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Architecture as the Occupied Language

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022555/00001

Material Information

Title: Architecture as the Occupied Language Commentary on the Pedagogies of Craftsmanship in Design-Build
Physical Description: 1 online resource (69 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Colas, Everald
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: biuld, craft, craftsmanship, design, pedagogies
Architecture -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Architecture thesis, M.S.A.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Architecture, as a discipline, casts a wide net within the branches of education. In turn, architectural pedagogy due to its fluid nature, challenges the educator and student to establish and re-establish languages appropriate for architectural thinking, making, and human dwelling. Drawing on this statement, architectural design and building can be seen to occupy an unstable territory of permanently shifting allegiance, and this is true of both the histories of these two sets of thinking and the two families of discourse surrounding them. This study explores the gaps in the interdisciplinary evolving nature of design, craft, and making, in order to propose pedagogical overlaps for thinking, making, imagining, and communicating. Craft, as it relates to architecture pedagogy, is a term applied to the architectural process of techniques in which artifacts are made by hand and eye. Historically the craftsman/ artisans, who showed a sense mastery of technique and embodying fitness or purpose- and trueness of material, operated in the contextual interdisciplinary gap between thinking and building. The craftsman's roles to their communities changed within the turn of the Industrial Revolution. What is outlined is a paralleled re-visiting of the evolution of craftsmanship and the influences that it embodies when addressing design-build pedagogy in architecture.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Everald Colas.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.A.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Hailey, Charles L.
Local: Co-adviser: Robinson, Paul Oldfield.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022555:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022555/00001

Material Information

Title: Architecture as the Occupied Language Commentary on the Pedagogies of Craftsmanship in Design-Build
Physical Description: 1 online resource (69 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Colas, Everald
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: biuld, craft, craftsmanship, design, pedagogies
Architecture -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Architecture thesis, M.S.A.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Architecture, as a discipline, casts a wide net within the branches of education. In turn, architectural pedagogy due to its fluid nature, challenges the educator and student to establish and re-establish languages appropriate for architectural thinking, making, and human dwelling. Drawing on this statement, architectural design and building can be seen to occupy an unstable territory of permanently shifting allegiance, and this is true of both the histories of these two sets of thinking and the two families of discourse surrounding them. This study explores the gaps in the interdisciplinary evolving nature of design, craft, and making, in order to propose pedagogical overlaps for thinking, making, imagining, and communicating. Craft, as it relates to architecture pedagogy, is a term applied to the architectural process of techniques in which artifacts are made by hand and eye. Historically the craftsman/ artisans, who showed a sense mastery of technique and embodying fitness or purpose- and trueness of material, operated in the contextual interdisciplinary gap between thinking and building. The craftsman's roles to their communities changed within the turn of the Industrial Revolution. What is outlined is a paralleled re-visiting of the evolution of craftsmanship and the influences that it embodies when addressing design-build pedagogy in architecture.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Everald Colas.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.A.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Hailey, Charles L.
Local: Co-adviser: Robinson, Paul Oldfield.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022555:00001


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ARCHITECTURE AS THE OCCUPIED LANGUAGE: A COMMENTARY ON THE
PEDAGOGIES OF CRAFTSMANSHIP IN DESIGN-BUILD





















By

EVERALD COLAS


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008


































2008 Everald Colas



































To my professors









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank my wife, Lauren Colas, for her love and unconditional support. I thank my chair,

Charlie Hailey, for his example as an academic and his guidance and valuable feedback through

my professional degrees. I am honored to have had the chance to collaborate with him on so

many endeavors. I also thank Robert Macleod and Nancy Sanders who were the first educators,

by example, to ignite a love for teaching in me. I like to thank both Mark McGlothlin and Paul

Robinson for giving me advice on the issues of craftsmanship and engineering.

I thank Nina Hofer and Martin Gundersen who made untold sacrifices, for the teaching

examples of work in this thesis to see the light of day. I thank Martha Kohen for her academic

guidance and financial support. Without it, my graduate work would not have been possible.

Lastly I acknowledge James Eckler and Jeff Andre for asking critical questions that helped me

frame my arguments. Most of all I thank Jesus, who is Christ, for allowing me to live, breathe,

and think.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ..............................................................................................................4

LIST OF FIGURES .................................. .. ..... ..... ................. .6

A B S T R A C T ................................ .................. .......................... ................ 7

CHAPTER

1 P R O L O G U E .............. ................................. ............ ................................... 8

Parallels of the Architect and Craftsm an.............................. .................. ... ............11
In Between the Pedagogies of Drawing and Building.........................................................14

2 COLLECTIVE MAKING IN THE PEDAGOGIC FRINGE ..........................................25

M making in a Specific C context ......... ..... ............ ................. ..............................................29
E change through B building ......... ..... ............ ................. ........................... ......................33
P e d ag o g y a s a L in e ........................................................................................................... 3 8

3 M A K E A N D R E FL E C T .............................................................................. .....................4 1

Scale of M making ......... ... ............................... ............... 41
The H and, D raw ing and the A rtificer.......... ................. .......... ............... ............... 43

4 CONCLUSION: PRODUCT DOES NOT EQUAL PROCESS ........................................47

R thinking D design B u ild .............................................................................. ................ .. 4 7
C raft a s P o ssib ility ............. .. ............... ................. .............................................4 9

5 R E L A TE D R E A D IN G S ......... ................. ............................................. ............................54

Translation as Process............ ......... ............................. 54
T he A adaptation of T he H and ......... ................. ....................................... ...........................55

APPENDIX

A A D ESIGN -BU ILD W ORK SH OP ......... ................. .........................................................58

B REFLECTIVE BUILDING: OVERCOMING BOUNDARIES BETWEEN
UNIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY THROUGH DESIGN-BUILD PEDAGOGY ..........65

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ...................................................................................... ...................67

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H .............................................................................. .....................69









LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

1-1 W wandering line drawing of Urban Edges................................................ ........ ....... 20

1-2 Drawing as metaphysical and physical exploration..............................................21

1-3 W alter P ichler .............................................................................22

1-4 Wandering line drawing of an envisioned public space ................................................23

2-1 Citadelle Laferriere ..................................... ................... .......... .. ............ 28

2-2 Image of Boys and Girls Club's Woodland Park site for community garden (looking
n o rth ) .......... .... ........ .. .. .......... ... ... .......................................... ..... 3

2-3 Series of images from the Clay station ........ ...........................................34

2-4 Series of images from the Brick-making station........_.... ........................... 35

2-5 Series of images from the Mapping station ..............................................35

2-6 Series of images from the virtual station ............ .................................... ................35

2-7 Series of images from the scavenger station............................................ ...............36

3-1 W ood as a draw ing m material ..................................................................... ...................42

3-2 D ecking extend tow ards planters ...................................................................... 43

3-3 T he hand as an artificer........................................................................... .....................4 5









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Master of Science in Architectural Studies

ARCHITECTURE IS THE OCCUPIED LANGUAGE: A COMMENTARY ON THE
PEDAGOGIES OF CRAFTSMANSHIP IN DESIGN-BIULD

By

Everald Colas

August 2008

Chair: Charlie Hailey
Cochair: Paul Robinson
Major: Architecture

Architecture, as a discipline, casts a wide net within the branches of education. In turn,

architectural pedagogy due to its fluid nature, challenges the educator and student to establish

and re-establish languages appropriate for architectural thinking, making, and human dwelling.

Drawing on this statement, architectural design and building can be seen to occupy an unstable

territory of permanently shifting allegiance, and this is true of both the histories of these two sets

of thinking and the two families of discourse surrounding them. This study explores the gaps in

the interdisciplinary evolving nature of design, craft, and making, in order to propose

pedagogical overlaps for thinking, making, imagining, and communicating. Craft, as it relates to

architecture pedagogy, is a term applied to the architectural process of techniques in which

artifacts are made by hand and eye. Historically the craftsman/ artisans, who showed a sense

mastery of technique and embodying fitness or purpose- and trueness of material, operated in the

contextual interdisciplinary gap between thinking and building. The craftsmen's roles to their

communities changed within the turn of the Industrial Revolution. What is outlined is a

paralleled re-visiting of the evolution of craftsmanship and the influences that it embodies when

addressing design-build pedagogy in architecture.









CHAPTER 1
PROLOGUE

Memory is peculiar. It is so selfish. It occurs and reoccurs and even reshapes itself to

seem more attractive. I sometimes do not want it, but it is me. When the terms architecture and

making are stated or written the same memory competes in my head. I pay it no attention--afraid

of the mental imprisonment of nostalgia. But it is not nostalgia. Is it? It is a memory that begs to

be remembered.

Fourteen years ago, on a hot, searing, and orange summer, I sat under a mango tree in my

mother's courtyard. This was a familiar place for me to draw in the sand with my toes and

delight in the fact that this island can produce mangos nine months out of the year. The courtyard

was a generous space organized by a huge basin, hundreds of ballast stones, and a long and

porous cast iron gate. This was handcrafted gate that filtered the western light at dusk and in the

dawn the artistry of its carvings framed suitable vistas. The small views told particular tales

distinctive of Haitian society; there were women bartering for hens in the adjacent house, a man

with callused feet lugging a korosol (star fruit ice-cream) truck, and another craftsman working

on several wooden pieces. The latter man, as the neighborhood affectionately named him, was

Bos Mason. The name (literally translates verbatim the "Boss of Masonry") was used to identify

master craftsmen in the Delmas. The Delmas were tightly woven neighborhoods that were

located in the mountains of Haiti and overlooked the more urban layout of the rest of Port-au-

Prince. A name packed with much meaning; at once it translated a sense of authority, intellect,

and fondness for materiality. The Bos, I would later find out, was making a wooden dodin

(rocking chair) for an aged woman that lived across the street from him. His process of making

was oriented with an intense poetic slowness. His humble and calculated acts seemed to declare a

personal fondness for that very slowness. I imagined if the speed of his process was to increase









that some aspects of understanding his craft would have been lost. He had aged skill with his

tools. The making process seemed inherent in his Being. What was portrayed as years of

practice, the Bos's act of making implied a conscience of prehensionn."

This craftsman had a vast capability to grasp simultaneously the making with the mind as

mental apprehension and the hand as the physical. Sociology professor and urbanist Richard

Sennet describes this idea of prehension:

To say that we "grasp something" implies physically that we reach for it. In the familiar
physical gesture of grasping a glass, the hand will assume the rounded shape, suitable for
cupping the glass, before it actually touches the surface. The body is ready to hold before it
knows ... The technical name for movements in which the body anticipates and act in
advance of sense of data is prehension. (Sennet 2008)

Prehension stemmed from Alfred North Whitehead's early twentieth century Process Theory. He

established the philosophy that the world was a process rather than an object. In terms of the

craftsmen parallel, when Whitehead spoke of the individual within the world he stated that

experience was primary--and preceded matter. Matter and substance, even forces and energy,

were for him later products of our imagination.2 Truly a craftsman has embodied knowledge

already, however, prehension parallels a craftsman's pre-imagination. Could one be predestined

to be a craftsman? Or is it through hours of practice that routine becomes a craft? It seemed as

though by now as an artisan, Bos Mason's hands had become an extension of his mind. The

hammer was a tool to stimulate his visualizations. The angle chisel against the wood grain drew

from his imaginations. Materiality was the main character in his constructed story.

The dark and oil filled shop where he worked was usually silent, unless accompanied by

clamors of material wrought sounds. Bos Mason was never known for his adequacy as verbal

communicator, but it seemed his emotions and languages were held in his work. Hannah Arendt

in the Human Condition concluded the mind engages once labor is done. In the case of Bos









Mason, however, a more balanced view is that thinking, communicating, and feeling was

contained within the process of his making3.

The Bos Mason played a social role in the Haitian community as a maker. The classic

Greek philosopher Plato mapped the etymological derivation for "making" as poiein. Poetry as

derived from poiein allowed Plato to observe that all craftsmen were poets. And as poets their

role is not simply to achieve irrelevant acts of production, but instead, to communicate an

ideology of the work through the process of making. The object produced by Bos Mason

epitomized his role in Haitian society. Moreover, the process of producing the object was the

connective tissue between the Bos Mason and his neighboring patrons. Because it inevitably

carries meaning that object will contain all of the advancements and contradictions manifested in

the society of which it is a product, speaking to the relationships among its members and, in turn,

the relationship of those individuals to the environment they occupy.4 Making (poesis), in this

sense, is the act of a creative process and its affect to the social environment, as oppose to the

end product. What do these sensibilities have to do with architectural pedagogy? It is worth

recalling that architecture once depended on the directed skill of the poetic craftsman. It was

oriented to her slow, meticulous methods, bound by her primitive technology and guided by a

firm system of social ethics. Craftsmen worked in the critical gap between the design and

building. Arguably, this position for thinking, making, imagining, and visualizing is one of the

most critical settings in architectural education. With this mind it is essential to ask a series of

questions: What is the pedagogical evolution of a craftsman? How do these implications help

focus on the critical gaps that craftsmanship dwells in architectural thinking? What role do the

craftsmanship sensibilities have in the architectural curricula?









This introduction proposes what the following commentaries demonstrate: namely that

the interplay between (architectural) design, building, and craftsmanship is a revealing focal

point for analysis. The commentaries establish, in addition, the inadequacy of normative or

unchanging usage of the terms design, craft and building, which is mutable in relation to both

time and space. The introduction reviews some salient instance in the development of

experiences that surround a craftsman, while the commentaries which follow identify

relationships between craftsmanship and architectural pedagogy, a case study of design-build and

material practice.

Parallels of the Architect and Craftsman

The Japanese word shokunin is defined by both Japanese and Japanese- English
dictionaries as a 'craftsman' or 'artisan', but such a literal description does not fully
express the deeper meaning. The Japanese apprentice is taught that shokunin means not
only having technical skill, but also implies an attitude and social consciousness. These
qualities are encompassed in the word shokunin, but are seldom written down... The
shokunin demonstrates knowledge of tools and skill with them, the ability to create beauty
and capacity to work with incredible speed... The shokunin has a social obligation to work
his best for the general welfare of the people. This obligation is both spiritual and material,
in that no matter what it is, if society requires it, the shokunin's responsibility is to fulfill
the requirement. (Odate 1984)

The origin of shokunin and the bos mason, although separated by 7000 nautical miles,

reveals a similar sensibility of a craftsman and his role to his community. The name of each

craftsman holds unspoken social imaginaries. Along the lines of Michel Foucault- social

imaginaries pertain to the way people imagine their common existence, how they fit together

with others, how things go on between them and their fellows. Craftsmen in Japan and Haiti hold

a critical spatial consciousness in the imaginary matrix of society that goes well beyond their acts

of fabrication. The Shokunin and the Bos Mason interpret the social minutiae of their

surroundings, in order to develop a poetic response for the object made.









Craftsman and builders: Furthermore these craftsmen are more than just builders. A

builder simply assembles objects together; the craftsman has an affinity for his materials, tools,

and conciseness of specific techniques during the making process. This is craft proper, the

method by which the vast majority of human artifacts have been designed in human history.

In the absence of drawings, the defining characteristic of the craft approach is that

craftsmen work immediately with their materials. Final dimensions are determined only as the

materials are actually worked and the artifact actually made. There is no separation of designing

from making. The two activities take place at the same time. There is no separation of designer

from maker. They are the same person. Think of the potter at the wheel. Initially craftsmen,

however, did not work with the automatic precision of machines, rather, they compensated for

errors, inaccuracies, and inconsistencies in the material as they work. They change their minds as

they went along. They considered what they had done and respond to it, maintaining a feedback

loop with the object in a process traditionally referred to as cutting and fitting. Think of the

potter again, or a carpenter fitting timbers together understand distance using a measuring tape.

The formidable things crafted were pervaded by a distinct quality which we call

craftsmanship, showing mastery of technique and embodying fitness or purpose, and trueness of

material. Craftsmanship is both-- a method and a quality, the quality being essential, the method

also vital, because the methodology of tools was fluctuating. From about 1750 on we have had a

revolution in techniques which has arguably displaced the artisan using hand craft methods.

However, the change in techniques was not necessarily the death of the craftsmen.

Sennet cautions us that we err by imagining that the medieval, or for that matter,

contemporary craftsmen were entirely resistant to innovation, but their craftwork changed slowly

and as the result of collective effort. These changes are paralleled in both craftsmanship and









architectural thinking, since both disciplines situate their studies in materiality and in a built

world that is paced by technological advances. Zambonini makes clear in The Theory ofMaking

that there are two values emerging through this parallel and joint relationship between

architecture, craftsmanship, and built works. During the building process, where work to be built

is set up; society is inevitably manifest in the work itself. There are two distinct values that

emerge due to this occurrence. This first is referred to as continuityy5. The term continuity

speaks of relationships in time: the extension of the design process through the building process

as we trace the birth of an idea in the abstract through its two-dimensional shaping and finally to

its encounter with the materials and methods of building.6 This process draws energy from our

desire to see an idea physically realized, to see our ideas reflected by the object. The true merits

of those ideas are not only conclusively revealed at the completion of building; it is also during

the process of making that the idea can be truly evaluated in the work. The process itself,

however, begins with drawing for the architect. It is in this process of drawing that functional

concerns bring resistance to the initial desire to express design emotion. This can happen even if

the object is not physically realized; in this case the drawing appears as a survey of a

hypothetical found condition rather than the documentation of some intention to build (see

figurel-1). At this moment in design we are confronted with the gap between a cerebral design

idea and the physical assemblage of that idea. Both sides of the split hold merit in architecture

pedagogy. The former allows the student to dwell in the realm of drawing that has utopian ideals

that are not in resistance to technological capacities, political correctness or budget. And the

latter allows the student to draw and build in a context with societal and phenomenological

resistance. The latter sensibility also serves to introduce the second value- integration.

Integration suggests another kind of unity among architects and craftsmen. Integration is









fundamentally opposed to the perceived necessity for standardization and specialization.

Integrated method of making denotes the coming together of trades and artisans, each capable of

applying different skills, while nonetheless maintaining an understanding of the whole to which

the work aspires. This notion derives from Arrigo Rudi's7 definition of craftsmanship:

knowledge of the entire process in view of its goal. As integration pertains to drawing, it is in

opposition to drawing without the built materiality as the initial catalyst. Craftsmen dwell in

integration. The craftsman challenges the tendency whereby drawing has only been given pre-

eminence in the conceptual process, leaving to distant executors all decisions concerning how

best to build the work.

In the work of Viennese architect and craftsman Walter Pichler (see figure 1-3)

exemplifies the integral appropriateness of craft in architectural making and thinking. Pichler,

reminiscent the skonin and bos mason, often speaks to his neighbor's about the making of things,

about the tools and machines in his shop. His process of making is central to the material and the

possible technological methods of re-thinking that material. As a craftsman, Pichler celebrates

his tools, which acts a mediator to mind- hand-to material. Pichler drawings continuously

straddle the line of envisioned sculpture and architecture see figure (1-3).

In Between the Pedagogies of Drawing and Building

The roles of drawing and building in architecture may cause the architectural educator,

theorist and critic to sound off in different discourses about their position on these tools. The

distance between architectural drawing and building has always been opaque and ambiguous.8

Alberto Perez Gomez concluded that much of the discussion faced by contemporary architects

and educators seems to be linked to the questions: Is drawing a tool of reduction? (or) Is

drawing the embodiment of architecture? The reduction theory of drawing (drawing to produce a

neutral collection of documents for a building's construction) has enormous implications. This









suggests that the architect creates working drawings or precise detail designs only to instruct a

carpenter on a series of building operations. This theory places the architect with distance as it

pertains to the involvement in the craft of the building. The other camp of this fundamental split

considers drawing itself as architecture- that it contains the matter of meaning. In this view the

role of drawing is the embodiment of architectural ideas. The embodiment theory (see figure and

1-2) considered the drawing a vehicle for expressing architectural intentions: intension that are

full of meaning, as poesis, the creative making. This separation of meaning in drawing in

relationship to building is worth more exploration. The case for exploring this space between

these two camps of thought-is to fine crucial pedagogical overlaps that may lie in between

drawing and building9. The inquiries are: What languages pertaining to architecture pedagogy

have evolved in each camp? When did this split historically occur?

Richard Fancis-Jones argued that perhaps the first sign of this fracture can be located in

the work of Leon Battista Alberti. He recollects that Alberti did not rise through the guilds or

trades; his interest in architecture was primarily theoretical. His famous treatise on architecture,

De Re Aedificatoria contained no illustrations; architecture was to be thought, idealized and

theorized. Alberto Perez Gomez further elaborated that Alberti was the first to distinguish

between design and structure as the two constituent parts of architecture. In Alberti's De Re

Aedificatoria he insisted that design resided "in a right and exact adapting and joining together

the lines and angles which compose and form the face of the building". The role of design was

"to appoint to the edifice and all its parts their proper places, determinate number, just

proportions and beautiful order."10 Alberti initiated the belief that design was "inseparable from

matter" (see figure 1-3), so that drawing was perceived as the embodiment of architectural ideas,

distinct from perspectives that represented (in painting), the reality of a building"1.









From the birth of the Renaissance to the early 18th century the Albertian sensibilities

endured. Architecture in the early Renaissance was considered a liberal art- a stomping ground

for intellectuals. Drawing was centered on the relationship between the human body and

metaphysical space. Renaissance perspectives were drawn as an intellectual exercise that

analyzed geometry and overall mathematics as they related to portions of the body. As the

craftsman/builder emerged, their role was to implement the embodied drawing's analyzed

geometries of spaces. The embodied meaning of the architecture was of most importance during

the building process. Instead of dictating a set of instructions that were to be actualized by

implementing neutral technological processes, the architect, still primarily a builder, knew that

the "distance" between idea and matter, between design and construction, would be reconciled

through his own involvement in building. 12 There was an inherent closeness, if not the same

character, between drawer and builder-between architect and maker. It was understood by the

17th century architects that there was a split between architecture as the design of geometrical

spaces and perspective drawing as a tool of visualization and imagination.13

Conceivably by the early 18th century the role of the renaissance drawing was re-

analyzed. Drawing was seen as more experimental exercises that could be more or less precise.

Perspective drawings were made sometimes with the aid of tools like grids or scales, but the

drawing was evidently not perceived as a "picture" of the building, as its reduction, or as a

neutral collection of information for its construction. 14 Due to the fracture of drawing and

building the path was certainly open for the transformation of the builder into an efficient

designer (craftsman), capable of controlling practice through prescriptive methods and precise

drawings. But the transformation was a slow process. It took many decades for the belief that









theory as a method, and of drawing as its tool of reduction, to come to fruition. Only modern

architects after Durand have assumed such a role of drawing as primary and unquestionable.

Toward the end of the 18th century, Perez-Gomez makes clear that Gaspard Monge

developed his descriptive geometry, which became a basic discipline of the Ecole Polytechnique.

The problem of describing an object through its projections on three planes had been a concern

of architects before Mange, but the invention of descriptive geometry was more than a

systematization of known methods. Descriptive geometry opened the way for a functionalization

of the reality of the lived world. Descriptive geometry became an effective instrument of the

French school for engineering, and an absolutely essential tool of precision during the Machine

Age. The original architectural ideas were transformed into universal projections that could then,

and only then, be perceived as reductions of buildings, creating the illusion of drawing as a

neutral tool that communicates unambiguous information, like scientific prose

This fracture of technological dualism constructed the space between the surface and

construction, between the intellectual architect who reads and the master craftsperson who

makes, between the idealized image and the reality of its making. Focusing inquiry on the

fundamental gap between theory and making--drawing and building will demonstrate the

problematic nature of defining two opposing camps of architectural thinking. In both supposed

camps, the challenge pedagogically is to create a workable marriage of theory, drawing, and

making.

Alberti academically dedicated many thoughts on the notion that drawing was indeed

architecture. That drawing could embody all the ideology of one's architectural concept-

"inseparable from matter". However, what lacked was the hinge between the poetics of the

concept and the process of making and sensing the resistance of the elements this is inclusive









architecture. Pedagogically, inclusive architecture is an exploration that happens at different

phases of the curriculum. It should not saturate the curricula at all levels. There are moments

when the student should visualize, imagine, or dwell within their intuitiveness without sensing

the resistance of the built nature of architecture. It is essential to have modes in the pedagogy

where design thinking is fueled and meditated upon outside the built issues-in order to be able

to ask questions that challenge our perception of the built realities. It is therefore not essential to

understand architectural making beyond this intellectual separation of thinking and making. The

issue is largely more complex than this-is it mainly about the exploitation of the

interdisciplinary gaps that makes for educational opportunities unique to architecture. Inclusive

architecture dwells within this gap16. Furthermore craftsmanship rests and links the

interdisciplinary gaps between drawing and building-without the contextual breaks in

architecture, craftsmanship is insignificant.

This assessment challenges the proposal that in thinking/making within architecture one

should not be hermetically sealed: clearly this is a contradiction of the collective and social

nature of the discipline. As an instructor, one of the most rewarding aspects of the discipline is to

ask a student to take their process of clarity of an idea (which may be driven by the readings of

Henry David Thoreau) and to physically assemble that idea. This is an example where

architectural thinking dwells within the interdisciplinary gaps. To ask a student that question,

places thinking in space where concepts are in search for a critical context to rest. At that

moment the student would sense most of the resistance that architectural thinking and making

dwells in. Thoreau's works are not architecture, per se, but they do describe and contextualize

architectural sensibilities through written language. But architecture is not really like written

language; it is not read like text. It is built, crafted, assembled and inhabited. Architecture is a









language of making; it is at once more direct and ambiguous: it is a language or art we inhabit. It

is a language/art that accepts the resistance and ambiguity of occupied function or the limitations

of construction-- apart from other arts. Architecture's conceptual forces derives from the way it

frames and orients us in relation to the world, nation, city, community, home, and artifact. It is

perhaps most accurately understood as the proposition of alternative realities within reality,

worlds within the world. 17

In architecture, meaning of reality are explored and postulated through the formal relations of

making and the reality of its making not merely through the surfaces application of an idealized

product but through the spatial organization, formal order, structure, construction, specific

relation to the site and interpretation of the program. Thus the meaning in architecture does not

depend on it stability, function, or efficiency of the means of its production, but the way in which

all of these have been limited and subordinated or poetically transformed by purely recognized

requirements. Purposefulness is therefore not a restrictive condition that comprises the art of

architecture but an integral element of specific meaning. A work of architecture should not

simply present a record or expression of reality but provide critical frames within which to

understand our human condition. Pedagogically, as architects and educators, we identify the

programmatic issues and then peel back the layers to expose or find the poetics trajectories-

different from problem solving. The presence of conflict in our society should be acknowledged,

together with the need for social criticism and social engagement of architecture as a critical

activity.

We shall therefore be made aware of the conditions of our lives through the construction of
alternative realities within in which things are reset in a slightly different order.
Architecture becomes the making of critical frames in which to understand reality, a formal
means of cognitive effect, with an ethical and social purpose. (Francis-Jones 1997)










Alternative realities derive from the way craft as the architectural process frames and

orient us in relationship to our surroundings. Therefore poiesis (making) in architecture is not a

simplistic statement of the world's contradictions and conflict, nor is it a false reassurance of our

well-being. Social contradictions should not merely be stated but critically examined and

possible poetic resolutions explored. It is important to emphasis poieses in architecture not as a

separate intellectual act of idealism but as specific investigations. Meaning in architecture does

not come from the work's detachment from the world but from the way frames and transforms as

an extension of its site and ethical interpretation of its social intention.


T&e erL &odrtent theory considered the drawing a vehicle for expressing architectural intentions: intension that
are full of meaning, as poesis, the creative making. This separation of meaning in drawing in relationship to
building is worth more exploration.




















Wandering Line Drawing of analysis of an imagined public space
Fall 2007 Design 3





Figure 1-1. Wandering line drawing of Urban Edges












A perspective study for, an unfinished work by Leonardo da Vinci
c vesI CORgi


!mcge t, y Ai naui Ai


7-'














F. D as m andj p i epoa 'o






F2 asmeap a ad p a -o




Figure 1-2. Drawing as metaphysical and physical exploration













As pertains to drawing, it is in opposition to drawing without the built materiality as the initial cata-
lyst. Craftsmen dwell in integration. The craftsman challenges the tendency whereby drawing has only been
given pre-eminence in the conceptual process, leaving to distant executors all decisions concerning how best
to build the work.


Figure 1-3. Walter Pichler


L


~-6~













Is drawing a tool of reduction? (or) Is drawing the embodiment of architecture?


Wandering Line Drawing of analysis of a public space
Fall 2007 Design 3
































Figure 1-4. Wandering line drawing of an envisioned public space











Notes


1
R. Sennett. The Craftsman. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008.

2 Truly a craftsman has embodied knowledge already; however, his 'experience' is something quite unique and
separate from human consciousness, though human consciousness is built up out of his primary experiences. For the
moment, it is best to think of experience as primitive feeling, or awareness with subjectivity and value, which may
or may not reach consciousness. In sum, prehension parallels a craftsman's pre-imagination. Whitehead, William
Morgan and Alfred North. "The Organization of a Story and a Tale." (University of Illinois Press on behalf of
American Folklore Society) 58, no. 229 (1945).

R. Sennett. The Craftsman. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008.

4
G. Zambonini. "Notes for a theory of making in a Time of Necessity." Perspecta, Vol.24, 1988: 3-23.

5
G. Zambonini. "Notes for a theory of making in a Time of Necessity." Perspecta, Vol.24, 1988: 3-23.

6
6Ibid


Rudi was an architect and close collaborator with Carlos Scarpa, He and Scarpa were commissioned to design the
Banca di Verona. This was a collaborative project that took over five years to complete. This five year period was a
continuous collective craftsmanship endeavor.

8
SSee Perez-Gomez, Alberto. "Architecture as Drawing." Journal for Architectural Education, Winter 1982: 2-7.


9 To possibly frame the role of drawing and building as seen through the craftsman's role- role that rest in between
this fracture.
1See Alberti, Leone Battisa De Re Aadificatiria Tirantl. De Re Aadificatiria Tirantl. London: Tirantl, 1955.


" Ibid
12 Ibid
13
14 The evolution of the renaissance drawing
15 M. Frascari "The Particolareggiamento in the Narration of Architecture." Journal ofArchitectural Education,
1989.

16 Inclusive architecture and the role of the craftsman are the identical.
17 See Francis-Jones, Richard. "Architecture is not Language- A note on Representation." UMEMagazine, 1997,
UME3 ed.









CHAPTER 2
COLLECTIVE MAKING IN THE PEDAGOGIC FRINGE

A proper example of how a work of architecture frames a people and their ethical

interpretations can be seen in Haiti's immeasurable Citadelle Laferriere, begun in 1804, when

General Jean Jacques Dessalines pronounced the independence of the former French colony of

Santo-Domingo and construction continued sporadically until the arrival of General Henry

Christophe. Dessalines simply chose the site for its views on top of a three thousand feet Bonnet

a L'Eveque mountain (see figure 2-3). Henry Christophe later was commander of the native

armies of the North and victorious hero of the campaign against Napoleon's expeditionary army

initiated idea for the structure. As soon as he was made king, Henry Christophe also

commissioned a Haitian architect, Henri Barre and ordered construction to commence. Any

healthy men and qualified bricklayers of the Cap-Haitian area, including many soldiers, were

recruited for this project. The workers carried tons of material and 275 cast-iron and bronze

guns of various calibers to the top of the mountain through narrow, rocky and treacherous paths

skirting cliffs where one precarious step meant instant death. Although there was an architect on

the project he was more of an overseer, the project's craft and overall poetics was made by the

masses.

More than 500,000 tons of construction materials were needed to build this sublime

fortress. The fort had an irregular quadrilateral shape and contains a colossal rounded bastion and

a long triangular spur extending into the lower section. The interior of the Citadel is an incredible

complex of galleries, halls, rooms, powder magazines, barracks, supply rooms, prison cells and

water reservoirs. Christophe had planned to house a barracks of fifteen hundred men, capable of

enduring an attack for three years with enough arms and provisions stored in rooms three

thousand meters high, with walls 3 meters thick. By 1817, Henry Christophe, the former slave,









who had become king achieved his dream of constructing a fortress. The Citadelle Laferriere,

now is an architecturally tremendous source of pride and liberty to Haitians, but came at a great

price of twenty thousand lives lost during construction. Moreover the craftsmanship came about

with many hands and has generated a sense of ownership for Haitians for over two hundred

years. The concept of many hands in a work shouldn't be taken lightly. The collective making of

this structure helped cross critical boundaries of early Haitian leadership and lay men citizens.

There was a grass roots sense of democracy registered through a building. After the Haiti

revolution, the Citadelle as a mark was a sense of power and Haitian communal advancement.

Today, as a ruin the Citadelle registers it process of making as a monument to collective making.

The monumental nature of the Citadelle reads as architecture defined collective spirit inherent in

it structure. This spirit conveys a timeless quality that seems like it cannot be masked or changed.

Politics of making: The historical collective making examples are situated in the fringes

of architectural pedagogy. The pedagogic fringe acts as context that offers the opportunity for

students to engage the multiple references that constitute different cultural margins, experiences,

languages, and craftsmanship. This means educating students not only to read these margins

critically but also to learn the limits of such margins, including the ones they use to construct

their own narratives and histories. Partiality becomes, in this case, the basis for recognizing the

limits built into all discourses and necessitates taking a critical view of authority. Architecture

students must engage knowledge as border-crossers, as persons moving in and out of borders

constructed around coordinates of difference and power. These are not only physical borders;

they are also cultural borders historically constructed and socially organized within rules and

regulations that limit and enable particular identities, individual capacities, and social forms. In

this case, students cross over into borders of making and meaning, maps of knowledge, social









relations, and values that are increasingly being negotiated and rewritten as the policies and

regulations that organize them become destabilized and reshaped. The pedagogic fringe de-

centers as it remaps. The terrain of learning becomes inextricably linked to the shifting

parameters of place, identity, history, and power. But there is lack clarity in the discourse of what

architectural making, within the craft framework, is as it relates to a cultural awareness. The

definition of architecture cannot be grasped through either a narrow-minded view of recent

architectural works or an obsession, method or objectivity. History shows that architecture has

been a profound, "interdisciplinary" form of knowledge, allowing humanity to dwell on the

earth.1

Making as architecture, regardless of its ever- changing and in fluidity of discourse,

historically satisfied the undertaking of providing an occupied/material form of poetics for the

space analyzed. The scale of the space analyzed is crucial. In practice the scale of work ranges

for institutional to small exhibitions. In larger projects in the office, project delivery may

overshadow the capabilities of keeping a constant poetic. With what is seen in practice, one

should rethink the scale of craft/making within academia. In academia scale of project can work

as personal in house studies to smaller projects that reach the surrounding community. This is

reminiscent of the roles of shokunin to Japanese and the bos mason to Haitian society. Today

discourse on service learning has emerged as way to revive the awareness of this connection of

academic studies reaching communities. Service Learning as a pedagogy appears to be quite

promising. Service learning has a pedagogic framework where learning and reflecting are

combined with an academic atmosphere that provides meaningful making through one's

community as a technical exercise. Theoretically these principles are influenced by the historical

understanding of craftsmanship. In considering craft's role in architecture pedagogy it is focal









that the exploration is not simply following the vocational mode. Traditionally, service learning

has merged into vocational pedagogies, which may not foster critical educational thinking, but

rather focus on job-specific skills, and as such are devoted to training, not a lengthier process of

education. In architectural pedagogy it would be tactless to prepare students to simply machines

that are ready to plug in the office. It is important to stimulate the inherent ideology and

knowledge of the student for him or her to understand possibilities of the poetic craftsmanship

within the community. Service learning as a craftsmanship practice has to be tailored uniquely

for architectural education. Architecture is not simply the embodiment of information or trade; it

is the embodiment of making with meaning.


























Figure 2-1. Citadelle Laferriere A) Landscape of artillery. B) Citadelle sited on Bonnet a
L'Eveque mountain
L'Eveque mountain









Making in a Specific Context

Any activity of production involves the transformation of matter for a purpose clearly
defined somewhere between society and the individual. The maker and the object to be
created are tied together by an intimate relationship which does not disappear at the
conclusion of the production process. This relationship can be described in different ways,
in each case inseparably connected to the nature of the production process itself.
(Zambonini-1988)

To investigate more the rethinking of service learning in the architecture pedagogical framework,

my mentor Dr. Charlie Hailey and I developed a design-build workshop at the University of

Florida. This was a seminar of eleven graduate students from the School of Architecture and the

project was in partnership with the Boys and Girls Club's Woodland Part Unit in East

Gainesville. The objectives were to 1) understand and develop a multi-disciplinary approach to

frame a design-build work that would focus on the process of making within a specific

community situation, 2) to set out pedagogically to foster an ability to select, adapt, and apply

methodologies and theoretical approaches related to design-build activity, and 3) to pursue

research methods and design process that reduce disconnections between design and what is

built.

The Seminar, as a form of service learning, searched for a new reading of design build in

order to challenge the arguments of austere acts of production. The work was set out to be

socially conscience and architecturally responsible. The Boys and Girls Club children (age 5

through 17) simply desired an outdoor space that would alleviate the lack of sufficient space in

their facility. This was a simple programmatic request, but pedagogically it was important to

charge the graduate students to find and unveil the hidden poetics of that request while working

hands-on with the children of the club. Zambonini, in the above quote, offers the notion of

"transformation of matter." In these terms there are sensible underpinnings of the overall design-

build seminar. For instance the way the world is experienced is through action (transformation),









and through action we change it. Change implies creation or design (poetic making connotes

both) even at the level of everyday actions-- passive or aggressive.

In this project, the site was four miles east of the University. The transformation (the

search for the projects poetics) began first at two scales, the university and the community. The

workshop was appropriately titled Reflective Building: Overcoming Boundaries between

University and Community through Design-Build Pedagogy. Overcoming boundaries is fitting

because it is clear that cultural boundaries shape the way we conceptualize and maneuver. The

process by which some cultural boundaries emerge more dominant than others is ambiguous.

However cultural boundaries have a logic, and in our daily lives we tend to treat this logic as if it

is inherent in the entities themselves. We join some things together and split them from others

along conceptual lines that seem both natural and inevitable. But carving the world into discrete

mental entities does not entail the recognition of natural distinctions so much as a process of

interpretation. The particular features that are highlighted or ignored in our cultural boundaries

reflect in part the uses to which they are put, distinguishing features that are socially relevant

from those that do not matter.

The two boundaries that were examined in the design-build seminar were those of the

University and those of the Boys and Girls Club. The University of Florida's boundaries of

micro urban sensibilities of brick edifices may seem to operate as a pre-professional hub. The

professional hub critique is a reading of how one is inducted into a community of thinkers,

makers, writers, and researchers for four to eight years, but then leave to other cities where

professional practice may have seemed more promising. The University at moments, depending

on the cognitive boundary, is defined as the city of Gainesville. This conceptual basis, although

far from truth, through common mental practice can become concretized. Moreover, the eastside









of Gainesville may not even be in existence within the conceptual boundaries of a University

student. The boundaries of the Boys and Girls club are framed by a series of understood

imaginary walls of its site. The Club is located in the Woodland Park area in Southeast

Gainesville and is comparable to the University-- as a city within a city. The site is a network of

governmentally subsidized homes and is buffered by as series of critical landmarks: a quiet

cemetery, a desolate gas station and a local bicycle trail. The materiality of the subdivision are

redundant brick, beautiful oak trees, and power lines (which hold culture with the occasional

shoe hung by the string). The upkeep of Woodland Park serves as an opposition to a lower

income community where roads would be unkempt and lights would not be functional. Instead

the space has a vibrancy and disposition for growth, and community involvement.

Communally, the club provides approximately one hundred predominantly African

American children with a place to spend time after school and as a goal it seeks to enhance the

educational development of each child into responsible adults. The club is a space for

community leadership meetings, social gatherings, and a place of leisure. The Boys and Girls

Club is thus seen as a catalyst for proposing community projects in the neighborhood (see figure

2.1).

As we set the design-build project, my mentor, and I understood the possible change

trajectories that the graduate students would sense in regards to University/community

boundaries. Professor bell hooks states it appropriately in her book Teaching to Transgress that

"education is the practice of freedom" a place where cultural boundaries can be challenged and

rethought. With the same awareness we imagined that through collective making in a design-

build project the gaps between University and community could be filled.









To propose a graduate seminar where eleven students from the school of architecture

would relocate their studio to a site on the Eastside seemed fitting for the "anomaly" that

architectural education presents. Donald Schon elaborates on the situation of the architectural

design studio within the university:

The architectural design studio is an anomaly in the contemporary research university. Its
underlying theories of professional knowledge and teaching are at odds with those of other
university based professional schools. This represents an opportunity: the studio has much
to teach other professional schools on the basis of its traditions of education through
coaching and learning-by-doing.(Schon)

The in-house architecture design studio at the University of Florida is classically a form of public

learning. In this sense, the architectural studio is a practicum, a virtual world that represents the

real world of [design] practice but is relatively free of its pressure, distractions, and risks.2 In an

in-house design studio, the students learn by making at multiple scales, but rarely full scale or

1:1. Within the ideal public learning condition of the studio the most important agenda is

transforming or rethinking the idea of conversation. Unlike the in-house studio where

conversation is held in a framework of student to colleagues- to professor- to in-house

architecture community, the offsite design build project adds another layer; that of the

Woodland Park Community. The in-house studio is a space to foster critical and sometimes

hermetic thinking by design students. The pedagogy of the studio stems from an inquiry-based

approach that can prepare students to function effectively in different contexts. The exercises that

are scrutinized and massaged within the in-house studio space are preparations for the student to

function effectively in an architectural design discipline. But the setting for this learning is

internal within the School of Architecture. Design build studio asks student to leave a familiar

setting, i.e. the walls of the architecture building, and to address design and making in the

community-creating a learning atmosphere that is truly public.


















Figure 2-2. Image of Boys and Girls Club's Woodland Park site for community garden (looking
north)


Table 2-1. Design Build Workshop Project Time-line
Event Dates Pedagogical objectives
Design Jan 17 2008 The design charrette, pedagogically, was an innovative way to
Fair engage the community simply through the activities of making
Making as Tuesdays In this context, the seminar sought to understand how "reflective
seminar building" connects thinking, making, and sustaining.


Practicum Thursdays
with kids

Exchange through Building

The Club's need for additional outdoor space became more specifically define as a need

for an outdoor classroom and a community garden. The questions of: what to make? or how to

begin? needed to be answered. Pedagogically, in this project we were interested in deciding what

to build and then actually building set the problem and in the process reframe both the "practice

situation of academic learning and the community situation if the BGC's own educational

mission. Too often universities venture into communities like a bull in a china shop3. It is

problematic for a university posture themselves as "know-it-alls," having all the expertise that

communities needs and hell-bent on applying it with little or no regard for the history and culture

of communities. This is a recipe for a calamitous attempt to overcome boundaries. To not fall

into a similar situation, the process started within a Design Fair. The Design Fair overall was tool


6 100-0









for the university students to introduce themselves to the BGC community. Without placing too

much importance with verbal inaugurations, the design fair allowed for a potent (and sometimes)

non verbal discourse of making with the hand, imagination, and visualization. The Design drew

from the sensibilities of the design charrette. The design charrette, pedagogically, was an

innovative way to engage the community simply through the activities of making. Using

charrette as a catalyst (the term originated from 19th century Ecoles De Beaux Arts 19th century

where proctors circulated a cart or charrette while students frantically their work) the graduate

students understood the Design fair to be a series of carnivalesque stations for interactive

learning, combination of play, craft booths, and explorations of different materiality.

The process began from as series of five charettes. One station was the clay station, where

students modeled representational clay model of the project's site-they imagined how the space

could be structure(see figure 2-3).









A iB






-72


Figure 2-3. Series of images from the Clay station. A) University students constructed a site
model of the BGC property and cut out pieces of the site model where the outdoor
classroom and community garden would be placed B) the process asks the student to
visualize and imagine C) BGC member focused on personal design D) the clay trays
served as a memory of making




















-w r- 'r ,- B

Figure 2-4. Series of images from the Brick-making station. A) this is a hands-on activity of
making concrete blocks B) children mixing the concrete block).


Pr .
r-

r ~~


Figure 2-5. Series of images from the Mapping station. A) club member mapping familiar routes
in his neighborhood B)two club member mapping from memory


Figure 2-6. Series of images from the virtual station. A) exploring Google Earth B) Club
director, volunteer, and graduate student explore in the virtual station.).






























Cij D
Figure 2-7. Series of images from the scavenger station. A) collection of materials on-site
B)preparation of containers C) containers filled with the collections D) Containers
assembled

Practicum: This portion of the seminar explored the applicability of Donald Schon's

notion of reflective practice for student teachers in practicum settings. The practicum was guided

by three questions: What do student teachers reflect upon?, What precipitates reflection?, What

factors enhance or constrain reflection?, and How can this study open up the dialog between

university and community. To understand how these university-community boundaries might be

overcome, we proposed the reflective building practicum. The graduate student were asked to

develop hands- on learning experiences to engage the club members, to discover what to build,

and then how collaboratively to build the outdoor space in the community grounds.

Schon's conception of reflective practice was chosen because his work embodies this view

of knowledge; specifically, for Sch6n, thought is embedded in action, reflective practice is

grounded in the immediacy of the action setting, and reflective practitioners engage in a process









of problem setting as opposed to technical problem solving. Along the lines of the craft

argument, problem setting in the seminar was linked to making.

The reflective practicum placed the graduate students in the position of teacher and the

children of the Boys and Girls club as students. This setting allowed the children of club to have

a sense of the design process through measuring, drawing, cutting economically or simply

nailing pieces of lumber. Through the process of making, at different scales, the graduate

students would construct activities where the children would make small containers to hold seeds

and make small benches for seating in the community garden.

The practicum as a tool allowed for a sense of ownership for the children of the Boys and

Girls Club. The twelve week process challenged the way the graduate students were accustomed

to learning. The pedagogical situation called for the graduate students to explain their thoughts

and design rational to the children of the club while making, and placed the graduate student in a

constant public exchange. Also the work shop, as a design-build exploration, would create non-

routine problems for the graduate students. But, Schon asked, "What happens when practitioners

are faced with non-routine problems?"

Non-routine situations are at least partly indeterminate, and are not immediately amenable

to technical solution. From his observations, Schon postulated that when practitioners are

confronted with problematic situations-situations that cannot be dealt with by the application of

generalized techniques--they engage in a very different process, that of problem setting. Schon

defines problem setting as the process in which "we name the things to which we attend and

frame the context in which we will attend to them". 4When confronted by non-routine problems,

skilled craftsman/practitioners learn to conduct and frame experiments in which they impose a

kind of coherence on "messy" situations. They come to new understandings of situations and









new possibilities for action through a spiraling process of framing and reframing. Through the

effects of a particular action, both intended and unintended, the situation "talks back." This

conversation between the practitioner and setting provides the data which may then lead to new

meanings, further reframing, and plans for future action.

As this reflection-and-action frame work developed the project gave true ownership to

the children of the Boys and Girls Club-because as participants they were able to frame and

reframe critical questions during the process of build the community garden.

Pedagogy as a Line

Addressing a community-based project is not merely identifying a problem,

concentrating a solution and identifying site qualifications. The process ought to take a

pedagogical position that goes beyond the formal of austere function or simple problem solving.

The poetics of this pedagogical position is the breath of our discipline however the method in

which we communicate our ideas to the community is the core of service learning. Paul Klee's

musings on the quality of a line "moving freely" references the pedagogical processes inherent to

a formal university- community partnership. As participants in the practicum, professors,

students, and community alike are participating in creating a path. The directionality and

outcomes of that path are not entirely predetermined- this is the beauty. The way education was

perceived in the practicum, the manner graduate students received input from the children of the

Boys and Girls club, the fashion in which input was implemented or reframed-- is simply a line.

The pedagogical composition of this line is formed by events (Design fair as an initiator and the

practicum as continuous dialog), each of which affect its consistency, directionality, and identity.

As such, a formal architectural education merits a discussion, analysis, and an exploration of

how the path of the "line "is drawn.









How this line is interpreted by both makers (university and community) is essential.

Meaning, during collective making, has to go beyond the hermetic understanding of an

individual to a public dialog that is positioned for the purpose of reflection. Meaning, we must

remember is given in perception: it is not a product of association. Phonological studies have

shown that meaning is not primarily or solely an intellectual construct.5 Architecture is an order

that addresses our ambiguous, finite, human reality; it is not merely a vehicle for scientific truths.

It more lies in the experience. The experience through making framed and sustained this

pedagogical line's thickness and length-or importance and longevity.










Notes

1 See Perez-Gomez, Alberto. "Architecture as Embodied Knowledge." Journal ofArchitectural Education, 1984:
57-58.

2 See Schon, Donald. "Toward a Marriage of Artistry and Applied Science in the Architectural Design Studio."
Journal ofArchiectural Education, 1984: 4-10.

3See Wilson, David. "Key Features Of Successful University-Community Partnerships."

4 See Schon, Donald. The reflective practioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books, 1983.

5 See Perez-Gomez, Alberto. "Architecture as Embodied Knowledge." Journal ofArchitectural Education, 1984:
57-58.









CHAPTER 3
MAKE AND REFLECT

Scale of Making

The project called for a certain type of making that allow both the graduate students and

the members to visualize at full scale, 1:1. Making and craft in a qualitative discipline research

are vitally related to each other in that the satisfaction of the demands of each is closely

dependent on an honest engagement with the local contingencies of the design process, which

includes a willingness to keep oneself and one's investigative agenda open to transformation by

these contingencies. Similarly, making and craft in design pedagogy compels the architectural

educator to provide considerable epistemological space to one's explorations. Zamboni speaks

specifically about the process:

The first burden concerns the identification of materials and tools used in the process of
transformation. The moral component must be present here because the most significant
properties can only be discovered through a methodical investigation measure in years of
pursuit. The development of this knowledge requires observation, intuition and
perseverance-attributes acquired in varying degrees by way of apprenticeship and inherent
sensitivity (Zambonini 1988)

There are two aspects in this transformation (material and conceptual) process First, there is

exploration and discovery, and secondly there is the synthesis and making. The final artifact is a

product of both of these investigations.

The reflection first for the graduate students began with function. The program loosely

called for a community garden and an outdoor classroom. These initiated that there would be an

itemized list of elements, an organization of parts. But the function doesn't simply define the

architectural dilemma. How will the function generate form? Through craftsmanship with

embodied integral material, one may find through investigation, that one element dominates all

others, or possibility that all parts should be equally spaced. As the graduate students explored

the possible diagrams by drawing directly with the 2x4 pieces of wood-- form begins to appear









(see figure3-1). The intergraded form that is generated from working directly with the site and

transforming the material give the initial sense of a poetic.

The poetic is also an extension of our interpretation of the site. Often times the position

of the site is seen as a space for problem solving or eliminating resistance. Too often the

resistances of slope, approach, orientation become burdens to be overcome. The site

characteristic shouldn't be considered a blank canvas to place functional needs, but instead seen

as another form of integration. The site resistance should be fully digested along with the

functional concerns- so that most subtle implications of the sit characteristics are reflected in the

final product. Reminiscent of the pedagogical goals of the design-build projects in Ritoque,

Chile's Open City2. Extended the poetics is embracing an empty landscape, or a distorted piece

of land, or the interstitial space between two buildings.

Integrated diagramming


Figure 3-1. Wood as a drawing material








































Figure 3-2. Decking extend towards planters

The Hand, Drawing and the Artificer

... the hand must exhibit and reveal the inherent nature of individuality as regards its fate,
is easily seen from the fact that after the organ of speech it is the hand most of all by which
a man actualizes and manifest himself. It is the animated artificer of his fortune; we must
say of the hand that it is what man does, for in it as the effective organ of his self
fulfillment he is there present as the animating soul, and since he is ultimately and
originally his own fate, the hand will thus express the innate, inherent nature.(Zambonini)

The hand is the origin of making. Walter Benjamin's account of craft practice3 is the hand

that feels and marks its objects; authentic knowledge of the world is envisioned as a "grasping

hold" of the world. The craftsmanship of the hand's non verbal intelligence links directly with

the haptic signs of making. A historical example, towards the end of the nineteenth century,









American brick makers made earnest attempts to produce brick having more even color, more

precise edge, and greater density than those resulting from the traditional methods of

manufacture. Throughout the Colonial period the wooden molds for handmade brick were

prepared to receive the clay in one of two ways: sand molding, i.e., the dusting of the mold with

fine sand, or slop molding (sometimes called water struck), i.e., dipping the mold in water. Either

process had to be undertaken in order to prevent the damp clay from sticking to the sides of the

mold. However, neither process resulted in a very precise product. In each case the fold layers of

the clay--the curved striations resulting from the gathering and folding of a lump of clay by hand

and throwing it into the mold--were readily apparent. In the case of sand molding the brick

inevitably had a granular surface. Because relatively damp clay was used for handmade brick,

shrinkage would occur in the firing resulting in bricks of uneven size and edge; mortar joints thus

had to be sufficiently wide to compensate for these irregularities. The lined or grapevine joint

was widely used to make these wide, uneven joints appear more straight from a distance.

The consequence of all these factors was a brick pattern of less than mathematical precision. The

texture resulting from these irregularities is widely appreciated today. Although this may be a

simple aesthetic preference there is an inherent predisposition for hand crafted process. The hand

process inherently carries meaning. The transformation of a material to something else is the

closest we get to being a creator.

The hand as a source of craft is beginning of the creative landscape. Craft brings an

inherent closeness to the maker-an appreciation.









Li C


aB


C D
Figure 3-3. The hand as an artificer. A) graduate students working alongside the Boys and Girls
Club members, B) measuring a floor joist, C) to BGC member constructing the wall
to the classroom D) Graduate student and members of BGC constructing a container
for the seedlings.










Notes

1 Zambonini, Guiseppe. "Notes for a theory of making in a Time of Necessity." Perspecta, Vol.24, 1988: 3-23.

2 Pendleton-Jullian, Ann M. Road That Is Not a Road the Open City, Ritoque Chile. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996.

3Leslie, Esther. "Walter Benjamin: Traces of Craft." Journal ofDesign History, 1998: 9.









CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSION: PRODUCT DOES NOT EQUAL PROCESS

Rethinking Design Build

In the spirit of rethinking service learning, the workshop provided a forum to rethink

design-build in a pedagogical, community-oriented context. The work shop attention to

collective making challenged the critique that design-build takes a great deal of time.

Time is the critic of all things1. A statement that is poetically beautiful and also

problematically acidic. In practice with American colloquialism -let's start with the bad news.

The industrial revolution was the only social movement that was fueled by technology.

Anthropologists are in amazement to have witness a social/technological movement that was

outside issue of religion, class status and race. The Revolution did bring new roads and canals

and in turn encouraged trade expansion. It also nurtured the development of new iron making

techniques and increased use of refined coal, however, the promise of the industrial revolution-

that pre-manufactured, standardized building design solutions would allow maximum research

and invention has not been realized2. Standardization did not bring significant quality, only

higher profit, and the processes of standardization result in both limited choice and a built-in

obsolescence. Standardization only answered the partially answered the call for production

speed, however it squandered quality. Zambonini mentions that standardization is not "directed

to improve quality through greater initial investment and a subsequent capitalization on the

experience gained by a constant application, the [standardization] only reveal the shortcuts in the

standardizing process." The Bauhaus, as an institution provided the same argument. Hence, it

was appropriate for Paul Klee to state: "For quality to become a universal goal, it must be

projected from the individual artist-creator to all mankind. It may then be shared and become a

common patrimony." Quality permeates form and in form each one of the relationships which









give it structure tends to reaffirm and reinforce the single idea which form embodies.3 Quality,

purpose, and time are only fragments of making, and cannot be divvied to certain percentages of

a hierarchal role. The shortcoming of standardization was the push for decreasing time-the need

for speed, and the lack of attention to quality and true purpose.

Time is relative: Knowing that the process of making takes time does not help us

understand what is being done, where, how, who, and with what. As one would be remiss to

dismiss significant work because it is of another time, neither does one understand a particular

work only through time. Endeavor is not justified by knowing that we endeavor in time. When

emphasis is shifted from the thing itself (the work) to time, one loses grasp of what is at hand,

which is experience. Experience, in this context, is that which teaches, qualifies, and embraces.4

Time is a constituent factor in the conception and making of a work, but it is relative. The

making of a work is tied to other factors also: intention, intuition, materiality, and process. These

factors must exist for the realization of any creative work at any time.

Within the process of making, the constituent factors that allow for the realization of a

work are not linear in time or nature, but are accumulative. This accumulated experience is very

much an individual reality, and it creates a position of imagining, knowing, questioning, and

reason from which poetic making can proceed.

Integration theory: The revealing of intention and meaning of a given work is dependent

on that work's materiality and on the craftsman relationship to the work. These factors may open

the work to the craftsman and afford the craftsman a relationship with its meaning or they may-

not, whether the work is of our own time or of the past.

To think of time as linear or as a series of discrete frames is to address only the

manufacturing and reproduction of a work and not its meaning. The revelatory properties of









creative work are not tied to time, but to the integral relationship of purpose and material

embodiment. When these properties are inherent in a work they ensure the presence of qualities

that amplify the work and reveal its meaning and nuance; these, in turn suggest the power and

vision contained. As this occurs we begin to see that whatever the work, whenever it was made,

wherever it exists, its present voice in the world is as loud as it was when first made. The present

evaluates the past by measuring the meaning works have, in and of themselves.

Given this, we can see that linear classification of creative work belongs outside the realm

of actually creating or even fully experiencing a work. The appreciation of works is not reserved

for those of the time and circumstances of its production. Works of significance tend to transcend

time and circumstance as they perpetuate themselves through stance. They place themselves

continually in the present with the inquirer: our experience of works of architecture, art, and

literature proves this point repeatedly. The fundamental relationship of idea to material and form

is shown to be contained in the purpose of the work.

It is necessary that history be seen as part of an ongoing reality that cannot be isolated or

fractured by a linear structure. The evolving meaning that results in the making of a work is part

of that work's viability; the work is historically connected to its own making not by time but by

meaning. It is of more interest the work's inherent qualities and stance, rather than by its

relationship to historical.

Craft as Possibility

Possible pedagogical readings, sometimes a vital part of the work, show possibility to be a

conceptual and process-oriented idea that can be inherent in a student's intuitive reality. This can

become a way of working and can convey new awareness of the complexities of process and

result. It is appropriate then to suppose that timelessness is an important quality in a work's

materiality and stance. It ensures that the work will live beyond the moment. Realizations that









result from this are, by the fact of their relationship to meaning, important. These realizations

about time and timelessness can also affect the point of view of the craftsman in profound ways.

Craftsmen reach these realizations only then external facts dislodge them from the work

contemplated. The necessary conditions for creative work are not only reached by speculation, as

speculation is tied to two different types of knowledge and the need to locate oneself in a

particular way. These conditions are realized, rather, within a framework of intuition, testing,

intention, and fact that qualify the path and process of a work's realization. This speaks in a

general way to the human needs to produce and to inquire as means of surviving and redeeming

ourselves for living.

Collective making: Inquiry that is arranged in a fixed, temporal sequence presupposes a

goal that can be limited by and, in some instances, dislocated from what is inherently possible.

The power of creative work is generated by the sharing of experience, in spite of the limits and

boundaries of time, language, or social status. The beauty of making overcomes the obvious

problem of differences in time, place, and familiarity. The selective gathering and shaping of

material is a condition of craftsman purpose. This condition, when present, allows a work to be

experienced, and therefore inhabited. It enables a richness to be revealed materially and allows

the inner inhabitation of the individual maker to be manifest in the society-the world. This

implies that the actual is affected or altered through human intention and structuring. Process is

thus preceded by the meaning that conditions give to the maker.

Embodiment theory: The compounding of intention and intuition with actual material

gives a holistic richness to a work. The integral/embodied relationship of maker to work is

important when the maker is willing to accept the divestment of self. The objectivity sought is

thus related to reflection. Reflection5 allows the maker to recognize value in each part of the









process, and this recognition is crucial to the activity of inquiry. Inquiry is the aspect of making

that is not a mere establishing and re-establishing what has or will transpire (d).

Creative works function in society not because of the society. They represent necessary

individual extensions and propositions. When their composite meanings are commensurate with

their urgency, they then become extensions of their specific categories. It is also true, however.

That recognizing them within a category does not enhance their viability as individual

extensions. Their stance is the factor that must substantiate their meaning. When this stance is

realized in work and is sound, it becomes the point of purpose in dimension. Dimension, as such,

can be practical as well as metaphorical and spiritual. Dimension is, to this point of purpose, a

cross-boundary element that enhances the evidence of intention, endeavor, and diversity within

the work. It is important that inherent differences be appreciated in order to grasp the full

meaning of possibility in the society, whether actual or contextual. Possibility is an aspect of

imagination and inquiry that is a necessary condition in the continuum of creative work.

Complacency in value: Simple aesthetic preference is an ever-present problem in the

understanding of a particular work. It is a mere fragment of what is really involved and, because

of its superficiality, can lock one outside of understanding. Preference does not declare much

beyond its limited system. It is related to individual cultural, or class conditions, and cannot aptly

address meaning. The material aspects of a work are part of its intuitive, conceptual, and formal

making. This collective relationship of thought to material is an essential mechanism by which

options are given the status of facts. It allows one to address the process of making in a special

way. It is within this relationship that possibility can become more than a notion or option: it

becomes a fact. Making provides the fullest opportunity for experiencing the world. Its reality is

one of continuing surprise and possibility. Through the activity of making the world is a place









for one's inner being-- its existence and import-- to materialize as matter. Making is, therefore, a

process by which a craftsman understand what is needed and appreciated, and why. When there

is a substantive relationship between intention and making, purpose is placed forward for new

creations to contemplate and extend. In that we are locked to making through experience rather

than through time, the need to make with and through history is a common bond. In the realm of

human experience, there is opportunity for possibility--individual and collective, which renews

and extends work in its many realms. As the quality of experience is tied to the making of the

individual work, a work is position and its matters are determined by the maker and not by

chance. When work endures6, it continues to embody the conditions intentions and sensibilities

that convey its purpose. The urge to affect the world, along with clarity of intention and

understanding of methodology are essential to significant inquiry. To work only from one's

accumulated knowledge will not lead to a recognition of the fullest possible reality of a particular

idea. If it comes, this realization can push one beyond the immediate frame of reference to a

process of inquiry and digestion; work that evolves from this process finds a place within both

the collective experience of society and its own specific discipline.

The necessary factors in such work are never fractured from the idea which propels the

work: they become one. It is this oneness for which we search through the process of making. In

this realm of making, ideas function as part of the world and as extensions of the world. Here,

the fullness of the work's meaning can be experienced.

A sense of discovery is a sense of rebirth. We experience rebirth whenever a discovery is

made and we find ourselves connected to a very ancient and timeless reality. Once realized, this

reality becomes the practical and sensory material of making. Process, in turn, is essential to

rebirth.










Notes

1 This commentary is in response to the constant critique that Design-Build takes too much time within the
curriculum.
2 Zambonini, Guiseppe. "Notes for a theory of making in a Time of Necessity." Perspecta, Vol.24, 1988: 3-23.

3 Ibid
4 The rethinking of design -build occurs because of the change of learning atmosphere. Working in a specific
community revolutionizes experience.
5 Reflection taken from Donald Sch6n's See The reflective practitioner
6 See Chapter 5 Related Readings









CHAPTER 5
RELATED READINGS1

Translation as Process

Creation is a patient search. Le Corbusier reminded the architect of the tireless work that

requires continuous analysis of place and a perpetual design process. During the past six years

my ongoing research has attempted to unfold, through a body of work, the definition of loci in

the Haitian landscape. Although Haiti may not have the architecturally well-known buildings

that Le Corbusier experienced in Europe, there is a similar sensibility in collecting architectural

and social artifacts to frame and translate a place. To understand this sensibility, I have

developed three modes of translation, literal, invention, and educational all of which come

together in the particular relation of material and place.

Ouanaminthe: The case study began in the Haitian town of Ouanaminthe, a rural area

located on the border of- Haiti and the Dominican Republic. The concept of translation was the

tool used to unveil the cultural, economical, and material layers of Ouanaminthe. The first mode

translation was literal: the decoding of Haitian Creole terminology that carry across meaning for

place making, aphorisms, and proverbs of Haitian culture. Then concept was considered for

invention: the transformation, alteration, or adaptation to another use of concrete block, earth,

bamboo, or coconut palm thatch. Lastly the device was used as a pedagogical process for making

architecture in a landscape that has not been developed.

The second mode adapted and transformed the use of local materials of Ouanaminthe to

create the project. Here, one goal of the process of translation was to understand the importance

of ground: 98 percent of Ouanaminthe dwellings were constructed from materials that are drawn

from the ground. The common dwelling has mainly two relationships with the ground first the

dwelling is literally constructed with earthen materials such as trees, adobe, straw bale, rammed









earth and secondly the spatial preparation of clearing the ground for a context to construct in.

Ouanaminthe's construction process can be outline in four phases: komande te a (the

commanding of land), boule raje yo (the felling and burning of all vegetation on the plot land),

make te a nan preparayson pou bati (marking the ground in preparation for the foundational

systems), and lastly yon plas pou jaden an (designating a place for a vegetable garden). The

jaden (vegetable garden) provides a large percentage of Ouanaminthe residents with food and

commerce, but the building practice of burning the vegetation of the land has drastically

minimized space for growing .Also after laying the foundations many dwellings that were more

than one floor brought about construction dangers. Many local artisans died in the process of

building these taller structures, due to the lack of improper scaffolding. Simply stated, the

construction techniques for building have hindered the livelihood of Ouanaminthe residents. My

observations and analysis produced the question of -how does one build here? How can one

suggest architecture that both weaves the Haitian's sense of place making with a new process

that could inspire future designs? The initial answer to these inquiries, after patient search, was

an institution for making and learning that could address the problems of construction and inspire

material inventions for architectural design in Ouanaminthe.

The Adaptation of The Hand

The intervention, the building clinic, is an institution for making and teaching. Building

clinic is envisioned as a site for translating local materials into a tectonic language that might

address the needs of contemporary Haitian society. As an institution the focus on the

engagement of the working with the hand offers a point of reflection-in-action for both instructor

and student.

The building in itself becomes a manual for making and learning to make. The materials

investigated at the site are in many cases would be locally available, and thus have culturally









charged histories of making: fibrous material for weaving baskets, embroideries, mats, and

hand crafted wood. In other cases, the clinic brings students into contact with modular materials

such as concrete block. In all cases, the hand links a problem with potential solutions. To me the

result of a patient search is a creation that endures. A creation that endures is one that weaves

itself into the mores of its people and can never be divided. The building clinic as a proposal

allows for replication because of the focus on hand and material- a combination that allows for

site specific analysis with inter-regional teaching methods and experimentation that address

Haiti's architectural needs.












Notes

1 This a paper was presented at the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture 96th Annual Meeting.









APPENDIX A
A DESIGN-BUILD WORKSHOP1

Overview: This seminar explores the design-build process as a hinge between university

and community. Design-build work, as service learning, combines active community

participation with pedagogical objectives of reflection, collaboration, and hands-on

experimentation. In this context, the seminar seeks to understand how "reflective building" links

thinking, making, and sustaining.

To open and sustain a dialogue between university and community, we will design and

construct a community garden at the Woodland Park unit of the Boys and Girls Club of Alachua

County. In addition to the site's physical properties, meetings and charrettes with members of the

club and the surrounding neighborhood will provide the context for the design-build process,

which will proceed quite literally "from the ground" our work being limited by constraints of

time and scale to a primarily horizontal architectonics. One focal point will be the architectural

edge of the garden serving as an open-ended, yet highly articulated event-space for reading,

conversing, and playing. With the space, we will also seek to make room for existing programs,

such as the Sugar Hill Poets and the club's after-school activities.

Rethinking design-build: In the spirit of reflective practice, the workshop provides a

forum to rethink design-build in a pedagogical and community-oriented context. The loosely

held typology of the community garden provides an unexpectedly architectural yet powerfully

grounded medium for exploring why and how we build across disciplinary and shared

boundaries. Within the seminar group, we will also draw from previous collaborative

experiences to understand the dynamics of group work in the context of full-scale, on-site,



1 Reflective Building: A Design-Build Workshop at the Boys and Girls Club / Spring 2008 was taught by Professor
Hailey and Everald Colas.









community-oriented projects. One outcome of the seminar will be critical reflection about the

design-build process and recommendations for future sites, projects, and methods.

Sustaining community: Another expected outcome of this seminar will be an

understanding of how place-making might sustain community. Given the localized context of the

plot of land shaded by live oaks next to the Boys and Girls Club situated between Gainesville's

Woodland Park and Sugar Hill neighborhoods, the seminar will explore this "common ground"

is a physical place as well as a potentially significant situation linked to a community's values

and dynamic identities. Consequently, we will find ways of communicating and discussing not

only design ideas but also issues of ownership, public space, and programmatic necessities. As

the design-build workshop becomes a method for place-making, it is expected that other

assumptions about the architectural charrette and the community meeting will also be

transformed and rethought.

Making ground: Taking the community garden as a starting point and a design

provocation, the seminar will explore how reflective building engages the ground. What has been

called the "skin of the earth" will for us link social, programmatic, natural, and material contexts.

This multi-layered activation elicits ground as matter and substrate. Consequently, "grounding"

will be integral to the process of making. How might the project float and embed and be

simultaneously temporary and permanent, without being ephemeral? How does the stability of

ground accommodate the performative and the flexible? Does making ground allow for such

paradoxes as the permanent mock-up and the traveling garden?

Boys and Girls Club of Alachua County-Woodland Park Unit: The Woodland Park

Boys and Girls Club is positioned between the Sugar Hill community and Woodland Park

neighborhood in Southeast Gainesville within a network of governmentally subsidized homes,









organized and owned by the Gainesville Housing Authority. The club provides approximately

100 children (ages 5-17) with a place to spend time after school and seeks to enhance the

educational development of each child into responsible adults. Wal-Mart recently provided

funding to help begin the community garden and also to encourage Gainesville's Community

Beautification Program. The Woodland Park Boys and Girls Club is thus seen as a catalyst for

proposing additional projects in the Sugar Hill neighborhood and adjacent communities. This

project is also seen as an opportunity for School Of Architecture students to complement their

design education with greater involvement in the community in this case, through a project in

eastside Gainesville.

Objectives

To understand and develop a multi-disciplinary approach to design-build work specifically
and future professional activity generally.

To participate in collaborative activities and discussions with members of the community.

To develop an ability to select, adapt, and apply methodologies and theoretical approaches
related to design-build activity.

To pursue research methods and design process that reduce disconnections between design
and construction.

To integrate architectural process and cultural values through the design-build approach.

To synthesize analysis, design process, and implementation.

To develop graphic, written, and oral communication techniques that integrate aspects of
the design-build approach.

Course requirements

Participation in community meetings and design-build activities on-site.
Written reflection on the process.
Documentation and preparation of a booklet.

Schedule

January February: Site-work [making] group









March: On-line dialogue about process and follow-up site-work [thinking] individual-
group

April: Preparation of booklet [reflecting] group

Readings

Alexander, Christopher. The Production ofHouses. New York: Oxford University Press,
1985.

Angelil, Marc M. "The Concepts of Natural and Artificial Production in Architecture."
Center 8 (1993): 85-99.

Bunschoten, Raoul. "The Skin of the Earth: A Dissolution in Fifteen Parts." AAfiles 1991
Spring, no.21, p.55-59

Carpenter, William J., ed. Learning by Building: Design and Construction in Architectural
Education. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1997.

Cavanaugh, Ted, Richard Kroeker, Roger Mullin. "For Want of Wind." Journal of
Architectural Education. 2005 May, v.58, n.4, p.6-11.

Coker, Coleman. "Community and Earth." http://buildingstudio.net/ in "writings."
Accessed 15 June 2007.

Coker, Coleman. "Building as Questioning." http://buildingstudio.net/ in "writings."
Accessed 15 June 2007.

Coker, Coleman. "The Presence of Things." http://buildingstudio.net/ in "writings."
Accessed 15 June 2007.

Coker, Coleman. "Regions of Regionalism." http://buildingstudio.net/ in "writings."
Accessed 15 June 2007.

Coker, Coleman. "An Intent of Constructing: [of] Constructing an Intent." Mockbee
Coker: Thought and Process. Ed. Lori Ryker. New York: Princeton Architectural Press,
1995. 57-73.

Dean, Andrea Oppenheimer. Rural Studio: Samuel Mockbee and an Architecture of
Decency. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002.

Deutsche, Rosalyn. Evictions Art and Spatial Politics, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996.

Deutsche, Rosalyn. "Krzysztof Wodiczko's Homeless Projection and the Site of Urban
'Revitalization.'" Evictions (1996): 3-48.

Deutsche, Rosalyn. "Sharing Strangeness: KrzysztofWodiczko's IEgis and the Question of
Hospitality." Grey Room, no.6, Winter 2002.









Dewey, John. Art as Experience. New York: Capricorn, 1958.

Fromm, Dorit and Peter Bosselmann. "Mexicali Revisited: Seven Years Later." Places.
Volume 1, Number 4. 78-90.

Hailey, Charlie. "Reviewing the Builder's Yard as a Place for Design Visualization."
Claiming Public Space, Penn State University's Hamer Center, January 2006,
http://www.claimingpublicspace.net/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid= 12

Harrison, Robert Pogue. Forests: .\/uhil \ of Civilization. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1992.

Kawamata, Tadashi. "Lodging: London-Tokyo." AAfiles 2000 Winter, n.43, p.[52]-78.

Kawamata, Tadashi. Work in Progress in Zug, 1996-1999. Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz Verlag,
2000.

Lacy, Suzanne, ed. Mapping the Terrain: New Genre of Public Art. Seattle: Bay Press,
1995.

Linn, Karl. "Commentary on Mexicali." The Scope ofSocialArchitecture. Ed. C. Richard
Hatch. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984. 132-3.

MacKay-Lyons, Brian. Brian MacKay-Lyons. Halifax: Tuns Press, 1998.

Mockbee, Samuel et al. Community Matters (special issue of Crit). Crit 2002 Spring, n.53,
entire issue (71p.)

Menin, Sarah, ed. Constructing Place: Mind andMatter. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Novakov, Anna. Veiled Histories: The Body, Place and Public Art. New York: Critical
Press, 1997.

Pearson, Jason. University-Community Design Partnerships: Innovations in Practice.
Washington, D.C.: NEA, 2002.

Pendleton-Jullian, Ann M. The Road Is Not a Road and the Open City, Ritoque, Chile.
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996.

Pichler, Walter. Walter Pichler: Drawings, Sculpture, Buildings. New York: Princeton
Architectural Press, 1993.

Rawls, John. A Theory ofJustice. Cambridge: Belknap, 1971.

Rawls, John. "A Kantian Conception of Justice" Cambridge Review (February 1973)
[online at: http://www.princetonindependent.com/issue01.03/item10c.html]

Schon, Donald. The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. New
York: Basic Books, 1983.









Sofield, Bill. "The Justice of Small Spaces," The Princeton Independent
[http://princetonindependent.com/issue01.03/item6.html]

Wodiczko, Krzysztof, Public Address, Minneapolis: Walker Art Center, 1992

Wodiczko, Krzysztof, Critical Vehicles, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999

Wodiczko, Krzysztof, CounterMonuments, Cambridge: List Visual Arts Center, 1987.

Programs
Archeworks
Location Chicago, IL
Program type Independent design school

Blue Soup Outreach
Location Southern California Institute of Architecture, Los Angeles, CA

Design Corps
Location Raleigh, NC
Program type Independent nonprofit design service
Lead staff Bryan Bell (executive director)

Howard S. Wright Design/Build Studio
Location University of Washington School of Architecture, Seattle, WA

The Rural Studio
Location Auburn University, Auburn, AL (studio located in Newbern, AL)
Program type Design/Build Studio

Studio 804
Location University of Kansas Department of Architecture, Lawrence, KS
Program type Design/Build Studio (semi-independent)
Lead staff Dan Rockhill (director)

Yale Urban Design Workshop
Location Yale University School of Architecture, New Haven,
Program type University-based community design center

Ghost Lab
MacKay-Lyons Sweetapple Architects Limited
2188 Gottingen Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Canada
B3K 3B4

The Yestermorrow Design/Build
Warren, VT









Design Build > Texas
University of Texas at Austin









APPENDIX B
REFLECTIVE BUILDING: OVERCOMING BOUNDARIES BETWEEN UNIVERSITY AND
COMMUNITY THROUGH DESIGN-BUILD PEDAGOGY2

Author bell hooks has written about domestic boundaries as places "where one discovers

new ways of seeing reality, frontiers of difference." Occupying the boundary itself becomes an

exploration of 'radical openness,' a process that is at once difficult, necessary, and instructive. In

the spirit of hooks' insights, we are investigating how particular service-learning experiences of

"reflective building" might overcome boundaries between university and community through the

active and interactive process of hands-on construction. We have set up a seminar of eleven

graduate students from the School of Architecture as a design-build workshop to work with

children from the Boys and Girls Club here in Gainesville, Florida to address the lack of

adequate space in the existing BGC facility.

Preliminary discussions called for outdoor classroom spaces and a community garden,

but the process of defining the problem remained necessarily open-ended and thus influenced

how we understand "reflective building." Increasingly well-known, design-build models of

pedagogy most typically address recognizable building types and occur within well-established

forms of project delivery in which the "problem" has a programmatic and procedural clarity.

What has not been adequately evaluated are situations in which the programs are not easily

defined, the time periods for student involvement are necessarily compressed, and material

resources are limited. In such situations, the design-build process parallels what Donald Schon

has called "problem setting." Consequently, we are interested in how the process of designing

and actually building sets the problem and dynamically reframes both the "practice situation" of

academic learning and the community situation of BGC's own educational mission.

2 This paper was co-author by Everald Colas and Charles Hailey and submitted to the Erasing Boundaries
Symposium that was hosted by the City College of New York









To understand how these university-community boundaries might be overcome, we

proposed the reflective building practicum in which University students develop hands-on

learning experiences. Pedagogical goals were to engage the club's multi-age members (5-18) and

to discover what to construct and then how collaboratively to build the outdoor spaces on the

BGC grounds. The process began with a Design Fair that drew from the conventions of design

charrette and crafts fair but focused on activities of making. The Design Fair combined play and

interactive learning to set up the subsequent practicum exercises. The Fair and subsequent

practicums reframed our own teaching models of design-build pedagogy and ultimately involved

the club's members in a reflective conversation to make an outdoor classroom and community

garden.

The workshop has sought to build across disciplinary boundaries of design and

construction, across the differences of age integral to the BGC, and across the different

experiences of university and community. This actively collaborative process of making

combines the art of practice and the practice of art whether through the poetry classes held in a

completed outdoor classroom or in the practicums themselves, where children might build a

reading bench or cast blocks to edge the garden. Reflective building not only works in the sense

of thinking-in-action and the training of Schon's reflective practitioner, but also reflects how

"community-building" can come about quite literally from making things together. And in the

end, it is quite possible that the hands-on exercises set up by the university students mirror,

indeed reflect, their own learning experiences as well as instructors' aims to facilitate a radical

openness of program and pedagogy.









LIST OF REFERENCES

1. Alberti, Leone Battisa De Re Aadificatiria Tirantl. De Re Aadificatiria Tirantl. London:
Tirantl, 1955.

2. Bell, Bryan. Good Deeds, good Design: community service through architecture. New
York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2001.

3. Colas, Everald. "Creating an architecture that Lasts: the Process of Translation in Haiti."
ACSA 96th Annual Meeting. New York: Association of Collegiate Schools of
Architecture, 2008. 32-33.

4. Dooley, Edwin L. "Wartime San Juan, Puerto Rico: The Forgotten American Home
Front, 1941-1945 ." (The Journal of Military History) 63, no. 4 (199).

5. D'souza, Dinesh. Dinesh D'souza writer and speaker. September 2007.
http://www.dineshdsouza.com/ (accessed November 2007).

6. Fathy, Hassan. Architecturefor the Poor. Chicago and London: University of Chicago
Press, 1973.

7. Foucault, Michel. Power and Knowledge: Selected Interview and Other Writings. New
York: Pantheon, 1977.

8. Francis-Jones, Richard. "Architecture is not Language- A note on Representation." UME
Magazine, 1997, UME3 ed.

9. Frascari, Marco. "The Particolareggiamento in the Narration of Architecture." Journal of
Architectural Education, 1989.

10. Hunt, John Dixon. "Ut picture poesis, the pisturesque, and John Ruskin." Comparative
Literature, 1978: 794-818.

11. Leslie, Esther. "Walter Benjamin: Traces of Craft." Journal of Design History, 1998: 9.

12. Liberman, Kenneth. "From Walkabout to Meditation: Craft and Ethic in Field Inquiry."
Qualitative Inquiry, 1999: 5-47.

13. Odate, Toshio. Japanese Woodworking Tool: Thier Traditon and Spirit and Use.
Newton: The Taunton Press, 1984.

14. Oppenheimer, Dean,Timothy Hursley. Proceed and Be Bold: Rural Sudio after Samuel
Mockbee. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2005.

15. Osborn, Robert. "The Evolution of The Craftsman." Perspecta, 1955: 64-75.

16. Palleroni, Sergio and Christina Eichbaum Merkelbach. Studio at Large: Architecture in
service of Global Communities. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press,
2004.









17. Pendleton-Jullian, Ann M. Road That Is Not a Road the Open City, Ritoque Chile.
Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996.

18. Perez-Gomez, Alberto. "Architecture as Embodied Knowledge." Journal ofArchitectural
Education, 1984: 57-58.

19. -. "Architecture as Drawing." Journal for Architectural Education, Winter 1982: 2-7.

20. Pichler, Walter. Drawings,Sculpture, Buildings. New York: Princeton Architectural
Press, 1993.

21. Pons, Frank Moya. History of the Caribbean. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers,
2007.

22. Pressoir, Catts. "Haiti: Monuments historiques et archeologiques." (Hispanic American
Historical Review) 34, no. 2 (1954).

23. Schon, Donald. The reflective practioner: How professionals think in action. New York:
Basic Books, 1983.

24. Schon, Donald. "Toward a Marriage of Artistry and Applied Science in the Architectural
Design Studio." Journal ofArchiectural Education, 1984: 4-10.

25. Sennett, Richard. The Craftsman. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008.

26. Tzonis, Alexander and Linae Lefraivre. Classical Architecture, The Poetics of Order.
Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986.

27. Whitehead, William Morgan and Alfred North. The Organization of a Story and a Tale.
Vol. 58. Chicago: University of Illinois Press on behalf of American Folklore Society,
1945.

28. Wilson, David. "Key Features Of Successful University-Community Partnerships."

29. Wilson, Victor-Emmanuel Roberto, and Jacqueline Van Baelen. "The Forgotten Eighth
Wonder of the World." (The Johns Hopkins University Press.) 15, no. 3 (1992).

30. Zambonini, Guiseppe. "Notes for a theory of making in a Time of Necessity." Perspecta,
Vol.24, 1988: 3-23.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Everald received his Bachelor of Design (2005), Master of Architecture (2007), and Master

of Science in Architectural Studies (2008) from the University of Florida. He has taught Haitian

Creole courses at the University of Florida for two years, and also has taught first and second

year architectural design studios. Within this work was his most current teaching assignment of

co-teaching a graduate design-build course at the University of Florida.





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1 ARCHITECTURE AS THE OCCUPIED LANGUAGE: A COMMENTARY ON THE PEDAGOGIES OF CRAFTSMANSHIP IN DESIGN-BUILD By EVERALD COLAS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Everald Colas

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3 To my professors

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank m y wife, Lauren Colas, for her love and unconditional support. I thank my chair, Charlie Hailey, for his example as an academic and his guidance and valuable feedback through my professional degrees. I am honored to have had the chance to collaborate with him on so many endeavors. I also thank Robert Macleod an d Nancy Sanders who were the first educators, by example, to ignite a love for teaching in me I like to thank both Mark McGlothlin and Paul Robinson for giving me advice on the issues of craftsmanship and engineering. I thank Nina Hofer and Martin Gundersen w ho made untold sacrifices, for the teaching examples of work in this thesis to see the li ght of day. I thank Martha Kohen for her academic guidance and financial support. Without it, my gr aduate work would not have been possible. Lastly I acknowledge James Eckler and Jeff Andre for asking critic al questions that helped me frame my arguments. Most of all I thank Jesus, who is Christ, for allowi ng me to live, breathe, and think.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................................6ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................................7 CHAP TER 1 PROLOGUE.............................................................................................................................8Parallels of the Architect and Craftsman................................................................................ 11In Between the Pedagogies of Drawing and Building............................................................142 COLLECTIVE MAKING IN THE PEDAGOGIC FRINGE................................................. 25Making in a Specific Context................................................................................................. 29Exchange through Building....................................................................................................33Pedagogy as a Line.................................................................................................................383 MAKE AND REFLECT.........................................................................................................41Scale of Making......................................................................................................................41The Hand, Drawing and the Artificer.....................................................................................434 CONCLUSION: PRODUCT DOES NOT EQUAL PROCESS ............................................ 47Rethinking Design Build........................................................................................................ 47Craft as Possibility........................................................................................................... .......495 RELATED READINGS......................................................................................................... 54Translation as Process......................................................................................................... ....54The Adaptation of The Hand..................................................................................................55 APPENDIX A A DESIGN-BUILD WORKSHOP......................................................................................... 58B REFLECTIVE BUILDING: OVERC OMING B OUNDARIES BETWEEN UNIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY THRO UGH DESIGN-BUILD PEDAGOGY............65LIST OF REFERENCES...............................................................................................................67BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................69

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6 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Wandering line draw ing of Urban Edges........................................................................... 20 1-2 Drawing as metaphysical and physical exploration ........................................................... 21 1-3 Walter Pichler............................................................................................................. .......22 1-4 Wandering line drawing of an envisioned public space .................................................... 23 2-1 Citadelle Laferrire ............................................................................................................28 2-2 Image of Boys and Girls Clubs Woodland Park site for com munity garden (looking north)..................................................................................................................................33 2-3 Series of images from the Clay station.............................................................................. 34 2-4 Series of images from the Brick-m aking station................................................................ 35 2-5 Series of images from the Mapping station....................................................................... 35 2-6 Series of images from the virtual station........................................................................... 35 2-7 Series of images from the scavenger station ...................................................................... 36 3-1 Wood as a drawing material..............................................................................................42 3-2 Decking extend towards planters....................................................................................... 43 3-3 The hand as an artificer................................................................................................... ...45

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7 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Science in Architectural Studies ARCHITECTURE IS THE OCCUPIED LANGUAGE: A COMMENTARY ON THE PEDAGOGIES OF CRAFTSMANSHIP IN DESIGN-BIULD By Everald Colas August 2008 Chair: Charlie Hailey Cochair: Paul Robinson Major: Architecture Architecture, as a discipline, casts a wide net within the br anches of education. In turn, architectural pedagogy due to its fl uid nature, challenges the edu cator and student to establish and re-establish languages appropriate for arch itectural thinking, making, and human dwelling. Drawing on this statement, architectural design and building can be seen to occupy an unstable territory of permanently shifting allegiance, and this is true of both the histories of these two sets of thinking and the two families of discourse su rrounding them. This study explores the gaps in the interdisciplinary evolving nature of design, craft, and making, in order to propose pedagogical overlaps for thinking, making, imagining, and communicating. Craft, as it relates to architecture pedagogy, is a term applied to the architectural process of techniques in which artifacts are made by hand and eye. Historically the craftsman/ artisa ns, who showed a sense mastery of technique and embodying fitness or purpos eand trueness of mate rial, operated in the contextual interdiscip linary gap between thinking and buildi ng. The craftsmens roles to their communities changed within the turn of the Industrial Revolution. What is outlined is a paralleled re-visiting of the e volution of craftsmanship and the influences that it embodies when addressing design-build pe dagogy in architecture.

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8 CHAPTER 1 PROLOGUE Mem ory is peculiar. It is so selfish. It occu rs and reoccurs and even reshapes itself to seem more attractive. I sometimes do not want it, but it is me. When the terms architecture and making are stated or written the same memory co mpetes in my head. I pay it no attention--afraid of the mental imprisonment of nostalgia. But it is not nostalgia. Is it? It is a memory that begs to be remembered. Fourteen years ago, on a hot, searing, and or ange summer, I sat under a mango tree in my mothers courtyard. This was a familiar place for me to draw in the sand with my toes and delight in the fact that this island can produce mangos nine months out of the year. The courtyard was a generous space organized by a huge basin, hundreds of ballast stones, and a long and porous cast iron gate. This was handcrafted gate that filtered the western li ght at dusk and in the dawn the artistry of its carvings framed suitab le vistas. The small views told particular tales distinctive of Haitian society; there were women bartering for hens in the adjacent house, a man with callused feet lugging a koros l (star fruit ice-cream) truc k, and another craftsman working on several wooden pieces. The latter man, as the neighborhood affectionately named him, was Bs Mason. The name (literally translates verba tim the Boss of Masonry) was used to identify master craftsmen in the Delmas. The Delmas were tightly woven neighborhoods that were located in the mountains of Haiti and overlooked th e more urban layout of the rest of Port-auPrince. A name packed with much meaning; at once it translated a sense of authority, intellect, and fondness for materiality. The Bs, I would later find out, was making a wooden dodin (rocking chair) for an aged woman that lived acro ss the street from him. His process of making was oriented with an intense poe tic slowness. His humble and calcu lated acts seemed to declare a personal fondness for that very slowness. I imagined if the speed of his process was to increase

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9 that some aspects of understanding his craft would have been lost. He had aged skill with his tools. The making process seemed inherent in his Being. What was portrayed as years of practice, the Bss act of ma king implied a conscience of prehension. This craftsman had a vast capability to gras p simultaneously the making with the mind as mental apprehension and the hand as the physical Sociology professor and urbanist Richard Sennet describes this idea of prehension: To say that we grasp something implies physi cally that we reach for it. In the familiar physical gesture of grasping a glass, the hand will assume the rounded shape, suitable for cupping the glass, before it actu ally touches the surface. The body is ready to hold before it knows The technical name for movements in which the body antic ipates and act in advance of sense of data is prehension .1(Sennet 2008) Prehension stemmed from Alfred North Whiteheads early twentieth century Process Theory. He established the philosophy that the world was a process rather than an object. In terms of the craftsmen parallel, when Whitehead spoke of the individual within the world he stated that experience was primary--and preceded matter. Matt er and substance, even forces and energy, were for him later products of our imagination.2 Truly a craftsman has embodied knowledge already, however, prehension para llels a craftsmans pre-imagina tion. Could one be predestined to be a craftsman? Or is it thr ough hours of practice that routine becomes a craft? It seemed as though by now as an artisan, Bs Masons hands had become an extension of his mind. The hammer was a tool to stimulate hi s visualizations. The angle chis el against the wood grain drew from his imaginations. Materiality was the main character in his constructed story. The dark and oil filled shop where he work ed was usually silent, unless accompanied by clamors of material wrought sounds. Bs Mason was never known for his adequacy as verbal communicator, but it seemed his emotions and languages were held in his work. Hannah Arendt in the Human Condition concluded the mind engages once la bor is done. In the case of Bs

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10 Mason, however, a more balanced view is that thinking, communicating, and feeling was contained within the process of his making3. The Bs Mason played a social role in the Haitian community as a maker. The classic Greek philosopher Plato mapped the etymol ogical derivation for making as poiein Poetry as derived from poiein allowed Plato to observe that all craftsmen were poets. And as poets their role is not simply to achieve irrelevant act s of production, but instead, to communicate an ideology of the work through the process of making. The object produced by Bs Mason epitomized his role in Haitian society. Moreove r, the process of producing the object was the connective tissue between the Bs Mason and hi s neighboring patrons. Because it inevitably carries meaning that object will contain all of the advancements and contradictions manifested in the society of which it is a product, speaking to the relationships among its members and, in turn, the relationship of thos e individuals to the environment they occupy.4 Making (poesis), in this sense, is the act of a creative pr ocess and its affect to the social environment, as oppose to the end product. What do these sensibilities have to do with architectural pedagogy? It is worth recalling that architecture once de pended on the directed skill of the poetic craftsman. It was oriented to her slow, meticulous methods, bound by her primitive technology and guided by a firm system of social ethics. Craftsmen work ed in the critical gap between the design and building. Arguably, this position for thinking, maki ng, imagining, and visualizing is one of the most critical settings in archit ectural education. With this mind it is essential to ask a series of questions: What is the pedagogica l evolution of a craftsman? Ho w do these implications help focus on the critical gaps that craftsmanship dwe lls in architectural thinking? What role do the craftsmanship sensibilities have in the architectural curricula?

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11 This introduction proposes what the followi ng commentaries demonstrate: namely that the interplay between (architectural) design, building, and crafts manship is a revealing focal point for analysis. The commentaries establish, in addition, the inadequacy of normative or unchanging usage of the terms desi gn, craft and building, which is mutable in relation to both time and space. The introduction reviews some salient instance in the development of experiences that surround a craftsman, while the commentaries which follow identify relationships between craftsmanship and archit ectural pedagogy, a case study of design-build and material practice. Parallels of the Architect and Craftsman The Japanese word shokunin is defined by both Japanese and JapaneseE nglish dictionaries as a craftsman or artisan, but such a literal desc ription does not fully express the deeper meaning. The Japanese ap prentice is taught that shokunin means not only having technical skill, but also implies an attitude and social consciousness. These qualities are encompassed in the word shokunin, but are seldom written downThe shokunin demonstrates knowledge of tools and sk ill with them, the ability to create beauty and capacity to work with incredible speedT he shokunin has a social obligation to work his best for the general welfare of the people. This obligation is both spiritual and material, in that no matter what it is, if society requires it, the shokunins responsibility is to fulfill the requirement. (Odate 1984) The origin of shokunin and the bs mason, although separated by 7000 nautical miles, reveals a similar sensibility of a craftsman a nd his role to his community. The name of each craftsman holds unspoken social imaginarie s. Along the lines of Michel Foucaultsocial imaginaries pertain to the way people imagine th eir common existence, how they fit together with others, how things go on between them and their fellows. Craftsmen in Japan and Haiti hold a critical spatial consciousness in the imaginary matrix of society that goes well beyond their acts of fabrication. The Shokunin and the Bs Mas on interpret the social minutiae of their surroundings, in order to develop a poe tic response for the object made.

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12 Craftsman and builders: Furthermore these craftsmen are more than just builders. A builder simply assembles objects together; the crafts man has an affinity for his materials, tools, and conciseness of specific tec hniques during the making process. This is craft proper, the method by which the vast majority of human arti facts have been designed in human history. In the absence of drawings, the defining char acteristic of the craft approach is that craftsmen work immediately with their materials. Final dimensions are determined only as the materials are actually worked and the artifact ac tually made. There is no separation of designing from making. The two activities take place at th e same time. There is no separation of designer from maker. They are the same person. Think of the potter at the wheel Initially craftsmen, however, did not work with the automatic precis ion of machines, rather, they compensated for errors, inaccuracies, and inconsistencies in the mate rial as they work. They change their minds as they went along. They considered what they ha d done and respond to it, maintaining a feedback loop with the object in a proce ss traditionally referred to as cutting and fitting. Think of the potter again, or a carpenter fitt ing timbers together understand distance using a measuring tape. The formidable things crafted were pervaded by a distinct quality which we call craftsmanship, showing mastery of technique and embodying fitness or purpose, and trueness of material. Craftsmanship is both-a method and a quality, the quality bein g essential, the method also vital, because the methodology of tools wa s fluctuating. From about 1750 on we have had a revolution in techniques which has arguably displaced the artisan using hand craft methods. However, the change in techniques was not necessarily the death of the craftsmen. Sennet cautions us that we err by imagining that the medieval, or for that matter, contemporary craftsmen were entirely resistant to innovation, but their cr aftwork changed slowly and as the result of collective effort. These ch anges are paralleled in both craftsmanship and

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13 architectural thinking, since both disciplines situat e their studies in materiality and in a built world that is paced by technological advances. Zambonini makes clear in The Theory of Making that there are two values em erging through this parallel a nd joint relationship between architecture, craftsmanship, and built works. Duri ng the building process, where work to be built is set up; society is inevitably manifest in the work itself. There are two distinct values that emerge due to this occurrence. This first is referred to as continuity5. The term continuity speaks of relationships in time: the extension of the design process thr ough the building process as we trace the birth of an idea in the abstract through its two-dimensional shaping and finally to its encounter with the materi als and methods of building.6 This process draws energy from our desire to see an idea physi cally realized, to see our ideas reflected by the object The true merits of those ideas are not only conclusively revealed at the completion of building; it is also during the process of making that the idea can be trul y evaluated in the work. The process itself, however, begins with drawing for the architect. It is in this pr ocess of drawing that functional concerns bring resistance to the initial desire to express design emotion. This can happen even if the object is not physically rea lized; in this case the drawi ng appears as a survey of a hypothetical found condition rather than the docum entation of some intention to build (see figure1-1). At this moment in design we are c onfronted with the gap between a cerebral design idea and the physical assemblage of that idea. Bo th sides of the split hol d merit in architecture pedagogy. The former allows the student to dwell in the realm of drawing th at has utopian ideals that are not in resistance to technological capacities, political correctness or budget. And the latter allows the student to draw and build in a context with societal and phenomenological resistance. The latter sensibil ity also serves to introduce th e second valueintegration. Integration suggests another kind of unity am ong architects and craf tsmen. Integration is

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14 fundamentally opposed to the perceived necessity for standardization and specialization. Integrated method of making denotes the coming toge ther of trades and artisans, each capable of applying different skills, while nonetheless mainta ining an understanding of the whole to which the work aspires. This noti on derives from Arrigo Rudi's7 definition of craftsmanship: knowledge of the entire process in view of its goal. As integration pertains to drawing, it is in opposition to drawing without the bu ilt materiality as the initial catalyst. Craftsmen dwell in integration. The craftsman challenges the tende ncy whereby drawing has only been given preeminence in the conceptual process, leaving to distant executors all decisions concerning how best to build the work. In the work of Viennese architect and craftsman Walter Pichler (see figure 1-3) exemplifies the integral appropriateness of craf t in architectural making and thinking. Pichler, reminiscent the skonin and bs ma son, often speaks to his neighbors about the making of things, about the tools and machines in his shop. His proce ss of making is central to the material and the possible technological methods of re-thinking that material. As a craftsman, Pichler celebrates his tools, which acts a mediator to mindha nd-to material. Pichler drawings continuously straddle the line of envisioned sculpt ure and architecture see figure (1-3). In Between the Pedagogies of Drawing and Building The roles of drawing and building in architec ture m ay cause the architectural educator, theorist and critic to sound o ff in different discourses about their position on these tools. The distance between architectural drawing and bu ilding has always been opaque and ambiguous.8 Alberto Perez Gomez concluded that much of the discussion faced by contemporary architects and educators seems to be linked to th e questions: Is drawing a tool of reduction ? (or) Is drawing the embodiment of architecture? The reduction theory of drawing (drawing to produce a neutral collection of documents for a buildings construction) has enormous implications. This

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15 suggests that the architect creates working drawi ngs or precise detail desi gns only to instruct a carpenter on a series of building operations. This theory places the architect with distance as it pertains to the involvement in the craft of the building. The other camp of this fundamental split considers drawing itself as architecturethat it contains the matter of mean ing. In this view the role of drawing is the embodime nt of architectural ideas. The embodiment theory (see figure and 1-2) considered the drawing a vehicle for expre ssing architectural intentions: intension that are full of meaning, as poesis, the creative making. This separation of meaning in drawing in relationship to building is worth more explora tion. The case for exploring this space between these two camps of thought-is to fine crucial pedagogical overla ps that may lie in between drawing and building9. The inquiries are: What language s pertaining to architecture pedagogy have evolved in each camp? When di d this split historically occur? Richard Fancis-Jones argued that perhaps the fi rst sign of this fractur e can be located in the work of Leon Battista Alberti. He recollects that Alberti did not rise through the guilds or trades; his interest in architecture was primarily theoretical. His famous treatise on architecture, De Re Aedificatoria contained no illustrations ; architecture was to be thought, idealized and theorized. A lberto Perez Gomez fu rther elaborated that Alberti was the first to distinguish between design and structure as the two cons tituent parts of architecture. In Albertis De Re Aedificatoria he insisted that design resided in a right and exact ad apting and joining together the lines and angles which compose and form the face of the building. The role of design was to appoint to the edifice and all its parts their proper pla ces, determinate number, just proportions and beautiful order.10 Alberti initiated the belief th at design was inseparable from matter (see figure 1-3), so that drawing was perc eived as the embodiment of architectural ideas, distinct from perspectives that represen ted (in painting), the reality of a building11.

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16 From the birth of the Renaissance to the early 18th century the Albertian sensibilities endured. Architecture in the earl y Renaissance was considered a liberal arta stomping ground for intellectuals. Drawing was centered on the relationship between the human body and metaphysical space. Renaissance perspectives we re drawn as an intellectual exercise that analyzed geometry and overall mathematics as they related to portions of the body. As the craftsman/builder emerged, their role was to implement the embodied drawings analyzed geometries of spaces. The embodied meaning of th e architecture was of most importance during the building process. Instead of dictating a set of instructions that were to be actualized by implementing neutral technological processes, the architect, still primarily a builder, knew that the "distance" between idea and matter, between design and construction, would be reconciled through his own involvement in building.12 There was an inherent closeness, if not the same character, between drawer and builderbetween architect and ma ker. It was understood by the 17th century architects that there was a split be tween architecture as the design of geometrical spaces and perspective drawing as a t ool of visualization and imagination.13 Conceivably by the early 18th century the ro le of the renaissance drawing was reanalyzed. Drawing was seen as more experimental exercises that could be more or less precise. Perspective drawings were made sometimes with the aid of tools like gr ids or scales, but the drawing was evidently not perceived as a "pictu re" of the building, as its reduction, or as a neutral collection of information for its construction.14 Due to the fracture of drawing and building the path was certainly open for the tran sformation of the builder into an efficient designer (craftsman), capable of controlling pr actice through prescriptive methods and precise drawings. But the transformation was a slow proce ss. It took many decades for the belief that

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17 theory as a method, and of drawi ng as its tool of reduction, to come to fruition. Only modern architects after Durand have assumed such a ro le of drawing as primary and unquestionable. Toward the end of the 18th century, Per ez-Gomez makes clear that Gaspard Monge developed his descriptive geometry, wh ich became a basic discipline of the Ecole Polytechnique. The problem of describing an obj ect through its projections on thr ee planes had been a concern of architects before Mange, but the inventi on of descriptive geomet ry was more than a systematization of known methods. Descriptive ge ometry opened the way for a functionalization of the reality of the lived world. Descriptive geometry became an effective instrument of the French school for engineering, and an absolutely essential tool of preci sion during the Machine Age. The original architectural ideas were transformed into universal projections that could then, and only then, be perceived as reductions of buildings, creating the illusion of drawing as a neutral tool that communicates unambi guous information, like scientific prose15. This fracture of technological dualism constructed the space between the surface and construction, between the intellectual architect who reads and the master craftsperson who makes, between the idealized image and the re ality of its making. Focusing inquiry on the fundamental gap between theory and making --drawing and building will demonstrate the problematic nature of defining two opposing camps of architectural thin king. In both supposed camps, the challenge pedagogically is to create a workable marriage of theory, drawing, and making. Alberti academically dedicated many thoughts on the notion that drawing was indeed architecture. That drawing could embody all the ideology of ones architectural concept- inseparable from matter. However, what lack ed was the hinge between the poetics of the concept and the process of making and sensing the re sistance of the elements this is inclusive

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18 architecture. Pedagogically, inclusive architecture is an exploration that happens at different phases of the curriculum. It should not saturate the curricula at all le vels. There are moments when the student should visualize, imagine, or dwell within their intui tiveness without sensing the resistance of the built nature of architecture. It is essential to have modes in the pedagogy where design thinking is fueled and meditated upon outside the built issuesin order to be able to ask questions that challenge our perception of the built realities. It is th erefore not essential to understand architectural making be yond this intellectual separati on of thinking and making. The issue is largely more complex than thisis it mainly about the exploitation of the interdisciplinary gaps that makes for educationa l opportunities unique to ar chitecture. Inclusive architecture dwells within this gap16. Furthermore craftsmanship rests and links the interdisciplinary gaps between drawing and buildingwithout the contextual breaks in architecture, craftsmanship is insignificant. This assessment challenges the proposal that in thinking/making within architecture one should not be hermetically sealed: clearly this is a contradiction of the collective and social nature of the discipline. As an in structor, one of the most rewardi ng aspects of the discipline is to ask a student to take their process of clarity of an idea (which may be driven by the readings of Henry David Thoreau) and to physically assemb le that idea. This is an example where architectural thinking dwells within the interdisciplinary gaps. To ask a student that question, places thinking in space where concepts are in se arch for a critical context to rest. At that moment the student would sense most of the re sistance that architectur al thinking and making dwells in. Thoreaus works are not architecture, per se, but they do describe and contextualize architectural sensibilities thr ough written language. But architectur e is not really like written language; it is not read like text. It is built, crafted, assembled and inhabited. Architecture is a

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19 language of making ; it is at once more direct and ambiguous: it is a language or art we inhabit. It is a language/art that accepts th e resistance and ambiguity of occ upied function or the limitations of construction-apart from other arts. Architectur es conceptual forces derives from the way it frames and orients us in relation to the world, nation, city, community, home, and artifact. It is perhaps most accurately understood as the propos ition of alternative real ities within reality, worlds within the world.17 In architecture, meaning of reality are explored and postulated through th e formal relations of making and the reality of its making not merely through the surfaces application of an idealized product but through the spatial organization, formal order, structure, construction, specific relation to the site and interpretation of the pr ogram. Thus the meaning in architecture does not depend on it stability, function, or efficiency of the means of its productio n, but the way in which all of these have been limited and subordinate d or poetically transformed by purely recognized requirements. Purposefulness is therefore not a restrictive condition that comprises the art of architecture but an integral element of specific meaning. A work of architecture should not simply present a record or expression of realit y but provide critical frames within which to understand our human condition. Pedagogically, as architects and educators, we identify the programmatic issues and then peel back the layers to expose or find th e poetics tr ajectoriesdifferent from problem solving. The presence of conflict in our society should be acknowledged, together with the need for social criticism and social engagement of ar chitecture as a critical activity. We shall therefore be made aware of the condi tions of our lives through the construction of alternative realities within in which things are reset in a slightly different order. Architecture becomes the making of critical fram es in which to understand reality, a formal means of cognitive effect, with an ethical and social purpose. (Francis-Jones 1997)

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20 Alternative realities derive from the way cr aft as the architectural process frames and orient us in relationshi p to our surroundings. Ther efore poiesis (making) in architecture is not a simplistic statement of the worlds contradictions and conflict, nor is it a false reassurance of our well-being. Social contradictions should not merely be stated but critically examined and possible poetic resolutions explored. It is important to empha sis poieses in architecture not as a separate intellectual act of idealism but as spec ific investigations. Mean ing in architecture does not come from the works detachment from the wo rld but from the way frames and transforms as an extension of its site and ethical interpretation of its social intention. Figure 1-1. Wandering line drawing of Urban Edges

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21 Figure 1-2. Drawing as metaphysi cal and physical exploration

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22 Figure 1-3. Walter Pichler

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23 Figure 1-4. Wandering line drawing of an envisioned public space

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24 Notes 1 R. Sennett. The Craftsman. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008. 2 Truly a craftsman has embodied knowledge already; however, his experience is something quite unique and separate from human consciousness, though human consciousness is built up out of his primary experiences. For the moment, it is best to think of experience as primitive f eeling, or awareness with subj ectivity and value, which may or may not reach consciousness. In sum, prehension pa rallels a craftsmans pre-im agination. Whitehead, William Morgan and Alfred North. "The Organization of a Story an d a Tale." (University of Illinois Press on behalf of American Folklore Society) 58, no. 229 (1945). 3 R. Sennett. The Craftsman. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008. 4 G. Zambonini. "Notes for a theory of making in a Time of Necessity." Perspecta, Vol.24 1988: 3-23. 5 G. Zambonini. "Notes for a theory of making in a Time of Necessity." Perspecta, Vol.24 1988: 3-23. 6 Ibid 7 Rudi was an architect and close collaborator with Carlos Scarpa, He and Scarpa were commissioned to design the Banca di Verona. This was a collaborative project that took over five years to co mplete. This five year period was a continuous collective craftsmanship endeavor. 8 See Perez-Gomez, Alberto. "A rchitecture as Drawing." Journal for Architectural Education Winter 1982: 2-7. 9 To possibly frame the role of drawing and building as seen through the craftsmans rolerole that rest in between this fracture. 10 See Alberti, Leone Battisa De Re Aadificatiria Tirantl. De Re Aadificatiria Tirantl. London: Tirantl, 1955. 11 Ibid 12 Ibid 13 14 The evolution of the renaissance drawing 15 M. Frascari "The Particolareggiamen to in the Narration of Architecture." Journal of Architectural Education 1989. 16 Inclusive architecture and the role of the craftsman are the identical. 17 See Francis-Jones, Richard. "Architecture is not LanguageA note on Representation." UME Magazine 1997, UME3 ed.

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25 CHAPTER 2 COLLECTIVE MAKING IN THE PEDAGOGIC FRINGE A proper exam ple of how a work of archit ecture frames a people and their ethical interpretations can be seen in Haitis immeasurable Citadelle Laferrire, begun in 1804, when General Jean Jacques Dessalines pronounced the independence of the former French colony of Santo-Domingo and construction continued sporad ically until the arrival of General Henry Christophe. Dessalines simply chose the site for its views on top of a three thousand feet Bonnet a LEveque mountain (see figur e 2-3). Henry Christophe late r was commander of the native armies of the North and victorious hero of the campaign against Napoleon's expeditionary army initiated idea for the structure. As soon as he was made king, Henry Christophe also commissioned a Haitian architect, Henri Barr e and ordered constructi on to commence. Any healthy men and qualified bricklayers of the Cap-Haitian area, including many soldiers, were recruited for this project. The workers carried tons of material and 275 cast-iron and bronze guns of various calibers to the top of the mountain through narrow, rocky and treacherous paths skirting cliffs where one precarious step meant instant death. Although there was an architect on the project he was more of an overseer, the pr ojects craft and overall poetics was made by the masses. More than 500,000 tons of construction materi als were needed to build this sublime fortress. The fort had an irregular quadrilateral shape and contains a colo ssal rounded bastion and a long triangular spur extending into the lower secti on. The interior of the C itadel is an incredible complex of galleries, halls, rooms, powder magazi nes, barracks, supply rooms, prison cells and water reservoirs. Christophe had planned to hous e a barracks of fifteen hundred men, capable of enduring an attack for three years with enough arms and provisions stored in rooms three thousand meters high, with walls 3 meters thic k. By 1817, Henry Christophe, the former slave,

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26 who had become king achieved his dream of constructing a fortress. The Citadelle Laferrire, now is an architecturally tremendous source of pride and liberty to Haitians, but came at a great price of twenty thousand lives lost during cons truction. Moreover the craf tsmanship came about with many hands and has generated a sense of ownership for Haitians for over two hundred years. The concept of many hands in a work s houldnt be taken lightly. The collective making of this structure helped cross critical boundaries of early Haitian leadership and lay men citizens. There was a grass roots sense of democracy re gistered through a building. After the Haiti revolution, the Citadelle as a mark was a se nse of power and Haitian communal advancement. Today, as a ruin the Cita delle registers it process of making as a monument to collective making. The monumental nature of the Citadelle reads as architecture defined collective spirit inherent in it structure. This spirit conveys a timeless quality that seems like it cannot be masked or changed. Politics of making: The historical collective making examples are situated in the fringes of architectural pedagogy. The pe dagogic fringe acts as context th at offers the opportunity for students to engage the multiple references that constitute different cultural margins experiences, languages, and craftsmanship. This means e ducating students not only to read these margins critically but also to learn the limits of such margins including the ones they use to construct their own narratives and histories. Partiality becomes, in this case, the basis for recognizing the limits built into all discourses and necessitates taking a critical view of authority. Architecture students must engage knowledge as border-crossers, as persons moving in and out of borders constructed around coordinates of difference and power. These are not only physical borders; they are also cultural borders historically cons tructed and socially orga nized within rules and regulations that limit and enable particular identities, individual capacities, and social forms. In this case, students cross over into borders of making and mean ing, maps of knowledge, social

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27 relations, and values that are increasingly being negotiated and rewritten as the policies and regulations that organize them become dest abilized and reshaped. The pedagogic fringe decenters as it remaps. The terrai n of learning becomes inextric ably linked to the shifting parameters of place, identity, history, and power. But there is lack clarity in the discourse of what architectural making, within the craft framework, is as it relates to a cultural awareness. The definition of architecture cannot be grasped through either a narrow-minded view of recent architectural works or an obsession, method or obj ectivity. History shows th at architecture has been a profound, "interdiscipli nary" form of knowledge, allo wing humanity to dwell on the earth.1 Making as architecture, regardless of its ev erchanging and in fluidity of discourse, historically satisfied the undertak ing of providing an occupied/m aterial form of poetics for the space analyzed. The scale of the space analyzed is crucial. In practice the scale of work ranges for institutional to small exhi bitions. In larger projects in the office, project delivery may overshadow the capabilities of keeping a constant poetic. With what is seen in practice, one should rethink the scale of craft/m aking within academia. In academia scale of project can work as personal in house studies to smaller projects that reach the surroundi ng community. This is reminiscent of the roles of shokunin to Japanese and the bs mason to Haitian society. Today discourse on service learning has emerged as way to revive the awareness of this connection of academic studies reaching communities. Service Learning as a pedagogy appears to be quite promising. Service learning has a pedagogic framework where learning and reflecting are combined with an academic atmosphere th at provides meaningful making through ones community as a technical exercise Theoretically these principles are influenced by the historical understanding of craftsmanship. In considering crafts role in ar chitecture pedagogy it is focal

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28 that the exploration is not simply following th e vocational mode. Traditionally, service learning has merged into vocational pedagogies, which ma y not foster critical educational thinking, but rather focus on job-specific skills and as such are devoted to trai ning, not a lengthier process of education. In architectural pedagogy it would be t actless to prepare students to simply machines that are ready to plug in the office. It is im portant to stimulate th e inherent ideology and knowledge of the student for him or her to unde rstand possibilities of th e poetic craftsmanship within the community. Service learning as a craf tsmanship practice has to be tailored uniquely for architectural education. Archit ecture is not simply the embodiment of information or trade; it is the embodiment of making with meaning. A B Figure 2-1. Citadelle Laferrire A) Landscape of artiller y. B) Citadelle sited on Bonnet a LEveque mountain

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29 Making in a Specific Context Any activity of production involves the transf orm ation of matter fo r a purpose clearly defined somewhere between society and the in dividual. The maker and the object to be created are tied together by an intimate re lationship which does not disappear at the conclusion of the production process. This relati onship can be describe d in different ways, in each case inseparably connected to th e nature of the production process itself. (Zambonini-1988) To investigate more the rethinking of service learning in the architecture pedagogical framework, my mentor Dr. Charlie Hailey and I developed a design-build wo rkshop at the University of Florida. This was a seminar of eleven graduate students from the School of Architecture and the project was in partnership with the Boys and Girls Clubs Woodland Part Unit in East Gainesville. The objectives were to 1) understand and develop a multi-disciplinary approach to frame a design-build work that would focus on the process of making within a specific community situation, 2) to set ou t pedagogically to foster an abil ity to select, adapt, and apply methodologies and theoretical approaches relate d to design-build activ ity, and 3) to pursue research methods and design pr ocess that reduce disconnections between design and what is built. The Seminar, as a form of service learning, searched for a new reading of design build in order to challenge the argument s of austere acts of production. The work was set out to be socially conscience and architecturally respons ible. The Boys and Girls Club children (age 5 through 17) simply desired an outdoor space that would alleviate the lack of sufficient space in their facility. This was a simp le programmatic request, but pedagogically it was important to charge the graduate students to find and unveil the hidden poetics of that request while working hands-on with the children of th e club. Zambonini, in the abov e quote, offers the notion of transformation of matter. In these terms there are sensible underpinni ngs of the overall designbuild seminar. For instance the way the world is experienced is through action (transformation),

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30 and through action we change it. Change imp lies creation or design (poetic making connotes both) even at the level of everyda y actions-passive or aggressive. In this project, the site was four miles east of the University. The transformation (the search for the projects poetics) began first at two scales, the university and the community. The workshop was appropriately titled Reflective Building: Over coming Boundaries between University and Community through Design-Build Pedagogy. Overcoming boundaries is fitting because it is clear that cultural boundaries shap e the way we conceptualize and maneuver. The process by which some cultural boundaries emerge more dominant than others is ambiguous. However cultural boundaries have a logic, and in our daily lives we tend to tr eat this logic as if it is inherent in the entities themselves. We join some things together and split them from others along conceptual lines that seem both natural and inevitable. But carving the world into discrete mental entities does not entail th e recognition of natural distincti ons so much as a process of interpretation. The particular features that are highlighted or ignored in our cultural boundaries reflect in part the uses to whic h they are put, distinguishing featur es that are socially relevant from those that do not matter. The two boundaries that were examined in th e design-build seminar were those of the University and those of the Boys and Girls Club. The University of Floridas boundaries of micro urban sensibilities of brick edifices may seem to operate as a pre-professional hub. The professional hub critique is a re ading of how one is inducted into a community of thinkers, makers, writers, and researchers for four to eight years, but then leave to other cities where professional practice may have seemed more pr omising. The University at moments, depending on the cognitive boundary, is defined as the city of Gainesville. This conceptual basis, although far from truth, through common ment al practice can become concretized. Moreover, the eastside

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31 of Gainesville may not even be in existence w ithin the conceptual boundaries of a University student. The boundaries of the Boys and Girl s club are framed by a series of understood imaginary walls of its site. The Club is located in the Woodland Park area in Southeast Gainesville and is comparable to the University-as a city within a city. The site is a network of governmentally subsidized homes and is buffered by as series of critical landmarks: a quiet cemetery, a desolate gas station and a local bicycl e trail. The materiality of the subdivision are redundant brick, beautiful oak trees, and power lin es (which hold culture with the occasional shoe hung by the string). The upkeep of Woodlan d Park serves as an opposition to a lower income community where roads would be unkempt and lights would not be functional. Instead the space has a vibrancy a nd disposition for growth, and community involvement. Communally, the club provides approximate ly one hundred predominantly African American children with a place to spend time afte r school and as a goal it seeks to enhance the educational development of each child into responsible adults. The club is a space for community leadership meetings, social gatherings and a place of leisure. The Boys and Girls Club is thus seen as a catalyst for proposing community projects in the neighborhood (see figure 2.1). As we set the design-build project, my me ntor, and I understood the possible change trajectories that the graduate students would sense in regards to University/community boundaries. Professor bell hooks stat es it appropriately in her book Teaching to Transgress that education is the practice of freedom a plac e where cultural boundaries can be challenged and rethought. With the same awareness we imagined that through collective making in a designbuild project the gaps between Univer sity and community could be filled.

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32 To propose a graduate seminar where eleven students from the school of architecture would relocate their studio to a site on the Eastside seemed fitting for the anomaly that architectural education presents. Donald Schn el aborates on the situation of the architectural design studio with in the university: The architectural design studio is an anomaly in the contemporary research university. Its underlying theories of professional knowledge an d teaching are at odds with those of other university based professional schools. This repr esents an opportunity: the studio has much to teach other professional schools on the basis of its traditions of education through coaching and learning-by-doing.(Schon) The in-house architecture design studio at the University of Florida is cla ssically a form of public learning. In this sense, the archite ctural studio is a practicum, a vi rtual world that represents the real world of [design] practice but is relatively free of its pr essure, distractions, and risks.2 In an in-house design studio, the students learn by making at multiple scales, but rarely full scale or 1:1. Within the ideal public learning condition of the studio the most important agenda is transforming or rethinking the idea of conversation Unlike the in-house studio where conversation is held in a framework of stude nt to colleaguesto professorto in-house architecture community, the offsite design build project adds another layer; that of the Woodland Park Community. The in-house studio is a space to foster critical and sometimes hermetic thinking by design students. The peda gogy of the studio stems from an inquiry-based approach that can prepare students to function effectively in differe nt contexts. The exercises that are scrutinized and massaged within the in-house studio space are preparati ons for the student to function effectively in an architectural design discipline. But the setting for this learning is internal within the School of Architecture. Desi gn build studio asks student to leave a familiar setting, i.e. the walls of the architecture building, and to a ddress design and making in the communitycreating a learning atmo sphere that is truly public.

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33 Figure 2-2. Image of Boys and Girls Clubs Woodland Park site for community garden (looking north) Table 2-1. Design Build Workshop Project Time-line Event Dates Pedagogical objectives Design Fair Jan 17 2008 The design charrette, pedagogi cally, was an innovative way to engage the community simply th rough the activities of making Making as seminar Tuesdays In this context, the semina r sought to understand how reflective building connects thinking, making, and sustaining. Practicum with kids Thursdays Exchange through Building The Clubs need for add itional outdoor space became more specifically define as a need for an outdoor classroom and a community garden. The questions of: what to make? or how to begin? needed to be answered. Pedagogically, in this project we were inte rested in deciding what to build and then actually building set the probl em and in the process reframe both the practice situation of academic learning and the community situation if the BGCs own educational mission. Too often universities venture into communities like a bull in a china shop3. It is problematic for a university posture themselves as know-it-alls, having all the expertise that communities needs and hell-bent on a pplying it with little or no rega rd for the history and culture of communities. This is a recipe for a calamit ous attempt to overcome boundaries. To not fall into a similar situation, the proce ss started within a Design Fair. Th e Design Fair overall was tool

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34 for the university students to introduce themselv es to the BGC commun ity. Without placing too much importance with verbal inaugurations, the design fair allowed for a potent (and sometimes) non verbal discourse of making with the hand, im agination, and visualization. The Design drew from the sensibilities of the design charrette The design charrette, pedagogically, was an innovative way to engage the community si mply through the activities of making. Using charrette as a catalyst (the term originated from 19th century Ecoles De Beaux Arts 19th century where proctors circulated a cart or charrette wh ile students frantically their work) the graduate students understood the Design fair to be a series of carnivales que stations for interactive learning, combination of play, craft booths, and explorations of different materiality. The process began from as series of five char ettes. One station was the clay station, where students modeled representational clay model of the projects sitethey imagined how the space could be structure(see figure 2-3). A B C D Figure 2-3. Series of images from the Clay st ation. A) University students constructed a site model of the BGC property and cut out piec es of the site model where the outdoor classroom and community garden would be pl aced B) the process asks the student to visualize and imagine C) BGC member focu sed on personal design D) the clay trays served as a memory of making

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35 A B Figure 2-4. Series of images fr om the Brick-making station. A) th is is a hands-on activity of making concrete blocks B) child ren mixing the concrete block). A B Figure 2-5. Series of images from the Mapping station. A) club member mapping familiar routes in his neighborhood B)two club member mapping from memory A B Figure 2-6. Series of images from the virtual station. A) exploring Google Earth B) Club director, volunteer, and gr aduate student explore in the virtual station.).

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36 A B C D Figure 2-7. Series of images from the scave nger station. A) collection of materials on-site B)preparation of containers C) containers filled with the collections D) Containers assembled Practicum: This portion of the seminar explored the applicability of Donald Schn's notion of reflective practice for student teachers in practicum settings. The practicum was guided by three questions: What do student teachers reflec t upon?, What precipitates reflection?, What factors enhance or constrain reflection?, a nd How can this study open up the dialog between university and community. To understand how th ese university-community boundaries might be overcome, we proposed the reflective building practicum. The graduate st udent were asked to develop handson learning experiences to engage the club members, to discover what to build, and then how collaboratively to build th e outdoor space in the community grounds. Schn's conception of reflective practice was ch osen because his work embodies this view of knowledge; specifically, for Schn, thought is embedded in action, re flective practice is grounded in the immediacy of the action setting, and reflective prac titioners engage in a process

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37 of problem setting as opposed to technical problem solving. Along the lines of the craft argument, problem setting in the seminar was linked to making. The reflective practicum placed the graduate students in the position of teacher and the children of the Boys and Girls club as students. Th is setting allowed the children of club to have a sense of the design process through measuring, drawing, cut ting economically or simply nailing pieces of lumber. Through the process of making, at different scales, the graduate students would construct activitie s where the children would make small containers to hold seeds and make small benches for seating in the community garden. The practicum as a tool allowed for a sense of ownership for the children of the Boys and Girls Club. The twelve week pro cess challenged the way the graduate students were accustomed to learning. The pedagogical situ ation called for the graduate st udents to explain their thoughts and design rational to the children of the club wh ile making, and placed the graduate student in a constant public exchange. Also the work shop, as a design-build explor ation, would create nonroutine problems for the graduate students. Bu t, Schn asked, "What happens when practitioners are faced with non-routine problems?" Non-routine situations are at least partly in determinate, and are not immediately amenable to technical solution. From his observations, Sc hn postulated that wh en practitioners are confronted with problematic situationssituations that cannot be dealt with by the application of generalized techniques--the y engage in a very different process, that of problem setting. Schn defines problem setting as the process in which "we name the things to which we attend and frame the context in which we will attend to them". 4When confronted by non-routine problems, skilled craftsman/practitioners learn to conduct and frame experi ments in which they impose a kind of coherence on "messy" situations. They co me to new understandings of situations and

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38 new possibilities for action through a spirali ng process of framing and reframing. Through the effects of a particular action, both intended and unintended, the s ituation "talks back." This conversation between the practitioner and setting provides the data which may then lead to new meanings, further reframing, and plans for future action. As this reflection-and-action frame work developed the project gave true ownership to the children of the Boys and Girls Clubbecause as participants they were able to frame and reframe critical questions during the pr ocess of build the community garden. Pedagogy as a Line Addressing a community-based pro ject is not merely identifying a problem, concentrating a solution and identifying site qu alifications. The process ought to take a pedagogical position that goes beyond the formal of austere function or simple problem solving. The poetics of this pedagogical po sition is the breath of our disc ipline however the method in which we communicate our ideas to the community is the core of service l earning. Paul Klees musings on the quality of a line m oving freely referen ces the pedagogical proc esses inherent to a formal universitycommunity partnership. As participants in the practicum, professors, students, and community alike are participati ng in creating a path. Th e directionality and outcomes of that path are not entirely predetermi nedthis is the beauty. The way education was perceived in the practicum, the manner graduate students received input from the children of the Boys and Girls club, the fashion in which input wa s implemented or reframed-is simply a line. The pedagogical composition of this line is formed by events (Desi gn fair as an initiator and the practicum as continuous dialog), each of which affect its consistency, direc tionality, and identity. As such, a formal architectural education merits a discussion, analysis, and an exploration of how the path of the line is drawn.

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39 How this line is interpreted by both makers (university and community) is essential. Meaning, during collective making, has to go beyond the hermetic understanding of an individual to a public dialog that is positioned for the purpose of reflection. Meaning, we must remember is given in perception: it is not a product of association. Phonological studies have shown that meaning is not primarily or solely an intellectual construct.5 Architecture is an order that addresses our ambiguous, finite, human reality; it is not merely a vehicle for scientific truths. It more lies in the experience. The experi ence through making framed and sustained this pedagogical lines thickness and le ngthor importance and longevity.

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40 Notes 1 See Perez-Gomez, Alberto. "Architecture as Embodied Knowledge." Journal of Architectural Education 1984: 57-58. 2 See Schon, Donald. "Toward a Marriage of Artistry and Applied Science in the Architectural Design Studio." Journal of Archiectural Education 1984: 4-10. 3 See Wilson, David. "Key Features Of Successful University-Community Partnerships." 4 See Schon, Donald. The reflective practioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books, 1983. 5 See Perez-Gomez, Alberto. "Architecture as Embodied Knowledge." Journal of Architectural Education 1984: 57-58.

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41 CHAPTER 3 MAKE AND REFLECT Scale of Making The project called for a certain type of m aking that allow both the graduate students and the members to visualize at full scale, 1:1. Making and craft in a qualitative discipline research are vitally related to each other in that the satisf action of the demands of each is closely dependent on an honest engagement with the lo cal contingencies of the design process, which includes a willingness to keep one self and ones investigative agenda open to transformation by these contingencies. Similarly, making and craft in design pe dagogy compels the architectural educator to provide considerable epistemologi cal space to ones explorations. Zamboni speaks specifically about the process: The first burden concerns the identification of materials and tools used in the process of transformation. The moral component must be present here because the most significant properties can only be discovered through a met hodical investigation m easure in years of pursuit. The development of this knowle dge requires observa tion, intuition and perseverance-attributes acquire d in varying degrees by way of apprenticeship and inherent sensitivity (Zambonini 1988) There are two aspects in this transfor mation (material and conceptual) process1. First, there is exploration and discovery, and seco ndly there is the synthesis and making. The final artifact is a product of both of th ese investigations. The reflection first for the graduate stude nts began with function. The program loosely called for a community garden and an outdoor cla ssroom. These initiated that there would be an itemized list of elements, an organization of part s. But the function doesnt simply define the architectural dilemma. How will the function generate form? Through craftsmanship with embodied integral material, one may find through investigation, that one element dominates all others, or possibility that all parts should be equally spaced. As the graduate students explored the possible diagrams by drawing directly with th e 2x4 pieces of wood-form begins to appear

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42 (see figure3-1). The intergraded form that is gene rated from working directly with the site and transforming the material give the initial sense of a poetic. The poetic is also an extension of our interpretation of the site. Often times the position of the site is seen as a space for problem so lving or eliminating resistance. Too often the resistances of slope, approac h, orientation become burdens to be overcome. The site characteristic shouldnt be cons idered a blank canvas to place f unctional needs, but instead seen as another form of integration. The site resist ance should be fully di gested along with the functional concernsso that most subtle implications of the sit ch aracteristics are reflected in the final product. Reminiscent of the pedagogical goals of the design-build projects in Ritoque, Chiles Open City2. Extended the poetics is embracing an empty landscape, or a distorted piece of land, or the interstitial space between two buildings. Figure 3-1. Wood as a drawing material

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43 Figure 3-2. Decking extend towards planters The Hand, Drawing and the Artificer the hand must exhibit and revea l the inherent nature of individuality as regards its fate, is easily seen from the fact that after the orga n of speech it is the hand most of all by which a man actualizes and manifest himself. It is th e animated artificer of his fortune; we must say of the hand that it is what man does, for in it as the effective organ of his self fulfillment he is there present as the animating soul, and since he is ultimately and originally his own fate, the hand will thus e xpress the innate, inherent nature.(Zambonini) The hand is the origin of making. Walte r Benjamins account of craft practice3 is the hand that feels and marks its objects; authentic knowledge of the worl d is envisioned as a grasping hold of the world. The craftsmanship of the hand s non verbal intelligences links directly with the haptic signs of making. A historical exampl e, towards the end of the nineteenth century,

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44 American brick makers made earnest attempts to produce brick having more even color, more precise edge, and greater density than thos e resulting from the traditional methods of manufacture. Throughout the Colonial period the wooden molds for handmade brick were prepared to receive the clay in one of two ways: sand molding, i.e ., the dusting of the mold with fine sand, or slop molding (sometimes called water st ruck), i.e., dipping the mold in water. Either process had to be undertaken in order to prevent the damp clay from sticking to the sides of the mold. However, neither process re sulted in a very precise product. In each case the fold layers of the clay--the curved striations re sulting from the gathering and fo lding of a lump of clay by hand and throwing it into the mold--were readily appa rent. In the case of sand molding the brick inevitably had a granular surface. Because relatively damp clay was used for handmade brick, shrinkage would occur in the firing resulting in br icks of uneven size and edge; mortar joints thus had to be sufficiently wide to compensate for these irregularities. The lined or grapevine joint was widely used to make these wide, uneven joints appear more straight from a distance. The consequence of all these factors was a brick pattern of less than mathematical precision. The texture resulting from these irre gularities is widely apprecia ted today. Although this may be a simple aesthetic preference there is an inherent predisposition for hand crafted process. The hand process inherently carries meani ng. The transformation of a materi al to something else is the closest we get to being a creator. The hand as a source of craft is beginning of the creative landscape. Craft brings an inherent closeness to the makeran appreciation.

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45 A B C D Figure 3-3. The hand as an arti ficer. A) graduate st udents working alongside the Boys and Girls Club members, B) measuring a floor joist, C) to BGC member constructing the wall to the classroom D) Graduate student a nd members of BGC constructing a container for the seedlings.

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46 Notes 1 Zambonini, Guiseppe. "Notes for a theory of making in a Time of Necessity." Perspecta, Vol.24 1988: 3-23. 2 Pendleton-Jullian, Ann M. Road That Is Not a Road the Open City, Ritoque Chile. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996. 3Leslie, Esther. "Walter Be njamin: Traces of Craft." Journal of Design History 1998: 9.

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47 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION: PRODUCT DOES NOT EQUAL PROCESS Rethinking Design Build In the spirit of rethinking service learning, the workshop provided a forum to rethink design-build in a pedagogical, community-oriented context. The work shop attention to colle ctive making challenged the critique that design-build takes a great deal of time. Time is the critic of all things1. A statement that is poetically beautiful and also problematically acidic. In practice with American colloquialism lets start with the bad news. The industrial revolution was the only social movement that was fueled by technology. Anthropologists are in amazement to have w itness a social/technologica l movement that was outside issue of religion, class status and race. The Revolution did bring new roads and canals and in turn encouraged trade expansion. It al so nurtured the development of new iron making techniques and increased use of refined coal, how ever, the promise of the industrial revolutionthat pre-manufactured, standardized building de sign solutions would allow maximum research and invention has not been realized2. Standardization did not bring significant quality, only higher profit, and the processes of standardization result in both limited choice and a built-in obsolescence. Standardization on ly answered the partially answered the call for production speed, however it squandered quality. Zambonini mentions that standardi zation is not directed to improve quality through greater initial investment and a subsequent capitalization on the experience gained by a constant application, the [s tandardization] only reveal the shortcuts in the standardizing process. The Bauhaus, as an inst itution provided the same argument. Hence, it was appropriate for Paul Klee to state: "For qua lity to become a universal goal, it must be projected from the individual artist -creator to all mankind. It may then be shared and become a common patrimony." Quality permeates form and in form each one of the relationships which

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48 give it structure tends to reaffirm and re inforce the single idea which form embodies.3 Quality, purpose, and time are only fragments of making, and cannot be divvied to ce rtain percentages of a hierarchal role. The shortcoming of standard ization was the push for decreasing time-the need for speed, and the lack of attent ion to quality and true purpose. Time is relative: Knowing that the process of making takes time does not help us understand what is being done, where, how, who, and with what. As one would be remiss to dismiss significant work because it is of another time, neither does one understand a particular work only through time. Endeavor is not justified by knowing that we endeavor in time. When emphasis is shifted from the thing itself (the work) to time, one loses grasp of what is at hand, which is experience. Experience, in this context, is that which teaches, qualifies, and embraces.4 Time is a constituent factor in the conception and making of a work, but it is relative. The making of a work is tied to other factors also: in tention, intuition, material ity, and process. These factors must exist for the realization of any creative work at any time. Within the process of making, the constituent factors that allow for the realization of a work are not linear in time or nature, but are accumulative. This accumulated experience is very much an individual reality, and it creates a position of imagining, knowing, questioning, and reason from which poetic making can proceed. Integration theory: The revealing of inten tion and meaning of a given work is dependent on that work's materiality and on the craftsman relationship to the work. These factors may open the work to the craftsman and afford the craftsma n a relationship with its meaning or they maynot, whether the work is of our own time or of the past. To think of time as linear or as a series of discrete frames is to address only the manufacturing and reproduction of a work and not its meaning. The revelatory properties of

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49 creative work are not tied to time, but to the integral relationship of purpose and material embodiment. When these properties are inherent in a work they ensure the presence of qualities that amplify the work and reveal its meaning a nd nuance; these, in turn suggest the power and vision contained. As this occurs we begin to see that whatever the work, whenever it was made, wherever it exists, its present voi ce in the world is as loud as it was when first made. The present evaluates the past by measuring the mean ing works have, in and of themselves. Given this, we can see that linear classifica tion of creative work be longs outside the realm of actually creating or even fully experiencing a work. The appreciation of works is not reserved for those of the time and circumstances of its production. Works of significance tend to transcend time and circumstance as they perpetuate them selves through stance. They place themselves continually in the present with the inquirer: our experience of works of architecture, art, and literature proves this point repeat edly. The fundamental relationship of idea to material and form is shown to be contained in the purpose of the work. It is necessary that history be seen as part of an ongoing reality that cannot be isolated or fractured by a linear structure. Th e evolving meaning that results in the making of a work is part of that work's viability; the work is historic ally connected to its own making not by time but by meaning. It is of more interest the work's inherent qualities and stan ce, rather than by its relationship to historical. Craft as Possibility Possible pedagogical readings, som etimes a vital part of the work, show possibility to be a conceptual and process-oriented idea that can be inherent in a students intuitive reality. This can become a way of working and can convey new aw areness of the complexities of process and result. It is appropriate then to suppose that timelessness is an important quality in a work's materiality and stance. It ensures that the work will live beyond the moment. Realizations that

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50 result from this are, by the fact of their rela tionship to meaning, important. These realizations about time and timelessness can al so affect the point of view of the craftsman in profound ways. Craftsmen reach these realizations only then external facts dislodge them from the work contemplated. The necessary conditions for creati ve work are not only reached by speculation, as speculation is tied to two differe nt types of knowledge and the n eed to locate oneself in a particular way. These conditions are realized, rather, within a framework of intuition, testing, intention, and fact that qualify th e path and process of a work's realization. This speaks in a general way to the human needs to produce and to inquire as means of surviving and redeeming ourselves for living. Collective making: Inquiry that is arra nged in a fixed, tempor al sequence presupposes a goal that can be limited by and, in some instances, dislocated from what is inherently possible. The power of creative work is generated by the shar ing of experience, in sp ite of the limits and boundaries of time, language, or social status The beauty of making overcomes the obvious problem of differences in time, place, and familiarity. The selective gathering and shaping of material is a condition of craftsman purpose. This condition, when present, allows a work to be experienced, and therefore inhabite d. It enables a richness to be revealed materially and allows the inner inhabitation of the individual maker to be manifest in the society-the world. This implies that the actual is affect ed or altered through human inte ntion and structuring. Process is thus preceded by the meaning that conditions give to the maker. Embodiment theory: The compounding of intention and intuition with actual material gives a holistic richness to a work. The integr al/embodied relationship of maker to work is important when the maker is willing to accept the divestment of self. The objectivity sought is thus related to reflection. Reflection5 allows the maker to recognize value in each part of the

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51 process, and this recognition is cr ucial to the activity of inquiry. Inquiry is the aspect of making that is not a mere establishing and re-establishing what has or will transpire (d). Creative works function in society not because of the society. They represent necessary individual extensions and propos itions. When their composite m eanings are commensurate with their urgency, they then become extensions of thei r specific categories. It is also true, however. That recognizing them within a category does not enhance their viability as individual extensions. Their stance is the factor that must substantiate their meaning. When this stance is realized in work and is sound, it becomes the point of purpose in dimension. Dimension, as such, can be practical as well as metaphorical and spirit ual. Dimension is, to this point of purpose, a cross-boundary element that enhanc es the evidence of intention, e ndeavor, and diversity within the work. It is important that inherent differences be apprecia ted in order to grasp the full meaning of possibility in the society, whether actual or cont extual. Possibility is an aspect of imagination and inquiry that is a necessary condition in the conti nuum of creative work. Complacency in value: Simple aesthetic preference is an ever-present problem in the understanding of a particular wor k. It is a mere fragment of what is really involved and, because of its superficiality, can lock one outside of understanding. Preference does not declare much beyond its limited system. It is related to individu al cultural, or class conditions, and cannot aptly address meaning. The material aspects of a work ar e part of its intuitive, conceptual, and formal making. This collective relationship of thought to material is an essential mechanism by which options are given the status of f acts. It allows one to address th e process of making in a special way. It is within this relations hip that possibility can become more than a notion or option: it becomes a fact. Making provides th e fullest opportunity for experien cing the world. Its reality is one of continuing surprise and possibility. Thro ugh the activity of maki ng the world is a place

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52 for one's inner being-its existe nce and import-to materialize as matter. Making is, therefore, a process by which a craftsman understand what is needed and appreciated, and why. When there is a substantive relationship be tween intention and making, purpos e is placed forward for new creations to contemplate and ex tend. In that we are locked to making through experience rather than through time, the need to make with and through history is a common bond. In the realm of human experience, there is opportunity for possib ility--individual and collective, which renews and extends work in its many realms. As the qual ity of experience is tied to the making of the individual work, a work is position and its matters are determined by the maker and not by chance. When work endures6, it continues to embody the conditions intenti ons and sensibilities that convey its purpose. The ur ge to affect the world, along w ith clarity of intention and understanding of methodology are e ssential to significant inquir y. To work only from one's accumulated knowledge will not lead to a recognition of the fullest possible reality of a particular idea. If it comes, this rea lization can push one beyond the immediate frame of reference to a process of inquiry and digestion; work that evol ves from this process finds a place within both the collective experience of societ y and its own specific discipline. The necessary factors in such work are neve r fractured from the idea which propels the work: they become one. It is this oneness for which we search through the process of making. In this realm of making, ideas function as part of the world and as extensi ons of the world. Here, the fullness of the work's meaning can be experienced. A sense of discovery is a sense of rebirth. We experience rebirth whenever a discovery is made and we find ourselves connected to a very ancient and timeless reality. Once realized, this reality becomes the practical and sensory material of making. Process, in turn, is essential to rebirth.

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53 Notes 1 This commentary is in response to the constant critique that Design-Build takes too much time within the curriculum. 2 Zambonini, Guiseppe. "Notes for a theory of making in a Time of Necessity." Perspecta, Vol.24 1988: 3-23. 3 Ibid 4 The rethinking of design build occurs because of the change of learning atmosphere. Working in a specific community revolutionizes experience. 5 Reflection taken from Donald Sch ns See The reflective practitioner 6 See Chapter 5 Related Readings

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54 CHAPTER 5 RELATED READINGS1 Translation as Process Creation is a patient search. Le Corbusier rem inded the architect of the tireless work that requires continuous analysis of place and a perpetual design process. During the past six years my ongoing research has attempted to unfold, through a body of work, the definition of loci in the Haitian landscape. Although Haiti may not ha ve the architecturally well-known buildings that Le Corbusier experienced in Europe, there is a similar sensibility in collecting architectural and social artifacts to frame and translate a place. To understand this sensibility, I have developed three modes of transl ation, literal, inve ntion, and educational all of which come together in the particular re lation of material and place. Ouanaminthe : The case study began in the Haitian town of Ouanaminthe, a rural area located on the border ofHaiti and the Dominican Republic. The concept of translation was the tool used to unveil the cultural, economical, and material layers of Ouanaminthe. The first mode translation was literal: the decodi ng of Haitian Creole terminology th at carry across meaning for place making, aphorisms, and proverbs of Haitian culture. Then concept was considered for invention: the transformation, a lteration, or adaptation to anothe r use of concrete block, earth, bamboo, or coconut palm thatch. La stly the device was used as a pedagogical process for making architecture in a landscape that has not been developed. The second mode adapted and transformed the use of local materials of Ouanaminthe to create the project. Here, one goa l of the process of translati on was to understand the importance of ground: 98 percent of Ouanaminthe dwellings we re constructed from materials that are drawn from the ground. The common dwelling has mainly two relationships with the ground first the dwelling is literally constructed with earthen mate rials such as trees, adobe, straw bale, rammed

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55 earth and secondly the spatial prep aration of clearing the ground for a context to construct in. Ouanaminthes construction process can be out line in four phases: kmande t a (the commanding of land), boule raje yo (the felling a nd burning of all vegetation on the plot land), make t a nan preparayson pou bati (marking the ground in preparation for the foundational systems), and lastly yon plas pou jaden an (des ignating a place for a vegetable garden). The jaden (vegetable garden) provide s a large percentage of Ouanam inthe residents with food and commerce, but the building prac tice of burning the ve getation of the land has drastically minimized space for growing .Also after laying the foundations many dwellings that were more than one floor brought about construction dangers. Many local artisans died in the process of building these taller stru ctures, due to the lack of improper scaffolding. Simply stated, the construction techniques for build ing have hindered the livelihood of Ouanaminthe residents. My observations and analysis produced the questi on of how does one build here? How can one suggest architecture that both weaves the Hait ians sense of place making with a new process that could inspire future designs ? The initial answer to these inquiries, after patient search, was an institution for making and lear ning that could address the problems of construction and inspire material inventions for architectural design in Ouanaminthe. The Adaptation of The Hand The interven tion, the building clinic, is an institution for making and teaching. Building clinic is envisioned as a site for translating local materials in to a tectonic language that might address the needs of contemporary Haitian so ciety. As an institution the focus on the engagement of the working with the hand offers a point of reflection-in-action for both instructor and student. The building in itself becomes a manual for making and learning to make. The materials investigated at the site are in many cases would be locally available, and thus have culturally

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56 charged histories of making: fibr ous material for weaving basket s, embroideries, mats, and hand crafted wood. In other cases, th e clinic brings students into contact with modular materials such as concrete block. In all cases, the hand lin ks a problem with potenti al solutions. To me the result of a patient search is a creation that endu res. A creation that endures is one that weaves itself into the mores of its people and can neve r be divided. The building clinic as a proposal allows for replication because of the focus on hand and materiala combination that allows for site specific analysis with in ter-regional teaching me thods and experimentation that address Haitis architectural needs.

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57 Notes 1 This a paper was presented at the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture 96th Annual Meeting.

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58 APPENDIX A A DESIGN-BUILD WORKSHOP1 Overview : This seminar explores the design-buil d process as a hinge between university and community. Design-build work, as se rvice learning, combin es active community participation with pedagogi cal objectives of reflecti on, collaboration, and hands-on experimentation. In this context, the seminar se eks to understand how reflective building links thinking, making, and sustaining. To open and sustain a dialogue between uni versity and community, we will design and construct a community garden at the Woodland Pa rk unit of the Boys and Girls Club of Alachua County. In addition to the sites physical propertie s, meetings and charrettes with members of the club and the surrounding neighborhood will provide the context for the design-build process, which will proceed quite literally from the grou nd our work being limited by constraints of time and scale to a primarily horizontal architecton ics. One focal point will be the architectural edge of the garden serving as an open-ende d, yet highly articulated event-space for reading, conversing, and playing. With the space, we will al so seek to make room for existing programs, such as the Sugar Hill Poets and th e clubs after-school activities. Rethinking design-build : In the spirit of reflective practice, the workshop provides a forum to rethink design-build in a pedagogica l and community-oriented context. The loosely held typology of the community garden provide s an unexpectedly architectural yet powerfully grounded medium for exploring why and how we build acro ss disciplinary and shared boundaries. Within the seminar group, we will al so draw from previous collaborative experiences to understand the dynamics of group work in the context of full-scale, on-site, 1 Reflective Building: A Design-Build Workshop at the Boys and Girls Club / Spring 2008 was taught by Professor Hailey and Everald Colas.

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59 community-oriented projects. One outcome of the seminar will be critical reflection about the design-build process and recommendations fo r future sites, projects, and methods. Sustaining community : Another expected outcome of this seminar will be an understanding of how place-making might sustain community. Given the localized context of the plot of land shaded by live oaks next to the B oys and Girls Club situated between Gainesvilles Woodland Park and Sugar Hill neighborhoods, the seminar will explore this common ground is a physical place as well as a potentially signif icant situation linked to a communitys values and dynamic identities. Consequently, we will find ways of communicating and discussing not only design ideas but also issues of ownership, public space, and programmatic necessities. As the design-build workshop becomes a method fo r place-making, it is expected that other assumptions about the architectural charrette and the comm unity meeting will also be transformed and rethought. Making ground: Taking the community garden as a starting point and a design provocation, the seminar will explore how reflect ive building engages the ground. What has been called the skin of the earth will for us link soci al, programmatic, natural, and material contexts. This multi-layered activation elicits ground as matter and substrate. Consequently, grounding will be integral to the process of making. Ho w might the project float and embed and be simultaneously temporary and permanent, withou t being ephemeral? How does the stability of ground accommodate the performative and the flexible? Does making ground allow for such paradoxes as the permanent mockup and the traveling garden? Boys and Girls Club of Alac hua County-Woodland Park Unit : The Woodland Park Boys and Girls Club is positioned between th e Sugar Hill community and Woodland Park neighborhood in Southeast Gainesville within a network of governmentally subsidized homes,

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60 organized and owned by the Gainesville Housing Authority. The club provides approximately 100 children (ages 5-17) with a place to spend time after school and seeks to enhance the educational development of each child into re sponsible adults. Wal-Mart recently provided funding to help begin the community garden an d also to encourage Gainesvilles Community Beautification Program. The Woodland Park Boys a nd Girls Club is thus se en as a catalyst for proposing additional projects in the Sugar Hill neighborhood and adjacent communities. This project is also seen as an oppor tunity for School Of Architectur e students to complement their design education with greater involvement in the community in this cas e, through a project in eastside Gainesville. Objectives To understand and develop a multi-disciplinary a pproach to design-build work specifically and future professional activity generally. To participate in collaborative activities a nd discussions with members of the community. To develop an ability to select, adapt, a nd apply methodologies and theoretical approaches related to design-build activity. To pursue research methods and design pro cess that reduce disconnections between design and construction. To integrate architectural process and cultural values through the design-build approach. To synthesize analysis, design process, and implementation. To develop graphic, written, and oral communi cation techniques that integrate aspects of the design-build approach. Course requirements Participation in community meetings and design-build activities on-site. Written reflection on the process. Documentation and preparation of a booklet. Schedule January February: Site-work [making] group

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61 March: On-line dialogue about process a nd follow-up site-work [thinking] individualgroup April: Preparation of booklet [r eflecting] group Readings Alexander, Christopher. The Production of Houses New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. Angelil, Marc M. The Concepts of Natu ral and Artificial Production in Architecture. Center 8 (1993): 85-99. Bunschoten, Raoul. The Skin of the Earth: A Dissolution in Fifteen Parts. AA files 1991 Spring, no.21, p.55-59 Carpenter, William J., ed. Learning by Building: Design and C onstruction in Architectural Education New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1997. Cavanaugh, Ted, Richard Kroeker, R oger Mullin. For Want of Wind. Journal of Architectural Education 2005 May, v.58, n.4, p.6-11. Coker, Coleman. Community and Earth. http://buildingstudio.net/ in writings. Accessed 15 June 2007. Coker, Coleman. Building as Questioning. http://buildingstudio.net/ in writings. Accessed 15 June 2007. Coker, Coleman. The Presence of Things. http://buildingstudio.net/ in writings. Accessed 15 June 2007. Coker, Coleman. Regions of Regionalism. http://buildingstudio.net/ in writings. Accessed 15 June 2007. Coker, Coleman. An Intent of Constr ucting: [of] Constructing an Intent. Mockbee Coker: Thought and Process Ed. Lori Ryker. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1995. 57-73. Dean, Andrea Oppenheimer. Rural Studio: Samuel Mockbee and an Architecture of Decency New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002. Deutsche, Rosalyn. Evictions Art and Spatial Politics, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996. Deutsche, Rosalyn. Krzysztof Wodiczkos Homeless Projection and the Site of Urban Revitalization. Evictions (1996): 3-48. Deutsche, Rosalyn. Sharing Strangeness: Krzy sztof Wodiczko's gis and the Question of Hospitality. Grey Room no.6, Winter 2002.

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62 Dewey, John. Art as Experience New York: Capricorn, 1958. Fromm, Dorit and Peter Bosselmann. M exicali Revisited: Seven Years Later. Places Volume 1, Number 4. 78-90. Hailey, Charlie. Reviewing the Builders Yard as a Place for Design Visualization. Claiming Public Space Penn State Universitys Hamer Center, January 2006, http://www.claimingpublicspace.net/modules .php? name=News&file =article&sid=12 Harrison, Robert Pogue. Forests: Shadows of Civilization Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. Kawamata, Tadashi. Lodging: London-Tokyo. AA files 2000 Winter, n.43, p.[52]-78. Kawamata, Tadashi. Work in Progress in Zug, 1996-1999 Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2000. Lacy, Suzanne, ed. Mapping the Terrain: New Genre of Public Art. Seattle: Bay Press, 1995. Linn, Karl. Commentary on Mexicali. The Scope of Social Architecture Ed. C. Richard Hatch. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984. 132-3. MacKay-Lyons, Brian. Brian MacKay-Lyons Halifax: Tuns Press, 1998. Mockbee, Samuel et al. Community Matters (special issue of Crit). Crit 2002 Spring, n.53, entire issue (71p.) Menin, Sarah, ed. Constructing Place: Mind and Matter New York: Routledge, 2003. Novakov, Anna. Veiled Histories: The Body, Place and Public Art New York: Critical Press, 1997. Pearson, Jason. University-Community Design Partne rships: Innovations in Practice Washington, D.C.: NEA, 2002. Pendleton-Jullian, Ann M. The Road Is Not a Road and the Open City, Ritoque, Chile Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. Pichler, Walter. Walter Pichler: Drawi ngs, Sculpture, Buildings New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1993. Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice Cambridge: Belknap, 1971. Rawls, John. A Kantian Conception of Justice Cambridge Review (February 1973) [online at: http://www.princetonindependent.com/issue01.03/item10c.html ] Schon, Donald. The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action New York: Basic Books, 1983.

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63 Sofield, Bill. The Justice of Small Spaces, The Princeton Independent [http://princetonindependent.com/issue01.03/item6.html] Wodiczko, Krzysztof, Public Address, Minneapolis: Walker Art Center, 1992 Wodiczko, Krzysztof, Critical Vehicles, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999 Wodiczko, Krzysztof, CounterMonuments, Cambridge: List Visual Arts Center, 1987. Programs Archeworks Location Chicago, IL Program type Independent design school Blue Soup Outreach Location Southern California Institute of Architecture, Los Angeles, CA Design Corps Location Raleigh, NC Program type Independent nonprofit design service Lead staff Bryan Bell (executive director) Howard S. Wright Design/Build Studio Location University of Washington Sc hool of Architecture, Seattle, WA The Rural Studio Location Auburn University, Auburn, AL (studio located in Newbern, AL) Program type Design/Build Studio Studio 804 Location University of Kansas Depart ment of Architecture, Lawrence, KS Program type Design/Build Studio (semi-independent) Lead staff Dan Rockhill (director) Yale Urban Design Workshop Location Yale University School of Architecture, New Haven, Program type University-based community design center Ghost Lab MacKay-Lyons Sweetapple Architects Limited 2188 Gottingen Street Halifax, Nova Scotia Canada B3K 3B4 The Yestermorrow Design/Build Warren, VT

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64 Design Build > Texas University of Texas at Austin

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65 APPENDIX B REFLECTIVE BUILDING: OVERCOMING B OUNDARIES BET WEEN UNIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY THROUGH DE SIGN-BUILD PEDAGOGY2 Author bell hooks has written about domestic boundaries as places where one discovers new ways of seeing reality, frontiers of differe nce. Occupying the boundary itself becomes an exploration of radical openness, a process that is at once difficult, necessary, and instructive. In the spirit of hooks insights, we are investigatin g how particular servicelearning experiences of reflective building might overcome boundaries between university and community through the active and interactive process of hands-on construction. We have set up a seminar of eleven graduate students from the School of Architect ure as a design-build workshop to work with children from the Boys and Girls Club here in Gainesville, Florida to address the lack of adequate space in the existing BGC facility. Preliminary discussions called for outdoor classroom spaces and a community garden, but the process of defining the problem remained necessarily open-ended and thus influenced how we understand reflective building. Increasingly well-kno wn, design-build models of pedagogy most typically address recognizable build ing types and occur within well-established forms of project delivery in which the probl em has a programmatic and procedural clarity. What has not been adequately evaluated are s ituations in which the programs are not easily defined, the time periods for student involvement are necessarily compressed, and material resources are limited. In such s ituations, the design-build proc ess parallels what Donald Schn has called problem setting. Consequently, we are interested in how the process of designing and actually building sets the problem and dynamica lly reframes both the p ractice situation of academic learning and the community situat ion of BGCs own educational mission. 2 This paper was co-author by Everald Colas and Ch arles Hailey and submitted to the Erasing Boundaries Symposium that was hosted by the City College of New York

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66 To understand how these university-commun ity boundaries might be overcome, we proposed the reflective building practicum in which University students develop hands-on learning experiences. Pedagogical goals were to engage the clubs multi-age members (5-18) and to discover what to construct and then how collaboratively to build the outdoor spaces on the BGC grounds. The process began with a Design Fair that drew fr om the conventions of design charrette and crafts fair but fo cused on activities of making. The Design Fair combined play and interactive learning to set up th e subsequent practicum exercise s. The Fair and subsequent practicums reframed our own teaching models of design-build pedagogy and ultimately involved the clubs members in a reflective conversati on to make an outdoor classroom and community garden. The workshop has sought to build acro ss disciplinary boundaries of design and construction, across the differences of age in tegral to the BGC, and across the different experiences of university and community. This actively coll aborative process of making combines the art of practice and the practice of ar t whether through the poetry classes held in a completed outdoor classroom or in the practicums themselves, where children might build a reading bench or cast blocks to edge the garde n. Reflective building not only works in the sense of thinking-in-action and the tr aining of Schns reflective practi tioner, but also reflects how community-building can come about quite litera lly from making things together. And in the end, it is quite possible that the hands-on exer cises set up by the university students mirror, indeed reflect, their own learning experiences as well as in structors aims to facilitate a radical openness of program and pedagogy.

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67 LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Alberti, Leo ne Battisa De Re Aadificatiria Tirantl. De Re Aadificatiria Tirantl. London: Tirantl, 1955. 2. Bell, Bryan. Good Deeds, good Design: commuinty service through architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2001. 3. Colas, Everald. "Creating an architecture that Lasts: the Process of Translation in Haiti." ACSA 96th Annual Meeting. New York: Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, 2008. 32-33. 4. Dooley, Edwin L. "Wartime San Juan, Puerto Rico: The Forgotten American Home Front, 1941-1945 ." (The Journal of M ilitary History) 63, no. 4 (199). 5. D'souza, Dinesh. Dinesh D'souza writer and speaker. September 2007. http://www.dineshdsouza.com/ (accessed November 2007). 6. Fathy, Hassan. Architecture for the Poor. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1973. 7. Foucault, Michel. Power and Knowledge: Selected Interview and Other Writings. New York: Pantheon, 1977. 8. Francis-Jones, Richard. "Architecture is not LanguageA note on Representation." UME Magazine, 1997, UME3 ed. 9. Frascari, Marco. "The Particolareggiamen to in the Narration of Architecture." Journal of Architectural Education 1989. 10. Hunt, John Dixon. "Ut pictura poesis, the pisturesque, and John Ruskin." Comparative Literature 1978: 794-818. 11. Leslie, Esther. "Walter Benjamin: Traces of Craft." Journal of Design History 1998: 9. 12. Liberman, Kenneth. "From Walkabout to Medita tion: Craft and Ethic in Field Inquiry." Qualitative Inquiry 1999: 5-47. 13. Odate, Toshio. Japanese Woodworking Tool: Thie r Traditon and Spirit and Use. Newton: The Taunton Press, 1984. 14. Oppenheimer, Dean,Timothy Hursley. Proceed and Be Bold: Rural Sudio after Samuel Mockbee. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2005. 15. Osborn, Robert. "The Evolution of The Craftsman." Perspecta 1955: 64-75. 16. Palleroni, Sergio and Christina Eichbaum Merkelbach. Studio at Large: Architecture in service of Global Communities. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 2004.

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68 17. Pendleton-Jullian, Ann M. Road That Is Not a Road the Open City, Ritoque Chile. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996. 18. Perez-Gomez, Alberto. "Archite cture as Embodied Knowledge." Journal of Architectural Education 1984: 57-58. 19. "Architecture as Drawing." Journal for Architectural Education Winter 1982: 2-7. 20. Pichler, Walter. Drawings,Sculpture, Buildings. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1993. 21. Pons, Frank Moya. History of the Caribbean. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2007. 22. Pressoir, Catts. "Haiti: Monuments historiques et archeologiques." (Hispanic American Historical Review) 34, no. 2 (1954). 23. Schon, Donald. The reflective practioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books, 1983. 24. Schon, Donald. "Toward a Marriage of Artistry and Applied Science in the Architectural Design Studio." Journal of Archie ctural Education, 1984: 4-10. 25. Sennett, Richard. The Craftsman. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008. 26. Tzonis, Alexander and Linae Lefraivre. Classical Architecture, The Poetics of Order. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986. 27. Whitehead, William Morgan and Alfred North. The Organization of a Story and a Tale. Vol. 58. Chicago: University of Illinois Pr ess on behalf of American Folklore Society, 1945. 28. Wilson, David. "Key Features Of Successful University-Community Partnerships." 29. Wilson, Victor-Emmanuel Roberto, and Jacqueli ne Van Baelen. "The Forgotten Eighth Wonder of the World." (The Johns Hopki ns University Press.) 15, no. 3 (1992). 30. Zambonini, Guiseppe. "Notes for a theory of making in a Time of Necessity." Perspecta, Vol.24, 1988: 3-23.

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69 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Everald received his Bachelor of Design (2005), Master of Architecture (2007), and Master of Science in Architectural Studie s (2008) from the University of Florida. He has taught Haitian Creole courses at the University of Florida for two years, and also has taught first and second year architectural design studios. Within this wo rk was his most current teaching assignment of co-teaching a graduate design-build cour se at the University of Florida.


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