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Use of an Electronic Interactive Storybook in an Intervention to Change Adolescents' Attitudes toward Academic Responsibility

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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022412/00001

Material Information

Title: Use of an Electronic Interactive Storybook in an Intervention to Change Adolescents' Attitudes toward Academic Responsibility
Physical Description: 1 online resource (106 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Baker, Timothy
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: counseling, school, technology
Counselor Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: School Counseling and Guidance thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: One charge to school counselors is to enhance the personal growth of high school students by helping them take personal responsibility for their academic success. Our study evaluated an experimental, computer-based multimedia procedure to assess its effects on students' (N= 177) academic responsibility, rational beliefs, and knowledge of graduation requirements. It was found that the computer-based procedure was successful at increasing students' knowledge of the graduation requirements. However, academic responsibility and rational beliefs were not affected. Recommendations for continued research are presented.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Timothy Baker.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Loesch, Larry C.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022412:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022412/00001

Material Information

Title: Use of an Electronic Interactive Storybook in an Intervention to Change Adolescents' Attitudes toward Academic Responsibility
Physical Description: 1 online resource (106 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Baker, Timothy
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: counseling, school, technology
Counselor Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: School Counseling and Guidance thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: One charge to school counselors is to enhance the personal growth of high school students by helping them take personal responsibility for their academic success. Our study evaluated an experimental, computer-based multimedia procedure to assess its effects on students' (N= 177) academic responsibility, rational beliefs, and knowledge of graduation requirements. It was found that the computer-based procedure was successful at increasing students' knowledge of the graduation requirements. However, academic responsibility and rational beliefs were not affected. Recommendations for continued research are presented.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Timothy Baker.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Loesch, Larry C.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022412:00001


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USE OF AN ELECTRONIC INTERACTIVE STORYBOOK IN AN INTERVENTION TO
CHANGE ADOLESCENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD ACADEMIC RESPONSIBILITY





















By

TIMOTHY D. BAKER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008


































2008 Timothy D. Baker
































To the ones who stayed in
when the cards were down









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

My wife, Ana Isabel Spence-Baker, shared with me her support, ideas, and patience. My

advisor, Dr. Larry C. Loesch, allowed me to learn in my own way while guiding me through

challenges. The schools and School Board administration of Levy County, Florida, opened

themselves to trying something new and innovative and experimental to benefit their students.

Finally, the University of Florida Alumni, through their generous support, provided me with the

opportunity without which none of this could have happened this way.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ..............................................................................................................4

L IST O F T A B L E S ..................................................................................................... . 7

LIST OF FIGURES .................................. .. ..... ..... ................. .8

ABSTRAC T ...........................................................................................

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION .......................................................................... .. ... .... 10

N nature of School C counseling ................................................................................... 11
T heoretical F ram ew ork .......... ...................................................................... ........ .. .... 14
Need for the Study ..................................................................... ........ 15
Purpose of the Study ............... ............... .......... .................... ......... 16
R rationale for the M methodology .................................................................. .. .....................17
H ypotheses.......... .............................. ................................................ 17
D definition of Term s ...... .................................... ...................... ........ .. ........ .. 18

2 REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE ...... ................ ............... 19

C og n itiv e T h erapy ......................................................................... 19
Cognitive-B ehavioral Therapy ............................................... ............................. 19
R ational-E m otive Therapy ........................................... .................. ............... 20
Integration and D differentiation ................................................................... ............... 21
Research and Applications of Cognitive Therapy.........................................................22
Locus of Control Issues .................... .................... ...................25
School C counseling P perspectives ............................................................... ......... ...............30
D evelopm ents in Cognitive A ssessm ent ........................................ .......................... 34
R ational-Em otive A ssessm ents ............................................... ............................ 34
Other Cognitive A ssessm ents ............................................................ ............... .36
A ssessing L ocu s of C control .................................................................................. .... 37
Use of the Academic Locus of Control Scale with High School Students ..................38
S u m m ary ................... ................... ...................8..........

3 METHODOLOGY ............................. .................................. 40

Relevant Variables................. .......... .. .... ..... ..................40
P o p u latio n ................... ...................4...................1..........
Sam pling Procedures ................................... .. .... ...... .. ............43
R esultant Sam ple .............................................................................44
R e se a rc h D e sig n ............................................................................................................... 4 6
M e a su re m e n ts ................................................................................................................... 4 6









In terv en tio n ..................................................................4 7
R research P articipants......... .................................................................. .......... ....... 48
R research Procedures .................. ........................................ .............. 48
D ata A naly ses .......................................................................................................... .... 5 1
M ethodological Lim stations .................................................. .............................. 52

4 R E S U L T S .............................................................................................5 5

R esu ltant S am ple ................................................................55
D ata A n a ly se s ................................................................................................................... 5 5
Post Hoc Analyses ...................................................................... ........ 57

5 D ISC U S SIO N ............................................................................... 7 1

G en eralizab ility L im station s ............................................................................................. 7 1
Evaluations of Hypotheses .............. .......... ..............71
C onclu sion and Interpretations ................................................................................. 75
R e co m m en d atio n s............................................................................................................. 7 7

APPENDIX

A INFORMED CONSENT: ORIGINAL APPROVED (OPTICAL SCAN) ............................81

B INFORMED CONSENT: VARIATION WITH INCENTIVE .............................................82

C C H IL D A S SE N T SC R IP T ............................................................................................... 84

D ELECTRONIC INTERVENTION PROGRESS MANAGER ........................................ 85

E ELECTRONIC ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT ........................................ ............... 88

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ......................................................................................................... 96

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................................................... ........... 106









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

Table 3-1. Research Design .................................................... ............ ......... .... 54

Table 4-1. Participant demographics by gender and ethnicity.....................................................58

Table 4-2. A ges of participants by class standing................................... ...................... ........... 59

Table 4-3. Post-test means by gender and ethnicity (Part 1) ............. .........................................60

Table 4-4. Post-test means by gender and ethnicity (Part 2) ............................... ............... .61

Table 4-5. Correlation matrices for TGR, ALCS, GABS-NA.....................................................62

Table 4-6. Analyses of covariance ......................................................... ... .................. 63

Table 4-7. Independent samples t-tests of TGR by gender and participation .............................64

Table 4-8. Paired t-test comparing all participants' pre- and post- TGR scores..........................65

Table 4-9. Independent t-test of ALCS change scores comparing control and experimental .......66

Table 4-10. Independent t-test of GAB S-R change scores comparing control and
ex p erim en tal ...................................... ................................................... 6 7

Table 4-11. Paired t-test of ALCS_Pre with ALCS_Post for experimental group........................68

Table 4-12. Independent t-test of control and experimental on ALCS_Post..............................69

Table 5-1. Independent t-test of GABS-NA change scores comparing control and
ex p erim en tal ...................................... ................................................... 8 0









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure p e

Figure 4-1. Pre- and post- m measure correlations ........................................ ........................ 70









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


USE OF AN ELECTRONIC INTERACTIVE STORYBOOK IN AN INTERVENTION TO
CHANGE ADOLESCENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD ACADEMIC RESPONSIBILITY

By

Timothy D. Baker

August, 2008

Chair: Larry C. Loesch
Major: School Counseling and Guidance

One charge to school counselors is to enhance the personal growth of high school students

by helping them take personal responsibility for their academic success. Our study evaluated an

experimental, computer-based multimedia procedure to assess its effects on students' (N= 177)

academic responsibility, rational beliefs, and knowledge of graduation requirements. It was

found that the computer-based procedure was successful at increasing students' knowledge of the

graduation requirements. However, academic responsibility and rational beliefs were not

affected. Recommendations for continued research are presented.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The school counseling profession, particularly at the secondary (high) school level, is

being redefined primarily by governmental and public demand for accountability among

educational personnel, especially as concerned with student academic performance. As members

of the educational team in schools, school counselors must act in support of such efforts and use

a variety of techniques and methods to achieve desired outcomes. In particular, the methods

school counselors use to achieve enhancement of students' academic performance include some

that are therapeutic in nature and some that are educational. However, school counselors cannot

act solely as tutors or as therapists to every student. Rather, school counselors are education

professionals who must provide support for the educational mission of schools by designing

effective educational support programs for all students in schools (ASCA, 2005).

At the national level, student-to-school counselor ratios average approximately 490:1

(ASCA, 2003), which implies that school counselors' provision of individualized counseling

services is not a viable approach to effect widespread, positive impact on student achievement.

Instead, school counselors must do the most good for the most students, and as quickly as

possible. To fulfill this goal effectively and successfully, they must use combinations of diverse

professional skills and existing resources as appropriate to the needs of individual students and to

the needs of groups of students with similar needs. Therefore, "serving all students" means that

direct counseling interventions are reserved for those students whose needs are truly unique,

while the greater thrust of school counselors' work is directed to implementation of school

counseling programs that address the predictable, developmental needs of all students in the

school (ASCA, 2005; Kurantz, 2003; Schwallie-Gillis, ter Maat, & Park, 2003). Presumably, by

serving the largest possible number of students through a comprehensive program of services,









school counselors support the learning mission of the school to the greatest extent possible

(ASCA, 2003).

Nature of School Counseling

The American School Counseling Association (ASCA) strongly endorses that a school

counseling/guidance program should be designed to serve the academic, career, and personal-

social development needs of all students in a school (ASCA, 2005). For example, academic

needs are served, in part, when school counselors provide academic advisement and related

information to students. Similarly, the social needs of students may be served when school

counselors lead peer mediation programs or offer small group counseling designed to improve

interpersonal relationships among youth. And finally, students' personal needs are served

through counseling to address targeted areas of concern such as when school counselors conduct

problem-solving groups to ameliorate students' disruptive classroom behaviors. The essence of

the ASCA position is that students are able to achieve maximum academic performance only if

they are "well-adjusted," which means both that they have minimal life disruptions and concerns

and appropriate academic skills. To achieve this goal for as many students as possible, school

counselors select and use various interventions for any given student or set of students (e.g., an

entire classroom or a subset of specifically-selected students).

The vast majority of American schools are committed to the development of students as

independent, responsible, and mature individuals. However, whether this noble outcome is being

achieved to any widespread extent in American schools is largely unknown. One reason for this

state of uncertainty is that the focus of most school-based research has been almost exclusively

on students' academic behaviors and accomplishments. In particular, the school counseling

profession has not made concerted effort to determine whether students, at graduation, are as

independent, responsible, and mature as they could or should be.









The goal to maximize students' personal development is particularly important at the

secondary school level because for most students, it is their last opportunity to benefit from the

American educational system. Given the level of personal and communications skills required

even of entry-level jobs today, it remains an open question whether high school graduates who

have not gained sufficient personal maturity and autonomy will be able to demonstrate

productivity and success in the workplace or take meaningful steps and planning their post-

secondary education especially when one considers that not every student will benefit from the

tutelage and direction of a parent to assist in the many complex steps associated with college

applications and entry procedures. Rather, it is hoped that students will become productive

citizens in a democratic society in which all individuals are expected to assume responsibility for

their own behavior and to act conscientiously to benefit society. Therefore, because of the

immediate and long-term implications for both students and society, the question of how to

impact high school students' personal developments positively is appropriate and important to

address.

"Psychological education" is a general rubric under which school counselors' initiatives

to enhance students' personal developments have often been classified, including efforts

variously described as "large group guidance," "character education," "personal growth groups"

(or lessons), and the like. Unfortunately, because that rubric also has been used to subsume a

wide variety of other activities (e.g., by teachers or other educational personnel) intended to

change students in personal ways, there is considerable controversy surrounding psychological

education programs. Therefore, the matter of how school counselors should facilitate students'

personal developments remains a valid topic of debate.









These psychological education efforts, as commonly practiced by school counselors in

recent years, have not demonstrated a coherent theoretical basis or involved consistent use of

outcome measurements. Practices have varied, and definitions remain highly subjective.

Nonetheless, school counselors continue to engage in psychological education activities on a

widespread basis. However, it is evident that if school counselors are to maintain professional

and public credibility and facilitate students' personal development effectively, their

psychological education (i.e., "student development") efforts should be grounded in an

established, accepted theoretical basis and be evaluated through use of valid and accepted

outcome measurements.

Professional school counselors typically help students by working with them to establish

counseling goals, elicit narratives of their life experiences, and ultimately to help them "try out"

new strategies for daily life and then to evaluate the results of their efforts. The effectiveness of

this process in highly individualized counseling has been demonstrated. However, considerable

human resources are needed to achieve such effectiveness. An approach more suitable for use in

public schools would serve more students, especially if it was faster and reduced or eliminated

the students having to self-disclose and/or take psychological risks.

The use of an interactive electronic storybook stands to fulfill both desired criteria. If

students can relate to the drama of a fictionalized character depicted using multiple electronic

media, they may be able to learn vicariously from that character's experiences. Further, when

read on a computer, the storybook could be used iteratively such that the viewer could influence

events in the fictional reality of the plot by choosing behaviors for the main character and

creating new outcomes. Such a story has the potential to teach students potentially useful

lessons.









The effectiveness of an interactive electronic storybook springs from the opportunity the

reader is afforded to make decisions, evaluate the consequences of those decisions, and make

inferences about the underlying rule systems which mediate the linkage between actions and

consequences. However, its effectiveness in so doing necessitates linkage to a major counseling

theory. Therefore, the intervention for this study is an interactive electronic storybook in which

the primary character's "paths" are designed to reflect the basic principles of cognitive-

behavioral theory.

Theoretical Framework

Cognitive-Behavioral Theory (CBT) holds that personal attitudes and behaviors can be

influenced and altered, presumably to produce behavioral benefits (Ellis, 1961). Within CBT,

cognitive styles are defined as relatively stable and highly personal ways of thinking about self

and/or the world in general. Differences in cognitive styles have been related to differences in

ways of coping with personal, academic, career, and other sources of stress (Beck, 2005; Street

& Barlow, 1994; Waller, Meyer, & Ohanian, 2001). An important element of cognitive style is

level of "rationality," which entails, among other considerations, whether it is best in the long

term to avoid uncomfortable responsibilities when they are encountered or to face them directly.

CBT also holds that individuals cause themselves inordinate suffering by incorrect perception of

problems and/or circumstances. Therefore, a common CBT counseling goal is to help people to

appraise elements of their environment accurately, determine both the personal responsibilities

involved and how to address them appropriately, and act as quickly as is possible to resolve

personal issues

The choice of cognitive style and its subsequent effects on a student's personal well-

being and academic performance is complex. For example, some students believe that their

academic success is controlled by teachers' whims as opposed to their own behaviors, a situation









that reflects an "external locus of control" (Trice, 1985). These students often judge their

(stressful) situation as beyond their control and essentially hopeless, and consequently expend

little effort to complete academic assignments. They then become even more stressed as their

cumulative grade averages decline. Conversely, other students endure excessive, inappropriate

responsibility, blaming themselves for academic failures, a situation that reflects an (excessive)

"internal locus of control" (Trice, 1985). It also leads to increased stress, primarily attributable

to blaming of self, as their grades decline. However, neither of these perspectives is fully

correct. More importantly, each can be changed if a student engages in any of a variety of

corrective measures. Such corrective measures often can be achieved through counseling.

CBT is well-suited for use as a basis for "psychological education" activities provided by

school counselors. Further, psychological education activities are commonly used by school

counselors with entire classroom groups because of the obvious efficiency of working with such

large groups. This approach has the added benefit of minimizing disruption to instructional time,

i.e., teachers' classroom schedules are interrupted less frequently. Further, because

psychological education interventions, particularly those based in CBT, are at least partly

didactic in nature, they correspond well with traditional classroom instruction methods.

Need for the Study

Locus of control theory (LCT) (Rotter, 1966) has been presented and examined

extensively in the professional literature. Largely unexplored, however, is its application to

development of personal responsibility among high school students who participate in specific

school counseling program activities. Therefore, this study will have implications for better

understanding LCT in the context of application to secondary school students. For example, if

the intervention brings about the desired outcomes, LCT will be supported to some extent for use









in this context. Conversely, the results may raise further questions about the suitability of LCT

for such interventions if desired results are not achieved.

This study also will have implications for related future research, particularly in regard to

use of CBT-based interventions with high school students. For example, examination of the

specific results of this study will suggest future investigations of how these results were achieved

(regardless of whether they were as desired), what elements of the intervention warrant further

investigation, and what modifications might achieve different results. Further, there may be

inferences for examination of the use of the intervention with other, relatively similar groups of

students (e.g., middle school or freshman college students).

In the main, school counseling is an applied profession. Therefore, knowledge of which

school counseling programmatic activities are successful with which students in which types of

circumstances and what conditions is crucial to the effective and efficient delivery of school

counseling services. The results of this study will add to that knowledge base by providing

specific outcome information about a particular intervention. Concomitantly, as a profession,

school counseling necessitates professional preparation for its practitioners. Such professional

preparation is enhanced through conveyance of knowledge of both effective and ineffective

school counseling practices. Thus, the results of this research will enhance school counselor

preparation through provision of information about the effectiveness of a specific school

counseling activity.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a CBT-based (i.e.,

psychological education) intervention intended to enhance high school students' awareness of

and assumption of responsibility for their academic advisement needs, defined in this context as

students possessing concrete knowledge of grades earned and completion of specific graduation









requirements including necessary test scores, credits earned in subject areas, and minimum

overall GPA.

Rationale for the Methodology

Loesch and Ritchie (2005), among others, have admonished school counselors (and the

school counseling profession) to move beyond overly simplistic, highly subjective, and generally

ineffective investigations of the effectiveness of school counselors' interventions to the use of

more rigorous, established, and credible approaches to determination of outcome effectiveness.

The ASCA (2003) National Standards also call for school counselors to provide credible

evidence of the effectiveness of their activities. Thus, a successfully implemented intervention

should produce measurable results to demonstrate that students have changed in desirable ways.

Determination of the effectiveness of an intervention requires that an experimental manipulation

paradigm be applied, including that the desired outcomes should be readily obtained and easily

understood (Fraenkl & Wallen, 2006). There requirements are best addressed by applying an

experimental design and use of credible, validated assessments.

Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were evaluated in this study:

* Hol: There is no difference in students' rationality based on participation in the intervention.
* Ho2: There is no difference in students' need for achievement based on participation in the
intervention.
* Ho3: There is no difference in students' locus of control based on participation in the
intervention.
* Ho4: There is no difference in students' academic self-awareness (knowledge of graduation
requirements) based on participation in the intervention.
* Ho5: There is no relationship between students' rationality and locus of control.
* Ho6: There is no relationship between students' rationality and academic self-awareness.
* Ho7: There is no relationship between students' locus of control and academic self-awareness.
* Ho8: There is no gender by participation interaction for rational belief systems.
* Ho9: There is no gender by participation interaction for need for achievement.
* Hl00: There is no gender by participation interaction for locus of control.
* Holl: There is no gender by participation interaction for academic self-awareness.









* Ho12: There is no race by participation interaction for rational belief systems.
* H013: There is no race by participation interaction for need for achievement.
* H014: There is no race by participation interaction for locus of control.
* H015: There is no race by participation interaction for academic self-awareness.


Definition of Terms

Definitions for the most important terms in this study are as follows:

* Academic Self-Awareness: High school students' knowledge of test score and academic
coursework requirements for graduation from high school.
* Cognitive-Behavioral Theory (CBT): A perspective of psychotherapy that assumes an
interaction between thinking and feeling with the result evident in behavior (Beck, 2005). CBT
presumes that individuals have the ability to change specific feelings by identifying and
challenging specific faulty patterns of perception or inference, with a concomitant change in
behavior.
* Locus of Control: A construct to describe an individual's attribution of a specific causal source
to either internal factors unique to the individual or to external factors beyond the individual's
control (Rotter, 1966).
* Rational-Emotive: A perspective of psychotherapy that assumes a causal relationship between
thinking and feeling (Ellis, 1961). Rational-emotive theory holds that individuals have the
ability to change patterns of feelings over time by identifying and/or challenging specific
irrational, underlying thoughts.
* Social Learning Theory: A human development theory that holds that behaviors and thinking
can be and are learned by observing the behaviors of others (Bandura, 1977).









CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

Theories and applications of cognitive therapy and the context they provide for

understanding locus of control serve as the foundation for this research. In that regard, it is

assumed that Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) have

common origins and foundations that influenced the formulation of the Locus of Control (LOC)

construct. However, CBT and RET emphasize somewhat different techniques and goals in

counseling processes, and therefore may influence LOC in unique ways.

Cognitive Therapy

As in all theories of personality, psychotherapy, and counseling, within any of the

cognitive therapies, cognitions, behaviors, and emotions (feelings) are intertwined, interrelated,

and interdependent. What varies is the nature of the interactions and/or causal relationships

among them. Specifically within cognitive therapy, the premise is that the manners in which

people act (behaviors) and think (cognitions) affect how they feel (emotions). Further, this

relationship is presumed to be reciprocal. Therefore, within cognitive therapy, when actions are

changed, changes in thoughts and feelings follow.

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive therapy is not a comprehensive theory of personality, but rather merely a

"map" of how individuals might change (Ellis, 1989). For example, Beck and Weishar (2000)

described CBT in particular as "a system of strategies" (p. 242) as opposed to a single, unified

approach and set of techniques for counseling. Schemas, i.e., the conceptualizations used by

individuals to see, organize, and understand the world, are important constructs in CBT. For

example, people who are depressed typically see themselves negatively, and people who are

anxious often see their environments as dangerous.









CBT focuses on the "cognitive triad" that includes personal perceptions of the self,

world, and future. Individuals' perceptions (within their respective, personal triads) influence

their personal emotional states. For example, when the self is viewed as inadequate, the

environment dangerous, and the future uncertain, the individual is likely to feel anxiety.

Similarly, when the self is viewed as mistreated and the world unfair, the individual is likely to

feel angry. Some CBT therapists also identify specific "cognitive distortions," such as filtering

(i.e., ignoring information that contradicts existing perceptions) or fortune-telling (i.e., making

unrealistic assumptions of future failure) as important constructs to be addressed in CBT

(Froggart, 2001).

Rational-Emotive Therapy

Like CBT, RET holds that thoughts impact emotional state. However, emphasized in

RET is that the content of the thoughts, rather than the thinking process itself, is the primary

influence on behavior. Whereas CBT has a concentration on inaccurate perceptions of

information, RET has a concentration on the "irrationality" of thoughts and the attendant ways in

which the information is processed (Beck, 2000). Ellis (Ellis, 1958; Ellis & Harper, 1961)

originally posited behavioral causation in which external events triggered "irrational" thoughts

and interpretations that lead to an inappropriate emotional response. Ellis identified this as the

"A-B-C" model in which A was the activating event, B was the belief system, and C was the

emotional consequence. More recently, Ellis allowed that thinking, acting, and feeling often

occur simultaneously, and that the real value of the model rests in its usefulness to therapy. Ellis

(1998) expanded the model to "A-B-C-D-E," adding that D was disputation of ineffective beliefs

and E was a new, more enjoyable "event" brought on by new patterns of behavior.

Ellis at first identified ineffective thoughts as "irrational beliefs" (IBs), but later recognized

that their defining feature was their self-defeating nature (Ellis & Dryden, 1987). Beck (2005)









described such beliefs as "dysfunctional." Known early on as REBT for "Rational-Emotive

Behavior Therapy," the behavioral qualifier was dropped in the 1970s as the influence of

behaviorism in the social sciences lessened. Ellis originally postulated 11 key IBs (Ellis &

Harper, 1961). However, the list of self-defeating beliefs has since been expanded to include

(potentially) hundreds of self-defeating beliefs. Generally accepted characteristics of IBs include

"demandingness," "awfulization," and low frustration tolerance.

Integration and Differentiation

While RET and CBT can be distinguished at a theoretical level, counseling practitioners

regularly apply principles from both therapies synergistically (Froggart, 2001). One reason for

this integrated application of principles is that neither theory is intended as a fully complete

framework for understanding and/or changing human development. Presumably, what one lacks,

the other adds. Another reason is that the respective theories do not often contradict each other.

For example, researchers often regard some constructs from the two theories as functionally

equivalent (Jones & Trower, 2004). While disagreements about the finer details of each theory

have arisen (e.g., Ellis, 1989), the theories themselves are not held at odds for domination. For

example, CBT-based measurement instruments frequently have been used in the validation of

RET-based instruments (Bernard, 1998). For more than a decade, concerted efforts have been

made to refine the respective theory-based assessments, yet instruments still tend to have high

conceptual overlap. For example, the Beck Depression Inventory, one of the most widely used

and studied cognitive assessments, has been criticized for including items related more to self-

esteem than to depression (Chadwick, Trower, & Dagnam, 1999). Taken together, CBT and

RET can be referred to safely as cognitive therapy, and assessments based on either of the two

theories can be assumed to assess elements and/or components of cognitive style.









Outcome studies have demonstrated the efficacy of various cognitive therapies (e.g.,

Asamow, Scott, & Mintz, 2002; Lyons & Woods, 1991; Smith, 1982). However, critics have

charged that cognitive therapies do not produce measurable changes in behavior. For example,

RET researchers have been criticized as being "partisan" and biased in their reviews, and

therefore that any gains of RET are an "artifact" of the intervention and/or research (Gossette &

O'Brien, 1992, p. 9). Such objections notwithstanding, cognitive therapy today is an accepted

method of counseling and psychotherapy. For example, it is regarded highly (though not entirely

without criticism) by health maintenance organizations (HMOs) as the treatment-of-choice for

some types of anxiety disorders (White, 1999).

Research and Applications of Cognitive Therapy

While cognitive therapies have been applied to a wide range of presenting problems and

disorders, Beck (1995) cited four main areas in which the success of CBT has been particularly

well-documented: treatments of depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and

eating disorders. Counseling service provision in these areas is a realm in which CBT

practitioners feel confident (Craighead & Kirkley, 1994; Hollon & Carter, 1994; Street &

Barlow, 1994). However, they are not counseling service areas in which school counselors are

or can be expected to specialize. Therefore, the use and utilitarian value of CBT for school

counselors remains at issue.

The cognitive therapy paradigm has relevance and can be applied to child, adolescent,

and adult populations in specific domains. For example, in a four-year, longitudinal study, Cole,

Jacquez, and Maschman (2001) found that children's perceptions of their own abilities were

shaped over time by the evaluations of others, including parents, teachers, and same-age peers.

Further, time-series observations at six-month intervals suggested a causal relationship, with

children's perceptions of their own abilities following others' perceptions chronologically. The









effect was most evident during grades three to six, a period in which children's self-perceptions

also became more stable. In particular, negative self-appraisals of ability were found to predict

self-reported depressive symptoms, a result that can be interpreted easily within the cognitive

triad construct. Negative self-appraisals of ability also were related to self-defeating statements

(as within RET) which place demands on the self, e.g., "I must always do tasks well, and if I do

not that would make me an awful and worthless person."

The increasing stability of negative self-perceptions from grades three through six provides

confirmation for what many educators know intuitively: prophesies are indeed self-fulfilling.

This understanding also sheds light on the presumed linkage between attributional style, defined

as the making of "internal, stable, [or] global attributions for negative events" (Hankin,

Abramson & Siler, 2001; p. 608) or as the "tendency to attribute negative events to global and

stable causes" such as a person's lack of ability or self-worth (Abela & Payne, 2003; p. 520) and

depression symptoms. Attribution styles are likely learned from others. For example, Alloy,

Abramson, Tashman, Berrebbi, Hogan, Whitehouse, Crossfield, and Morocco (2001) concluded

that children learn cognitive styles in general, and attributional beliefs regarding how external

events reflect on the value of the self in particular, from their parents.

Hankin et al. (2001) examined the role of attribution styles in the "hopelessness" theory of

depression, which regards hopelessness produced by negative attribution styles as a leading and

immediate cause of hopelessness-type depression. Abela and Payne (2003) found significant

correlations between attributional styles and hopelessness depression, but qualified that

attributional styles seemed to have less impact on non-hopelessness depression. However,

although cognitive perspectives are regarded as having overall usefulness and a high success rate









for interpreting specific presenting concerns and disorders, they are not useful in all counseling

situations.

Some studies that investigated assessment and treatment of adolescents for anxiety

disorders also have focused on attributional styles. Ginsburg, Lambert and Drake (2004), for

example, found that attributions of internal or external control (in African-American females)

were related to anxiety measures. Similarly, Calvete and Cardefioso (2002) found significant

relationships between attributional styles and internalizing/externalizing tendencies.

Attribution answers the question of "why" events occur, and in the case of depression,

symptoms can be traced to negative self-statements (i.e., to the "self" component of the cognitive

triad). However, faulty information-processing associated with anxiety also is characterized by

flawed appraisals of and expectations for the future. For example, Rheingold, Herbert and

Franklin (2003) studied adolescents diagnosed with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and found

that socially anxious adolescents, compared to a control group, were more likely to overestimate

the likelihood of future negative social events occurring, as well as negative consequences for

such events. Similarly, Hargreaves and Tiggermann (2002) concluded that cognitive schemas

contributed to body image disturbance in adolescents and Hankin, Roberts, and Gotlib (1997)

found socially-acceptable forms of perfectionism (as elevated self-standards) to be associated

with emotional distress in adolescent students. Discrepancies between perceptions of the self

and visions of an ideal self were associated with both anxious and depressive symptoms, with

adolescent females reporting more depressive symptoms.

Finally, remediation of anger is increasingly coming to be seen as another area of high

efficacy for application of cognitive theories. For example, Jones and Trower (2004) related the

CBT notion of "hot" (i.e., anger-causing) cognitions to RET's statement of evaluative or









irrational beliefs. They found that individuals presenting with high levels of anger had negative

evaluative beliefs about themselves and others. However, Kazdin and Crowley (1997) found that

for children ages seven to thirteen treated for aggressive behavior using cognitive therapy,

success in treatment was related to reading achievement and intellectual functioning, thus

underscoring the difficulty in attempting to use cognitive therapy as a "cure-all" treatment for all

clients.

Clinical effectiveness notwithstanding, the highly-verbal nature of CBT and RET allows

both advantages and disadvantages for use in school settings. The primary advantage is that

many school counselor functions exist for imparting verbal information directly, such as through

use of individual or group counseling, classroom instruction, or use of readings, movies, or web

pages. Thus, there are many means that might be used to impart concepts of cognitive therapy

that are psychoeducational in nature. However, access to these benefits through these modalities

is limited to students with sufficient reading, listening, and/or conceptual skills to assimilate the

information transmitted through them. To date, a preponderance of research supports application

of the theoretical constructs with any audience and outcome studies establish cognitive therapy's

effectiveness as a treatment modality. However, it remains undetermined whether these concepts

can be applied to benefit large numbers of students in secondary schools.

Locus of Control Issues

The LOC construct has been embraced in such fields as psychotherapy, distance education,

student personnel, business management, and consulting (e.g., Bernstein, Klappholz, & Kelley,

2002; Fish, 1996; Kerr, Rynearson, & Kerr, 2003; White, 2001). The essential question in LOC

is whether individuals believe that "outcomes" in their lives (i.e., results of behaviors) are due to

internal or external causes? That is, is success in life caused by personal skill or persistence, or

is it an artifact of "good luck?" LOC is well-defined in the professional literature and has been









found to be unrelated to other factors such as intelligence or social desirability (Lester & Bishop,

2000). In addition, the perceived success of practical applications of LOC is supported by the

observation that individuals who quite apparently believe they are in control of their behavioral

outcomes are more likely to set goals and take appropriate action, and thus to achieve success in

life. But what of those whose belief systems are not so obvious?

Janssen and Carton (1999) found that external LOC is related to more frequent

procrastination. Academic performance also has been related to LOC. For example, Trice

(1985) found a positive correlation between internal (low) LOC and self-reported academic

motivation as well as a positive correlation between internal LOC and number of extra credit

point activities students attempted. Among a sample of undergraduate students in a psychology

course, a significant, positive relationship was found between internal LOC and final course

grade. However, a similar significant relationship was not found among students in an education

course. Trice (1987) also found that undergraduates with high external LOC missed more

classes when attendance was optional, and that high LOC was related to undergraduates'

likelihood to miss classes for non-illness reasons (Trice & Hackburt, 1989). Conversely,

Onwuegbuzie and Daley (1998) found that undergraduates with the best study skills tended to

have a higher internal (academic) LOC. Mooney, Sherman, and LoPresto (1991) found LOC to

be a predictor variable for adjustment during the first-year college.

LOC has been investigated among younger populations as well. For example, Rogers and

Saklofske (1985) found that LOC was a predictor of learning-disabled children's school success

(as rated by the teacher). This finding is particularly significant given the difficulty of exploring

cognitive perspectives with children, and particularly children with limited verbal abilities.

Shields (2004) found that students with more external LOC were more likely to feel "place-









bound" and unable to travel to pursue higher education. However, this condition in itself did not

seem to impact their academic adjustment negatively.

Other studies call into doubt a linkage between external LOC and negative outcomes. For

example, Ferrari and Parker (1992) did not find a significant relationship between academic LOC

and grade point average among college freshmen. Onwuegbuzie, Bailey, and Daley (1999)

investigated academic LOC in their search for predictors of "foreign language anxiety" and

found a relationship that was not statistically significant. Clearly, LOC is not a causal factor

underlying every academic event.

For the most part, the history of LOC assessment instruments can be viewed as a catalog of

work performance measures that correlate with internalized LOC. Thus, LOC has been

embraced in organizational settings, primarily because of the eagerness with which organizations

strive to meet common goals by capitalizing on the inputs and skills of their employees.

However, although LOC is sometimes discussed as a personality typology with which to

categorize individuals as "external" or "internal," Rotter (1963) believed that individuals'

behavior varied across situations. Personality, therefore, was not a fixed preference to respond to

all situations in the same way, but rather a combination of distinct responses to changing

contexts. It follows that a counseling intervention designed to increase academic performance

should not be intended to change students' global attitudes, but rather to encourage them to take

more responsibility for a specific, relatively narrowly defined aspect of their life.

LOC instruments measure the ways in which individuals attribute event outcomes to

internal or external causes, but these attributions are regarded as perceptions, not objective

analyses of the events. For example, individuals who display greater internal LOC may generate

more "counterfactual self-talk," a type of irrational thinking that involves inner experiencing of









events that did not actually occur. These individuals may think along the lines of, "If only I'd

acted differently, there would have been a different outcome" after an event in which their task

performance was rated (Reichert & Slate, 1999). Such self-talk statements may become a

mechanism for seeking control over a similar situation in the future, which might in turn improve

task performance.

Conversely, counterfactual statements may contribute to excessive stress and anxiety by

over-emphasizing futility. Therefore, most RET theorists view them as a form of perceptual

distortion, and RET therapists may spend considerable time refuting counterfactual thinking

when its effect on mental health is perceived to be negative, for example, when it promotes grief

or guilt. It also follows that greater internal LOC may not in fact have positive, healthy effects

on the individual's well-being, particularly if objective investigation reveals that individuals may

actually not be in control of their outcomes. For example, individuals may be denied promotions

in the workplace because of causes such as institutional racism rather than as a result of job

performance (Sue & Sue, 1999). When individuals take excessive responsibility for causes

beyond their control, they are likely to feel unduly frustrated or depressed with subsequent

outcomes.

What, then, should be the limits of cognitive interventions that aim to increase students'

academic performance by encouraging the development of internal LOC attributions for

academic outcomes? For example, would students' overall academic performance increase if all

students developed highly-internal LOC attributions that also caused considerable personal

distress? The answer is probably yes students' average grades and achievement test scores

might very well be enhanced if most students accepted a high degree of personal academic

responsibility, even in light of increased stress and anxiety in students' lives. However, while









such impact would benefit a school's academic performance record, it is not consistent with

maintaining and enhancing the best interests of individual students, and it is certainly not within

the boundaries of school counseling ethical standards.

An LOC-focused counseling intervention to increase academic performance must be

well-defined and implemented within all applicable ethical standards. By emphasizing personal

responsibility for academic outcomes, such an intervention could help motivate students to plan

and study, and not to procrastinate in matters concerning school work. Such an outcome is both

desirable and possible. For example, Daum and Wiebe (2003) found that academic LOC varies

in the short term based on students' personal academic expectations. Similarly, Liu, Lavelle, and

Andris (2002) believed that even the type of instructional media used has influences academic

LOC to some extent. To vary LOC attitudes and self-perceptions experimentally, CBT/RET

techniques could be employed to "persuade" students that, ultimately, they themselves have

considerable control over their academic futures. However, students also must be able to

identify the boundary at which they can no longer assume responsibilities for academic events

and/or outcomes.

Achieving empowerment and awareness of self limits is difficult in classrooms in which

students are overwhelmingly aware of the teacher's "unfair" attitudes toward them, especially in

situations in which student race and/or gender are matters of teacher concern. The extent to

which students internalize teacher attitudes and practice self-blame is debatable. However, it is

likely that students aware of "unfairness" in life will reject a counseling intervention if it

provides no room for conceptualizing and holding exceptions to internal control. For example,

students may pose the rhetorical question, "If I'm really in control of my grades, then why are

students of my race or gender singled out for punishment in class?" Thus, some students may









believe they are "doomed" already and without recourse because a teacher does not like them.

Yet by making a distinction between "difficult" and "impossible," and among conditions such as

"always," "sometimes," and "never," CBT can help students understand that they usually have

some power to influence events in their environment.

School Counseling Perspectives

The school counseling profession promotes that school counselors should serve the

greatest possible numbers of students (Kurantz, 2003; Schwallie-Gillis, ter Maat, & Park, 2003).

For example, ASCA (2003) advocates that school counselors develop programs to serve all

students across three broad categories of developmental needs: personal/social, career, and

academic. ASCA and school counseling authorities have developed various curricular and/or

programmatic materials to help school counselors address these needs. However, it is clear that

school counselors do not have a monopoly on facilitating child (student) development. For

example, school counselors "compete" with specialists from other educational, psychological,

social, and related professional fields in pursuit of federal funding for research and program

implementation funds (e.g., Myrick & Gonzalez, 1990) as well as for validation of their

respective professional perspectives. This situation also is evident in the development and

implementation of character education programs, which are viewed as serving students' personal

development needs (ASCA, 2003). Despite the fact that no theories of counseling have proposed

or validated a definition of "character," school counselors continue to search for ways to serve

public and political mandates for character education. In so doing, school counselors largely

draw upon theoretical perspectives that are developmental (i.e., describe how people develop

normally) as opposed to those that are therapeutic (i.e., describe how people can change

voluntarily). For example, Rayburn (2004) described the school counselor's role in "morality

education" (which is presumably highly similar to character education) in terms of seminal moral









and cognitive development research by Kohlberg and Piaget, iconic developmental theorists

widely studied in the field of education.

As human development professionals, school counselors are entitled to glean wisdom

from all sources, fields, and disciplines. However, if students are experiencing a level of stress

or goal frustration which is pathological and which interferes with their normal development, are

they better served by school counselors informed by a teaching theory or a cognitive theory? In

order to fulfill the ASCA mission of "serving all students," some school counselors are

presenting classroom guidance units focused on curricula that were designed by teachers.

Presumably, resources used for these activities were written for teachers, i.e., professionals who

likely are competent at information dissemination and have essential active listening skills.

However, they often lack awareness of mental health issues or the advanced communication

skills requisite to being an effective school counselor and essential for effective implementation

of a classroom guidance unit.

In using resources designed and intended for use by teachers, school counselors may be

sending the message that their professional identity and skill sets are essentially no different than

those of teachers. The profound implications of this identify confusion are perhaps illustrated in

the tendency for some school counselors to choose (usually for financial incentives) certification

by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards rather than the National Board for

Certified Counselors. If the identity and practice of professional school counseling moves away

from theories of psychotherapy (including RET and CBT) entirely, are not school counselors just

another (type of) teacher in schools? The point is not to reject the developmental guidance

paradigm, but rather to anticipate unintended, long-term effects of rapid change currently taking

place in the school counseling profession and the ultimate possible absorption of the profession









itself into some other field. Such unwanted changes might be avoided in part by demonstrating

the effectiveness of interventions based on well-researched perspectives such as CBT, RET,

and/or LOC theories which complement, rather than overlap, the skill sets possessed by

classroom teachers.

A study by Campbell and Brigman (2005) illustrates some of the points just made. They

demonstrated the possibility for school counselors to serve all students through use of group

counseling to teach study skills to elementary school-age students. The Florida Comprehensive

Achievement Test-Norm Reference Test (FCAT-NRT) was an outcome measure in their study,

as was a behavior rating checklist. The intervention emphasized social problem-solving skills

and study skills improvement. A statistically significant improvement in FCAT-NRT scores was

found for the experimental group. Improvement also was shown in students' use of appropriate

behaviors in classrooms. These researchers successfully captured the attention of school and

school district officials by demonstrating that school counselors can indeed contribute to the

important task of boosting school-wide achievement as reflected in students' test scores.

While valuable as an example of the positive academic impact school counselors can

make in schools, this type of study would be difficult to replicate at the upper levels of high

school primarily because of the outcome measurement used: the FCAT-NRT is not administered

to students after the spring term of grade ten. Further, the FCAT-NRT is a "low-stakes" test

sometimes used for placement purposes within the school, and therefore is given on fewer

occasions than the FCAT-Criterion Referenced Test (FCAT-CRT), which is a "high-stakes" test

with implications for retention and/or fulfillment of graduation requirements. The FCAT-NRT

also is administered differently than the FCAT-CRT, with comparatively fewer safeguards in

place to ensure the security of the FCAT-NRT and fewer parallel forms are used, leading to the









question of whether changes in scores reflect true learning gains or simply that retained students

have taken the same test more than once. Also, no correlation between the FCAT-CRT and

FCAT-NRT tests has yet been provided.

Unfortunately, in describing the focus of the experiment as study skills training,

Campbell and Brigman risked portraying their work out of context. Specifically, if the study is

presented as if the intervention (essentially tutoring) is something already known to be effective,

why not simply employ more tutors instead of more school counselors? Although Campbell and

Brigman explain in great depth why school counselors are uniquely qualified to conduct this type

of intervention, the frame of the study itself creates an unwitting comparison that cannot benefit

school counselors in general. The question should be, how do school counselors use their unique

training and knowledge to provide interventions that cannot be replicated easily by "regular"

classroom teachers?

Whatever the eventuality of this paradox, it is clear that school counseling thought is

moving in the direction of focus on what goes on in schools rather than what goes on in of

counseling theories. For example, a review of the most influential school counseling journal

over the last few years revealed only a few article titles specifically referencing any specific

theory of psychotherapy, and the ones that did were oriented to family, systems, or solution-

focused therapy. The developmental school counseling perspective (e.g., Myers, Shoffner, &

Briggs, 2002; Myrick, 1997) has been advanced as a method of understanding and serving

children that draws in part on the views ofPiaget, Erikson, and Kohlberg. Thus, theoretical

eclecticism apparently is valued as the various interventions described mix developmental

perspectives with theories such as RET (e.g., Webb & Myrick, 2003). Unfortunately, CBT

techniques apparently have been welcomed only as intervention modalities for addressing the









problematic conduct or academic underperformance of individual students (e.g., Walker,

Greenwood, & Terry, 1994).

Developments in Cognitive Assessment

Although school counselors may dream of being able to claim that a developmental

counseling intervention will directly impact students' grade point averages, the reality is that

GPA serves poorly as an outcome indicator for any type of intervention even teaching

interventions. As Kiselica, Baker, Thomas and Reedy (1994) noted, "ceiling" effects occur

when high-achieving students score consistently near the top of the grading scale; there is simply

little room for improvement. Test anxiety also may play a role in assessments and tutoring may

be received which further confounds test scores. Psychometric assessments with good

psychometric properties may offer greater diagnostic value by affording insight into cognitions,

behaviors, and attitudes that are correlated with academic performance.

Rational-Emotive Assessments

The original articulations of irrational beliefs in RET inspired development of a slew of

cognitive assessments to investigate them. The resultant measures were tested enthusiastically,

but most were found to also measure some non-cognitive dimensions (Jones & Trower, 2004;

Robb & Warren, 1990). Today, a new generation of cognitive assessments has been developed

to measure a few general constructs, the measurement of which have been confirmed by factor

analysis. Therefore, typically three or four beliefs (cognitions) are assessed instead of Ellis'

original set of 11 IB's (Smith, 1989; Thorpe, Walter, Kingery, & Nay, 2001). The trend also is

to exclude items which measure non-cognitive dimensions (e.g., emotional responses).

Bernard's revision of the General Attitude andBeliefs Scale (GABS; 1998) sought to

measure thinking (i.e., cognition) specifically, not affective reaction or state. Originally

developed by Burgess (1986), the GABS was based on the legacy list of 11 IB's. The original









96-item GABS was intended to assess components of anxiety and depression. Bernard (1998)

refined the GABS through factor analysis and reformulated the constructs as a combination of

self-defeating processes (e.g., "demandingness," "awfulizing," global self-rating, and low

frustration tolerance) and content domains (e.g., achievement, approval, and comfort). Fifty-five

items representing seven factors were retained: rationality, "self-downing" (i.e., judgmental,

negative self-statements), need for achievement, need for approval, need for comfort, demands

for fairness, and other-downing. The rationality factor correlated negatively with the irrationality

subscales, and positively with other cognitive measures of similar constructs. The GABS also

was validated against the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and positive, theoretically consistent

results were found.

Bernard's work on the GABS raised two points regarding RET theory. First, although the

self-downing factor was related in the theory to "should" statements about the self, such a

relationship was not supported empirically. In RET, statements involving "should" are presumed

to act as a method of imposing unrealistic conditions upon the world, thus producing disturbance.

Bernard (1998) noted that the word "should," while helpful in identifying some types of self-

defeating self-talk, is not inherently pathological; it could operate in ways that are not actually

demanding. Second, self-downing and other-downing emerged as separate factors, in contrast to

Jones and Trower's (2004) finding that individuals with higher levels of anger had highly

negative evaluations of both themselves and others. It is possible that the unitary versus

fragmented nature of self- and other-downing may be related to specific populations and thus

may not hold true for all individuals.

Lindner, Kirkby, Wertheim and Birch (1999) shortened the GABS further because they

concluded that the instrument's length was cited by subjects as a principal cause for subject









attrition in a research study. After administering the GABS to a larger group of subjects, a

decision was made to retain only those items with a correlation to respective total subscale score

greater than .60. Twenty-six items were retrained when this criterion was applied. A subsequent

administration of the Shortened GABS (SGABS) given to the same individuals within three days

yielded stability correlations ranging from .66 to .77 for each subscale. Construct validity was

demonstrated by the finding of significant correlations to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)

and to the Irrational Beliefs Scale.

Other Cognitive Assessments

Cognitive assessments clearly based on theory have often been designed for specific

clinical purposes. For example, the Evaluative Beliefs Scale (EBS) was presented by Chadwick,

Trower, and Dagnam (1999) as having high face validity for depression because of it being

constructed to reflect well-researched cognitive constructs. Unlike earlier cognitive assessments,

the EBS inquires about thoughts rather than behaviors. Sinclair and Wallston (1999) also

developed a brief cognitive instrument, the Psychological Vulnerability Scale (PVS), to identify

"cognitions that promote harmful reactions to stress" within the particular context of medical

patients recovering from illness (p. 119). Waller, Meyer and Ohanian (2001) applied a health

perspective in their short-form refinement of the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ), which is

designed to compare the core beliefs of bulimic and non-bulimic women.

These instruments represent a category of assessments having clinical value to identify

specific cognitions that are found to predict pathological behaviors or emotions. However, locus

of control is not inherently pathological; only its effects can be experienced as harmful.

Therefore, a cognitive-behavioral instrument that can be compared to a locus of control

measurement must assess all major aspects of the theory in order to serve as a basis for refining

future understandings of the connection between cognition, locus of control perceptions, and









academic performance. Therefore, the GABS was chosen for use in this research because of its

general nature and its suitability for basic research.

Assessing Locus of Control

Much effort has been directed toward assessing (overall) LOC since Rotter's formulation

of the original Locus of Control scale (1966). For example, as late as 1984, Craig, Franklin, and

Andrews sought to create a valid alternative assessment of global LOC. However, Rotter

conceived of personality as the sum of all possible behaviors in all situations. Thus, in different

situations, behavior would be different, and Rotter pointed to the need for more specific LOC

scales. More recently, there have been developed specialized instruments such as the Health

Student Academic Locus of Control Scale (Cassidy & Eachus, 2000) and even the God Locus of

Health Control Scale (purported to measure the perception that divine forces play the primary

role in determining health) (Wallston, Malcarne, Flores, Hansdottir, Smith, Stein, Weisman, &

Clements, 1999). Again, a category of instruments comes to light as having been created to

show clinical significance with specific and acute presenting symptoms. However, high school

students are presumed to be a diverse population representing a mix of distressed and non-

distressed individuals. Therefore, a more general scale is needed with relevance to the broad

area of functioning commonly referred to as academic performance.

Trice's Academic Locus of Control Scale (ALCS) was validated for use with college

students and found to have value in predicting common academic problems. One hundred eighty

nine undergraduate students completed an 89-item questionnaire having true-false-response

items twice in a three-week period. The items were written to have face validity for the locus of

control concept. Subsequently, items were discarded if more than 90% of the respondents

answered an item with the same response or if more than 5% of the respondents answered the

item differently on the two occasions. Items also were discarded if the response to an item









pointing to either a respondent's internal or external locus of control was not consistent to the

same subject's majority responses to the other items. Ultimately, 28 items were retained. The

ALCS scores were then compared to the Rotter (1966) locus of control scale for construct

validity, with r = .50 (p<.05). Scores also were compared to Crowne and Marlowe's (1960)

Social Desirability Scale for discriminant validity, with r = -.16 (p>.05), indicating that

respondents were not simply attempting to answer in a manner perceived as socially desirable or

acceptable. Finally, its test-retest reliability coefficient was found to be .92 following a five-

week interval.

Use of the Academic Locus of Control Scale with High School Students

It is highly likely that high school students can interpret and respond to the ALCS in an

appropriate way, although this contention needs further support. For example, application of the

SMOG and Gunning-Fog reading level computation methods yielded a grade nine reading level

for the ALCS. The ALCS was compared to Rotter's (1966) I-E scale. The Rotter scale was

initially validated with samples including 10th, 11th, and 12th graders (Lester & Bishop, 2000),

and later used by Trice (1984) during his validation of the ALCS. Therefore, the significant

correlations between the Rotter I-E scale and the ALCS when used with high school students

suggests that it is appropriate to use with such students.

Summary

Much research supports the effectiveness of CBT. Counselors who adopt CBT for use in

non-therapeutic settings also find support for cognitive constructs in basic research and through

assessment tools based upon it. Cognitive theory thus is a specialized "mental tool" that helps to

guide behavior change rather than to explain all aspects of personality development. It appears

to be productive to adapt cognitive perspectives and techniques so that their benefits can be

achieved through programmatic, school-wide delivery systems; such an approach would









associate well with the CBT literature. More importantly still, an intervention based on CBT

designed to help high school students take control of their academic careers could prove

beneficial. Specifically, the LOC construct holds great promise in giving shape to a cognitive-

based intervention and in providing a theoretical basis for understanding behavior changes that

result from the intervention. Also, assessments of LOC are sufficiently evolved that their use is

likely to inform the relationship between a cognitive intervention and changes in personal locus

of control.









CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

School counseling interventions have been developed and implemented to assist students

to develop in many different ways. Unfortunately, most of these interventions have not been

examined and/or evaluated empirically. More importantly here, the vast majority of these

interventions have not been developed and implemented within a recognized, professionally-

accepted theoretical framework.

Certainly one important part of a student's personal development is assumption of

responsibility for personal and/or academic behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to

evaluate the effectiveness of a CBT-based intervention intended to enhance high school students'

awareness and assumption of responsibility for their academic success. Specifically, the

intervention includes components intended to (a) enhance high school students' awareness that

attention to the details of past academic events, such as courses taken and grades earned, is

relevant to their future success, (b) illustrate the mechanism through which rational self-talk

leads to adaptive behaviors, and (c) demonstrate how an interpersonal communications strategy

grounded in rational principles is likely to enlist the help and cooperation of external others (e.g.,

teachers) while also showing how communications based upon cognitive distortions are likely to

discourage others from helping. An experimental methodology will be employed to determine

the effectiveness of the intervention.

Relevant Variables

Data will be gathered for the following dependent variables in this study: (a) the

extent/degree to which students hold rational beliefs, as measured by the Rationality (GABS-R)

and Need for Achievement (GABS-NA) subscales of the General Attitudes and Beliefs Scales

(GABS), (b) the extent/degree to which they believe they are in control of their academic









careers, as measured by the Academic Locus of Control Scale (ALCS), and (c) level of attention

to academic detail, as measured by the Test of Graduation Requirements (TGR). The

independent variable for this study will be group, with students in the experimental condition

receiving the intervention during the study and students in the control/comparison condition

receiving the intervention after the study.

Population

Although subject to debate, it certainly can be argued that the eleventh grade (i.e., junior

year) of high school is an extremely important period in which students should be aware of and

responsible for fulfillment of requirements for graduation from high school. During this

academic year, students must be keenly aware of their academic standing (relative to graduation

requirements) so that they can act to complete remaining unfulfilled requirements to graduate in

a timely manner.

According to the National Center for Educational Statistics (2006), there were

approximately 165,275 students in the eleventh grade in high schools in Florida in 2005.

Approximately 49.6 percent of these students were males and 50.4 percent were females. In

regard to race/ethnicity characteristics, approximately 22.5 percent were classified as African-

American, 0.3 percent were classified as Native-American, 19.5 percent were classified as

Hispanic-American, 2.5 percent were classified as Asian-American, and 55.2 percent were

classified as Caucasian-American.

Students in the eleventh grade are usually 16 years of age, and commonly under age 18.

While arguably all of high school is a "transitional" period, the age range and educational

experiences associated with grade 11 students suggest it is a time of great variation. Thus, they

make personal decisions and plan for the future in widely differing ways. Beginning at age 16,

Florida students may obtain a driver's license contingent upon continued regular school









attendance. With this increased mobility, many high school juniors are likely to find after-school

employment, and therefore also are faced with more choices of non-school activities than their

younger student peers.

Also noted is that high-achieving grade 11 students are engaged in activities different from

those of their lower-achieving peers. In Florida, high achieving juniors have (already) passed the

Grade 10 Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) (a graduation requirement) and most

are registering and preparing for the American College Test (ACT) or Scholastic Assessment

Test (SAT), national college admissions tests normally taken during the junior year. These

students also begin to evaluate themselves critically for competitive and non-competitive

scholarships, such as the Florida Bright Futures program. Comparatively, lower achieving

juniors must continue to prepare for the FCAT and retake it until it is passed, a process likely to

reinforce negative self-perceptions of academic ability and feelings of failure. These low

achieving students also become aware that at age 16 they may "drop out" of school voluntarily

(with parent permission), although they may retain their driver's licenses if they enroll in a

General Education Diploma (GED) program. Those minors who desire to drop out but who lack

parent permission can do so at their own discretion after their eighteenth birthday, which may

occur during grade 11 if the student has been retained in previous grade levels. Thus, by grade 11

most students know they have the power to make long-term decisions and implement those

decisions in the near future.

The experiences of grade 11 are important because, more often than not, past behavior

predicts future behavior. That is, students who had early successful experiences in academic

endeavors (e.g., high test scores) or in the world-of-work (e.g., success in a school-sponsored

work-study program) are likely to feel efficacious, competent, and interested in academic









activities. The converse also is likely true: students frustrated with previous academic endeavors

or work may react with irrational, negative self-statements (e.g., "I'm no good" or "I've tried and

failed"). Alternatively, they may rationalize their previous experiences by attributing them to a

hostile environment (e.g., "I would do better on the FCAT if it wasn't so stupid; they only make

us take it because it's a waste of time."). Therefore, for either situation, measuring juniors'

systems of irrational beliefs and locus-of-control attitudes may provide clues as to their future

behaviors.

Sampling Procedures

Gender, race, socioeconomic status, and other personal characteristics were not criteria

applied directly for sampling in this study. The population from which the sample was selected

included students all at the same (11th) grade level. Effort was made to sample all regular-

program students at each participating school. Students having learning and/or cognitive

functioning and/or severe emotional difficulties are not assigned to "regular" classrooms.

Similarly, students with exceptionally high academic abilities are assigned to "honors classes" or

other advanced cognitive ability classrooms. Thus, students' academic performance and/or

ability level was the only non-random factor influencing which students were invited to

participate.

Wherever possible, participation was elicited from students enrolled in an American

History class, a class required for all high school students in Florida and normally taken during

the eleventh grade. An "eleventh grader" (i.e., junior), as used here, is a student who was

attending high school for the third consecutive year. Such a student was likely to be enrolled in

an American History class because the course sequence of the Florida social studies curriculum

in Florida is likely to proceed at a predictable pace, unaffected by grade-level "retention"

(defined as the failure of one or more high school classes). At one of the three schools sampled,









access to American History classroom was not possible. Instead, the school's principal

identified an elective course comprised primarily of juniors.

Given that the various criteria for class assignment do not usually introduce systematic bias

in student-to-classroom assignment, it was presumed that the students in the respective regular

classroom groups were relatively heterogeneous in ihil/ the universe of regular-section American

History classrooms. This assumption was investigated subsequent to the study through

examination of the demographic characteristics of the participating students in the respective

classrooms after the sample (i.e., participating students) had been determined.

During the intervention phase of the study, students were randomly assigned to either the

experimental or the control group condition. The intervention consisted of a short electronic

storybook read on a computer, followed by a narrated academic advisement lesson presented in a

slideshow format. The advisement lesson was designed to have value for all students in the 11th

grade. At the time of the intervention, students in the class were taken to a computer lab. Those

students participating in the study logged on to a computer program to receive the measurements,

while students who did not participate in the study were assigned to another activity by the

teacher. Random assignment of participating students occurred at the time they logged into the

computer. Students in the experimental group viewed the electronic storybook intervention, and

students in the control group viewed a non-interactive storybook reading a work of non-fiction

related to the curriculum standards for the American History course.

Resultant Sample

It was anticipated that twelve classroom groups would participate, with approximately 25

students per classroom group, for a total 300 students. Random assignment to experimental or

control condition would be on an individual basis. It also was assumed that at least 75% of the

students in each classroom group would participate, to yield a total of approximately 226









participants. Finally, it was expected that approximately 113 students would be assigned to the

experimental and control conditions, respectively. Also, based on available information about

the characteristics of students in the participating schools, it was anticipated that approximately

50 percent of the students would be male and 50 percent would be female in both the

experimental and control groups. Similarly, it was anticipated that approximate race/ethnicity

percentages for the students in both the experimental and control groups would be African-

American 25%, Hispanic-American 5%, Caucasian-American 65%, and Other 5%.

When research procedures began, the participation rate ranged from two students per

classroom (under 10% of the class) to 25 students per class (over 90% of the students in the

class). The total number of students recruited was estimated at approximately 400. However, the

number who completed informed consent procedures and began the study was 204. Of these,

177 completed both the pre-test and post-test.

Students were informed that participation in the study was voluntary. In regard to the 27

students who did not complete the post-test, their respective classroom teachers who supervised

the study procedure provided unsolicited context information about many of them. There did not

appear to be any systematic non-participation causes presented among these descriptions. Also,

because of the wide range of reasons presented for non-attendance on the second day of the study

(e.g., absence, illness, skipping, disciplinary suspension, band practice, honor club field trip,

athletic tournament, and/or off-campus dual enrollment course), it was concluded that there was

not an underlying (i.e., systematic) reason why these students did not complete the post-test. In

addition, it was not possible to hypothesize about the particular characteristics of students who

completed the study compared those who did not. Therefore, it was assumed that attrition was

due to random factors, and not to any systematic bias.









Research Design

An experimental, equivalent-control-group design was used in this study (Campbell &

Stanley, 1963). There was one composite experimental group (including students from twelve

classroom groups) and one composite control group (including students from twelve classroom

groups) for the primary analyses. Students in both groups received pre-testing and post-testing.

The research design implementation is shown in Figure 3-1.

Measurements

All students in both conditions were given the ALCS, GABS, and TGR at approximately

the same times before and after the intervention. The majority of students completed all of the

assessment instruments within a five to fifteen minute time-span. The order of presentation of the

instruments to the students was the same on all occasions to avoid order effects across groups.

The ALCS consists of a single scale comprised of 28 True-False items. Average

completion time for the ALCS is under 5 minutes. The individual items are declarative

statements, including 26 stated positively and 2 stated negatively. For scoring purposes, 17

items are weighted one for a "positive" response and zero for a "negative" response. Eleven

items are weighted as one for a negative response and zero for a positive response. The total

score is computed by summing the item response weights. The ALCS has a score range of zero

to 28. Higher scores indicate a more externalized locus of academic control.

The GABS Rationality and Need for Achievement subscales each have nine items with

positive or negative wording (e.g., "I think a, but I also think b..." or "I do not x, but I do y.").

Positively stated items are weighted one point on the scale to which the item is assigned. The

GAB S-R scale is considered to reflect "rational" thinking (i.e., presumed evidence of effective

thinking) in a general context centering upon the individual's self-esteem and social worthiness,

while the GAB S-NA is considered to reflect "irrational" thinking in the form of









"demandingness" contingent upon one's intended accomplishments. The GABS-R and GABS-

NA subscales were used as outcome measures in this study.

The TGR consists of a single scale containing 18 true-false "checkbox" items, five

multiple-choice items, and two write-in items. All items are positively stated. The true-false

checkbox items direct the respondent to "check off all of the following" courses or tests that are

required for graduation. Seven of the checkbox items are weighted as one point for correctly

identifying courses or tests required for Florida high school graduation, and the other 11 are

weighted as one point for (correctly) not identifying the course as a graduation requirement. The

seven multiple-choice items are objectively scored and five of the items share a set of four

response choices. The item stems are scenarios describing a hypothetical senior's GPA and test

scores. The respondent must determine which type of certificate or diploma the hypothetical

student is eligible to receive. One point is given for the correct response and zero is given for

any of the three incorrect responses. The remaining two multiple-choice items ask the respondent

to choose the GPA required for high school graduation (one point for the correct answer) and the

GPA under which a student is considered "in jeopardy" of not graduating (one point for the

correct answer). The possible score range for the TGR is 0 to 25.

Intervention

The intervention consisted of an interactive, electronic storybook which required about

twenty to thirty minutes to read, on a computer. The story was interactive because of its

"branched" plot line which made possible multiple endings. Students reading the story had the

ability to influence the events of the plot by using the mouse to select and assign lines of dialog

(including self-talk and words spoken to others) to the story's main character. The choices

reflected appropriate and inappropriate communications strategies (e.g., speaking and acting

rudely or politely to others) and appropriate or inappropriate information-processing strategies









(e.g., reading or ignoring signage and rules and procedures). The choices made caused the main

character of the story to act in ways that were adaptive or maladaptive, with a corresponding

influence on the final outcome of the story, which could be either positive or negative. Students

were asked to read the story several times, making different choices each time. After each

reading, the computer program administering the story invited students to "process" the dramatic

events of the plot by posing multiple-choice questions which called for the student to interpret

specific events from a locus-of-control perspective. These questions were in the form of

statements that modeled either rational or irrational self-talk, and the student was asked to choose

the statement that seemed to best reflect his or her own thinking. Students also were asked to

type several short paragraphs to summarize what happened in the story, to recall a time when

something similar happened to someone they knew, and to comment whether such things could

happen in real life. The computer program also tracked the outcome of each iteration of the

story, either "positive" or "negative," in terms of the plot developments and the story's ending.

Research Participants

Principals of the respective schools were contacted and provided information about the

study and a full description of the intervention, including details of the school board's approval

and copies of the Child Assent Script and Informed Consent documents. The cognitive basis and

practical benefits for academic locus of control, dubbed "responsibility education," were

explained to principals. Based on this information, principals gave approval and provided the

names of teachers of eligible classes who would be contacted.

Research Procedures

Activities necessary to allow conduct of the study in the Levy County public schools took

place initially during the Fall of 2007. Processes for approval of the study (and specifically the

informed consent procedures) by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board and by the









School Board of Levy County were implemented concurrently. Both approvals were needed

before the actual research procedures for the study could be initiated. Approval to conduct the

study in local high schools was received from the School Board of Levy County, and

subsequently, by the principals of Williston High School, Bronson Middle/High School, and

Chiefland High School. Permission was denied by one high school located in Alachua county

and the principal of another high school did not respond to a written request for permission.

Subsequently, a sufficient number of students was obtained in Levy County and other

recruitment efforts ceased.

The actual research activities for this study were implemented in a time span beginning in

the third week of January, 2007 and ending in the second week of December, 2007. As described

to parents in the informed consent letter, the participating teachers at each school site read from

the Child Assent Script to announce the study and then distributed the Informed Consent letter to

all students. Students' parents then signed the Informed Consent Forms to indicate either "yes"

or "no" for a student's participation. The forms were then returned to the student's teacher, who

kept track of which students had received permission to participate. Next, arrangements were

made with the school's computer lab manager to reserve a time for the class to participate in the

study. Students whose parents did not give consent for participation did not receive assessments.

However, as part of an intact classroom group meeting in the computer lab, they read the story

assigned to the control group, which related to the American History curriculum, or worked on

other assignments as directed by the teacher.

Upon receiving the permission forms, the collaborating teachers provided the participating

students (i.e., ones having informed consent) with a randomly-generated computer "password"

written on a sheet of paper. As described in the Informed Consent letter, the teacher retained









each student's password so that it could be re-used by the same student for the second session of

the intervention, and the password sheets then were destroyed. Each password, consisting of a

unique, five-letter gibberish word, served to match students' pre-test scores to their post-test

scores without recording students' actual identities. As students logged in using their respective

passwords to complete the pre-assessments, they were randomly assigned to either the

experimental or control group condition, and either the experimental or control group story was

shown. Next, both the experimental and control group subjects were shown a slide show

presentation that described Florida high school graduation requirements. Students then

completed the post-assessments.

This process was expected to require two full class periods in which the pre-test and

electronic storybook would be completed during the first class period and the academic

advisement and post-test would be completed during the second class period. In order to use time

most efficiently, an electronic web page was created to manage the presentation of each part of

the study for the students (Appendix D). The web page evaluated each student's progress

continuously and required that he or she respond to at least 90% of the pre-test before being

allowed to begin the experimental intervention. It also required that participation be maintained

for at least 20 minutes before going on to the academic advisement unit. Similarly, students were

required to undertake the academic advisement component before receiving the post-test, which

must have been at least 90% completed before proceeding. Later analysis showed that only

0.326% of test items had been skipped; on average the questionnaires included in the final

analysis had been 99.7% completed. Therefore, any missing datum was treated as reflecting the

"undesirable" direction for that question.









Because of the study's computer-based format, students were offered flexibility to

complete any missing lessons or assessments at a later time. However, only one student chose

this option. Informed consent procedures were conducted during regular class time, not during

the study itself. At two of the schools, an incentive was offered in the form of a pizza party, at a

later date, for students who participated. Consistent with IRB policy, the informed consent letter

stated that students could become eligible to receive an incentive even if they did not complete

both parts of the study.

As noted, following the story reading and before completing the post-assessments, students

in both conditions viewed a brief slide show presentation of the Florida high school graduation

requirements. Although likely valuable for all students regardless of type of participation in the

experiment, the knowledge gained from the slide show should have had special impact for

students who received the intervention. That is, if the intervention increased their internal

academic locus of control, their attitudes should have had a greater relationship to academic self-

awareness (as assessed by the ALCS and TGR, respectively). Because this construct was

assessed from objective knowledge of graduation requirements (i.e., the TGR), students in the

experimental and control conditions must have had at least some exposure to these requirements.

Data Analyses

Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with pretest scores as the covariates, was the primary

data analytic method for this study. The ANCOVA procedure gains increased statistical power

by using a covariate to account for variance in the dependent variable. Null hypotheses 1, 2, 3,

and 4 were evaluated using ANCOVAs computed for rational belief systems (i.e., GABS-R and

GABS-NA scores), locus of control (i.e., ALCS scores), and academic self-awareness (i.e., TGR

scores), respectively. Null hypotheses 8, 9, 10 and 11 used ANCOVA to test for the four









outcome measures as well as a gender interaction effect, and null hypotheses 12, 13, 14 andl5

tested for a race interaction effect.

Null hypotheses 5, 6, and 7 were evaluated through creation of nine (Pearson product-

moment) inter-correlation matrices of post-test GABS-NA, ALCS, and TGR scores, respectively.

Three matrices were developed for each scale. The first matrix encompassed scores from all

students, the second encompassed scores (only) from students in the experimental group, and the

third encompassed scores (only) from students in the control group.

Methodological Limitations

The primary methodological limitations for this study were related to motivational factors,

for both the cooperating school counselors and the student participants. The success of the

intervention was in large part contingent upon the motivation of the participating teachers to

coordinate classroom management procedures for the study, a factor that depended in part on the

ease with which the intervention could be integrated with existing teacher duties and classroom

expectations. While the participating teachers did receive modest gifts in appreciation for their

assistance, these were not promised at the outset, and quite likely would not have proven a

motivating factor in any case. However, it certainly was to teachers' advantage for the

intervention to be successful, because it would improve the academic climate in their respective

classrooms. In addition, the collaborating teachers were accomplished professionals, selected

from among those who value research, professional collaboration, and enhancement of the

school community in general. Therefore, inappropriate motivation among the collaborating

teachers was likely minimized.

The motivation to participate in the intervention successfully likely varied widely among

the student participants. Some likely participated readily because the potential benefits were

readily apparent to them, or because they were eager to avoid other class work. Others









participated, at least initially, hesitatingly because they did not perceive immediate personal

benefit. Others may have participated because of the pizza incentive at the two schools where

this was offered. However, one objective of the intervention was to help students recognize the

benefits of having certain types of information and acting in appropriate ways based on that

information. Therefore, the intervention, in part, should have served as a participation

motivation factor for the students. Therefore, it was likely that lack of appropriate motivation

also was minimized for participating students.










Table 3-1. Research Design


Pre-Test Intervention Post-Test


X*
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

Y**
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
X
X










Y
Y










Y


ronic storybook. **Y is an electronic storybook of


*X is the actual intervention using the elect
similar duration, but with unrelated content.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the electronic storybook

intervention intended to enhance a student's academic locus of control, rationality, and need for

achievement. A secondary purpose of the study was to measure the extent to which participation

in the intervention mediated academic self-awareness, as defined by knowledge of local and

Florida graduation requirements.

Resultant Sample

Of the 177 students who completed both parts of the research procedures, 35 described

themselves as sophomores, 119 as juniors, and 23 as seniors. One-hundred five (105) were

recruited from American History classes at Williston and Bronson High Schools, while 72 were

recruited from a junior-level, elective class in business technology at Chiefland High School. All

of these schools are located in Levy County, Florida. Twenty-one students were African-

American, two were Native American, 14 were Hispanic-American, four were Asian-American,

129 were Caucasian-American, and six self-identified as mixed ethnicity. One participant did not

respond to this question. One hundred twenty-two indicated that they knew their exact number

of high school credits earned, while 54 reported that they did not. As students logged for the

intervention, they were randomly assigned by the computer to one of the study conditions;

ultimately, 82 were assigned to the control condition and 95 to the experimental condition from

among those who participated fully.

Data Analyses

Analyses of co-variance (ANCOVA) were used to investigate null hypotheses Hol

through H, 4. First, Pearson coefficients were calculated to establish the relationship between

pre- and post-measures of each measure used in the study (i.e., GABS-R, GABS-NA, ALCS, and









TGR). Correlations for all pre-post measures for all students were statistically significant at the

p = .001 level as shown in Figure 4-1. Therefore, use of the pre-test score as a covariate for the

post-test analyses was appropriate.

Next, ANCOVAs were computed for each of the measures to obtain main-effect values of

GABS-R, GABS-NA, ALCS, and TGR by condition. No statistically significant differences

were found between participants in the experimental and control conditions (Table 4-6).

Therefore, null hypotheses Hol, Ho2, Ho3 and H. 4 were not rejected.

To investigate null hypotheses Ho5, H06 and H07, Pearson product-moment correlation

coefficients were calculated for the post-measures of GABS-NA, ALCS and TGR, in both

conditions separately and combined. The correlation between irrational need for achievement

and academic self-awareness was statistically significant, so null hypothesis Ho6 was rejected.

The correlation between academic locus of control and academic self-awareness also was

significant, and therefore hypothesis Ho7 also was rejected. Hypothesis H05 was not rejected

because there was not a statistically significant correlation between locus of control and

irrational need for achievement.

Next, to investigate null hypotheses H08 through Hol 1, gender-by-participation

interactions were investigated in the model, again using pre-test scores as covariates. The results

presented in Table 4-6 show that there were no statistically significant interactions for either

level of the gender variable. Therefore, null hypotheses H08, H09, Hol0, and Hol 1 were not

rejected. Race by participation interactions were modeled in the same way for null hypotheses

Ho12 through H15. Note that the reduction in total degrees of freedom reflects one participant

who did not answer the ethnicity question. No significant interactions were found. Therefore,

null hypotheses H 12, H 13, H 14 and H 15 were not rejected.









Post Hoc Analyses

As part of the study, all participants received an academic advisement lesson considered

appropriate for all students. It had been predicted that an increase in academic responsibility,

presumably gained through the intervention, would enhance students' learning gains on the

academic advisement measure. However, ANCOVA failed to show statistically significant

differences between post-test scores on the TGR. Consequently, H, 4 was not rejected.

Thereafter, apost hoc analysis was undertaken to determine whether the academic advisement

itself had been effective, i.e., to inform as to whether academic responsibility was a mediator of

academic awareness in both groups. A dependent measures t-test was used to compare the means

of participants' TGR pre- and post-scores as shown in Table 4-8. The differences were

statistically significant for both groups.

ANCOVA similarly failed to show gender-by-condition interaction on the TGR and

therefore null hypothesis Hol 1 was not rejected. However, again, in order to better understand

the role of the academic advisement on TGR scores, differences in group means on the basis of

gender alone were examined for each group. In the experimental group, an independent t-test

showed no significant statistically difference between males and females, but in the control

group, male and female scores differed significantly (Table 4-7).










Table 4-1. Participant demographics by gender and ethnicity


Control Experimental


Ethnicity Male Female Male Female


African-American 4 2 9 6

Native-American 0 0 0 2

Hispanic-
American 3 2 4 5

Asian-American 1 0 2 1

Caucasian-
American 33 35 35 26

Mixed ethnicity 2 0 2 2












Table 4-2. Ages of participants by class standing


Number of Participants Mean Age (Years)


Grade level Control Experimental Male Female


Sophomore 19 16 15.5 15.8

Junior 49 70 16.4 16.6

Senior 14 9 17 17.4










Table 4-3. Post-test means by gender and ethnicity (Part 1)


Control Experimental


Ethnicity Male Female Male Female

M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)


African-American

TGR 14.25 (2.99) 17.50 (4.95) 16.00 (3.50) 12.17 (1.94)
ALCS 12.75 (3.77) 9.00 (1.41) 12.00 (3.12) 11.50 (1.76)
GABS-R 6.00 (2.58) 6.50 (2.12) 6.89 (1.27) 7.33 (1.97)
GABS-NA 4.50 (1.29) 6.00 3.56 (2.07) 4.00 (1.26)


Native-American

TGR 14.00 (1.41)
ALCS 12.50 (2.12)
GABS-R 6.50 (71)
GABS-NA 5.00 (1.41)


Hispanic-American


TGR
ALCS
GABS-R
GABS-NA


16.00
13.67
7.33
2.67


(2.65)
(3.21)
(1.15)
(3.06)


19.50
16.00
6.50
3.50


(71)
(2.83)
(71)
(2.12)


15.25
10.50
7.75
3.75


(2.22)
(3.87)
(1.50)
(.96)


17.40
14.00
7.80
4.00


(1.52)
(4.06)
(1.10)
(71)










Table 4-4. Post-test means by gender and ethnicity (Part 2)


Control Experimental


Ethnicity Male Female Male Female

M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)


Asian-American

TGR 15.00 (5.66)
ALCS 12.00 (8.49)
GABS-R 6.00 (1.41)
GABS-NA 3.50 (71)


Caucasian-American

TGR 13.76 (3.85) 16.57 (3.70) 16.03 (3.17) 16.38 (3.71)
ALCS 12.36 (4.37) 10.66 (3.70) 11.94 (4.18) 9.92 (4.05)
GABS-R 7.24 (1.35) 6.97 (1.64) 6.80 (1.92) 7.38 (1.63)
GABS-NA 3.79 (1.54) 3.26 (1.77) 3.40 (1.79) 3.62 (2.00)


Mixed Ethnicity

TGR
ALCS
GABS-R
GABS-NA


20.50
7.50
7.50
4.50


(3.54)
(71)
(71)
(71)


17.50
9.50
9.00
5.00


(3.54)
(4.95)
(00)
(1.41)










Table 4-5. Correlation matrices for TGR, ALCS, GABS-NA


Group TGRPost ALCS_Post GABS_NAPost


Both Groups


TGR Post


P
ALCS Post
N
P
GABS NA Post
N
P


-.165
177
.03
-.070
177
.36


-.075
177
.32


Experimental
Group


TGR Post


ALCS Post
N
P
GABS NA Post
N
P


-.111
95
.28
-.202
95
.049


-.139
95
.18


Control Group


TGR Post
N
P
ALCS Post
N
P
GABS NA Post
N
P


-.216
82
.051
.057
82
.61


.002
82
.99











Table 4-6. Analyses of covariance


Main Effects Interaction


Ethnicity df F p df F p


GABS-R
By Condition (1, 177) .79 .35
Condition x Gender (1, 177) 3.71 .056
Condition x Race (4, 176) .58 .68

GABS-NA
By condition (1,177) 1.64 .20
Condition x Gender (1, 177) 2.13 .15
Condition x Race (4, 176) 1.06 .38

ALCS
By Condition (1, 177) 1.11 .29
Condition x Gender (1, 177) 1.36 .25
Condition x Race (4, 176) .24 .91

TGR
By Condition (1, 177) .03 .87
Condition x Gender (1, 177) 3.51 .063
Condition x Race (4, 176) .85 .49












Table 4-7. Independent samples t-tests of TGR by gender and participation


Control


Mean
Std. Dev.
N:


Male



14.349
3.872
43


Difference
t
Eta Squared
P


Experiment


Female



16.769
3.660
39


2.420
2.901
.093
.005


Difference
T
Eta Squared
P


Male



15.906
3.084
53


Female



15.881
3.507
42


.025
.036
.000
.971










Table 4-8. Paired t-test comparing all participants' pre- and post- TGR scores


Mean:
Std. Dev.:

N Pairs:
Mean Difference:
SE of Diff.:
Eta Squared:
t:
p:


TGR Pre


TGR Post


15.712
3.587


14.718
3.071

177
-.994
.239
.089
4.156
.000











Table 4-9. Independent t-test of ALCS change scores comparing control and experimental


Condition Control Experimental



Mean: .012 -.400
Std. Dev: 2.497 2.615
N: 82 95

Mean Difference: .412
T-Score: 1.068
Eta Squared: .006
p: .287











Table 4-10. Independent t-test of GABS-R change scores comparing control and experimental


Condition Control Experimental



Mean: -.146 .305
Std. Dev: 1.701 1.930
N: 82 95

Mean Difference: .452
T-Score: 1.639
Eta Squared: .015
p: .103











Table 4-11. Paired t-test of ALCSPre with ALCSPost for experimental group


Condition ALCS Pre ALCS Post



Mean: 11.758 11.297
Std. Dev.: 4.393 4.007

N Pairs: 91
Mean Difference: .462
SEofDiff.: .274
Eta Squared: .030
T-Score: 1.685
p: .095











Table 4-12. Independent t-test of control and experimental on ALCSPost


Condition Control Experimental



Mean: 11.512 11.253
Std. Dev: 4.062 4.040
N: 82 95

Mean Difference: .260
t-Score: .425
Eta Squared: .001
P: .671












Scatterplot of

GABS R Preand

GABS_R_Post

9 + + + + +
9 **
a- 7 *

+ + + *
3


1 3 5 7 9
GABS_R_Post



Scatterplot of

GABS NA Preand

GABS NA Post
7 -
6
5
4 -
LA 3 .

1 2
0 < ----------------
0 2 4 6
GABSNA Post



Figure 4-1. Pre- and post- measure correlations


Scatterplot of ALCS_Pre

and ALCS Post


20 -


, *
15 tt

10 0t




2 7 12 17 22
ALCS_Post



Scatterplot of TGR_Pre
and TGRPost
24 -
22 t
20 -
18 -
CL 16 -
14 -+
12 -

8 -
6
7 12 17 22
TASA Post









CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

This research study investigated the impact of an electronic storybook intervention upon

student thinking, attitudes and knowledge. Conclusions, implications, and recommendations

from the results of the study are presented in this chapter.

Generalizability Limitations

The only groups for which males and females were represented in both the experimental

and control conditions were Hispanic/Latino, African-American, and White. The proportions of

students in each of these groups were not as originally sought, but were sufficient for ethnicity-

based influences to be represented in the data. The proportions of male and female students

likewise were not exactly as originally sought. However, again there was a sufficient number of

each gender group in the study such that gender-based influences were represented in the sample.

No effort was made to investigate other factors (e.g., socio-economic status) affecting the

relevance of this study to the general population. Thus, although the sample did not fully

represent all groups of students in schools, it was sufficiently diverse and substantive to represent

high school juniors adequately.

Evaluations of Hypotheses

The rejection of H06 and H07 offers partial support for the theoretical linkage connecting

locus of control, rational thinking, and academic awareness. Students with a more internalized

locus of control (lower ALCS scores) tended to have higher TGR scores, indicating more

knowledge of the Florida graduation requirements. This enhances the view that changes to

student academic locus of control could be reflected in more productive academic advisement.

On the other hand, students in the experimental group who had a higher irrational need for

achievement (GABS-NA) tended to have lower post-test scores. Need for achievement had been









theorized to produce higher levels of personal stress as well as more academic achievement.

Given that this negative correlation was observed only in the experimental group, it seems likely

that the connection is related to factors present in the intervention rather than reflecting on the

theoretical construction.

Although H06 and H07 were rejected, the 13 other null hypotheses were not rejected. In

general, the analyses consistently failed to show significant differences between the control and

experimental groups. Statistically significant interactions between the treatment and race or

gender also were not found. However, ancillary analyses comparing change scores for the

experimental and control groups revealed a tendency for scores to shift in the desirable direction.

Table 4-9 shows academic locus of control scores lowering (i.e., more internal as intended) for

the experimental group. Similarly Table 4-10 shows an increase in rationality scores. Although

not statistically significant, these change scores tended to support the theoretical premises for the

study.

The computer-based intervention for this study aided delivery of the intervention, but also

impeded recruitment of participants. Burdens imposed upon teachers were greater than desired

because of the redundancy of conducting computer-mediated intervention and assessment which

necessarily required a paper-based, signed consent procedure. The study was streamlined to the

greatest extent possible by automating assessment and intervention, eliminating the need for

teachers or the interventionist to supervise students' work individually, but arranging to match

student's pre-test and post-test scores while still maintaining anonymity, as described in the

informed consent document. The rigorous experimental methodology and informed consent

process thus created a burden for teachers far greater than the relatively more simple

accountability steps that would accompany the implementation of a classroom guidance









program. Given that a goal of this intervention was to discover ways that developmental

guidance programs can work with less direct oversight, in order that more students may be

served, it should be noted that the experimental process did not fully resemble an anticipated

implementation of an electronic counseling intervention.

The logistics of available technology also presented obstacles. While the study was

designed with an alternate activity for non-participating students (so that intact classroom groups

could be brought to the lab, thus consolidating supervision functions), in fact it was necessary in

most cases to split the class because of an insufficient number of computer workstations. Thus, at

two of the three schools, the researcher's presence was required to monitor the study. The

inability to assemble whole groups of students in a computer lab, absent of technical problems,

reflects to some extent on the challenges of implementing electronic instructional methodologies.

Those challenges partly reflect the financial challenges of Florida's public schools, as they

struggle to keep class sizes low and also to provide high-speed Internet services while stringently

monitoring network traffic and filtering Internet content to ensure the safety of all children. The

resulting scenario often involves students "doubling up," two per computer. Further, often

students must wait for restoration of the network when service is temporarily suspended. While

this factor impedes the evaluation of a scientific study, in practice network outages of several

minutes at a time are commonly faced and accepted by students, limiting their disruptive impact

on classroom interventions.

Two of the non-significant interaction values discovered are of particular interest.

Examination of the group means shows that experimental-condition females of the three fully-

represented ethnic groups (Hispanic, African-American, and White) had higher means than

control-condition females of the same respective group on the Rationality measure. Additionally,









African-American and White males, the two largest ethnic groups, showed lower means in the

control group compared to the experimental group. Thus, females may differ from males in

ways that were not investigated in the study, for example, they may have had higher reading

literacy that impacted their successful interaction with the intervention. Anticipating this threat,

the intervention was designed so that each story, in its entirety, would be read aloud line by line

to participants, thus moving toward accommodating different levels of reading proficiency.

However, during the study it was found that the computer lab's Internet connection speed was

sometimes too slow to load the audio tracks in real time despite careful preparations to compress

the bit rate of the audio stream. This may have led some students to turn off their headphones. To

the extent the intervention did not work as intended because of lack of Internet bandwidth,

variance was introduced into the delivery of the intervention; in turn, such variance reduces the

possibility of statistical significance. Finally, those parts of the intervention designed as

processing activities (e.g., reflection questions) required students to read and select among the

question stems, and those parts of the study were not narrated.

It also was observed that students participating in the study became aware of their status in

either the experimental or control group. Although the control group treatment used the same

format as the experimental treatment, its visual appearance was different. The experimental

treatment was illustrated with bright, colorful clip art, while the story read to the control group

consisted of selections from Mark Twain's Roughing It, a historical novel in the public domain

illustrated with digitized black-and-white sketches from the work's initial 1872 edition. Thus,

students became aware quickly of the difference between the two treatments. Upon questioning,

it was explained to the students that their assignment to read a particular story was random and

made by the computer, that they were making contributions to research (and earning eligibility









for an incentive, if applicable) no matter which story they read, and that the best course of action

was simply to read along and participate. However, it is possible that males in the control group

may have developed feelings of resentful demoralization or futility which lead them to

inattentiveness during the academic advisement lesson. Indeed, the statistically insignificant yet

decreased change scores on the need for achievement subscale (see Table 5-1), an area not

targeted by the study, seem consistent with the de-motivating effect of a control intervention

viewed as pointless or irrelevant.

Conclusion and Interpretations

The intervention to enhance academic locus of control, as presently formulated, was not

effective. Considering the linkage between academic locus of control and academic self-

awareness that was demonstrated by the study, it is likely that the lack of significant outcomes

can be attributed to factors inherent to the intervention, rather than the absence of a tenable

theoretical foundation. The fully-randomized experimental design of this study introduced a

level of complexity not commonly experienced by the students who participated. An alternative

intervention was implemented for the control group, to help control for the possibility that the

score differences were due to the format of the experimental treatment rather than its content.

However, its development, as well as the development of an administrative structure to manage

informed consent and assessment procedures, consumed considerable resources that would not

be allocated toward enhancing the experimental treatment a testament to the difficulty of

conducting rigorous research in applied settings.

Some evidence of effectiveness in the intervention's academic advisement subcomponent

was found through the t-tests that revealed higher TGR scores in both groups. Although the

intervention overall was not effective, considering that the academic advisement subcomponent

was made in part using technologies available to many school counselors (i.e., Microsoft









Powerpoint), the results, however tentative, may be taken as evidence for the benefits of

technology competency training in counselor education programs. Furthermore, the use of an

electronic assessment manager was demonstrated effective, as evidenced by the fact that the

majority of participants logged in and completed all assessments and the intervention using only

the password supplied by the classroom teacher, by following the prompts on the web site. The

researcher did not distribute passwords, and the only instruction given to students was the

directive to scroll down while viewing the lengthy informed consent document. Therefore, the

electronic assessment manager was accessible to 1 th-grade regular program students.

The experimental treatment, as implemented in this study, is not sufficiently developed for

use by school counselors. While it is not presented here for the purpose of training future

counselors, it does serve as a reminder of the need for professional school counselors to

determine the research basis of commercially-available curricula that are purported to enhance

the interpersonal and/or moral reasoning skills of young people. Counselor preparation programs

accredited by the Council for Accreditation for Counseling and Related Educational Programs

(CACREP) include training in research methods and statistical procedures; this background will

continue to guide school counselors in the evaluation of research claims. Professional school

counselors should know how to interpret, for example, t-scores and F-statistics that attain

statistical significance at the a = .10 level, of which several were found in this study.

While this intervention did not have the desired results, other brief school-counseling

interventions have proven effective to implement on a wide scale and have demonstrated

effectiveness helping students adapt to high school academics (e.g., Brigman et al., 2007; Webb

et al., 2005; Brigman & Campbell, 2003). Thus, school counselors should continue to seek brief,

effective interventions that can be replicated across classroom settings. This study demonstrated









some effectiveness for a brief academic advisement unit that can be conducted in minimal time

and, due to the electronically pre-packaged nature of its presentation, even could be conducted

without the actual presence of a school counselor. Therefore, school counselors should consider

brief interventions in general as a desirable for further research, especially when the number of

students to be served prohibits direct interaction between a school counselor and each student.

Direct collaboration with teachers, as modeled in this study, can be a path leading to student

learning gains in the areas of personal development and academic achievement.

Recommendations

Future studies of the academic advisement subcomponent should attempt to identify any

reactive effects of the pre-test, possibly by making comparisons with a control group, or perhaps

the more practical alternative of measuring with the pre-test only half of the participants and then

comparing post-test scores between those who pre-tested and those who did not. Future studies

also should examine gender-based differences, in particular to determine whether females

experience greater learning gains than males from a computer-administrated counseling

intervention. In particular, it remains to be investigated whether differences in scores by gender

reflect factors inherent in the intervention (such as appeal or entertainment value) or other factors

such as reading literacy.

The computer-based learning format remains popular with teachers because of low

preparation time, curriculum implementation flexibility (e.g., students can "double up" on a

computer if space is limited), and spontaneity. In contrast, scientific research involving

computer-based learning activities has none of these advantages. Further, because time to

distribute informed consent paperwork was an obstacle for collaborating teachers, development

of a signature-less system of informed consent may open the door for future studies to survey a

larger or remote population with whom the researcher has no face-to-face contact. Such a system









might work by e-mailing a password to the parent or guardian in advance of students working on

the intervention.

Future research also should select an experimental design that will facilitate the

recruitment of students, reduce the potential for resentful demoralization, and lighten the burden

upon teachers. In this study, random assignment to the control group was simplified because of

the electronic delivery mechanism, but it may have underlain undesirable results overall. A

different method of reporting control results, or elimination of the control group, may prove

more productive. A repeated-measures design, while less able to account for validity threats, can

achieve statistical significance with fewer participants, as evidenced in this study by the

comparison between academic locus of control pre- and post-scores for the experimental group;

while not significant the probability of Type I error was lower than the same comparison

comparing both groups using the ANCOVA method. This can be understood conceptually by

considering that a paired samples t-test, as utilized in the repeated-measures design, only

establishes the probability that any changes are significant, while the ANCOVA additionally

calculates the probability that the difference is attributable to experimental condition. Again,

considering the relative absence of environmental factors likely to have significantly impacted

student's academic locus of control in the brief time between pre-test and post-test, a control

group may not be necessary at the same school site Instead, the control group could be

eliminated, or alternatively, control group participants could be recruited at another school in

another district. Those students would complete only the assessment instruments without

participating in any (kind of) intervention, which would remove the possibility of distractions or

demoralization potentially experienced by those in the control condition. Matching pre-test and

post-test scores would be greatly simplified for control group participants who complete paper-









and-pencil assessments (as opposed to computer-administered assessment and intervention) and

permit use of the ANCOVA procedure for this modified design.

One of the major burdens upon teachers in this study was the responsibility to maintain

custody of students' passwords. Accordingly, recruitment may be enhanced by abandoning the

repeated-measures design altogether and making group comparisons. This would simplify data

collection procedures and eliminate some of the logistical burdens experienced by teachers.

Comparison of group means has relatively less statistical power. However, statistical

significance might be achieved with a much larger number of participants. Such a simplified

procedure might also find appeal with distant schools and districts, particularly if the intervention

is designed as a freestanding curriculum and presented in terms of its effectiveness as a resource

for all students. The intervention could be designed such that the researcher would not be present

at any school site, thus eliminating the burden of matching pre-test and post-test scores.

Teachers would be invited to try out the intervention at appropriate times rather than only those

times convenient for the purposes of timing pre- and post-assessment. The resources formerly

spent maintaining the fully-experimental design instead could be applied to refining the

intervention itself and allocating more resources to enhance the level of technical quality and

content. This in turn could be expected to lead to better results. This step would effectively

move the electronic storybook intervention through transition from being a locally-implemented

study to becoming a high-quality, regional or statewide resource providing Florida's students

with a unique avenue for personal and academic development. Ultimately, this model perhaps

best matches the ASCA vision of serving the greatest number of students.











Table 5-1. Independent t-test of GABS-NA change scores comparing control and experimental


Condition Control Experimental



Mean: -.366 .021
Std. Dev: 1.427 1.523
N: 82 95

Mean Difference: .387
T-Score: 1.735
Eta Squared: .017
p: .084











APPENDIX A
INFORMED CONSENT: ORIGINAL APPROVED (OPTICAL SCAN)





Approve D y
Unl.vcrsily oriIca
January 1, 21M1 ridl iiii...Aii Rpenmi BRnard 02
Protocol # 21J -,,-uW
Deil ParIenitv ) LW (
I a in doc'xral student in ~ program mtie LDepartment of Counselor Education at
.he Univtiisiy uOf Pllrild. My doctoral program and research supervisor is Dr La ry
Latsch. T have wmOice6 for two yeas as a a liigl. scLtuu] guI'idiAmUL CUILUt it i LCevy CULLLy
-jublic sahumls. VLIr-ry rni.Lrain i my doctoral nr ramn. I am trying ut in;ur c vludharg a
-ew rmet'cd .. I i-.'I. Liii e sItletLab how to bemTnorT s xJx-sl.Aul in suhoul. I ramn atkixt for
yiuui cili]d l teip in ii d: resea.rcl

The purpose of :ny study is to Find out what Atuidils cmn learn LboJt being
sia. -iil i] sLchuJl y li aint g i ew short stories im a uo.-inip.LIr A E stludtuILI woL
participate in the aludy would have their pa-rnts' pemni.iim. Sltdunte who ire in tux
study would work on the Icsl.m in the comip utir ah which m coists if killing out uin
online s-rvey then reading a sclx'ion tof fiction.l shorn stirici. I he survcy is urtmiyrnmTU
-In) irO will kmnow whn h.n w-ittwn what After rnishing -he s rucy "ndi thel r nadn
assign nnt, your child vwald answer son qucslioal abac.t the radi0ng on 1h ccmputcr.
NcE your child would receive a lessor, about the florida h gh school graduation
requirements. This lesson is appropriate for all high sc&oo: juniors. Finally, your ch:1d
would take ILLIi.Lhfr uiirvy tl Jindi1t if u(lhis r ha Il iril ii1, airult Mlioi)l sucitxss, slrtrs,
and work habits has chanjige, a. well as ai test to measure how mudi was i arnl] frtm Lhe
]esson aboilt ite 'lurida gracsm uttm rlqutanIrU ntX.

This sci oflus'Jl N required ulxul tlire( daL s a :eliod,-i. YuI dcilld'. Amllleicl
History t~ch'e1 h as set side his time sE .uat i ll sludcnls will have ltie h.anLee to
participate. T"is Icssnt also has been planned into tie curriculum so that students do no:
fall behind io An.nricai: H-i5tory To iLakI suic aL all sludiArs hbau a cdimcc to
nurticiputo, studants5 will bh given a password so they caa accss tAc o.linc stlrvcy and
l
Students are not required to paricipatc ii this slsdy. nxd ever. s-udtut wito start
can ch:4w t Jvc the study la~ r without any penalty. Srjdents who do participate in
the study c'n rnc ive extra credit points Itro the teacher; the tanher wil] tell tlie clasw
no, mI ny I. int aIre YoIfferL'Il.

Students who participate in the s3udy maty oals learn some helpful information
.vinint Florida's .r]i.ind.:.i ralnlu.iei.ier.!, They also :nay develop more positive atti.rdes
10 wal sdw tll.. Of' ou clil~:. : purl niL twlig in Ihe slidy they anr ulMb lill|pig IU i, dv[nilX
AciirtilIc kntowlcigc about Ic;ningg, witch may help other rudesnts later, You should 1be:
aware that onu of the st-rt srone usiid in this lesson is about a selnager who is
"Dopiutlietd dfter an aiuo Eeektidmt Ifyou beclic this kihd ofmatwral is insppropri ue f:r
yiur child, ynur chile sa5uk be advised not to participate in tdc srudy, No o-hcr risks or
negative cmnmiqucnccs arc amrc anid d to resulJt from participation in this 3udy.

This sLiudy will he ~kep conidentic to the txtntpmrrnirted rly law. If VtIu giv









APPENDIX B
INFORMED CONSENT: VARIATION WITH INCENTIVE

January 1, 2007

Dear Parent(s) or Guardian(s):

I am a doctoral student in a program in the Department of Counselor Education at the
University of Florida. My doctoral program and research supervisor is Dr. Larry Loesch. I have
worked for two years as a high school guidance counselor in Levy County public schools. For
my research in my doctoral program, I am trying out and evaluating a new method of teaching
students how to be more successful in school. I am asking for your child's help in this research

The purpose of my study is to find out what students can learn about being successful in
school by reading a few short stories on a computer. All students who participate in the study
would have their parents' permission. Students who are in the study would work on the lesson in
the computer lab, which consists of filling out an online survey then reading a selection of
fictional short stories. The survey is anonymous; no one will know who has written what. After
finishing the survey and the reading assignment, your child would answer some questions about
the reading on the computer. Next, your child would receive a lesson about the Florida high
school graduation requirements. This lesson is appropriate for all high school juniors. Finally,
your child would take another survey to find out if his or her thinking about school success,
stress, and work habits has changed, as well as a test to measure how much was learned from the
lesson about the Florida graduation requirements.

This series of lessons requires about three class periods. Your child's teacher has set aside
this time so that all students will have the chance to participate. This lesson also has been
planned into the curriculum so that students do not fall behind in class. Students who do not wish
to participate are welcome to view an alternative lesson that has been prepared, related to the
subject of American History. To make sure that all students have an opportunity to participate in
the study, students will be given a password so they can access the online survey and lesson
outside of class time.

Students are not required to participate in this study, and even students who start can
choose to leave the study later without any penalty. Students who participate in the study will be
eligible to share in refreshments consisting of pizza and Coke, at a time designated by the
teacher. (Students do not need to participate on both days to be eligible.)

Students who participate in the study may also learn some helpful information about
Florida's graduation requirements. They also may develop more positive attitudes toward school.
Of course, by participating in the study they are also helping to advance scientific knowledge
about learning, which may help other students later. You should be aware that one of the short
stories used in this lesson is about a teenager who is hospitalized after an auto accident. If you
believe this kind of material is inappropriate for your child, your child should be advised not to
participate in the study. No other risks or negative consequences are anticipated to result from
participation in this study.









This study will be kept confidential to the extent permitted by law. If you give permission
for your child to participate in the study, he or she will be given a randomly-assigned password
to take the survey and use the computer. The teacher will write down a list of students' names
and their passwords (in case they forget them), and that list will be destroyed as soon as each
student finishes the survey. Your child's responses to the survey will be anonymous and
confidential. Results of the study will be reported for groups of students and not for individual
students. No information will be collected that could be used to identify any student in the study.

If you have any questions about the study, please call me at (352) 486-5388, or my
supervisor, Dr. Larry Loesch at (352) 392-0731, ext 225. Also, you can learn more about your
child's rights as a research participant by contacting the UF IRB office, University of Florida,
Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611, (352) 392-0433.

Sincerely,

Timothy Baker




If you agree for your child to participate in the study, please check the box below next to the
"Yes," sign with today's date, and return this form to your child's teacher. (Keep the extra copy
on the next page for your records.)


D Yes, I would like for my child to participate. I have read this explanation of what the study
is about, and I received a photocopy as well.


E No, I do not want my child to participate.


Signed: Date:
Parent / Guardian


Date:
2nd Parent / Witness









APPENDIX C
CHILD ASSENT SCRIPT


Teacher-Presented
Child Assent Script

Students:

Someone from the University of Florida has asked if our class would participate in a study he is
doing. The purpose of the study is to determine how a computer can be used better to teach
students how to have successful attitudes about school.

On and I have arranged for our class to go to the computer lab.
If you participate in the study, you would fill out a survey on the computer, then view a web
page that contains some short stories for you to read. After you had read each story, you would
answer some questions on the computer. The study is anonymous, which means that you will not
have to provide your name, and the UF researcher will not know who filled out the surveys.
Anyone who does not want to be part of the study will simply do a different lesson while we are
in lab.

This study is not part of any class, so you won't lose points if you don't do it. No one "has to" be
in this study, and even if you agree to be in the study, you can stop at any time. It's up to you. If
you choose to participate, you can share in pizza and Coke which will be brought in on
Also, you may learn some important information that will help you do better
in school. In a way, you may also help other students, because the results of this study will be
used to help develop new teaching methods. Before you decide, please be aware that one of the
stories that you may be asked to read for the study is about a teenager who suffers an accident
and is badly hurt. I want you to know this now, so that you can decide not to participate if you do
not want to read that kind of story.

For those of you who would like to participate, I am giving out an Informed Consent form. Take
this form home and have your parent read it, sign it, and check "Yes" in the box. Return ONE
copy to me for tomorrow's class. Your parent will keep the other copy. If you have any
questions, the researcher's phone number is on the Informed Consent letter, and you or your
parents can call during business hours to ask anything you would like to know about this study.












APPENDIX D
ELECTRONIC INTERVENTION PROGRESS MANAGER


File Edit View History Bookmarks Tools Help

S- .- ^ F http://grove.ufl,edui~tdbakeristudyI Ii G| -


Are you participating in the study?

Please check all that apply to you

O The teacher explained to me what the study is about, and I want to participate.
E I have returned the signed parent permission form, and received a password

O I will not participate, either because I do not want to or because I did not return the signed consent form.





This research has been approved by the University of Florida, Institutional Review Board (IRB2). The Informed Consent document presented here is an
electronic version of the original. [ Click here to view an optical scan of the approved document. ] [ As presented to students by the teacher. ]





File Edit View History Bookmarks Tools Help
| http:/lgrove.ufl.edul~tdbakeristudylI


Are you participating in the study?

Please check all that apply to you:

i The teacher explained to me what the study is about, and I want to participate.
B I have returned the signed parent permission form, and received a password.

O I will not participate, either because I do not want to or because I did not return the signed consent form.

Scroll to the very bottom of this page and type your password.


Informed Consent


January 1, 2007

Dear Parent(s) or Guardian(s)

I am a doctoral student in a program in the Department of Counselor Education at the University of Florida My doctoral program and research supervisor
is Dr Larry Loesch. I have worked for two years as a high school guidance counselor in Levy County public schools. For my research in my doctoral
program, I am trying out and evaluating a new method ofteaching students how to be more successful in school. I am asking for your child's help in this
research

The purpose of my study is to find out what students can learn about being successful in school by reading a few short stories on a computer. All students
who participate in the study would have their parents' permission. Students who are in the study would work on the lesson in the computer lab, which
consists offilling out an online survey then reading a selection offictional short stories. The survey is anonymous; no one will know who has written what.
After finishing the survey and the reading assignment, your child would answer some questions about the reading on the computer. Next, your child would
receive a lesson about the Florida high school graduation requirements. This lesson is appropriate for all high school juniors. Finally, your child would take
another survey to find out if his or her thinking about school success, stress, and work habits has changed, as well as a test to measure how much was
learned from the lesson about the Florida graduation requirements. v
Done













File Edit View History Bookmarks Tools Help


P-


L LI http;:/grove,ufleduI~tdbakeristudy/


/I I IC j-


This study will be kept confidential to the extent permitted by law. Ifyou give permission for your child to participate in the study, he or she will be given a
randomly-assigned password to take the survey and use the computer The teacher will write down a list of students' names and their passwords (in case
they forget them), and that list will be destroyed as soon as each student finishes the survey. Your child's responses to the survey will be anonymous and
confidential. Results of the study will be reported for groups of students and not for individual students. No information will be collected that could be used
to identify any student in the study.

If you have any questions about the study, please call me at (352) 486-5388, or my supervisor, Dr Larry Loesch at (352) 392-0731, ext 225 Also, you
can learn more about your child's rights as a research participant by contacting the UF IRB office, University ofFlorida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL
32611, (352) 392-0433.

Sincerely,

Timothy Baker


If you are a student whose parent has given permission for you to participate in the survey, you may begin now by typing the password,
below, then clicking 'I agree.



Enter Password. test I have read the instructions, and agree to participate.

Privacy Policy and Security Notice: This web site does not collect any electronic information in a manner that could be used to identify visitors This site
does not use encryption technologies, therefore any information you provide could be observed by a third party while in transit.


This research has been approved by the University of Florida, Institutional Review Board (IRB2). The Informed Consent document presented here is an
electronic version of the original. [ Click here to view an optical scan of the approved document. ] [ As presented to students by the teacher. ]


Done


File Edit View History Bookmarks Tools Help

.I u http: .grove.ufl.edu/otdbakerlstudy/


T-v 101- I-


You are logged in as TEST1.

Here is your status: (Checked boxes are steps that you've already completed)

Pre-survey
Experimental lesson (requires high-speed Intemet connection)
Academic advisement unit FL graduation requirements
E Post-survey

Your next step is to take the post-survey. Click here to begin.

You can print your pizza coupon now, but you will only receive one serving. Ifyou print your coupon after you finish the rest of the study, you will receive a
larger serving. To print the coupon now, click here. All students will claim their pizza at the same time.


) Tim aker' Reserch Stdy ozill Firefx Q ] CX:











Any students who did not participate in the study were offered an alternate activity:


File Edit View History Bookmarks Tools Help

NF iI -1 http://grove.ufl.edur~tdbakeristudyj/ |d ~ CI- K

Are you participating in the study?

Please check all that apply to you:

0 The teacher explained to me what the study is about, and I want to participate.
O I have returned the signed parent permission form, and received a password

G I will not participate, either because I do not want to or because I did not return the signed consent form.

If you are not participating m the study, you can still take online lessons that are available to this class:

Day One I First day in the computer lab. (Requires high-speed Internet connection.)
Day Two I Second day in the computer lab.




This research has been approved by the University ofFlorida, Institutional Review Board (IRB2). The Informed Consent document presented here is an
electronic version of the original. [ Click here to view an optical scan of the approved document. ] [ As presented to students by the teacher. ]














APPENDIX E

ELECTRONIC ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT


File Edit View History Bookmarks Tools Help

< http:fgrove.ufl.eduo~tdbakeristudyW ~ I *


Pre-Survey

Please answer the survey questions below When you are done, click on the button at the bottom of this page to submit your survey (Sorry, but after submitting
your survey, it will not be possible to change your answers.)

Question 1.
1 Answer the following questions by clicking on the best answer.

Questions 1-5 ask about your personal characteristics. Remember that the information you provide will be kept anonymous to the
extent pennitted by law; you will not be identified from this survey.

Question 1. I am
0 Female
0 Male

Question 2.

2. am

O Afrcan-Amencan
0 Native American
0 Hispanic-Amecan
O Asian-Amencan
0 Caucasian-Amencan
0 Mixed ethnicity

-Question 3

3 I am age...

0 14

Done


3 I am age.

O 14
0 15
0 16
0 17
O 18 or older

K Question 4.

4 On my report canr, it says that I am a...

O Sophomore
0 Junior
O Senior

Question 5

S I know exactly how many credits I have earned as of August 20, 2007

0 Yes
0 No

SQuestion 6

6. For questions 6 through 31, choose the best answer:
Question 6. In order to graduate from high school, your cumulative GPA must be higher than
020
025
0 17
032
vj












Question 7. ^

If your GPA is lower than __ your report card will state you are "in danger of not graduating."

020
025
0 17
032

Question 8.
S For questions 8 through 13, identify which of the following tests a student must pass in older to graduate. Answer 'true' if tie test is a
graduation requirement, 'false if it is not.

(Assume that we are talking about a student scheduled to graduate no later than 2008, and who has not taken the ACT or SAT tests, and who is not
trying to use an ACT or SAT score to substitute for a graduation requirement.)

Question S. Grade 9 FCAT Reading
0 True
0 False

Question 9

9 Grade 9 FCAT Math

0 True
0 False

Question 10. -

10. Grade 10 FCAT Reading

0 True
O False



Question 11.

1 Grade 10 FCAT Math

0 True
O False

Question 12.

12 Grade 10 FCAT Wnting+

O True
O False

Question 13.

13 Grade 11 FCAT Science

0 True
0 False

Question 14.
14. Choose the best answer:

Question 14. If a student finishes grade 12 with 25 credits (including all required courses), a 2.3 GPA and a best score of 290 on the Grade 10
Reading FCAT, what will he or she receive at graduation?
O They will receive a standard high school diploma.
O They will receive a Certificate of Completion.
O Nothing, because he or she will not be eligible to walk at graduation
0 There is not enough information to answer this question.

-Question 15.

15. If a student finishes grade 12 with 24 credits (including all required courses), a 3.1 GPA, a best score of 301 on the Grade 10 Reading FCAT and Yi












Question 15.

15. If a student finishes grade 12 with 24 credits (including all required courses), a 3.1 GPA, a best score of 301 on the Grade 10 Reading FCAT and
a best score of 324 on the Grade 10 Ivath FCAT, what will he or she receive at graduation?
O They will receive a standard high school diploma.
O They will receive a Certificate of Completion.
O Nothing, because he or she will not be eligible to walk at graduation
O There is not enough information to answer this question.

Question 16.

16. If a student finishes grade 12 with 26 credits (including all required courses), a 3.8 GPA, a best score of 367 on the Grade 10 Reading FCAT and
a best score of 400 on the Grade 10 Florida FCAT Writing+, what will he or she receive at graduation?
O They will receive a standard high school diploma.
O They will receive a Certificate of Completion
O Nothing, because he or she will not be eligible to walk at graduation
O There is not enough information to answer this question.

Question 17.

17. If a student finishes grade 12 with 24 credits (including all required courses), a 1.95 GPA, a best score of 328 on the Grade 10 Reading FCAT
and a best score of 317 on the Grade 10 Math FCAT, what will he or she receive at graduation?
O They will receive a standard high school diploma.
O They will receive a Certificate of Completion.
O Nothing, because he or she will not be eligible to walk at graduation
O There is not enough information to answer this question.

Question 18.

18, Ifa student finishes grade 12 with 24 5 credits, a 3 2 GPA, a best score of 301 on the Grade 10 Math FCAT anda best score of 320 on the
Grade 11 Science FCAT, and has passed all required courses except for American Government, what will he or she receive at graduation?
O They will receive a standard high school diploma.
O They will receive a Certificate of Completion.



Question 19.

19. For questions 19-30, identify which of the following courses a student must pass in older to graduate.
Assume that we are talking about an 'average' student who has not played varsity sports, who has not played in a marching band, who has not
taken college dual enrollment classes, and who is scheduled to graduate no later than 2008. Also, the question asks which courses are needed to
graduate not to get scholarships, or to play basketball in college just to graduate!

Answer true' if the course is required for graduation and there is no substitute for it. Answer 'false if the course is not required or if it can be
substituted by another course which is not listed here.

Question 19. Algebra I (or Alg. I-A and Alg. I-B)
0 True
O False

SQuestion 20.

20. Algebra II

0 True
O False












F,I-


Question 31.
31 Answer questions 31 through 75 by bubbling in the attached response sheet. Mark only one response per question.

There are no 'correct answers to these questions; just answer according to your first impression.

Question 31. High school grades most often reflect the effort you put into classes
0 True
0 False

Question 32.

3 I am in high school because it is expected of me



































Question 36.

L Teachers sometimes make up their minds about you, and then no matter what you do, you cannot change their opinion of you.

0 True
0 False

Question 37.

3 Some students, such as student leaders and athletes, get 'free rides' in some classes.

0 True
nr Fak1


Question 42.

42. Studying every day is important.

0 True













tucbuull U J.

3 For some courses, it is not important to attend class every day.

0 True
0 False













Question 53.

53 I keep changing my mind about my career goals.

0 True
0 False

Question 54.

K54 I feel I will someday make a real contribution to the world if I work hard at it.

0 True
0 False

Question 55. -

55. There has been at least one instance in school where social activity impaired my academic performance.

O True
0 False


Question 62.

62. I do not like it when people act disrespectfully, but I can tolerate not having their respect.

0 True
0 False












Question 63

3" It is a disappointment if I'm disliked by some people I like, and I realize it's only unfortunate and not awful if they don't like me.

0 True
0 False

Question 64.

64* It is frustrating to be hassled but I can stand the frustration of being hassled.

0 True
0 False

Question 65.

65. It is important that people treat me fairly most of the time, however, I realize I do not have to be treated fairly just because I want to be.

0 True
0 False

Question 66

66" I want to be liked and accepted by people whom I like, but I realize they don't have to like me just because I want them to.

0 True
0 False

Question 67

67. It's unbearable to fail at important things, and I can't stand not succeeding at them

0 True
0 False ,


Question 68 A

68. If I do not perform well at things that are important, that will be a major crisis.

O True
O False

Question 69.

69. I must do well at important things, and I will not accept it if I do not do well.

0 True
O False

Question 70

70. It's awful to do poorly at some important things, and I think it is a catastrophe if I do poorly.

0 True
0 False

Question 71.

71 I can't stand not doing well at tasks that are important to me

0 True
0 False

Question 72.

72. It's essential to do well at important jobs; so I must do well at these things.

0 True
0 False


I'm finished. Store lny answers.
VI











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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Timothy Baker earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in English from the University of Mobile,

Latin American Branch Campus in San Marcos, Nicaragua, before being admitted to the Ph.D.

program in the University of Florida Department of Counselor Education as an Alumni Fellow.





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1 USE OF AN ELECTRONIC INTERACTIVE STORYBOOK IN AN IN TERVENTION TO CHANGE ADOLESCENTS ATTITUDES TOWARD ACADEMIC RESPONSIBILITY By TIMOTHY D. BAKER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Timothy D. Baker

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3 To the ones who stayed in when the cards were down

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My wife, Ana Isabel Spence-Baker, shared w ith me her support, id eas, and patience. My advisor, Dr. Larry C. Loesch, allowed me to learn in my own way while guiding me through challenges. The schools and Sc hool Board administration of Levy County, Florida, opened themselves to trying something new and innovative and experimental to benefit their students. Finally, the University of Florida Alumni, throu gh their generous support, provided me with the opportunity without which none of this could have happened this way.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................................................... 4LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................7LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................8ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................... ...............9CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 10Nature of School Counseling ..................................................................................................11Theoretical Framework ...........................................................................................................14Need for the Study ..................................................................................................................15Purpose of the Study .......................................................................................................... .....16Rationale for the Methodology ...............................................................................................17Hypotheses .................................................................................................................... ..........17Definition of Terms ................................................................................................................182 REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE .....................................................................19Cognitive Therapy ............................................................................................................. .....19Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy ........................................................................................ 19Rational-Emotive Therapy ..............................................................................................20Integration and Differentiation ........................................................................................21Research and Applications of Cognitive Therapy ........................................................... 22Locus of Control Issues ....................................................................................................... ...25School Counseling Perspectives .............................................................................................30Developments in Cognitive Assessment ................................................................................34Rational-Emotive Assessments .......................................................................................34Other Cognitive Assessments ..........................................................................................36Assessing Locus of Control .............................................................................................37Use of the Academic Locus of Cont rol Scale with High School Students ..................... 38Summary ....................................................................................................................... ..........383 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................. 40Relevant Variables ..................................................................................................................40Population .................................................................................................................... ...........41Sampling Procedures ..............................................................................................................43Resultant Sample ....................................................................................................................44Research Design .....................................................................................................................46Measurements .................................................................................................................. .......46

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6 Intervention .................................................................................................................. ...........47Research Participants .......................................................................................................48Research Procedures ........................................................................................................48Data Analyses ..................................................................................................................51Methodological Limitations ............................................................................................ 524 RESULTS ....................................................................................................................... ........55Resultant Sample ....................................................................................................................55Data Analyses .........................................................................................................................55Post Hoc Analyses .................................................................................................................. 575 DISCUSSION .................................................................................................................... .....71Generalizability Limitations .................................................................................................. .71Evaluations of Hypotheses ..................................................................................................... 71Conclusion and Interpretations ............................................................................................... 75Recommendations ............................................................................................................... ....77APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT: ORIGINAL APPROVED (OPTI CAL SCAN) ............................ 81B INFORMED CONSENT: VARIA TION W ITH INCENTIVE .............................................. 82C CHILD ASSENT SCRIPT ..................................................................................................... 84D ELECTRONIC INTERVENTION PROGRESS MANAGER .............................................. 85E ELECTRONIC ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT ..................................................................88LIST OF REFERENCES ...............................................................................................................96BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................106

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page Table 3-1. Research Design ...........................................................................................................54 Table 4-1. Participant demogra phics by gender and ethnicity ....................................................... 58 Table 4-2. Ages of particip ants by class standing .......................................................................... 59 Table 4-3. Post-test means by gender and ethnicity (Part 1) ......................................................... 60 Table 4-4. Post-test means by gender and ethnicity (Part 2) ......................................................... 61 Table 4-5. Correlation matrices for T GR, ALCS, GABS-NA ....................................................... 62 Table 4-6. Analyses of covariance .................................................................................................63 Table 4-7. Independent samples t -tests of TGR by gender and participation ................................ 64 Table 4-8. Paired t -test com paring all participants preand postTGR scores ............................ 65 Table 4-9. Independent t -test of ALCS change scores com p aring control and experimental ....... 66 Table 4-10. Independent t-te st of GABS-R change scor es comparing control and experim ental .................................................................................................................. .....67 Table 4-11. Paired t -test of ALCS_Pr e with ALCS _Post for experimental group ........................ 68 Table 4-12. Independent t -test of control and experim ental on ALCS_Post ................................. 69 Table 5-1. Independent t -test of GABS-NA cha nge scor es comparing control and experimental .................................................................................................................. .....80

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page Figure 4-1. Preand postm easure correlations ............................................................................70

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9 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy USE OF AN ELECTRONIC INTERACTIVE STORYBOOK IN AN IN TERVENTION TO CHANGE ADOLESCENTS ATTITUDES TOWARD ACADEMIC RESONSIBILITY By Timothy D. Baker August, 2008 Chair: Larry C. Loesch Major: School Counseling and Guidance One charge to school counselors is to enhan ce the personal growth of high school students by helping them take personal responsibility fo r their academic success. Our study evaluated an experimental, computer-based multimedia procedure to assess its effects on students (N= 177) academic responsibility, rational beliefs, and knowledge of graduation requirements. It was found that the computer-based procedure was succe ssful at increasing students knowledge of the graduation requirements. However, academic responsibility and rational beliefs were not affected. Recommendations for continued research are presented.

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10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The school counseling profession, particularly at the secondary (high) school level, is being redefined primarily by governmental and public demand for accountability among educational personnel, especially as concerned w ith student academic perf ormance. As members of the educational team in schools, school counsel ors must act in support of such efforts and use a variety of techniques and methods to achieve desired outcomes. In particular, the methods school counselors use to achie ve enhancement of students academic performance include some that are therapeutic in nature and some that are educational. However, school counselors cannot act solely as tutors or as ther apists to every student. Rather, school counselors are education professionals who must provide support for the educational mission of schools by designing effective educational suppor t programs for all student s in schools (ASCA, 2005). At the national level, student-to-school counselor ratios average approximately 490:1 (ASCA, 2003), which implies that school counselors provision of individualized counseling services is not a viable appro ach to effect widespread, positiv e impact on student achievement. Instead, school counselors must do the most goo d for the most students, and as quickly as possible. To fulfill this goal effectively and successfully, they must use combinations of diverse professional skills and existing reso urces as appropriate to the need s of individual students and to the needs of groups of students w ith similar needs. Therefore, s erving all students means that direct counseling interventions are reserved fo r those students whose needs are truly unique, while the greater thrust of sc hool counselors work is directed to implementation of school counseling programs that address the predictable, developmental needs of all students in the school (ASCA, 2005; Kurantz, 2003; Schwallie-G illis, ter Maat, & Par k, 2003). Presumably, by serving the largest possible number of students through a comprehensive program of services,

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11 school counselors support the le arning mission of the school to the greatest extent possible (ASCA, 2003). Nature of School Counseling The American School Counseling Associati on (ASCA) strongly endor ses that a school counseling/guidance program should be designed to serve the academic, career, and personalsocial development needs of all students in a school (ASCA, 2005). For example, academic needs are served, in part, when school counsel ors provide academic advisement and related information to students. Similarly, the social needs of students may be served when school counselors lead peer mediation programs or of fer small group counseling designed to improve interpersonal relationships among youth. And fi nally, students personal needs are served through counseling to address targeted areas of concern such as when school counselors conduct problem-solving groups to ameliorate students' di sruptive classroom behaviors. The essence of the ASCA position is that stude nts are able to achieve maximum academic performance only if they are well-adjusted, which means both that they have minimal life disruptions and concerns and appropriate academic skills. To achieve this goal for as ma ny students as possible, school counselors select and use various interventions for any given stude nt or set of students (e.g., an entire classroom or a subset of specifically-selected students). The vast majority of Americ an schools are committed to th e development of students as independent, responsible, and mature individuals. However, whet her this noble outcome is being achieved to any widespread extent in American schools is largely unknown. One reason for this state of uncertainty is that the focus of most school-based research has been almost exclusively on students academic behaviors and accomplishmen ts. In particular, the school counseling profession has not made concerted effort to de termine whether students, at graduation, are as independent, responsible, and mature as they could or should be.

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12 The goal to maximize students personal deve lopment is particularly important at the secondary school level because for most students, it is their last opportunity to benefit from the American educational system. Given the level of personal and communications skills required even of entry-level jobs today, it remains an open question whether high school graduates who have not gained sufficient personal maturity and autonomy will be able to demonstrate productivity and success in the workplace or take meaningful steps and planning their postsecondary education especially when one consid ers that not every student will benefit from the tutelage and direction of a pare nt to assist in the many comple x steps associated with college applications and entry procedures. Rather, it is hoped that students will become productive citizens in a democratic society in which all individuals are expect ed to assume responsibility for their own behavior and to act conscientiously to benefit society. Therefore, because of the immediate and long-term implications for both students and society, th e question of how to impact high school students' personal developments positively is appropri ate and important to address. Psychological education is a general rubric under which school c ounselors initiatives to enhance students personal developments ha ve often been classi fied, including efforts variously described as large group guidance, c haracter education, personal growth groups (or lessons), and the like. Unfortunately, because that rubric also has been used to subsume a wide variety of other activities (e.g., by teachers or other educational personnel) intended to change students in personal ways, there is considerable controvers y surrounding psychological education programs. Th erefore, the matter of how school counselors should facilitate students personal developments remains a valid topic of debate.

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13 These psychological education efforts, as commonly practiced by school counselors in recent years, have not demonstrated a coherent theoretical basis or invol ved consistent use of outcome measurements. Practices have varied, and definitions remain highly subjective. Nonetheless, school counselors continue to e ngage in psychological education activities on a widespread basis. However, it is evident that if sc hool counselors are to maintain professional and public credibility and facilitate student s personal developmen t effectively, their psychological education (i.e., s tudent development) efforts should be grounded in an established, accepted theoretical basis and be ev aluated through use of valid and accepted outcome measurements. Professional school counselors t ypically help students by work ing with them to establish counseling goals, elicit narratives of their life experiences, and ultim ately to help them try out new strategies for daily life and then to evaluate the results of th eir efforts. The effectiveness of this process in highly individuali zed counseling has been demonstr ated. However, considerable human resources are needed to achieve such effectiveness. An approach more suitable for use in public schools would serve more students, especia lly if it was faster and reduced or eliminated the students having to self-disclos e and/or take psychological risks. The use of an interactive electronic storybook stands to fulfill both desired criteria. If students can relate to the drama of a fictionali zed character depicted using multiple electronic media, they may be able to learn vicariously from that characters experiences. Further, when read on a computer, the storybook coul d be used iteratively such th at the viewer could influence events in the fictional reality of the plot by choosing behaviors for the main character and creating new outcomes. Such a story has the po tential to teach student s potentially useful lessons.

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14 The effectiveness of an inte ractive electronic storybook spri ngs from the opportunity the reader is afforded to make decisions, evaluate the consequences of t hose decisions, and make inferences about the underlying rule systems which mediate the linkage between actions and consequences. However, its effectiveness in so doing necessitates linkage to a major counseling theory. Therefore, the intervention for this stud y is an interactive elec tronic storybook in which the primary characters paths are designed to reflect the basic principles of cognitivebehavioral theory. Theoretical Framework Cognitive-Behavioral Theory (CBT) holds that personal at titudes and behaviors can be influenced and altered, presumably to produce behavioral benefits (Ellis, 1961). Within CBT, c ognitive styles are defined as relatively stable and hi ghly personal ways of thinking about self and/or the world in general. Differences in cognitive styles have been related to differences in ways of coping with personal, academic, career, a nd other sources of stress (Beck, 2005; Street & Barlow, 1994; Waller, Meyer, & Ohanian, 2001). An important element of cognitive style is level of rationality, which entails, among othe r considerations, whether it is best in the long term to avoid uncomfortable responsibilities when they are encountered or to face them directly. CBT also holds that individuals cause themselves inordinate suffering by incorrect perception of problems and/or circumstances. Therefore, a co mmon CBT counseling goal is to help people to appraise elements of their environment accurately, determine both the personal responsibilities involved and how to address them appropriately, and act as quick ly as is possible to resolve personal issues The choice of cognitive style and its subse quent effects on a students personal wellbeing and academic performance is complex. For example, some students believe that their academic success is controlled by teachers' whims as opposed to their own behaviors, a situation

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15 that reflects an external locu s of control (Trice, 1985). Th ese students often judge their (stressful) situation as beyond th eir control and essentially hope less, and consequently expend little effort to complete academic assignments. They then become even more stressed as their cumulative grade averages decline. Conversel y, other students endure excessive, inappropriate responsibility, blaming themselves for academic failu res, a situation that reflects an (excessive) internal locus of control (Trice, 1985). It also leads to increased stress, primarily attributable to blaming of self, as their grad es decline. However, neither of these perspectives is fully correct. More importantly, each can be changed if a student engages in any of a variety of corrective measures. Such co rrective measures often can be achieved through counseling. CBT is well-suited for use as a basis for psychological education activities provided by school counselors. Further, psychological educati on activities are comm only used by school counselors with entire classroom groups because of the obvious efficiency of working with such large groups. This approach has the added benef it of minimizing disruption to instructional time, i.e., teachers classroom schedules are inte rrupted less frequently. Further, because psychological education interventi ons, particularly those based in CBT, are at least partly didactic in nature, they correspond well with traditional classroom instruction methods. Need for the Study Locus of control theory (LCT) (Rotter, 1966) has been presented and examined extensively in the professional literature. La rgely unexplored, however, is its application to development of personal responsibility among high school students who participate in specific school counseling program activities. Therefore, this study will have implications for better understanding LCT in the context of application to secondary school students. For example, if the intervention brings about the desired outcomes, LCT will be supported to some extent for use

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16 in this context. Conversely, the results may raise further questi ons about the suitability of LCT for such interventions if desi red results are not achieved. This study also will have implications for relate d future research, partic ularly in regard to use of CBT-based interventions with high school students. For example, examination of the specific results of this study will suggest future investigations of how these results were achieved (regardless of whether they were as desired), what elements of the intervention warrant further investigation, and what modifications might achieve different results. Further, there may be inferences for examination of the use of the inte rvention with other, rela tively similar groups of students (e.g., middle school or freshman college students). In the main, school counseling is an applie d profession. Therefore, knowledge of which school counseling programmatic activities are successf ul with which students in which types of circumstances and what conditions is crucial to the effective and effi cient delivery of school counseling services. The results of this study will add to that knowle dge base by providing specific outcome information abou t a particular intervention. Concomitantly, as a profession, school counseling necessitates professional preparat ion for its practitioners. Such professional preparation is enhanced through conveyance of knowledge of both effective and ineffective school counseling practices. Thus, the results of this research will enhance school counselor preparation through provision of information a bout the effectiveness of a specific school counseling activity. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a CBT-based (i.e., psychological education) interv ention intended to enhance high school students awareness of and assumption of responsibility for their academic advisement needs, defined in this context as students possessing concrete knowledge of grades earned and completion of specific graduation

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17 requirements including necessary test scores, credits earned in subject areas, and minimum overall GPA. Rationale for the Methodology Loesch and Ritchie (2005), among others, have admonished school counselors (and the school counseling profession) to move beyond overl y simplistic, highly subjective, and generally ineffective investigations of th e effectiveness of school counselo rs interventions to the use of more rigorous, established, and credible approaches to determination of outcome effectiveness. The ASCA (2003) National Standards also call for school counselors to provide credible evidence of the effectiveness of their activities. Thus, a successfully implemented intervention should produce measurable results to demonstrate that students have changed in desirable ways. Determination of the effectiveness of an interv ention requires that an e xperimental manipulation paradigm be applied, including that the desired outcomes should be readily obtained and easily understood (Fraenkl & Wallen, 2006) There requirements are be st addressed by applying an experimental design and use of credible, validated assessments. Hypotheses The following null hypotheses were evaluated in this study: H1: There is no difference in stude nts rationality based on partic ipation in the intervention. H2: There is no difference in students need fo r achievement based on participation in the intervention. H3: There is no difference in students' locus of control based on pa rticipation in the intervention. H4: There is no difference in students academ ic self-awareness (knowledge of graduation requirements) based on particip ation in the intervention. H5: There is no relationship between student s rationality and locus of control. H6: There is no relationship between students rationality and academic self-awareness. H7: There is no relationship between students locus of control and aca demic self-awareness. H8: There is no gender by part icipation interaction for rational belief systems. H9: There is no gender by pa rticipation interaction for need for achievement. H10: There is no gender by participati on interaction for locus of control. H11: There is no gender by pa rticipation interaction for academic self-awareness.

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18 H12: There is no race by participation inte raction for rational belief systems. H13: There is no race by participation in teraction for need for achievement. H14: There is no race by participation interaction for locus of control. H15: There is no race by participation in teraction for academic self-awareness. Definition of Terms Definitions for the most important terms in this study are as follows: Academic Self-Awareness: High school students knowledge of test score and academic coursework requirements for graduation from high school. Cognitive-Behavioral Theory (CBT): A perspective of psychot herapy that assumes an interaction between thinking and feeling with th e result evident in behavior (Beck, 2005). CBT presumes that individuals have the ability to change specific fee lings by identifying and challenging specific faulty patterns of perception or inference, with a concomitant change in behavior. Locus of Control: A construct to describe an individual's attribution of a specific causal source to either internal factors unique to the individual or to extern al factors beyond the individual's control (Rotter, 1966). Rational-Emotive: A perspective of psychotherapy that assumes a causal relationship between thinking and feeling (Ellis, 1961). Rational-emotive theory holds that individuals have the ability to change patterns of feelings over ti me by identifying and/or challenging specific irrational, underlying thoughts. Social Learning Theory: A human development theory that holds that behaviors and thinking can be and are learned by observing th e behaviors of others (Bandura, 1977).

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19 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE Theories and applications of cognitive therapy and the context they provide for understanding locus of control serv e as the foundation for this res earch. In that regard, it is assumed that Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) have common origins and foundations that influenced th e formulation of the Locus of Control (LOC) construct. However, CBT and RET emphasize somewhat different techniques and goals in counseling processes, and therefore may influence LOC in unique ways. Cognitive Therapy As in all theories of personality, psyc hotherapy, and counseling, within any of the cognitive therapies, cognitions, behaviors, and emotions (feelings) are intertwined, interrelated, and interdependent. What varies is the nature of the interactions and/ or causal relationships among them. Specifically within cognitive therapy, the premise is that the manners in which people act (behaviors) and think (c ognitions) affect how they feel (emotions). Further, this relationship is presumed to be reciprocal. Ther efore, within cognitive therapy, when actions are changed, changes in thoughts and feelings follow. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Cognitive therapy is not a comprehensive th eory of personality, but rather merely a map of how individuals might change (Ellis, 1989). For ex ample, Beck and Weishar (2000) described CBT in particular as a system of strategies (p. 242) as opposed to a single, unified approach and set of techniques for counseling. Schemas, i.e., the conceptualizations used by individuals to see, organize, and understand the world, are importa nt constructs in CBT. For example, people who are depressed typically see themselves negatively, and people who are anxious often see their environments as dangerous.

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20 CBT focuses on the cognitive triad that in cludes personal perceptions of the self, world, and future. Individuals perceptions (wit hin their respective, personal triads) influence their personal emotional states. For example, when the self is viewed as inadequate, the environment dangerous, and the future uncertain, the individual is likel y to feel anxiety. Similarly, when the self is viewed as mistreated and the world unfair, the individual is likely to feel angry. Some CBT therapists also identify specific cognitive distortions, such as filtering (i.e., ignoring information that co ntradicts existing perceptions) or fortune-telling (i.e., making unrealistic assumptions of future failure) as im portant constructs to be addressed in CBT (Froggart, 2001). Rational-Emotive Therapy Like CBT, RET holds that thoughts impact emotional state. However, emphasized in RET is that the content of the thoughts, rather th an the thinking process itself, is the primary influence on behavior. Whereas CBT has a concentration on inaccurate perceptions of information, RET has a concentration on the irrati onality of thoughts and the attendant ways in which the information is processed (Beck, 2000) Ellis (Ellis, 1958; Ellis & Harper, 1961) originally posited behavioral causation in which external events trigge red irrational thoughts and interpretations that lead to an inappropriate emotional response. Ellis identified this as the A-B-C model in which A was the activating ev ent, B was the belief system, and C was the emotional consequence. More recently, Ellis allowed that thinking, ac ting, and feeling often occur simultaneously, and that the real value of the model rests in its usefulness to therapy. Ellis (1998) expanded the model to A-B-C-D-E, adding that D was disputation of ineffective beliefs and E was a new, more enjoyable event brought on by new patterns of behavior. Ellis at first identified ineffective thoughts as irrational beliefs (IBs) but later recognized that their defining feature was their self-defeating nature (Ell is & Dryden, 1987). Beck (2005)

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21 described such beliefs as dys functional. Known early on as REBT for Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy, the behavi oral qualifier was dropped in the 1970s as the influence of behaviorism in the social sciences lessened. Ellis originally postulated 11 key IBs (Ellis & Harper, 1961). However, the lis t of self-defeating beliefs has since been expanded to include (potentially) hundreds of self-defea ting beliefs. Generally accepted characteristics of IBs include demandingness, awfulization, a nd low frustration tolerance. Integration and Differentiation While RET and CBT can be distinguished at a theoretical level, counseling practitioners regularly apply principles from both therapies synergistically (Froggart, 2 001). One reason for this integrated application of pr inciples is that neither theory is intended as a fully complete framework for understanding and/or changing human development. Presumably, what one lacks, the other adds. Another reason is that the respective theories do not often contradict each other. For example, researchers often regard some constructs from the two theories as functionally equivalent (Jones & Trower, 2004). While disagreements about the finer details of each theory have arisen (e.g., Ellis, 1989), th e theories themselves are not he ld at odds for domination. For example, CBT-based measurement instruments fre quently have been used in the validation of RET-based instruments (Bernard, 1998). For more than a decade, concerted efforts have been made to refine the respective theory-based assessments, yet instruments still tend to have high conceptual overlap. For example, the Beck Depression Inventory, one of the most widely used and studied cognitive assessments, has been criticized for including items related more to selfesteem than to depression (Chadwick, Trower, & Dagnam, 1999). Taken together, CBT and RET can be referred to safely as cognitive therapy, and assessments based on either of the two theories can be assumed to assess elemen ts and/or components of cognitive style.

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22 Outcome studies have demonstrated the efficacy of various cognitive therapies (e.g., Asarnow, Scott, & Mintz, 2002; Lyons & Woods, 1991; Smith, 1982). However, critics have charged that cognitive therapies do not produce m easurable changes in behavior. For example, RET researchers have been criticized as being partisan and biased in their reviews, and therefore that any gains of RET are an artifact of the intervention and/or research (Gossette & O'Brien, 1992, p. 9). Such objections notwithstanding, cognitive therapy today is an accepted method of counseling and psychothe rapy. For example, it is regarded highly (though not entirely without criticism) by health maintenance organi zations (HMOs) as the treatment-of-choice for some types of anxiety disorders (White, 1999). Research and Applications of Cognitive Therapy While cognitive therapies have been applied to a wide ra nge of presenting problems and disorders, Beck (1995) cited four main areas in which the success of CBT has been particularly well-documented: treatments of depression, gene ralized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and eating disorders. Counseling service provisi on in these areas is a realm in which CBT practitioners feel confident (Craighead & Kirkley, 1994; Ho llon & Carter, 1994; Street & Barlow, 1994). However, they are not counseling service areas in which school counselors are or can be expected to speciali ze. Therefore, the use and utilitarian value of CBT for school counselors remains at issue. The cognitive therapy paradigm has relevanc e and can be applied to child, adolescent, and adult populations in specific domains. For example, in a four-year, longitudinal study, Cole, Jacquez, and Maschman (2001) found that childre n's perceptions of th eir own abilities were shaped over time by the evaluations of others, including parents, te achers, and same-age peers. Further, time-series observations at six-month intervals sugges ted a causal relationship, with children's perceptions of their own abilities following others' perceptions chronologically. The

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23 effect was most evident during grades three to six, a period in which ch ildren's self-perceptions also became more stable. In particular, negativ e self-appraisals of abil ity were found to predict self-reported depressive symptoms, a result that can be interpreted easily within the cognitive triad construct. Negative self-appraisals of abil ity also were related to self-defeating statements (as within RET) which place demands on the self, e.g., I must always do tasks well, and if I do not that would make me an awful and worthless person. The increasing stability of negative self-percep tions from grades thre e through six provides confirmation for what many educators know intuitivel y: prophesies are indeed self-fulfilling. This understanding also sheds light on the presumed linkage between attributional style defined as the making of internal, stable, [or] gl obal attributions for negative events" (Hankin, Abramson & Siler, 2001; p. 608) or as the tendency to attribute negativ e events to global and stable causes such as a person's lack of ability or self-worth (Abela & Payne, 2003; p. 520) and depression symptoms. Attributi on styles are likely le arned from others. For example, Alloy, Abramson, Tashman, Berrebbi, Hogan, Whitehouse, Crossfield, and Morocco (2001) concluded that children learn cogniti ve styles in general, and attributional beliefs regarding how external events reflect on the value of the self in particular, from their parents. Hankin et al. (2001) examined the role of attri bution styles in the hopelessness theory of depression, which regards hopelessness produced by negative attribution styl es as a leading and immediate cause of hopelessness-type depressi on. Abela and Payne (2003) found significant correlations between attributional styles and hopelessness depression, but qualified that attributional styles seemed to have less impact on non-hopelessness depression. However, although cognitive perspectives are regarded as having overall usefulness and a high success rate

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24 for interpreting specific presenting concerns and di sorders, they are not useful in all counseling situations. Some studies that investigat ed assessment and treatment of adolescents for anxiety disorders also have focused on attributional st yles. Ginsburg, Lambert and Drake (2004), for example, found that attributions of internal or external control (in Af rican-American females) were related to anxiety measures. Similarl y, Calvete and Cardeoso (2002) found significant relationships between attribut ional styles and internalizing/externalizing tendencies. Attribution answers the question of why events occur, and in the case of depression, symptoms can be traced to negative self-statement s (i.e., to the self component of the cognitive triad). However, faulty inform ation-processing associated with anxiety also is characterized by flawed appraisals of and expectations for the future. For example, Rheingold, Herbert and Franklin (2003) studied adoles cents diagnosed with Social A nxiety Disorder (SAD) and found that socially anxious adolescents, compared to a control group, were more likely to overestimate the likelihood of future negativ e social events occurring, as we ll as negative consequences for such events. Similarly, Hargreaves and Tigge rmann (2002) concluded that cognitive schemas contributed to body image distur bance in adolescents and Hankin, Roberts, and Gotlib (1997) found socially-acceptable forms of perfectionism (as elevated self -standards) to be associated with emotional distress in adolescent students. Discrepancies between perceptions of the self and visions of an ideal self were associated with both anxious and depressive symptoms, with adolescent females reporting more depressive symptoms. Finally, remediation of anger is increasingly coming to be seen as another area of high efficacy for application of cognitive theories. Fo r example, Jones and Trower (2004) related the CBT notion of hot (i.e., anger-causing) cogni tions to RET's statem ent of evaluative or

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25 irrational beliefs. They found that individuals presenting with hi gh levels of anger had negative evaluative beliefs about themselves and others. However, Kazdin and Crowley (1997) found that for children ages seven to thirteen treated fo r aggressive behavior using cognitive therapy, success in treatment was relate d to reading achievement and intellectual functioning, thus underscoring the difficulty in attempting to use c ognitive therapy as a cure-all treatment for all clients. Clinical effectiveness notwithstanding, the hi ghly-verbal nature of CBT and RET allows both advantages and disadvantages for use in sch ool settings. The primary advantage is that many school counselor functions exist for imparti ng verbal information directly, such as through use of individual or group counseling, classroom instruction, or use of readings, movies, or web pages. Thus, there are many means that might be used to impart concepts of cognitive therapy that are psychoeducational in nature. However, access to these benefits through these modalities is limited to students with sufficient reading, listen ing, and/or conceptual skills to assimilate the information transmitted through them. To date, a preponderance of research supports application of the theoretical constructs w ith any audience and outcome studies establish cognitive therapy's effectiveness as a treatment modality. However, it remains undetermined whether these concepts can be applied to benefit large numbers of students in secondary schools. Locus of Control Issues The LOC construct has been embraced in such fields as psychotherapy, distance education, student personnel, business management, and c onsulting (e.g., Bernstein, Klappholz, & Kelley, 2002; Fish, 1996; Kerr, Rynearson, & Kerr, 2003; White, 2001). The essential question in LOC is whether individuals believe that outcomes in their lives (i.e., results of behaviors) are due to internal or external causes? That is, is success in life caused by personal skill or persistence, or is it an artifact of good luck? LOC is well-defined in the prof essional literature and has been

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26 found to be unrelated to other factors such as in telligence or social desira bility (Lester & Bishop, 2000). In addition, the perceived success of prac tical applications of LOC is supported by the observation that individual s who quite apparently believe they are in control of their behavioral outcomes are more likely to set goals and take a ppropriate action, and thus to achieve success in life. But what of those whose belief systems are not so obvious? Janssen and Carton (1999) found that extern al LOC is related to more frequent procrastination. Academic perf ormance also has been related to LOC. For example, Trice (1985) found a positive correlati on between internal (low) LOC and self-reported academic motivation as well as a positive correlation betw een internal LOC and number of extra credit point activities students attempted. Among a samp le of undergraduate students in a psychology course, a significant, positive relationship was found between internal LOC and final course grade. However, a similar significant relati onship was not found among students in an education course. Trice (1987) also found that undergradu ates with high external LOC missed more classes when attendance was optional, and th at high LOC was relate d to undergraduates' likelihood to miss classes for non-illness reasons (Trice & Hackburt, 1989). Conversely, Onwuegbuzie and Daley (1998) found that undergra duates with the best study skills tended to have a higher internal (academic) LOC. M ooney, Sherman, and LoPresto (1991) found LOC to be a predictor variable for adjustme nt during the firstyear college. LOC has been investigated among younger populati ons as well. For example, Rogers and Saklofske (1985) found that LOC was a predictor of learning-disabled children's school success (as rated by the teacher). This fi nding is particularly significant given the difficulty of exploring cognitive perspectives with child ren, and particularly children with limited verbal abilities. Shields (2004) found that students with more ex ternal LOC were more likely to feel place-

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27 bound and unable to travel to pursue higher educa tion. However, this condition in itself did not seem to impact their academic adjustment negatively. Other studies call into doubt a linkage between external LOC and negative outcomes. For example, Ferrari and Parker (1992) did not fi nd a significant relationshi p between academic LOC and grade point average among college freshm en. Onwuegbuzie, Bailey, and Daley (1999) investigated academic LOC in th eir search for predictors of foreign language anxiety and found a relationship that was not statistically significant. Clearl y, LOC is not a causal factor underlying every academic event. For the most part, the history of LOC assessment instruments can be viewed as a catalog of work performance measures that correlate w ith internalized LOC. Thus, LOC has been embraced in organizational settings, primarily becau se of the eagerness with which organizations strive to meet common goals by capitalizing on the inputs and skills of their employees. However, although LOC is sometimes discussed as a personality typology with which to categorize individuals as extern al or internal, Rotter (1963) believed that individuals behavior varied across situations Personality, therefore, was not a fixed preference to respond to all situations in the same way, but rather a combination of distinct responses to changing contexts. It follows that a counseling interven tion designed to increase academic performance should not be intended to change students global attitudes, but rather to encourage them to take more responsibility for a specific, relativel y narrowly defined aspect of their life. LOC instruments measure the ways in whic h individuals attribute event outcomes to internal or external causes, but these attribut ions are regarded as perceptions, not objective analyses of the events. For example, individual s who display greater inte rnal LOC may generate more counterfactual self-talk, a type of irrational thinking that involves inner experiencing of

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28 events that did not actually occur. These in dividuals may think along the lines of, If only I'd acted differently, there would have been a differe nt outcome after an event in which their task performance was rated (Reichert & Slate, 1999). Such self-t alk statements may become a mechanism for seeking control over a similar situa tion in the future, which might in turn improve task performance. Conversely, counterfactual statements may cont ribute to excessive st ress and anxiety by over-emphasizing futility. Therefore, most RET th eorists view them as a form of perceptual distortion, and RET therapists may spend cons iderable time refuting counterfactual thinking when its effect on mental health is perceived to be negative, for example, when it promotes grief or guilt. It also follows that greater internal LOC may not in fact have positive, healthy effects on the individual's well-being, particularly if objec tive investigation reveal s that individuals may actually not be in control of their outcomes. For exam ple, individuals may be denied promotions in the workplace because of causes such as instit utional racism rather th an as a result of job performance (Sue & Sue, 1999). When individuals take excessive responsibility for causes beyond their control, they are likely to feel unduly frustrated or depr essed with subsequent outcomes. What, then, should be the limits of cognitive interventions that aim to increase students' academic performance by encouraging the deve lopment of internal LOC attributions for academic outcomes? For example, would students overall academic performance increase if all students developed highly-interna l LOC attributions that also caused considerable personal distress? The answer is probabl y yes students average grades and achievement test scores might very well be enhanced if most student s accepted a high degree of personal academic responsibility, even in light of increased stress and anxiety in st udents' lives. However, while

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29 such impact would benefit a schools academic pe rformance record, it is not consistent with maintaining and enhancing the best interests of i ndividual students, and it is certainly not within the boundaries of school couns eling ethical standards. An LOC-focused counseling intervention to increase academic performance must be well-defined and implemented within all applicab le ethical standards. By emphasizing personal responsibility for academic outcomes, such an inte rvention could help motivate students to plan and study, and not to procrastinate in matters concerning school wo rk. Such an outcome is both desirable and possible. For example, Daum and Wiebe (2003) found that academic LOC varies in the short term based on students personal academ ic expectations. Similarly, Liu, Lavelle, and Andris (2002) believed that even the type of instructional medi a used has influences academic LOC to some extent. To vary LOC attitude s and self-perceptions experimentally, CBT/RET techniques could be employed to persuade stud ents that, ultimately, they themselves have considerable control over their academic futures. However, students also must be able to identify the boundary at which they can no longe r assume responsibilities for academic events and/or outcomes. Achieving empowerment and awareness of self limits is difficult in classrooms in which students are overwhelmingly aware of the teachers unfair attitude s toward them, especially in situations in which student race and/or gender are matters of teacher concern. The extent to which students internalize teacher attitudes and practice self-blame is debatable. However, it is likely that students aware of unfairness in life will reject a counsel ing intervention if it provides no room for conceptualizing and holding ex ceptions to internal control. For example, students may pose the rhetorical question, If Im really in control of my grades, then why are students of my race or gender singled out for puni shment in class? Thus, some students may

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30 believe they are doomed already and without r ecourse because a teacher does not like them. Yet by making a distinction between difficult and impossible, and among conditions such as always, sometimes, and never, CBT can help students understand that they usually have some power to influence events in their environment. School Counseling Perspectives The school counseling profession promotes that school counselor s should serve the greatest possible numbers of students (Kurantz, 2003; Schwallie-Gillis, te r Maat, & Park, 2003). For example, ASCA (2003) advocates that school counselors develop programs to serve all students across three broad categories of devel opmental needs: personal/social, career, and academic. ASCA and school counseling authoritie s have developed various curricular and/or programmatic materials to help school counselors a ddress these needs. However, it is clear that school counselors do not have a monopoly on facilitating child (student) development. For example, school counselors compete with specialis ts from other educational, psychological, social, and related professional fields in pursu it of federal funding for research and program implementation funds (e.g., Myrick & Gonzalez, 1990) as well as for validation of their respective professional perspectiv es. This situation also is evident in the development and implementation of character education programs, which are viewed as se rving students personal development needs (ASCA, 2003). Despite the fact that no theories of counseling have proposed or validated a definition of char acter, school counselors continue to search for ways to serve public and political mandates for character edu cation. In so doing, school counselors largely draw upon theoretical perspectives that are de velopmental (i.e., describe how people develop normally) as opposed to those th at are therapeutic (i.e., describe how people can change voluntarily). For example, Rayburn (2004) describe d the school counselors role in morality education (which is presumably highly similar to character education) in terms of seminal moral

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31 and cognitive development research by Kohlbe rg and Piaget, iconic de velopmental theorists widely studied in the field of education. As human development professionals, school counselors are entitled to glean wisdom from all sources, fields, and disciplines. Howeve r, if students are experiencing a level of stress or goal frustration which is pathological and which interferes with their normal development, are they better served by school counselors informed by a teaching theory or a cognitive theory? In order to fulfill the ASCA mi ssion of serving all students, some school counselors are presenting classroom guidance units focused on cu rricula that were designed by teachers. Presumably, resources used for these activities were written for teachers, i.e., professionals who likely are competent at information dissemination and have essential active listening skills. However, they often lack awareness of mental health issues or the advanced communication skills requisite to being an effective school couns elor and essential for effective implementation of a classroom guidance unit. In using resources designed and intended fo r use by teachers, school counselors may be sending the message that their prof essional identity and skill sets ar e essentially no different than those of teachers. The profound implications of th is identify confusion are perhaps illustrated in the tendency for some school counselors to choose (usually for financial in centives) certification by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards rather than the National Board for Certified Counselors. If the id entity and practice of professional school counseling moves away from theories of psychotherapy (including RET a nd CBT) entirely, are not school counselors just another (type of) teacher in schools? The point is not to reject the developmental guidance paradigm, but rather to anticipate unintended, long -term effects of rapid change currently taking place in the school counseling profession and the ultimate possible absorption of the profession

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32 itself into some other field. Such unwanted chan ges might be avoided in part by demonstrating the effectiveness of interventions based on well -researched perspectives such as CBT, RET, and/or LOC theories which complement, rather than overlap, the sk ill sets possessed by classroom teachers. A study by Campbell and Brigman (2005) illustrates some of the points just made. They demonstrated the possibility for school counsel ors to serve all students through use of group counseling to teach study skills to elementary school-age students. The Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test-Norm Reference Test (FCATNRT) was an outcome measure in their study, as was a behavior rating checklist. The interv ention emphasized social problem-solving skills and study skills improvement. A statistically sign ificant improvement in FCAT-NRT scores was found for the experimental group. Improvement also was shown in students use of appropriate behaviors in classrooms. These researchers successfully capture d the attention of school and school district officials by dem onstrating that school counselor s can indeed contribute to the important task of boosting school-w ide achievement as reflected in students test scores. While valuable as an example of the positive academic impact school counselors can make in schools, this type of study would be di fficult to replicate at th e upper levels of high school primarily because of the outcome measurem ent used: the FCAT-NRT is not administered to students after the spring term of grade ten. Further, the FCAT-NRT is a "low-stakes" test sometimes used for placement purposes within the school, and theref ore is given on fewer occasions than the FCAT-Criterion Referenced Te st (FCAT-CRT), which is a "high-stakes" test with implications for retention and/or fulfillm ent of graduation requirements. The FCAT-NRT also is administered differently than the FC AT-CRT, with comparatively fewer safeguards in place to ensure the security of the FCAT-NRT and fewer parallel forms are used, leading to the

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33 question of whether changes in scor es reflect true learning gains or simply that retained students have taken the same test more than once. Al so, no correlation between the FCAT-CRT and FCAT-NRT tests has yet been provided. Unfortunately, in describing the focus of the experiment as study skills training, Campbell and Brigman risked portraying their work out of context. Specifically, if the study is presented as if the intervention (essentially tutoring) is somethi ng already known to be effective, why not simply employ more tutors instead of more school counselors? Although Campbell and Brigman explain in great depth w hy school counselors are uniquely qualified to conduct this type of intervention, the frame of the study itself creates an unwitting comparison that cannot benefit school counselors in general. The question should be, how do school counselors use their unique training and knowledge to provide interventions that cannot be replicated easily by regular classroom teachers? Whatever the eventuality of this paradox, it is clear that school counseling thought is moving in the direction of focus on what goes on in schools rather than what goes on in of counseling theories. For example, a review of the most influential school counseling journal over the last few years revealed only a few ar ticle titles specifically referencing any specific theory of psychotherapy, and the ones that did we re oriented to family, systems, or solutionfocused therapy. The developmental school counseling perspective (e .g., Myers, Shoffner, & Briggs, 2002; Myrick, 1997) has been advan ced as a method of understanding and serving children that draws in part on the views of Piaget, Erikson, an d Kohlberg. Thus, theoretical eclecticism apparently is valued as the vari ous interventions described mix developmental perspectives with theories such as RET (e.g., Webb & Myrick, 2003). Unfortunately, CBT techniques apparently have been welcomed onl y as intervention modalities for addressing the

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34 problematic conduct or academic underperform ance of individual students (e.g., Walker, Greenwood, & Terry, 1994). Developments in Cognitive Assessment Although school counselors may dream of bei ng able to claim that a developmental counseling intervention will directly impact students grade point averages, the reality is that GPA serves poorly as an outcome indicator fo r any type of interven tion even teaching interventions. As Kiselica, Baker, Thomas and Reedy (1994) noted, ceiling effects occur when high-achieving students score consistently near the top of the grading scale; there is simply little room for improvement. Test anxiety also may play a role in assessments and tutoring may be received which further confounds test sc ores. Psychometric assessments with good psychometric properties may offer greater diagnostic value by a ffording insight into cognitions, behaviors, and attitudes that are corr elated with academic performance. Rational-Emotive Assessments The original articulations of irrational belief s in RET inspired development of a slew of cognitive assessments to investigate them. The re sultant measures were te sted enthusiastically, but most were found to also measure some non-cognitive dimensions (Jones & Trower, 2004; Robb & Warren, 1990). Today, a new generation of cognitive assessments has been developed to measure a few general constructs, the measur ement of which have been confirmed by factor analysis. Therefore, typically three or four beliefs (cognitions) are a ssessed instead of Ellis original set of 11 IBs (Smith, 1989; Thorpe, Walter, Kinger y, & Nay, 2001). The trend also is to exclude items which measure non-cognitive dimensions (e.g., emotional responses). Bernard's revision of the General Attitude and Beliefs Scale (GABS; 1998) sought to measure thinking (i.e., cognition) specifically, not affective reaction or state. Originally developed by Burgess (1986), the GABS was based on the legacy list of 11 IB's. The original

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35 96-item GABS was intended to assess components of anxiety and depression. Bernard (1998) refined the GABS through factor an alysis and reformulated the constructs as a combination of self-defeating processes (e.g., demandingness, awfulizi ng, global self-rating, and low frustration tolerance) and content domains (e.g., achievement, approval, and comfort). Fifty-five items representing seven factors were retained : rationality, self-downi ng" (i.e., judgmental, negative self-statements), need for achievement, need for approval, need for comfort, demands for fairness, and other-downing. The rationality f actor correlated negativel y with the irrationality subscales, and positively with other cognitive m easures of similar constructs. The GABS also was validated against the Beck Depression Invent ory (BDI) and positive, theoretically consistent results were found. Bernard's work on the GABS raised two points regarding RET theory. First, although the self-downing factor was related in the theory to should stat ements about the self, such a relationship was not supported empirically. In RET, statements involving should are presumed to act as a method of imposing unrealistic condi tions upon the world, thus producing disturbance. Bernard (1998) noted that the word should, while helpful in identifying some types of selfdefeating self-talk, is not inherently pathological ; it could operate in ways that are not actually demanding. Second, self-downing and other-downing emer ged as separate factors, in contrast to Jones and Trower's (2004) finding that individua ls with higher levels of anger had highly negative evaluations of both themselves and othe rs. It is possible th at the unitary versus fragmented nature of selfand other-downing may be related to specific populations and thus may not hold true for all individuals. Lindner, Kirkby, Wertheim and Birch (1999) sh ortened the GABS further because they concluded that the instrument's length was cited by subjects as a principal cause for subject

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36 attrition in a research study. After administering the GABS to a larger group of subjects, a decision was made to retain only those items with a correlation to respective total subscale score greater than .60. Twenty-six items were retrained when this criterion was applied. A subsequent administration of the Shortened GABS (SGABS) give n to the same individuals within three days yielded stability correlations ranging from .66 to .77 for each subscale. Construct validity was demonstrated by the finding of significant correlations to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and to the Irrational Beliefs Scale Other Cognitive Assessments Cognitive assessments clearly based on theory have often been designed for specific clinical purposes. For example, the Evaluative Beliefs Scale (EBS) was presented by Chadwick, Trower, and Dagnam (1999) as having high face validity for depression because of it being constructed to reflect well-rese arched cognitive constructs. Un like earlier cognitive assessments, the EBS inquires about thoughts ra ther than behaviors. Sinc lair and Wallston (1999) also developed a brief cognitive instrument, the Psychological Vulnerability Scale (PVS), to identify cognitions that promote harmful re actions to stress within the particular context of medical patients recovering from illness (p. 119). Waller, Meyer and Ohanian (2001) applied a health perspective in their short-form refinement of the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ), which is designed to compare the core beliefs of bulimic and non-bulimic women. These instruments represent a category of a ssessments having clinical value to identify specific cognitions that are found to predict pathological behaviors or emotions. However, locus of control is not inherently pa thological; only its effects can be experienced as harmful. Therefore, a cognitive-behavioral instrument th at can be compared to a locus of control measurement must assess all major aspects of the th eory in order to serve as a basis for refining future understandings of the connection between cognition, locus of c ontrol perceptions, and

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37 academic performance. Therefore, the GABS was c hosen for use in this research because of its general nature and its suitability for basic research. Assessing Locus of Control Much effort has been directed toward asse ssing (overall) LOC since Rotter's formulation of the original Locus of Control scale (1966). For example, as late as 1984, Craig, Franklin, and Andrews sought to create a valid alternative assessment of global LOC. However, Rotter conceived of personality as the sum of all possible behaviors in all situations. Thus, in different situations, behavior would be different, and Rott er pointed to the need for more specific LOC scales. More recently, there have been developed specialized instruments such as the Health Student Academic Locus of Control Scale (Cassidy & Eachus, 2000) and even the God Locus of Health Control Scale (purported to measure the perception th at divine forces play the primary role in determining health) (Wallston, Malcar ne, Flores, Hansdottir, Smith, Stein, Weisman, & Clements, 1999). Again, a category of instrument s comes to light as having been created to show clinical significance with specific and acute presenting symptoms However, high school students are presumed to be a diverse populat ion representing a mix of distressed and nondistressed individuals. Therefore, a more general scale is needed with relevance to the broad area of functioning commonly referred to as academic performance. Trice's Academic Locus of Control Scale (ALCS) was validated for use with college students and found to have value in predicting common academic problems. One hundred eighty nine undergraduate students completed an 89-item questionnaire havi ng true-false-response items twice in a three-week period. The items were written to have face validity for the locus of control concept. Subsequentl y, items were discarded if more than 90% of the respondents answered an item with the same response or if more than 5% of the respondents answered the item differently on the two occasions. Items also were discarded if the response to an item

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38 pointing to either a respondents internal or external locus of control was not consistent to the same subjects majority responses to the other it ems. Ultimately, 28 items were retained. The ALCS scores were then compared to the Rotte r (1966) locus of contro l scale for construct validity, with r = .50 (p<.05). Scores also we re compared to Crowne and Marlowes (1960) Social Desirability Scale for discriminant validity, with r = -.16 (p>.05), indicating that respondents were not simply attempting to answer in a manner perceived as socially desirable or acceptable. Finally, its test-retest reliability coefficient was found to be .92 following a fiveweek interval. Use of the Academic Locus of Cont rol Scale with High School Students It is highly likely that high school students can interpret and respond to the ALCS in an appropriate way, although this cont ention needs further support. Fo r example, application of the SMOG and Gunning-Fog reading level computation methods yielded a grade nine reading level for the ALCS. The ALCS was compared to Ro tter's (1966) I-E scale. The Rotter scale was initially validated with samples including 10t h, 11th, and 12th graders (Lester & Bishop, 2000), and later used by Trice (1984) dur ing his validation of the ALCS. Therefore, the significant correlations between the Rotter I-E scale and the ALCS when used with high school students suggests that it is appropriate to use with such students. Summary Much research supports the effectiveness of CBT. Counselors who adopt CBT for use in non-therapeutic settings also find support for co gnitive constructs in basic research and through assessment tools based upon it. Cognitive theory thus is a specialized mental tool that helps to guide behavior change rather than to explain all aspects of persona lity development. It appears to be productive to adapt cognitive perspectives and techniques so that their benefits can be achieved through programmatic, sc hool-wide delivery systems; such an approach would

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39 associate well with the CBT literature. More im portantly still, an intervention based on CBT designed to help high school st udents take control of their academic careers could prove beneficial. Specifically, the LOC construct holds great promise in giving shape to a cognitivebased intervention and in providing a theoretical basis for unders tanding behavior changes that result from the intervention. Also, assessments of LOC are sufficiently evolved that their use is likely to inform the relationship between a cognitive intervention and changes in personal locus of control.

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40 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY School counseling interventions have been developed and implemented to assist students to develop in many different ways Unfortunately, most of thes e interventions have not been examined and/or evaluated empirically. More importantly here, the vast majority of these interventions have not been developed and im plemented within a recognized, professionallyaccepted theoretical framework. Certainly one important part of a students personal development is assumption of responsibility for personal and/or academic behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a CBT-based intervention intended to enhance high school students awareness and assumption of responsibility for their academic success. Specifically, the intervention includes com ponents intended to (a) enhance high school students awareness that attention to the details of past academic events, such as courses taken and grades earned, is relevant to their future success, (b) illustrat e the mechanism through wh ich rational self-talk leads to adaptive behaviors, and (c) demonstrat e how an interpersonal communications strategy grounded in rational principles is likely to enlist the help and coope ration of external others (e.g., teachers) while also showing how communications based upon cognitive distortions are likely to discourage others from helping. An experimental methodology will be employed to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Relevant Variables Data will be gathered for the following de pendent variables in this study: (a) the extent/degree to which students hold rational beliefs, as measur ed by the Rationality (GABS-R) and Need for Achievement (GABS-NA) subscales of the General Attitudes and Beliefs Scales (GABS), (b) the extent/degree to which they be lieve they are in control of their academic

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41 careers, as measured by the Academic Locus of Control Scale (ALCS), and (c) level of attention to academic detail, as measured by the Test of Graduation Requirements (TGR). The independent variable for this study will be gr oup, with students in the experimental condition receiving the intervention during the study and students in the control/comparison condition receiving the interven tion after the study. Population Although subject to debate, it certainly can be argued that th e eleventh grade (i.e., junior year) of high school is an extremely important period in which students should be aware of and responsible for fulfillment of requirements fo r graduation from high school. During this academic year, students must be keenly aware of their academic standing (relative to graduation requirements) so that they can act to complete remaining unfulfilled requirements to graduate in a timely manner. According to the National Center for E ducational Statistics (2006), there were approximately 165,275 students in the eleventh grade in high schools in Florida in 2005. Approximately 49.6 percent of these students were males and 50.4 percent were females. In regard to race/ethnicity characteristics, appr oximately 22.5 percent were classified as AfricanAmerican, 0.3 percent were classified as Native-American, 19.5 percent were classified as Hispanic-American, 2.5 percent were classified as Asian-American, and 55.2 percent were classified as Caucasian-American. Students in the eleventh grade are usually 16 years of age, and commonly under age 18. While arguably all of high school is a transitional period, the age range and educational experiences associated with grade 11 students suggest it is a time of great variation. Thus, they make personal decisions and plan for the future in widely differing wa ys. Beginning at age 16, Florida students may obtain a drivers licen se contingent upon c ontinued regular school

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42 attendance. With this increased mobility, many high school juniors are likely to find after-school employment, and therefore also are faced with more choices of non-school activities than their younger student peers. Also noted is that high-achieving grade 11 stude nts are engaged in activ ities different from those of their lower-achieving peers. In Florid a, high achieving juniors ha ve (already) passed the Grade 10 Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) (a graduation requirement) and most are registering and preparing for the American College Test (ACT) or Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), national college admissions tests normally taken during the junior year. These students also begin to evaluate themselves critically for competitive and non-competitive scholarships, such as the Florida Bright Fu tures program. Comparatively, lower achieving juniors must continue to prepare for the FCAT and retake it until it is passed, a process likely to reinforce negative self-perceptions of academic ab ility and feelings of failure. These low achieving students also become aware that at age 16 they may drop out of school voluntarily (with parent permission), although they may retain their drivers licenses if they enroll in a General Education Diploma (GED) program. Those minors who desire to drop out but who lack parent permission can do so at their own discre tion after their eightee nth birthday, which may occur during grade 11 if the student has been retain ed in previous grade levels. Thus, by grade 11 most students know they have the power to ma ke long-term decisions and implement those decisions in the near future. The experiences of grade 11 are important b ecause, more often than not, past behavior predicts future behavior. That is, students w ho had early successful experiences in academic endeavors (e.g., high test scores) or in the wo rld-of-work (e.g., success in a school-sponsored work-study program) are likely to feel efficaciou s, competent, and interested in academic

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43 activities. The converse also is likely true: students frustrated w ith previous academic endeavors or work may react with irrationa l, negative self-stateme nts (e.g., Im no good or Ive tried and failed). Alternatively, they may rationalize their previous experiences by attributing them to a hostile environment (e.g., I would do better on the FCAT if it wasnt so stupid; they only make us take it because its a waste of time.). Therefore, for eith er situation, measuring juniors systems of irrational beliefs and locus-of-control attit udes may provide clues as to their future behaviors. Sampling Procedures Gender, race, socioeconomic status, and othe r personal characteristics were not criteria applied directly for sampling in this study. Th e population from which the sample was selected included students all at the same (11th) grade level. Effort was made to sample all regularprogram students at each participating school. Students having learning and/or cognitive functioning and/or severe emotional difficulties are not assigned to regular classrooms. Similarly, students with exceptionally high academic abilities are assigned to honors classes or other advanced cognitive ability classrooms. Thus, students academic performance and/or ability level was the only non-random factor in fluencing which student s were invited to participate. Wherever possible, participation was elicite d from students enrolled in an American History class, a class required for all high school students in Florida and normally taken during the eleventh grade. An eleventh grader (i.e ., junior), as used here is a student who was attending high school for the third consecutive year. Such a student was likely to be enrolled in an American History class because the course sequence of the Florida social studies curriculum in Florida is likely to proceed at a predicta ble pace, unaffected by grade-level retention (defined as the failure of one or more high school classes). At one of th e three schools sampled,

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44 access to American History classroom was not possible. Instead, the schools principal identified an elective course co mprised primarily of juniors. Given that the various criteria for class assi gnment do not usually introduce systematic bias in student-to-classroom assignment, it was presum ed that the students in the respective regular classroom groups were relatively heterogeneous within the universe of re gular-section American History classrooms. This assumption was inve stigated subsequent to the study through examination of the demographic characteristics of the participating students in the respective classrooms after the sample (i.e., partic ipating students) had been determined. During the intervention phase of the study, students were randomly assigned to either the experimental or the control group condition. The intervention consisted of a short electronic storybook read on a computer, followed by a narrated academic advisement lesson presented in a slideshow format. The advisement lesson was de signed to have value for all students in the 11th grade. At the time of the interv ention, students in the class were taken to a computer lab. Those students participating in the study logged on to a computer program to receive the measurements, while students who did not participate in the st udy were assigned to another activity by the teacher. Random assignment of participating studen ts occurred at the time they logged into the computer. Students in the expe rimental group viewed the electronic storybook intervention, and students in the control group vi ewed a non-interactiv e storybook reading a work of non-fiction related to the curriculum standard s for the American History course. Resultant Sample It was anticipated that twelve classroom gr oups would participate, with approximately 25 students per classroom group, for a total 300 studen ts. Random assignment to experimental or control condition would be on an in dividual basis. It also was a ssumed that at least 75% of the students in each classroom group would participate, to yield a total of approximately 226

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45 participants. Finally, it was expected that approximately 113 students would be assigned to the experimental and control conditi ons, respectively. Also, based on available information about the characteristics of students in the participa ting schools, it was anticipated that approximately 50 percent of the students would be male a nd 50 percent would be female in both the experimental and control groups. Similarly, it wa s anticipated that approximate race/ethnicity percentages for the students in both the experi mental and control gr oups would be AfricanAmerican 25%, Hispanic-American 5%, Ca ucasian-American 65%, and Other 5%. When research procedures began, the partic ipation rate ranged from two students per classroom (under 10% of the class) to 25 student s per class (over 90% of the students in the class). The total number of students recruited was estimated at approximately 400. However, the number who completed informed consent proced ures and began the study was 204. Of these, 177 completed both the pr e-test and post-test. Students were informed that pa rticipation in the study was vol untary. In regard to the 27 students who did not complete the post-test, thei r respective classroom teachers who supervised the study procedure provided unsolicited context information about ma ny of them. There did not appear to be any systematic non-participation causes presented among these descriptions. Also, because of the wide range of reasons presente d for non-attendance on the second day of the study (e.g., absence, illness, skipping, disciplinary suspension, band practice, honor club field trip, athletic tournament, and/or off-campus dual enrollm ent course), it was concluded that there was not an underlying (i.e., systematic) reason why these students did not complete the post-test. In addition, it was not possible to hypot hesize about the particular ch aracteristics of students who completed the study compared those who did not. Therefore, it was assumed that attrition was due to random factors, and not to any systematic bias.

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46 Research Design An experimental, equivalent-control-group de sign was used in this study (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). There was one composite experi mental group (including students from twelve classroom groups) and one composite control gro up (including students from twelve classroom groups) for the primary analyses. Students in bo th groups received pre-testing and post-testing. The research design implementation is shown in Figure 3-1. Measurements All students in both conditions were given the ALCS, GABS, and TGR at approximately the same times before and after the intervention. The majority of students completed all of the assessment instruments within a five to fifteen minute time-span. The order of presentation of the instruments to the students was the same on all occasions to avoid order effects across groups. The ALCS consists of a single scale comp rised of 28 True-False items. Average completion time for the ALCS is under 5 mi nutes. The individual items are declarative statements, including 26 stated positively and 2 stated negatively. For scoring purposes, 17 items are weighted one for a positive response and zero for a negative response. Eleven items are weighted as one for a negative respon se and zero for a positive response. The total score is computed by summing the item response wei ghts. The ALCS has a score range of zero to 28. Higher scores indicate a more externalized locus of academic control. The GABS Rationality and Need for Achievem ent subscales each have nine items with positive or negative wording (e.g., I think a, but I also think b or I do not x but I do y .). Positively stated items are weighted one point on the scale to which the item is assigned. The GABS-R scale is considered to reflect rational thinking (i.e., presumed evidence of effective thinking) in a general context centering upon the individuals self -esteem and social worthiness, while the GABS-NA is considered to reflect irrational thinking in the form of

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47 demandingness contingent upon ones intended accomplishments. The GABS-R and GABSNA subscales were used as outcome measures in this study. The TGR consists of a single scale contai ning 18 true-false c heckbox items, five multiple-choice items, and two write-in items. All items are positively stated. The true-false checkbox items direct the respondent to check off a ll of the following courses or tests that are required for graduation. Seven of the checkbox items are weighted as one point for correctly identifying courses or tests required for Flor ida high school graduation, and the other 11 are weighted as one poi nt for (correctly) not identifying the course as a graduation requirement. The seven multiple-choice items are objectively scored and five of the items share a set of four response choices. The item stems are scenarios describing a hypothetical se niors GPA and test scores. The respondent must determine which ty pe of certificate or diploma the hypothetical student is eligible to receive. One point is given for the corre ct response and zero is given for any of the three incorr ect responses. The remaining two multi ple-choice items ask the respondent to choose the GPA required for hi gh school graduation (one point for the correct answer) and the GPA under which a student is considered in jeopardy of not graduati ng (one point for the correct answer). The possible scor e range for the TGR is 0 to 25. Intervention The intervention consisted of an interactive, electronic storybook which required about twenty to thirty minutes to read, on a comput er. The story was interactive because of its branched plot line which made possible multip le endings. Students reading the story had the ability to influence the events of the plot by using the mouse to select and assign lines of dialog (including self-talk and words spoken to others) to the storys main character. The choices reflected appropriate and inappropriate commun ications strategies (e.g., speaking and acting rudely or politely to others) and appropriate or inappropriate informati on-processing strategies

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48 (e.g., reading or ignoring signage and rules and procedures). The choices made caused the main character of the story to act in ways that were adaptive or ma ladaptive, with a corresponding influence on the final outcome of the story, which could be either positive or negative. Students were asked to read the story several times, ma king different choices each time. After each reading, the computer program admi nistering the story in vited students to process the dramatic events of the plot by posing multiple-choice questi ons which called for the student to interpret specific events from a locus-of-control perspec tive. These questions were in the form of statements that modeled either rational or irrational self-talk, and the stud ent was asked to choose the statement that seemed to best reflect his or her own thinking. Students also were asked to type several short paragraphs to summarize wh at happened in the stor y, to recall a time when something similar happened to someone they knew, and to comment whether such things could happen in real life. The computer program also tracked the outcome of each iteration of the story, either positive or negative, in terms of the plot developments and the storys ending. Research Participants Principals of the respective schools were c ontacted and provided information about the study and a full description of the intervention, in cluding details of the sc hool boards approval and copies of the Child Assent Script and Info rmed Consent documents. The cognitive basis and practical benefits for academic locus of c ontrol, dubbed responsibil ity education, were explained to principals. Based on this informati on, principals gave approval and provided the names of teachers of eligible cl asses who would be contacted. Research Procedures Activities necessary to allow conduct of the study in the Levy Count y public schools took place initially during the Fall of 2007. Processes for approval of the study (and specifically the informed consent procedures) by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board and by the

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49 School Board of Levy County were implemented concurrently. Both approvals were needed before the actual research procedures for the study could be initiated. Approval to conduct the study in local high schools was received from the School Board of Levy County, and subsequently, by the principa ls of Williston High School Bronson Middle/High School, and Chiefland High School. Permission was denied by one high school located in Alachua county and the principal of another hi gh school did not respond to a written request for permission. Subsequently, a sufficient number of students was obtained in Levy County and other recruitment efforts ceased. The actual research activities for this study we re implemented in a time span beginning in the third week of January, 2007 and ending in th e second week of December, 2007. As described to parents in the informed consent letter, the part icipating teachers at each school site read from the Child Assent Script to announce the study and th en distributed the Informed Consent letter to all students. Students parents then signed the Informed Consent Forms to indicate either yes or no for a students participation. The forms were then returned to th e students teacher, who kept track of which students had received permi ssion to participate. Next, arrangements were made with the schools computer lab manager to re serve a time for the cla ss to participate in the study. Students whose parents did not give consent for participation did not receive assessments. However, as part of an intact classroom group meeting in the co mputer lab, they read the story assigned to the control group, which related to th e American History curriculum, or worked on other assignments as directed by the teacher. Upon receiving the permission forms, the collabor ating teachers provided the participating students (i.e., ones having informed consent) with a randomly-generated computer password written on a sheet of paper. As described in th e Informed Consent letter, the teacher retained

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50 each students password so that it could be re-use d by the same student for the second session of the intervention, and the password sheets then were destroyed. E ach password, consisting of a unique, five-letter gibberish word, served to match students pre-test scores to their post-test scores without recording students actual identities. As students logged in using their respective passwords to complete the pre-assessments, they were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group c ondition, and either the experiment al or control group story was shown. Next, both the experimental and contro l group subjects were shown a slide show presentation that described Florida high sc hool graduation requirements. Students then completed the post-assessments. This process was expected to require two fu ll class periods in which the pre-test and electronic storybook would be completed duri ng the first class period and the academic advisement and post-test would be completed during the second class period. In order to use time most efficiently, an electronic we b page was created to manage the presentation of each part of the study for the students (Appendix D). The we b page evaluated each students progress continuously and required that he or she respond to at least 90% of the pre-test before being allowed to begin the experimental intervention. It also required that par ticipation be maintained for at least 20 minutes before going on to the acad emic advisement unit. Similarly, students were required to undertake the academic advisement co mponent before receiving the post-test, which must have been at least 90% completed before proceeding. Later analys is showed that only 0.326% of test items had been skipped; on aver age the questionnaires included in the final analysis had been 99.7% completed. Therefore, any missing datum was treat ed as reflecting the undesirable direction for that question.

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51 Because of the studys computer-based format, students were offered flexibility to complete any missing lessons or assessments at a later time. However, only one student chose this option. Informed consent procedures were conducted during regular class time, not during the study itself. At two of the schools, an incentive was offered in the form of a pizza party, at a later date, for students who participated. Consiste nt with IRB policy, the informed consent letter stated that students could become eligible to rece ive an incentive even if they did not complete both parts of the study. As noted, following the story reading and befo re completing the post-assessments, students in both conditions viewed a brief slide show pr esentation of the Florida high school graduation requirements. Although likely valuable for all student s regardless of type of participation in the experiment, the knowledge gained from the slide show should have had special impact for students who received the intervention. That is if the intervention in creased their internal academic locus of control, their attitudes should ha ve had a greater relationship to academic selfawareness (as assessed by the ALCS and TGR, respectively). Because this construct was assessed from objective knowledge of graduation requirements (i.e., the TGR), students in the experimental and control conditions must have had at least some exposure to these requirements. Data Analyses Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with pretes t scores as the covariates, was the primary data analytic method for this study. The ANCO VA procedure gains increased statistical power by using a covariate to account for variance in the dependent variable Null hypotheses 1, 2, 3, and 4 were evaluated using ANCOV As computed for rational belief systems (i.e., GABS-R and GABS-NA scores), locus of control (i.e., ALCS sc ores), and academic self-awareness (i.e., TGR scores), respectively. Null hypotheses 8, 9, 10 and 11 used ANCOVA to test for the four

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52 outcome measures as well as a gender inte raction effect, and null hypotheses 12, 13, 14 and15 tested for a race interaction effect. Null hypotheses 5, 6, and 7 were evaluated th rough creation of ni ne (Pearson productmoment) inter-correlation matrices of post-test GABS-NA, ALCS, and TGR scores, respectively. Three matrices were developed for each scale. The first matrix encompassed scores from all students, the second encompassed sc ores (only) from students in the experimental group, and the third encompassed scores (only) fr om students in the control group. Methodological Limitations The primary methodological limitations for this study were related to motivational factors, for both the cooperating school counselors and th e student participants. The success of the intervention was in large part contingent upon the motivation of the participating teachers to coordinate classroom management procedures for the study, a factor that depended in part on the ease with which the intervention could be integr ated with existing teacher duties and classroom expectations. While the particip ating teachers did receive modest gifts in appreciation for their assistance, these were not promised at the outset, and quite likely w ould not have proven a motivating factor in any case. However, it certainly was to teachers advantage for the intervention to be successful, because it would improve the academ ic climate in their respective classrooms. In addition, the collaborating teach ers were accomplished professionals, selected from among those who value research, professi onal collaboration, and enhancement of the school community in general. Therefore, inappropriate motivation among the collaborating teachers was likely minimized. The motivation to participate in the interv ention successfully likel y varied widely among the student participants. Some likely participat ed readily because the po tential benefits were readily apparent to them, or because they we re eager to avoid other class work. Others

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53 participated, at least initiall y, hesitatingly because they did not perceive immediate personal benefit. Others may have participated because of the pizza incentive at the two schools where this was offered. However, one objective of the intervention was to help students recognize the benefits of having certain type s of information and acting in appropriate ways based on that information. Therefore, the intervention, in part, should have served as a participation motivation factor for the students. Therefore, it was likely that lack of appropriate motivation also was minimized for participating students.

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54 Table 3-1. Research Design Pre-Test Inte rvention Post-Test R E1 O X* O R E2 O X O R E3 O X O R E4 O X O R E5 O X O R E6 O X O R E7 O X O R E8 O X O R E9 O X O R E10 O X O R E11 O X O R E12 O X O R C1 O Y** O R C2 O Y O R C3 O Y O R C4 O Y O R C5 O Y O R C6 O Y O R C7 O Y O R C8 O Y O R C9 O Y O R C10 O Y O R C11 O Y O R C12 O Y O *X is the actual inte rvention using the electr onic storybook. **Y is an electronic storybook of similar duration, but with unrelated content.

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55 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the electronic storybook intervention intended to enhance a students academic locus of control, rationality, and need for achievement. A secondary purpose of the study was to measure the extent to which participation in the intervention mediated ac ademic self-awareness, as defined by knowledge of local and Florida graduation requirements. Resultant Sample Of the 177 students who completed both parts of the research pro cedures, 35 described themselves as sophomores, 119 as juniors, and 23 as seniors. One-hundr ed five (105) were recruited from American History classes at Williston and Bronson High Schools, while 72 were recruited from a junior-level, elective class in business technology at Chiefland High School. All of these schools are located in Levy County, Florida. Twenty -one students were AfricanAmerican, two were Native American, 14 were Hi spanic-American, four were Asian-American, 129 were Caucasian-American, and six self-identified as mixed et hnicity. One participant did not respond to this question. One hundred twenty-two indicated that they knew their exact number of high school credits earned, while 54 reported that they did not. As students logged for the intervention, they were randomly assigned by the computer to one of the study conditions; ultimately, 82 were assigned to the control c ondition and 95 to the experimental condition from among those who participated fully. Data Analyses Analyses of co-variance (ANCOVA) we re used to investigate null hypotheses H1 through H4. First, Pearson coefficients were calcul ated to establish th e relationship between preand post-measures of each measure used in the study (i.e., GABS-R, GABS-NA, ALCS, and

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56 TGR). Correlations for all pre-pos t measures for all students were statistically significant at the p = .001 level as shown in Figure 4-1. Therefore, us e of the pre-test score as a covariate for the post-test analyses was appropriate. Next, ANCOVAs were computed for each of the measures to obtain main-effect values of GABS-R, GABS-NA, ALCS, and TGR by condition. No statistically significant differences were found between participants in the experi mental and control condi tions (Table 4-6). Therefore, null hypotheses H1, H2, H3 and H4 were not rejected. To investigate null hypotheses H5, H6 and H7, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated for the post-meas ures of GABS-NA, AL CS and TGR, in both conditions separately and combined. The correla tion between irrational need for achievement and academic self-awareness was statisti cally significant, so null hypothesis H6 was rejected. The correlation between academic locus of c ontrol and academic self-awareness also was significant, and therefore hypothesis H7 also was rejected. Hypothesis H5 was not rejected because there was not a statistically significan t correlation between locus of control and irrational need for achievement. Next, to investigate null hypotheses H8 through H11, gender-by-participation interactions were investigated in the model, again using pre-test scores as covariates. The results presented in Table 4-6 show that there were no statistically significant interactions for either level of the gender variable. Therefore, null hypotheses H8, H9, H10, and H11 were not rejected. Race by participation interactions were modeled in the same way for null hypotheses H12 through H15. Note that the reduction in total degr ees of freedom reflects one participant who did not answer the ethnicity question. No significant interactions were found. Therefore, null hypotheses H12, H13, H14 and H15 were not rejected.

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57 Post Hoc Analyses As part of the study, all participants receive d an academic advisement lesson considered appropriate for all students. It had been predicted that an increase in academic responsibility, presumably gained through th e intervention, would enhance st udents learning gains on the academic advisement measure. However, ANCO VA failed to show statistically significant differences between post-test scor es on the TGR. Consequently, H4 was not rejected. Thereafter, a post hoc analysis was undertaken to determine whether the academic advisement itself had been effective, i.e., to inform as to whether academic responsibility was a mediator of academic awareness in both groups. A dependent measures t -test was used to compare the means of participants TGR prea nd post-scores as shown in Table 4-8. The differences were statistically signifi cant for both groups. ANCOVA similarly failed to show gende r-by-condition interac tion on the TGR and therefore null hypothesis H11 was not rejected. However, agai n, in order to better understand the role of the academic advisement on TGR scores, differences in group means on the basis of gender alone were examined for each group. In the experimental group, an independent t -test showed no significant statistically difference between males and females, but in the control group, male and female scores di ffered significantly (Table 4-7).

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58 Table 4-1. Participant demogra phics by gender and ethnicity Control Experimental Ethnicity Male Female Male Female African-American 4 2 9 6 Native-American 0 0 0 2 HispanicAmerican 3 2 4 5 Asian-American 1 0 2 1 CaucasianAmerican 33 35 35 26 Mixed ethnicity 2 0 2 2

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59 Table 4-2. Ages of partic ipants by class standing Number of Participants Mean Age (Years) Grade level Control Experimental Male Female Sophomore 19 16 15.5 15.8 Junior 49 70 16.4 16.6 Senior 14 9 17 17.4

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60 Table 4-3. Post-test means by gender and ethnicity (Part 1) Control Experimental Ethnicity Male Female Male Female M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) African-American TGR 14.25 (2.99) 17.50 (4.95) 16.00 (3.50) 12.17 (1.94) ALCS 12.75 (3.77) 9.00 (1.41) 12.00 (3.12) 11.50 (1.76) GABS-R 6.00 (2.58) 6.50 (2.12) 6.89 (1.27) 7.33 (1.97) GABS-NA 4.50 (1.29) 6.00 3.56 (2.07) 4.00 (1.26) Native-American TGR 14.00 (1.41) ALCS 12.50 (2.12) GABS-R 6.50 (.71) GABS-NA 5.00 (1.41) Hispanic-American TGR 16.00 (2.65) 19.50 (.71) 15.25 (2.22) 17.40 (1.52) ALCS 13.67 (3.21) 16.00 (2.83) 10.50 (3.87) 14.00 (4.06) GABS-R 7.33 (1.15) 6.50 (.71) 7.75 (1.50) 7.80 (1.10) GABS-NA 2.67 (3.06) 3.50 (2.12) 3.75 (.96) 4.00 (.71)

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61 Table 4-4. Post-test means by gender and ethnicity (Part 2) Control Experimental Ethnicity Male Female Male Female M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) Asian-American TGR 15.00 (5.66) ALCS 12.00 (8.49) GABS-R 6.00 (1.41) GABS-NA 3.50 (.71) Caucasian-American TGR 13.76 (3.85) 16.57 (3.70) 16.03 (3.17) 16.38 (3.71) ALCS 12.36 (4.37) 10.66 (3.70) 11.94 (4.18) 9.92 (4.05) GABS-R 7.24 (1.35) 6.97 (1.64) 6.80 (1.92) 7.38 (1.63) GABS-NA 3.79 (1.54) 3.26 (1.77) 3.40 (1.79) 3.62 (2.00) Mixed Ethnicity TGR 20.50 (3.54) 17.50 (3.54) ALCS 7.50 (.71) 9.50 (4.95) GABS-R 7.50 (.71) 9.00 (.00) GABS-NA 4.50 (.71) 5.00 (1.41)

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62 Table 4-5. Correlation matrices for TGR, ALCS, GABS-NA Group TGR_Post ALCS_Post GABS_NA_Post Both Groups TGR_Post 1 N P ALCS_Post -.165 1 N 177 P .03 GABS_NA_Post -.070 -.075 1 N 177 177 P .36 .32 Experimental Group TGR_Post 1 N P ALCS_Post -.111 1 N 95 P .28 GABS_NA_Post -.202 -.139 1 N 95 95 P .049 .18 Control Group TGR_Post 1 N P ALCS_Post -.216 1 N 82 P .051 GABS_NA_Post .057 .002 1 N 82 82 P .61 .99

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63 Table 4-6. Analyses of covariance Main Effects Interaction Ethnicity df F p df F p GABS-R By Condition (1, 177) .79 .35 Condition x Gender (1, 177) 3.71 .056 Condition x Race (4, 176) .58 .68 GABS-NA By condition (1, 177) 1.64.20 Condition x Gender (1, 177) 2.13 .15 Condition x Race (4, 176) 1.06 .38 ALCS By Condition (1, 177) 1.11.29 Condition x Gender (1, 177) 1.36 .25 Condition x Race (4, 176) .24 .91 TGR By Condition (1, 177) .03 .87 Condition x Gender (1, 177) 3.51 .063 Condition x Race (4, 176) .85 .49

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64 Table 4-7. Independent samples t -tests of TGR by gender and participation Control Experiment Male Female Male Female Mean 14.349 16.769 15.906 15.881 Std. Dev. 3.872 3.660 3.084 3.507 N: 43 39 53 42 Difference 2.420 Difference .025 t 2.901 T .036 Eta Squared .093 Eta Squared .000 p .005 P .971

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65 Table 4-8. Paired t -test comparing all participants preand postTGR scores TGR_Pre TGR_Post Mean: 14.718 15.712 Std. Dev.: 3.071 3.587 N Pairs: 177 Mean Difference: -.994 SE of Diff.: .239 Eta Squared: .089 t: 4.156 p: .000

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66 Table 4-9. Independent t -test of ALCS change scores comp aring control and experimental Condition ControlExperimental Mean: .012-.400 Std. Dev: 2.4972.615 N: 82 95 Mean Difference: .412 T-Score: 1.068 Eta Squared: .006 p: .287

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67 Table 4-10. Independent t-test of GABS-R change scores compar ing control and experimental Condition ControlExperimental Mean: -.146 .305 Std. Dev: 1.7011.930 N: 82 95 Mean Difference: .452 T-Score: 1.639 Eta Squared: .015 p: .103

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68 Table 4-11. Paired t -test of ALCS_Pre with ALCS _Post for experimental group Condition ALCS_Pre ALCS_Post Mean: 11.758 11.297 Std. Dev.: 4.393 4.007 N Pairs: 91 Mean Difference: .462 SE of Diff.: .274 Eta Squared: .030 T-Score: 1.685 p: .095

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69 Table 4-12. Independent t -test of control and experimental on ALCS_Post Condition Control Experimental Mean: 11.512 11.253 Std. Dev: 4.062 4.040 N: 82 95 Mean Difference: .260 t -Score: .425 Eta Squared: .001 P : .671

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70 Figure 4-1. Preand postmeasure correlations

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71 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION This research study investigated the impact of an electronic st orybook intervention upon student thinking, attitudes and knowledge. Conclusions, implications, and recommendations from the results of the study ar e presented in this chapter. Generalizability Limitations The only groups for which males and females were represented in both the experimental and control conditions were Hi spanic/Latino, African-American, and White. The proportions of students in each of these groups were not as originally sought, but were sufficient for ethnicitybased influences to be represented in the data The proportions of male and female students likewise were not exactly as orig inally sought. However, again th ere was a sufficient number of each gender group in the study such that gender-based influences were represented in the sample. No effort was made to investigate other fact ors (e.g., socio-economic status) affecting the relevance of this study to the general population. Thus, although the sample did not fully represent all groups of students in schools, it was sufficiently diverse and substantive to represent high school juniors adequately. Evaluations of Hypotheses The rejection of H6 and H7 offers partial support for th e theoretical linkage connecting locus of control, rational thinking, and academic aw areness. Students with a more internalized locus of control (lower ALCS scores) tended to have higher TGR sc ores, indicating more knowledge of the Florida graduation requirements. This enhances the view that changes to student academic locus of control could be refl ected in more productive academic advisement. On the other hand, students in the experiment al group who had a higher irrational need for achievement (GABS-NA) tended to have lower post -test scores. Need for achievement had been

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72 theorized to produce higher levels of personal stress as well as more academic achievement. Given that this negative correlation was observe d only in the experimental group, it seems likely that the connection is related to factors present in the intervention rather than reflecting on the theoretical c onstruction. Although H6 and H7 were rejected, the 13 other null hypotheses were not rejected. In general, the analyses consistently failed to s how significant differences between the control and experimental groups. Statistically significant in teractions between the treatment and race or gender also were not found. However, ancillary analyses comparing change scores for the experimental and control groups re vealed a tendency for scores to shift in the desi rable direction. Table 4-9 shows academic locus of control scores lowering (i.e., more internal as intended) for the experimental group. Similarly Table 4-10 sh ows an increase in rationality scores. Although not statistically significant, these change scores tended to support the theoretical premises for the study. The computer-based intervention for this study aided delivery of the intervention, but also impeded recruitment of participants. Burdens imposed upon teachers were greater than desired because of the redundancy of conducting computer-mediated intervention and assessment which necessarily required a pa per-based, signed consent procedure. The study was streamlined to the greatest extent possible by automating assessmen t and intervention, eliminating the need for teachers or the interventionist to supervise students work individually, but arranging to match students pre-test and post-test scores while still maintaining anonymity, as described in the informed consent document. The rigorous e xperimental methodology and informed consent process thus created a burden for teachers fa r greater than the relatively more simple accountability steps that would accompany th e implementation of a classroom guidance

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73 program. Given that a goal of this intervention was to discov er ways that developmental guidance programs can work with less direct ove rsight, in order that more students may be served, it should be noted that the experimental process did not fully resemble an anticipated implementation of an electron ic counseling intervention. The logistics of available technology al so presented obstacles. While the study was designed with an alternate activity for non-participating students (so that intact classroom groups could be brought to the lab, thus consolidating supe rvision functions), in fa ct it was necessary in most cases to split the class because of an insuffi cient number of computer workstations. Thus, at two of the three schools the researcher's presence was required to monitor the study. The inability to assemble whole groups of students in a computer lab, absent of technical problems, reflects to some extent on the challenges of implementing electronic instructional methodologies. Those challenges partly reflect the financial challenges of Flor idas public schools, as they struggle to keep class sizes low and also to prov ide high-speed Internet se rvices while stringently monitoring network traffic and filtering Internet cont ent to ensure the safety of all children. The resulting scenario often involves students doubling up, two per computer. Further, often students must wait for restoration of the network when service is temporarily suspended. While this factor impedes the evaluation of a scientif ic study, in practice network outages of several minutes at a time are commonly faced and accepted by students, limiting their disruptive impact on classroom interventions. Two of the non-significant inte raction values discovered ar e of particular interest. Examination of the group means shows that expe rimental-condition females of the three fullyrepresented ethnic groups (His panic, African-American, and White) had higher means than control-condition females of the same respectiv e group on the Rationality measure. Additionally,

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74 African-American and White males, the two larg est ethnic groups, showed lower means in the control group compared to the experimental group. Thus, females may differ from males in ways that were not investigat ed in the study, for example, th ey may have had higher reading literacy that impacted their suc cessful interaction with the intervention. Antic ipating this threat, the intervention was designed so that each story, in its entirety, would be read aloud line by line to participants, thus moving toward accommoda ting different levels of reading proficiency. However, during the study it was found that the computer lab's Internet connection speed was sometimes too slow to load the audio tracks in r eal time despite careful preparations to compress the bit rate of the audio stream. This may have le d some students to turn off their headphones. To the extent the intervention did not work as in tended because of lack of Internet bandwidth, variance was introduced into the delivery of the intervention; in turn, such variance reduces the possibility of statistical signi ficance. Finally, those parts of the intervention designed as processing activities (e.g., reflect ion questions) required students to read and select among the question stems, and those parts of the study were not narrated. It also was observed that students participating in the study became aware of their status in either the experimental or c ontrol group. Although the control group treatment used the same format as the experimental treatment, its visu al appearance was diffe rent. The experimental treatment was illustrated with bright, colorful cl ip art, while the story read to the control group consisted of selections from Mark Twain's Roughing It a historical novel in the public domain illustrated with digitized black-and-white sketches from the work's initial 1872 edition. Thus, students became aware quickly of the differen ce between the two treatments. Upon questioning, it was explained to the students that their assignment to read a pa rticular story was random and made by the computer, that they were making c ontributions to research (and earning eligibility

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75 for an incentive, if applicable) no matter which stor y they read, and that the best course of action was simply to read along and participate. Howeve r, it is possible that males in the control group may have developed feelings of resentful de moralization or futility which lead them to inattentiveness during the academic advisement le sson. Indeed, the statisti cally insignificant yet decreased change scores on the need for achi evement subscale (see Table 5-1), an area not targeted by the study, seem consistent with the de-motivating effect of a control intervention viewed as pointless or irrelevant. Conclusion and Interpretations The intervention to enhance acad emic locus of control, as presently formulated, was not effective. Considering the linkage between academic locus of control and academic selfawareness that was demonstrated by the study, it is lik ely that the lack of significant outcomes can be attributed to factors i nherent to the intervention, rather than the absence of a tenable theoretical foundation. The fully -randomized experimental design of this study introduced a level of complexity not commonly experienced by the students who partic ipated. An alternative intervention was implemented for the control group, to help control for th e possibility that the score differences were due to the format of the e xperimental treatment rather than its content. However, its development, as well as the develo pment of an administrative structure to manage informed consent and assessment procedures, cons umed considerable res ources that would not be allocated toward enhancing the experimental treatment a testament to the difficulty of conducting rigorous research in applied settings. Some evidence of effectivene ss in the interventions academic advisement subcomponent was found through the t -tests that revealed higher TGR sc ores in both groups. Although the intervention overall was not effective, consider ing that the academic advisement subcomponent was made in part using technologies availa ble to many school couns elors (i.e., Microsoft

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76 Powerpoint), the results, however tentative, may be taken as evidence for the benefits of technology competency training in counselor education programs. Furthermore, the use of an electronic assessment manager was demonstrated e ffective, as evidenced by the fact that the majority of participants logged in and completed all assessments and the intervention using only the password supplied by the classroom teacher, by following the prompts on the web site. The researcher did not distribute passwords, and the only instruction given to students was the directive to scroll down while viewing the lengthy informed c onsent document. Therefore, the electronic assessment mana ger was accessible to 11th-grade regular program students. The experimental treatment, as implemented in this study, is not sufficiently developed for use by school counselors. While it is not pres ented here for the purpose of training future counselors, it does serve as a reminder of th e need for professiona l school counselors to determine the research basis of commercially-a vailable curricula that are purported to enhance the interpersonal and/or moral reasoning skills of young people. Counselor preparation programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation fo r Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) include training in research methods and statistical procedur es; this background will continue to guide school counsel ors in the evaluation of resear ch claims. Professional school counselors should know how to interpret, for example, t -scores and F-statistics that attain statistical significance at the a = .10 level, of which seve ral were found in this study. While this intervention did not have the de sired results, other brief school-counseling interventions have proven effective to implem ent on a wide scale and have demonstrated effectiveness helping students adapt to high school academics (e.g., Brigman et al., 2007; Webb et al., 2005; Brigman & Campbell, 2003). Thus, school counselors should conti nue to seek brief, effective interventions that can be replicated across classroom settings. This study demonstrated

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77 some effectiveness for a brief academic adviseme nt unit that can be conducted in minimal time and, due to the electronically pre-packaged natu re of its presentation, even could be conducted without the actual presen ce of a school counselor. Therefore, school counselors should consider brief interventions in general as a desirable for further research, especially when the number of students to be served prohibits direct interaction between a school counselor and each student. Direct collaboration with teacher s, as modeled in this study, can be a path leading to student learning gains in the areas of personal development and academic achievement. Recommendations Future studies of the academic advisement subcomponent should attempt to identify any reactive effects of the pre-test, possibly by maki ng comparisons with a control group, or perhaps the more practical alternative of measuring with the pre-test only half of the participants and then comparing post-test scores between those who pr e-tested and those who did not. Future studies also should examine gender-based differences, in particular to determine whether females experience greater learning gain s than males from a comput er-administrated counseling intervention. In particular, it remains to be inve stigated whether differences in scores by gender reflect factors inherent in the in tervention (such as appeal or ente rtainment value) or other factors such as reading literacy. The computer-based learning format rema ins popular with teachers because of low preparation time, curriculum implementation flexibility (e.g., student s can "double up" on a computer if space is limited), and spontaneity. In contrast, scientific research involving computer-based learning activitie s has none of these advantages. Further, because time to distribute informed consent paperwork was an obstacle for collaborating teachers, development of a signature-less system of informed consent may open the door for future studies to survey a larger or remote population with whom the research er has no face-to-face contact. Such a system

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78 might work by e-mailing a password to the parent or guardian in advance of students working on the intervention. Future research also should select an e xperimental design that will facilitate the recruitment of students, reduce the potential for resentful demoralization, and lighten the burden upon teachers. In this study, random assignment to the control group was simplified because of the electronic delivery mechanis m, but it may have underlain undesirable results overall. A different method of reporting cont rol results, or elimination of the control group, may prove more productive. A repeated-measures design, while less able to account for validity threats, can achieve statistical significance with fewer par ticipants, as evidenced in this study by the comparison between academic locus of control preand post-scores for the experimental group; while not significant the probability of Type I error was lower than the same comparison comparing both groups using the ANCOVA meth od. This can be understood conceptually by considering that a paired samples t -test, as utilized in the repeated-measures design, only establishes the probability that any changes are significant, while the ANCOVA additionally calculates the probabi lity that the difference is attributable to experimental condition. Again, considering the relative absence of environmental factors likely to have significantly impacted students academic locus of cont rol in the brief time between pr e-test and post-test, a control group may not be necessary at the same school site Instead, the control group could be eliminated, or alternatively, cont rol group participants could be recruited at another school in another district. Those students would comp lete only the assessment instruments without participating in any (kind of) in tervention, which would remove the possibility of distractions or demoralization potentially experienced by those in the control condition. Matching pre-test and post-test scores would be greatly simplified for control group participan ts who complete paper-

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79 and-pencil assessments (as opposed to computer-a dministered assessment and intervention) and permit use of the ANCOVA procedure for this modified design. One of the major burdens upon teachers in th is study was the responsibility to maintain custody of students' passwords. Accordingly, recruitment may be enhanced by abandoning the repeated-measures design altogether and maki ng group comparisons. This would simplify data collection procedures and eliminate some of th e logistical burdens experienced by teachers. Comparison of group means has relatively less statistical power. Ho wever, statistical significance might be achieved with a much larg er number of participants. Such a simplified procedure might also find appeal with distant schools and districts, particularly if the intervention is designed as a freestanding curr iculum and presented in terms of its effectiveness as a resource for all students. The intervention could be designed such that the research er would not be present at any school site, thus eliminating the burden of matching pre-test and post-test scores. Teachers would be invited to try out the interventi on at appropriate times rather than only those times convenient for the purposes of timing preand post-assessment. The resources formerly spent maintaining the fully-experimental desi gn instead could be applied to refining the intervention itself and allocating more resources to enhance the level of technical quality and content. This in turn could be expected to le ad to better results. This step would effectively move the electronic storybook intervention through transition from being a locally-implemented study to becoming a high-quality, regional or statewide resource providing Floridas students with a unique avenue for personal and academic development. Ultimately, this model perhaps best matches the ASCA vision of serv ing the greatest number of students.

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80 Table 5-1. Independent t -test of GABS-NA change scores co mparing control and experimental Condition Control Experimental Mean: -.366 .021 Std. Dev: 1.427 1.523 N: 82 95 Mean Difference: .387 T-Score: 1.735 Eta Squared: .017 p: .084

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81 APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT: ORIGINAL APPROVED (OPTICAL SCAN)

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82 APPENDIX B INFORMED CONSENT: VARIATION WITH INCENTIVE January 1, 2007 Dear Parent(s) or Guardian(s): I am a doctoral student in a program in the Department of Counselor Education at the University of Florida. My doctoral program and re search supervisor is Dr. Larry Loesch. I have worked for two years as a high school guidance counselor in Levy County public schools. For my research in my doctoral program, I am tr ying out and evaluating a new method of teaching students how to be more successful in school. I am asking for your childs help in this research The purpose of my study is to find out what students can learn about being successful in school by reading a few short stories on a comput er. All students who pa rticipate in the study would have their parents permission. Students who are in the study would work on the lesson in the computer lab, which consists of filling out an online survey then reading a selection of fictional short stories. The survey is anonym ous; no one will know who has written what. After finishing the survey and the reading assignment, your child would answer some questions about the reading on the computer. Next, your child would receive a lesson about the Florida high school graduation requirements. This lesson is a ppropriate for all high school juniors. Finally, your child would take another survey to find out if his or her thinking about school success, stress, and work habits has changed, as well as a test to measure how much was learned from the lesson about the Florida graduation requirements. This series of lessons requires about three class periods. Your childs teacher has set aside this time so that all students will have the chance to participate. This lesson also has been planned into the curriculum so that students do no t fall behind in class. Students who do not wish to participate are welcome to vi ew an alternative lesson that ha s been prepared, related to the subject of American History. To make sure that all students have an opportunity to participate in the study, students will be give n a password so they can access the online survey and lesson outside of class time. Students are not required to pa rticipate in this study, and even students who start can choose to leave the study later w ithout any penalty. Students who pa rticipate in the study will be eligible to share in refreshments consisting of pizza and Coke, at a time designated by the teacher. (Students do not need to participate on both days to be eligible.) Students who participate in the study may al so learn some helpful information about Floridas graduation requirements. They also ma y develop more positive attitudes toward school. Of course, by participating in the study they ar e also helping to advan ce scientific knowledge about learning, which may help other students later. You should be aware that one of the short stories used in this lesson is about a teenager who is hospitalize d after an auto accident. If you believe this kind of material is inappropriate for your child, your child should be advised not to participate in the study. No other risks or nega tive consequences are anticipated to result from participation in this study.

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83 This study will be kept confiden tial to the extent permitted by law. If you give permission for your child to participate in the study, he or she will be given a randomly-assigned password to take the survey and use the computer. The te acher will write down a list of students names and their passwords (in case they forget them), and that list will be destroyed as soon as each student finishes the survey. Your childs responses to the survey will be anonymous and confidential. Results of the study will be reported for groups of students and not for individual students. No information will be collected that coul d be used to identify any student in the study. If you have any questions about the study, please call me at (352) 486-5388, or my supervisor, Dr. Larry Loesch at (352) 3920731, ext 225. Also, you can learn more about your childs rights as a research part icipant by contacting the UF IRB of fice, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611, (352) 392-0433. Sincerely, Timothy Baker If you agree for your child to pa rticipate in the stu dy, please check the box below next to the Yes, sign with todays date, a nd return this form to your childs teacher. (Keep the extra copy on the next page for your records.) Yes, I would like for my child to participate. I have read this explanation of what the study is about, and I received a photocopy as well. No, I do not want my child to participate. Signed: __________________________________ Date: _________________________ Parent / Guardian __________________________________ Date: _________________________ 2nd Parent / Witness

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84 APPENDIX C CHILD ASSENT SCRIPT Teacher-Presented Child Assent Script Students: Someone from the University of Florida has asked if our class would partic ipate in a study he is doing. The purpose of the study is to determine how a computer can be used better to teach students how to have successf ul attitudes about school. On _____________ and ___________, I have arranged for our class to go to the computer lab. If you participate in the study, you would fill out a survey on th e computer, then view a web page that contains some short stories for you to read. After you had read each story, you would answer some questions on the computer. The st udy is anonymous, which means that you will not have to provide your name, and the UF research er will not know who filled out the surveys. Anyone who does not want to be part of the study will simply do a different lesson while we are in lab. This study is not part of any cla ss, so you wont lose points if you dont do it. No one has to be in this study, and even if you agree to be in th e study, you can stop at any time. Its up to you. If you choose to participate, you can share in pi zza and Coke which will be brought in on ______________. Also, you may learn some important information that will help you do better in school. In a way, you may also help other students, because the results of this study will be used to help develop new teaching methods. Befo re you decide, please be aware that one of the stories that you may be asked to read for the study is about a te enager who suffers an accident and is badly hurt. I want you to know this now, so that you can decide not to participate if you do not want to read that kind of story. For those of you who would like to participate, I am giving out an Informed Consent form. Take this form home and have your parent read it, sign it, and check Y es in the box. Return ONE copy to me for tomorrow's class. Your pare nt will keep the other copy. If you have any questions, the researcher's phone number is on the Informed Consent letter, and you or your parents can call during business hours to ask anything you would like to k now about this study.

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85 APPENDIX D ELECTRONIC INTERVENTION PROGRESS MANAGER

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87 Any students who did not participate in the study were offered an alternate activity:

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88 APPENDIX E ELECTRONIC ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT

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96 LIST OF REFERENCES Abela, J. R. Z., & Payne, A. V. L. (2003). A Test of the Integration of the Hopelessness and SelfEsteem Theories of Depression in Schoolchildren. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 27 519536. Alford, B. A., & Beck, A. T. (1997). The integrative power of cognitive therapy. NY: Guilford. Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Tashman, N. A., Berrebbi, D. S., Hogan, M. E., Whitehouse, W. G., Crossfield, A. G., & Morocco, A. (2001). Developmental Origins of Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression: Parenting, Cognitiv e, and Inferential Fee dback Styles of the Parents of Individuals at High a nd Low Cognitive Risk for Depression. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 25 397-424. American School Counseling Association (2003) The ASCA National Model: A Framework for School Counseling Programs. Professional School Counseling, 6 165-169. American School Counselor Association (2004). The ASCA national model workbook. Alexandria, VA: Author. Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1988). Psychological testing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Asarnow, J. R., Scott, C. V., & Mintz, J. (2002). A Combined CognitiveBehavioral Family Education Intervention for Depression in Children: A Treatment Development Study. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 26 221-230. Asay, T. P., & Lambert, M. J. (1999). The empi rical case for the comm on factors in therapy: Quantitative findings. In Hubble, M. A., Duncan, B. L., & Miller, S. D. (Eds.), The heart & soul of change (pp. 33-56). Washington DC: APA. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychological Review, 84 191-215. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37 122147. Barrera, M., Jr, & Garrison-Jones, C. V. (1988). Properties of the Beck Depression Inventory as a screening instrument for adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology (16) 263-273. Beck, A. T. (2005). Cognitive therapy: Past, present, and future. In Mahoney, M. J. (Ed.), Cognitive and constructive psychotherapies (pp. 29-40). NY: Springer. Beck, A. T., & Weishar, M. (2000). Cogn itive therapy. In Corsini, R. J. (Ed.), Current psychotherapies (pp. 241-272). Itasca, IL: Peacock.

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97 Becker, C. B., Namour, N., Zayfert, C., & Hege l, M. T. (2001). Specificity of the Social Interaction Self-Statement Test in Social Phobia. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 25 227234. Bernard, M. E. (1998). Validation of th e General Attitude and Beliefs Scale. Journal of RationalEmotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 16 183-196. Bernard, M. E., & DiGuiseppe, R. (1989). Rationa l-Emotive Therapy today. In M. E. Bernard & R. DiGiuseppe (Eds. ), Inside rational-emotive therapy: A cr itical appraisal of the theory of Albert Ellis (pp. 1-8). San Diego: Academic Press. Bernstein, L., Klappholz, D., & Kelley, C. (2002). Eliminating Aversion to Software Process in Computer Science Students and Measuring the Results. Proceedings of the 15th Conference on Software Engineering Educa tion and Training (CSEET). Black, T.R. (1999). Doing quantitative research in the social sciences : an integrated approach to research design, meas urement and statistics. London; Thousand Oaks: SAGE. Bryant, M. J., Simons, A. D., & Thase, M. E. (1999). Therapist Skill and Patient Variables in Homework Compliance: Controlling an Un controlled Variable in Cognitive Therapy Outcome Research. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 23, 381-400. Retrieved February 13, 2005 from EBSCOhost. Brigman, G. A., Webb, L. D., & Campbell, C. (2007). Building Skills for School Success: Improving the Academic and Social Competence of Students. Professional School Counseling, 10, 279-288. Brigman, G., & Campbell, C. (2003). Helping Students Improve Academic Achievement and School Success Behavior. Professional School Counseling, 7 91-98. Burgess, P. (1986). Belief systems and emotional disturbance: Evaluation of the Rational Emotive model. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Melbourne, Parkville Melbourne, Australia. Calvete, E., & Cardeoso, O. (2002). Self-Talk in Adolescents: Dimensions, States of Mind, and Psychological Maladjustment. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 26, 473-486. Retrieved February 13, 2005 from EBSCOhost. Campbell, C. A., & Brigman, G. (2005). Closing the Achievement Gap: A Structured Approach to Group Counseling. Journal for Specialists in Group Work (30) 67-82. Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J.C. (1963). Experimental and quasi-exp erimental designs for research. Chicago: R. McNally.

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98 Cassidy, S., & Eachus, P. (2000). Learning Style, Academic Belief Systems, Self-report Student Proficiency and Academic Achievement in Higher Education. Educational Psychology (20) 307-322. Chadwick, P., Trower, P., & Dagnan, D. (1999). Measuring Negative Person Evaluations: The Evaluative Beliefs Scale. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 23 549-559. Chapman, J. W. (1988). Cognitive-Motivational Ch aracteristics and Academic Achievement of Learning Disabled Children: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Educational Psychology (80) 57-65. Cole, D. A., Jacquez, F. M., & Maschman, T. L. (2001). Social Origins of Depressive Cognitions: A Longitudinal Study of Self -Perceived Competence in Children. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 25 377-396. Cooper, H. M., Burger, J. M., & Good, T. L. (1981). Gender differences in the academic locus of control beliefs of young children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (40) 562572. Craig AR, Franklin JA, Andrews G. (1984). A scal e to measure locus of control of behaviour. British journal of medical psychology, (57) 173-180. Craighead, L. W., & Kirkley, B. G. (1994). Obesity and eating disorders. In Craighead, L. W., Craighead, W. E., Kazdin, A. E., and Mahoney, M. J. (Eds.), Cognitive and behavioral interventions (pp. 141-156). Needham Height s, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Daley, C. E., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J (1998). Stud y skills of undergraduates as a function of academic locus of control, self-perce ption, and social interdependence. Psychological Reports (83) 595-599. Daum, T.L., & Wiebe, G. (2003). Locus of Control, Personal Me aning, and Self-Concept Before and After an Academic Critical Incident. Unpublished thesis submitted to Trinity Western University. David, D., & Avellino, M. (n.d.). A synopsis of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT): Basic/fundamental and applied research Retrieved Feb 12, 2005 from http://www.rebt.org/synopsis.htm. Dryden, W. (1999). Rational emotive behaviour al counselling in action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Dryden, W. (2003). Albert Ellis live. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Dryden, W., & Neenan, M. (2002). Cognitive behaviour therapy : an A-Z of persuasive arguments. London: Whurr.

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99 Dryden, W., & Neenan, M. (2004). The rational emotive behaviour al approach to therapeutic change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Eachus, P. (1993). Development of the health student self-efficacy scale. Perceptual & Motor Skills (77) 670-1. Eachus, P., & Cassidy, S. (1997). The Health St udent Academic Locus of Control Scale. Perceptual & Motor Skills (85) 994-5. Ellis, A. & Grieger, R. (1977). Handbook of rational-emotive therapy. NY: Springer. Ellis, A. (1958). Rational psychotherapy. Journal of General Psychology, 59. Ellis, A. (1989). Comments on my critics. In M. E. Bernard & R. DiGiuseppe (Eds. ), Inside rational-emotive therapy: A critical appr aisal of the theory of Albert Ellis (pp. 199-231). San Diego: Academic Press. Ellis, A. (1998). The Albert Ellis Reader. Seacaucus, NJ: Citadel. Ellis, A. (2002). Overcoming resistance: A rational emotive behavior therapy integrated approach. NY: Springer. Ellis, A., & Dryden, W. (1987). The practice of rational-emotive therapy. NY: Springer. Ellis, A., & Harper, R. A. (1961). A guide to rational living. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall. Ellis, A., & Harper, R. A. (1975). A new guide to rational living. N. Hollywood, CA: Wilshire. Ellis, A., Moseley, S., & Wolfe, J. L. (1978). How to raise an emotiona lly healthy, happy child. Hollywood, CA: Wilshire. Ferrari, J. R., & Parker, J. T. (1992). High school achievement, se lf-efficacy, and locus of control as predictors of freshman academic performance. Psychological Reports (71) 515-519. Ferrari, J. R., Parker, J. T., & Ware, C. B. (1992). Academic procrastination: Personality correlates with Myers-Briggs types, self-efficacy, and academic locus of control. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality (7) 495-502. Fish, M. (1996). An Electronic Look at My Students` Belief Windows Retrieved Deember 2005 from Success 101, http://www.discovery-p ress.com/success101/1996fall.htm. Foa, E. B., Dancu, C. V., Hembree, E. A., Jaycox, L. H., Meadows, E. A., & Street, G. P. (1999). A comparison of exposure thera py, stress inoculation trainin g, and their combination for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in female assault victims. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 67 194-200.

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106 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Timothy Baker earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in English from the University of Mobile, Latin American Branch Campus in San Marcos, Nicaragua, before being admitted to the Ph.D. program in the University of Florida Department of Counselor Education as an Alumni Fellow.


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