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Volunteer Participation among Members of Social Sororities and Fraternities

University of Florida Institutional Repository
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022547/00001

Material Information

Title: Volunteer Participation among Members of Social Sororities and Fraternities
Physical Description: 1 online resource (112 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Jaroch, Adrienne
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: fraternity, social, sorority, volunteerism
Family, Youth and Community Sciences -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Family, Youth and Community Sciences thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Volunteering among college and university students has become the focus of increasing interest among program and policy makers. However, the motivations, obstacles and conditions shaping student volunteerism remain unclear. This study will focus on a unique subpopulation within colleges and universities: the members of social sororities and fraternities and their involvement with community service. The study population was a Greek community with 5,176 members, 61 chapters, and four governing councils: Interfraternity Council, Panhellenic Council, Multicultural Greek Council, and National Pan-Hellenic Council. These social Greek-letter organizations have traditionally faced scrutiny in the research literature and media focusing on negative issues such as hazing, sexual assault, and binge drinking, while ignoring the positive contributions that these organizations make. Utilizing data drawn from surveys, interviews, and focus groups, this study focused on the effects of involvement within the Greek-letter organization, motivations for volunteering, and demographic factors that shape a members engagement in volunteerism. Results show that membership in a social Greek-letter organization may be a motivation on its own to volunteer, and members who had held or currently hold a position in their organization were more likely to volunteer than those that did not serve their chapter. The study also revealed that race/ethnic origin had profound impacts on a member's engagement with volunteerism.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Adrienne Jaroch.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Brennan, Mark A.
Local: Co-adviser: Bolton, Elizabeth B.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022547:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022547/00001

Material Information

Title: Volunteer Participation among Members of Social Sororities and Fraternities
Physical Description: 1 online resource (112 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Jaroch, Adrienne
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: fraternity, social, sorority, volunteerism
Family, Youth and Community Sciences -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Family, Youth and Community Sciences thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Volunteering among college and university students has become the focus of increasing interest among program and policy makers. However, the motivations, obstacles and conditions shaping student volunteerism remain unclear. This study will focus on a unique subpopulation within colleges and universities: the members of social sororities and fraternities and their involvement with community service. The study population was a Greek community with 5,176 members, 61 chapters, and four governing councils: Interfraternity Council, Panhellenic Council, Multicultural Greek Council, and National Pan-Hellenic Council. These social Greek-letter organizations have traditionally faced scrutiny in the research literature and media focusing on negative issues such as hazing, sexual assault, and binge drinking, while ignoring the positive contributions that these organizations make. Utilizing data drawn from surveys, interviews, and focus groups, this study focused on the effects of involvement within the Greek-letter organization, motivations for volunteering, and demographic factors that shape a members engagement in volunteerism. Results show that membership in a social Greek-letter organization may be a motivation on its own to volunteer, and members who had held or currently hold a position in their organization were more likely to volunteer than those that did not serve their chapter. The study also revealed that race/ethnic origin had profound impacts on a member's engagement with volunteerism.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Adrienne Jaroch.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Brennan, Mark A.
Local: Co-adviser: Bolton, Elizabeth B.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022547:00001


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VOLUNTEER PARTICIPATION AMONG MEMBERS OF SOCIAL SORORITIES AND
FRATERNITIES





















By

ADRIENNE MICHELLE JAROCH


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008


































2008 Adrienne Michelle Jaroch


































To the sorority women and fraternity men who contribute positively to our society.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank my family for their continued love and support throughout my

education. They have always encouraged me to achieve my goals, even if that meant moving far

from home.

I would also like to thank my committee members: Dr. Mark Brennan, Dr. Elizabeth

Bolton, and Dr. Mary Kay Carodine. Their support and expertise were invaluable to me and my

research. More specifically, I would like to thank Dr. Mark Brennan for constantly pushing and

encouraging me, especially when things got rough.

I would like to thank my supervisor, Lisa Kendall, for always listening when I needed

someone to talk to. Her professional guidance and candid sense of humor have helped me get

through this stage of my life. Finally, I would like to thank my friends who, in one way or

another, shared in this experience with me.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ..............................................................................................................4

L IST O F T A B L E S ...................................................................................................... . 8

LIST OF FIGURES .............................. .. .................... .. .. .................. 11

L IS T O F T E R M S ......................................... .. ........................................................12

ABSTRAC T ................................................... ............... 13

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ............... ................. ........... ......................... .... 15

College Students, Greeks and Volunteerism ........................................ ...................... 16
Purpose and Significance of Study ................................................. ....................... 17
Research Questions..................... ............ .. .... ...... .... .......... 19
Research Hypothesis.......... .......... ......... ... .. .... ...... ..... ......... 20

2 L ITE R A TU R E R E V IE W ........................................................................ .. .......................2 1

V o lu n te erism ...........................................................................................2 1
The H history of V volunteerism ............................................................................ ...... 21
Volunteerism in Higher Education.................. ................ ................... 22
A cadem ic engagem ent........... .............................................................. ................... 23
Civic responsibility ................. .......... .................. ............. 23
L ife S k ills ...............................................................................2 3
Social Sororities and F raternities......................................... .............................................24
Theoretical Approaches ........ .......................... .......... ............... .. 27
Social Exchange Theory ................................................................... ............... 27
Functionalist Theory ........... ..... ..................... .......................... .. 28
Characteristics of V olunteers....................................................... ....... ........29
Level of Involvem ent .................. .................................................. ...... ....... 32
M motivations of V volunteers ............................................................................ .................. 33
C o n c lu sio n ................... .......................................................... ................ 3 6

3 M E D TH O D O L O G Y ...................................................... ....................... ............... 37

Purpose of the Study ............... ............... .......... .................... ......... 37
U n it o f A n aly sis ......................................................................................................3 7
T y p e o f S tu d y ................................................................................................................... 3 7
S tu d y P o p u latio n ............................................................................................................... 3 8









T he P anhellenic C ouncil............ ... ........................................................ ............ .. 38
The Interfraternity C council ............................................................. ......38
The M multicultural Greek Council ............................................................................. 39
The N national Pan-H ellenic C ouncil......... ................. ............................ .... ........... 39
Sam pling M methods ........... .................. .... ......... .... ............... 39
Sam ple V alidation ................................................................40
Data Collection Methods .................... .................... ........ .......41
K ey Inform ant Interview s.............................. .......................................... ..................4 1
Questionnaire Development and Survey Implementation.................. ...............42
F ocu s G roup R research ............ ............................................................ ......... ....... 45
Concepts and V ariables .............. ........................................................ ......46
Concept: D em graphic Characteristics ........................................ ....................... 47
Concept: Level of Involvement ................. ........... ..... ............... 48
Concept: Motives for Volunteering.................. ........................48
Concept: Volunteer Characteristics (Dependent Variable) ..........................................50
Reliability and Validity............................... .. ... ..... .. .......... .........51

4 R E SU L T S .............. ... ................................................................54

S u m m ary S statistic s ........................................................................................................... 5 5
D em graphics .............................................. 55
Bivariate Analyses .............. ...................................... 57
Demographics by Volunteerism (Dependent Variable) ..................................... 57
Demographics by Independent Variables .................................... ..... ........... 59
M u ltiv ariate A n aly sis........................................................................................................ 6 0
M o d el 1.............. ..................................................................... 6 0
M o d e l 2 ..................................................................................6 1
Model 3.......................................62
M odel 4....................... ..................................62
R educed m odel ..................................................................63
Focus Groups .................. ....................................65
S u m m ary ................... ...................6...................5..........

5 D ISC U S SIO N ............................................................................... 67

R visiting R research Questions ........................ ...... .. .... ... ................ .. ... ... 68
RQ1: How Do Demographic Factors, if at All, Have an Impact on a Person's
Engagem ent in Volunteerism ? ..................... ............................. ..................... .68
RQ2: How Does the Level of Involvement in a Social Sorority or Fraternity Affect
a Person's Engagement in Volunteerism? .................. .................... ...............71
RQ3: What Motivations Have the Strongest Impact on a Person's Engagement in
V volunteerism ? ................................................................... 72
Contribution to the Literature ...................................................................74
L im stations and D elim stations ............................................................76
Im plications of R research .............. .............................................................. ........ ..... 77





6










R e se arch ................................................................7 7
Practice ....................................... 78
P u b lic P o lic y .............................................................................................................. 8 1
S u m m ary ................... ................... ...................1..........

APPENDIX

A IN ST R U M E N T A T IO N .................................................................. ................................83

In form ed C on sent .............................................................................83
S u rv e y ................... ...................8...................4..........
P re -S u rv ey E m a il .......................................................................................................8 8
E m ail S u rv ey T ex t .....................................................................................................8 9
F follow -up E m ail T ext.......................................................90
F o cu s G ro u p E m ail ........................................................................................................... 9 1
F o cu s G rou p P roto co l ....................................................................................................9 2

B POST HOC COMPARISONS ..................................................................................................93

C BIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF SELECTED VARIABLES ......................................... 97

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ....................................................................................................... 106

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........................................................................... ........ ..................112









LIST OF TABLES

Table page

3-1. Greek Council m membership sampling ..............................................................................40

3-2. Sam pling and survey response by event.......................... ........................... ............... 45

3-3 D em graphic qu estion s .............................................................................. ......................47

3-4. Involved ent questions ...................... ......................................................................... 48

3-5. V volunteer m motivation questions......... .................. ........ ................................ ............... 49

3-6. V volunteer characteristic questions........... ................. ............................ ............... 50

3-7. Listing of concepts, variables and survey Questions.............. ..... .. ....................51

4-1. Summ ary statistics of dem graphic variables ............................................. ............... 56

4-2. Comparison of three multivariate models on volunteerism............... .......... ............... 64

B Y ears active by volunteer scale...................................................................... ..................93

B -2 R ace by v volunteer scale .............................................................................. ..................... 94

B -3. A cadem ic status by volunteer scale ................................................................. .......... .........95

B -4. G reek Council by volunteer scale .......................... ............. ................ ............... 95

B-5. Age by volunteer scale............ ........ ................. .............96

C-1. Age by how you attend mandatory functions ............................................. ............... 97

C-2. Academic Status by how often you attend mandatory functions ...................................97

C-3. Greek Council by how often you attend non-mandatory functions.............................. 97

C-4. Gender by how often you attend non-mandatory functions ............................................97

C-5. Years active by how often you attend service events ................................. ..................... 98

C-6. Race by how often you attend service events ............................................. ............... 98

C-7. Gender by how often you attend social events ........................................... ............... 98

C-8. Greek Council by how often you participate in your sorority or fraternity ...........................98

C-9. Age by served as president of Chapter ............................................................................ 98



8









C-10. Academic status by served as president of Chapter..................................................99

C-11. Years active by served as president of chapter ...................... ................. .............99

C-12. Greek Council by served as executive board member other than president.....................99

C-13. Age by served as executive board member other than president............... ................99

C-14. Years active by served as executive board member other than president............................99

C-15. Gender by served as executive board member other than president..............................100

C-16. Academic Status by served as executive board member other than president ................100

C -17. A ge by served in chair position ........................................... ........................................ 100

C-18. Years active by served in chair position ..................................... .................................100

C-19. Academic Status by served in chair position......... ............. ........ ...............100

C-20. Academic status by served in other position................................ ........................ 101

C-21. Years active by served in other position..................................... .................................101

C -22 A ge by never held an office .................................................................... ..................... 10 1

C-23. Y ears active by never held an office.................................................... .................101

C-24. Academ ic status by never held an office ........................................ ....................... 101

C-25. Greek Council by volunteer if asked by university leaders ............... ....... ............102

C-26. Gender by volunteer if asked by university leaders...................................... .................102

C-27. Academic status by volunteer if asked by university leaders ................. ................102

C-28. Greek Council by volunteer if asked by Greek office .................. ................. .........102

C-29. Gender by volunteer if asked by Greek office............... ................. ............ .. ............ 102

C-30. Academic status by volunteer if asked by Greek office ...............................................103

C-31. Age by volunteer if asked by Greek office........................................... 103

C-32. Greek Council by volunteer because it is a course or class requirement.........................103

C-33. Gender by volunteer because it is a course or class requirement .....................................103

C-34. Gender by volunteer for recognition or prestige...........................................................103









C-35. Gender by volunteer to help me achieve career goals ................................................104

C-36. Age by volunteer in order to maintain membership in an organization ..........................104

C-37. Religion by volunteer because actively involved in church ...........................................104

C-38. Religion by volunteer because of participating in civic activities as a child..................... 104

C -39. G ender by w here you live ......................................................................... ................... 104

C -40. A ge by w here you live ............................................................................ ........... .......... 105

C-41. Academic status by where you live ..................................................... ..................105

C -42 R ace by w here you live.............................................................................................105

C-43. Greek Council by where you live ........................ ...........................105









LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

A -1. Inform ed consent letter ........................................................................................ .......83

A -2 S u rv e y .............................................................................................................................. 8 4

A -3. Pre-survey em ail .................................................................. ........................................... 88

A -4. Em ail survey text ........................................................ .............................. 89

A-5. Follow-up e-mail text............. ............ .............. ........ ........... 90

A -6 F ocu s group em ail........... ..... .............................................................................. ... ....... 9 1

A-7. Focus group protocol ...................................... .......... ......... .... 92





































11









LIST OF TERMS


Chapter The local group of a larger national organization and designated by a special
name or Greek letters

Fraternity "Men's general college fraternities are mutually exclusive, self-perpetuating
groups which provide an organized social life for their members in college
and universities as a contributing aspect of their educational experience.
They draw their members primarily from the undergraduate student body"
(Anson & Marchesani, 1991: p.9).

Initiation "The initiation ritual usually includes an explanation of the secret sign and
symbols, the meaning of the motto, and a charge or challenge to the new
member to be of good character and to be loyal to the other members of the
society" (Anson & Marchesani, 1991: p.13).

New member Members who have been accepted into a social sorority or fraternity but have
not yet been initiated as a full member

Social General fraternities are commonly referred to as social fraternities because
sorority/fraternity initially it referred to social development; it is commonly mistaken to refer to
social functions by members and non-members

Sorority "Women's general college fraternities are primarily groups of women at
colleges and universities which, in addition to their individual purposes, are
committed to cooperation with college administrators to maintain high social
and scholastic standards and which do not limit membership to any one
academic field" (Anson & Marchesani, 1991: p.9).

Volunteer "Any activity in which time is given freely to benefit another person, group,
or organization. Volunteering is part of a cluster of helping behaviors,
entailing more commitment than spontaneous assistance, but narrower in
scope than the care provided by family and friends" (Wilson, 2000: p.215).
This study will only include the direct act of performing a service; it will not
include the indirect service of donating money or goods.









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

VOLUNTEER PARTICIPATION AMONG MEMBERS OF SOCIAL SORORITITES AND
FRATERNITIES

By

Adrienne Michelle Jaroch

August 2008

Chair: Mark A. Brennan
Major: Family, Youth, and Community Sciences

Volunteering among college and university students has become the focus of increasing

interest among program and policy makers. However, the motivations, obstacles and conditions

shaping student volunteerism remain unclear. This study will focus on a unique subpopulation

within colleges and universities: the members of social sororities and fraternities and their

involvement with community service. The study population was a Greek community with 5,176

members, 61 chapters, and four governing councils: Interfraternity Council, Panhellenic Council,

Multicultural Greek Council, and National Pan-Hellenic Council. These social Greek-letter

organizations have traditionally faced scrutiny in the research literature and media focusing on

negative issues such as hazing, sexual assault, and binge drinking, while ignoring the positive

contributions that these organizations make. Utilizing data drawn from surveys, interviews, and

focus groups, this study focused on the effects of involvement within the Greek-letter

organization, motivations for volunteering, and demographic factors that shape a members

engagement in volunteerism.

Results show that membership in a social Greek-letter organization may be a motivation on

its own to volunteer, and members who had held or currently hold a position in their organization









were more likely to volunteer than those that did not serve their chapter. The study also revealed

that race/ethnic origin had profound impacts on a member's engagement with volunteerism.









CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Volunteering among college and university students has become of increasing interest to

program and policy makers (Astin & Sax, 1998; Berger & Milem, 2002; Colby, Thomas,

Beaumont, & Stephens, 2003). According to the Corporation for National and Community

Service (Foster-Bey, Dietz, & Grimm, 2006), higher education institutions are experiencing an

increase in volunteerism at rates higher than in the general adult population. However, the

motivations, obstacles, and conditions shaping student volunteerism remain unclear. This is

particularly true of various university subpopulations, such as Greek-letter organizations. The

increase of college student volunteerism provides a clear need for understanding the volunteer

environment on college campuses and among select student groups. This study focuses on a

unique subpopulation within colleges and universities, the members of social sororities and

fraternities and their involvement in community service. More specifically, this study was

designed to focus on the effects of level of involvement within the chapter, motivations for

volunteering, and demographic factors that impact a member's engagement in volunteerism.

Traditionally, the research literature has focused on the college student population as a

whole when it comes to volunteer participation (Astin, Sax, & Avalos, 1999; CNCS, 2006;

Dodge, 1990; Marks & Jones, 2004; Moffatt, 1991). In sharp contrast, social sororities and

fraternities have gained little attention in the professional and academic research for their

positive contributions to society through community service. More often, the research conducted

with this population has focused on more negative conditions seen by some as associated with

Greek life (Copenhaver & Grauerholz, 1991; Goodwin, 1992; Wechsler, 1996). Greek-letter

organizations have always faced scrutiny because of their large visible presence on many college

campuses. They also suffer from many of the stereotypes portrayed in movies such as the 1979









film "Animal House." A significant portion of the research on this population often relates to

those media images (Boeringer, Shehan, & Akers, 1991; Copenhaver & Grauerholz, 1991;

Canterbury, Gressard, Vieweg, Grossman, Mckelway, & Westerman, 1992; Goodwin, 1992;

Friend, 1993). For example, Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities, 20th Edition

(Anson & Marchesani, 1991) confirms that by the 1990's most media reports of fraternities

dwelled on "alcohol-drenched, drug-infested tenements full of reckless louts, wild parties, gang

rapes, brutal hazing, and like outrages" (p. 1). These often-negative portrayals detract from the

positive contributions that these organizations make. As such, there is another side to these

organizations that warrants further research.

Volunteering has been defined in different ways by researchers and practitioners. In this

study, the definition for volunteering provided by Wilson (2000) is used, which states,

"Volunteering means any activity in which time is given freely to benefit another person, group,

or organization. Volunteering is part of a cluster of helping behaviors, entailing more

commitment than spontaneous assistance, but narrower in scope than the care provided by family

and friends" (p. 215). For the purpose of this study volunteering will only include the direct act

of performing a service, such as actions, services, raising awareness, assisting with fundraising,

and other related activities; it will not include the indirect service of donating money or goods.

The results of this study will help to identify characteristics of Greek college student

volunteers, factors shaping their volunteering, and will serve as the basis for programs that will

help efforts to promote higher levels of volunteerism among members of social sororities and

fraternities.

College Students, Greeks and Volunteerism

The Corporation for National and Community Service's report on College Students

Helping America (Foster-Bey, et al., 2006) has determined that college student volunteering has









increased in recent years by more than 20 percent. One reason for this increase is the swell of

overall enrollment in colleges and universities. In October of 2003, 46 percent of high school

graduates ages 18 to 24 years old were enrolled in college, totaling 16.6 million students, and

annual enrollment in degree-granting institutions is expected to exceed 18 million by 2010 (Shin,

2005; National Center for Education Statistics, 2007). Another reason for the increase in

volunteerism is the emergent objective of high school and higher education institutions to further

student personal development. These institutions have a responsibility to develop thoughtful,

committed, and socially responsible graduates and to provide opportunities for such growth

(Colby, Thomas, Beaumont, & Stephens, 2003). Community service has become an important

component of student development, and it has been shown that participation in service during

undergraduate years substantially enhances the student's academic development, life skill

development, and sense of civic responsibility (Astin & Sax, 1998).

The objective of student development is also a central tenant of social sororities and

fraternities. Social Greek-letter organizations are "mutually exclusive, self-perpetuating groups,

which organize the social life of their members in colleges and universities as a contributing

factor to their educational program; and draw their membership primarily from the

undergraduate body of the institution" (Robson, 1963: p. 6). Today, only a small percent of

college students are members of social fraternities and sororities. According to Baird (1991), the

tradition of the American college fraternal ideals is "justice, honor, truth, loyalty, love of

wisdom, brotherly love, and unselfish service" (p. 2). These ideals are the basis of Greek-letter

organizations and have helped to shape the current generation of these organizations.

Purpose and Significance of Study

While much of the research on social sororities and fraternities focuses on the negative

aspects of being part of Greek organizations, other research has touched on the positive









component of volunteerism among all college students (Astin & Sax, 1998; Berger & Milem,

2002; Colby, et al., 2003). Social sororities and fraternities make up a significant proportion of

many college and university student populations. This study will allow social sororities and

fraternities, as well as colleges and universities, to better understand the factors that shape

volunteerism within the Greek community. This information will provide a basis for community

service programming and assist in the implementation of new service learning classes and

programs to encourage Greek members to become more actively involved as volunteers.

The research questions in this study attempt to gain a better understanding of the

engagement of Greek members in volunteerism. The first research question relates to the

demographic factors that may have an impact on volunteerism. It is the hypothesis of the

researcher that demographic factors directly shape volunteerism. There are several reasons for

this hypothesis. Sorority organizations are often more organized and successful in involving

members after they have graduated; this alumnae support helps to supplement that of

undergraduates (Johnson, 1972). In 2006, the Bureau of Labor Statistics determined that about

30.1 percent of women and 23.0 percent of men did volunteer work in the year that ended in

September 2006. This was concurrent with previous years of women volunteering at a higher

rate than men (White, 2006). In the same study, it was found that whites volunteered at a higher

rate (28.3 percent) than African Americans (19.2 percent), Asians (18.5 percent), and Hispanic or

Latinos (13.9 percent) (White, 2006). These continuing trends have led to the hypothesis that

demographics directly shape volunteerism.

The second research question seeks to determine if the level of involvement within a social

sorority or fraternity has an impact on a member's engagement with volunteerism. It is the

hypothesis of the researcher that members who have held or currently hold positions within their









chapter also have an increased sense of responsibility to others. From the research literature, this

sense of increased responsibility to their sorority or fraternity should translate over to the

community (Cress, Astin, Oster-Zimmerman, Burkhardt, 2001). It is also the hypothesis of the

researcher that a member's place of residence may impact their engagement with volunteerism.

Living in a chapter house or living with other sorority or fraternity members may help to engage

a member more with volunteerism.

The third research question relates to motives behind volunteer participation. It is

hypothesized that the principal motivation for volunteering is an intrinsic belief in altruism and

the least significant motivation would be personal gain. This hypothesis can be supported from

previous research on students and volunteerism (Phillips, 1982; Serow, 1991; Winniford,

Carpenter, Grider, 1997). Serow, (1991) found "sense of satisfaction from helping others" and

"duty to correct societal problems" to be on the top of the list of relative importance in deciding

to participate in community service. At the bottom of the list of importance were items

indicating personal gain such as "repayment for services" (Serow, 1991).

The remainder of this thesis will provide a comprehensive explanation of the study on

volunteer participation among members of social sororities and fraternities. In Chapter Two, a

review of related research that is relevant to social sororities and fraternities and volunteerism

will be presented. Chapter Three will include a detailed description of the methodology used to

conduct the study. Chapters Four will present the results of the data analysis. Finally, Chapter

Five will offer an interpretation and explanation of the findings, as well as presenting

suggestions for applied program and policy advancement.

Research Questions


1. How do demographic factors, if at all, have an impact on a person's engagement in
volunteerism?










2. How does the level of involvement in a social sorority or fraternity affect a person's
engagement in volunteerism?

3. What motivations have the strongest impact on a person's engagement in volunteerism?


Research Hypothesis

Hypothesis 1:
A. Demographic factors directly shape volunteerism.

Hypothesis 2:
A. The rate of volunteerism is higher among students who have held a formal position in
their sorority or fraternity.

B. Volunteerism is highest among members that have lived in a chapter house or with other
sorority/fraternity members.

Hypothesis 3:
A. Members of social sororities and fraternities place altruistic motivations as reasons for
volunteer participation.

B. Members of social sororities and fraternities place personal gain motivations at the low
end of motivations for volunteer participation.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

The purpose of this study is to examine volunteer behavior among members of social

sororities and fraternities. Volunteerism has long been a tradition in America. Recently,

researchers have begun to focus considerable attention on the population that chooses to

volunteer and the motivations that inspire them to participate (Anderson & Moore, 1978; Clary,

Snyder, Ridge, Copeland, Stukas, Haugen, & Miene, 1998; Finkelstein, Penner, & Brannick,

2005). This chapter will describe the theoretical context of the study and will review previous

studies on volunteering and also studies on sororities and fraternities. This chapter will also

focus on demographic factors and motivations as they relate to volunteerism.

Volunteerism

The History of Volunteerism

The Points of Light foundation dates the history of volunteerism in the United States back

to 1793 when Benjamin Franklin began the first volunteer firefighting company (Points of Light

Foundation, 2006). Since its beginning, volunteerism in America has been a tradition of service

and commitment, especially in times of war, tragedy, or great need. In the time following the

first firefighting company, many organizations and societies were created to bring volunteers

together. Volunteer centers were created, the first in response to World War I, and these

organizations continued to support volunteers throughout the United States (Points of Light

Foundation, 2006). The Great Depression and the war years were when America saw a

considerable rise in volunteers and volunteer centers. Volunteerism trends skyrocketed again

after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, but leveled out again shortly after. However

the response to such a large disaster was the first of its kind in many years (Foster-Bey, et al.,









2006). Since that time researchers are continuing to see an increase in both the number of

Americans who volunteer and the hours that they volunteer.

Researchers are also seeing this trend transition to colleges and universities. It is believed

that the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 have sparked an increase in civic engagement

and responsibility among college age students ages 18 to 24 (Foster-Bey, et al., 2006). In a

review of college student volunteering, the Corporation (2006) found that since September 2001

the overall percent of college students who volunteer has increased from 27.1 percent to 30.2

percent.

Volunteerism in Higher Education

The increase in college student volunteering can also be attributed to the growing interest

that higher education institutions have regarding the moral and civic development of their

students. A review of relevant literature shows that high involvement in community service

positively affects a number of student outcomes, including undergraduate degree attainment,

graduate school attendance, alumni contributions, cross-racial interaction, and continued

involvement in community service (Berger and Milem, 2002). It has also been shown that

participating in community service can have many educational benefits for the student, including

"having a positive attitude toward self, highly internalized moral standards, a desire to be

involved in additional service efforts, and a belief that leadership and political interests are

important aspirations" (Berger & Milem, 2002: p.87).

In a survey of more than 3,000 students from forty-two institutions researchers found that

"student involvement in community service is associated with gains in academic engagement,

civic responsibility, and life skills" (Colby, et al., 2003: p. 225). Each of these student

development gains is discussed below.









Academic engagement: Academic involvement is the extent to which students work

hard at their studies, the number of hours they spend studying, the degree of interest in their

courses, and their study habits (Astin, Sax, & Avalos, 1999: p. 525). According to Astin and Sax

(1998) one of the most common objections to volunteer participation during the undergraduate

years is that volunteering consumes time and energy that the student might otherwise devote to

academics. However in a longitudinal study performed by Astin and Sax (1998), the outcomes

revealed positive effects of service on all 10 academic outcomes that were measured in the study.

The academic outcomes included grade point average, retention in college, aspiration for

educational degrees, increase in general knowledge, increase in field or discipline knowledge,

preparation for graduate or professional school, academic self-concept, time devoted to studying,

extra work done for courses, and amount of contact with faculty. Clearly the results of this study

show that undergraduate service participation serves to enhance academic development.

Civic responsibility: In their study, Astin and Sax (1998) found that "participation in

service activities during undergraduate years has positive effects on students' sense of civic

responsibility" (p. 256). They also found that as an outcome of service participation, students

become more strongly committed to helping others, serving their communities, promoting racial

understanding, doing volunteer work and working for nonprofit organizations (Astin & Sax

1998).

Life Skills: Finally, Astin and Sax (1998) found that volunteerism and service learning

enhances students' awareness and understanding of the world around them; this is referred to as

life skills. The largest differences occurred in "understanding community problems, knowledge

of different races/cultures, acceptance of different races/cultures, and interpersonal skills" (Astin

& Sax 1998:p. 259). In addition to the life skills discussed by Astin and Sax (1998), the









Corporation for National and Community Service showed that "undergraduate volunteer

experiences have a positive influence on many behavioral outcomes, including frequency of

socializing with diverse people, helping others in difficulty, developing a meaningful life

philosophy, and volunteering and participating in community action programs" (Colby, et al.,

2003: p. 225).

Each of these outcomes, academic development, civic responsibility, and life skills has an

immense impact on students' development and their futures as volunteers.

Social Sororities and Fraternities

Social sororities and fraternities have also found their place in colleges and universities.

The Greek community is made up of several different national governing organizations that

oversee individual campuses organizations. The National Interfraternity Conference, National

Panhellenic Conference, National Pan-Hellenic Council and National Multicultural Greek

Council are four major councils that are represented across the United States. Each of these

organizations has different purposes and values that speak to different college student

populations.

The National Interfraternity Conference (NIC) is a "confederation of 62 men's college

fraternities with over 5,200 chapters on more than 800 campuses throughout Canada and the

United States" (Anson & Marchesani, 1991: p. 25). The conference represents more than

400,000 collegiate members and boasts four and a half million alumni (Anson & Marchesani,

1991). The first fraternity Pi Beta Kappa, was founded in 1776. According to Anson &

Marchesani (1991), the total number of fraternity members has increased by 178% since 1972,

and the average chapter size has increased more than 50% to 54 students. The growth of the

number of chapters and members within the NIC has also created a need for organization and









order. In 1955 the NIC was officially created to uphold the purpose of promoting scholarship,

leadership, service, and friendship among fraternity members.

The National Panhellenic Conference (NPC) evolved gradually over time and is composed

of women's fraternities. The conference functions as an organization to foster interfraternity

relationships of 26 women's fraternities. In 1981, Kappa Kappa Gamma called the first meeting

of women's fraternities to begin to plan for the future. The objective of the conference is to

maintain fraternity and interfraternity relationships and to cooperate with college and university

authorities to maintain high social and scholarship standards (Anson & Marchesani, 1991).

The National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) is composed of nine National Greek letter

community service fraternities and sororities. The NPHC is composed of more than 900,000

affiliated members in the United States and abroad. The history of NPHC dates back to 1906

when the Black Greek letter movement commenced on a predominantly white college campus to

serve as a means of cultural interaction and community service (Anson & Marchesani, 1991).

"NPHC organizations are unique with respect to other Greek letter organizations in that they

have a profound commitment to providing community service and to uplifting/promoting the

general public welfare" (Anson & Marchesani, 1991: p. 42).

The National Multicultural Greek Council (NMGC) emerged in the 1980s and 1990s to

support Greek letter organizations that promoted the inclusiveness of all cultures, races,

religions, and creeds. The NMGC is comprised of 13 member organizations that are typically

Hispanic/Latino, Asian American, or multicultural in makeup. The national organization serves

to unite Greek-letter fraternities and sororities under one national entity. The goals of the

NMGC are to provide a forum that allows the free exchange of ideas, programs, and services as









well as awareness of multicultural diversity within collegiate institutions

(www.nationalmgc.org).

Since their inception in 1776, these organizations have changed drastically. Their

original purpose was to expand the social, scholastic, and professional interests of their members

(Johnson, 1972). Their mottos, creeds, and purpose statements were filled with terms such as

moral advancement, integrity, truth, goodness, social responsibility, sacred trust, and honor

(Early, 1998). However, during their 200-year-old history on college campuses, social Greek-

letter organizations have drastically changed in character, mission, and practice (Anson &

Marchesani, 1991).

The introduction of the fraternity house to many college campuses in the 1890's marked

the turning point of the fraternity system. Anson & Marchesani (1991) refers to the chapter

house as the closing of the fraternity's intellectual, moral, and cultural "golden age" and over the

next fifty years, the fraternity chapter's concerns changed drastically to social, recreational, and

extracurricular activities (Anson & Marchesani, 1991). Fraternities continued with this trend and

the general public began to notice. Interest in joining a Greek organization has also declined

steadily over the past four decades (Astin, Oseguera, Sax, & Korn, 2002). In 1967, 34.7 percent

of incoming freshmen expressed an interest in joining a sorority or fraternity, but by 2005 that

number was down to 10.4 percent (Astin et al., 2002; Pryor, Hurtado, Saenz, Lindholm, Korn, &

Mahoney, 2005).

In 2005, college and university presidents, the presidents of American Association of

State Colleges and Universities, the National Association of Independent Colleges and

Universities, the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grand Colleges, and

International Greek organizations worked together to develop a presidential initiative to









transform the collegiate Greek environment. The outcome of this committee became know as A

Callfor Values Congruence, and it offered effective practices and policies for fraternity

organizations that were grounded in the mission of higher education.

From this document a Model Collegiate Greek Community Standard was created. It

offered several specific values that Greek chapters should enhance and promote amongst its

members. Included in these standards were intellectual development, leadership development,

and the promotion of developing citizenship through service and outreach.

Volunteerism has become increasingly more important to social Greek organizations,

especially since the creation of the Callfor Values Congruence (2005). It has always been a

value of fraternity organizations, but since fraternity relevance has been questioned, it is now

even more important to understand the positive contributions of social Greek-letter

organizations.

Theoretical Approaches

Social Exchange Theory

Social exchange theory provides a general theoretical context for this study as it is used

to help explain why people chose to volunteer. Social exchange theory builds on the basic

economic proposition that people normally work or pay only when they receive something in

return that they see as justifying their inputs (Kelly, 1998). The two important concepts of social

exchange are of exchange and relationships. Kelly (1998) says that it "takes place between two

parties that have some underlying relationship, be it participation in common activities,

coexistence in a certain geographical area, or shared concerns about human conditions" (Kelly,

1998).

Social exchange theory also helps to explain why people volunteer. Wilson (2000) says

that the basic premise for why people chose to volunteer is based on the profit that could be









made from the exchange. Wilson (2000, p. 222) cited seven reasons one may chose to volunteer:

1. costs and benefits of volunteer work, 2. having a stake in their volunteer work, 3. anticipation

of needing help someday or have already received help and wanting to give something back, 4.

benefits received from work, 5. receiving of awards, 6. solidary benefits such as socializing, and

7. to compensate for deprivations experienced in their full-time employment.

The cost/benefit analysis of volunteering is a very important issue that concerns many

volunteers. The perception of what a person will be gaining from volunteering and the effort

they will be putting out is often a deciding factor for volunteers. For students, the cost/benefit

analysis is even more pertinent because they have a limited amount of time in which to explore

activities outside of the academic realm.

Functionalist Theory

Functionalist theory focuses on individual motivations for volunteering as it maintains

that one volunteers to satisfy one or more needs or motivations (Finkelstein et al., 2005;

Finkelstein, 2008). The key component to the functional approach to volunteerism is satisfaction,

and the proposition of the functional analysis is that people will continue to volunteer if their

experiences fulfill their reasons behind helping (Clary et al., 1998; Finkelstein, 2008). In a study

of volunteer motivations, Clary et al., (1998) defined six different functions that are potentially

served by volunteerism. Finkelstein (2008) notes that individuals may be engaged in the same

volunteer work, but for different reasons and these motivations may change over time. Through

an exploratory study Clary and colleagues (1998) developed the Volunteer Functions Inventory

(VFI). This functional analysis aids in understanding the reasons and purposes of volunteering.

The six different functions that are served by volunteerism include; values, understanding, social,

career, protective, and enhancement. These functions are further explained below.









The first function served by volunteering is values. According to Clary et al., (1998)

values are related to the altruistic and humanitarian concerns for others. Understanding is the

second function, and volunteerism allows for new learning experiences that may increase a

person's knowledge, skill set and abilities. A third function served by volunteerism is the social

function that may offer opportunities to work with friends or participate in an activity that is

viewed favorably by important people (Clary et al., 1998). It also allows individuals to

strengthen their social relationships. Career-related benefits are a fourth function served by

volunteering. Students may possibly learn or maintain career-relevant skills while volunteering.

The protective function of volunteering relates to the notion that volunteerism may reduce a

person's guilt over being more fortunate than others. This function also serves to address

personal problems an individual may have. Finally, the enhancement function "involves a

motivational process that centers on the ego's growth and development" (Clary et al., 1998: p.

158).

Characteristics of Volunteers

America has long been considered a nation of joiners who contribute to the public

welfare through their involvement as volunteers (Oesterle et al., 2004). National trends on

volunteer participation often vary; however, it is clear that a substantial number of people in the

United States commit a considerable amount of time to volunteering. Data gathering on

volunteering in the United States did not begin until about a quarter of a century ago (Wilson,

2000), but a 1998 General Social Survey reported that 56% of the United States population

reported some kind of volunteering at some point during the past year. The number of

Americans who volunteer has increased each year since 2002 and a 12 percent increase was

found between 2002 and 2005 (Eisner, 2005; Point of Light Foundation, 2006). Additionally,









the number of hours Americans spend volunteering has grown, but not at the rate as the number

of volunteers (Preston, 2006).

The Corporation for National and Community Service revealed the results of a study of

college student volunteers in 2006. The study reported that college students have been following

the national trends of volunteering with an increase from 2.7 million in 2002 to 3.3 million in

2005 (Foster-Bey, et al., 2006). This rate of growth among college students is more than double

the growth of adult volunteers at 20% and 9 % respectively.

Several other demographic characteristics have been researched pertaining to volunteer

participation. Studies have found volunteering to be gender specific (Bussell & Forbes, 2001).

In particular most studies have found that females volunteer more than males (Wilson & Musick,

197; Wilson, 2000); however, some have also reported that males volunteer more hours than

females (Wilson, 2000). One reason that is often cited for the gender difference in volunteering

is that "women consistently rate themselves (and are rated by others) as more empathic and

altruistic than men (Greeno & Maccoby, 1993: p. 195). Women are also more often referred to

as nurturers or caretakers, and they see volunteerism as an extension of their roles as mothers and

housewives (Wilson, 2000). The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2007) reported that

one-fourth of all men and one-third of all women volunteered. This statistic follows the national

trend of college students with females (33%) volunteering at a higher rate than their male

(26.8%) counterparts (Foster-Bey, et al., 2006).

Race and ethnic differences are also important in the study of volunteerism. Some

studies show Whites volunteer at a higher rate than any other race or ethnicity (Foster-Bey, et al.,

2006). Another report revealed that once other variables are controlled, Blacks volunteer at a

slightly higher rate than Whites (Smith, 1994). A third group of studies concludes there is no









difference in volunteering once socioeconomic status is controlled (Carson, 1989; Latting, 1990).

A 2007 study of volunteers in America found that of the total population 27.9% of volunteers

were White, 18.2% were Black or African American, 17.7% were Asian and 13.5% were

Hispanic or Latino (United States Bureau of Labor Statistic, 2007). The Corporation for

National and Community Services review of college student volunteers (Foster-Bey, et al., 2006)

found White college students volunteer at a rate of 32.0% whereas Black or African American

students volunteer at 24.1 percent; other students volunteer at a rate of 22.9 percent.

Another demographic factor that is relevant to the study of volunteerism is age. Age is

categories are typically identified as youth, adult, and elderly. A report of volunteers in 2007

revealed that 20.8% of individuals 16 to 24 years volunteer and 27.2% of individuals' age 25

years and over volunteer. Wilson and Musick (1997) stated "advancing years could lower

volunteer activity if age is measuring a cohort effect (e.g. years of schooling)" (p. 698). Wilson

(2000) also found the rate of volunteering falls during the transition to young adulthood because

of the decrease in school-related activities and the increase in social freedoms. The Corporation

for National and Community Service reported that college students are twice as likely to

volunteer as individuals that same age who are not enrolled in college at 30.2% and 15.1%

respectively (2006). They also found that college students enrolled as full time students

volunteer more than part time students, 31.4% and 21% respectively. These varying rates of

volunteerism by age are important in determining the demographics of college student volunteers

and their behaviors as they progress through college.

Religion is another important demographic factor to discuss. Religious organizations and

educational institutions are the main sources that promote cultural capital, which has been used

to explain volunteer differences among religion. These organizations encourage the









development of prosocial and civic orientations, by promoting the major values of service charity

and caring for others (Oesterle et al., 2004). "Studies of religion and volunteering find marked

differences between religious and nonreligious respondents" (Wilson & Musick, 1997: p. 699).

While there is not much information on the specific religious affiliations and their impact on

volunteering, it is important to note that church attendance is positively related to volunteering

(Wuthnow, 1994).

From the review of this literature and several studies of volunteers, it appears that

demographic characteristics are important to understanding volunteerism. These demographics

can help determine the main characteristics of volunteers and provide information on helping to

sustain these trends.

Level of Involvement

The level of involvement by sorority and fraternity members in relation to volunteerism

is a topic that has not received much attention in research. However, plenty of research has been

conducted on the relationship to leadership in Greek-letter organizations and binge drinking

(Cashin, Presley, & Meilman, 1998; Plucker & Teed, 2004). Understanding the impact a

member's involvement can have on volunteer participation is essential to fully understanding

Greeks as volunteers. An individual's level of involvement within their sorority or fraternity can

be measured by their participation in the chapter and their place of residence.

Every Greek-letter organization provides its members with multiple leadership

opportunities. Members have the option to actively participate as a leader through executive

board positions, chair positions, or other committee responsibilities. Many of these positions

require a large commitment by the student of time and resources. If a student is willing to make

the commitment to serve in such a capacity for the organization their level of involvement will

automatically increase.









Another important component of involvement can be measured by a member's place of

residence. Many organizations have chapter houses for members or find members living

together in other residences. Living with other members of an organization or in the chapter

house would lend the individuals to be a more active participant in the chapter. While no

previous studies have focused on a member's place of residence and its effects on volunteerism,

Nathan (2005) found that in her study of college freshman living in dorms more than one half of

all students were involved in volunteer work.

It is important to understand the impact a member's level of involvement within their

sorority or fraternity can have on their volunteer participation. This will prompt more research

on the impact sorority and fraternity life can have on students.

Motivations of Volunteers

Volunteer motivations have become increasingly interesting to researchers for several

reasons. First, an understanding of volunteers' motives can aid in recruiting and retaining

volunteers. Second, it can help researchers determine what benefits volunteers gain from helping

others. A review of the research literature on volunteer motivations revealed highly complex and

varied theories. Two primary constructs in the motivation literature have been egoism and

altruism. Egoism asserts that motives for volunteering are self-seeking, while altruism maintains

that volunteers act primarily to help others (Winniford, Carpenter, & Grider, 1997). Another

theoretical perspective is the functional approach of assessing volunteer motivations, which

offers six functions that are potentially served through volunteerism (Clary, et al, 1998). Family

background has also been shown to influence volunteer behavior.

Egoism suggests that behavior is caused by a belief that it will result in a desired goal or

reward (Winniford, et al., 1997). Expectancy motivation theory discussed three factors that

affect behavior: the need for achievement, the need for affiliation, and the need for power









(Mounter, 1985). This theory suggests that everyone is motivated by these needs, and it is a

widely accepted explanation of motivation. For volunteers, this theory suggests that individuals

will receive many different psychological gains in return for their efforts (Winniford, et al, 1997)

Altruism has recently received increased attention in research literature (Martin, 1994;

Winniford, et al., 1997). It is defined by Smith (1981) as "an aspect of human motivation that is

present to the degree that the individual derives intrinsic satisfaction or psychic rewards for

attempting to optimize the intrinsic satisfaction of one or more other persons without the

conscious expectation of participating in a exchange relationship whereby those others would be

obligated to make similar or related satisfaction optimization efforts in return" (p. 23). He also

discussed the relationship between altruism and volunteering from three different perspectives:

the individual level, the group level, and the societal level (Smith, 1981). For colleges and

universities this would equate to the student, student organization, and the college or university

as a whole (Winniford, et al, 1997). Wakefield (1993) discussed that altruism is the very

foundation of humanitarianism and should be more integrated into theories of motivation.

There are several considerations presented by researchers that recommend functionalist

theorizing of volunteer motivations. In psychology, the themes of functionalism emphasize the

adaptive and purposeful striving of individuals toward personal and social goals (Cantor, 1994;

Snyder, 1993). Another core proposition of the functional approach "is that people can and do

perform the same actions in the service of different psychological functions" (Clary & Synder,

1999: p. 156). For volunteers, this means that different individuals may perform the same

volunteer activities but for different reasons, and that individual's motives can change over time

(Finkelstein, 2008). A third utility of the functional approach suggests that a person's

continuation with volunteering over an extended period of time depends on matching the reasons









for volunteering with the volunteer experience (Clary & Snyder, 1999; Finkelstein, 2008).

Finally, Clary and Snyder (1999) found "research stimulated by motivationally oriented analyses

of a wide variety of cognitive, affective, behavioral, and interpersonal processes supports key

functionalist themes" (p. 156).

Clary, et al. (1998) has theorized that the functional approach can be utilized in

examining the motivations of volunteer activity. In their study, Clary, et al., (1998, p. 1517-

1518) identified six personal and social functions served by volunteering: Values (to express

values related to altruistic and humanitarian concerns for others); Understanding (to learn new

experiences and the chance to utilize knowledge, skills, and abilities that might otherwise go

unused); Social (opportunities to strengthen relationships); Career (for a new career or

maintaining career-relevant skills); Protective (to reduce negative feelings of oneself or address

one's own personal problems); and Enhancement (to grow and develop psychologically). These

six functions were found to be consistent with the results of previous studies of people's reasons

for volunteering (Clary & Snyder, 1999).

Each of these theoretical perspectives on motivations to volunteer offer more information

to help determine why individuals begin or sustain their efforts as volunteers. It is important to

identify these motivations for individuals within different organizations to determine if their

involvement has a significant impact.

Bussell and Forbes (2001) noted that family background has been shown to be a

significant predictor or motive for volunteering. Shure (1998) determined from her study of a

sample of volunteers at Big Brothers/Big Sisters that individuals were more likely to volunteer if

their parents had volunteered. Other factors she also considered were the effects of participating

as a volunteer as a child.









Conclusion

This chapter presented a variety of knowledge on volunteerism as well as social sororities

and fraternities. It is clear that participation in a social sorority or fraternity can have lasting

positive and negative effects on students. The results of this study will provide information on

the volunteer participation of members of social sororities and fraternities that will give

researchers and practitioners directions for further study and programming.









CHAPTER 3
MEDTHODOLOGY

Purpose of the Study

This study utilizes a mixed methods framework designed to better understand volunteer

participation among members of social sororities and fraternities. In this study, level of

involvement within the chapter, motives, and demographic factors that impact a Greek member's

engagement in volunteerism will be examined. Included are reviews of secondary data,

observations, a survey of college students, focus groups, and a series of key informant

interviews. A mixed methods framework was used in order to understand the context and

nuances shaping volunteerism (through qualitative methods) as well as wider population level

assessments of factors shaping student behaviors (through quantitative methods).

Unit of Analysis

Individual students will serve as the unit of analysis for this study. The motives,

experiences and demographic factors will be used to determine their level of volunteer

participation as well as factors that contribute to it. Focusing on the individual as the unit of

analysis instead of the organization as a whole is especially appropriate in this study (Babbie,

1998). This is because individual actions and characteristics are key in understanding the trend

in volunteerism among the population of social sorority and fraternity members. Using the

individual as the unit of analysis will also help to ensure that the collected data is representative

of the entire Greek-letter population at the University of Florida. This will also allow the

findings to be generalized to other similar Greek communities elsewhere.

Type of Study

The type of study used in this research is primarily descriptive and cross-sectional. A

cross-sectional study allowed the researcher to obtain a large number of participants while









keeping both time and resources at a minimum (de Vaus, 2001: p. 176). The events where the

surveys were distributed were ideal for a cross-sectional study because a large portion of the total

population was in attendance at each. A cross-sectional design is also ideal for describing

characteristics of a population at a point in time (de Vaus, 2001: p. 176). The data that is

collected from the population will enable the researcher to more accurately describe the

volunteer characteristics of members of the entire Florida Greek community.

Study Population

Members of social sororities and fraternities at the University of Florida comprise the

research population for this study. Social sororities and fraternities make up 15% of the overall

student population at the University. The Greek community at this institution comprises 61

chapters with 5,176 members (Office of Sorority and Fraternity Annual Report, 2007-2008).

Each of these 61 chapters belongs to one of four Greek Councils: Panhellenic Council (16

chapters), Interfraternity Council (26 chapters), Multicultural Greek Council (10 chapters), and

National Pan-Hellenic Council (9 chapters) (Office of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs Annual

Report, 2008). Each of the councils is explained below.

The Panhellenic Council

The Panhellenic Council serves as the governing body for each of the sixteen National

Panhellenic Conference sororities on the campus. There are a total of 2,593 members in the

Panhellenic Council at the university (Office of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs Annual Report,

2007-2008). The council works to facilitate the personal, academic, and professional

development of its members through educational, service, and social activities.

The Interfraternity Council

The Interfraternity Council at the university serves as the governing council for twenty-

six member fraternities with 2,237 members (Office of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs Annual









Report, 2007-2008). They are responsible for ensuring communication among the organizations

and coordinating special events for the council.

The Multicultural Greek Council

The Multicultural Greek Council, referred to as the MGC, is the governing body of the

internationally and nationally recognized ethnically based fraternity and sorority chapters at the

university. The ten organizations have a total of 176 members (Office of Sorority and Fraternity

Affairs Annual Report, 2007-2008). At the University of Florida, the Multicultural Greek

Council tends to be mostly Hispanic or Latino and Asian American organizations.

The National Pan-Hellenic Council

The National Pan-Hellenic Council, referred to as the NPHC, is composed of nine

historically-Black Greek Letter organizations with a total of 132 members at the university

(Office of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs Annual Report, 2007-2008).

Sampling Methods

Random sampling was taken from participants at two separate service events that

consisted of a large sample of the Greek population. "With random sampling, each unit of the

population has an equal probability of inclusion in the sample" (Bryman, 2001: p. 90). The

researcher identified the overall population of Greeks to be 5,176 members (Office of Sorority

and Fraternity Affairs Annual Report, 2007-2008). It was then determined approximately 350

questionnaires would be needed to be statistically representative of the population at the

university (Issac and Michael, 1997). This number of responses was sufficient to statistically

represent the local population at a confidence level of 95% with a margin of error of +/- 5%

(Isaac and Michael, 1997). The sample population was determined based on random sampling;

however, the researcher did sample in a non-random manner. In this study, the sampling method

may be looked at as non-probability sampling. It may be considered non-probability because a









convenience sample was used in this study by virtue of its accessibility. Convenience samples

are very common among organization studies (Bryman, 2001: p.100).

The survey was distributed a third time through an the Internet. The survey was

distributed as a Census of all members of the Greek community. An initial pre-notice email was

sent out to notify the students of the survey, which according to Dillman (2000) is done in order

to leave a positive impression on the recipients so they will be more inclined to complete the

survey when it arrives a few days later. Students were also instructed not to complete the survey

if they had previously done so during the other data collection activities. Dillman (2000) also

recommended shortening the time between notifications from one week to a few days. Four days

later the survey was sent out to all Greek members. A final survey reminder was sent out three

days after the initial survey. The online survey resulted in an additional 644 surveys.

Sample Validation

The sample of respondents was validated by comparing survey respondent characteristics

to the existing data on the overall University of Florida Greek population documented in the

annual report for the year in which the surveys were taken. The annual report uses statistics from

the Fall and Spring semesters of the school year.


Table 3-1. Greek Council membership sampling
Greek Council Total members Percent of Total Percent of
population surveyed respondents
Panhellenic 2,593 50.0% 545 62.9%
IFC 2,237 43.2% 233 26.9%
MGC 176 3.4% 27 3.1%
NPHC 132 2.5% 62 7.1%
Total 5,176 100% 868 100%


It is clear from Table 3-1 above that the sampling numbers were not exactly proportional

to the Greek councils. However, the number of surveys collected from each council was









consistent with the overall pattern of the population, and there was only a slight variation for the

two smaller councils. In this study, our purpose was not to measure subgroups of the Greek

population but to garner a sample from the entire population.

Data Collection Methods

To accomplish the research goals, a mixed methods approach was used. The study

consisted of key informant interviews, surveys, focus groups, and secondary data. Each of these

approaches provided a unique insight into the factors shaping volunteerism.

Key Informant Interviews

Key informant interviews were performed at two separate times during this study. A key

informant is "someone who offers the researcher perceptive information about the social setting,

important events, and individuals" (Bryman, 2001: p. 540). The first key informant interviews

were the initial approach to preliminary data collection, which were also used to gain

information needed to better tailor the survey. The second set of key informant interviews were

performed after the survey data was collected to enhance the interpretation of results. The

informant interviews also aided in the development of focus group protocols that were later used

to probe chapter presidents on their members' volunteer motivations.

Eight informant interviews were conducted. The informants were chosen based on their

familiarity with sororities and fraternities as well as their knowledge of community service and

volunteerism. The first set of interviews was conducted with the UF director and assistant

director of the Office of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs and two faculty members from the

University, one working on volunteerism and the other on non-profit organization

administration.

The second set of interviews consisted of the director and assistant director at the UF

Center for Leadership and Service after the survey data collection was complete. Two members









from the community who work with non-profit organizations were also consulted after the data

collection; they included the executive director of the Boys and Girls Club as well as the house

manager for the Ronald McDonald House. Each of these organizations has a high rate of

volunteerism from social sororities and fraternities.

The interviews were typically thirty minutes in length and were conducted at the

informant's office. The questions that were asked aided in the understanding of the context of

volunteerism among members of social sororities and fraternities, as well as provided

information to help develop the survey. The informants who were interviewed after the

collection of the survey data were able to provide information regarding the results. The purpose

was to help expose underlying motives of volunteer participation that may not have been

revealed from the survey.

Questionnaire Development and Survey Implementation

Subsequent to the key informant interviews was a survey of college students involved in

Greek organizations. A questionnaire measuring a variety of concepts and variables related to

volunteer participation was developed. The use of a questionnaire was the most appropriate

method for data collection because it allowed the researcher to draw wider data from a large

population at a minimal cost; it was quick to administer; and it was convenient for the

respondents (Dillman, 2000; Bryman, 2001). The questionnaire used in this research was

anonymous because some of the questions in the survey asked personal or identifier information,

and the Office of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs at the university asked that the students'

identities be kept anonymous during the process. "Anonymity is guaranteed when neither the

researchers nor the readers of the findings can identify a given response with a given respondent"

(Babbie, 2007: p. Gl).









The survey drew on research related to the population and volunteer participation.

Equally important, the questionnaire utilized items that had been tested and validated in previous

studies. These steps helped ensure a reliable and valid survey instrument. This survey also

utilized a Tailored Design Model, designed to maximize response rates (Dillman, 2000).

Additionally, an expert panel was used to review the questionnaire. Included were

faculty members actively involved in volunteerism research, non-profit organization

administrators, and staff members working for the university Office of Sorority and Fraternity

Affairs. Based on feedback from these individuals, appropriate modifications were made. A

pilot test of the questionnaire was not performed due to time constraints and the ability to collect

data at two, separate, large community service events. The events were scheduled to take place

shortly after the researcher began preparation for the study.

The survey was distributed to members of Greek-letter organizations at the University of

Florida during the Spring 2007 semester and the Spring 2008 semester. The data collected

offered information pertaining to each of the concepts under investigation including: level of

involvement within the organization, motives to volunteer, and demographic characteristics of

the participants. At the time of this study, 5,176 students were members of the Greek community

at the university (Office of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs Annual Report, 2007-2008).

The opportunity to collect data from the study population presented itself at two major

community service events and later through an online survey sent to a list-serve of all Greek

members. The two events included a service event specifically for Greek-letter organizations

and a volunteer event with a mixture of Greek and non-Greek students. These events allowed

the researcher to distribute the survey to many participants at one time and at a minimal cost.

The survey was distributed one final time via an email to all members of the Greek community.









The first event was a large Greek community service project known as Florida Greek

Service Day. On this day more than 900 undergraduates from the Greek community performed

service across the community (Office of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs Annual Report, 2007).

Each student participating in the event was required to attend a morning event. Members from

all four Greek councils at the university were in attendance at the registration process, which did

help in obtaining surveys from a representative population. There were, however, several

limitations to survey implementation. The main challenge was that many of the participants

were underclassman, specifically first or second year students. The second limitation was the

actual time the survey was distributed; due to the increased amount of activity at the event it was

difficult to get students' attention long enough to complete the survey. A total of 141 surveys

were collected from the service day event (16% response rate).

The survey was distributed at a second event in which a large percentage of the Greek

community participated in service later in the same semester. The researcher distributed the

survey at a second service event in order to provide a more representative sample, as the

population was more representative of all classes of Greek members. The event consisted of

volunteers for Dance Marathon. The volunteers were helping to facilitate the event, which

consisted of more than 650 students staying awake and on their feet for 32-hours. The survey

was distributed during the volunteer orientation the day before the event. Approximately 250

student volunteers were in attendance for the orientation. The researcher personally asked

participants if they were members of a social sorority or fraternity. If the student responded yes,

they were then asked to fill out the survey on volunteerism. A total of 83 surveys were collected

from this event (33% event response rate; 20% cumulative response rate for the two events).









The final survey sample was taken through an online survey the following year. The

survey was emailed to 5,176 students and a total of 644 were collected (13% response rate; 22%

cumulative response rate for all three events). A total of 45 surveys were returned to the

researcher due to a full mailbox or an error with the email system.

A total of 868 questionnaires were obtained throughout the study. The details of the

number of surveys that were rejected are not exact; however, the researcher was able to make an

estimate based on the total number of Greek-letter participants at the events.

Table 3-2. Sampling and survey response by event
Event Total Greek-members Total Questionnaires Attained
Service Day 900 141
Dance Marathon 250 83
Email Survey 5176 644


Focus Group Research

The final data collection method utilized was focus groups consisting of organization

members who were currently or had previously served as chapter presidents. A focus group is "a

form of group interview in which there are several participants (in addition to the

moderator/facilitator); there is an emphasis in the questioning on a particular fairly tightly

defined topic; and the emphasis is upon interaction within the group and the joint construction of

meaning" (Bryman, 2001: p. 539). Focus groups were conducted to supplement the survey

results. Specifically, they were designed to expose underlying motives of volunteer participation

that may not have been revealed from the survey data.

The focus groups were conducted at several different times throughout a school week.

An initial email was sent out to all current and past chapter presidents with the date, time,

location, and description of the focus group. A reminder was sent to each group the day before

the scheduled focus group.









A total of four focus groups were conducted, allowing one per Greek council, and

consisting of three to five members in a group. The groups were divided in this way to ensure

comfort and interaction among the members. The questions that were asked of the student

leaders pertained to their individual volunteer experiences as well as their chapter volunteer

experiences. The following are a list of the main questions that were used in the focus group

protocol. Probing questions were also used as necessary.

1. What would you say your reasons are for volunteering?
(Money, recognition, to set an example, others will return the favor, to get acquainted
with people, duty as a Greek, asked by UF leaders, asked by OSFA, urged by friends,
achieve career goals, meeting important people)

2. What would you say are your members' reasons for volunteering?
Are there differences between older and younger members?
What other differences did you see?

3. Do your members volunteer on their own or only for your chapter?
Are they civically active in general, are they volunteering because your organization
expects them too, or both?

4. Does your chapter require volunteering?
What are your members' reactions?

5. What were some of the motivational techniques that your chapter used to get your
members to volunteer?
What are some of the obstacles to getting your members to volunteer?

Concepts and Variables

This study will focus on four concepts: level of involvement in a sorority or fraternity

chapter, motives for volunteerism, volunteer participation and demographic characteristics. The

following are explanations of the concept, the variables used to measure the concept, and the

process of how each concept will be measured. The questions that relate to each concept are

shown in Figure 3-1 at the end of this section.










Concept: Demographic Characteristics


There are several variables that were determined as demographic characteristics,

including: year in school, Greek council affiliation, time in sorority/fraternity, gender, age,

race/ethnicity, religion, and place of residence. Each of the variables was operationalized through

the questions below, and the data was collected through a survey.

Table 3-3. Demographic questions
Item Question and responses Label
1 What year are you in school? Academic
1. First year Status
2. Second year
3. Third year
4. Fourth year
5. Fifth year or more
2 Which Greek council does your sorority or fraternity belong to? Council
1. Interfratemity Council (IFC)
2. National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC)
3. Panhellenic Council (PC)
4. Multicultural Greek Council (MGC
3 How many years have you been a member of your sorority or fraternity? Years
1. This is my first year Active
2. 1 year
3. 2 years
4. 3 years
5. 4 years or more
36 Are you: Male or Female Gender
37 How old are you? Age
38 Which of the following best describes your racial or ethnic background? Race/
1. White/Caucasian Ethnicity
2. African American
3. Asian
4. Hispanic/Latino
5. Native American
6. Other
39 Which of the following best describes your religious background? Religion
1. Protestant
2. Catholic
3. Muslim
4. Jewish
5. Other











Concept: Level of Involvement

Several variables were used to determine the level of involvement in a sorority or

fraternity. The variables include place of residence and positions held in sorority or fraternity.

These variables were created by the researcher as no other validated survey provided questions

that pertained specifically to social Greek-letter organizations. These variables were measured

through the collection of survey data and the following statements were used to operationalize

these variables.

Table 3-4. Involvement questions
Item Question and responses Label
4 Where do you live? Residence
1. I live on campus
2. In a sorority or fraternity house
3. With my parents
4. In an apartment or house with my roommates
5. In an apartment or house by myself
6. In an apartment or house with other sorority or fraternity members
5 Have you ever held an office or position within your sorority or fraternity? Position
1. President
2. Other executive position
3. Chair position
4. Other position
5. I have never held an office


Concept: Motives for Volunteering

This concept was measured by three matrices of questions. The two variables include

reasons for volunteering and the effect of family and youth on volunteering. Each of the

matrices was designed to collect this information through a survey.

Secondary data was collected on motives for volunteering through a series of key

informant interviews and focus groups. This allowed for the reliability of the self-report data to









be compared and assessed. Many of these items were established from previous research (Clary

et al., 1998) and, where appropriate, new items were created for this unique population.


Label


Table 3-5. Volunteer motivation questions
Item Question and response
11-21 People have many reasons for volunteering. How important
would each of the following reasons be in your decision to
take part in a volunteer activity?
(1-Not at all important to 5-Very Important)
11. Monetary compensation
12. Recognition or local prestige
13. To set an example for others
14. I believe that others will eventually return the favor
15. It is a good way to get acquainted with people
16. I feel I have a duty as a sorority/fraternity member
17. If I were asked by University leaders
18. If I were asked by the Greek Office
19. If I were urged by friends
20. Opportunities to help me achieve my career goals
21. Meeting important people

22-29 Please check the boxes that best describe why you participate
in volunteer activities. Is it because...
(1-Not a reason, 2-A slight reason, 3-A strong reason)
22. You are actively involved in your church
23. You need to volunteer to maintain a scholarship
24. It is a class or course requirement
25. You need to in order to maintain membership in an
organization
26. You receive personal satisfaction
27. You enjoy serving your community
28. You are committed to the cause
29. You enjoy socialization with others

31-34 What effect did your family or youth experiences have on your
current volunteering?
31. Participating in civic activities that promoted
volunteering as a young child
32. Participating in civic activities that promoted
volunteering in high school
33. Participating in educational activities that required
volunteering in high school
34. My parents/guardians frequently volunteered


Money
Recognition
Set Example
Other return favor
Meet others
Duty as Greek
Asked by university
Asked by Greek office
Urged by friends
Achieve career goals
Meet important people




Involved in church
Maintain scholarship
Class requirement
Membership requirement

Personal satisfaction
Enjoy serving community
Committed to cause
Enjoy socialization



Civic activities as a child

Civic activities in high
school
Educational activities in
high school
Parents/guardians
volunteer









Concept: Volunteer Characteristics (Dependent Variable)

This concept was operationalized through a series of questions pertaining to volunteer

participation. The first question instructed the respondent to indicate how often they participate

in Greek functions: mandatory, non-mandatory, service and social events. The responses ranged

from "Never" (=0) to "All of the time" (=4). Several questions were then asked to determine the

respondent's level of participation in their sorority or fraternity and volunteerism. The survey

asked respondents "overall, how often do you participate in your sorority or fraternity" and

"overall, how would you describe your level of volunteer participation." The responses ranged

from "Not at all active" (=0) to "very active" (=5). Each of these variables was operationalized in

the form of the questions below and was added to the survey for data collection.

Table 3-6. Volunteer characteristic questions
Item Questions and responses
6-9 How often do you participate in...
(Never = 0 to All of the time = 4)
6. Mandatory sorority or fraternity functions?
7. Non-mandatory sorority or fraternity functions?
8. Service events through your sorority or fraternity?
9. Social events through your sorority or fraternity?
10 In general, how would you describe your level of participation in your
sorority or fraternity? (0-Not at all active to 5-very active)
35 In general, how would you describe your level of participation in your sorority or
fraternity? (0-Not at all active to 5-very active)
35 Overall, how would you describe your level of volunteer participation? (0-Not at all
active to 5-Very active)

The above six questions were posed to determine the overall level of volunteer

participation of the respondent. These questions were then grouped to form a single summative

index. The data were first factor analyzed using several models/rotations (principal axis

factoring and least squares methods with a varimax, quartimax, and direct oblimin rotations).

The criteria established in advance of the selection of factor items were: a factor loading of .35 or

higher; at least a .10 difference between the item's loading with its factors and each of the other









factors; and interpretability (Kim & Mueller, 1978). In all analyses, two models were identified

which had eigen values of greater than 1.0. Additionally, a review of the scree test plots

indicated that a one factor solution was most appropriate. A one factor model was chosen for this

study because the primary purpose was to examine the overall volunteer characteristics of the

Greek student population. Chronbach's Alpha of .75 was reported.


Table 3-7. Listing of concepts, variables and survey Questions
Concept Variables
Demographic Factors


Level of Involvement


Motives for volunteerism




Volunteer Characteristics
(Dependent Variable)


Year in college
Greek council affiliation
Years active in sorority/fraternity
Gender
Age
Racial/ethnic background
Religion

Where do you live
Office or position

Reasons for volunteering
Effect of family/youth on volunteering
Sorority/fraternity emphasis on
volunteering


Level of participation
sorority/fraternity
Level of participation volunteer


Survey Questions

1
2
3
36
37
38
39

4
5

11-21, 22-29
31-34
30



6-9, 10

35


Reliability and Validity

Validity was established in this study by the following steps. First was to assess content

validity. "Content validity depends on the extent to which an empirical measurement reflects a

specific domain of content" (Carmines & Zeller, 1979: p. 20). In this study the researcher

consulted several different sources to develop the questionnaire. According to Rattray and









Jones, (2007), "items can be generated from a number of sources including consultation with

experts in the field, proposed respondents and review of associated literature" (p. 237). To

develop this questionnaire, outside research was consulted to examine different volunteer

motivations. Experts in the field of volunteerism and sorority and fraternity affairs were also

consulted to review the questions that had been developed.

Many steps were also taken during the development of the questionnaire to ensure

validity. "The type of question, language used, and order of items may all bias response"

(Rattray & Jones, 2007: p. 237). In this questionnaire the researcher decided to use close-ended

questions. This type of question was used because it is "less demanding for the respondent and

much easier to code and analyze" (Salant & Dillman, 1994: p. 82). The researcher also added a

few partially close-ended questions such as 'other, please specify.' This allowed the respondents

the option of creating their own choices, however "most respondents select one of the offered

categories rather than developing their own" (Salant & Dillman, 84). To help ensure that the

respondent would chose from one of the offered categories, the researcher took great care in

identifying answer choices. Placement of the questions on the questionnaire was also done

carefully. The initial questions in the survey were relatively straightforward and easy to answer.

They were designed to allow participants to begin to think about their volunteer experiences and

their participation in their fraternity/sorority.

Demonstrating reliability in questionnaires can be done using statistics. Rattray and

Jones (2007) suggest using the Cronbach's a to do this. "This statistic uses inter-item

correlations to determine whether constituent items are measuring the same domain" (Rattray &

Jones, 1995). In social sciences, a Cronbach's Alpha of .60 or higher is considered acceptable









(Kim & Mueller, 1978). In this study, related survey questions were divided into groups to form

indexes.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Multiple statistical analyses were conducted in order to answer each of the research

questions. Frequency analysis and bivariate correlations were used to determine the

relationships between and among selected independent variables and level of volunteerism

(dependent variable) (Tabachnick & Fidell, 1996; Babbie, 1998). This exploratory analysis

facilitated the identification of control and nonsignificant variables. Then, analysis of variance

was used to compare responses to various items across different groups.

A series of multiple linear regression models treating conceptual groupings individually

was then used to provide an analysis of the impact of each on volunteerism. Multiple linear

regression shows how the independent conceptual groupings simultaneously account for

variation in volunteerism (Tabachnick & Fidell, 1996; Huck & Cormier, 1996; Babbie, 1998).

The findings of the quantitative data analysis were compared to and clarified by key

informant interviews. This process allowed for a greater understanding of the conditions shaping

volunteerism, and enhanced the validity of the data and conclusions drawn from the study

(Brewer & Hunter, 1989; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 1998). The qualitative data offered insight into

areas not explored in the survey.

Before any statistical tests were performed, a t-test was used to determine if the data drawn

from the two points in time were statistically different. A significant difference between the two

groups was found (t = 3.235, p = .001), with the first data collection period reporting a mean

volunteer score of 25.35 and the second period reporting 24.50. The difference however, was

attributed to the large variance in sample size and the mainly younger respondents present during

the first data collection. Based on the objectives of the research and the fact that all respondents

were drawn from a single population, the researcher chose to treat all data as a single dataset.









Summary Statistics


Demographics

Demographic summary statistics are reported here using the responses from a sample of

868 respondents. The demographics reported include; age, gender, race, religion, Greek council

affiliation, number of years active in a Greek-letter organization, and academic status.

These summary statistics revealed several interesting facts regarding the sample

population. The frequency of participation remained relatively constant over all age groups but

dropped significantly by the age of 22. This correlates with the number of years a member has

been active in a Greek-letter organization. The response frequency drops after the third year of

membership, which is typically around the age of 22.

Response frequency by gender showed that females (71.3%) were far more likely to

respond than males (28.7%); however, the population of the Greek community is more evenly

divided females (52.9%) and males (48.1%). The respondents' Greek Council affiliation was

closely in-line with the total Greek population; however, the Multicultural Greek Council (3.1%)

responded at a slightly lower rate than the National Pan-Hellenic Council (7.1%), which is

slightly off from their total population of 3.4% and 2.5% percent respectively.

The large majority of survey participants responded to the race demographic as

White/Caucasian (83.7%) and the religion demographic as Protestant (28.3%) or Catholic (37.1).










Table 4-1. Summary statistics of demographic variables
Demographic Characteristics Frequency Valid Percent
(n=868)
AGE
18 121 14.0%
19 201 23.3%
20 251 29.1%
21 202 23.4%
22 76 8.8%
23 10 1.2%
GENDER
Male 248 28.7%
Female 615 71.3%
RACE
White/Caucasian 724 83.7%
Hispanic/Latino 79 9.1%
African American 38 4.4%
Asian 15 1.7%
Native American 1 .1%
Other 8 .9%
RELIGION
Protestant 243 28.3%
Catholic 318 37.1%
Muslim 5 .6%
Jewish 139 16.2%
Other 153 17.8%
GREEK COUNCIL
Panhellenic 545 62.9%
IFC 233 26.9%
MGC 27 3.1%
NPHC 62 7.1%
YEARS ACTIVE
First year 273 31.5%
One year 91 10.5%
Two years 208 24.0%
Three years 194 22.4%
Fours years or more 102 11.8%
ACADEMIC STATUS
First year 196 22.6%
Second year 252 29.1%
Third year 224 25.8%
Fourth year 173 19.9%
Fifth year of more 21 2.4%









Bivariate Analyses

Bivariate analyses were examined to determine the relationship between volunteerism

dependent variables and demographic variables. Bivariate analyses were also conducted to

determine the effect, if any, that demographics (age, gender, race/ethnic origin, religion,

academic year, council affiliation, number of years active in Greek organization) had on other

variables in the study. The significant results are reported in this section and also appear in the

Appendix.

Demographics by Volunteerism (Dependent Variable)

Demographic variables may affect volunteerism independent of level of involvement and

volunteer motivations. These distinctions are important to identify in order to determine the

directional relationships between these variables.

Pearson's correlations were used to determine if there was a relationship between

demographic variables and volunteerism. In this study, gender, Greek council affiliation, the

number of years active in a Greek organization, and academic status were the most influential

demographic characteristics. Several of the volunteer variables differed by these demographics.

Gender was significantly different across several components of the dependent variable,

including: attendance at non-mandatory events (x2= 41.976, p = .000), service events (x2 13.679,

p = .008), social events (x2= 30.834, p = .000), participation in sorority or fraternity organization

(x2= 16.038, p = .003), and overall self-report level of participation with volunteerism (x2=

11.438, p = .022). Females were more likely to report some of the time to most of the time while

males were more likely to report most of the time to all of the time.

Greek council affiliation also showed significant differences across several components

of the dependent variable. The significant differences were associated with attendance at non-

mandatory events (x2 = 44.895, p = .000), service events (x2 = 33.827, p = .001), social events (x2









= 31.559, p = .002), participation in sorority or fraternity organization (x2 = 35.126, p = .000),

and overall self-report level of participation with volunteerism (x2 = 30.935, p = .000). Overall

MGC (Multicultural Greek Council) tended to be more active than each of the other councils.

The number of years active in a Greek organization was significantly different with

attendance at mandatory events (x2 = 57.328, p = .000), non-mandatory events (x2 = 37.359, p =

.002), service events (x2 = 50.429, p = .000) and participation in sorority or fraternity

organization (x2 = 29.951, p = .018). These significant differences showed that, in general, as the

number of years active in a Greek organization increased, the level of participation decreased.

Finally, there was a significant difference associated with components of the dependent

variable and academic status. The significant differences included: attendance at mandatory

events (x2 = 74.265, p = .000), non-mandatory events (x2 = 29.302, p = .022), service events (x2 =

31.549, p = .011), participation as a volunteer (x2 = 11.502, p = .021), and participation in

sorority or fraternity organization (x2 = 36.914, p = .002). This demographic variable also

showed that as academic status increased, the amount of participation decreased.

The remaining demographic variables (age, race/ethnic origin, and religion) did not

reveal many significant differences based on the components of the dependent variable.

Next, t-tests and ANOVAs were run to examine the relationships between these

demographic variables and volunteerism. Significant differences were found for several of the

demographic variables. However, t-tests showed no significant difference by gender and

ANOVA showed no significant difference by religion. Post hoc comparisons appear in

Appendix H.

ANOVA tested age against volunteerism and found that there was a significant difference

(F = 4.306, p = .001). Post hoc tests indicated that as age increased, volunteerism decreased from









18 years with a mean score of 24.58 to 22 years showing a mean score of 24.01. At the age of

23, there was again a significant rise in volunteerism with a mean score of 25.11.

ANOVA tests found a significant difference was between Greek council affiliation and

volunteerism (F = 8.310, p = .000) with IFC reporting a mean of 25.28, NPHC reporting a mean

of 25.36, MGC reporting a mean of 26.62 and PC reporting a mean of 24.31.

Academic status showed a significant difference (F = 6.723, p = .000) as well. Post hoc

tests revealed that volunteerism rose steadily over the first two years and peaked around the

second year as a student. The mean scores declined drastically over the final two years as a

student.

Race group also affected volunteerism. A significant difference was found between race

and volunteerism (F = 9.643, p = .000) with White reporting a mean score of 24.42, Black

reporting a mean score of 26.97, Hispanic reporting a mean of 25.74, Asian reporting a mean

score of 26.21, and other reporting a mean of 27.50.

ANOVA tested the number of years involved in a Greek organization against

volunteerism and determined that years involved affected the total volunteer scores. Post hoc

tests indicated that as the time involved increased, the total mean score decreased.

Demographics by Independent Variables

Pearson's correlations were also used to explore the possible relationships between the

independent variables (level of involvement in Greek organization, volunteer motivations) and

each of the demographic variables.

These tests indicated that Greek council affiliation, the number of years active in a Greek

organization, gender, age, and academic status differed significantly on several components of

the independent variables. The significant results are reported in the Appendix.









Race/ethnic origin and religion were not significantly different when compared with each

of the independent variables.

Multivariate Analysis

Multiple linear regression was used next to determine the specific variables that most

significantly affected volunteerism. Regressions models were run for demographics, level of

involvement, and motivations of volunteerism against overall volunteerism in three separate

models. The fourth model consisted of all of these variables together and a fifth reduced model

was then developed to show the independent variables that were most significantly related to

volunteerism.

Model 1. The first model focused on the relationship between each of the demographic

components and volunteerism. Demographic variables that consisted of nominal data were

recorded into dummy code variables. Race and religion were recorded and lumped into different

groups due to small cell size. Race was coded into White, Black, Hispanic, and other. The other

race variable consisted of those participants that identified as Asian, Native American, or other.

These were coded as one variable due to the low response rate for each category. White was not

included in the model as it was held constant and served as the reference group for the race

variables. Religion was recorded into Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, and other. Catholic was

excluded from the model as it was held constant and served as the reference group for the

religion variables. Greek Council was the final demographic variable recorded. The variable was

grouped as Interfratemity Council (IFC), National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC), Multicultural

Greek Council (MGC), and Panhellenic Council (PC). Panhellenic Council was excluded from

the model and served as the reference group for Greek council affiliation. The other

demographic variables that were included in the first model were gender, age, academic status,

and the number of years active in a Greek-letter organization.









The model was found to be statistically significant (F = 6.568, p = .000) and accounted

for approximately 8% of the variance in volunteerism (Adjusted R2 = .082). Each of the

following variables was found to be statistically significant in this model: age, Black, Hispanic,

other race, Jewish, other religion, and the Multicultural Greek Council. This model showed that

as age of the Greek member increased their volunteerism decreased. Academic Status was also

statistically significant and found that there was a negative correlation to volunteerism; as age

increased overall volunteerism decreased.

This model revealed the relationship between race and volunteerism. It showed that

those students who identified as Black, Hispanic, or other were more highly correlated with

volunteerism than those that identified as White. Religion also revealed that students who

identified as Protestant, Jewish, or other were negatively correlated with volunteerism when

compared with those who identified as Catholic.

Model 2. The second model consisted of variables associated with the level of

involvement in a Greek-letter organization. These variables consisted of holding an office within

the chapter (President, other executive office, chair position, other position, no office) and the

members' place of residence (in a chapter house, with fraternity or sorority members, with other

friends, on campus, alone). Each of these variables was recorded into dummy code variables.

The model excluded no position and living in the chapter house as these were held constant and

served as the reference group.

The model was found to be statistically significant (F = 14.725, p = .000) and accounted

for approximately 11% of the variance in volunteerism (Adjusted R2 = .105). Serving as a

chapter president, an executive member, holding a chair position, living with other sorority or

fraternity members or with friends were all found to be statistically significant. The model









revealed that holding an office within a Greek-letter organization was associated with higher

volunteerism. The model also showed that while living in a chapter house was associated with

higher volunteerism, living with other friends or sorority/fraternity members was negatively

associated with volunteerism.

Model 3. The third model included the motivations that affect volunteerism. The 25

variables that were used to determine volunteer motivations were entered into this model and

were statistically significant (F = 9.015, p = .000). The model accounted for approximately 19%

of the variance in volunteerism (Adjusted R2 = .192).

A total of eight variables were found to be statically significant as motivations to

volunteer, including: to set an example, duty as a Greek, asked by Greek office, class

requirement, organization membership, enjoy serving community, civic activities as a child, and

the level of emphasis placed on volunteerism by sorority or fraternity. Each of the variables was

positively related to volunteerism, except for class requirement and organization membership.

Model 4. The fourth model was a comprehensive analysis that simultaneously included

all variables (demographic variables, involvement variables, motivation variables). This model

was found to be statistically significant (F = 11.381, p = .000) and it accounted for 36% of the

variance in volunteerism (Adjusted R2 = .360).

These variables were found to be statistically significant: race, years active in

sorority/fraternity, holding a position in chapter, living with friends or others. The following

volunteer motivations were found to be statistically significant: setting an example, asked by

Greek office, volunteering to fulfill a membership requirement, enjoy serving your community,

participated in civic activities as a child, and the emphasis that the sorority/fraternity placed on

volunteerism. Membership requirement, living with friends or others, and the number of years









active in sorority/fraternity were negatively related to volunteerism, and the remaining variables

were positively related to volunteerism.

Each of the race variables was found to be statistically significant in this model. Again,

Black, Hispanic, and other race were positively correlated with volunteerism. Religion showed

Protestant as positively correlated with volunteerism; however Jewish and other were negatively

correlated. Each of the four Greek councils was also found to be positively correlated with

volunteerism.

Reduced model. The reduced model consists of variables that were found to be the most

important to overall volunteerism and was statistically significant. This final reduced model was

statistically significant (F = 24.113, p = .000) and accounted for 36% of the variance in

volunteerism (Adjusted R2 = .362). Twenty variables were found to be statistically significant.

The demographic variables included: gender, academic status, race, and the number of years

active in sorority/fraternity. Gender revealed that women were more active than men as

volunteers. Academic status produced a negative significance revealing that as students

progressed through college, their involvement with volunteerism declined. The same was true of

involvement within a Greek organization. As members progressed in their sorority or fraternity,

their involvement with volunteerism decreased. Race differences revealed that students

identifying as Black, Hispanic, or other were more highly associated with volunteerism than

those students who identified as White, the reference group.

All but one of the involvement variables were found to be statistically significant.

Serving as president, holding any other executive position, chair position, or other position were

more highly related to volunteerism than the reference group of holding no position. Living with










sorority or fraternity members or others were significantly lower than those who lived in a

chapter house.

Eight of the motivations were statistically significant in this model. To set an example,

having a duty as a Greek, being asked by the Greek office, enjoyment with serving the

community, participating in civic activities as a child, and the emphasis on volunteerism by a

sorority or fraternity were positively correlated with volunteerism. Meeting important people

and volunteering as a membership requirement were negatively associated with volunteerism.

Table 4-2. Comparison of three multivariate models on volunteerism
Model Model Model Model
1 2 3 4 Reduced
Demographic Variables
Gender (males = 0, females = 1) -.100 -.099 -.130***
Age -.012 -.031
Academic Status -.269 -.149 -.156***
Race
Black .194*** .106** .115***
Hispanic .085** .076** .080***
Other .090** .076** .090***
Religion
Protestant -.006 .003
Jewish -.088** -.054
Other -.075* -.008
Greek Council
IFC .044 .052
NPHC .003 .035
MGC .102** .046
Years Active .131* -.193*** -.215***
Involvement
President .155*** .117*** .129***
Other Executive Position .137*** .158*** .171***
Chair Position .132*** .158*** .158***
Other Position .045 .059* .064**
Residence
With sorority/fraternity members -.137*** -.046
With other friends -.117*** -.214*** -.182***
Other .020 -.209*** -.179***
Motivations
Monetary Compensation -.021 .010
Recognition .006 -.037
Set Example .131*** .074* .068**
Others will return favor -.047 .006
Meet others -.023 -.031









Table 4-2 Continued.
Duty as a Greek .185*** .117*** .120***
Asked by University leaders -.066 -.049
Asked by Greek Office .177*** .175*** .108***
Urged by friends -.032 -.038
Help achieve career goals -.067 -.027
Meet important people -.069 -.060 -.111**
Involved in church .019 .016
To maintain scholarship .024 -.006
Class requirement -.075* -.029
Membership requirement -.082* -.079** -.092***
Personal satisfaction .014 .047
Enjoy serving community .123** .100* .164***
Committed to cause .016 .020
Enjoy socialization .003 .018
Civic activities as a child .120** .092* .162***
Civic activities in High School .012 .045
Educational activities in High School .011 .003
Parents/guardians volunteer .035 .065
Sorority/Fraternity Emphasis .080** .077** .091***

Cases 814 819 812 812 814
Adjusted R2 .082 .105 .192 .360 .362
F-Value 6.568 14.725 9.015 11.381 24.113
Significant at the .05 level
**Significant at the .01 level
***Significant at the .001 level

Focus Groups

Four focus groups were conducted following the survey data collection. These focus

groups were designed to supplement the information that was collected and analyzed from the

surveys. The information obtained from the student participants offered even more insight into

the findings of the study. The information collected from the focus groups will be discussed

throughout the discussion in Chapter 5.

Summary

In this chapter, several different analyses were presented to help explore the relationship

between volunteerism and demographics, involvement in a sorority or fraternity, and volunteer

motivations. These analyses were designed to allow the data to be examined individually

through bivariate analysis and then collectively through multivariate analysis. The final reduced









model that was presented in this chapter helped to filter out all non-significant variables and

showed a clear picture of the variables that most strongly influenced volunteerism among Greek

members. The findings from this chapter are very intriguing and have important implications for

each of the research questions that were presented in the first chapter. The following chapter

will include these important findings and will discuss how they will affect future programs and

research on Greek students.









CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

The decision to join a social sorority or fraternity often hinges on many different factors.

For some students their own desire to join a Greek-letter organization may be the driving force,

and for others it may be their families' pressure to have them join the organization they were a

member of in college. Whatever a member's motivation is to join, studies have found that overall

participation in Greek organizations has been declining over the past 30 years (Astin, et al., 2002).

The declining participation may be symptomatic of the increased media attention on negative

stigmas of drinking, hazing, and sexual assault that continue to plague Greek communities across

the country. In general, colleges, universities, and the general public are beginning to doubt the

purpose of social sororities and fraternities (Pryor, et al., 2005). In light of this changing image, it

has become even more important to explore the positive contributions that these organizations can

make to their members during their undergraduate years. One facet to explore is the volunteer

participation among members of social sororities and fraternities.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of level of involvement within a

Greek-letter organization, motivations for volunteering, and demographic factors that impact a

member's engagement in volunteerism. It reflects input from key informants, focus groups, and

members of social sororities and fraternities who participated in a survey about their volunteer

activities and related behaviors. This research sheds light on this population's volunteer

participation and offers suggestions for future research and volunteer programming.

This final chapter explores the findings of the study as they relate to each of the three

research questions stated in Chapter One. Implications and contributions of this research are then

presented. Finally, limitations of the study will be discussed as well as suggestions for future









research. Based on this research implications for programming and policy, providing

practitioners with suggestions for change will conclude this thesis.

Revisiting Research Questions

RQ1: How Do Demographic Factors, if at All, Have an Impact on a Person's Engagement
in Volunteerism?

The alternative hypothesis for this research question was that demographic factors have

an impact on a person's engagement with volunteerism. Several of the demographic variables in

this study showed significant relationships to overall volunteerism at the bivariate level as seen

in correlations and the ANOVA analyses. Multivariate analysis identified significant factors

suggesting that the relationships of demographic factors to volunteerism were more complex.

First, only demographic characteristics were entered into a model and compared with

volunteerism. This revealed that Black, Hispanic, and other race/ethnic origins were more highly

correlated with volunteerism than White. The model also showed that those students who

identified as Protestant, Jewish, or any other religion were less likely to volunteer than those who

identified as Catholic. It also revealed that council affiliation may be significant for one of the

organizations (MGC). Finally, the number of years active in a Greek-letter organization was

found to have a positive correlation to volunteerism. This model was reported because it

identified which demographic characteristics were statistically significant to volunteerism with

no other factors affecting the analysis.

The final reduced model, however, revealed several different effects. This model

included all of the factors from the study and determined which were significant when

everything was added into the analysis. The findings from this model were mostly consistent

with previous research and will be discussed below.









The reduced model revealed that once all of the factors were added in for data analysis,

religion and Greek council affiliation were no longer significant factors associated with

volunteerism. The number of years active and academic status revealed a negatively significant

relationship with volunteerism. This showed that as the students progressed through college and

their Greek-letter organization, their volunteer levels decreased. This finding is similar to some

other studies on volunteerism, which found that volunteering falls during the transition to young

adulthood (Wilson, 2000). The decrease in school-related activities and the increase in social

freedoms are often cited as reasons for the decline in volunteer participation (Wilson, 2000).

This was echoed in several of the focus groups. The reason that was most often mentioned by

students for not volunteering was the lack extra free time once they had fulfilled their academic

and social commitments. One student said "my time is precious and service is not the most

important thing on my list after school and fraternity social life." Another student said, "Seniors

don't volunteer because they're over it, so they leave it to the younger members." Another past

chapter president explained that the younger members volunteer because they assume it is

mandatory for them to do so, whereas the older members do not.

Gender was also a significant variable, revealing that females were more likely than

males to volunteer. The literature review of volunteer characteristics revealed this same finding,

especially for the college student population, which cited females (33%) had higher volunteer

rates than males (26.8%) (Foster-Bey, et al., 2006).

The findings associated with race were somewhat different from many other studies on

volunteerism, yet still are supported by some existing literature (Smith, 1994). Several studies

on volunteerism report higher rates of volunteerism among those who identify as White (Foster-

Bey, et al., 2006), while this study found that White members volunteered less than those who









identified as Black, Hispanic, or another race. A possible explanation for this finding is the

values of the individual Greek councils. The National Pan-Hellenic Council which consists of

nine historically African-American fraternities and sororities places a strong emphasis on

promoting and providing community service. NPHC organizations have always had a profound

commitment to providing community service to the general public welfare, which stems back to

the initial values of the organization that were established at a time when college campuses

where predominantly white (Anson & Marchesani, 1991). The Multicultural Greek council also

values community service among their members; however, the Interfratenity council and the

Panhellenic council's national governing organizations do not place as strong of an emphasis on

volunteerism. This was also reflected in the focus groups. The members of the National Pan-

Hellenic Council explained their reasons for volunteering were to give back to where they came

from and their responsibility to help others because as one student commented "to whom much is

given, much is required." They also explained that this motivation was consistent across their

membership because they choose their members based on their organization's principles of

service to community and others. Members of the Multicultural Greek Council expressed similar

views in regards to membership selection and the principles of the organizations. Members of

the Interfraternity Council and Panhellenic Council explained that some members volunteer

because they want to help others, but mostly they do because it is a chapter requirement.

These findings are important because they reveal that many of the demographic

characteristics of the Greek community are similar to those of the overall college student

population and U.S. volunteer trends; (United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007; Foster-

Bey, et al., 2006) however, some remain unique to this population. Thus, the null hypothesis,









demographic variables do not impact a person's engagement with volunteerism, was rejected as

the results did reveal that several demographic variables were important to volunteerism.

RQ2: How Does the Level of Involvement in a Social Sorority or Fraternity Affect a
Person's Engagement in Volunteerism?

This research question explored the relationship of a member's involvement within a

social Greek-letter organization and volunteerism. The alternative hypothesis for this research

question was that higher involvement in a Greek-letter organization would equate with higher

engagement with volunteerism. This research question was broken down into two separate

hypotheses: holding an office or position would increase volunteerism and living in a chapter

house or with other fraternity/sorority members would increase volunteerism.

Multivariate models assessed the different components of level of involvement (holding a

position within the organizations and place of residence) and their effect on volunteerism. The

final reduced model revealed a higher rate of volunteerism among those members that had or are

currently serving in some capacity to their organization than those that had never held an office or

position. This finding shows the effect of serving a social Greek-letter organization, but does not

reveal the cause of this finding. However, in the focus groups with current and past chapter

presidents, several of the members alluded to an increased sense of responsibility to the

sorority/fraternity and its members as a motivation to volunteer. These findings are not supported

from other literature because it has not previously been studied; however, a similar study offers

another interesting perspective. The study found that Greek members in general had more

favorable effects from higher levels of engagement in terms of their educational and personal

growth than non-Greek students (Hayek, Carini, O'Day, & Kuh, 2002).

The model also revealed that living within a chapter house was more highly related with

volunteerism than living with friends or in another residence. In fact, living with friends or in









another residence was negatively associated with volunteerism when compared with those

members who lived in a chapter house. It is important to note that at the University of Florida,

only chapters from the Panhellenic and Interfratemal councils have chapter facilities; none of the

Multicultural or National Pan-Hellenic organizations have chapter houses. A study on

undergraduate student engagement by Hayek, et al. (2002) found that living in a sorority or

fraternity house has small positive effects on Greek engagement, but levels of engagement were

similar for those who lived elsewhere. The current literature on volunteerism and Greek-letter

organizations does not support or reject this finding because it remains relatively understudied.

These analyses revealed that the more active a member was with their chapter or the

higher their level of involvement with their organization, the higher their rate of volunteerism.

Thus, the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between level of involvement and

volunteerism was rejected. Further research is needed to examine other areas of involvement

within Greek-letter organizations and their effect on volunteerism. In particular the level of

involvement should be examined for different levels of Greek membership, and also for males

and females, as well as first year students and senior level students.

RQ3: What Motivations Have the Strongest Impact on a Person's Engagement in
Volunteerism?

This research question presented two research hypotheses. First, members of social

sororities and fraternities cite altruistic motivations as indicators of volunteer participation.

Second, members of social sororities and fraternities place personal gain or egoistic motivations

at the low end of motivations for volunteer participation. The results from multivariate analyses

revealed several interesting conclusions.

Two motivations were negatively statistically significant in the final reduced model,

including volunteering for a membership requirement or to meet important people. This finding









was supported by previous research literature on mandatory volunteer service and has been

shown to have lasting negative effects on volunteerism over the life span (Stukas, Snyder, &

Clary, 1999). Meeting important people, which is an egoistic motivation for volunteering, was

found to be negatively associated with volunteerism by members of social Greek-letter

organizations in this study.

Several other motivations revealed a positive correlation to volunteerism: to set an

example, having a duty as a Greek member, being asked by university Greek office, enjoyment

from serving the community, participation in civic activities as a child, and the emphasis that is

placed on volunteerism by their sorority/fraternity chapter. These findings reveal that Greek

members' motivations are not strictly altruistic or egoistic, but inherent in their identity as a

member of a Greek-letter organization. Throughout the focus groups, a common thread among

all of the chapter leadership was the motivation that being Greek involved volunteering for the

community. Several students also mentioned that volunteering provides chapter members with

an opportunity to spend time with one another, and it is a chance to participate with an

organization that may have personally affected another member of their sorority/fraternity.

The emphasis placed on volunteerism by the sorority/fraternity chapter was another

motivation that revealed a positive correlation with volunteerism. This may suggest that while

nationally the Greek organizations do not all promote service as stated in their values, the local

chapters or Greek communities do value volunteerism. In this study population, one of the four

values of the Greek community was service, which may help interpret why being asked by the

university Greek office was found to be a motivation for the Greek community. In the literature,

the Call to Values Congruence (2005) revealed the university Greek office's need to promote

community service to its Greek students. From this study, it has been found that the emphasis on









volunteering made by the supporting university staff on the local chapters appears to have

positive effects on the members' volunteerism.

Other motivations to volunteer including, participating in civic activities as a child,

setting an example, and serving the community are important findings from this study as well.

Participating in civic activities as a child was consistent with current research on the effects of

youth volunteering. Bussell and Forbes (2001) found that family background was a significant

predictor for volunteering. These motivations will be extremely beneficial to developing

volunteer programs for social Greek-letter organizations.

From these findings the null hypothesis, focusing on egoistic and altruistic motivations, is

not accepted or rejected. While the motivations that were revealed were both altruistic (to set an

example) and egoistic (enjoy serving community), this study revealed even greater motivations

that may be specific to this population's motivations as volunteers. The intrinsic belief that

volunteerism is part of being a Greek member was a significant finding of this study, and it may

be of even greater importance than other altruistic or egoistic motivations.

Contribution to the Literature

This study added to the literature of volunteer motivations in several important ways.

First, the findings of this study suggest that membership in an organization, particularly a social

sorority or fraternity, may be a motivation to volunteer on its own. The increased sense of

responsibility and the duty that was felt by the respondents because they were Greek was a

significant motivation to volunteer. This corroborates other researcher's findings that

volunteerism is trending away from altruism toward social concern among students on college

campuses (Winniford et. al., 1997). The increased emphasis by social sorority and fraternity

organizations on volunteerism may be increasing the social concern of its members.









This study also added to our understanding of the potentially negative impacts of

mandatory volunteerism. The findings determined that mandatory volunteerism for an

organization requirement was a negative motivation to volunteer. Stukas and colleagues (1999)

reported, "A student's stronger perception of external control eliminated an otherwise positive

relation between prior volunteer experience and future intentions to volunteer" (p. 59). The

study found that institutions have begun to require as opposed to "inspire" individuals to

volunteer (Stukas, et al., 1999). The positive motivations of being asked by the Greek office to

volunteer also supported this. The students' option to choose a volunteer project offered them

increased control over their volunteer efforts.

Another finding of this study was the difference a respondent's race had on their

volunteerism. As discussed previously, those members who identified as Black, Hispanic, or

other, were more likely to volunteer than those that identified as White. This finding points to

other outside motivations that may affect members of races or ethnicities differently. In this

study, the increased value placed on community service by the national organizations of the

National Multicultural Greek Council and the National Pan-Hellenic Council may have

influenced an increased rate of volunteerism among those members who identified as a race or

ethnicity other than White. Interestingly religion was not found to be significant in the final

reduced model; however, several studies have found religiosity to impact volunteerism (Wilson

& Musick, 1997).

A major contribution of this study to the literature was the impact of a member's level of

involvement with their Greek-letter organization, because this concept has previously been

unexplored by researchers in relation to volunteerism. The findings pointed to an increased

sense of social responsibility for those who had held or currently hold a position within their









organization. These members were more likely to volunteer than those who did not serve their

sorority or fraternity.

Limitations and Delimitations

This study has several potential limitations and delimitations. One possible limitation to

this study was the cross-sectional design that was used. This allowed the researcher to sample

the population at one period in time; however, it is possible that unique conditions existed at

these times that were not reflective of usual conditions. The first two sets of surveys were

distributed at community service events, which may have exaggerated the respondents'

propensity to volunteer. Another limitation was the scope of material included in the survey,

which asked questions regarding volunteer participation. Based on this format, this part of the

data collection was limited to the questions that were asked and the respondents' self-report

measures. It was also the case that this research focused on behaviors that were central to the

mission of Greek organizations. As a result, this instrumentation may have led respondents to

answer the way they perceived they should respond.

Additionally, researchers often debate the definition of volunteerism. The respondents

may have answered based on their own definition of volunteerism. To combat these potential

problems, a mixed methods framework consisting of qualitative and quantitative components

was used. Nonetheless, such limitations are potential in this research and should be considered

in future research efforts.

Generalizability is a delimitation of this study. The study population was members of

social Greek letter organizations at the University of Florida. The Greek population is 15% of

the campus' total student population, approximately 5,200 students and consists of four Greek

governing councils, IFC, NPHC, NMGC, and Panhellenic. The results of this study should only

be generalized to similar populations.









Implications of Research


Research

Despite its limitations, this research can provide ample information to researchers and

practitioners. A thorough review of relevant literature and examination of the study results

identified several areas for future research. First, previous studies have not focused much

attention to the positive contribution of volunteerism on membership in social sororities and

fraternities. These organizations are a large part of many college and university campuses.

While the media and other research have focused largely on the negative impacts of social

Greek-letter organizations, they are still a part of many students' college life. If these

organizations are going to continue to be in existence, they must return to their original values of

service and academia. More research on the population is necessary to determine the positive

impacts of membership as well.

Second, the exploratory nature of this study focused on the effects of level of

involvement in social Greek-letter organizations. The results revealed that holding an office or

position within the organization correlated with volunteerism. More research is needed on this

concept to determine the cause of this effect and to see if this is also true of other student

organizations. A sorority/fraternity member's place of residence is also an interesting

phenomenon to discuss. Anson & Marchesani (1991) determined the creation of the chapter

house to be the force that contributed to the downturn of social sororities and fraternities;

however, this study found that residence in a chapter house was highly correlated with

volunteerism. More research is needed on members who live in a sorority/fraternity chapter

house and the effects it may have on students.

Thirdly, this study revealed that there were differences between fraternities and sororities

and across councils in regards to volunteerism. Further research into the national organizations









missions and goals is necessary to understand their importance and the impact on the local

chapters. It would also be beneficial to explore further the differences between the different

types of sororities and fraternities, such as social, service, or business organizations.

Finally, active membership in a social Greek-letter organization should be explored

further as a motivation for volunteerism. These organizations have always had values rooted in

service to community and others. Although the negative images of social Greek-letter

organizations may blur that value, it is important to determine if these values still exist. This

study found that these values do in fact still exist: however, more research is necessary to

determine what produces this value.

Practice

The findings of this study have provided information about the population of Greek

members who are currently volunteering and those who are less apt to volunteer. From the

findings, several demographic characteristics were determined that can be used to develop

programs that would appeal to the population and motivate those who are not currently

volunteering.

This study's finding of race/ethnic differences among volunteers can help significantly

when developing volunteer programming. The differences among students who identify as

White, Black, Hispanic, or another race in terms of volunteering may be due to cultural

differences or the values of the national and local sorority/fraternity organizations. It is

important to determine the cause of this finding and then tailor the volunteer opportunities to the

populations' interests. For example, the National Multicultural Greek Council places emphasis

on multicultural diversity; these organizations should identify service opportunities that are

directly in line with this value to increase volunteerism among its members. One suggestion for

such programming would be to work with non-profit organizations that have similar missions of









promoting multicultural diversity. Another example is the National Pan-Hellenic Council's

value of service to community and others. From the focus groups, several of the NPHC

members described their motivation to volunteer as giving back to the community where they

came from, volunteering for issues that are pertinent to African Americans, and being able to

show their success to others. In creating volunteer programs for this council, these motivations

should be adhered to by allowing members to volunteer as mentors in at-risk schools, working

with civil rights groups, or working with individuals who have similar backgrounds. For the

Interfraternity Council and Panhellenic council, it is important to find service opportunities that

would increase their interest or desire to volunteer. During the focus groups, several of the

Panhellenic women mentioned that they were always more motivated to work for a cause that

had significant meaning to them. One woman gave the example that if one of their sisters was

affected by cancer, they would be more motivated to volunteer with an organization that benefits

cancer patients. Community service can also provide an opportunity to promote relationships

between and across the councils by providing projects that would unite the entire Greek

community at a university.

Academic status and the number of years active in a Greek-letter organization were found

significant, but were negatively correlated to volunteerism. This suggests that as members

progress through their schooling or their time in the organization they become less inclined to

volunteer. Several of the focus groups alluded to their increased responsibility to other

organizations, academic commitments, job/internship searching, and social obligations as the

reasons for the decline in volunteering. Volunteer programs should use these other time

commitments as motivators to participate in community service. For example, several volunteer

organizations can provide students with opportunities to develop and improve marketable career









skills for future employment. Many long-term volunteer commitments may turn into internship

or job opportunities, which is an important motivation to convey to students. The major issue for

many college students is their commitment to several organizations, many of which require or

mandate some form of community service. Providing students with an opportunity to volunteer

that would fulfill many organizations' requirements, but that would still be enjoyable, would

increase an individual's desire to continue with their volunteer commitment.

The other findings point to the negative impact of mandatory volunteerism. This is

supported in the literature and from this research. Thus, it is important for programs to continue

to motivate members to volunteer without forcing them to participate. Several motivations that

were significant in this study can help. Members expressed "setting an example" as a motivation

to volunteer. Providing service opportunities where members can work with children as mentors

may speak to that motivation. Another motivation that was significant in this study was members

"enjoy serving the community." Offering a variety of different volunteer opportunities to

students would be especially helpful because it would allow them to choose an area that is of

particular importance to them. This would provide the students with a sense of ownership on the

social issue and may increase their enjoyment of the project.

Providing service opportunities that are well organized and efficient will allow

participants to enjoy their service project and focus on the impact they are making, rather than

worry about details. In the focus groups, several members stated that they had participated in

projects that were unorganized, and they felt their time could have better been spent elsewhere.

Creating a project where the student would be greatly utilized and appreciated would allow the

individual to find more enjoyment and satisfaction with volunteerism.









The motivations that were specific to membership in a Greek-letter organization can be

especially helpful for Greek affairs professionals. It is important to capitalize on the inherent

motivations that members have as a duty to volunteer. By providing successful and meaningful

volunteer projects, members' inherent motivations will prompt their persistence with

volunteerism.

Greek Affairs offices can use each of the recommended suggestions stated above to

improve volunteerism among their members. Most importantly, it is essential to determine the

areas of interest among the different organizations and use that information to provide service

projects.

Public Policy

Although this study did not examine any specific policies, the results of this research can

provide input toward future policies, specifically college, university, and Greek organization

community service requirements. Higher education institutions are beginning to implement

community service as a requirement of graduation. This is in response to the increased efforts to

develop morally and civically involved students. This policy, however, is not supported by the

literature or the findings of this study. In fact, Stukas et al. (1999) and this study found that

volunteering as part of a requirement often leads to dissatisfaction or discontinuation with

volunteer work. Other motivations that were found in this study and similar studies on college

students' volunteer motivations should be examined when developing such policies. Such

findings would help facilitate student volunteerism in a manner more conducive to long-term

civic engagement.

Summary

Membership in a social Greek-letter organization is a personal choice that many students

face when they first begin college. The effects of Greek life on a student's development are









often a topic of debate among school administrators, parents, students, and researchers. The

negative perceptions of hazing, binge drinking, and sexual assault are startling; however, these

eclipse the positive and often astonishing impacts of Greek organizations. This study examined

the effects of demographic characteristics, level of involvement, and motivations on members'

participation in individual volunteerism. The conclusions reached through this research have far-

reaching implications for higher education institutions, social sororities and fraternities,

researchers, and practitioners. This study has produced groundbreaking research on the effects

of involvement within a social Greek-letter organization on an individual's engagement with

volunteerism. It is the sincere hope of the researcher that studies on the positive contributions of

social sororities and fraternities will continue to flood the research on this population, as well as

contribute to the improvement of programming for these students as volunteers.










APPENDIX A
INSTRUMENTATION

Informed Consent

Title of Project: Volunteer Participation among Members of Social Sororities and Fraternities

1. Purpose of the Study: To understand the motivations, values, and volunteer participation of members of
social fraternities and sororities.

2. Procedures to be followed: You will be asked to answer approximately 15 questions in an interview/survey.
You will be asked to answer the questions in relation to your opinions, attitudes, experiences, and
familiarity with volunteer participation. You can choose to take part or decline participation.

3. Discomforts and Risks: There are no risks in participating in this research beyond those experienced in
everyday life. Some of the questions may appear personal but answers are held in strict confidentiality.

4. Benefits: This research will provide a better understanding of how and why members of social fraternities
and sororities become involved in volunteerism. This information will be used as an educational resource
to encourage students to participate in volunteer activities. There is no direct benefit to you for
participating in this study. There is no compensation to you for participating in this study.

5. Duration: It will take about 10-15 minutes to complete the interview/survey.

6. Statement of Confidentiality and Anonymity: Because this is anonymous, no one will know your identity.
You may be assured of complete confidentiality. There is no way you will be associated with your answers or
statements

7. Security of Data, Interview Notes, and Tape Recordings: The project investigator (Adrienne Jaroch) will be
the only person who will have access to questionnaires, interview notes and other research materials. These
materials will be secured in locked file cabinets in 3002 McCarty Hall D, when not being analyzed. All
materials will be destroyed upon completion of the project.

8. Right to Ask Questions: You can ask questions about the research. The person in charge will answer your
questions. Contact Adrienne Jaroch at (352) 392-1778, ext. 229 or via email at with questions.
If you have questions about your rights as a research participant, contact the Institutional Review Board at
(352) 392-0433.

9. Voluntary Participation: You do not have to participate in this research. You can end your participation at any
time by telling the person in charge. You do not have to answer any questions you do not want to answer.

You must be 18 years of age or older to consent to participate in this research study.

The informed consent procedure has been followed.

Adrienne Jaroch-Project Investigator Date Survey


Figure A-1. Informed consent letter










Survey


Social Sororities and Fraternities, Volunteering, and You
Thank you in advance for your time and participation. We very much appreciate your help!

First, we would like to ask you about your life as a student and as a member in a social sorority or fraternity
at the University of Florida.

How many years have you been in college?

O This is my first year
O This is my second year
O This is my third year
O This is my fourth year or more

Which Greek Council does your sorority or fraternity belong to?

O Interfraternity Council (IFC)
O National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC)
O Panhellenic Council (PC)
O Multicultural Greek Council (MGC)

How many years have you been a member of your sorority or fraternity?

O This is my first year.
O 1 year
O 2 years
O 3 years
O 4 years or more

Where do you live?
O I live on campus
O In a sorority or fraternity house
O With my parents
O In an apartment or house with roommates
O In an apartment or house by myself
O In an apartment or house with other Sorority or Fraternity members


Have you ever held an office within your sorority or fraternity? If so, please check which offices) and write
in the name of your officess. (Check all that apply)
O President
O Other executive position
O Chair position
O Other position
O I have never held an office




Figure A-2. Survey










How often do you participate in...
All of Most of Some of
the time the time the time Rarely Never

Mandatory sorority or fraternity functions 0 0 0 0 0
Non-mandatory sorority or fraternity functions O O O O O
Service events through your sorority or fraternity O O O O O
Social event through your sorority or fraternity O O O O O

In general, how would you describe your level of participation in your sorority or fraternity?

Not at all active Very Active

O O O O O


Now we would like to ask about your volunteer activities. This participation EXCLUDES any course or class required volunteer experience.


People have many reasons for volunteering. How important would each of the following reasons be in your decision to take part in a volunteer activity?

Not at All Important Very Important

Monetary compensation O O O O O
Recognition or local prestige O O O O O
To set an example for others O O O O O
I believe that others will eventually return the
favor for my efforts 0 0 0 0 0
It is a good way to get acquainted with people O O O O O
I feel I have a duty as a sorority/fraternity member O O O O O
If I were asked by University leaders O O O O O
If I were asked by the Greek Office O O O O O
If I were urged by friends 0 0 0 0 0
Opportunities to help me achieve my career goals 0 0 0 0 0
Meeting important people 0 0 0 0 0


Figure A-2. Survey, Page 3










IF YOU ARE INVOLVED in volunteer activities, please check the boxes that best describe why youdecided to participate.
A slight A strong
Not a reason reason reason
Is it because...
You are actively involved in your church O O O
You need to volunteer to maintain a scholarship O O O
It is a class or course requirement O O O
You need to in order to maintain membership in an organization O O O
You receive personal satisfaction O O O
You enjoy serving your community O O O
You are committed to the cause your are serving O O O
You enjoy the socialization with others O O O

Figure A-2. Survey, Page 2
My sorority or fraternity places strong emphasis on volunteerism?
Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree

0 0 0 0 0

What effect did your family or youth experiences have on your current volunteering?
0 No Effect Major Effect

Participating in civic activities that promoted
volunteering as a young child O O O O O
Participating in civic activities that promoted
volunteering in high school 0 0 0 0 0
Participating in educational activities
that required volunteering in high school O O O O O
My parents/guardians frequently volunteered O O O O O


Figure A-2 Continued.










Overall, how would you describe your level of volunteer participation?
Not at all active


Finally, we want to ask you a few questions about yourself. Responses are anonymous and we will have no way of linking you to your responses.


Are you:


0 Male


O Female


How old are you? years old


Which of the following best describes your racial or ethnic background?
O White/Caucasian
O African American
O Asian
O Hispanic/Latino
O Native American
O Other

Which of the following best describes your religious background?
O Protestant
O Catholic
O Muslim
O Jewish
O Other

In the space below, please tell us anything else you feel might allow us better understand your attitudes and opinions toward volunteering at the
University of Florida.



Thank you for your time and participation.
Your responses will help us to better understand the important contribution that members of social sororities or fraternities make through volunteering
and to build programs to meet their needs.


Figure A-2 Continued.


Very Active









Pre-Survey Email


Dear Student,

Over the past year, a research study has been conducted to help understand the motivations,
values and volunteer participation of members of social sororities and fraternities. This research
will provide a better understanding of how and why members of social sororities and fraternities
become involved in volunteerism. This information will then be used as an educational resource
to encourage students to participate in volunteer activities.

Within the next couple of days you will be receiving a brief survey from the researcher at this
same e-mail address. Your participation would be greatly appreciated. The survey will only
take a few minutes to complete and by doing so you will help ensure that we have the best
information possible. Participation will be completely anonymous.

If you have any questions, feel free to contact the researcher, Adrienne Jaroch, at .

Thank you in advance for your cooperation.

Figure A-3. Pre-survey email









Email Survey Text


Here is a brief survey on volunteer participation among members of social sororities and
fraternities which the researcher notified you about via e-mail a few days ago. The survey will
take about 10 minutes to complete. This is an anonymous survey therefore no one will know
your identity and you may be assured of complete confidentiality.

You must be 18 years of age or older to consent to participate in this study. By clicking on the
link below you consent that you are of age to participate and that you understand the information
above.

To take the survey click on the link below or copy and past it into your web browser.


Should you have any questions or concerns, feel free to contact me (Adrienne Jaroch) at
. You may also request a copy of the final research study. Thank you for your
cooperation.

Figure A-4. Email survey text









Follow-up Email Text


If you have already completed this survey and have received this notice again, please do not
resubmit your responses.

If you have not completed this survey please take a few short minutes to do so. Your input is
vital to this study and the Office of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs. The short survey will take
approximately 5 minutes to complete. You must be 18 years of age or older to consent to
participate in this research study.

To complete the survey you may click on the link below or cut and paste it into your web
browser. By doing so, you consent that you are over the age of 18 and you agree to
participate.



Should you have any questions, feel free to contact me (Adrienne Jaroch) by e-mail at
.

Figure A-5. Follow-up email text









Focus Group Email


Dear

Social sororities and fraternities have long been scrutinized by the public and the media for their
negative impact on students. Many of these issues often involve hazing, sexual assault and binge
drinking. However, it is also important for the UF administration and the general public to know
of the good that social sororities and fraternities can provide to students and the community.
You are invited to participate in a focus group discussion centered on a positive impact of the
Greek community, volunteerism. The focus group will allow you to explore the motivations to
volunteer and the difference in the students that participate.

The focus group, to be held on , will include former chapter presidents from your specific
Greek council. Chapter presidents serve in one of the most difficult and important leadership
roles on campus. From this experience you have gained more knowledge and insight into this
topic than anyone. I also realize now that your term has come to an end you may have a lot more
time on your hands. As a participant in the focus group, your views and experiences are
extremely valuable to the Greek community and the University ofFlorida. Your input will also
greatly help the Office of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs to better serve the Greek community.

During this meeting, you will have the opportunity to share your experiences and thoughts about
Greek volunteerism, in a casual environment and with complete confidentiality. Please be
assured that anything you say during the focus group will be kept strictly confidential, and the
researcher will not release any information that can be linked to you.

The focus group will be held on from until timee> at . Drinks and
snacks will be provided.

I will be contacting you by telephone to give you more details about this important event and to
answer any questions you may have about the study. You are also welcome to e-mail me at
. I hope that you will be able to join in this important discussion.


Figure A-6. Focus group email









Focus Group Protocol


This focus group is designed to explore why college members of social sororities and fraternities
volunteer. Today we will be focusing on their motivations for volunteering, and why they
continue to volunteer.

You have all been asked to participate because you are an undergraduate student in a Greek
organization and have served your chapter as the president.

Introductions: Facilitator, co-facilitator, and focus group participants

Does anyone mind if we tape record this for our records? We won't share the tapes with anyone
this is solely for the researcher.

Confidentiality: All information gathered here will be held in the strictest of confidence. None
of your names will be attached with any information you give us today. Throughout this focus
group feel free to give your opinion; there is no right or wrong answer. This is more of a
conversation than an interview. Keep in mind, to be respectful of others opinions or ideas.
Please silence all cell phones. This should only take about 45 minutes to one hour.
Are there any questions before we start?

1. What would you say your reasons are for volunteering?
(Money, recognition, to set an example, others will return the favor, to get acquainted
with people, duty as a Greek, asked by UF leaders, asked by OSFA, urged by friends,
achieve career goals, meeting important people)

2. What would you say are your members' reasons for volunteering?
Are there differences between older and younger members?
What other differences did you see?

3. Do your members volunteer on their own or only for your chapter?
Are they civically active in general, are they volunteering because your organization
expects them too, or both?

4. Does your chapter require volunteering?
What are your members' reactions?

5. What were some of the motivational techniques that your chapter used to get your
members to volunteer?
What are some of the obstacles to getting your members to volunteer?

Is there anything else you would like to talk about?
Thank you! Again this information will better help us understand the motivations of
volunteering.

Figure A-7. Focus group protocol












APPENDIX B
POST HOC COMPARISONS


Table B-1. Years active by volunteer scal
(I) Number of years (J) Number of years
active in sorority or active in sorority or
fraternity fraternity


This is my first year


1 year


2 years




3 years




4 or more years


1 year
2 years
3 years
4 or more years
This is my first year
2 years
3 years
4 or more years
This is my first year
1 year
3 years
4 or more years
This is my first year
1 year
2 years
4 or more years
This is my first year
1 year


2 years
3 years
* The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 lev


e

Mean Difference
(I-J)
-.54561
-.61745
.48573
1.24257
.54561
-.07183
1.03134
1.78818
.61745
.07183
1.10318
1.86001"
-.48573
-1.03134
-1.10318
.75684
-1.24257
-1.78818
-1.86001
-.75684
el.


95% Confidence Interval


Std. Error
.40998
.31142
.31761
.39214
.40998
.42576
.43030
.48791
.31142
.42576
.33773
.40861
.31761
.43030
.33773
.41334
.39214
.48791
.40861
.41334


Sig.
.778
.416
.674
.041
.778
1.000
.220
.010
.416
1.000
.031
.000
.674
.220
.031
.501
.041
.010
.000
.501


Lower Bound
-1.8113
-1.5789
-.4948
.0319
-.7201
-1.3863
-.2971
.2819
-.3440
-1.2426
.0605
.5985
-1.4663
-2.3598
-2.1458
-.5193
-2.4532
-3.2945
-3.1215
-2.0329


Upper Bound
.7201
.3440
1.4663
2.4532
1.8113
1.2426
2.3598
3.2945
1.5789
1.3863
2.1458
3.1215
.4948
.2971
-.0605
2.0329
-.0319
-.2819
-.5985
.5193











Table B-2. Race by volunteer scale
Mean Difference
Race Race (I-J) Std. Error
White Black -2.55137 .56667
Asian -1.79423 .88287
Hispanic -1.32020 .39299
Other -3.07994 1.16293
Black White 2.55137 .56667
Asian .75714 1.03416
Hispanic 1.23117 .66668
Other -.52857 1.28157
Asian White 1.79423 .88287
Black -.75714 1.03416
Hispanic .47403 .95017
Other -1.28571 1.44941
Hispanic White 1.32020 .39299
Black -1.23117 .66668
Asian -.47403 .95017
Other -1.75974 1.21481
Other White 3.07994 1.16293
Black .52857 1.28157
Asian 1.28571 1.44941
Hispanic 1.75974 1.21481
*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.


95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound Upper Bound
-4.3008 -.8019
-4.5199 .9315
-2.5335 -.1069
-6.6702 .5104
.8019 4.3008
-2.4356 3.9499
-.8271 3.2894
-4.4852 3.4280
-.9315 4.5199
-3.9499 2.4356
-2.4594 3.4075
-5.7604 3.1890
.1069 2.5335
-3.2894 .8271
-3.4075 2.4594
-5.5102 1.9907
-.5104 6.6702
-3.4280 4.4852
-3.1890 5.7604
-1.9907 5.5102













Table B-3. Academic status by volunteer scale


(I) Academic
Status


(J) Academic
Status


Mean Difference
(I-J)


1st year 2nd year -.71469
3rd year -.08451
4th year .76248
5 year or more .94444
2nd year 1st year .71469
3rd year .63018
4th year 1.47716
5 year or more 1.65913
3rd year 1st year .08451
2nd year -.63018
4th year .84698
5 year or more 1.02895
4th year 1st year -.76248
2nd year -1.47716
3rd year -.84698
5 year or more .18197
5 year or more 1st year -.94444
2nd year -1.65913
3rd year -1.02895
4th year -.18197
* The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.


Table B-4. Greek Council by volunteer scale


Std. Error
.32262
.33028
.35101
.81527
.32262
.31236
.33421
.80818
.33028
.31236
.34161
.81127
.35101
.33421
.34161
.81993
.81527
.80818
.81127
.81993


95% Confidence Interval
Sig. Lower Bound Upper Bound
.298 -1.7107 .2813
.999 -1.1042 .9351
.318 -.3212 1.8461
.854 -1.5725 3.4614
.298 -.2813 1.7107
.397 -.3342 1.5945
.001 .4454 2.5090
.378 -.8359 4.1542
.999 -.9351 1.1042
.397 -1.5945 .3342
.190 -.2077 1.9016
.807 -1.4757 3.5336
.318 -1.8461 .3212
.001 -2.5090 -.4454
.190 -1.9016 .2077
1.000 -2.3494 2.7133
.854 -3.4614 1.5725
.378 -4.1542 .8359
.807 -3.5336 1.4757
1.000 -2.7133 2.3494


(I) Greek (J) Greek Mean Difference
Council Council (I-J)


IFC NPHC -.07352 .48443
PC .96763 .26687
MGC -1.33298 .68456
NPHC IFC .07352 .48443
PC 1.04115 .45299
MGC -1.25945 .77627
PC IFC -.96763 .26687
NPHC -1.04115 .45299
MGC -2.30061 .66268
MGC IFC 1.33298 .68456
NPHC 1.25945 .77627
PC 2.30061 .66268
* The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.


95% Confidence Interval
Std. Error Sig. Lower Bound Upper Bound


-1.4306
.2200
-3.2506
-1.2835
-.2278
-3.4340
-1.7152
-2.3101
-4.1570
-.5847
-.9151
.4442


1.2835
1.7152
.5847
1.4306
2.3101
.9151
-.2200
.2278
-.4442
3.2506
3.4340
4.1570











Table B-5. Age by volunteer scale
(I)Age (J)Age
on last on last Mean Difference
birthday birthday (I-J) Std. Error
18 19 -.73364 .38801
20 -.50431 .37666
21 .56733 .38838
22 .56350 .49910
23 -.53352 1.14613
19 18 .73364 .38801
20 .22933 .32135
21 1.30097 .33502
22 1.29714 .45880
23 .20011 1.12916
20 18 .50431 .37666
19 -.22933 .32135
21 1.07164 .32180
22 1.06781 .44924
23 -.02921 1.12531
21 18 -.56733 .38838
19 -1.30097 .33502
20 -1.07164 .32180
22 -.00383 .45912
23 -1.10085 1.12929
22 18 -.56350 .49910
19 -1.29714 .45880
20 -1.06781 .44924
21 .00383 .45912
23 -1.09703 1.17199
* The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.


95% Confidence Interval


Sig.
.612
.877
.830
.937
.999
.612
.992
.010
.158
1.000
.877
.992
.051
.343
1.000
.830
.010
.051
1.000
.966
.937
.158
.343
1.000
.972


Lower Bound
-2.0279
-1.7606
-.7281
-1.1013
-4.3564
-.5606
-.8425
.1835
-.2332
-3.5662
-.7520
-1.3012
-.0017
-.4306
-3.7827
-1.8628
-2.4184
-2.1450
-1.5352
-4.8676
-2.2283
-2.8275
-2.5662
-1.5276
-5.0062


Upper Bound
.5606
.7520
1.8628
2.2283
3.2894
2.0279
1.3012
2.4184
2.8275
3.9664
1.7606
.8425
2.1450
2.5662
3.7243
.7281
-.1835
.0017
1.5276
2.6659
1.1013
.2332
.4306
1.5352
2.8121











APPENDIX C
BIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF SELECTED VARIABLES


Table C-1. Age by how you attend mandatory functions
Some of Most of All of
Rarely the time the time the time Total
Age on last birthday 18 0 4 23 94 121
19 1 3 37 160 201
20 1 9 64 177 251
21 2 16 69 115 202
22 2 5 26 43 76
Total 6 37 223 595 861
F = 42.903, p <.000


Table C-2. Academic Status by how often you attend mandatory functions


Some of Most of All of
Rarely the time the time the time Total
Academic Status 1st year 1 6 32 157 196
2nd year 0 4 56 192 252
3rd year 1 14 59 150 224
4th year 2 12 70 89 173
5 years+ 2 1 8 10 21
Total 6 37 225 598 866
F = 74.265, p <.000

Table C-3. Greek Council by how often you attend non-mi


mandatory functions


Some of Most of All of
Never Rarely the time the time the time Total
Greek IFC 0 5 34 143 51 233
Council NPHC 0 2 19 30 11 62
PC 4 19 161 309 47 540
MGC 0 0 5 18 4 27
Total 4 26 219 500 113 862
F = 44.895, p <.000

Table C-4. Gender by how often you attend non-mandatory functions
Some of Most of All of
Never Rarely the time the time the time Total
Gender Male 0 5 36 152 55 248
Female 4 21 182 346 57 610
Total 4 26 218 498 112 858
F = 41.976, p. <.000











Table C-5. Years active by how often you attend service events
Some Most of All of
Never Rarely time the time the time Total
Number of years active First year 1 6 61 138 67 273
in sorority or fraternity 1 year 0 3 17 38 33 91
2 years 0 4 35 100 69 208
3 years 0 11 51 83 49 194
4or+ 0 14 31 39 18 102
Total 1 38 195 398 236 868
F = 50.429, p. <.000

Table C-6. Race by how often you attend service events
Some of Most of All of
Never Rarely the time the time the time Total
Race White 1 34 180 345 164 724
African American 0 1 2 14 21 38
Asian 0 1 2 8 4 15
Hispanic 0 2 11 26 40 79
Other 0 0 0 4 5 9
Total 1 38 195 397 234 865
F = 53.322, p <.000

Table C-7. Gender by how often you attend social events
Some of Most of All of
Never Rarely the time the time the time Total
Gender Male 0 6 27 116 97 246
Female 3 21 120 334 135 613
Total 3 27 147 450 232 859
F= 30.834, p. <.000

Table C-8. Greek Council by how often you participate in your sorority or fraternity
Not at Very
all active Barely Average Moderate active Total
Greek Council IFC 3 6 22 79 120 230
NPHC 0 4 9 18 30 61
PC 5 17 89 218 215 544
MGC 0 0 4 1 22 27
Total 8 27 124 316 387 862
F = 35.126, p <.000


Table C-9. Age by served as president of Chapter
No Yes Total
Age 18 121 0 121
19 197 4 201
20 236 15 251
21 186 16 202
22 65 11 76
Total 815 46 861
F = 27.245, p <.000











Table C-10. Academic status by served as president of Chapter
No Yes Total
Academic Status 1st year 196 0 196
2nd year 246 6 252
3rd year 201 23 224
4th year 156 17 173
5 years + 20 1 21
Total 819 47 866
F = 32.571, p <.000

Table C-1 1. Years active by served as president of chapter
No Yes Total
Number of years active This is my first year 273 0 273
in sorority or fraternity 1 year 89 2 91
2 years 199 9 208
3 years 171 23 194
4 or more years 89 13 102
Total 821 47 868
F = 44.364, p <.000


Table C-12. Greek Council by served as executive board member other than president
No Yes Total
Greek Council IFC 146 87 233
NPHC 42 20 62
PC 427 118 545
MGC 10 17 27
Total 625 242 867
F = 37.975, p <.000

Table C-13. Age by served as executive board member other than president
No Yes Total
Age 18 121 0 121
19 170 31 201
20 167 84 251
21 122 80 202
22 39 37 76
Total 623 238 861
F = 1.020, p <.000

Table C-14. Years active by served as executive board member other than president
No Yes Total
Number of years active This is my first year 267 6 273
in sorority or fraternity 1 year 70 21 91
2 years 133 75 208
3 years 105 89 194
4 or more years 51 51 102
Total 626 242 868
F = 1.536, p <.000











Table C-15. Gender by served as executive board member other than president
No Yes Total
Gender Male 152 96 248
Female 470 145 615
Total 622 241 863
F =20.107, p<.000

Table C-16. Academic Status by served as executive board member other than president
No Yes Total
Academic Status 1st year 195 1 196
2nd year 191 61 252
3rd year 134 90 224
4th year 94 79 173
5 years+ 10 11 21
Total 624 242 866
F = 1.249, p <.000


Table C-17. Age by
No Yes
Age 18 96 25
19 130 71
20 118 131
21 83 118
22 27 49
Total 459 399
F = 71.413, p <.000


served in chair position
Total


Table C-18. Years active by served in chair position
No Yes Total
Number of years active This is my first year 211 62 273
in sorority or fraternity 1 year 46 44 91
2 years 101 106 208
3 years 71 122 194
4 or more years 35 67 102
Total 464 401 868
F = 1.042, p <.000

Table C-19. Academic Status by served in chair position
No Yes Total
Academic status 1st year 157 39 196
2nd year 140 111 252
3rd year 91 132 224
4th year 67 105 173
5 years + 8 13 21
Total 463 400 866
F = 88.638, p <.000











Table C-20. Academic status by served in other position
No Yes Total
Academic status 1st year 157 39 196
2nd year 201 51 252
3rd year 153 71 224
4th year 108 65 173
years+ 13 8 21
Total 632 234 866
F = 24.478, p <.000

Table C-21. Years active by served in other position
No Yes Total
Number of years active This is my first year 220 53 273
in sorority or fraternity 1 year 72 19 91
2 years 154 54 208
3 years 123 71 194
4 or more years 64 38 102
Total 633 235 868
F = 24.280, p <.000

Table C-22. Age by never held an office
No Yes Total
Age 18 46 75 121
19 114 87 201
20 196 55 251
21 173 29 202
22 65 11 76
Total 602 259 861
F = 1.162, p <.000

Table C-23. Years active by never held an office
No Yes Total
Number of years active This is my first year 116 157 273
in sorority or fraternity 1 year 65 26 91
2 years 165 43 208
3 years 173 21 194
4 or more years 89 13 102
Total 608 260 868
F = 1.556, p <.000

Table C-24. Academic status by never held an office
No Yes Total
Academic status 1st year 76 120 196
2nd year 172 80 252
3rd year 191 33 224
4th year 148 25 173
years+ 19 2 21
Total 606 260 866
F = 1.403, p <.000











Table C-25. Greek Council by volunteer if asked by university leaders
Not Very
important 2 3 4 important Total
Greek Council IFC 46 30 82 41 27 226
NPHC 8 10 16 19 8 61
PC 37 78 155 185 87 542
MGC 5 1 8 12 1 27
Total 96 119 261 257 123 856
F = 53.328, p <.000

Table C-26. Gender by volunteer if asked by university leaders


important 2 3 4 important Total
Gender Male 49 33 88 45 26 241
Female 47 86 174 209 96 612
Total 96 119 262 254 122 853
F = 45.100, p<.000


Table C-27. Academic status by volunteer if asked by university leaders
Not Very


important 2 3 4 important Total
Academic status lstyear 10 23 64 53 45 195
2ndyear 16 32 77 92 32 249
3rd year 35 27 68 63 28 221
4th year 32 32 45 47 15 171
5 years + 3 5 8 1 3 20
Total 96 119 262 256 123 856
F=56.500, p<.000

Table C-28. Greek Council by volunteer if asked by Greek
Not Very


important 2 3 4 important Total


office


Greek Council IFC 45 36 74 44 28 227
NPHC 11 9 19 15 6 60
PC 42 82 150 197 72 543
MGC 4 3 11 7 2 27
Total 102 130 254 263 108 857
F = 42.075, p <.000


Table C-29. Gender by volunteer if asked by Greek office
Not Very
important 2 3 4 important Total
Gender Male 49 39 81 47 27 243
Female 53 91 173 213 81 611
Total 102 130 254 260 108 854


F = 35.230, p <.000











Table C-30. Academic status by volunteer if asked by Greek office
Not Very
important 2 3 4 important Total
Academic status 1st year 9 17 65 62 42 195
2nd year 21 33 72 92 32 250
3rd year 36 32 65 63 25 221
4th year 31 43 46 43 8 171
5 year or more 5 5 7 2 1 20
Total 102 130 255 262 108 857
F = 75.518, p <.000

Table C-31. Age by volunteer if asked by Greek office
Not at Very
all important 2 3 4 important Total
Age 18 6 7 45 36 26 120
19 16 30 55 67 32 200
20 31 35 69 84 28 247
21 34 39 55 54 20 202
22 15 17 25 16 1 74
Total 102 130 253 260 107 852
F = 58.203, p <.000

Table C-32. Greek Council by volunteer because it is a course or class requirement
Not a reason A slight reason A strong reason Total
Greek Council IFC 157 45 23 225
NPHC 35 8 18 61
PC 302 120 116 538
MGC 20 5 2 27
Total 514 178 159 851
F = 24.930, p <.000

Table C-33. Gender by volunteer because it is a course or class requirement
Not a reason A slight reason A strong reason Total
Gender Male 172 44 24 240
Female 339 134 135 608
Total 511 178 159 848
F = 22.023, p <.000


Table C-34. Gender by volunteer for recognition or prestige
Not Very
important 2 3 4 important Total
Gender Male 64 42 67 52 18 243
Female 213 161 141 73 25 613
Total 277 203 208 125 43 856
F = 25.790, p <.000











Table C-35. Gender by volunteer to help me achieve career goals
Not at all Very
important 2 3 4 important Total
Gender Male 18 15 33 86 89 241
Female 9 34 76 209 284 612
Total 27 49 109 295 373 853
F = 23.667, p <.000


Table C-36. Age by volunteer in order to maintain membership in an organization
Not a reason A slight reason A strong reason Total
Age 18 30 48 42 120
19 52 79 69 200
20 71 123 50 244
21 77 65 58 200
22 29 33 13 75
Total 262 353 233 848
F = 31.971, p <.000

Table C-37. Religion by volunteer because actively involved in church
Not a reason A slight reason A strong reason Total
Religion Protestant 121 68 51 240
Catholic 191 91 32 314
Jewish 126 7 3 136
Other 131 15 9 155
Total 569 181 95 845
F = 1.081, p <.000

Table C-38. Religion by volunteer because of participating in civic activities as a child
No Effect 2 3 4 Major Effect Total
Religion Protestant 35 23 57 69 56 240
Catholic 48 46 89 77 52 312
Jewish 28 19 37 33 19 136
Other 49 25 34 29 19 156
Total 160 113 217 208 146 844
F = 35.041, p <.00


Table C-39. Gender by where you live


On In a sorority or
campus fraternity house


With
parents


In an apt or house
In an apt or house In an apt or house with sorority or
with roommates by myself fraternity members Total


Gender Male 40 92 0 70 8 35 245
Female 146 194 1 182 16 76 615
Total 186 286 1 252 24 111 860
F = 7.595, p <.000











Table C-40. Age by where you live
In an apt or house
On In a sorority or With In an apt or house In an apt or with sorority or
campus fraternity house parents with roommates house by myself fraternity members Total
Age 18 96 7 0 15 1 1 120
19 68 59 0 54 3 16 200
20 15 108 1 89 9 29 251
21 4 78 0 65 7 48 202
22 2 29 0 27 2 15 75
Total 185 285 1 251 24 112 858
F = 3.967, p <.000

Table C-41. Academic status by where you live
In an apt or In an apt or In an apt or house
On In a sorority or With house with house by with sorority or
campus fraternity house parents roommates myself fraternity members Total
Academic status 1st year 155 11 0 23 3 2 194
2nd year 23 108 0 95 4 22 252
3rd year 4 99 1 77 7 36 224
4th year 4 61 0 53 8 46 172
5 years+ 0 8 0 5 2 6 21
Total 186 287 1 253 24 112 863
F = 5.539, p <.000

Table C-42. Race by where you live
In a sorority In an apt or In an apt or In an apt or house
On or fraternity With house with house by with sorority or
campus house parents roommates myself fraternity members Total
Race White 162 257 0 193 13 97 722
African American 4 2 1 25 4 2 38
Asian 3 2 0 7 2 1 15
Hispanic 13 25 0 25 3 12 78
Other 4 1 0 3 1 0 9
Total 186 287 1 253 23 112 862
F = 84.951, p <.000

Table C-43. Greek Council by where you live
In a sorority In an apt or In an apt In an apt or
or fraternity With house with or house by house with sorority or
On campus house parents roommates myself fraternity members Total
Greek Council IFC 41 92 0 56 7 34 230
NPHC 15 4 0 37 2 4 62
PC 128 191 1 148 11 66 545
MGC 1 0 0 14 4 8 27
Total 185 287 1 255 24 112 864
F = 84.123, p <.000









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Adrienne Michelle Jaroch was born and raised in the Northwest suburbs of Chicago,

Illinois. In 2002, she moved to Gainesville, Florida to attend the University of Florida. She

graduated with a B.A. in Political Science in May of 2006 and immediately entered the Master of

Science program in the Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences at the University

of Florida. Throughout her graduate studies she worked as a graduate assistant for the Office of

Sorority and Fraternity Affairs, which helped to guide her thesis research.





PAGE 1

1 VOLUNTEER PARTICIPATION AMONG MEMBERS OF SOCIAL SORORITIES AND FRATERNITIES By ADRIENNE MICHELLE JAROCH A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Adrienne Michelle Jaroch

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3 To the sorority women and fraternity men who contribute positively to our society.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank m y family for their continued love and support throughout my education. They have always encouraged me to achieve my goals, even if that meant moving far from home. I would also like to thank my committee members: Dr. Mark Brennan, Dr. Elizabeth Bolton, and Dr. Mary Kay Carodine. Their support and expertise we re invaluable to me and my research. More specifically, I would like to thank Dr. Mark Bre nnan for constantly pushing and encouraging me, especially when things got rough. I would like to thank my supervisor, Lisa Kendall, for always listening when I needed someone to talk to. Her professional guidance and candid sense of humor have helped me get through this stage of my life. Finally, I woul d like to thank my friends who, in one way or another, shared in th is experience with me.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........8 LIST OF FIGURES.......................................................................................................................11 LIST OF TERMS...........................................................................................................................12 ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................13 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................15 College Students, Greeks and Volunteerism.......................................................................... 16 Purpose and Significance of Study.........................................................................................17 Research Questions............................................................................................................. ....19 Research Hypothesis............................................................................................................ ...20 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................21 Volunteerism...........................................................................................................................21 The History of Volunteerism........................................................................................... 21 Volunteerism in Higher Education.................................................................................. 22 Academic engagement..................................................................................................... 23 Civic responsibility.......................................................................................................... 23 Life Skills.................................................................................................................... ....23 Social Sororities and Fraternities............................................................................................24 Theoretical Approaches......................................................................................................... .27 Social Exchange Theory.................................................................................................. 27 Functionalist Theory........................................................................................................ 28 Characteristics of Volunteers.................................................................................................. 29 Level of Involvement..............................................................................................................32 Motivations of Volunteers...................................................................................................... 33 Conclusion..............................................................................................................................36 3 MEDTHODOLOGY..............................................................................................................37 Purpose of the Study........................................................................................................... ....37 Unit of Analysis............................................................................................................... .......37 Type of Study.........................................................................................................................37 Study Population............................................................................................................... ......38

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6 The Panhellenic Council..................................................................................................38 The Interfraternity Council.............................................................................................. 38 The Multicultural Greek Council.................................................................................... 39 The National Pan-Hellenic Council................................................................................. 39 Sampling Methods..................................................................................................................39 Sample Validation..................................................................................................................40 Data Collection Methods........................................................................................................41 Key Informant Interviews................................................................................................41 Questionnaire Development and Survey Implementation............................................... 42 Focus Group Research..................................................................................................... 45 Concepts and Variables..........................................................................................................46 Concept: Demographic Characteristics........................................................................... 47 Concept: Level of Involvement.......................................................................................48 Concept: Motives for Volunteering................................................................................. 48 Concept: Volunteer Characteris tics (Dependent Variable) ............................................. 50 Reliability and Validity....................................................................................................... ....51 4 RESULTS...............................................................................................................................54 Summary Statistics.................................................................................................................55 Demographics..................................................................................................................55 Bivariate Analyses............................................................................................................. .....57 Demographics by Volunteerism (Dependent Variable).................................................. 57 Demographics by Independent Variables........................................................................59 Multivariate Analysis.......................................................................................................... ....60 Model 1........................................................................................................................ ....60 Model 2........................................................................................................................ ....61 Model 3........................................................................................................................ ....62 Model 4........................................................................................................................ ....62 Reduced model................................................................................................................ 63 Focus Groups..........................................................................................................................65 Summary.................................................................................................................................65 5 DISCUSSION.........................................................................................................................67 Revisiting Research Questions............................................................................................... 68 RQ1: How Do Demographic Factors, if at All, Have an Impact on a Persons Engagem ent in Volunteerism?..................................................................................... 68 RQ2: How Does the Level of Involvement in a Social Sorority or Fraternity Affect a Persons E ngagement in Volunteerism?................................................................... 71 RQ3: What Motivations Have the Stronge st Im pact on a Persons Engagement in Volunteerism?..............................................................................................................72 Contribution to the Literature.................................................................................................74 Limitations and Delimitations................................................................................................76 Implications of Research....................................................................................................... .77

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7 Research....................................................................................................................... ...77 Practice............................................................................................................................78 Public Policy....................................................................................................................81 Summary.................................................................................................................................81 APPENDIX A INSTRUMENTATION..........................................................................................................83 Informed Consent............................................................................................................... ....83 Survey.....................................................................................................................................84 Pre-Survey Email............................................................................................................... .....88 Email Survey Text.............................................................................................................. ....89 Follow-up Email Text........................................................................................................... ..90 Focus Group Email.............................................................................................................. ...91 Focus Group Protocol.............................................................................................................92 B POST HOC COMPARISONS................................................................................................ 93 C BIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF SELECTED VARIABLES ................................................... 97 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................106 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................112

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1. Greek Council membership sampling.................................................................................... 40 3-2. Sampling and survey response by event................................................................................. 45 3-3. Demographic questions..........................................................................................................47 3-4. Involvement questions..................................................................................................... .......48 3-5. Volunteer motivation questions..............................................................................................49 3-6. Volunteer characteristic questions.........................................................................................50 3-7. Listing of concepts, variables and survey Questions.............................................................51 4-1. Summary statistics of demographic variables........................................................................ 56 4-2. Comparison of three multivariate m odels on volunteerism.................................................... 64 B-1. Years active by volunteer scale..............................................................................................93 B-2. Race by volunteer scale................................................................................................... ......94 B-3. Academic status by volunteer scale....................................................................................... 95 B-4. Greek Council by volunteer scale.......................................................................................... 95 B-5. Age by volunteer scale.................................................................................................... .......96 C-1. Age by how you attend mandatory functions........................................................................97 C-2. Academic Status by how often you attend mandatory functions........................................... 97 C-3. Greek Council by how often you attend non-m andatory functions....................................... 97 C-4. Gender by how often you attend non-mandatory functions...................................................97 C-5. Years active by how ofte n you attend service events ............................................................ 98 C-6. Race by how often you attend service events........................................................................ 98 C-7. Gender by how often you attend social events......................................................................98 C-8. Greek Council by how often you particip ate in your sorority or fraternity ........................... 98 C-9. Age by served as president of Chapter..................................................................................98

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9 C-10. Academic status by served as president of Chapter............................................................. 99 C-11. Years active by served as president of chapter ....................................................................99 C-12. Greek Council by served as executive board m ember other than president........................ 99 C-13. Age by served as executive boar d m ember other than president......................................... 99 C-14. Years active by served as executive board mem ber other than president............................ 99 C-15. Gender by served as executive board member other than president..................................100 C-16. Academic Status by served as executi ve board m ember other than president.................. 100 C-17. Age by served in chair position......................................................................................... 100 C-18. Years active by served in chair position............................................................................ 100 C-19. Academic Status by served in chair position..................................................................... 100 C-20. Academic status by se rved in other position...................................................................... 101 C-21. Years active by served in other position............................................................................ 101 C-22. Age by never held an office...............................................................................................101 C-23. Years active by never held an office.................................................................................. 101 C-24. Academic status by never held an office........................................................................... 101 C-25. Greek Council by volunteer if asked by university leaders ...............................................102 C-26. Gender by volunteer if aske d by university leaders ........................................................... 102 C-27. Academic status by volunteer if asked by university leaders ............................................ 102 C-28. Greek Council by volunteer if asked by Greek office ....................................................... 102 C-29. Gender by volunteer if asked by Greek office...................................................................102 C-30. Academic status by volunteer if asked by Greek office.................................................... 103 C-31. Age by volunteer if asked by Greek office........................................................................103 C-32. Greek Council by volunteer because it is a course or class requirem ent........................... 103 C-33. Gender by volunteer because it is a course or class requ irement...................................... 103 C-34. Gender by volunteer for recognition or prestige................................................................ 103

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10 C-35. Gender by volunteer to help me achieve career goals....................................................... 104 C-36. Age by volunteer in order to mainta in m embership in an organization............................ 104 C-37. Religion by volunteer because actively involved in church.............................................. 104 C-38. Religion by volunteer because of partic ipating in civic activities as a child ..................... 104 C-39. Gender by where you live................................................................................................. .104 C-40. Age by where you live.................................................................................................... ...105 C-41. Academic status by where you live................................................................................... 105 C-42. Race by where you live................................................................................................... ...105 C-43. Greek Council by where you live...................................................................................... 105

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11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page A-1. Informed consent letter................................................................................................... .......83 A-2. Survey....................................................................................................................................84 A-3. Pre-survey email.......................................................................................................... ..........88 A-4. Email survey text......................................................................................................... ..........89 A-5. Follow-up email text...................................................................................................... ........90 A-6. Focus group email......................................................................................................... .........91 A-7. Focus group protocol.............................................................................................................92

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12 LIST OF TERMS Chapter The local group of a larger nati onal organization and designated by a special name or Greek letters Fraternity Mens general college fraternities are mutually exclusive, self-perpetuating groups which provide an organized soci al life for their me mbers in college and universities as a cont ributing aspect of their educational experience. They draw their members primarily from the undergraduate student body (Anson & Marchesani, 1991: p.9). Initiation The initiation ritual usually incl udes an explanation of the secret sign and symbols, the meaning of the motto, and a charge or challenge to the new member to be of good character and to be loyal to the other members of the society (Anson & Marchesani, 1991: p.13). New member Members who have been accepted into a social sorority or fraternity but have not yet been initiated as a full member Social sorority/fraternity General fraternities are co mmonly referred to as soci al fraternities because initially it referred to social development; it is commonly mistaken to refer to social functions by members and non-members Sorority Womens general college frater nities are primarily groups of women at colleges and universities which, in add ition to their individual purposes, are committed to cooperation with college administrators to maintain high social and scholastic standards and which do not limit membership to any one academic field (Anson & Marchesani, 1991: p.9). Volunteer Any activity in which time is gi ven freely to benefit another person, group, or organization. Voluntee ring is part of a cluste r of helping behaviors, entailing more commitment than spon taneous assistance, but narrower in scope than the care provided by family and friends (Wilson, 2000: p.215). This study will only include the direct ac t of performing a service; it will not include the indirect servi ce of donating money or goods.

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13 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science VOLUNTEER PARTICIPATION AMONG MEMBERS OF SOCIAL SORORITITES AND FRATERNITIES By Adrienne Michelle Jaroch August 2008 Chair: Mark A. Brennan Major: Family, Youth, and Community Sciences Volunteering among college and university stud ents has become the focus of increasing interest among program and polic y makers. However, the motivations, obstacles and conditions shaping student volunteerism remain unclear. This study will focus on a unique subpopulation within colleges and universities: the members of social sororities and fraternities and their involvement with community service. The study population was a Greek community with 5,176 members, 61 chapters, and four governing councils: Interfraternity Council Panhellenic Council, Multicultural Greek Council, and National Pan-He llenic Council. These social Greek-letter organizations have traditionally faced scrutiny in the research literature and media focusing on negative issues such as hazing, sexual assau lt, and binge drinking, wh ile ignoring the positive contributions that these organizations make. U tilizing data drawn from surveys, interviews, and focus groups, this study focused on the effect s of involvement within the Greek-letter organization, motivations for volunteering, and demographic factors that shape a members engagement in volunteerism. Results show that membership in a social Greek-letter organization may be a motivation on its own to volunteer, and members who had held or currently hold a position in their organization

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14 were more likely to volunteer than those that did not serve their ch apter. The study also revealed that race/ethnic origin had profound impacts on a members e ngagement with volunteerism.

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15 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Volunteering am ong college and un iversity students has become of increasing interest to program and policy makers (Astin & Sax, 1998; Berger & Milem, 2002; Colby, Thomas, Beaumont, & Stephens, 2003). According to the Corporation for National and Community Service (Foster-Bey, Dietz, & Grimm, 2006), highe r education institutions are experiencing an increase in volunteerism at rates higher than in the general adult population. However, the motivations, obstacles, and conditions shaping st udent volunteerism remain unclear. This is particularly true of various university subpopulations, such as Greek-letter organizations. The increase of college student volunteerism provides a clear need for understanding the volunteer environment on college campuses and among sel ect student groups. This study focuses on a unique subpopulation within colle ges and universities, the member s of social sororities and fraternities and their involvement in community service. More specifically, this study was designed to focus on the effects of level of involvement within the chapter, motivations for volunteering, and demographic factors that imp act a members engagement in volunteerism. Traditionally, the research li terature has focused on the co llege student population as a whole when it comes to volunteer participa tion (Astin, Sax, & Avalos, 1999; CNCS, 2006; Dodge, 1990; Marks & Jones, 2004; Moffatt, 1991). In sharp contrast, social sororities and fraternities have gained littl e attention in the professional and academic research for their positive contributions to society through community service. More often, the research conducted with this population has focused on more negative conditions seen by some as associated with Greek life (Copenhaver & Grauerholz, 1991; G oodwin, 1992; Wechsler, 1996). Greek-letter organizations have always faced scrutiny becaus e of their large visible presence on many college campuses. They also suffer from many of the st ereotypes portrayed in movies such as the 1979

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16 film Animal House. A signifi cant portion of the rese arch on this population often relates to those media images (Boeringer, Shehan, & Akers, 1991; Copenhaver & Grauerholz, 1991; Canterbury, Gressard, Vieweg, Grossman, Mckelway, & Westerman, 1992; Goodwin, 1992; Friend, 1993). For example, Bairds Manua l of American College Fraternities, 20th Edition (Anson & Marchesani, 1991) confirms that by the 1990s most media reports of fraternities dwelled on alcohol-drenched, drug-infested tenement s full of reckless louts, wild parties, gang rapes, brutal hazing, and like outrages (p. 1). These often-negativ e portrayals de tract from the positive contributions that these organizations make As such, there is another side to these organizations that warrants further research. Volunteering has been defined in different ways by researchers and prac titioners. In this study, the definition for volunteering provide d by Wilson (2000) is used, which states, Volunteering means any ac tivity in which time is given free ly to benefit another person, group, or organization. Volunteering is part of a cluster of helping behaviors, entailing more commitment than spontaneous assistance, but na rrower in scope than the care provided by family and friends (p. 215). For the purpose of this st udy volunteering will only include the direct act of performing a service, such as actions, services, ra ising awareness, assisting with fundraising, and other related activities; it will not include the indirect service of donating money or goods. The results of this study will help to identify characteristics of Greek college student volunteers, factors shaping their volunteering, and will serve as th e basis for programs that will help efforts to promote higher levels of volunt eerism among members of so cial sororities and fraternities. College Students, Greeks and Volunteerism The Corporation for National and Community Services report on College Students Helping America (Foster-Bey, et al., 2006) ha s determ ined that college student volunteering has

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17 increased in recent years by more than 20 percent. One reason for this increase is the swell of overall enrollment in colleges and universitie s. In October of 2003, 46 percent of high school graduates ages 18 to 24 years old were enrolled in college, totaling 16.6 million students, and annual enrollment in degree-granting instituti ons is expected to exceed 18 million by 2010 (Shin, 2005; National Center for Educat ion Statistics, 2007). Another reason for the increase in volunteerism is the emergent objective of high sc hool and higher education institutions to further student personal development. Th ese institutions have a respons ibility to develop thoughtful, committed, and socially responsible graduates and to provide opportunities for such growth (Colby, Thomas, Beaumont, & Stephens, 2003). Co mmunity service has become an important component of student development, and it has b een shown that particip ation in service during undergraduate years substantially enhances the students academic development, life skill development, and sense of civic responsibility (Astin & Sax, 1998). The objective of student development is also a central tenant of so cial sororities and fraternities. Social Greek-lette r organizations are mutually excl usive, self-perpetuating groups, which organize the social life of their members in colleges and universities as a contributing factor to their educational program; and draw their membership primarily from the undergraduate body of the institu tion (Robson, 1963: p. 6). Today, only a small percent of college students are members of social fraternities and sororities. According to Baird (1991), the tradition of the American college fraternal idea ls is justice, honor, truth, loyalty, love of wisdom, brotherly love, and unselfi sh service (p. 2). These ideals are the basis of Greek-letter organizations and have helped to shape the current generation of th ese organizations. Purpose and Significance of Study While much of the research on social sororiti es and fraternities focuses on the negative aspects of being part of Greek organizations, other research has touched on the positive

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18 component of volunteerism among all college stud ents (Astin & Sax, 1998; Berger & Milem, 2002; Colby, et al., 2003). Social sororities and fraternities make up a significant proportion of many college and university student populations. This study will allow social sororities and fraternities, as well as colleges and universiti es, to better understand the factors that shape volunteerism within the Greek community. This information will provide a basis for community service programming and assist in the implementation of ne w service learning classes and programs to encourage Greek members to beco me more actively involved as volunteers. The research questions in this study atte mpt to gain a better understanding of the engagement of Greek members in volunteerism. The first research question relates to the demographic factors that may have an impact on volunteerism. It is the hypothesis of the researcher that demographic factors directly sh ape volunteerism. There are several reasons for this hypothesis. Sorority organi zations are often more organized and successful in involving members after they have graduated; this alumnae support helps to supplement that of undergraduates (Johnson, 1972). In 2006, the Bureau of Labor Statistics determined that about 30.1 percent of women and 23.0 percent of men did volunteer work in the year that ended in September 2006. This was concurrent with prev ious years of women volunteering at a higher rate than men (White, 2006). In the same study, it was found that whites volunteered at a higher rate (28.3 percent) than African Americans (19.2 percent) Asians (18.5 percent), and Hispanic or Latinos (13.9 percent) (White, 2006). These continuing trends ha ve led to the hypothesis that demographics directly shape volunteerism. The second research question seeks to determine if the level of involvement within a social sorority or fraternity has an impact on a membe rs engagement with volunteerism. It is the hypothesis of the researcher that members who have held or currently hold positions within their

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19 chapter also have an increased sens e of responsibility to others. Fr om the research literature, this sense of increased responsibility to their sorority or fraternity should translate over to the community (Cress, Astin, Oster-Zimmerman, Burkhard t, 2001). It is also the hypothesis of the researcher that a members place of residence ma y impact their engagement with volunteerism. Living in a chapter house or living with other sorority or fraternity members may help to engage a member more with volunteerism. The third research question re lates to motives behind volunt eer participation. It is hypothesized that the principal motivation for volunteering is an in trinsic belief in altruism and the least significant motivation would be persona l gain. This hypothesis can be supported from previous research on students and volunteeri sm (Phillips, 1982; Serow, 1991; Winniford, Carpenter, Grider, 1997). Sero w, (1991) found sense of satisf action from helping others and duty to correct societal problems to be on the top of the list of relative importance in deciding to participate in community service. At the bottom of the list of importance were items indicating personal gain such as r epayment for services (Serow, 1991). The remainder of this thesis will provide a comprehensive explan ation of the study on volunteer participation among member s of social sororities and fr aternities. In Chapter Two, a review of related research that is relevant to social sororities and fraternities and volunteerism will be presented. Chapter Three will include a detailed description of the methodology used to conduct the study. Chapters Four w ill present the results of the da ta analysis. Finally, Chapter Five will offer an interpretation and explanation of the findings, as well as presenting suggestions for applied program and policy advancement. Research Questions 1. How do dem ographic factors, if at all, have an impact on a persons engagement in volunteerism?

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20 2. How does the level of involvement in a soci al sorority or fraternity affect a persons engagement in volunteerism? 3. What motivations have the strongest imp act on a persons engagement in volunteerism? Research Hypothesis Hypothesis 1: A. Demographic factors directly shape volunteerism. Hypothesis 2: A. The rate of volunteerism is higher among students who have held a formal position in their sorority or fraternity. B. Volunteerism is highest among members that ha ve lived in a chapter house or with other sorority/fraternity members. Hypothesis 3: A. Members of social sororities and fraternities place altruistic motivations as reasons for volunteer participation. B. Members of social sororities and fraternities place personal gain mo tivations at the low end of motivations for volunteer participation.

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21 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The purpose of this study is to examine volunteer behavior am ong members of social sororities and fraternities. Volunteerism ha s long been a tradition in America. Recently, researchers have begun to focus considerable attention on the populat ion that chooses to volunteer and the motivations that inspire them to participate (Anderson & Moore, 1978; Clary, Snyder, Ridge, Copeland, Stukas, Haugen, & Mi ene, 1998; Finkelstein, Penner, & Brannick, 2005). This chapter will describe the theoretical cont ext of the study and will review previous studies on volunteering and also st udies on sororities and fraternities. This chapter will also focus on demographic factors and motivati ons as they relate to volunteerism. Volunteerism The History of Volunteerism The Points of Light foundation dates the histor y of volunteerism in the United States back to 1793 when Benjam in Franklin began the first volunteer firefighting company (Points of Light Foundation, 2006). Since its beginning, volunteerism in America has been a tradition of service and commitment, especially in times of war, tr agedy, or great need. In the time following the first firefighting company, many or ganizations and societies were created to bring volunteers together. Volunteer centers were created, the first in response to World War I, and these organizations continued to support volunteers throughout the United Stat es (Points of Light Foundation, 2006). The Great Depression and th e war years were when America saw a considerable rise in volunteer s and volunteer centers. Volunt eerism trends skyrocketed again after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, but leveled out again shor tly after. However the response to such a large disaster was the fi rst of its kind in many y ears (Foster-Bey, et al.,

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22 2006). Since that time researcher s are continuing to see an in crease in both the number of Americans who volunteer and the hours that they volunteer. Researchers are also seeing this trend transition to colleges and universit ies. It is believed that the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 have sparked an increase in civic engagement and responsibility among college age students ag es 18 to 24 (Foster-Bey, et al., 2006). In a review of college student vol unteering, the Corporation (2006 ) found that since September 2001 the overall percent of college students who vol unteer has increased from 27.1 percent to 30.2 percent. Volunteerism in Higher Education The increase in college s tudent volunteering can also be attrib uted to the growing interest that higher education institutions have regarding the moral and civic development of their students. A review of relevant literature shows th at high involvement in community service positively affects a number of student outcomes, including undergraduate degree attainment, graduate school attendance, alumni contribu tions, cross-racial inte raction, and continued involvement in community service (Berger and Milem, 2002). It has also been shown that participating in community service can have many educational benefits for the student, including having a positive attitude toward self, highly internalized moral standards, a desire to be involved in additional service effo rts, and a belief that leadersh ip and political interests are important aspirations (B erger & Milem, 2002: p.87). In a survey of more than 3,000 students from forty-two institutions researchers found that student involvement in community service is as sociated with gains in academic engagement, civic responsibility, and life skills (Colby, et al., 2003: p. 225). Each of these student development gains is discussed below.

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23 Academic engagement : Academic involvement is the extent to which students work hard at their studies, the number of hours they spend studying, th e degree of interest in their courses, and their study habits (Astin, Sax, & Av alos, 1999: p. 525). According to Astin and Sax (1998) one of the most common objections to volunteer participation during the undergraduate years is that volunteering consumes time and en ergy that the student might otherwise devote to academics. However in a longitudinal study performed by Astin and Sax (1998), the outcomes revealed positive effects of service on all 10 acad emic outcomes that were measured in the study. The academic outcomes included grade point average, retention in college, aspiration for educational degrees, increase in general knowledge, increase in fi eld or discipline knowledge, preparation for graduate or prof essional school, academic self-c oncept, time devoted to studying, extra work done for courses, and amount of contact with faculty. Clearly th e results of this study show that undergraduate servic e participation serves to enhance academic development. Civic responsibility : In their study, Astin and Sax ( 1998) found that participation in service activities during undergraduate years has positive effects on students sense of civic responsibility (p. 256). They also found that as an outcome of servi ce participation, students become more strongly committed to helping others, serving their communities, promoting racial understanding, doing volunteer work and workin g for nonprofit organizations (Astin & Sax 1998). Life Skills: Finally, Astin and Sax (1998) found that volunteerism and service learning enhances students awareness and understanding of the world around them; this is referred to as life skills. The largest differences occurred in understanding commun ity problems, knowledge of different races/cultures, acceptance of different races/cultures, and interpersonal skills (Astin & Sax 1998:p. 259). In addition to the life ski lls discussed by Astin and Sax (1998), the

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24 Corporation for National and Community Serv ice showed that undergraduate volunteer experiences have a positive influence on many behavioral outcomes, including frequency of socializing with diverse people, helping others in difficult y, developing a meaningful life philosophy, and volunteering and participating in community action programs (Colby, et al., 2003: p. 225). Each of these outcomes, academic development, civic responsibility, and life skills has an immense impact on students developm ent and their futures as volunteers. Social Sororities and Fraternities Social sororities and fraternitie s have also found their place in colleges and universities. The Greek comm unity is made up of several di fferent national governing organizations that oversee individual campuses organizations. The National Interfraternity Conference, National Panhellenic Conference, National Pan-Helleni c Council and National Multicultural Greek Council are four major c ouncils that are represen ted across the United States. Each of these organizations has different purposes and values that speak to different college student populations. The National Interfraternity Conference (NIC ) is a confederation of 62 mens college fraternities with over 5,200 ch apters on more than 800 campuse s throughout Canada and the United States (Anson & Marchesani, 1991: p. 25) The conference represents more than 400,000 collegiate members and boasts four and a half million alumni (Anson & Marchesani, 1991). The first fraternity Pi Beta Kappa, was founded in 1776. According to Anson & Marchesani (1991), the total number of frater nity members has increased by 178% since 1972, and the average chapter size has increased more than 50% to 54 students. The growth of the number of chapters and members within the NI C has also created a need for organization and

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25 order. In 1955 the NIC was officially create d to uphold the purpose of promoting scholarship, leadership, service, and friendship among fraternity members. The National Panhellenic Conference (NPC) e volved gradually over time and is composed of womens fraternities. The conference functions as an organization to foster interfraternity relationships of 26 womens fraternities. In 1981, Kappa Kappa Gamma called the first meeting of womens fraternities to begin to plan for the future. The objective of the conference is to maintain fraternity and interfraternity relationshi ps and to cooperate with college and university authorities to maintain high social and scholarship standards (Anson & Marchesani, 1991). The National Pan-Hellenic C ouncil (NPHC) is composed of nine National Greek letter community service fraternities and sororities. The NPHC is composed of more than 900,000 affiliated members in the United States and abro ad. The history of NPHC dates back to 1906 when the Black Greek letter movement commence d on a predominantly white college campus to serve as a means of cultural interaction and community serv ice (Anson & Marchesani, 1991). NPHC organizations are unique with respect to other Greek letter organizations in that they have a profound commitment to providing comm unity service and to uplifting/promoting the general public welfare (Anson & Marchesani, 1991: p. 42). The National Multicultural Greek Council (NMGC) emerged in the 1980s and 1990s to support Greek letter organizations that promoted the inclusiven ess of all cultures, races, religions, and creeds. The NMGC is comprised of 13 member organizati ons that are typically Hispanic/Latino, Asian American, or multicultura l in makeup. The national organization serves to unite Greek-letter fraternitie s and sororities unde r one national entity. The goals of the NMGC are to provide a forum that allows the free exchange of ideas, programs, and services as

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26 well as awareness of multicultural diversity within collegiate institutions ( www.nationalmgc.org ). Since their inception in 1776, these organi zations have changed drastically. Their original purpose was to expand the social, scholastic, and professional interests of their m embers (Johnson, 1972). Their mottos, creeds, and purpose statements were filled with terms such as moral advancement, integrity, truth, goodness, so cial responsibility, sa cred trust, and honor (Early, 1998). However, during their 200-year-o ld history on college campuses, social Greekletter organizations have drastically change d in character, mission, and practice (Anson & Marchesani, 1991). The introduction of the frater nity house to many college campuses in the 1890s marked the turning point of the fratern ity system. Anson & Marchesani (1991) refers to the chapter house as the closing of the fraternitys intellect ual, moral, and cultural golden age and over the next fifty years, the fraternity ch apters concerns changed drastica lly to social, recreational, and extracurricular activities (Anson & Marchesani, 1991). Fraternities continued with this trend and the general public began to notice. Interest in joining a Greek organization has also declined steadily over the past four decades (Astin, Oseguera, Sax, & Korn, 2002). In 1967, 34.7 percent of incoming freshmen expressed an interest in joining a sorority or fraternity, but by 2005 that number was down to 10.4 percent (Astin et al., 2002; Pryor, Hurtado, Saenz, Lindholm, Korn, & Mahoney, 2005). In 2005, college and university presidents, th e presidents of American Association of State Colleges and Universities, the Nationa l Association of Independent Colleges and Universities, the National Association of Stat e Universities and Land-Grand Colleges, and Inter/national Greek organizations worked together to develop a presidential initiative to

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27 transform the collegiate Greek environment. The outcome of this committee became know as A Call for Values Congruence, and it offered effective practi ces and policies for fraternity organizations that were grounded in the mission of higher education. From this document a Model Collegiate Greek Community Standard was created. It offered several specific values that Greek chapters should enhance and promote amongst its members. Included in these standards were inte llectual development, leadership development, and the promotion of developing citi zenship through serv ice and outreach. Volunteerism has become increasingly more important to social Greek organizations, especially since the creation of the Call for Values Congruence (2005). It has always been a value of fraternity organizations, but since frat ernity relevance has been questioned, it is now even more important to understand the positive contributions of social Greek-letter organizations. Theoretical Approaches Social Exchange Theory Social exchange theory provides a general theo retical context for this study as it is used to help explain why people chose to volunteer. Social exchange theory builds on the basic economic proposition that people normally work or pay only when they receive something in return that they see as justifyi ng their inputs (Kelly, 1998). The tw o important concepts of social exchange are of exchange and relationships. Ke lly (1998) says that it t akes place between two parties that have some unde rlying relationship, be it partic ipation in common activities, coexistence in a certain geogra phical area, or shared concerns about human conditions (Kelly, 1998). Social exchange theory also helps to expl ain why people volunteer. Wilson (2000) says that the basic premise for why people chose to volunteer is based on the profit that could be

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28 made from the exchange. Wils on (2000, p. 222) cited seven reasons one may chose to volunteer: 1. costs and benefits of volunteer work, 2. having a stake in their volunteer work, 3. anticipation of needing help someday or have already receiv ed help and wanting to give something back, 4. benefits received from work, 5. receiving of awards, 6. solidary benefits such as socializing, and 7. to compensate for deprivations expe rienced in their full-time employment. The cost/benefit analysis of volunteering is a very important issue that concerns many volunteers. The perception of what a person wi ll be gaining from volunt eering and the effort they will be putting out is ofte n a deciding factor for volunteers. For students, the cost/benefit analysis is even more pertinent because they have a limited amount of time in which to explore activities outside of the academic realm. Functionalist Theory Functionalist theory focuses on individual mo tivations for volunteering as it maintains that one volunteers to satisfy one or more needs or motivatio ns (Finkelstein et al., 2005; Finkelstein, 2008). The key component to the functi onal approach to volunteerism is satisfaction, and the proposition of the functional analysis is that people will continue to volunteer if their experiences fulfill their reasons behind helping (Clary et al., 1998; Finkelstein, 2008). In a study of volunteer motivations, Clary et al., (1998) defined six different functions that are potentially served by volunteerism. Finkelste in (2008) notes that individual s may be engaged in the same volunteer work, but for different reasons and th ese motivations may change over time. Through an exploratory study Clary and colleagues (1998) developed the Volunteer Functions Inventory (VFI). This functional analysis aids in unders tanding the reasons and purposes of volunteering. The six different functions that are served by volunteerism include; values, understanding, social, career, protective, and enhancement. Thes e functions are further explained below.

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29 The first function served by volunteering is va lues. According to Clary et al., (1998) values are related to the altruistic and humanita rian concerns for others. Understanding is the second function, and volunteerism allows for ne w learning experiences that may increase a persons knowledge, skill set and abilities. A third function serv ed by volunteerism is the social function that may offer opportunities to work with friends or partic ipate in an activity that is viewed favorably by important pe ople (Clary et al., 1998). It also allows individuals to strengthen their social relationships. Career-related benefits are a fourth function served by volunteering. Students may possibly learn or main tain career-relevant sk ills while volunteering. The protective function of volunt eering relates to the notion th at volunteerism may reduce a persons guilt over being more fo rtunate than others. This f unction also serves to address personal problems an individual may have. Finally, the enhancement function involves a motivational process that centers on the egos gr owth and development (Clary et al., 1998: p. 158). Characteristics of Volunteers Am erica has long been considered a nation of joiners who contri bute to the public welfare through their involvement as volunteers (Oesterle et al., 2004). National trends on volunteer participation often vary; however, it is clear that a subs tantial number of people in the United States commit a considerable amount of time to volunteering. Data gathering on volunteering in the United States did not begi n until about a quarter of a century ago (Wilson, 2000), but a 1998 General Social Survey reporte d that 56% of the United States population reported some kind of volunteering at some poi nt during the past ye ar. The number of Americans who volunteer has increased each y ear since 2002 and a 12 percent increase was found between 2002 and 2005 (Eisner, 2005; Point of Light Foundation, 2006). Additionally,

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30 the number of hours Americans sp end volunteering has grown, but not at the rate as the number of volunteers (Preston, 2006). The Corporation for National and Community Service revealed the results of a study of college student volunteers in 2006. The study repor ted that college student s have been following the national trends of volunteering with an in crease from 2.7 million in 2002 to 3.3 million in 2005 (Foster-Bey, et al., 2006). This rate of growth among college students is more than double the growth of adult volunteer s at 20% and 9 % respectively. Several other demographic characteristics ha ve been researched pertaining to volunteer participation. Studies have found volunteering to be gender specific (B ussell & Forbes, 2001). In particular most studies have found that females volunteer more than males (Wilson & Musick, 197; Wilson, 2000); however, some have also repo rted that males volunteer more hours than females (Wilson, 2000). One reason that is ofte n cited for the gender difference in volunteering is that women consistently rate themselves (and are rated by others) as more empathic and altruistic than men (Greeno & Maccoby, 1993: p. 195) Women are also more often referred to as nurturers or caretakers, and th ey see volunteerism as an extensi on of their roles as mothers and housewives (Wilson, 2000). The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2007) reported that one-fourth of all men and one-third of all women volunteered. This statistic follows the national trend of college students with females (33%) vo lunteering at a higher rate than their male (26.8%) counterparts (Fos ter-Bey, et al., 2006). Race and ethnic differences are also impor tant in the study of volunteerism. Some studies show Whites volunteer at a hi gher rate than any other race or ethnicity (Foster-Bey, et al., 2006). Another report revealed that once other variables are c ontrolled, Blacks volunteer at a slightly higher rate than Wh ites (Smith, 1994). A third group of studies concludes there is no

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31 difference in volunteering once socioeconomic st atus is controlled (Car son, 1989; Latting, 1990). A 2007 study of volunteers in America found that of the total population 27.9% of volunteers were White, 18.2% were Black or African American, 17.7% were Asian and 13.5% were Hispanic or Latino (United Stat es Bureau of Labor Statistic, 2007). The Corporation for National and Community Services review of college student volunt eers (Foster-Bey, et al., 2006) found White college students volun teer at a rate of 32.0% whereas Black or African American students volunteer at 24.1 pe rcent; other students volunteer at a rate of 22.9 percent. Another demographic factor that is relevant to the study of volunteerism is age. Age is categories are typically identifie d as youth, adult, and elderly. A report of volunteers in 2007 revealed that 20.8% of individuals 16 to 24 years volunteer and 27.2% of individuals age 25 years and over volunteer. Wilson and Musick (1997) stated advancing years could lower volunteer activity if age is meas uring a cohort effect (e.g. years of schooling) (p. 698). Wilson (2000) also found the rate of volunteering falls during the transition to young adulthood because of the decrease in school-relate d activities and the increase in social freedoms. The Corporation for National and Community Service reported that college students are twice as likely to volunteer as individuals that same age who are not enrolled in college at 30.2% and 15.1% respectively (2006). They also found that co llege students enrolled as full time students volunteer more than part time students, 31.4% an d 21% respectively. These varying rates of volunteerism by age are important in determining the demographics of college student volunteers and their behaviors as they progress through college. Religion is another important de mographic factor to discuss. Religious organizations and educational institutions are the main sources that promote cultural capital, which has been used to explain volunteer differenc es among religion. These organizations encourage the

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32 development of prosocial and civic orientations, by promoting the major values of service charity and caring for others (Oesterle et al., 2004). S tudies of religion and volunteering find marked differences between religious and nonreligious respondents (Wilson & Musick, 1997: p. 699). While there is not much information on the spec ific religious affiliations and their impact on volunteering, it is important to note that church attendance is positively related to volunteering (Wuthnow, 1994). From the review of this literature and seve ral studies of volunteers, it appears that demographic characteristics are important to und erstanding volunteerism. These demographics can help determine the main characteristics of volunteers and provide in formation on helping to sustain these trends. Level of Involvement The level of involvement by sorority and fr aternity members in re lation to volunteerism is a topic that has not received much attention in research. However, plenty of research has been conducted on the relationship to leadership in Greek-letter organizati ons and binge drinking (Cashin, Presley, & Meilman, 1998; Plucker & Teed, 2004). Understanding the impact a members involvement can have on volunteer pa rticipation is essentia l to fully understanding Greeks as volunteers. An individuals level of involvement within their sorority or fraternity can be measured by their particip ation in the chapter and thei r place of residence. Every Greek-letter organization provides its members with multiple leadership opportunities. Members have th e option to actively participate as a l eader through executive board positions, chair positions, or other comm ittee responsibilities. Many of these positions require a large commitment by the student of time a nd resources. If a student is willing to make the commitment to serve in such a capacity for the organization their level of involvement will automatically increase.

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33 Another important component of involvement can be measured by a members place of residence. Many organizations have chapte r houses for members or find members living together in other residences. Living with other members of an organization or in the chapter house would lend the individuals to be a more active participant in the chapter. While no previous studies have focused on a members place of residence and its effects on volunteerism, Nathan (2005) found that in her study of college freshman living in dorms more than one half of all students were involve d in volunteer work. It is important to understand the impact a members level of involvement within their sorority or fraternity can have on their volunteer participation. This will prompt more research on the impact sorority and frater nity life can have on students. Motivations of Volunteers Volunteer m otivations have become increasing ly interesting to researchers for several reasons. First, an understanding of volunteers motives can aid in recruiting and retaining volunteers. Second, it can help researchers determ ine what benefits volunteers gain from helping others. A review of the research literature on volunteer motivations reve aled highly complex and varied theories. Two primary constructs in th e motivation literature have been egoism and altruism. Egoism asserts that motives for volunt eering are self-seeking, while altruism maintains that volunteers act primarily to help others (Winniford, Carp enter, & Grider, 1997). Another theoretical perspective is the functional appr oach of assessing volunt eer motivations, which offers six functions that are potentially served through volunteerism (Clary, et al, 1998). Family background has also been shown to influence volunteer behavior. Egoism suggests that behavior is caused by a belief that it will result in a desired goal or reward (Winniford, et al., 1997). Expectancy motivation theory discus sed three factors that affect behavior: the need for achievement, th e need for affiliation, and the need for power

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34 (Mounter, 1985). This theory suggests that ever yone is motivated by these needs, and it is a widely accepted explanation of motivation. For vol unteers, this theory su ggests that individuals will receive many different psychological gains in return for their efforts (Winniford, et al, 1997) Altruism has recently received increased atte ntion in research literature (Martin, 1994; Winniford, et al., 1997). It is defined by Smith (1 981) as an aspect of human motivation that is present to the degree that the in dividual derives intrinsic sati sfaction or psychic rewards for attempting to optimize the intrinsic satisfacti on of one or more other persons without the conscious expectation of particip ating in a exchange relationship whereby those others would be obligated to make similar or related satisfaction optimization efforts in return (p. 23). He also discussed the relationship between altruism and volunteering from three different perspectives: the individual level, the group level, and the societal level (Smith, 1981). For colleges and universities this would equate to the student, student organization, and the college or university as a whole (Winniford, et al, 1997). Wakefield (1993) discusse d that altruism is the very foundation of humanitarianism and should be more integrated into th eories of motivation. There are several considerations presented by researchers that recommend functionalist theorizing of volunteer motivations. In psychol ogy, the themes of functionalism emphasize the adaptive and purposeful striving of individuals toward personal and social goals (Cantor, 1994; Snyder, 1993). Another core proposition of the f unctional approach is that people can and do perform the same actions in the service of diffe rent psychological functions (Clary & Synder, 1999: p. 156). For volunteers, this means that different individuals may perform the same volunteer activities but for different reasons, and that individuals motives can change over time (Finkelstein, 2008). A third utility of the f unctional approach suggests that a persons continuation with volunteering over an extended period of time de pends on matching the reasons

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35 for volunteering with the voluntee r experience (Clary & Snyder 1999; Finkelstein, 2008). Finally, Clary and Snyder (1999) found research s timulated by motivationally oriented analyses of a wide variety of cognitive, affective, behavioral, and interpersonal processes supports key functionalist themes (p. 156). Clary, et al. (1998) has theori zed that the functional approach can be utilized in examining the motivations of volunteer activity. In their st udy, Clary, et al., (1998, p. 15171518) identified six personal and social functions served by volunteering : Values (to express values related to altruistic a nd humanitarian concerns for othe rs); Understanding (to learn new experiences and the chance to utilize knowledge, skills, and ab ilities that might otherwise go unused); Social (opportunities to strengthen relationships); Career (for a new career or maintaining career-relevant skills); Protective (to reduce negative feelings of oneself or address ones own personal problems); and Enhancement (to grow and develop psychologically). These six functions were found to be consistent with th e results of previous studies of peoples reasons for volunteering (Clary & Snyder, 1999). Each of these theoretical perspectives on motiv ations to volunteer offer more information to help determine why individuals begin or sustain their efforts as volunteers. It is important to identify these motivations for individuals within different organizations to determine if their involvement has a significant impact. Bussell and Forbes (2001) noted that fa mily background has been shown to be a significant predictor or motive fo r volunteering. Shure (1998) de termined from her study of a sample of volunteers at Big Brot hers/Big Sisters that individuals were more likely to volunteer if their parents had volunteered. Othe r factors she also considered we re the effects of participating as a volunteer as a child.

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36 Conclusion This chapter presented a variety of knowledge on volunteerism as well as social sororities and fraternities. It is clear that participation in a social sorority or fraternity can have lasting positive and negative effects on students. The resu lts of this study will provide information on the volunteer participati on of members of social sororities and fraternities that will give researchers and practitioners directions for further study and programming.

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37 CHAPTER 3 MEDTHODOLOGY Purpose of the Study This study utilizes a m ixed methods framew ork designed to better understand volunteer participation among members of so cial sororities and fraternitie s. In this study, level of involvement within the chapter, motives, and de mographic factors that impact a Greek members engagement in volunteerism will be examined. Included are reviews of secondary data, observations, a survey of college students, focus groups, and a series of key informant interviews. A mixed methods framework was us ed in order to understand the context and nuances shaping volunteerism (through qualitati ve methods) as well as wider population level assessments of factors shaping student behaviors (through quantitative methods). Unit of Analysis Individual students will serv e as the unit of analysis for this study. The motives, experiences and dem ographic factors will be used to determine their level of volunteer participation as well as factors that contribute to it. Focusing on the individual as the unit of analysis instead of the organiza tion as a whole is especially a ppropriate in this study (Babbie, 1998). This is because individual actions and ch aracteristics are key in understanding the trend in volunteerism among the population of social soro rity and fraternity members. Using the individual as the unit of analysis will also help to ensure that the collected data is representative of the entire Greek-letter population at the Univer sity of Florida. This will also allow the findings to be generalized to other similar Greek communities elsewhere. Type of Study The type of study used in this research is prim arily descriptive and cross-sectional. A cross-sectional study allowed the researcher to obtain a large number of participants while

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38 keeping both time and resources at a minimum (de Vaus, 2001: p. 176). The events where the surveys were distributed were ideal for a cross-se ctional study because a large portion of the total population was in attendance at each. A cross-s ectional design is also ideal for describing characteristics of a population at a point in tim e (de Vaus, 2001: p. 176). The data that is collected from the population will enable the researcher to more accurately describe the volunteer characteristics of members of the entire Florida Greek community. Study Population Members of social sororities and fraternities at the University of Florida comprise the research population for this study. Social sorori ties and fraternities make up 15% of the overall student population at the Univ ersity. The Greek community at this institution comprises 61 chapters with 5,176 members (Office of Sorority and Fraternity Annual Report, 2007-2008). Each of these 61 chapters belongs to one of four Greek Councils: Panhellenic Council (16 chapters), Interfratern ity Council (26 chapters), Multicultural Greek Counc il (10 chapters), and National Pan-Hellenic Council (9 chapters) (Office of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs Annual Report, 2008). Each of the councils is explained below. The Panhellenic Council The Panhellenic Council serves as the gove rning body for each of the sixteen National Panhellenic Conference sororities on the cam pus. There are a total of 2,593 members in the Panhellenic Council at the universit y (Office of Sorority and Frat ernity Affairs Annual Report, 2007-2008). The council works to facilitate the personal, academic, and professional development of its members through educationa l, service, and social activities. The Interfraternity Council The Interfraternity Council at the university serves as the governi ng council for twentysix m ember fraternities with 2,237 members (Offi ce of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs Annual

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39 Report, 2007-2008). They are responsible for ensuring communication among the organizations and coordinating special events for the council. The Multicultural Greek Council The Multicultural Greek Council, ref erred to as the MGC, is the governing body of the internationally and nationally rec ognized ethnically based fraternity and sorority chapters at the university. The ten organizations have a total of 176 members (Offi ce of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs Annual Report, 2007-2008). At the Univer sity of Florida, th e Multicultural Greek Council tends to be mostly Hispanic or La tino and Asian American organizations. The National Pan-Hellenic Council The National Pan-Hellenic Council, referred to as the NPHC, is com posed of nine historically-Black Greek Letter organizations with a tota l of 132 members at the university (Office of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs Annual Report, 2007-2008). Sampling Methods Random sampling was taken from participants at two separate service events that consisted of a large sample of the Greek popul ation. With random sampling, each unit of the population has an equal probability of inclusion in the sample (Bryman, 2001: p. 90). The researcher identified the overall population of Greeks to be 5 ,176 members (Office of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs Annual Report, 2007-2008). It was then determined approximately 350 questionnaires would be needed to be statisti cally representative of the population at the university (Issac and Michael, 1997). This number of responses wa s sufficient to statistically represent the local population at a confidence le vel of 95% with a margin of error of +/5% (Isaac and Michael, 1997). Th e sample population was determined based on random sampling; however, the researcher did sample in a non-rand om manner. In this study, the sampling method may be looked at as non-probability sampling. It may be considered non-probability because a

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40 convenience sample was used in this study by virt ue of its accessibilit y. Convenience samples are very common among organizati on studies (Bryma n, 2001: p.100). The survey was distributed a third time through an the Internet. The survey was distributed as a Census of all members of the Greek community. An initial pre-notice email was sent out to notify the students of the survey, which according to Dillman (2000) is done in order to leave a positive impression on the recipients so they will be more inclined to complete the survey when it arrives a few days later. Students were also instructed not to complete the survey if they had previously done so during the other data collection activities. Dillman (2000) also recommended shortening the time between notifications from one week to a few days. Four days later the survey was sent out to all Greek member s. A final survey reminder was sent out three days after the initial survey. The online survey resulted in an additional 644 surveys. Sample Validation The sample of respondents was validated by comparing survey respondent characteristics to the existing data on the overall University of Florida Greek population documented in the annual report for the year in which the surveys were taken. The annual report uses statistics from the Fall and Spring semesters of the school year. Table 3-1. Greek Council membership sampling Greek Council Total members Percent of population Total surveyed Percent of respondents Panhellenic 2,593 50.0% 545 62.9% IFC 2,237 43.2% 233 26.9% MGC 176 3.4% 27 3.1% NPHC 132 2.5% 62 7.1% Total 5,176 100% 868 100% It is clear from Table 3-1 above that the sampling numbers were not exactly proportional to the Greek councils. However, the number of surveys collected from each council was

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41 consistent with the overall pattern of the population, and there was only a slight variation for the two smaller councils. In this study, our purpos e was not to measure subgroups of the Greek population but to garner a sample from the entire population. Data Collection Methods To accom plish the research goals, a mixed methods approach was used. The study consisted of key informant interviews, surveys, focus groups, and secondary data. Each of these approaches provided a unique insight in to the factors shap ing volunteerism. Key Informant Interviews Key infor mant interviews were performed at two separate times during this study. A key informant is someone who offers the researcher perceptive information about the social setting, important events, and individuals (Bryman, 2001: p. 540). The first key informant interviews were the initial approach to preliminary data collection, which were also used to gain information needed to better tailo r the survey. The second set of key informant interviews were performed after the survey data was collected to enhance the interpretation of results. The informant interviews also aided in the developmen t of focus group protocols that were later used to probe chapter presidents on their members volunteer motivations. Eight informant interviews were conducted. The informants were chosen based on their familiarity with sororities and fraternities as we ll as their knowledge of community service and volunteerism. The first set of interviews was conducted with the UF di rector and assistant director of the Office of Sorority and Frater nity Affairs and two faculty members from the University, one working on volunteerism and the other on non-profit organization administration. The second set of interviews consisted of the director and assistant director at the UF Center for Leadership and Service after the surv ey data collection was complete. Two members

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42 from the community who work with non-profit orga nizations were also consulted after the data collection; they included the ex ecutive director of the Boys a nd Girls Club as well as the house manager for the Ronald McDonald House. Each of these organizations has a high rate of volunteerism from social soro rities and fraternities. The interviews were typically thirty mi nutes in length and were conducted at the informants office. The questions that were as ked aided in the understand ing of the context of volunteerism among members of so cial sororities and frater nities, as well as provided information to help develop the survey. Th e informants who were interviewed after the collection of the survey data were able to provi de information regarding the results. The purpose was to help expose underlying motives of volunt eer participation that may not have been revealed from the survey. Questionnaire Development and Survey Implementation Subsequent to the key informant interviews wa s a survey of college students involved in Greek organizations. A questionnai re measuring a variety of con cepts and variables related to volunteer participation was developed. The use of a questionnaire was the most appropriate method for data collection because it allowed the researcher to draw wider data from a large population at a minimal cost; it was quick to administer; and it was convenient for the respondents (Dillman, 2000; Bryman, 2001). The que stionnaire used in this research was anonymous because some of the questions in the survey asked personal or identifier information, and the Office of Sorority and Fraternity Affair s at the university asked that the students identities be kept anonymous during the process. Anonymity is guaranteed when neither the researchers nor the readers of the findings can identify a given response with a given respondent (Babbie, 2007: p. G1).

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43 The survey drew on research related to the population and volunteer participation. Equally important, the questionnaire utilized items that had been tested and validated in previous studies. These steps helped ensure a reliable a nd valid survey instrument. This survey also utilized a Tailored Design Model, designed to maximize response rates (Dillman, 2000). Additionally, an expert panel was used to review the questionnaire. Included were faculty members actively involved in volunt eerism research, non-profit organization administrators, and staff members working for th e university Office of So rority and Fraternity Affairs. Based on feedback from these individua ls, appropriate modifications were made. A pilot test of the questionnaire wa s not performed due to time constr aints and the ability to collect data at two, separate, large comm unity service events. The events were scheduled to take place shortly after the re searcher began preparation for the study. The survey was distributed to members of Greek -letter organizations at the University of Florida during the Spring 2007 semester and th e Spring 2008 semester. The data collected offered information pertaining to each of the c oncepts under investigatio n including: level of involvement within the organization, motives to volunteer, and demographic characteristics of the participants. At the time of this study, 5,176 students were members of the Greek community at the university (Office of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs Annual Report, 2007-2008). The opportunity to collect data from the st udy population presented itself at two major community service events and later through an onlin e survey sent to a li st-serve of all Greek members. The two events included a service ev ent specifically for Greek-letter organizations and a volunteer event with a mixt ure of Greek and non-Greek stude nts. These events allowed the researcher to distribute the survey to many participants at one time and at a minimal cost. The survey was distributed one final time via an email to all members of the Greek community.

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44 The first event was a large Greek community service project known as Florida Greek Service Day. On this day more than 900 unde rgraduates from the Greek community performed service across the community (Office of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs Annual Report, 2007). Each student participating in the event was requi red to attend a morning event. Members from all four Greek councils at the university were in attendance at the registra tion process, which did help in obtaining surveys from a representa tive population. There were, however, several limitations to survey implementation. The main challenge was that many of the participants were underclassman, specifically first or second year students. The second limitation was the actual time the survey was distribu ted; due to the increased amount of activity at the event it was difficult to get students attention long enough to complete the survey. A total of 141 surveys were collected from the service da y event (16% response rate). The survey was distributed at a second even t in which a large percentage of the Greek community participated in servi ce later in the same semester. The researcher distributed the survey at a second service even t in order to provide a more representative sample, as the population was more representative of all classes of Greek memb ers. The event consisted of volunteers for Dance Marathon. Th e volunteers were helping to facilitate the event, which consisted of more than 650 students staying awak e and on their feet for 32-hours. The survey was distributed during the volunteer orientation the day before the event. Approximately 250 student volunteers were in atte ndance for the orientation. Th e researcher personally asked participants if they were members of a social soro rity or fraternity. If the student responded yes, they were then asked to fill out the survey on vol unteerism. A total of 83 surveys were collected from this event (33% event res ponse rate; 20% cumula tive response rate for the two events).

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45 The final survey sample was taken through an online survey the following year. The survey was emailed to 5,176 students and a total of 644 were collected (1 3% response rate; 22% cumulative response rate for all three events). A total of 45 surveys were returned to the researcher due to a full mailbox or an error with the email system. A total of 868 questionnaires were obtained throughout the study. The details of the number of surveys that were rej ected are not exact; however, the researcher was able to make an estimate based on the total number of Greek-letter participants at the events. Table 3-2. Sampling and survey response by event Event Total Greek-members Total Questionnaires Attained Service Day 900 141 Dance Marathon 250 83 Email Survey 5176 644 Focus Group Research The final data collection m ethod utilized wa s focus groups consisting of organization members who were currently or had previously serv ed as chapter presidents. A focus group is a form of group interview in which there are several participants (in addition to the moderator/facilitator); there is an emphasis in the questioning on a par ticular fairly tightly defined topic; and the emphasis is upon interacti on within the group and th e joint construction of meaning (Bryman, 2001: p. 539). Focus groups we re conducted to supplement the survey results. Specifically, they were designed to expose underlying motives of volunteer participation that may not have been revealed from the survey data. The focus groups were conducted at severa l different times thr oughout a school week. An initial email was sent out to all current a nd past chapter presidents with the date, time, location, and description of the focus group. A reminder was sent to each group the day before the scheduled focus group.

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46 A total of four focus groups were co nducted, allowing one per Greek council, and consisting of three to five members in a group. The groups were divided in this way to ensure comfort and interaction among the members. The questions that were asked of the student leaders pertained to their indi vidual volunteer experiences as well as their chapter volunteer experiences. The following are a list of the main questions that were used in the focus group protocol. Probing questions we re also used as necessary. 1. What would you say your reasons are for volunteering? (Money, recognition, to set an ex ample, others will return the favor, to get acquainted with people, duty as a Greek, asked by UF leaders, asked by OSFA, urged by friends, achieve career goals, meeting important people) 2. What would you say are your members reasons for volunteering? Are there differences between older and younger members? What other differences did you see? 3. Do your members volunteer on thei r own or only for your chapter? Are they civically active in general, are they volunteering beca use your organization expects them too, or both? 4. Does your chapter require volunteering? What are your members reactions? 5. What were some of the motivational techniques that your chapter used to get your members to volunteer? What are some of the obstacles to getting your members to volunteer? Concepts and Variables This study will focus on four concepts: level of involvement in a sorority or fraternity chapter, motives for volunteerism, volunteer participation and demographic characteristics. The following are explanations of the concept, the variables used to measure the concept, and the process of how each concept will be measured. Th e questions that relate to each concept are shown in Figure 3-1 at the end of this section.

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47 Concept: Demographic Characteristics There are several variables that were de termined as demographic characteristics, including: year in school, Greek council affiliation, time in sorority/fraternity, gender, age, race/ethnicity, religion, and place of residence. Each of the variables was operationalized through the questions below, and the data was collected through a survey. Table 3-3. Demographic questions Item Question and responses Label 1 What year are you in school? 1. First year 2. Second year 3. Third year 4. Fourth year 5. Fifth year or more Academic Status 2 Which Greek council does your sorority or fraternity belong to? 1. Interfraternity Council (IFC) 2. National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) 3. Panhellenic Council (PC) 4. Multicultural Greek Council (MGC Council 3 How many years have you been a member of your sorority or fraternity? 1. This is my first year 2. 1 year 3. 2 years 4. 3 years 5. 4 years or more Years Active 36 Are you: Male or Female Gender 37 How old are you? Age 38 Which of the following best describes your racial or ethnic background? 1. White/Caucasian 2. African American 3. Asian 4. Hispanic/Latino 5. Native American 6. Other Race/ Ethnicity 39 Which of the following best describes your religious background? 1. Protestant 2. Catholic 3. Muslim 4. Jewish 5. Other Religion

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48 Concept: Level of Involvement Several variables were used to determine the level of involvement in a sorority or fraternity. The variables include place of residence and positions held in sorority or fraternity. These variables were created by the researcher as no other validated survey provided questions that pertained specifically to so cial Greek-letter organizations. These variables were measured through the collection of survey data and the fo llowing statements were used to operationalize these variables. Table 3-4. Involvement questions Item Question and responses Label 4 Where do you live? 1. I live on campus 2. In a sorority or fraternity house 3. With my parents 4. In an apartment or house with my roommates 5. In an apartment or house by myself 6. In an apartment or house with othe r sorority or fraternity members Residence 5 Have you ever held an office or positi on within your sorority or fraternity? 1. President 2. Other executive position 3. Chair position 4. Other position 5. I have never held an office Position Concept: Motives for Volunteering This concept was measured by three matrices of questions. The two variables include reasons for volunteering and the effect of fa mily and youth on volunteering. Each of the matrices was designed to collect this information through a survey. Secondary data was collected on motives for volunteering thr ough a series of key informant interviews and focus groups. This allowed for the reliability of the self-report data to

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49 be compared and assessed. Many of these items we re established from previous research (Clary et al., 1998) and, where appropriate, new items were created for this unique population. Table 3-5. Volunteer motivation questions Item Question and response Label 11-21 People have many reasons fo r volunteering. How important would each of the following reasons be in your decision to take part in a vol unteer activity? (1-Not at all important to 5-Very Important) 11. Monetary compensation 12. Recognition or local prestige 13. To set an example for others 14. I believe that others will eventually return the favor 15. It is a good way to ge t acquainted with people 16. I feel I have a duty as a sorority/fraternity member 17. If I were asked by University leaders 18. If I were asked by the Greek Office 19. If I were urged by friends 20. Opportunities to help me achieve my career goals 21. Meeting important people Money Recognition Set Example Other return favor Meet others Duty as Greek Asked by university Asked by Greek office Urged by friends Achieve career goals Meet important people 22-29 Please check the boxes that best describe why you participate in volunteer activities. Is it because (1-Not a reason, 2-A slight reason, 3-A strong reason) 22. You are actively involved in your church 23. You need to volunteer to maintain a scholarship 24. It is a class or course requirement 25. You need to in order to maintain membership in an organization 26. You receive personal satisfaction 27. You enjoy serving your community 28. You are committed to the cause 29. You enjoy socialization with others Involved in church Maintain scholarship Class requirement Membership requirement Personal satisfaction Enjoy serving community Committed to cause Enjoy socialization 31-34 What effect did your family or youth experiences have on your current volunteering? 31. Participating in civic activit ies that promoted volunteering as a young child 32. Participating in civic activities that promoted volunteering in high school 33. Participating in educationa l activities that required volunteering in high school 34. My parents/guardians frequently volunteered Civic activities as a child Civic activities in high school Educational activities in high school Parents/guardians volunteer

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50 Concept: Volunteer Characterist ics (Dependent Variable) This concept was operationaliz ed through a series of questions pertaining to volunteer participation. The first questi on instructed the respondent to i ndicate how often they participate in Greek functions: mandatory, non-mandatory, serv ice and social events. The responses ranged from Never (=0) to All of the time (=4). Se veral questions were then asked to determine the respondents level of participati on in their sorority or fratern ity and volunteerism. The survey asked respondents overall, how often do you participate in your sorority or fraternity and overall, how would you describe your level of voluntee r participation. The responses ranged from Not at all active (=0) to very active (=5) Each of these variable s was operationalized in the form of the questions below and was a dded to the survey for data collection. Table 3-6. Volunteer char acteristic questions Item Questions and responses 6-9 How often do you participate in (Never = 0 to All of the time = 4) 6. Mandatory sorority or fraternity functions? 7. Non-mandatory sorority or fraternity functions? 8. Service events through your sorority or fraternity? 9. Social events through your sorority or fraternity? 10 In general, how would you describe your le vel of participation in your sorority or fraternity? (0-Not at all active to 5-very active) 35 In general, how would you describe your le vel of participation in your sorority or fraternity? (0-Not at all active to 5-very active) 35 Overall, how would you describe your level of volunteer participation? (0-Not at all active to 5-Very active) The above six questions were posed to determine the overall level of volunteer participation of the respondent. These questions were then gr ouped to form a single summative index. The data were first fact or analyzed using several mode ls/rotations (principal axis factoring and least squares methods with a varimax, quartimax, and direct oblimin rotations). The criteria established in advan ce of the selection of factor items were: a f actor loading of .35 or higher; at least a .10 difference between the items loading with its factors and each of the other

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51 factors; and interpretability (Kim & Mueller, 1978). In all analyses, two models were identified which had eigen values of greater than 1.0. A dditionally, a review of the scree test plots indicated that a one factor solu tion was most appropriate A one factor model was chosen for this study because the primary purpose was to examine the overall volunteer characteristics of the Greek student population. Chronbachs Alpha of .75 was reported. Table 3-7. Listing of concepts, variables and survey Questions Concept Variables Survey Questions Demographic Factors Year in college 1 Greek council affiliation 2 Years active in sorority/fraternity 3 Gender 36 Age 37 Racial/ethnic background 38 Religion 39 Level of Involvement Where do you live 4 Office or position 5 Motives for volunteerism Reasons for volunteering 11-21, 22-29 Effect of family/youth on volunteering 31-34 Sorority/fraternity emphasis on volunteering 30 Volunteer Characteristics (Dependent Variable) Level of participation sorority/fraternity 6-9, 10 Level of particip ation volunteer 35 Reliability and Validity Validity was established in this study by the following steps. First was to assess content validity. Content validity depends on the extent to which an empirical measurement reflects a specific domain of content (Carmines & Zeller, 1979: p. 20). In this study the researcher consulted several different sources to develop the questionnaire. According to Rattray and

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52 Jones, (2007), items can be generated from a number of sources including consultation with experts in the field, proposed re spondents and review of associ ated literature (p. 237). To develop this questionnaire, outsi de research was consulted to examine different volunteer motivations. Experts in the field of volunteerism and sorority and fraternity affairs were also consulted to review the questi ons that had been developed. Many steps were also taken during the development of the questionnaire to ensure validity. The type of question, language use d, and order of items ma y all bias response (Rattray & Jones, 2007: p. 237). In this questionn aire the researcher decided to use close-ended questions. This type of question was used becau se it is less demanding for the respondent and much easier to code and analyze (Salant & D illman, 1994: p. 82). The researcher also added a few partially close-ended questions such as other, please specify. This allowed the respondents the option of creating their own choices, however most respondents select one of the offered categories rather than developing their own (Salant & Dillman, 84). To help ensure that the respondent would chose from one of the offered categories, the research er took great care in identifying answer choices. Placement of th e questions on the questionnaire was also done carefully. The initial questions in the survey we re relatively straightforw ard and easy to answer. They were designed to allow participants to begi n to think about their volunteer experiences and their participation in thei r fraternity/sorority. Demonstrating reliability in questionnaires can be done using stat istics. Rattray and Jones (2007) suggest using the Cronbachs to do this. This statistic uses inter-item correlations to determine whether constituent items are measuring the same domain (Rattray & Jones, 1995). In social sciences, a Cronbachs Alpha of .60 or higher is considered acceptable

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53 (Kim & Mueller, 1978). In this st udy, related survey quest ions were divided into groups to form indexes.

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54 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Multip le statistical analyses were conducted in order to answer each of the research questions. Frequency analysis and bivariat e correlations were used to determine the relationships between and among selected independent variab les and level of volunteerism (dependent variable) (Tabachnick & Fidell, 1996 ; Babbie, 1998). This exploratory analysis facilitated the identification of control and nonsignificant variables. Then, analysis of variance was used to compare responses to various items across different groups. A series of multiple linear regression models treating conceptual groupings individually was then used to provide an analysis of th e impact of each on volunteerism. Multiple linear regression shows how the independent concep tual groupings simultaneously account for variation in volunteerism (Tab achnick & Fidell, 1996; Huck & Cormier, 1996; Babbie, 1998). The findings of the quantitative data analysis were compared to and clarified by key informant interviews. This process allowed for a greater understanding of the conditions shaping volunteerism, and enhanced the validity of the data and conclusions drawn from the study (Brewer & Hunter, 1989; Tashakko ri & Teddlie, 1998). The qualitati ve data offered insight into areas not explored in the survey. Before any statistical tests were performed, a t-test was used to determine if the data drawn from the two points in time were statistically different. A signif icant difference between the two groups was found (t = 3.235, p = .001), with the fi rst data collection period reporting a mean volunteer score of 25.35 and the second period reporting 24.50. The difference however, was attributed to the large varian ce in sample size and the mainly younger respondents present during the first data collection. Based on the objectives of the research and the fact that all respondents were drawn from a single population, the researcher chose to treat all data as a si ngle dataset.

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55 Summary Statistics Demographics Demographic summary statistics are reported here using the responses from a sample of 868 respondents. The demographics reported incl ude; age, gender, race, religion, Greek council affiliation, number of years active in a Gr eek-letter organization, and academic status. These summary statistics revealed severa l interesting facts regarding the sample population. The frequency of par ticipation remained relatively c onstant over all age groups but dropped significantly by the age of 22. This co rrelates with the number of years a member has been active in a Greek-letter organization. The re sponse frequency drops after the third year of membership, which is typically around the age of 22. Response frequency by gender showed that females (71.3%) were far more likely to respond than males (28.7%); how ever, the population of the Greek community is more evenly divided females (52.9%) and males (48.1%). The respondents Greek Council affiliation was closely in-line with the total Greek population; however, the Multicultural Greek Council (3.1%) responded at a slightly lower rate than the National Pan-Hellenic Council (7.1%), which is slightly off from their total population of 3.4% and 2.5% pe rcent respectively. The large majority of survey participants re sponded to the race demographic as White/Caucasian (83.7%) and the re ligion demographic as Protesta nt (28.3%) or Catholic (37.1).

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56 Table 4-1. Summary statistics of demographic variables Demographic Characteristics (n=868) Frequency Valid Percent AGE 18 121 14.0% 19 201 23.3% 20 251 29.1% 21 202 23.4% 22 76 8.8% 23 10 1.2% GENDER Male 248 28.7% Female 615 71.3% RACE White/Caucasian 724 83.7% Hispanic/Latino 79 9.1% African American 38 4.4% Asian 15 1.7% Native American 1 .1% Other 8 .9% RELIGION Protestant 243 28.3% Catholic 318 37.1% Muslim 5 .6% Jewish 139 16.2% Other 153 17.8% GREEK COUNCIL Panhellenic 545 62.9% IFC 233 26.9% MGC 27 3.1% NPHC 62 7.1% YEARS ACTIVE First year 273 31.5% One year 91 10.5% Two years 208 24.0% Three years 194 22.4% Fours years or more 102 11.8% ACADEMIC STATUS First year 196 22.6% Second year 252 29.1% Third year 224 25.8% Fourth year 173 19.9% Fifth year of more 21 2.4%

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57 Bivariate Analyses Bivariate analyses were examined to de termine the relationship between volunteerism dependent variables and demographic variables. Bivariate analyses we re also conducted to determine the effect, if any, that demographi cs (age, gender, race/ethnic origin, religion, academic year, council affiliation, number of year s active in Greek organization) had on other variables in the study. The signifi cant results are reported in this section and also appear in the Appendix. Demographics by Volunteerism (Dependent Variable) De mographic variables may affect volunteerism independent of level of involvement and volunteer motivations. These distin ctions are important to identi fy in order to determine the directional relationships between these variables. Pearsons correlations were used to dete rmine if there was a relationship between demographic variables and volunteerism. In th is study, gender, Greek council affiliation, the number of years active in a Greek organization, and academic status were the most influential demographic characteristics. Several of the vol unteer variables differed by these demographics. Gender was significantly different across seve ral components of the dependent variable, including: attendance at non-mandatory events ( x = 41.976, p = .000), service events ( x 13.679, p = .008), social events ( x = 30.834, p = .000), participation in soro rity or fraternity organization ( x = 16.038, p = .003), and overall self-report level of participation with volunteerism ( x = 11.438, p = .022). Females were more likely to report so me of the time to most of the time while males were more likely to report most of the time to all of the time. Greek council affiliation also showed signi ficant differences across several components of the dependent variable. The significant diffe rences were associated with attendance at nonmandatory events ( x = 44.895, p = .000), service events ( x = 33.827, p = .001), social events ( x

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58 = 31.559, p = .002), participation in soro rity or fraternity organization (x = 35.126, p = .000), and overall self-report level of pa rticipation with volunteerism ( x = 30.935, p = .000). Overall MGC (Multicultural Greek Council) tended to be more active than each of the other councils. The number of years active in a Greek or ganization was significantly different with attendance at mandatory events ( x = 57.328, p = .000), non-mandatory events ( x = 37.359, p = .002), service events ( x = 50.429, p = .000) and participation in sorority or fraternity organization ( x = 29.951, p = .018). These significant differe nces showed that, in general, as the number of years active in a Greek organization increased, the level of participation decreased. Finally, there was a significant difference a ssociated with compone nts of the dependent variable and academic status. The significant differences included: attendance at mandatory events ( x = 74.265, p = .000), non-mandatory events ( x = 29.302, p = .022), service events ( x = 31.549, p = .011), participation as a volunteer ( x = 11.502, p = .021), and participation in sorority or fraternity organization ( x = 36.914, p = .002). This dem ographic variable also showed that as academic status increased, the amount of participation decreased. The remaining demographic variables (age, race/ethnic origin, and religion) did not reveal many significant differe nces based on the components of the dependent variable. Next, t-tests and ANOVAs were run to examine the relationships between these demographic variables and volunt eerism. Significant differences were found for several of the demographic variables. However, t-tests showed no significant difference by gender and ANOVA showed no significant diff erence by religion. Post hoc comparisons appear in Appendix H. ANOVA tested age against volunteerism and fo und that there was a significant difference (F = 4.306, p = .001). Post hoc tests indicated that as age increased, volunteerism decreased from

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59 18 years with a mean score of 24.58 to 22 years showing a mean score of 24.01. At the age of 23, there was again a significant rise in volunteerism with a mean score of 25.11. ANOVA tests found a significant difference wa s between Greek council affiliation and volunteerism (F = 8.310, p = .000) with IFC repo rting a mean of 25.28, NPHC reporting a mean of 25.36, MGC reporting a mean of 26.62 a nd PC reporting a mean of 24.31. Academic status showed a significant diffe rence (F = 6.723, p = .000) as well. Post hoc tests revealed that volunteerism rose steadily over the first two years and peaked around the second year as a student. The mean scores dec lined drastically over th e final two years as a student. Race group also affected volunteerism. A si gnificant difference was found between race and volunteerism (F = 9.643, p = .000) with Wh ite reporting a mean score of 24.42, Black reporting a mean score of 26.97, Hispanic reporti ng a mean of 25.74, Asian reporting a mean score of 26.21, and other reporting a mean of 27.50. ANOVA tested the number of years invol ved in a Greek organization against volunteerism and determined that years involved affected the total volunt eer scores. Post hoc tests indicated that as the time involved increased, the to tal mean score decreased. Demographics by Independent Variables Pearsons correlations were also used to explore the possible rela tionships between the independent variables (level of involvement in Greek organization, volunteer motivations) and each of the demographic variables. These tests indicated that Greek council aff iliation, the number of ye ars active in a Greek organization, gender, age, and academic status differed significantly on several components of the independent variables. The signifi cant results are reported in the Appendix.

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60 Race/ethnic origin and religi on were not significantly different when compared with each of the independent variables. Multivariate Analysis Multiple linear regression was used next to determine the specific variables that most significantly affected volunteerism. Regressions models were run for demographics, level of involvement, and motivations of volunteerism ag ainst overall volunteerism in three separate models. The fourth model consis ted of all of these variables t ogether and a fifth reduced model was then developed to show the independent vari ables that were most significantly related to volunteerism. Model 1. The first model focused on the relationship between each of the demographic components and volunteerism. Demographic variab les that consisted of nominal data were recoded into dummy code variables. Race and re ligion were recoded and lumped into different groups due to small cell size. Race was coded in to White, Black, Hispanic, and other. The other race variable consisted of those participants that identified as Asian, Native American, or other. These were coded as one variable due to the lo w response rate for each category. White was not included in the model as it was held constant and served as the reference group for the race variables. Religion was recoded into Catholic, Protestant, Jewi sh, and other. Catholic was excluded from the model as it was held consta nt and served as the reference group for the religion variables. Greek Council was the final de mographic variable rec oded. The variable was grouped as Interfraternity Council (IFC), Nationa l Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC), Multicultural Greek Council (MGC), and Panhellenic Council (P C). Panhellenic Council was excluded from the model and served as the reference group for Greek council affiliation. The other demographic variables that were included in the first model were gender, age, academic status, and the number of years active in a Greek-letter organization.

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61 The model was found to be statistically significant (F = 6.568, p = .000) and accounted for approximately 8% of the variance in volun teerism (Adjusted R = .082). Each of the following variables was found to be statistically significant in this model: age, Black, Hispanic, other race, Jewish, other religion, and the Multicu ltural Greek Council. This model showed that as age of the Greek member increased their volunteerism decreased. Academic Status was also statistically significant and found that there was a negative correlation to volunteerism; as age increased overall volun teerism decreased. This model revealed the relationship between race and volunteerism. It showed that those students who identified as Black, Hispan ic, or other were more highly correlated with volunteerism than those that identified as White Religion also revealed that students who identified as Protestant, Jewi sh, or other were negatively co rrelated with volunteerism when compared with those who identified as Catholic. Model 2. The second model consisted of vari ables associated with the level of involvement in a Greek-letter organization. These variables consisted of holding an office within the chapter (President, other ex ecutive office, chair position, othe r position, no office) and the members place of residence (in a chapter house, with fraternity or sorority members, with other friends, on campus, alone). Each of these variab les was recoded into dummy code variables. The model excluded no position and living in the chap ter house as these were held constant and served as the reference group. The model was found to be statistically significant (F = 14.725, p = .000) and accounted for approximately 11% of the variance in volun teerism (Adjusted R = .105). Serving as a chapter president, an executive member, holding a chair position, living with other sorority or fraternity members or with friends were all f ound to be statistically significant. The model

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62 revealed that holding an office within a Greek-letter organizati on was associated with higher volunteerism. The model also showed that while living in a chapter house was associated with higher volunteerism, living with other friends or sorority/fraternity members was negatively associated with volunteerism. Model 3. The third model included the motivatio ns that affect volunteerism. The 25 variables that were used to determine volunteer motivations were entered into this model and were statistically significant (F = 9.015, p = .000). The model accounted for approximately 19% of the variance in volunteeris m (Adjusted R = .192). A total of eight variables were found to be statically significant as motivations to volunteer, including: to set an example, dut y as a Greek, asked by Greek office, class requirement, organization membersh ip, enjoy serving community, civic activities as a child, and the level of emphasis placed on volunteerism by sorori ty or fraternity. Each of the variables was positively related to volunteerism, except for cl ass requirement and organization membership. Model 4. The fourth model was a comprehensive analysis that simultaneously included all variables (demographic variable s, involvement variables, motiv ation variables). This model was found to be statistically significant (F = 11.381, p = .000) and it accounted for 36% of the variance in volunteerism (Adjusted R = .360). These variables were found to be statisti cally significant: race, years active in sorority/fraternity, holding a posit ion in chapter, living with fr iends or others. The following volunteer motivations were found to be statistically significant: setting an example, asked by Greek office, volunteering to fulfill a membersh ip requirement, enjoy serving your community, participated in civic activities as a child, and the emphasis that the sorority/fraternity placed on volunteerism. Membership requirement, living w ith friends or others, and the number of years

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63 active in sorority/fraternity were negatively rela ted to volunteerism, and the remaining variables were positively related to volunteerism. Each of the race variables was found to be st atistically significant in this model. Again, Black, Hispanic, and other race were positively co rrelated with volunteerism. Religion showed Protestant as positively correlated with volunteeri sm; however Jewish and other were negatively correlated. Each of the four Greek councils wa s also found to be posit ively correlated with volunteerism. Reduced model. The reduced model consists of vari ables that were found to be the most important to overall volunteerism and was statistical ly significant. This final reduced model was statistically significant (F = 24.113, p = .000) and accounted for 36% of the variance in volunteerism (Adjusted R = .362). Twenty variable s were found to be statistically significant. The demographic variables included: gender, a cademic status, race, and the number of years active in sorority/fraternity. Gender revealed that women were more active than men as volunteers. Academic status produced a nega tive significance revea ling that as students progressed through college, their involvement with volunteerism declined. The same was true of involvement within a Greek organization. As memb ers progressed in their so rority or fraternity, their involvement with volunteerism decrease d. Race differences revealed that students identifying as Black, Hispanic, or other were more highly associated with volunteerism than those students who identified as White, the reference group. All but one of the involvement variables were found to be statistically significant. Serving as president, holding any other executiv e position, chair position, or other position were more highly related to volunteerism than the reference group of holding no position. Living with

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64 sorority or fraternity members or others were significantly lower than those who lived in a chapter house. Eight of the motivations were statistically signi ficant in this model. To set an example, having a duty as a Greek, being asked by the Greek office, enjoyment with serving the community, participating in civic activities as a child, and the emphasis on volunteerism by a sorority or fraternity were positively correlate d with volunteerism. Meeting important people and volunteering as a membership requirement were negatively associated with volunteerism. Table 4-2. Comparison of three multivariate models on volunteerism Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Reduced Demographic Variables Gender (males = 0, females = 1) -.100 -.099 -.130*** Age -.012 -.031 Academic Status -.269 -.149 -.156*** Race Black .194*** .106** .115*** Hispanic .085** .076** .080*** Other .090** .076** .090*** Religion Protestant -.006 .003 Jewish -.088** -.054 Other -.075* -.008 Greek Council IFC .044 .052 NPHC .003 .035 MGC .102** .046 Years Active .131* -.193*** -.215*** Involvement President .155*** .117*** .129*** Other Executive Positio n .137*** .158*** .171*** Chair Position .132*** .158*** .158*** Other Position .045 .059* .064** Residence With sorority/fraternity members -.137*** -.046 With other friends -.117*** -.214*** -.182*** Other .020 -.209*** -.179*** Motivations Monetary Compensation -.021 .010 Recognition .006 -.037 Set Example .131*** .074* .068** Others will return favor -.047 .006 Meet others -.023 -.031

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65 Table 4-2 Continued. Duty as a Greek .185*** .117*** .120*** Asked by University leaders -.066 -.049 Asked by Greek Office .177*** .175*** .108*** Urged by friends -.032 -.038 Help achieve career goals -.067 -.027 Meet important people -.069 -.060 -.111*** Involved in church .019 .016 To maintain scholarship .024 -.006 Class requirement -.075* -.029 Membership requirement -.082* -.079** -.092*** Personal satisfaction .014 .047 Enjoy serving community .123** .100* .164*** Committed to cause .016 .020 Enjoy socialization .003 .018 Civic activities as a child .120** .092* .162*** Civic activities in High School .012 .045 Educational activities in High School .011 .003 Parents/guardians volunteer .035 .065 Sorority/Fraternity Emphasis .080** .077** .091*** Cases 814 819 812 812 814 Adjusted R .082 .105 .192 .360 .362 F-Value 6.568 14.725 9.015 11.381 24.113 Significant at the .05 level **Significant at the .01 level ***Significant at the .001 level Focus Groups Four focus groups were conducted following the survey data collection. T hese focus groups were designed to supplement the informati on that was collected and analyzed from the surveys. The information obtained from the student participants offered even more insight into the findings of the study. The information colle cted from the focus groups will be discussed throughout the discussion in Chapter 5. Summary In this chapter, several different analyses were presented to help explore the relationship between volunteerism and demographics, involvement in a sorority or fraternity, and volunteer motivations. These analyses were designed to allow the data to be examined individually through bivariate analysis and then collectively through multivariate analysis. The final reduced

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66 model that was presented in this chapter helped to filter out all non-significant variables and showed a clear picture of the variables that most strongly influenced volunteerism among Greek members. The findings from this chapter are very intriguing and have important implications for each of the research questions that were presen ted in the first chapter. The following chapter will include these important findings and will disc uss how they will affect future programs and research on Greek students.

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67 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The decis ion to join a social sorority or frat ernity often hinges on ma ny different factors. For some students their own desire to join a Gr eek-letter organization may be the driving force, and for others it may be their families pressure to have them join the organization they were a member of in college. Whatever a members motiv ation is to join, studies have found that overall participation in Greek organizations has been declining over the past 30 years (Astin, et al., 2002). The declining participation may be symptomatic of the increased media attention on negative stigmas of drinking, hazing, and sexu al assault that continue to pl ague Greek communities across the country. In general, college s, universities, and the genera l public are beginning to doubt the purpose of social sororities and frater nities (Pryor, et al., 2005). In light of this changing image, it has become even more important to explore the positive contributions that these organizations can make to their members during their undergraduate years. One facet to explore is the volunteer participation among members of social sororities and fraternities. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of level of involvement within a Greek-letter organization, motivations for volunt eering, and demographic factors that impact a members engagement in volunteerism. It refl ects input from key informants, focus groups, and members of social sororities and fraternities who participated in a survey about their volunteer activities and related behaviors. This research sheds light on this populations volunteer participation and offers suggestions for fu ture research and volunteer programming. This final chapter explores the findings of th e study as they relate to each of the three research questions stated in Chapter One. Implica tions and contributions of this research are then presented. Finally, limitations of the study will be disc ussed as well as suggestions for future

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68 research. Based on this research implic ations for programming and policy, providing practitioners with suggestions for ch ange will conclude this thesis. Revisiting Research Questions RQ1: How Do Demographic Factors, if at All, Have an Impact on a Persons Engagement in Volunteerism? The alternative hypothesis for this research question was that dem ographic factors have an im pact on a persons engagement with volunteeri sm. Several of the de mographic variables in this study showed significant relationships to overa ll volunteerism at the bivariate level as seen in correlations and the ANOVA analyses. Mult ivariate analysis identified significant factors suggesting that the relationships of demographic factors to volunteerism were more complex. First, only demographic characteristics were entered into a mode l and compared with volunteerism. This revealed that Black, Hispanic, and other race/e thnic origins were more highly correlated with volunteerism than White. The model also showed that those students who identified as Protestant, Jewish, or any other religion were less likely to volunteer than those who identified as Catholic. It also revealed that council affiliation may be significant for one of the organizations (MGC). Finally, the number of years active in a Greek-letter organization was found to have a positive correlation to voluntee rism. This model was reported because it identified which demographic characteristics were statistically significant to volunteerism with no other factors affecting the analysis. The final reduced model, however, revealed several different effects. This model included all of the factors fr om the study and determined which were significant when everything was added into the analysis. The findi ngs from this model were mostly consistent with previous research and will be discussed below.

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69 The reduced model revealed th at once all of the factors were added in for data analysis, religion and Greek council affiliation were no lo nger significant factors associated with volunteerism. The number of year s active and academic status re vealed a negatively significant relationship with volunteerism. This showed th at as the students progressed through college and their Greek-letter organization, thei r volunteer levels decreased. This finding is similar to some other studies on volunteerism, which found that vo lunteering falls during the transition to young adulthood (Wilson, 2000). The decrease in school-re lated activities and the increase in social freedoms are often cited as reasons for the de cline in volunteer par ticipation (Wilson, 2000). This was echoed in several of the focus groups. The reason that was most often mentioned by students for not volunteering was the lack extra free time once they had fulfilled their academic and social commitments. One student said my time is precious and service is not the most important thing on my list after school and fraternity social life. Another student said, Seniors dont volunteer because theyre ove r it, so they leave it to the younger members. Another past chapter president explained th at the younger members volunteer because they assume it is mandatory for them to do so, whereas the older members do not. Gender was also a significant variable, revea ling that females were more likely than males to volunteer. The literature review of volunteer characteristi cs revealed this same finding, especially for the college stude nt population, which cited females (33%) had higher volunteer rates than males (26.8%) (Foster-Bey, et al., 2006). The findings associated with race were some what different from many other studies on volunteerism, yet still are supported by some exis ting literature (Smith, 1994). Several studies on volunteerism report higher rates of volunteeri sm among those who identify as White (FosterBey, et al., 2006), while this study found that White members volunteered less than those who

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70 identified as Black, Hispanic, or another race. A possible expl anation for this finding is the values of the individual Greek councils. The National Pan-Hellenic Council which consists of nine historically African-American fraterni ties and sororities places a strong emphasis on promoting and providing community service. NPHC organizations have always had a profound commitment to providing community service to th e general public welfare, which stems back to the initial values of the orga nization that were established at a time when college campuses where predominantly white (Anson & Marchesani 1991). The Multicultural Greek council also values community service among their members; however, the Interfra tenity council and the Panhellenic councils national gove rning organizations do not plac e as strong of an emphasis on volunteerism. This was also reflected in the focus groups. The members of the National PanHellenic Council explained their reasons for volunteering were to give back to where they came from and their responsibility to help others because as one student commented to whom much is given, much is required. They also explained that this motivation was consistent across their membership because they choose their members based on their organizations principles of service to community and others. Members of the Multicultural Greek Council expressed similar views in regards to membership selection and th e principles of the organizations. Members of the Interfraternity Council and Panhellenic Council explained that some members volunteer because they want to help others, but mostly th ey do because it is a chapter requirement. These findings are important because they reveal that many of the demographic characteristics of the Greek community are sim ilar to those of the overall college student population and U.S. volunteer trends; (United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007; FosterBey, et al., 2006) however, some remain unique to this population. Thus, the null hypothesis,

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71 demographic variables do not impact a persons engagement with volunteerism, was rejected as the results did reveal that several demographic variables we re important to volunteerism. RQ2: How Does the Level of Involvement in a Social Sorority or Fraternity Affect a Persons Engagement in Volunteerism? This research question explored the relati onship of a members involvement within a social Greek-letter organization and volunteerism. The alternativ e hypothesis for this research question was that higher involvement in a Greek-letter organization would equate with higher engagement with volunteerism. This research question was broken down into two separate hypotheses: holding an office or position would increas e volunteerism and living in a chapter house or with other fraternity/sorority members would increase volunteerism. Multivariate models assessed th e different components of le vel of involvement (holding a position within the organizations and place of resi dence) and their effect on volunteerism. The final reduced model revealed a hi gher rate of volunteerism among those members that had or are currently serving in some capacity to their organization than those that had ne ver held an office or position. This finding shows the effect of servin g a social Greek-letter organization, but does not reveal the cause of this finding. However, in the focus groups with cu rrent and past chapter presidents, several of the members alluded to an increased sense of responsibility to the sorority/fraternity and its members as a motivat ion to volunteer. These findings are not supported from other literature because it has not previous ly been studied; however, a similar study offers another interesting perspectiv e. The study found that Greek members in general had more favorable effects from higher levels of engagement in terms of their educational and personal growth than non-Greek students (Hay ek, Carini, ODay, & Kuh, 2002). The model also revealed that living within a chapter house was more highly related with volunteerism than living with friends or in another residence. In fact, living with friends or in

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72 another residence was negativel y associated with volunteerism when compared with those members who lived in a chapter house. It is importa nt to note that at the University of Florida, only chapters from the Panhellenic and Interfratern al councils have chapte r facilities; none of the Multicultural or National Pan-Hellenic orga nizations have chapter houses. A study on undergraduate student engagement by Hayek, et al. (2002) found th at living in a sorority or fraternity house has small positive effects on Greek engagement, but levels of engagement were similar for those who lived elsewhere. The cu rrent literature on volunt eerism and Greek-letter organizations does not support or reject this fi nding because it remains relatively understudied. These analyses revealed that the more activ e a member was with their chapter or the higher their level of involvement with their organization, the higher their rate of volunteerism. Thus, the null hypothesis that there is no rela tionship between level of involvement and volunteerism was rejected. Furthe r research is needed to exam ine other areas of involvement within Greek-letter organi zations and their effect on volunteeri sm. In particular the level of involvement should be examined for different le vels of Greek membership, and also for males and females, as well as first year students and senior level students. RQ3: What Motivations Have the Strong est Impact on a Persons Engagement in Volunteeris m? This research question presented two research hypotheses. First, members of social sororities and fraterniti es cite altruistic motivations as indicators of volunteer participation. Second, members of social sororities and fraterni ties place personal gain or egoistic motivations at the low end of motivations fo r volunteer participation. The results from multivariate analyses revealed several interesting conclusions. Two motivations were negatively statistically significant in the final reduced model, including volunteering for a member ship requirement or to meet im portant people. This finding

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73 was supported by previous resear ch literature on mandatory vol unteer service and has been shown to have lasting negative effects on volunteerism over the life span (Stukas, Snyder, & Clary, 1999). Meeting important people, which is an egoistic motivation for volunteering, was found to be negatively associated with volunt eerism by members of so cial Greek-letter organizations in this study. Several other motivations revealed a positive correlation to volunteerism: to set an example, having a duty as a Greek member, bei ng asked by university Greek office, enjoyment from serving the community, participation in civic activities as a child, and the emphasis that is placed on volunteerism by their so rority/fraternity chapter. Th ese findings reveal that Greek members motivations are not stric tly altruistic or egoistic, but i nherent in their identity as a member of a Greek-letter organization. Th roughout the focus groups, a common thread among all of the chapter leadership was the motivation that being Gr eek involved volunteering for the community. Several students also mentioned that volunteering provides chapter members with an opportunity to spend time with one another, and it is a chance to participate with an organization that may have personally affected another member of their sorority/fraternity. The emphasis placed on volunteerism by the sorority/fraternity chapter was another motivation that revealed a posit ive correlation with volunteerism. This may suggest that while nationally the Greek organizations do not all promote service as stated in their values, the local chapters or Greek communities do value volunteerism. In this study population, one of the four values of the Greek community was service, wh ich may help interpret why being asked by the university Greek office was found to be a motivati on for the Greek community. In the literature, the Call to Values Congruence (2005) revealed the university Greek offices need to promote community service to its Greek students. From this study, it has been found that the emphasis on

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74 volunteering made by the supporti ng university staff on the local chapters appears to have positive effects on the members volunteerism. Other motivations to volunteer including, participating in civic activities as a child, setting an example, and serving the community ar e important findings from this study as well. Participating in civic activities as a child was co nsistent with current re search on the effects of youth volunteering. Bussell and Forbes (2001) found that family background was a significant predictor for volunteering. These motivations will be extremely beneficial to developing volunteer programs for social Greek-letter organizations. From these findings the null hypothesis, focusing on egoistic and altruistic motivations, is not accepted or rejected. While the motivations that were revealed were both altruistic (to set an example) and egoistic (enjoy serving community), this study revealed even greater motivations that may be specific to this populations motivati ons as volunteers. The intrinsic belief that volunteerism is part of being a Greek member was a significant finding of this study, and it may be of even greater importance than other altruistic or egoistic motivations. Contribution to the Literature This study added to the litera ture of volunteer motivations in several important ways. First, the findings of this study suggest that memb ership in an organizati on, particularly a social sorority or fraternity, may be a motivation to volunteer on its own. Th e increased sense of responsibility and the duty that was felt by th e respondents because they were Greek was a significant motivation to voluntee r. This corroborates other researchers findings that volunteerism is trending away from altruism toward social concern among students on college campuses (Winniford et. al., 1997). The increa sed emphasis by social sorority and fraternity organizations on volunteerism may be increas ing the social concern of its members.

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75 This study also added to our understanding of the potentially negative impacts of mandatory volunteerism. The findings determined that mandatory volunteerism for an organization requirement was a negative motivation to volunteer. Stukas and colleagues (1999) reported, A students stronger perception of exte rnal control eliminated an otherwise positive relation between prior volunteer experience and future intentions to volunteer (p. 59). The study found that institutions have begun to requ ire as opposed to inspire individuals to volunteer (Stukas, et al., 1999). The positive motivat ions of being asked by the Greek office to volunteer also supported this. The students op tion to choose a volunteer project offered them increased control over th eir volunteer efforts. Another finding of this study was the diffe rence a respondents race had on their volunteerism. As discussed previously, those me mbers who identified as Black, Hispanic, or other, were more likely to volunt eer than those that identified as White. This finding points to other outside motivations that may affect members of races or ethnicities differently. In this study, the increased value placed on community se rvice by the national or ganizations of the National Multicultural Greek C ouncil and the National Pan-Hellenic Council may have influenced an increased rate of volunteerism am ong those members who identified as a race or ethnicity other than White. Inte restingly religion was not found to be significant in the final reduced model; however, several studies have fo und religiosity to impact volunteerism (Wilson & Musick, 1997). A major contribution of this st udy to the literature was the impact of a members level of involvement with their Greek-letter organizati on, because this concept has previously been unexplored by researchers in relation to volunteeris m. The findings pointed to an increased sense of social responsibility for those who had held or currently hold a position within their

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76 organization. These members were more likely to volunteer than those who did not serve their sorority or fraternity. Limitations and Delimitations This study has several potential limitations and delimitations. One possible limitation to this study was the cross-sectional design that was used. This allowed the researcher to sample the population at one period in time; however, it is possible that unique conditions existed at these times that were not reflective of usual c onditions. The first two sets of surveys were distributed at community service events, which may have exaggerated the respondents propensity to volunteer. Anothe r limitation was the scope of ma terial included in the survey, which asked questions regarding vo lunteer participation. Based on th is format, this part of the data collection was limited to the questions th at were asked and the respondents self-report measures. It was also the case that this resear ch focused on behaviors th at were central to the mission of Greek organizations. As a result, this instrumentati on may have led respondents to answer the way they percei ved they should respond. Additionally, researchers often debate the definition of volunteerism. The respondents may have answered based on their own definition of volunteerism. To combat these potential problems, a mixed methods framework consis ting of qualitative and quantitative components was used. Nonetheless, such limitations are potenti al in this research a nd should be considered in future research efforts. Generalizability is a delim itation of this study. The study population was members of social Greek letter organizations at the University of Florida. The Greek population is 15% of the campus total student population, approximately 5,200 students and consists of four Greek governing councils, IFC, NPHC, NMGC, and Panhellen ic. The results of this study should only be generalized to similar populations.

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77 Implications of Research Research Despite its limitations, this research can provide ample informati on to researchers and practitioners. A thorough review of relevant li terature and examinati on of the study results identified several areas for future research. First, previous studies have not focused much attention to the positive contri bution of volunteerism on membership in social sororities and fraternities. These organizations are a large part of many college and university campuses. While the media and other research have focu sed largely on the negative impacts of social Greek-letter organizations, they are still a part of many students college life. If these organizations are going to c ontinue to be in existence, they must return to their original values of service and academia. More research on the popul ation is necessary to determine the positive impacts of membership as well. Second, the exploratory nature of this study focused on the effects of level of involvement in social Greek-lette r organizations. The results reve aled that holding an office or position within the organization correlated with vol unteerism. More research is needed on this concept to determine the cause of this effect and to see if this is also true of other student organizations. A sorority/fraternity members place of residence is also an interesting phenomenon to discuss. Anson & Marchesani (1991) determined the creation of the chapter house to be the force that contributed to the dow nturn of social sororities and fraternities; however, this study found that residence in a chapter house was hi ghly correlated with volunteerism. More research is needed on memb ers who live in a sorority/fraternity chapter house and the effects it may have on students. Thirdly, this study revealed th at there were differences betw een fraternities and sororities and across councils in regards to volunteerism. Furthe r research into the national organizations

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78 missions and goals is necessary to understa nd their importance and the impact on the local chapters. It would also be be neficial to explore further the differences between the different types of sororities and fraternities, such as social, service, or business organizations. Finally, active membership in a social Gr eek-letter organization should be explored further as a motivation for volunteerism. These organizations have always had values rooted in service to community and others. Although th e negative images of social Greek-letter organizations may blur that value, it is important to determine if these values still exist. This study found that these values do in fact still exist: however, mo re research is necessary to determine what produces this value. Practice The findings of this study have provided inform ation about the population of Greek members who are currently volunte ering and those who are less ap t to volunteer. From the findings, several demographic characteristics were determined that can be used to develop programs that would appeal to the population and motivate those who are not currently volunteering. This studys finding of race/ethnic differen ces among volunteers can help significantly when developing volunteer programming. The differences among students who identify as White, Black, Hispanic, or another race in te rms of volunteering may be due to cultural differences or the values of th e national and local sorority/fra ternity organizations. It is important to determine the cause of this finding and then tailor the vol unteer opportunities to the populations interests. For example, the Natio nal Multicultural Greek Council places emphasis on multicultural diversity; these organizations should identify service opportunities that are directly in line with this va lue to increase volunteerism among its members. One suggestion for such programming would be to work with non-prof it organizations that ha ve similar missions of

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79 promoting multicultural diversity. Another example is the National Pan-Hellenic Councils value of service to community and others. From the focus groups, several of the NPHC members described their motivation to volunteer as giving back to the community where they came from, volunteering for issues that are pertinent to African Americans, and being able to show their success to others. In creating volunt eer programs for this council, these motivations should be adhered to by allowing members to vol unteer as mentors in at -risk schools, working with civil rights groups, or working with indi viduals who have similar backgrounds. For the Interfraternity Council and Panhellenic council, it is important to find service opportunities that would increase their interest or desire to vol unteer. During the focu s groups, several of the Panhellenic women mentioned that they were always more motivated to work for a cause that had significant meaning to them. One woman gave the example that if one of their sisters was affected by cancer, they would be more motivated to volunteer with an organization that benefits cancer patients. Community service can also pr ovide an opportunity to promote relationships between and across the councils by providing pr ojects that would unite the entire Greek community at a university. Academic status and the number of years active in a Greek -letter organization were found significant, but were negatively correlated to volunteerism. This suggests that as members progress through their schooling or their time in th e organization they become less inclined to volunteer. Several of the focus groups allude d to their increased re sponsibility to other organizations, academic commitments, job/internsh ip searching, and social obligations as the reasons for the decline in volunteering. Vo lunteer programs should use these other time commitments as motivators to participate in comm unity service. For example, several volunteer organizations can provide students with opportuniti es to develop and improve marketable career

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80 skills for future employment. Many long-term vo lunteer commitments may turn into internship or job opportunities, which is an important motivati on to convey to students. The major issue for many college students is their commitment to several organizations, many of which require or mandate some form of community service. Prov iding students with an opportunity to volunteer that would fulfill many organizations requirements but that would still be enjoyable, would increase an individuals de sire to continue with th eir volunteer commitment. The other findings point to the negative im pact of mandatory volunteerism. This is supported in the literature and from this research. Thus, it is important for programs to continue to motivate members to volunteer without forcing th em to participate. Several motivations that were significant in this study can help. Member s expressed setting an example as a motivation to volunteer. Providing service opportunities where members can work with children as mentors may speak to that motivation. Another motivation that was significant in this study was members enjoy serving the community. Offering a vari ety of different volunteer opportunities to students would be especially helpful because it would allow them to choose an area that is of particular importance to them. This would provid e the students with a sense of ownership on the social issue and may increase thei r enjoyment of the project. Providing service opportunities that are well organized and efficient will allow participants to enjoy their serv ice project and focus on the impact they are making, rather than worry about details. In the focus groups, several members stated that they had participated in projects that were unorganized, a nd they felt their time could have better been spent elsewhere. Creating a project where the stud ent would be greatly utilized and appreciated would allow the individual to find more enjoyment and satisfaction with volunteerism.

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81 The motivations that were specific to memb ership in a Greek-lette r organization can be especially helpful for Greek affairs professionals. It is important to capitalize on the inherent motivations that members have as a duty to volun teer. By providing successful and meaningful volunteer projects, members inherent motivations will prompt their persistence with volunteerism. Greek Affairs offices can use each of the recommended suggestions stated above to improve volunteerism among their members. Most importantly, it is essential to determine the areas of interest among the differe nt organizations and use that information to provide service projects. Public Policy Although this study did not examine any specific policies, the results of this research can provide input toward future pol icies, specifically college, uni versity, and Greek organization community service requirements. Higher educat ion institutions are beginning to implement community service as a requirement of graduation. This is in res ponse to the increased efforts to develop morally and civically i nvolved students. This policy, however, is not supported by the literature or the findings of this study. In fact, Stukas et al (1999) and this study found that volunteering as part of a requirement often leads to dissatisf action or discontinuation with volunteer work. Other motivations that were found in this study and similar studies on college students volunteer motivations should be exam ined when developing such policies. Such findings would help facilitate student volunteeris m in a manner more conducive to long-term civic engagement. Summary Membership in a social Greek-letter organi zation is a personal choice that many students face when they first begin college. The effects of Greek life on a students development are

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82 often a topic of debate among school administrato rs, parents, students, and researchers. The negative perceptions of hazing, binge drinking, a nd sexual assault are startling; however, these eclipse the positive and often astonishing impact s of Greek organizations. This study examined the effects of demographic characteristics, leve l of involvement, and motivations on members participation in individual volunteer ism. The conclusions reached th rough this research have farreaching implications for higher education instit utions, social sororities and fraternities, researchers, and practitioners. This study has produced groundbreaking re search on the effects of involvement within a social Greek-letter organization on an individuals engagement with volunteerism. It is the sincere hope of the researcher that studi es on the positive contributions of social sororities and fraternities will continue to flood the resear ch on this population, as well as contribute to the improvement of programming for these students as volunteers.

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83 APPENDIX A INSTRUMENTATION Informed Consent Title of Project: Volunteer Participation among Members of Social Sororities and Fraternities 1. Purpose of the Study: To understand the motivations, values, and volunteer participation of members of social fraternities and sororities. 2. Procedures to be followed: You will be asked to answer approximately 15 questions in an interview/survey. You will be asked to answer the questions in rela tion to your opinions, attitudes, experiences, and familiarity with volunteer participation. You can choose to take part or decline participation. 3. Discomforts and Risks: There are no risks in particip ating in this research beyond those experienced in everyday life. Some of the questions may appear pe rsonal but answers are held in strict confidentiality. 4. Benefits: This research will provide a better understanding of ho w and why members of social fraternities and sororities become involved in volunteerism. This information will be used as an educational resource to encourage students to participate in volunteer activities. There is no direct benefit to you for participating in this study. There is no compensation to you for participating in this study. 5. Duration: It will take about 10-15 minutes to complete the interview/survey. 6. Statement of Confidentiality and Anonymity: Because this is anonymous no one will know your identity. You may be assured of complete confidentiality There is no way you will be a ssociated with your answers or statements 7. Security of Data, Interview Notes, and Tape Recordings : The project investigator (Adrienne Jaroch) will be the only person who will have access to questionnaires, interview notes and other research materials. These materials will be secured in locked file cabinets in 3002 McCarty Hall D, when not being analyzed. All materials will be destroyed upon completion of the project. 8. Right to Ask Questions: You can ask questions about the research. The person in charge will answer your questions. Contact Adrienne Jaroch at (352) 392-1778, ext. 229 or via email at with questions. If you have questions about your rights as a research participant, contact the Institutional Review Board at (352) 392-0433. 9. Voluntary Participation: You do not have to participate in this research. You can end your participation at any time by telling the person in charge. You do not have to answer any questions you do not want to answer. You must be 18 years of age or older to consent to participate in this research study. The informed consent procedure has been followed. _____________________________________ _____________________ Adrienne Jaroch-Project Investigator Date Survey Figure A-1. Informed consent letter

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84 Survey Social Sororities and Fraternities, Volunteerin g, and You Thank you in advance for your time and participa tion. We very much appreciate your help! First, we would like to ask you about your life as a student and as a member in a social sorority or fraternity at the University of Florida. How many years have you been in college? This is my first year This is my second year This is my third year This is my fourth year or more Which Greek Council does your soro rity or fraternity belong to? Interfraternity Council (IFC) National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) Panhellenic Council (PC) Multicultural Greek Council (MGC) How many years have you been a membe r of your sorority or fraternity? This is my first year. 1 year 2 years 3 years 4 years or more Where do you live? I live on campus In a sorority or fraternity house With my parents In an apartment or house with roommates In an apartment or house by myself In an apartment or house with othe r Sorority or Fraternity members Have you ever held an office within your sorority or fraternity? If so, please ch eck which office(s) and write in the name of your office(s) (Check all that apply) President Other executive position ___________________ Chair position _________________ Other position _________________ I have never held an office Figure A-2. Survey

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85How often do you participate in All of Most of Some of the time the time the time Rarely Never Mandatory sorority or fraternity functions Non-mandatory sorority or fraternity functions Service events through your sorority or fraternity Social event through your sorority or fraternity In general, how would you describe your level of participation in your sorority or fraternity? Not at all active Very Active Now we would like to ask about your volunteer activities. This participation EXCLUDES any course or class required volunteer experience. People have many reasons for volu nteering. How important would each of the following reasons be in your decision to take part in a volunteer activity? Not at All Important Very Important Monetary compensation Recognition or local prestige To set an example for others I believe that others will eventually return the favor for my efforts It is a good way to get acquainted with people I feel I have a duty as a sorority/fraternity member If I were asked by University leaders If I were asked by the Greek Office If I were urged by friends Opportunities to help me achieve my career goals Meeting important people Figure A-2. Survey, Page 3

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86IF YOU ARE INVOLVED in volunteer activities, please check the boxes that best describe why you decided to participate. A slight A strong Not a reason reason reason Is it because You are actively involved in your church You need to volunteer to maintain a scholarship It is a class or course requirement You need to in order to maintain membership in an organization You receive personal satisfaction You enjoy serving your community You are committed to the cause your are serving You enjoy the socialization with others Figure A-2. Survey, Page 2 My sorority or fraternity places strong emphasis on volunteerism? Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree What effect did your family or youth experiences have on your current volunteering? No Effect Major Effect Participating in civic activities that promoted volunteering as a young child Participating in civic activities that promoted volunteering in high school Participating in educational activities that required volunteering in high school My parents/guardians frequently volunteered Figure A-2 Continued.

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87Overall, how would you describe your level of volunteer participation? Not at all active Very Active Finally we want to ask you a few questions about yourself. Responses are anonymous and we will have no way of linking you to your re sponses. Are you: Male Female How old are you? __________years old Which of the following best describe s your racial or ethnic background? White/Caucasian African American Asian Hispanic/Latino Native American Other ____________________ Which of the following best desc ribes your religious background? Protestant Catholic Muslim Jewish Other ___________________ In the space below, please tell us anything else you feel migh t allow us better understand your a ttitudes and opinions toward v olunteering at the University of Florida. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________ Thank you for your time and participation. Your responses will help us to better und erstand the important contribution that members of social sororities or fraternities m ake through volunteering and to build programs to meet their needs. Figure A-2 Continued.

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88 Pre-Survey Email Dear Student, Over the past year, a research study has been conducted to help understand the m otivations, values and volunteer participation of members of social sororities a nd fraternities. This research will provide a better understanding of how and w hy members of social sororities and fraternities become involved in volunteerism. This information will then be used as an educational resource to encourage students to particip ate in volunteer activities. Within the next couple of days you will be receivi ng a brief survey from the researcher at this same e-mail address. Your participation would be greatly appreciated. The survey will only take a few minutes to complete and by doing so you will help ensure that we have the best information possible. Participati on will be completely anonymous. If you have any questions, feel free to contact th e researcher, Adrienne Ja roch, at . Thank you in advance for your cooperation. Figure A-3. Pre-survey email

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89 Email Survey Text Here is a brief survey on volunteer participation am ong members of social sororities and fraternities which the researcher notified you about via e-mail a few days ago. The survey will take about 10 minutes to complete. This is an anonymous survey therefore no one will know your identity and you may be assured of complete confidentiality. You must be 18 years of age or older to consent to participate in this study. By clicking on the link below you consent that you are of age to par ticipate and that you understand the information above. To take the survey click on the link below or copy and past it into your web browser. Should you have any questions or concerns, feel free to contact me (Adrienne Jaroch) at . You may also request a copy of the final research study. Thank you for your cooperation. Figure A-4. Email survey text

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90 Follow-up Email Text If you have already completed this survey a nd have received this notice again, please do not resubmit your responses. If you have not completed this survey please take a few short minutes to do so. Your input is vital to this study and the Office of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs. The short survey will take approximately 5 minutes to complete. You must be 18 years of age or older to consent to participate in this research study. To complete the survey you may click on the li nk below or cut and paste it into your web browser. By doing so, you consent that you are over the age of 18 and you agree to participate. Should you have any questions, feel free to contact me (Adrienne Jaroch) by e-mail at . Figure A-5. Follow-up email text

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91 Focus Group Email Dear Social sororities and fraternities have long been scrutinized by the public and the media for their negative impact on students. Many of these issues often involve hazing, sexual assault and binge drinking. However, it is also important for the UF administration and th e general public to know of the good that social sororities and fraternitie s can provide to student s and the community. You are invited to participate in a focus group discussion centered on a positive impact of the Greek community, volunteerism. The focus group will allow you to explor e the motivations to volunteer and the difference in th e students that participate. The focus group, to be held on , will include former chapter presidents from your specific Greek council. Chapter presidents serve in one of the most difficult and important leadership roles on campus. From this experience you have gained more knowledge and insight into this topic than anyone. I also realize now that your term has come to an end you may have a lot more time on your hands. As a participant in the focus gr oup, your views and experiences are extremely valuable to the Greek community and the University of Florida. Your input will also greatly help the Office of Sorority and Fraterni ty Affairs to better se rve the Greek community. During this meeting, you will have the opportunity to share your experiences and thoughts about Greek volunteerism, in a casual environment a nd with complete confidentiality. Please be assured that anything you say during the focus gr oup will be kept strictly confidential, and the researcher will not release any info rmation that can be linked to you. The focus group will be held on from < time1> until at . Drinks and snacks will be provided. I will be contacting you by telephone to give you mo re details about this important event and to answer any questions you may have about the st udy. You are also welcome to e-mail me at . I hope that you will be able to join in this important discussion. Figure A-6. Focus group email

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92 Focus Group Protocol This focus group is designed to explore why colleg e members of social sororities and fraternities volunteer. Today we will be focusing on thei r motivations for volunteering, and why they continue to volunteer. You have all been asked to participate because you are an undergraduate student in a Greek organization and have served your chapter as the president. Introductions: Facilitator, co-facilitator, and focus group participants Does anyone mind if we tape record this for our records? We wont share the tapes with anyone this is solely for the researcher. Confidentiality: All information gathered here will be held in the strictest of confidence. None of your names will be attached with any inform ation you give us today. Throughout this focus group feel free to give your opinion; there is no right or wrong answer. This is more of a conversation than an interview. Keep in mind, to be respectful of others opinions or ideas. Please silence all cell phones. This should only take about 45 minutes to one hour. Are there any questions before we start? 1. What would you say your reasons are for volunteering? (Money, recognition, to set an ex ample, others will return the favor, to get acquainted with people, duty as a Greek, asked by UF leaders, asked by OSFA, urged by friends, achieve career goals, meeting important people) 2. What would you say are your members reasons for volunteering? Are there differences between older and younger members? What other differences did you see? 3. Do your members volunteer on thei r own or only for your chapter? Are they civically active in general, are they volunteering beca use your organization expects them too, or both? 4. Does your chapter require volunteering? What are your members reactions? 5. What were some of the motivational techniques that your chapter used to get your members to volunteer? What are some of the obstacles to getting your members to volunteer? Is there anything else you would like to talk about? Thank you! Again this information will be tter help us understand the motivations of volunteering. Figure A-7. Focus group protocol

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93 APPENDIX B POST HOC COMPARISONS Table B-1. Years active by volunteer scale 95% Confidence Interval (I) Number of years active in sorority or fraternity (J) Number of years active in sorority or fraternity Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig. Lower Bound Upper Bound 1 year -.54561 .40998 .778 -1.8113 .7201 2 years -.61745 .31142 .416 -1.5789 .3440 3 years .48573 .31761 .674 -.4948 1.4663 This is my first year 4 or more years 1.24257* .39214 .041 .0319 2.4532 This is my first year .54561 .40998 .778 -.7201 1.8113 2 years -.07183 .42576 1.000 -1.3863 1.2426 3 years 1.03134 .43030 .220 -.2971 2.3598 1 year 4 or more years 1.78818* .48791 .010 .2819 3.2945 This is my first year .61745 .31142 .416 -.3440 1.5789 1 year .07183 .42576 1.000 -1.2426 1.3863 3 years 1.10318* .33773 .031 .0605 2.1458 2 years 4 or more years 1.86001* .40861 .000 .5985 3.1215 This is my first year -.48573 .31761 .674 -1.4663 .4948 1 year -1.03134 .43030 .220 -2.3598 .2971 2 years -1.10318* .33773 .031 -2.1458 -.0605 3 years 4 or more years .75684 .41334 .501 -.5193 2.0329 This is my first year -1.24257* .39214 .041 -2.4532 -.0319 1 year -1.78818* .48791 .010 -3.2945 -.2819 2 years -1.86001* .40861 .000 -3.1215 -.5985 4 or more years 3 years -.75684 .41334 .501 -2.0329 .5193 The mean difference is signif icant at the 0.05 level.

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94 Table B-2. Race by volunteer scale 95% Confidence Interval Race Race Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig. Lower Bound Upper Bound Black -2.55137* .56667 .000 -4.3008 -.8019 Asian -1.79423 .88287 .389 -4.5199 .9315 Hispanic -1.32020* .39299 .024 -2.5335 -.1069 White Other -3.07994 1.16293 .136 -6.6702 .5104 White 2.55137* .56667 .000 .8019 4.3008 Asian .75714 1.03416 .970 -2.4356 3.9499 Hispanic 1.23117 .66668 .492 -.8271 3.2894 Black Other -.52857 1.28157 .997 -4.4852 3.4280 White 1.79423 .88287 .389 -.9315 4.5199 Black -.75714 1.03416 .970 -3.9499 2.4356 Hispanic .47403 .95017 .993 -2.4594 3.4075 Asian Other -1.28571 1.44941 .940 -5.7604 3.1890 White 1.32020* .39299 .024 .1069 2.5335 Black -1.23117 .66668 .492 -3.2894 .8271 Asian -.47403 .95017 .993 -3.4075 2.4594 Hispanic Other -1.75974 1.21481 .718 -5.5102 1.9907 White 3.07994 1.16293 .136 -.5104 6.6702 Black .52857 1.28157 .997 -3.4280 4.4852 Asian 1.28571 1.44941 .940 -3.1890 5.7604 Other Hispanic 1.75974 1.21481 .718 -1.9907 5.5102 *. The mean difference is signi ficant at the 0.05 level.

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95 Table B-3. Academic status by volunteer scale 95% Confidence Interval (I) Academic Status (J) Academic Status Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig. Lower Bound Upper Bound 2nd year -.71469 .32262 .298 -1.7107 .2813 3rd year -.08451 .33028 .999 -1.1042 .9351 4th year .76248 .35101 .318 -.3212 1.8461 1st year 5 year or more .94444 .81527 .854 -1.5725 3.4614 1st year .71469 .32262 .298 -.2813 1.7107 3rd year .63018 .31236 .397 -.3342 1.5945 4th year 1.47716* .33421 .001 .4454 2.5090 2nd year 5 year or more 1.65913 .80818 .378 -.8359 4.1542 1st year .08451 .33028 .999 -.9351 1.1042 2nd year -.63018 .31236 .397 -1.5945 .3342 4th year .84698 .34161 .190 -.2077 1.9016 3rd year 5 year or more 1.02895 .81127 .807 -1.4757 3.5336 1st year -.76248 .35101 .318 -1.8461 .3212 2nd year -1.47716* .33421 .001 -2.5090 -.4454 3rd year -.84698 .34161 .190 -1.9016 .2077 4th year 5 year or more .18197 .81993 1.000 -2.3494 2.7133 1st year -.94444 .81527 .854 -3.4614 1.5725 2nd year -1.65913 .80818 .378 -4.1542 .8359 3rd year -1.02895 .81127 .807 -3.5336 1.4757 5 year or more 4th year -.18197 .81993 1.000 -2.7133 2.3494 The mean difference is signif icant at the 0.05 level. Table B-4. Greek Council by volunteer scale 95% Confidence Interval (I) Greek Council (J) Greek Council Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig. Lower Bound Upper Bound NPHC -.07352 .48443 .999 -1.4306 1.2835 PC .96763* .26687 .005 .2200 1.7152 IFC MGC -1.33298 .68456 .286 -3.2506 .5847 IFC .07352 .48443 .999 -1.2835 1.4306 PC 1.04115 .45299 .153 -.2278 2.3101 NPHC MGC -1.25945 .77627 .452 -3.4340 .9151 IFC -.96763* .26687 .005 -1.7152 -.2200 NPHC -1.04115 .45299 .153 -2.3101 .2278 PC MGC -2.30061* .66268 .007 -4.1570 -.4442 IFC 1.33298 .68456 .286 -.5847 3.2506 NPHC 1.25945 .77627 .452 -.9151 3.4340 MGC PC 2.30061* .66268 .007 .4442 4.1570 The mean difference is signif icant at the 0.05 level.

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96 Table B-5. Age by volunteer scale 95% Confidence Interval (I) Age on last birthday (J) Age on last birthday Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig. Lower Bound Upper Bound 19 -.73364 .38801 .612 -2.0279 .5606 20 -.50431 .37666 .877 -1.7606 .7520 21 .56733 .38838 .830 -.7281 1.8628 22 .56350 .49910 .937 -1.1013 2.2283 18 23 -.53352 1.14613 .999 -4.3564 3.2894 18 .73364 .38801 .612 -.5606 2.0279 20 .22933 .32135 .992 -.8425 1.3012 21 1.30097* .33502 .010 .1835 2.4184 22 1.29714 .45880 .158 -.2332 2.8275 19 23 .20011 1.12916 1.000 -3.5662 3.9664 18 .50431 .37666 .877 -.7520 1.7606 19 -.22933 .32135 .992 -1.3012 .8425 21 1.07164 .32180 .051 -.0017 2.1450 22 1.06781 .44924 .343 -.4306 2.5662 20 23 -.02921 1.12531 1.000 -3.7827 3.7243 18 -.56733 .38838 .830 -1.8628 .7281 19 -1.30097* .33502 .010 -2.4184 -.1835 20 -1.07164 .32180 .051 -2.1450 .0017 22 -.00383 .45912 1.000 -1.5352 1.5276 21 23 -1.10085 1.12929 .966 -4.8676 2.6659 18 -.56350 .49910 .937 -2.2283 1.1013 19 -1.29714 .45880 .158 -2.8275 .2332 20 -1.06781 .44924 .343 -2.5662 .4306 21 .00383 .45912 1.000 -1.5276 1.5352 22 23 -1.09703 1.17199 .972 -5.0062 2.8121 The mean difference is signif icant at the 0.05 level.

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97 APPENDIX C BIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF SELECTED VARIABLES Table C-1. Age by how you attend m andatory functions Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time Total 18 0 4 23 94 121 19 1 3 37 160 201 20 1 9 64 177 251 21 2 16 69 115 202 22 2 5 26 43 76 Age on last birthday Total 6 37 223 595 861 F = 42.903, p <.000 Table C-2. Academic Status by how often you attend mandatory functions Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time Total 1st year 1 6 32 157 196 2nd year 0 4 56 192 252 3rd year 1 14 59 150 224 4th year 2 12 70 89 173 5 years + 2 1 8 10 21 Academic Status Total 6 37 225 598 866 F = 74.265, p <.000 Table C-3. Greek Council by how ofte n you attend non-mandatory functions F = 44.895, p <.000 Table C-4. Gender by how often you attend non-mandatory functions Never Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time Total Male 0 5 36 152 55 248 Female 4 21 182 346 57 610 Gender Total 4 26 218 498 112 858 F = 41.976, p. <.000 Never Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time Total IFC 0 5 34 143 51 233 NPHC 0 2 19 30 11 62 PC 4 19 161 309 47 540 MGC 0 0 5 18 4 27 Greek Council Total 4 26 219 500 113 862

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98 Table C-5. Years active by how of ten you attend service events Never Rarely Some time Most of the time All of the time Total First year 1 6 61 138 67 273 1 year 0 3 17 38 33 91 2 years 0 4 35 100 69 208 3 years 0 11 51 83 49 194 4 or + 0 14 31 39 18 102 Number of years active in sorority or fraternity Total 1 38 195 398 236 868 F = 50.429, p. <.000 Table C-6. Race by how ofte n you attend service events Never Rarely Someof the time Most of the time All of the time Total White 1 34 180 345 164 724 African American 0 1 2 14 21 38 Asian 0 1 2 8 4 15 Hispanic 0 2 11 26 40 79 Other 0 0 0 4 5 9 Race Total 1 38 195 397 234 865 F = 53.322, p <.000 Table C-7. Gender by how ofte n you attend social events Never Rarely Some of the time Most of the time All of the time Total Male 0 6 27 116 97 246 Female 3 21 120 334 135 613 Gender Total 3 27 147 450 232 859 F = 30.834, p. <.000 Table C-8. Greek Council by how often you partic ipate in your sorority or fraternity Not at all active Barely Average Moderate Very active Total IFC 3 6 22 79 120 230 NPHC 0 4 9 18 30 61 PC 5 17 89 218 215 544 MGC 0 0 4 1 22 27 Greek Council Total 8 27 124 316 387 862 F = 35.126, p <.000 Table C-9. Age by served as president of Chapter No Yes Total 18 121 0 121 19 197 4 201 20 236 15 251 21 186 16 202 22 65 11 76 Age Total 815 46 861 F = 27.245, p <.000

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99 Table C-10. Academic status by se rved as president of Chapter No Yes Total 1st year 196 0 196 2nd year 246 6 252 3rd year 201 23 224 4th year 156 17 173 5 years + 20 1 21 Academic Status Total 819 47 866 F = 32.571, p <.000 Table C-11. Years active by served as president of chapter No Yes Total This is my first year 273 0 273 1 year 89 2 91 2 years 199 9 208 3 years 171 23 194 4 or more years 89 13 102 Number of years active in sorority or fraternity Total 821 47 868 F = 44.364, p <.000 Table C-12. Greek Council by served as execu tive board member other than president No Yes Total IFC 146 87 233 NPHC 42 20 62 PC 427 118 545 MGC 10 17 27 Greek Council Total 625 242 867 F = 37.975, p <.000 Table C-13. Age by served as executive board member other than president No Yes Total 18 121 0 121 19 170 31 201 20 167 84 251 21 122 80 202 22 39 37 76 Age Total 623 238 861 F = 1.020, p <.000 Table C-14. Years active by served as executi ve board member other than president No Yes Total This is my first year 267 6 273 1 year 70 21 91 2 years 133 75 208 3 years 105 89 194 4 or more years 51 51 102 Number of years active in sorority or fraternity Total 626 242 868 F = 1.536, p <.000

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100 Table C-15. Gender by served as executiv e board member other than president No Yes Total Male 152 96 248 Female 470 145 615 Gender Total 622 241 863 F = 20.107, p<.000 Table C-16. Academic Status by served as ex ecutive board member other than president No Yes Total 1st year 195 1 196 2nd year 191 61 252 3rd year 134 90 224 4th year 94 79 173 5 years + 10 11 21 Academic Status Total 624 242 866 F = 1.249, p <.000 Table C-17. Age by served in chair position No Yes Total 18 96 25 121 19 130 71 201 20 118 131 251 21 83 118 202 22 27 49 76 Age Total 459 399 861 F = 71.413, p <.000 Table C-18. Years active by served in chair position No Yes Total This is my first year 211 62 273 1 year 46 44 91 2 years 101 106 208 3 years 71 122 194 4 or more years 35 67 102 Number of years active in sorority or fraternity Total 464 401 868 F = 1.042, p <.000 Table C-19. Academic Status by served in chair position No Yes Total 1st year 157 39 196 2nd year 140 111 252 3rd year 91 132 224 4th year 67 105 173 5 years + 8 13 21 Academic status Total 463 400 866 F = 88.638, p <.000

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101 Table C-20. Academic status by served in other position No Yes Total 1st year 157 39 196 2nd year 201 51 252 3rd year 153 71 224 4th year 108 65 173 5 years + 13 8 21 Academic status Total 632 234 866 F = 24.478, p <.000 Table C-21. Years active by served in other position No Yes Total This is my first year 220 53 273 1 year 72 19 91 2 years 154 54 208 3 years 123 71 194 4 or more years 64 38 102 Number of years active in sorority or fraternity Total 633 235 868 F = 24.280, p <.000 Table C-22. Age by never held an office No Yes Total 18 46 75 121 19 114 87 201 20 196 55 251 21 173 29 202 22 65 11 76 Age Total 602 259 861 F = 1.162, p <.000 Table C-23. Years active by never held an office No Yes Total This is my first year 116 157 273 1 year 65 26 91 2 years 165 43 208 3 years 173 21 194 4 or more years 89 13 102 Number of years active in sorority or fraternity Total 608 260 868 F = 1.556, p <.000 Table C-24. Academic status by never held an office No Yes Total 1st year 76 120 196 2nd year 172 80 252 3rd year 191 33 224 4th year 148 25 173 5 years + 19 2 21 Academic status Total 606 260 866 F = 1.403, p <.000

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102 Table C-25. Greek Council by volunteer if asked by university leaders Not important 2 3 4 Very important Total IFC 46 30 82 41 27 226 NPHC 8 10 16 19 8 61 PC 37 78 155 185 87 542 MGC 5 1 8 12 1 27 Greek Council Total 96 119 261 257 123 856 F = 53.328, p <.000 Table C-26. Gender by volunteer if asked by university leaders Not important 2 3 4 Very important Total Male 49 33 88 45 26 241 Female 47 86 174 209 96 612 Gender Total 96 119 262 254 122 853 F = 45.100, p <.000 Table C-27. Academic status by volunt eer if asked by uni versity leaders Not important 2 3 4 Very important Total 1st year 10 23 64 53 45 195 2nd year 16 32 77 92 32 249 3rd year 35 27 68 63 28 221 4th year 32 32 45 47 15 171 5 years + 3 5 8 1 3 20 Academic status Total 96 119 262 256 123 856 F=56.500, p<.000 Table C-28. Greek Council by volunt eer if asked by Greek office Not important 2 3 4 Very important Total IFC 45 36 74 44 28 227 NPHC 11 9 19 15 6 60 PC 42 82 150 197 72 543 MGC 4 3 11 7 2 27 Greek Council Total 102 130 254 263 108 857 F = 42.075, p <.000 Table C-29. Gender by volunteer if asked by Greek office Not important 2 3 4 Very important Total Male 49 39 81 47 27 243 Female 53 91 173 213 81 611 Gender Total 102 130 254 260 108 854 F = 35.230, p <.000

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103 Table C-30. Academic status by vol unteer if asked by Greek office Not important 2 3 4 Very important Total 1st year 9 17 65 62 42 195 2nd year 21 33 72 92 32 250 3rd year 36 32 65 63 25 221 4th year 31 43 46 43 8 171 5 year or more 5 5 7 2 1 20 Academic status Total 102 130 255 262 108 857 F = 75.518, p <.000 Table C-31. Age by volunteer if asked by Greek office Not at all important 2 3 4 Very important Total 18 6 7 45 36 26 120 19 16 30 55 67 32 200 20 31 35 69 84 28 247 21 34 39 55 54 20 202 22 15 17 25 16 1 74 Age Total 102 130 253 260 107 852 F = 58.203, p <.000 Table C-32. Greek Council by volunteer becaus e it is a course or class requirement Not a reason A slight reason A strong reason Total IFC 157 45 23 225 NPHC 35 8 18 61 PC 302 120 116 538 MGC 20 5 2 27 Greek Council Total 514 178 159 851 F = 24.930, p <.000 Table C-33. Gender by volunteer because it is a course or class requirement Not a reason A slight reason A strong reason Total Male 172 44 24 240 Female 339 134 135 608 Gender Total 511 178 159 848 F = 22.023, p <.000 Table C-34. Gender by volunteer for recognition or prestige Not important 2 3 4 Very important Total Male 64 42 67 52 18 243 Female 213 161 141 73 25 613 Gender Total 277 203 208 125 43 856 F = 25.790, p <.000

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104 Table C-35. Gender by volunteer to help me achieve career goals Not at all important 2 3 4 Very important Total Male 18 15 33 86 89 241 Female 9 34 76 209 284 612 Gender Total 27 49 109 295 373 853 F = 23.667, p <.000 Table C-36. Age by volunteer in order to ma intain membership in an organization F = 31.971, p <.000 Table C-37. Religion by volunteer becau se actively involved in church Not a reason A slight reason A strong reason Total Protestant 121 68 51 240 Catholic 191 91 32 314 Jewish 126 7 3 136 Other 131 15 9 155 Religion Total 569 181 95 845 F = 1.081, p <.000 Table C-38. Religion by volunteer because of part icipating in civic act ivities as a child No Effect 2 3 4 Major Effect Total Protestant 35 23 57 69 56 240 Catholic 48 46 89 77 52 312 Jewish 28 19 37 33 19 136 Other 49 25 34 29 19 156 Religion Total 160 113 217 208 146 844 F = 35.041, p <.00 Table C-39. Gender by where you live On campus In a sorority or fraternity house With parents In an apt or house with roommates In an apt or house by myself In an apt or house with sorority or fraternity members Total Male 40 92 0 70 8 35 245 Female 146 194 1 182 16 76 615 Gender Total 186 286 1 252 24 111 860 F = 7.595, p <.000 Not a reason A slight reason A strong reason Total 18 30 48 42 120 19 52 79 69 200 20 71 123 50 244 21 77 65 58 200 22 29 33 13 75 Age Total 262 353 233 848

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105 Table C-40. Age by where you live On campus In a sorority or fraternity house With parents In an apt or house with roommates In an apt or house by myself In an apt or house with sorority or fraternity members Total 18 96 7 0 15 1 1 120 19 68 59 0 54 3 16 200 20 15 108 1 89 9 29 251 21 4 78 0 65 7 48 202 22 2 29 0 27 2 15 75 Age Total 185 285 1 251 24 112 858 F = 3.967, p <.000 Table C-41. Academic status by where you live On campus In a sorority or fraternity house With parents In an apt or house with roommates In an apt or house by myself In an apt or house with sorority or fraternity members Total 1st year 155 11 0 23 3 2 194 2nd year 23 108 0 95 4 22 252 3rd year 4 99 1 77 7 36 224 4th year 4 61 0 53 8 46 172 5 years + 0 8 0 5 2 6 21 Academic status Total 186 287 1 253 24 112 863 F = 5.539, p <.000 Table C-42. Race by where you live On campus In a sorority or fraternity house With parents In an apt or house with roommates In an apt or house by myself In an apt or house with sorority or fraternity members Total White 162 257 0 193 13 97 722 African American 4 2 1 25 4 2 38 Asian 3 2 0 7 2 1 15 Hispanic 13 25 0 25 3 12 78 Other 4 1 0 3 1 0 9 Race Total 186 287 1 253 23 112 862 F = 84.951, p <.000 Table C-43. Greek Council by where you live On campus In a sorority or fraternity house With parents In an apt or house with roommates In an apt or house by myself In an apt or house with sorority or fraternity members Total IFC 41 92 0 56 7 34 230 NPHC 15 4 0 37 2 4 62 PC 128 191 1 148 11 66 545 MGC 1 0 0 14 4 8 27 Greek Council Total 185 287 1 255 24 112 864 F = 84.123, p <.000

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106 LIST OF REFERENCES Anderson, J.C. & Moore, L.F. ( 1978). The m otivation to volunteer. Journal of Voluntary Action Research, 7(3-4), 120-125. Anson, J. L., and Marchesani, R. F. (eds.). Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities (20th ed.) Indianapolis, Ind.: Baird's Manual Foundation, 1991. Astin, A., Oseguera, L., Sax, L.J., & Korn, W.S. (2002). The American Freshman: Thirty-Five Trends Los Angeles: Higher Educati on Research Institute, UCLA. Astin, A., Sax, L. J., & Avalos, J. (1999). Long-term effects of volunteerism during the undergraduate years. The Review of Higher Education, 22(2), 187. Astin, A. & Sax, L.J. (1998). How undergraduat es are affected by se rvice participation. Journal of College Student Development, 39 (3), 251. Babbie, E. (1998). The Practice of Social Research Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Babbie, E. (2007). The Practice of Social Research (11th ed.) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Berger, J.B., & Milem, J.F. (2002). The impact of community service involvement on three measures of undergraduate self-concept NASPA Journal 40, No. 1 (http://publications.naspa.org/ naspajournal/vol40/iss1/art6). Boeringer, S., Shehan, C., & Akers, R. (1991). Social contexts and so cial learning in sexual coercion and aggression: Assessing the c ontribution of fraternity membership. National Council on Family Relations, 40 (1), 58. Brewer, J. & Hunter, A. (1989). Multimethod Research: A Synthesis of Styles Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Bryman, A. (2001). Social research methods Oxford: Oxford University Press. Burns, D. J., Reid, J., Toncar, M., Anderson, C ., & Wells, C. (2008). The effect of gender on the motivation of members of generati on Y college students to volunteer. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 19 (1), 99-118. Bussell, H. & Forbes, D. (2001). Understanding th e volunteer market: the what, where, who and why of volunteering. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 7(3), 244-257. Canterbury, R. J., Gressard, C. F., Vieweg, W. V. R., Grossman, S. J., Mckelway, R. B., & Westerman, P. S. (1992). Risk-taking behavior of college st udents and social forces. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 18 (2), 213.

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109 Marks, H., & Jones, S. (2004). Community service in the transition: Shifts and continuities in participation from high school to college. Journal of Higher Education, 75 Martin, M.W. (1994). Virtuous giving: Philanthropy, voluntary service, and caring. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. Moffatt, M. (1991). College life: Underg raduate culture a nd higher education. The Journal of Higher Education, 62 (1), 44. Mounter, C.T. (1985). A study of the degree of success of a volunteer program based on the motivations of volunteer and per ceptions of these by agents. Dissertations Abstracts International, 45 (1). Musick, M. A., Wilson, J., & Bynum, W. B. (2000). Race and formal volunteering: The differential effects of class and religion. Social Forces, 78 (4), 1539-1570. National Center for Education Statistics (2007). Volunteerin g in the United States, 2007. Retrieved on February 9, 2008 from h ttp://www.bls.gov/news.release/volun.nr0.htm Oesterle, S., Johnson, M. K., & Mortimer, J. T. (2004). Volunteerism during the transition to adulthood: A life c ourse perspective. Social Forces, 82 (3), 1123-1149. Omoto, A. M., Snyder, M., & Martino, S. C. (2000). Volunteerism and the life course: Investigating age-rela ted agendas for action. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 22 (3), 181-197. Phillips, Michael. (1982). Mo tivation and Expectation in Successful Volunteerism. Journal of Voluntary Action Research, 11, 118-125. Plucker, J. A., & Teed, C. M. (2004). Evaluatio n of an alternative methodology for investigating leadership and binge drinking among sorority members. Addictive Behaviors, 29 (2), 381388. Preston, C. (2006). Volunteerism among American increased by nearly 12%, according to a new report. Chronicle of Philanthropy 18(14):16. Pryor, J.H., Hurtado, S., Saenz, V.B., Lindholm, J.A., Korn, W.S., Mahoney, K.M. (2005). The American Freshman: National Norms for Fall 2005. Los Angeles: Higher Education Research Institute, UCLA. Putnam, R.D. (1995). Turning In, Turning Out: Th e Strange Disappearance of Social Capital in America. Political Science and Politics, 28 (4), 664-683. Rattray, J., & Jones, M. (2007). Essential elements of questionnaire design and development. Journal of Clinical Nursing 16; 234-243.

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110 Robson, J. (ed.) Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities (19th ed.) Indianapolis, Ind.: Baird's Manual Foundation, 1963. Salant, P. & Dillman, D. A. (1994). How to conduct your own survey. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Sax, L. J. (2004). Citizenship developm ent and the American college student. New Directions for Institutional Research, 2004 (122), 65-80. Serow, R. C. (1991). Students and voluntarism: Looking into the motives of community service participants. American Educational Research Journal, 28 (3), 543-556. Shin, H. (2005). School EnrollmentSocial and Ec onomic Characteristics of Students: October 2003. Retrieved on February 13, 2008 from http://www.census.biz/prod/2005pubs/p20554.pdf Shure, R.S. (1998). The identification of those mo st likely to volunteer: Ch aracteristics of male volunteers in the Big Brothe rs/Big Sisters program. Dissertation Abstracts International Smith, D. H. (1981). Altruism volunteer, and volunteerism. Journal of Voluntary Action Research, 10 21-38. Smith, D.H. (1994). Determinants of Voluntary Association Participati on and Volunteering: A Literature Review. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 23 243-263. Snyder, M. (1993). Basic research and practical problems: The promise of a functional personality and social psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 251264. Stukas, A. A., & Dunlap, M. R. (2002). Commun ity involvement: Theoretical approaches and educational initiatives. Journal of Social Issues, 58 (3), 411-427. Stukas, A. A., Snyder, M., & Clary, G. (1999). The effects of `mandatory volunteerism' on intentions to volunteer. Psychological Science, 10 (1), 59-64. The Franklin Square Group. (2005). A Call for Va lues Congruence. Retrieved on February 13, 2007 from http://www.aascu.org/medi a/pdf/05_values_congruence.pdf The National Multicultural Greek Council. Retrieved on February 15, 2007 from http://www.nationalmgc.org/ Tabachnick, B.G. & L. S. Fidell. (1996). Using multivariate statistics. HarperCollins, New York, New York, USA. Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (1998) Mixed Methodology: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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112 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Adrienne Michelle Jaroch was born and rais ed in the Northwest suburbs of Chicago, Illinois. In 2002, she moved to Ga inesville, Florida to attend the University of Florida. She graduated with a B.A. in Political Science in May of 2006 and immediately entered the Master of Science program in the Department of Family, Y outh and Community Sciences at the University of Florida. Throughout her gradua te studies she worked as a gra duate assistant for the Office of Sorority and Fraternity Affairs, which he lped to guide her th esis research.