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Animal Use in Award-Winning TV Commercials in China versus the U.S.

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022407/00001

Material Information

Title: Animal Use in Award-Winning TV Commercials in China versus the U.S.
Physical Description: 1 online resource (89 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Xiang, Lingling
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: anthropomorphism, collectivism, high, individualism, low, symbolism
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Humans and animals have a long relationship. Through content analysis of randomly selected 184 advertisements of award-winning TV commercials containing animals from the 5th to 12th China Advertising Festival (1997-2005) and U.S EFFIE award-winning TV commercials containing animals during the same period, this study compared the usage and executional elements of animals in TV commercials between China and the United States, examined the differences in human-animal relationships reflected in TV commercials from both countries, and explored the cultural values behind such differences. This was accomplished by adopting a variable-analysis framework of animal television commercials developed by American scholars Lerner and Kalof (1999) and the executional factor framework by Steward and Furse (1986). A quantitative content analysis was applied to achieve the results by coding 184 TV commercials on 23 variables. These are award year, brand origin, product/service category, commercial appeal/selling proposition, commercial approach, commercial setting, commercial tone/atmosphere, commercial format, commercial approach, commercial setting, and animal species, human-animal relationship, roles animal played in commercials, as well as animals depicted individually or in a group. Chi-square test and crosstabulations were conducted to explore the significant differences between these variables. Findings suggest that four out of five hypotheses were supported. Chinese award-winning commercials containing animals are different from American commercials by the award year, brand origin, products/service category, as well as commercial format, commercial structure, and commercial approach, the presence of a child or infant, animal species, the roles of animals played, and the way of animals appeared in Chinese and U.S. commercials. Hofstede's cultural dimensions and Hall's degree of context were used to explain the findings. Based on the current study, a profile of presence and executional usage of animals in a typical award-winning commercial containing animal(s) in both countries respectively is offered.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Lingling Xiang.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Roberts, Marilyn.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022407:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022407/00001

Material Information

Title: Animal Use in Award-Winning TV Commercials in China versus the U.S.
Physical Description: 1 online resource (89 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Xiang, Lingling
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: anthropomorphism, collectivism, high, individualism, low, symbolism
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Humans and animals have a long relationship. Through content analysis of randomly selected 184 advertisements of award-winning TV commercials containing animals from the 5th to 12th China Advertising Festival (1997-2005) and U.S EFFIE award-winning TV commercials containing animals during the same period, this study compared the usage and executional elements of animals in TV commercials between China and the United States, examined the differences in human-animal relationships reflected in TV commercials from both countries, and explored the cultural values behind such differences. This was accomplished by adopting a variable-analysis framework of animal television commercials developed by American scholars Lerner and Kalof (1999) and the executional factor framework by Steward and Furse (1986). A quantitative content analysis was applied to achieve the results by coding 184 TV commercials on 23 variables. These are award year, brand origin, product/service category, commercial appeal/selling proposition, commercial approach, commercial setting, commercial tone/atmosphere, commercial format, commercial approach, commercial setting, and animal species, human-animal relationship, roles animal played in commercials, as well as animals depicted individually or in a group. Chi-square test and crosstabulations were conducted to explore the significant differences between these variables. Findings suggest that four out of five hypotheses were supported. Chinese award-winning commercials containing animals are different from American commercials by the award year, brand origin, products/service category, as well as commercial format, commercial structure, and commercial approach, the presence of a child or infant, animal species, the roles of animals played, and the way of animals appeared in Chinese and U.S. commercials. Hofstede's cultural dimensions and Hall's degree of context were used to explain the findings. Based on the current study, a profile of presence and executional usage of animals in a typical award-winning commercial containing animal(s) in both countries respectively is offered.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Lingling Xiang.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Roberts, Marilyn.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022407:00001


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a976225f6e9dded1d9ba9f4f38d0569fbec4a940







ANIMAL USE IN AWARD-WINNING TV COMMERCIALS
IN CHINA VERSUS THE U.S



















By

LINGLING XIANG


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ADVERTISING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008


































2008 Lingling Xiang






































To my Dad Bengu and Mom Yurong for bringing me into this world









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

My thesis would not have become a substantial one without many people's support. I

thank my most beloved parents, my Dad Bengu and my Mom Yurong. Words can not express

my appreciation for them in language. They spent their savings and sent me to America to get

advanced education. Their unconditional love and endless encouragements always make me to

be confident, to be strong and to get through the difficulties in my life. With their love, I could

face bravely the loneliness and the ups-and-downs during the time I was studying in America

alone. Although I am far away from them, I feel they are here beside me.

Special thanks go to my awesome aunt Liqun. She is like my Mom and cares about my life

here a lot. She collected the Chinese award-winning commercials for me and sent them to me by

email. It was time-consuming work. I appreciate her patience and consideration.

Friends are an important part of my life. I can not imagine the life without those lovely

friends: My life-long friend and soul mate Liyu whom I knew since middle school, my best

friends and classmates Hongmei and Chenyu in Xiamen University with whom I shared laughter

and tears and spend a very happy and meaningful time, my colleagues Lilan, Ruijie, Chenzhuo in

Sichuan TV station in China who still believe me, support me and care about me. I am lucky that

I can make sincere and true friends at UF: Abao, Chenshi, Danielle and etc. We know each other.

We travel together. They were here beside me when I felt loneliness, when I need someone to

talk to, and when I ask for help. Special mention goes to them. During the time I was working on

my thesis, Abao offered me her room and cooked for me everytime I went back to Gainesville

from Orlando where I did my internship. My friend Chenshi always picked me up at the bus

station and listened to my complains at my most difficult time. My Korean friend Sujung I knew

in Orlando gave me a lot of supports when I was working on thesis. She is awesome. I also thank









my classmates and friends in advertising department: Irtifa, Elaine, Soo, MJ, and others. I

learned a lot from them. I thank them for making my life at UF colorful and enjoyable.

Also I am very grateful to my committee members: chair: Dr. Marilyn Roberts; Dr. Morton;

and Dr. Zhang. Their enthusiasm on Chinese advertising, their insightful perspectives and

thoughtful reviews made my thesis possible. Special thanks go to my chair Dr. Roberts who

offered me a lot of materials and collected EFFIE award-winning commercials for me. I thank

her for her patience on me and her hard work on my thesis. If she didn't push me like that, I can

not complete this thesis.

During the time I was working on my thesis, a terrible disaster happened in my hometown:

Sichuan province. I sincerely thank those strong Chinese people in the affection of the Sichuan

earthquake. I am worried about my families and friends but can't do anything. The best I can do

is be confident. At that time, I really wanted to be a superman, flying to my hometown to be

there beside them, even though it was the most dangerous area in the world. I would like to get

through the difficulties in my life with my beloved ones, beside them, hand in hand. After these

days, I believe, even though I was far away, many volunteers, our armies, and our prime minister,

were there with them on behalf of me. I thank our leader, our soldiers, our people and

international friends who are fighting on the earthquake frontlines now. Finally, I would like to

thank myself for finishing this manuscript. I knew I could do it.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

A CK N OW LED GM EN TS .............................. ............... ...... ... .............. .....................4

LIST OF TA BLES ....................... ....................................................... 8

ABSTRAC T ................................................... ............... 10

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ............................. ... .. ... ... ..................12

Purpose of the Study ..................................................................... ............................... 12
Significance of the Study .............................. .......................................... .......... ....12

2 LITER R A TU R E R E V IEW ........... ............................................................................ 15

Symbolism and Anthropomorphism.................. ........... ........................... 15
A nim als as Sym bols ................ .... .......... .... ............... 15
Anthropomorphism and Human-Animal Relationships.........................................16
Perceptions of Human-Animal Relationships in Ads.......................... ....... ......... 17
Human-Animal Relationships in Popular Culture ......................................................17
Human -Animal Relationships in Advertisements ............................... ...............18
Anim als in TV Com m ercials .......................................................................... 19
C cultural D difference ............... ... .. ................ ............................................................ 2 1
Cultural Differences in Visual Communications ................................. ................ 21
W western vs. Eastern A sian Cultures ........................................ .......................... 22
The U united States vs. C hina .................................................. .............................. 24
H ypotheses and R research Q questions ........................................................... .....................26

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ................................................................................... ........................29

Content Analysis Design ..................................... ......................... 29
V variable A analysis Fram ew ork ......... ............................... ....................................... 29
Stew art and F urse's Study ............................................................. ....... .....................29
Lerner and Kalof's Study (1999) ................................................... .... ........... 30
Coding Categories and Operational Definitions ............... ............................................. 31
D definition of A nim al .................................. .............................. .............. .......... ........ ..3 1
V ariables in C oding Sheet .......................................................................... ............... 31
Com m ercial appeals and selling proposition ................................. ............... 31
Com m ercial structure ..................................... .............. ........... ..... 32
C om m ercial form at .......................................... ................... ........ 32
C om m ercial approach .......................... .. ...................... .... ....... .... ..... ...... 34
C om m ercial setting ........................................ .... ....... .... ....... 34
C om m ercial characters ...............................................................................35
Roles that animals play in commercials .......................................... ...............35


6









Hum an-anim al relationships ............................................................................. 35
U n it o f A n aly sis ......................................................................................................3 6
S a m p lin g D e sig n ............................................................................................................... 3 8
C oding Schem e and Procedure.............................................................................. ........ 40
Intercoder Reliability .............. ................. ........... ......................... ... 40
D ata A analysis ................................................... 41

4 F IN D IN G S ................... ...................4...................2..........

D descriptions of the Sam ple .............................................................................. ............ 42
Findings .........................................43
H y p o th e sis 1 ........................................................................................................... 4 3
H y p o th e sis 2 ........................................................................................................... 4 3
H y p o th e sis 3 ........................................................................................................... 4 4
H y p o th e sis 4 ........................................................................................................... 4 6
H y p o th e sis 5 ........................................................................................................... 4 7
R research Q question 1 ..............................................................48
R research Q question 2 ..............................................................49
R research Q question 3 ..............................................................50
R research Q question 4 ..............................................................52
C om m ercial approach ............................................................52
C om m ercial setting .............................................................53
Commercial characters ................................. ........................... ........53
R research Q question 5 ..............................................................54

5 D IS C U S S IO N ................................................................................................................... 6 7

D discussion of the Findings ............................................................................ 67
A Profile of a Typical American and Chinese Award-Winning Commercial Containing
A n im a l(s) ................... ......... ......................................................... ..................................7 4
Comparison with Studies in Literature Review................................................. 75
Im p licatio n s .........................................................................7 6
L im itatio n s ...........................................................................................7 7
Suggestions for Future Study ................................................................................................... 78

CODING SHEET FOR CHINESE AWARD-WINNING TV COMMERCIALS AND
EFFIE AWARD-WINNING COMMERCIALS BETWEEN 1997AND 2006 .....................79

LIST OF REFERENCES ................................................................ .........84

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ................................................................................................... 89









7









LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

4-1 F frequency of aw ard year.......................................................................... ....................55

4 -2 A w ard y ear ................................................................55

4-3 F frequency of B rand origin ............................................... .......................... ..................55

4-4 Frequency of B rand origin II .......................... ........................................ .....................55

4-5 Commercial format ...................................... ..................... ....... 56

4-6 Commercial structure .................................................... ............. 56

4-7 Commercial appeals and selling proposition ......................................... ...............57

4-8 Com m ercial tone and atm osphere........................................................... ............... 57

4-9 H um an-anim al relationships ...........................................................................58

4-10 Animal(s) in commercials is individual or in a group ................................................. 58

4 -1 1 P ro d u ct categ o ry ........................................ ............................................ ................ .. 5 9

4-12 Durable/Non-durable product/service category ........................................... .............59

4-13 P roducts/service category ......................................................................... ...................60

4-14 Traditional/New product/service category..................................................................... 60

4-15 Frequency of anim al species .............................................................................. ............61

4-16 Anim al species ...................................................................... ......... 62

4-17 A nim al species: dom estic/w ild ................................................ .............................. 62

4-18 Anim al species: pet/labor/food/others ........................................ .......................... 62

4-19 C om m ercial approach .............................................................................. ... ............ 63

4-20 Positive or negative .................. .................. ................. ........... .. ............ 63

4-21 D differential m message ........................... .......................... .. .... ......... .. ..... 63

4 -2 2 S ettin g ..........................................................................6 4

4 -2 3 S ettin g W h ere ............................................................................................................... 6 4



8









4-24 Com m ercial characters: gender....................................................................... 64

4-25 P presence of a child or an infant............................................................... .....................65

4-26 Real or anim ated .............. ..... ........................ ..... .... 65

4-27 M ain or m inor role ...................................................... ............. ........ ..... 65

4-28 Roles anim al played in com m ercials ........................................ ........................... 66









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising

ANIMAL USE IN AWARD-WINNING TV COMMERCIALS
IN CHINA VERSUS THE U.S

By

Lingling Xiang

August 2008

Chair: Marilyn Sue Roberts
Major: Advertising

Humans and animals have a long relationship. Through content analysis of randomly

selected 184 advertisements of award-winning TV commercials containing animals from the 5th

to 12th China Advertising Festival (1997-2005) and U.S EFFIE award-winning TV commercials

containing animals during the same period, this study compared the usage and executional

elements of animals in TV commercials between China and the United States, examined the

differences in human-animal relationships reflected in TV commercials from both countries, and

explored the cultural values behind such differences. This was accomplished by adopting a

variable-analysis framework of animal television commercials developed by American scholars

Lerner and Kalof (1999) and the executional factor framework by Steward and Furse (1986).

A quantitative content analysis was applied to achieve the results by coding 184 TV

commercials on 23 variables. These are award year, brand origin, product/service category,

commercial appeal/selling proposition, commercial approach, commercial setting, commercial

tone/atmosphere, commercial format, commercial approach, commercial setting, and animal

species, human-animal relationship, roles animal played in commercials, as well as animals

depicted individually or in a group. Chi-square test and crosstabulations were conducted to

explore the significant differences between these variables.









Findings suggest that four out of five hypotheses were supported. Chinese award-winning

commercials containing animals are different from American commercials by the award year,

brand origin, products/service category, as well as commercial format, commercial structure, and

commercial approach, the presence of a child or infant, animal species, the roles of animals

played, and the way of animals appeared in Chinese and U.S. commercials.

Hofstede's cultural dimensions and Hall's degree of context were used to explain the

findings. Based on the current study, a profile of presence and executional usage of animals in a

typical award-winning commercial containing animals) in both countries respectively is offered.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Purpose of the Study

Through content analysis of randomly selected 184 advertisements of award-winning TV

commercials containing animals from the 5th to 12th China Advertising Festival (1997-2005)

and U.S EFFIE award-winning TV commercials containing animals during the same period, the

purpose of this study is to compare the usage and executional elements of animals in TV

commercials between China and the United States. Specifically the study examines the

differences in human-animal relationships reflected in TV commercials from both countries, and

seeks to explore the cultural values behind such differences. This study is a guideline for western

advertisers or agencies who are trying to enter into Chinese market to correctly apply creative

strategies and executional tactics when using animals in commercials.

Significance of the Study

Humans and animals had a long relationship throughout history. The significance of

human-animal relationships are reflected in the dance, art, and narrative for thousands of years

(Shepard, 1996). Animal terms and metaphors can be found in the language of human history

(Bryant, 1979). Most profound human social and cultural values are better comprehended as

reflections on the human-animal relationship (Lerner & Kalof, 1999). In communication history,

scholars have studied animal images and their cultural values in all kinds of media.

Animals in television commercials and outdoor billboards as well as in magazines and

newspapers are of "substantial symbolic importance in human society" (Lerner & Kalof, 1999).

Animals are portrayed in advertisements, from elephants on Brussels' Cote d'Or chocolate and

Bombay's Elephant brand vermicelli, to dragonflies on soy sauce and Shark brand chili peppers

from Thailand (Harbrecht, 1993).









Many scholars have conducted research on the different cultural values reflected in

advertising, but few discuss the cultural codes of animals in advertising. As Rapaille (2006) said

in his recent book, The Culture Code, "The culture code is the unconscious meaning we apply to

any given thing- a car, a type of food, and a relationship" (Rapaille 2006, p.5). Rapaille believed

that the best way to understand the cultural code is to look at them in the context of an actual

discovery (Rapaille, 2006). In this study, the animal appeals, roles and images as well as their

relationships with human beings in advertising are used to examine the cultural differences

between the United States and China.

Some research discusses the ethics of using animals in scientific research and people's

perceptions of animal usage in laboratory research (Knight, Nunkoosing, Vrij, &Cherryman,

2003). Ethical implications, moral implications, and justification for animal testing have been

discussed in scientific ways for a long time (Gluck& Kubacki, 1991; Hovey, 2004). However,

few studies focus on the cultural implications of how animals have appeared in advertising over

time. Animals in advertising have been analyzed as a persuasive advertising approach in

affecting consumers' brand awareness (Lerner& Kalof, 1999). Furthermore, much of the

research on usage and execution of animals in advertising was limited to the United States. These

studies excluded the factor of cultural difference among various countries reflected by the animal

appeals in advertising. Individuals' perceptions of the images of animals in advertising are

related to cultural recognition in a particular cultural environment. Baker (1993) believed that

"the reading of animals is shaped by culture" and that there were "numerous and contradictory

cultural representations of animals". He said, "Most of the contradictory animal representations

can be found in popular culture" (Baker, 1993, p.173). As a result, in order to make the









advertisements understood by people from different cultural environments, advertisers' use of

animals is closely connected to cultural values in a particular environment.

As far as the author know, there has been little research on the usage and execution of

animals in TV commercials applied in Chinese advertisements, which the author hopes to give

attention to. Furthermore, there have been few studies focusing on award-winning Chinese

advertising, which deems to stand for the contemporary highest creativity and production

standards in China advertising industry. Besides, most of previous studies are anchored in the

context of China alone or the United States alone. There is really a demand of comparative focus

for future research as Leo suggested: "the comparative focus can aim at cross-cultural

application and validation of the western-based theories and models" (Leo, et al., 2000, p.67).

By adopting a variable-analysis framework of animal television commercials developed by

American scholars Lerner and Kalof (1999) and framework of Steward and Furse (1986), an

analysis of the description of animals in commercials and their relationships with human beings

and the cultural differences reflected on the animals in commercials among different countries

would partially address the gap in this field. In this study, a comparative content analysis is used

to examine the images of animals appearing in television commercials with a cross-cultural

perspective by using the samples of animal commercials in China award winning commercials

and EFFIE award winning commercials. The academic implication of this research is when

conducting research on animals in advertisements as symbolic signs, cultural differences should

be considered. The practical implication is when we develop international marketing strategies,

the cultural differences among different countries should be considered. Marketers should be

aware of ascribed meanings of animals and cultural representations of those animals in

advertisements run in different countries.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Symbolism and Anthropomorphism

Animals as Symbols

Animals are familiar part of all cultures. Such symbols, or "pictorial metaphors" (Phillips

1997) are used to create "an image and metaphor just as words do, and implicitly communicate

information" (Feldhamer, Whittaker, Monty & Weickert, 2002). In the United Kingdom, Bryan

and Snizek (1993) found that animal symbolism is overwhelming presence in their cultural

imagination (Bryant & Snizek 1993). Animals can be used as evocative visual symbols in the

promotion phase of product marketing (Margulies 1972).

It is important for advertisers and marketers to be aware of the rhetorical impact of the

visual communications on "diverse unintended and subversive meanings ascribed to the brands"

(Bulmer & Buchanan, 2006). The symbolic and ascribed meanings of the animals in advertising

become a part of marketing strategy. Commercial brands are symbols that "potentially carry

cultural meaning" (McCracken, 1986). "Television advertising can be conceptualized as a form

of visual rhetoric, where the advertiser tries to use the most effective visual devices to inform,

remind and persuade the target market and advertising imagery is carefully constructed to direct

the viewers to consider particular aspects of the brand" (Scott, 1994, p.260). The symbolic

meanings of appeals in commercials can represent the values and beliefs of a culture (Sung &

Tinkham, 2005). Lerner and Kalof s research on animals in American television commercials

demonstrated that "the animal image had a powerful presence in the popular culture, which

provided a wide variety of symbolic messages about nature and culture" (Lerner & Kalof, 1999).

In current study, the cultural codes that animals symbolize in television commercials the

United States and China are explored to understand the human animal relationships in highly









contrasting two cultures. In this study, animals in advertisement are defined as both live and

animated animals, including wild animals and domestic animals. Based on the research of Lerner

and Kalof (1999), these animals can be used as the logo, the background, the spokesperson, the

tools, the nuisances and the icons. They are classified into different categories based on their

relationships with human beings in commercials, such as companions, friends, loved ones and

enemies and etc.

Anthropomorphism and Human-Animal Relationships

One crucial factor that helps examine the usage and ascribed meanings of animals in any

medium is whether or not the animal is anthropomorphized (Lerner & Kalof, 1999). It can be

used as a way to understand the usage and execution of animals as well as human-animal

relationships in advertisements. Some scholars defined it as an "extension of human's ability"

and took it as an important way for people to understand "the inner world of animals" (Eddy,

Gallup & Povenelli, 1993; Lockwood, 1989). McCrindle and Odendaal (1994) defined

anthropomorphism as "an animal presented in human form" (p.137). Brabant and Mooney (1989)

provided the criteria for anthropomorphism as the followings: "1) ability to communicate, for

example, it spoke or read; 2) emotion, for example, it smiled or cried; 3) appearance, for example,

it wore clothing or carried paraphernalia associated with humans; or 4) action, for example, it did

something only humans do, such as played golf or drove a car" (Brabant and Mooney, 1989,

p.481). Anthropomorphism provides a complex ideological model in the context of the human-

animal relationships (Lerner & Kalof, 1999). Eddy, Gallup, and Povenelli (1993) found that

college undergraduates were more likely to anthropomorphize animals that were closer to

humans. Brabant and Mooney (1989) analyzed anthropomorphic content in greeting cards and

found that people like anthropomorphized cards more than nonanthropomorphized cards.

Hickrod and Schmitt (1982) examined anthropomorphism in the process by which a pet becomes









a family member. Lerner and Kalof (1999) discussed the anthropomorphism of the animals in

television commercials. They believed animals that were ascribed human characteristics are

portrayed as allegories. Many animal images in television commercials are given "human gender

and racial boundaries". This research established the importance of the study of "nonhuman

animals" in sociological theory, particularly the animal images in popular culture and their

connections to the cultural environment (Lerner & Kalof, 1999).

Perceptions of Human-Animal Relationships in Ads

Human-Animal Relationships in Popular Culture

Some research focuses on animals in popular cultures and people's perceptions of them.

Mizelle (2005) analyzed the ways of seeing animals in post-revolutionary America. The author

revealed significant transformations in American culture reflected by human-animal

relationships in animal exhibitions, including "the segmentation of American audiences, the

division of culture into high and low, and the place of ideas about animals in defining the citizen

and the nation." As a part of this mutual representation of American culture, "the perceptions on

animals are positively appropriated and negatively mobilized to define the human, the citizen,

and the nation itself' (Mizelle, 2005, p.219).

Sheen (2005) discussed the Hollywood animal images as a form of intellectual property

and provided a detailed account of negotiations between Disney and Dalmatian breed

associations in the United States and the UK. Sheen found that film and advertising both "have a

creative role to play in the production of responsible images of animal ownership" (p.236).

Haraway (1989) examined the construction of knowledge about animals as a storytelling

process using contested narratives of gender, race and science. Burt (1988) examined that the

animal is a common literary theme and that relationships between human and animals are often

used to symbolize key passages in a child's life. In Oswald's research in 1995, he found that









"children's fiction portrayed dogs as protectors of humans against wild animals", and horses as

"having a special sense of danger that they also use to save humans". Paul (1996) studied animal

content in British culture through focusing on children's television programs as a vehicle to

understand animals. Church (1996) studied the portrayal of animals in prime-time and Saturday

morning programs on the four major television networks from 1972-1993 in the United States.

He found that animals were portrayed much more often as villains, nuisances, and threats to

human. Hirschman and Sanders (1997) studied the images of animals in American films. They

found that animals in films are often portrayed as companion animals, usually a dog but

sometimes including a cat (Hirschman &Sanders, 1997). Bulliet (2005) explored four stages in

the history of the human-animal relationships, which are "separation, predomesticity,

domesticity, and postdomesticity" (Bulliet, 2005). He also found that the direct contact with

productive domestic animals is partly originated from people's powerful desire to humanize

animals (Bulliet 2005). Carmack (1997) studied human and pet's relationships in popular comic

strips. He revealed that there are three major themes in human and pets' relationships in comic

strips: affection and companionship, obligatory/necessary aspects of interaction, and nuisance or

stressful aspects of pet ownership. Herzog and Calvin (1992) classified the human and animal

relationships in American culture into nine categories: animals as loved one, animal as savior,

animal as threat, animal as victim, animal as tool, animal as sex object, the imaginary animal,

animal as person, and animal as object of wonder, as well as a miscellaneous category.

Human -Animal Relationships in Advertisements

Of all the forms of popular culture, advertising is a strong branch in which animals are the

strong symbols. The images of animals included in advertisements are strong messages that can

symbolize the brand image. In the world of advertising, animal symbols hawk almost anything

(Harbrecht, 1993). Many famous brands used animals in their commercials. The dragon, dove,









elephant, kangaroo, and dog are frequently used animals in advertising all over the world. Coca

cola used polar bears to indicate its refreshment. Budweiser used a horse as its spokesman. The

"Aflac duck" of an insurance company transferred humor in its advertising (Lauer, 2006).

Animals in commercials generally evoke the feelings in humans.

According to Harbrecht's study, animals have various roles to play in advertising. Some

animals are national symbols (Harbrecht, 1993). For example, the panda is a precious animal in

China and Chinese people take it as their national symbol. "Jiaozi Cigarette", which means

"Panda brand cigarette" in China is a famous and luxurious cigarette brand for person with high

status. The kangaroo is a favorable icon in Australian advertising. If the animal is a national

symbol, it can easily find its way to symbolize in the local marketplace. Different animals have

their favorable images only in specific cultures. In china, Double Swallow rice noodle is a

popular brand. Sea horses on pickled chilies in Thailand and turtles on Japanese cans of lobster

chunks are also popular brands in local markets (Harbrecht, 1993). British citizens like the zebra,

so British Telecommunications use it as its logo. Secondly, some animals seem to have universal

appeals. Swan logos, for example, brand everything from beer in Australia, metal castings in

Jordan, massage parlors in Hong Kong to soy sauce in the Philippines (Harbrecht, 1993).

Elephants are popular animals in all over the world. Cat seems to fascinate people almost

everywhere as a domestic animal. Lions and tigers are favored by western people as symbols of

the power and authority. "In the right context, animals can convey complex messages"

(Harbrecht, 1993).

Animals in TV Commercials

Of all advertisements, television commercial are particularly important and powerful. They

are important sources of communicating symbolic messages because of its pervasiveness in

everyday life (Bretl & Cantor, 1988). But little research conducted on animals in television









commercials. Magdoff and Barnett (1989) used focus groups to examine the reason why animal

commercials are appealing. They found that animals in television commercials serve two major

functions for the viewers and that these functions tend to appeal differently to men and women.

Lerner and Kalof (1999) did research on animals in American television commercials. They

categorized six primary themes captured in the portrayal of animals in the advertisements:

"animals as loved ones (e.g., a member of a family), as symbols (representation of logos or

ideas), as tools (using animals for human use or consumption), as allegories (animals filled the

roles of humans, such as a dog playing a video game), as nuisances (animals was used to bother

humans in some way, such as insect bites or animals in the garden) and animals in nature (any

sense of animals as part of nature)" (p.565). Their research examined "the dominant messages

being broadcast about animals and the ways in which these messages might be subject to

alternative readings through an exploratory content analysis of television advertisements"

(p.565).

Lerner and Kolaf (1999) found that in American television commercials, dogs and birds

were the most popular animals. The products and services that often used animals in ads were the

food and drink categories (including diverse products such as cheese, chewing gum, barbecue

sauce, coffee, and tomato sauce, but not beer) (Lerner & Kalof, 1999, p.573). They also found

that the most frequently occurring theme was animal as loved one participating in family life; the

less frequently one is the animals that depicted as symbol ones representing the company's name

or product logo; animals as tool was the third largest theme; the smallest category was animals as

nuisance, such as bugs, and pets causing allergy attacks. In their studies, they found that "animal

was twice as likely to be portrayed as male than female" (p.574).









Cultural Difference

Cultural Differences in Visual Communications

"Culture has long been identified as an environmental characteristic that influences

consumer behavior, and the many aspects of a culture affect differently the needs consumers

satisfy through the acquisition and use of goods and services" (Roth, 1995). From a cross-

cultural perspective, words and language in different countries are problematic (Hayden, 1997).

"Pictures can be understood by culturally diverse viewers; but the problem is how they are

understood" (Usunier, 2000). It is now widely accepted that concepts such as race, gender, and

class are social constructions shaped by cultural myths in popular culture (Lerner & Kalof, 1999).

Bulmer and Oliver (1997) investigated the variability of interpretation of visually complex

television commercials and factors that contribute to such differences. They studied the

variations in television advertising interpretation, among respondents from different cultures.

They found visual interpretations vary with the cultural knowledge of viewers (Bulmer & Oliver,

1997). Interpretation of the message is dependent partly on knowledge of signs or symbols

drawn from the culturally constituted world (McCracken, 1986).

Hofstede (1991) developed a model of five dimensions of national culture that help to

examine the value differences among different countries. According to Hofstede's research, the

five dimensions are: individualism/collectivism, power distance, masculinity/femininity,

uncertainty avoidance, and long-term orientation. Although this model is mostly used to explain

the differences in work-related values, Mooij (2005) applied them to consumption-related values

and motives. According to Mooij (2005), the individualism/collectivism contrast can be defined

as "people looking for themselves and their immediate family only, versus people belonging to

in-groups that look after them in exchange for loyalty" (p.61-62). The power distance dimension

can be defined as "the extent to which less powerful members of a society accept and expect that









power is distributed unequally" (Mooij, 2005, p.60); and "the dominant values in a masculine

society are achievement and success; the dominant values in a feminine society are caring for

others and quality of life" (Mooij, 2005, p.65).

Hall (1994) distinguished cultures according to the degree of context in their

communication system: high-context and low -context. In a high context culture, information

and communication is economical, fast and efficient. While in low-context culture, information

and messages is carried in the explicit codes. As Mooij (2005) said, "In advertising,

argumentation and rhetoric are more found in low-context cultures, where advertising in high-

context cultures is characterized by symbolism or indirect verbal expression" (p.56). He also

found that there is a correlation between collectivism and high context in cultures. Most Asian

cultures are high context, whereas most Western cultures are low-context cultures. China is an

extreme high context culture country and the United States is an extreme low context culture

country (Mooij, 2005, p.56).

Western vs. Eastern Asian Cultures

In a study based on data from more than 40 countries, Schwartz (1994) identified and

contrasted collectivist values (e.g., family security, social order, respect for tradition, honoring

parents and elders, security, and politeness) and individualist values (being curious, broad

minded, creative and having an exciting and varied life, and full of pleasure).

Sung and Tinkham (2005) examined brand personality structures in the U.S. and Korea

based on this theory. They compared brand personality structures across two cultures and found

that the values and needs of cultures in both countries are relevant to the way that brands are

perceived. In Western cultures, people tend to value autonomy, emotional independence, privacy,

and individual needs (Sung & Tinkham, 2005). They prefer to focus on their own feelings and

goals, and they believe in self-reliance, hedonism, and competition (Triandis, 1994). Therefore,









such a self-view gives rise to an emphasis on "individualism, self-actualization or self-realization

and on the expression of one's unique configuration of needs, rights, and capacities" (Singelis,

1994). In contrast, East Asian cultures tend to emphasize emotional dependence, group harmony,

cohesion, and cooperation, and they value the collective over the individual. They favor attitudes

that reflect interdependence, sociability, and family integrity. Therefore, "East Asian collectivists

are more likely than Western individualists to seek situations that produce harmonious

interpersonal atmospheres...... East Asian collectivists also value family security and show a

high respect for tradition" (Sung & Tinkham, 2005).

Li, Zhang, Bhartt, and Yum (2005) analyzed the cultural and self-construal in China,

Canada and India. They found that Chinese value more interdependence than Canada in family

value and group memberships, but China was the same as India in those relationship dimensions.

Some studies of the content of advertisements between the United States and other Eastern

countries were conducted with a cross-cultural perspective and content analysis. Cho, Kwon,

Gentry, Jun and Kropp (1999) conducted the content analysis of cultural values reflected in

themes and executional elements of the TV commercials between U.S. and Korea. They explored

the cultural dimensions such as "individualism and collectivism, time orientation, relationship

with nature and contextuality". They found that both countries are present-time oriented, but

individualism is more dominant in the United States. Korean commercials stress oneness-with

nature slightly more than U.S. commercials, and U.S. commercials use more direct approaches

(Cho, Kwon, Gentry, Jun & Kropp, 1999). Paek (2005) studied celebrity endorsers in cross-

cultural contexts. He found that advertisements in South Korea with high uncertainty avoidance

and its high power distance present a higher proportion of celebrity endorsers than those in the

United States.









The United States vs. China

Chinese and American cultures belong to eastern and western culture respectively.

According to Hofstede (2003), the United States is a country with a very high score of IDV (91),

very low score of PDI (40) and average score of MAS (62) in Hofstede's cultural dimensions.

China is a country with the very low score of IDV (24), MAS (50) score and very high PDI (80)

score, which differs from America in IDV and PDI. According to Hall's context theory, China is

a typical country with extreme high context culture, whereas the United States is a typical

country with extreme low context culture. As discussed above, Mooij (2005) found that there is a

correlation between collectivism and high context. The images of animals portrayed in

commercials, the cultural codes symbolized by animals appearing in commercials and the

attitudes toward the various animals in two countries should be different.

Wang (2001) studied the individualism and collectivism between China and the United

States. He found that "Americans were more self-oriented, emphasizing individual experiences

or feelings. Conversely, Chinese were more group-oriented, emphasizing collectivistic

experiences or feelings" (p.30). Zhang (2005) explored global advertising in the Chinese market

through content-analysis method to analyze a collection of print advertisements. She found that

traditional icons are more often used in advertisements in magazines in China (Zhang, 2005).

Cheng and Schweitzer (1996) studied cultural values reflected in television commercials

between Chinese and the United States. They examined the three broadcasting networks in U.S.

and national television stations and Shanghai television station in China. They found that

Chinese television commercials used more utilitarian cultural values and more eastern cultural

values than U.S. television commercials. Lin (2001) studied the cultural values reflected in

Chinese and American television advertising. Lin indicated in this study that "the portrayal of

traditional Chinese cultural values remains relatively stable", with some changes, such as "the









youth/modernity appeal that reflected westernization, as well as the modernization" were also

displayed in Chinese commercials in recent years.

Mizelle (2005) found that "Americans were used to being around animals, used to

watching them, working with them, and buying and selling them as part of an economy crucially

connected to animal husbandry" (p.220). He believed that the images of animals at exhibitions

helped Americans know their world. China also has a long history of raising domestic animals

and their involvement with animal is also an important part of everyday life. However, their

perceptions and attitudes towards animals are different.

The same animals in advertisements have different meanings in different cultures. The

same animal can be lucky in one culture but can be a curse in another country. Wells (1994)

studied that the meaning of advertising in other countries may vary from western perspectives.

An animal will evoke a totally different emotion in another culture. Warns David A. Ricks, a

professor at the American Graduate School of International Management said in an interview,

"As a general rule, some animal is going to be wrong somewhere in the world". Advertisers

choose different animals as their visual images in advertisements. Take the dog as an example. In

Canada, one kind of beer became the number one selling beer partly because of the dog

appearing in a series of commercials. Some countries take a dog as their family member, such as

in America and Canada. But in some parts of the world, for example, in Islamic countries, dogs

are considered unclean and should be kept outdoors. There are some places where dogs are eaten

as food. Fish may not work in advertisements in the UK, but in Japan or in China, it works well

(Harbrecht, 1993).

As Harbrecht (1993) said when the Japanese Datsun Motor Company planed to promote

their "Bluebird" car to enter the North American market, they faced the difficulties, because









Bluebird means happiness in Japanese culture. But people in the United States like to name their

cars after predators such as cougar, eagle and lion that symbolize power. In Asian countries,

eastern people prefer their cars named after birds that symbolize speed and resilience for them.

The pigeon is a favorable pest that is used for the logo of China Southeast Airline and Flying

Pigeon bicycle brand in China, which is less used in the same products and service category in

the United States. In Chinese culture, the dragon is a respected animal and national icon which

symbolized authority and status. In the western world, a dragon is usually an ugly monster which

symbolized the evil and disaster. Dog was portrayed as lazy and slavish animal in Chinese

traditional history. However, in the United States, it was portrayed as the family member and

loved one with a characteristic of honesty. Owls symbolize evil and disaster in Chinese culture,

but in western culture, it is smart and intelligent. Bats are associated with blood and Halloween

in western world, but it is a symbol of good luck in China, because the sound for bat in Chinese

is "good fortune". A duck may stimulate humor to an American audience, but normally it is a

stupid animal in China.

Hypotheses and Research Questions

This current research explores the differences of human-animal relationships as reflected in

television commercials in two countries with the content analysis method. China and the United

States have different cultural values, so the symbols and icons of each culture must be different.

As discussed above, animals are one of the important symbols and icons of a culture (Lerner&

Kalof, 1999). Do certain types of animals appear more in Chinese TV commercials than in

American TV commercials? What are the differences of images of animals reflected in American

and Chinese television commercials? What are the human-animal relationships in animal

commercials for two countries? Are they different? How does culture influence advertisers' use

of animals in commercials? What kinds of animals in commercials are attractive to people in the









United States and in China respectively? What are those favorite animals' roles played in two

cultures? The hypotheses and research questions are as followings:

According to the statistics from Asian Advertising andMarketing (2000) and report, the

Chinese mainland's advertising market grew to be Asia's largest in 2000, which represented the

highest growth rate (208%). Statistics from China's advertising industry annual report (2002)

indicates that after the year 2000, the number of advertising agencies increased by 14.31% to

89,552 by the end of 2002. The number of both locally-owned 4As and international 4As

(Association of American of Advertising Agencies) affiliations kept a sharp increase.

Furthermore, more and more international companies entered into Chinese market and built up

joint-venture enterprises in China. International 4As affiliations and international companies

brought new ideas and conceptions for Chinese advertising production, and made Chinese

advertisers realized the importance of using animals in commercials. Based on the rationale

above:

* HP1: animals are used more frequently in commercials after year 2000 than in the years
before 2000.

Based on the rationale that there has been a long history and tradition of using animals in

ads in western countries compared to the undeveloped advertising industry and less using

animals in advertising in eastern counties discussed in literature review:

* HP2: animals are used more often in western brand product or service advertisement than
in eastern brand product or service advertisement.

According to Hofstede's (1991) cultural dimensions and Hall's (1994) low context and

high context culture theory discussed in literature review:

* HP3: Chinese commercials containing animals are different from American commercials
in terms of commercial appeal/selling proposition, commercials tone, atmosphere,
structure and format.









Based on Hofstede's (1991) cultural dimensions on power of distance index:

* HP4: human-animal relationships depicted in Chinese TV commercials are different from
the United States.

Based on Hofstede's (1991) cultural dimensions on individualism and collectivism index:

* HP5: animals in American commercials are more likely to appear individually, while
animals in Chinese commercials are more likely to appear in a group.

* RQ1: do Chinese commercials containing animals differ by product/service category from
those run in the United States?

* RQ2: what kind of animal species most frequently appear in commercials in the United
States and China respectively?

* RQ3: do commercials containing animals run in China differ from those run in the United
States in terms of frequency of animal type?

* RQ4: do commercials containing animals run in China differ from the United States in
terms of level of animal usage in commercials?

* RQ5: are the roles of animals portrayed in Chinese commercials different from American
commercials?









CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Content Analysis Design

The purpose of the current study is to explore the typical characteristics of animals in

award-winning Chinese commercials and compare them with award-winning commercials in the

United States. Furthermore, this study seeks to determine the occurrence of various variables

appearing in those commercial based on the coding framework of Stewart and Furse (1986) as

well as Lemer and Kalof s (1999) studies of animal commercials. Quantitative content analysis

is the "systematic and replicable examination of symbols of communication, which have been

assigned numeric values according to valid measurement rules, and the analysis of relationships

involving those values using statistical methods, in order to describe the communication, draw

inferences about its meaning, or infer from the communication to its context, both of production

and consumption" (Riffe et al., 1998, p. 20).

Since the purpose of this study is to examine the usage and execution of animals in ads,

content analysis serves as an appropriate way to build the quantitative observation of the given

body (award-winning television commercials containing animals) from 1997 to 2005 to be

analyzed systematically and objectively (Wimmer & Dominick, 2003).

A comparative content analysis of award winning television commercials containing

animals between the U.S and China is conducted to examine the research questions and

hypotheses.

Variable Analysis Framework

Stewart and Furse's Study

Stewart and Furse (1986) conducted a comprehensive research on 1000 television

commercials with content analysis methodology in their book, Effective Television Advertising.









In their study, they developed a very extensive executional coding system which included 155

unique executional items. The variable analysis framework represented the following categories

of executional items: (Stewart & Furse, 1986, p.20.)

Information content,
Brand/product identification,
Setting,
Visual and auditory devices,
Promises/appeals/propositions,
Tone/atmosphere,
Comparisons,
Music and dancing,
Structure and format,
Characters,
Timing and counting measures

After several years, Stewart and Koslow (1989) replicated this study with highly internal

validity results related to the original findings.

Lerner and Kalof's Study (1999)

Lerner and Kalof summarized an extensive research result regarding American television

commercials containing animals. In their study, animals were classified into six different

categories based on their relationships with human beings in commercials, such as companions,

friends, beloved ones and enemies and etc. (Lerner & Kalof, 1999). The roles of the animals

played in commercials are summarized as loves ones, symbols, tools, allegories, nuisances,

enemies and background and etc. (Lerner & Kalof, 1999).

In current study, the coding framework is adopted from the study of Steward and Furse

(1986) and the study of Lerner and Kalof (1999). The author selected 9 executional items and

forms from Steward and Furse's analysis framework and modified a few of them to build up 14

variables, including product category, commercial appeals and selling propositions, commercial

structure, commercial format, commercial approach, commercial setting, commercial tone and

atmosphere, and commercial characters. Other two variables are adopted from Lerner and









Kalof s study, including the roles of animals played in commercials and human-animal

relationships in commercials. The rest of the variables are made up by the author based on the

literature review, including commercial nationality (EFFIE or Chinese commercial), award year,

brand origin, language usage, animal species, and variety of how many kinds of animals in

commercials as well as the way animals appear in commercials.

Coding Categories and Operational Definitions

Definition of Animal

In this study, animals in advertisement were defined as live and animated animals

(Lerner& Kalof, 1999), including wild animals and domestic animals. As discussed in literature

review, these animals can be used as the logo, the background (the birds flying by or the fish

swimming around), the spokesperson, the representative, the icon, the companion of human

being, or friends.

Variables in Coding Sheet

Commercial appeals and selling proposition

* Attribute or ingredients as main message: A major focus of the commercial is to
communicate something about how the product is made or ingredients.

* Product performance or benefits as main message: A major focus of the commercial is
to communicate what the product does (for example, shinier tub, fresher breath, whiter
teeth) or how to use it.

* Psychological or subjective benefits of product ownership: A major focus of the
commercial is to communicate hidden or nonprovable benefits of having/using the product.

* Product reminder as main message: The product or package is the primary message
rather than any specific attribute or benefit of use.

* Sexual appeal: Main focus of commercial is on sexual cues.

* Comfort appeals: Main focus of commercial is on cues appealing to creature comforts.

* Safety appeals: Main focus of commercial is on cues appealing to being free from fear or
physical danger.









* Enjoyment appeals: Main focus of commercial is on cues about enjoying life to the fullest,
having good food and drink, and so on.

* Welfare appeals: Main focus is on caring or providing for others (for example, gift
giving).

* Social approval: Main focus of commercial is on belonging, winning friends, obtaining
approval of others.

* Self-esteem or self-image: Main focus of commercial is on feeling better about oneself,
improving oneself, being a better person.

* Achievement: Main focus of commercial is on obtaining superiority over others, getting
ahead, winning.

* Excitement, sensation, variety: Main focus of commercial is on adding excitement, thrills,
variety to life, avoiding boredom.

Commercial structure

* Front-end impact: The first 10 seconds of the commercial creates suspense, questions,
surprise, drama, or something that otherwise gains attention.

* Surprise or suspense in middle of commercial: Something surprising, dramatic, or
suspenseful occurs in the middle of the commercial.

* Surprise or suspense at closing: Commercial ends with a surprise, an unexpected event,
suspense, or drama.

* Unusual setting or situation: Product is in setting not normally associated with product
purchase or use-for example, a car on top of a mountain, a contemporary wine in ancient
Greece.

* Humorous closing: Commercial ends with a joke, pun, witticism, or slapstick.

* Blind lead-in: No identification of product until the end of the commercial.

Commercial format

* Vignettes: a series of two or more stories that could stand alone; no continuing storyline
but several independent stories (which may convey the same message). Multiple
interviews would be an example.

* Continuity of action: Commercial has a single storyline throughout with an obvious
beginning, middle, and end; a common theme, character, or issue ties the whole









commercial together from beginning to end. This may be an interview with a single
individual, slice or life, or any other format that involves continuity of action.

* Slice of life: An interplay between two or more people that portrays a conceivable real-life
situation. There is continuity of action.

* Testimonial by product user: One or more individuals recounts his or her satisfaction
with the product advertised or the results of using the product advertised.

* Endorsement by celebrity or authority: One or more individuals (or organizations)
advocates or recommends the product but does not claim personal use of satisfaction.

* Announcement: Commercial's format is that of a newscast or sportscast, sales
announcement.

* Demonstration of product in use or by analogy: A demonstration of the product in use-
for example, a man shaving in a commercial for shaving lather, women applying makeup.
A demonstration of the use of the product, benefit, or product characteristic by an analogy
or device rather than actual demonstration.

* Demonstration of results of using product: Demonstration of the outcome of using the
product for example, shining floors, bouncing hair.

* Comedy or satire: The commercial is written as a comedy, parody, or satire. Not only is
humor an element of the commercial, but also the commercial is written to be funny.

* Animation/cartoon/rotoscope: The entire commercial or some substantial part of the
commercial is animated. A rotoscope is a combination of real life and animation on the
screen at the same time for example, the Trix Rabbit.

* Photographic stills: The use of photographic stills in part of the commercial. These may
be product shots, settings, or models.

* Creation of mood or image as dominant element: An attempt to create a desire for the
product, without offering a specific product claim by appealing to the viewer's
emotional/sensory involvement. The primary thrust of the commercial is the creation of a
feeling or mood.

* Commercial written as serious drama: The commercial is written as a stage play,
melodrama, or tragedy.

* Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element: The use of animation or
other visual device instead of a realistic treatment to suspend disbelief or preclude literal
translation on the part of the viewer.









* Problem and solution (before/after presentation): An attempt to define or show a problem,
then indicate how the product eliminates or reduces the problem.

* Interview (person on the street or elsewhere): An interview (Q&A) is a primary vehicle in
the commercial.

* Camera involves audience in situation: Use of camera as eyes of viewer. Camera creates
participation in commercial.

* New wave (product graphics): Use of poster-like visuals, fast cuts, high symbolism as in
Diet Pepsi.

Commercial approach

* Rational approach: A fairly straightforward presentation of the product's attributes and
claims.

* Emotional approach: An emotional appeal does not appeal to reason but to feelings.

* Neutral approach: An appeal counterpoising of rational and emotional.

* Positive approach: The appeal to buy or use the product is based on what it will do for the
consumer, the benefit offered, how the user will be better off

* Negative approach: The appeal is based on what happen to the consumer if he or she does
not buy the product or what will not happen if the product is used.

* Neutral approach: An appeal counterpoising of positive and negative.

* Brand-differentiating message: Is the principle message of the commercial unique to the
product being advertised, or could any product make this claim? The commercial must
make it clear that the message is unique; that is, the commercial must explicitly indicate
the uniqueness or difference of the product.

Commercial setting

* Indoor: Is the commercial setting, or a significant part of it, indoors or in other human
made structures?

* Outdoors: Is the commercial setting, or a significant part of it, outdoors (mountain, rivers,
backyard, garden, or other natural setting)? Do not include unnatural environments such as
stadium or home driveway.

* No setting: There is no particular setting for the commercial; the setting is neutral, neither
indoor nor outdoors.









Commercial Characters


The principle character in the commercial is a female or male? A child or infant? Are the

animals in the commercials animated or not? Are the main characters or minor characters in the

commercials?

Roles that animals play in commercials

* Loved ones: Ads showed scenes of affectionate interactions with animals. They are family
members, such as pet, companions, friends, and playing partners.

* Symbols: representatives of logos or ideas of the products and brand. The animal was used
to symbolize some quality or idea of the products or services, or as the spokesman.

* Tools: animals used for human use or consumption, including animals being used for food,
recreation, and transportation, such as a horse pulling a cart.

* Allegories: animal filled the roles of humans as an individual, such as dog playing a video
game.

* Nuisances: animals used to bother humans in some way, such as insect bites or animals in
the garden.

* Animals in nature: any sense of animals as part of nature, such as birds flying over a
beach, a fish swimming and deer running in the plain.

* Enemies: animals that do harm to human and cause disaster to human, such as killing a
man.

* Background: animals used as peripheral clues and not directly appeal to audience notice,
such as a bird flying by in a short time.

Human-animal relationships

The relations that animals involved with people in TV commercials

* Beloved ones: animals are a family member and living with a family or human beings, it is
like a human, such as, dog, cat and parrot.

* Friendly ones: animals are harmonious and domestic, mostly raised in farms or backyards,
such as chicken, duck, penguin, swan, cow, sheep, horse and etc.









* Neutral ones: animals that can not be categorized as likable or dislikeable ones, it depends
on individual's preference, such as elephant, kangaroo, bird, fish, bear, crane, snail, rabbit,
monkey and etc.

* Aggressive ones: wild, strong, competitive, fierce and cruel, such as jaguar, tiger, lion,
eagle, wolf and etc.

* Disastrous ones: animals can be people's trouble, disaster, and doom, such as owl, bat,
snake, rat, fly and etc.

Unit of Analysis

The unit of this study is the single award-winning TV commercial containing animals) in

the 5h to 12th China Advertising Festival (1997-2005) and the single award-winning animal TV

commercial containing animals) in the EFFIE Advertising Award from 1997 to 2005. Because

there is no China Advertising Festival held in 1998, this year is missing, and the author can not

collect the Chinese award-winning commercials in 2002 and 2003. Furthermore, the

commercials in 2000 and 2001 can not be collected completely. Among a total of 824 Chinese

award-winning commercials, the final usable sample consisted of commercials containing

animals that won Gold, Silver, or Bronze Awards are 142 Chinese commercials in 1997, 1999,

2000, 2001, 2004 and 2005. There were much more Chinese commercials containing animals

(N=142) than American commercials (N=85) in the collected raw sample, as a result, 100 of total

142 commercials randomly selected by product/service category in order to make the sample

size for each country was approximately the same. All of the commercials falling into public

service category, which total 24, were excluded in current study, because there is no EFFIE

award winning commercials falling accordingly in the public service category. All of four

commercials falling into others category were deleted. The author deleted some of the

commercials in most frequently occurred product/service category for each year. Pharmaceutical

category in 2001 was the largest product/service category, beverage category was the largest









product/service category in 2004, and beverage category was the largest category in year 2005,

as well as the fast food and restaurant category was the second largest one in this year. In year

2001, four commercials in pharmaceutical category were deleted. The author started to delete the

first number of commercial in pharmaceutical category and then took every second one away in

database. In year 2004, four commercials in beverages category were deleted with the same

method adopted in pharmaceutical category. In year 2005, two commercials in fast food and

restaurant category and four commercials in beverages category were deleted with the same

method. A total of 42 commercials were randomly deleted. The left 100 commercials were

supposed to be the usable sample for this study. However, during the coding process, the code

sheet number 122 commercial was found not containing live or animated animal due to the

mistake in coding process. The remaining 99 commercials are final usable samples in this study.

EFFIE award-winning commercials containing animals was selected during the same

period. In order to compare with Chinese award-winning commercials containing animals, the

EFFIE sample was selected from year 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2004 and 2005. However, EFFIE

Awards in year 2005 can not be collected. Only one commercial was collected online for this

year. Among 563 commercials that won Gold, Silver, and Bronze Awards that the author

reviewed in these years, there were 85 commercials containing animals that can be usable

samples in this study.

The reason why the year of 1997 was selected as the beginning year in this study is that

this year was the watershed for the Chinese domestic advertising industry. Before that time, the

festival was held every three years. Starting from 1997, in demand of the fast growth rate in the

domestic advertising industry, the show began being held every other year, and later in 2000 it

was held every year.









The choice of EFFIE award-winning commercials from the same period of time as the

comparative sample was based on the reputation and authority of this award. The EFFIE Awards

is given yearly by the New York American Marketing Association. Since 1968, winning an

EFFIE has become a global symbol of achievement. Winning entries are chosen from those

submitted by advertising agencies. Entries are judged by a panel of the industry's top marketing

and advertising management, research, and creative professionals. In this study, only EFFIE

award-winning commercials containing animals are chosen for the sample in order to make a

comparison with Chinese award-winning commercials.

Sampling Design

This study is specified to commercials containing animals that won awards in their

corresponding product/service categories in the China Advertising Festival and the EFFIE

Advertising Awards respectively in 1997, 1999,2000,2001,2004 and 2005. The population of the

sample is a given body of collections. A combined total 184 commercials (85 EFFIE award-

winning commercials and 99 Chinese award-winning commercials) represented 38 product

categories: agricultural/industrial/building, alcoholic beverage, apparel/accessories,

automobiles/vehicles, beauty aids, beverages, breakfast food, business products, children's

products, computer/related for business and personal purposes, consumer electronic, cosmetics,

credit/debit cards, delivery systems and products, entertainment, fashion, financial

service/products, fast food and restaurant, general retail/etail, pharmaceuticals, hotels and resorts,

household appliance, industrial/building products and services, Internet service, leisure products,

pet care, savory food, personal care, professional service, real estate, retail, telecom service,

transportation, travel and tourism, corporate images, public service, printed/electronic media and

others.









Starting from year 1997, China Advertising Festival organizational committee published

an annual China Advertising Festival award-winning album following the festival. The annual

collection book contains the following parts: the preface and the greetings from the head of

China Advertising Association, followed by the introduction of the judges' names and

backgrounds. The body of the book lists hundreds of winners and finalists according to

product/service categories respectively in the order of print, TV commercial, radio and outdoor

advertisements.

All the winners and finalists were listed in a profile including the ad itself, its awards class

(Bronze, Silver and Gold), its ID number, and the name of ad, the name of advertiser, name of

advertising agency and the copywriter as well as the producer. As for the winning TV

commercials, the major slides of each commercial were displayed. The last part of the annual

collection book encloses VCDs featuring the video part of the TV commercials winners as the

supplemental materials.

The author has collected those VCDs featuring the award-winning TV commercials part in

1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2004 and 2005. However, the VCDII for the year 2000 and VCDII for

2001 were missing. The author has collected EFFIE award winning commercials in year 1997,

1999, 2000, 2001 and 2004. These commercials are recorded in tapes which can be reviewed

with VCR machine. Only one EFFIE commercial in 2005 was found online to build up a total

EFFIE sample of 85 commercials. The final 184 commercials (which won Gold, Silver, or

Bronze Awards) were collected and coded into database one by one. The first 85 commercials

are EFFIE award-winning commercials. From number 86 to number 184 are China advertising

award-winning commercials.









Coding Scheme and Procedure

For each commercial containing animalss, the following were coded: commercial

nationality, TV commercial number, code sheet number, the product/service being advertised,

brand origin, language usage, commercial appeals/selling propositions, commercial structure,

commercial format, commercial approach, commercial setting, commercial characters, and how

many kinds of animals in the commercial, animal species, human-animal relationships, the roles

that the animals played in commercials as well as the way animals appear in commercials (See

the Appendix: code sheet).

After coding every item in the code sheet, all the data were put into SPSS to analyze. In

order to achieve the satisfied results, all the data were recorded into more specific categories

according to various logical ways.

Intercoder Reliability

Two coders were used and trained to evaluate the selected commercials. The researcher

served as the primary coder. The second coder was also a Chinese and a bilingual student. Each

recorded half of the EFFIE sample and the Chinese sample respectively.

Before the initial coding procedure, the secondary coder was trained in both coding

category system and procedure sessions to achieve the satisfied reliability.

In order to achieve the intercoder reliability of the coding, a pretest of about 10% animal

commercials in the database was randomly selected, which are 10 Chinese award-winning

commercials and 9 EFFIE award-winning commercials. The two coders all evaluated those 10%

commercials in both countries.

The level of acceptance (i.e. intercoder reliability) used Scott's Pi formula among coders:

Pi = (% observed agreement % expected agreement) / (1- % expected agreement)









Reliabilities figures in the .80 to .90 which are considered acceptable (Wimmer &

Dominick, 2003), then intercoder reliability was established.

Data Analysis

The data collected from the code sheets were put into SPSS to conduct the crosstabulations

analysis of animal usage and execution as well as human-animal relationship for both countries.

Frequency distributions of the animals by product and service categories, by animal species, by

animal roles, and by human-animal relationship category were calculated. Chi-Square analysis

was used to determine if there is statistically significance existed between variables.









CHAPTER 4
FINDINGS

Descriptions of the Sample

Based on the data collected with the content analysis method in current study, a general

review about the usage and execution of animals in award-winning commercials in China and

U.S as well as the human-animal relationships reflected in award-winning commercials is

offered. Differences of TV commercials containing animals between both countries are also

achieved. This assists answering the questions of what are the differences between Chinese

commercials containing animals and American commercials containing animals by

product/service category, in terms of animal type, and in terms of level of animal usage as well

as roles that animal played in commercials. This can also provide answers for hypotheses that

commercials containing animals in both countries should be different by award year, by brand

origin, in terms of commercial appeal and selling propositions, commercial tone/atmosphere,

commercial structure and commercial format, and in terms of human-animal relationships as

well as the way animals appeared in commercials.

The study content analyzed 23 variables falling into several categories including peripheral

elements, product/service category, commercial appeal and selling proposition, commercial

tone/atmosphere, structure, format and approach, commercial characters, human-animal

relationship, and animal roles in commercials. The total sample included 184 commercials in

which 85 were EFFIE award-winning commercials and 99 were Chinese advertising award-

winning commercials. EFFIE award-winning commercials accounted for 41.3% (N=85) of the

total sample, while Chinese advertising award-winning commercials accounted for 58.7%

(N=99). The unit of the analysis was each single commercial.









A Chinese and bilingual female student was served as the second coder in current study.

Using Scott's Pi formula for intercoder reliability, the percentage of agreement was .86. This

ranged from .69 to 100 percent.

Findings

* HP 1: animals are used more frequently in commercials after year 2000 than in the years
before 2000.

In order to examine this hypothesis, the variable "Award Year" was recorded with two new

values, which are before and after year 2000. The variable examined commercials containing

animals in both countries by year. Table 4-1 shows the number of commercials in 1997, 1999,

2000, 2001, 2004, 2005. As the table shows, in year 1997, there were only 9 commercials

containing animals, which only accounted for 4.9% (N=9) of the total sample. There was a sharp

increase in 1999. The number of commercials containing animals in this year was 38, which was

almost four times of the amount in 1997. In 2004, the award-winning commercials containing

animals reached 61, which accounted for 33.2% (N=61) of the total sample. In 1997, 1999 and

2000, the total number of commercials containing animals was 76, which accounted for 41.3%

(N=76) of the total sample. After 2000, the number was increased by 32 than the years before

2000 and reached 108. Advertisers' use of animals in commercials had a sharp increase as

Table 4-1 shows. Table 4-2 shows that the ratio of numbers of EFFIE award- winning

commercials containing animals was almost the same before and after 2000. However, the

number of Chinese commercials containing animals before 2000 was 29 (29.3%) and 70 (70.7%)

after 2000, which was an increase of 41.

* HP2: animals are used more frequently in western brand product or service advertisements
than in eastern brand product or service advertisements.

In order to examine this variable, the variable "Brand Origin" was recorded into two

categories: western and eastern brand. Domestic brands, and Asia and Pacific brands were









recorded into one category and was labeled eastern brand. American and European brand were

recorded into another category and was labeled western brand. Tables 4-3 and 4-4 indicate the

frequency of brand origin among 184 samples. The results show that 78 commercials in the total

sample were eastern brand product/service commercials, which accounted for 42.4% of the total

sample. There were 106 (57.6%) of commercials were for western brand among which 53.3%

(N=98) were for American brands. The results show that commercials containing animals are

used more frequently in commercials for western brand than in eastern brands.

* HP3: Chinese commercials containing animals are different from American commercials
in terms of commercial appeal/selling proposition, commercial tone/ atmosphere, structure
and format.

In order to examine the difference of executions in commercials containing animals in both

countries, variables with too few occurrences (less than 10 times, which was less than 5.5% of

the total sample) were turned to missing data. In the variable "Commercial Format", 10 items

with too few occurrences: vignette (N=4), continuity of action (N=8), testimonial by product user

(N=9), endorsement by celebrity or authority (N=3), announcement (N=4), demonstration of

results (N=9), photographic stills (N=5), commercial written as serious drama (N=1), problem

and solution (N=5) and new wave(N=2), were turned to missing data and this variable was

recorded into 6 categories as Table 4-5 shows. As Table 4-6 shows, the variable "Commercial

Structure" was recorded into 4 categories, in which "surprise or suspense in the front" and

"surprise and suspense at closing" were transformed into the same value due to the same

characteristics of "surprise and suspense" in commercial structure. "Humorous closing" was

turned to missing data due to too few occurrences (N=9). Six categories in "Commercial

Appeal/Selling Proposition", such as product reminder as main message (N=1), sexual appeals

(N=2), comfort appeals (N=5), safety appeals (N=7), welfare appeals (N=3) and social appeals

(N=7), were turned to missing data due to small sample use. The variable "Commercial









Appeals/selling Propositions" was recorded into 7 categories as Table 4-7 shows. As shown in

Table 4-8, several values in the variable "Commercial Tone and Atmosphere", which can evoke

positive feelings and happy atmosphere such as cute/adorable, warm/caring, wholesome/healthy,

happy/fun-loving, glamorous, relaxed/comfortable are classified as one new value:

happy/comfortable. Some values, such as somber/serious, cool/laid-back, uneasy/tense/irritated,

suspenseful and rough/rugged which can evoke negative feelings and uncomfortable atmosphere

were classified as the same value: tense/uncomfortable. Some values, such as

modern/contemporary, and technological/futuristic which can evoke futuristic feelings and

modern atmosphere were recorded as a new one: contemporary/futuristic contrasting another

value: traditional/nostalgic. The value of humorous (N=9) was turned to missing data due to too

few occurrences.

The Chi-Square test and crosstabs are analyses used to study if there is a significant

difference between EFFIE and Chinese award-winning commercials containing animals in terms

of commercial appeals/selling proposition, commercial tone/atmosphere, and commercial

structure as well as commercial format.

Table 4-5 depicts the incidence of the commercial format in the sampled commercials,

which indicates the significant difference ( 2 =25.79, p<.01) between EFFIE and Chinese

award-winning commercials containing animals in terms of commercial format. Slice of life

(41.7%, N=25) was the dominant format in EFFIE samples, followed by fantasy, exaggeration or

surrealism (16.7%, N=10) and demonstration of product in use or by analogy (13.3%, N=8) and

animation/cartoon/rotoscope (13.3%, N=8). The lowest occurring category was comedy or satire,

which accounted for only 5.0% (N=3) of the total sample. While there was no dominant format

in Chinese award-winning samples, creation of mood or image (29.7%, N=22) was the leading









format, closely followed by fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism (25.7%, N=19). The remainder

of format was each below 20%, with a range of maximum comedy or satire (14.9%, N= 11) and

minimum slice of life (9.5%, N=7).

The results in Table 4-5 indicate that animals were used frequently in slice of life as a part

of real-life situation in EFFIE award-winning commercials but were seldom used in conceivable

real-life in Chinese commercials. In Chinese commercials, they were more used as symbols to

represent the image of products or service, to create an emotional mood in commercials and to

symbolize the fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism instead of realistic elements. The results also

show that animals seldom appeared in comedy or satire format in EFFIE commercials, which is

in contrast with Chinese commercials. Chinese ads use animals in comedy or satire more

frequently than American commercials.

As Tables 4-6, 4-7 and 4-8 show that there was no significant difference between EFFIE

and Chinese award-winning commercials containing animals in terms of commercial

appeal/selling proposition, in terms of commercial tone/atmosphere and in terms of commercial

structure.

* HP4: human-animal relationships depicted in Chinese TV commercials are different from
the United States.

The variable "Human-Animal Relationships" was recorded into 4 categories: beloved,

friendly, neutral and aggressive. The value "disastrous" was classified into the same category

with "aggressive" because "disastrous" and "aggressive" animals were unfriendly animals. The

value "not applicable" (N=3), which means there is no interaction between animals and humans,

was turned to missing data.

Table 4-9 shows the distribution of human-animal relationships in EFFIE and Chinese

commercials. The findings reveal that significant difference (_2 =19.08, p<.01) exists between









human-animal relationships and commercial nationality. "Beloved" animals (42.2%, N=35) were

definitely dominant in relationship with humans in EFFIE award-winning commercials. There

were 35 animals in EFFIE award-winning commercials as a family member or lived with a

family or people. Beloved ones were preferred in EFFIE award-winning commercials. The

second largest human-animal relationship in EFFIE was "friendly" (30.1%, N=25), followed by

"neutral" (14.5%, N=12) and "aggressive" (13.3%, N=11). However, in Chinese samples, the

leading human-animal relationship was "neutral" (37.8%, N=37). "Beloved" and "aggressive"

relationship held the same percentage (21.4%, N=21) in the Chinese sample. Both relationships

were preferred in Chinese award-winning commercials.

* 1HP5: animals in American commercials are more likely to appear individually, while
animals in Chinese commercials are more likely to appear in a group.

To examine Hofstede's cultural dimension on individuality/collectivism reflected in

samples, the way animals) appeared in commercials (how many kinds of animals appeared in

commercial and how they appeared) was analyzed.

The findings indicate that no significant difference (2 =5.72, p<.0.5) exists between how

many kinds of animals in commercials and commercial nationality. The amount of commercials

with one kind of animal and with two or more kinds of animals remained the same ratio in both

countries. However, the findings show that there is significant difference between animals)

appeared individually or in a group and commercial nationality. Table 4-10 suggests the

dominant way animals) appeared in commercials was as an individual. There were a total of 122

commercials containing single animal and 62 total commercials containing animals in a group

for the total sample of 184 ads. Animals appeared individually in 64 EFFIE commercials, which

accounted for 75.3% (N=64) of the total EFFIE sample. Only 24.7% (N=21) of EFFIE

commercials showed animals in a group. Approximately 41% (N=41) of the total Chinese award-









winning commercials showed animals in a group, which was almost as twice the incidence of

EFFIE commercials in the same category.

* RQ1: do Chinese commercials containing animals differ by product/service category from
those run in the United States?

The variable "Product/service" category was classified into ten items: food/beverage,

household products/furnishing/supplies, pharmaceuticals, personal products,

transportation/tourism/recreation, children's products, pet care, corporate image and media,

public/business equipment/service as well as Telecom/Internet/Electronics. Three recruitment

ads (Two were from the EFFIE sample and one from the Chinese sample) can not be classified

into any of these ten categories. They were transformed into missing data. The remaining 181

samples were recorded into several small groups, such as durable/nondurable category,

product/service category, and traditional modernr category.

Table 4-11 summarizes the proportions of each product /service category in EFFIE or

Chinese samples. The findings reveal the significant difference (2 =24.73, p<.01) between

product/service category and commercial nationality. Food/beverage was the dominant category

in which animals were used most frequently in both countries. In EFFIE award- winning

commercials, the top four product/service categories were food/beverage commercials (14.5%,

N=12), household products/furnishing/supplies commercials (13.3%, N=11), transportation

/tourism/recreation (13.3%, N=11), and telecom/Internet/electronics (10.8%, N=9). The

remaining six categories were each less than 10% and the least category was pharmaceuticals

category (4.7%, N=4). In Chinese award-winning commercials, the top four categories were

food/beverage commercials (24.5%, =24) which were almost twice as EFFIE's, telecom /Intemet

/Electronics commercials (19.4%, N=19), pharmaceuticals commercials (11.2%, N=11) which

was almost twice than EFFIE's, and corporate images and Media (11.1%, N=11). The remaining









six categories were below 11%, and the least categories were children's products and pet care

winners. Actually there was no Chinese winner falling into these two categories compared

EFFIE winners (8.4%, N=7) in children's products category and EFFIE winners (7.1%, N=6) in

pet care category.

As Tables 4-12, 4-13 and 4-14 indicate that there was no significant difference between

durable/nondurable product category and commercial nationality, no significant association

between product/service category and commercial nationality, and no significant association

between traditional/new category and commercials nationality.

* RQ2: what kind of animal species most frequently appear in commercials in the United
States and China respectively?

There were 45 animals out of a total of 184 commercials coded into the species category.

There is no significant difference between animal species used in commercials and commercial

nationality. Table 4-15 lists the frequency of dominant species appeared in commercials in

EFFIE Awards and Chinese Advertising Awards respectively. Among the EFFIE sample, the top

five species appeared in commercials were dogs, fish, songbirds, cat and duck in order of the

frequency of their occurrence in a total of 85 ads. Dogs were the dominant species and appeared

in EFFIE commercials (43.5%, N=37), followed by fish (7.1%, N=6), songbirds (7.1%, N=6),

cat (7.1%, N=6) and duck (4.7%, N=4). Among the Chinese sample, the top five species in

commercials were dogs, fish, horses, songbirds and chicks in order of the frequency of their

occurrence in a total of 99 ads. There was no dominant animal in Chinese award-winning

commercials. However, the dog was the leading animal (20.2%, N=20) of the total Chinese

sample. The second highest percentage was fish (15.2%, N=15), which was more than twice of

the amount of fish that appeared in EFFIE's commercials. The horse was found largely in 9

(9.1%) Chinese winning commercials, which contrasts with only two occurrences of the horse in









EFFIE's commercials. Songbirds (6.1%, N=6) and chicks (4.0%, N=5) were followed by horses

in the Chinese sample. A dragon appeared in only 3 (3.0%) Chinese commercials. No dragon

appeared in EFFIE winning commercials. A frog also appeared 3 times (3.0%) in Chinese

commercials, but shown only once in EFFIE commercials. All other 35 animal species out of 45

species were present in less than 2 occurrences in each category respectively. Those animals

were: pigeon, monkey, worm, fly, lizard, tiger, wild goose, seagull, gigantic beast, bear, elephant,

alligator, mouse, red lobster, monster, gopher, shark, zebra, kangaroo, camel, grasshopper, sheep,

turtle, bee, sea turtle, shrimp, mosquito, roach, yak, butterfly, dinosaur, goat, pig, donkey, and

oyster.

* RQ3: do Chinese commercials containing animals differ from the United States in terms of
frequency of animal type?

The variable "Animal Species" was recorded to examine the relationship between animal

species adopted in commercials and commercial nationality. There were 45 kinds of animals

recorded into 5 groups: 1> dog: single type; 2> Birds and fish: various songbirds, eagle, rooster,

parrot, peacock, pigeon and gold fishes, shark, sea turtle, oyster and etc.; 3> farm animals: horse,

cow, sheep, pig, duck, chick, donkey and etc.; 4> other small animals, such as lots of insects,

worms, and etc.; 5> other large animals, such as cat, tiger, bear, zebra, gigantic beast, dragon,

camel and etc. Animals can be served as food source, a transportation source, a tool for work,

and a companion or a friend (Clark, 1977; Spears & Germain, 2007). The variables were recorded

in various ways, based on how humans treated the animals and the locations animals appeared,

the total of forty-five animal species was again coded into several groups: wild/domestic;

pet/labor/food/others. According to Spears and Germain's study (2007), wild animals are those

in a forest or a field, and so on.









Table 4-16 shows a significant difference (2 =13.50, p<.01) between animal types and

commercial nationality. In this category, dogs were dominant animals (43.5%, N=37) appeared

in EFFIE award-winning commercials. Dogs were the second largest category of animals in 20

commercials (20.2%) from the Chinese sample, which is approximately half amount of EFFIE.

Fish and birds were dominant animals in 37 (37.4%) Chinese award-winning commercials. Fish

and birds were the second largest type of animals in 22 (25.9%) commercials of the EFFIE

sample. Dogs, fish and birds appeared to be the preferred species used in commercials in both

countries. However, farm animals were found more frequently in Chinese ads than in EFFIE ads.

There were only 8 (9.4%) EFFIE commercials containing farm animals compared to 19 (19.2%)

Chinese commercials. As Table 4-16 shows, there was no difference in using other small animals

like insects, bees and worms as well as other large animals (lion, tiger, monkey, bear, cat, etc).

As shown in Table 4-17, a significant difference (2 =5.01, p<.05) exists between

domestic/wild species and commercial nationality. Domestic animals were the dominant animals

in the EFFIE sample, which were present in 56 commercials (65.9%). Chinese commercials were

equally used domestic animals and wild animals. A slightly more than half of the Chinese

commercials (50.5%, N=50) used wild animals compared to EFFIE commercials (34.1%, N=29).

The findings in Table 4-18 also reveal a significant difference (2 =11.90, p<.01) between

pet/labor/food/others species and commercial nationality. The animal type distribution in

Table 4-18 shows that pets (52.9%, N=45) were leading animals in EFFIE's commercials. There

were 31 Chinese commercials (31.3%) showed animals as pets. Animals as food were used in 14

(14.1%) Chinese commercials, which contrasts with EFFIE commercials (3.5%, N=3). Animals

as labor were used in 11 Chinese commercials (11.1%) and in contrast to EFFIE commercials

(8.2%, N=7).









* RQ4: do commercials containing animals run in China differ from those run in the United
States in terms of level of animal usage in commercial?

Nine variables in three categories were coded to examine the level of animal usage in

commercials. They were commercial approach, commercial setting and commercial characters.

The variable "Commercial setting" was recorded into two categories: indoors and outdoors. Other

values in this category, such as no setting and others were turned to missing data. The variable

"Setting where" was recorded into four categories: Chinese apartment /housing, American

apartment /housing, Chinese local/landmark and American local /landmark.

Commercial approach

As shown in Table 4-19, more than half of EFFIE commercials containing animals (51.8%,

N=44) used a neutral appeal. The remainder used an emotional appeal (32.9%, N=28) and a

rational appeal (15.3%, N=13). More than half of Chinese commercials containing animals

(53.5%, N=53) used an emotional appeal, followed by a neutral appeal (38.4%, N=38). The

smallest percentage was the rational appeal in the Chinese winners' category, which was only

8.1% (N=8) of the total Chinese sample. This finding is significant at a probability of .05

( 2 8.33).

Table 4-20 shows no significant difference exists between negative/positive approach and

commercial nationality. Commercials in both countries preferred to use neutral (63.5%, N=54

and 58.2%, N=53 respectively in EFFIE and Chinese commercials) approach. The negative

approach was used least (7.1%, N=6 and 4.0%, N=4 respectively in EFFIE and Chinese

commercials) in commercials containing animals. Table 4-21 shows there is no significant

deference between differentiating messages and commercial nationality. Based on the findings in

Table 4-21, more than three quarters of commercials (76.5%, N=65 in EFFIE and 79.8%, N=79

in the Chinese sample) contained no differentiating messages. Most of the coded commercials









from both countries did not make it clear that the message is unique, and most commercials did

not explicitly indicate uniqueness or difference of the product.

Commercial setting

The commercial setting category consists of two variables: what and where the dominant

commercial setting is depicted.

Tables 4-22 shows almost half of EFFIE commercials containing animals were shot

indoors (48.2%, N=40), compared to 28.1% (N=27) of Chinese commercials. More than half of

Chinese commercials (51.0%, N=49) were shot outdoors compared to 36.1% (N=30) of EFFIE

commercials. This finding is significant at a probability of .05 (2 =7.67). Table 4-23 shows that

there were 29 (59.2%) EFFIE commercials containing animals shot in American

apartment/housing and 20 (40.8%) commercials were shot at American local/landmarks. There

were 51.2% (N=21) of Chinese commercials shot in Chinese apartment and housing, followed by

46.3% (N=19) of commercials shot at Chinese local/landmarks. This finding is significant at a

probability of .01 (2 =86.16).

Commercial characters

The commercial characters category includes four variables: gender of the principle

characterss, the presence or absence of child or infant, the minor or main role of the animal, and

the animal is real or animated in commercial.

According to the findings shown in Table 4-24, 4-26 and 4-27, there was no significant

association between variables "Gender", "Real/Animated", "Main/Minor Role" and commercial

nationality. Males appeared more frequently than females in commercials containing animals for

both countries. Animals as the only characters) shown in commercials accounted for more than

20% (N=20) of the total sample respectively for both countries. More than 70% of animals









present in commercials appeared as real animals for both countries. Animals played a minor role

more often in both EFFIE commercials (61.2%, N=52) and Chinese commercials (71.1%, N=71).

However, Table 4-25 indicates that there is a significant difference (2 =6.02, p<.05)

between the presence of a child or an infant and commercial nationality. A child or infant was

present in 35 commercials (41.2%) in the EFFIE sample compared to 24 Chinese commercials

(24.2%) containing a child or an infant.

* RQ5: are the roles of animals portrayed in Chinese commercials different from American
commercials?

Table 4-28 shows the distribution of animal roles by EFFIE and Chinese award-winning

commercials. The findings reveal a significant difference ( 2=17.34, p<.01) between roles

animals played in commercial and commercial nationality. The presence of animal roles was

fairly equal among various Chinese award-winning commercials. The percentage of four

categories out of five animal roles was around 20%. The largest category that animals appeared

in Chinese commercials was as animal in nature and used in background (27.3%, N=27). The

next largest usage was animal as symbol (25.3%, N=25), followed by animal as loved ones

(20.2%, N=20), and animal as tool (19.2%, N=19). The least used was animals as nuisance

(8.1%, N=8). The dominant animal role for EFFIE winning commercials was animal as a loved

one (47.1%, N=40), which was more than twice as Chinese winning commercials. The second

highest percentage was animal as symbol (21.2%, N=18). Animals in nature and as background

accounted for 15.3% (N=13) of the total EFFIE sample, which was almost half the amount

present in Chinese commercials. Animal as tools appeared less in EFFIE winning commercials

(8.2%, N=7) than in Chinese commercials. Both countries preferred not to use animal as

nuisance.











Year Frequency Percent

1997 9 4.9
1999 38 20.7
2000 29 15.8
2001 17 9.2
2004 61 33.2
2005 30 16.3
Total 184 100.0


Table 4-2 Award year
EFFIE or Chinese Total
commercial
EFFIE Chinese
Awar Before Count% 47 29 76
d 2000/2000 within year 55.3% 29.3% 41.3%
Year After 2000 Count% 38 70 108
within year 44.7% 70.7% 58.7%
As Table 4-1 and Table 4-2 show, the findings support the HP1 that animals are used more
frequently in commercials after year 2000 than in the years before 2000.

Table 4-3 Frequency of Brand origin
Brand origin Frequency Percent
Domestic 71 38.6
Asia and Pacific 7 3.8
American 98 53.3
European 8 4.3
Total 184 100.0

Table 4-4 Frequency of Brand origin II
Brand Origin Frequency Percent
Eastern 78 42.4
Western 106 57.6
Total 184 100.0
Table 4-3 and Table 4-4 show that the hypothesis 2 is supported by findings.


Table 4-1


Frequency of award year









Table 4-5 Commercial format
Commercial format EFFIE Chinese Total

Slice of life 25 7 32
41.7% 9.5% 23.9%
Demonstration of product in use or by 8 9 17
analogy 13.3% 12.2% 12.7%
Comedy or satire 3 11 14
5.0% 14.9% 10.4%
Animation/cartoon/rotoscope 8 6 14
13.3% 8.1% 10.4%
Creation of mood or image as dominant 6 22 28
element 10.0% 29.7% 20.9%
Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as 10 19 29
dominant element 16.7% 25.7% 21.6%
Total 60 74 134
100% 100% 100%
X2 =25.79. df=5. p<.01.

Table 4-6 Commercial structure
Commercial structure EFFIE Chinese Total

Front-end impact 40 37 77
50.0% 38.9% 44.0%
Surprise or suspense 16 19 35
20.0% 20.0% 20.0%
Unusual setting or situation 9 17 26
11.3% 17.9% 14.9%
Blind lead-in 15 22 37
18.8% 23.2% 21.1%
Total 80 95 175
100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
X2 =2.90. df=3. not significant.









Table 4-7 Commercial appeals and selling propositions
Commercial appeals and selling propositions EFFIE Chinese Total

Attitude or ingredients as main message 6 10 16
8.1% 11.8% 10.1%
Product performance or benefits as main 24 18 42
message 32.4% 21.2% 26.4%
Psychological or subjective benefits as main 5 8 13
message 6.8% 9.4% 8.2%
Enjoyment appeals 8 6 14
10.8% 7.1% 8.8%
Self-esteem or self-image 7 13 20
9.5% 15.3% 12.6%
Achievement 13 16 29
17.6% 18.8% 18.2%
Excitement, sensation, variety 11 14 25
14.9% 16.5% 15.7%
Total 74 85 159
100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
X2 =4.57. df=6. not significant.

Table 4-8 Commercial tone and atmosphere
Commercial tone and atmosphere EFFIE Chinese Total

Happy and comfortable 35 43 78
42.7% 45.7% 44.3%
Tense and uncomfortable 11 15 26
13.4% 16.0% 14.8%
Contemporary and Futuristic 8 11 19
9.8% 11.7% 10.8%
Traditional and old fashion 8 8 16
9.8% 8.5% 9.1%
Humorous 20 17 37
24.4% 18.1% 21.0%
Total 82 94 176
100% 100% 100%
X2 =1.34. df=4. not significant. Hypothesis 3 is partially supported by findings in the Table 4-5,
Table 4-6, Table 4-7 and Table 4-8. Chinese commercials containing animals are different from
American commercials in terms of commercial format, but are not different from American
commercials in terms of commercial appeal/selling proposition, commercial tone/ atmosphere
and commercial structure.









Table 4-9 Human-animal relationships
Animal human relationships EFFIE Chinese Total

Beloved 35 21 56
42.2% 21.4% 30.9%
Friendly 25 19 44
30.1% 19.4% 24.3%
Neutral 12 37 49
14.5% 37.8% 27.1%
Aggressive 11 21 32
13.3% 21.4% 17.7%
Total 83 98 181
100% 100% 100%
Z2 =19.08. df=3. p<.01. Hypothesis 4 is supported by findings in Table 4-9, which indicates that
human-animal relationships depicted in Chinese TV commercials are different from the United
States.

Table 4-10 Animal(s) in commercials is individual or in a group
Animal in commercial is individual or in EFFIE Chinese Total
a group

Individual 64 58 122
75.3% 58.6% 66.3%
In a group 21 41 62
24.7% 41.4% 33.7%
Total 85 99 184
100% 100% 100%
Z2 =5.72. df=l. p<.05. Table 4-10 shows hypothesis 5 is supported by findings, which indicates
that animals in American commercials are more likely to appear individually, while animals in
Chinese commercials are more likely to appear in a group.









Table 4-11 Product category
Product category EFFIE Chinese Total

Food/Beverage 12 24 36
14.5% 24.5% 19.9%
Household Products/Furnishing/Supplies 11 9 20
13.3% 9.2% 11.0%
Pharmaceuticals 4 11 15
4.8% 11.2% 8.3%
Personal Products 7 10 17
8.4% 10.2% 9.4%
Transportation/Tourism/Recreation 11 8 19
13.3% 8.2% 10.5%
Children's Product 6 0 6
7.1% .0% 3.3%
Corporate Image and Media 8 11 19
9.4% 11.1% 10.3%
Pet Care 7 0 7
8.4% .0% 3.9%
Public/Business Equipment/Service 8 6 14
9.6% 6.1% 7.7%
Telecom/Electronics/Internet/ 9 19 28
10.8% 19.4% 15.5%
Total 83 98 181
100% 100% 100%
X2 =24.73. df=9. p<.01.

Table 4-12 Durable/Non-durable product/service category
Durable/Non-durable product/service EFFIE Chinese 1 Total

Durable 17 24 41
20.0% 24.2% 22.3%
Non-durable 68 75 143
80.0% 75.8% 77.7%
Total 85 99 184
100% 100% 100%
X2 =.48. df=l. not significant.









Table 4-13 Products/service category
Products/service EFFIE Chinese Total

Products 67 83 150
78.8% 83.8% 81.5%
Service 18 16 34
21.2% 16.2% 18.5%
Total 85 99 184
100% 100% 100%
x2 =.76. df=l. not significant.

Table 4-14 Traditional/New product/service category
Traditional/New product/service EFFIE Chinese Total

Traditional products/service 66 77 143
77.6% 77.8% 77.7%
New products/service 19 22 41
22.4% 22.2% 22.3%
Total 85 99 184
100% 100% 100%
X2 =.00. df=l. not significant.









Table 4-15 Frequency of animal species
Animal Species EFFIE Chinese Total

Dog 37 20 57
43.5% 20.2% 31.0%
Fish 6 15 21
7.1% 15.2% 11.4%
Songbird 6 6 12
7.1% 6.1% 6.5%
Horse 2 9 11
2.4% 9.1% 6.0%
Cat 6 4 10
7.1% 4.0% 5.4%
Chick 2 5 7
2.4% 5.1% 3.8%
Duck 4 2 6
4.7% 2.0% 3.3%
Penguin 2 4 6
2.4% 4.0% 3.3%
Dragon 0 3 3
0 3.0% 1.6%
Frog 1 3 4
1.2% 3.0% 2.2%
Others 19 28 47
22.4% 28.3% 25.5%
Total 85 99 184
100% 100% 100%
Z2 =53.31. df=44. not significant.









Table 4-16 Animal species
Species EFFIE Chinese Total

Dogs 37 20 57
43.5% 20.2% 31.0%
Farm animals 8 19 27
9.4% 19.2% 14.7%
Fish and birds 22 37 59
25.9% 37.4% 32.1%
Other small animals 3 6 9
3.5% 6.1% 4.9%
Other large animals 15 17 32
17.6% 17.2% 17.4%
Total 85 99 184
100% 100% 100%
2= 13.50. df=4. p<.01.

Table 4-17 Animal species: domestic/wild
Species: domestic/wild EFFIE Chinese Total

Domestic 56 49 105
65.9% 49.5% 57.1%
Wild 29 50 79
34.1% 50.5% 42.9%
Total 85 99 184
100% 100% 100%
X2 =5.01. df=l. p<.05.

Table 4-18 Animal species: pet/labor/food/others
Species pet/labor/food/others EFFIE Chinese Total

Pet 45 31 76
52.9% 31.3% 41.3%
Labor 7 11 18
8.2% 11.1% 9.8%
Food 3 14 17
3.5% 14.1% 9.2%
Others 30 43 73
35.3% 43.4% 39.7%
Total 85 99 184
100% 100% 100%
2 =11.90. df=3. p<.01.









Table 4-19 Commercial approach
Commercial approach EFFIE Chinese Total

Rational 13 8 21
15.3% 8.1% 11.4%
Emotional 28 53 81
32.9% 53.5% 44.0%
Neutral 44 38 82
51.8% 38.4% 44.6%
Total 85 99 184
100% 100% 100%
2 =8.33. df=2. p<.05.

Table 4-20 Positive or negative
Positive or negative EFFIE Chinese Total

Positive 25 42 67
29.4% 42.4% 36.4%
Negative 6 4 10
7.1% 4.0% 5.4%
Neutral 54 53 107
63.5% 53.5% 58.2%
Total 85 99 184
100% 100% 100%
S2 =3.68. df=2. not significant.

Table 4-21 Differential message
Differential message EFFIE Chinese Total


Presence 20 20 40
23.5% 20.2% 21.7%
Absence 65 79 144
76.5% 79.8% 78.3%
Total 85 99 184
100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
,2 =.30. df=l. not significant.









Table 4-22 Setting
Setting EFFIE Chinese Total

Indoors 40 27 67
48.2% 28.1% 37.4%
Outdoors 30 49 79
36.1% 51.0% 44.1%
No setting 13 20 33
15.7% 20.8% 18.4%
Total 83 96 179
100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Z2 =7.67. df=2. p<.05.

Table 4-23 Setting Where
Setting Where EFFIE Chinese Total

Chinese apartment/housing 0 19 19
.0% 46.3% 21.1%
American apartment/housing 29 0 29
59.2% .0% 32.2%
Chinese locale/landmark 0 21 22
0% 51.2% 24.4%
American locale/landmark 20 1 20
40.8% 2.4% 22.2%
Total 49 41 90
100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
2 =86.16. df=3. p<.01.

Table 4-24 Commercial characters: gender
Commercial characters: gender EFFIE Chinese Total

Male 38 37 75
44.7% 37.4% 40.8%
Female 9 16 25
10.6% 16.2% 13.6%
Both 18 26 44
21.2% 26.3% 23.9%
Animals 20 20 40
23.5% 20.2% 21.7%
Total 85 99 184
100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
x2 =2.38. df=3. not significant.









Table 4-25 Presence of a child or an infant
Child or infant EFFIE Chinese Total

Yes 35 24 59
41.2% 24.2% 32.1%
No 50 75 125
58.8% 75.8% 67.9%
Total 85 99 184
100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
x2 =6.02. df=l. p<.05.

Table 4-26 Real or animated
Re al or animated EFFIE Chinese Total

Real 64 71 135
75.3% 71.7% 73.4%
Animated 21 28 49
24.7% 28.3% 26.6%
Total 85 99 184
100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
x2 =0.30. df=l. not significant.

Table 4-27 Main or minor role
Main or minor role EFFIE Chinese Total

Main 33 28 61
38.8% 28.3% 33.2%
Minor 52 71 123
61.2% 71.7% 66.8%
Total 85 99 184
100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
x2 =2.29. df=l. not significant.









Table 4-28 Roles animal played in commercials
Roles in commercials EFFIE Chinese Total

Loved one 40 20 60
47.1% 20.2% 32.6%
Symbol 18 25 43
21.2% 25.3% 23.4%
Nuisance 7 8 15
8.2% 8.1% 8.2%
In nature and background 13 27 40
15.3% 27.3% 21.7%
Tool 7 19 26
8.2% 19.2% 14.1%
Total 85 99 184
100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Z2 =17.34. df=4. p<.01.









CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

Discussion of the Findings

Our study analyzed a combined total of 184 EFFIE award-winning commercials and

Chinese Advertising Festival award-winning commercials containing animals from years 1997,

1999, 2000, 2001, 2004 and 2005. The study examined the usage and executions of animals and

the human-relationship, as well as the animal roles shown in award-winning commercials. This

was accomplished by adopting a variable-analysis framework of animal television commercials

developed by American scholars Lerner and Kalof (1999) and executional factor framework by

Steward and Furse (1986).

A quantitative content analysis was applied to achieve the results by coding 184 TV

commercials on 23 variables. These are award year, brand origin, product/service category,

commercial appeal/selling proposition, commercial approach, commercial setting, commercial

tone/atmosphere, commercial format, commercial characters, and animal species, human-animal

relationship, roles animal played in commercials, as well as animal in individual or in a group.

The Chi-square test and crosstabulations were conducted to explore the significant differences

between those variables. Four of five hypotheses were supported (chapter 4).

* HP1: animals are used more frequently in commercials after year 2000 than in the years
before 2000.

* HP2: animals are used more frequently in western brand product or service advertisements
than in eastern brand product or service advertisements.

Hypothesis 1 and 2 are both supported by findings in current study. Award-winning

commercials containing animals increased from years 1997 to 2005, which was especially

evident in Chinese award-winning commercials. There was a sharp increase after 2000 than

before 2000, as reflected in the data collected in the Chinese sample. After 2000, because of









economic prosperity and the modernization in China, advertisers in China realized the

importance of animal appeal in commercials and applied it more in commercials. As discussed in

the literature review, substantial symbolic importance and cultural implications of animals were

realized by western advertisers for many years. Animal usage in all kinds of advertisements has a

long history and powerful presence in western media. Commercials containing animals are

presented more often for western brands than eastern brands, due to the importance of animals as

symbolic sign and cultural representation in western communication history and the recognition

of its importance.

* HP3: Chinese commercials containing animals are different from American commercials
in terms of commercial appeal/selling proposition, commercial tone/ atmosphere, structure
and format.

Hypothesis 3 is partially supported by the findings in current study. Chinese commercials

are different from American commercials in terms of commercial format, but not in terms of

commercial appeal/selling proposition, commercials tone /atmosphere, and commercial structure.

There is no significant difference between commercials appeal/selling proposition,

commercials tone/atmosphere, and commercial structure and commercial nationality. However,

statistical differences appear in award-winning commercials in terms of commercial format in

two countries. Animals were mostly present in ordinary life, as a part of real-life, and depicted as

a family member or a friend. They are more humanized in U.S. ads than in Chinese ads. Chinese

advertisement use animals more as symbols to represent the image of products or service, to

create an emotional mood in commercials and to symbolize the fantasy, exaggeration or

surrealism instead of realistic elements. This may be explained by the Hall's (1994) low context

and high context culture theory. In low context culture, such as the United States, information

and messages is carried in explicit codes, while in a high-context culture like in China,









information and messages is carried more in inexplicit codes. In advertising, rational and realistic

elements are found more frequently in low context cultures, while symbolism and indirect

expression are found more often in high context cultures. In this study, animal was served as a

cultural code. So, the commercials format for award-winning commercials containing animals in

each country is different.

* HP4: human-animal relationships depicted in Chinese TV commercials are different from
those in the United States.

Hypothesis 4 is accepted by the findings in current study.

Human-animal relationship is an important index to examine cultural differences. The

interaction with animals and humans in commercials reflected the cultural value differences

between China and the United States. In current study, beloved animals were dominant in EFFIE

winners. Dogs were the dominant animal species in American commercials. American ads were

shown with dogs as their companions, their friends and family members. Beloved animals can be

used as an effective way in commercials to attract audience's attention and appeal to their

sympathy. Chinese advertisements also took animals as their beloved ones, but beloved animals

are not as dominant as in the United States. Chinese commercials also preferred more aggressive

animals at the same time. However, aggressive animals were largely absent in American

commercials. One explanation for this may be seen in Hofstede's (2003) power of distance index.

The United States is a country with a very low score of PDI (40) compared to China's very high

score of PDI (80). Aggressive animals in advertising are characterized by authority, power and

status. As a result, the images of animals portrayed in commercials and the attitudes toward the

various animals in two countries should be different.

* HP5: animals in American commercials are more likely to appear individually, while
animals in Chinese commercials are more likely to appear in a group.









Hypothesis 5 is supported by the findings in current study. According to Hofstede's

individualism/collectivism cultural dimension, China is a country with a very low score of IDV

(24). This sharply contrasts to a very high score of IDV (91) in the United States. The findings

suggested that this may be reflected by the way animals appealed in commercials in each country.

The majority of animals in American commercials appeared individually. However, the way

most of the animals appeared in Chinese commercials were in a group or collectively.

* RQ1: do Chinese commercials containing animals differ by product/service category from
those run in the United States?

The product and services categories that most often used animals in commercials were the

food and beverage categories in both countries. This finding agrees with the study of Lerner and

Kalof (1999). The second largest category was household products/furnishing/supplies for the

United States. This is consistent with the findings for research question three, in which domestic

animals were found as dominant animals. The setting in which animals appeared most frequently

were in American apartments and homes. This may be as a rationale for why household

products/ furnishing/supplies became the largest category after food/beverage. However, there

were significant differences in the occurrence in three product/service categories between two

countries. Animals were used in pet care and children's product categories, but none of them

present in Chinese winners. On the one hand, it's because the pet care industry is

underdeveloped in China, and there were not many pet care product/service commercials

(including pet food, pet toy, pet medicare and etc.) in the sample. Currently, most Chinese prefer

to feed pets with table leftovers. On the other hand, children's products are not advertised

frequently in China and were not selected as finalists in China Advertising Festival sample.

Pharmaceuticals category was a large category that often used animals in Chinese ads, which is

contrary to America. Hall's (1994) degree of context in communication system can make the









explanation for this finding. The United States is a low context culture country, where American

commercials mostly applied rational appeal and explicit and direct expression to the

pharmaceuticals product/service category. They made it very clear what are benefits of the

medicine, how effective it can be and how to use it. Animal appeals may not as much helpful as

celebrity endorsement, product users or doctors for pharmaceutical commercials. However, in an

extreme high context culture like China, where advertising is characterized by symbolism or

indirect verbal expression (Mooij, 2005), animals appeared more frequently. Furthermore, the

Chinese Industry and Business Department has strict regulations on pharmaceutical aired

commercials. The symptom of the illness and the patient can not be depicted directly in aired

commercials. As a result, animals are used frequently as allegories to symbolize or represent the

patients.

RQ2: What kind of animal species most frequently appear in commercials in the United

States and China respectively?

As the findings show, the dominant animal appearing in American commercials are dogs,

the less frequently animals are fish, songbirds and cats with the same occurrence respectively.

There was no one overwhelmingly dominant animal in Chinese award-winning commercials.

However, the dog was the leading animal, followed closely by fish. Dogs, fish and birds

appeared to be the preferred species used in commercials in both countries.

* RQ3: do commercials containing animals run in China differ from those run in the United
States in terms of frequency of animal type?
There is significant difference between animal type and commercial nationality. Farm

animals were frequently used in Chinese commercials but not used often in American

commercials. Chinese ads preferred to show fish and birds. Gold fish and birds in cages were

more frequently depicted as pets in Chinese culture. Gold fish were present in many Chinese









commercials. In Chinese culture, gold fish serves as the symbol of wealth. Some birds in cages,

like parrots, canaries as well as peacocks are often used as symbols of fortune that can bring luck

in Chinese culture. Because of China's long history of agrarian society, Chinese people have

strong relationships with farm animals that can be used as tool. The finding supports this as a

high percentage of farm animals and animal as labor present in Chinese commercials. China also

has a history of raising domestic animals as food and their involvement with those animals is

also an important part of their daily life. As a matter of fact, animal for food, such as fish, chicks,

ducks and other poultries appeared in high percentages in Chinese commercials. Domestic

animals and animals as pets were dominant in American commercials due to the reason

discussed above.

* RQ4: do commercials containing animals run in China differ from the United States in
terms of level of animal usage in commercial?

As discussed in the findings, the animal usage in commercials in two countries is different

in terms of commercial approach, commercial setting, and presence of a child or an infant. Most

American commercials applied to rational appeals. However, Chinese commercials utilized more

of emotional appeals. This can be explained by Hall's low and high culture context as discussed

in RQ 1. In low context culture like the United States, information and communication is

economical, fast and efficient (Hall, 1994). Use of rational appeals is a good way to persuade

audience in low context culture. In high context culture like China, much symbolic, indirect, and

inexplicit expression is used. Emotional appeals are good ways to evoke feelings among the

audience.

American commercials contained animals shown indoors in American apartments and

house. This finding was highly consistent with results for Hypothesis 4 and Research Questions

2 and 3. Because American ads like to use domestic animals as pets and beloved ones frequently









in food/beverages and household products/furnishings/supplies product categories, American ads

present animals indoors in American apartment and house. Because Chinese ads preferred to use

aggressive animals in commercials, or depict a strong involvement with farm animals as tool,

Chinese ads present animals outdoors and at Chinese local/landmarks.

Due to absence of commercials for children's product in Chinese award winning

commercials as discussed in research question 1, there was no presence of child or infant in

Chinese commercials which is very different from America.

* RQ5: are the roles of animals portrayed in Chinese commercials different from American
commercials?

The findings show that the roles of animals depicted in Chinese commercials are very

different from American commercials. Because of the affections toward domestic pet, the

dominant roles animals play in American commercials are loved ones. Animals depicted in

symbolic roles were less frequently used in American ads. Animal in nature and as background

followed in usage. Animals were least portrayed as tool and also as nuisance in American

commercials. Based on the findings, animal was twice likely to be portrayed as loved ones in

American commercials than in Chinese commercials. The largest category in Chinese

commercials was animals in nature and as background, closely followed by animals as symbol.

Animals as loved ones were the third largest category. The smallest category was animal as

nuisance. Animals in nature, such as songbirds chirping, pigeons flying in the sky, and fish

swimming in the river and etc. were the most frequent roles animals played in Chinese

commercials. There are three types of relationships between humanity and nature: mastery over

nature, harmony with nature and subjugation to nature (Mooij, 2005). The North American

relationship to nature is that it should be conquered. For western people, man should be the

master of the nature; however, the Asian people believe that man should live in harmony with









nature (Mooij, 2005). Chinese culture is a culture with a high respect to nature and Chinese

people would like to be in a harmonious relationship with nature. They take nature as part of

their life. This can be an explanation for the reason why animals in nature and as background

were most frequently appeared in Chinese commercials. Furthermore, given the reasons

presented in HP4 and RQ 3, American society has long been an industrial society, therefore,

most American people don't have strong affections with farm animals as tools, but due to the

long agrarian history and strong involvement with farm animals, animal as tool become a large

proportion in Chinese award-winning commercials.

A Profile of a Typical American and Chinese Award-Winning Commercial Containing
Animal(s)

Based on the current study, a profile of usage and execution of animals in a typical award-

winning commercial in both countries respectively is offered:

A typical American award-winning commercial containing animals) would likely:

* Advertise a food/beverage product or household product/furnishing /supplies category.

* Contain the product performance or benefit as the main message.

* Use front-end impact as commercial structure.

* Apply slice of life as commercial format with a happy and comfortable tone and
atmosphere.

* Use a rational and positive approach.

* Include a female character.

* Be set indoors in an American apartment and housing.

* Be depicted as beloved animals such as a companion and a family member, especially a
dog.

* Use a domestic animal and pet.

* A child or infant would probably also be present in this commercial.









* Use real animal as minor character.

* The animal in the commercial would appear individually.

A typical Chinese award-winning commercial containing animals) would likely:

* Advertise a food/beverage product or telecom/Internet/Electronics product/service
category.

* Contain the product performance or benefit as the main message.

* Use front-end impact as commercial structure.

* Apply creation of mood or image as dominant commercial format with a happy and
comfortable tone and atmosphere.

* Use an emotional and positive approach.

* Include a female character.

* Be set outdoors in a Chinese local/landmark setting.

* Use an animal in nature or background, especially a fish or a bird.

* Use a wild animal.

* A child or infant would probably be absent in this commercial.

* Use a real animal as minor character.

* The animal in commercial would appear in a group.

Comparison with Studies in Literature Review

The findings support Lerner and Kalof s study (1999) in terms of several variables, and

also reflect Hofstede's cultural dimension study, and Hall's low context and high context culture

study as discussed above. According to Lerner and Kalof s study (1999) on animals in American

TV commercials, the animal in their research can be used as logo, background, the spokesman,

the tool, the nuisances and the icons. They are classified into several categories based on their

relationships with human, such as companions, friends, loved ones and enemies. They also









categorized six primary themes: animals as loves ones, as symbols, as tools, as allegories, as

nuisances, and in nature. They found that dogs and birds were most frequently used animals in

their study, which was demonstrated in current study. The products and services that often used

animals in ads were food and drink categories, which were also supported in current study. They

also found that animal as loved ones were most popular animals in commercials, and less

frequently used as symbols, the third largest theme was the animals as tools, and the smallest one

was animal as nuisance. The current study's findings strongly reflect similar order of frequency.

Implications

There are several substantive implications from the findings. The academic implication of

this study is animals in advertisements should be studied in relation to cultural differences. The

practical implication is when developing international marketing strategies, marketers must

consider cultural differences among different countries and utilize an adaptive strategy.

Marketers should be aware of ascribed meanings of animals and cultural representations of those

animals to increase the cultural capability and persuasiveness of their messages.

Secondly, the current study offers a comparison of typical award winning commercials

containing animals in the United States and China. What kind of animal would be preferred,

what kind of human-animal relationship should be depicted, and what species of animals and

their relationship with humans were critical for the audience in each country.

At last, the current study reveals the cultural value reflected by animals in commercials,

which can be a guide for advertisers who want to target oversea marketing. When advertisers in

America try to expand to Chinese or Asian market or Chinese advertisers try to enter into the

American market, they should consider cultural differences and audiences' preference between

two countries. This study offers a clue of how to create a commercial where animals can be an

effective and attractive appeal to consumers in different countries. How to present animals in









commercials in order to avoid the cultural offense, cultural confliction, and satisfy the tastes of

audience in different countries are underscored by the findings of the current study.

Limitations

The limitations of this study come from content analysis methodology itself. First, there is

sample limitation. A total sample of 184 ads in this study may be not enough to get a

comprehensive and accurate research result. The number of EFFIE award winning commercials

(N=85) and Chinese award winning commercials (N=99) were not exactly equal. The sample

was not comprehensive due to the missing years of 2002 and 2003 and incomplete collections of

2000 and 2001 Chinese commercials as well as 2005 EFFIE commercials. However, the sample

was adequate for current study.

Another limitation is the variable analysis framework adopted in this study. The findings

of a particular content analysis are limited to the framework of the categories and the operational

definitions used in that analysis (Wimmer & Dominick, 2003). Different researchers may use a

different framework to study the same topic and may get different results. The author adopted the

framework of Stewart and Furse's study in 1986 and Lerner and Kalof s study in 1999, which

may not be the most updated framework that can examine this research topic. Furthermore, only

14 variables out of 155 executional variables in Stewart and Furse's study were adopted to

examine the usage and execution of animals in commercials. There were only 7 variables built

up to examine the human-animal relationships in current study. In order to get a more accurate

result, the study may be expanded for a more extensive scope.

Finally, the sample applied in current study was award-winning commercials, which may

not represent the other non-award-winning commercials aired in daily life. Award-winning ads

may not reflect all cultural value differences in between both countries. Award-winning

commercials stand for the highest creativity and production standards in advertising industry.









However, award-winning ads apply for some specific features, elements, particular tactics,

techniques, and forms which can not include various aspects of ads aired in daily life.

Furthermore, what kind of ads can be selected as the winners depend on judge's evaluation. The

subjectivity of the judges and the standardization of specific awards may limit the cultural

diversity of ads. As a matter of fact, not all cultural values can be reflected by award-winning ads.

Suggestions for Future Study

In responding to the limitations discussed above, some suggestions for future study are

made. First, expand the number of years in the total sample to do a more comprehensive content

analysis, for example, a continuous ten years of research. Secondly, other commercials from

other Asian countries and European countries can be used to conduct a more extensive content

analysis between eastern and western countries. Thirdly, expand current sample to contain print

ads and other types of advertisements. Moreover, adopt other updated analysis frameworks

which are not limited to award winning commercials containing animals, but non-award-winning

commercials aired in TV networks which may comprehensively reflected cultural values in real

life.









APPENDIX
CODING SHEET FOR CHINESE AWARD-WINNING TV COMMERCIALS AND EFFIE
AWARD-WINNING COMMERCIALS BETWEEN 1997AND 2006


TV Commercial ID #

Variable 1: Nationality
1>EFFIE Award-winning commercial
2>Chinese Award-winning commercial

Variable 2: Award year
1> 1997
2> 1999
3> 2000
4> 2001
5> 2002
6> 2003
7> 2004
8> 2005


Variable 3: Category
1> Agriculture/Industrial/Building
2> Alcoholic Beverages
3> Apparel and Accessories
4> Automobiles& Vehicles
5> Beauty Aids
6> Beverages
7> Breakfast Foods
8> Business Products
9> Children's Products
10> Computer& Related for
Business/Personal Purpose
11> Consumer Electronics
12> Cosmetics
13> Credit/Debit Cards
14> Delivery Systems and Products
15> Entertainment
16> Fashion
17> Fast Food and Restaurants
18> Financial Services/Products
19> General Retail/Etail


20> Pharmaceuticals
21> Hotels and Resorts
22> Household Durable Products
23> Industrial/ Building Products and
Services
24> Internet Services
25> Leisure Products
26> Savory Food
27> Personal Care Products
28> Pet Care
29> Professional Service
30> Real Estate
31> Retail
32> Telecom Service
33> Transportation
34> Travel and Tourism
35> Corporate Image
36> Public Service
37> Printed/Electronic Media
38> Others


If Category is not listed or confusing, please write here









Variable 4: Brand Origin
1> Domestic (Greater China including Mainland, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan)
2> Asia and Pacific
3> American
4> European
5> Others

Variable 5: Language usage
1> Chinese mandarin
2> Cantonese
3> English
4> Chinese and English

Commercial Appeals or Selling Propositions
Variable 6: What is the dominant commercial appeal or selling proposition?
1> Attitude or ingredients as main message 7> Safety appeals
2> Product performance or benefit as main 8> Enjoyment appeals
message 9> Welfare appeals
3> Psychological or subjective benefits as 10> Social approval
main message 11> Self-esteem or self-image
4> Product reminder as main message 12> Achievement
5> Sexual appeals 13> Excitement, sensation, variety
6> Comfort appeals

Commercial Structure
Variable 7: What is the dominant commercial structure?
1> Front-end impact 4> Unusual setting or situation
2> Surprise or suspense in the middle 5> Humorous closing
3> Surprise or suspense at closing 6> Blind lead-in

Commercial Format
Variable 8: What is the dominant commercial format of the commercial?
1> vignette 12> Creation of mood or image as
2> Continuity of action dominant element
3> Slice of life 13> Commercial written as serious
4> Testimonial by product user drama
5> Endorsement by celebrity or authority 14> Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism
6> Announcement as dominant element
7> Demonstration of product in use or by 15> Problem and solution (before/after
analogy presentation)
8> Demonstration of results of using 16> Interview (person on the street or


product
9> Comedy or satire
10> Animation/cartoon/rotoscope
11> Photographic stills


elsewhere)
17> Camera involves audience in
situation
18> New wave (product graphics)











Commercial Approach
Variable 9: What is the dominant commercial approach?
1> Rational
2> Emotional
3> Neutral

Variable 10: What is the dominant commercial approach?
1> Positive
2> Negative
3> Neutral

Variable 11: Brand-differentiating message
1> Presence
2> Absence

Commercial Setting
Variable 12: What is the dominant commercial setting?
1> Indoors
2> Outdoors
3> Others
4> No setting


Variable 13: Where is the commercial setting?
1> Traditional Chinese apartment/housing
2> Modem Chinese apartment/housing
3> Generic office/business setting
4> Generic restaurant setting
5> American locale/landmark
6> Chinese locale/landmark


Commercial Tone and Atmosphere
Variable 14: Commercial Tone and Atmosphere
1> Cute/adorable
2> Hard sell
3> Warm and caring
4> Modem/contemporary
5> Wholesome/healthy
6> Technological/futuristic
7> Conservative/traditional
8> Old fashion/nostalgic
9> Happy/fun-loving


7> Foreign locale/landmark (except
Chinese and American locale/landmark)
8> Mountainous area
9> Not applicable
10> Other
11> American apartment/ housing


10>
11>
12>
13>
14>
15>
16>
17>


Cool/laid-back
Somber/serious
Uneasy/tense/irritated
Relaxed/comfortable
Glamorous
Humorous
Suspenseful
Rough/tugged









Commercial Characters
Variable 15: Principle characters) male or female?
1> Male
2> Female
3> Both
4> Other

Variable 16: Principle character (s) child or infant?
1> Yes
2> No

Variable 17: Animal(s) in commercials real or animated?
1> Real
2> Animated

Variable 18: Animal (s) in minor role or main role?
1> Main
2> Minor


Variable 19: Animal(s)' Roles in Commercial:
1> Loved one
2> Symbol
3> Tool
4> Allegory


5> Nuisance
6> Enemy
7> In nature
8> Background


Variable 20: Animal-human relationships in commercials:
0> Not applicable 3> Neutral
1> Beloved 4> Aggressive
2> Friendly 5> Disastrous


Variable 21: Specie of the animal in commercials:
1> Dog 16>
2> Cat 17>
3> Fish 18>
4> Pigeon 19>
5> Songbird 20>
6> Monkey 21>
7> Horse 22>
8> Chick 23>
9> Duck 24>
10> Penguin 25>
11> Worm 26>
12> Fly 27>
13> Lizard 28>
14> Tiger 29>
15> Others 30>


Wild goose
Seagull
Gigantic beast
Bear
Elephant
Alligator
Mouse
Red lobster
Monster
Gopher
Frog
Shark
Zebra
Kangaroo
Dragon









Camel
Bee
Sea turtle
Grasshopper
Sheep
Turtle
Shrimp
Mosquito


39> Roach
40> Yak
41> Butterfly
42> Dinosaur
43> Goat
44> Pig
45> Donkey
46> Oyster


Variable 22: How many kinds of animals in commercials:
1> One kind of animals)
2> Two kinds of animals
3> Three kinds of animals
4> More than three kinds of animals

Variable 23: Animal(s) in commercial appears) individually or in a group:
1> Individually
2> In a group


31>
32>
33>
34>
35>
36>
37>
38>









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Lingling Xiang came from a beautiful city: Chengdu, the capital of the Sichuan province of

China. She spent her childhood and youth time in Neijiang, another city of Sichuan province,

which is famous for three icons, the world popular spicy and hot food, the lovely giant panda,

and the largest number of World Natural and Cultural Heritage Sites in China recognized by the

UN. Now, it is known for the 8.0 magnitude Sichuan earthquake and the strong and respected

Sichuan people in this disaster.

She has an interdisciplinary academic background and previous professional experience

Her Chinese academic background includes a bachelor's degree in Radio-TV Journalism at

Sichuan University in summer 2000, and a professional certification of Broadcasting and

Television Management at Communication University of China as well as a master's degree in

Arts and Literature at Xiamen University in 2006. She is scheduled to earn a Masters of

Advertising degree at University of Florida at August in 2008. Lingling spent three years (2000-

2003) professionally working for the media industry at the Advertising Center of Sichuan

Broadcasting&TV Group as a copy writer and an editor during which she produced a multitude

of public service advertisements and documentaries for China Hope Project as well as

commercials in the fight against SARS virus in 2003. As the youngest winner of the Golden

Eagle Advertising Award by China TV Arts Association, Lingling also participated in making

several award-winning commercials and producing some television programs and entertainment

shows. Being a firm believer in the dissemination of knowledge, she is interested in international

advertising market. She plan to intern in the exciting advertising related industry in the States

before she flies back to her homeland to be a practitioner in the booming advertising industry in

China.





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ANIMAL USE IN AWARD-WINNING TV COMMERCIALS IN CHINA VERSUS THE U.S By LINGLING XIANG A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008 1

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2008 Lingling Xiang 2

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To my Dad Bengu and Mom Yurong for bringing me into this world 3

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My thesis would not have become a substa ntial one without many peoples support. I thank my most beloved parents, my Dad Be ngu and my Mom Yurong. Words can not express my appreciation for them in language. They spent their savings and sent me to America to get advanced education. Their unconditi onal love and endless encouragements always make me to be confident, to be strong and to get through th e difficulties in my life. With their love, I could face bravely the loneliness and the ups-and-dow ns during the time I was studying in America alone. Although I am far away from them I feel they are here beside me. Special thanks go to my awesome aunt Liqun. Sh e is like my Mom and cares about my life here a lot. She collected the Chinese award-winni ng commercials for me and sent them to me by email. It was time-consuming work. I appr eciate her patience and consideration. Friends are an important part of my life. I can not imagine the life without those lovely friends: My life-long friend and soul mate Liyu whom I knew since middle school, my best friends and classmates Hongmei and Chenyu in Xiamen University with whom I shared laughter and tears and spend a very happy and meaningful time, my colleag ues Lilan, Ruijie, Chenzhuo in Sichuan TV station in China who still believe me support me and care about me. I am lucky that I can make sincere and true friends at UF: Abao, Chenshi, Danielle and etc. We know each other. We travel together. They were here beside me when I felt loneliness, when I need someone to talk to, and when I ask for help. Special mentio n goes to them. During the time I was working on my thesis, Abao offered me her room and cooked for me everytime I went back to Gainesville from Orlando where I did my internship. My fr iend Chenshi always picked me up at the bus station and listened to my complains at my mo st difficult time. My Korean friend Sujung I knew in Orlando gave me a lot of supports when I was working on thesis. She is awesome. I also thank 4

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my classmates and friends in advertising department: Irtifa, Elaine, Soo, MJ, and others. I learned a lot from them. I thank them for ma king my life at UF colorful and enjoyable. Also I am very grateful to my committee memb ers: chair: Dr. Marilyn Roberts; Dr. Morton; and Dr. Zhang. Their enthusiasm on Chinese advertising, their insightf ul perspectives and thoughtful reviews made my thesis possible. Sp ecial thanks go to my chair Dr. Roberts who offered me a lot of materials and collected E FFIE award-winning commercials for me. I thank her for her patience on me and her hard work on my thesis. If she didnt push me like that, I can not complete this thesis. During the time I was working on my thesis, a terrible disaster happe ned in my hometown: Sichuan province. I sincerely thank those strong Chinese people in the affection of the Sichuan earthquake. I am worried about my families and friends but cant do anything. The best I can do is be confident. At that time, I really wanted to be a superman, flying to my hometown to be there beside them, even though it was the most dange rous area in the world. I would like to get through the difficulties in my life with my belove d ones, beside them, hand in hand. After these days, I believe, even though I was far away, many volunteers, our armies, and our prime minister, were there with them on behalf of me. I th ank our leader, our soldiers, our people and international friends who are fighting on the eart hquake frontlines now. Fi nally, I would like to thank myself for finishing this manuscript. I knew I could do it. 5

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................8 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................12 Purpose of the Study........................................................................................................... ....12 Significance of the Study........................................................................................................12 2 LITERRATURE REVIEW.....................................................................................................15 Symbolism and Anthropomorphism.......................................................................................15 Animals as Symbols........................................................................................................15 Anthropomorphism and Huma n-Animal Relationships..................................................16 Perceptions of Human-Animal Relationships in Ads.............................................................17 Human-Animal Relationships in Popular Culture...........................................................17 Human Animal Relationships in Advertisements.........................................................18 Animals in TV Commercials...........................................................................................19 Cultural Difference.................................................................................................................21 Cultural Differences in Visual Communications............................................................21 Western vs. Eastern Asian Cultures................................................................................22 The United States vs. China............................................................................................24 Hypotheses and Research Questions......................................................................................26 3 METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................................29 Content Analysis Design........................................................................................................29 Variable Analysis Framework................................................................................................29 Stewart and Furses Study...............................................................................................29 Lerner and Kalofs Study (1999).....................................................................................30 Coding Categories and Operational Definitions.....................................................................31 Definition of Animal.......................................................................................................31 Variables in Coding Sheet...............................................................................................31 Commercial appeals an d selling proposition...........................................................31 Commercial structure...............................................................................................32 Commercial format..................................................................................................32 Commercial approach..............................................................................................34 Commercial setting..................................................................................................34 Commercial characters.............................................................................................35 Roles that animals play in commercials...................................................................35 6

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Human-animal relationships....................................................................................35 Unit of Analysis............................................................................................................... .......36 Sampling Design.....................................................................................................................38 Coding Scheme and Procedure...............................................................................................40 Intercoder Reliability......................................................................................................... .....40 Data Analysis..........................................................................................................................41 4 FINDINGS................................................................................................................. .............42 Descriptions of the Sample..................................................................................................... 42 Findings..................................................................................................................................43 Hypothesis 1.................................................................................................................43 Hypothesis 2.................................................................................................................43 Hypothesis 3.................................................................................................................44 Hypothesis 4.................................................................................................................46 Hypothesis 5.................................................................................................................47 Research Question 1....................................................................................................48 Research Question 2....................................................................................................49 Research Question 3....................................................................................................50 Research Question 4....................................................................................................52 Commercial approach..............................................................................................52 Commercial setting..................................................................................................53 Commercial characters.............................................................................................53 Research Question 5....................................................................................................54 5 DISCUSSION.........................................................................................................................67 Discussion of the Findings..................................................................................................... .67 A Profile of a Typical American and Chinese Award-Winning Commercial Containing Animal(s)............................................................................................................................74 Comparison with Studies in Literature Review......................................................................75 Implications................................................................................................................... .........76 Limitations.................................................................................................................... ..........77 Suggestions for Future Study..................................................................................................7 8 CODING SHEET FOR CHINESE AWAR D-WINNING TV COMMERCIALS AND EFFIE AWARD-WINNING COMMERCIALS BETWEEN 1997AND 2006.....................79 LIST OF REFERENCES...............................................................................................................84 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................89 7

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LIST OF TABLES Table Page 4-1 Frequency of award year....................................................................................................55 4-2 Award year ................................................................................................................ ........55 4-3 Frequency of Brand origin.................................................................................................5 5 4-4 Frequency of Brand origin II.............................................................................................55 4-5 Commercial format.......................................................................................................... ..56 4-6 Commercial structure ...................................................................................................... ..56 4-7 Commercial appeals and selling proposition.....................................................................57 4-8 Commercial tone and atmosphere......................................................................................57 4-9 Human-animal relationships..............................................................................................58 4-10 Animal(s) in commercials is individual or in a group.......................................................58 4-11 Product category ......................................................................................................... ......59 4-12 Durable/Non-durable product/service category.................................................................59 4-13 Products/service category................................................................................................. .60 4-14 Traditional/New product/service category.........................................................................60 4-15 Frequency of animal species..............................................................................................6 1 4-16 Animal species............................................................................................................ .......62 4-17 Animal species: domestic/wild..........................................................................................62 4-18 Animal species: pet/labor/food/others...............................................................................62 4-19 Commercial approach....................................................................................................... .63 4-20 Positive or negative...................................................................................................... ......63 4-21 Differential message...................................................................................................... ....63 4-22 Setting................................................................................................................... .............64 4-23 Setting Where............................................................................................................. ........64 8

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4-24 Commercial characters: gender..........................................................................................64 4-25 Presence of a child or an infant.......................................................................................... 65 4-26 Real or animated................................................................................................................65 4-27 Main or minor role........................................................................................................ .....65 4-28 Roles animal play ed in commercials.................................................................................66 9

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Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising ANIMAL USE IN AWARD-WINNING TV COMMERCIALS IN CHINA VERSUS THE U.S By Lingling Xiang August 2008 Chair: Marilyn Sue Roberts Major: Advertising Humans and animals have a long relations hip. Through content analysis of randomly selected 184 advertisements of award-winning TV commercials containing animals from the 5th to 12th China Advertising Fes tival (1997-2005) and U.S EFFIE award-winning TV commercials containing animals during the same period, this study compared the usage and executional elements of animals in TV commercials betw een China and the United States, examined the differences in human-animal relationships refl ected in TV commercials from both countries, and explored the cultural values behind such differences. This was accomplished by adopting a variable-analysis framework of animal televi sion commercials developed by American scholars Lerner and Kalof (1999) and the executional fa ctor framework by Steward and Furse (1986). A quantitative content analysis was applie d to achieve the results by coding 184 TV commercials on 23 variables. These are award year, brand origin, pr oduct/service category, commercial appeal/selling propos ition, commercial approach, co mmercial setting, commercial tone/atmosphere, commercial format, commerci al approach, commercial setting, and animal species, human-animal relationshi p, roles animal played in commercials, as well as animals depicted individually or in a group. Chi-square test and crosstabulations were conducted to explore the significant differences between these variables. 10

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Findings suggest that four out of five hypotheses were supported. Chinese award-winning commercials containing animals are different fr om American commercials by the award year, brand origin, products/service categ ory, as well as commercial form at, commercial structure, and commercial approach, the presence of a child or infant, animal species, the roles of animals played, and the way of animals appeared in Chinese and U.S. commercials. Hofstedes cultural dimensions and Halls degr ee of context were used to explain the findings. Based on the current study, a profile of presence and executional usage of animals in a typical award-winning commercial containing animal(s) in both count ries respectively is offered. 11

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Purpose of the Study Through content analysis of randomly selected 184 advertisements of award-winning TV commercials containing animals from the 5th to 12th China Advertising Festival (1997-2005) and U.S EFFIE award-winning TV commercials containing animals during the same period, the purpose of this study is to compare the usage and executional elements of animals in TV commercials between China and the United St ates. Specifically the study examines the differences in human-animal relationships refl ected in TV commercials from both countries, and seeks to explore the cultural values behind such differences. This study is a guideline for western advertisers or agencies who are trying to enter into Chinese market to correctly apply creative strategies and executional tactics wh en using animals in commercials. Significance of the Study Humans and animals had a long relationshi p throughout history. The significance of human-animal relationships are re flected in the dance, art, and narrative for thousands of years (Shepard, 1996). Animal terms and metaphors can be found in the language of human history (Bryant, 1979). Most profound human social and cultural values are better comprehended as reflections on the human-animal relationship (L erner & Kalof, 1999). In communication history, scholars have studied animal images and thei r cultural values in all kinds of media. Animals in television commercials and outdoor billboards as well as in magazines and newspapers are of substantial symbolic importa nce in human society (Lerner & Kalof, 1999). Animals are portrayed in advertisements, from elephants on Brussels' Cote d'Or chocolate and Bombay's Elephant brand vermicelli, to dragonf lies on soy sauce and Shark brand chili peppers from Thailand (Harbrecht, 1993). 12

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Many scholars have conducted research on the different cultural values reflected in advertising, but few discuss the cultural codes of animals in advertising. As Rapaille (2006) said in his recent book, The Culture Code, The culture code is the unconscious meaning we apply to any given thinga car, a type of food, and a relationship (Rap aille 2006, p.5). Rapaille believed that the best way to understand th e cultural code is to look at th em in the context of an actual discovery (Rapaille, 2006). In th is study, the animal appeals, roles and images as well as their relationships with human beings in advertising are used to examine the cultural differences between the United States and China. Some research discusses the ethics of using animals in scientific research and peoples perceptions of animal usage in laboratory research (Knight, Nunkoosing, Vrij, &Cherryman, 2003). Ethical implications, moral implications, and jus tification for animal testing have been discussed in scientific ways for a long time (Gluck& Kubacki, 1991; Hovey, 2004). However, few studies focus on the cultural implications of how animals have appeared in advertising over time. Animals in advertising have been analy zed as a persuasive a dvertising approach in affecting consumers brand awareness (Lerne r& Kalof, 1999). Furthermore, much of the research on usage and execution of animals in advertising was limited to the United States. These studies excluded the factor of cultural difference among various count ries reflected by the animal appeals in advertising. Individua ls perceptions of the images of animals in advertising are related to cultural recogn ition in a particular cu ltural environment. Baker (1993) believed that the reading of animals is shaped by culture an d that there were num erous and contradictory cultural representations of animal s. He said, Most of the contradictory animal representations can be found in popular culture (Baker, 1993, p. 173). As a result, in order to make the 13

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advertisements understood by people from different cultural environments, advertisers use of animals is closely connected to cultural values in a particular environment. As far as the author know, there has been little research on the usage and execution of animals in TV commercials applied in Chinese advertisements, which the author hopes to give attention to. Furthermore, there have been few studies focusing on award-winning Chinese advertising, which deems to stand for the co ntemporary highest creativity and production standards in China advertising i ndustry. Besides, most of previous studies are anchored in the context of China alone or the United States alone There is really a demand of comparative focus for future research as Leo suggested: the comparative focus can aim at cross-cultural application and validation of the western-based theories a nd models (Leo, et al., 2000, p.67). By adopting a variable-analysis framework of animal television commercials developed by American scholars Lerner and Kalof (1999) and framework of Steward and Furse (1986), an analysis of the description of animals in commer cials and their relationships with human beings and the cultural differences reflected on the an imals in commercials among different countries would partially address the gap in this field. In this study, a comparative c ontent analysis is used to examine the images of animals appearing in television commercials with a cross-cultural perspective by using the samples of animal co mmercials in China award winning commercials and EFFIE award winning commercials. The academ ic implication of this research is when conducting research on animals in advertisements as symbolic signs, cultural differences should be considered. The practical implication is when we develop international marketing strategies, the cultural differences among different countr ies should be considere d. Marketers should be aware of ascribed meanings of animals and cultural representations of those animals in advertisements run in different countries. 14

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CHAPTER 2 LITERRATURE REVIEW Symbolism and Anthropomorphism Animals as Symbols Animals are familiar part of all cultures. Such symbols, or pictorial metaphors (Phillips 1997) are used to create an image and metaphor just as words do, and implicitly communicate information (Feldhamer, Whittaker, Monty & We ickert, 2002). In the United Kingdom, Bryan and Snizek (1993) found that animal symbolis m is overwhelming presence in their cultural imagination (Bryant & Snizek 1993). Animals can be used as evocative visual symbols in the promotion phase of product marketing (Margulies 1972). It is important for advertisers and marketers to be aware of the rhetorical impact of the visual communications on diverse unintended and subversive meani ngs ascribed to the brands (Bulmer & Buchanan, 2006). The symbolic and ascrib ed meanings of the animals in advertising become a part of marketing strategy. Commercial brands are symbols th at potentially carry cultural meaning (McCracken, 1986). Television advertising can be conceptualized as a form of visual rhetoric, where the adve rtiser tries to use the most effe ctive visual devices to inform, remind and persuade the target market and advertis ing imagery is carefully constructed to direct the viewers to consider particular aspects of the brand (Scott, 1994, p.260). The symbolic meanings of appeals in commer cials can represent the values and beliefs of a culture (Sung & Tinkham, 2005). Lerner and Kalo fs research on animals in American television commercials demonstrated that the animal image had a pow erful presence in the popular culture, which provided a wide variety of sym bolic messages about nature and culture (Lerner & Kalof, 1999). In current study, the cultural codes that anim als symbolize in tele vision commercials the United States and China are explored to unders tand the human animal relationships in highly 15

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contrasting two cultures. In this study, animals in advertisemen t are defined as both live and animated animals, including wild animals and domes tic animals. Based on the research of Lerner and Kalof (1999), these animals can be used as the logo, the backgr ound, the spokesperson, the tools, the nuisances and the icons. They are clas sified into different categories based on their relationships with human beings in commercials, such as compan ions, friends, loved ones and enemies and etc. Anthropomorphism and Human-Animal Relationships One crucial factor that helps examine the usag e and ascribed meanings of animals in any medium is whether or not the animal is anth ropomorphized (Lerner & Kalof, 1999). It can be used as a way to understand the usage and execu tion of animals as well as human-animal relationships in advertisements. Some scholars defined it as an extension of humans ability and took it as an important way for people to understand the inner wo rld of animals (Eddy, Gallup & Povenelli, 1993; Lockwood, 1989). McCrindle and Odend aal (1994) defined anthropomorphism as an animal presented in human form (p.137). Brabant and Mooney (1989) provided the criteria for anthropomorphism as the followings: ) ability to communicate, for example, it spoke or read; 2) emotion, for example, it smiled or cried; 3) appearance, for example, it wore clothing or carried paraphe rnalia associated with humans; or 4) action, for example, it did something only humans do, such as played gol f or drove a car (Brabant and Mooney, 1989, p.481). Anthropomorphism provides a complex ideol ogical model in the context of the humananimal relationships (Lerner & Kalof, 1999) Eddy, Gallup, and Povenelli (1993) found that college undergraduates were more likely to anthropomorphize animals that were closer to humans. Brabant and Mooney (1989) analyzed anthropomorphic c ontent in greeting cards and found that people like anthropomorphized card s more than nonanthropomorphized cards. Hickrod and Schmitt (1982) examined anthropomorphism in the process by which a pet becomes 16

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a family member. Lerner and Kalof (1999) disc ussed the anthropomorphism of the animals in television commercials. They believed animals th at were ascribed human characteristics are portrayed as allegories. Many animal images in television commercials are given human gender and racial boundaries. This research established the importance of the study of nonhuman animals in sociological theor y, particularly the animal imag es in popular culture and their connections to the cultural envi ronment (Lerner & Kalof, 1999). Perceptions of Human-Animal Relationships in Ads Human-Animal Relationships in Popular Culture Some research focuses on animals in popular cu ltures and peoples perceptions of them. Mizelle (2005) analyzed the ways of seeing anim als in post-revolutionary America. The author revealed significant transformations in American culture reflected by human-animal relationships in animal exhibitions, including t he segmentation of American audiences, the division of culture into high and low, and the plac e of ideas about animals in defining the citizen and the nation. As a part of this mutual repres entation of American culture, the perceptions on animals are positively appropriated and negatively mobilized to define the human, the citizen, and the nation itself (Mizelle, 2005, p.219). Sheen (2005) discussed the Hollywood animal im ages as a form of intellectual property and provided a detailed account of negotiations between Disney and Dalmatian breed associations in the United Stat es and the UK. Sheen found that f ilm and advertising both have a creative role to play in the production of responsible imag es of animal ownership (p.236). Haraway (1989) examined the construction of knowledge about animals as a storytelling process using contested narratives of gender, race and science. Burt (1988) examined that the animal is a common literary theme and that relationships between human and animals are often used to symbolize key passages in a childs life. In Oswalds research in 1995, he found that 17

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childrens fiction portrayed dogs as protectors of humans against wild animals, and horses as having a special sense of danger that they also use to save humans. Paul (1996) studied animal content in British culture through focusing on chil drens television programs as a vehicle to understand animals. Church (1996) studied the port rayal of animals in prime-time and Saturday morning programs on the four major televisi on networks from 1972-1993 in the United States. He found that animals were portr ayed much more often as villa ins, nuisances, and threats to human. Hirschman and Sanders (1997) studied the images of animals in American films. They found that animals in films are often portray ed as companion animals, usually a dog but sometimes including a cat (Hirschman &Sanders, 1997). Bulliet (2005) explored four stages in the history of the human-animal relationshi ps, which are separation, predomesticity, domesticity, and postdomesticity (Bulliet, 2005). He also found that the direct contact with productive domestic animals is partly originat ed from peoples powerful desire to humanize animals (Bulliet 2005). Carmack ( 1997) studied human and pets relationships in popular comic strips. He revealed that there are three major themes in human and pets relationships in comic strips: affection and companions hip, obligatory/necessary aspects of interaction, and nuisance or stressful aspects of pet ownership. Herzog and Ca lvin (1992) classified the human and animal relationships in American culture into nine categories: animals as loved one, animal as savior, animal as threat, animal as victim, animal as tool, animal as sex object, the imaginary animal, animal as person, and animal as object of w onder, as well as a mi scellaneous category. Human Animal Relationships in Advertisements Of all the forms of popular culture, advertising is a strong br anch in which animals are the strong symbols. The images of animals included in advertisements are strong messages that can symbolize the brand image. In the world of a dvertising, animal symbols hawk almost anything (Harbrecht, 1993). Many famous brands used an imals in their commercials. The dragon, dove, 18

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elephant, kangaroo, and dog are freq uently used animals in advertising all over the world. Coca cola used polar bears to indicat e its refreshment. Budweiser used a horse as its spokesman. The Aflac duck of an insurance company transfer red humor in its advertising (Lauer, 2006). Animals in commercials generally evoke the feelings in humans. According to Harbrechts study, animals have va rious roles to play in advertising. Some animals are national symbols (Harbrecht, 1993). For example, the pa nda is a precious animal in China and Chinese people take it as their na tional symbol. Jiaozi Cigarette, which means Panda brand cigarette in China is a famous an d luxurious cigarette br and for person with high status. The kangaroo is a favorable icon in Australian advertisi ng. If the animal is a national symbol, it can easily find its way to symbolize in the local marketplace. Different animals have their favorable images only in specific cultur es. In china, Double Swallow rice noodle is a popular brand. Sea horses on pickled chilies in Thailand and turtle s on Japanese cans of lobster chunks are also popular brands in local markets (Harbrecht, 1993). British citizens like the zebra, so British Telecommunications use it as its logo. Secondly, some animals seem to have universal appeals. Swan logos, for example, brand everyt hing from beer in Australia, metal castings in Jordan, massage parlors in Hong Kong to soy sauce in the Philippines (Harbrecht, 1993). Elephants are popular animals in all over the world. Cat seems to fascinate people almost everywhere as a domestic animal. Lions and tiger s are favored by western people as symbols of the power and authority. In the right cont ext, animals can convey complex messages (Harbrecht, 1993). Animals in TV Commercials Of all advertisements, television commercial ar e particularly important and powerful. They are important sources of communicating symbolic messages because of its pervasiveness in everyday life (Bretl & Cantor, 1988). But little research conducted on animals in television 19

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commercials. Magdoff and Barnett (1989) used focus groups to examine the reason why animal commercials are appealing. They found that anim als in television commercials serve two major functions for the viewers and that these functions tend to appeal differently to men and women. Lerner and Kalof (1999) did research on animal s in American television commercials. They categorized six primary themes captured in the portrayal of animals in the advertisements: animals as loved ones (e.g., a member of a family ), as symbols (representation of logos or ideas), as tools (using animals for human use or consumption), as allegories (animals filled the roles of humans, such as a dog playing a video ga me), as nuisances (animals was used to bother humans in some way, such as insect bites or an imals in the garden) and animals in nature (any sense of animals as part of na ture) (p.565). Their research examined the dominant messages being broadcast about animals and the ways in which these messages might be subject to alternative readings through an exploratory content analysis of television advertisements (p.565). Lerner and Kolaf (1999) found that in Ameri can television commerci als, dogs and birds were the most popular animals. The products and serv ices that often used animals in ads were the food and drink categories (includi ng diverse products such as cheese, chewing gum, barbecue sauce, coffee, and tomato sauce, but not b eer) (Lerner & Kalof, 1999, p.573). They also found that the most frequently occurring theme was animal as loved one participa ting in family life; the less frequently one is the animals that depicted as symbol ones representing the companys name or product logo; animals as tool was the third larg est theme; the smallest category was animals as nuisance, such as bugs, and pets causing allergy attacks. In their studies, they found that animal was twice as likely to be portrayed as male than female (p.574). 20

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Cultural Difference Cultural Differences in Visual Communications Culture has long been identified as an envi ronmental characteristic that influences consumer behavior, and the many aspects of a cu lture affect differently the needs consumers satisfy through the acquisiti on and use of goods and services (Roth, 1995). From a crosscultural perspective, words and language in different countries are problematic (Hayden, 1997). Pictures can be understood by cu lturally diverse viewers; but the problem is how they are understood (Usunier, 2000). It is now widely accepted that concep ts such as race, gender, and class are social constructions shaped by cultura l myths in popular culture (Lerner & Kalof, 1999). Bulmer and Oliver (1997) investigated the vari ability of interpretati on of visually complex television commercials and factor s that contribute to such differences. They studied the variations in television advert ising interpretation, among responde nts from different cultures. They found visual interp retations vary with the cultural knowledge of viewers (Bulmer & Oliver, 1997). Interpretation of the message is dependent partly on knowledge of signs or symbols drawn from the culturally cons tituted world (McCracken, 1986). Hofstede (1991) developed a model of five di mensions of national culture that help to examine the value differences among different count ries. According to Hofstedes research, the five dimensions are: individualism/collectiv ism, power distance, masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance, and long-te rm orientation. Although this mode l is mostly used to explain the differences in work-related values, Mooij (20 05) applied them to consumption-related values and motives. According to Mooij (2005), the indi vidualism/collectivism c ontrast can be defined as people looking for themselves and their im mediate family only, vers us people belonging to in-groups that look after them in exchange for loyalty (p.61-62) The power distance dimension can be defined as the extent to which less powerful members of a society accept and expect that 21

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power is distributed unequally (Mooij, 2005, p.60); and the domi nant values in a masculine society are achievement and success; the dominant values in a feminine society are caring for others and quality of life (Mooij, 2005, p.65). Hall (1994) distinguished cultu res according to the degree of context in their communication system: high-context and low cont ext. In a high context culture, information and communication is economical, fast and efficient. While in lo w-context culture, information and messages is carried in the explicit c odes. As Mooij (2005) said, In advertising, argumentation and rhetoric are more found in lo w-context cultures, where advertising in highcontext cultures is characterized by symbolism or indirect verbal expr ession (p.56). He also found that there is a correlation between collectiv ism and high context in cultures. Most Asian cultures are high context, whereas most Western cultures are low-context cultures. China is an extreme high context culture country and the Unite d States is an extreme low context culture country (Mooij, 2005, p.56). Western vs. Eastern Asian Cultures In a study based on data from more than 40 countries, Schwartz (1994) identified and contrasted collectivist values (e.g., family security, social order, respect for tradition, honoring parents and elders, security, a nd politeness) and i ndividualist values (b eing curious, broad minded, creative and having an exciting a nd varied life, and full of pleasure). Sung and Tinkham (2005) examined brand person ality structures in the U.S. and Korea based on this theory. They compared brand pers onality structures across two cultures and found that the values and needs of cultures in both count ries are relevant to th e way that brands are perceived. In Western cultures, people tend to value autonomy, emotional independence, privacy, and individual needs (Sung & Tinkham, 2005). They prefer to focus on their own feelings and goals, and they believe in self-reliance, hedoni sm, and competition (Triandis, 1994). Therefore, 22

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such a self-view gives rise to an emphasis on ind ividualism, self-actualization or self-realization and on the expression of ones unique configuration of needs, rights, and capacities (Singelis, 1994). In contrast, East Asian cultures tend to emphasize emo tional dependence, group harmony, cohesion, and cooperation, and they value the coll ective over the individual. They favor attitudes that reflect interdependence, sociability, and fam ily integrity. Therefore, East Asian collectivists are more likely than Western individualists to seek situations that produce harmonious interpersonal atmospheresEast Asian collectivis ts also value family security and show a high respect for tradition (Sung & Tinkham, 2005). Li, Zhang, Bhartt, and Yum (2005) analyzed the cultural and self-construal in China, Canada and India. They found that Chinese value more interdependence than Canada in family value and group memberships, but China was the sa me as India in those relationship dimensions. Some studies of the content of advertisements between the United States and other Eastern countries were conducted with a cross-cultural perspective and content analysis. Cho, Kwon, Gentry, Jun and Kropp (1999) conducted the content analysis of cultural values reflected in themes and executional elements of the TV commer cials between U.S. and Korea. They explored the cultural dimensions such as individualism and collectivism, time orientation, relationship with nature and contextuality. They found that both countries are pres ent-time oriented, but individualism is more dominant in the United States. Korean commercials stress oneness-with nature slightly more than U.S. commercials, a nd U.S. commercials use more direct approaches (Cho, Kwon, Gentry, Jun & Kropp, 1999). Paek (2005) studied celebrity endorsers in crosscultural contexts. He found that ad vertisements in South Korea w ith high uncertainty avoidance and its high power distance presen t a higher proportion of celebrity endorsers than those in the United States. 23

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The United States vs. China Chinese and American cultures belong to eastern and western culture respectively. According to Hofstede (2003), the United States is a country with a very high score of IDV (91), very low score of PDI (40) and average score of MAS (62) in Hofstede s cultural dimensions. China is a country with the very low score of I DV (24), MAS (50) score a nd very high PDI (80) score, which differs from Ameri ca in IDV and PDI. According to Halls context theory, China is a typical country with extreme high context cu lture, whereas the United States is a typical country with extreme low context culture. As disc ussed above, Mooij (2005) found that there is a correlation between collectivism and high contex t. The images of animals portrayed in commercials, the cultural codes symbolized by animals appearing in commercials and the attitudes toward the various animals in two countries should be different. Wang (2001) studied the individualism and collectivism between China and the United States. He found that Americans were more self -oriented, emphasizing i ndividual experiences or feelings. Conversely, Chinese were more group-oriented, empha sizing collectivistic experiences or feelings (p.30). Zhang (2005) explored global adve rtising in the Chinese market through content-analysis method to analyze a collection of print advertisements. She found that traditional icons are more often used in adver tisements in magazines in China (Zhang, 2005). Cheng and Schweitzer (1996) st udied cultural values reflected in television commercials between Chinese and the United States. They exam ined the three broadcasting networks in U.S. and national television stations and Shanghai television statio n in China. They found that Chinese television commercials used more utilit arian cultural values and more eastern cultural values than U.S. television commercials. Lin (2 001) studied the cultural values reflected in Chinese and American television advertising. Lin indicated in this study that the portrayal of traditional Chinese cultural values remains relatively stable, with some changes, such as the 24

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youth/modernity appeal that reflected westerniza tion, as well as the modernization were also displayed in Chinese commercials in recent years. Mizelle (2005) found that Americans were used to being around animals, used to watching them, working with them, and buying and se lling them as part of an economy crucially connected to animal husbandry (p.220). He believ ed that the images of animals at exhibitions helped Americans know their world. China also ha s a long history of raising domestic animals and their involvement with animal is also an important part of everyda y life. However, their perceptions and attitudes towards animals are different. The same animals in advertisements have di fferent meanings in different cultures. The same animal can be lucky in one culture but can be a curse in anot her country. Wells (1994) studied that the meaning of advertising in othe r countries may vary from western perspectives. An animal will evoke a totally different emotio n in another culture. Warns David A. Ricks, a professor at the American Gradua te School of International Manage ment said in an interview, As a general rule, some animal is going to be wrong somewhere in the world. Advertisers choose different animals as their visual images in advertisements. Take the dog as an example. In Canada, one kind of beer became the number one selling beer partly because of the dog appearing in a series of commerci als. Some countries take a dog as their family member, such as in America and Canada. But in some parts of th e world, for example, in Islamic countries, dogs are considered unclean and should be kept outdoors. There are so me places where dogs are eaten as food. Fish may not work in advertisements in the UK, but in Japan or in China, it works well (Harbrecht, 1993). As Harbrecht (1993) said when the Japanese Datsun Motor Company planed to promote their Bluebird car to enter the North American market, they faced the difficulties, because 25

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Bluebird means happiness in Japanese culture. Bu t people in the United States like to name their cars after predators such as cougar, eagle and lion that sy mbolize power. In Asian countries, eastern people prefer their cars named after birds that symbolize speed and resilience for them. The pigeon is a favorable pest that is used fo r the logo of China Sout heast Airline and Flying Pigeon bicycle brand in China, which is less us ed in the same products and service category in the United States. In Chinese culture, the dragon is a respected animal and national icon which symbolized authority and status. In the western world, a dragon is usually an ugly monster which symbolized the evil and disaster. Dog was portr ayed as lazy and slavish animal in Chinese traditional history. However, in the United States it was portrayed as the family member and loved one with a characteristic of honesty. Owls symbolize evil and disaster in Chinese culture, but in western culture, it is smart and intelligen t. Bats are associated with blood and Halloween in western world, but it is a symbol of good luck in China, because the sound for bat in Chinese is good fortune. A duck may stimulate humor to an American audience, but normally it is a stupid animal in China. Hypotheses and Research Questions This current research explores the differences of human-animal relationships as reflected in television commercials in two c ountries with the content analys is method. China and the United States have different cultural va lues, so the symbols and icons of each culture must be different. As discussed above, animals are one of the important symbols and icons of a culture (Lerner& Kalof, 1999). Do certain types of animals appear more in Chinese TV commercials than in American TV commercials? What are the differences of images of animals reflected in American and Chinese television commercials? What ar e the human-animal relationships in animal commercials for two countries? Are they different ? How does culture influence advertisers use of animals in commercials? What kinds of animal s in commercials are attr active to people in the 26

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United States and in China respectively? What ar e those favorite animals roles played in two cultures? The hypotheses and research questions are as followings: According to the statistics from Asian Advertising and Marketing (2000) and report, the Chinese mainlands advertising market grew to be Asias largest in 2000, which represented the highest growth rate (208%). Statistics from Chinas advertising industry annual report (2002) indicates that after the year 2000, the number of advertising ag encies increased by 14.31% to 89,552 by the end of 2002. The number of both lo cally-owned 4As and international 4As (Association of American of Advertising Agencies) affiliations kept a sharp increase. Furthermore, more and more international companies entered into Chinese market and built up joint-venture enterprises in China. International 4As affiliations and international companies brought new ideas and conceptions for Chines e advertising production, and made Chinese advertisers realized the importa nce of using animals in commercials. Based on the rationale above: HP1: animals are used more frequently in comm ercials after year 2000 than in the years before 2000. Based on the rationale that there has been a l ong history and tradition of using animals in ads in western countries compared to the undeveloped advertising industry and less using animals in advertising in eastern coun ties discussed in literature review: HP2: animals are used more often in western brand product or servic e advertisement than in eastern brand product or service advertisement. According to Hofstedes (1991) cultural dime nsions and Halls (1994) low context and high context culture theory disc ussed in literature review: HP3: Chinese commercials containing animals are different from American commercials in terms of commercial appeal/selling pr oposition, commercials tone, atmosphere, structure and format. 27

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Based on Hofstedes (1991) cultural dimensions on power of distance index: HP4: human-animal relationships depicted in Ch inese TV commercials are different from the United States. Based on Hofstedes (1991) cultural dimensions on individualism and collectivism index: HP5: animals in American commercials are mo re likely to appear individually, while animals in Chinese commercials are more likely to appear in a group. RQ1: do Chinese commercials containing animal s differ by product/service category from those run in the United States? RQ2: what kind of animal species most frequen tly appear in commercials in the United States and China respectively? RQ3: do commercials containing animals run in China differ from those run in the United States in terms of fre quency of animal type? RQ4: do commercials containing animals run in China differ from the United States in terms of level of animal usage in commercials? RQ5: are the roles of animals portrayed in Ch inese commercials different from American commercials? 28

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Content Analysis Design The purpose of the current study is to explore the typical characteristics of animals in award-winning Chinese commercials and compare them with award-winning commercials in the United States. Furthermore, this study seeks to determine the occurrence of various variables appearing in those commercial based on the codi ng framework of Stewart and Furse (1986) as well as Lerner and Kalofs (1999) studies of anim al commercials. Quant itative content analysis is the systematic and replicable examination of symbols of communication, which have been assigned numeric values according to valid measurem ent rules, and the analysis of relationships involving those values using sta tistical methods, in order to de scribe the communication, draw inferences about its meaning, or infer from the communication to its cont ext, both of production and consumption (Riffe et al., 1998, p. 20). Since the purpose of this study is to examin e the usage and execution of animals in ads, content analysis serves as an a ppropriate way to build the quantitative obse rvation of the given body (award-winning television co mmercials containing animals) from 1997 to 2005 to be analyzed systematically and obj ectively (Wimmer & Dominick, 2003). A comparative content analysis of award winning television co mmercials containing animals between the U.S and China is conducted to examine the research questions and hypotheses. Variable Analysis Framework Stewart and Furses Study Stewart and Furse (1986) conducted a co mprehensive research on 1000 television commercials with content anal ysis methodology in their book, Effective Television Advertising 29

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In their study, they developed a very extens ive executional coding system which included 155 unique executional items. The variable analysis framework represented the following categories of executional items: (Stewart & Furse, 1986, p.20.) Information content, Brand/product identification, Setting, Visual and auditory devices, Promises/appeals/propositions, Tone/atmosphere, Comparisons, Music and dancing, Structure and format, Characters, Timing and counting measures After several years, Stewart and Koslow (1989) replicated this study with highly internal validity results related to the original findings. Lerner and Kalofs Study (1999) Lerner and Kalof summarized an extensive research result re garding American television commercials containing animals. In their study, animals were classified into six different categories based on their relationships with human beings in commercials, such as companions, friends, beloved ones and enemies and etc. (Ler ner & Kalof, 1999). The roles of the animals played in commercials are summarized as love s ones, symbols, tools, allegories, nuisances, enemies and background and etc. (Lerner & Kalof, 1999). In current study, the coding framework is a dopted from the study of Steward and Furse (1986) and the study of Lerner and Kalof (1999). The author selected 9 executional items and forms from Steward and Furses analysis framew ork and modified a few of them to build up 14 variables, including product category, commercial appeals and selling propositions, commercial structure, commercial format, commercial appro ach, commercial setting, commercial tone and atmosphere, and commercial characters. Other two variables are adopted from Lerner and 30

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Kalofs study, including the ro les of animals played in commercials and human-animal relationships in commercials. The rest of the variables are made up by the author based on the literature review, including commercial national ity (EFFIE or Chinese commercial), award year, brand origin, language usage, animal species, and variety of how many kinds of animals in commercials as well as the way animals appear in commercials. Coding Categories and Operational Definitions Definition of Animal In this study, animals in advertisement we re defined as live and animated animals (Lerner& Kalof, 1999), including wild animals and domestic animals. As discussed in literature review, these animals can be us ed as the logo, the background (t he birds flying by or the fish swimming around), the spokesperson, the repres entative, the icon, the companion of human being, or friends. Variables in Coding Sheet Commercial appeals and selling proposition Attribute or ingredients as main message: A major focus of the commercial is to communicate something about how the product is made or ingredients. Product performance or benefits as main message : A major focus of the commercial is to communicate what the product does (for ex ample, shinier tub, fresher breath, whiter teeth) or how to use it. Psychological or subjective be nefits of product ownership : A major focus of the commercial is to communicate hidden or nonprov able benefits of having/using the product. Product reminder as main message : The product or package is the primary message rather than any specific attr ibute or benefit of use. Sexual appeal : Main focus of commercial is on sexual cues. Comfort appeals : Main focus of commercial is on cues appealing to creature comforts. Safety appeals : Main focus of commercial is on cues appealing to being free from fear or physical danger. 31

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Enjoyment appeals : Main focus of commercial is on cues about enjoying life to the fullest, having good food and drink, and so on. Welfare appeals : Main focus is on caring or providi ng for others (for example, gift giving). Social approval : Main focus of commercial is on belonging, winning friends, obtaining approval of others. Self-esteem or self-image : Main focus of commercial is on feeling bette r about oneself, improving oneself, being a better person. Achievement : Main focus of commercial is on obtai ning superiority ov er others, getting ahead, winning. Excitement, sensation, variety : Main focus of commercial is on adding excitement, thrills, variety to life, avoiding boredom. Commercial structure Front-end impact : The first 10 seconds of the commercial creates suspense, questions, surprise, drama, or something th at otherwise gains attention. Surprise or suspense in middle of commercial : Something surprising, dramatic, or suspenseful occurs in the middle of the commercial. Surprise or suspense at closing : Commercial ends with a surp rise, an unexpected event, suspense, or drama. Unusual setting or situation : Product is in setting not normally associated with product purchase or use-for example, a car on top of a mountain, a contemporary wine in ancient Greece. Humorous closing: Commercial ends with a joke pun, witticism, or slapstick. Blind lead-in: No identification of product until the end of the commercial. Commercial format Vignettes : a series of two or more stories that could stand alone; no continuing storyline but several independent stories (which may convey the same message). Multiple interviews would be an example. Continuity of action : Commercial has a single storyline throughout with an obvious beginning, middle, and end; a common theme, character, or i ssue ties the whole 32

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commercial together from beginning to end. This may be an interview with a single individual, slice or life, or any other format that involves continuity of action. Slice of life : An interplay between two or more peopl e that portrays a conceivable real-life situation. There is c ontinuity of action. Testimonial by product user : One or more individuals reco unts his or her satisfaction with the product advertised or the re sults of using the product advertised. Endorsement by celebrity or authority : One or more individua ls (or organizations) advocates or recommends the product but doe s not claim personal use of satisfaction. Announcement : Commercials format is that of a newscast or sportscast, sales announcement. Demonstration of product in use or by analogy : A demonstration of the product in usefor example, a man shaving in a commercial for shaving lather, women applying makeup. A demonstration of the use of the product, benefit, or product characteristic by an analogy or device rather than actual demonstration. Demonstration of results of using product : Demonstration of the outcome of using the product for example, shining floors, bouncing hair. Comedy or satire : The commercial is written as a co medy, parody, or satire. Not only is humor an element of the commercial, but al so the commercial is written to be funny. Animation/cartoon/rotoscope : The entire commercial or some substantial part of the commercial is animated. A rotoscope is a comb ination of real life and animation on the screen at the same time for example, the Trix Rabbit. Photographic stills : The use of photographic stills in pa rt of the commercial. These may be product shots, settings, or models. Creation of mood or image as dominant element : An attempt to create a desire for the product, without offering a specific produc t claim by appealing to the viewers emotional/sensory involvement. The primary thru st of the commercial is the creation of a feeling or mood. Commercial written as serious drama : The commercial is written as a stage play, melodrama, or tragedy. Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element : The use of animation or other visual device instead of a realistic treatment to suspend disbelief or preclude literal translation on the part of the viewer. 33

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Problem and solution (before/after presentation): An attempt to define or show a problem, then indicate how the product elimin ates or reduces the problem. Interview (person on the street or elsewhere): An interview (Q&A) is a primary vehicle in the commercial. Camera involves audience in situation : Use of camera as eyes of viewer. Camera creates participation in commercial. New wave (product graphics): Use of poster-like visuals, fast cuts, high symbolism as in Diet Pepsi. Commercial approach Rational approach : A fairly straightforward presenta tion of the products attributes and claims. Emotional approach : An emotional appeal does not appeal to reason but to feelings. Neutral approach : An appeal counterpoising of rational and emotional. Positive approach : The appeal to buy or use the product is based on what it will do for the consumer, the benefit offered, how the user will be better off. Negative approach : The appeal is based on what happen to the consumer if he or she does not buy the product or what will not happen if the product is used. Neutral approach : An appeal counterpoising of positive and negative. Brand-differentiating message : Is the principle message of the commercial unique to the product being advertised, or could any product make this claim? The commercial must make it clear that the message is unique; that is, the commercial must explicitly indicate the uniqueness or difference of the product. Commercial setting Indoor : Is the commercial setting, or a signific ant part of it, indoors or in other human made structures? Outdoors : Is the commercial setting, or a signif icant part of it, outdoors (mountain, rivers, backyard, garden, or other natural setting)? Do not include unnatural environments such as stadium or home driveway. No setting : There is no particular se tting for the commercial; the setting is neutral, neither indoor nor outdoors. 34

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Commercial Characters The principle character in the commercial is a female or male? A child or infant? Are the animals in the commercials animated or not? Are the main characters or minor characters in the commercials? Roles that animals play in commercials Loved ones : Ads showed scenes of affectionate inte ractions with animals. They are family members, such as pet, companions, friends, and playing partners. Symbols : representatives of logos or ideas of th e products and brand. The animal was used to symbolize some quality or idea of the products or services, or as the spokesman. Tools: animals used for human use or consump tion, including animals being used for food, recreation, and transportation, such as a horse pulling a cart. Allegories: animal filled the roles of humans as an individual, such as dog playing a video game. Nuisances: animals used to bother humans in some way, such as insect bites or animals in the garden. Animals in nature : any sense of animals as part of nature, such as birds flying over a beach, a fish swimming and d eer running in the plain. Enemies: animals that do harm to human and cau se disaster to human, such as killing a man. Background: animals used as peripheral clues and not directly appeal to audience notice, such as a bird flying by in a short time. Human-animal relationships The relations that animals involved with people in TV commercials Beloved ones : animals are a family member and living with a family or human beings, it is like a human, such as, dog, cat and parrot. Friendly ones: animals are harmonious and domestic, mo stly raised in farms or backyards, such as chicken, duck, penguin, swan, cow, sheep, horse and etc. 35

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Neutral ones : animals that can not be categorized as likable or dislikeab le ones, it depends on individuals preference, such as elephant, kangaroo, bird, fish, bear, crane, snail, rabbit, monkey and etc. Aggressive ones : wild, strong, competitive, fierce and cruel, such as jaguar, tiger, lion, eagle, wolf and etc. Disastrous ones: animals can be peoples trouble, disa ster, and doom, such as owl, bat, snake, rat, fly and etc. Unit of Analysis The unit of this study is the single award-winning TV commercial c ontaining animal(s) in the 5 th to 12 th China Advertising Festival (1997-2005) and the single award-winning animal TV commercial containing animal(s) in the EFFIE Advertising Award from 1997 to 2005. Because there is no China Advertising Festival held in 1998, this year is missing, and the author can not collect the Chinese award-winning commer cials in 2002 and 2003. Furthermore, the commercials in 2000 and 2001 can not be collected completely. Among a total of 824 Chinese award-winning commercials, the final usable sa mple consisted of commercials containing animals that won Gold, Silver, or Bronze Awards are 142 Chinese commercials in 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2004 and 2005. There were much more Ch inese commercials containing animals (N=142) than American commercials (N=85) in the collected raw sample, as a result, 100 of total 142 commercials randomly selected by product/service category in order to make the sample size for each country was approximately the sa me. All of the commercials falling into public service category, which total 24, were excluded in current study, because there is no EFFIE award winning commercials falling accordingly in the public service category. All of four commercials falling into others category were deleted. The author deleted some of the commercials in most frequently occurred produc t/service category for ea ch year. Pharmaceutical category in 2001 was the largest product/service category, beverage category was the largest 36

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product/service category in 2004, an d beverage category was the largest category in year 2005, as well as the fast food and restau rant category was the second larg est one in this year. In year 2001, four commercials in pharmaceutical category we re deleted. The author started to delete the first number of commercial in pharmaceutical cat egory and then took every second one away in database. In year 2004, four commercials in beve rages category were de leted with the same method adopted in pharmaceutical category. In year 2005, two commercials in fast food and restaurant category and four commercials in be verages category were deleted with the same method. A total of 42 commercials were randoml y deleted. The left 100 commercials were supposed to be the usable sample for this st udy. However, during the coding process, the code sheet number 122 commercial was found not contai ning live or animated animal due to the mistake in coding process. The remaining 99 commerc ials are final usable samples in this study. EFFIE award-winning commerci als containing animals was selected during the same period. In order to compare with Chinese awar d-winning commercials containing animals, the EFFIE sample was selected from year 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2004 and 2005. However, EFFIE Awards in year 2005 can not be collected. Only one commercial was collected online for this year. Among 563 commercials th at won Gold, Silver, and Br onze Awards that the author reviewed in these years, there were 85 commercials containing animals that can be usable samples in this study. The reason why the year of 1997 was selected as the beginning year in this study is that this year was the watershed for the Chinese domestic advertising industry. Before that time, the festival was held every three ye ars. Starting from 1997, in demand of the fast growth rate in the domestic advertising industry, the show began being held ever y other year, and later in 2000 it was held every year. 37

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The choice of EFFIE award-winning commercia ls from the same period of time as the comparative sample was based on the reputation and authority of this award. The EFFIE Awards is given yearly by the New York American Marketing Association. Since 1968, winning an EFFIE has become a global symbol of achieve ment. Winning entries are chosen from those submitted by advertising agencies. Entries are j udged by a panel of the industry's top marketing and advertising management, research, and crea tive professionals. In this study, only EFFIE award-winning commercials containing animals are chosen for the sample in order to make a comparison with Chinese award-winning commercials. Sampling Design This study is specified to commercials cont aining animals that won awards in their corresponding product/service categ ories in the China Advertis ing Festival and the EFFIE Advertising Awards resp ectively in 1997, 1999,2000,2001,2004 and 2005. The population of the sample is a given body of collections. A combined total 184 commercials (85 EFFIE awardwinning commercials and 99 Chinese awardwinning commercials) represented 38 product categories: agricultural/indus trial/building, alcoholic beve rage, apparel/accessories, automobiles/vehicles, beauty aids, beverages, breakfast food, business products, childrens products, computer/related for business and pers onal purposes, consumer electronic, cosmetics, credit/debit cards, delivery systems and pr oducts, entertainment, fashion, financial service/products, fast food and restaurant, general retail/etail, pharmaceuticals, hotels and resorts, household appliance, industrial/building products a nd services, Internet se rvice, leisure products, pet care, savory food, personal care, professional se rvice, real estate, re tail, telecom service, transportation, travel and tourism, corporate imag es, public service, printe d/electronic media and others. 38

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Starting from year 1997, China Advertising Festival organizational committee published an annual China Advertising Festival award-winning album following th e festival. The annual collection book contains the following parts: th e preface and the greetings from the head of China Advertising Associati on, followed by the introduction of the judges names and backgrounds. The body of the book lists hundreds of winners and finalists according to product/service categories respectively in the orde r of print, TV commercial, radio and outdoor advertisements. All the winners and finalists were listed in a profile including the ad itself, its awards class (Bronze, Silver and Gold), its ID number, and th e name of ad, the name of advertiser, name of advertising agency and the copywriter as well as the producer. As for the winning TV commercials, the major slides of each commercial were displayed. The last part of the annual collection book encloses VCDs f eaturing the video part of the TV commercials winners as the supplemental materials. The author has collected those VCDs featuri ng the award-winning TV commercials part in 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2004 and 2005. However, the VCDII for the year 2000 and VCDII for 2001 were missing. The author has collected EF FIE award winning commercials in year 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2004. These commercials are record ed in tapes which can be reviewed with VCR machine. Only one EFFIE commercia l in 2005 was found online to build up a total EFFIE sample of 85 commercials. The final 184 commercials (which won Gold, Silver, or Bronze Awards) were collected and coded into database one by one. The first 85 commercials are EFFIE award-winning commercials. From nu mber 86 to number 184 are China advertising award-winning commercials. 39

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Coding Scheme and Procedure For each commercial containing animal(s), the following were coded: commercial nationality, TV commercial number, code shee t number, the product/serv ice being advertised, brand origin, language usage, commercial appeals/selling propositions, commercial structure, commercial format, commercial approach, comme rcial setting, commercial characters, and how many kinds of animals in the commercial, animal species, human-animal relationships, the roles that the animals played in commercials as well as the way animals appear in commercials (See the Appendix: code sheet). After coding every item in the code sheet, all the data were put into SPSS to analyze. In order to achieve the satisfied results, all the data were recoded into more specific categories according to various logical ways. Intercoder Reliability Two coders were used and trained to evalua te the selected commercials. The researcher served as the primary coder. The second coder was also a Chinese and a bilingual student. Each recorded half of the EFFIE sample a nd the Chinese sample respectively. Before the initial coding procedure, the secondary coder was trained in both coding category system and procedure sessions to achieve the satisfied reliability. In order to achieve the interc oder reliability of the coding, a pretest of about 10% animal commercials in the database was randomly selected, which are 10 Chinese award-winning commercials and 9 EFFIE award-winning commercia ls. The two coders all evaluated those 10% commercials in both countries. The level of acceptance (i.e. intercoder reliabi lity) used Scotts Pi formula among coders: Pi = (% observed agreement % expected ag reement) / (1% expected agreement) 40

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Reliabilities figures in th e .80 to .90 which are considered acceptable (Wimmer & Dominick, 2003), then intercoder reliability was established. Data Analysis The data collected from the code sheets were put into SPSS to conduct the crosstabulations analysis of animal usage and execution as well as human-animal relati onship for both countries. Frequency distributions of the animals by product and service categories, by animal species, by animal roles, and by human-animal relationship cat egory were calculated. Chi-Square analysis was used to determine if there is statistic ally significance existed between variables. 41

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CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS Descriptions of the Sample Based on the data collected w ith the content analysis met hod in current study, a general review about the usage and execution of anim als in award-winning commercials in China and U.S as well as the human-animal relationships reflected in award-winning commercials is offered. Differences of TV commercials containing animals between both countries are also achieved. This assists answering the questions of what are the differences between Chinese commercials containing animals and Amer ican commercials containing animals by product/service category, in terms of animal type, and in terms of level of animal usage as well as roles that animal played in commercials. Th is can also provide answers for hypotheses that commercials containing animals in both countries should be different by award year, by brand origin, in terms of commercial appeal and selling propositi ons, commercial tone/atmosphere, commercial structure and commercial format, and in terms of human-animal relationships as well as the way animals appeared in commercials. The study content analyzed 23 variables falling into several categories including peripheral elements, product/service category, commercial appeal and selling proposition, commercial tone/atmosphere, structure, format and a pproach, commercial characters, human-animal relationship, and animal roles in commercials. The total sample included 184 commercials in which 85 were EFFIE award-winning commercials and 99 were Chinese advertising awardwinning commercials. EFFIE awar d-winning commercials accounted for 41.3% (N=85) of the total sample, while Chinese advertising aw ard-winning commercials accounted for 58.7% (N=99). The unit of the analysis was each single commercial. 42

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A Chinese and bilingual female student was served as the second coder in current study. Using Scotts Pi formula for intercoder reliabil ity, the percentage of agreement was .86. This ranged from .69 to 100 percent. Findings HP 1: animals are used more frequently in comm ercials after year 2000 than in the years before 2000. In order to examine this hypothesis, the vari able Award Year was recoded with two new values, which are before and after year 2000. The variable examined commercials containing animals in both countries by year. Table 4-1 shows the number of commercials in 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2004, 2005. As the table shows, in ye ar 1997, there were only 9 commercials containing animals, which only accounted for 4.9% (N=9) of the total sample. There was a sharp increase in 1999. The number of commercials cont aining animals in this year was 38, which was almost four times of the amount in 1997. In 2004, the award-winning commercials containing animals reached 61, which accounted for 33.2% (N=61) of the total sample. In 1997, 1999 and 2000, the total number of commercials contai ning animals was 76, which accounted for 41.3% (N=76) of the total sample. After 2000, the numbe r was increased by 32 than the years before 2000 and reached 108. Advertisers use of animals in commercial s had a sharp increase as Table 4-1 shows. Table 4-2 shows that the ratio of numbers of EFFIE awardwinning commercials containing animals was almost th e same before and after 2000. However, the number of Chinese commercials containing animals before 2000 was 29 (29.3%) and 70 (70.7%) after 2000, which was an increase of 41. HP2: animals are used more frequently in western brand product or service advertisements than in eastern brand product or service advertisements. In order to examine this variable, the va riable Brand Origin was recoded into two categories: western and eastern brand. Domestic brands, and Asia and Pacific brands were 43

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recoded into one category and wa s labeled eastern brand. American and European brand were recoded into another category a nd was labeled western brand. Tables 4-3 and 4-4 indicate the frequency of brand origin among 184 samples. The results show that 78 co mmercials in the total sample were eastern brand product/service comm ercials, which accounted for 42.4% of the total sample. There were 106 (57.6%) of commercial s were for western brand among which 53.3% (N=98) were for American brands. The results show that commercials containing animals are used more frequently in commercials for western brand than in eastern brands. HP3: Chinese commercials containing animals are different from American commercials in terms of commercial appeal/selling proposition, commercial tone/ atmosphere, structure and format. In order to examine the difference of executions in commercials containing animals in both countries, variables with too few occurrences (l ess than 10 times, which was less than 5.5% of the total sample) were turned to missing data. In the variable Commercial Format, 10 items with too few occurrences: vignette (N=4), continuity of action (N=8), testimonial by product user (N=9), endorsement by celebrity or authority (N=3), announcement (N=4), demonstration of results (N=9), photographic stills (N=5), commer cial written as serious drama (N=1), problem and solution (N=5) and new wave(N=2), were turned to missing data and this variable was recoded into 6 categories as Table 4-5 shows. As Table 4-6 shows, the variable Commercial Structure was recoded into 4 categories, in which surprise or suspense in the front and surprise and suspense at closing were tran sformed into the same value due to the same characteristics of surprise and suspense in commercial structure. H umorous closing was turned to missing data due to too few occurre nces (N=9). Six catego ries in Commercial Appeal/Selling Proposition, such as product remi nder as main message (N=1), sexual appeals (N=2), comfort appeals (N=5), safety appeals (N=7), welfare a ppeals (N=3) and social appeals (N=7), were turned to missing data due to small sample use. The variable Commercial 44

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Appeals/selling Propositions was recoded into 7 categories as Table 4-7 shows. As shown in Table 4-8, several values in the variable Co mmercial Tone and Atmosp here, which can evoke positive feelings and happy atmosphere such as cute/adorable, warm/caring, wholesome/healthy, happy/fun-loving, glamorous, relaxed/comfortable are classified as one new value: happy/comfortable. Some values, such as somber /serious, cool/laid-back, uneasy/tense/irritated, suspenseful and rough/rugged which can evoke nega tive feelings and unco mfortable atmosphere were classified as the same value: te nse/uncomfortable. Some values, such as modern/contemporary, and technological/futuristic which can evoke futuristic feelings and modern atmosphere were recoded as a new one : contemporary/futuristic contrasting another value: traditional/nostalgic. The value of humorous (N=9) was turn ed to missing data due to too few occurrences. The Chi-Square test and crosstabs are analys es used to study if there is a significant difference between EFFIE and Chinese award-winning commercials containing animals in terms of commercial appeals/selling proposition, co mmercial tone/atmosphere, and commercial structure as well as commercial format. Table 4-5 depicts the incidence of the comme rcial format in the sampled commercials, which indicates the significant difference ( =25.79, p<.01) between EFFIE and Chinese award-winning commercials containing animals in terms of commercial format. Slice of life (41.7%, N=25) was the dominant format in EFFI E samples, followed by fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism (16.7%, N=10) and demonstration of product in use or by analogy (13.3%, N=8) and animation/cartoon/rotoscope (13.3%, N=8). The lo west occurring category was comedy or satire, which accounted for only 5.0% (N=3) of the total sample. While there was no dominant format in Chinese award-winning samples, creation of mood or image (29.7%, N=22) was the leading 2 45

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format, closely followed by fantasy, exaggeratio n or surrealism (25.7%, N=19). The remainder of format was each below 20%, with a range of maximum comedy or satire (14.9%, N=11) and minimum slice of life (9.5%, N=7). The results in Table 4-5 indicate that animals we re used frequently in slice of life as a part of real-life situation in EFFIE award-winning commercials but were seldom used in conceivable real-life in Chinese commercials. In Chinese comme rcials, they were more used as symbols to represent the image of products or service, to create an emoti onal mood in commercials and to symbolize the fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism instead of realistic elements. The results also show that animals seldom appeared in comedy or satire format in EFFIE commercials, which is in contrast with Chinese commercials. Chines e ads use animals in comedy or satire more frequently than American commercials. As Tables 4-6, 4-7 and 4-8 show that ther e was no significant di fference between EFFIE and Chinese award-winning commercials cont aining animals in terms of commercial appeal/selling proposition, in terms of commercial tone/atmosphere and in terms of commercial structure. HP4: human-animal relationships depicted in Ch inese TV commercials are different from the United States. The variable Human-Animal Relationships was recoded into 4 categories: beloved, friendly, neutral and aggressive. The value disas trous was classified into the same category with aggressive because disastrous and aggr essive animals were unfriendly animals. The value not applicable (N=3), which means ther e is no interaction between animals and humans, was turned to missing data. Table 4-9 shows the distribution of human-an imal relationships in EFFIE and Chinese commercials. The findings reveal that significant difference ( =19.08, p<.01) exists between 2 46

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human-animal relationships and commercial nationality. Beloved animals (42.2%, N=35) were definitely dominant in relationship with hum ans in EFFIE award-winning commercials. There were 35 animals in EFFIE award-winning commercia ls as a family member or lived with a family or people. Beloved ones were prefe rred in EFFIE award-wi nning commercials. The second largest human-animal relationship in EFFIE was friendly (30.1%, N=25), followed by neutral (14.5%, N=12) and aggr essive (13.3%, N=11). However, in Chinese samples, the leading human-animal relationship was neutr al (37.8%, N=37). Belove d and aggressive relationship held the same per centage (21.4%, N=21) in the Chin ese sample. Both relationships were preferred in Chinese award-winning commercials. HP5: animals in American commercials are mo re likely to appear individually, while animals in Chinese commercials are more likely to appear in a group. To examine Hofstedes cultural dimension on individuality/collectivism reflected in samples, the way animal(s) appeared in commer cials (how many kinds of animals appeared in commercial and how they a ppeared) was analyzed. The findings indicate that no significant difference ( =5.72, p<.0.5) exists between how many kinds of animals in commercials and comme rcial nationality. The amount of commercials with one kind of animal and with two or more kinds of animals remained the same ratio in both countries. However, the findings show that ther e is significant differe nce between animal(s) appeared individually or in a group and comm ercial nationality. Table 4-10 suggests the dominant way animal(s) appeared in commercials was as an indivi dual. There were a total of 122 commercials containing single animal and 62 to tal commercials containing animals in a group for the total sample of 184 ads. Animals app eared individually in 64 EFFIE commercials, which accounted for 75.3% (N=64) of the total E FFIE sample. Only 24.7% (N=21) of EFFIE commercials showed animals in a group. Approxima tely 41% (N=41) of the total Chinese award2 47

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winning commercials showed animals in a group, which was almost as twice the incidence of EFFIE commercials in the same category. RQ1: do Chinese commercials containing animal s differ by product/service category from those run in the United States? The variable Product/service category was classified in to ten items: food/beverage, household products/furnishing/supplies, pharmaceuticals, personal products, transportation/tourism/recreation, childrens products, pet care, corporate image and media, public/business equipment/service as well as Telecom/Internet/Electronics. Three recruitment ads (Two were from the EFFIE sample and one fr om the Chinese sample) can not be classified into any of these ten categories. They were transformed into missing data. The remaining 181 samples were recoded into several small groups, such as durable/nondurable category, product/service category, and traditional /modern category. Table 4-11 summarizes the proportions of each product /service category in EFFIE or Chinese samples. The findings re veal the significant difference ( =24.73, p<.01) between product/service category and comm ercial nationality. Food/bevera ge was the dominant category in which animals were used most frequently in both countries. In EFFIE awardwinning commercials, the top four product/service cate gories were food/beverage commercials (14.5%, N=12), household products/furnishing/supplies commercials (13.3%, N=11), transportation /tourism/recreation (13.3%, N=11), and teleco m/Internet/electronics (10.8%, N=9). The remaining six categories were each less than 10% and the least category was pharmaceuticals category (4.7%, N=4). In Chinese award-winning commercials, the top four categories were food/beverage commercials (24.5%, =24) which were almost twice as EFFIEs, telecom /Internet /Electronics commercials (19.4%, N=19), pharmaceuticals commercials (11.2%, N=11) which was almost twice than EFFIEs, and corporat e images and Media (11.1%, N=11). The remaining 2 48

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six categories were below 11%, and the least ca tegories were childrens products and pet care winners. Actually there was no Chinese winner falling into these two categories compared EFFIE winners (8.4%, N=7) in childrens produc ts category and EFFIE wi nners (7.1%, N=6) in pet care category. As Tables 4-12, 4-13 and 4-14 indicate that there was no significant difference between durable/nondurable product category and commer cial nationality, no signi ficant association between product/service category and commercial nationality, and no significant association between traditional/new category and commercials nationality. RQ2: what kind of animal species most frequen tly appear in commercials in the United States and China respectively? There were 45 animals out of a total of 184 commercials coded into the species category. There is no significant difference between animal species used in commercials and commercial nationality. Table 4-15 lists the frequency of dominant species appeared in commercials in EFFIE Awards and Chinese Advertising Awards re spectively. Among the EFFIE sample, the top five species appeared in commerc ials were dogs, fish, songbirds, cat and duck in order of the frequency of their occurrence in a total of 85 ad s. Dogs were the dominant species and appeared in EFFIE commercials (43.5%, N=37), followed by fish (7.1%, N=6), songbirds (7.1%, N=6), cat (7.1%, N=6) and duck (4.7%, N=4). Among the Chinese sample, the top five species in commercials were dogs, fish, horses, songbirds an d chicks in order of the frequency of their occurrence in a total of 99 ads. There was no dominant animal in Chinese award-winning commercials. However, the dog was the leading animal (20.2%, N=20) of the total Chinese sample. The second highest percentage was fish (15.2%, N=15), which was more than twice of the amount of fish that appeared in EFFIEs commercials. The horse was found largely in 9 (9.1%) Chinese winning commercials, which contrasts with only two occurrences of the horse in 49

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EFFIEs commercials. Songbirds ( 6.1%, N=6) and chicks (4.0%, N=5) were followed by horses in the Chinese sample. A dragon appeared in only 3 (3.0%) Chinese commercials. No dragon appeared in EFFIE winning commercials. A fr og also appeared 3 times (3.0%) in Chinese commercials, but shown only once in EFFIE commer cials. All other 35 anim al species out of 45 species were present in less than 2 occurrences in each category respectively. Those animals were: pigeon, monkey, worm, fly, lizar d, tiger, wild goose, seagull, gi gantic beast, bear, elephant, alligator, mouse, red lobster, monster, gopher, shark, zebra, kangaroo, camel, grasshopper, sheep, turtle, bee, sea turtle, shrim p, mosquito, roach, yak, butterfly, dinosaur, goat, pig, donkey, and oyster. RQ3: do Chinese commercials containing animals di ffer from the United States in terms of frequency of animal type? The variable Animal Species was recoded to examine the relationship between animal species adopted in commercials and commercial nationality. Ther e were 45 kinds of animals recoded into 5 groups: 1> dog: sing le type; 2> Birds and fish: vari ous songbirds, eagle, rooster, parrot, peacock, pigeon and gold fishes, shark, sea tu rtle, oyster and etc.; 3> farm animals: horse, cow, sheep, pig, duck, chick, donkey and etc.; 4> othe r small animals, such as lots of insects, worms, and etc.; 5> other large animals, such as cat, tiger, bear, zebra, gigantic beast, dragon, camel and etc. Animals can be served as food s ource, a transportation source, a tool for work, and a companion or a friend (Clark, 1977; Spears & Germain, 2007). The variables were recoded in various ways, based on how humans treated the animals and the locations animals appeared, the total of forty-five animal species was again coded into severa l groups: wild/domestic; pet/labor/food/others. According to Spears and Germains study ( 2007), wild animals are those in a forest or a field, and so on. 50

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Table 4-16 shows a significant difference ( =13.50, p<.01) between animal types and commercial nationality. In this category, dogs were dominant animals (43.5%, N=37) appeared in EFFIE award-winning commercials. Dogs were the second largest cate gory of animals in 20 commercials (20.2%) from the Chinese sample, which is approximately half amount of EFFIE. Fish and birds were dominant animals in 37 (37.4%) Chinese award-winning commercials. Fish and birds were the second largest type of animals in 22 (25.9%) commercials of the EFFIE sample. Dogs, fish and birds appeared to be the preferred species used in commercials in both countries. However, farm animals were found more frequently in Chinese ads than in EFFIE ads. There were only 8 (9.4%) EFFIE commercials containing farm an imals compared to 19 (19.2%) Chinese commercials. As Table 4-16 shows, there was no difference in using other small animals like insects, bees and worms as well as other la rge animals (lion, tiger, monkey, bear, cat, etc). 2 As shown in Table 4-17, a significant difference ( =5.01, p<.05) exists between domestic/wild species and commercial nationalit y. Domestic animals were the dominant animals in the EFFIE sample, which were present in 56 commercials (65.9%). Chin ese commercials were equally used domestic animals and wild animals. A slightly more than half of the Chinese commercials (50.5%, N=50) used wild animals compared to EFFIE commercials (34.1%, N=29). 2 The findings in Table 4-18 also re veal a significant difference ( =11.90, p<.01) between pet/labor/food/others species and commercial na tionality. The animal type distribution in 2 Table 4-18 shows that pets (52.9%, N=45) were le ading animals in EFFIEs commercials. There were 31 Chinese commercials (31.3%) showed animals as pets. Animals as food were used in 14 (14.1%) Chinese commercials, which contrasts with EFFIE commercials (3.5%, N=3). Animals as labor were used in 11 Chinese commercials (11.1%) and in contrast to EFFIE commercials (8.2%, N=7). 51

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RQ4: do commercials containing animals run in Ch ina differ from those run in the United States in terms of level of animal usage in commercial? Nine variables in three categories were code d to examine the level of animal usage in commercials. They were commercial approach, commercial setting and commercial characters. The variable Commercial setting was recoded into two categories: indoors and outdoors. Other values in this category, such as no setting and ot hers were turned to missing data. The variable Setting where was recoded into four categor ies: Chinese apartment /housing, American apartment /housing, Chinese local/land mark and American local /landmark. Commercial approach As shown in Table 4-19, more than half of EFFIE commercials containing animals (51.8%, N=44) used a neutral appeal. The remainder us ed an emotional appeal (32.9%, N=28) and a rational appeal (15.3%, N=13). More than half of Chinese commercials containing animals (53.5%, N=53) used an emotional appeal, fo llowed by a neutral appeal (38.4%, N=38). The smallest percentage was the rational appeal in the Chinese winners category, which was only 8.1% (N=8) of the total Chinese sample. This finding is signi ficant at a probability of .05 ( =8.33). 2 Table 4-20 shows no significant difference exis ts between negative/positive approach and commercial nationality. Commercials in both countries preferre d to use neutral (63.5%, N=54 and 58.2%, N=53 respectively in EFFIE and Chinese commercials) approach. The negative approach was used least (7.1%, N=6 and 4.0% N=4 respectively in EFFIE and Chinese commercials) in commercials containing animal s. Table 4-21 shows th ere is no significant deference between differentiating messages and commercial nationality. Based on the findings in Table 4-21, more than three qua rters of commercials (76.5%, N=65 in EFFIE and 79.8%, N=79 in the Chinese sample) contained no differentia ting messages. Most of the coded commercials 52

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from both countries did not make it clear that the message is unique, and most commercials did not explicitly indicate uniquene ss or difference of the product. Commercial setting The commercial setting category consists of two variables: what and where the dominant commercial setting is depicted. Tables 4-22 shows almost half of EFFIE commercials containing animals were shot indoors (48.2%, N=40), compared to 28.1% (N=27) of Chinese commercials. More than half of Chinese commercials (51.0%, N=49) were shot outdoors compared to 36.1% (N=30) of EFFIE commercials. This finding is sign ificant at a probability of .05 ( =7.67). Table 4-23 shows that there were 29 (59.2%) EFFIE commercials containing animals shot in American apartment/housing and 20 (40.8%) commercials were shot at American local/landmarks. There were 51.2% (N=21) of Chinese commercials shot in Chinese apartment and housing, followed by 46.3% (N=19) of commercials shot at Chinese lo cal/landmarks. This finding is significant at a probability of .01 ( =86.16). 2 2 Commercial characters The commercial characters category includes four variables: gender of the principle character(s), the presence or absence of child or infant, the minor or main role of the animal, and the animal is real or animated in commercial. According to the findings shown in Table 4-24, 4-26 and 4-27, there was no significant association between variables Gender, Real/Animated, M ain/Minor Role and commercial nationality. Males appeared more frequently than females in commercial s containing animals for both countries. Animals as the only character(s) shown in commercials accounted for more than 20% (N=20) of the total sample respectively for both countries More than 70% of animals 53

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present in commercials appeared as real animals for both countries. Animals played a minor role more often in both EFFIE comm ercials (61.2%, N=52) and Chines e commercials (71.1%, N=71). However, Table 4-25 indicates that there is a significant difference ( =6.02, p<.05) between the presence of a child or an infant a nd commercial nationality. A child or infant was present in 35 commercials (41.2%) in the EFFIE sample compared to 24 Chinese commercials (24.2%) containing a child or an infant. 2 RQ5: are the roles of animals portrayed in Chin ese commercials different from American commercials? Table 4-28 shows the distribution of animal roles by EFFIE and Chinese award-winning commercials. The findings reveal a significant difference ( =17.34, p<.01) between roles animals played in commercial and commercial nationality. The presence of animal roles was fairly equal among various Chinese award-winni ng commercials. The percentage of four categories out of five animal roles was around 20 %. The largest category that animals appeared in Chinese commercials was as animal in na ture and used in background (27.3%, N=27). The next largest usage was animal as symbol (25.3%, N=25), followed by animal as loved ones (20.2%, N=20), and animal as tool (19.2%, N=19) The least used was animals as nuisance (8.1%, N=8). The dominant animal role for EFFI E winning commercials wa s animal as a loved one (47.1%, N=40), which was more than twic e as Chinese winning commercials. The second highest percentage was animal as symbol (21.2%, N=18). Animals in natu re and as background accounted for 15.3% (N=13) of the total EFFIE sample, which was almost half the amount present in Chinese commercials. Animal as t ools appeared less in E FFIE winning commercials (8.2%, N=7) than in Chinese commercials. Both countries preferred not to use animal as nuisance. 2 54

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Table 4-1 Frequency of award year Year Frequency Percent 1997 9 4.9 1999 38 20.7 2000 29 15.8 2001 17 9.2 2004 61 33.2 2005 30 16.3 Total 184 100.0 Table 4-2 Award year As Table 4-1 and Table 4-2 show, the findings support the HP1 that an imals are used more frequently in commercials after year 2000 than in the years before 2000. EFFIE or Chinese commercial EFFIE Chinese Total 47 29 Table 4-3 Frequency of Brand origin Brand origin Frequency Percent 71 38.6 7 3.8 98 53.3 8 4.3 Domestic Asia and Pacific American European Total 184 100.0 Table 4-4 Frequency of Brand origin II Brand Origin Frequency Percent 78 42.4 106 57.6 Eastern Western Total 184 100.0 Table 4-3 and Table 4-4 show that th e hypothesis 2 is supported by findings. 76 Before 2000/2000 Count% within year 55.3% 29.3% 41.3% 38 70 Awar d Year After 2000 Count% within year 44.7% 70.7% 108 58.7% 55

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Table 4-5 Commercial format Commercial format EFFIE Chinese Total 25 7 32 Slice of life 41.7% 9.5% 23.9% 8 9 17 Demonstration of product in use or by analogy 13.3% 12.2% 12.7% 3 11 14 Comedy or satire 5.0% 14.9% 10.4% 8 6 14 Animation/cartoon/rotoscope 13.3% 8.1% 10.4% 6 22 28 Creation of mood or image as dominant element 10.0% 29.7% 20.9% 10 19 29 Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element 16.7% 25.7% 21.6% 60 74 134 Total 100% 100% 100% 2 =25.79. df=5. p<.01. Table 4-6 Commercial structure Commercial structure EFFIE Chinese Total 40 37 77 Front-end impact 50.0% 38.9% 44.0% 16 19 35 Surprise or suspense 20.0% 20.0% 20.0% 9 17 26 Unusual setting or situation 11.3% 17.9% 14.9% 15 22 37 Blind lead-in 18.8% 23.2% 21.1% 80 95 175 Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 2 =2.90. df=3. not significant. 56

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Table 4-7 Commercial appeals and selling propositions Commercial appeals and selling propositions EFFIE Chinese Total 6 10 16 Attitude or ingredients as main message 8.1% 11.8% 10.1% 24 18 42 Product performance or benefits as main message 32.4% 21.2% 26.4% 5 8 13 Psychological or subjective benefits as main message 6.8% 9.4% 8.2% 8 6 14 Enjoyment appeals 10.8% 7.1% 8.8% 7 13 20 Self-esteem or self-image 9.5% 15.3% 12.6% 13 16 29 Achievement 17.6% 18.8% 18.2% 11 14 25 Excitement, sensation, variety 14.9% 16.5% 15.7% 74 85 159 Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 2 =4.57. df=6. not significant. Table 4-8 Commercial tone and atmosphere Commercial tone and atmosphere EFFIE Chinese Total 35 43 78 Happy and comfortable 42.7% 45.7% 44.3% 11 15 26 Tense and uncomfortable 13.4% 16.0% 14.8% 8 11 19 Contemporary and Futuristic 9.8% 11.7% 10.8% 8 8 16 Traditional and old fashion 9.8% 8.5% 9.1% 20 17 37 Humorous 24.4% 18.1% 21.0% 82 94 176 Total 100% 100% 100% 2 =1.34. df=4. not significant. Hypothesis 3 is part ially supported by findings in the Table 4-5, Table 4-6, Table 4-7 and Table 48. Chinese commercials containi ng animals are different from American commercials in terms of commercial format, but are not different from American commercials in terms of comme rcial appeal/selling proposition, commercial tone/ atmosphere and commercial structure. 57

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Table 4-9 Human-animal relationships Animal human relationships EFFIE Chinese Total 35 21 56 Beloved 42.2% 21.4% 30.9% 25 19 44 Friendly 30.1% 19.4% 24.3% 12 37 49 Neutral 14.5% 37.8% 27.1% 11 21 32 Aggressive 13.3% 21.4% 17.7% 83 98 181 Total 100% 100% 100% 2 =19.08. df=3. p<.01. Hypothesis 4 is supported by fi ndings in Table 4-9, which indicates that human-animal relationships depi cted in Chinese TV commercial s are different from the United States. Table 4-10 Animal(s) in commercials is individual or in a group Animal in commercial is individual or in a group EFFIE Chinese Total 64 58 122 Individual 75.3% 58.6% 66.3% 21 41 62 In a group 24.7% 41.4% 33.7% 85 99 184 Total 100% 100% 100% 2 =5.72. df=1. p<.05. Table 4-10 shows hypothesis 5 is supported by findings, which indicates that animals in American commercials are more likely to appear individually, while animals in Chinese commercials are more likely to appear in a group. 58

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Table 4-11 Product category Product category EFFIE Chinese Total 12 24 36 Food/Beverage 14.5% 24.5% 19.9% 11 9 20 Household Products/Furnishing/Supplies 13.3% 9.2% 11.0% 4 11 15 Pharmaceuticals 4.8% 11.2% 8.3% 7 10 17 Personal Products 8.4% 10.2% 9.4% 11 8 19 Transportation/Tourism/Recreation 13.3% 8.2% 10.5% 6 0 6 Children's Product 7.1% .0% 3.3% 8 11 19 Corporate Image and Media 9.4% 11.1% 10.3% 7 0 7 Pet Care 8.4% .0% 3.9% 8 6 14 Public/Business Equipment/Service 9.6% 6.1% 7.7% 9 19 28 Telecom/Electronics/Internet/ 10.8% 19.4% 15.5% 83 98 181 Total 100% 100% 100% 2 =24.73. df=9. p<.01. Table 4-12 Durable/Non-durable product/service category Durable/Non-durable product/service EFFIE Chinese l Total 17 24 41 Durable 20.0% 24.2% 22.3% 68 75 143 Non-durable 80.0% 75.8% 77.7% 85 99 184 Total 100% 100% 100% 2 =.48. df=1. not significant. 59

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Table 4-13 Products/service category Products/service EFFIE Chinese Total 67 83 150 Products 78.8% 83.8% 81.5% 18 16 34 Service 21.2% 16.2% 18.5% 85 99 184 Total 100% 100% 100% 2 =.76. df=1. not significant. Table 4-14 Traditional/New product/service category Traditional/New product/service EFFIE Chinese Total 66 77 143 Traditional products/service 77.6% 77.8% 77.7% 19 22 41 New products/service 22.4% 22.2% 22.3% 85 99 184 Total 100% 100% 100% 2 =.00. df=1. not significant. 60

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Table 4-15 Frequency of animal species Animal Species EFFIE Chinese Total 37 20 57 Dog 43.5% 20.2% 31.0% 6 15 21 Fish 7.1% 15.2% 11.4% 6 6 12 Songbird 7.1% 6.1% 6.5% 2 9 11 Horse 2.4% 9.1% 6.0% 6 4 10 Cat 7.1% 4.0% 5.4% 2 5 7 Chick 2.4% 5.1% 3.8% 4 2 6 Duck 4.7% 2.0% 3.3% 2 4 6 Penguin 2.4% 4.0% 3.3% 0 3 3 Dragon 0 3.0% 1.6% 1 3 4 Frog 1.2% 3.0% 2.2% 19 28 47 Others 22.4% 28.3% 25.5% 85 99 184 Total 100% 100% 100% 2 =53.31. df=44. not significant. 61

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Table 4-16 Animal species Species EFFIE Chinese Total 37 20 57 Dogs 43.5% 20.2% 31.0% 8 19 27 Farm animals 9.4% 19.2% 14.7% 22 37 59 Fish and birds 25.9% 37.4% 32.1% 3 6 9 Other small animals 3.5% 6.1% 4.9% 15 17 32 Other large animals 17.6% 17.2% 17.4% 85 99 184 Total 100% 100% 100% 2 = 13.50. df=4. p<.01. Table 4-17 Animal species: domestic/wild Species: domestic/wild EFFIE Chinese Total 56 49 105 Domestic 65.9% 49.5% 57.1% 29 50 79 Wild 34.1% 50.5% 42.9% 85 99 184 Total 100% 100% 100% 2 =5.01. df=1. p<.05. Table 4-18 Animal species: pet/labor/food/others Species pet/labor/food/others EFFIE Chinese Total 45 31 76 Pet 52.9% 31.3% 41.3% 7 11 18 Labor 8.2% 11.1% 9.8% 3 14 17 Food 3.5% 14.1% 9.2% 30 43 73 Others 35.3% 43.4% 39.7% 85 99 184 Total 100% 100% 100% 2 =11.90. df=3. p<.01. 62

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Table 4-19 Commercial approach Commercial approach EFFIE Chinese Total 13 8 21 Rational 15.3% 8.1% 11.4% 28 53 81 Emotional 32.9% 53.5% 44.0% 44 38 82 Neutral 51.8% 38.4% 44.6% 85 99 184 Total 100% 100% 100% 2 =8.33. df=2. p<.05. Table 4-20 Positive or negative Positive or negative EFFIE Chinese Total 25 42 67 Positive 29.4% 42.4% 36.4% 6 4 10 Negative 7.1% 4.0% 5.4% 54 53 107 Neutral 63.5% 53.5% 58.2% 85 99 184 Total 100% 100% 100% 2 =3.68. df=2. not significant. Table 4-21 Differential message Differential message EFFIE Chinese Total 20 20 40 Presence 23.5% 20.2% 21.7% 65 79 144 Absence 76.5% 79.8% 78.3% 85 99 184 Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 2 =.30. df=1. not significant. 63

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Table 4-22 Setting Setting EFFIE Chinese Total 40 27 67 Indoors 48.2% 28.1% 37.4% 30 49 79 Outdoors 36.1% 51.0% 44.1% 13 20 33 No setting 15.7% 20.8% 18.4% 83 96 179 Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 2 =7.67. df=2. p<.05. Table 4-23 Setting Where Setting Where EFFIE Chinese Total 0 19 19 Chinese apartment/housing .0% 46.3% 21.1% 29 0 29 American apartment/housing 59.2% .0% 32.2% 0 21 22 Chinese locale/landmark 0% 51.2% 24.4% 20 1 20 American locale/landmark 40.8% 2.4% 22.2% 49 41 90 Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 2 =86.16. df=3. p<.01. Table 4-24 Commercial characters: gender Commercial characters: gender EFFIE Chinese Total 38 37 75 Male 44.7% 37.4% 40.8% 9 16 25 Female 10.6% 16.2% 13.6% 18 26 44 Both 21.2% 26.3% 23.9% 20 20 40 Animals 23.5% 20.2% 21.7% 85 99 184 Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 2 =2.38. df=3. not significant. 64

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Table 4-25 Presence of a child or an infant Child or infant EFFIE Chinese Total 35 24 59 Yes 41.2% 24.2% 32.1% 50 75 125 No 58.8% 75.8% 67.9% 85 99 184 Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 2 =6.02. df=1. p<.05. Table 4-26 Real or animated Re al or animated EFFIE Chinese Total 64 71 135 Real 75.3% 71.7% 73.4% 21 28 49 Animated 24.7% 28.3% 26.6% 85 99 184 Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 2 =0.30. df=1. not significant. Table 4-27 Main or minor role Main or minor role EFFIE Chinese Total 33 28 61 Main 38.8% 28.3% 33.2% 52 71 123 Minor 61.2% 71.7% 66.8% 85 99 184 Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 2 =2.29. df=1. not significant. 65

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Table 4-28 Roles animal played in commercials Roles in commercials EFFIE Chinese Total 40 20 60 Loved one 47.1% 20.2% 32.6% 18 25 43 Symbol 21.2% 25.3% 23.4% 7 8 15 Nuisance 8.2% 8.1% 8.2% 13 27 40 In nature and background 15.3% 27.3% 21.7% 7 19 26 Tool 8.2% 19.2% 14.1% 85 99 184 Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 2 =17.34. df=4. p<.01. 66

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CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Discussion of the Findings Our study analyzed a combined total of 184 EFFIE award-winning commercials and Chinese Advertising Festival award-winning co mmercials containing animals from years 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2004 and 2005. The study examined the usage and executions of animals and the human-relationship, as well as the animal ro les shown in award-winning commercials. This was accomplished by adopting a variable-analysis framework of animal television commercials developed by American scholars Lerner and Ka lof (1999) and executional factor framework by Steward and Furse (1986). A quantitative content analysis was applie d to achieve the results by coding 184 TV commercials on 23 variables. These are award year, brand origin, pr oduct/service category, commercial appeal/selling propos ition, commercial approach, co mmercial setting, commercial tone/atmosphere, commercial format, commercial characters, and animal species, human-animal relationship, roles animal played in commercials, as well as animal in individual or in a group. The Chi-square test and crossta bulations were conducted to expl ore the significant differences between those variables. Four of five hypotheses were suppor ted (chapter 4). HP1: animals are used more frequently in comm ercials after year 2000 than in the years before 2000. HP2: animals are used more frequently in west ern brand product or service advertisements than in eastern brand product or service advertisements. Hypothesis 1 and 2 are both supported by findings in current study. Award-winning commercials containing animals increased fr om years 1997 to 2005, which was especially evident in Chinese award-winning commercials. There was a sharp increase after 2000 than before 2000, as reflected in the data collected in the Chinese sample. After 2000, because of 67

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economic prosperity and the modernization in China, advertisers in China realized the importance of animal appeal in commercials and applied it more in commercials. As discussed in the literature review, substantia l symbolic importance and cultural implications of animals were realized by western advertisers for many years. Anim al usage in all kinds of advertisements has a long history and powerful presen ce in western media. Commercials containing animals are presented more often for western brands than eastern brands, due to the importance of animals as symbolic sign and cultural representation in we stern communication hist ory and the recognition of its importance. HP3: Chinese commercials containing animals are different from American commercials in terms of commercial appeal/selling proposition, commercial tone/ atmosphere, structure and format. Hypothesis 3 is partially supported by the findings in current study. Chinese commercials are different from American commercials in term s of commercial format, but not in terms of commercial appeal/selling propositio n, commercials tone /atmosphere, and commercial structure. There is no significant difference between commercials appeal/selling proposition, commercials tone/atmosphere, and commercial st ructure and commercial nationality. However, statistical differences appear in award-winning co mmercials in terms of commercial format in two countries. Animals were mostly present in ordinary life, as a part of real -life, and depicted as a family member or a friend. They are more humanized in U.S. ads than in Chinese ads. Chinese advertisement use animals more as symbols to re present the image of products or service, to create an emotional mood in commercials a nd to symbolize the fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism instead of realistic elements. This ma y be explained by the Halls (1994) low context and high context culture th eory. In low context culture, such as the United States, information and messages is carried in explicit codes, while in a high-context culture like in China, 68

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information and messages is carried more in inexp licit codes. In advertisin g, rational and realistic elements are found more frequently in low c ontext cultures, while symbolism and indirect expression are found more often in high context cu ltures. In this study, animal was served as a cultural code. So, the commercials format for award-winning commercials containing animals in each country is different. HP4: human-animal relationships depicted in Ch inese TV commercials are different from those in the United States. Hypothesis 4 is accepted by the findings in current study. Human-animal relationship is an important index to examine cultural differences. The interaction with animals and humans in commerci als reflected the cultural value differences between China and the United States. In current study, beloved animals were dominant in EFFIE winners. Dogs were the dominant animal species in American commercials. American ads were shown with dogs as their companions, their friend s and family members. Beloved animals can be used as an effective way in commercials to at tract audiences attention and appeal to their sympathy. Chinese advertisements also took animals as their beloved ones, but beloved animals are not as dominant as in the United States. Chin ese commercials also preferred more aggressive animals at the same time. However, aggressive animals were largely absent in American commercials. One explanation for this may be seen in Hofstedes (2003) power of distance index. The United States is a country w ith a very low score of PDI (40) compared to Chinas very high score of PDI (80). Aggressive animals in adve rtising are characterized by authority, power and status. As a result, the images of animals portray ed in commercials and the attitudes toward the various animals in two count ries should be different. HP5: animals in American commercials are mo re likely to appear individually, while animals in Chinese commercials are more likely to appear in a group. 69

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Hypothesis 5 is supported by the findings in current study. According to Hofstedes individualism/collectivism cultura l dimension, China is a country with a very low score of IDV (24). This sharply contrasts to a very high score of IDV (91) in the United States. The findings suggested that this may be reflected by the way animals appealed in commercials in each country. The majority of animals in American commercia ls appeared individually. However, the way most of the animals appeared in Chinese commercials were in a gr oup or collectively. RQ1: do Chinese commercials containing animal s differ by product/service category from those run in the United States? The product and services categories that most often used animals in commercials were the food and beverage categories in both countries. This finding agrees with the study of Lerner and Kalof (1999). The second largest category was h ousehold products/furnishing/supplies for the United States. This is consistent with the findings for research question th ree, in which domestic animals were found as dominant animals. The setti ng in which animals appeared most frequently were in American apartments and homes. Th is may be as a rationale for why household products/ furnishing/supplies became the largest category after food/beverage. However, there were significant differences in the occurrence in three product/service categories between two countries. Animals were used in pet care and ch ildrens product categories, but none of them present in Chinese winners. On the one ha nd, its because the pet care industry is underdeveloped in China, and there were not many pet care product/service commercials (including pet food, pet toy, pet me dicare and etc.) in the sample. Currently, most Chinese prefer to feed pets with table leftovers. On the ot her hand, childrens products are not advertised frequently in China and were not selected as finalists in China Advertising Festival sample. Pharmaceuticals category was a large category that often used animals in Chinese ads, which is contrary to America. Halls (1994) degree of context in communication system can make the 70

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explanation for this finding. The United States is a low context culture country, where American commercials mostly applied rational appeal and explicit and direct expression to the pharmaceuticals product/service category. They made it very clear what are benefits of the medicine, how effective it can be and how to use it. Animal appeals may not as much helpful as celebrity endorsement, product users or doctors for pharmaceutical commercials. However, in an extreme high context culture like China, where advertising is characte rized by symbolism or indirect verbal expression (Moo ij, 2005), animals appeared more frequently. Furthermore, the Chinese Industry and Business Department ha s strict regulations on pharmaceutical aired commercials. The symptom of the illness and the patient can not be depicted directly in aired commercials. As a result, animals are used frequen tly as allegories to symbolize or represent the patients. RQ2: What kind of animal species most frequen tly appear in commercials in the United States and China respectively? As the findings show, the dominant animal a ppearing in American commercials are dogs, the less frequently anim als are fish, songbirds and cats with the same occurrence respectively. There was no one overwhelmingly dominant animal in Chinese award-winning commercials. However, the dog was the leading animal, follo wed closely by fish. Dogs, fish and birds appeared to be the prefer red species used in commerc ials in both countries. RQ3: do commercials containing animals run in Ch ina differ from those run in the United States in terms of fre quency of animal type? There is significant difference between animal type and commercial nationality. Farm animals were frequently used in Chinese co mmercials but not used often in American commercials. Chinese ads preferred to show fish and birds. Gold fish and birds in cages were more frequently depicted as pets in Chinese culture. Gold fish were present in many Chinese 71

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commercials. In Chinese culture, gold fish serves as the symbol of wealth. Some birds in cages, like parrots, canaries as we ll as peacocks are often used as sym bols of fortune that can bring luck in Chinese culture. Because of Chinas long hist ory of agrarian society, Chinese people have strong relationships with farm an imals that can be used as tool. The finding supports this as a high percentage of farm animals and animal as la bor present in Chinese commercials. China also has a history of raising domestic animals as food and their involvement with those animals is also an important part of their daily life. As a matter of fact, animal for food, such as fish, chicks, ducks and other poultries appeared in high perc entages in Chinese commercials. Domestic animals and animals as pets were dominant in American commercials due to the reason discussed above. RQ4: do commercials containing animals run in China differ from the United States in terms of level of animal usage in commercial? As discussed in the findings, the animal usage in commercials in two countries is different in terms of commercial approac h, commercial setting, and presence of a child or an infant. Most American commercials applied to rational appeals. However, Chinese commercials utilized more of emotional appeals. This can be explained by Halls low and high culture context as discussed in RQ 1. In low context culture like the Un ited States, information and communication is economical, fast and efficient (H all, 1994). Use of rational appeals is a good way to persuade audience in low context culture. In high context cu lture like China, much symbolic, indirect, and inexplicit expression is used. Emotional appe als are good ways to evoke feelings among the audience. American commercials contained animals s hown indoors in American apartments and house. This finding was highly consistent with re sults for Hypothesis 4 and Research Questions 2 and 3. Because American ads like to use domestic animals as pets and beloved ones frequently 72

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in food/beverages and household products/furnishings/supplies pr oduct categories, American ads present animals indoors in American apartment and house. Because Chinese ads preferred to use aggressive animals in commercials, or depict a strong involvement with farm animals as tool, Chinese ads present animals outdoors and at Chinese local/landmarks. Due to absence of commercials for ch ildrens product in Chinese award winning commercials as discussed in rese arch question 1, there was no pres ence of child or infant in Chinese commercials which is very different from America. RQ5: are the roles of animals portrayed in Ch inese commercials different from American commercials? The findings show that the roles of animals depicted in Chinese commercials are very different from American commercials. Because of the affections toward domestic pet, the dominant roles animals play in American comm ercials are loved ones. Animals depicted in symbolic roles were less frequently used in Am erican ads. Animal in nature and as background followed in usage. Animals were least portrayed as tool and also as nuisance in American commercials. Based on the findings, animal was twice likely to be portrayed as loved ones in American commercials than in Chinese comm ercials. The largest category in Chinese commercials was animals in nature and as background, closely followed by animals as symbol. Animals as loved ones were the third largest ca tegory. The smallest category was animal as nuisance. Animals in nature, such as songbird s chirping, pigeons flying in the sky, and fish swimming in the river and etc. were the most frequent roles animals played in Chinese commercials. There are three types of relationshi ps between humanity an d nature: mastery over nature, harmony with nature and subjugation to nature (Mooij, 2005). The North American relationship to nature is that it should be conquered. For western people, man should be the master of the nature; however, the Asian people believe that man should live in harmony with 73

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nature (Mooij, 2005). Chinese cultu re is a culture with a high re spect to nature and Chinese people would like to be in a harmonious relationshi p with nature. They take nature as part of their life. This can be an expl anation for the reason why anim als in nature and as background were most frequently appeared in Chinese commercials. Furthermore, given the reasons presented in HP4 and RQ 3, American society ha s long been an industrial society, therefore, most American people dont have strong affections with farm animals as tools, but due to the long agrarian history and strong involvement with farm animals, animal as tool become a large proportion in Chinese award-winning commercials. A Profile of a Typical American and Chin ese Award-Winning Commercial Containing Animal(s) Based on the current study, a pr ofile of usage and execution of animals in a typical awardwinning commercial in both countries respectively is offered: A typical American award-winning commerc ial containing animal(s) would likely: Advertise a food/beverage product or house hold product/furnishing /supplies category. Contain the product performance or benefit as the main message. Use front-end impact as commercial structure. Apply slice of life as comme rcial format with a happy and comfortable tone and atmosphere. Use a rational and positive approach. Include a female character. Be set indoors in an American apartment and housing. Be depicted as beloved animals such as a companion and a family member, especially a dog. Use a domestic animal and pet. A child or infant would probably also be present in this commercial. 74

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Use real animal as minor character. The animal in the commercia l would appear individually. A typical Chinese award-winning commercia l containing animal(s) would likely: Advertise a food/beverage product or telecom/Internet/El ectronics product/service category. Contain the product performance or benefit as the main message. Use front-end impact as commercial structure. Apply creation of mood or im age as dominant commercial format with a happy and comfortable tone and atmosphere. Use an emotional and positive approach. Include a female character. Be set outdoors in a Chinese local/landmark setting. Use an animal in nature or backgr ound, especially a fish or a bird. Use a wild animal. A child or infant would probably be absent in this commercial. Use a real animal as minor character. The animal in commercial would appear in a group. Comparison with Studies in Literature Review The findings support Lerner and Kalofs study (1 999) in terms of several variables, and also reflect Hofstedes cultural dimension study, and Halls low context and high context culture study as discussed above. According to Lerner an d Kalofs study (1999) on animals in American TV commercials, the animal in their research can be used as logo, background, the spokesman, the tool, the nuisances and the icons. They are classified into several categories based on their relationships with human, such as companions, friends, loved ones and enemies. They also 75

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categorized six primary themes: animals as loves one s, as symbols, as tools, as allegories, as nuisances, and in nature. They f ound that dogs and birds were most frequently used animals in their study, which was demonstrated in current st udy. The products and services that often used animals in ads were food and drink categories, which were also supported in current study. They also found that animal as loved ones were mo st popular animals in commercials, and less frequently used as symbols, the third largest theme was the animals as tools, and the smallest one was animal as nuisance. The curre nt studys findings str ongly reflect similar order of frequency. Implications There are several substantive implications fr om the findings. The academic implication of this study is animals in advertisements should be studied in relation to cu ltural differences. The practical implication is when developing international marketi ng strategies, marketers must consider cultural differences among different countries and utilize an adaptive strategy. Marketers should be aware of ascr ibed meanings of animals and cu ltural representa tions of those animals to increase the cultural capability and persuasiveness of their messages. Secondly, the current study offers a compar ison of typical award winning commercials containing animals in the United States and Chin a. What kind of anim al would be preferred, what kind of human-animal rela tionship should be depicted, and what species of animals and their relationship with humans were cri tical for the audience in each country. At last, the current study reveal s the cultural value reflected by animals in commercials, which can be a guide for advertisers who want to target oversea marketing. When advertisers in America try to expand to Chinese or Asian market or Chinese advertisers try to enter into the American market, they should consider cultural differences and audien ces preference between two countries. This study offers a clue of how to create a commercial where animals can be an effective and attractive appeal to consumers in different countries. How to present animals in 76

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commercials in order to avoid th e cultural offense, cultural conf liction, and satisfy the tastes of audience in different countri es are underscored by the fi ndings of the current study. Limitations The limitations of this study come from conten t analysis methodology itself. First, there is sample limitation. A total sample of 184 ads in this study may be not enough to get a comprehensive and accurate research result. Th e number of EFFIE award winning commercials (N=85) and Chinese award winning commercials (N=99) were not exactly equal. The sample was not comprehensive due to the missing years of 2002 and 2003 and incomplete collections of 2000 and 2001 Chinese commercials as well as 2005 EFFIE commercials. However, the sample was adequate for current study. Another limitation is the variable analysis framework adopted in this study. The findings of a particular content analysis are limited to the framework of the categories and the operational definitions used in that analysis (Wimmer & Dominick, 2003). Different researchers may use a different framework to study the sa me topic and may get different results. The author adopted the framework of Stewart and Furses study in 1986 and Lerner and Kalofs study in 1999, which may not be the most updated framework that can examine this research topic. Furthermore, only 14 variables out of 155 executiona l variables in Stewart and Fu rses study were adopted to examine the usage and execution of animals in commercials. There were only 7 variables built up to examine the human-animal relationships in current study. In order to get a more accurate result, the study may be expanded for a more extensive scope. Finally, the sample applied in current st udy was award-winning commercials, which may not represent the other non-award-winning commerc ials aired in daily life. Award-winning ads may not reflect all cultural value differences in between both countries. Award-winning commercials stand for the highest creativity a nd production standards in advertising industry. 77

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However, award-winning ads apply for some specific features, elements, particular tactics, techniques, and forms which can not include va rious aspects of ads aired in daily life. Furthermore, what kind of ads can be selected as the winners depend on judges evaluation. The subjectivity of the judges and th e standardization of specific awards may limit the cultural diversity of ads. As a ma tter of fact, not all cult ural values can be reflected by award-winning ads. Suggestions for Future Study In responding to the limitations discussed above, some suggestions for future study are made. First, expand the number of years in the total sample to do a more comprehensive content analysis, for example, a continuous ten years of research. Secondly, other commercials from other Asian countries and Europ ean countries can be used to conduct a more extensive content analysis between eastern and western countries. Thirdly, expand current sample to contain print ads and other types of advertisements. Moreove r, adopt other updated analysis frameworks which are not limited to award winning commercials containing animals, but non-award-winning commercials aired in TV networks which may comprehensively reflected cultural values in real life. 78

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APPENDIX CODING SHEET FOR CHINESE AWARDWINNING TV COMMERCI ALS AND EFFIE AWARD-WINNING COMMERCIALS BETWEEN 1997AND 2006 TV Commercial ID #___________ Variable 1: Nationality 1>EFFIE Award-winning commercial 2>Chinese Award-winning commercial Variable 2: Award year 1> 1997 2> 1999 3> 2000 4> 2001 5> 2002 6> 2003 7> 2004 8> 2005 Variable 3: Category 1> Agriculture/Industrial/Building 2> Alcoholic Beverages 3> Apparel and Accessories 4> Automobiles& Vehicles 5> Beauty Aids 6> Beverages 7> Breakfast Foods 8> Business Products 9> Childrens Products 10> Computer& Related for Business/Personal Purpose 11> Consumer Electronics 12> Cosmetics 13> Credit/Debit Cards 14> Delivery Systems and Products 15> Entertainment 16> Fashion 17> Fast Food and Restaurants 18> Financial Services/Products 19> General Retail/Etail 20> Pharmaceuticals 21> Hotels and Resorts 22> Household Durable Products 23> Industrial/ Building Products and Services 24> Internet Services 25> Leisure Products 26> Savory Food 27> Personal Care Products 28> Pet Care 29> Professional Service 30> Real Estate 31> Retail 32> Telecom Service 33> Transportation 34> Travel and Tourism 35> Corporate Image 36> Public Service 37> Printed/Electronic Media 38> Others If Category is not listed or confusing, please write here_________________________ 79

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Variable 4: Brand Origin 1> Domestic (Greater China including Mainland, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) 2> Asia and Pacific 3> American 4> European 5> Others Variable 5: Language usage 1> Chinese mandarin 2> Cantonese 3> English 4> Chinese and English Commercial Appeals or Selling Propositions Variable 6: What is the dominant commercial appeal or selling proposition? 1> Attitude or ingredients as main message 2> Product performance or benefit as main message 3> Psychological or subjec tive benefits as main message 4> Product reminder as main message 5> Sexual appeals 6> Comfort appeals 7> Safety appeals 8> Enjoyment appeals 9> Welfare appeals 10> Social approval 11> Self-esteem or self-image 12> Achievement 13> Excitement, sensation, variety Commercial Structure Variable 7: What is the do minant commercial structure? 1> Front-end impact 2> Surprise or suspense in the middle 3> Surprise or suspense at closing 4> Unusual setting or situation 5> Humorous closing 6> Blind lead-in Commercial Format Variable 8: What is th e dominant commercial form at of the commercial? 1> vignette 2> Continuity of action 3> Slice of life 4> Testimonial by product user 5> Endorsement by celebrity or authority 6> Announcement 7> Demonstration of product in use or by analogy 8> Demonstration of results of using product 9> Comedy or satire 10> Animation/cartoon/rotoscope 11> Photographic stills 12> Creation of mood or image as dominant element 13> Commercial written as serious drama 14> Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element 15> Problem and solution (before/after presentation) 16> Interview (person on the street or elsewhere) 17> Camera involves audience in situation 18> New wave (product graphics) 80

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Commercial Approach Variable 9: What is the do minant commercial approach? 1> Rational 2> Emotional 3> Neutral Variable 10: What is the do minant commercial approach? 1> Positive 2> Negative 3> Neutral Variable 11: Brand-differentiating message 1> Presence 2> Absence Commercial Setting Variable 12: What is the dominant commercial setting? 1> Indoors 2> Outdoors 3> Others 4> No setting Variable 13: Where is the commercial setting? 1> Traditional Chinese apartment/housing 2> Modern Chinese apartment/housing 3> Generic office/business setting 4> Generic restaurant setting 5> American locale/landmark 6> Chinese locale/landmark 7> Foreign locale/landmark (except Chinese and American locale/landmark) 8> Mountainous area 9> Not applicable 10> Other 11> American apartment/ housing Commercial Tone and Atmosphere Variable 14: Commercial Tone and Atmosphere 1> Cute/adorable 2> Hard sell 3> Warm and caring 4> Modern/contemporary 5> Wholesome/healthy 6> Technological/futuristic 7> Conservative/traditional 8> Old fashion/nostalgic 9> Happy/fun-loving 10> Cool/laid-back 11> Somber/serious 12> Uneasy/tense/irritated 13> Relaxed/comfortable 14> Glamorous 15> Humorous 16> Suspenseful 17> Rough/tugged 81

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Commercial Characters Variable 15: Principle character(s) male or female? 1> Male 2> Female 3> Both 4> Other Variable 16: Principle char acter (s) child or infant? 1> Yes 2> No Variable 17: Animal(s) in commercials real or animated? 1> Real 2> Animated Variable 18: Animal (s) in minor role or main role? 1> Main 2> Minor Variable 19: Animal(s) Roles in Commercial: 1> Loved one 2> Symbol 3> Tool 4> Allegory 5> Nuisance 6> Enemy 7> In nature 8> Background Variable 20: Animal-human relationships in commercials: 0> Not applicable 1> Beloved 2> Friendly 3> Neutral 4> Aggressive 5> Disastrous Variable 21: Specie of the animal in commercials: 1> Dog 2> Cat 3> Fish 4> Pigeon 5> Songbird 6> Monkey 7> Horse 8> Chick 9> Duck 10> Penguin 11> Worm 12> Fly 13> Lizard 14> Tiger 15> Others 16> Wild goose 17> Seagull 18> Gigantic beast 19> Bear 20> Elephant 21> Alligator 22> Mouse 23> Red lobster 24> Monster 25> Gopher 26> Frog 27> Shark 28> Zebra 29> Kangaroo 30> Dragon 82

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31> Camel 32> Bee 33> Sea turtle 34> Grasshopper 35> Sheep 36> Turtle 37> Shrimp 38> Mosquito 39> Roach 40> Yak 41> Butterfly 42> Dinosaur 43> Goat 44> Pig 45> Donkey 46> Oyster Variable 22: How many kinds of animals in commercials: 1> One kind of animal(s) 2> Two kinds of animals 3> Three kinds of animals 4> More than three kinds of animals Variable 23: Animal(s) in commercial a ppear(s) individually or in a group: 1> Individually 2> In a group 83

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Lingling Xiang came from a beautiful city: Che ngdu, the capital of the Sichuan province of China. She spent her childhood and youth time in Neijiang, another city of Sichuan province, which is famous for three icons, the world popul ar spicy and hot food, th e lovely giant panda, and the largest number of World Natural and Cultu ral Heritage Sites in China recognized by the UN. Now, it is known for the 8.0 magnitude Sich uan earthquake and the strong and respected Sichuan people in this disaster. She has an interdisciplinary academic background and previous professional experience Her Chinese academic background includes a bachelors degree in Radio-TV Journalism at Sichuan University in summer 2000, and a prof essional certification of Broadcasting and Television Management at Communication University of China as well as a masters degree in Arts and Literature at Xiamen University in 2006. She is scheduled to earn a Masters of Advertising degree at University of Florida at August in 2008. Lingling spent three years (20002003) professionally working for the media indus try at the Advertising Center of Sichuan Broadcasting&TV Group as a copy writer and an editor during which she produced a multitude of public service advertisements and documentaries for China Hope Project as well as commercials in the fight against SARS virus in 2003. As the youngest winner of the Golden Eagle Advertising Award by China TV Arts Asso ciation, Lingling also pa rticipated in making several award-winning commercial s and producing some television programs and entertainment shows. Being a firm believer in the dissemination of knowledge, she is intere sted in international advertising market. She plan to intern in the ex citing advertising related industry in the States before she flies back to her homeland to be a practitioner in the booming advertising industry in China. 89