<%BANNER%>

Statewide Assessment of Toxic Algal (Microcystin) Threat in Florida Lakes

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022451/00001

Material Information

Title: Statewide Assessment of Toxic Algal (Microcystin) Threat in Florida Lakes
Physical Description: 1 online resource (96 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bigham, Dana
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: A bi-monthly (January-December) survey of microcystin in 187 Florida lakes was completed in 2006. Mean microcystin concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 12 micrograms/L, with 29% of the lakes containing detectable microcystin (0.1 microgram/L). Only 7% of the lakes had mean microcystin concentrations above the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard of 1 microgram/L. None of the lakes had mean microcystin concentrations above the WHO recreational standard of 20 micrograms/L. At any time throughout the year, microcystin concentrations can be measured at levels above 1 microgram/L, but microcystin concentrations were found to increase significantly starting in May/June, with the highest concentrations occurring during September-December. Of the 862 individual water samples collected from the 187 Florida lakes, microcystin concentrations ranged from non-detectable (65% of the samples) to 32 micrograms/L. Only 7% of the individual samples exceeded the WHO drinking water standard, while 28% of the samples contained detectable microcystin. Three individual water samples exceeded the WHO recreational standard. As expected, microcystin concentrations in Florida lakes were found to increase with cyanobacterial biomass and lake trophic status. A monthly study of six hypereutrophic lakes (Harris Chain of Lakes) completed during September 2006-August 2007 found 57% of the samples (216 individual water samples) contained detectable microcystin and 40% of the samples were above 1 microgram/L. None of the individual water samples exceeded the WHO recreational standard. Neither water sample depth (surface, 0.5 m, and integrated), container (glass versus plastic), nor storage (freezing) of water samples affected microcystin concentrations significantly. Consequently, from the measured microcystin concentrations obtained during this study, microcystin does not seem to pose the greatest toxic algae threat to Floridians for 2006 as lakes are typically not used for drinking water and the WHO recreational standard is seldom exceeded.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Dana Bigham.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Canfield, Daniel E.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2009-02-28

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022451:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022451/00001

Material Information

Title: Statewide Assessment of Toxic Algal (Microcystin) Threat in Florida Lakes
Physical Description: 1 online resource (96 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bigham, Dana
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: A bi-monthly (January-December) survey of microcystin in 187 Florida lakes was completed in 2006. Mean microcystin concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 12 micrograms/L, with 29% of the lakes containing detectable microcystin (0.1 microgram/L). Only 7% of the lakes had mean microcystin concentrations above the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard of 1 microgram/L. None of the lakes had mean microcystin concentrations above the WHO recreational standard of 20 micrograms/L. At any time throughout the year, microcystin concentrations can be measured at levels above 1 microgram/L, but microcystin concentrations were found to increase significantly starting in May/June, with the highest concentrations occurring during September-December. Of the 862 individual water samples collected from the 187 Florida lakes, microcystin concentrations ranged from non-detectable (65% of the samples) to 32 micrograms/L. Only 7% of the individual samples exceeded the WHO drinking water standard, while 28% of the samples contained detectable microcystin. Three individual water samples exceeded the WHO recreational standard. As expected, microcystin concentrations in Florida lakes were found to increase with cyanobacterial biomass and lake trophic status. A monthly study of six hypereutrophic lakes (Harris Chain of Lakes) completed during September 2006-August 2007 found 57% of the samples (216 individual water samples) contained detectable microcystin and 40% of the samples were above 1 microgram/L. None of the individual water samples exceeded the WHO recreational standard. Neither water sample depth (surface, 0.5 m, and integrated), container (glass versus plastic), nor storage (freezing) of water samples affected microcystin concentrations significantly. Consequently, from the measured microcystin concentrations obtained during this study, microcystin does not seem to pose the greatest toxic algae threat to Floridians for 2006 as lakes are typically not used for drinking water and the WHO recreational standard is seldom exceeded.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Dana Bigham.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Canfield, Daniel E.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2009-02-28

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022451:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

1 STATEWIDE ASSESSMENT OF TOXIC ALGAL (MICROCYSTIN) THREAT IN FLORIDA LAKES By DANA LYNNE BIGHAM A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

PAGE 2

2 2008 Dana Lynne Bigham

PAGE 3

3 To all the wonderful people in my life

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank Dr. Daniel Canfield, Jr. for all of hi s shared knowledge, tim e, and support. I thank Mr. Mark Hoyer, Dr. Mete Yilmaz, Ms. Christ y Horsburgh, and Mr. Jesse Stephens for their assistance with statistical analyses, laboratory methodologies, and field sampling. I thank Drs. Charles Cichra, Karl Havens, and Mark Brenner for serving on my masters committee.

PAGE 5

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........6 LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................................7 ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................................8 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................10 2 METHODS.............................................................................................................................14 Study Lakes and Sampling.....................................................................................................14 Water Chemistry Analyses.....................................................................................................16 Determination of Microcystin Concentration......................................................................... 16 Microcystin Prepara tion and Storage ...................................................................................... 17 Statistical Analyses........................................................................................................... ......18 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION............................................................................................. 21 4 CONCLUSIONS.................................................................................................................... 44 APPENDIX MICROCYSTIN, NUTRIENT, AND CHLOROPHYLL DATA........................... 48 LIST OF REFERENCES...............................................................................................................89 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................96

PAGE 6

6 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Microcystin concentrations ( g/L) in surface waters (< 1.0 m )........................................ 31 3-2 Summary statistics for nutrients, chlorophy ll, and m icrocystin concentrations (g/L) for 187 Florida lakes sampled from January-December 2006........................................... 32 3-3 Summary statistics for nutri ent, chlorophyll, and m icrocys tin concentrations (g/L) for 862 individual water samples collected from 187 Florida lakes sampled during January-December 2006.................................................................................................... 32 3-4 Percent by trophic state category (based on chlorophyll concentrations), in which m icrocystins were detected for 187 Florid a lakes and 862 individual water samples from the 187 Florida lakes during January-December 2006............................................. 32 3-5 Estimated percent of the time that microc ystin will exceed the listed concentrations when chlorophyll concentrations (g/L) ex ceed listed annual values. Microcystin concentrations are from 862 water samples collected from 187 Florida lakes from January-December 2006.................................................................................................... 33 3-6 Estimated percent of the time that microc ystin will exceed the listed concentrations when chlorophyll concentrations (g/L) ex ceed listed warm season (July-November) concentrations. Microcystin concentrati ons are from 862 water samples collected from 187 Florida lakes from January-December 2006...................................................... 34 3-7 Summary statistics for nutri ent, chlorophyll, and m icrocys tin concentrations (g/L) sampled from September 2006-August 2007 for six Harris Chain of Lakes located in Lake County, Florida......................................................................................................... 35 3-8 The manufacturers microcystin concentration, f or each standard provided in the ELISA kit is designated as standard. The minimum, median, and maximum represent the microcystin concentration ( g/L) measured for the standards for 50 ELISA kits.........................................................................................................................35 A-1 Microcystin, nutrient, and chlor ophyll data for 187 Florida lakes .................................... 49 A-2 Microcystin, nutrient, and chlorophyll data for Harris Chain of Lakes in Lake County, Florida. .................................................................................................................80

PAGE 7

7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 The 187 Florida lakes sampled for microcystin d uring January-December 2006............. 19 2-2 Harris Chain of Lakes located in Lake County, Florida. Lakes: Beauclaire, Dora (East and W est), Eustis, Harris, and Gr iffin were sampled during September 2006August 2007.......................................................................................................................20 3-1 The 95 % confidence intervals for the micr ocystin concentrations m easured from the 862 water samples collected bi-monthly from January-December 2006 for 187 Florida lakes.................................................................................................................. .....36 3-2 The 187 lakes split into categories: A represents lakes exhibiting m icrocystin concentrations less than 1.0 g/L, B concentrations 1.0 g/L, and C 20 g/L. ........37 3-3 Relationship between total algal bioma ss ( mg/L) in Florida lakes and percent biomass contribution from cyanob acteria (Duarte et al. 1992).......................................... 38 3-4 Microcystin concentrations compared to total algal biom ass (mg/L) for 862 water samples from 187 Florida lakes coll ected from January-December 2006......................... 39 3-5 Monthly microcystin concentrations (g/ L) for six hypereutrophic Harris Chain of Lakes located in Lake County, Florida sam pled during September 2006-August 2007....................................................................................................................................40 3-6 Monthly mean nutrient and chlorophyll c oncentrations (g/L ) for each of the six Harris Chain of Lakes located in Lake County, Florida sampled from September 2006-August 2007..............................................................................................................41 3-7 Effects of freezing and thawing on m easurem ents of monthly microcystin concentrations (g/L) for a cultured Microcystis aeruginosa strain (PCC 7806) and five lakes..................................................................................................................... .......42 3-8 Monthly microcystin concentr ations (g/L) of a cultured Microcystis aeruginosa strain (PCC 7806) in glass versus plastic (polypropylene) containers am ong months...... 43

PAGE 8

8 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science STATEWIDE ASSESSMENT OF TOXIC ALGAL (MICROCYSTIN) THREAT IN FLORIDA LAKES By Dana Lynne Bigham August 2008 Chair: Daniel E. Canfield, Jr. Major: Fisheries a nd Aquatic Sciences A bi-monthly (January-December) survey of microcystin in 187 Florida lakes was completed in 2006. Mean microcystin concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 12 g/L, with 29 % of the lakes containing detectable microcystin ( 0.1 g/L). Only 7 % of the lakes had mean microcystin concentrations above the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard of 1 g/L. None of the lakes had mean microcystin concentrations above the WHO recreational standard of 20 g/L. At any time throughout the year, microcystin concentrations can be measured at levels above 1 g/L, but microcystin concentrations were found to increase significantly starting in May/June with the highest con centrations occurring during September-December. Of the 862 indivi dual water samples collected from the 187 Florida lakes, microcystin concentrations ranged from non-detectable (65 % of the samples) to 32 g/L. Only 7 % of the individual samples exceeded the WHO drinking water standard, while 28 % of the samples contained detectable microcys tin. Three individual water samples exceeded the WHO recreational standard. As expected, micr ocystin concentrations in Florida lakes were found to increase with cyanobacterial biomass and lake trophic status. A monthly study of six hypereutrophic lakes (Harris Chain of Lake s) completed during September 2006-August 2007 found 57 % of the samples (216 individual water sa mples) contained detectable microcystin and

PAGE 9

9 40% of the samples were above 1 g/L. None of the individual water samples exceeded the WHO recreational standard. Neither water samp le depth (surface, 0.5 m, and integrated), container (glass versus plastic), nor storage (f reezing) of water samples affected microcystin concentrations significantly. Consequently, fr om the measured microcystin concentrations obtained during this study, microcys tin does not seem to pose the greatest toxic algae threat to Floridians for 2006 as lakes are typically not us ed for drinking water and the WHO recreational standard is seldom exceeded.

PAGE 10

10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Cyanobacteria or b lue-green algae are ancient organisms that have been identified in rock that dates back three billion years (Schopf and Parker 1987). As a result of their long evolutionary history, cyanobact eria have adapted to almost all terrestrial and aquatic environments including both temperate and tropi cal water bodies, although certain conditions favor dominance by particular species. For ex ample, accelerated eutr ophication of water bodies is often linked to a shift in the algal community to the cyanobacterial taxa Microcystis, Anabaena and/or Aphanizomenon (Steinberg and Hartmann 1988). These taxa can form blooms (Jacoby et al. 2000; Johnston and Jacoby 2003), which are dense surface aggregations that can cause aesthetic, access/navigation, and pote ntial health problems fo r lake users (Chorus and Bartram 1999, Lawton and Codd 1991, and Codd et al. 1999). Blue-green blooms are of particular concern as some strains of cyanobacteria produce a toxin called microcystin (Botes et al. 1984; Sivonen and Jones 1999) Microcystins are primarily produced by the cyanobacteria species Microcystis aeruginosa but other genera, like Anabaena Planthorix and Nostoc have also been shown to produce the toxin (Dawson 1998). Microcystin is a protein phosphate-inhibiting to xin that has been suggested to target the liver (Carmichael 1994). Microcystin is, therefore, a hepatotoxin. Microcystins are one of the most commonly reported toxins in freshwater systems worldwide (Carmichael 1986). Reported cases of livestock, wildlife, and pet fatalities have been attributed to consumption of freshwaters with high microcystin concentrati ons (Steyn 1943; Ashworth a nd Mason 1946; Carmichael 1986, 1994). Human health problems caused by microcystins ar e not well documented. A rare case of human death occurred at a hemodialysis cente r in Brazil when patients received improperly

PAGE 11

11 treated water that contained microcystins (Joc himsen et al. 1998). With the exception of microcystin being suggested to be a possible tumor promoter (Falconer and Humpage 1996), the effects of long-term exposure to microcystins on humans are not we ll known (Jacoby et al. 2000). In response to both the reported cases of microcystin sickness and death and on-going research, the World Health Orga nization established suggested provisional safety standards for microcystin. Assuming a human body weight of 60 kg, an average water intake of 2 L per day, and 0.8 as the proportion of tota l daily intake of the contamin ant ingested from the drinking water, the drinking water provisi onal safety standard was set at 1 g/L. Specifically, the drinking water standard is define d as the amount of a potentially harmful substance that can be consumed daily over a lifetime with negligible risk of adverse health effects (Falconer et al. 1999). The recreational safety standard was provis ionally set at 20 g/L fo r activities in direct contact with water and at 100 g /L for activities having indirect contact with water (World Health Organization 2003). Guid elines were derived from an oral 13-week study with mice, which was supported by a 44-day study with pigs (Kuiper-Goodman et al. 1999). An uncertainty factor of 1000 (10 for intraspecies variation, 10 for interspecies va riation, and 10 for other data variables) is associated with each of the microcystin standards. Numerous studies have iden tified the frequency of occurrence and distribution of microcystins in freshwaters used for both drin king and recreation (Sivonen and Jones 1999; Fromme et al. 2000; Zurawell et al. 2004; Ti llmanns et al. 2007; Jacoby and Kann 2007). Microcystin concentrations have been found to va ry temporally by as much as three orders of magnitude within a lake over a year and among ye ars. They also vary among lakes in a year (Kotak et al. 1995). Consequently, conflicti ng study results and conclusions are seen among

PAGE 12

12 reported microcystin concentrations, occurrence, and distribution. Despite these discrepancies, numerous studies (e.g. Chorus and Bartram 1999) emphasize the importance in establishing continual monitoring programs, initiating an early warning system, and providing objective information to inform the public about potentially t oxic algae, so that informed decisions can be made about use of the resource. Eutrophic to hypereutrophic wate rs are more likely to have blue-green algae (Lund 1969; Wetzel 1975) and contain higher microcystin con centrations (Wu et al. 2006, Kotak et al. 1995, 2007, and Giani et al. 2005) than oligotrophic wate rs. In the State of Florida, many lakes are eutrophic due to edaphic and morphological characteristics (Canfield and Hoyer 1988). Although cyanobacteria dominance have been identified in Florida lakes of all trophic states (Canfield et al. 1989), cyanobacteria have been shown to dominate over 90% of phytoplankton biomass in highly productive la kes (total phytoplankton bioma ss > 100 mg/L) (Duarte et al. 1992) and represent the predominant community of phytoplankton in many Florida lakes (Agusti et al. 1990). Along with warm temperatures, which are optimal for cyanobacterial growth (Rapala et al. 1997), Florida lakes offer ideal cond itions (e.g., intense light, nutrient rich waters) and a longer growing season for cya nobacteria proliferation. Awareness of toxic algal blooms heightened in Florida during the summer of 2005 when intense cyanobacterial blooms occu rred in the St. Lucie River, St. Johns River, Caloosahatchee River, Lake Okeechobee, and othe r lakes and rivers (Havens 2006). In these waters, microcystin concentrations exceeding 100 g/L were reporte d, sparking concern among scientists and the public (Havens 2006). However, these studies on ly focused on certain large lakes or rivers (Williams et al. 2007). No comprehensive, statew ide study existed for Florida lakes, so it was difficult to determine the magnitude of the toxin (micro cystin) occurrence in Florida lakes.

PAGE 13

13 The primary objective of this study was to comp lete a statewide surv ey of Florida lakes to identify the quantity and range of microcysti ns found in lakes, frequency of occurrence of varying concentrations, and seasonal patterns of microcystin concentrations. Microcystin concentrations were measured bimonthly for 187 lakes from January-December 2006 and results were compared to the World Health Organizations drinking water and recreationa l standards to provide a preliminary assessment of human risk. Detectable microcystin concentrations and concentrations above WHO drinking water standa rd had been documented previously in the Harris Chain of Lakes (GreenWater Laboratories 2005) located in central Fl orida (Lake County). Monthly microcystin monitoring was therefore conducted in six of the hypereutrophic Harris Chain of Lakes to examine the microcystin concentration frequenc y and distribution among months and also the relationshi ps between microcystin and sele cted water chemistry variables (i.e., total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chlorophyll) during September 2006-August 2007. Results obtained for more frequent sampling of the Harris Chain of Lakes were compared to the results obtained from the 2006 statewide survey.

PAGE 14

14 CHAPTER 2 METHODS Study Lakes and Sampling Lakes inc luded in the Florida LAKEWATCH program were selected as candidates for the microcystin statewide assessment study due to the presence of activ e sampling volunteers. The 187 Florida lakes (Figure 21), selected for study, encompassed a statewide distribution, a wide range of trophic states, and included lakes experiencing fre quent algal blooms as measured by chlorophyll concentration. These lakes we re sampled bimonthly from January-December 2006. At each lake, three open water sites (where routine LAKEWATCH water sampling occurred) were sampled by a Florida LAKEWATCH volunteer. Water samples were collected at elbow depth (0.5 m) in a 250-mL acid-cleane d, triple-rinsed Nalgene bottle, following LAKEWATCH sampling protocol (C anfield et al. 2002). At each site, Secchi disk depth was measured and 4 L of surface water was collected and filtered through a Gelman Type A-E glass fiber filter and stored over silic a gel desiccant for later chlorophy ll analysis. All water samples and glass fiber filters were stored frozen (-15 C) until water chemistry analyses were completed at the Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Scie nces water chemistry laboratory. After nutrient analyses, the water samples (three sites) for each lake were combined into a 60-mL acid-cleaned, triple-rinsed Nalgene bottle. This composite water sample was frozen until microcystin analysis. Nutrient, chlorophyll, and microcystin concentr ations were assayed w ithin six months of freezing. Florida LAKEWATCH water samples co llected and frozen by volunteers, produce water chemistry results equal to the results obtained from water samples collected and preserved by scientific professiona ls (Canfield et al. 2002). Some of the 187 lakes were not sampled bimonthly (266 missed water samples) due to mi ssed volunteer sampling, loss of volunteers, or natural events such as the lake losing water due to drought.

PAGE 15

15 Sampling was also completed on the Harris Chain of Lakes located in Lake County, Florida. Lake Beauclaire, Lake Dora (split into an East and West basi n), Lake Eustis, Lake Harris, and Lake Griffin comprise most of the Harris Chain of Lakes (Figure 2-2). Water flows between these lakes from south to north. The flow begins at Lake Apopka, continues through Lake Beauclaire, then flows through Lake Dora East and Lake Dora West, and into Lake Eustis. Lake Harris flows into Lake Eustis and then Lake Eustis flows into Lake Griffin. Water exits Lake Griffin through the north-flowi ng Ocklawaha River. All lakes lie in the southern part of the central lake-district region (Gri ffith et al. 1997). Lakes in this region generally have elevated total phosphorus ( 20 g/L), total nitrogen (> 900 g/L), and chlorophyll (> 6.0 g/L) concentrations. Specific conductance is typically > 99 S/cm @ 25 C, pH is > 7.2, and Secchi disk measurements are 1.0 m (Horsburgh 1999; Canfield and Hoyer 1988). Lakes in the Harris Chain of Lakes are large (ranging from 407 ha to 6679 ha), shallow (< 4 m), and usually hypereutrophic (chlorophyll conc entrations > 40 g/L). The Harris Chain lakes were sampled m onthly from September 2006-August 2007. Three open-water sites were randomly chosen for each lake. The longitude and latitude coordinates were recorded by a GPS system (Garmin Ltd., model # GPS 76, Kansas City, USA ). At each site, water for nutrient and chlorophyll an alyses was collected at 0.5 m in a brown 1-L, acid-washed, triple-rinsed Nalgene bottle. Water samples for microcystin analysis were collected in an opaque, acid-washed, triple-rinse d 60-mL Nalgene bottle. One water sample was collected at 0.5 m and another by skimming the surf ace layer. Secchi disk and water depths were recorded at each station. At the middle sampli ng stations in each lake, an integrated water sample of the entire water column was coll ected with a PVC pipe extending down from the surface to 0.3 m from the bottom. The pipe was corked, removed vert ically; the water was

PAGE 16

16 expelled into a bucket, and mixed. An opaque, acid-washed, triple-rinsed 60-mL Nalgene bottle was then filled for microcystin analysis. Wa ter samples collected for nutrient analyses were placed into a cooler with ice. Water samples colle cted for microcystin analyses were placed into a cooler with ice packs to prevent lysing of the ce lls. Upon return to the Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, all nutrient, chlorophyll, an d microcystin samples were refrigerated (5 C) and analyzed within 24 hr. Water Chemistry Analyses Water chemistry analyses included measurem en ts of total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and total chlorophyll-a (chl orophyll, CHL) concentrations. TP concentrations (g/L) were determined using procedures of Murphy and Rile y (1962) following persulfate digestion (Menzel and Corwin 1965). TN concentrations (g/L) we re determined by oxidizing water samples with persulfate and measuring nitrat e-nitrogen with second derivative spectroscopy (DElia et al. 1997; Simal et al. 1985, Wollin 1987; Crupmton et al. 1992; Bachmann and Canfield 1996). CHL concentrations (g/L) were determin ed spectrophotometrically following pigment extraction with hot 90 % etha nol (Method 10200 H, AP HA 1992; Sartory and Grobbelarr 1984). Measurements are total chlorophyll-a, as there was no correction for pheophytins. Determination of Microcystin Concentration To determ ine microcystin concentration, water samples were thawed if frozen (LAKEWATCH water samples) and all samples were allowed to reach room temperature. Aliquots of 5 mL were pipetted into 10-mL gla ss vials and boiled at 100 C for 1 min to extract the microcystin in the water samples (Metcalf and Codd 2005). The boiled samples were cooled to room temperature and centrifuged for 30 min at 2000 rpm to remove particulate material. The clear, non-particulate soluti on was extracted and used in the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent) assay.

PAGE 17

17 The ELISA kit (Abraxis LLC., product # 520011, Warminster, USA) provided the antibody-coated plate, six microcystin standards (including a positive control), and all reagents used to determine total microcystin concentration. The absorbance of the samples was read at 450 nm and at a reference of 650 nm with a Stat Fax 3200 Microplate Reader (Awareness Technology Inc., Palm City, USA). Microcystin concentrations we re calculated using the slope and intercept of the linear regr ession equation generated from a semi-logarithm plot. The semilogarithm plot was generated using the logarithm of the machine-read absorbance of the Abraxis, LLC. standards versus the calculated B/Bo % (t he mean absorbance value of each standard divided by the mean absorbance of the Zero stan dard for each standard). Total microcystin concentrations were reported in g/L. The se nsitivity for microcystin detection is 0.1 g/L. Samples with microcystin concentrations higher th an 5 g/L (highest provided standard) were diluted with distilled water to remain within the range of the standard cu rve. All standards and lake water samples were run in duplicate. If the measured microcystin concentrations between the two lake subsamples (duplicates) were extrem ely divergent, a third sa mple was analyzed (17 total samples) to determine which of the dupli cate analyses were most likely correct. Microcystin Preparation and Storage To determ ine if freezing and storage of water samples in glass versus plastic containers affects microcystin concentrati ons, six acid-washed, triple-rinsed 60-mL polypropylene, Nalgene bottles and six glass 60-mL vials were fill ed with 25 mL of a cultured strain of Microcystin aeruginosa (PCC 7806). This strain was grown in BG-11 medium according to the method of Stanier et al. (1971) and the cult ured strain was diluted by half with deionized water (personal communication Yilmaz 2006). A fresh microcystin sample was run immediately to determine the initial microcystin concentr ation of the culture. The su bsamples of the culture were transferred into the six plastic and six glass cont ainers and frozen (-15 C). Once a month for a

PAGE 18

18 six month period, one 60-mL plastic bottle and one 60-mL glass vial container were thawed and the contents analyzed for microcystin. Micr ocystin analysis preparation and concentration determination proceeded as described previously. Dilutions were performed to stay within the range of the standard curve of the ELISA kit. To further examine the effect of freezing on microcystin concentrations, the above procedure wa s completed for five different lake samples, with the exception that only pl astic containers were used. Statistical Analyses Standard s tatistical analyses (ie., summ ary statistics, linear regression analysis, correlations, ANOVAs) were perf ormed using MS Excel 2007 (M icrosoft) and JMP 5.0.1. (SAS Institute 1989). Statements of statistical significance imply p 0.05

PAGE 19

19 Figure 2-1. The 187 Florida la kes sampled for microcystin during January-December 2006.

PAGE 20

20 Figure 2-2. Harris Chain of Lake s located in Lake County, Florid a. Lakes: Beauclaire, Dora (East and West), Eustis, Harris, and Gr iffin were sampled during September 2006August 2007.

PAGE 21

21 CHAPTER 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Mean m icrocystin concentrations (g/L) for each of the 187 lakes ranged from nondetectable to 12 g/L. For this sample of Fl orida lakes, 29 % had detectable microcystin ( 0.1 g/L) and 7 % of the lakes had concentrations above the World Hea lth Organization (WHO) drinking water standard of 1 g/L. None of th e study lakes had mean micr ocystin concentrations above the WHO recreational standard of 20 g/L. Si milar microcystin values have been recorded from lakes located outside of Florida during ot her lake surveys (Table 3-1). Compared to the WHO standards, a few of the world-wide reported microcystin concentrations exceeded levels that would be of concern among lake recreational users (Table 31). A greater number of the reported microcystin concentrations, however exceeded levels that would be of concern if lakes are or were to be used for drinking water purposes. While detectable microcystins were found in a considerable number of Florida lakes, this study suggests that the occurrence of elevated microcystin s, especially compared to the other microcystin studies, is infrequent in most Florida lakes (Table 3-1). Elevated microcystin concentrations have been documented world-wide and these reported cases most likely capture intense bloom events that are producin g high levels of toxin (Sivonen and Jones 1999). In Florida, microcystin bloom events have exceeded concentrations of 100 g/L (Havens 2006) and have been as elevated as 7550 g/L (Williams et al. 2007). Generally, these intense bloom events, such as the above Florida bloom events, are linked to adverse health effects for animals and humans (Chorus and Bartram 1999). It is important, however, to remember that an uncertainty factor of 1000 is associated with the WHO microcystin standards. The uncertainty factor accounts for the differences between interand intraspeices sensitivities to a ch emical substance, standard defau lt uncertainty factors, and other

PAGE 22

22 factors such as inadequacies in the database or severity of effects of the toxin. These recommended guideline values are based on a numb er of assumptions, include laboratory results from rat/ mice/ pig studies, and ar e suggested, not mandatory limits. Therefore, caution must be exercised when evaluating the extent of possible adverse effects that may be associated with a particular level of microcystin toxi n in lake water. An analysis of variance analysis of the 862 individual water samples collected from the 187 lakes that had detectable micr ocystin, demonstrated that con centrations were significantly different among bi-monthly categories with January, February, Ma rch, and April being statistically lower than September, October, November, and December, while May, June, July, and August showed no difference (F value= 8.18, p-value < 0.0001; Tuke y-Kramer HSD). At any time during the year (2006), Florida lakes co ntained microcystin c oncentrations above 1.0 g/L. Starting in May or June, concentrations began to increase (Figure 3-1) with the highest levels being reached during the later months of the year (SeptemberDecember). It is not clear, based on existing research, what genetic and environm ental factors control toxin production of microcystin at any given time (Jacoby et al. 2000; Kotak et al. 2000; Giani et al. 2005; Sivonen and Jones 1999). However, seas onality consistently affects the amount of microcystins present. In temperate lakes, microcys tin concentrations have been shown to peak in May (Rolland et al. 2005), and have been attr ibuted to toxic blooms persisting underneath ice cover (Sivonen and Jones 1999). More common ly, microcystins in temperate lakes display increases beginning in May or June and peak during September-October (Rolland et al. 2005; Lehman 2007; Oh et al. 2001; Jacoby and Ka nn 2007; Kotak and Zurawell 2007). These peaks in microcystins most likely coincide with hi gh water temperatures be cause the growth of Micocystis aeruginosa is enhanced as temperature reach 25 C (Robarts and Zohary 1987) and

PAGE 23

23 have been suggested to peak in growth rate s around 28 C (Reynolds 1 997). Cyanobacterial cell growth proliferates at high temperatures and micr ocystin production is suggested to increase with intensity of sunlight (J iang et al. 2008). In temperate lakes, high water temperature and intense light occur only during few months of the year. In subtropical lakes, th ese conditions occur most months of the year. In subtr opical lakes, blooms start earlier in the season and persist longer (Siovenen and Jones 1999). This survey of 187 Florida lakes indicates that microcystin concentrations increase starting in May or June with high levels persisting throughout the year. The highest microcystin concentrations, however were found in the later part of the year, corresponding to higher wate r temperatures. Individual water samples collect ed in the 187 lakes address, in part, the issue of capturing intense blooms that occur duri ng the studied months. A total of 862 individual water samples was analyzed for microcystin co ncentration and concen trations ranged from non-detectable to 32 g/L, with a mean of 0.4 g/L. Of these wate r samples, 28 % contained detectable microcystin ( 0.1 g/L) and 7% were above th e WHO drinking water standard of 1 g/L. These results are comparable to those obtained by averaging microc ystin concentrations by lake. However, three water samples contained microc ystin concentrations that we re above the WHO recreational standard of 20 g/L. The Florida lakes were grouped into WHO standard categories based on the highest microcystin concentr ation experienced with in the lake throughout the sampling year (2006). Only two central Florida lakes (Figure 3-2) experienced microcystin values above 20 g/L, Lake Jesup (Seminole County) and Lake Hunter (Polk County). These results again support the finding that the frequency of elevated microcystin concentrations is low in Florida lakes for 2006. This study also suggests that fu ture microcystin monitoring efforts by resource managers probably should focus on individual lakes that consistently have detectable

PAGE 24

24 microcystin concentrations and microcystin c oncentrations exceeding le vels of concern for drinking water or recreation lake users, such as Lake Jesup or Lake Hunt er in Florida. The chlorophyll concentrations, that corres ponded to the 862 individual water samples, were converted to cyanobacteria total biom ass (mg/L) using a Florida-specific equation developed by Canfield et al. (1985). Canfield et al. (1989) suggested that cyanobacteria consistently dominant in Florida lakes when tota l algal biomass exceeds 100 mg/L. Duarte et al. (1992) demonstrated that as to tal cyanobacterial biomass increas es, the percent contribution of cyanobacteria to the phytoplankton community in creases, reaching levels of 100 % dominance at a total phytoplankton biomass of 100 mg/L (F igure 3-3). This 187 Florida lake study demonstrated that as total cyanobacterial bioma ss increased, microcystin concentration increased significantly, and at a total biomass of 100 mg/L where Duarte et al. (1992) showed that cyanobacteria become 100 % dominant, microcystin values reached and surpassed concentrations of 1.0 g/L (Figure 3-4). A uniform weighted moving average was used as a robust measure to smooth the regression line. An increase in nutrients has long been know n to cause an increase in algal biomass (Deevey 1940), with Sakamoto (1966) providing so me of the first quantit ative evidence. Using total chlorophyll concentr ations as the indicator of trophic st ate and the classification system of Forsburg and Ryding (1980), the 187 lakes in this study were classi fied into trophic categories (i.e., oligotrophic to hypereutrophi c). Chlorophyll concentrations in the lakes ranged from 0.4 g/L to 172 g/L (Table 3-2). The same cl assification system was used for the 862 water samples with chlorophyll values ranging from 0.3 g/L to 280 g/L (Table 3-3). In both cases, as the trophic state increased, the percentage of detectable microcystin increased, with 50 % (lakes) and 43 % (water samples) increases between the eutrophi c and hypereutrophic categories

PAGE 25

25 (Table 3-4). The highest average microcystin co ncentrations were measured in lakes and water samples classified as hypereutrophic. Blue-green algae dominate eutrophic to hypereutrophic Florida lakes (Canfield et al. 1989 ); therefore, it is not surprising that lakes of higher trophic status yielded higher microc ystin concentrations. Kotak and Zurawell (2007) showed that frequency of occurrence of microcystin increased with trophic status as well. In Florid a, a shift in phytoplankt on occurs with increasing trophic state, with green algae dominating oli gotrophic waters, diatoms peaking in mesotrophic waters, and cyanobacteria dominating eutrophic waters (Duarte et al. 1992). Additionally, blooms with higher cell densities usually displa yed higher toxin content (Sedmack and Kosi 1998; Chorus and Bartram 1999). Therefore, an incr ease in nutrients causes in an increase in algal biomass, which seems to augment toxin pr oduction. Cyanobacteria have been shown to dominate in oligotrophic Florida lakes, usually at lower bioma sses (Canfield et al. 1989), and microcystin did occur in lakes of lower trophic st atus during this 187 Florida lake study. Despite the trend of increasing microcystin concentrations with increasing trophic state, on ly two of the lakes in this study produced wa ter samples with microcystin concentrations above the WHO recreational standard. Lake managers, lake users, and community members struggle w ith the conundrum of determining if and when microcystin concentratio ns pose a threat to animals and humans. Many attempts have been made to create indices for prediction of algal abundance or bloom frequencies using nutrient da ta (Heiskary and Walker 1988; Havens and Walker 2002; Bachmann et al. 2003). Consequently, tabl es relating chlorophyll and microcystin concentrations were constructed to assist lake managers and the public to predict the frequencies of microcystin concentrations in Florida lakes, from non-de tectable to detectable, to 1 g/L,

PAGE 26

26 and 20 g/L (Tables 3-5 and 3-6). The tabl es follow the annual and warm-season (JulyNovember) chlorophyll averages specific to Fl orida lakes (Bachmann et al. 2003). The warmseason chlorophyll averages include data collect ed during the months July-November, a period when chlorophyll concentrations are above the a nnual average for Florida lakes (Brown et al. 1998; Bachmann et al. 2003). Reviewing these tabl es suggests that the chance of encountering elevated microcystin concentrations increases with increasing chlorophyll concentrations. These tables may, therefore, prove useful for lake ma nagers and users to predict when a microcystin bloom event would be likely to occur (based on chlorophyll concentrations). Furthermore, these tables could be helpful in north-temperate lake s as nutrient-chlorophyll relationships are similar between Florida lakes and temperate lakes (B rown et al. 2000), and nutrient-chlorophyll relationships have been shown to be linked to microcystin concentrations in this study. In the six hypereutrophic Harris Chain lakes, mean microcystin concentrations (for samples collected at 0.5 m) ranged from 0.3 g/L to 1.8 g/L, with an average of 1 g/L (Table 3-7). With the lake acting as the experiment al unit, 216 individual microcystin samples were collected, with 57 % of the individual water sa mples containing detectable microcystin ( 0.1 g/L) and 40 % were above 1 g/L. No individual water samples had microcystin concentrations above 20 g/L. The highest microcystin concentrations were consistently seen at the beginning of the Harris Chain of Lakes (Lake Beauclaire, Lake Dora East and Lake Dora West). Lake Griffin (the last lake in the chain) c onsistently had higher mi crocystin concentrations than Lake Eustis and Lake Harris (Figure 3-5). Measured concentrations of TP, TN, and CHL followed the same pattern of microcystins, meani ng that high concentrations of TP, TN, and CHL corresponded to the higher microcystin con centrations seen among these lakes (F igure 3-6). Linear regressions of

PAGE 27

27 logarithmic nutrient and chlorophy ll relationships with logarith mic microcystin concentration were weak for TP (R = 0.18, p-value ) and CHL (R= 0.36, p-value < 0.001). The relationship between total nitrogen and microcystin was stronger (R= 0.46, p-value < 0.0001) as approximately 46 % of the variability in microcystin is explained by tota l nitrogen in the study lakes of the Harris Chain of Lakes. However, unexplained variability still remains suggesting that there are other factors influencing microcystin concentrations. Within the Harris Chain of Lakes, the highest microcystin concentration measured at an individual, open water station was 15 g/L. This water sample was collected at Lake Harris in a surface water sample. Another algal bloom was observed at the Lake Eustis boat ramp (not a normal sampling site) and the co llected water sample had a mi crocystin concentration of 117 g/L. Both water samples were collected in December of 2006. This is interesting because in these lakes, the microcystin concentrations be gan to increase around May and peaked during the period July-November. All lakes, however, had their lowest measured open-water microcystin concentrations in December (Figure 3-5). Lake Eustis fairly consistently had lower monthly microcystin concentrations compared to the other Harris Chain of Lakes. However, high microcystin concentrations can occur at any time and place within a Florida lake. The occurrence of these high microc ystin concentrations, illustrates the spatial and temporal variability in microcystin within a la ke and among lakes. Blooms can occur anywhere in the lake, and many times wind concentrates bloo ms on shorelines or in specific areas of the lake (Verhagen 1994, Falconer et al. 1999). For instance, Lake Harri s consistently had microcystin concentrations below 1 g/L, but th e highest microcystin concentration measured during the sampling period was captu red at one of the three sampli ng stations, in December (the other two stations had negligible microc ystin concentrations) (Figure 3-5).

PAGE 28

28 Instances such as these, where blooms w ith elevated microcystins are sporadically present both within and among lakes, makes samp ling and capturing bloom events very difficult. To characterize the sampling year (normal, lo w, or high) in compar ison to other years, logarithmic transformed chlo rophyll and total phosphorous c oncentrations for 2006 where compared to the historical concentrations (2000-2005) for the 187 Florida lakes using LAKEWATCH data. The mean chlorophyll and total phosphorus concentrations for 2006 did not significantly differ from the mean chlorophy ll and total phosphorus concentrations for 20002005 for the 187 lakes (CHLANOVA: F= 0.1, p-va lue= 0.8 and TPANOVA: F= 0.5, p-value= 0.5). Furthermore, 99 of the 187 studied lakes we re sampled consistently each year (2000-2006). No significant difference was seen between the mean chlorophy ll and total phosphorus concentrations for 2006 compared to the years 2000-2005 (CHLANOVA: F= 0.04, p-value= 0.85 and TPANOVA: F= 0.21, p-value= 0.65) for thes e 99 lakes. These results suggest that 2006 is characterized as a normal year in regard to chlorophy ll and total phosphorus; therefore, there is an increased probability that this study reflect s the typical occurrenc es in these Florida lakes. Measured microcystin concentrations showed no change in concentration of increasing or decreasing over a six-month freezing period for both a cultured M icrocystis aeruginosa strain (PCC 7806) and five lake water samples from different lakes (Figure 3-7). Freezing water samples has shown to have no effect on TP, TN, CHL concentrations or color for freshwater samples frozen up to 150 days (Canfield et al 2002). Frozen microcystin samples, however, display high variability among months, with a coefficient of vari ation of 58 % for the cultured microcystin strain and a coefficient of variation ranging from 20 % to 40 % for the five lakes. A coefficient of variation < 15 % is expected for ELISA kits (Abraxis LLC.). The additional

PAGE 29

29 variation is most likely attri buted to error associated among the ELISA kits. Comparing the measured microcystin concentratio ns of the standards for the 50 ELISA kits run during this study to the manufacturer microcystin concentration for each standard illustrates that slight discrepancies exist among ELISA kits with the higher concentrations yi elding bigger disparities (Table 3-8). Slight differences are expected. For example, the concentration of the positive control (one of the included standards) should be in a range of +/25 % (Abraxis LLC., Warminster, USA). It has been suggested that plastics absorb microcystin and affect overall microcystin concentration determination (C odd and Bell 1996). The use of polypropylene containers was found to lower microcystin concentrations by appr oximately 0.3 g/L when compared to glass (Metcalf et al. 2000). Microcystin concentrations have also suggested to decrease 1.5 g/L for each disposable pipette tip used in toxin prepar ation and analysis (Hyenstrand et al. 2001). Conversely, using plastics has b een shown to produce reliable resu lts (Harada et al. 1999). In this study, plastic polypropylene and glass co ntainers were found to have no effect on microcystin concentrations for the cultured Microycstis aeruginosa strain (PCC 7806) over a 6 month period (Figure 3-8). The amount of microcystin being aff ected by using plastic over glass seems slight, especially when the study objective is to screen and monitor water bodies for concentrations above the WHO dri nking water (1 g/L) and recreati onal (20 g/L) standards. If a studys objective focused on detection and moni toring of small amounts of microcystin, such as in a water treatment plant, the suggested decr ease in microcystin using plastic items might be an issue of concern. Differences in sampling techniques ca n magnify measurement differences (e.g., cyanobacterial biomass or microcystin concentrati on), leading to significantly divergent results

PAGE 30

30 (Ahn et al. 2008; Chorus and Bartram 1999). Three sampling depths and techniques were used in the Harris Chain of Lakes study (surface, 0.5 m, and integrated samples). Mean microcystin concentrations for all sampling methods combined ranged from non-detectable to 15 g/L, with a grand average of 1 g/L. The surface wa ter samples had microcystins ranging from nondetectable to 15 g/L with a mean of 1.1 g/L, the 0.5 m water samples ranged from 0.3 g/L to 1.8 g/L, with an average of 1 g/L, and the in tegrated samples had microcystins ranging from non-detectable to 3.6 g/L with a mean of 1.1 g /L. No significant difference in microcystin concentrations was found among the three different sampling depths and techniques used for these six lakes (ANOVA: F= 0.49, p-value = 0.82). Brown et al. (1999) had similar results with no significant difference measur ed among estimates of TP, TN, and CHL for water samples collected at 1m, 2m, and an with integrated sampler. All of the sampling locations used in this study were at open-water sites. These differe nt sampling techniques addressed the possible differences that might be seen in microcysti n concentrations due to lake hydrological and edaphic features (Codd et al. 1999) or cyanobacterial migration throughout the water column (Hedger et al. 2004).

PAGE 31

31 Table 3-1. Microcystin concentrations (g/L) in surface waters (< 1.0 m) Source N samples N lakes Location Duration of study Detection Limit Range Highest value* Johnston and Jacoby (2003) 1 Washington, USA May-Oct. 1999 0.16 1.5 3.1 43 Wu et al. (2006) 30 30 Yangtze River, China 2003-2004 (Jul.Sep.) ND1.8 8.6 Wood et al. (2006) 102 54 New Zealand 2001-2004 0.02 ND36500 36500 Park et al. (1998) 30 12 Korea 1993-1995 0.6171 856 Haddix et al. (2007) 206 33 US** Summer 2003 0.15 5.6 5.6 Williams et al. (2007) 72 6 Florida, USA 2003-2004 0.15 0.1-3.6 7500 LAKEWATCH study 862 187 Florida, USA 2006 0.1 ND34 34 Harris Chain of Lakes study 216 6 Florida, USA 2006-2007 0.1 ND15 117 *Highest value corresponds to the highest microcystin concentration measured from wa ter samples collected during regular sampli ng or observed while completing sampling. **Includes lakes and reservoirs

PAGE 32

32 Table 3-2. Summary statistics fo r nutrients, chlorophyll, and micr ocystin concentrations (g/L) for 187 Florida lakes sampled from January-December 2006. N Lakes Mean Min Max Total Phosphorus 187 42 2.7 283 Total Nitrogen 187 1052 74 3450 Chlorophyll 187 25 0.42 172 Microcystin Concentration 187 0.4 ND* 12 *ND represents non-detectable microcystin concentration Table 3-3. Summary statistics fo r nutrient, chlorophyll, and microcystin concentrations (g/L) for 862 individual water samples collected from 187 Florida lakes sampled during January-December 2006. N samples Mean Min Max Total Phosphorus 860 44 2 427 Total Nitrogen 860 1043 33 5717 Chlorophyll 856 25 0.3 280 Microcystin Concentration 862 0.4 ND* 32 *ND represents non-detectable microcystin concentration Table 3-4. Percent by trophic st ate category (based on chlorophy ll concentrations), in which microcystins were detected for 187 Florid a lakes and 862 individual water samples from the 187 Florida lakes during January-December 2006. Trophic State* N Lakes % Detectable Microcystin N Samples % Detectable Microcystin Oligotrophic 24 12 102 18 Mesotrophic 48 14 221 17 Eutrophic 80 35 378 33 Hypereutrophic 35 86 161 76 Trophic states categorized by ch lorophyll concentrati ons as indicated by Forsburg and Ryding (1980).

PAGE 33

33 Table 3-5. Estimated percent of the time that mi crocystin will exceed the listed concentrations when chlorophyll concentrations (g/L) ex ceed listed annual values. Microcystin concentrations are from 862 water samples collected from 187 Florida lakes from January-December 2006. Microcystin Concentration (g/L) Annual average CHL ND* 0.1 1 20 2 13 10 0 0 5 42 22 0 0 10 68 34 2 0 15 79 40 7 0 20 84 46 10 0 25 88 51 14 0 30 90 56 19 0 35 92 59 24 0 40 94 66 27 0 45 95 71 30 0 50 96 75 32 0 55 96 77 36 0 60 97 80 36 0 65 97 84 41 0 70 98 84 49 0 75 98 85 56 0 80 98 87 57 0 85 98 87 61 0 90 98 87 63 0 96 98 89 63 0 109 98 94 66 0 120 99 94 71 0 125 100 95 76 0 144 100 97 80 0 196 100 99 88 0 265 100 99 100 100 *ND represents non-detectable microcystin concentration

PAGE 34

34 Table 3-6. Estimated percent of the time that mi crocystin will exceed the listed concentrations when chlorophyll concentrations (g/L) ex ceed listed warm season (July-November) concentrations. Microcystin concentrati ons are from 862 water samples collected from 187 Florida lakes from January-December 2006. Microcystin Concentration (g/L) Warm Season CHL ND* 0.1 1 20 2 10 2 0 0 5 34 14 0 0 10 63 22 3 0 15 76 30 3 0 20 81 36 6 0 25 86 41 11 0 30 89 47 17 0 35 89 54 19 0 40 93 62 25 0 50 96 72 33 0 60 96 80 33 0 70 97 88 47 0 80 97 88 50 0 90 97 89 58 0 100 98 94 58 0 117 99 99 67 0 138 100 100 78 0 178 100 100 89 0 252 100 100 100 100 *ND represents non-detectable microcystin concentration

PAGE 35

35 Table 3-7. Summary statistics fo r nutrient, chlorophyll, and microcystin concentrations (g/L) sampled from September 2006-August 2007 for six Harris Chain of Lakes located in Lake County, Florida. N Lakes Mean Min Max Total Phosphorus 6 57 39 94 Total Nitrogen 6 3111 2006 4107 Chlorophyll 6 126 73 190 Microcystin Concentration 6 0.99 0.34 1.8 Table 3-8. The manufacturers microcystin concentration, for each standard provided in the ELISA kit is designated as standard. The minimum, median, and maximum represent the microcystin concentration (g/L) measur ed for the standards for 50 ELISA kits. Standard Minimum Median Maximum 0 0 0 0.08 0.15 0.2 0.1 0.9 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.75 0.5 0.8 1.1 1 0.5 1.2 1.8 2 1.6 2.2 2.7 5 2.8 4.27 5.2

PAGE 36

36 Microcystin (g/L) 0.1 1 10 Jan/ Feb Mar/ Apr May/ Jun Jul/ Aug Sep/ Oct Nov/ Dec Figure 3-1. The 95 % confidence intervals for the microcystin concentrations measured from the 862 water samples collected bi-monthly from January-December 2006 for 187 Florida lakes. Water samples (560 out of 863), that contained no detectable microcystin (< 0.1 g/L), were not included.

PAGE 37

37 A B C Figure 3-2. The 187 lakes split into categories: A represents lakes exhibiting microcystin concentrations less than 1.0 g/L, B concentrations 1.0 g/L, and C 20 g/L. The lakes were grouped into WHO standard categories based on the highest microcystin concentration experienced within the lake throughout sampling.

PAGE 38

38 Figure 3-3. Relationship between total algal biomass (mg/L) in Florida lakes and percent biomass contribution from cyanobacter ia (Duarte et al 1992).

PAGE 39

39 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10Microcystin (g/L) .01 .1 1 10 100 1000 Total biomass (mg/L) Figure 3-4. Microcystin concentr ations compared to total algal biomass (mg/L) for 862 water samples from 187 Florida lakes collected from January-December 2006. Total algal biomass values were calculated from ch lorophyll concentrations using an equation specific to Florida (Can field et al. 1985).

PAGE 40

40 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 123456789101112Microcystin Concentration g/LMonth Beauclarie Dora East Dora West Eustis Harris Griffin Figure 3-5. Monthly microcystin concentrations (g/L) for six hypereutrophic Harris Chain of Lakes located in Lake County, Florida samp led during September 2006-August 2007.

PAGE 41

41 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 123456789101112Total Phosphorus (g/L)Month Beauclaire Dora East Dora West Eustis Harris Griffin 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 123456789101112Total Nitrogen (g/L)Month Beauclaire Dora East Dora West Eustis Harris Griffin 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 123456789101112Chlorophyll (g/L)Month Beauclaire Dora East Dora West Eustis Harris Griffin Figure 3-6. Monthly mean nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations (g/L) for each of the six Harris Chain of Lakes located in Lake County, Florida sampled from September 2006-August 2007.

PAGE 42

42 Figure 3-7. Effects of freezing and thawing on measurements of monthly microcystin concentrations (g/L) for a cultured Microcystis aeruginosa strain (PCC 7806) and five lakes. Month 0 represents the fresh sample and acts as the standard for monthly comparison of microcystin concentrations.

PAGE 43

43 1 10 100 1000 10000 0123456Microcystin (g/L) Month Figure 3-8. Monthly microcystin con centrations (g/L) of a cultured Microcystis aeruginosa strain (PCC 7806) in glass versus plastic ( polypropylene) containe rs among months. Month 0 represents the fresh sample and act s as the standard for monthly comparison of microcystin concentrations.

PAGE 44

44 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS In 187 Florida lakes, m icrocystin concentratio ns were at detectab le limits 29 % of the time and 8 % of lakes were above the drinking wate r standard of 1 g/L. No lakes exceeded the recreational standard of 20 g/L during 2006. At all times during the year, some microcystin concentrations were found above 1 g/L, but concentrations significantly increased throughout the year, with the highest concentrations o ccurring during September-December. Individual water samples (862 samples), gave similar result s to the mean microcystin concentrations by lake, with 28 % of the individual water sa mples containing detectable microcystin ( 0.1 g/L) and 7 % above the World Health Organization (WHO ) drinking water standard of 1 g/L. Only three individual samples were above the WHO recr eational standard of 20 g /L. Therefore, if lakes were to be used for drinking water, con cerns could arise and a dditional monitoring would be suggested. As total cyanobacterial biomass and domina nce increased, microcystin concentrations were found to increase with values of 1 g/L and greater being measured cyanobacterial became 100 % dominant in the phytoplankton community at a total biomass of 100 mg/L. An increase in microcystin concentrations was also associated with an increase in nutrients and chlorophyll concentrations. Eutrophic to hypereutrophic lakes generally had higher microcystin concentrations, but there still is a potential for micr ocystin to occur in lakes of any trophic state. Within hypereutrophic lakes, micr ocystin concentrations were f ound to be consistently around or above 1 g/L, but concentrations rarely exceeded 20 g/L. Microcystin and nutrient relationships were weakly correlated, suggesti ng that other environmen tal and cellular factors may also be influencing microcys tin concentrations in Florida la kes. However, the relationship between total nitrogen an d microcystin may be strong in some of the examined lakes.

PAGE 45

45 Despite the earlier cautionary evidence re garding sampling methods, preparation, the slight differences that may be seen in microcystin concentrations are minor when considering the objectives for this study and othe r future survey or monitoring studies. Currently, there are no mandatory or accepted protocols for sampling, prep aration, or analyses for microcystin (Chorus and Bartram 1999). However, given the uncertainty factor associated w ith the WHO standards, survey and monitoring studies, using available te chnologies, should work adequately to monitor microcystin concentrations in lakes. Due to financial, personnel, and time c onstraints, the well-established Florida LAKEWATCH volunteer program was utilized to collect water samples from the 187 Florida lakes. The Florida LAKWATCH program is a re liable program and produc es results equivalent to professionals (Canfield et al. 2002). Howe ver, many people criticize using a volunteer program because of concepts such as using frozen water or not implementing an agency certified QA&QC protocol. No comprehensive study exists for microcystin in Florida lakes and working with LAKEWATCH volunteers permitted an opportunity for a large, study evaluating microcystins to be completed. It was suggest the methodologies used might not capture shortduration intense blooms. To address this i ssue, LAKEWATCH volunteers were notified of the project and, if intense blooms or blooms of concern were observed, they were asked to collect a sample and send it for microcystin analysis. No such samples were received from the 187 study sampled lakes in 2006. There is a possibility that high microcystin concentrations occur in Florida lakes, especially in eutrophic and hypereutrophic lakes. Microcysti ns were found more frequently in lakes of higher trophic status and increase in frequency of det ection with increasing chlorophyll

PAGE 46

46 concentration. The probability that an elevated ( 20 g/L) microcystin concentration will occur in a Florida lake, however, seems to be slim. Some Florida lakes, of course, do experience frequent bloom s of blue-green algae under the right conditions. If a lake has consistently high microcystin concentrations or is used for purposes that require careful atte ntion, such as drinking water, then lake monitoring efforts by professionals would be well warranted. Many lake users and community members, however, are interested in monitoring lakes from a human health perspective, but especially to placate their fear of toxic algae. A new method for determining microcystin concentrations in water, a microcystin test strip, became available in 2007 and offers the public the ability to monitor water bodies independently (Abraxis LLC., Warminster, US A). This microcystin test strip allows easy testing of water and reliably de tects microcystin concentrations greater than 1 g/L or greater than 10 g/L (an overly safe estimate for recreati onal use for waters according to Abraxis LLC.). Such an option allows lake users to routinely mo nitor and to measure microcystins in the water when algal blooms of concern appear in their la kes. This would allow people to use their own discretion as to whether the wate rs are safe to drink or use for recreation. The cyanobacterial toxin microcystin does not s eem to pose the greatest threat to Florida lakes at least during 2006. This statement is a bold statement. However, microcystins represent an poignant issue for a variety of stakeholders (e.g., scientists community members, medical professionals, and lake managers and users). Sc ientists strive to present factual, non-bias information to identify and manage lake problems to get policy evaluation and persuade decision makers to implement policies (Bartram et al. 1999). But, often scientific information is just one element in complex political de liberations (Lackey 2006). As ne gative images persuade people more effectively than positive ones (Lackey 200 6), no assessment will support the science if it

PAGE 47

47 fails to address the perceptions and priorities of the society concerned. In the case of microcystins, many people focus on the possible adverse effects of microcystins. Yet, much ambiguity still exists in understand ing the mechanisms, triggers, and adverse effects (uncertainty factors) of microcystins (Chorus and Bart ram 1999). Getting the public and concerned stakeholders involved is an inte gral step to begin br eaking down the axioms of ecological policy that, at times, inhibit the decision making process (Lackey 2006). This study was limited to sampling during 2006. As the axiom number six suggests more calls for additional research would be made (Lacky 2006). Additional research would be beneficial because changes in cyanobact erial abundance depend on the morphology, hydrology, meterology, and geography of a waterbody (Codd et al 1999), and future years will most likely yield varying microcystin concentrations a nd bloom events. Continued monitoring of microcystin in Florida lakes could address both th e calls for additional research and concerns of the public. The already established LAKEWATCH program in conjunction with the microcystin test strips, offers a cost-efficient method that involv es the scientists and community in long-term monitoring of microcys tin concentrations in Florida la kes. In addition to long-term monitoring, volunteers could sample lakes w eekly and during observed bloom events. Microcystin data from these fre quent monitoring efforts could be entered into an on-line data base and or a website to provide an early warning system to lake users. If the early warning system were available through the University of Florida also, it would allow this real-time data to act as both a research and extension t ool. Creating an ALGAE WATCH program would greatly benefit and enhance the un iversitys research, extension agents, and teaching as well as contribute to an understanding of mi crocystins in Florida lakes.

PAGE 48

48 APPENDIX A MICROCYSTIN, NUTRIENT, AND CHLOROPHYLL DATA

PAGE 49

49Table A-1. Microcystin, nutrient, and chlorophyll data for 187 Florida lakes County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Alachua Alto 2006 1 4 0.08 11.00 773.33 7.67 Alachua Alto 2006 3 6 0.06 19.00 653.33 8.67 Alachua Alto 2006 5 4 0.00 18.00 806.67 8.00 Alachua Alto 2006 7 5 0.04 22.33 820.00 19.67 Alachua Alto 2006 9 6 0.04 24.00 873.33 28.00 Alachua Alto 2006 11 8 0.03 15.00 666.67 6.00 Alachua Bivans Arm 2006 1 17 0.06 194.67 3390.00 197.67 Alachua Bivans Arm 2006 3 19 0.09 253.00 2446.67 116.00 Alachua Bivans Arm 2006 5 18 0.11 342.33 4313.33 280.00 Alachua Bivans Arm 2006 8 21 0.10 179.67 2600.00 98.67 Alachua Bivans Arm 2006 9 23 0.08 206.33 2690.00 107.67 Alachua Bivans Arm 2006 11 30 0.07 223.67 2836.67 111.33 Alachua Little Orange 2006 1 22 0.06 143.67 996.67 4.00 Alachua Little Orange 2006 3 18 0.07 127.33 1020.00 4.33 Alachua Little Orange 2006 5 21 0.00 132.33 1030.00 7.33 Alachua Little Orange 2006 7 30 0.06 131.33 910.00 9.00 Alachua Little Orange 2006 9 17 0.04 111.67 906.67 10.33 Alachua Little Santa Fe 2006 2 28 0.11 20.33 920.00 2.00 Alachua Little Santa Fe 2006 4 26 0.03 14.67 753.33 4.00 Alachua Little Santa Fe 2006 5 23 0.03 16.33 793.33 11.00 Alachua Little Santa Fe 2006 7 24 0.03 20.00 686.67 15.33 Alachua Little Santa Fe 2006 9 20 0.06 13.33 616.67 10.33 Alachua Little Santa Fe 2006 12 10 0.07 14.67 606.67 6.00 Alachua Lochloosa 2006 1 24 0.10 87.25 1317.50 17.00 Alachua Lochloosa 2006 3 20 0.29 117.75 1270.00 22.25 Alachua Lochloosa 2006 5 18 1.63 148.50 1422.50 26.25 Alachua Lochloosa 2006 6 27 0.41 149.75 1307.50 62.50 Alachua Lochloosa 2006 7 26 0.06 149.00 957.50 26.25 Alachua Lochloosa 2006 9 27 0.20 92.75 1382.50 54.25

PAGE 50

50Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Alachua Melrose Bay 2006 2 28 0.07 16.67 693.33 8.67 Alachua Melrose Bay 2006 4 26 0.07 19.00 686.67 4.67 Alachua Melrose Bay 2006 5 23 0.06 17.00 690.00 11.00 Alachua Melrose Bay 2006 7 24 0.06 16.67 610.00 18.00 Alachua Melrose Bay 2006 9 20 0.04 13.67 603.33 12.67 Alachua Melrose Bay 2006 12 10 0.06 12.67 560.00 6.33 Alachua Mize 2006 3 14 0.03 19.33 643.33 6.33 Alachua Mize 2006 8 16 0.03 10.00 396.67 4.00 Alachua Newnan 2006 1 31 0.23 98.00 1556.67 46.33 Alachua Newnan 2006 4 14 1.66 158.00 2506.67 153.00 Alachua Newnan 2006 6 22 0.10 114.33 1786.67 37.33 Alachua Newnan 2006 7 15 0.41 151.00 2146.67 89.67 Alachua Newnan 2006 9 19 0.51 154.00 2540.00 97.00 Alachua Newnan 2006 11 27 1.98 230.33 4110.00 190.67 Alachua Orange 2006 1 24 0.16 159.75 1632.50 17.25 Alachua Orange 2006 3 20 0.11 199.50 1520.00 22.25 Alachua Orange 2006 5 18 0.24 209.25 1772.50 16.75 Alachua Orange 2006 6 27 0.34 206.50 1612.50 36.50 Alachua Orange 2006 7 26 0.98 153.75 1410.00 30.75 Alachua Orange 2006 9 27 2.39 94.75 1910.00 68.25 Alachua Orange 2006 11 28 0.45 54.75 1507.50 26.00 Alachua Santa Fe 2006 4 26 0.09 15.33 660.00 6.00 Alachua Santa Fe 2006 5 23 0.02 15.00 660.00 9.33 Alachua Santa Fe 2006 7 24 0.04 14.67 626.67 9.67 Alachua Santa Fe 2006 9 20 0.04 13.67 613.33 10.33 Alachua Santa Fe 2006 12 10 0.03 12.33 570.00 5.00 Alachua Wauberg 2006 5 26 4.53 238.00 3180.00 229.67 Alachua Wauberg 2006 10 25 3.42 141.00 2846.67 161.33 Alachua Wauberg 2006 12 27 3.13 169.33 3036.67 123.67

PAGE 51

51Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Bradford Sampson 2006 2 25 0.11 36.00 903.33 13.33 Bradford Sampson 2006 3 28 0.04 41.00 940.00 7.33 Bradford Sampson 2006 5 21 0.01 40.33 883.33 6.67 Bradford Sampson 2006 7 29 0.05 25.00 706.67 9.00 Bradford Sampson 2006 9 24 0.03 20.00 680.00 7.00 Bradford Sampson 2006 11 28 0.05 19.00 533.33 3.00 Broward Cliff 2006 6 1 0.03 22.67 610.00 6.00 Broward Cliff 2006 7 1 0.03 42.00 796.67 37.00 Broward Cliff 2006 9 1 0.05 37.33 873.33 11.67 Broward Cliff 2006 11 6 0.05 29.67 760.00 2.67 Broward Delevoe 2006 7 12 0.03 17.67 553.33 6.33 Broward Helen 2006 5 31 0.02 15.50 525.00 6.00 Broward Helen 2006 8 31 0.02 22.50 575.00 6.50 Broward Markham 2006 7 23 0.07 6.33 1210.00 8.33 Broward North 2006 5 31 0.04 25.50 630.00 10.00 Broward North 2006 8 31 0.02 20.00 600.00 8.00 Broward Royal Palm 2006 7 30 0.03 10.00 966.67 7.33 Broward Windermere 2006 5 28 0.03 5.67 303.33 1.33 Citrus Floral City 2006 1 14 0.06 20.00 920.00 10.33 Citrus Floral City 2006 4 14 0.12 25.67 926.67 10.00 Citrus Floral City 2006 6 14 0.11 29.67 1040.00 18.00 Citrus Floral City 2006 7 14 0.06 26.00 906.67 13.67 Citrus Fort Cooper 2006 2 23 0.07 7.33 576.67 1.00 Citrus Fort Cooper 2006 4 20 0.05 7.33 686.67 1.33 Citrus Fort Cooper 2006 6 19 0.06 8.33 660.00 1.67 Citrus Fort Cooper 2006 7 24 0.08 7.67 733.33 2.00 Citrus Fort Cooper 2006 10 20 0.05 5.67 766.67 3.67 Citrus Fort Cooper 2006 11 28 0.06 4.67 713.33 1.33 Citrus Henderson 2006 1 4 0.13 14.00 683.33 6.00

PAGE 52

52Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Citrus Henderson 2006 3 28 0.12 16.67 646.67 4.00 Citrus Henderson 2006 5 19 0.15 19.00 916.67 11.33 Citrus Henderson 2006 7 19 0.07 17.33 880.00 14.67 Citrus Henderson 2006 10 27 0.05 24.50 740.00 13.33 Citrus Henderson 2006 11 13 0.05 20.67 736.67 10.33 Citrus Small 2006 2 23 0.17 26.50 980.00 2.00 Citrus Small 2006 7 22 0.06 31.00 1215.00 15.00 Citrus Tsala Apopka 2006 1 3 0.09 10.67 803.33 4.33 Citrus Tsala Apopka 2006 4 4 0.10 19.67 930.00 6.33 Citrus Tsala Apopka 2006 5 4 0.01 17.33 950.00 5.33 Citrus Tsala Apopka 2006 7 6 0.04 20.33 1006.67 11.00 Citrus Tsala Apopka 2006 9 9 0.05 21.33 1020.00 21.00 Citrus Tsala Apopka 2006 12 3 0.09 16.00 1033.33 4.67 Clay Brooklyn 2006 1 12 0.06 10.50 220.00 2.00 Clay Brooklyn 2006 5 5 0.02 9.33 236.67 1.33 Clay Brooklyn 2006 7 7 0.05 8.50 340.00 4.00 Clay Brooklyn 2006 9 8 0.05 10.50 250.00 3.50 Clay Brooklyn 2006 11 10 0.06 18.00 320.00 5.00 Clay Hall 2006 2 22 0.10 5.33 343.33 1.33 Clay Hall 2006 3 29 0.02 9.67 343.33 1.00 Clay Hall 2006 5 1 0.01 13.67 493.33 3.00 Clay Hutchinson 2006 1 1 0.04 10.00 186.67 2.33 Clay Hutchinson 2006 3 2 0.05 10.33 210.00 2.00 Clay Hutchinson 2006 6 4 0.05 9.00 310.00 15.33 Clay Hutchinson 2006 11 11 0.07 11.00 253.33 2.00 Clay Twin 2006 1 24 0.06 7.33 333.33 1.67 Clay Twin 2006 3 24 0.13 7.33 346.67 2.00 Clay Twin 2006 5 21 0.03 9.33 403.33 Columbia Jeffery 2006 1 30 0.10 15.67 660.00 5.67

PAGE 53

53Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Columbia Jeffery 2006 5 20 0.06 16.67 620.00 11.33 Columbia Jeffery 2006 7 8 0.03 16.67 623.33 8.33 Columbia Jeffery 2006 9 17 0.05 17.00 773.33 15.67 Columbia Jeffery 2006 11 30 0.05 16.33 750.00 8.67 Duval Willow 2006 10 1 0.15 40.00 2186.67 108.33 Escambia Stone 2006 2 6 0.07 36.33 563.33 16.67 Escambia Stone 2006 4 4 0.06 25.00 860.00 32.67 Escambia Stone 2006 6 1 0.11 25.00 573.33 13.67 Escambia Stone 2006 7 6 0.07 38.33 1130.00 38.33 Escambia Stone 2006 9 7 0.15 45.33 776.67 61.00 Escambia Stone 2006 12 1 0.18 54.00 1563.33 163.33 Flagler Disston 2006 1 4 0.11 32.33 1156.67 1.00 Flagler Disston 2006 4 6 0.01 32.67 786.67 7.00 Flagler Disston 2006 6 6 0.01 31.67 1043.33 8.00 Flagler Disston 2006 7 7 0.04 29.67 1383.33 3.00 Flagler Disston 2006 9 4 0.05 32.67 980.00 7.33 Flagler Disston 2006 11 5 0.02 30.67 1060.00 4.00 Flagler Pine Grove 2006 1 20 0.07 65.00 1030.00 12.33 Flagler Pine Grove 2006 3 16 0.05 100.33 1060.00 9.67 Flagler Pine Grove 2006 5 17 0.03 142.00 946.67 3.67 Flagler Pine Grove 2006 7 12 0.07 193.00 986.67 12.67 Flagler Pine Grove 2006 9 14 0.07 344.00 1253.33 8.00 Flagler Pine Grove 2006 11 15 0.08 132.33 1006.67 5.00 Flagler Ribbon North 2006 1 31 0.09 22.67 743.33 9.67 Flagler Ribbon North 2006 3 31 0.18 22.00 720.00 6.00 Flagler Ribbon North 2006 5 24 0.02 17.67 530.00 4.00 Flagler Ribbon North 2006 8 24 0.07 16.33 693.33 7.67 Flagler Ribbon North 2006 9 25 0.08 16.00 703.33 9.33 Flagler Ribbon North 2006 11 24 0.08 18.67 766.67 10.67

PAGE 54

54Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Flagler Wynnfield 2006 1 3 0.09 84.33 956.67 5.00 Flagler Wynnfield 2006 3 6 0.07 44.67 666.67 5.00 Flagler Wynnfield 2006 4 6 0.07 56.67 980.00 10.67 Flagler Wynnfield 2006 5 31 0.01 63.00 886.67 11.00 Flagler Wynnfield 2006 8 3 0.04 32.00 1043.33 8.33 Flagler Wynnfield 2006 9 5 0.06 29.33 530.00 11.00 Flagler Wynnfield 2006 11 27 0.06 21.67 576.67 2.67 Gadsden Tallavana 2006 4 15 0.05 147.80 1348.00 70.00 Gadsden Tallavana 2006 6 17 0.08 164.60 1566.00 105.20 Gadsden Tallavana 2006 7 15 0.04 163.20 1622.00 71.20 Gadsden Tallavana 2006 9 23 0.09 310.40 2040.00 160.20 Gadsden Tallavana 2006 12 16 0.07 105.00 1425.00 106.50 Gadsden Yvette 2006 1 17 0.03 64.33 673.33 50.33 Gadsden Yvette 2006 4 15 0.03 37.00 726.67 27.00 Gadsden Yvette 2006 6 16 0.05 30.67 510.00 13.33 Gadsden Yvette 2006 7 18 0.07 40.67 580.00 21.33 Gadsden Yvette 2006 9 15 0.05 32.33 633.33 23.00 Gadsden Yvette 2006 11 16 0.04 27.67 366.67 15.33 Hamilton Timber 2006 1 16 3.21 116.67 1800.00 66.67 Hamilton Timber 2006 4 23 0.45 135.67 2513.33 39.00 Hamilton Timber 2006 6 20 0.29 68.67 1290.00 20.33 Hamilton Timber 2006 12 12 2.10 90.67 2236.67 32.00 Hernando May Prairie 2006 9 20 0.08 36.33 2536.67 97.00 Hernando May Prairie 2006 11 20 0.08 36.67 2736.67 59.67 Highlands Byrd 2006 6 25 0.03 5.00 2426.67 1.33 Highlands Byrd 2006 7 30 0.03 4.33 1876.67 2.00 Highlands Glenada 2006 1 30 1.61 103.00 1086.67 53.33 Highlands Glenada 2006 3 21 6.04 111.00 1790.00 114.33 Highlands Glenada 2006 10 10 0.44 80.00 2093.33 112.33

PAGE 55

55Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Highlands Huckleberry 2006 1 9 1.73 233.67 1606.67 19.00 Highlands Huckleberry 2006 5 17 2.45 157.67 1790.00 72.33 Highlands Huckleberry 2006 7 10 3.30 59.00 1173.33 21.33 Highlands Huckleberry 2006 9 6 0.48 50.33 883.33 20.67 Highlands Istokpoga 2006 3 23 0.56 72.00 1533.33 55.33 Highlands Letta 2006 1 20 0.06 23.00 486.67 7.67 Highlands Letta 2006 3 20 0.07 24.00 456.67 4.33 Highlands Letta 2006 5 20 0.03 27.67 546.67 4.33 Highlands Letta 2006 7 18 0.07 21.00 473.33 4.67 Highlands Letta 2006 10 19 0.04 18.00 443.33 5.67 Highlands Letta 2006 11 17 0.03 25.67 493.33 7.00 Highlands Lotela 2006 1 21 0.21 10.00 426.67 2.00 Highlands Lotela 2006 3 20 0.11 9.67 483.33 2.00 Highlands Lotela 2006 5 5 0.07 10.33 443.33 3.00 Highlands Lotela 2006 7 27 0.07 10.33 393.33 2.67 Highlands Lotela 2006 10 10 0.03 11.67 363.33 3.67 Highlands Lotela 2006 11 9 0.03 14.00 443.33 3.00 Highlands Lynn 2006 1 17 0.10 4.33 2116.67 4.00 Highlands Lynn 2006 3 17 0.05 4.67 2340.00 1.00 Highlands Lynn 2006 5 17 0.05 5.00 2190.00 3.00 Highlands Lynn 2006 7 17 0.08 5.00 1893.33 4.67 Highlands Lynn 2006 10 18 0.04 5.33 1663.33 11.00 Highlands Lynn 2006 11 17 0.03 5.67 1746.67 13.67 Highlands Persimmon 2006 1 19 0.21 38.33 2356.67 62.67 Highlands Persimmon 2006 3 16 0.24 31.33 2003.33 58.67 Highlands Persimmon 2006 5 17 0.19 34.00 2816.67 91.00 Highlands Persimmon 2006 7 18 0.18 36.33 2986.67 102.33 Highlands Persimmon 2006 10 16 0.31 30.67 2790.00 94.33 Highlands Persimmon 2006 11 17 0.25 35.33 3146.67 96.67

PAGE 56

56Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Highlands Red Beach 2006 1 13 0.07 16.33 1250. 00 6.33 Hillsborough Brant 2006 2 28 0.13 34.00 946.67 6.00 Hillsborough Brant 2006 4 30 0.15 44.67 1133.33 28.00 Hillsborough Brant 2006 5 25 0.09 50.00 1296.67 56.33 Hillsborough Brant 2006 7 28 0.57 37.67 1290.00 34.00 Hillsborough Brant 2006 9 27 1.53 38.67 1060.00 28.67 Hillsborough Brant 2006 11 21 4.71 30.33 923.33 23.33 Hillsborough Dead Lady 2006 4 16 0.14 53.67 923.33 7.00 Hillsborough Dead Lady 2006 5 20 0.01 46.67 896.67 10.00 Hillsborough Dead Lady 2006 7 15 0.07 71.33 1083.33 34.00 Hillsborough Dead Lady 2006 9 13 0.08 71.33 1173.33 44.00 Hillsborough Dead Lady 2006 11 13 0.08 77.67 1206.67 44.67 Hillsborough Flynn 2006 5 23 0.01 11.67 1306.67 5.33 Hillsborough Flynn 2006 7 31 0.09 9.33 1543.33 5.67 Hillsborough Flynn 2006 9 29 0.04 9.00 906.67 5.67 Hillsborough Flynn 2006 11 30 0.03 7.33 846.67 6.33 Hillsborough Noreast 2006 2 20 0.15 32.33 806.67 20.33 Hillsborough Noreast 2006 3 21 0.05 28.67 713.33 9.33 Hillsborough Noreast 2006 5 23 0.01 24.00 760.00 7.67 Hillsborough Noreast 2006 8 23 0.05 24.00 666.67 8.00 Hillsborough Noreast 2006 9 28 0.06 20.00 570.00 6.00 Hillsborough Noreast 2006 11 24 0.06 18.33 626.67 5.00 Hillsborough Osceola 2006 4 18 0.12 13.67 716.67 3.00 Hillsborough Osceola 2006 5 23 0.05 15.67 763.33 5.00 Hillsborough Osceola 2006 7 13 0.13 12.00 710.00 3.33 Hillsborough Osceola 2006 10 14 0.20 13.00 703.33 5.00 Hillsborough Osceola 2006 11 16 0.35 11.67 653.33 4.00 Hillsborough Rock 2006 4 13 0.10 31.33 1033.33 20.67 Hillsborough Rock 2006 5 6 0.02 31.33 1006.67 13.67

PAGE 57

57Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Hillsborough Rock 2006 7 4 0.11 27.33 900.00 22.67 Hillsborough Rock 2006 10 10 0.06 57.67 1220.00 56.67 Hillsborough Rock 2006 11 12 0.05 32.67 1116.67 28.00 Hillsborough Sunset 2006 2 1 0.27 30.00 1040.00 27.00 Hillsborough Sunset 2006 5 1 0.15 25.33 1016.67 20.67 Hillsborough Sunset 2006 7 4 0.11 18.00 660.00 13.00 Hillsborough Sunset 2006 9 29 0.07 19.33 830.00 11.67 Hillsborough Sunset 2006 11 1 0.07 94.00 1083.33 13.00 Hillsborough Valrico 2006 1 2 0.07 40.33 903.33 5.67 Hillsborough Valrico 2006 3 6 0.06 55.67 826.67 5.33 Hillsborough Valrico 2006 5 1 0.00 52.67 790.00 5.00 Hillsborough Valrico 2006 7 5 0.10 41.67 780.00 9.33 Hillsborough Valrico 2006 9 4 0.07 41.33 813.33 Hillsborough Valrico 2006 12 4 0.05 21.67 630.00 5.00 Indian River Blue Cypress 2006 1 2 0.03 98.33 1166.67 4.00 Indian River Blue Cypress 2006 6 6 0.09 74.67 1106.67 12.67 Indian River Blue Cypress 2006 7 9 0.07 87.67 1013.33 9.67 Indian River Blue Cypress 2006 10 4 0.06 131.00 1163.33 6.33 Indian River Blue Cypress 2006 11 1 0.03 129.00 1183.33 12.33 Indian River Farm 13 2006 1 9 0.05 169.00 1563.33 20.00 Indian River Farm 13 2006 3 14 0.05 134.67 1836.67 27.33 Indian River Farm 13 2006 5 18 0.03 136.67 1426.67 17.33 Indian River Farm 13 2006 10 26 0.12 167.67 1700.00 40.00 Indian River Farm 13 2006 11 17 0.16 129.33 1766.67 36.00 Indian River Stick Marsh 2006 1 9 0.10 167.67 1436.67 37.67 Indian River Stick Marsh 2006 3 14 0.06 114.00 1530.00 33.33 Indian River Stick Marsh 2006 5 18 0.01 171.00 1690.00 19.33 Indian River Stick Marsh 2006 7 26 0.80 182.67 1630.00 33.67 Indian River Stick Marsh 2006 10 26 0.09 192.00 1773.33 42.00

PAGE 58

58Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Indian River Stick Marsh 2006 11 17 0.09 162.00 2033.33 37.33 Jackson Silver 2006 1 15 0.08 2.00 83.33 1.67 Jackson Silver 2006 6 11 0.01 3.00 33.33 0.67 Jackson Silver 2006 7 4 0.06 2.33 133.33 1.00 Jackson Silver 2006 11 9 0.04 3.50 46.67 1.67 Lake Beauclaire 2006 1 23 0.31 97.33 2910.00 131.33 Lake Beauclaire 2006 3 21 0.39 104.00 3320.00 152.33 Lake Beauclaire 2006 5 24 1.95 71.67 2800.00 74.00 Lake Beauclaire 2006 7 19 1.16 61.33 3100.00 130.33 Lake Beauclaire 2006 10 23 1.92 98.00 4610.00 222.00 Lake Beauclaire 2006 11 27 1.47 94.67 3963.33 171.33 Lake Bugg Springs 2006 1 13 0.09 75.50 505.00 2.50 Lake Bugg Springs 2006 3 12 0.08 73.50 490.00 3.50 Lake Bugg Springs 2006 5 14 0.02 80.00 415.00 6.00 Lake Bugg Springs 2006 7 15 0.06 68.00 270.00 25.50 Lake Bugg Springs 2006 10 15 0.05 81.00 515.00 7.50 Lake Bugg Springs 2006 11 18 0.04 75.50 545.00 7.00 Lake Clear 2006 3 27 0.04 18.67 620.00 8.00 Lake Clear 2006 5 21 0.00 12.67 533.33 2.00 Lake Clear 2006 7 25 0.08 13.67 460.00 2.67 Lake Clear 2006 9 30 0.07 13.00 546.67 3.33 Lake Clear 2006 11 20 0.09 15.33 520.00 4.00 Lake Dora East 2006 1 23 0.33 46.33 2453.33 98.33 Lake Dora East 2006 3 21 0.44 62.00 2833.33 124.33 Lake Dora East 2006 5 24 0.27 47.00 2946.67 98.67 Lake Dora East 2006 10 23 2.10 53.67 3820.00 151.33 Lake Dora East 2006 11 27 1.52 58.67 3493.33 121.67 Lake Dora West 2006 1 23 0.55 48.33 2563.33 93.67 Lake Dora West 2006 3 21 0.46 63.33 2846.67 128.00

PAGE 59

59Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Lake Dora West 2006 5 24 0.25 45.67 3066.67 131.33 Lake Dora West 2006 7 19 1.26 33.00 2620.00 131.33 Lake Dora West 2006 9 19 1.83 38.33 3266.67 107.33 Lake Dora West 2006 11 27 0.96 51.00 3383.33 101.67 Lake Dorr 2006 1 13 0.03 17.00 613.33 4.67 Lake Dorr 2006 3 29 0.11 22.67 633.33 4.67 Lake Dorr 2006 6 14 0.04 17.00 546.67 6.33 Lake Dorr 2006 7 19 0.03 12.33 456.67 3.67 Lake Dorr 2006 12 21 0.03 12.67 390.00 5.67 Lake East Crooked 2006 1 11 0.20 Lake East Crooked 2006 3 26 0.17 7.33 793.33 4.00 Lake East Crooked 2006 6 10 0.05 8.33 503.33 4.67 Lake East Crooked 2006 7 14 0.07 8.00 486.67 4.33 Lake East Crooked 2006 10 29 0.05 8.33 660.00 3.67 Lake Emeralda 2006 3 30 0.20 50.33 2353.33 74.00 Lake Emeralda 2006 5 1 0.19 39.33 2050.00 43.00 Lake Emeralda 2006 7 30 0.62 29.67 1820.00 42.00 Lake Emeralda 2006 10 6 0.90 37.67 2213.33 52.33 Lake Emeralda 2006 12 11 1.32 60.33 2740.00 54.67 Lake Emma 2006 1 22 0.06 14.67 1273.33 2.67 Lake Emma 2006 3 5 0.03 15.67 1260.00 3.00 Lake Emma 2006 6 18 0.06 14.33 1290.00 4.33 Lake Emma 2006 7 16 0.18 17.50 1250.00 17.67 Lake Emma 2006 10 9 0.08 15.67 1210.00 5.00 Lake Emma 2006 11 19 0.04 14.33 1246.67 3.00 Lake Erie 2006 1 31 0.09 48.00 1283.33 4.00 Lake Erie 2006 4 15 0.04 42.67 1190.00 4.67 Lake Erie 2006 5 24 0.00 42.33 1100.00 7.67 Lake Erie 2006 7 18 0.05 45.67 1000.00 11.67

PAGE 60

60Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Lake Erie 2006 10 29 0.05 50.67 1190.00 7.00 Lake Erie 2006 11 27 0.02 39.33 1123.33 10.00 Lake Erie 2006 12 6 0.48 Lake Eustis 2006 1 24 0.19 43.33 1720.00 27.67 Lake Eustis 2006 3 8 0.05 33.00 1583.33 33.67 Lake Eustis 2006 6 20 0.03 35.67 1396.67 36.33 Lake Eustis 2006 7 6 0.14 49.00 1920.00 55.00 Lake Eustis 2006 10 13 0.41 33.67 2266.67 64.67 Lake Florence 2006 1 1 0.45 34.67 1186.67 50.00 Lake Florence 2006 4 1 0.14 28.00 1043.33 12.67 Lake Florence 2006 7 4 0.12 16.33 943.33 7.67 Lake Florence 2006 10 7 0.17 19.67 1130.00 33.33 Lake Florence 2006 11 5 0.15 23.67 1236.67 45.00 Lake Gertrude 2006 2 23 0.50 11.00 593.33 1.00 Lake Gertrude 2006 4 17 0.34 12.67 496.67 4.00 Lake Gertrude 2006 5 22 0.01 9.67 526.67 1.00 Lake Gertrude 2006 7 31 0.04 7.67 546.67 2.67 Lake Gertrude 2006 10 31 0.06 8.67 466.67 4.00 Lake Gertrude 2006 12 31 0.05 7.50 443.33 1.00 Lake Grasshopper 2006 1 10 0.04 8.67 480.00 4.33 Lake Grasshopper 2006 3 29 0.12 8.00 400.00 3.67 Lake Grasshopper 2006 6 14 0.02 10.00 376.67 3.00 Lake Grasshopper 2006 7 19 0.06 6.33 263.33 2.33 Lake Grasshopper 2006 12 29 0.03 8.00 250.00 3.33 Lake Griffin 2006 1 25 0.37 54.33 2543.33 87.33 Lake Griffin 2006 3 20 0.28 55.33 2636.67 103.67 Lake Griffin 2006 5 23 0.17 30.00 1710.00 39.33 Lake Griffin 2006 7 18 0.58 27.00 1716.67 42.33 Lake Griffin 2006 11 28 1.23 49.00 2473.33 68.00

PAGE 61

61Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Lake Griffin North 2006 3 30 0.42 48.67 5716.67 80.00 Lake Griffin North 2006 5 1 0.05 43.67 2096.67 49.33 Lake Griffin North 2006 7 30 0.78 25.67 1803.33 36.00 Lake Griffin North 2006 9 18 1.16 39.00 2013.33 40.33 Lake Griffin North 2006 12 11 1.25 55.33 2526.67 72.00 Lake Griffin West 2006 1 21 0.10 66.33 1653.33 66.00 Lake Griffin West 2006 4 14 0.66 65.33 1733.33 54.67 Lake Griffin West 2006 5 28 0.36 75.33 1780.00 65.00 Lake Griffin West 2006 7 29 0.10 58.00 1456.67 45.67 Lake Griffin West 2006 9 24 1.68 54.33 1636.67 48.33 Lake Griffin West 2006 10 23 1.12 63.33 1946.67 63.67 Lake Griffin West 2006 11 27 0.59 56.67 1693.33 61.67 Lake Harris 2006 1 13 0.10 26.67 1220.00 34.67 Lake Harris 2006 3 22 0.07 29.67 1233.33 35.67 Lake Harris 2006 4 17 0.16 36.00 1406.67 29.67 Lake Harris 2006 7 25 0.05 34.67 1210.00 36.67 Lake Harris 2006 10 24 0.12 34.67 1616.67 62.67 Lake Harris 2006 12 16 0.17 40.33 1910.00 67.33 Lake Harris Middle 2006 1 4 0.10 30.67 1260.00 42.67 Lake Harris Middle 2006 4 10 0.32 33.33 1290.00 40.33 Lake Harris Middle 2006 7 6 0.09 40.67 1220.00 36.67 Lake Harris Middle 2006 9 6 0.38 34.67 1656.67 63.67 Lake Harris Middle 2006 12 10 0.19 45.67 1880.00 74.00 Lake Harris West 2006 4 17 0.11 27.33 1243.33 41.33 Lake Harris West 2006 5 22 0.13 31.33 1146.67 28.67 Lake Harris West 2006 11 15 0.19 36.67 1900.00 64.67 Lake Hermosa 2006 1 21 0.11 28.00 1333.33 25.00 Lake Hermosa 2006 3 23 0.08 34.67 1163.33 26.00 Lake Hermosa 2006 5 20 0.04 25.33 1033.33 22.00

PAGE 62

62Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Lake Hermosa 2006 7 15 0.03 17.67 950.00 16.67 Lake Hermosa 2006 9 16 0.05 15.50 955.00 17.00 Lake Hermosa 2006 11 26 0.18 24.33 1486.67 34.67 Lake Idamere 2006 4 3 0.01 7.00 370.00 2.00 Lake Idamere 2006 5 3 0.02 10.67 446.67 3.00 Lake Idamere 2006 7 6 0.04 9.00 376.67 3.00 Lake Idamere 2006 10 20 0.04 11.67 373.33 3.00 Lake Idamere 2006 11 25 0.05 12.00 356.67 3.00 Lake Jem 2006 1 14 0.22 13.67 566.67 6.00 Lake Jem 2006 3 25 0.34 12.33 533.33 10.67 Lake Jem 2006 5 14 0.06 10.67 466.67 5.33 Lake Jem 2006 6 24 0.04 10.00 416.67 3.00 Lake Jem 2006 8 13 0.03 14.00 463.33 5.33 Lake Jem 2006 11 12 0.15 15.33 656.67 9.00 Lake Joanna 2006 1 21 0.14 4.67 486.67 1.00 Lake Joanna 2006 3 28 0.10 5.33 496.67 1.33 Lake Joanna 2006 5 16 0.03 7.00 573.33 2.33 Lake Joanna 2006 7 1 0.09 5.67 536.67 2.00 Lake Joanna 2006 9 26 0.13 7.67 606.67 3.00 Lake Joanna 2006 12 6 0.07 9.00 610.00 2.00 Lake Little Harris 2006 1 21 0.31 36.67 1380.00 43.00 Lake Little Harris 2006 3 19 0.16 35.00 1360.00 49.33 Lake Little Harris 2006 5 20 0.05 47.33 1396.67 51.33 Lake Little Harris 2006 7 30 0.08 39.67 1336.67 38.00 Lake Little Harris 2006 9 17 0.11 38.00 1800.00 56.00 Lake Little Harris 2006 12 24 0.12 39.00 2000.00 79.67 Lake Lorraine 2006 1 26 0.07 29.33 1776.67 13.33 Lake Lorraine 2006 4 26 0.05 29.00 1653.33 18.00 Lake Lorraine 2006 7 22 0.16 26.00 1723.33 12.67

PAGE 63

63Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Lake Lorraine 2006 10 23 0.05 31.33 1706.67 5.33 Lake Louisa 2006 1 31 0.08 30.67 1650.00 1.00 Lake Louisa 2006 3 28 0.13 33.67 1703.33 6.67 Lake Louisa 2006 5 2 0.02 32.33 1670.00 6.00 Lake Louisa 2006 8 1 0.04 30.67 1530.00 17.67 Lake Louisa 2006 9 5 0.03 29.00 1253.33 5.33 Lake Louisa 2006 12 5 0.03 31.33 1510.00 5.33 Lake May 2006 2 17 0.15 30.33 943.33 26.33 Lake May 2006 3 17 0.09 13.67 703.33 2.67 Lake May 2006 5 9 0.03 14.00 773.33 3.67 Lake May 2006 7 15 0.12 15.00 800.00 4.67 Lake May 2006 10 14 0.22 18.67 833.33 7.00 Lake May 2006 11 24 0.07 19.00 826.67 6.33 Lake Mirror 2006 1 11 0.06 34.67 880.00 20.33 Lake Mirror 2006 4 16 0.05 28.33 993.33 12.00 Lake Mirror 2006 6 20 0.07 22.67 890.00 7.00 Lake Mirror 2006 8 19 2.30 28.33 956.67 7.33 Lake Mirror 2006 10 28 0.25 20.33 880.00 5.67 Lake Peanut Pond 2006 1 13 0.60 23.00 530.00 7.67 Lake Peanut Pond 2006 3 10 0.10 17.67 446.67 3.67 Lake Peanut Pond 2006 5 4 0.02 15.67 506.67 2.67 Lake Peanut Pond 2006 7 7 0.05 14.00 430.00 5.67 Lake Peanut Pond 2006 9 5 0.10 14.33 423.33 6.00 Lake Peanut Pond 2006 11 7 0.05 20.33 530.00 7.00 Lake Picciola 2006 1 25 0.34 62.33 2793.33 92.67 Lake Picciola 2006 5 23 0.24 33.67 1786.67 42.33 Lake Picciola 2006 7 18 0.90 30.00 1653.33 38.00 Lake Picciola 2006 9 20 1.26 40.67 2040.00 62.00 Lake Picciola 2006 11 28 1.41 48.67 2313.33 65.33

PAGE 64

64Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Lake Sawmill 2006 1 24 3.69 22.67 960.00 12.67 Lake Sawmill 2006 5 23 0.10 16.00 646.67 4.00 Lake Sawmill 2006 8 24 0.08 13.00 716.67 7.00 Lake Sawmill 2006 10 28 0.19 16.00 723.33 12.33 Lake Sawmill 2006 11 27 0.51 14.33 770.00 10.67 Lake Sellers 2006 1 10 0.09 8.00 236.67 4.67 Lake Sellers 2006 3 29 0.08 4.00 173.33 1.33 Lake Sellers 2006 6 14 0.01 5.67 143.33 6.00 Lake Sellers 2006 7 19 0.05 3.00 83.33 2.00 Lake Sellers 2006 12 21 0.03 4.33 96.67 1.33 Lake Silver 2006 1 28 0.11 22.00 1180.00 1.67 Lake Silver 2006 3 31 0.06 13.33 1180.00 3.00 Lake Silver 2006 5 31 0.04 12.00 1310.00 5.67 Lake Silver 2006 8 23 0.03 14.00 1460.00 7.67 Lake Silver 2006 10 30 0.10 15.00 1363.33 4.33 Lake Trout 2006 1 25 0.07 189.00 3400.00 68.67 Lake Trout 2006 3 15 0.22 301.00 3943.33 44.67 Lake Trout 2006 5 24 1.36 322.67 1630.00 63.33 Lake Trout 2006 7 14 4.48 426.67 2813.33 217.67 Lake Trout 2006 9 13 3.11 217.33 1886.67 113.67 Lake Trout 2006 11 15 2.01 136.67 2040.00 114.33 Lake Unity 2006 1 4 0.20 49.33 1226.67 7.00 Lake Unity 2006 4 15 0.16 38.00 1556.67 80.00 Lake Unity 2006 7 25 0.03 39.00 853.33 22.33 Lake Unity 2006 10 6 0.14 31.67 800.00 27.00 Lake Wildcat 2006 3 29 0.08 6.67 350.00 2.33 Lake Wildcat 2006 6 14 0.02 8.67 366.67 12.67 Lake Wildcat 2006 7 20 0.02 8.67 340.00 7.00 Lake Wildcat 2006 11 28 0.03 7.67 323.33 7.67

PAGE 65

65Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Lee Little Murex 2006 5 18 0.04 20.00 1610.00 10.33 Leon Diane 2006 1 19 0.07 30.00 510.00 6.33 Leon Diane 2006 4 27 0.06 16.00 370.00 5.00 Leon Diane 2006 5 25 0.01 19.00 416.67 Leon Diane 2006 7 26 0.04 17.00 500.00 5.33 Leon Diane 2006 10 26 0.05 18.00 436.67 3.00 Leon Diane 2006 11 22 0.04 15.33 416.67 2.00 Leon Minniehaha 2006 1 31 0.04 16.50 595.00 5.50 Leon Minniehaha 2006 3 11 0.07 17.00 670.00 16.00 Leon Minniehaha 2006 5 20 0.00 14.50 580.00 8.50 Leon Minniehaha 2006 7 17 0.05 10.50 450.00 4.50 Leon Minniehaha 2006 10 17 0.05 8.50 490.00 2.50 Leon Silver 2006 2 3 0.14 9.33 270.00 2.33 Leon Silver 2006 3 10 0.04 6.33 280.00 2.50 Leon Silver 2006 6 2 0.03 8.00 220.00 2.33 Leon Silver 2006 7 5 0.08 7.00 256.67 2.67 Leon Silver 2006 9 5 0.07 7.67 276.67 3.67 Leon Silver 2006 11 2 0.07 10.00 385.00 4.67 Leon Summerset 2006 1 2 0.11 66.00 1950.00 160.67 Leon Summerset 2006 4 23 0.04 34.33 656.67 5.33 Leon Summerset 2006 5 19 0.02 35.00 683.33 10.67 Leon Summerset 2006 7 1 0.06 57.67 840.00 30.67 Leon Summerset 2006 9 2 0.06 70.67 1033.33 43.67 Leon Summerset 2006 11 10 0.08 41.00 653.33 14.00 Leon Susan 2006 1 19 3.57 80.67 736.67 12.67 Leon Susan 2006 4 17 0.56 135.67 800.00 5.33 Leon Susan 2006 6 24 0.14 203.67 2686.67 174.00 Leon Susan 2006 7 27 0.28 158.67 1166.67 31.00 Leon Susan 2006 9 25 6.65 110.33 1506.67 82.33

PAGE 66

66Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Marion Charles 2006 1 10 0.11 106.00 1750.00 3.00 Marion Charles 2006 3 13 0.05 66.67 1606.67 3.00 Marion Charles 2006 6 4 0.02 73.00 1553.33 3.33 Marion Charles 2006 7 5 0.04 66.67 1516.67 5.33 Marion DeLancy 2006 3 1 0.05 12.67 556.67 4.00 Marion Eaton 2006 1 10 0.10 69.67 1266.67 1.67 Marion Eaton 2006 3 13 0.04 50.00 1343.33 2.33 Marion Eaton 2006 5 4 0.03 45.67 1153.33 6.67 Marion Eaton 2006 7 5 0.06 36.00 850.00 12.33 Marion Halfmoon 2006 1 10 0.09 9.67 970.00 3.00 Marion Halfmoon 2006 3 13 0.09 10.00 890.00 4.67 Marion Halfmoon 2006 5 4 0.11 12.33 950.00 5.67 Marion Halfmoon 2006 7 5 0.26 11.00 863.33 7.67 Marion Tiger 2006 1 16 0.07 18.67 760.00 19.67 Marion Tiger 2006 3 5 0.06 18.33 770.00 8.00 Marion Tiger 2006 7 16 0.08 14.33 660.00 5.67 Marion Tiger 2006 10 15 0.04 19.67 736.67 9.33 Marion Tiger 2006 11 12 0.05 19.67 646.67 9.33 Miami-Dade Colonial 2006 3 11 0.16 7.67 246.67 2.00 Miami-Dade Colonial 2006 5 14 0.04 5.67 276.67 2.00 Miami-Dade Highland 2006 2 20 0.05 12.33 470.00 2.67 Miami-Dade Highland 2006 4 1 0.01 12.67 630.00 1.00 Miami-Dade Highland 2006 5 30 0.01 10.67 433.33 2.00 Miami-Dade Highland 2006 7 23 0.09 10.33 383.33 2.67 Miami-Dade Highland 2006 10 14 0.08 12.33 610.00 3.67 Miami-Dade Highland 2006 11 26 0.07 14.67 713.33 9.33 Miami-Dade Persch 2006 1 11 0.08 21.67 1050.00 13.00 Miami-Dade Persch 2006 4 14 0.10 25.67 1026.67 5.33 Miami-Dade Persch 2006 5 13 0.01 26.33 1126.67 9.33

PAGE 67

67Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Miami-Dade Persch 2006 7 7 0.07 21.67 800.00 10.00 Miami-Dade Persch 2006 10 18 0.07 22.33 933.33 9.00 Miami-Dade Pineland 2006 3 7 0.04 9.67 210.00 1.00 Miami-Dade Pineland 2006 7 5 0.05 7.33 456.67 2.00 Miami-Dade Pineland 2006 10 5 0.05 7.00 296.67 2.67 Miami-Dade Pineland 2006 11 22 0.05 4.67 283.33 1.00 Monroe Key West Pond 2006 11 10 0.08 108.50 2065.00 122.00 Okaloosa Hurricane 2006 1 5 0.47 19.25 375.00 6.00 Okaloosa Hurricane 2006 4 5 0.10 24.75 375.00 12.50 Okaloosa Hurricane 2006 6 5 0.25 22.25 572.50 16.00 Okaloosa Hurricane 2006 7 6 0.89 26.50 895.00 30.00 Okaloosa Hurricane 2006 10 3 2.90 31.75 782.50 30.50 Okaloosa Hurricane 2006 11 6 1.52 30.50 685.00 16.75 Okaloosa Karick 2006 1 5 0.06 23.33 376.67 6.00 Okaloosa Karick 2006 4 5 0.04 48.33 396.67 7.67 Okaloosa Karick 2006 6 2 0.06 26.00 513.33 25.00 Okaloosa Karick 2006 7 10 0.12 38.33 683.33 17.67 Okaloosa Karick 2006 10 3 0.09 42.33 750.00 15.67 Okaloosa Karick 2006 11 6 0.10 31.00 650.00 21.00 Orange Carlton 2006 1 9 0.77 58.33 2600.00 107.00 Orange Carlton 2006 4 5 0.17 55.33 3000.00 130.00 Orange Carlton 2006 5 9 0.25 56.33 3406.67 143.33 Orange Carlton 2006 7 12 0.99 45.33 3290.00 130.00 Orange Carlton 2006 10 12 1.18 63.00 3906.67 202.00 Orange Carlton 2006 12 2 1.53 86.33 4056.67 219.33 Orange Giles 2006 2 19 0.18 41.67 693.33 15.33 Orange Giles 2006 4 22 0.07 28.67 493.33 10.33 Orange Giles 2006 5 20 0.01 27.67 610.00 21.33 Orange Giles 2006 7 8 0.09 32.00 980.00 46.00

PAGE 68

68Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Orange Giles 2006 10 8 0.09 24.33 670.00 26.33 Orange Giles 2006 11 11 15.55 25.00 876.67 27.67 Orange Holden 2006 4 14 0.05 17.00 700.00 10.00 Orange Holden 2006 5 19 0.01 15.33 623.33 7.33 Orange Holden 2006 7 20 0.03 25.33 740.00 24.00 Orange Holden 2006 9 11 0.06 19.00 793.33 22.67 Orange Holden 2006 11 11 0.07 15.67 733.33 18.33 Orange Ivanhoe East 2006 4 18 0.09 18.00 493.33 3.67 Orange Ivanhoe East 2006 8 4 0.06 19.33 553.33 7.00 Orange Ivanhoe Middle 2006 4 18 0.03 19.33 470.00 3.00 Orange Ivanhoe Middle 2006 8 4 0.08 29.67 1260.00 47.33 Orange Ivanhoe West 2006 4 18 0.06 16.67 473.33 3.00 Orange Ivanhoe West 2006 8 4 0.14 23.33 743.33 14.67 Orange Johio 2006 10 13 0.07 5.67 406.67 2.00 Orange Johio 2006 11 14 0.06 5.00 380.00 2.00 Orange Little Fairview 2006 1 11 0.16 22.67 546.67 10.00 Orange Little Fairview 2006 4 4 0.06 19.33 470.00 3.33 Orange Little Fairview 2006 5 3 0.05 14.67 410.00 2.67 Orange Little Fairview 2006 7 6 0.04 14.33 500.00 4.00 Orange Little Fairview 2006 9 7 0.04 13.33 513.33 8.00 Orange Little Fairview 2006 11 15 0.06 16.67 506.67 4.33 Orange Lurna 2006 1 13 0.28 72.67 1020.00 56.00 Orange Lurna 2006 4 16 0.16 77.00 1033.33 38.00 Orange Lurna 2006 5 6 0.16 57.33 946.67 38.00 Orange Lurna 2006 7 20 0.35 55.00 676.67 40.67 Orange Lurna 2006 10 12 1.32 50.33 690.00 38.33 Orange Lurna 2006 11 26 0.23 47.33 670.00 28.67 Orange Susannah 2006 1 29 0.14 12.33 660.00 6.00 Orange Susannah 2006 4 21 0.19 14.67 406.67 2.33

PAGE 69

69Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Orange Susannah 2006 5 21 0.02 14.67 426.67 5.67 Orange Susannah 2006 7 25 0.09 17.00 483.33 6.00 Orange Susannah 2006 9 16 0.05 17.67 500.00 7.33 Orange Susannah 2006 11 14 0.06 19.00 590.00 8.00 Orange Waumpi 2006 1 7 0.08 42.67 810.00 22.00 Orange Waumpi 2006 3 12 0.05 88.33 1066.67 25.67 Orange Waumpi 2006 5 14 0.05 92.00 1073.33 42.33 Orange Waumpi 2006 7 16 0.05 45.33 1200.00 38.67 Orange Waumpi 2006 9 10 0.13 41.00 820.00 19.33 Orange Waumpi 2006 11 15 0.09 97.00 1440.00 69.67 Osceola Alligator 2006 1 26 0.08 19.40 994.00 3.80 Osceola Alligator 2006 4 20 0.03 20.00 984.00 3.00 Osceola Alligator 2006 6 24 0.04 18.00 982.00 4.00 Osceola Brick 2006 2 22 0.05 26.67 940.00 5.00 Osceola Cypress 2006 5 14 2.57 102.00 1756.67 73.67 Osceola Cypress 2006 7 13 1.86 124.00 1963.33 84.33 Osceola Tohopekaliga East 2006 4 15 0.04 18.33 663.33 4.33 Osceola Tohopekaliga East 2006 5 18 0.03 17.00 630.00 4.33 Osceola Tohopekaliga East 2006 10 19 0.04 13.33 576.67 3.33 Osceola Tohopekaliga East 2006 11 17 0.10 15.33 570.00 4.00 Osceola TohopekaligaMiddle 2006 1 5 0.09 32.00 850.00 18.67 Osceola TohopekaligaMiddle 2006 3 19 0.13 50.33 1226.67 38.67 Osceola TohopekaligaMiddle 2006 5 27 0.74 69.00 1553.33 46.00 Osceola TohopekaligaNorth 2006 1 5 0.10 44.67 800.00 9.00

PAGE 70

70Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Osceola TohopekaligaNorth 2006 3 19 0.04 60.33 903.33 26.00 Osceola TohopekaligaNorth 2006 5 27 0.15 97.67 1450.00 53.67 Osceola TohopekaligaNorth 2006 7 27 0.58 93.00 1450.00 57.67 Osceola TohopekaligaNorth 2006 10 6 0.34 72.00 1336.67 47.67 Osceola TohopekaligaNorth 2006 11 3 0.31 62.00 1206.67 35.33 Osceola Trout 2006 1 15 0.10 13.33 1080.00 4.00 Osceola Trout 2006 3 17 0.09 17.67 1233.33 4.33 Palm Beach Charleston West 2006 1 29 0.17 23.00 560.00 8.00 Palm Beach Charleston West 2006 3 18 0.07 13.33 503.33 4.67 Palm Beach Charleston West 2006 5 27 0.01 13.00 466.67 3.33 Palm Beach Charleston West 2006 10 7 0.07 19.67 296.67 10.33 Palm Beach Charleston West 2006 11 12 0.05 23.33 633.33 11.00 Pasco Bird 2006 1 27 0.07 20.67 1003.33 4.33 Pasco Bird 2006 3 17 0.05 24.33 796.67 8.33 Pasco Bird 2006 6 1 0.01 28.33 906.67 15.67 Pasco Bird 2006 10 4 0.05 23.00 926.67 7.50 Pasco Bird 2006 11 26 0.07 19.33 900.00 5.33 Pasco Crews 2006 1 16 0.11 13.33 1100.00 3.33 Pasco Crews 2006 3 8 0.25 21.67 1350.00 6.33 Pasco Crews 2006 5 14 0.55 44.33 2313.33 41.67 Pasco Jovita 2006 2 18 0.07 28.00 560.00 4.00 Pasco Jovita 2006 4 14 0.08 31.33 693.33 11.33 Pasco Jovita 2006 6 18 0.13 20.67 593.33 6.00

PAGE 71

71Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Pasco Jovita 2006 7 15 0.11 22.00 600.00 6.00 Pasco Jovita 2006 10 15 0.09 11.33 480.00 6.67 Pasco Jovita 2006 11 17 0.05 22.00 563.33 9.33 Pasco Karney 2006 1 8 0.07 33.00 1200.00 9.67 Pasco Karney 2006 4 4 0.13 31.67 1136.67 11.67 Pasco Karney 2006 7 6 0.06 35.67 1150.00 11.67 Pasco Karney 2006 10 3 0.06 16.00 1016.67 10.00 Pasco Karney 2006 11 9 0.04 15.67 966.67 8.00 Pasco Little Black 2006 1 13 0.05 32.33 956.67 13.33 Pasco Little Black 2006 3 15 0.05 31.33 946.67 14.33 Pasco Little Black 2006 5 19 0.00 29.00 830.00 8.33 Pasco Little Black 2006 7 15 0.08 30.33 970.00 12.00 Pasco Little Black 2006 9 15 0.06 25.67 853.33 9.33 Pasco Little Black 2006 11 15 0.08 24.33 960.00 14.67 Pasco Saxon North 2006 1 31 0.09 17.00 643.33 2.67 Pasco Saxon North 2006 3 28 0.08 18.00 633.33 2.00 Pasco Saxon South 2006 1 31 0.08 16.00 640.00 5.67 Pasco Saxon South 2006 3 28 0.04 18.67 723.33 3.00 Pinellas Alligator 2006 10 23 0.05 133.33 870.00 30.00 Pinellas Maggiore 2006 1 26 0.26 125.67 3490.00 145.00 Pinellas Maggiore 2006 4 20 0.19 167.00 4083.33 104.00 Pinellas Maggiore 2006 6 27 0.04 78.67 2446.67 90.67 Pinellas Maggiore 2006 7 20 0.03 69.33 2660.00 109.67 Pinellas Placid 2006 1 12 0.17 51.67 1830.00 15.67 Pinellas Placid 2006 4 14 0.41 61.00 1506.67 47.33 Pinellas Placid 2006 10 14 2.57 32.00 1733.33 40.67 Pinellas Placid 2006 11 14 2.01 52.00 1520.00 36.00 Polk Belle East 2006 1 28 0.13 40.00 1020.00 13.00 Polk Belle East 2006 4 1 0.12 54.33 843.33 26.00

PAGE 72

72Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Polk Belle East 2006 5 1 0.02 46.00 923.33 25.67 Polk Belle East 2006 7 29 0.08 20.33 713.33 9.33 Polk Belle East 2006 12 23 0.03 40.00 1020.00 24.67 Polk Belle West 2006 1 28 0.09 38.67 1060.00 17.33 Polk Belle West 2006 4 1 0.08 50.00 826.67 25.67 Polk Belle West 2006 5 1 0.06 46.67 920.00 24.00 Polk Belle West 2006 7 29 0.04 19.33 676.67 9.00 Polk Belle West 2006 9 30 0.05 23.33 680.00 10.67 Polk Belle West 2006 12 23 0.03 45.33 1066.67 39.33 Polk Dexter 2006 3 14 0.19 10.00 400.00 1.00 Polk Dexter 2006 5 21 0.03 10.00 413.33 1.00 Polk Dexter 2006 7 29 0.12 8.33 393.33 1.67 Polk Dexter 2006 9 24 0.07 11.33 460.00 1.67 Polk Dexter 2006 11 19 0.06 11.00 440.00 1.67 Polk Gaskin's Cut 2006 1 24 1.37 182.00 1663.33 34.00 Polk Gaskin's Cut 2006 3 27 4.08 375.67 3016.67 234.33 Polk Gaskin's Cut 2006 7 19 3.76 277.33 2023.33 89.00 Polk Gaskin's Cut 2006 10 18 5.28 285.00 2253.33 122.33 Polk Gaskin's Cut 2006 11 15 2.74 297.00 2300.00 77.67 Polk Hunter 2006 3 30 3.45 172.00 2346.67 106.00 Polk Hunter 2006 9 6 21.29 127.67 2140.00 Polk Wales 2006 1 10 0.62 30.00 590.00 24.00 Polk Wales 2006 5 10 0.04 25.00 666.67 5.33 Polk Wales 2006 7 10 0.09 16.00 510.00 7.00 Polk Wales 2006 10 9 0.08 21.00 560.00 21.00 Polk Wales 2006 11 8 0.11 25.33 680.00 26.33 Polk Weohyakapka 2006 1 23 0.11 19.67 630.00 10.33 Polk Weohyakapka 2006 3 27 0.12 31.00 786.67 13.33 Putnam Annie 2006 2 17 0.19 7.33 413.33 1.33

PAGE 73

73Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Putnam Annie 2006 3 19 0.25 7.33 410.00 3.00 Putnam Annie 2006 5 20 0.53 5.00 376.67 2.00 Putnam Annie 2006 7 18 0.03 4.00 370.00 2.00 Putnam Annie 2006 9 16 0.08 7.33 453.33 5.00 Putnam Annie 2006 11 19 0.05 8.67 430.00 7.00 Putnam Ashley 2006 1 30 0.06 18.00 343.33 6.67 Putnam Ashley 2006 3 27 0.05 22.33 423.33 10.00 Putnam Ashley 2006 5 30 0.02 15.00 320.00 7.00 Putnam Ashley 2006 7 23 0.08 17.33 293.33 5.33 Putnam Ashley 2006 9 16 0.08 19.33 366.67 7.00 Putnam Ashley 2006 11 29 0.05 15.33 413.33 4.67 Putnam Barco 2006 1 12 0.07 2.67 146.67 1.33 Putnam Barco 2006 5 16 0.02 3.67 83.33 1.00 Putnam Barco 2006 7 24 0.03 4.00 116.67 2.00 Putnam Barco 2006 9 22 0.03 6.67 250.00 2.00 Putnam Barco 2006 11 22 0.08 3.33 136.67 2.00 Putnam Broward 2006 1 31 0.11 5.33 356.67 1.33 Putnam Broward 2006 4 30 0.28 7.33 270.00 2.67 Putnam Broward 2006 5 30 0.08 6.67 270.00 2.00 Putnam Broward 2006 7 14 0.04 3.00 220.00 2.67 Putnam Broward 2006 9 28 0.08 8.00 330.00 4.67 Putnam Broward 2006 11 29 0.11 4.33 273.33 1.67 Putnam George South 2006 4 25 0.09 40.00 936.67 23.33 Putnam George South 2006 5 24 0.08 25.67 450.00 19.67 Putnam George South 2006 7 26 0.31 32.33 870.00 21.67 Putnam McCloud 2006 1 17 0.07 4.33 466.67 3.00 Putnam McCloud 2006 4 17 0.07 4.33 433.33 1.00 Putnam McCloud 2006 6 23 0.02 6.00 433.33 1.67 Putnam McCloud 2006 7 25 0.02 6.67 430.00 3.00

PAGE 74

74Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Putnam McCloud 2006 9 16 0.03 6.67 380.00 3.00 Putnam McCloud 2006 11 25 0.04 9.67 433.33 1.33 Putnam Punchbowl 2006 2 9 0.05 17.33 806.67 4.00 Putnam Punchbowl 2006 4 5 0.09 19.33 676.67 6.33 Putnam Punchbowl 2006 5 5 0.04 15.33 726.67 3.67 Putnam Punchbowl 2006 11 13 0.04 17.00 630.00 7.00 Putnam Suggs 2006 1 5 0.07 133.33 1363.33 1.67 Putnam Suggs 2006 4 4 0.04 79.67 1266.67 3.00 Putnam Suggs 2006 5 2 0.03 69.33 1313.33 4.67 Putnam Suggs 2006 7 23 0.02 59.67 1183.33 10.67 Putnam Suggs 2006 9 23 0.03 76.00 1156.67 11.67 Putnam Suggs 2006 11 22 0.04 71.33 1073.33 7.00 Putnam Winnott 2006 2 18 0.11 21.67 763.33 5.00 Putnam Winnott 2006 3 11 1.76 22.00 826.67 11.33 Putnam Winnott 2006 5 16 0.08 23.00 803.33 8.00 Putnam Winnott 2006 9 6 0.06 23.33 773.33 12.33 Putnam Winnott 2006 11 13 0.10 11.00 680.00 5.00 Santa Rosa Bear 2006 1 4 0.08 20.67 346.67 12.33 Santa Rosa Bear 2006 4 4 0.08 24.33 280.00 6.33 Santa Rosa Bear 2006 6 7 0.02 25.33 330.00 14.67 Santa Rosa Bear 2006 7 6 0.15 31.67 676.67 18.67 Santa Rosa Bear 2006 10 2 0.06 41.33 553.33 21.67 Santa Rosa Bear 2006 11 3 0.08 44.33 470.00 23.00 Santa Rosa Ski Watch 2006 1 15 0.08 4.20 56.00 1.60 Santa Rosa Ski Watch 2006 3 18 0.10 6.80 96.00 2.80 Santa Rosa Ski Watch 2006 5 16 0.00 9.20 144.00 4.20 Santa Rosa Ski Watch 2006 7 19 0.07 8.20 76.00 4.00 Santa Rosa Ski Watch 2006 10 15 0.04 5.50 70.00 4.20 Santa Rosa Ski Watch 2006 11 16 0.05 7.20 117.50 3.40

PAGE 75

75Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Seminole Concord 2006 1 31 0.05 50.33 810.00 31.00 Seminole Island Pond 2006 2 28 0.09 6.33 546.67 0.67 Seminole Island Pond 2006 3 31 0.15 5.67 500.00 1.00 Seminole Island Pond 2006 5 31 0.00 4.67 446.67 1.00 Seminole Jesup North 2006 1 15 0.70 144.00 2146.67 91.33 Seminole Jesup North 2006 4 15 2.57 86.67 2166.67 67.33 Seminole Jesup North 2006 5 14 0.32 122.00 2143.33 67.00 Seminole Jesup North 2006 7 16 3.01 153.67 4463.33 215.00 Seminole Jesup North 2006 10 9 23.77 163.67 3950.00 216.67 Seminole Jesup North 2006 11 11 31.99 157.00 3883.33 211.33 Seminole Little Bear 2006 2 28 0.12 13.33 536.67 2.00 Seminole Little Bear 2006 3 19 0.14 15.33 540.00 2.00 Seminole Little Bear 2006 5 21 0.02 19.00 626.67 6.00 Seminole Little Bear 2006 7 9 0.07 17.67 590.00 7.00 Seminole Little Bear 2006 10 21 0.08 16.00 673.33 8.67 Seminole Little Bear 2006 12 31 0.10 21.00 666.67 5.67 Seminole Monroe West 2006 3 4 0.12 48.33 1340.00 1.33 Seminole Monroe West 2006 6 10 0.21 68.67 1333.33 40.00 Seminole Orienta East 2006 1 30 0.36 36.00 926.67 36.00 Seminole Orienta East 2006 4 30 0.09 38.67 1596.67 61.67 Seminole Orienta East 2006 5 31 0.09 28.67 1056.67 36.33 Seminole Orienta East 2006 7 31 0.04 29.33 986.67 30.00 Seminole Orienta East 2006 10 30 0.37 41.33 1103.33 57.33 Seminole Orienta East 2006 11 30 0.83 39.33 1050.00 46.00 Seminole Secret 2006 1 31 0.06 35.00 613.33 17.33 St Lucie De Witt 2006 1 23 0.12 115.33 1273.33 24.33 St Lucie De Witt 2006 4 25 0.04 50.67 1233.33 21.67 St Lucie De Witt 2006 5 15 0.00 38.33 1076.67 8.00 St Lucie De Witt 2006 7 17 0.06 33.33 1050.00 11.67

PAGE 76

76Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) St Lucie De Witt 2006 10 9 0.06 59.33 1270.00 30.33 St Lucie De Witt 2006 11 25 0.06 43.00 1156.67 30.67 St Lucie Margaret 2006 3 27 0.04 14.67 850.00 3.00 St Lucie Margaret 2006 5 20 0.01 15.33 943.33 3.67 St Lucie Margaret 2006 7 23 0.08 15.00 803.33 5.00 St Lucie Margaret 2006 9 19 0.05 21.33 783.33 6.67 Sumter Panasoffkee 2006 7 21 0.08 32.33 1020.00 24.00 Volusia Ashby 2006 1 1 0.07 94.33 1013.33 10.33 Volusia Ashby 2006 4 1 0.09 117.67 1186.67 4.00 Volusia Ashby 2006 5 2 0.02 134.33 1226.67 4.00 Volusia Ashby 2006 7 1 0.02 135.67 1263.33 10.00 Volusia Ashby 2006 9 4 0.05 83.00 816.67 7.67 Volusia Ashby 2006 11 11 0.05 62.00 713.33 5.67 Volusia Beresford 2006 1 23 0.12 49.67 1023.33 33.00 Volusia Beresford 2006 3 29 0.15 44.67 776.67 21.33 Volusia Beresford 2006 5 8 0.57 69.00 1136.67 36.00 Volusia Beresford 2006 8 17 0.80 59.00 1396.67 46.33 Volusia Beresford 2006 9 19 0.61 54.00 1280.00 39.67 Volusia Bethel 2006 1 29 0.10 69.33 1066.67 41.33 Volusia Bethel 2006 4 15 0.09 65.00 1306.67 30.00 Volusia Bethel 2006 7 4 0.08 62.00 1780.00 63.33 Volusia Bethel 2006 10 21 0.25 52.67 1643.33 54.00 Volusia Gemini Springs 2006 3 7 0.05 65.67 1246.67 0.33 Volusia Gemini Springs 2006 5 3 0.05 63.00 1173.33 0.67 Volusia Gemini Springs 2006 9 27 0.03 57.33 1046.67 0.33 Volusia Gemini Springs 2006 11 4 0.03 63.00 1186.67 0.33 Volusia Theresa 2006 3 10 0.07 11.00 566.67 3.00 Volusia Theresa 2006 6 4 0.03 9.00 633.33 2.33 Volusia Winnemissett 2006 1 1 0.10 12.00 460.00 15.67

PAGE 77

77Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Volusia Winnemissett 2006 4 13 0.16 12.00 426.67 2.33 Volusia Winnemissett 2006 5 6 0.05 9.67 446.67 2.00 Volusia Winnemissett 2006 7 9 0.03 7.67 433.33 2.00 Volusia Winnemissett 2006 10 21 0.05 8.33 453.33 3.00 Wakulla Otter 2006 2 2 0.03 42.00 566.67 13.00 Wakulla Otter 2006 3 13 0.04 40.67 663.33 6.33 Wakulla Otter 2006 5 8 0.02 46.33 546.67 5.67 Wakulla Otter 2006 7 6 0.43 26.33 560.00 4.67 Wakulla Otter 2006 9 8 0.23 21.33 696.67 2.67 Wakulla Otter 2006 12 13 0.07 85.33 870.00 9.00 Walton Alligator 2006 1 5 0.09 7.00 453.33 2.00 Walton Alligator 2006 4 18 0.11 10.67 413.33 2.67 Walton Alligator 2006 5 27 0.00 13.00 440.00 5.00 Walton Alligator 2006 7 8 0.08 31.33 583.33 15.67 Walton Alligator 2006 9 9 0.06 15.67 620.00 12.67 Walton Alligator 2006 10 29 0.03 10.67 783.33 2.67 Walton Alligator 2006 12 3 0.04 7.33 563.33 3.00 Walton Campbell 2006 1 5 0.07 5.33 406.67 1.00 Walton Campbell 2006 4 18 0.05 7.00 463.33 1.67 Walton Campbell 2006 5 9 0.05 8.67 320.00 1.33 Walton Campbell 2006 7 6 0.03 7.67 693.33 3.00 Walton Campbell 2006 9 8 0.05 6.00 470.00 4.00 Walton Campbell 2006 11 9 0.04 4.33 326.67 1.00 Walton Deer 2006 2 24 0.06 6.67 353.33 3.00 Walton Deer 2006 3 17 0.02 8.33 396.67 3.67 Walton Deer 2006 6 30 0.01 9.00 420.00 3.33 Walton Deer 2006 7 28 0.04 12.67 433.33 4.33 Walton Deer 2006 9 30 0.04 12.00 446.67 3.67 Walton Deer 2006 12 7 0.03 5.33 310.00 3.00

PAGE 78

78Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Walton Eastern 2006 1 25 0.06 10.33 176.67 3.00 Walton Eastern 2006 3 28 0.04 15.67 290.00 3.00 Walton Eastern 2006 5 30 0.03 18.00 260.00 6.67 Walton Eastern 2006 8 22 0.05 18.00 260.00 10.33 Walton Eastern 2006 9 26 0.06 16.00 270.00 9.33 Walton Eastern 2006 11 23 0.10 12.67 276.67 13.00 Walton Little Red Fish 2006 1 5 0.14 11.67 530.00 1.33 Walton Little Red Fish 2006 3 20 0.23 14.00 463.33 6.00 Walton Little Red Fish 2006 6 22 0.08 34.33 476.67 10.67 Walton Little Red Fish 2006 7 21 0.34 63.33 813.33 15.67 Walton Little Red Fish 2006 9 28 0.07 28.33 673.33 17.00 Walton Little Red Fish 2006 11 26 0.04 22.67 563.33 11.67 Washington Gap 2006 1 22 0.09 7.00 323.33 1.67 Washington Gap 2006 4 18 0.12 6.33 326.67 2.00 Washington Gap 2006 5 12 0.01 4.33 373.33 2.33 Washington Gap 2006 7 22 0.10 3.33 266.67 2.33 Washington Gap 2006 9 17 0.04 7.33 290.00 3.00 Washington Gap 2006 11 14 0.06 3.67 330.00 2.33 Washington Gin 2006 1 22 0.08 4.00 283.33 1.33 Washington Gin 2006 4 18 0.06 5.67 296.67 2.00 Washington Gin 2006 5 12 0.03 5.00 343.33 5.00 Washington Gin 2006 7 22 0.02 3.33 283.33 2.00 Washington Gin 2006 8 17 0.05 8.67 323.33 3.00 Washington Gin 2006 9 17 0.04 8.33 320.00 2.33 Washington Gin 2006 11 14 0.05 2.00 276.67 2.00 Washington Little River 2006 1 22 0.09 7.33 376.67 3.00 Washington Little River 2006 4 18 0.13 10.67 440.00 5.67 Washington Little River 2006 5 12 0.01 10.67 503.33 6.33 Washington Little River 2006 7 22 0.09 12.33 483.33 8.67

PAGE 79

79Table A-1. Continued County Lake Year Month Day Microcystin concentration (g/L) Total phosphorus (g/L) Total nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Washington Little River 2006 8 17 0.07 18.33 540.00 13.00 Washington Little River 2006 9 17 0.06 20.33 630.00 21.67

PAGE 80

80Table A-2. Microcystin, nutrient, an d chlorophyll data for Harris Chain of Lakes in Lake County, Florida. County Lake Station Month Day Year Microcystin Concentration (g/L) Total Phosphorus (g/L) Total Nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Lake Beauclaire 1 9 13 2006 1.54 83.00 3930.00 208.60 Lake Beauclaire 2 9 13 2006 1.94 80.00 3920.00 208.50 Lake Beauclaire 3 9 13 2006 1.95 86.00 3760.00 185.70 Lake Dora East 1 9 13 2006 2.88 47.00 3330.00 151.90 Lake Dora East 2 9 13 2006 2.43 46.00 3350.00 147.20 Lake Dora East 3 9 13 2006 1.93 48.00 3330.00 138.20 Lake Dora West 1 9 13 2006 2.39 34.00 3110.00 119.80 Lake Dora West 2 9 13 2006 2.85 36.00 3110.00 119.80 Lake Dora West 3 9 13 2006 2.35 40.00 3190.00 116.20 Lake Eustis 1 9 13 2006 0.29 36.00 2220.00 73.00 Lake Eustis 2 9 13 2006 0.26 33.00 2120.00 75.50 Lake Eustis 3 9 13 2006 0.26 32.00 2110.00 76.70 Lake Griffin 1 9 13 2006 1.53 37.00 1970.00 62.50 Lake Griffin 2 9 13 2006 1.12 35.00 2080.00 64.00 Lake Griffin 3 9 13 2006 1.49 35.00 1930.00 59.10 Lake Harris 1 9 13 2006 0.09 36.00 1560.00 58.40 Lake Harris 2 9 13 2006 0.13 35.00 1600.00 54.60 Lake Harris 3 9 13 2006 0.13 33.00 1530.00 55.80 Lake Beauclaire 1 10 11 2006 2.37 84.00 4370.00 213.10 Lake Beauclaire 2 10 11 2006 2.51 81.00 4210.00 213.40 Lake Beauclaire 3 10 11 2006 1.34 84.00 4260.00 192.10 Lake Dora East 1 10 11 2006 1.30 58.00 3610.00 159.40 Lake Dora East 2 10 11 2006 1.94 50.00 3620.00 154.40 Lake Dora East 3 10 11 2006 3.59 50.00 3580.00 155.50 Lake Dora West 1 10 11 2006 2.35 38.00 3440.00 122.90 Lake Dora West 2 10 11 2006 1.75 39.00 3260.00 120.90

PAGE 81

81Table.A-2. Continued County Lake Station Month Day Year Microcystin Concentration (g/L) Total Phosphorus (g/L) Total Nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Lake Dora West 3 10 11 2006 2.07 42.00 3330.00 117.90 Lake Eustis 1 10 11 2006 0.25 34.00 2340.00 60.10 Lake Eustis 2 10 11 2006 0.37 33.00 2210.00 60.30 Lake Eustis 3 10 11 2006 0.12 30.00 2170.00 57.50 Lake Griffin 1 10 11 2006 1.50 39.00 2210.00 63.10 Lake Griffin 2 10 11 2006 1.60 40.00 2250.00 65.80 Lake Griffin 3 10 11 2006 1.03 38.00 2180.00 60.30 Lake Harris 1 10 11 2006 0.19 32.00 1670.00 52.80 Lake Harris 2 10 11 2006 0.23 31.00 1690.00 56.30 Lake Harris 3 10 11 2006 0.12 29.00 1660.00 56.50 Lake Beauclaire 1 11 29 2006 1.91 101.00 3930.00 200.00 Lake Beauclaire 2 11 29 2006 2.26 100.00 4190.00 192.50 Lake Beauclaire 3 11 29 2006 2.85 108.00 3790.00 165.80 Lake Dora East 1 11 29 2006 0.20 58.00 3020.00 131.70 Lake Dora East 2 11 29 2006 1.21 57.00 3150.00 120.50 Lake Dora East 3 11 29 2006 1.04 60.00 3170.00 132.70 Lake Dora West 1 11 29 2006 1.78 48.00 2820.00 102.40 Lake Dora West 2 11 29 2006 1.84 52.00 3010.00 107.30 Lake Dora West 3 11 29 2006 1.49 54.00 3300.00 110.90 Lake Eustis 1 11 29 2006 0.80 42.00 2300.00 59.20 Lake Eustis 2 11 29 2006 0.26 40.00 2240.00 62.60 Lake Eustis 3 11 29 2006 0.27 38.00 2330.00 59.40 Lake Griffin 1 11 29 2006 0.81 51.00 2230.00 71.90 Lake Griffin 2 11 29 2006 1.45 52.00 2130.00 75.00 Lake Griffin 3 11 29 2006 0.87 53.00 2530.00 71.00 Lake Harris 1 11 29 2006 0.21 36.00 1770.00 61.00 Lake Harris 2 11 29 2006 0.24 34.00 1660.00 62.90

PAGE 82

82Table.A-2. Continued County Lake Station Month Day Year Microcystin Concentration (g/L) Total Phosphorus (g/L) Total Nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Lake Harris 3 11 29 2006 0.12 32.00 1700.00 62.90 Lake Beauclaire 1 12 14 2006 0.39 101.00 4050.00 192.40 Lake Beauclaire 2 12 14 2006 0.59 111.00 3960.00 202.30 Lake Beauclaire 3 12 14 2006 0.52 100.00 3950.00 193.60 Lake Dora East 1 12 14 2006 0.63 66.00 3320.00 139.00 Lake Dora East 2 12 14 2006 0.57 66.00 3250.00 147.30 Lake Dora East 3 12 14 2006 0.38 62.00 3250.00 146.20 Lake Dora West 1 12 14 2006 0.52 57.00 3170.00 125.50 Lake Dora West 2 12 14 2006 0.47 52.00 3120.00 118.80 Lake Dora West 3 12 14 2006 0.23 54.00 3120.00 115.20 Lake Eustis 1 12 14 2006 0.03 35.00 2190.00 60.80 Lake Eustis 2 12 14 2006 0.04 37.00 2080.00 61.70 Lake Eustis 3 12 14 2006 0.05 33.00 2010.00 57.80 Lake Griffin 1 12 14 2006 0.27 53.00 2350.00 77.60 Lake Griffin 2 12 14 2006 0.35 53.00 2270.00 78.40 Lake Griffin 3 12 14 2006 0.16 51.00 2210.00 72.10 Lake Harris 1 12 14 2006 0.08 37.00 1700.00 69.90 Lake Harris 2 12 14 2006 0.03 34.00 1730.00 68.20 Lake Harris 3 12 14 2006 0.04 33.00 1670.00 63.50 Lake Beauclaire 1 1 23 2007 0.86 99.00 3900.00 191.90 Lake Beauclaire 2 1 23 2007 0.91 86.00 3880.00 196.40 Lake Beauclaire 3 1 23 2007 0.86 102.00 3860.00 197.30 Lake Dora East 1 1 23 2007 0.75 66.00 3250.00 146.20 Lake Dora East 2 1 23 2007 0.60 66.00 3200.00 145.20 Lake Dora East 3 1 23 2007 0.55 63.00 3180.00 145.20 Lake Dora West 1 1 23 2007 0.74 61.00 3190.00 126.00

PAGE 83

83Table.A-2. Continued County Lake Station Month Day Year Microcystin Concentration (g/L) Total Phosphorus (g/L) Total Nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Lake Dora West 2 1 23 2007 0.69 62.00 3200.00 124.30 Lake Dora West 3 1 23 2007 0.70 63.00 3290.00 124.20 Lake Eustis 1 1 23 2007 0.28 40.00 2510.00 79.50 Lake Eustis 2 1 23 2007 0.18 39.00 2370.00 74.00 Lake Eustis 3 1 23 2007 0.14 41.00 2360.00 77.50 Lake Griffin 1 1 23 2007 1.06 70.00 3020.00 117.80 Lake Griffin 2 1 23 2007 1.08 72.00 3080.00 125.10 Lake Griffin 3 1 23 2007 1.04 66.00 3140.00 119.60 Lake Harris 1 1 23 2007 0.45 44.00 2040.00 77.70 Lake Harris 2 1 23 2007 0.12 41.00 2000.00 80.20 Lake Harris 3 1 23 2007 0.12 39.00 2090.00 82.60 Lake Beauclaire 1 2 27 2007 1.01 100.00 3790.00 170.00 Lake Beauclaire 2 2 27 2007 1.00 102.00 3870.00 172.80 Lake Beauclaire 3 2 27 2007 1.08 109.00 3870.00 169.10 Lake Dora East 1 2 27 2007 0.63 70.00 3292.00 132.50 Lake Dora East 2 2 27 2007 0.59 70.00 3310.00 138.00 Lake Dora East 3 2 27 2007 0.52 68.00 3250.00 134.40 Lake Dora West 1 2 27 2007 0.57 61.00 3090.00 118.90 Lake Dora West 2 2 27 2007 0.65 59.00 3130.00 118.60 Lake Dora West 3 2 27 2007 0.99 60.00 3240.00 118.10 Lake Eustis 1 2 27 2007 0.24 44.00 2350.00 61.20 Lake Eustis 2 2 27 2007 0.26 41.00 2180.00 60.10 Lake Eustis 3 2 27 2007 0.30 45.00 2590.00 62.00 Lake Griffin 1 2 27 2007 0.95 68.00 3270.00 105.00 Lake Griffin 2 2 27 2007 0.75 64.00 3110.00 106.90 Lake Griffin 3 2 27 2007 0.83 62.00 3120.00 101.40

PAGE 84

84Table.A-2. Continued County Lake Station Month Day Year Microcystin Concentration (g/L) Total Phosphorus (g/L) Total Nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Lake Harris 1 2 27 2007 0.12 37.00 1890.00 67.50 Lake Harris 2 2 27 2007 0.11 42.00 1960.00 69.10 Lake Harris 3 2 27 2007 0.14 43.00 1940.00 72.80 Lake Beauclaire 1 3 27 2007 1.26 117.00 4540.00 213.20 Lake Beauclaire 2 3 27 2007 0.87 117.00 4580.00 223.10 Lake Beauclaire 3 3 27 2007 1.22 130.00 4700.00 198.50 Lake Dora East 1 3 27 2007 1.00 79.00 3570.00 180.40 Lake Dora East 2 3 27 2007 0.85 80.00 3710.00 170.60 Lake Dora East 3 3 27 2007 0.75 76.00 3670.00 163.40 Lake Dora West 1 3 27 2007 1.08 67.00 3430.00 152.20 Lake Dora West 2 3 27 2007 0.78 64.00 3490.00 141.20 Lake Dora West 3 3 27 2007 0.63 63.00 3350.00 151.10 Lake Eustis 1 3 27 2007 0.24 47.00 2530.00 73.80 Lake Eustis 2 3 27 2007 0.19 46.00 2370.00 71.80 Lake Eustis 3 3 27 2007 0.20 46.00 2450.00 71.80 Lake Griffin 1 3 27 2007 0.75 69.00 3310.00 149.70 Lake Griffin 2 3 27 2007 0.67 64.00 3320.00 146.00 Lake Griffin 3 3 27 2007 1.07 75.00 3560.00 162.00 Lake Harris 1 3 27 2007 0.15 48.00 2320.00 84.60 Lake Harris 2 3 27 2007 0.14 45.00 2290.00 91.10 Lake Harris 3 3 27 2007 0.22 46.00 2270.00 87.40 Lake Beauclaire 1 4 24 2007 0.95 103.00 4930.00 273.10 Lake Beauclaire 2 4 24 2007 0.83 118.00 4980.00 290.30 Lake Beauclaire 3 4 24 2007 1.03 123.00 5040.00 295.90 Lake Dora East 1 4 24 2007 0.81 91.00 4450.00 220.40 Lake Dora East 2 4 24 2007 0.82 69.00 4050.00 216.00 Lake Dora East 3 4 24 2007 0.74 72.00 4020.00 210.00

PAGE 85

85Table.A-2. Continued County Lake Station Month Day Year Microcystin Concentration (g/L) Total Phosphorus (g/L) Total Nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Lake Dora West 1 4 24 2007 0.55 61.00 3880.00 190.80 Lake Dora West 2 4 24 2007 0.55 63.00 3870.00 183.90 Lake Dora West 3 4 24 2007 0.76 68.00 4010.00 96.40 Lake Eustis 1 4 24 2007 0.32 51.00 2810.00 88.00 Lake Eustis 2 4 24 2007 0.32 52.00 2730.00 95.50 Lake Eustis 3 4 24 2007 0.41 50.00 2780.00 94.40 Lake Griffin 1 4 24 2007 0.90 79.00 3990.00 199.70 Lake Griffin 2 4 24 2007 0.68 71.00 4000.00 190.90 Lake Griffin 3 4 24 2007 1.03 75.00 4110.00 202.20 Lake Harris 1 4 24 2007 0.22 49.00 2420.00 100.30 Lake Harris 2 4 24 2007 0.41 49.00 2390.00 93.90 Lake Harris 3 4 24 2007 0.58 48.00 2430.00 101.10 Lake Beauclaire 1 5 30 2007 1.91 85.00 4400.00 161.30 Lake Beauclaire 2 5 30 2007 2.27 90.00 4460.00 165.10 Lake Beauclaire 3 5 30 2007 2.39 88.00 4350.00 145.40 Lake Dora East 1 5 30 2007 1.15 57.00 3890.00 190.00 Lake Dora East 2 5 30 2007 1.04 53.00 3910.00 193.60 Lake Dora East 3 5 30 2007 1.01 60.00 4240.00 198.70 Lake Dora West 1 5 30 2007 0.94 56.00 3980.00 193.70 Lake Dora West 2 5 30 2007 1.23 62.00 3960.00 192.20 Lake Dora West 3 5 30 2007 1.28 63.00 4250.00 198.00 Lake Eustis 1 5 30 2007 0.65 61.00 3600.00 138.00 Lake Eustis 2 5 30 2007 0.46 58.00 3510.00 137.90 Lake Eustis 3 5 30 2007 0.65 59.00 3840.00 140.50 Lake Griffin 1 5 30 2007 1.29 76.00 4510.00 215.50 Lake Griffin 2 5 30 2007 1.33 70.00 4290.00 225.70

PAGE 86

86Table.A-2. Continued County Lake Station Month Day Year Microcystin Concentration (g/L) Total Phosphorus (g/L) Total Nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Lake Griffin 3 5 30 2007 1.37 72.00 4440.00 195.40 Lake Harris 1 5 30 2007 0.47 48.00 2290.00 83.00 Lake Harris 2 5 30 2007 0.42 46.00 2280.00 78.50 Lake Harris 3 5 30 2007 0.54 42.00 2260.00 83.00 Lake Beauclaire 1 6 26 2007 3.24 66.00 3360.00 124.30 Lake Beauclaire 2 6 26 2007 3.12 74.00 3180.00 138.30 Lake Beauclaire 3 6 26 2007 3.42 79.00 3450.00 124.50 Lake Dora East 1 6 26 2007 1.99 52.00 3770.00 152.00 Lake Dora East 2 6 26 2007 1.54 47.00 3820.00 138.40 Lake Dora East 3 6 26 2007 1.58 42.00 3700.00 146.20 Lake Dora West 1 6 26 2007 0.98 Lake Dora West 2 6 26 2007 0.92 49.00 3600.00 152.00 Lake Dora West 3 6 26 2007 0.89 46.00 3600.00 152.20 Lake Eustis 1 6 26 2007 0.62 Lake Eustis 2 6 26 2007 0.68 52.00 3000.00 145.20 Lake Eustis 3 6 26 2007 0.70 52.00 3150.00 141.30 Lake Griffin 1 6 26 2007 0.66 54.00 2940.00 124.50 Lake Griffin 2 6 26 2007 1.12 58.00 3210.00 176.10 Lake Griffin 3 6 26 2007 1.18 60.00 3320.00 147.40 Lake Harris 1 6 26 2007 0.42 42.00 1980.00 69.10 Lake Harris 2 6 26 2007 0.79 Lake Harris 3 6 26 2007 0.91 41.00 1900.00 75.50 Lake Beauclaire 1 7 25 2007 3.15 80.00 4170.00 176.90 Lake Beauclaire 2 7 25 2007 3.00 66.00 3880.00 161.20 Lake Beauclaire 3 7 25 2007 2.33 84.00 3730.00 140.50 Lake Dora East 1 7 25 2007 1.82 42.00 3850.00 137.10 Lake Dora East 2 7 25 2007 1.74 36.00 3600.00 130.70

PAGE 87

87Table.A-2. Continued County Lake Station Month Day Year Microcystin Concentration (g/L) Total Phosphorus (g/L) Total Nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Lake Dora East 3 7 25 2007 1.57 36.00 3640.00 133.40 Lake Dora West 1 7 25 2007 1.19 33.00 3530.00 114.30 Lake Dora West 2 7 25 2007 1.00 33.00 3710.00 114.30 Lake Dora West 3 7 25 2007 1.46 33.00 3520.00 124.30 Lake Eustis 1 7 25 2007 0.33 39.00 3020.00 108.70 Lake Eustis 2 7 25 2007 0.40 43.00 3110.00 115.10 Lake Eustis 3 7 25 2007 0.26 38.00 2990.00 104.20 Lake Griffin 1 7 25 2007 0.78 42.00 3450.00 129.10 Lake Griffin 2 7 25 2007 0.94 49.00 3660.00 148.40 Lake Griffin 3 7 25 2007 0.79 48.00 3500.00 128.90 Lake Harris 1 7 25 2007 1.13 41.00 2420.00 84.00 Lake Harris 2 7 25 2007 1.03 39.00 2320.00 74.80 Lake Harris 3 7 25 2007 0.95 34.00 2340.00 82.90 Lake Beauclaire 1 8 21 2007 2.12 80.00 4240.00 180.10 Lake Beauclaire 2 8 21 2007 2.10 80.00 4200.00 175.50 Lake Beauclaire 3 8 21 2007 1.96 86.00 4160.00 170.00 Lake Dora East 1 8 21 2007 1.67 42.00 3480.00 127.20 Lake Dora East 2 8 21 2007 1.74 44.00 3440.00 126.30 Lake Dora East 3 8 21 2007 2.79 45.00 3470.00 129.90 Lake Dora West 1 8 21 2007 2.12 38.00 3420.00 129.30 Lake Dora West 2 8 21 2007 1.26 36.00 3410.00 114.40 Lake Dora West 3 8 21 2007 1.38 36.00 3390.00 111.60 Lake Eustis 1 8 21 2007 0.43 44.00 2810.00 91.20 Lake Eustis 2 8 21 2007 0.37 43.00 2790.00 99.60 Lake Eustis 3 8 21 2007 0.53 43.00 2880.00 99.50 Lake Griffin 1 8 21 2007 0.71 44.00 3440.00 113.20

PAGE 88

88Table.A-2. Continued County Lake Station Month Day Year Microcystin Concentration (g/L) Total Phosphorus (g/L) Total Nitrogen (g/L) Chlorophyll (g/L) Lake Griffin 2 8 21 2007 1.62 46.00 3330.00 134.50 Lake Griffin 3 8 21 2007 0.72 44.00 3460.00 120.70 Lake Harris 1 8 21 2007 0.95 39.00 2340.00 Lake Harris 2 8 21 2007 1.05 35.00 2030.00 61.90 Lake Harris 3 8 21 2007 1.14 37.00 2060.00 65.70

PAGE 89

89 LIST OF REFERENCES Agusti, S., C.M. Duarte, D.E. Canfi eld, Jr. 1990. Phytoplankton abundance in Florida lakes: Evidence for the frequent lack of nut rient limitation. Limnol ogy and Oceanography 35(1):181-188. Ahn, C.Y., S.H. Joung, C.S. Park, H.S. Ki m, B-D. Yoon, H.M Oh. 2008. Comparison of sampling and analytical methods for mon itoring of cyanobacteria-dominated surface waters. Hydrobiologia 596:413-412. APHA (American Public Health Association. 1992. American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation. Standard me thods for the examination of water and wastewater, 18th edition. APHA, Washington, D.C. Ashworth, C.T. and M.F. Mason. 1946. Observati ons on the pathological changes produced by a toxic substance present in blue-green algae ( Microcystis aeruginosa ). American Journal of Pathology 22:369-383. Bachmann, R.W., M.V. Hoyer, and D.E. Canfie ld, Jr. 2003. Predicting the frequencies of high chlorophyll levels in Florida lakes from aver age chlorophyll or nutrient data. Lake and Reservoir Management 19(3):229-241. Bartram, J., M. Burch, I.R. Falconer, G. Jone s, T. Kuiper-Goodman. 1999. Situation assessment, planning, and management. Pages 179-209 in Chorus, I. and J. Bartram, editors. Toxic cyanobacteria in water. A guide to thei r public health consequences, monitoring, and management. Fr WHO durch E & FN Spon/Chapman & Hall, London. Botes, D.P., A.A. Tuinman, P.L. Wessels, C.C. Viljoen, and H. Kruger. 1984. The structure of cyanoginosin-LA, a cyclic heptapeptide toxin from the Microcysystis aeruginosa Journal of Chemical Society-Pe rkin Transactions 1:2311-2318. Brown, C.D., D.E. Canfield, Jr., R.W. Bachmann, and M.V. Hoyer. 1998. Seasonal patterns of chlorophyll, nutrient concentr ations and Secchi disk transparency in Florida lakes. Journal of Lake and Reser voir Management 14(1):60-76. Brown, C.D., D.E. Canfield, Jr., R.W. Bachma nn, and M.V. Hoyer. 1999. Evaluation of surface sampling for estimates of chlo rophyll, total phosphorus, and to tal nitrogen concentrations in shallow Florida lakes. Journal of Lake and Reservoir Management 15(2):121-132. Brown, C.D., M.V. Hoyer, R.W. Bachmann, a nd D.E. Canfield, Jr. 2000. Nutrient-chlorophyll relationships: an evaluation of empirical nutrient-chlorophyll mode ls using Florida and north-temperate lake data. Canadian Jour nal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57: 1574-1583. Bachmann, R.W. and D.E. Canfie ld, Jr. 1996. Use of an alternative method for monitoring total nitrogen concentrations in Fl orida lakes. Hydrobi ologia 323:1-8.

PAGE 90

90 Canfield, Jr., D.E., C.D. Brown, R.W. Bach mann, and M.V. Hoyer. 2002. Volunteer lake monitoring: testing the reliability of data collected by the Florida LAKEWATCH program. Lake and Reservoir Management 18(1):1-9. Canfield, Jr., D.E., and M.V. Hoyer. 1988. Regi onal geology and the chemical and trophic state characteristics of Florida Lakes. Lake and Reservoir Management 4(1):21-31. Canfield, D.E., Jr., S.B. Linda, and L.M. Hodgson. 1985. Chlorophyll-biomass-nutrient relationships for natural assemblages of Florida phytoplankton. Water Resource Bulletin 21(3):381-391. Canfield, D.E., Jr., E.J. Phlips, and C.M. Du arte. 1989. Factors influenc ing the abundance of blue-green algae in Florida lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 46: 1232-1237. Carmichael, W. W. 1986. Algal toxins Advances in Botanical Research 12:47-101. Carmichael, W. W. 1994. The toxins of cyanobacteria. Scientific American 270:78-86. Chorus, I. and J. Bartram. (Eds.). Toxic cya nobacteria in water. 1999. A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring, and ma nagement. Fr WHO durch E & FN Spon/ Chapman & Hall, London, 416 p. Codd, G.A. and S.G. Bell. 1996. The occurrence and fate of blue-green algal toxins in freshwaters. National Rivers Authorit y, R&D Report 29, Her Majestys Stationary Office, London. Codd, G.A., S.G. Bell, K. Kaya, C.J. Ward, K. A. Beattie, J.S. Metcalf. 1999. Cyanobacterial toxins, exposure routes and human health. European Journal of Phycology 34:405-415. Codd, G.A., I Chorus, and M. Burch. 1999. Desi gn of monitoring programs. Pages 331-328 in Chorus, I. and J. Bartram, editors. Toxic cya nobacteria in water. A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring, and management. Fr WHO durch E & FN Spon/Chapman & Hall, London. Crumpton, W.G., T.M. Isenhart, and P.D. Mitc hell. 1992. Nitrate and organic N analysis with second-derivative spectrosc opy. Limnology and Oceanography 37(4):907-913. Dawson, R. M. 1998. Review article: The toxi cology of microcystin s. Toxicon 36(7):953962. Deevey, Jr., E.S. 1940. Limnological studies in Connecticut. V. A contribution to regional limnology. American Journal of Science 238(10):717-741.

PAGE 91

91 DElia, C.F., P.A. Steudler, and N. Corwin. 1977. De termination of total n itrogen in aqueous samples using persulfate digestion. Limnology and Oceanography 22:760-764. Duarte, C.M., S. Agusti, and D.E. Canfiel d, Jr. 1992. Patterns in phytoplankton community structure in Florida lakes. Lim nology and Oceanography 37(1):155-161. Falconer, I.R., J. Bartram, I. Chorus, T. Kuip er-Goodman, H. Utkilen, M. Burch, and G.A. Codd. 1999. Safe levels and safe practices. Pages 155-178 in Chorus, I. and J. Bartram, editors. Toxic cyanobacteria in water. A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring, and management. Fr WHO durch E & FN Spon/Chapman & Hall, London. Falconer, I.R. and A.R. Humpage. 1996. Tu mor promotion by cyanobacteria toxins. Phycologia 35:74-79. Forsburg, C. and S.O. Ryding. 1980. Eutrophication parameters and trophi c state indices in 30 Swedish waste-receiving lakes. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 89:189-207. Fromme, H., A. Khler, R. Krause, and D. Fhrling. 2000. Occurrence of cyanobacterial toxinsmicrocystins and anatoxin-a-in Berlin water bodies with implications to human health and regulations. Environmental Toxicology 15:120-130. Giani, A., D.F. Bird, Y.T. Prairie, and J.F. Lawrence. 2005. Empirical study of cyanobacterial toxicity along a trophic grad ient of lakes. Canadian Jour nal of Aquatic Sciences 62: 2100-2109. GreenWater Laboratories. 2005. The presence of toxin producing blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and the identification and quan tification of toxins in the Harris Chain of Lakes. Report of GreenWater Laboratorie s to the Lake County Water Authority, Tavares, FL. Griffith, G.E., D.E. Canfield, Jr., C.A. Ho rsburg, and J.M. Omernik. 1997. Lake regions of Florida. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protec tion Agency), report R-97/127 Corvallis, Oregon. Haddix, P.L., C.J. Hughley, M.W. LeChevallier 2007. Occurrence of microcystins in 33 US water supplies. Journal American Wa ter Works Association. 99(9):118-125. Harada, K.I., F. Kondo, and L. Lawton. 1999. Labor atory analysis of cyanotoxins. Pages 370405 in Chorus, I. and J. Bartram, editors. Toxic cyanobacteria in water. A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring, and management. Fr WHO durch E & FN Spon/Chapman & Hall, London. Havens, K.E. 2006. Proposal of statewide assessment of cyanobacterial toxins. Submitted to the EPA in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanc tuary or Southeast Florida. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

PAGE 92

92 Havens, K.E. and W.W. Walker. 2002. Developmen t of a total phosphorus concentration goal in the TMDL process for Lake Okeechobee, Florida (USA). Lake and Reservoir Management 18 (3):227-238. Hedger, R.D., N.R.B. Olsen, D.G. George, T.J. Malthus, and P.M. Atkinson. 2004. Modeling spatial distributions of Ceratium hirudnella and Microcystis spp. in a small productive British lake. Hydrobiologia 528:217-227. Heiskary, S.A. and W.W. Walker, Jr. 1988. Deve loping phosphorus criteria for Minnesota lakes. Lake and Reservoir Management 4(1):1-10. Horsburgh, C.A. 1999. Lake regions of Florida: water chemistry and aquatic macrophyte data. Masters thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville. Hyenstrand, P., J.S. Metcalf, K.A. Beattie, a nd G.A. Codd. 2001. Effects of adsorption to plastics and solvent conditions in the analysis of the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR by high performance liquid chromatogr aphy. Water Resource 35(14):3508-3511. Jiang, Y., B. Ji, R.N.S. Wong, and M.H. Wong. 2008. Statistical study of the effects of environmental factors on the growth a nd microcystins production of bloom-forming cyanobacteriumMicrocystins aeruginosa. Harmful Algae 7:127-136. Jacoby, J.M., D.C. Collier, E.B. Welch, F.J. Hardy, and M. Crayton. 2000. Environmental factors associated with a toxic bloom of Microcystis aeruginosa. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57:231-240. Jacoby, J.M. and J. Kann. 2007. The occurrence a nd response to toxic cyanobaterica in the Pacific Northwest, North America. La ke and Reservoir Management 23:123-143. Johnston, B.R and J.M. Jacoby. 2003. Cyanobacter ia toxicity and migration in a mesotrophic lake is western Washington, USA. Hydrobiologia 495:79-91. Jochimsen, E.M., W.M. Carmichael, J. An., D.M. Cardo, S.T. Cookson, E.M. Christianne, M. Bernadete, C. Antunes, D.A. De Melo Filho, T.M. Lyra, V.S.T. Barreto, S.M.F.O Azevedo, and W.R. Jarvis. 1998. Liver failure and death after exposur e to microcystins at a hemodialysis center in Brazil. The New England Journal of Medicine 338(13):873878. Kotak, B.G., A.K.Y. Lam, E.E. Prepas, S.L. Kenefick, and S.E. Hrudey. 1995. Variability of the hepatotoxin microcystin-LR in hypereutroph ic drinking water lakes. Journal of Phycology 31(2):248-263. Kotak, B.G., A.K.Y. Lam, E.E. Prepas, and S.E. Hrudey. 2000. Role of chemical and physical variables in regulation micr ocystin-LR concentration in phyt oplankton of eutrophic lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisherie s and Aquatic Sciences 57:1584-1593.

PAGE 93

93 Kotak, B.G. and R.W. Zurawell. 2007. Cyanobacter ia toxins in Canadian freshwaters: A review. Lake and Reservoir Management 23:109-122. Kupier-Goodman, T., I. Falconer, and J. Fitzgerald. 1999. Human health aspects. Pages 113-153 in Chorus, I. and J. Bartram, editors. Toxic cyanobacteria in water. A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring, and management. Fr WHO durch E & FN Spon/Chapman & Hall, London. Lacky, R.T. 2006. Axioms of Ecological Policy. Fisheries 31(6):286-290. Lawton, L.A. and G.A. Codd 1991. Cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) toxins and their significance in United Kingdom and European wa ters. Journal of the Institute of Water and Environmental Management 5:460-465. Lehman, E.M. 2007. Seasonal oc currence and toxicity of Microcystis in impoundments of Huron River, Michigan, USA. Water Research 41:795-802. Lund, J.W.G. 1969. Phytoplankton. Eutrophication: causes, conse quences, correctives. Pages 306-330 in Rohlich, G.A., editor. Na tional Academy of Sciences. Washington, D.C. Menzel, D.W. and N. Corwin. 1965. The measuremen t of total phosphorus in seawater based on the liberation of organically bound fracti ons by persulfate oxidation. Limnology and Oceanography 10:280-282. Metcalf, J.S. and G.A. Codd. 2000. Microwave oven and boiling water bath extraction of hepatotoxins from cyanobacterial cell s. FEMS Microbiology Letters 184:241-246. Metcalf, J.S., P. Hyenstrand, K.A. Beattier, and G.A. Codd. 2000. Effects of physicochemical variables and cyanobacteria l extracts on the immunoassay of microcystin-LR by two ELISA kits. Journal of A pplied Microbiology 89:532-538. Murphy, J. and J.P. Riley. 1962. A modified si ngle solution method for determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analyt ica Chimica Acta 27:31-36. Oh, H.M, S.J. Lee, J.H. Kim, H.S. Kim, and B.D, Yoon. 2001. Seasonal variation and indirect monitoring of microcystin concentrations in Daechung Reservoir, Korea. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67(4):1484-1489. Park, H.D., B. Kim, E. Kim, and T. Oki no. 1998. Hepatotoxin microcystins and neurotoxic anatoxin-a in cyanobacterial blooms from Ko rean lakes. Environmental Toxicology and Water Quality 13:225-234. Rapala, J., K. Sivonen, C. Lyra, and S.I. Niemela. 1997. Variation of microcystins, cyanobacterial hepatotoxins, in Anabaena as a function of growth stimuli. Applied and Environmental Micr obiology 63(6):2206-2212.

PAGE 94

94 Reynolds, C.S. 1997. Vegetation processes in the pelagic: A model for ecosystem theory. Excellence Ecology. No. 9. Ecology Inst, Oldendorf/Luhe, Germany. Robarts, R.D. and T. Zohary. 1987. Temperature effects on photosynthetic ca pacity, respiration, and growth rates of bloom-forming cyanobacteria. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 21:391-399. Rolland, A., D.F. Bird, and A. Giani. 2005. Seasonal changes in composition of the cyanobacterial community and the occurren ce of hepatotoxin blooms in the eastern townships, Qubec, Canada. Journal of Plankton Research 27(7):683-694. Sakamoto, M. 1966. Primary production by phytopla nkton community in some Japanese lakes and its dependence on lake depth. Archiv fr Hydrobiologie 62(1):1-28. Sartory, D.P. and J.U. Grobbelarr. 1984. Extraction of chlorophyll a from freshwater phytoplankton for spectrophotometric an alysis. Hydrobiolog ia 114:117-187. Schopf, J.W. and B.M. Packer. 1987. Early arch ean (3.3billion to 3.5 billion year-old) microfossils from Warrawoona Group, Au stralia. Science 237(4810):70-73. Sedmack, B. and K. Gorazd. 1998. The role of microcystins in heavy cyanobacterial bloom formation. Journal of Plankton Research 20(4):691-708. Simal, J., M.A. Lage, I. Iglesias. 1985. Second derivative ultraviolet sp ectroscopy and sulfamic acid for determination of nitrates in water. Journal of Association of Official Analytical Chemists 68:962-964. Sivonen, K. and G. Jones. 1999. Cyanobacterial toxins. Pages 41-111 in Chorus, I. and J. Bartram, editors. Toxic cyanobacteria in water. A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring, and management. Fr WHO durch E & FN Spon/Chapman & Hall, London. Stanier, R. Y., R. Kunisawa, M. Mandel, and G. Cohenbaz. 1971. Purification and properties of unicellular blue-green alg ae (Order Chroococcales). B acteriological Reviews 35:171-205. Steinberg, C.E.W. and H.M. Hartman. 1988. Pla nktonic bloom-forming cyanobacteria and the eutrophication of lakes and rive rs. Freshwater Biology 20:279-287. Steyn, D.G. 1943. Poisoning of animals by algae on dams and pans. Farm South Africa 18: 489510. Tillimanns, A.R., F.R. Pick, and R. Aranda -Rodriguez. 2007. Sampling and analysis of microcystins: implications for the developm ent of standardized me thods. Environmental Toxicology 22:132-143.

PAGE 95

95 Verhagen, J.H.G. 1994. Modeling phytoplankton pa tchiness under the influence of wind-driven currents in lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 39(7):1551-1565. Wetzel, R.G. 1966. Variations in productivity of Goose and hypereutrophic Sylvan lakes, Indiana. Investigations of I ndiana Lakes and Streams 7:147-184. Williams, C.D., M.T., Aubel, M.T., A.D. Chapman, P.E. D Aiuto. 2007. Identification of cyanobacteria toxins in Floridas freshwat er systems. Lake and Reservoir Management 23:144-152. Wollin, K.M. 1987. Nitrate determination in surface wa ters as an example of the application of UV derivative spectrometry to enviro nmental analysis. Acta Hydrochimica Hydrobiologia 15:459-469. Wood, S.A., P.T. Holland, D.J. Stirling, L.R. Briggs, J. Sprosen, J.G. Ruck, R.G. Wear. Survey of cyanotoxins in New Zealand wate r bodies between 2001 and 2004. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Fres hwater Research 40:585-597. World Health Organization. 2003. Guidelines for sa fe recreational water environments. Coastal and Fresh Waters Volume 1. Geneva, Switzerland. Wu, S.K., P. Xie, G.D. Liang, S.B. Wang, and X.M. Liang. 2006. Relationships between microcystins and environmental parameters in 30 subtropical shallow lakes along the Yangtze River, China. Freshwater Biology 51:2309-2319. Zurawell, R.W., C. Huirong, J.M. Burke, and E.E. Prepas.2004. Hepato toxic cyanobacteria: A review of the biological impor tance of microcystins in fres hwater environments. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental H ealth, Part B, 8(1):1-37.

PAGE 96

96 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Dana Bigham grew up in snowy Minnesota. She graduated from Edina High School in 2001 with a broad interest in biology. Attending the University of WisconsinMadison for her undergraduate degree, Dana was presented with many opportunities, such as being elected and serving on the Wisconsin Alumni Student Orga nization and working for the Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Department as a lab technician to understand the molecular mechanisms of melanoma eye cancer. Her broa d biological interest narrowed to limnology as she completed an undergraduate research paper on the vegetative pref erences of the limnetic and benthic sticklebacks (Gasterosteus spp.) in British Columbia. She graduated in 2005 from University of WisconsinMadison double majoring in zoology and biological aspects of conservation. Thereafter, Dana worked for the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources completing Wisconsin statewide projects (1) a su rvey of Eurasian Watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum L.) to better lake management practices and (2) th e impact of agriculture and rural development on aquatic macrophyte productivity. Working long hours in the cold waters of the north drove her southward to complete her masters degree with Dr. Daniel E. Canfield, Jr at the University of Florida Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. In her spare time, Dana enjoys running, camping, attempting to surf; basically anything that is outside and spending time with family and friends.