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Record for a UF thesis. Title & abstract won't display until thesis is accessible after 2010-08-31.

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022495/00001

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Title: Record for a UF thesis. Title & abstract won't display until thesis is accessible after 2010-08-31.
Physical Description: Book
Language: english
Creator: Herrera, Susan
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Educational Administration and Policy -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Higher Education Administration thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Statement of Responsibility: by Susan Herrera.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Hagedorn, Linda.
Electronic Access: INACCESSIBLE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022495:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022495/00001

Material Information

Title: Record for a UF thesis. Title & abstract won't display until thesis is accessible after 2010-08-31.
Physical Description: Book
Language: english
Creator: Herrera, Susan
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Educational Administration and Policy -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Higher Education Administration thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Statement of Responsibility: by Susan Herrera.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Hagedorn, Linda.
Electronic Access: INACCESSIBLE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022495:00001


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EFFECTIVENESS OF STUDY ABROAD IN DEVELOPING GLOBAL COMPETENCE AND GLOBAL CONSCIOUSNESS: ESSENTIAL OUTCOMES FOR INTER NATIONALIZING THE CURRICULUM By SUSAN W. HERRERA A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008 1

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Susan W. Herrera 2

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To my parents, Louis and Hilda Bayle ss, who opened my eyes to the world. 3

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my husband, Jorge Herrera for supporting my dream to try to make a difference in the world, and keeping me focused on my vision. My daughter Roxane B. Williams deserves a very special thank you for believing in my goal, being a good sounding board, and making sure that my technology was working. I could not have completed this program w ithout the extraordinary dedication of my chair, Dr. Linda Serra Hagedorn, who was always interested, available to guide me, answer questions, provide insight, and give unselfishly of her time and knowledge to ensure my success. I would like to thank my committee members, Dr. Maria Coady, Dr. Kathy Gratto, and Dr. Jennifer Curtis who always we lcomed questions, discussions, and provided a broad range of knowledge, expertise, and understanding that enriched my learning. I would also like to thank R on Kirsch, who supported my doctorate and the time needed away from work, Thomas Bryant for helping me navigate the statistics, Joe Rojo, Dr. Susanne Hill, Dr. Dennis Jett, Dr. Lynn Fraser, Dr. Th omas Oakland, Dr. Sherman Bai, Dr. Mary Fukuyama, Dr. Cristian Cardenas, Dr. Anita Anan tharam, Dr. Kelly Chinners Reiss, Dr. David Honeyman, Ethan Stonerook, Charlice Hurst, Kirste n Eller, and Lucy Di Leo who helped me obtain my sample, Dr. Linda Behar-Horenstein for editorial comments and recommendations, Vasa Buraphadeja and Tracy Litzinger for helping me keep my data in order. A very special thank you goes to my friends Dr. Ann Masters, Dr Lynn Helder, Dr. Min Stone, Rosalinda Lidh, and Tracy Litzinger for al ways encouraging and supporting me. A warm thank you goes to Sandy who stayed by my side throughout the learning process. 4

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................................................... 4LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................9FIGURE ........................................................................................................................ .................10ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................... .............11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 13Research Problem ...................................................................................................................13Internationalizing Higher Education ...............................................................................14Internationalizing the Curriculum ...................................................................................17Study Abroad ...................................................................................................................17Outcomes for Internatio nalized Curriculum ....................................................................19Global Competence .........................................................................................................20Global Consciousness ......................................................................................................21Assessing the Outcomes of In ternationalized Curricula .................................................23Theoretical Framework ...........................................................................................................24Globalization Theories ....................................................................................................25Culture Theories ..............................................................................................................27Cultural Development Theories ......................................................................................28Herrera Model for Educating the Next Generation of Global Professionals ..........................30Purpose of the Study .......................................................................................................... .....31Research Questions ............................................................................................................ .....32Hypotheses .................................................................................................................... ..........32Definition of Terms ................................................................................................................32Significance of the Study ........................................................................................................33Limitations ................................................................................................................... ...........342 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ........................................................................................36Introduction .................................................................................................................. ...........36Globalization ................................................................................................................. ..........37Defining Globalization ....................................................................................................37Economic Perspective of Globalization. .........................................................................37Broader Perspective of Globalization ..............................................................................39Internationalizing Higher Education .......................................................................................41Internationalizing as a Strategic Approach ......................................................................43Learning Outcomes for Interna tionalizing Higher Education .........................................44Internationalizing the Curriculum ...................................................................................45 5

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Study Abroad ...................................................................................................................47Learning Outcomes for Study Abroad ............................................................................50Global Competence ................................................................................................................51Global Competence in Busine ss and Business Education ...............................................55Global Competence in Government and National Security ............................................60Global Competence in Engineeri ng and Engineering Education ....................................61Global Competence in Higher Education ........................................................................65Global Consciousness .......................................................................................................... ...67History of Globalization: An Emerging Global Consciousness ......................................68Globalization and the Development of Global Consciousness .......................................70Global Consciousness in Higher Education ....................................................................75Global Citizenship and the Li nk to Global Consciousness .............................................78Assessment of Global Outcomes ............................................................................................81Summary ....................................................................................................................... ..........843 METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................86Introduction .................................................................................................................. ...........86Research Questions ............................................................................................................ .....86Setting ....................................................................................................................... ..............86Methodology ................................................................................................................... ........86Developing GCAI-1 and GCAI-2 ...........................................................................................87Content Validity ..............................................................................................................87Reliability Testing ...........................................................................................................91Assessing Global Competence and Global Consci ousness in Study Abroad Participants .....91Data Collection ................................................................................................................92Response and Response Rates .........................................................................................93Response Rate .................................................................................................................94Data Analysis ..........................................................................................................................95Hypotheses .................................................................................................................... ..95Pretest and Posttest Analysis ...........................................................................................954 RESULTS ....................................................................................................................... ......101Developing GCAI-1 and GCAI-2 .........................................................................................101Assessing Global Competence a nd Global Consciousness ..................................................103Sample ........................................................................................................................ ...103Response Rate ...............................................................................................................104Data Analysis ........................................................................................................................105Pretest Results ...............................................................................................................105Posttest Results ..............................................................................................................106Generalizability of Results ............................................................................................107Conclusions ...........................................................................................................................107Developing GCAI-1 and GCAI-2 .................................................................................107Assessing Global Competence and Global C onsciousness in Study Abroad Students .108 6

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5 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION .......................................................................................125Introduction .................................................................................................................. .........125Problem and Purpose of the Study ........................................................................................125Review of Methodology .......................................................................................................12 6Part I: Developing GCAI-1 and GCAI-2 ......................................................................127Part II: Assessing Global Competence and Global Consciousness in Study Abroad Students ..................................................................................................................128Summary of Findings ...........................................................................................................129Developing the GCAI-1 and GCAI-2 ............................................................................129Limitations and Recommendations ...............................................................................141Assessing the Effectiveness of Study Abro ad in Developing Global Competence and Global Consciousness ......................................................................................142Unexpected Results .......................................................................................................146Implications for Practice ................................................................................................150Recommendations for Future Research ................................................................................154Impacting the Future of Humanity .......................................................................................154 APPENDIX A SAMPLE GLOBAL COMPETENCIES ..............................................................................157Global Cultural Competencies: A. G. Cant ..........................................................................157What Makes a Successful Career Professiona l in an International Organization: Rand Corporation 2003 ...........................................................................................................157Twelve Competencies for Global Le adership: Harris, Moran, Moran .................................158Attitudinal Core Competencies .....................................................................................158Leadership Core Competencies .....................................................................................158Interaction Core Competencies .....................................................................................158Cultural Core Competencies ..........................................................................................158Global Leadership Competencies: Tiina Jokinen .................................................................158Level 1: Core Leadership Competencies ......................................................................158Level 2: Desired Mental Char acteristics of Global Leaders ........................................158Level 3: Desired Behavioral Competencies of Global Leaders ...................................159Dimensions of Transnational Competence: Peter H. Koehn and James N. Rosenau ...........159Analytic Competence ....................................................................................................159Emotional Competence .................................................................................................159Creative/imaginative Competence .................................................................................159Behavioral Competence/Co mmunicative Facility .........................................................159Behavioral Competence/ Functional Adroitness ............................................................160Global Competency Checklist: William D. Hunter .............................................................160Knowledge .....................................................................................................................160Skills/Experiences .........................................................................................................160Attitudes ..................................................................................................................... ...160 7

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B SAMPLE GLOBAL LEARNING OUTCOMES .................................................................161Institutional Outcomes for Global Competence ...................................................................161Outcomes for International E ducation: Kalamazoo College .........................................161International Learning Outcomes: Michigan State University ......................................161Characteristics of a Globally Compet ent Student: Palo Alto College ...........................161Characteristics of a Globally Competent College Graduate .................................................162Global Competence: The University of Pittsburgh (2003) ............................................163Global Competencies in University Teaching: G. Badley ............................................163Global Competencies for the Global Lear ner: American Council on International Intercultural Education (ACIIE ..............................................................................163International/Intercultural Competencies: AC E Center for International Initiatives ...........165Knowledge .....................................................................................................................165Attitudes ..................................................................................................................... ...165Skills ........................................................................................................................ ......165C KEY ELEMENTS FOR RESPONSIB LE GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP ..................................166D CULTURAL/GLOBAL ASSE SSMENT INSTRUMENTS ................................................167E CORRESPONDENCE .........................................................................................................169F INFORMED CONSENT FORM ..........................................................................................176LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................178BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................188 8

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 List of global competence knowledge, skills/expe riences, attitudes and corresponding references .................................................................................................................... .......97 3-2 List of global consciousness knowledge, skills/experiences, attitudes and corresponding references .................................................................................................................... .......99 4-1 Scales (GCAI-1) with Cronbach Alpha reliability/single item/summed scale ................109 4-2 Scales (GCAI-2) with Cronbach Alpha reliability/single item/summed scale ................112 4-3 Experimental/control gr oup demographics (GCAI-1) .....................................................115 4-4 Experimental/control gr oup demographics (GCAI-2) .....................................................115 4-5 Demographics reflecting the study abro ad experience (posttest experimental) ..............116 4-6 Pretest: T-test (GCAI-1) fo r baseline comparison of experi mental and control groups ..117 4-7 Pretest: T-test (GCAI-2) fo r baseline comparison of experi mental and control groups ..119 4-8 Posttest (GCAI-1): T-test with P-statistic adjustment gain scores for experimental and control groups ..................................................................................................................121 4-9 Posttest (GCAI-2): T-test with P-statistic adjustment gain scores for experimental and control groups ..................................................................................................................123 5-1 Global competence knowledge, skills/experiences and attitudes ....................................156 5-2 Global consciousness knowledge, sk ills/experiences and attitudes .................................156 9

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FIGURE Figure page 1-1 The Herrera model for educating the next generation of global professionals ..................35 10

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Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy EFFECTIVENESS OF STUDY ABROAD IN DEVELOPING GLOBAL COMPETENCE AND GLOBAL CONSCIOUSNESS: ESSENTIAL OUTCOMES FOR INTER NATIONALIZING THE CURRICULUM By Susan W. Herrera August 2008 Chair: Linda Serra Hagedorn Major: Higher Education Administration Globalization has intensified global interconnectedness, producing economic, political, social and cultural interactions that are affec ting and altering the world at an unprecedented speed. This has created a new paradigm for hi gher education. University students across all disciplines must perform their professions su ccessfully across cultu res, and understand the impact of globalization on humanity. However, ma ny reports indicate that American university students remain significantly unprepared fo r the global demands of the 21st century. Institutions of higher edu cation are responding in part by internationalizing higher education, including internationalizing the curric ulum across disciplines. Study abroad is a frequently used model for internationalizing higher education and the curriculum. While the reported benefits of study abroad include an increase in cultural awareness, intercultural sensitivity, and cross-cultural a nd foreign language skills, there is limited agreement as to the learning outcomes that can and should be expecte d. Establishing a standard for global learning outcomes, with the capability of assessing these, can guide the efforts for internationalizing the curriculum, and provide evidence of student success in these areas. 11

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This study introduces global competence and glob al consciousness as two constructs that jointly may be considered essential and comprehensive global learning outcomes for internationalizing higher educat ion and the curriculum. A theo retical framework integrating globalization theories, culture theories, and cultur al development theories is postulated to support the Herrera model for educating the next gene ration of global professi onals. This new model posits the integration of profe ssional excellence, global competen ce and global consciousness for internationalizing the curriculum across discip lines. The theoretical framework forms the foundation for two original instruments that were developed to measure global competence and global consciousness: The Global Competence A ssessment Instrument (GCAI-1) and the Global Consciousness Assessment Instrume nt (GCAI-2). These instruments were administered as pre and posttests to semester-long study abroad students to assess the effectiv eness of study abroad in developing these constructs. The constructs, and identified factors of global competence and global consciousness, along with the means to measure these, fills an important gap in establishing a standard of outcomes and measures of accountability for inte rnationalizing higher ed ucation, the curriculum across disciplines, and study abroad. 12

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Research Problem Globalization has intensified global interconnectedness producing economic, political, social and cultural interactions that are affectin g and altering the entire world at unprecedented speed. American institutions of higher educati on, whose role is to prepare students to be successful professionals, are compelled to acknowledge that the professionals of the future will need to be highly skilled, educated, innovative, specialized, and adapta ble to rapidly changing environments. The professionals of the future also must be intellect ually collaborative and competitive in a global context. The ne w paradigm for globalization in the 21st century is the interconnectedness of the most talented hum an intellectual capaci ties through technology (Friedman, 2005). Global competition increasingly comes fr om skilled, educated, and productive workforces in countries such as China and I ndia, where governments ar e investing extensively and purposefully to educate their massive populati ons to become leaders in the information age (Friedman, 2005; Oblinger & Vervil le, 1998). American university students are no longer competing in the university classroom, they are competing internationally. To be successful in this new paradigm, students must acquire the skills to enable them to become globally competent. Universities are compelled to provid e the curriculum and experiences that ensure the development of global competence and global consciousness (ACE, 1998; Gacel-Avila, 2005; Green & Shoenberg, 2006; Oblinger & Verville, 1998; Robertson, 1992). A report from the National Leadership C ouncil for Liberal Education and Americas Promise, College Learning for the New Global Century ( 2007) stated that American college students are unprepared for the demands of the 21st century. As indicated in the report, less than 13

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13% of college students master a second language less than 34% have taken an international studies course, and less than 10% have part icipated in study abroad. Human resources professionals also claim that le ss than 25% of college graduates are prepared for the new global workforce demands (AAC&U, 2007). The report concludes that curricul um across disciplines must provide global knowledge and competen ce, including an understanding of economic forces, other cultures, interdependence, and political dynamics, as we ll as second-language competence and direct experience with cultural traditions other than ones own (AAC&U, 2007). The terrorist attacks perpetrated on the United States on September 11, 2001 created a sense of urgency. The attacks signaled a need to prepare a national workforce with international expertise in foreign languages and cultures, and an understanding of transnational issues, political systems, economic systems and social i ssues worldwide. This expertise has been deemed to be critical to the needs of nationa l security. The American Council on Educations report, Beyond September 11: A Comprehensive Na tional Policy on Inter national Education (2002) emphasized that Our na tions continued well-being and pr osperity increasingly depends on how the United States and other nations work cooperatively to solve global problems (p. 9). Furthermore, this report cite d a study released in March of 2002 by the General Accounting Office that reported that the sta ff at more than 80 federal agencies and offices lack foreign language skills. This dearth of expertise has ha d a negative impact on the United States military, law enforcement, intelligence, counter-terrorism, and diplomatic efforts (ACE, 2002). Internationalizing Higher Education Internationalizing higher educat ion has been defined as any systematic effort aimed at making higher education [more] responsive to th e requirements and challenges related to the 14

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globalization of societies, econom y and labour markets (van de r Wende, 1997b, as cited in de Wit, 2002, p. 115). The definition of internationa lizing higher education varies among institutions depending on their strategic goals and objectives. Some institutions emphasize increasing foreign language proficiency, area studies, study abroad, cross-cu ltural communication, adding international components to general education requirements, or infusing the curriculum and extracurriculum. Others might see their goals as adding internatio nal components to prepare a global workforce (Scott, 2001). Liberal arts colleges might vi ew internationalization as a way of broadening students knowledge and perspectives, decr easing ethnocentrism, and becoming more cosmopolitan (Cornwell & Stoddard, 1999). Regardless of the focus, internationalizing higher education, has become a campus priority. This position is stated in strategic plans, mission statements, curriculum reforms, faculty deve lopment, and marketing plans (Ellingboe, 1999, p. 3). Institutions of higher education have been compelled to provide the curriculum, experiences, and learning environments that wi ll enable students acro ss disciplines to make positive contributions within the new global paradigm. On January 21, 2000, the Carnegie Corporation convened a meeting with representatives from a wide range of organizations to address the following questions: Are schools, colleges, and univers ities preparing their students to function effectively in a global society in which time and space no longer insulate nations, people and markets of the world? Do U.S. citizens understand enough of the worl d beyond our national borders to evaluate information about internationa l and global issues and make sound judgments about them? Is education in the United States prepari ng Americans for sustained involvement in an interdependent world? (Barker, 2000, p. 2) 15

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Although the number of initiative s and strategies leading towa rd internationalizing higher education has increased, they differ in th eir degree of commitment, emphasis, and implementation. Some internationalization initiatives across di sciplines have been launched to meet the demands for a globally competent workforce. Fo r example, professional standards are being rewritten to include global competencies. Th e ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) Engineering Crite ria 2000, requires engineeri ng programs to include six professional skills outcomes th at include among others, the broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, envi ronmental and societal context, the ability to function on multidiscip linary teams, and the ability to communicate effectively (Shuman, Besterfield-Sacre, McG ourty, 2005, p. 41). Similarly, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB ) 2003 standards cite th at an accredited institution must demonstrate diversity in its business programs including teaching about diverse perspectives and enabling students to be able to practice their professions in a global context. Furthermore, although AACSB standards do not specify any required courses, they do state that undergraduate students must be provided with learni ng experiences that produce as outcomes knowledge and skills for multicultural a nd diversity understanding and in domestic and global environments of organizations (AACSB International, 2007, pp. 9, 15, 16). Regardless of the approaches the rationales and require ments, most professional education programs acknowledge that the new globa lization paradigm dictat es preparing students for work in an interconnected world and enabling them to contribute to the sustainability of humankind. (ACE, 2002; Bremer, 2006; Cant, 2004; Friedman, 2005; Gacel-Avila, 2005; Green, 2002; Hunter, 2004; Koehn & Rosenau, 2002; Lohm ann et al, 2006). Global competence and 16

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global consciousness are significant outcomes of higher education and an essential body of knowledge, skills and attitudes that professiona ls needs to possess (A CE, 1998; Gacel-Avila, 2005; Green, Shoenberg, 2006; Oblinger & Verville, 1998; Robertson, 1992). Internationalizing the Curriculum Internationalizing the curriculum is an integr al and perhaps the most essential component of internationalizing higher e ducation. Colleges and universities should focus their efforts on the curriculum to ensure that students gain in ternational skills and knowledge (Siaya, Hayward, 2003, p.x). The best practices for internationali zing the curriculum are the subject of ongoing discussion. Some of the models implemented include: Adding an international major or minor in the curriculum or within specific disciplines; fo reign language or area st udies; infusing courses with an international content; international service learning; intern ational relations degree programs; international students, faculty and scholars; study abroad and internati onal internships or research; and faculty involvement in intern ational research teachi ng and consulting (Annette, 2002; Ellingboe, 1999; Meste nhauser, 1998; Tonkin, 2006). Study Abroad Study abroad is regarded as one of the most important approaches to internationalizing higher education. Increasing cultur al awareness, intercultural sensitivity, cross-cultural and foreign language skills have been reported to be benefits of this experience. There are many types of study abroad programs. Most are classified by duration such as long-term (semester or year-long programs) or short-term (less than one semester). Long-term study abroad programs are considered to be the most beneficial in term s of learning a foreign language, increasing cross-cultural skills, learning in depth about a new culture, and developing transformational skills such as those needed for global competence and global consciousness 17

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(Anderson, Lawton, Rexeisen & Hubbard, 2006; Dwy er & Peters, 2004; Gorka & Niesenbaum, 2001; NAFSA, 2003, as cited in Lewis & Niesenbaum, 2005). While short-term study abroad has generally not been considered as beneficial as longterm study abroad, recent studies have shown that short-term programs afford the opportunity for larger numbers of students to participate in st udy abroad, and that there are significant positive effects both academically and toward increase d cultural sensitivity (Anderson, Lawton, Rexeisen & Hubbard, 2006; Lewis & Niesenbaum, 2005). In a study at Indiana University conducted w ith business students, study abroad played a significant role in career choice. The findings showed that 96% of the students felt that this experience would change their care er choice, while 94% reported an interest in working for an American company with an international presence. The authors concluded that the benefit for the students careers would be meaningful outcomes and skills that could be articulated on a resume or as part of a job sear ch (Orahood, Kruze, Pearson, 2004, p. 128). The Commission on the Abraham Lincoln St udy Abroad Fellowships (2005) reported that students who have particip ated in study abroad programs continue to use their newly acquired languages, develop an incr eased interest in their studies, acquire skills that carry over into the workplace, perceive the world differentl y, and have an increased ability to understand and communicate effectively with people from other cultures. Recognizing the importance of study abroad fo r the future of the nations ability to respond to global challenges, the Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Act of 2006 (S.3744) was introduced by Senators Richard Durbin of Illinois and Norm Coleman of Minnesota in July 2006. The purpose of this legislation was to make study abroad accessible to all, and to have study abroad become the norm for undergraduate co llege students. The b ill establishes the goal 18

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of having one million students studying abroad every year by 2016-2017. This would represent approximately fifty percent of all undergradu ate students (Commission on the Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Fellowship Program, 2005; NAFSA, 2006). This aspiration is in sharp contrast to the 205,983 students that studied abroad in 2004-2005, in spite of the fact that these statistics represented a doubling of student participation in study abroad over an eight-year period (Opendoors 2006 Fast Facts). NAFSA, the Associati on of International E ducators reported that in the 2005-2006 academic year, 223,534 students studied abroad, representing about 1% of students enrolled in higher educa tion. Minority students are unde rrepresented in study abroad. The vast majority of study abroad students ar e Caucasian (83%), a factor that the Lincoln Fellowship Program hopes to address (Commi ssion on the Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Fellowship Program, 2005; NAFSA, 2007). Outcomes for Internationalized Curriculum As institutions of higher edu cation seek for the optimal means for internationalizing the curriculum, it is essential to establish outcomes that can and should be expected from these reforms. The terms global competence, intercultural competence, intercultural sensitivity, crosscultural competence, global citizenship, world citizenship, and global consciousness are some of the many that are used by several authors, and at various institutions to label the cluster of outcomes expected from internationalized curricula (Gacel-Avila, 2005; Green, Shoenberg, 2006; Olson, Green & Hill, 2006). (See Appendi x B for sample global learning outcomes.) Establishing learning outcomes and providing the means to assess th ese can help guide the efforts to improve the curriculum, and dem onstrate that students are developing global competencies as a result of inte rnationalization effort s (Olson, Green & Hill, 2006). Furthermore, as institutions of higher education respond to the professional skills required to succeed across all disciplines in a global paradigm, global competence and global consciousness become important 19

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competencies to seek to attain from intern ationalized curricula (ACE, 1998; Gacel-Avila, 2005; Green, Shoenberg, 2006; Oblinger & Ve rville, 1998; Robertson, 1992). Global Competence Several studies have been conducted in an effo rt to define global competence and identify the knowledge, skills and attitudes that character ize global competence. Most of the literature on global competence reflects the nature of globa l competence as being pr imarily the functional requirements to operate successfully in a gl obal environment (Biks on, Treverton, Moini, Lindstrom, 2003; Cant, 2004; Hunter, 2004; Jokinen, 2005; Koehn & Rosenau, 2002). The new paradigm of an interconnected wo rld through rapid globalization requires that the next generation of global citizens and globa l professionals develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes to perform successfully across cultures. These global competencies are increasingly becoming requirements for workers in most fiel ds, across all nations. As a result, businesses must alter human resources and training and development strategies, and institutions of higher education need to evaluate and modify their curric ula, programs and strategies to meet the needs of a global workforce. In its 1998 report, Educating for Global Competence The American Council on Education (ACE) stressed the importance of hi gher educations role in developing human resources for the new global paradigm. The report posited that American institutions of higher education must strive to devel op global competence to ensure th at the next generation of global professionals will possess the global expertise to influence national security issues, foreign policy, business, environmental is sues, public health, population cont rol, relief from poverty and famine, national disasters a nd population dislocations. Madeleine F. Green (2002) addressed the co mpelling mandate for institutions of higher education to adequately e ducate for global competence: 20

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In the age of globalization and post-Septembe r 11, U.S. colleges and universities face an urgent and perplexing set of questions about how to educate students for this new world. We cannot make the common claim to have th e best system of hi gher education in the world unless our graduates can free themselv es of ethnocentrism bred of ignorance and navigate the difficult terrain of cultural complexity (p. 1). Additionally, universities need to become the primary venue for developing globally competent professionals that are intellect ually capable of making a contri bution to the new paradigm of social, economic and political global interdependen ce. These students should be prepared to live and work globally (G acel-Avila, 2005). Institutions of higher edu cation define global competence educational outcomes differently. This increases the difficulty in determ ining the most effective curricular approaches for developing global competence and assessing their effectiveness. Recently, some institutions of higher education have focused on determining the knowledge, skills and attitudes that should be developed to produce students who are globally competent. These actions have led to specifying global competence as outcomes of inte rnationalization (Olson, Green & Hill, 2005). Global Consciousness Global consciousness is firmly rooted in the notion that globaliz ation profoundly impacts humanity worldwide in ways that are both posit ive and negative, and reflecting the accelerated global interconnectedness of the 21st century. Although not a ne w phenomenon, globalization today can be defined based on an interpretation of the impact of globalization on the world. The definitions reflect the conflicting nature of globa lization, either as a positive economic force, or one that needs to be kept in close watch to keep in check the forces of Western hegemony, prevent the destruction of the environment and cultures, and re spond to the historical, social, political, and humanistic impact of economic globalization. In his book The World is Flat, Friedman (2005) states that globalization has, through recent technological advances, empowered individuals throughout the world to collaborate and 21

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compete globally. He asserts that this is equa lly empowering individual s from all different locations of the world, many whom are from cultures that are non-Western and non-white (p. 10). Furthermore, Chua (2003) asserts that the economic ga ins of globalization have not trickled down from the market-dominant minori ties to the impoverished majorities in many countries, leading to powerful ethno-nationalist, anti-market pressures, confiscation, instability, authoritarian backlash and violence(p. 16). The inequities of globaliza tion require a greater global consciousness that seeks to understand world history; the human conditi on, global environmental challenges, the development of skills to manage complex societie s, the creation of different types of solutions, and the visualization of new ways of understa nding our own society (R obertson, 2004). Most importantly, globalization requires a change of mindset that rec ognizes and understands profoundly the implications of a new interconnected world. Cuddy-Keane (2003) emphasized that globalizati on from an economic perspective can be predatory or productive and cultural globali zation may be colonizing or cooperative, and it is the role of humanists to create the global co nsciousness that will play a role in sensitizing globalization (pp. 541, 554). The role of higher education, in light of th e dichotomous nature of globalization, should be to prepare students to be able to function effectively in the global marketplace and to also be able to make a positive contribution to the su stainability of humankind. Those who graduate from institutions of higher education will be ex pected to understand global systems, global issues, the dynamics of how th ings are interrelated and inte rconnected in the world, and how society can best address global issues (Moffat, as cited in Bremer 2006, p. 40). Furthermore, these graduates have to understa nd that the issues that will need to be faced as a result of 22

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globalization include growing in equalities in economic devel opment around the world, growing environmental hazards, issues of sustainability, justice and security (Moffat, as cited in Bremer 2006, p. 40). In 1998, the United Nations Educational, Sc ientific and Cultural Organizations (UNESCO) World Declaration on Higher Education for the Twenty-First Century stated that higher education-and education in general-sh ould serve a world order that enables the development of a more equitable, tolerant, and responsible society (a s cited in Gacel-Avila, 2005, p.122). Gacel-Avila (2005) posits that higher education should seek to develop within all disciplines the perspective of globalization and the global interc onnectedness of the discipline. This necessitates a new way of thinking, conceptu alizing the discipline in a global context, and recognizing that educational st rategies should include understa nding and preparation for global competition, and simultaneously promoting inter cultural understanding and sustainable human development (p. 123). Assessing the Outcomes of Internationalized Curricula Developing global competence and globa l consciousness through internationalized curricula has become an essent ial responsibility of higher edu cation. Of equal importance is being able to measure the effectiveness of curricular initiatives that purport to be able to engender global competence and global consciousness. A study released in 2003 by the American Counc il on Education showed that very little effort has been made to assess these efforts and their implementation, and data are lacking on how well higher education is doing in preparing undergraduates for the demands of the contemporary world (p. xi). While the literatu re clearly addresses th e desired outcomes of internationalizing higher educati on in general, and more specifi cally of internationalizing the 23

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curriculum, few references exist on assessment methods and strategies for these initiatives (Deardorff, 2004). As the number of study abroad programs incr ease, and are further propelled by factors such as the Lincoln Fellowships that are expect ed to eventually facilitate one million students studying abroad per year (by the 2016-2017 academic year), systematic evaluation methods will become increasingly important (Commission on the Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Fellowship Program, 2005). Also, as greater resources are funneled in to study abroad programs, the demand for increased accountability has increased. Data that support the value of th ese programs to student learning outcomes are lacking (Anderson, Lawt on, Rexeisen & Hubbard, 2006; Chieffo & Griffiths, 2004; Ingraham & Peters on, 2004; Sutton & Rubin, 2004). Theoretical Framework Global competence can be defined as the ability to function effectively, from an economic, political and social perspective, in an increasingly interconnected and interdependent world that is accelerated by tec hnology. Global consciousness can be characterized as the ability to understand the impact of globalization on human ity, serving to temper the market forces of globalization. The assumptions are that global competence and global co nsciousness together are essential constructs that th e next generation of global professionals must possess, and that these can be developed and measured. The theore tical framework that gui des this study is an integrated theoretical model that includes globalization theories (Robertson, Roland, 1992; Robertson, Robbie, 2004); culture theories (Nieto, 2004; Hofstede, 2001); and cultural development theories (Be nnett, 1998; Pedersen, 1998). 24

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Globalization Theories Roland Robertson (1992) posits that globalizat ion theory is the foundation for an ongoing discussion on the human condition worldwide that includes a join t discussion and analysis of both the economic impact of globalization a nd the humanistic impact of globalization. His globalization model focuses on the increasing interconnectedness of soci eties, individuals, international relations, and huma nkind. The model analyzes the e volution of world order, how this occurs in a fluid, globalized world, and how this leads to an understanding of the global human condition. Robertson (1992) believes that understandi ng globalization requires knowing that the global human condition, or global field is comple x (p. 27). Therefore, to have a realistic view of the world today it is necessa ry to understand both the independen ce of the factors of societies, the individual, international relations, and humankind, as well as the complexity of the interactions of all. Second, he posits that his analysis of the cultural perspective of globalization is complementary to the understand ing of the economic forces of globalization that have served as the impetus for increased interconnectedness. Third, he believes that there will be an increasing relativization of perspectives caused by interacti ons of globalization, and that these need to be addressed in the ways colleges and universities are internati onalizing their curricula (p.29). Robertson posits that the di scussion of globalization is an interdisciplinary discussion that requires the restructuring of the disciplines to include learning the discipline within a global context. He adds that learning about globalization should involve understanding the complexity of the global impact on the local c ondition and the local impact on the global condition. The discussion of globalization has to be relevant to the world in whic h we live and has to have an understanding of the factors influencing the rapid and ongoing re-structuring and 25

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interdependence of the world unique to 21st century globalization. In essence, this involves acquiring a new sense of the world as a single place (Robertson, 1992, p. 184). Robbie Robertson (2004) describes 21st century globalization as historically, the third wave of globalization. This new wave carries with it challenges and threat s to the stability of humankind and to the world. The first challenge is expanding global demo cracy and global civil society. Robertson posits that the extent of shor t-term profit-maximizing strategi es and forms of monopoly control at the expense of investment in human capital and infrastructur e has the potential of backfiring on the industrialized world, in particular due to the extensive interc onnectedness of todays globalization (p. 12). The second challenge is th e environmental impact of globalization and the need to temper the economic drivers by devel oping plans to employ technology, yet minimize the environmental impact. The third challenge is the interconnectedness and mobility of humanity. This is particularly important as formerly homogenous nations are becoming increasingly multicultural and heterogeneous. Robe rtson posits that the inability of nations to tolerate diversity will be the most de stabilizing factor of globalization. Robertson believes that for positive transforma tion to occur in light of the challenges of the third wave of globalization, the development of global consci ousness is essential. Global consciousness will lead to the empo werment of individuals and societies and the ability to create global solutions that are based on an inclusive rather than excl usive reading of human history (p. 13). Globalization theories provide the framew ork for learning about how to function effectively in an interdependent, interconnected globalized world, and also how to become a positive force for the sustainability of huma nkind. The assumption is that understanding 26

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globalization from a sociological perspective provides a broad-based understanding of the economic, political, social, cultur al, and environmental factors be ing impacted by globalization. The ability to understand the complexity and conse quences of globalization is an integral part of the constructs of global compet ence and global consciousness. Culture Theories Dynamic theory of culture Sonia Nieto (2004) explores th e notion of culture as dynamic and in a continuous state of transformation. She posits that understanding this notion of culture helps understand the differences among individuals within a context, such a school or a study abroad experience. She defines culture as The values, traditions, social and political re lationships, and worldview created, shared, and transformed by a group of people bound to gether by a common history, geographic location, language, social cl ass, religion, or other sh ared identity (p. 146). Nieto also posits that the notion of power is included in culture, not ing that the cultural values of the dominant groups in societies are perceived as being normal, whereas the subordinate group values are viewed as being aberrant (p. 147). Be ing able to conceptua lize culture as dynamic helps understand how culture affects learning, an d helps prevent cultural assumptions and overgeneralizations that can result in stereotypi ng and biases toward groups. Additionally it is useful in understanding the complexity of identity as the world becomes increasingly interconnected. Values-belief theory of culture Hofstede (2001) defines culture as the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or categor y of people from another. He refers to the mind as the process in which attitudes, beli efs and skills are influenced by the way people think, feel and act. Therefore, this notion of cu lture includes values systems. Hofstede posits 27

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that systems of values are a core element of culture (p. 10). He a dds that values become visible through peoples symbols, heroes and rituals. The ma nifestation of these through behavior are easily understood by insiders, but often not unders tood by outsiders. In sum, culture is a series of character istics that are shared by a group, and that influence how the group responds to its environment (p. 9-10). Nietos theory of culture provides the ability to contextu alize and understand individual differences within a culture-analysis framewor k that considers the impact of the increased interconnectedness, human mobility, empowerment, and rapid change fueled by globalization. Hofstedes theory of culture cont ributes to understanding behaviors, symbols, heroes and rituals, contributing to a greater ability to communicate and work effectively across cultures. These factors are an integral part of the constructs of global competence and global consciousness. Cultural Development Theories Developmental model of intercultural sensitivity The Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) describes a persons ability to gain intercultural sensitivity by navigating through a continuum of developmental stages that are intricately rela ted to increased experiences with other cultures. The foundations for this model are the meaning-making models of cognitive psychology and constructivism (Bennett, 1998). The model reflects a range of development from ethnocentric stag es to ethnorelative stages. The ethnocentric stages are defined as those in which peoples worldviews are central to their reality, and these views form the basis for judging others. People w ho are in ethnorelative stages are characterized as being able to adapt their ways of behaving to multiple environments and being comfortable with many standards and cu stoms. The development process includes six stages of development: Denial, defense, mini mization, acceptance, adap tation and integration 28

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(p. 26). To proceed through this developmental process requires having experience with differences (Bennett, 1998). Pedersens multicultural development model Pedersens (1998) model focuses on the development of awareness, knowledge and skill. The fundamental belief is that multicultural develo pment can be taught and th at as a result of this instruction, people will be able to gain new beliefs, knowledge a nd behaviors, and be able to apply these to multiple environments. Awareness represents the affective domain and is characterized by cultural selfawareness, and understanding others through this lens. The learni ng outcomes include attitude shifts and understandi ng cultural assumptions. This stag e focuses on building the affective domain. Knowledge includes acquiring information a bout cultures and understanding various cultures and beliefs. This stage focuses on cognitive development. Skill involves being able to translate this ne w knowledge into action that is appropriate and that allows people to functi on effectively in a new cultural e nvironment. This stage focuses on behavioral development (Pedersen, 1988). Cultural development theories form the foundation for positing that global competence and global consciousness are cultura l constructs that can be learne d. The internationalization of higher education and in particular the internationalization of the curriculum is based on the premise that it is possible to learn the necessary knowledge, skills and attitude s to be effective in the global paradigm, and hence they can be taught. The Bennett model states that intercultural se nsitivity, or a shift from ethnocentrism to ethnorelativism is a learning proces s resulting from increased experi ence with different cultures. The notion of ethnorelativism is clearly illust rated in the factors that constitute global 29

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competence and global consciousness. The Pedersen model posits that there are three areas that are part of multicultural devel opment: Awareness, knowledge and skill. The learning outcomes for each of these areas as described by Pedersen constitute some of the factors of global competence and global consciousness. Cultural development theories provide the framework for measuring study abroad to assess its impact on developing gl obal competence and global consciousness. Study abroad is a curricular model that provides e xperience with different cultures, and may be an effective means to develop global awareness, knowledge and skills. Herrera Model for Educating the Next Generation of Global Professionals The Herrera model for educating the next generation of global professionals unites theories of globalization, culture theories, cultural developmen t theories, and standards of professional excellence into a consolidated model. This model posits that professionals across all disciplines must possess profe ssional excellence, global compet ence, and global consciousness, and that these skills and constructs can be learned and should be ta ught. This requisite triad is an integrated, balanced model for internationalized curricula across discipline s, providing a standard for learning outcomes for educating the next generation of global professionals. Professional excellence is reflected in the st andards of excellence re quired by individual professions. These standards of excellence form an integral part of ex isting curricula and are reflected in the learning outcomes for the profes sion. Global competition and the need for global collaboration demand that graduating profession als excel in their professions by meeting or exceeding the standards of the profession. Global competence is the ability to functi on effectively and successfully in a global environment. Professionals who possess global competence have the knowledge, skills and attitudes to operate economically, politically and socially in different cultural environments. 30

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This requires having a profound understanding of the dynamic nature of cultures and their value systems. Global consciousness is the ability to understand the impact of globalization on humanity. Professionals w ho possess global consciousness have the knowledge, skills and attitudes to provide a balan ce between the economic drivers of globalization and the human impact. This requires understanding the complex ity of human global inte ractions, the impact of the economic forces of globalization on the sust ainability of humankind and the environment. Global consciousness posits the notion of an increasingly inte rconnected world in which the actions of one affect the lives of others. The Herrera model provides an integrated curricular model that could create a developmental shift in global mindset reflected in the practice of future professionals. Purpose of the Study There is a limited amount of research that defines global competence and global consciousness as outcomes for in ternationalizing highe r education and internationalizing the curriculum. Furthermore, there are no existi ng assessment instruments that measure global competence and global consciousness. A frequen tly used model for internationalizing the curriculum is study abroad. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of study abroad in specifically developing global competence and global consciousness. This study established the constructs of global competence and global consciousness as outcomes for internationalizing the curriculum. It was c onducted using two assessment instruments developed by the researcher, based on the literature and stated theories, that measure the knowledge, skills and attitudes of global competence and global consciousness. These two complex constructs were measured independently of each other as they represent the distinct knowledge, skills and attitudes that have been id entified as factors of global competence and 31

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global consciousness. The definitions and classifications of the f actors of global competence and global consciousness that are reflected in the lit erature can be placed wi thin the framework of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Research Questions This study explored the idea that the cons tructs of global competence and global consciousness can be learned through the curricul um model of study abroa d. This study also sought to measure the effectiven ess of study abroad on developi ng global competence and global consciousness. The following important research questions served to guide this study: What are the effects of study abroad on global competence? What are the effects of study abroad on global consciousness? Hypotheses This study was designed and conducted to test the following hypotheses: Null: Study abroad will have no effect on global competence. o Alternative : Study abroad will produce an increase in global competence. Null: Study abroad will have no e ffect on global consciousness. o Alternative : Study abroad will produce an increase in global consciousness. Definition of Terms Globalization: The global interconnectedness a nd interdependence of economic, political, social and cultural in teractions that have been intensified by technology and are rapidly altering the world. Global competence : The ability to function effectively, from an economic, political and social perspective, in an in creasingly interconnected and in terdependent world that is accelerated by technology. Hunter (2004) adds that global competence means having an open mind while actively seeking to understa nd cultural norms and expectations of others, leveraging this gained knowledge to interact, communicate and work effectively outside ones own environment (p. 101). Global consciousness : The ability to understand the impact of globalization on humanity serving to mitigate the market forces of globalization. It seeks to understand world history, the complexity of the huma n condition, global environmental challenges, the development of skills to manage comple x and diverse societies, the creation of different types of solutions, and the visual ization of new ways of understanding our own society (Robertson, 2004). 32

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Internationalizing higher education : Defined as any systematic effort aimed at making higher education [more] responsive to the requirements and challenges related to the globalization of societie s, economy and labour markets (van der Wende, 1997b, as cited in de Wit, 2002, p. 115). Internationalizing the curriculum : An integral part of internationalizing higher education that can be defined as adding an in ternational major or minor in the curriculum or within specific disciplines; infusing course s with international content; international service learning; foreign la nguage or area studies; intern ational relations degree programs; international student s, faculty and scholars; st udy abroad and international internships or research; and faculty involvement in intern ational research teaching and consulting (Annette, 2002; Ellingboe, 1999; Mestenhauser, 1998; Tonkin, 2006). Study abroad : Includes a variety of programs wh ere students complete part of their degree program while studying outside of the Un ited States. This includes activities such as classroom study, research, internships, service lear ning and others. Programs generally range in duration from one week to one academic year. Significance of the Study This study establishes the va lidity of global competence and global consciousness as integrated constructs that could become a standard for global learning outcomes to be used when internationalizing higher education, the curric ulum, and specifically study abroad. The constructs of global competence and global consciousness and the accompanying assessment instruments developed as part of this study to measure these, offer a systematic framework for establishing and assessing outco mes of study abroad programs ac ross all disciplines. This study will further the understanding of global lear ning outcomes for study abroad, and advance accountability for these programs by pr oviding the means to measure them. This study advances the exploration and development of mo dels of inte rnationalized curricula that develop global competence and gl obal consciousness by providing the knowledge, skills and attitudes that need to be developed, and the accompanying assessments to measure the efficacy of these curricula. This comprehens ive system of global learning outcomes coupled with corresponding assessment tools can be a pplied to different t ypologies of curricular initiatives used to internationalize higher education across disciplines. 33

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Limitations Purposive sampling was used. All of the studen ts for the experimental and control groups were recruited from several units within a singl e institution. Particip ation in the study was voluntary. This limitation was compounded as th e volunteers were asked to complete two pretests (global competence and global consciousness) and two pos ttests. The researcher piloted the instruments at only one institution presenting a threat to external validity. Selection may have been a threat to internal validity as those students who participated in study abroad may have chosen to do so because they already possessed a certain degree of global competence and/or global consciousness. The pre and posttest design could have posed a threat to internal validity as the assessments are the same. 34

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Figure 1-1. The Herrera model for educating th e next generation of global professionals 35

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction This chapter will provide a comprehensive review of literature focusing on the importance of developing global competence and global consciousness as outcomes of internationalizing higher educati on curricula. An overview of 21st century globalization is provided to understand how the in tensification of global inte rconnectedness impacts economic, political, cultural, environmental and social in teractions. Internati onalizing higher education strategies are explored, focusing primarily on out comes for internationali zation, and the role of internationalizing the curriculum within this framework. The literature review highlights study abroad as a curriculum model for internationalizing higher education. The future of study abroad in the United States is di scussed to understand the scope of these programs. The importance of esta blishing and assessing outcomes to increase the effectiveness of study abroad, and provide measures of accountability for this type of curriculum, is also addressed. This literatur e provides the rationale for esta blishing the constructs of global competence and global consciousness as neces sary outcomes for internationalizing higher education. Furthermore, this literature revi ew serves to determine the knowledge, skills, experiences and attitudes that constitute thes e constructs. Global competence and global consciousness are reviewed separa tely to ensure an understanding of their differentiation and to establish that their symbiotic relationship represen ts the totality of the global mindset required for the next generation of global professionals. Last, the literature review looks at assessmen t instruments for measuring constructs that are similar in nature to global competence and gl obal consciousness to clarify the differentiation between existing assessment instruments and th e two instruments developed by the researcher. 36

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Globalization Defining Globalization Globalization, although not a new phenomenon, ha s recently been defined based on an interpretation of the impact of globalization on the world. The definitions reflect the conflicting nature of globalization. This phenomenon has be en viewed as a positiv e or negative economic force. A positive perspective sees globalization as spreading wealth, democracy and freedom worldwide. A negative perspective views globaliza tion as a phenomenon that must be kept in close watch to keep in check the forces of West ern hegemony, to prevent the destruction of the environment and cultures, and to respond to th e historical, social, political, and humanistic impact of economic globaliza tion. The conflicting impacts and complexity of globalization necessitate a reconceptualizati on of how higher education prepar es professionals capable of navigating this new paradigm successfully. Economic Perspective of Globalization. From an economic perspectiv e, globalization is often vi ewed as both a positive and progressive force. Fueled by t echnological innovations, many believe that it will bring economic security, political stability, wealth and well-being through the seamless flow of business, investment, trade, and human resources from one country to another. A joint communiqu issued at the 1996 G-7 Su mmit asserted that gl obalization will allow developing countries to raise th eir standard of living by increasing skilled jobs (as cited in Steger, 2005). This is illustrated by the ne w trend toward outsourci ng white-colla r jobs to countries such as India and China, where th ere are increasing numbers of highly educated workers, whose wages are significantly lower than those expected here in the United States or in other western countries (Ahlawat, 2006). According to Friedman (2005), regardless of the profession, anything that can be digitized can be outsourced to either the smartest or the 37

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cheapest producer, or both (p. 14). Even the mo st highly sensitive jobs, such as financial analysis are being outsource d. A financial analyst in Bangalore, India will make $15,000 annually, in contrast with one in New York or London making $80,000 (pp. 14, 19). Although the wages are significantly lower than in the Western world, the competition for these new jobs [in country] is strong. They represent a hope fo r a higher standard of living. Companies provide free transportation, lunch, dinner, life insuran ce and medical insurance for the entire family (p. 25). Business Week claimed that globalization will inevitably lead to markets overtaking the importance of government (as cited in Steger, 20 05). This notion was touted by Milton Friedman who advised countries emerging from socialism to privatize, priv atize, privatize, yet publicly retracted his statement in 2001 when he claimed th at the rule of law was more important than privatization (as cited in Fukuyama, 2004, p. 28). Fukuyama said the economic power of globalization will lead to expanded middle classe s, possibly producing a spread of democracy worldwide (Fukuyama as cited in Steger, 2005). Ch anda (2002) supports this assertion indicating that the number of governments holding multi-party elections have increased from less than thirty percent to over sixty percent since 1974. In his book The Lexus and the Olive Tree Friedman described gl obalization as a dynamic process that connects markets, nation-states and technologies at a lightning pace, driven by freemarket capitalism. He asserted that nation-stat es that open their economie s to the forces of the free market, will be the beneficiaries of the weal th generated by globaliza tion. He described the United States as the hegemonic force of globaliz ation, yet recognized that individuals and nationstates will also become empowered (Friedman, 1999). In contrast to his 1999 book, in The World is Flat, Friedman claimed that Globalizati on 1.0 and 2.0 were driven primarily by 38

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Europeans and American individuals and busine sses but Globalization 3.0 is going to be more and more driven not only by individuals but also by a much more diverse, non-Western, non-white-group of individuals, illustrating the rapidly changing nature of globalization (Friedman, 2005, p. 11). Economic globalization is often described as a negative, destabilizing force, an economic imperialism that is destroying the environment, societies and cultures. As CuddyKeane states: The very messiness and uncertainty surroundi ng the issue [globaliz ation] has led many either to reject globalization as an overused and now meani ngless clich or to identify it exclusively with economic impe rialism, leaving, as the only alternative the oppositional stance of anti-globalization (p. 541). Broader Perspective of Globalization A broader perspective of globalization seeks to understand the complex connectivity of a globalized world that includes, among others, the economic, political, social, cultural, and environmental implications of interdepende nce and interconnectedness (Tomlinson, 1999, p. 2). Cuddy-Keane (2003) asserts that a definition of globalization should include an investigation of global currents of thought, tracing the complexities and thus th e choices that animate the multidirectional experience of living in an interdependent, interactive world (p. 541). Additionally, definitions of globalization may incl ude the understanding that the impact of global interconnectedness has outcomes that can be unexpected and may not be positive (Allen & Ogilvie, 2004). Falk (1998) described the conflicting nature of the definitions of globalization as globalization-from-above and globalization-from-below. Gl obalization-from-above describes the global market forces and globalization-from-below desc ribes the opposing forces to globalization-from-above, challenging the effects of uncontrolled business, and promoting a 39

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social agenda. These forces are not necessarily viewed as polarizing forces, rather globalizationfrom-below has the capacity to temper and cont rol the negative effects of globalization-fromabove (p. 6). Roland Robertsons (1992) globalization model, referred to as the global field, posits that globalization needs to be understood by reco gnizing the multidimensional complexity of the relative independence, as well as the interconnectedness of societ ies, individuals, international relations, and humankind. This perspective of globa lization leads to a broader understanding that goes beyond the discussion of economic forces to a greater underst anding of the cultural impact of globalization and the rela tivization of pers pectives (p. 28). Friedman (2005) adds that globalization has, through recent technological advances, empowered individuals worldwide to collaborate and compete globa lly, and that this is equally empowering individuals from all different locations of the wo rld, many who are from cultures that are non-Western and non-white (p. 10,11). Additionally, this level of empowerment has also reached those who are angry, frustrated and humiliated, allowing terrorism to be globalized with the same equality (p. 8). Chua (2003) states that the economic gains of globalization have, in many countries, not trickled down from the market-dominant minorities to the impoverished majorities, leading to power ful ethno-nationalist, anti-market pressures, confiscation, instability, authoritarian backlash and violence (p. 16). Industrialized nations have been the greates t beneficiaries of the economic gains of globalization, while those were tr aditionally poor, in many cases have seen their levels of poverty increase. The increasing wealth of the already powerfu l and wealthy in the poorer countries, coupled with the incr eased interconnectedness provided by new technology, has led to greater knowledge of the disparit ies that exist on a global scale, fueling anger and resentment 40

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from those who are not empowered. This anger is targeted at the Western nations that have led the economic forces of globalization (Chanda, 2002). Robertson (2004) concurs that unbridled profiteering and lack of empowe rment coupled by increased inte rconnectedness, ar e some of the most significant challenges of globalization in the 21st century facing the industrialized world. He adds that the issues of empowerme nt require the advancement of a global consciousness that strives toward understa nding world history and the human condition, environmental challenges, the development of skills to manage complex and diverse societies, different types of solutions, and new ways of understanding our own so ciety (Robertson, 2004). The challenges of globalization indicate a need for a change of mindset that recognizes and understands profoundly the implications of a new interconnected world, one that functions and evolves with a speed, scope and magnitude that has never been seen in previous waves of globalization. Internationalizing Higher Education Institutions of higher education are recognizing that education in the 21st century must meet the challenges of a rapidly globalizing wo rld, in which economic, so cial, political, health, security, and environmental interests are interconn ected and interdependent across cultures. This has led to adopting initiatives that are generally identified as internati onalizing higher education. While internationalization may be included as part of the overall strategic plans, the approaches and implementation vary significantly across institutions. As more institutions of higher education proceed with internati onalization plans that include in ternationalizing the curriculum as a significant component, th e need for accountability has increased. This has generated an interest and effort to identify and me asure the outcomes fo r global learning. The American Council on Education (2002) st ated, our future success or failure in international endeavors will rely almost entirely on the global competence of our people (p. 7). 41

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To accomplish this goal, our educational system must: Produce international experts and knowledge to address national strategic needs; strengthen U.S. abili ty to solve global problems; and develop globally competent citizenry a nd workforce (pp. 9-10). The Association of American Colleges and Universitie s (2007) noted the urgency to educate students in this new paradigm stating, American education calls for a far-reaching shift in the focus of schooling from accumulating course credits to bu ilding real-world capabilities (p. 5). Internationalizing higher education has different meanings for different institutions, based on their strategic goals and objectives. Some institutions have emphasized increased foreign language proficiency, area studies, study ab road, cross-cultural communication, added international components to general education requirements, or infused the curriculum and extracurriculum. Some institutions have added international components to prepare a global workforce (Scott, 2001). Other institutions such as liberal arts colleges might view internationalization as away of broadening st udents knowledge and pe rspectives, decreasing ethnocentrism, and becoming more cosmopolitan (Cornwell & Stoddard, 1999, p. 6). Knight (2003) has defined in ternationalization of higher ed ucation in the following way, to serve as a means for comparing internationa lization cross-nationally and across sectors and institutional levels as the process of integrating an international, intercultural or global dimension into the purpose, functions or delivery of post-s econdary education. (as cited in Knight, 2004, p. 11). Internationalizing higher education, is now a priority on many campuses that is stated in strategic plans, mission statements, curriculum reforms, faculty development, and marketing plans (Ellingboe, 1999). 42

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Internationalizing as a Strategic Approach Participants in the internationalization proce ss of higher education va ry in their strategic approaches to internationalizing higher education. These appro aches are often reflective of personal and institutional ideolo gies. While some may view in ternational exchanges or study abroad experiences as primary vehicles for internationalization, others posit that internationalizing the curriculum is a mo re comprehensive and equitable means of internationalization. Hans de Wit (2002) describes four approaches that serve to differ entiate the goals of internationalizing higher education: The activity approach includes academic and extracurricular activities; scholar, student and faculty exchange; area studies; techni cal assistance; intercultural training; international students; and joint research activ ities. This approach is concerned with developing the content areas, with interna tionalizing the curriculum as the most significant component of this approach. (p. 116). The rationale approach identifies the purpose of the initiatives rather than strictly content development. Examples include education fo r global citizenship, education to promote world peace, or developing a culture that v alues and supports intercultural/international perspectives and in itiatives(p. 117). The competency approach focuses on the development of new knowledge, skills and attitudes in students, faculty, and staff. The focus is on developing competencies. An example is global competence. The competen cy approach to inte rnationalizing higher education is to prepare indivi duals, organizations, and communiti es to be able to function effectively and successfully in a global environment (p. 117). The process approach sees inte rnationalization as a system-wid e approach that integrates an international dimension into the major functions of the institution, to effectively infuse internationalization into academic activities, organizational policies and procedures, and overall strategies (p.118). Knight (2004) concurs with these approaches and has adde d two additional approaches that include at home and abroad (cross-border) approaches. The at home approach posits that the goal of internationalization is to cr eate an environment on campus that supports international/intercult ural understanding and focuses on campus -based activities. The abroad 43

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(cross-border) approach focuses on providing education to other c ountries through various educational means (p. 20). Knight also revises deWits Competency approach and renames it the Outcome approach to align with higher e ducations increased demand for accountability. The common threads that run throughout the reports and recommendations are the need for a strategic mission and vision that specifies the goals and objectives for internationalization along with an administrative commitment (includi ng funding) to these goa ls; a centralized and integrated administration of international programs and initiatives; faculty development, involvement and reward; curricular transforma tion through revamping th e core curriculum to include international infusion of existing courses; development of new courses with study abroad components; or adding courses with international content to existing pr ograms (including area studies, transnational studies, et c.); international exchanges of students, faculty and technologies; and mastery of foreign languages. Learning Outcomes for Internationalizing Higher Education The American Council on Education describe s an integrative approach model that provides a transformational roadmap for inte rnationalizing higher education. This model includes establishing clear goals fo r internationalizing, and a strategy that integrates international components throughout the institutio n, including programs and activit ies that have a global focus inputs, and a system for determining outcomes a nd ways to measure student learning outputs (Olson, Green & Hill, 2005, p. iv). The outcomes-based approach seeks to help institutions of higher education answer whether their international progr ams and curricula result in gr eater global learning. Using a four-step approach for assessment that es tablishes learning goal s; provides learning opportunities; assesses student lear ning; and uses the results. In stitutions of higher education can set clear global learning goals (outcomes), establish programs to achieve these goals, and 44

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assess student learning to determine the effec tiveness of the programs or initiatives (Olson, Green & Hill, 2005, p. iv). (See Appendix A for sample outcomes.) Establishing the types of knowledge, skills and attitudes that are necessary for effective global learning is an essential step toward outcomes-based internationalization. The ACE report on global learning outcomes states that these should be established to serv e the various levels of the institution and their needs for assessment. Global learning outcomes n eed to be established at the macro, institutional level first, cascad ing down to individual course objectives and activities, where the global learning outcomes may also include those relevant to the content of the course. The report indicates that some uni versities have chosen to group global learning outcomes within the learning domains of knowledge skills, and attitudes. This provides a common framework to assess student learning in general, by allo wing for a seamless integration of the global learning outcomes into existing outcomes structures (Olson, Green, Hill, 2006, p.30). Many institutions of higher education have drafted global learning outcomes. While there is general consensus that this is an essentia l step toward internati onalizing higher education, there is limited agreement as to what these should be across institutions. Internationalizing the Curriculum Internationalizing the curriculum is pe rhaps the most essential component of internationalizing higher education. Colleges an d universities should focu s their efforts on the curriculum to ensure that students gain intern ational skills and knowledge (Siaya & Hayward, 2003, p.x). This process is complex, as indicated in a study of university presidents that revealed this to be one of the most difficult aspects of internationalizing highe r education (Hanson and Meyerson as cited in Me stenhauser, 1998, p. 8). 45

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The process is best achieved by creating an intentional and systemic curricular internationalization that is sophisticated, multidimensional, interdisciplinary, intercultural, and research oriented. However, most interna tionalization of the curriculum occurs at the faculty/course-specific level, or within disciplines or departments, in relati ve isolation from other faculty, disciplines, departments or programs. This tends to produce international specialties among the faculty or disciplines that do not chan ge or modify the existing curriculum. As a result only some students acquire international skills (those who are enrolled in the specialty courses), whereas those who are en rolled only in the mainstream courses attain no international skills (Mestenhauser, 1998). The American Counc il on Education addressed the importance of a macro perspective of internationalizing the curriculum that is based on establishing institutional global learning outcomes and assessment measures (Olson, Green, Hill, 2006). In addition to having a foundation of global l earning outcomes, the design needs to be considered. According to Freedman (1998), importa nt considerations are the epistemological, informational, developmental, outcome and structur al issues (p. 43). From an epistemological perspective, an international curriculum should be based on the notion that: Knowledge is socially constructed; informati onal perspectives would include wh at students need to know to be able to evaluate global issues; developmenta l perspectives would assu re that the curriculum increases awareness, sensitivity and the cons ciousness to understand the global paradigm; outcomes would address the objectives and the activ ities necessary to meet these objectives; and that structural perspectives would address the implementation of the curriculum including strategies that assure both dept h and breadth of knowledge, highe r-level learning, flexible types of instruction and interactive learning (pp. 43-44). 46

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The best practices for internationalizing th e curriculum generally include: Adding an international major or minor in the curriculum or within specific disciplines; foreign language or area studies; infusing courses with international content; international service learning; international relations degree prog rams; international students, f aculty and scholars; study abroad and international internships or research; and faculty involvement in international research teaching and consulting (Ellingboe, 1999; Mestenhauser, 1998; Tonkin, 2006). Study Abroad Study abroad is a frequently used approach for internationalizi ng higher education and internationalizing the curriculum. Research studies reported by the Commission on the Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Fellowships (2005) indicated that students who have participated in study abroad programs use their newly acquired langua ges, develop an increased interest in their studies, acquire skills that carry over into the workplace, and perceive the world differently. The Commission also reports that st udents show an increased abil ity to understand and communicate effectively with people from other cultures. As study abroad programs continue to grow, it has become imperative to establish outcomes and a ssessments to measure the effectiveness of study abroad. There are many types of study abroad programs. Most are classified based on length of stay such as long-term (semeste r or year-long programs) or short-term (less than one semester). Long-term study abroad programs are considered to be the most beneficial in terms of learning a foreign language, increasing cross-cultural skill s, learning in depth a bout a new culture, and developing transformational skills such as t hose needed for global competence and global consciousness (Anderson, Lawton, Rexeisen, & H ubbard, 2006; Dwyer & Peters, 2004; Gorka & Niesenbaum, 2001; NAFSA, 2003, as cited in Lewis & Niesenbaum, 2005). 47

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Short-term study abroad is generally not consid ered to be as effec tive as long-term study abroad for developing language skills and interc ultural sensitivity. Freinberg (2002) even argued that students can participate in short study abroad programs and not experience any significant learning, or worse, the experience could lead students to confirm an inaccurate US-centric view of the world (Freinberg, 2002, as cited in Sutton, Miller & Rubin, 2007, p. 25). However, recent studies have shown that short-term program s afford the opportunity for larger number of students to participate in study ab road, and result in significant pos itive effects both academically and toward increased cultural sensitivity (Anderson, Lawton, Rexeisen & Hubbard, 2006; Lewis & Niesenbaum, 2005). Other classification systems have sought to more clearly identify the program structures and their impact on student learning outcomes, be yond length of stay. The classification system developed by Engle and Engle (2003) seeks to ad dress the complexity of the elements of study abroad by defining the components of study abroad to include: Length of sojourn; entry targetlanguage competence; language used in coursework; context of academic work; types of student housing; provisions for guided/structured cultural interaction and experiential learning; and guided reflection on cultural experience (p. 8). These components have then been placed into a 5-level structure reflecting a range of programs from lesser to greater exposure/experience with the new culture, based on the desired learning outcomes (Engle & Engle, 2003). International service learning is a study abroad model that hol ds a greater classification complexity beyond simply the length of the progr am. This type of study abroad extends the concept of service learning, or community-based experiential learning in to an international context. In general, the purpos e of service learning in the Unite d States has been to promote citizenship education and the principles of soci al justice through service to the community. 48

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International service learning generally involves th e collaboration of a study abroad office with fieldwork research in an intern ational community. Usually this i nvolves a professor-led team of students who participate in activities initia ted by a non-governmental organization (NGO). The goals for service learning both na tionally and internationally are similar, however, the citizenship goal for international service learning seeks to develop an understandi ng of global citizenship and an increasing level of globa l consciousness (Annette, 2002). Humphrey Tonkin (2006), President Emeritus of Harvard University, espoused the study abroad model of internati onal service learning as an experience that bridges the gap of cultural differences and class differences, show ing students that globaliz ation has many facets including dependency and poverty. Th is type of experiential learni ng enables students to realize the inequities that exist worldwide, encouragin g new perspectives and ne w ways of thinking. The Harvard model, along with others, is base d upon the theory that through experiential learning knowledge is socially c onstructed as people participate, observe, reflect, and interpret their experiences (Lutterman-Aguilar, Gingerich, 2002). Recognizing the importance of study abroad fo r the future of the nations ability to respond to global challenges, the Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Act of 2006 (S.3744) was introduced by Senators Richard Durbin of Illinois and Norm Coleman of Minnesota. The goal of this legislation was to make study abroad accessibl e to all, and to become the norm, rather than the exception, for undergraduate college students. It also sought to expand the destinations of study abroad students beyond the traditional Europ ean destinations. This bill established the goal of having one million students study abroad every year by 2016-2017 or approximately fifty percent of all undergraduate students (Commission on the Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Fellowship Program, 2005). 49

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Learning Outcomes for Study Abroad As the United States gears up for the potenti al of one million students studying abroad by the year 2017 it has become incr easingly important to assess the outcomes of study abroad to ascertain the effectiveness of th e programs in increasing global le arning. The complex nature of study abroad as a curriculum model that include s variety in duration, content, experience and other factors, makes the identification of cu rriculum standards for outcomes and assessment challenging. Traditional evalua tion processes have often include d measuring student satisfaction and number of students participating in study ab road, rather than progr am effectiveness for learning (Sutton, Miller & Rubin, 2007; Sutton & Rubin, 2004). Learning outcomes often addressed are se cond language acquisition and intercultural competence, although these constructs have varyi ng definitions and outcomes. The Institute for the International Education of Students esta blished the IES Map for Study Abroad as a framework for assessing the effectiveness of st udy abroad across four dimensions: Student learning environment; student learning and interc ultural development; resources for academic and student support; and program administration and development (IES, 2007, pp. 8-9). The purpose was to create standardized criteria that could be used to evaluate across the complexity of study abroad programs. However, this fram ework appears to address program structure and its impact on student learning, rather than specif ic learning outcomes. For example, an objective listed under Cognitive Growth spec ifies, academic studies, suppor t services, and integrative activities contribute to the students greater ap preciation and respect fo r persons with differing cultural values (IES, 200 7, p. 14). While there is a later reference in the IES Map regarding assessment of cultural learning being used to enhance programming, there is no specific reference made to the types of learning outcome s measured or the method used for measuring these. 50

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Meyer-Lee and Evans (2007) posit th at the outcomes of study abroad can be divided into direct and indirect impacts. The direct imp acts refer to how study ab road directly impacts student development in the short-term to include : Language learning; in tercultural competence; cognitive/knowledge; affective/at titudes; behavior skills; disc iplinary knowledge; and social growth (pp. 63-65). Direct impacts can also occur in the long-term and these include: Language learning; in tercultural competence; disciplinary knowledge; social development; career impact; academic progression; a nd institutional loya lty (pp. 66-67). These impacts, both short-term and long-term are typically of interest when developing outcomes and assessment measures for study abroa d. While there is anec dotal evidence of the effectiveness of study abroad, there is a dearth of consensus about learning outcomes for study abroad and consequently a lack of empirical evidence of progr am effectiveness in achieving these outcomes (Paige, Cohen, Shively, 2004). Global Competence The impact of globalization highlights the im portance of global competence as essential to functioning effectively and su ccessfully in an increasingly in terconnected and interdependent world. The knowledge, skills, experiences and attitudes necessary for global competence are described in many disciplines, such as business a nd engineering, as these have been impacted by, and have played a significant role in fueling twenty-first century globalization. The role of higher education in developing gl obal competence is salient as institutions of higher education need to become the training centers for developi ng the next generation of global professionals. Several studies have been conducted to de fine global competence and identify the knowledge, skills and attitudes that characte rize global competence. A study conducted by Koehn and Rosenau (2002) resulted in a framew ork for defining the sk ill set required for transnational competence. The auth ors asserted that effective transn ational skills are essential to 51

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enable transnational interactions to be eff ective and meaningful in an era of intensive globalization. The four skill sets that need to be mastered to achieve transnational competence are: Analytic, emotional, creative/imagin ative, and behavioral (p. 109; Appendix A). Transnational analytic skills enable people to analyze culture-specific information such as the beliefs, values, practices, politics, as well as gender, ethnic and cl ass issues to develop profound cultural understanding, and be able to correc tly interpret what is occurring in a crosscultural environment. The authors emphasized the importance of self-knowledge to understand how actions, based on personal values and goals can have a transnationa l impact. Additionally, transnational analytic skills consist of the abilit y to identify alternative ways of doing things, and making decisions based on the intercultural appr opriateness of the situation. These skills are particularly important in understanding the complexities of globa lization and being effective in transnational interactions (Koehn & Rosenau, 2002). Transnational emotional skills encompass th e willingness to be receptive to cultural situations that are unfam iliar and uncertain, and to have the impetus to face rather than shirk from obstacles. Those who possess these skills are generally enthusiastic to learn about different cultures, connect to new cultures emotionally, an d are willing to be accepting of new ideas and values. Additionally, these skills call for the ab ility to use a variety of identities based on the situation, such as ones ethnic, nation-state, religious, professiona l, or gender identity, and the ability to participate in, and adap t to various roles within cultural contexts, including the personal cultural context (Koehn & Rosenau, 2002). Transnational creative/imaginative skills encompass the ability to imagine the possibilities in a transnational in teraction, and be able to create the types of relationships and collaborative approaches to these challenges. People possessing these skills are able to devise 52

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creative and innovative paths and solutions that will address the needs of the various cultures involved in multicultural intera ctions (Koehn & Rosenau, 2002). Transnational behavioral skills serve as the foundation to perform effectively in a global environment. Included in these skills ar e transnational communication competence and functional (i.e., project or task ) adroitness (Koehn & Rosenau, 2002, p. 114). The transnational communication competence skills include knowing the language of those w ith whom a person is interacting, or alternativ ely, being skilled in the use of interpreters. Additionally, these skills involve the ability to understa nd and interact non-ver bally and to develop effective listening skills when faced with a non-native speaker. Functional adroitness skills include acting appropriately and functionally, in a way that is suitable for the culture, to complete a particular project or task. This includes the ability to develop positive interpersonal relationships in an intercultural environment. The ability to develo p relationships across cult ures is often cited as the most important global competence skill to develop. Brislin ( 1993) stated that in intercultural encounters, overall goodwill, respec t, and enthusiasm allows people to generate credit and their credit allows mistakes to be ignored or forgiven (as cited in Koehn & Rosenau, 2002, p. 115). Koehn and Rosenau (2002) describe transnational competence as ranging from incapable to proficient and pre-competent to adequately competent permitting people to possess any combination of these skills with varying degrees of competence (p. 116). Hunter (2004) conducted a study aimed at de fining global competence, and determining the knowledge, skills, experiences and attitudes that are charact eristic of a globally competent person. Using a Delphi study, he sought to define the term global competence and to determine if there were significant differe nces between the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and experiences that human resource managers of transnational corporations and intern ational educators at 53

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institutions of higher education believed were necessary for attaining global competence. The human resources managers represented Fort une 500 companies sending more than 500 employees on international assignments per ye ar. The international educators represented universities that were successful in internationalizing their campuses (Hunter, 2004, pp. 14-15). Hunters findings showed an 82% agreemen t among the panel of e xperts and generated the following definition of global competence: Having an open mind while actively seek ing to understand cultural norms and expectations of others, leveraging this gained knowledge to interact, communicate and work effectively outside one s own environment (p. 101). He noted that the tone of the definition reflect s a link between thought and deed, representing an American view that links education with pr oductivity and achievement The author further noted that open-mindedness held a very high leve l of concurrence indica ting the importance of being able to assimilate new information at face value, facilitati ng the process of making decisions based on the situationa l contexts rather than on pr e-conceived ideas (pp. 106-107). Hunter added the importance of replicating th is study with panelists where the majority representation is not American to compare the de finition of global competence that might arise. Hunters research revealed a high level of agreement between human resource managers and international educators on the knowledge, sk ills, attitudes and experiences necessary to become globally competent. However, there were significant differences of opinion on four aspects. The most significant di fference observed was the importanc e of being linguistically and culturally competent in at least one language and culture other than ones own. International educators rated the importance of this aspect hi gher than human resource managers. Other less significant differences noted were: Celebrati ng diversity was cited as more significant by human resource managers than inte rnational educators; Speaking English and at least one other language was more significant for international educators than for human resource managers; 54

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Knowledge of current events was rated high er by international e ducators than by human resource managers (pp. 102-103). The results of Hunters study led to the de velopment of a checkl ist of the knowledge, skills/experiences, and attitudes that characterize someone who is globally competent. This checklist only incorporated those statements with the highest degree of correlation between international educators and human resource managers (Appendix A). According to Hunters checklist, knowledge encompasses being able to understand cultural norms and expectations on two levels: Internally (self-awareness), and externally (in relation to others). This category also incl udes understanding globali zation, knowledge of world history and current events. Skil ls and experiences encompass having participated in academic or professional projects with people from other cu ltures, and successful involvement in worldwide business and social environments. These skills al so include the ability to live in another country; to understand the impact of cultural differences for successful competition on a global scale; to evaluate cross-cultural performance; and to co llaborate effectively across cultures. Attitudes involve possessing a global mindset that understands that personal views of the world are not universal, and being able to react in non-j udgmental way to cultural differences. This characteristic includes being wi lling to grow personally and learn more about other cultures; to be able to see and experience events from the ot her cultures perspective; to be receptive to new experiences (even if these are emo tional); to be able to cope w ith cultural differences; and to celebrate diversity (Hunter, 2004, p. 115). Global Competence in Business and Business Education Globalization is fueled primarily by accelerat ed technology and market/economic forces. As a result, developing globally competent workers, who are capab le of functioning effectively 55

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within interconnected and interd ependent world markets has beco me an increasingly significant mandate for business education. Among the most important skills recruited by American corporations are knowledge of other cultures, cross-cultural comm unication, experience in interna tional business, and fluency in a foreign language (ACE, 2002, p. 11). The ability to solve problems, think critically, resolve conflict and communicate effectivel y with others are also needed to be successful in todays business environment (Ahlawat, 2006). Cultural comp etencies such as cultural self-awareness, cultural consciousness, the ability to lead multic ultural teams and negotiate across cultures, and possessing a global mindset are further requisit es to compete globally (Cant, 2004, p. 177; Appendix A). In sum, business professionals are increasingly being required to possess the ability to work with people w ho have fundamentally different values, assumptions, beliefs and traditions (Cant, 2004, p. 177). Cant (2004) stated that in spite of the clea r need for global competence in the workplace, American university students are seriously lack ing knowledge of other count ries and cultures. He added that this demonstrates the importance of incorporating education for global competence into business education. Other st udies cited by Cant indicate that American students tend to be monolingual and have limited appreciation for other cultures. The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accreditation standards of 2003 specified that a college of busin ess must demonstrate diversity in its business programs including teaching about diverse perspectives and enabling students to be able to practice their profession s in a global context (p.9). AACSB added that business education programs should include an understanding that diversity on a global basis is a complex, culturally embedded concept rooted within histor ical and cultural trad itions, legislative and 56

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regulatory concepts, economic conditions, ethnic ity, gender and opinion (AACSB International, 2007, p. 9). A 2002 Cendant Mobility survey of 180 human resources managers worldwide supports the importance of educating for global compet ence as being a critic al component of an employees professional development (as cite d in Hunter, 2004, p. 9). A Rand Corporation study stated that while U.S. unive rsities are graduating students w ith superior technical skills, many of these graduates are lacking in their ab ility to think and act in different cultural environments, and also lack global leadership skills. Furthermore, the study suggested that universities should encourage mo re students to study abroad, pa rticularly in programs that combine professional experience overseas (Bik son, Treverton, Moini, Lindstrom, 2003). The Rand study concluded that global employ ees must demonstrate, among the top five skills General cognitive skills such as problem solvi ng and analytical ability; interpersonal and relationship skills; ambiguity tolerance, adap tivity; and personality traits such as good character, self-reliance, dependability; cross-cultural competence (p.17). This same study revealed that human resource mana gers see an increased n eed, after the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, to hire or train top managers who are able to function in ambiguous and difficult situations (Bikson, Treverton, Moini, Lindstrom, 2003, p. 25; Appendix A). Global competency skills are important as multinational companies globalize their human resources by sending employees on expatriate assignments. In a survey conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers, findings s howed that 75% of the companie s surveyed were expected to increase their expatriate assignm ents (as cited in Peppas, 2004). The success of expatriates is based in large part on having global competencies including the ability to communicate successfully in other cultures; to develop effective social relationships; to have open minds; to be 57

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flexible; to be well-rounded; and to have good leadership, professional and conflict resolution skills (Black, Gregersen, Mendenhall & Stroh, 1999). Additionally, the United States grants 65,000 visas per year for foreign workers, many in the technology fields, and it is expected that this number will increase (Kolbasuk McGee, McDougal, 2006). The likelihood of having worldw ide exposure, as well as local/national exposure to diverse populations in any profe ssion is high. Business education programs are increasingly addressing the need to develop a globally competent workforce. Responding to the call from the business comm unity, universities have begun developing programs for global workforce development (G WD) that are designed to develop global competencies. GWD also seeks to address multipl e global issues that have become highlighted as the world becomes increasingly interconnect ed through technological advances (Bremer, 2006). Ron Moffatt, director of the International Center at San Diego State University states that GWD is designed to create a global-ready grad uate who understands global systems, global issues, the dynamics of how th ings are interrelated and inte rconnected in the world, and how society can best address globa l issues (as cited in Bremer 2006, p. 40). Producing national workers with global competencies has become in creasingly important as businesses recognize that because of globalization, th e national workforce will be s eeing an international impact, regardless of being physically positioned inside of the United States The Association of International Education Administra tors specify that GWD is designed to prepare people to work both nationally and internationally with peop le from other cultures (Bremer, 2006). Global leadership skills are paramount in todays business paradigm. The challenge, according to Harris, Moran & Moran (2004) is to develop new models of management that are 58

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effective transnationally, and new managers that have the competencies required to perform globally. Moran and Riesenberger (2004) identif ied twelve global competencies for global leadership: Possessing a global mindset; working as an e qual with persons of diverse backgrounds; possessing a long-term orientation; facilitati ng organizational change ; creating learning systems; ability to motivate employees to ex cellence; ability to negotiate and approach conflict in a collaborative mode; ability to skillfully manage the foreign deployment cycle; leading and participating effectivel y in multicultural teams; self-awareness of personal values and assumptions; and accurately profiling the organizational and national culture of others globa lly (Harris, Moran & Moran, 2004, p. 258; Appendix A). Srinivas (2005) stated that a global mindset is key to conducti ng business internationally. He describes the characteristics that exemplify a global mindset as: Curiosity and concern for cont ext, accepting complexity and contradictions; sensitivity and consciousness of diversity; willingness to view surprises and uncertainties as opportunities; belief in the organizational pr ocess; focusing on continuous improvement; long-term perspective; and systems th inking (as cited in Jokinen, 2005, p. 202). Jokinens (2005) review of global leadership literature produced a three-level framework for global leadership competencies. The first level is the foundation for global leadership including self-awareness, engagement in personal transformati on, and inquisitiveness (p. 204). These are the starting point from which other competencies can develop. Self-awareness implies an understanding of ones emotions and reactions to others, as well as a personal insight that enables better relationships with people of othe r cultures. Engagement in personal transformation means a willingness to be entrepreneurial, to st rive toward ongoing personal growth, and to be open to change. Inquisitiveness implies curiosity and desire to gain greater knowledge. The second level includes the mental character istics that global leaders should have: Optimism, self-regulation, social judgment skills, empathy, motiva tion to work in international environments, cognitive skills, and acceptance of complexity and its contradictions (p. 206). Optimism can be defined as generally believing that everything will turn out well, and being able 59

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to see the opportunity in an un certain situation. Self -regulation includes th e ability to control personal impulses, the ability to handle stre ss and to persevere and maintain balance in unfamiliar situations. Social judgment implies being able to gain a good perspective on a situation, and understanding that solutions occu r in a social context. Empathy means being sensitive to and concerned with th e needs of others. This skill is particularly effective in enabling people to be sensitive across cultures. Motivation to work in an international environment is an important characteristic for making the correct career choice, as some careers will lend themselves more than others to require global leadership skills. Cognitive skills imply peoples ability to learn and the degree to which they are able to correctly interpret and experience their environment. Acceptance of complex ity is the ability to see the in tricacies and contradictions in an environment, a skill that enables a person to understand the various levels of cultural differences (Jokinen, 2005). The third level includes the behaviors that gl obal leaders should possess: Social skills, networking skills, and knowledge (p. 210). These are the global le adership competencies that are directly related to successfully perform a ta sk on a transnational level. Social skills are necessary to relate well to others on a pers onal level. These involve leadership, conflict management, communication, negotiation, persuasi ve, collaborative, and motivational skills. Networking skills involve the ability to create and maintain rela tionships. Knowledge refers to the comprehensive ability to pe rform the tasks required for the job (Jokinen, 2005; Appendix A). Global Competence in Government and National Security The need for globally competent federal em ployees became evident after the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, wh en federal agencies realized they were lacking experts in the langua ges spoken by the terrorists. A study conducted by the American Council on Education after September 11, reported that there was an urgent need within the 60

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United States federal government for personnel with foreign language proficiency, knowledge of other cultures, and internationa l working experience. This stud y revealed that shortages of personnel with adequate global skills had adve rsely affected agency operations and hindered U.S. military, law enforcement, intelligence, coun terterrorism, and diplomatic efforts (ACE, 2002, p.11). The Committee for Economic Development ( 2006) stated that the lack of global competence in government has compromised American national security. Citing examples from the 9/11 Commission, it revealed that even in 2005, thousands of hours of audiotapes remain un-translated or un-reviewed due to a lack of translators and linguist s, reducing the FBIs capability to locate terrorists. Furthermore, the study cites a 2005 Department of Defense study Defense Language Transformation Roadmap stat ing language skills and regional expertise are not valued as Defense core competencies ye t they are as important as critical weapons systems (p. 9). Increasing the ability to respond to the ch allenges of world po litics requires global competence skills within our government and among public polic y makers. The ability to understand world politics can have an impact on th e outcomes of global negot iations, treaties, as well as impacting the dimension of global cooperation, competition, conflict and governance(Koehn & Rosenau, 2002, p. 105). Global Competence in Engineering and Engineering Education As a result of globalization, engineers mu st respond quickly to the rapidly changing technological environment. E ngineers are also impacted by the increasing demands to perform seamlessly and effectively in globa l work environments either in person or as part of global virtual teams. 61

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Globalization is fueled by technology that is being created by engineers, many who originate from countries outside of the United States. Khosla, Dean of the College of engineering at Carnegie Mellon reported that the United Stat es produces 73,000 engineers per year compared to India and China that graduate 750,000 per year (Khosla, 2006). The National Science Foundation Science and Engineering Indicators (2006) reports that the number of foreign students in Science and E ngineering (S & E) stud ying in the U.S. has declined, however these numbers have increased in Australia (6%), the United Kingdom (18%), Germany (15%), and France (12%) (2004 figures). Th e United States lags behind the rest of the world in awarding doctoral degrees in scienc e and engineering. 78% of S&E doctorates are awarded outside of the United States, with large increases in doctoral de grees being awarded in China, South Korea and Japan. In 2003, in the U. S. workforce, over 25% of all college-educated workers in science and engineering were foreig n born, 40% of doctorate degree holders in S&E were foreign born, and over 50% of all U.S. employed doctorate degree holders in computer science, electrical engineering, civil engineering, and mechanical engineering were foreign born (Science and Engineer ing Indicators, 2006). The United States is challenged to produce a greater number of engineers, and develop engineers who are able to effectively work in the new paradigm of globali zation. It is no longer just whether engineers are being treated as commodities, but how engi neers and other highly educated technical people shape and are shaped by the emerging realities of a truly global workforce (Obert and Jones as cited in Shum an, Besterfield-Sacre & McGourty, 2006, p. 43). The ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineer ing and Technology) Engineering Criteria 2000 addressed the need to devel op professional skills in engin eering students. These include global competencies such as the broad edu cation necessary to understand the impact of 62

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engineering solutions in a globa l, economic, environmental, a nd societal context (Shuman, Besterfield-Sacre, McGourty, 2005, p. 41). Engineers must also develop language and intercultural communication skills to be prepared to live and work in various countries and with people of diverse backgrounds (Malone et al. 200 3, as cited in Lohmann, Rollins & Hoey, 2006). Two studies are seeking to de fine global competence for engineers, to determine the types of curricula that would be most effectiv e in producing a globally competent engineer, as well to assess the results of th e intervention. The first study is being conducted at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The researchers have proposed a conceptual model for achieving global competence, a curriculum model to develop it, and an asse ssment model to measure the success of the intervention. The key to this model is the de finition of global competen ce, and the determinant of factors of global competence that can be measured. The study posits that global competence is the product of both educati on and experience, and it is characterized by a graduates ability to (a) communicate in a second language via speaking, listening, reading, and writing (second language proficie ncy); (b) demonstrate substantively the major social-political-economic processes and systems (comparative global knowledge); (c) assimilate knowledgeably and with ease into foreign communities and work environments (intercultural assimilation) ; and (d) communicate with confidence and specificity the practice of his or her major in a global context (disci plinary practice in a global context) Georgia Institute of Tec hnology International Plan 2005, as cited in Lohmann et al., 2006, p. 7). The second study, a collaborative effort of rese archers from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Colorado School of Mines, Kings College London, and the University of Virgina, proposes a new approach for concep tualizing global competency in engineers. Recognizing that the new global paradigm of technology is requiring engineers from different nations to work together and also to work with non-engineer s from various cultures, this approach proposes that the key global competencies that need to be deve loped for engineers are those that enable them to be able to work e ffectively across cultures with people who define 63

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problems differently. This study emphasizes that engineering students e ducated in different cultures have learned to define and solve problems differently than in the U.S., and that being able to effectively navigate these differences will impact not only the success of working on multicultural projects, but also will give engineers the skills to be able to navigate the human dimensions of engineering work (Downey, Lucena, Moskal, Bigley, Lehr, Nicholas-Belo, et al., 2006, p. 110). The criterion and learning outcomes for developing global competency in engineers, according to Downey and associates, are the following: Learning Criterion o Through course instruction and interactions students will acquire the knowledge, ability, and predisposition to work eff ectively with people who define problems differently than they do. Learning Outcomes o Students will demonstrate substantial knowledge of the similarities and differences among engineers and non-e ngineers from different countries. o Students will demonstrate an ability to analyze how peoples lives and experiences in other countries may shape or affect what they consider to be at stake in engineering work. o Students will display a predisposition to treat co-workers from other countries as people who have both knowledge and value, may be likely to hold different perspectives than they do, and may be lik ely to bring these di fferent perspectives to bear in processes of problem de finition and problem solution (Downey, Lucena, Moskal, Bigley, Lehr, Nicholas-Belo, et al., 2006, p. 110) The authors describe the first learning outco me as one based on gaining knowledge of the similarities and differences of engineers across cultures. The second learning outcome is based on developing ability. This process goes beyond simple awareness to being able to understand this new knowledge and use it in engineering situations. The third learning outcome refers to learned behavior patterns that can be observed. This is th e culminating step of global 64

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competence in engineering, where engineers are able to demonstrate that they can work effectively with people who define problems differently (Downey, Lucena, Moskal, Bigley, Lehr, Nicholas-Belo, et al, 2006). Global Competence in Higher Education Institutions of higher edu cation are responding to the ch allenges of globalization by seeking ways of instituting internationalizati on initiatives to devel op professionals who are globally competent. The first step of this process is to seek leadership that fosters the types of programs, global partnerships and the institutio nal mindset that recognizes the importance of globalization and the interconnected ness and interdependence that is shaping the next generation of global professionals (Kienle & Loyd, 2005) The Carnegie Corporation convened a meeti ng on January 21, 2000 with representatives from a wide range of organizations to address the following questions: Are schools, colleges, and univers ities preparing their students to function effectively in a global society in which time and space no longer insulate nations, people and markets of the world? Do U.S. citizens understand enough of the worl d beyond our national borders to evaluate information about internationa l and global issues and make sound judgments about them? Is education in the United States prepari ng Americans for sustained involvement in an interdependent world? (Barker, 2000, p. 2) As institutions of higher e ducation search for the optimal means to develop the global competence of students, it becomes important to establish the types of outcomes that can and should be expected from these reforms. The American Council on Education (ACE) (1995) stressed the importance of higher educations role in developing human resour ces for the new global paradigm. ACE (2002) further stated that the new paradigm of globa lization has created an unprecedented and urgent need for Americans to possess increased global co mpetencies across all disciplines, and that 65

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producing citizenry with global competencies is the responsibi lity of our nations education system ( p. 12). These competencies include the ability to analyze information affecting national security, the ability to improve relatio nships with other countries, foreign language proficiency, being able to function within othe r cultures and within other value systems, an understanding of the world, cross-cultural skills, and an apprec iation of diversity (ACE, 2002). Madeleine F. Green (2002) addressed the co mpelling mandate for institutions of higher education to adequately e ducate for global competence: In the age of globalization and post-Septembe r 11, U.S. colleges and universities face an urgent and perplexing set of questions about how to educate students for this new world. We cannot make the common claim to have th e best system of hi gher education in the world unless our graduates can free themselv es of ethnocentrism bred of ignorance and navigate the difficult terrain of cultural complexity (p. 1). American universities will become the training centers for developing globally competent professionals. These professionals will be intellectually and cognitively capable of making a contribution to the new paradigm of worldwide social, economic and political interdependence. These students should be prepared to live and work in a global environment. They must also possess the critical skills and perspectives to become globally conscious citizens (Gacel-Avila, 2005). Institutions of higher educati on vary in their determination of what global competence means as educational outcomes for higher edu cation. This increases the difficulty in determining what curricular approaches are most e ffective for creating the t ypes of skills the next generation of professionals will require. Most recently, instituti ons of higher education have focused on seeking this definition and determin ing what knowledge, skills and attitudes should be developed to produce students who are globally competent. This has led to specifying global competence skills as outcomes of internationalization (Olson, Green & Hill, 2005; Appendix B). 66

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To be able to successfully develop the type s of curricula and programs that will produce global competence as an educational outcome, it is necessary to have appropriately prepared faculty. The American Council of Education (200 2) stated that one of the most significant challenges for internationalizing higher educa tion is finding sufficient faculty within the disciplines who themselves are globally comp etent and who speak foreign languages. Badley (2000) defined the characterist ics of global competence in university teaching to such characteristics as: Knowledge of the principles of adult education; academic specialization; interest in the lives and culture s of the students and the ways that education is conducted and understood in other parts of the world; and cultural self-awareness (Appendix B). The American Council on Intern ational Intercultural Educat ion (ACIIE) and The Stanley Foundation, jointly charged with creating and implementing the global education policy for community colleges developed the following definition of global competency: Global competency exists when a learner is able to understand the inte rconnectedness of people and systems, to have a general knowledge of history and world events, to accept and cope with the existence of different cult ural values and attitudes and, indeed, to celebrate the richness of th is diversity. (ACIIE, 1996, p. 4) Additionally, the particip ants identified 58 knowledge, skills and attitudes that represent the global competencies for the global learner (Appendix B). Global Consciousness Globalization can be viewed as a positive st abilizing force that will bring economic prosperity across the globe. To succeed, prof essionals will require global competence to function effectively and successfully in this environment. Globaliz ation can also be seen in a broader context that seeks to understand the impact of the global interconnectedness and interdependence of economic, political, cultural, social and environmenta l factors on humanity. This broader conceptualization can serve to temp er the market forces of globalization and serve 67

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as the catalyst for improving the human condition worldwide. The knowledge, skills, experiences and attitudes necessa ry for global consciousness are explored in the literature of anthropology, social anthropology, sociology, histor y, and most recently in higher education, and professions such as business, engineering and medicine. History of Globalization: An Emerging Global Consciousness Robertson (2004) posits that globalization is not a new phenomenon; rather it has existed for hundreds of years, has exhibited different char acteristics, and has occurred in three waves. The first wave was precipitated by the weaken ed Song dynasty in China. This created an opportunistic movement by European states when competitiveness among nation states led them to seek wealth in the Asian trade. The European inroads into this market enabled the accidental discovery of the Americas. This first wave of globalization marked th e first time that people operated on a global basis, moving humans, plants and animals from one part of the globe to another. These changes that occurred on a social, political and econom ic basis were highly destabilizing on a global scale. European societies attempted to create stability by exclusions of class, religion, race, through empire or commercial monopoly, war and conquest (Frank, 1998, p. 560, as cited in Robertson, 2004). The second wave of globalization was ch aracterized by industr ialization and the supporting structures of modernity. The industrial revolution accelerated human interconnectedness, and transformed societies. However, the second wave increased the wealth of those who were able to benefit from the glob al reaches of the first wave of globalization. Societies that were unable to become industrializ ed were subsumed as colonies or de facto colonies by the industrialized societies. Societal political and economic changes and inequalities generated by industrialization, fueled tension wi thin industrialized countries who began seeking 68

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exclusive nationalism and expansio nism as a means of gaining security and maintaining the power of the elite (Robertson, 2004). The 1850s to 1945, labeled as the modern peri od of globalization by political scientist David Held, gave rise to liberalism, Marxism and modern science, al ong with the technological discoveries that increased gl obal communication, lead ing to the onset of modernity. The modernist literary movement that rose as a reaction to modernity gave rise to a nascent global consciousness that addressed the impact on cu ltures resulting from economic globalization (Cuddy-Keane, 2003). The second wave ended with world war a nd depression, paving the way for the third wave of globalization. The third wave of gl obalization began after World War II, and is characterized by decolonization and American globa lism. Robertson defines the term globalism as a conscious process of globaliz ation or a set of policies designe d specifically to effect greater global rather than international interactions ( p. 4). He differentiates American globalism from the British globalization movements of the 19th century. British policies were never designed to engender global relations, whereas American gl obalism, post World War II, in spite of the hegemonic status of the United States, attempted to set up structures that were designed for global cooperation and for democr atization (p.4). Global cooperat ion and democratization then became the preferred means for achieving security and well-being, replacing the first and second wave strategies of conquest a nd subjugation (Robertson, 2004). The decolonization that occurred during the third wave of globalization has not always successfully increased democratization of the former colonies. Lacking the ability to operate in a globalized world, the independent former colonies became bound by the modernization requirements imposed upon them by nations funding development within these nascent 69

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countries. This lead to the segregation of economic sectors, denied social reform, and dependence on export production often producing dictatorships, stunted development, and neocolonialism (p. 11). This reality, or as Robertson terms it, the global divide threatens the stability of the third wave, todays globalization (p. 11). Globalization and the Development of Global Consciousness There are three challenges to positive globa lization according to Robertson (2004): The first challenge is to extend the democratic sc ope on a global level and enhancing the centrality of civil society(p. 12). This has been prevente d in part by short-term economic strategies and monopolies that have not invested in infrastructure and human res ources. As a result there are greater disparities, war, debt, corruption, and exclusionary po licies that are occurring at time when the global economic expectations are that everyone will prosper as a result of globalization. The second challenge is the ongoing threat to the environment, produced in part by the economic forces of globalization, yet re maining largely ungoverned on a global level. The third challenge is the increasing multicultu ral nature of human societies propelled by globalization and by human migration in pursuit of security and well-being. The resistance on the part of some societies to be inclusive of diversity is, according to Robertson, the most destabilizing force of the third wave of globalization as witnessed by accounts of genocide, ethnic cleansing and other tragic disp lacement of humans (Robertson, 2004). The development of global consciousness, according to Robertson, requires a profound understanding of the social and historical lessons of globalizati on, which include an understanding that the failed prev ious waves of globalization faile d because they neglected to foster empowerment and democracy, rather they fo stered the increasing wealth and power of the elite and promoted nationalism, actions that do not strive to impr ove the human condition (Roberston, 2004, p.6). Understanding the importan ce of empowerment is key to developing the 70

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global consciousness needed to create the mechanisms for finding global solutions based on an inclusive rather than exclusive reading of human history (p. 13). The importance of empowerment is described by Robertson in the following manner: Empowerment transforms class st ructures. It reduces barriers and broadens the scope for wealth generations. It encourages equity and the devolution of authority. It creates skills to manage complex societies, and makes po ssible diverse solutions and new ways of understanding ourselves. But empowerment al so involves consciousness of our global history, and understanding that our very basic human driv es require equally basic material solutions. (Robertson, 2004, p. 13) Each wave opened the doors for new forms of human interconnectedne ss that altered the world as we know it today. Robertson argues th at it is the increasing interconnectedness of humanity that is the most salient character istic of globalization. This is supported by Cuddy-Keanes (2003) assert ion that cultural globalization produces a global consciousness that is an emerging identity of living in a comp lex, changing world that is interconnected and interdependent. To gain this global consci ousness requires an understa nding of maintaining a balance between desires as consumers, with an awareness of the importance of maintaining ecological balance in the world, and understanding that cultural identity is no longer autonomous and geographically bound, but rath er part of a global whole. This understanding, Cuddy-Keane asserts, will require some na tions to recognize that they wi ll need to replace dominance with mutual dependency. Globalization describes a change in human consciousness in which humans are able to visualize themselves as part of a global commun ity. Stepnisky (2005) desc ribes this change in reference, arising as a result of the transnational flow of capital, people and cultu re, generating a global consciousness that leads to developing a new collective me mory that is global rather than nationally or regionally affiliated (pp.1384-1385). This new reference, or global consciousness, posits the idea that the interconnect edness of globalization will enable people to 71

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more easily identify themselves as part of humanity rather than of a specific nation-state. This notion of a global community is supported by Singer (2004) who belie ves that the term globalization implies a movement away from rela tionships between nation-states toward global relationships. This leads to the importance of improved syst ems of global governance, and a nascent global civil society, reflective of th e new interconnected-world paradigm of the 21st century, that is able to provide solutions to global issues. Furthe rmore, Rifkin (2004) asserts that nation-states are simply not able to individually deal with the gl obal risks and threats that have arisen as a result of rapid globalization and the density of human exchange (p. 268). Globalization also allows for much greater co ntact with people with whom contact might not have occurred in previous eras. The need arises for new ways of communicating to develop positive relations and avoid conflic t among various cultures. Additi onally, institutions must be developed that could address the problems of globalization from a whole planet identity rather than from a nation-state identity (Stepnisky, 2005). The increasing interconnectedness of human ity resulting from the three waves of globalization, have altered the natu re of societies, impacting how humans seek ways of finding security and well-being. It is the understanding of the forms and scope of human cooperation and empowerment that will forge a nascent gl obal consciousness of the social import of globalization (Roberston, 2004, p. 6). Global cons ciousness will guide th e development of the strategies for positive globaliz ation. Relying purely on technology to solve environmental, economic and social problems is simply not enough (Robertson, 2004). Cuddy-Keane (2003) emphasized that globalization from an economic pe rspective can be predatory or productive and cultural globalization may be colonizing or cooperative, and it is the role of humanists to create the global consciousness that will play a role in sensitizing globalization (pp. 541, 554). 72

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Simply looking at globalization as an econom ic phenomenon is insufficient, according to Lessem and Palsule (2002). Globali zation must be understood as a process in which there is awareness of the interconnecte dness and interdependen ce that exists worldwide, along with an ability to take positive advantage of this realit y. This process should in clude an understanding of the cultural parameters that influence human th ought and create social institutions. Additionally, understanding globalization requires recognizing the ecological impact, the need for sustainability, the psychological needs of huma nity, and the human abil ity to develop global consciousness. The process of becoming global is not seen by Lessem & Paule as the extension of modernity, but rather as a tr ansformative process that leads to global integrity, requiring a new level of global consciousness. Echoing the work of Lessem & Palsule, Mi chael Camdessus (2001), former managing director of the International Monetary Fund, discussed the importanc e of developing global strategies to assure that globalization does a better job of serving the needs of humanity. Camdessus describes this as the process of hu manizing economic ideas and policies, asserting that positive economic growth takes into account equity, poverty alleviation, and empowerment of the poor, along with protec ting the environment and resp ecting cultures (p. 364-365). Multinational businesses have propelled and acc elerated globalization, bringing positive changes to the world, including science and te chnology, however these same businesses have contributed to enhanced worldwide pollution, exclusion and marginalization, producing what Beck describes as a world risk society (B eck 2000 as cited in Stepnisky 2005; Collier & Wanderley, 2005). The risks lie in the socio-e conomic exclusion and ma rginalization in the developed world, and in the contrasts between developed world affluence and the shocking 73

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poverty, deprivation and human su ffering which exist in developing countries (Collier and Wanderley, 2005, p. 173). Additionally, those who are excluded and margina lized have greater ac cess to the tools of globalization, technology and modern weaponry, in creasing the risk of global annihilation and terrorism. Chua (2003) claims that the global sp read of markets and democracy is a principal, aggravating cause of group hatred and ethnic violence th roughout the non-Western world (p. 9). Chua describes the importance of understandi ng the socio-political constructs of many developing countries where ofte n minority ethnic groups contro l the power and wealth, and ultimately become the beneficiaries of the ec onomic gains of globalization. These groups are most often unwilling to have the increased weal th stemming from global transactions trickle down to the masses, lest they lose power. The exclusion, economic contrasts, and marginalization of the majority masses resulting from globalization, fuels hatred and destabilizes positive globalization (Chua, 2003). In his book, The European Dream Rifkin (2004) adds that historically, the struggle betw een the possessed and the dispo ssessed over property rights has probably done more to divide our species than any other soci ally constructed phenomenon (p. 269). Collier and Wanderley (2005) describe world ri sk as an imperative that needs to be addressed by corporations through the development of intentional strategies for global social responsibility, becoming not just economic agents, but also m oral agents(p. 176). This involves a nascent global consciousness that s eeks a commitment on the part of globalizing businesses to the future sustainability and prosperity of the global economy as well as a commitment to the respect for human rights (p. 177). Turner adds that developing an understanding the notion of human frailty and vulnerability, and feeling sympathy toward 74

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other humans are the only means of uniting humanity toward achieving universal human rights. (Turner as cited in Rifkin, 2004, p. 269). Many multinational businesses have developed new global citizenship policies reflecting an understanding, or cons ciousness of their worldwide social impact and their subsequent global responsi bility. As an example, Coca-Cola published in 2004, its first Citizenship Report which addresses the companys commitment to be a responsible global citizen that makes a meaningful difference in the world (p. 40). Highlighted in this report is the importance of the private global business sector, pa rtnering with governments and civil society, to make a contribution to a more sustainable world. Coca-Cola further describes its commitment to the challenges of water, health and wellness worldwide, and HIV/AIDS in Africa. Lillian Hill (2000) asserts that there is a nascent global consciousness in business indicating greater commitment to environmental sustainability, citizen participation and social justice (p.1). Additionally, Hill offers a s ubstantive definition of global consciousness: The ability to understand the connections between seemingly unregulated problems and issues, such as environmental degradation, the increasing poverty and displacement of people around the world, alongside increasi ng wealth for a few, backlash against immigration and minority rights, increasi ng fundamentalism. [B earing the following characteristics] a more inclusive worldview and the formation of allegiances beyond the local; an awareness of the interdependence among humans and between humankind and the earth; an ability to cope comfortably with ambiguity; a valuing of complexity and diversity (p. 1). Global Consciousness in Higher Education Globalization requires recogni zing that higher education should prepare the next generation of global professionals to have the knowledge, skills, e xperiences, and attitudes to be globally competitive and collaborative through curri cula that develops global competence. Globalization also suggests that higher education should prepare the next generation of global professionals to have the knowledge, skills, expe riences, and attitudes to understand the impact 75

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of the interdependence and in terconnectedness of humanity, th rough curricula that develops global consciousness. Those who graduate from institutions of highe r education will be expected to understand global systems, global issues, th e dynamics of how things are in terrelated and interconnected in the world, and how society can best address glob al issues. These graduates also have to understand that the issues that will need to be faced as a result of globalization include growing inequalities in economic development around the world, growing environmental hazards, issues of sustainability, justice and secu rity (Moffat, as cited in Br emer 2006, p. 40). Institutions of higher education are challenged to prepare grad uates to compete in the global marketplace by developing global competence, and al so global consciousness to be able to understand the nature and impact of globalization, recognizing that globalization may be benign and natural or exploitative and oppressive (Allen & Ogilvie, 2004, p. 78). In 1998, the United Nations Educational, Sc ientific and Cultural Organizations (UNESCO) World Declaration on Higher Education for the 21st century, stated that the role of higher education, is to develop a more equitabl e, tolerant, and responsible society (GacelAvila, 2005, p. 122). Higher education should seek to develop within all disciplines the perspective of globalization and the global interconnectedne ss of the discipline. This necessitates a new way of thinking, a new way of conceptu alizing the discipline, and recognizing that educational strategies should include understanding and prep aration for global competition, and simultaneously promoting intercultural unders tanding and sustainable human development (Gacel-Avila, 2005, p. 123). Martha Nussbaum (1997) takes this one step further and posit s that the role of educators is to prepare people to be citizens of the world. Citizens of the world wi ll learn about their own 76

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problems, history and cultures in depth, but will also understand the obligation of learning and understanding other nations and groups for the pu rpose of developing tole rance and friendship at a national and global level. This education must be provided in such a wa y as to respect the dignity of humanity in each person and citizen (p. 61, 67). Global competence will allow university student s to be successful in the new global intellectual and economic paradigm. However, global competence should be tempered with global consciousness, and it is the role of higher education to provide the learning that achieves this critical balance. Gacel-A vila (2005) says it best: In this new global environment, one of the basic and fundamental functions of a university should then be the fostering of global consciousness among students, to make them understand the relation of interdependence between peoples and societies, to developing within students an understanding of their own and other cultures and respect for pluralism. All these aspects are the f oundation of solidarity and peaceful coexistence among nations and of true global citizenship (p. 123). An example of developing global consciousness in the disciplines is described by Allen & Ogilvie (2004) who discuss th e importance of nurse educators preparing nurses to compete worldwide, but also to be able to critically identify the local, national and international issues related to social justice, hu man rights, ecosystem sustainability and peace. They equate excellence in nursing education with the development of nurses who are culturally competent and good global citizens (p. 79). Another example is the importance of creating globally conscious counseling psychologists. Marsella (1998) st ate that this is particularly important as some psychological manifestations are directly related to the mental health impact of rapi d globalization creating a changing social, political, economic and emotional landscape. Specific syndromes are associated with globalization including fut ure shock, culture shock, alienatio n/anomie, acculturation stress, meaninglessness, rootlessness, and identity c onfusion (as cited in Marsella & Pedersen, 2004, 77

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p. 414). Other psychological/social issues related to the impact of globalization include among others cultural disintegra tion, cultural dislocation, et hnic cleansing (p. 414). These manifestations indicate the importance of developing curricula that engenders global consciousness in the mental health professions One of the greatest challenges in developing global consciousness in counseling psychology is the western ethnocentris m that characterizes the profession, which is rooted in the western origins of the field of psychology. However, the reality of our interdependent and interconnected world is that counseling psychologists will be required to address the syndromes and challenge s associated with rapi d globalization in the course of their everyday professional inte ractions (Marsella & Pedersen, 2004). In the field of engineering there is general agreement that engineers must be able to function effectively in global environments. Ra mon Wyss (2007) says that engineers must be prepared to tackle worldwide problems related to food, water, climate, and sustainable global development (as cited in Bremer, 2007, p. 33). Larry Shuman, professor of engineering at the University of Pittsburgh, adds more needs to be done to provide graduating engineers with the ability to become world citizens, to better consider the long-term ramifications of their decisions, and to address global issues such as sust ainability (as cited in Bremer, 2007, p.35). Global Citizenship and the Li nk to Global Consciousness A closely related concept to global conscious ness is the notion of global citizenship. Nussbaum (1997) describes the origin of global citi zenship in ancient Greece, first being defined by the Greek philosopher Diogenes who uttered I am a citizen of the world, implying that he could define himself more than just a citizen of a nation-state or lo cal affiliations (p. 52). This led to the Stoic concept of Kosmopolites, or world citizens, which espoused the notion of individuals living in both the local community as well as the human community, creating the ability to view all humans as fellow citizens a nd local residents (p. 52). The Stoics are 78

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credited with developing the idea of crosscultural study and educati on for developing global citizens as a key component of education, believi ng that the most important alliance should be that of humanity, rather than nationality. Ther efore, all humans should be respected and treated with dignity regardless of their pl ace of birth, status, or gender. The work of Cicero expands this notion adding that justice should prevail over pol itics, and that humans must understand that humans are part of the human community whose ends are the mo ral ends of justice and human well-being (p. 59). The modern view of global citizenship is similar, and is tied to the impact of globalization. It carries with it the notions of recognizing the problems of the world including poverty, environmental pollution, sustainable de velopment, social justice, values and perceptions, diversity, interdepe ndence, international and intr a-national conflict, and human rights (Scott-Baumann, 2003; Dower, 2000). An important characteristic of the modern view of global citizenship is not only the awareness and recognition of the problems of the modern and interconnected world, but the re quirement to take responsibility for these problems and act toward solving them (Scott-Baumann, 2003). A gl obal citizen is therefore one who knows how the world works, is outraged by injustice and w ho is both willing and enab led to take action to meet this global challenge (Richardson, 1997, as cited by Davies, 2006, p. 7). This notion of global citizenship requiring acti on is echoed by Hickman who believe s that global citizenship is centered on Deweys pragmatist belief that citiz enship involves the do ing of something that involves ones relationship with others and theref ore requires that choi ces be made (Hickman, 2004, p. 78). The UK Oxfam Curriculum for Gl obal Citizenship defines a global citizen as one who Is aware of the wider world and has a sens e of their own role as a world citizen Respects and values diversity 79

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Has an understanding of how the world wo rks economically, polit ically, socially, culturally, technologicall y and environmentally Is outraged by social injustice Participates in and contributes to the community at a range of levels from the local to the global Is willing to act to make the world a more equitable and sustainable place Takes responsibility for th eir actions (Oxfam, 2006) Oxfam has also defined the knowledge, understandi ng, skills, values and attitudes that are required for responsible globa l citizenship (Appendix C). Griffiths (1998) describes the gl obal citizen as not merely aware of her rights, but able and desirous to act upon them; of an autonomous and inquiring critical disposition; but her decisions and actions tempered by an ethical co ncern for social justic e and the dignity of humankind (as cited in Davies 2006, p. 8). Global citizenship and global consciousness are intricately connected. Robertson (1992) posits th at global consciousness is the capability of having the sense of the world as a single place, understanding and appreciating other cultures, and understanding world social, eco nomic, and ecological concerns (p. 12). The mandate for responsibility and action to better humanity th at accompanies the notion of global citizenship, differentiates this concept from global consciousness. Global consciousness implies that action may be taken due to increased consciousness of the impact of globalization, but does not specifically mandate personal responsibility for such an action as global citizenship does. Another central concept involve d in global citizenship is the idea that local actions impact the rest of the world. This is a concep t akin to the popular think locally, act globally slogans. The UK West Midlands Commission on Global Citizenshi p (2002) describes this as developing a disposition toward connecting with the wider world, as well as contributing to economic, social, environmental and political de cision-making in our region which could have an impact elsewhere (as cited in Davies, 2006, p. 9). Nussbaum cites the importance of 80

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understanding local differences and problems, and be ing able to connect these to the rest of the world. This skill can lead to the ability to resp ect humanity on a global scale (Nussbaum, 1997). Similar to global consciousness, this con cept emphasizes the interconnectedness of the 21st century world, but specifically notes the impor tance of an action on the local level having a global impact. Assessment of Global Outcomes As demands for greater accountability of inte rnationalization efforts increase, including internationalizing the curriculum and study abroad, institutions of higher education are searching for valid and reliable ways to measure global outcomes. The perceptions of what constitutes global outcomes vary widely, and the selection of instruments will depend on the stated outcomes that the institution desire s to measure. Measuring global outcomes may require several types of measurement strategies including qual itative and quantitative measures (Deardorff, 2006). There are many instruments designed to measure various global outcomes such as cultural self-awareness, cultural adaptation, intercultural sensitiv ity, as well as dimensions of national cultures such as indi vidualism and collectivism (Appe ndix D). Some of the most commonly used instruments are desc ribed in the following paragraphs. The Intercultural Developm ent Inventory (Hammer & Bennett, 1998) is based on the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivit y (DMIS), a theoretical framework developed by Milton Bennett. The DMIS shows the progressi on from ethnocentrism (ones culture is most important and the center of ones reality) to ethnorelativism (one is able to experience ones culture in relation to and within the context of other cultures). During this progression there is an evolution of attitudes and behaviors toward cultu ral differences that show increased sensitivity. The assumption is that the more complex ones experience of cultural difference becomes, the 81

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greater ones ability to interact interculturally, and the greater the degree of intercultural sensitivity (Bennett, 1993). The IDI was developed to determine in tercultural competence by measuring the orientations toward cult ural differences on a continuum that are described in the DMIS (Denial, Defense, Minimization, Acceptance, Adaptation, In tegration. The IDI is a 50-item pencil and paper instrument, with 10 extra de mographic items. Coefficient alph a on five scales range from .80 to .85. Complete validity and reliability da ta have been reported in a study by Hammer, Bennett & Wiseman (2003). The Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI) was developed by Kelley and Meyers. This instrument focuses on four skill areas that are important in adap ting to other cultures: Emotional Resilience (ER); Flexibility/Openness (FO); Perceptual Acuity (PAC) and Personal Autonomy (PA). ER is the ability to bounce back, having emotional stability, positive attitude and being adventurous. FO is being nonjudgmental, flexible, enjoying people and diversity. PAC is being tuned into nonverbal communication, understandi ng the communication process, and having empathy. PA is a persons sense of identity, values, persona l initiative and respect (Kelley, Meyers, 1992, pp. 3-6). The CCAI is used to enable understandi ng about the adaptation process, increase cross-cultural awareness, and se rve as a training tool for those working with other cultures (Kelly, Meyers, 1992). Validity and reliability was established with a normative sample of n = 653. Internal consistency reliability coefficients from .68 to .82 were shown on the four scales. An expert panel and factor analysis was used to establish validity (Paige & Stallman, 2007). The Global Awareness Profile (GAP) was devel oped by J. Nathan Corbitt in 1998. It is designed to be a self-assessment of global awareness and knowledge of geographic regions of the 82

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world (geography); subject areas (environment, politics geography, religion, and others) and a broad-based knowledge of global issues. Ther e are 120 questions dealing with geography and subject areas and 12 dealing with broad-based gl obal issues. While there is generally little evidence on reliability and validity, test-retest reliability coefficien t is shown to be .83 (Early & Ang, 2003; Paige & Stallman 2007, p. 150). The Cross-Cultural World-Mindedness Scale wa s created by Der-Karabetian to measure attitudes and values such as immigration, pa triotism, world government, and global economic justice. There is evidence of criterion validity and internal consistency reliability (Paige & Stallman, 2007, p. 149). The Individual Global Competency Assessm ent was created by Moran and Reisenbeger to measure 12 cultural competencies for gl obal managers/leaders (Appendix A). This Assessment was designed as a tool for awaren ess development for training purposes and no reliability or validity information appears to be available (Early & Ang, 2003). The Cultural Orientations Indicator (COI) was developed by the Training Management Corporation for use in business tr aining environments to measure differences in cultural values, beliefs and attitudes by measuring 10 cultura l dimensions. These dimensions include environment, time, action, communication, spac e, power, individualism, competitiveness, structure and thinking. The cultura l dimensions are based on constr ucts that stem from the work of significant researchers in th e field of cultural anthropology and sociology such as Geert Hofstede, Alfons Trompenaars, Milton Bennett, Er etz and others. The authors state that the Phase III version of the COI meets the validity and reliability requirements of the Joint Committee on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing of the APA for similar 83

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instruments. Validity and reliability data is available in their publication Cultural Orientations Indicator Validity and Reliability Summary (TMC, 2007). Although the previously cited instruments and those listed in Appendix D measure some characteristics of global competence and global c onsciousness, a review of the literature reveals that there are no instruments that specifically measure global competence and/or global consciousness exclusively. The literature shows an increasing need for these instruments as institutions of higher education implement initia tives to develop globally competent and globally conscious professionals. Summary The impact of globalization in the 21st century has altered the landscape for higher education. As purveyors of the knowledge nece ssary to prepare future generations of professionals, institutions of higher education are tasked with understanding the impact of globalization and developing ini tiatives around learning outcomes that deve lop the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for navigating th e new global paradigm. Professional accrediting organizations are increasingly requi ring institutions of higher edu cation to focus some of their learning around enabling students to perform their professions in a gl obal context and to be able to make a contribution to the betterment of humankind. In response to the new global requirements of the professions and the need to respond to the demands of globalization, institutions of higher education have begun initiatives to internationalize the curriculum. One of the mo st significant models fo r internationalizing the curriculum is study abroad. As stud ents expand their participation in study abroad, there is a call for greater accountability for the learning outcome s of these programs. Increasingly efforts are being centered on establishing gl obal learning outcomes and effective measurement of these. While there is a plethora of l earning outcomes being generated as ideal global learning outcomes 84

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for internationalizing higher educat ion in general, and specifically for study abroad, there is no general consensus as to what these should be, an d what measures should be used to assess the efficacy of the initiatives desi gned to achieve these outcomes. Global competence and global consciousness ar e constructs that address both the functional and social-humanistic outcomes of initia tives to internationalize higher education in general and of study abroad specifically. The lit erature reveals an increasing mandate from the professional sectors to recruit employees that have both global competence and global consciousness, those who are able to function effectively and successfully in the new global paradigm, and who can contribute to the betterment of humankind. Institutions of higher education are therefore entrusted with developi ng the next generation of global professionals, those who possess global competence and global consciousness. 85

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Introduction The purpose of this study was to explore the e ffectiveness of study abro ad in specifically developing global competence and global consci ousness. The study was conducted using two assessment instruments: The Global Competen ce Assessment Instrument (GCAI-1) and The Global Consciousness Assessment Instrument (GCAI-2 ) developed by the researcher. Due to the complexity of these two constructs, they were measured independently of each other. Global competence and global consciousness represen t two sets of distinct knowledge, skills, experiences and attitudes. Research Questions This study explored the idea that the cons tructs of global competence and global consciousness can be learned through the curricul um model of study abroa d. This study also sought to measure the effectiven ess of study abroad on developi ng global competence and global consciousness. The following important research questions served to guide this study: What are the effects of study abroad on global competence? What are the effects of study abroad on global consciousness? Setting The study was conducted at a large southeastern research university, with an approximate total student population of 50,000 gradua te and undergraduate students. Methodology This study consisted of two parts: The fi rst part was the development, piloting and validation of two assessment instruments: The Global Competence Assessment Instrument (GCAI-1) and The Global Consciousness Assessment Instrument (GCAI-2). The second part was a quasi-experimental between-group design, usi ng these instruments to assess the gains in 86

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global competence and global consciousness of study abroad students. This study used a survey pre and posttest design. Developing GCAI-1 and GCAI-2 The purpose of using survey research for this study was to be able to measure growth in global competence and global consciousness over tim e, resulting from participating in a study abroad experience. The use of a longitudinal survey design, specifica lly a panel study, was appropriate as the same sample was studied twice, allowing the re searcher to track changes in global competence and global consciousness (C reswell, 2008). Survey methodology is considered appropriate in captu ring attitudes (including knowle dge, feeling and action), images, decisions, needs, behavior, lifestyle, affiliati on and demographics, making this type of methodology appropriate for measuring growth in global competence and global consciousness (Alreck & Settle, 1985, p. 13). To develop th e Global Competence Assessment Instrument (GCAI-1) and the Global Consci ousness Assessment Instrument (GCAI-2) several steps were taken to ensure validi ty and reliability. Content Validity Content validity was addressed using three proc edures. First, a comprehensive literature review was conducted on the two constructs: Gl obal competence and global consciousness. Factors for each of the c onstructs were identified a nd categorized as knowledge, skills/experiences, and attitudes necessary for global competence and global consciousness. The purpose of creating this taxonomy wa s to be able to use these f actors as learning outcomes, and have the means to measure them. In a study on gl obal learning frameworks for internationalizing higher education, Olson, Green & H ill (2006) reported the following: Some institutions presented their global learning outcomes grouped under the broad learning domains of knowledge, attitudes and skills. This presentation highlights the fact that global learning involves different types of learning: conc eptual or factual learning, 87

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attitudes that predispose students to engage with global issu es and people across cultures, and concrete skills that enable them to do so effectively. The advantage of this approach is that it aligns the learning outcomes w ith commonly used categories for assessment, thereby laying the groundwork for assessing student achievement of the outcomes and integrating the global learning work w ith other assessment efforts (p. 30). Tables 3-1 and 3-2 show the knowledge, skills/e xperiences and attitudes for global competence and global consciousness identified from the lite rature review, and that provide an overall conceptual underpinning for the dissertation. First drafts of both the GCAI-1 and the GCA I-2 were developed. The survey items were constructed based on the aforementioned factors of global competence and global consciousness grouped by knowledge, skills/experiences, and attitude s. Three questions were created for each factor measuring attitudes to include the three parts of attitude: knowledge (what a person knows or believes about the topic) feeling (how the person feels/ values the topic), action (the likelihood that a person will take action based on attitudes). Knowledge was measured using questions addressing awareness and experience with a topic. Feelings were measured based on position and intensity, identifying if the student liked or disliked something and how much the student liked or disliked it. Ac tions were measured looking at past present, and intended future behavior toward a topic. Behavi ors were measured by asking what the respondents did or did not do, where the action took place, when the acti on took place (past, present), and how often (Alreck, Settle, 1985, pp. 13-29). Nearly all factors included three items on the survey. A final demographics section wa s added that asked gender, age, marital status, number of children, country of birth, country of citizenship, nu mber of years living in country of citizenship or other, travel experience (per sonal and family), education level and degree interest, parental educational levels, employment, parental occupation, languages, childhood schooling experience, religious affiliation, and self-ide ntification of racial or ethnic background. 88

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The second step in ensuring c ontent validity was to send the first draft to a panel of experts for review. These incl uded professor and chair of a Department of Educational Administration and Policy; assist ant scholar of a Department of Educational Administration and Policy; assistant professor of Bilingual/ESOL E ducation; assistant professor of International Business; professor and chair of a Department of Chemical Engineering; and managing director of a management consulting firm in the UK. The experts recommended that the following steps be taken: Change the Global Consciousness Likert scal e in Section One from Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree to Strongly Consistent with my Beliefs to Strongly Not Consistent with my Beliefs, and adding a column labeled I Never Thought About It. Minor changes in semantic s for item clarification. Self-reporting of racial or ethnic affiliation. Reducing the choices of religious affiliations to major religions and offering other as an open-ended question. Deleting social security number as an identi fier (for pre and posttest s) and replacing it with a code that was easy to remember (m onth, day and year of birth in a two-digit format, followed by first initial of first and last name). Reduction of items Elimination of duplicate items. There was general agreement of content validity among the panel of experts. Versions 1.0 of both surveys were created incorporating th e feedback from the panel of experts. The third step was to pilot the instruments, Versions 1.0, with 16 students in a graduatelevel class that included maste rs and doctoral students in a co llege within the university. Participants were asked to gi ve written feedback on the cont ent, the overall experience of completing the surveys, the time it took to complete each survey, the form, and clarity of items. 89

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Based on the feedback from the expert panel and th e graduate class, the instruments were revised and Versions 1.1 were created. Plans for assessing summer 2007 semester study abroad groups were put into place. Identical online versions of th e instruments were created to re duce geographical constraints and maximize the number of participants Four faculty members leadi ng study abroad groups agreed to administer the instruments to their groups. A control group from a college within the university was established with students w ho did not participate in study abroad. Both paper and online posttest versions of the GCAI-1 and the GCAI-2 were created for the study abroad group and the control group. An analysis of the items was conducted to determine suitability of the items in the past tense. The content of the instruments remained the same, but the demographics section was removed and new sections were added. A new section for the experimental group wa s created reflective of the study abroad experience. This included questions as to the frequency of past expe riences studying abroad, length of program, location, language skills, prev ious experience with the host country, living arrangements during study abroad, reasons infl uencing decision to stu dy abroad, and a selfreflection on perceived growth in the knowledge, skills and attit udes being measured, as a result of the study abroad experience. The control group posttests included a new sectio n that asked the participants to identify if they had participated in activities that might have had an internationa lizing influence such as study abroad, an internationalized course, a course with significan t international content, travel to another country, or another type of international e xperience within the last 4 months. After the summer assessments, Versions 1.2 were crea ted, eliminating a request for the participants name, and replacing it with an item asking for the name of the course(s) taken while studying 90

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abroad, or in the case of the c ontrol group, the name of the course in which the survey was being administered. Study abroad students and cont rol groups from the 2007 fall semester and 2008 spring semester were also assessed using preand posttests in both online and paper formats to complete the sampling. Reliability Testing Scales were created with items that represented each factor of global competence and global consciousness. Inter-item reliability or internal consistenc y was measured by the Cronbachs coefficient alpha calculated on the sc ales of the pretest scores. A result of .60 or greater was determined for stability of the scales. Scales that did not meet the criteria were reevaluated and recalculated. Items were remove d if stability was compromised (Dooley, 2001). Some single item scales were crea ted. Summed scales were created in some cases using the theory that in those specific in stances, the scale reflected the su m of its items rather than the mean. Assessing Global Competence and Global Cons ciousness in Study Abroad Participants Participants in the experimental group incl uded students participating in study abroad programs from several units from the same institution. Participants were selected using purposive sampling, as students in the experimental group were required to be participants in a study abroad program. Control groups were se lected from the same institution and were expected to not participate in a study abroad program during the evaluation semester. The participants were recruited by es tablishing contact with faculty l eading study abroad courses, and directors of study abroad programs to request permission to survey the students who were participating in study abroad programs in the 2007 summer and fall semesters and the 2008 spring semester. 91

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Participant demographics were representative of undergraduate students from the university. Of all entering freshmen at the university in 2006, 91% were in the top quarter of their high school graduating class and the average age of undergraduat e full and part-time students was 25 years. Nearly 36% of the undergraduate full-time students received some financial aid. White, non-Hispanic students re presented over 66% of the total undergraduate student population, followed by 13% Hispanic, 9% Black, non-Hispanic, 7% Asian or Pacific Islander. There were 84 international students. Data Collection A letter inviting students to participate was written. The letter explained the purpose of the study, specifically stating that the students participation was st rictly voluntary and that their choice to participate or not to participate would not affect their grade, that their confidentiality would be protected, and that the time to take both surveys was not expected to exceed 30 minutes. Additionally, participants were told that the design of the study required the completion of both a pre and a posttest, and they were aske d to commit to completing both if they chose to participate in the study (Appendix E). Participants were required to sign an inform ed consent form that indicated the purpose of the study, what they would be asked to do in the study, the time required, compensation, confidentiality, voluntary participation, the right to withdraw from the study, and researcher contact information. Participants who took the on line surveys were asked to read an informed consent page, and agree or disagr ee to participate. If they chose the option to disagree to participate in the study, they were bloc ked from continuing to take the survey (Appendix F). Asking students to provide a code representing their month, day and year of birth and the first initials of their first and last names addres sed confidentiality during the administration of the survey. Therefore, John Smith, born on June 2, 1985 would be 060285JS. This code could be 92

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easily reconstructed by participants and served as a unique identif ier to track preand posttest results. The participants email address was as ked to be able to contact those who took the pretest for the posttes t administration. The faculty and the study abro ad directors sent the letter by email to the students who were scheduled to participate in study abroad programs for the following semester. Some groups were invited to participate in the online survey exclusively due to logi stical reasons. Other groups were offered the opportunity to take the paper or the online surveys. Control groups were recruited from two co lleges within the university. The control groups from one college answered both the pape r and online surveys. The control group from another college answered only the online survey. Those students who were scheduled to answer the online surveys were provided in the emails, links to both assessment instruments and d eadlines for completion. These deadlines were scheduled approximately 2 weeks from sending the em ail. This was important for the pretest as participants were expected to complete the surveys as close to the start of their study abroad experience as possible. The same procedure with new links was repeated for the posttests. The posttest deadlines became important to preven t attrition upon return from the study abroad program. Those participants who completed pape r surveys were administered the surveys by the faculty members or study abroad directors at a date that was c onvenient for them early in the semester for the pretests, and late in the semester for the posttests. Control groups followed the same procedures as experimental groups. Response and Response Rates Response rates were addressed using severa l methods. A high response rate for the online tests were the most difficult to obtain as emails may be frequently lost, go into a junk mail cache, not read, or ignored at times. The pretest emails were designed to be attractive 93

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using global graphics inviting students to read the emails (Appendix E). One or two additional emails spaced one week apart seeking to increase participation followed the first emails. After the third email, no further attempts were made as the semester had already begun, and students were immersed in their study abroad experience by that time, factors that could negatively affect the gains in the posttests. Stude nts completing the paper versions of the surveys were invited to an ice-cream social/pretest-taking event, or the faculty administered the surveys in their classrooms. One group was offered the incentiv e of receiving the resu lts of their pre and posttests with a personal analysis provided by th e researcher if they chose. Two groups were offered extra credit by faculty if they completed both the pre and posttests. The primary threat in a panel design is postte st fatigue or attriti on (Dooley, 2001). This threat was addressed by sending three requests to online pretest participants asking them to complete the posttests, and describing the impor tance of the posttests to the study. The students from one unit were invited to pa rticipate in a gathering to meet fellow study abroad students, share their experiences and take the posttests. Electronic testing was an option for all participants. In some cases, telephone calls were made to participants to assure that they had received the emails and inviting them to complete the surveys. Questionnaire length may also affect respons e bias. The GCAI-1 and GCAI-2 are long and taking both requires approximately 30 minutes affecting the willingness of participants to complete the pretests or the posttests. Having a choice whether to complete the assessments online or in a paper format served th e purpose of helping control this bias. Response Rate Of the 726 requests to participate in the su rvey, 193 completed the GCAI-1 pretest and 154 completed the GCAI-2 pretest. The GCAI-1 pretest response rate was 27%. The GCAI-2 pretest response rate was 21%. 94

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Posttest requests were distributed to the 193 pretest respondents for the GCAI-1, and to the 154 pretest respondents for the GCAI-2. A total of 123 students completed the GCAI-1 posttest, and 123 completed the GCAI-2 posttest. The posttest response rate for the GCAI1 was 64%. The posttest response rate for the GCAI-2 was 80%. Data Analysis Hypotheses This study was designed and conducted to test the following hypotheses: Null: Study abroad will have no effect on global competence. o Alternative: Study abroad will produce an increase in global competence. Null: Study abroad will have no effect on global consciousness. o Alternative: Study abroad will produce an increase in global consciousness. Pretest and Posttest Analysis Descriptive statistics were reported on e xperimental and control group pretests (GCAI-1 and GCAI-2) followed by one-tailed Independent T-tests on each scale (GCAI-1 and GCAI-2) for both groups (Experimental and Control). The purpose was to test for equivalency of means on each scale for the experimental and control groups. Descriptive statistics were reported on e xperimental and control group posttests (GCAI-1 and GCAI-2) followed by one-tailed Independent T-tests on each scale (GCAI-1 and GCAI-2) for both groups (Experimental and Control). The purpose was to test for gains of means on each scale for the experimental group. The T-tests were conducted appl ying a P statistic-adjustment gain formula to adjust for ceiling effect (Haged orn, Siadat, Nora, & Pas carella, 1997). Student gain scores can be problematic if there are si gnificant differences be tween students who score significantly high or low in the pr etests. Those who scored signifi cantly high in the pretests have little room to show gain in the posttest even if their gain is significant. For example in the GCAI-1 and GCAI-2, 5-point Likert scales are used. In this case students who scored a 1 in the 95

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Likert scale have a maximum measurable improve ment of 4 points in the posttest. However, students who scored the maximum of 5 on the pret est, although they may have gained from the study abroad experience, are unable to show any measurable gain beyond a 5 in the posttest. This is an example of a ceiling effect. The P statistic-adjustment gain formula addresses the nonlinear nature of gains by expressing pretest to posttest gains relative to the to the students maximum attainable gain (P) (Hagedorn, Siadat, Nora, & Pascarella, 1997, p. 193). The Hagedorn and colleagues formula for relative gain is the following: P = (Post-Pre)/Max-Pre) Where: Post = posttest score Pre = pretest score Max = theoretica l maximum gain (i.e. 5-posttest score) 0 P 1 The function is defined and described as follows: G as G=P/(1-P). This function is an odds function in the probabilistic sense. When P is small, the function G approximately equals P. In other words, G exhibits complete linear behavior for all values of P near zero. However, as P approaches one, G approaches extremely large values (i.e. G becomes totally nonlin ear in the neighborhood of 1). It is easy to see that 0 G for 0 P 1. Applying the natu ral logarithm to G will thus slow down the growth of the gain near 1, and would linearize it in this interval. This transformation will also expand the ra nge to all real numbers i.e., whereas G is restricted to take on only nonnegative numbers, natural l ogarithm of G can take all negative as well as positive numbers. The log it P is defined as the natural logarithm of G: logitP = lnG = ln(P/1-P). Whereas the dom ain of the logit function is between 0 and 1, i.e., 0 P 1, its range sweeps all real numbers, i.e., logitP The logit P is perfectly symmetrical at P=1/ 2 and has zero value at this point (Hagedorn, Siadat, Nora, & Pascarella, 1997, p. 193). All statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS. 96

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Table 3-1. List of global competence knowledge, skills/experiences, attitudes and corresponding references Global competence References Knowledge 1. Cultural self-awareness Hunter, 2004; Cant, 2004; Harris, Moran, Moran, 2004; Jokinen, 2005; Kalamazoo College (2004); Michigan State University, 2004; Ba dley, 2000; ACIIE, 1996; Siaya, 2001 2. Awareness of the culture of others Hunter, 2004; Cant, 2004; Harris, Moran, Moran, 2004; Koehn & Rosenau, 2002; Kalamazoo College, 2004; Palo Alto College, 2004, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006; Michigan State University, 2004; ACIIE, 1996; Siaya, 2001 3. Understanding globalization Cant, 2004; Harris, Moran, Moran, 2004; Kalamazoo College, 2004; Koehn & Rosenau, 2002; Palo Alto College, 2004; Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006; University of Pittsburgh, 2003; ACIIE, 1996; Siaya, 2001 4. Knowledge of current world events Bikson, Treverton, Moini, Lindstrom, 2003; Hunter, 2004; Kalamazoo College, 2004; University of Pittsburgh, 2003; ACIIE, 1996; Siaya, 2001; Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006 5. Knowledge of world history and geography Hunter, 2004; ACIIE, 1996; Bikson, Treverton, Moini, Lindstrom, 2003; Siaya, 2001 6. Professional knowledge Bikson, Trever ton, Moini, Lindstrom, 2003; Jokinen, 2005; Michigan State University, 2004; ACIIE, 1996; University of Pittsburgh, 2003 Skills/experiences 7. Effective use of professional skills in other cultural environments Palo Alto College, 2004; Mi chigan State University, 2004; Hunter, 2004; Harris Moran, Moran, 2004; Koehn & Rosenau, 2002; Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006; ACIIE, 1996; Bikson, Treverton, Moini, Lindstrom, 2003; Siaya, 2001. 8. Collaboration and teamwork across cultures Hunter, 2004; Cant, 2004; Harris, Moran, Moran, 2004; Koehn & Rosenau, 2002; Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006; ACIIE, 1996; Jokinen, 2005; Bikson, Treverton, Moin i, Lindstrom, 2003 9. Effective use of cross-cultural skills and strategies Hunter, 2004; Harris, Moran, Moran, 2004; Koehn & Rosenau, 2002; Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006; ACIIE, 1996; Jokinen, 2005; Bikson, Treverton, Moini, Lindstrom, 2003; Michigan State University, 2004; Cant, 2004 10. Effective assessment of crosscultural situations Hunter, 2004; Harris, Moran, Moran, 2004; Koehn & Rosenau, 2002; Bikson, Treverton, Moini, Lindstrom, 2003; Michigan State Univer sity, 2004; Cant, 2004; Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006; ACIIE, 1996; 97

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Table 3-1. Continued Global competence References 11. Successfully living in a culture different from ones own Hunter, 2004; Harris, Moran, Moran, 2004; Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006; ACIIE, 1996 12. Willingness and/or ability to speak a foreign language Koehn & Rosenau, 2002; Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006; ACIIE, 1996; Jokinen, 2005; Bikson, Treverton, Moini, Lindstrom, 2003; Michigan State University, 2004; Palo Alto College, 2004; University of Pittsburgh, 2003; Siaya, 2001 Attitudes 13. Recognition of/and interest in multiple worldviews Hunter, 2004; Koehn & Rosenau, 2002; Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006; ACIIE, 1996; Jokinen, 2005; Bikson, Treverton, Moini, Lindstrom, 2003; Michigan State University, 2004; Siaya, 2001 14. Willingness to step outside of own cultural comfort zone Hunter, 2004; Koehn & Rosenau, 2002; ACIIE, 1996; Jokinen, 2005; Bikson, Treverton, Moini, Lindstrom, 2003; Michigan State University, 2004; Cant, 2004; Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006; Siaya, 2001 15. Acceptance of and/or sensitivity toward cultural differences Hunter, 2004; Koehn & Rosenau, 2002; ACIIE, 1996; Jokinen, 2005; Bikson, Treverton, Moini, Lindstrom, 2003; Michigan State University, 2004; Cant, 2004; Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006; Siaya, 2001 16. Openness to new experiences Hunter, 2004; Koehn & Rosenau, 2002; ACIIE, 1996; Jokinen, 2005; Cant, 2004; Bikson, Treverton, Moini, Lindstrom, 2003; Georgia In stitute of Technology, 2006 17. Willingness to take risks to learn more about other cultures Hunter, 2004; Bikson, Treverton, Moini, Lindstrom, 2003; Cant, 2004; Michigan State University, 2004; ACIIE, 1996; Siaya, 2001 18. Possessing a long-term orientation Cant, 2004; Harris, Moran, Moran, 2004; ACIIE, 1996; Koehn & Rosenau, 2002 98

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Table 3-2. List of global consciousness knowle dge, skills/experie nces, attitudes and corresponding references Global consciousness References Knowledge 1. Understanding of globalizations impact on the world Cuddy-Keane, 2003; Tomlinson, 1999; Allen & Ogilvie, 2004; Falk, 1998; Chua, 2003; Chanda, 2002; Hill, 2000; Allen & Ogilvi e, 2004; Gacel-Avila, 2005; Marsella & Pedersen, 2004; Moffat as cited in Bremer, 2006; Robertson, 1992 2. Understanding world history and politics Robertson, 2004; Chua, 2003; Hunter, 2004; ACIIE, 1996; Bikson, Treverton, Moini, Lindstrom, 2003; Siaya, 2001 3. Understanding of the human condition Robertson, 2004; Lessem & Palsule, 2002; Camdessus, 2001; Stepnisky, 2005; Collier & Wanderly, 2005; Scott-Bauman, 2003; Dowe r, 2000; Oxfam, 2006; Davies, 2006; Robertson, 1992; ACIIE, 1996; 4. Understanding the concept of empowerment Robertson, 2004; Camdessus, 2001; Chua, 2003 5. Understanding global environmental challenges Robertson, 2004; Cuddy-Keane, 2003; Lessem & Palsule, 2002; Camdessus, 2001; Allen & Ogilvie, 2004; Moffat as cited in Bremer, 2006; Beck, 2000; Stepnisky, 2005; Collier & Wanderly, 2005; Scott-Bauman, 2003; Dower, 2000; Wyss & Shuman as cited in Bremer, 2007; Palo Alto College, 2004 6. Societal/historic self-awa reness Robertson, 2004; Nussb aum, 1997; Gacel-Avila, 2005; Kalamazoo College, 2004; Siaya, 2001; 7. Understanding the nature of multicultural societies Robertson, 2004; Lessem & Palsule;, 2002; CuddyKeane, 2003; Camdessus, 2001; Scott-Bauman, 2003; Dower, 2000; Nieto, 2004; Banks, 2008 Skills/experiences 8. Ability to communicate effectively across cultures Stepnisky, 2005; Koehn & Rosenau, 2002; University of Pittsburgh, 2003; ACIIE, 1996; Siaya, 2001; Koehn & Rosenau, 2002 9. Ability to cope with ambiguity H ill, 2000; ACIIE, 1996; Siaya, 2001; 10 Ability to understand and manage complex problems and issues Hill, 2000; Robertson, 2004; Siaya, 2001; Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006; Koehn & Rosenau, 2002; 11 .. Ability to transcend nation-state thinking to global thinking Singer, 2004; Rifkin, 2004; Stepnisky, 2005; Oxfam, 2006; Nussbaum, 1997 99

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Table 3-2. Continued Global consciousness References Attitudes 12. Respect for human rights Collier &Wanderl ey, 2005; Turner as cited in Rifkin, 2004,; Stepnisky, 2005; Camdessus, 2001; Nussbaum, 1997; Scott-Baumann, 2003; Dower, 2000; ACIIE, 1996; Allen & Ogilvie, 2004 13. Desire/willingness to be a global citizen Robertson, 2004; Hill; Nussbaum, 1997; Richardson, 1997 as cited by Davies, 2006; Oxfam, 2006; Banks, 2008 14. Desire/willingness to improve the human condition Coca-Cola 2004 World Citizenship Report; Oxfam, 2006; Banks, 2008 15. Valuing diversity Hill, 2000; Gacel-Avila, 2005; Oxfam, 2006; Banks, 2008 100

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of study abroad in developing global competence and global consciousness. As st ated in Chapter 1, as institutions of higher education increase their efforts to internationalize the curriculum, in partic ular through the use of study abroad, it becomes necessary to specify le arning outcomes and measure the effectiveness of these programs. This study establishes the constructs of global competence and global consciousness to jointly serve as outcomes for internationalizing the curriculum and establishes the means to measure the effectiveness of study abroad in developing these constructs. The study was guided by two hypotheses: Null: Study abroad will have no effect on global competence. o Alternative: Study abroad will produce an increase in global competence. Null: Study abroad will have no effect on global consciousness. o Alternative: Study abroad will produce an increase in global consciousness. Two instruments were developed for the purpose s of assessing the constructs of global competence and global consciousness: The Gl obal Competence Assessment Instrument (GCAI-1) and the Global Consciou sness Assessment Instrument (GCAI-2). These instruments were used to assess study abroad students. This chapter was divided into two sections. The first section details the development and validation of the GCAI-1 and GCAI-2, and the se cond part reports the results of assessing study abroad students with these instruments, using a survey panel preand posttest design. Developing GCAI-1 and GCAI-2 The development of the GCAI-1 and GCAI-2 consisted of the following steps: A comprehensive literature review was conducted on the constructs of global competence and global consciousness. This step identified the factors for each of the constructs, which were categorized as knowledge, skills/e xperiences, and attitudes. 101

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First drafts of the instruments were develope d (the pretests). These drafts included a demographics section that was in corporated as the final section of the instruments. The drafts were sent to a panel of expert s for review and first versions were created incorporating their recommendations. The instruments were piloted with graduate students who provided feedback on the content and the experience taking the tests. Second versi ons were created incorporating the feedback from the panel of experts and th e pilot group. Scales were created based on the factors that were identif ied and the corresponding items on the instruments. A first round of assessments was conducted with summer 2007 semester study abroad students and a control group. An online versi on was created of both instruments creating identical versions as the paper versions. Postte st versions were create d for both instruments in both the paper and online formats. The posttests for the study abroad students included an additional section that was designe d to capture elements of their study abroad experience. The posttests for the control group included an additi onal section that was designed to capture possible confounding variables (rece nt international experiences) that could influence their results. A second and third round of preand pos ttest assessments were conducted with fall 2007 and spring 2008 semester study abroad students and control groups using both paper and online formats. Inter-item reliability was measured by the Cronbachs coefficient alpha calculated on the scales of the pretest scores for both the GCAI-1 and the GCAI-2. The criteri on for stability of the scales or internal consistency was set at .60 due to the small sample, and thus the lowered power of statistical testing. Scales were carefully monitored and honed fo r the best reliability possible. In some cases the scale was summed on the theory that the scale construct was in essence the sum of its parts. The GCAI-1 factor analysis indicated that the scal e: knowledge of world 102

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history and geography represented two separate constructs and he nce should be divided into two separate scales: (a) knowledge of world history and (b) knowle dge of world geography. The scales and items indicated in tabl es 4-1 and 4-2 formed the basis for the analysis on the gains in global competence and global consciousness. Assessing Global Competence and Global Consciousness Sample Participants who completed the assessments were students from one university who were participating in study abroad programs during the 2007 summer and fall semesters, and the 2008 spring semester. Study abroad destinations were in Europe except for one group that went to South America. Control groups were selected from the same university and were not participating in study abroad programs during thos e same semesters. The demographics were representative of the universit y population. Some demographic information relevant to the study, reflective of international experiences and/or influences was also collected as seen in Tables 4-3 and 4-4. The demographics in both the GCAI-1 and the GCAI-2 revealed some differences between the experiment al and control groups with a larg er number of students in the experimental groups revealing that they spoke a second lang uage, had a passport, and had parents who possessed a passport wh ile they were growing up. In addition to the demographics reported in Tables 4-3 and 4-4, participants were asked to self-report on racial and/or ethnic background creating a wide rang e of responses that could be clustered together. The largest cluster was w hite, Caucasian and European-American, which accounted for 44% of the responses. For the GC AI-1 and the GCAI-2 over 50% of both the experimental and control groups self-reported belonging to the Christian religion, followed by no religion, with Jewish religion being the third most popular reported category. 103

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Posttest experimental groups were asked to report demographics on their study abroad experience to provide data that might affect response s. Some of the data that is significant to this study is reported in Table 4-5. Posttest control groups were asked to re port if they had any international-type experiences during the previous semester that might be a conf ounding variable influencing their posttest scores. They were asked if they had participated in study abroad, taken an internationalized course, taken a co urse with significant international content, traveled to another country, or participated in anot her type of international experi ence. Over 85% of the control group reported that they ha d not participated in an y of these experiences. Response Rate Requests to complete both the GCAI-1 and the GCAI-2 pretest surveys in either paper or online formats were sent to 726 students via director s of study abroad or faculty. Letters with the corresponding links for the pretest online surveys were sent to the directors of study abroad who in turn distributed them to their list of study ab road students. This process was repeated for the posttests. Paper copies of the pretest surveys were distributed to three faculty conducting study abroad programs. The faculty distributed and co llected the surveys in their classes prior to starting the study abroad. This process was repeated for the posttests. Control groups completed both paper and online preand posttests following the same process as the study abroad students. Of the 726 requests to participate in the su rvey, 193 completed the GCAI-1 pretest and 154 completed the GCAI-2 pretest. The GCAI-1 pretest response rate was 27%. The GCAI-2 pretest response rate was 21%, considered abou t average for this targ et population using webbased surveys (Kaplowitz, Hadlock, & Levine, 2004). Posttest requests were distributed to the 193 pretest respondents for the GCAI-1, and to the 154 pretest respondents for the GCAI-2. A total of 123 students completed the GCAI-1 104

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posttest, and 123 completed the GCAI-2 posttest. The posttest response rate for the GCAI1 was 64%. The posttest response rate for the GC AI-2 was 80%. A high posttest response was obtained by offering incentives, such as an ice-cream social for study abroad participants to meet each other and complete the posttests, an offer to provide the individual results of the survey to participants who requested that information, and extra credit offers by fa culty for students who participated in both the preand posttests. Data Analysis One-tailed independent samples t-tests were conducted on pretest data for experimental and control groups for both the GC AI-1 and GCAI-2 to test for equality of means between the groups. This analysis tests for equivalency of each scale for the e xperimental and control groups. Results are reported in Tables 4-6 and 4-7. Pretest Results Results for GCAI-1 (global competence) pretest showed significant differences with the experimental group scoring higher on Successfully living in a culture different from ones own Ability to speak a foreign language Recognition of/interest in multiple worldviews Willingness to step outside of own cultural comfort zone Openness to new experiences Willingness to take risks to learn more about other cultures. Due to the self-selection of study abroad students, it may be expected that they would initially score higher on these factors. There were no ot her significant differences in the experimental group scoring higher than the control group on other scales in th e GCAI-1 pretest. Results for GCAI-2 (global consciousness) pretest showed no significant differences in the experimental group scoring hi gher than the control group. 105

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Posttest Results One-tailed independent samples t-tests were conducted on posttest data for experimental and control groups for both the GCAI-1 and GCA I-2 to test for gains on scale means of the experimental and control groups. The t-tests were conducted using a P-statistic adjustment gain formula to adjust for ceiling effect (Hage dorn, Siadat, Nora, & Pascarella, 1997). When analyzing student gain scores, problems arise when there are significant differences between high and low scoring students with respect to their relative improvements even when their absolute improvements may be equal. The P-st atistic adjustment gain formula addresses the nonlinear nature of gains as students who scor e lower in the pretest may show a greater improvement in the posttest than those who scored higher in the pretest (Hagedorn, Siadat, Nora, & Pascarella, 1997, p. 193; See Chapter 3 for formula). For example, as noted in the pretest for the GCAI-1, the experimental group scored higher than the control group in several scales. Therefore, on a Likert scale of 1-5 (strongly disagree to strongly agree), some students may have scored a 5 on the pretest (maximum score), allowing no room for improvement resulting from their study abroad experience on the posttest (ceiling effect). Therefore, the scores for the st udents who hit the ceiling of the item may not be accurate. Their actual score could be slightly or much higher, but it would be impossible to know. As students self-select to participate in study abroad pr ograms, higher scores than the control group in the pretest on global competence and global consciousness are possible, as shown in the pretest, and could indicate the possibility of a ceiling effect occurring in the posttest. The P-statistic adjustment gain formula adjusts for this effect in the posttest. Significance for posttest gains was determined to be p <.10 due to the small posttest sample size that results in low power in the statistical test. 106

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Results for the GCAI-1 (global competence) pos ttest, as seen in Table 4-8, showed that the gains were statistically and positively significant for: Awareness of the culture of others; effective use of professional ski lls in other cultural environment; successfully living in a culture different from ones own; and ability to sp eak a foreign language. There were no other significant differences in the e xperimental group gains on other sc ales in the GCAI-1 posttest. Results for the GCAI-2 (global consciousness) po sttest, as seen in Table 4-9, showed that the gains were statistically and positively sign ificant for: Desire/willingness to improve the human condition. There were no othe r significant differences in th e experimental group gains on other scales in the GCAI-2 posttest. Generalizability of Results The results of this study may be generalizable to study ab road students with similar demographic characteristics, participating in similar types of programs and geographic areas, originating from similar types of institutions of higher education. Conclusions Developing GCAI-1 and GCAI-2 Two assessment instruments were develope d to measure global competence and global consciousness. The GCAI-1 (global competence) and GCAI-2 (global consciousness) were validated and tested for interitem reliability and internal consistency (Cronbachs alpha = .60). Many of the scales indicated a moderate reliab ility using a threshold alpha coefficient of .60, however when reliability was not as expected, a single item was used to operationalize the construct of interest. Some of the scales were calculated as sums of total parts where the theory that the sum of parts is more significant than the mean held true. The complexity of the constructs being measured is reflected in the complexity of the scales of the instrument. While both instruments are long and the scales are co mplex, the creation of these instruments is a 107

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significant step toward measuring global compet ence and global consciousness as outcomes of study abroad and other internationalized curricula. Assessing Global Competence and Global Co nsciousness in Study Abroad Students The purpose of this study was to investigat e whether the experien ce of studying abroad would have an effect on the development of gl obal competence and global consciousness. While the sample size was small, the results for global competence showed signifi cant gains in four out of nineteen scales and the resu lts for global consciousness showed significant gains in one out of fifteen scales. These gains are fewer than might have been anticipated in spite of using the Pstatistic adjustment formula to adjust for ceiling effect. The findings are sufficient to reject the null hypotheses. A more detailed summary and discussion of the findings are presented in the next chapter. 108

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Table 4-1. Scales (GCAI-1) with Cronbach Alpha reliability/single item/summed scale Scale Cronbach Alpha Items Knowledge Cultural selfawareness Single item I think about the values and beliefs of my own culture. Awareness of the culture of others .633 When interacting with people from other cultures, I try to remember that peoples values and beliefs are different in other cultures. It is important to learn a bout the values, beliefs, and attitudes of ot her cultures. I try to understand the expecta tions that people from other cultures have of me. Understanding of globalization .610 What I do in my country most likely will affect people in other countries. Because it doesnt affect me, I dont pay attention to what is happening in the world.1 Knowledge of current world events .649 I keep up with international news in the newspaper, on the Internet, on TV or radio. Because it doesnt affect me, I dont pay attention to what is happening in the rest of the world.1 Knowledge of world history Summed scale I have taken at least one colle ge-level world history course. My education has included le arning about the history of the world. Knowledge of world geography Single item I have taken at least one college-level world geography course. Professional knowledge .618 I am comfortable using the In ternet and rela ted technology. I have good computer skills. Skills/Experiences Effective use of professional skills in other cultural environment .667 I have conducted business inte rnationally with people from other cultures. I have practiced my prof ession in another country. Collaboration and teamwork across cultures Single item I work or study in groups that include people from cultures different than mine. 109

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Table 4-1. Continued Scale Cronbach Alpha Items Effective use of cross-cultural skills and strategies .609 I am good at knowing how I am supposed to behave with people from other cultures. I am usually successful at preventing or solving misunderstandings with peopl e from other cultures. Effective assessment of cross-cultural situation Single item When working or studying with people from other cultures, I try to think of different ways to approach problems. Successfully living in a culture different from ones own Summed scale I have lived in a country othe r than my native country for one year or longer. I have studied abroad at least one time. I have lived in a foreign count ry as a business expatriate. Ability to speak a foreign language .744 I use a second language in my work or at school. I am as proficient in a second language as I am in my native language. Attitudes Recognition of/interest in multiple worldviews .612 When events are happening in a different part of the world, I try to learn more about them. I try to respect peoples beliefs even if I dont agree with them. I would like to learn more about how people in other countries live. My cultures way of life should be a model for the rest of the world. 1,2 I would like to experience attending different types of religious services. I believe that there is a right way and wrong way to do things. 1 I like to listen to music from other countries. It is important to respec t peoples religious beliefs. 110

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Table 4-1. Continued Scale Cronbach Alpha Items Willingness to step outside of own cultural comfort zone .628 I would like to lear n another language. I attend foreign films, festivals or events. I am willing to eat the foods that are typically eaten in other countries. I dont mind traveling to a count ry where I dont speak the language. When I come in contact with people from a different culture, I find I can change my behavior to adapt to theirs. Whenever I make travel plan s, I like to go to places I havent been to before. I like to come up with new ways of doing things that have not been done before. Acceptance of and/or sensitivity toward cultural differences .674 I try to understand how people in other cultures feel. I believe that all cultures ha ve something worthwhile to offer. I care about how people feel even if I dont agree with them. I try to understand peoples t houghts or feelings when I talk to them.3 I might not always understand a ll aspects of interactions with people from other cultures. It is important to be sensitive to other cultures. Willingness to take risks to learn more about cultures .676 I am sometimes willing to take risks to learn about other cultures. I am enthusiastic about trying something new. I am not afraid to try someth ing challenging as long as I am learning something new. Possessing a longterm orientation Single item I enjoy building long-term rela tionships with business or social contacts. 1 These items were reverse coded 2 (Hammer, Bennett, 1998) 3 (Kelley, Meyers, 1992) 111

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Table 4-2. Scales (GCAI-2) with Cronbach Alpha reliability/single item/summed scale Scale Cronbach Alpha Items Knowledge Understanding of globalizations impact on the world Single item Globalization means what I do in my country impact people in other countries. Understanding world history and politics Single item It is important for me to know about events in developing countries. Understanding of the human condition .707 In some parts of the world, the poor have almost no chance of getting out of poverty. Social injustice is always wrong regardless of where it is happening. It is wrong that people continue to suffer in many countries while in othe r countries people are getting richer. Businesses should help impr ove the lives of those who are suffering worldwide. Multinational businesses have been responsible for rapid globalization that includes the spread of science and technology worldwide. Worldwide economic development has not benefited everyone equally In many countries globalization only makes a few people rich and the rest remain poor. Understanding the concept of empowerment Single item Globalization should help those who have traditionally been oppressed to gain social and economic power. Understanding global environmental challenges .626 Economic growth should always take into account the environmental impact both locally and globally. How we treat the environment in our own country affects the ecological balance of the entire world. Every time I drive my gasoline-powered car I am contributing to worldwide pollution. Societal/historical selfawareness Summed scale It is important to learn about the problems affecting my society. It is important to know and understand the history of my native country. 112

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Table 4-2. Continued Scale Cronbach Alpha Items Understanding the nature of multicultural societies .647 I am a citizen of the world. I am affected by the murder or displacement of ethnic groups that happen outside of my country. Some people force other people to leave their homes because of their r ace, ethnicity, or their political or religious beliefs. People often move from one country to another in search of a better life. In some countries large groups of people have been murdered because of their ethnicity or race. Skills/experiences Ability to communicate effectively across cultures Single item When I communicate with people from other cultures, I should try to find ways to make them feel comfortable with me. Ability to cope with ambiguity Single item I can be comfortable in situations despite not being sure of what is going on. Ability to understand and manage complex problems and issues Single item In order to devise differe nt types of solutions to world problems, it is important to deeply understand different cultures and ways of living. Ability to transcend nation-state thinking to global thinking Single item Countries need to work together to solve world problems. Attitudes Respect for human rights .684 All humans should be treated with dignity. People from all cultures should be treated with respect. Desire/willingness to be a global citizen .626 My actions in my home country impact the rest of the world. I see myself as a member of the global community. In order to improve relationships with people in my country and others, I must learn about other countries, and other people. It is very important for me to know about world politics, economics, societies, cultures, environments and technologies. I want to do something to increase justice for all people in the world. 113

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Table 4-2. Continued Scale Cronbach Alpha Items Desire/willingness to improve the human condition Single item My actions will make a difference in creating a more equitable and sustainable world. Valuing diversity Single item Differences in people make the world a better place. 114

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Table 4-3. Experimental/control group demographics (GCAI-1) Demographic Valid percent experimental Valid percent control Gender Male Female 37 63 48 52 Country of birth USA Other 83 17 87 13 Total number of countries lived in lifetime (including USA) Only one More than one 66 34 76 24 Currently has a passport Yes No 100 0 84 16 At least one parent had a passport when they were growing up Yes No Dont know 78 16 6 67 28 5 Travel outside of native country Yes No 91 9 96 4 Number of languages spoken other than native language None One or more 35 65 69 31 Table 4-4. Experimental/control group demographics (GCAI-2) Demographic Valid percent experimental Valid percent control Gender Male Female 29 71 58 42 Country of birth USA Other 55 45 63 37 Total number of countries lived in lifetime (including USA) Only one More than one 76 24 79 21 Currently has a passport Yes No 100 0 84 16 At least one parent had a passport when they were growing up Yes No Dont know 82 15 3 72 21 7 Travel outside of native country Yes No 90 10 95 5 Number of languages spoken other than native language None One or more 31 69 44 56 115

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Table 4-5. Demographics reflecting the study abroad experience (posttest experimental) GCAI-1 Valid percent GCAI-2 Valid percent First experience studying abroad Yes No 82 18 First experience studying abroad Yes No 91 9 Length of study abroad program Semester Other 79 21 Length of study abroad program Semester Other 97 3 Living arrangements during study abroad Host family Univ. dorm with local students Univ. dorm with international Students Hotel/Apartment Other 12 2 8 71 7 Living arrangements during study abroad Host family Univ. dorm with local students Univ. dorm with international Students Hotel/Apartment Other 13 3 13 68 3 116

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Table 4-6. Pretest: T-test (GCAI-1) for baseline comparison of e xperimental and control groups Scales Control experimental Mean Standard deviation t df Cultural self-awareness Ctr. Exp. 4.0000 4.2000 .77703 .63246 1.836 187 Awareness of culture of others Ctr. Exp 4.2716 4.3333 .47173 .44831 .844 189 Understanding of globalization Ctr. Exp 3.7870 3.7336 .70445 .68345 .483 189 Knowledge of current world events Ctr. Exp 2.6111 2.6314 .54657 .43837 .268 189 Knowledge of world history Ctr. Exp 1.3333 1.2993 .80094 .75113 .277 189 Knowledge of world geography Ctr. Exp .4074 .2847 .46641 .33203 2.113 75 Professional knowledge Ctr. Exp 4.4352 4.5949 .60693 .48330 1.908 189 Effective use of professional skills in other cultural environment Ctr. Exp 1.5000 1.4599 .69364 .75259 .339 189 Collaboration and teamwork across cultures Ctr. Exp 4.0000 4.2000 .77703 .63246 1.836 187 Effective use of crosscultural skills and strategies Ctr. Exp 3.4259 3.5438 .85455 .62566 1.052 189 Effective assessment of cross-cultural situation Ctr. Exp 3.7037 3.8750 .83845 .76437 1.355 188 Successfully living in a culture different from ones own Ctr. Exp .33330 .56200 .64428 .68451 2.170* 103 Ability to speak a foreign language Ctr. Exp 1.6389 2.3248 .93877 1.23460 4.140* 127 117

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Table 4-6. Continued Scales Control experimental Mean Standard deviation t df Recognition of/interest in multiple worldviews Ctr. Exp 3.5966 3.7435 .46641 .33203 2.441* 189 Willingness to step outside of own cultural comfort zone Ctr. Exp 3.8501 4.0572 .55788 .43777 2.447* 80 Acceptance and/or sensitivity toward cultural differences Ctr. Exp 4.2636 4.3645 .42195 .37343 1.620 189 Openness to new experiences Ctr. Exp 3.3056 3.7828 .54441 .41487 5.812* 78 Willingness to take risks to learn more about other cultures Ctr. Exp 4.1883 4.4453 .61091 .48385 2.768* 81 Possessing a long-term orientation Ctr. Exp 4.0000 4.2555 .95166 .69694 2.047 189 *Experimental group was significantly higher p<.05 118

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Table 4-7. Pretest: T-test (GCAI-2) for baseline comparison of e xperimental and control groups Scales Control experimental Mean Standard deviation t df Understanding of globalizations impact on the world Ctr. Exp. 3.7797 3.6957 1.06783 .536 149 Understanding world history and politics Ctr. Exp 4.2373 4.2151 .85780 .91900 .149 150 Understanding of the human condition Ctr. Exp 4.1743 4.1839 .61706 .48980 .106 151 Understanding the concept of empowerment Ctr. Exp 3.8814 3.7609 1.17568 1.31241 .573 149 Understanding global environmental challenges Ctr. Exp 4.2768 4.4140 .71157 .62632 1.247 150 Societal/historical selfawareness Ctr. Exp 9.5763 9.3333 .67475 .79855 2.012 138 Understanding the nature of multicultural societies Ctr. Exp 4.3525 4.3468 .49318 .50356 .069 150 Ability to communicate effectively across cultures Ctr. Exp 4.6379 4.6344 .48480 .60406 .037 149 Ability to cope with ambiguity Ctr. Exp 3.6102 3.7174 .87132 .85583 .746 149 Ability to understand and manage complex problems and issues Ctr. Exp 4.5593 4.6452 .95179 .54464 .707 150 Ability to transcend nation-state thinking to global thinking Ctr. Exp 4.8103 4.7849 .39545 .41309 .373 149 Respect for human rights Ctr. Exp 4.8644 4.8710 .33258 .30309 .125 150 Desire/willingness to be a global citizen Ctr. Exp 4.3390 4.3699 .61617 .52415 .331 150 119

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Table 4-7. Continued Scales Control experimental Mean Standard deviation t df Desire/willingness to improve the human condition Ctr. Exp 4.2034 4.1739 1.11076 1.02291 .167 149 Valuing diversity Ctr. Exp 4.5593 4.6559 .74905 .49988 .954 150 120

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Table 4-8. Posttest (GCAI-1): T-te st with P-statistic adjustment ga in scores for experimental and control groups Scales Control experimental Mean Standard deviation t df Cultural self-awareness Ctr. Exp. .2532 .1398 .37154 .25128 1.323 43 Awareness of culture of others Ctr. Exp .1061 .2218 .25876 .31570 1.745* 73 Understanding of globalization Ctr. Exp .3250 .2198 .35273 .29937 1.364 70 Knowledge of current world events Ctr. Exp .1102 .0623 .25315 .13449 1.117 81 Knowledge of world history Ctr. Exp .3056 .3626 .42492 .42039 .446 45 Knowledge of world geography Ctr. Exp .00001 .0000 .000001 .00000 Professional knowledge Ctr. Exp .3732 .3667 .47532 .43833 .049 46 Effective use of professional skills in other cultural environment Ctr. Exp .0644 .1800 .12718 .19741 3.221* 80 Collaboration and teamwork across cultures Ctr. Exp .2404 .1452 .39039 .34625 .976 55 Effective use of crosscultural skills and strategies Ctr. Exp .1836 .1248 .25268 .18727 1.179 76 Effective assessment of cross-cultural situation Ctr. Exp .2011 .2171 .30982 .34027 .202 70 Successfully living in a culture different from ones own Ctr. Exp .0343 .2687 .11444 .18263 7.180* 80 121

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Table 4-8. Continued Scales Control experimental Mean Standard deviation t df Ability to speak a foreign language Ctr. Exp. .0559 .1749 .17633 .24800 2.457* 74 Recognition of/interest in multiple worldviews Ctr. Exp .0507 .0527 .06182 .07012 .130 81 Willingness to step outside of own cultural comfort zone Ctr. Exp .0919 .1551 .16784 .20640 1.458 79 Acceptance and/or sensitivity toward cultural differences Ctr. Exp .1445 .1317 .24026 .25574 .225 79 Openness to new experiences Ctr. Exp .0480 .0046 .12674 .03208 1.953 36 Willingness to take risks to learn more about cultures Ctr. Exp .1622 .2363 .32536 .36036 .886 68 Possessing a long-term orientation Ctr. Exp .2667 .1600 .33942 .37417 .990 43 1 t could not be computed because SD of both groups is 0 *Experimental group was significantly higher p<.10 122

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Table 4-9. Posttest (GCAI-2): T-te st with P-statistic adjustment ga in scores for experimental and control groups Scale Control experimental Mean Standard deviation t df Understanding of globalizations impact on the world Ctr. Exp. .3472 .2097 .41679 .31613 1.393 53 Understanding world history and politics Ctr. Exp .3289 .3152 .45684 .45363 .097 40 Understanding of the human condition Ctr. Exp .2466 .1178 .35637 .18973 1.797 41 Understanding the concept of empowerment Ctr. Exp .3750 .2743 .45480 .32085 .873 44 Understanding global environmental challenges Ctr. Exp .3268 .2030 .39532 .31538 1.245 49 Societal/historical selfawareness Ctr. Exp .6250 .3421 .51755 .47295 1.382 25 Understanding the nature of multicultural societies Ctr. Exp .2112 .3189 .33643 .34601 1.235 60 Ability to communicate effectively across cultures Ctr. Exp .2500 .3571 .45227 .49725 .571 24 Ability to cope with ambiguity Ctr. Exp .3580 .2060 .38315 .36758 1.595 61 Ability to understand and manage complex problems and issues Ctr. Exp .2750 .4000 .44799 .50709 .632 23 Ability to transcend nation-state thinking to global thinking Ctr. Exp .5714 .4444 .53452 .52705 .475 14 Respect for human rights Ctr. Exp .3333 .3333 .51640 .50000 .000 13 123

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Table 4-9. Continued Scale Control experimental Mean Standard deviation t df Desire/willingness to be a global citizen Ctr. Exp .3115 .3120 .37950 .37938 .005 59 Desire/willingness to improve the human condition Ctr. Exp. .0714 .3654 .26726 .48078 2.485* 38 Valuing diversity Ctr. Exp .3214 .3571 .46439 .49725 .196 26 *Experimental group was significantly higher p<.10 124

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CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION Introduction This chapter will begin with a review of the research problem and the methodology used to conduct the study and will proceed to a discus sion of the studys findings. This chapter will also discuss the special significance of the study and implications for practice and future research. Problem and Purpose of the Study Globalization has impacted the entire worl d through an intensification of global interconnectedness and interdependence that has produced new economic, environmental, political, social and cultural paradigms. These new global paradigms have created an unprecedented need to re-conceptualize how higher education prepares the next generation of global professionals. Professiona ls today have to compete and collaborate intellectually on a local, national and global scale. The result is an increased requirement for excellence across professions and the need for a new set of know ledge, skills, and attitudes to navigate, and succeed in a global environment. In addition to functional skills, professionals must understand the impact of globalization on humanity, and be able to make positive contributions to the sustainability of humankind within the new global paradigm. Institutions of higher education are compelled to provide the curriculum and learni ng experiences that can substantively achieve these results. The current study sought first to establish gl obal competence and global consciousness as two distinct, and complementary constructs that together constitute a framework for global learning. These outcomes could be used by institu tions of higher education to internationalize higher education and specificall y, to internationalize the curri culum across disciplines. To 125

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effectively use global competence and global consciousness as learning outcomes, it was necessary to develop the means fo r assessing these outcomes. A review of the literature revealed a limited amount of research defining globa l competence and global consciousness, and no assessment instruments that specifically measur ed global competence and global consciousness. Two assessment instruments were developed as part of this study that serve to measure these constructs. Last, this researcher explored the effectiveness of study abroad in developing global competence and global consciousness. Study abroad is a commonly used curriculum model for internationalizing higher education. This model is receiving increased attention, as well as calls for accountability as many colleges and universi ties are seeking to in crease the number of students studying abroad. The Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Act of 2006, with the goal of having one million students studying abroad every year by 2016-2017, will contribute to this increase by making study abroad more accessible to a wider diversity of students. Review of Methodology The purpose of the study was to explore the e ffectiveness of study abroad in developing global competence and global consciousness. Tw o assessment instruments developed by the researcher were used to conduct the study: The Global Competence Assessment Instrument (GCAI-1) and the Global Consciousness Assessment Instrument (GCAI-2). The study consisted of two parts: First, th e instruments were developed, validated and piloted, and reliability was analyzed. Sec ond, a quasi-experimental between-group design study was established, using these instruments as pre and posttests to assess gains in global competence and global consciousness in study abroad students. 126

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The following hypotheses guided the study: Null: Study abroad will have no effect on global competence. o Alternative: Study abroad will produce an increase in global competence. Null: Study abroad will have no effect on global consciousness. o Alternative: Study abroad will produce an increase in global consciousness. Part I: Developing GCAI-1 and GCAI-2 To develop the Global Competence Assessment Instrument (GCAI-1) and the Global Consciousness Assessment Instrument (GCAI-2) several steps were taken that included establishing content validity, pi loting, and conducting reliability testing. Content validity was established via three pr ocedures: A comprehensive literature review was conducted on the global competence and global consciousness constructs. This literature review generated factors for each of the constructs that were categorized as knowledge, skills/experiences, and attitudes as seen in Tables 5-1 and 5-2. This taxonomy wa s created to serve as a framework for learning outcomes and for the scales that would constitute the units of measurement for the factors. A first draft of both the GCAI-1 and GCAI-2 was de veloped. This draft was presented to a panel of experts for review, and thei r suggestions and recommendations were implemented. Versions 1.0 of both instruments were created and piloted with students in a graduate-level class that included both masters and doctoral students. Based on their feedback and the experts feedback, Versions 1.1 were created. These versions asked students to create an id entifying code with their month, day and year of birth in a two-digit format, followed by the first initial of their first and last name. This served as a unique id entifier for matching pre and posttests. A first group of summer (2007) study abroad students, along with a control group, were recruited via faculty and director s of study abroad programs to conduc t the first assessments. An online versions of both instruments (identical to the paper versions) were created to accommodate geographical constraints, and to maximize student responses. Both online and 127

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paper posttests were also created at this time. These contained additional sections that for the experimental group were reflective of their study abroad experience. The control group version asked questions related to the re spondents participat ion during the last four months in any international experience that might have a c onfounding effect on their responses. After the summer assessments, Versions 1.2 were created elim inating a request for participants name and adding a request for the name of the course(s) taken while studying abroa d, or for the control groups, in which course the assessments were administered. Scales were created to incl ude each item that repres ented a proposed factor. A Cronbachs coefficient alpha was calculated on th e scales of the pretest scores. Scales not meeting the appropriate psychometric qualities were reevaluated and recalculated, removing items if stability was compromised. In some cases single items and summed scales were determined to be the most appropria te for the factor being assessed. Part II: Assessing Global Competence a nd Global Consciousness in Study Abroad Students Participants for this study were selected fr om several units in one institution between the summer semester of 2007 and the spring semest er of 2008. Experimental groups included students who would be participating in a study abroad program during the following semester. Control groups included student s who were not going to study abroad. Participants were recruited through facu lty leading a study abroad course or di rectors of study ab road programs. Email letters inviting the students to participate an d including details about confidentiality, the pre and posttest nature of the study, and links to acc ess the surveys online were sent to faculty and the di rectors of study abroad, who distri buted them to their students. Other faculty members distributed the surveys in th eir classes, offering extra-credit incentives for completing the surveys. In one case an ice-cream social was set up as an incentive for students 128

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to complete the surveys. All students were requ ired to sign an informed consent form before agreeing to participate in the st udy. The pre and posttest data coll ection processes were the same except that posttest participants were recruite d exclusively from thos e who had completed the pretests. Requests to participate in the surveys were sent to 726 students. The pretest response rates for the GCAI-1 and the GCAI2 were 27% and 21% respectively, considered about average for this target populat ion using web-based surveys (Kaplowitz, Hadlock, Levine, 2004). The posttest response rates for the GCAI-1 the GCAI-2 were better than average at 64% and 80% respectively. In spite of the substantial po sttest response rates, some data was lost when participants failed to enter their identifying code in either the pre or postte sts or entered different codes that would not match. Descriptive statistics were reported on e xperimental and control group pretests (GCAI-1 and GCAI-2) followed by one-tailed Independent T-tests on each scale (GCAI-1 and GCAI-2) for both groups (Experimental and Control) to te st for equivalency of means on each scale for the experimental and control groups. Descriptive statistics were reporte d on experimental and control group posttests (GCAI-1 and GCAI-2) followed by one-tailed In dependent T-tests on each scale (GCAI-1 and GCAI-2) for both groups (Expe rimental and Control) to test for gains on each scale for the experimental group. The T-tests were conducted applying a P statisticadjustment gain formula to adjust for ceiling effect (Hagedorn, Siadat, Nora, & Pascarella, 1997). Summary of Findings Developing the GCAI-1 and GCAI-2 Establishing global competence and global co nsciousness as global learning outcomes 129

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This study contributed to establishing th e validity of global competence and global consciousness as integrated constructs that can constitute a standard for global learning outcomes for internationalizing higher educ ation and internationalizing the curriculum. These constructs and their corresponding factors became the foundati on for the items and the scales of the Global Competence Assessment Instrument (GCAI-1) a nd the Global Consciousness Assessment Instrument (GCAI-2). A comprehensive literature review revealed that globalization has im pacted virtually all aspects of the world producing an unpreceden ted interconnectedness and interdependence of economic, environmental, political, social and cultural factors. Falk (1998) described the impact of globalization as a dichotomous and conflicting phenomenon with globalization-from-above representing the market forces and globalization-from-below representing the opposing forces serving to temper the negative effects of globalization-from-above (p. 6). This phenomenon has presently, and will continue to alter the nature of the knowledge, skills and attitudes that professionals must have. The next generation of professionals, f aced with increasing global competition and demands for global collaboration, mu st be able to perform their professions with excellence on a local, national and global scale. Extending beyond performance, to addressing the needs of an interconnected and interdependent world, are the re quirements for another set of attributes, those that seek to understand the impact of globali zation and the willingness and commitment to contribute to the total sustai nability of humankind. Encap sulated in these new global professional requirements are the two constructs of global competence and global consciousness. The professionals of today and tomorrow mu st possess both global competence and global consciousness. 130

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Global competence can be defined as the ability to function effectively, from an economic, political and social perspective, in an increasingly interconnected and interdependent world that is accelerated by technology. Hunt er (2004) adds that global competence means having an open mind while actively seeking to understand cultural norms and expectations of others, leveraging this gained knowledge to interact, communicate and work effectively outside of ones own environment (p.101). This defini tion distinctly positions global competence as a functional construct that professiona ls must attain to perform effectively in a global environment. Loosely tied to Falks notion of globalization-from-above, global competence is a requirement to succeed in the economic and market environments fueled by globalization. Global consciousness can be defined as th e ability to understand the impact of globalization on humanity serving to mitigate the market forces of globalization. It seeks to understand world history, the human conditi on, global environmental challenges, the development of skills to manage complex and divers e societies, the creation of different types of solutions, and the visualization of new ways of understanding our own society (Robertson, 2004). Global consciousness is a construct that can be associated with understanding the complexity of the forces of gl obalization and a commitment to act to promote the sustainability of humanity as a whole. Looking at the work of professionals in a gl obal context, it becomes imperative for example, for engineers to understa nd the impact on the environment and societies of building a bridge across a river in a remote area of the world; for doctors to understand the culture and social history of the patients they are treating; and for teachers to instill the desire to be a global citizen and to improve the human c ondition in the children they teach. As global competence can be loosely tied to Falks gl obalization-from-above, global consciousness can be 131

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tied to globalization-from-below, those forces that can serve to mitigate the impact of the market forces of globalization. Measuring global competence and global consciousness A factor analysis from the literature, follo wed by a review from an expert panel and a pilot study, along with a confirmatory factor anal ysis revealed the global competence and global consciousness factors, as seen in tables 5-1 and 5-2, that became the foundation for the scales of the Global Competence Assessment Instrument (GCAI-1) and the Global Consciousness Assessment Instrument (GCAI-2). The significant result of this pa rt of the study was to establish that the constructs of global competence and global consciousness together re present a comprehensive, complementary and holistic set of specifically delineated knowledge, skills/experiences and attitudes that can serve as global learning outcomes for hi gher education, and specifically as outcomes that can serve to internationalize the curriculum across disciplin es. Global competence and global consciousness are separate constructs, but the totality of the factors of both represent the comprehensive global mindset required for functioning effectively in th e new global paradigm, as well as contributing to the sustainability of humankind. Global competence knowledge, skills/experiences and attitudes are essential for professionals across all disciplines to function effectively in globa l environments. One of most significant knowledge factors requi red is a profound self-awareness that serves as the foundation for developing a global mindset. This involves understanding how persona l values, beliefs and attitudes influence the way in which relationships are built across cultures, and how transactions are conducted across cultures. From this platfo rm of self-awareness, professionals can gain greater awareness of the culture of others. Understanding globa lization is another significant factor of global competence as this provides the framework for strategic analysis of the 132

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interconnected global field and understanding its impact on professional effectiveness. An integral part of understanding gl obalization is knowledge of curre nt world events, world history and world geography. This contributes to a great er sense of belonging to an integrated and interconnected world in which the actions of one affect the actions of others. As professionals increase their sense of belonging to an interconnected world, thei r ability to conceptualize the notion of working in a world without boundaries grows, increasing th eir global functional effectiveness and adroitness. Global competence skills and experiences focus on the ability to effectively utilize global and professional knowledge when working a nd living in new cultural environments. Professionals can be marketable global profession als when they are able to use their skills in other cultural environments; collaborate and work in teams across cultures; use cross-cultural skills and strategies; and effectively assess crosscultural situations. Additionally, the ability to work in global environments is augmented when professionals are willing and able to live in another culture and have the ability to speak the language of the host nationals. Professional skills on a global scale will falt er if lacking the attitudes for global competence. These attitudes represent the personal attributes that contri bute to global success beyond the pragmatic. These are the relational skills that ultimately can mean success or failure in building global relationships. Included in these are recogniz ing and being interested in multiple worldviews and being accepting or sensitive of cultural differences. Furthermore, the ability to step outside of ones comfort zone and being open and willing to take some risks to learn about other culture s are key attributes that can reduce the stress of adapting to global situations and can ease global transitions. 133

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Global consciousness knowledge, skills/expe riences and attitudes are significantly different from global competence in that they se ek to mitigate the impact of globalization and create a profound awareness of the consequences of global competence. The foundational factor for global consciousness is understanding the imp act of globalization. This is a broad-spectrum understanding that includes knowledge and awaren ess of the existing a nd the potential economic, cultural, political, social and environmental cons equences of globalization on humanity. To fully grasp the scope of the impact of globaliza tion, a second fundamental factor of global consciousness is required: Societal/historic se lf-awareness. Similar to the personal selfawareness needed for global competence, this places the person within a cultural context. This context forms part of the value system that the person has developed, and is the filter through which other societies and events are judged. True understanding of the impact of globalization on the world requires the sum of societal/cultura l self-awareness as well as understanding world history and politics; the human condition; the concept of empowerment; global environmental challenges; and the nature of multic ultural societies. It is this depth of understanding that will serve to temper and guide the pract ices fueled by global competence. The functional factors of global consciousness are the skills and experiences that are needed to navigate the complexities of gl obalization such as: The ability to communicate effectively across cultures; cope with ambigu ity; understand and manage complex problems and issues; and transcend nation-state thinking to global thinking. The combined skills and experiences for global competence and global cons ciousness have the potential of creating a genuine depth and breadth of skills and expe riences that can cont ribute to professional effectiveness and its positive impact worldwide. 134

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The attitude factors of global consciousness ar e the most salient in serving to mitigate the market forces of globalization. These are resp ect for human rights; de sire/willingness to be a global citizen; desire/willingness to improve the human condition; and valuing diversity. These attitudes are closely related to the most complex developmental phase, ethnorelativism, described by Bennett (1998). In this phase pe ople begin to see themselves as members of a human community and as such may act as cultural mediators and exhibit a desire to do what is ethical and right within this framework. Global consciousness can serve as a guiding framework for making the decisions that those who are globally competent will make. Th is framework provides th e ethical roadmap and the humanistic barometer to assess the consequen ces of professional actions worldwide. Global competence and global consciousness form a holis tic, balanced, and complementary set of global learning outcomes that can significantly and positively impact the development of the next generation of global professionals. Included as a direct result of this study, two instruments designed to specifically measure the constructs of global competence and gl obal consciousness were created. The Global Competence Assessment Instrument GCAI-1 was designed to measure the construct of global competence and the individual factors that repr esent the construct. The Global Consciousness Assessment Instrument GCAI-2 was designed to measure the construct of global consciousness and the individual factors that represent the construc t. It is significant that this researcher chose to develop two assessment instruments. Both cons tructs are clearly differe nt, but together they represent the totality of learning outcome s needed to develop a global mindset. The benefit of developing two separate inst ruments allowed the researcher to create longer instruments that specifically focused on m easuring each construct. This is important 135

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when considering the complexity of each construc t necessitating multiple questions per factor to assure proper measurement. This also allows faculty who are developing curriculum to target the learning outcomes and experiences more sp ecifically. For example, an international management course might concentrate on developing global competence, whereas an international business ethics course might choose to emphasize global consciousness. Significantly, this allows a means of evaluati ng institutional curricula or curricula within disciplines to determine if the entire spectru m of global competence and global consciousness is reflected in the totality of the learning outcomes of the courses being offered throughout an undergraduate degree program. This is particularly important as study abroad programs increasingly form part of the required undergraduate curriculum, and their role in developing these constructs as part of a comprehensive curr iculum can be assessed. The GCAI-1 and GCAI-2 provide a means for f aculty development as they can be used to measure the global competence and global conscious ness of faculty, allowing them to self-assess need for development in these areas. This c ould allow faculty the opportunity to seek out developmental opportunities that could ultimately translate into improvement s in their ability to develop internationalized curricula within their own disciplines These instruments can also help faculty assess the effectiveness of their own c ourses in developing thes e constructs, providing a vehicle for continuous curricular improvement. The process of internationaliz ing higher education includes both the curriculum and the extracurriculum. These instruments can also be used to measure the effectiveness of extracurricular activities in developing global competence and global consciousness. These can include a wide spectrum of even ts, leadership programs, servi ce learning, speakers series, and other activities that are generally gro uped under student affa irs divisions. 136

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Being able to measure the constructs independe ntly of each other, as well as having the opportunity to measure both has resulted in the creation of a fullspectrum, system-wide approach to measure the effectiveness of internat ionalization initiatives on campuses as well as internationalized curricula including study abroad. Implications for internationalizing the curriculum and higher education Internationalizing higher education can be de fined as any systematic effort aimed at making higher education [more] responsive to th e requirements and challenges related to the globalization of societies, econom y and labour markets (van de r Wende, 1997b, as cited in de Wit, 2002, p. 115). Internationalizing the curriculum is a substantive component of internationalizing higher educati on that generally includes addi ng an international major or minor in the curriculum or within specific discip lines; foreign language or area studies; infusing courses with an international content; interna tional service learning; international relations degree programs; international st udents, faculty and scholars; study abroad and international internships or research; and faculty involvement in intern ational research, teaching and consulting (Annette, 2002; Ellingboe, 1999; Mestenhauser, 1998; Tonkin, 2006). The totality of these initiatives to internat ionalize the curriculum can be viewed as a system-wide approach to developing the next generation of global pr ofessionals, those who perform their professions w ith excellence and who possess global competence and global consciousness. If global competence and global consciousness are established, articulated and supported on an institutional level as global learning outcomes, the curriculum across all disciplines can be structured to reflect the learning experiences needed to achieve these outcomes. General education requirements along with each course within a discipline can reflect some of the factors of the constructs, whereby the sum of the learning experiences throughout the 137

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degree process can serve to develop the range of knowledge, skills and attitudes that constitute global competence and global consciousness. While there may be resistance on th e part of faculty in discipli nes that do not appear to be global in nature to consider internationalizing their curricula, there is increasing evidence that professional standards are, and will be requiri ng global learning outcomes across professions such as in engineering and bus iness (Green & Schoenberg, 2006; Shuman, Besterfield-Sacre, & McGourty, 2005; AACSB International, 2007). As global learning outcomes (global competence and global consciousness) become part of the accreditation process, the ability to measure the effectiveness of learning experiences in achieving these, can provide an incentive and a framework for faculty to in ternationalize their curricula. For example, while courses in engineering may be of a highly technical nature and appear to not lend themselves to global learning outcomes, if the technology being learned is applied to a global context, this classroom experience ma y enable students to develop factors of global competence. An application of this would be to use technology to simulate working on virtual teams. Increasingly engineers (and other profes sionals) are being required to work on global virtual teams. Virtual teams are distributed ge ographically, across time zones, and continuously change and evolve based on the immediate need s. The members of the team are connected electronically and may report to different managers located in different parts of the world, based on the project. The challenges of collaborating and having to operate seamlessly and effectively in this environment can be addressed and prac ticed experientially in an internationalized engineering course. (Leinone, Jrv el, & Hkkinen, (2005); Jarvenpaa & Leidner, 1999). This is an example of a global competence skill (unde rstanding collaboration and teamwork across cultures) that can be measured using the GCAI-1. 138

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Service learning, which is a popular inclusi on in teacher education programs can also include the development of global learning outcomes. In some stat es such as Florida, teacher education programs require a course that is specifically designed to enable future teachers to teach diverse populations. These courses have a service-learning component that requires students to volunteer with divers e populations. Applying the principles of Kolbs (1984) model of experiential learning that pos its that learners must experi ence, reflect, conceptualize, comprehend, and use the concepts to be able to transform the learning in to knowledge, it is clear that service learning experiences with multicultu ral or minority populations could develop global learning outcomes (as cited in Lutterman-Agu ilar & Gingerich, 2002, p. 45). Some of the global consciousness factors that can be developed using this service le arning model, and that can be measured using the GCAI-2 are: Understanding the nature of multicultural societies, desire/willingness to improve the human condition, valuing di versity or understanding the concept of empowerment. Study abroad has been touted as one of the most effective models for internationalizing the curriculum. NAFSA (Association of Intern ational Educators) pos ited that study abroad should be incorporated as an integral component of the curriculum acr oss disciplines (NAFSA, 2008). As a general statement, this is lauda ble; however, a greater understanding of the typologies of study abroad programs is needed to be able to unders tand the value of each type of program in producing global learning outcomes. Types of study abroad programs range from one-week vacation-type experiences to seme ster or year-long academic programs, to international service learning programs that are signi ficantly experiential in nature. Clearly there will be a difference in the learning outcomes between these models. 139

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In spite of the wide range of study abroad models, there is an overall support of study abroad in general. NAFSA states that more than ninety percent of Americans be lieve it is important to prepare future generations for a global society and that more than three quarters of Americans believe that students should study abroad during co llege to gain valuable international knowledge. (NAFSA, 2007) American institutions of higher education and policy makers are listening to the beliefs of Americans and to the demands of the global workplace, by increasing their support for study abroad programs. As support increases, so does the need for accountability. The question to be asked is: Are study abroad programs succeeding in developing the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will prepare students for a global society? The preponderance of accountability measures fo r study abroad seek to obtain results of student satisfaction with the program, the reside ntial facilities, the faculty, self-perception of learning, safety, and other non-academic measures (Sutton, Miller & Rubin, 2007). These types of assessments may be insufficient to be able to determine the effectiven ess of study abroad in developing global learning outcomes. This study provides evidence that for study abroad to be considered a viable model for internationalizing the curriculum, the experience must be tied to learning outcomes that can and should be meas ured. In the absence of this level of accountability, study abroad could be perceived as simply a vacation-type experience, or an anecdotally global learning experien ce, but not one that offers empirical evidence of substantive development of the global learning outcomes needed to educate the next generation of global professionals. Global competence and global consciousness ca n serve as comprehensive and holistic constructs that study abroad should develop. The GCAI-1 a nd the GCAI-2 can serve as 140

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assessment tools to evaluate th e effectiveness of different t ypes of study abroad programs in developing these constructs. The GCAI-1 and GCAI-2 could be also be used as a predeparture tool to enable students to establish personal learning goals during their study abroad programs. There is supporting evidence that when students establish goals fo r their study abroad programs there will be a significantly greater degree of grow th in those skills than for th ose who did not similarly prepare (Kitsantas, 2004). Lutterman-A guilar and Gingerich (2002) have posited that incorporating principles of experiential learning into study abro ad will lead to greater gains in outcomes such as global citizenship. Ex periential learning is based on the pr inciple that learning occurs when the learner is directly involved in making decisions about the le arning process, participates in the experience, reflects, analyzes, and then us es this knowledge to act. Learning about the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for gl obal competence and global consciousness can become the basis for selecting learning goals fo r study abroad and determining the experiences needed to achieve these. Students taking the GCAI-1 and GCAI-2 coul d self-assess and select areas of development for their study abroad experi ence. Faculty could guide them in selecting the types of experiences, provide guidelines for reflection and analysis, and assist in creating action plans that could result in growth in thes e areas. The instruments applied upon return as a posttest, could help students assess gains in their self-prescribed areas of growth. Limitations and Recommendations A small pretest sample size used as the basis for reliability testing on the scales of the GCAI-1 and GCAI-2 (193 and 154) respectively prompted the decision to use .60 Cronbachs coefficient alpha threshold for inter-item reliabili ty, which is lower than the preferred .70. This researcher recommends increasing the sample size to reevaluate the reliability of the scales. 141

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Both instruments were lengthy and comple ting both took approximately 30 minutes. Reducing the length and /or combining the instruments into one may mitigate this problem. Additionally, further investigation as to the percei ved differences in experience and variances in responses between the online and pa per versions may be warranted. Assessing the Effectiveness of Study Abroad in Developing Global Competence and Global Consciousness Global competence gains Results for global competence showed that the gains on the posttest were statistically and positively significant (p<.10) for awareness of the cu lture of others; effective use of professional skills in other cultural environment; successfully living in a culture diffe rent from ones own; and ability to speak a foreign language. Th ere were no other stat istically significant experimental group gains on ot her scales in the GCAI-1. An increased awareness of the culture of ot hers has frequently been claimed to be a positive result of the study abroad experience an d the gains shown in this area support these claims (Dwyer & Peters, 2004; Gorka & Niesen baum, 2001; NAFSA, 2003, as cited in Lewis & Niesenbaum, 2005; Anderson, Lawton, Rexeisen, & Hubbard, 2006). Bennetts Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (1998) describes the developmental pathway from ethnocentrism to ethnorelativism that results from increased experiences with other cultures. One of the early stages of ethnorelativism (the ac ceptance stage) is an in creased awareness of the cultures of others (p. 28). The gain in this sc ale seems to show that students participating in study abroad programs will become more ethnorel ative as a result of this experience. A gain in the effective use of professional skills in other cultural environments is significant as this is a global competence that is increasingly required of professionals across all disciplines as a result of the demands of globaliza tion. Although this study did not go in depth as 142

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to the typology of the study abroad programs, some of the students were participating in business and engineering programs that were designed to provide learning in th e discipline. It is interesting to note that a study by Ingraham and Peterson (2004) revealed that long-term study abroad programs produced a greater gain in awar eness of participants profession and how it is practiced in other cultu ral environment than short-term programs. The present study seems to reveal that this gain could also be achieved in short-term program. Th is could lend support to pedagogically structuring study abroad to achieve the goal of using profe ssional skills in other cultural environments, using models such as experiential learning. Being able to practice ones pr ofession in different cultural environments is a requirement stated in many accreditation policies such as in ABET (accreditation body for engineering) and AACSB (Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business) (AACSB International, 2007; Shuman, Besterfield-Sacre, McGourty, 2005). Fu rthermore, numerous studies have found that being able to perform ones profession in a glob al environment will be the premier requirement of the next generation of global professiona ls (Koehn & Rosenau, 2002; Hunter, 2004; Cant, 2004). Study abroad in this study re vealed that students can learn to use their professional skills in other cultures and lends justification for the us e of study abroad as an integral part of the curriculum to develop professional skills in other cultures. This study indicated that one benefit of study abroad is to be able to successfully live in a culture different from ones own. The success of liv ing in another culture was measured in this study by virtue of having lived or not having lived in another cu lture. Therefore it would be interesting to probe into the m eaning of success in this case. For example, did success mean simply doing the activity, did it mean having a pleasur able experience, or did it mean staying for the duration of the program in spite of not being happy. This st udy sampled predominantly short143

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term study abroad participants, in which the majo rity of students (70%) lived in a hotel or apartment. This would not provide the same t ype of experience as a long-term study abroad program in a home-stay environment in which the students lived with a ho st-family. Being able to successfully live in another culture based on these factors might produce different results with influences such as culture shock, adaptation, de gree of difference of experience among others playing a role in the definition of success. Successfully living in a culture different from ones own becomes significant because this skill is required for many professions. Internat ional, multinational and transnational companies are increasingly expecting employees to be globa lly mobile, expecting them to expatriate, on a short or long-term basis as part of their work. In an increasingly flat world, the seamless transnational flow of personnel ha s become a reality, and in some cases an assumed expectation for upward career mobility. There is general agreem ent in business that one of the key means of developing global leaders, and be ing successful in a global envi ronment is by developing global employees through international assignments. Ho wever, a significant number of expatriates (10 to 45 percent) fail in their assignments due to th eir inability to successfully live in a new cultural environment. This is compounded if the assignm ent is in an underdeveloped or developing country (Black, Gregersen, Mendenhall, Stroh, 1999). Study abroad can play a significant role in preparing the new globally-mobile workforce. The ability to speak a foreign language has often been touted as a result of studying abroad, and this study supports this assertion. However, the degree of effectiveness appears to be influenced by gender and language backgr ound (Ginsberg, 1992; Rivers, 1998; Stronkhorst, 2005, as cited in Sutton, Miller, Rubin, 2007). One frequently cited study reported that gender positively influenced a gain in foreign language pr oficiency for males as a result of study abroad. 144

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This same study revealed that foreign language gain was greater if st udents had other language experiences (Brecht, et al, 1993). The presen t study does not appear to support the gender assertion, as 63% of the particip ants were female and a signifi cant gain was reported. However, previous experience with another language is supported as 65% of the participants spoke another language prior to their study abroad experience. The impact of study abroad on being able to speak a foreign language becomes even more si gnificant in light of recent studies such as College Learning for th e New Global Century which reported that le ss than 13% of college students master a second language (AAC&U, 2007). The ability to speak other languages became salient after the terro rist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, when it beca me evident that the federal government was lacking experts who spoke the languages of the terrorists. A study conducted by the American Council on Education (2002) reveal ed that shortages of personnel who speak foreign languages have negatively affected nati onal security. The ACE study also indicated that fluency in a foreign language is a skill th at is recruited by American corporations. Although English is a commonly spoken language in busine ss and diplomatic circles, bei ng able to communicate in the language of a business or a diplom atic counterpart is important for developing the relationships and networking that facil itate global success. Global consciousness gains Results for global consciousness showed that the gains on the posttest were statistically and positively significant (p<.10) for: Desire/w illingness to improve the human condition. There were no other statistically signi ficant experimental group gains on other scales in the GCAI-2. This factor is considered an attitude outcome and was measur ed by asking participants if they believed that their actions will make a difference in creating a more equitable and sustainable world. Studies have reported that attitude gains from the study abroad experience 145

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may have several explanations including indi vidual differences, typology, and host culture (Sutton, Miller, & Rubin, 2007). Students self-select to participate in study abroad programs, and may be predisposed to an increased sensitivity to the issues of the world. Hence, they may have a greater degree of confidence that their persona l contribution to the world will have a positive impact. Unexpected Results Of importance to note are the lack of signifi cant gains in global competence and global consciousness (p<.10) that were re vealed in this study, in spite of some raw gains. For global competence factors, in the knowle dge category, there were no statis tically significant gains in: Cultural self-awareness; understa nding of globalization; knowle dge of current world events; knowledge of world history; knowledge of wo rld geography and professional knowledge. For skills and experiences, there were no significant gains in collaboration and teamwork across cultures, effective use of cross-cultural skills and strategies, and effec tive assessment of crosscultural situation. For attitudes, there were no significant gains in recognition of/interest in multiple worldviews, willingness to step outside of own cultural comfort zone, acceptance of and /or sensitivity toward cultural differences, openness to new experiences, willingness to take risks to learn more about cultures, and possessing a long-term orientation. Participants were asked in the items for cultural self-awareness to respond to whether they [actively] think about the values and belief s of their own culture. The lack of significant gains might suggest that some students had not learned prior to their experience to be selfreflective regarding their own cultures from a valu es and beliefs perspective, and consequently the experience abroad might not produce an increas ed awareness. There is evidence in the crosscultural communications training literature and in cultural development theories that cultural self-awareness training is the f oundation for developing the ability to genuinely understand other 146

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cultures and to have effective cross-cultura l communication skills (Kohls, 2001; Ferraro, 1998; Pedersen, 1998). If predeparture cross-cultural training that incl uded the development of cultural self-awareness did not occur, this could lead to a possible explan ation for the lack of gain in cultural self-awareness, and also in effective use of cross-cultural skills and strategies, effective assessment of cross-cultural situation, acceptanc e of and /or sensitivity toward cultural differences. Increased cultural self-awareness is often felt after reentry, sometimes with heightened negativity toward one s culture in a phenomenon known as reverse culture shock or reentry shock, or at other times simply a reflection of being able to view the home culture through the lens of the host cultur e (Storti, 2003). Structuring study abroad with a predeparture component that is designed to develop self-awa reness prior to the sojour n, followed by a reentry program that allows for reflection on changes in cultural self-awareness, may be significant in producing growth in the f actors that rely on cultural self-aware ness. This may also contribute to the long-term retenti on of this growth. The items for knowledge of world history, knowledge of geography and professional knowledge asked about educational experiences lear ning about these subjects. Therefore, unless the study abroad program was specifi cally designed to teach this su bject, a significant gain most likely would not be reflected in the posttest. A reassessment of the items for these factors might be beneficial for improved application as bot h learning outcomes and assessment measures. A lack of gain in willingness to step out side of own cultural co mfort zone; openness to new experiences; and willingness to take risks to learn more about other cultures may be explained by the fact that study abroad students scored statistica lly significantly higher on these factors in the pretest, co ntributing to a ceiling effect in the posttest. A nother influencing factor in the lack of gains may be that those who self-s elect to study abroad ma y already intrinsically 147

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possess these attributes and hence, the study abroad experience woul d not contribute to a gain in these factors. There is evidence that long-term study ab road programs produce increased affective outcomes (Dwyer, 2004a; Lancaster, 2006; Medina-L opez-Portillo, 2004; Zo rn, 1996, as cited in Sutton, Miller, & Rubin, 2007). The participants in this study were primarily in short-term study abroad programs, and did not show attitude gain s in any of the factors of global competence. These results could be attributed to the short duration of the study abroad programs that were studied. Additionally, studies have shown that attitude gains are developmental, require experience with difference, and can be taught (Bennett, 1998; Pe dersen, 1998). This would lend credence to the notion that a longer-term st udy abroad program, along with targeted learning experiences could produce the op timal learning environment for global competence and global consciousness attitude gains to occur. The most surprising lack of gains was in th e factors for global consciousness. Only one factor, desire/willingness to improve the human condition, showed statistically significant gains (p<.10). All other factors showed some gains in the raw scores, but none was statistically significant. Understanding the impact of globalization is the foundation for developing most of the other factors of global cons ciousness such as the following: Understanding of the human condition Understanding the concept of empowerment Understanding global environmental challenges Understanding the nature of multicultural societies Ability to understand and manage complex problems and issues Ability to transcend nation-state thinking to global thinking Desire/willingness to be a global citizen. Robertson (1992) posited that understanding globaliz ation and its impact is an interdisciplinary discussion and requires reframing the disciplines to include learning how th ey fit into the global 148

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context. He further added that this discussion has to be relevant to our world [local] context in relation to the global context. Additionally, Robertson (2004) st ated that understanding the impact of globalization requires recognizing the environmental im pact of globalization and the interconnectedness of humanity. This researcher believes that the impact of globalization must be taught. The factors of global consciousness, to be effective learning outcomes for study abroad have to be carefully and deliberately integrated into the st udy abroad experience. International service learning is a model that could help develop this construct. This model has a higher degree of complexity in the typologies of study abroad in that it is a true experiential curricular model that requires fieldwork in an international community. Tonkin (2006) posited that international service learni ng bridges the gap of culture differences and class differences, showing students that globalization has many f acets, including dependency and poverty. This type of experiential, study abroad program could help st udents understand the human condition, the concept of empowerment, respect for human right s, and the nature of multicultural societies. It could also contribute to unde rstanding global environmental ch allenges. Most importantly, properly designed to ensure in-depth reflection and critical analysis of the experience, this type of programming could influence the shift from nation-state thinking to global thinking, and create a desire to be a global citizen. While the only significant gain in global c onsciousness was the factor desire/willingness to improve the human condition, this growth is important as it reflects wanting to make a difference in the lives of humans [as a whole], an attitude that marks a significant step in developing global consciousness. Some other factors may have pl ayed a role in the lack of significant gains in specific areas of global competence and global conscious ness. The impact of culture shock should be 149

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considered in semester-long study abroad program s posttest evaluation of gains. The culture shock cycle (Kohls, 2001) reflects that weeks 9-16 of a sojourn are the most critical period when culture shock sets in. Known as the irritability/h ostility phase of the cultur e shock cycle, there is a generalized negativity of feeling and a focu s on the differences between the host and home cultures (p. 94-100). Measurement of gains during this period could possibly skew results and theoretically produce losses in the attitudes and affective factors. Selection could also impact gains results as study abroad students self-select into the programs and may have entered this study with high pretest levels on the factors being assessed, pr oducing a ceiling effect. Although the P statistic-adjustment formula was used to ad just for possible ceiling e ffects, this may have been a factor in some lack of gains. A small sample size may have contributed to a reduction of power affecting gains results. Last, in some cas es there may be a need to re-evaluate and hone the scales of the GCAI-1 and GCAI-2. Implications for Practice Study abroad Study abroad programs should be carefully planned and pedagogically sound experiences that contribute to the overall academic program across disciplines and within institutions of higher education. They should include clear le arning outcomes and the means to measure the effectiveness of the program in successfully achieving these outc omes. Careful attention should be placed on guiding students toward establishing their objectives using self-directed learning to maximize the impact of the study abroad experience. Experiences thr oughout the duration of study abroad should be structured to ach ieve the stated learning outcomes. For example, while it appears that study abroad increases awarene ss of the culture of others, it is not clear how deep or how accurate this increased awareness might be. EuropeanAmerican students who study in Europe for a seme ster may only gain awareness of the dominant 150

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cultures, but not of other populations. Lacki ng the proper preparation in understanding the dynamic nature of culture, and understanding the noti on of power imbedded in culture, as posited by Nieto (2004), could lead to a negative awareness that includes perpetuating stereotypes, or viewing the dominant cultures as the norm and subordinate culture s as aberrant. This becomes an important consideration when designing a stu dy abroad experience and preparing students for their sojourn. A typology of study abroad programs, such one defined by Engle a nd Engle (2003) that includes five levels of programs with incremen tally more profound cultura l experiences, needs to be considered when establishing learning out comes and the experiences to achieve these outcomes. Not all study abroad programs will produ ce the entire spectrum of the constructs of global competence and global consciousness. Institutions of higher education should carefully consider the various typologies of study abroad and the expected outcomes from each to be able to make substantive policy decisions on how to align study abroad goals with the overall curriculum objectives and internationalization missi on of the institution. Internationalizing the curriculum across disciplines using the Herrera model The Herrera model for educating the next generation of global professionals unites theories of globalization, culture theories, cultural developmen t theories, and standards of professional excellence into a consolidated model that can serve as a framework for internationalizing the curriculum across discip lines (Figure 1-1). This model posits that professionals across all disciplines must possess professional ex cellence, global competence, and global consciousness, and that these skills and co nstructs can be learned and should be taught. The sum total of the curriculum of a discipline (over a four-year period) should reflect all three elements of the model. 151

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Professional excellence is reflected in the st andards of excellence re quired by individual professions. These standards of excellence form an integral part of ex isting curricula and are reflected in the learning outcomes for the profes sion. Global competition and the need for global collaboration demand that graduating profession als excel in their professions by meeting or exceeding the standards of the profession. Global competence is the ability to functi on effectively and successfully in a global environment. Professionals who possess global competence have the knowledge, skills and attitudes to operate economically, politically and socially in different cultural environments. Global consciousness is the ability to understand the impact of globalization on humanity. Professionals w ho possess global consciousness have the knowledge, skills and attitudes to provide a balan ce between the economic drivers of globalization and the human impact. This requires understanding the complex ity of human global inte ractions, the impact of the economic forces of globalization on the sustai nability of humankind and the environment. This requisite triad is an integrated, balanced model for internationalizing the curriculum across disciplines, providing a standard for lear ning outcomes for educating the next generation of global professionals. The Global Compet ence Assessment Instrument (GCAI-1) and the Global Consciousness Assessment Instrument (GCA I-2) integrate into th e model providing the assessment measures to judge the effectiveness of the internationalized curriculum in achieving these outcomes. Content-area eval uation strategies should also be integrated into the model providing the assessment measures for the standa rds of professional excellence. The Herrera model provides an integrat ed curricular model that could crea te a developmental shift in global mindset that is reflected in the practice of next generation of global professionals. This model 152

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contributes to the advancement of internationalizing higher education, an d internationalizing the curriculum across disciplines. Professional traini ng and development Global leadership competencies are increasingl y being required in business, engineering, government, and other professional environments Numerous studies have shown that the knowledge, skills and attitudes for global competen ce are requirements for global employees and highly valued for all employees on a local, nationa l and global scale (Bikson, Treverson, Moini, Lindstrom, 2003; Bremer, 2006; Harris, Moran & Moran, 2004; Hunter, 2004; Jokinen, 2005). Harris, Moran & Moran (2004) stated that the ch allenge facing business t oday is to create new management models that work in global environments. To do so requires a new set of competencies that global leaders must possess. The constructs of global competence and global consciousness are essential components of global leadership competencies. These constructs and the means to measure them, can be a significan t contribution to the development of global competency models and learning outcomes for the advancement of global professional development programs. Higher education leadership development Internationalizing higher education, regard less of the approach used, requires a commitment on the part of the institution and the institutional leadership to embark in transformational change for this purpose. This requires creating a leadership team to lead the change, analyzing the campus cultures resistance to change, and creating a sense of urgency for this change (Kotter, 1996; Lick & Kaufmann, 2000). Once the foregoing is in place, models for tran sformational change can be put in place to move forward in the process. Regardless of the model being used, institutional leaders must 153

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show commitment to their own leadership and be committed to developing leadership within the institution that is capable of carryi ng out the internati onalization mission. Developing the next generation of academic gl obal leaders is an essential step toward internationalizing higher education. Global competence and global consciousness as comprehensive, complementary and holistic cons tructs for internationa lizing higher education can serve as the basis for the type of prof essional development needed for a system-wide institutional global leadersh ip development program. Recommendations for Future Research The findings of this study suggest the following areas for future research on assessing the effectiveness of study abroad and other internationalized curricul um models in developing global competence and global consciousness: Different typologies of study abroad programs should be assessed to determine their effectiveness in developing global competence and global consciousness. Curriculum models such as inte rnational service learning shou ld be constructed using the global learning outcomes of global competence and global consciousness, and their effectiveness in producing gain s in these areas measured. A replication of this study should be conducted with a larg er sample comparing those results with the resu lts of this study. A panel of experts from countries outside of the United States should be assembled to review and validate the items representing factors of global competence and global consciousness on the GCAI-1 and GCAI-2 to assess their applicabil ity to study abroad participants from other cultures. A similar study should be designed to meas ure gains in global competence and global consciousness of students partic ipating in infused courses. Focus groups should be conducted with return ing study abroad students to investigate perceived gains (or lack thereof) in th e factors of global competence and global consciousness. 154

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Impacting the Future of Humanity Never before has it been so critical to unders tand the nature and impact of globalization. The obligation of preparing the next generation of global professionals w ho are able to function effectively in global environments, and who are also able and willing to contribute to the sustainability of humankind, lies in the hands of higher educa tion leaders, policy-makers and professors. This responsibility cannot be undere stimated or squandered. The condition of the world can be improved or diminished in great pa rt by the types of profe ssionals that graduate from our institutions of higher education. The challenge for the 21st century will be to have the courage and the commitment to develop the next generation of global pr ofessionals, those who have professional excellence, global competence and global consciousness. 155

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Table 5-1. Global competence knowledge, skills/experiences and attitudes Knowlege 1. Cultural self-awareness 2. Awareness of the culture of others 3. Understanding globalization 4. Knowledge of current world events 5. Knowledge of world history 6. Knowledge of world geography 7. Professional knowledge Skills/experiences 8. Effective use of professional ski lls in other cultural environments 9. Collaboration and teamwork across cultures 10. Effective use of cross-cu ltural skills and strategies 11. Effective assessment of cross-cultural situations 12. Successfully living in a culture different from ones own 13. Willingness and/or ability to speak a foreign language Attitudes 14. Recognition of/and interest in multiple worldviews 15. Willingness to step outside of own cultural comfort zone 16. Acceptance of and/or sensitivity toward cultural differences 17. Openness to new experiences 18. Willingness to take risks to learn more about other cultures 19. Possessing a long-term orientation Table 5-2. Global consciousness knowledge skills/experiences and attitudes Knowlege 1. Understanding of globalizations impact on the world 2. Understanding world history and politics 3. Understanding of the human condition 4. Understanding the concept of empowerment 5. Understanding global environmental challenges 6. Societal/historic self-awareness 7. Understanding the nature of multicultural societies Skills/experiences 8. Ability to communicate effectively across cultures 9. Ability to cope with ambiguity 10. Ability to understand and manage complex problems and issues 11. Ability to transcend nation-state thinking to global thinking Attitudes 12. Respect for human rights 13. Desire/willingness to be a global citizen 14. Desire/willingness to improve the human condition 15. Valuing diversity 156

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APPENDIX A SAMPLE GLOBAL COMPETENCIES Global Cultural Competencies: A. G. Cant Cultural self-awareness: To develop cultural sensitivity, a person needs to understand his or her own cultural valu es, assumptions and beliefs. Cultural consciousness: Global managers have to be ab le to adapt to other cultures, manage cultural diversity, be sensitive to other cultures, and be willi ng to step outside of their cultural comfort zone. Leading multicultural teams : To be able to lead and be part of successful multicultural teams, global managers have to use various techniques that will result in culturally sensitive outcomes. Negotiating across cultures : Negotiation across cultures requires the ability to understand how negotiation styles and para meters differ across cultures aiding in avoiding misunderstandings. Global mindset : This type of thinking allows globa l managers to view the strategic implications of global commerce and to develop a long-term orientation toward business. (Cant, 2004, pp. 277-278) What Makes a Successful Career Professional in an International Organization: Rand Corporation 2003 General cognitive skills (e.g. probl em solving, analytical ability) Interpersonal and relationship skills Ambiguity, tolerance, adaptivity Personal traits (e.g. character, self-reliance, dependability) Cross-cultural competence (ability to work well in different cultures and with people of different origins) Ability to work in teams Ability to think in policy and strategy terms Written and oral English language skills Minority sensitivity Innovative, able to take risks Empathy, nonjudgmental perspective Substantive knowledge in a tech nical or professional field Multidisciplinary orientation Knowledge of international a ffairs, geographic area studies Competitiveness, drive General education breadth Internet and information technology Managerial traini ng and experience 157

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Foreign language fluency (Bikson, Treverton, Moini, & Lindstrom (2003) Twelve Competencies for Global Leadership: Harris, Moran, Moran Attitudinal Core Competencies Possesses a global mindset Works as an equal with persons of diverse backgrounds Has a long-term orientation Leadership Core Competencies Facilitates organizational change Creates learning systems Motivates employees to excellence Interaction Core Competencies Negotiates and approaches conf lict in a collaborative mode Manages skillfully the fo reign deployment cycle Leads and participates effectively in multicultural teams Cultural Core Competencies Understands their own values and assumptions Accurately profiles the organizationa l and national culture of others Avoids culture mistakes and behaves in an appropriate manner in other countries (Harris, Moran & Moran, 2004, p. 258) Global Leadership Competencies: Tiina Jokinen Level 1: Core Leadership Competencies Self-awareness Engagement in personal transformation Inquisitiveness Level 2: Desired Mental Charac teristics of Global Leaders Optimism Self-regulation Social judgment skills Empathy Motivation to work in international environments 158

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Cognitive skills Acceptance of complexity and its contradictions Level 3: Desired Behavioral Competencies of Global Leaders Social skills Networking skills Knowledge (Jokinen, 2005, p. 204) Dimensions of Transnational Competence: Peter H. Koehn and James N. Rosenau Analytic Competence Understanding of the central beliefs, values, practices, and paradoxes of counterpart culture(s) and society(ies)-includi ng political and ethnic awareness Ability to link counterpart-country conditions to ones own circumstances and vice versa Number and complexity of alternative cultural paths assessed Ability to discern effective transnational transaction strategies and to learn from past successes and failures Emotional Competence Motivation and ability to open oneself up con tinuously to divergent cultural influences and experiences Ability to assume genuine interest in, and to maintain respect for, different (especially counterpart) values, traditions, experiences, and challenges (i.e. interc ultural/transnational empathy) Ability to manage multiple identities Sense of transnational efficacy Creative/imaginative Competence Ability to foresee the synergistic potential of diverse cultural perspectives in problem solving Collaborative ability to articulate novel and shared transnational synthesis. Ability to envision viable mutually acceptable alternatives Ability to tap into diverse cultural sources for inspiration Behavioral Competence/Communicative Facility Proficiency in and use of counterparts spoken/written language Skill in interpretation and in using an interpreter Proficiency in and relaxed use of intercul turally appropriate nonve rbal cues and codes Ability to listen to and discern different cultural messages Ability to engage in meaningful dialogue; to facilitate mutual self-disclosure 159

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Ability to avoid and resolve communication misunderstandings across diverse communication styles Behavioral Competence/F unctional Adroitness Ability to relate to counterparts and to develop and maintain positive interpersonal relationships Ability to apply/adapt understanding, sens itivity, and imagination in transnational interactions Flexible ability to employ extensive and nuanced range of transnationally accommodative organizational strategies and interaction paths Ability to overcome problems/conflicts and accomplish goals when dealing with transnational challenges and globalization/localization pressures (Koehn & Rosenau, 2002, p. 110) Global Competency Checklist: William D. Hunter Knowledge An understanding of ones own cu ltural norms and expectations An understanding of cultural norms and expectations of others An understanding of the con cept of globalization Knowledge of current world events Knowledge of world history Skills/Experiences Successful participation on project-oriented academic or vocational experience with people from other cultu res and traditions Ability to assess intercultural performance in social or business settings Ability to live outside ones own culture Ability to identify cultural differences in order to compete globally Ability to collaborate across cultures Effective participation in social and bus iness settings anywhere in the world Attitudes Recognition that ones own worldview is not universal Willingness to step outside of ones own cu lture and experience life as the other Willingness to take risks in pursuit of cross-cultural learning and personal development Openness to new experiences, including those that could be emotionally challenging Coping with different cultures and attitudes A non-judgmental reaction to cultural difference Celebrating diversity (Hunter, 2004, p. 115) 160

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APPENDIX B SAMPLE GLOBAL LEARNING OUTCOMES Institutional Outcomes for Global Competence Outcomes for International E ducation: Kalamazoo College Perspective consciousness (recogni zing that the individual has a view of the world that is not universally shared) State-of-the-planet awareness (awareness of prevailing world conditions and global trends) Cross-cultural awareness (aware ness of the diversity of ideas and practices to be found in human societies around the world and how one s own society might be viewed from other vantage points) Knowledge of global dynamics (comprehension of key traits and mechanisms of the world system and consci ousness of global change) Awareness of human choices (problems of choice confronting individuals, nations and the human species) ( http://www.auburn.edu/academic/internat ional/oie/strategic/outcomes3.pdf ) International Learning Outcomes: Michigan State University Students should Demonstrate intellectual growth that reflects an understanding of diffe rent cultural frames of reference Display skills for relating to others in various cultures and situations, such as academic settings, social venues, and pr ofessional/work environments Describe, analyze, and compare/ contrast the customs, traditio ns, values, ways of thinking, and practices of their own culture with those of other cultures Acknowledge personal growth, including th e development of confidence and selfreliance, stimulate a desire for exploration and trying new things, and expand their ability to interact in unfamiliar situations Articulate increased interests in cross-cultur al, international, and comparative learning Demonstrate skills that todays employers seek (such as self-reliance, cultural awareness, and cross-cultural communication) Identify and analyze how their intended professions may be viewed/practiced in different cultural contexts Articulate increased interest in foreign language learning Demonstrate increased competency in foreign language skills ( http://www.auburn.edu/academic/internat ional/oie/strategic/outcomes3.pdf ) Characteristics of a Globally Competent Student: Palo Alto College Understanding how his/her actions have global impact Having the ability to understand dive rse cultural frames of reference 161

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Having the ability to participate in the global marketplace Having an understanding of the economic interdependency among nations Understanding the social, political, religious and cultural constr uctions throughout the world Understanding global en vironmental issues Having knowledge of one or more foreign languages Having the ability to access and evaluate global information Accepting responsibility for global citizenship ( http://www.auburn.edu/academic/internat ional/oie/strategic/outcomes3.pdf .) Georgia Institute of Technology, as part of its International Plan, has defined the following student learning outcomes and program objectives and has developed a comprehensive assessment plan to evaluate their effectiveness. Characteristics of a Globally Competent College Graduate Second language proficiency Communicate in a second language Comparative global knowledge Demonstrate knowledge about other cultures within a global and comparative context Demonstrate knowledge of global issues, processes, trends, and systems Demonstrate knowledge of at least one other culture, nation, or regi on, such as beliefs, values, perspectives, practices, and products Intercultural assimilation Readily use second language sk ills and/or knowledge of othe r cultures to extend their access to information, experiences and understanding Convey an appreciation for different cultures in terms of language art, history, etc. Interact comfortably with pers ons in a different cultural environment and be able to seek out further international or intercultura l opportunities Global disciplinary practice Use cultural frames of referen ce and alternate perspectives to think critically and solve problems within the discipline in the context of at least one other culture, nation, or region Collaborate professionally with persons of different cultures, and function effectively in multi-cultural work environments Intercultural sensitivity Accept cultural differences and tolerate cultural ambiguity Comfortably assimilate within other cultures (Georgia Institute of Tec hnology International Plan, 2005, as cited in Lohmann et al., 2006) 162

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Global Competence: The Univers ity of Pittsburgh (2003) The ability to work effectively in international settings An awareness of major currents of global ch anges and issues driving these changes. Knowledge of global organizati ons and business activities. Capacity of effective comm unications across cultural and linguistic boundaries. Personal adaptability to diverse cultures ( http://www.ucis.pitt. edu/global/about.html) Global Competencies in University Teaching: G. Badley Andragogic expertise Specialized in academic subjects Concerned with sharing the lives and cu lture of those who are being taught Interested in the everyday life of the overseas institution and its environment Focused on discovering how students and teachers abroad see and understand the world Aware that what they themselves see abroad is a construction made out of their own experience and that thei r own conceptual tools are neither objectively neutral nor passive; they cannot represent the reality of abroad, instead they construct their own version of abroad (Badley 2000, p. 246). Global Competencies for the Global Lear ner: American Council on International Intercultural Education (ACIIE Intercultural relations skills. Interest in/reading about in ternational current events. Ability to identify countries of the world and their locations. Ability to communicate with non-English speaking persons. Ability to listen. Technological awareness (Internet literacy). Awareness of global issues. Empowered to acknowledge ones ability to make a difference. Understanding of the dynamics of interac tivity between government, business, and education Comfortable with differences Understanding of different political and economic systems while acknowledging economic interdependence. Awareness of history. Realize that challenges facing our world canno t be solved by the same kind of thinking and actions that created them Knowledge of at least one non-Western culture. Environmental literacy. Understand the impact of other cultures on our lives and that culture affects behavior and attitude. 163

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Recognize that ones own culture, religion and values are not universally shared. Ability to speak at least one other language. Self-confidence in ones own ability, identity, skills and cultural background. Seek peaceful resolution of differences. Awareness of diversity, similarities, and interd ependencies. Read on a regular basis newspapers and magazines covering international issues. Identify historical and current major world events. Ability to be flexible and resourceful. Understand different educati on systems around the world. Understand different groupings within Americas own multicultural structure. Participate in voluntary in-service programs (l ocal, national, and in ternational levels). Ability to work in diverse teams. Understand various faith traditions. Awareness of world demography. Be motivated by love rather than fear. Realize that all the people of the world are important. Have a commitment to lifelong global learning. Ability to empathize and sympathize even while not accepting. Exposure to other culture s through participation in international study. Ability to function as a responsible member of the human species within the community of life. Awareness of human rights issues. Tolerance for ambiguity. Have knowledge of the United Nations a nd other international organizations. Visit a non-English speaking community or c ountry, having learned fifty words of their language before going. Focus on quality of life issues in the world community. (Reco gnize that the local concept of quality of life may be different in other parts of the world.) Participate in at least one student foreign exchange program. Understand decision making in a global community. Be able to apply trained skills to an international context. Accept responsibility fo r global citizenship. Ability to articulate human differences and similarities. Knowledge of human and social geography. Exercise moral leadership. Develop a long-term perspective. Understand that your community may become endangered wi thout global competence. Experience the literature, musi c, and art of other cultures. Enjoy surprises, do not fear them. Be aware of the diversity of world sport. Have respect for human dignity. Speak, write, and read another language. Understand what it means to be ethical. 164

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Seek exposure to other cultures locally, includi ng dining in ethnic restaurants whenever possible. (ACIEE, 1996, pp. 36-37) International/Intercultural Competencies: ACE Center for International Initiatives Knowledge Knowledge of world geography, conditions, issues and events. Awareness of the complexity and interdep endency of world events and issues. Understanding of historical forces that have shaped the current world system. Knowledge of ones own culture and history. Knowledge of effective communication, in cluding knowledge of a foreign language, intercultural communication concepts, and international business etiquette. Understanding of the diversity found in the wo rld in terms of values, beliefs, ideas and worldviews. Attitudes Openness to learning and a posit ive orientation to new opportuni ties, ideas, and ways of thinking. Tolerance for ambiguity and unfamiliarity. Sensitivity and respect for personal and cultural differences. Empathy or the ability to take multiple perspectives. Self awareness and self esteem a bout ones own identity and culture. Skills Technical skills to enhance the ability of students to learn about the world (i.e. research skills). Critical and comparative thinking skills, incl uding the ability to think creatively and integrate knowledge, rather than un critical acceptance of knowledge. Communication skills, including the ability to use another language effectively and interact with people from other cultures. Coping and resiliency skills in unfam iliar and challenging situations. (Siaya, 2001 in Olson, Green & Hill, 2006, p. 88) 165

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APPENDIX C KEY ELEMENTS FOR RESPONSIBLE GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP Table C-1. Key elements for re sponsible global citizenship Knowledge and understanding Skills Values and attitudes Social justice and equity Critical thinking Sense of identity and selfesteem Diversity Ability to argue effectively Empathy Globalization and interdependence Ability to challenge injustice and inequalities Commitment to social justice and equity Sustainable development Respect for people and things Value and respect for diversity Peace and conflict Cooperation and conflict resolution Concern for the environment and commitment to sustainable development Belief that people can make a difference (Oxfam, 2006) 166

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APPENDIX D CULTURAL/GLOBAL ASSE SSMENT INSTRUMENTS Behavioral Assessment Scale for In tercultural Communication (BASIC) Olebe, M. & Koester, J. (1989) Eight scales: validated with 263 university students (Source 1) Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI) Kelley, C. & Meyers, J.E. Measures 4 variables: Emotional Resilience, Flexibility and Openness, Perceptual Acuity, and Personal Autonomy (Sources 1,3,4) Cultural Competence Self-Assessment Questionnaire (CCSAQ) Mason, J.L. (1995) Designed to assist service agencies working with children with disabilities and their families in self-evaluation of their cross-cultural competence. For U.S. use. (Source 1) GAP Test: Global Awareness Profile Corbitt, J.N. Measures how much world knowledge a pers on has concerning selected items about international politics, economics, geography, culture, etc. (Sources 1,3,4) The Intercultural Conf lict Style Inventory Hammer. M.R. Hammer Consulting, LLC (onl y authorized distributor) Identifies fundamental approaches for resolvi ng conflict across cultural and ethnic differences. (Sources 1,3,4) Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) Bennett, M.J. & Hammer, M.(2003) Based on Bennetts Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) that shows progression of intercultural sens itivity from ethnocentric to ethnorelative stages. The IDI measures the orientations toward cultural differences in the DMIS. (Sources 1,3,4) Intercultural Sensitivity Inventory (ICSI) Bhawuk, D.P.S., Brislin, R.W. (1992) Measures intercultural sensitivity using the concepts of individualism and collectivism Validated with 46 undergraduate and 93 graduate students. (Source 1) The Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory Matsumoto, D., Weissman, M.D., Preston, K., Brown, B.R., & Kupperbush, C. (1997) 167

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Context-specific measurement of individualism-collectivism on the individual level (Source 2) The Overseas Assignment Inventory (OAT) Tucker (1999) Used for selection, development and training. Develops awareness among managers and future expatriates on motivations, expectations and attitudes that affect intercultural adjustment. (Sources 1, 4) Sources: 1) Sietar Europa Online Docume ntation Center, Assessments & Instruments. Retrieved July 19, 2006 from http://www.sietar.de/SIETARproj ect/Assessments&instruments.html 2) Taras, V. (2006). Instruments for Measuring Cultural Values and Behaviors. Retrieved July 20, 2006 from http://www.ucalgary.ca/~taras/_pr ivate/CultureSurvey Catalogue.pdf 3) Bolen, M. (Ed.).(2007).A guide to outcomes a ssessment in education abroad. Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad 4) Earley, P.C., Ang, S. (2003). Cultural intelligen ce Individual interactions across cultures. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press 168

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APPENDIX E CORRESPONDENCE Letter to XXXXXXXXXXXStudents GO GLOBAL GET THAT JOB! Do you know what your study abroad experience w ill be able to do for your future career? Would you like to find out? Please come to an Information and Assessment event with cookies a nd beverages and meet others who will be studying abroad in the Spring! Susan W. Herrera and Dr. Linda Serra Hagedorn invite YOU, a member of a very select group from the XXXXXXXX, to take two assessments, one before you go and one when you return, that will provide an indication of your gain in GLOBAL skills as a result of your study abroad experience. These assessments are NOT TESTS and your answers will in no way affect your grade. We invite you to do the following: Come to an Information and Assessment ev ent on Wednesday, November 7, 2007 from 3:00 4:30 pm at the XXXXXXX. You will have take tw o assessments and have time to socialize with others who will be studying abroad in the Spring. You will also be able to ask questions about the Global Competence and Global Consciousness Assessments. Then when you return to the U.S., we will in vite you to a Welcome Back Party where you will reconnect with the other student s who took the first assessments, share your experiences abroad, have a chance to win prizes, a nd take the second assessments. After we evaluate the assessments, we will provide guidance on how you have become more GLOBAL and give you tips on how to sell your NEW GLOBAL SKILLS to future employers. EASY! Sowho are we? Susan W. Herrera is XXXXXXXXXXX campus XXXXXXXXXXXXXX and a Ph.D. student in the department of XXXXXXX XX researching the development of Global Competence and Global Consciousness. Dr. Linda Serra Hagedorn is XXXXXXXXXXX She has extensiv e international experience lecturing and presenting in countries such as Russia, China, and Vietnam She was also a Fulbright Scholar in Vietnam. 169

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Why is this study important? Globalization requires that the new workfor ce be both globally competent and globally conscious. Our goal is to help others to develop and enhance their skills. Please note that your participation in this study is strictly volunta ry and your grades will not be affected in any way if you dont want to participate. You confiden tiality will be fully protected. If you have any questions, please contact us: THANK YOU! Susan W. Herrera XXXXXXXX Dr. Linda Serra Hagedorn XXXXXXXX 170

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Letter to XXXXXXXXX Students Go Global XXXX Global competence and global consciousness are tw o important concepts that employers are looking for, and that can also impr ove the world in which we live. Would you like to participate in a research st udy that will help us understand how your study abroad will affect your global competence and consciousness? Susan W. Herrera and Dr. Linda Serra Hagedorn i nvite YOU, a study abroad student, to take two assessments before you go and two when you return. These assessments will provide an indication of your gain in GLOBAL skills as a result of your study abroad experience. These assessments are NOT TESTS and your answer s will in no way affect your grade. To participate, all you have to do is click on the TWO links below, one for each assessment. PLEASE TAKE BOTH ASSESSMENTS. This pr ocess will take you about 30 minutes. Global Competence Assessment Instrument Int. Center SA v.1.2 http://www.zoomerang.com/survey.zgi?p=WEB2276X86EWXJ Global Consciousness Assessment Instrument Int. Center SA v. 1.2 http://www.zoomerang.com/survey.zgi?p=WEB2276X8XEXET Then, when you return, we will contact you again to take the Posttest assessments. EASY! Sowho are we? Susan W. Herrera is XXXXXXXXXX. and a Ph.D. student in the department of XXXXXXXXXXX researching th e development of Global Competence and Global Consciousness. Dr. Linda Serra Hagedorn is XXXXXXXXXXXX. She has extensiv e internationa l experience lecturing and presenting in countries such as Russia, China, and Vietnam She was also a Fulbright Scholar in Vietnam. Why is this study important? Globalization requires that the new workfor ce be both globally competent and globally conscious. Our goal is to help studen ts develop and enhance these skills. 171

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Please note that your participation in this study is strictly volunta ry and your grades will not be affected in any way if you dont want to participate. You confiden tiality will be fully protected. If you have any questions, please contact us: THANK YOU! Susan W. Herrera XXXXXXXXX Dr. Linda Serra Hagedorn XXXXXXXXX We wish you a successful and enjoyable study abroad experience! November, 2007 (for Spring 2008 study abroad students) 172

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Letter to XXXX Control Group January 7, 2008 We kindly request your participa tion in a study that is designed to understand if students can develop global competence and global consciousne ss through participation in internationalized courses such as study abroad. This study is important because globalization requ ires that the new workforce be both globally competent and globally conscious. Our goal is to help students develop and enhance their global skills. Your participation is strictly voluntary and will not affect your grade in any way if you dont want to participate. You confidentiality will be fully protected. To conduct this study we need two groups of students: One group who is NOT participating in an internationalized course (Control group) and one group w ho did (Experimental group). We would like to ask for your participation as a member of our control group if you ARE NOT PARTICIPATING IN A ST UDY ABROAD COURSE DURI NG THE SPRING OF 2008. To participate we will ask you to take TWO asse ssments ONLINE, first at the beginning of this Spring semester, and TWO at the end of the Spring semester. These assessments are NOT TESTS and your answers will in no way affect your grade. It is easy to participate! Just go to the following links and take BOTH assessments (one for each link). The Global Competence Assessment Instrument (GCAI-1) http://www.zoomerang.com/survey.zgi?p=WEB227B7K626U8 The Global Consciousness Asse ssment Instrument (GCAI-2) http://www.zoomerang.com/survey.zgi?p=WEB227B7L727GC Please respond by: February 1, 2008 THANK YOU VERY MUCH! 173

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The researchers are: Susan W. Herrera, Ph.D. candidate XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX researching the development of Global Competence and Global Consciousne ss as part of her dissertation. Susan is also the XXXXXXXXXX Dr. Linda Serra Hagedorn, XXX XXXXXXXXX She has extensive international experience lecturing and presenting in countries such as Russia, China, and Vietnam She was also a Fulbright Scholar in Vietnam. Dr. Hagedorn is Susans doctoral committee chair. If you have any questions, please contact us: THANK YOU! Susan W. Herrera XXXXXXX Dr. Linda Serra Hagedorn XXXXXXXX 174

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Letter to returning students for posttest participation April 1, 2008 Dear Spring 2008 Study Abroad Students: THANK YOU for participating in the Global Competence and Global Consciousness study by taking the pretests before you left As you recall, there were two pa rts to this study, pretests and posttests. NOW, as you approach the end of your study abroad experience, we ask you to please take the posttests for Global Competence and Globa l Consciousness. IT IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT that you take the posttests as we w ill not be able to use the data without BOTH the pre and posttests completed. Th ese are shorter than the pretests! You must take BOTH tests before April 11, 2008. To take the tests, pl ease go to the following links. Take one test first, and then the other test. It will ta ke you no more than 30 minutes to complete both. http://www.zoomerang.com/Survey/?p=WEB227MD3E8WMT Global Competence GCAI-1 http://www.zoomerang.com/Survey/?p=WEB227MD3H8WPM Global Consciousness GCAI-2 If you have any questions about this study, please email me, Susan W. Herrera, at XXXXXX and I will be happy to discuss it with you. You can also call me at any time at XXXXXXX Thank you again for your participation, and we hope you are having a wonderful study abroad experience. Susan W. Herrera, Ph.D. Candidate Linda Serra Hagedorn, Ph.D. 175

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APPENDIX F INFORMED CONSENT FORM Informed Consent Protocol Title: Assessing Global Compet ence and Global Consciousness (Pilot and Implementation) Please read this consent document carefully befo re you decide to partic ipate in this study. Purpose of the research study: To determine the effectiveness of interna tionalized curricula in developing global competence and global consciousness. What you will be asked to in the study: To complete two assessment instruments on two occasions, first at the beginning of the course and then at the end of the course, the Global Competence Assessment Instrument GCAI-1 and the Global Consciousness Assessment Instrument GCAI-2. Time required: 30 minutes Risks and Benefits: This study will add to the understand ing of the internati onalization process in institutions of higher education, by providing an insight into the e ffectiveness of course models in developing global competence and global cons ciousness. There are no anticipated risks except for a minimal loss of instruct ional time while taking the test. Compensation: There is no compensa tion for participat ing in the study. Confidentiality: Your identity wi ll be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. You will be asked to create a code number to identify you for the pre and posttest. This identification will be your birth date in two-digit format, month, da y and year, followed by the first initial of your first name and the first initial of your last name. All data will be analyzed in the aggregate and under no circumstances will individual responses be made known. Voluntary participation: Your pa rticipation in this study is comp letely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Not taking this te st will not affect your grade for the class. Right to withdraw from the study: You have th e right to withdraw fr om the study at anytime without consequence. You do not have to answer any questions you do not want to answer or provide materials you do not want to provide. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Dr. Linda Serra Hagedorn, XXXXXXXXX Susan W. Herrera, Ph.D. student, XXXXXXXXXX Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX I have read the procedure outlined above. I voluntar ily agree to participate in this study and have received a copy of this description. 176

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Participants signature and date________________________________ Principal investigators signature and date __________________________________ 177

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University of Rhode Island International Engineering Program. (2006). Rationale. Retrieved November 22, 2005, from http://www.uri.edu/iep/nrc/rationale.htm 187

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Susan W. Herrera is a Ph.D. candidate in higher education administration at the University of Florida in 2008 with a minor in E nglish for speakers of other languages. She holds a masters degree in education from National Louis University in Evanston, Illinois, and a Bachelor of Science in Foreign Language and Mass Communication Media from American University in Washington, D.C. Ms.. Herreras interest in internationalizing higher education was fueled by the need to educate the next generation of professionals to be able to function effectively in global environments and to understand the impact of globalization on humanity. This need became apparent as a result of her over 20-year career as a cross-cultural consultant and trainer preparing executives and employees to conduct business inte rnationally. She has also consulted for public and private organizations in managing and le veraging diversity. Her successful business ventures, as president and CEO of The Global Institute of Languages and Culture, Inc. and president of CultureSense International, Inc. have been featured in The Miami Herald, Ft. Lauderdale Sun-Sentinel, Delta Sky Magazine, Broward CountyThe Venice of America, and the South Florida Business Jour nal. Her list of clients have included companies such as Motorola, Pepsi-Cola, IBM, American Express, Blockbuster, Citibank, Caterpillar, GE Medical Systems and nonprofit government and academic organizations. Ms. Herrera is presently the assistant director for the Univer sity of Florida Leadership Development Institute. Her primary responsibil ities include the design, development, and implementation of the Executive Global Leadership Program and core curriculum. She is also a member of the board of directors and of the leadership team cr eating national and global strategy for the institute. She directs a ll faculty, instructional designers, a nd project coordinators. She is 188

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189 also responsible for formulating strategic plans for curriculum/p roduct development aligned with finance, business development, and marketing. In addition to corporate teaching and tr aining, Ms. Herreras academic experience includes teaching education courses at the Univ ersity of North Florid a and St. Johns River Community College in Florida; English as a s econd language at Nova S outheastern University and Ft. Lauderdale College in Florida, and at St. Augustine College in Chicago; and teaching in and directing a high school bili ngual education program at West Aurora High School in Aurora, Illinois.