsareeithertoogeneralandvagueortoospecicandrestrictedtoonlyacertainproblem.Theexistingmovingobjectmodelforhistoricalmovementsisrathervagueintheirdenitionofmovingtypes.Themodelsforfuturemovementsofmovingobjectstendtoemphasizeonusingspecicpredictionmethodsandcombiningpredictionmethodswithmovingobjectmodelsinatop-downverticalapproachtoaddressaspecicproblemonly.Toproperlymodelthedevelopmentandevolutionofhistoricalandpredictedmovementsofmovingobjects,itisrequiredthatwehaveaclearunderstandingofhowobjectsmoveorevolve.Furthermore,modelingthefuturepredictionsofmovingobjectsrequiresthatwetakeintoaccounttheinherentuncertaintyaspectofthefuture.Finally,modelingthedynamicmovementsincludingboththepasthistoriesandthefuturepredictionsofmovingobjectsrequiresthatweadditionallymaintaintheconsistencyofthemovementsatalltime. TheMovingBalloonAlgebrapresentedinthisresearchsatisesthesecriteriawhileaddressingalloftheshortcomingsofcurrentmodels.Ourmaincontributionisanewintegrativespatiotemporaldatamodelforsupportingbothhistoricalandpredictedmovementsofmovingobjectsindatabases.Aspartofthemodel,wepresentnewsetsofspatiotemporaldatatypesincludingballoonandspatiotemporalballoondatatypesforrepresentingalltypesofmovements.Withthesedatatypes,newsetsofspatiotemporalpredicatesandoperationsbecomeavailablewhichopenupanewrealmofqueryingpossibility.Furthermore,theseparationbetweenourdatamodelanddomainspecicpredictionmodelsallowsforexibleinteroperabilitywithdifferentkindsofpredictionmodelswithoutsacricingthegenericityofthemodel.Thealgebraispresentedinthreedifferentlevelsofabstractioninordertoprovideaclearandcomprehensivespecicationforimplementation.Thisapproachhasprovedbenecialfor 199

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Giventhelackofacomprehensivemovingobjectmodelandcorrespondingimplementation,thisresearchandhenceourcontributioncanbeconsideredasasubstantialadvancementintheeldofspatialandspatiotemporaldatabasesystemsresearch.Theresultofthisresearchoffersunprecedentedsupportformovingobjectmanagement.Suchsupportisoftendesperatelyneededinmanydisciplinesincludingthegeosciences,geographicalinformationscience(GIS),articialintelligence,robotics,mobilecomputing,andclimatology.Amongmanypotentialapplications,asanexample,wehaveshownhowourresearchcanprovideleverageformovingobjectmanagementintheeldofhurricaneresearch.Suchleveragecanprovideawholenewperspectivetoapproachexistingproblemsandthuscanpotentiallyopenupawholenewrealmofresearch. Althoughitisevidentthatourcontributionmayhavealreadybeenofmuchbenecialtotheresearchcommunity,anumberoftopicsmaybeofinterestforfutureinvestigations.ItwouldalsobeinterestingtoseehowsuchaMovingBalloonAlgebracanhandlethevaguenessorfuzzinessaspectsofimprecisespatialmodel.Furthermore,whethersuchanalgebraanditcorrespondingconceptscanbeusedtosupportotherrelatedresearchtopicssuchasspatiotemporaldatawarehousingandspatiotemporaldataminingstillremainstobeexplored. 200

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R.H.Guting.Geo-RelationalAlgebra:AModelandQueryLanguageforGeometricDatabaseSystems.InInt.Conf.onExtendingDatabaseTechnology(EDBT),pages506,1988. [30] R.H.GutingandM.Schneider.Realms:AFoundationforSpatialDataTypesinDatabaseSystems.In3rdInt.Symp.onAdvancesinSpatialDatabases,LNCS692,pages14.Springer-Verlag,1993. [31] R.H.GutingandM.Schneider.Realm-BasedSpatialDataTypes:TheROSEAlgebra.VLDBJournal,4:100,1995. [32] R.H.Guting,M.H.Bohlen,M.Erwig,C.S.Jensen,N.A.Lorentzos,M.Schneider,andM.Vazirgiannis.AFoundationforRepresentingandQueryingMovingObjects.ACMTrans.onDatabaseSystems(TODS),25,(1,):881,2000,. [33] R.H.Guting,T.deRidder,andM.Schneider.ImplementationoftheROSEAlgebra:EfcientAlgorithmsforRealm-BasedSpatialDataTypes.InInt.Symp.onAdvancesinSpatialDatabases,1995. [34] R.H.GutingandM.Schneider.MovingObjectsDatabases.MorganKaufmannPublishers,2005. [35] InformixGeodeticDataBladeModule:User'sGuide.InformixPress,1997. [36] Y.GuoS.GrumbachJ.Chen,X.MengandH.Sun.ModelingandPredictingFutureTrajectoriesofMovingObjectsinaConstrainedNetwork.InInt.Conf.onMobileDataManagement(MDM),page156,2006. [37] JTSTopologySuite.VividSolutions,2007.URL: http://www.vividsolutions.com/JTS/JTSHome.htm [38] B.KuijpersandW.Othman.Trajectorydatabases:Datamodels,uncertaintyandcompletequerylanguages.In11thInternationalConferenceonDatabaseTheory,pages224,2007. [39] M.McKenney,A.Pauly,R.Praing,andM.Schneider.PreservingLocalTopologicalRelationships.InACMSymp.onGeographicInformationSystems(ACMGIS),pages123.ACM,2006. [40] M.McKenney,A.Pauly,R.Praing,andM.Schneider.Multi-StructuredLargeObjectsinDatabases.Technicalreport,UniversityofFlorida,DepartmentofComputer&InformationScience&Engineering,2006. [41] M.McKenney,A.Pauly,R.Praing,andM.Schneider.EnsuringtheSemanticCorrect-nessofComplexRegions.In1stInt.WorkshoponSemanticandConceptualIssuesinGeographicInformationSystems(SeCoGIS),pages409,2007. [42] M.McKenney,A.Pauly,R.Praing,andM.Schneider.LocalTopologicalRelationshipsforComplexRegions.InSymposiumonSpatialandTemporalDatabases,2007. 203

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ReaseyPraingwasbornonDecember5,1980inPhnomPenh,Cambodia.Thethirdchildoffourchildren,hegrewupinPhnomPenh,graduatingwithhighdistinctionfromIndradeviHighSchoolin1996.Then,heattendedtheFacultyofBusinessandNortonUniversityandreceivedaSmallBusinessManagementdegreein1997.Laterthatyear,hecametovisittheUnitedStateswithhissistersinMiami,Florida,andtherehefoundagreatopportunityforhighereducation.HeearnedhisBachelorofScienceinComputerScienceandgraduationwithhonorsfromFloridaInternationalUniversityin2001.HethenattendedtheUniversityofSouthernCaliforniainLosAngeles,CaliforniaandearnedhisMasterofScienceinComputerSciencein2002.UponreceivinghisMasterofSciencedegree,ReaseyjoinedtheComputer&InformationScience&EngineeringdepartmentattheUniversityofFloridaasaPh.D.studentandteachingassistantin2003.Duringthersttwoyearsasateachingassistant,ReaseyhelpedwithteachingresponsibilitiesandleadingdiscussionsectionsformanygraduateandundergraduateclassesincludingJavaprogramming,computersimulation,anddatabasesystems.Forthelast3yearsofhisPh.D.program,ReaseyworkedasaresearchassistantforhisadviserDr.MarkusSchneiderinaNationalScienceFoundationresearchproject.UponcompletionofhisPh.D.program,ReaseywillbejoiningUltimateSoftwareGroupInc.inWeston,Florida.Inthefuture,ReaseyplanstoreturntoCambodiaandteachatauniversitythere. 206