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Languages of Algerian Diaspora in the United States of America

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022404/00001

Material Information

Title: Languages of Algerian Diaspora in the United States of America Comparative Study with Algerian Diaspora in France
Physical Description: 1 online resource (183 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Arfi, Khadidja
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: africa, algeria, arabic, darja, diaspora, french, immigration, language, tamazight, usa
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts LANGUAGES OF ALGERIAN DIASPORA IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH ALGERIAN DIASPORA IN FRANCE By Khadidja Arfi August 2008 Chair: Gerald Murray Major: Anthropology This work explores the dynamics of the Algerian languages in contact in the United States in comparison with the first Algerian Diaspora to France. In my case study, I specifically focus on the changes in the perceptions of Algerians towards their languages, and on the dynamics of adaptation in their new linguistic communities. This thesis will contribute to the field of social sciences in that it deals with Algerian languages and their speakers, a linguistic community that has seldom been studied in the United States. There are five traditionally important languages in Algeria: Quranic Arabic (CA), Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), Darja (North African Arabic dialect), Berber (Kabyle) and French. Neither CA nor MSA are spoken in the homes or on the street in Algeria, but both are important for religious, nationalistic, educational, and/or symbolic reasons. In the recent phenomenon of migration to the U.S., migrating adults and their children have been forced to learn English, thereby drastically reducing the opportunities and/or the need to learn CA, MSA, and French. Both Darja and Berber continue to be transmitted orally to children as both are used for daily communication in most homes. Although CA, MSA, and French are no longer functionally important for daily communication or survival in an American society, their loss among migrant children generates identity tensions and concerns among the adult migrants. The thesis explores to some depth the ensuing language struggles, successful adaptations (or lack thereof), and losses.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Khadidja Arfi.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Murray, Gerald F.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022404:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022404/00001

Material Information

Title: Languages of Algerian Diaspora in the United States of America Comparative Study with Algerian Diaspora in France
Physical Description: 1 online resource (183 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Arfi, Khadidja
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: africa, algeria, arabic, darja, diaspora, french, immigration, language, tamazight, usa
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts LANGUAGES OF ALGERIAN DIASPORA IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH ALGERIAN DIASPORA IN FRANCE By Khadidja Arfi August 2008 Chair: Gerald Murray Major: Anthropology This work explores the dynamics of the Algerian languages in contact in the United States in comparison with the first Algerian Diaspora to France. In my case study, I specifically focus on the changes in the perceptions of Algerians towards their languages, and on the dynamics of adaptation in their new linguistic communities. This thesis will contribute to the field of social sciences in that it deals with Algerian languages and their speakers, a linguistic community that has seldom been studied in the United States. There are five traditionally important languages in Algeria: Quranic Arabic (CA), Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), Darja (North African Arabic dialect), Berber (Kabyle) and French. Neither CA nor MSA are spoken in the homes or on the street in Algeria, but both are important for religious, nationalistic, educational, and/or symbolic reasons. In the recent phenomenon of migration to the U.S., migrating adults and their children have been forced to learn English, thereby drastically reducing the opportunities and/or the need to learn CA, MSA, and French. Both Darja and Berber continue to be transmitted orally to children as both are used for daily communication in most homes. Although CA, MSA, and French are no longer functionally important for daily communication or survival in an American society, their loss among migrant children generates identity tensions and concerns among the adult migrants. The thesis explores to some depth the ensuing language struggles, successful adaptations (or lack thereof), and losses.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Khadidja Arfi.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Murray, Gerald F.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022404:00001


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LANGUAGES OF ALGERIAN DIASPORA IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH ALGERIAN DIASPORA IN FRANCE


















By

KHADIDJA ARFI


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2008































2008 Khadidja Arfi

































To the Algerian Community in the United States









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to present my thanks and gratitude to my advisor Dr. Gerald Murray and my

committee members Dr. Abdoulaye Kane and Dr. Maria Stoilkova for their mentoring, advice,

encouragement, and positive critic throughout this project. I also extend my appreciation to my

professors in the Anthropology Department at the University of Florida and Southern Illinois

University for their mentoring in anthropological knowledge in general. I am grateful to the

Algerian community in the US, specifically those who welcomed me in their homes and allowed

me to write about their lives.

I am grateful to my parents, who never stopped showing their love and compassion until

they passed away. I appreciate my brothers and sisters and family-in-law for their closeness and

respect. I am mostly thankful for my daughter Soumaya's kindness, love and friendship. I am

pleased for having her husband Noureddine as a son-in-law. I am the most grateful for their

precious daughter, my granddaughter Mariam, a gift from God, who I hope would follow on the

footsteps of her ancestors in their love for knowledge and living in harmony. Finally, my greatest

thanks is for my husband Badredine's love, respect, compassion, and companionship. Our

journey together has been full of cherished moments, growing together in a continuous

reciprocity of ideas and thoughts about life and science. I hope this paper is a beginning in an

endeavor in academic writing, seeking knowledge and doing good on earth.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T S ................................................................. ........... ............. .....

LIST OF TABLES ......... .... .............. ........................................... 8

ABSTRAC T ...........................................................................................

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ............... ................. ........... ......................... .... 11

L iteratu re R ev iew .............................................................................12
M methodology ................................................................................ 17
N ative Anthropology and Reflexivity ........................................ ......... ............... 17
D ata C collection and Fieldw ork ......................................................................... .... .... 19
Comparative Analysis ................................ .... ..... ............. ........ 21
Structure and O organization of the Thesis .................................................................... .....22

2 BACKGROUND AND ASSESSMENT: THE ALGERIAN IMMIGRATION TO
FR A N C E A N D TH E U .S............................................................. .....................................26

In tro d u ctio n .................. ............. .........................................................2 6
A lgerian Im /m migration to France .................................................. .............................. 28
Labor Migration. ............................. ............... ...................30
W ar and F am ily R union ......................................................................... .................. 32
P ie d s N o irs ............................................................................................................... 3 3
A lg e ria n J ew s ..................................................................................................... 3 6
H a rk is ..........................................................................3 6
Algerian Migration to the United States ..................... ......... ................ 40
Mission of Higher Education...... ..................................41
Graduates Return to Serve in a Conflict-Ridden Homeland .......................................47
Second Im /m migration to the U .S .............................. ........... ....... ............... 49
Migration for studies or work and the role of network .................... ...............50
T he lottery visa .............................................. ............... ........... ............ 53
Fleeing terrorism looking for stability ...................................... ............... 55
Fleeing hard conditions and looking for better opportunities ...............................58
Escaping the national army service ........................................................ ......... 60
Marriage: Al-maktuub [Providence] ...................................... ...............60
How do New Comers Make the Transition? .....................................................63
'La M ontagne' N neighborhood ...........................................................................66
Conclusion .............. ..... ..................... ......67
C o n c lu sio n .............................................................................................................................. 6 7


3 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON ALGERIAN LANGUAGES ...............................70

G en esis an d D ev elopm ent ........................................................................... .....................70









Berber Languages and the First Contact with Arabic ..................................................72
Summarized Comparison between Berber and Arabic Phonology and Morphology .....74
C classical A rabic ..................................................... ......... ...... 75
M odem Standard A rabic ........................................................................ ...................76
D a rj a .............................................................................................7 6
Dialects cline ...................................................................... ......... 77
A lgerian m ultidiaglossia ................................................ .............................. 79
French in Algeria...................................................... .. ............ 79
Linguistic Conflict and N ation Building ........................................ .......................... 80
Arabic/Politics and Linguistics D iscourse.................................... ....................... 80
D arja the 'N neutral' T ongue ..................................................................... ..................8 1
Berber Reform and Ethnic Revival ........................................ ........................... 82
French: Not National but Integrated Language...........................................................82
C o n c lu sio n ................... .......................................................... ................ 8 3

4 CODESWITCHING AND BORROWING: CONTACT BETWEEN ARABIC AND
FRENCH VS. ARABIC AND ENGLISH..................................... .......................... ......... 84

Description of Codeswitching in General..... ............................................................. 86
M atrix illu stratio n ............................................................................................................. 8 6
F ren ch M atrix ................................................................86
Arabic M atrix .............................. ........... ....................88
Use of (F) adverbial expressions in Arabic matrix ..........................................89
Use of (F) verbial expressions in Arabic matrix ...................................... 89
Arabic matrix (borrowed English lexical) .................... ................. 92
The definite article [al] ................. ........................................ 94
Conclusion ................................ ........... ........................... 97

5 LANGUAGE CONTACT AND CONFLICT IN THE EARLY ALGERIAN
D IA SP O R A : F R A N C E .............................................................................. ......................98

Introdu action .................. .... ....... .................... ..... ..... ...................... ............ 9 8
Linguistics Performance and Cultural Belonging on the French Soil..................................98
French com petency .......................................... .................... ......... 100
Mother tongue teaching................... ................................. 102
The Kabyle revival in France: from oral to literary language.............................104
The Paradox of Nationality and Citizenship................... ............ ..... ......... ...... 109
The 'Beurs': An Identity Construct and a Racialized Generation........................ ........ 110
C onclu sion ......... .... ................................................. ...........................120

6 THE ALGERIAN LANGUAGES IN THE UNITED STATES ............... ................121

English Language Dominance in a M multicultural Society ...................................................121
Algerians' Perception of English vs. Migrating Languages .............. .... ...............124
Proficiency in English, Names, Citizenship and Success................................. ..........125
English Proficiency and Identity ............................................................................127
French (F) Maintenance among Algerian Americans .................................. ...............128









French, a Language of Communication in Algerian American Families................128
French, a Language of a Rich Literature and its Rootedness in Algerian History ........130
French Neglect, Loss and Replacement in the US ................................ ............... 131
Algerian M other Tongues in the Diaspora .................................... ............. ........ ....... 134
Tamazight/Kabyle/Berber Language in the Diaspora.............................. ..................134
The Arabic Language and dialect Maintenance and Transmission in the Diaspora .....138
Darja, the Langua Franca among North Africans .............. ..... .................. 138
A rabic FuSH a: M SA and CA ..................... ......... ............................... ............... 144
A rabic and religious continuity ........................................................................ 145
Arabic and historical continuity .......................... ....................146
Arabic and the Arab/M uslim identity................................................................. 147
The Arabic language and the American foreign policy ......................................147
Arabic Dialects Contact and Conflict ............................................. ...................... 148
Darja and the Accommodation of Other Arabic Dialects...................................... 148
Dialects vs. MSA and the Dilemma of Having a Middle Eastern Arabic Teacher.......151
C o n c lu sio n ................................ .............. ......................................... 1 5 3

7 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ...................................... ............... 156

C o n c lu sio n ........................................... .. ....................................................................... 1 5 6
Recom m endations....... ........ ........ ........................ .. .. .. .... ........... 164

APPENDIX

A SCH ED U LE IN TER V IEW ......................................... .... ........................ .......................168

B INFORM ANTS BACKGROUND ..................................... ...................... ..............170

C A L -H E N N A ...................................... ..................................................... 172

Al-Henna Taqdiim/Tbughir (Songs) and Twalwiil (Ululations) ............... ................172
P ray er S o n g s .................................................................... .. 17 3
Songs Praising Bride's Beauty and Clothes..........................................................173
Songs Praising Bride's Attributes and Praying for the Groom............................173
Songs of In-law s Praising the Bride.................................................................. 174
Songs of the Bride Consent of Marriage and the Father's Role as her Delegate...174
The Song of the Bride Close Relatives Comforting the Bride and Each Other
that the Groom is of a Good Stock .............................................175
Song Praising the B ride's Fam ily...................................... ......................... 175
The Second Generation and the Algerian Heritage ..............................175

D DIALOGUE BETWEEN AN ALGERIAN AND AN EGYPTIAN................................178

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S .................................................................................. ..................... 179

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ......................................................................... ... ..................... 183









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 An Illustration of the verb 'I write/we write' ........................................................................78

2-2 An example of (D) in comparison to MSA, E, and F, which is not yet influenced by
foreign borrowing: ............. ...................... ...... .. 84

2-3 Borrowed Words from E into D among later immigrants: ..............................................95

2-4 Inform ants background inform ation................................................................. ............... 170









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts


LANGUAGES OF ALGERIAN DIASPORA IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH ALGERIAN DIASPORA IN FRANCE


By

Khadidja Arfi

August 2008

Chair: Gerald Murray
Major: Anthropology


This work explores the dynamics of the Algerian languages in contact in the United States

in comparison with the first Algerian Diaspora to France. In my case study, I specifically focus

on the changes in the perceptions of Algerians towards their languages, and on the dynamics of

adaptation in their new linguistic communities. This thesis will contribute to the field of social

sciences in that it deals with Algerian languages and their speakers, a linguistic community that

has seldom been studied in the United States.

There are five traditionally important languages in Algeria: Quranic Arabic (CA), Modern

Standard Arabic (MSA), Darja (North African Arabic dialect), Berber (Kabyle) and French.

Neither CA nor MSA are spoken in the homes or on the street in Algeria, but both are important

for religious, nationalistic, educational, and/or symbolic reasons. In the recent phenomenon of

migration to the U.S., migrating adults and their children have been forced to learn English,

thereby drastically reducing the opportunities and/or the need to learn CA, MSA, and French.

Both Darja and Berber continue to be transmitted orally to children as both are used for daily

communication in most homes. Although CA, MSA, and French are no longer functionally









important for daily communication or survival in an American society, their loss among migrant

children generates identity tensions and concerns among the adult migrants. The thesis explores

to some depth the ensuing language struggles, successful adaptations (or lack thereof), and

losses.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

This study explores the dynamics of the Algerian languages in contact in the United States

in comparison with the first Algerian Diaspora (which occurred in France). In my case study, I

specifically focus on the following aspects: first, the changes in the perceptions of Algerians

towards their languages, and, second, the dynamics of adaptation in their new linguistic

communities. This thesis will contribute to the field of social sciences in that it deals with

Algerian languages and their speakers, a linguistic community that has seldom been studied in

the United States.

There are five traditionally important languages in Algeria: Quranic Arabic, Modem

Standard Arabic (MSA), Darja (North African vernacular based on, but not completely mutually

intelligible with, other Arabic dialects), Berber (Kabyle) and French. Many Algerians know all

five languages. Yet most Algerians know at least three. Neither Quranic Arabic nor Modern

Standard Arabic are spoken in the homes or on the street in Algeria, but both are important for

religious, nationalistic, and/or symbolic reasons. In the recent phenomenon of migration to the

U.S., migrating adults and their children have been forced to learn English, thereby drastically

reducing the opportunities and/or the need to learn Quranic Arabic, MSA, and French. Both

Darja and Berber continue to be transmitted orally to children as both are used for daily

communication in most homes. However, these children no longer have automatic access to the

other three languages since the latter owe their continual presence on the Algerian linguistic map

to formal/institutional education in public and private schools. Although these three languages

are no longer functionally important for daily communication or survival in an American society,

the new home for the new immigrants and their children, the loss of these three languages among

migrant children generates identity tensions and concerns among the adult migrants. The thesis









explores to some depth the ensuing language struggles, successful adaptations (or lack thereof),

and losses.

Literature Review

In 1953 Weinreich pioneered the first study on the topic of language contact. Since then,

many other scholars have investigated languages in contact and conflict from various angles. In

situations of contact with dominant language (s), many researchers focus on the dynamics of

maintenance, shift, loss and revival of minority languages. Joshua Fishman, who became known

as the father of language maintenance and language shift, was the first to coin it in 1966 in his

famous book 'Language Loyalties in the United States.' This book was written at a time of

Americanization. Fishman became impassioned about studying "the extent and status of cultural

and language maintenance efforts" (Fishman 1966: 16) in America at a time of the dominance of

'English only law' which was the symbol of 'one' integration and assimilation. Yet, thirty years

later, in 1992, the complexity of this topic brought him together in a conference with many other

scientists and researchers from multiple disciplines such as linguistics, education, psychology,

sociology, political science, and anthropology from all over the world (Fishman 1992: 396). Yet,

according to Fishman, among many researchers, there is a down playing of language

maintenance and over-emphasizing of language shift. He explains that there is a negative side of

the language maintenance/shift continuum, a fact evidenced by detailed studies on attrition, shift,

endangerment, loss and death. He notes that, in comparison, topics such as reversal, revival,

restoration, revitalization and destabilization are much less closely studied and are in fact

infrequently mentioned. Or, as he put it:

The inability of living in accord with one's own preferred model of the 'historically
validated good life' language maintenance and language shift are not just topics that
constitute part of the sociolinguistic enterprise; they are processes; that are part and parcel
of the very agony and the very joy of individual and collective life itself. The struggle for
reversing language shift is part of the struggle for language shift. These two struggles









always have and always will go on and we are all intimately involved in these struggles
ourselves. There is no escape, neither as scientists, as citizens nor even just as human
beings (Fishman 1992: 402-3).

In my empirical ethnographic work with the Algerian language community case in the U.S., I

add to the previous research a number of new phenomena that have seldom been studied before.

I thus show how struggles for shift and reversing, maintenance and loss are expressed and acted

upon. In my case study, the contact and conflict is not only with the dominant language-

English-but also amongst various Arab dialects (e.g., Egyptian, Syrian, Saudi, or Iraqi.) This

makes the aspirations and processes to maintain and transmit the home language much more

complex.

In an edited book, "Maintenance and Loss of minority languages (1992)," Fase William,

Koen Jaspaert and Sjaak Kroon argue that in various cases of mobility and displacement even the

'voluntary migration' has an impact on the transmissibility of one's own culture (e.g., religion)

language to the next generations. Most parents and grand parents wish for the day that their

values and behaviors are transmitted to their off-springs. These topics are at the heart of my

research. Whether in the first-France-or the late-America-migration, my fundamental

question is about the fate of the migrating languages. In the Algerian situation, I suspect that

language shift and fluctuation in language use may happen as a result of the following. The

dominant group does not know Arabic, Berber or French, thereby forcing Algerians to learn

English as quickly as possible in order to survive. Unlike the Pennsylvania Dutch or German

immigrants (Fase et al. 1992: 5) who isolated themselves from the majority society and refused

to speak English, Algerians do not segregate themselves. To the contrary, they integrate quickly

in the community at large and thus face the challenge of communicating in the dominant group's

language. This is how members of the minority Berber and Arabic group shift toward the use of

the dominant language in most of their contact with the dominant group. However, much like the









case of other language communities (Fase et al. 1992: 6), the extent of the shift in Berber and

Arabic will be determined by the extent of the interethnic communications that is established. As

put by Fase and associates:

As long as there is a minority group, as long as the minority group is not demographically
broken up, the use of the minority language will not disappear unless the norms of
language use within the group are changed [which would make the bilingualism disappear
all together] (Fase et al. 1992: 7).

My case study shows that as long as we have a group speaking Arabic, Berber and or French,

and English, evolving towards a form of a stable bilingualism, the shift is not complete. A

bilingual/trilingual community is established, speaking English with the English speaking

communities and the other languages and sometimes as well as English inside the group. I

suggest that when looked at from the inside the group might be defined as one of the following

categories: Berber, Arab-Berber, North African, Middle Eastern or the larger group of Arabic

speaking people.

Investigating within the minority groups) is a tricky situation however; it reveals many

complex issues, tensions, and loyalties. What language (s) or dialect (s) do the members speak?

Who is speaking the other language or dialect? Who would try to learn the other's dialect or

language and is it always one way? Who is a minority within a minority group (s)? 'Dialects in

contact' is a major theme in this thesis. This topic has been studied by many scholars since the

1970s. For example, Giles et al. (1973), Giles et al. (1987), Giles & Coupland (1991) deal with

the accommodation theory. Trudjill (1982, 1983 and 1986) considers various cases from the

world emphasizing accommodation theory but also studying cases of dialect mixture and even

the growth of new dialects. Finally, S'hiri (2002) presents a case of Tunisian and middle

Easterners intellectuals in England. She presents attitudes of convergence and divergence of the

former speaking to the latter.









"Dialects in Contact" inquiry is essential to the study of language contact in the Diaspora

in general and applies well to the Algerian case. However, I noticed that in the previous

American literature as well as in the literature that specializes more on the Arabs, such as

Sulaiman (2000) and Roushdy (2002), an absence of such studies, that is, on the topic of

'dialectology', despite higher levels of contact between the Arab communities in the U.S. with

the exception of S'hiri's study published in Roushdy's edited book 2002. However, S'hiri's case

was done in Europe not America. In my case I study the perceptions of Algerians when meeting

other Arabs and their testimonies about the tensions and accommodations, or lack thereof, when

meeting other Arabs. As discussed in Chapter 5, the Algerian dilemma is doubly tested by being

in contact with English as a dominant language but also by dealing with other Arab communities

and the latter's attitudes toward Algerians in general as "being" non-Arabic speaking people.

We can say that the categorization of 'Arab American' as one homogeneous minority

group in America can easily be contested. Outside the group, the members speak the dominant

English language. However, within the Arab Americans there are many other subgroups of

minority groups. For example, when a North African meets an Egyptian, it is the Algerian,

Moroccan or Tunisian who would accommodate by speaking the Egyptian dialect or by refusing

to conform and speak standard Arabic or even English. In case of a Berber, on many occasions

those who only know Berber, French, and Darja would speak English to an Egyptian because of

the latter's 'inability' to understand Darja. So, in order to communicate, members of this

minority group, who seem to be part of one unified language community-Arabic, would resort

to using within the group the language of the dominant society-English. I would argue that in

order to understand the processes of language maintenance and language shift, it is imperative to









investigate changes in language choices) in intra-group communications and ask under what

conditions and how do these changes occur.

I also focus on the study of language loss or changes as well as language proficiency as it

relates to the individual rather than the group. Throughout this work, I focus on addressing the

following questions: Who is losing the ability to use the languagess? What are the

characteristics and values of the lost in relation to the individual? What are the linguistic

elements that are affected? How does the process of loss affect these elements? Which elements

are affected, which are not, and why? In this pursuit, it is important to investigate the people's

sense of being as well as their perceptions on language shift and loss of certain languages) or

dialect(s). In the Algerian languages case study, I thus investigate and try to understand how the

human mind deals with language incompetence/competence and competence/performance within

the social environments.

Fishman (1966), Fase et al. (1992), Portes & Schauffler (1996) and many others put

emphasis on the dynamics of languages) shift, maintenance and loss in a community. I would

suggest that migrating with four or five languages is an asset. To forget them and replace them

with one language is a loss for the individual, community and society at large. My study shows

through empirical work and ethnographic examples not only the dilemmas, tensions and conflicts

in language contact. The study also brings forth and highlights the invisible work of the Algerian

migrating speech communities. In the privacy of their homes and in their local communities, the

members of these new comers to America work to maintain and transmit their linguistic wealth

which has traversed oceans and mountains and come to a continent to have a new beginning.

This beginning is in the hands of those who love to communicate in various tongues and cherish









the human ability to speak in different tongues. Science is proving again and again that a child is

able to learn several languages at once; yet it is up to us to prove it in practice.

Methodology

In this section, I address the meaning and importance of being a reflexive 'native'

anthropologist when studying my own culture. In the research design, I explain my fieldwork

strategy, how I collected the data, and how I chose my informants, their number and where they

are from. Finally, I explain the importance of using comparative study, especially is the case of

Algerian migrating groups.

Native Anthropology and Reflexivity

When I geared my interest toward the study of cultural anthropology in the year 2001, as a

discipline, historically, anthropology had already overcome the problem of positivism. A

sustained problematization of ethnographic texts eventually led to the development of the

reflexivity approach. In the early 1980s, researchers such as Barbara Myerhoff and Jay Ruby

(1982) advocated the topic of reflexivity which became part of anthropology, especially for

native anthropologists.

Reflexive anthropology took away the overemphasis on 'objectivity' that has been

haunting anthropologists for too long. Being reflective during ethnographic work is not about

discovering and describing 'the realities' of 'the other' to 'us.' Rather, it is to reflect and be

responsible as well as accountable for what we write and how we represent the matter and the

people investigated. Through reflexivity we are not shy to say that as researchers we are affected

by our informants and they are affected by us. Such work not only reflects the realities of the

cultures under study. It also acknowledges the obvious fact that we are humans before being

researchers, remain humans as we investigate, and cannot escape being so when we interpret the

results of our findings. We interact with each other at a psychosocial/social level before taking









the data and using it in ethnographic writings. Yet, the emphasis on reflexivity when it comes to

what is labeled as 'native' anthropologist becomes an obligation more than it is for 'non-native'

anthropologists.

When starting this project, I had in mind the study of 'my people' who migrate in the

United States of America. Yet, I understood that it does present a variety of challenges.

However, I believe that its benefits surpass its limitations. It is true that I am studying the

languages of Algerians, languages of people coming from the same 'culture' I grew up in and

relate to. However, when doing fieldwork, the challenge is not produced as a result of being

Algerian, Arab, Berber, Muslim, or a woman. In fact the most daunting challenge I found was

that my interviewees think I am joking in asking them what they assume I already know about

my culture. It was not a surprise to me, and, as a matter of fact, I went prepared to face such

attitudes. Indeed, I formulated my questions and intervened when needed to ask follow-up

questions in ways that pushed my interviewees to express their thoughts and opinions in a

reflective manner.

Critics of Native anthropology may state that there is a bias toward 'native' informants or

that we might take for granted what we are supposed to investigate in the first place. However,

during my fieldwork and writing, I found that the challenge came from something else. My own

understanding might sometimes conflict with my interviewees' opinions and I sometimes would

feel an urge to contest them, much like any other anthropologist. As Ryang emphases in her

writings about native anthropologists dilemmas and problems (1997; 2005), it is assumed that

being from the same culture means perceiving and applying the same codes the same way. In

looking at 'native' anthropologists this way, the heterogeneity of cultures and human in general

is rather dismissed. This study is important to me as it is not only the story of Algerian









immigrants but also of my own. As Charlotte All Davis says it well: "We must remind ourselves

that we tell our stories through others" (All Davies 2007:10).

What I learned from this experience is that being reflexive means remaining in constant

social mutuality between me and my informants before, during, and after my fieldwork. Yet, I

recognize that my position in the field influences the data that I acquire the same way my

interviewees influenced my ideas and writing. As a novel native anthropologist I would hope to

stay at a high level of deep thinking and achievement the way many scholars who influenced my

thoughts did before and still are. Achievements such as those by Appadurai, Ong, Abu-Lughud,

Assad, Ryang and many others as leading native anthropologists encourage me to achieve and

achieve to the best. As Ryang puts it best:

Of course not all anthropologists and scholars with various native or other connections can
make their cultural assets useful, but at least we should be able to question the validity of
the image of anthropologists as a group of scholars who as a rule do fieldwork and stick to
writing about the people in the field, who are presumably different from the culture where
the anthropologist comes from; fieldwork is here taken as something that is necessarily
juxtaposed or counterpoised to her 'native' culture. It would be all the better if the
anthropologist could use her own example to explore further the society she studies and
that example does not have to be alien to, or far from, everyday practices of the studied
society. Putting things this way at least enables us to avoid exoticism and other branches of
Orientalism including Occidentalism. It also allows for coexistence of nativenesss' (in the
transformative sense, as in the cases of Ong and Appadurai) with anthropology, rather than
dismissing it as contradictory (Ryang 1997: 39).

Data Collection and Fieldwork

I did fieldwork in three places: Gainesville, Florida; Champaign and Chicago, Illinois. I

initiated my interviews the first week of June 2006 in Gainesville then traveled on the first week

of July to Illinois where I spent three weeks then returned one more time at the end of August for

a few days during which I met more Algerians. I chose these three cities because I was interested

to find two or three categories of Algerian migrants, namely, professionals, students, and

workers. I chose to have a comparative study between the two or three groups as well as compare









the Arabic speaking to the Amazighi speaking Algerians. Finally, I compare the Algerian

migrants to those in France.

I got my interviewees in a snowball fashion, through personal connections, family relations

and friends. The interviews were all held in a family setting at the homes of the interviewees,

except for one focus group of seven women with whom I arranged a meeting in a public park in

Chicago for a few hours. My questions schedule was designed in semi-structured interviews and

open-ended questions designed primarily around family history and other relevant questions to

the topic studied (appendix A). When needed there was a follow up through telephone,

e-mails, and/or personal visits. I also did participant observation whenever I got with some

Algerian friends and relatives during family and friends visits, ladies for coffee, making Algerian

pastries-Baqlawa-and at one Algerian wedding in New York for a few days. In these informal

meetings, I had also the opportunity to observe younger generations of various ages and gender

of Algerian/Americans in family and ceremonial settings. I conducted 27 personal interviews for

more than 30 hours in total, with each meeting lasting no less than two hours. The 26

interviewees were proportionally divided, as revealed by the interviewees themselves; gender: 10

male and 17 female, ethnicity: 15 Arab, 6 Berber, 4 AraboBerber, 1 AraboBerber American, and

1 European American, educational level, and status (Appendix B) (Table 2-4).

My analysis of the data actually started when I chose the topic to study, crafted my

questions, decided on my informants, and the use of the language during the interviews. Each

interview was recorded on a digital recorder in English, Arabic, or both. I transcribed the tapes in

the language they were spoken. If English was used I transcribed them the same way. However,

sometimes Arabic is included too and I would thus transcribe it in English phonetics then

translate it to English. When the interviews are in Arabic-Darj a, I transcribe them using roman









phonetics then translate them by myself (only 13/26 informants spoke in Arabic). During this

time consuming but valuable work, I spent about 300 hours transcribing and translating the

interviews. The content analysis was done in various ways. Sometimes I started it during the

transcription, especially when important information would pop up. I would comment on it, and

write in bold the theme that may be of importance later on. I find this activity to be of great

importance and very useful because while listening to the taped interviews again and transcribe

it, I remember the facial impressions and the meaning of that specific moment. I thus learned that

data analysis cannot be done in one step but is rather a multilayer analysis that brings out

interesting themes to form the end project.

Comparative Analysis

The data I collected in the three previously mentioned American cities was used as my

core information for Chapter 6 'Language Contact and Conflict in the U.S.' In the process, I

compare my findings with those migrating to France. Of course, I did not do my complete

research in France. I relied on personal phone calls with Algerians currently living or who lived

in France for a long time and who understand the sociolinguistic situation over there. I can't say

that they were enough to give me a deep understanding on the situation. Thus, I relied on

previous work done by Algerians, French, and American researchers on the topic. The French

literature on the Algerians in France is rich and varied. In comparison, the American academia

on the matter is almost minimum in relation to Algerians migrating to the U.S., especially when

we compare American scholarly work on other migrating speech communities. The work I am

presenting is I believe one of the first on Algerians in the U.S. I hope that it will contribute to

build a larger bibliography on Algerians and North Africans in the U.S.A.









Structure and Organization of the Thesis

This thesis consists of an introduction and six chapters. Chapter 2 presents the various

social groups that have been traced to migrate from Algeria since the beginning of the twentieth

century until today to both France and the United States and for what possible reasons. In the

first part I address the various social groups who went to France since early twentieth century

until independence. I focus on the Algerians who were sent to fight for France during WWI and

WWII, the labor workers after WWII, and the expatriates from Algeria at the break of

independence including pieds noir, Algerian Jews and Harkis. In the second part, I present the

social groups who came to the United States in the late 1970s first as students and then in the

1990s as voluntary and semi-voluntary migrants, especially through the lottery visas during and

after the break of violence in Algeria. In order to better grasp the situation of language(s)/dialects

contact and conflict of Algerians with other old and new immigrant communities in the United

States, which is the aim of this thesis, this chapter is significant for tracing the development of

the Algerian migration to these two important destinations, France and the U.S, focusing on

similarities and differences in migrant motivations and linguistic experiences. This chapter

answers questions such as: What are the social groups that migrated from Algeria? When and

under what conditions did they leave their country to become residents and citizens of two

different continents beyond seas and oceans away from their homeland? What made many

Algerians like other Africans explore new routes and destinations of migration other than

Europe, in the last three decades?

Chapter 3 is a summary on the genesis and development of the languages of Algeria as

well as the linguistic tensions in post-colonial Algeria. I present the languages starting with

Tamazight then followed by Arabic-CA, MSA, Darja, and finally French. I present these

languages' relationships to the North African region and to each other in phonology,









morphology, and lexical borrowing. I look at these languages role in nation building and the

tensions and conflict that emerge in independent Algeria. I, specifically, analyze the two

dominant languages, Arabic and French and how they compete in independent Algeria at the

political, intellectual, and social levels. I make note of two important points: First, Darja plays a

neutral role as a way of communication between all ethnicities. Second, Tamazight, the language

of Berber ethnic groups, is slowly being standardized and moving beyond its oral character.

Chapter 4 is a linguistic analysis explaining the phenomenon of codeswitching and

borrowing between the languages migrating from Algeria to the United States. In order to do that

it is important to understand the Arabic matrices of both regional (Darja) and standard (MSA) as

well as analyze their mutual relationships. Yet, when meeting the Western languages, first

French and then English, the interaction with each other open new ways of use that are worth

studying in the domain of language contact.

In chapter 5, I discuss the Algerians' sociolinguistic experience in France. It focuses on

immigrants and French citizens of Algerian origin in France since early migrations and in

contemporary situations. The chapter is divided into five parts. The first explains the importance

of competence in the dominant language a way to escape the emigre state of mind. The second

part investigates the endeavor to teach and transmit mother tongues Arabic and Kabyle. I

specifically examine the efforts to revive and transform Kabyle in France from an oral to a

literary language bearing in mind the political complexities the two nation-states, France and

Algeria. In part three, I touch upon the paradox of nationality and citizenship for the 'Muslim'

French of Algerian origin and their sense of belonging. Part four deals with the 'Beurs', a

reminder of racial exclusion and a voice of solidarity and difference. Finally, part five includes









vignettes of the 'Beurs' generation and excerpts of their 'double socialization' in a society that

ties them to the 'land of origin' as a reminder of their forever foreignness.

Chapter 6 presents the case study of this thesis. It explores the linguistic situation of the

Algerian immigrants in the US by focusing on changes in their perceptions and attitudes toward

their languages) as experienced in the Anglophone environment. I document when appropriate

how linguistic outcomes among Algerians who immigrated to the United States differ from those

who immigrated to France as well as those who did not leave the home country. Based on my

empirical data done in the three communities mentioned in the methodology section, I attempt to

explain how the migrating Algerian languages to the U.S., whether, Kabyle, Arabic including its

vernacular Darja, or French play different roles in America than what they played in Algeria or

France. I explain how in America the survival of these languages depends on whether they

fulfill a practical and/or symbolic meaning and function. This general theme is developed

through an approach that probes how the Algerian immigrants in the US represent and use these

languages. In this pursuit, the chapter specifically addresses the following issues: (I) the

dominance of the English language in a multicultural society and how Algerians perceive the

role of proficiency in English as a road to success, (II) the attrition of the French language and its

replacement with Arabic and English in spite of the fact that the French language is embedded in

the cultural memories of Algerians, (III) the role of parental tongues (Tamazight and Arabic) and

the changes in the perceptions and attitudes of the people who speak them, and (IV) the case of

Arabic contact and conflict with other Arabs in the Diaspora and the development of new

identities and solidarities.

Chapter 7 presents the conclusion and suggests some recommendations. I specially

summarize the similarities and differences between Algerian languages in the U.S. and France. I









then compare the Algerian languages in the U.S. to other minority language communities,

focusing on two important linguistic characters (either as being oral or written) and how this may

or may not affect the transmission of the mother tongues to younger generations. Whether the

new Algerian Diaspora would survive in the new world and how its linguistic heritage might

evolve are two questions that I try to answer in the section on recommendations. In sum, I

propose a method of approaching dialects contact based on an ethics that encourages and accepts

variety in language in a multicultural/multilingual society that America is already or

transforming to.









CHAPTER 2
BACKGROUND AND ASSESSMENT: THE ALGERIAN IMMIGRATION TO FRANCE
AND THE U.S.

Introduction

Since the early twentieth century, Algerians have been traveling and migrating to France

which is much closer and familiar to them than the United States, both in language and culture.

Various Algerian ethnic and religious groups first immigrated to France. Only much later did

Algerians migrate to the U.S. In order to better grasp the situation of language(s)/dialects

contact and conflict of Algerians both with other older and newer immigrant communities in the

United States, which is the aim of this thesis, it is necessary to somewhat retrace the

development of the Algerian migration to these two important destinations, France and the U.S,

focusing on similarities and differences in migrant motivations and linguistic experiences. What

are the social groups that migrated from Algeria? When and under what conditions did they

leave their country to become residents and citizens of two different continents, beyond seas and

oceans, far away from their homeland? What made many Algerians like other Africans explore

new routes and destinations of migration other than Europe in the last three decades?

In order to answer these and other complex questions, a multi-disciplinary approach that

goes beyond the labor migration South/North formula is needed. In the age of globalization,

research on international migration can no longer be mono-disciplinary and national in focus. In

accordance with Edmondton and Passel (1994), Castles explains that we need an approach that

links between the world economy, migratory processes, minority formation and social change

(Castles 2000: 90). In studying immigration, ethnicity and the integration of America's newest

arrival, Edmondton and Passel notice an increase in immigration-legal, illegal migration or

refugees-in the 1970s and 1980s (Edmondton and Passel 1994: 2-7). In a study of ethnicity and

globalization, Castles (2000) gives great importance to non-economic factors such as policy









change, 'the Immigration Act of 1965' that reintroduced immigration to the United States or the

world dramatic change in 1980s (e.g., oil crisis, end of cold war, fall of Berlin Wall), leading to a

phenomenal increase in the number of immigrants to the U.S. (Castles 2000: 8). According to

Mobasher and Sadri, "four decades [after the obligation of the National Origin Act and its "quota

system" that have been replaced by the immigration Act of 1965], the volume of immigrants to

the U.S. is again approaching the levels of European immigration of the early twentieth century.

The U.S. has become the desired destination of millions of immigrants from Mexico, the

Caribbean, Central America, South America, Asia, and Africa" (Mobasher & Sadri eds/ 2004:

xi). In this chapter, I follow the chronological development of the Algerian migration to France

then to the US. In this pursuit I focus on the social, political-global and local-with an

emphasis, if need be on class, gender, ethnicity and religion. The information in this chapter

relies on several sources: First, I draw on available secondary literature on the Algerian/France

situation. Second, I utilize fieldwork data that I collected in three American cities where I met

with Algerians individually, in groups and in activities. Finally, I draw on the fact that I am an

immigrant to the states and hence I do draw, when appropriate, on my own insights and life

experiences.

This chapter is divided into two parts. The first one deals with the Algerian migration to

France while the second one discusses the case of the United States. In brief, I present a

comparative analysis of the two migrations first to France then to America. In this pursuit I draw

parallels between old and new Algerian migration and hence find the similarities and differences

in demographic, political, socio and economic dimensions that would help in explaining the

cultural adaptations in a new home America.









Algerian Im/migration to France

Algeria's relation to France started long ago with the French seizure of the then Ottoman

capital Algiers in 1830. At that time, the migration was from France and Europe to Algeria.

Nearly two million French settlers came in waves and proclaimed that Algeria was French

(Cohen 1995: 13). In 1830, the Algerian population was about four millions. Due to poverty and

an epidemic of cholera, it dropped to 2.5 millions in 1890. By the Algerian independence 1962, it

was less then ten millions peoples. In the 132 years of colonization, the French-European-

settlers colonized and controlled the fertile Algerian land to turn it into 'le grenier de l'Europe',

exporting grains, citrus and other natural resources to benefit them and the French Republic. As a

result, Algerians-both Arab and Berber-became laborers and wage workers to the 'colons'

sometimes in their own ancestral land. Many landless indigenous people had to resettle to urban

areas and big cities looking for daily work just enough to keep them alive. By the turn of the

twentieth century, many Algerians, especially Berber men from the Kabylia mountainous regions

crossed the sea in search of work in France.

I begin with a discussion of the various Algerian ethnic, religious, and political

communities and the reason behind their immigration to France. The oldest migratory flows

between the two countries started from the north to the south in the 1830s when settlers from

various European countries were encouraged by the French colonizers to immigrate to, settle in,

and take control of vast fertile lands in Algeria. In contrast, the south to north migration did not

begin before 1900s with at the beginning assuming the form of labor migration. Due to land loss

and extreme poverty, thousands of Algerian, especially males from the Kabyle region of

Northern Algeria, became guest workers in various French cities. Algerians played an important

role in replacing French labor force during WWI. They were also used in many dangerous

activities such as clearing minefields, an activity in which tens of thousands of lives were lost.









Contrary to other African colonized countries, because they were 'French citizens,' Algerians

had the advantage of moving 'freely'-yet discriminated against from the French-between

France and Algeria which was considered a French department. Since the end of WWII, the

number of Algerians entering France increased, especially with the intensified violence of the

war of liberation. As a result, since the late 1950s the character of migration shifted to a forced

immigration of various groups. Among these groups were members who reunited with their

families. Yet, others fled the violent situation leaving behind properties, jobs and a homeland.

There were the 'Pieds Noirs', the Algerian Jews, and the Muslim Harkis. Until today, various

political, religious, or ethnic groups remain attached to the memories of a lost 'home.' Yet, their

social, political and economic adaptations in their new home, France, depend on complex factors

which may be beyond personal choices and desires. I dwell on these issues in more detail later in

the chapter.

In the second part of the chapter, I present the course of Algerian immigration to the U.S.

focusing on its global and national causes. After Algeria became independent and since the late

1970s, Algerian migrants started looking elsewhere for immigration, especially after France

limited the entrance visas for Algerians (as well as other third word countries) due to economic

crisis and deteriorating political relations between the two countries. However, by this time,

young Algerians were traveling to other Western countries including the U.S. for higher

education with the aim to return and engage in the development of their independent nation-state.

Despite its smaller number, in comparison to the Algerian migration to France, immigration to

the U.S. is significant because of its relation to major global changes. The complexity of the

issue suggests that there are several explicit and implicit factors needed to account for a

(relatively speaking) massive migration of Algerians from different socio-economic statuses, as









presented in this part of the chapter. I propose that there were in fact two distinct waves of

migration from Algeria to the US, one in the late 1970s oriented toward higher education and a

second wave starting during the 'black decade' of the 1990s. Among those fleeing in these hard

times were many graduates of US colleges and universities who had returned earlier to serve a

homeland which soon became engulfed in a major and bloody conflict. Entering the U.S. became

legalized through the visa lottery and professional or student visas that the American government

made available to thousands of Algerians looking for a safe place for their families away from

'terrorism' and the chaotic period in Algeria in the 1990s. Deciding to leave their own country

and familiar place is not easy, yet, being safe and stable in their social and economic lives

became vital. Many young men were fleeing enlistment in the national military service during

the crisis, hence preferring to leave the country than to participate in the killing of their people.

Many young women found marriage to be a safe way out if they found a good match in the states

where they would be able to start a family and be safe. The transition to a new environment such

as the U.S would not be easy without social solidarities and the human touch of many Algerians

and Americans.

Labor Migration

A July 15, 1914 French law considered Algerians to be French subjects, thereby

differentiating them from the French citizens. The law however became an advantage for

mobility. Contrary to Tunisia and Morocco that were both protectorates after being occupied in

1881 and 1912 respectively, Algeria was "theoretically not a colony but an extension of

Metropolitan France" (Cohen 1995: 14). As a result, few thousands of Algerians, predominantly

Kabyles migrated to various French cities of Marseille, Paris and the North region as laborers in

the chemical, mining and metal industries. During WWI, the number of Algerians in France

increased close to some one hundred thousands to replace the French who were in the trenches.









Many were used to clear minefields and in other dangerous activities. According to Stora (1992),

"one hundred seventy three thousands Algerians were drafted into the army, twenty five

thousands of whom lost their lives during the war" (Stora 1992: 14-15 in Lucassen 2005: 173).

Until the 1950s, emigration to France remained male dominated, with a focus on income

generation and sending remittances. Like the Mexican farmers in the United States, the early

men who migrated to France did not have a need to become fluent in French in order to survive.

Their immediate objective was to work hard, collect money and send remittances back to the

village, to their families who were in extreme need of resources.

The exceptional arrangement of 'free mobility' was also justified by the "blood debt" of

France toward the Algerians in two world wars (Mallaird 2005: 64). Algerians believed in De

Gaulle's speech in Constantine on October 3, 1958 when he called the people of Algeria "full-

fledged Frenchmen." Since Algerian Muslims or Arabs, as they were called, already held French

citizenship by assimilation, once they were in France, they were allowed to circulate freely

between France and Algeria. Yet, upon arriving to France, these young men lived in poor and

crowded conditions. They were mostly busy with hard work and had seldom any time to

socialize with other French. They were moved to more descent 'bachelors' residents and housed

with their peers speaking their mother tongue and cooking the same food they used to eat back in

the village in Kabylia. This social seclusion from the rest of the French population was also

beneficial to the French government to have more control on the Algerian war (1954 1962)

which the FLN-Front de Liberation Nationale or Front of National Liberation-decided to

export to France as a strategy of gaining more international as well as French recognition of their

struggle to free the country.









War and Family Reunion


In the 1950s and early 1960s the family reunion and immigration intensified as a result of

the war of liberation declared by the FLN in early 1950s. In a personal interview, Fadila, one of

the new Algerian-Kabyle-immigrants to the US, narrates the case of her first cousin who left

at the age of sixteen to France becoming the first of four generations of Algerian immigrants; she

explains in Darja-the Algerian dialect:

It was in 1944. My cousin was 16 years old when he left his village in Kabylia to go to
France looking for work. Yet, he was an adherent of FLN against the French colonialism.
He got married with his cousin who was only 13 years old and left her behind in the village
[with the extended family and sending money and visiting when possible]. 16 years later,
in 1960, she joined him to France. They used to speak only Kabyle; however, they knew
Darja and fuSHa. He got self educated in French and became a businessman owning a
hotel in Barbess, called Le Printanier (personal interview with Fadila. in U.S. 2007).

Scarcity of work during colonialism and extreme poverty pushed many illiterate Algerian men to

be enrolled in the labor force in the rebuilding of France after WWII. This first contact with the

French outside Algeria will eventually turn out be of a special type.

During the war for independence between1954-1962, many more Algerians fled the

country with their families looking for safety, better living conditions, and education. As

Vencent Viet explains:

About 14.000 single workers and 1,800 families fled the country and arrived to France to
find poor housing in the shantytowns of Lyons, Marseilles, or the Paris area. More than
130,000 people were considered as not having adequate housing and lived in overcrowded,
furnished rental units. Housing had become a crucial issue to the Algerian migration to
France. However, the authorities then had only the housing of the bachelor workers in
mind. Family housing did not look like a priority, but the tensions in Algeria in the 1950s
had triggered a migration of families, raising from three thousand to twenty thousand
between 1953 and 1960. These families did not have access to housing because of a lack of
available apartments and their lack of assimilation. Thus special public funds were raised
to build halfway houses (Vencent Viet 1993 in Mallaird 2005:63-65).









The early Algerian community perceived the economic and labor migration as a shameful and a

'temporary solution' (Kepel 1987: 318). They remained socially, linguistically, and culturally

isolated. To their dismay, the intensified violent war triggered an immigration that would forever

be part of France.

Those who fled forever the unsafe conditions of war were not only the workers and their

families. Many other ethnic, religious, and political groups also fled the country. In the late

1950s and early 1960s, the 'pieds-noirs', Jews, and Harkis were among the many Algerians

leaving their homeland and place of birth forever and seeking their new destination mostly in

France, which had lost control over the vast lands of Algeria. At the eve of the Algerian

independence, the spread of fear and terror from various resistance groups, the freedom fighter of

the FLN or the saboteurs to De Gaulle's independence proposals, the OAS (Organization de

l'Armee Secrete), all set in motion the traumatic flight of hundreds of thousands of families who

left with just the clothes they were wearing.

Pieds Noirs

The newly formed Algerian communities in France had different experiences, involvement

and attachment to the Algerian land, languages and cultures. One of these groups was the pieds

noirs or black feet, who got their name from the black boots that the early French settlers used to

wear. They represent hundreds of thousands of Europeans-French, Italians, Portuguese,

Spanish and Swiss-and their families who since the late nineteenth century were brought to

form new colonies. The 'colons', as they were called, owned and managed the fertile land that

had been taken by force from the indigenous population and then used for the benefit of the

French administration. They were all eager to control the population with all means necessary to

use their labor with little reward. My childhood memories are still vivid with my grandmother's









stories that she time again and again narrated to me until they became almost a lived experience

for me:

When I was growing up, in newly independent Algeria, I first learned about the 'colons'
from my grandmother story telling. When she was little in the early 7m einieit century, in
the small town of Benshud in the city port ofDellys, she lived on her family farm. With the
advancement of the French administration to the area, 160 miles east of the Capital
Algiers, the family farm was seized and the French colon became the legitimate owners
and managers, forcing the real owners to live in small mud houses on the farm where the
whole family worked daily, the men on the farm and the women in the colon's house. Like
slaves, they work for the gain of the colons ii ithit any pay but just enough to be fed as a
family. Linguistically, on the one hand, these colons got intimate i/ ith the culture of the
locals, inute i ling n ith them daily and learning Kabyle or Darja and on the other, the
locals picked up the colons' tongues and ways.

Thepieds noirs generation didn't call home any other place but Algeria where they were

raised in the peaceful air of the country side. They never imagined being forced to leave their

privileged life. Until today, when the safety situation permits, they visit the places where they

lived before. Marcel Jeulent, a 40 years old mathematician of leftist, anti-colonial convictions,

returned in 1972 for the first time to what had been his family's orange grove southeast of Oran

(Western Algeria) where he grew up. He recalls:

There is a hill that dominates the village and I climbed it. The orange groves are like an
oasis, and very beautiful. And I suddenly had the feeling we should never have abandoned
it (cited in Markham, 1988).

A fearful, violent experience and a psychological shift, the pieds noirs' forced return to

France has never been fully accepted. Although they were provided governmental housing-

HLM-or became farmers in southern France and even were, later on, part of right-wing politics,

their situation in France would never replace the fertile lands and peaceful living in various parts

of Algeria.

I wonder how their children, who were raised among other colons and farmers, reacted to

the total change around them. I imagine that they would have asked their parents about their

fellow villagers, farmers, and classmates. Where is the author's great grandmother who used to









say in the Algerian dialect takul kasra-you want to eat bread, when she gave the little child a

piece of freshly baked agrarian bread fresh from the traditional oven. Such memories kept the

Algerian 'home' alive in the heart of the pieds noirs. However, despite these reminiscences, they

quickly assimilated like other French minorities, linguistically and culturally, and disappeared in

modern France. Their up-rootedness is similar to that of the little Kabyle who could not forget

his village home in the mountain but at the same time who got used to his new environment in

the cities of France. The pied noir would incorporate new elements in his 'French' culture in

constructing his new identity. As Markham states: "[thepieds noirs] children are losing the

pieds noirs sing song accent" (Markham James M. 1988). What remained is a feeling of loss that

haunts them deep in their memory.

As concerns their linguistic adaptation, the fluency of the pieds noirs in the languages of

Algeria swiftly declined, and they became, for all practical purposes, monolingual speakers of

French. The few words in Darja or Kabyle that they might still remember would always resonate

in their heads from their golden years in Algeria. Such words would be expressed by some when

visiting 'home', their place of birth and up-bringing or chatting and reminiscing with an Algerian

friend in France. However, other pieds noirs who never reconciled to their exodus would instead

shout "vas t'en! Sale Arab!-go home! Dirty Arab!", a spiteful derogatory term, in addressing

the immigrants and their off-spring who become scapegoats to the pied noirs hatred and rage.

Colonizers, in adhering to their ideology of land and resources exploitation, do not plan to deal

with the psychological effects on the people. As a matter of fact, they do not plan for the millions

who are forced to leave the only place they ever knew as 'home' (Clifford: 1997: 248) and put

them one more time in exile, such is the case of the Algerian Jews.









Algerian Jews

As a minority group, the Algerian Jews were put between, on the one side, the French

colonizers and, on the other side, the Arab and Kabyle nationalists. Fearful for their lives, truly

or falsely accused of collaborating with French colonialism, the well established Jewish families

of Algiers, Constantine, or Oran left forever to a foreign land. Although familiar with French

culture from their colonized country, going to France was not easy. Despite being, like the

majority of Algerians, full citizens of France, it took perseverance and sometimes compliance to

get established in France, migrate to the United States or the newly formed Israeli state.

In the modem French society, Algerian Jews are fully assimilated. However, as Professor

Hamid has pointed out, until today, some of them still maintain the Algerian Darja. Members of

Jewish communities such as the one in Belleville speak fluently both Algerian and French. When

going to the Jewish market in Belleville, Hamid was surprised that the Jewish merchant spoke to

him fluently in Darja-Algerois or Algiers accent-when he knew of Hamid's Algerian origin.

Hamid was raised in independent Algeria and in the late 1980s became a graduate student in

Paris where he has the opportunity, for the first time, to socialize with Algerian Jews who still

maintain their language despite being assimilated in the French society (personal interview with

Hamid: 2007).

Harkis

The Harkis are a special category of Algerian immigrants. In Mallaird's words, these are

"the misfortune" Muslim auxiliaries of the French army in Algeria (Mallaird 2005: 68). In

contrast with the Jews, some of the Harkis clearly collaborated with the French army and

administration against the rebels-FLN-and the population. Yet, others were falsely accused by

FLN members or other Algerians for various political or personal reasons. The collaborating

Harkis were Arabs and Kabyles who seized the opportunity to gain wealth, sometimes, violating









the honor of their brethrens and villagers. In the last few years before the end of the war, France

was desperate to stop the rebellion and insurgence. Using the population against each other was a

tactic that might have worked cheaply for them but devastated, forever, whole villages and

pushed its residents to exile both internally and externally. These Harkis lost their humanity

before embarking in abusing the people they controlled. The French administration put in charge

of the village predatory local individuals called by the locals, goumi/goumia-put in control of

locals-or Harki/Harka-traitor. Because of their language abilities and cultural sameness with

the indigenous people, the Harkis facilitated many complex tasks for the colonizers. The

following is my personal child memories from my grandmother's and elders' narratives about a

Harki that became imprinted forever with bad meanings in my mind:

I never forget the story of the day my father decided to leave his 'home' in the village and
move the majority of the family to the urban city ofAlgiers. Our house in the village was in
a French settlement that started to be vacant of its French residents who were fleeing to
France as a result of the continuous violence in the mid-1950s. My father bought the house
from a colon and moved the extended family often, leaving behind their ancestor's home
at the foot of the mountain of Kabylia when the fighting intensified. The mudjahidiins
(freedom fighters) were always coming to the ancestor 's house askingfor food.
Afterwards, the French army raid will follow kicking and harassing the residents for any
trace of the fellaga' name given by the French to the Algerian rebels meaning bombers.
Buying a home in the village was a dream coming true. The most rewarding of all was that
the children were advantaged to just cross the street for school where together colon's and
indigenous children learn side by side French literature, math and social studies. My
father finally felt that he is giving his kids and his nephews what he was deprived of an
education under better conditions. However, around 1961, one Harki started harassing
him and many other villagers asking for information on the mudjahidiins. When the
harassments intensified, fearing the worse, my father took the whole family and moved to
Algiers in the new governmental housing that France built for the growing 'French
population'. My grandparents stayed behind in the house to watch the animals in the
stable. The Harki, i ilthilt permission or consideration of the family, decided to move in
our house. The dilemma is that if they objected they would be associated i i/th the rebels
and severely punished. When the Harki did not find my father and brother home, he got
mad and started harassing my grandmother for more information. As I know my
courageous grandmother, she handled him wisely and avoided his madness. Still, he
decided to take the house by force and turn it into a partying place for the French soldiers,
drinking, dancing, and using profanities. My grandmother never forgot those hard
moments and when narrating the story again and again, she always remembered the young









woman that this vicious man, one day, bi ttglhn i ith him to her home. When my grand
mother asked her about their relationship, the woman told her about her Kabyle family
from a village in the mountain, how the Harki terrorized her family and forced her to
accompany him and be his rape victim, abducting her from her family against her will. She
would tell this to my grandmother. However, when the Harki is present, to avoid his
cruelty she wouldpretend to be his wife. According to my grandmother, after
independence, this specific man who had devastated many other families did not have a
chance to escape the i i/, h of the population. To his misfortune, he was captured and put
to death by the angry mob.

Many Harkis, who had escaped the vengeance of FLN and an angry population, fled to various

cities of France and hence were able to rebuild their lives if in a controversial and hostile

environment that would forever affect their identity and that of their offspring.

France had to fulfill many promises to all those who served her in the colonizing and oppressing

millions of families of Algeria. The Harkis and their families were among those flown by boats

to France fleeing the retribution of the freed and angry population. According to a 1990 census,

there are today about 500,000 Harkis and their descendents in France. However, they are doubly

stigmatized, regarded as traitors by their follow Algerians and as outsiders by many members of

the French population. They are, for example, discriminated against and "marginalized in both

housing and employment markets" (Hargreaves: 1995: 78). As French subjects of Algerian

origin, whether Arab or Kabyle speaking, their social status ranks among the lowest in their new

home, France. With little schooling and skills, they remained marginalized and ignored,

notwithstanding their struggle to assimilate in the larger French society. In general, their

offspring are among the disadvantaged communities who are called the 'beurs' and whose

linguistic competence in French, Arabic, or Kabyle is poor while their religious allegiance is

shaky.

Although I will speak about the Algerian languages experience in France in detail in

chapter five, in these few lines, I would like to summarize and compare the linguistic situation of

the four groups who left Algeria during colonialism and on the verge of Algerian independence.









First, the Algerian-Kabyle and Arab-laborers in France started leaving Algeria for work in

France during colonialism. Many of them remained in France in post colonialism. However,

linguistically, they remained isolated thinking they will one day return back home. In

comparison to these laborers, the pied noirs, Algerian Jews and the Harkis were forced to leave

on the verge of independence, fearing the retribution of the angry populations on them. The pieds

noirs were European settlers in Algeria. In Algeria, their offspring grew up speaking Darja and

Kabyle in addition to French, Portuguese, Spanish or Italian. After their exile to France, they

assimilated into the French population and language. However, they kept their emotional

connection to Algeria as their place of birth and childhood memories. Contrary to the pieds noirs

who were of European origin, the Jews were of North African origin and spoke Darja like any

other Algerian. However, after they were exiled to France, they assimilated in the French

population yet kept their linguistic heritage.

Finally, the Harkis are Algerian Muslims, Arabs or Kabyles. They never forgot their

language and longing for home. However, because of the stigmatization against them, they are

discriminated against in France. In comparison to the other groups, the linguistic competence of

Harkis and that of their off-spring is poor. The parents as well as the children are weak both in

Arabic and French.1 In chapter 5, I will focus on language dynamics among the Muslim Kabyle

and Arab laborers, Harkis and migrants in general.

In sum, a contact relationship that began more than a century and a half ago between

France and Algeria symbolizes strong bittersweet cultural relations, conflicts and

interdependence at the levels of labor force, population and education. In the newly formed



1 For more information on Harkis in France see Geraldine Enjevine (2006) who investigated the Harki identity in
France; Nina Sutherlen (2006) who has spoken about the silence of Harkis in France; Emmanuelle Brillet (2003)
who gave a voice to the Harkis' heritage in France; and Michelle Chosset (2007) for a general discussion.









Algerian socialist government in the mid-1960s, the understanding was that the remittances and

foreign currency play an important role in achieving the economic independence when finally

the scattered children would return home to their loved ones and their heritage in free Algeria.

As shown in the previous paragraphs, France was and is still in great need for the Algerian cheap

laborers and young generations replacing the aging French population. However, in the case of

education, Algerians have always been attracted to and reliant on the French in education and

administration management. Despite the tightening of entry visas to France in the last twenty

years, thousands of Algerians do go to France both legally and illegally seeking work and

undergraduate education in various fields. Yet, since the late 1970s, Algerians started looking

elsewhere too, especially after France limited the number of entry visas for Algerians (as well as

other third word countries) due to economic crisis and deteriorating political relations between

the two countries. The young Algerian nation-state looked up at various other modem nations for

educating their young generations such as Northern Europe and Russia and later on the United

States of America.

Algerian Migration to the United States

The Algerian immigration to the United States has much in common with those from

other African countries, Eastern Europe, and many Third World countries. By the late 1970s,

Algerians were in the midst of what the world was going through due to great pressures resulting

from the unfolding of the cold war. The Algerian government led by the late president Houari

Boumedienne, who passed away in late 1979, left them thinking that everything is well managed.

There also were widespread popular misconceptions about how to succeed in life and whom to

follow, the East or the West. Nor was it clear which ideology was going to lead them to the

success that they had been anticipating for more than a century. Is it Russian socialism or US

Capitalistic ideology? Many Algerians entertained the dream that the only way to build their









lives and their country was to travel to the West and learn from the developed countries the

sciences, technology and administrative skills and then go back home with enough knowledge

and expertise. They wanted to let the world see what they can do as Algerian citizens proud of

their rich heritage. This was the context within which Algerian immigration to the US began.

The Algerian immigration to the US was of a special kind; a kind that a single theory of

migration cannot satisfactorily explain. Many explanations given to the 'South/North' mobility

or the 'brain drain' are too simple for the Algerian case because they neglect the personal,

psychological, social and political driving forces behind it. Those involved in the first Algerian

migration to the U.S. remained marginal in many studies, if totally unexplored. Examples of

questions that need to be addressed in the Algerian case are: Why did or do Algerians migrate to

the US? Who is migrating? Is the migration continuing? Why those who returned from the US

to Algeria did eventually leave Algeria again? I suggest that the answer to these questions entails

going beyond 'pull-push', 'chain', or 'network' theories of migration. The complexity of the

case leads me to argue that there are several factors (some obvious, others hidden) needed to

satisfactorily explain the migration of Algerians from different socio-economic strata. Many of

these factors, I argue, are not captured by the models of migration that place exclusive emphasis

on economic motivations or on the flight from violence. This would be presented in the rest of

this chapter.

Mission of Higher Education

As explained below, the search for education is a major factor in the first Algerian

migration to the U.S. According to El-Watan ( an Algerian national newspaper, widely read

inside Algeria), the official statistical data (CREAD) of 2000 shows that 80,000 graduates from

higher education have left Algeria since the 1970s and about 3000 would join them each year

(Grim in El Watan: 2007). As previously discussed, Algerians have been migrating, especially to









France, for many reasons, including higher learning. However, the first Algerian migration to the

United States came in the late 1970s and early 1980s from various regions of Algeria through the

Algerian government scholarship with a mission of acquiring knowledge in the developed West.

These young men and women were supposed to return home to help build the young nation-state

under the leadership of an effective government.

A socialist authoritarian government ruled over independent Algeria until the late 1970s.

Although the regime claimed to be somewhat parliamentary, the state was in reality under the

control of one man, Houari Boumedienne. As described by Quandt, Boumedienne was at

beginning of his career as president in 1965 "hardly known to the public at large, but quickly,

became the formidable leader, ascetic, and a strong nationalist, with more of an Arabist

education than most of his contemporaries" (Quandt 1998: 23). Under this presidency, the

masses were almost treated like observers who would passively wait for payoff from his

technocratically managed social and economic experiment (Quandt 1998: 27). Indeed, the newly

decolonized population was spoiled by partially using the riches of petroleum and natural gas

sales to subsidize many of the exported merchandise. Free health care and free education were

provided to everyone. While less than fifteen percent of the adult population was literate, the

majority of the young population was in great need of a well established and consolidated

education system. Certainly, the universal education system in the newly independent nation paid

off. A good number of bright bilingual students in Arabic and French graduated with honors

from Algerian high schools and colleges and were confident enough to travel to Anglophone

universities for higher education. Since the late 1970s and for the first time, the best graduates

from the Algerian universities were competing with the best students in universities such as the









University of Michigan, the University of Illinois, the University of Wisconsin, Stanford

University, MIT, and many other fine institutions of higher learning in the United Stated.

Although many Algerians had in the past gone to study in France and some are still doing

it, it is only in the late 1970s and early 1980s that students of sciences started opting for the US

as a place for graduate studies in physics, mathematics, and engineering. From the Algerians

interviewed this summer, 5/27 were from among this generation. They all got a government

sponsorship for being the best among their class and came seeking higher degrees with the

intention of ultimately going back to transmit to their fellow Algerians the scientific and

technical knowledge that they acquired at some of the best universities in America. For example,

Ahmed, Yasmina, Dawud, Kamel and Salima-two females (Yasmina and Salima) and three

males, all came to earn a higher degree in sciences. For these people, coming to the US for

higher learning was a privilege for it is known for its advancement in sciences and technology.

Ahmed is married to a European American psychologist, has an eight years son and is

successfully settled in Northern Chicago as a computer consultant in a reputed company. When

asked about his decision to come to the US, Ahmed explains that it wasn't planned but it just

happened. Ahmed speaks in English still with an accent and mixes some Algerian Darja (D) and

French (F). Near the middle of the interview, he stated that:

I never thought about it (giggles.) It just happened. It is not haja alli khammamt fiha
(D).-something that I thought about. It just happened. In my time, I came to study. I didn't
plan for it. Maybe today people are doing it. I didn't pack my suite case and say "ok.
Assalaamu alaiku (D)"-peace be with you, meaning good by. It just evolved. So, at first,
there was no intention of migration, and the intention was to go back... makansh (D)-no
way... c'est a dire (F)-I mean, even when I finished my masters, even when I finished
my PhD, it wasn't even in my mind (why did you choose United States and not France or
other countries?) ok... at the time, I had the choice between U S and Switzerland (for your
bachelor?) ya, there were competitions.. .there were companies they give a test.. so I did
the two. One of them nroH allaswiss (D with word b.f.F2) I go to Switzerland- and do

2 Abbrev b.f.F: the Darja world (allaswiss) borrowed from French









civil engineering... I didn't like that. We were a group of students, we all decided to apply
to al marican (D b. f. E then inserted into E sentence) America. So it wasn't well studied
and Haja alli khammamna fiha (D)-something that I though about-, jat al marican
(D)-America came up, so let's go.

His original intent was obvious to him in the 1980s. He was to study in the United States and

then go back home and work as a university professor at the Tlemcen University in Western

Algeria, or maybe become a scientist in Algerian companies. Yet, Ahmed's life here in the US

steadily evolved in a different direction, making him one of the first Algerian immigrants and

citizens in the U.S.

Yasmina and her husband Dawud earned their PhDs in physics and have been both

teaching at the same college for the last twelve years while raising their teenage son. They both

earned their Bachelor degrees in physics from Bab Ezouar University in Algiers and came to the

US when they earned government scholarships to the US. Yasmina explains in fluent English:

Actually before I went to Bab Ezouar, I thought to go to France. Unfortunately; my family
could not afford to send me there. I wanted to go to undergrad school in France. So, very
early on I wanted to go abroad and leave the environment. After college I did apply to
France to some schools but they didn't respond to me...then I thought to apply for the
scholarship to come to the states. We had the options of France, England and the US.

Her husband Dawud, whom she met in the US after both finishing their PhDs, had the same

thoughts:

I thought to come to the US when I was in college in Algeria for one thing because of
physics. The United States was the best at the time... maybe it is not the case anymore. In
the 1970s and the 1980s, I was very interested. I wanted to go to Berkley that is why I went
to college to study physics but not before I do my four years in Bab Ezouar. So I was
planning to go later but as I said just for a while not to live but just to study.

The possibility of wining a government scholarship was a great incentive for many students from

the working and low and middle classes to venture outside the country to an environment that is

foreign in language, culture and climate. Like many male students of her generation, as a

woman, Yasmina takes this opportunity and uses it for her advantage:









Les bourse (F)-the scholarships... I just saw the possibility that was offered to me.
Actually, most of my friends who did physics went to France. I was one of the few girls
who came here. From my class, they all went to France. It was me and another friend who
came here. She ended up in Boston. She only did her masters and then went home. When
she came here, I have been in touch with her maybe once. She was in Boston when I
arrived here. I was in Washington for the language school...

These young men and women were well informed about the possibility of studying abroad and

because of their educational placements were able to win government scholarships, an

opportunity made available through Algerian scholarship program. This program became the

driving force in seeking overseas education.

Kamel finished his PhD in physics in six years in 1988 and is the only one among this

group who went back to Algeria with the intention of staying and teaching at the University of

Bab Ezouar. Before coming to the US, Kamel explains that he traveled a lot and was not afraid to

leave home at the age of 22 years with his new wife who finished her degree in biology. He

explains:

I traveled to different places, to Morocco, France, England, either visiting family or as a
tourist...it was an eye opener. I was exposed to different cultures, different life styles. It
made me more excited for visiting more and even living abroad. So, these were very
positive experiences I had since the age of thirteen.

Although coming from a working class family, Kamel and his seven siblings were all well

educated. Their father was one of the Algerians who got primary and secondary education in

French during colonialism. In independent Algeria, he always worked in an office as a higher

secretary or accountant. His mother never went to school yet she was behind many of her

children successes and was appreciated very much. Even with a large family, the 8 siblings all

got higher education and four of them studied abroad; all are professionals living either in

Algeria or abroad.

Salima is Kamel's paternal cousin. She was among the people interviewed in Northern

Chicago. Salima is married to Jawad, a Tunisian man whom she met in Canada while doing her









master's degree in computer science. After finishing, they got married and since then settled in

North America while raising three children. They moved to the US for better job opportunities.

At the present time her husband works in a computer company and she works as a free-lance

computer consultant. She explains how she decided first to go study abroad. She explains in

English:

It was all about going to a foreign country to study... it was all about that and who can do
that. When I was working, I wanted to go for six months to study and do some research.
First, I wanted to go study in France. And, in fact, I got a scholarship to go to France. I got
the money and everything. I just needed a kind of sponsorship from a company... I never
got the approval from my company, so I just missed the opportunity to get the scholarship.
So, one day, I was just joking with my dad, I said: 'if I get six months to Canada, would
you let me go?' He said yes, thinking I would never get that opportunity... then I got it.
The interesting part, it was meant to be for a senior person [in the company] but he didn't
know anything about the research, so they volunteered me to go. (if you had the
opportunity to come to the US would you have come?) No, because it was the barrier of
language... ya, I stayed in Canada mostly for Jawad -husband.

Ahmed, Yasmina, Dawud, Kamel and Salima are among the students who came in the late

1970s and 1980s to study in the best universities in the United States and Canada with the

obligation to finish their degrees and go back to Algeria. Yet, after finishing their studies, only

Kamel went back for two years only to finally come back as an academic working in various

universities in the cities of America. While being a professor in physics, Kamel prepared another

PhD in social science. Today, he is a professor in political science in one of the top universities.

What pushed these people to come to the US was their thirst for knowledge and sciences of the

developed west. Their stay was supposed to be temporary to finish their Master's or PhDs and

then go back to the Algerian institutions of learning. They sought to teach the younger Algerian

generations what they had learned from the advanced universities of France, Switzerland or

America.









Graduates Return to Serve in a Conflict-Ridden Homeland

The future Masters and PhD holders in physics, engineering, mathematics and computer

science came from the first generation of independent Algerian intellectuals. In the late 1980s

and 1990s, before the great crisis ignited, hundreds of new Algerian scientists returned to theie

homeland to assume important positions in the large universities in the capital Algiers and other

large cities. For the first time Algeria would have Algerian scientists and professors who have

knowledge, understanding, and the belief in a common agenda to train the young generation and

build a strong developed country.

Chadli Ben Jadid, another military person, immediately took over the presidency after the

death of President Boumedienne in 1979. After a decade, the Algerian society, which had been

paternalized under French colonialism, began to rebel under the new authoritarian regime. The

Berberists from Kabylia were fighting for the right to include the teaching of the Berber

language with the roman or its ancient script. The traditional Muslims were unhappy with the

moral values and reminded the government that 'Algerian fought for the Muslim/Arab Algerian

identity'. The middle class intellectuals were unsatisfied with the corruption and the weakening

of the infrastructure of the government. The Algerian population was transforming and dividing

into political, religious, ethnic groups and parties, and a military junta, each with their own

agenda for the future government and society. 'Democracy' and 'freedom of speech' became

concepts and slogans that each group used differently, influenced by various ideologies and for

their own benefit. By 1988, after the sharp fall in oil prices, the authoritarian government was not

able to manipulate the economically disadvantaged population anymore. Rioting, a sign of social

dismay with the government became chaotic in the capital Algiers and in many other cities. The

tragedy was that the angry society became a tool in the hands of groups with their own

ideological and political agendas. Each party was trying to convince the fed-up population that









they represented the only true and sincere program to correct the mistakes of the previous corrupt

government. Whether the Berberists and the Francophones who were supported by the French,

the Islamists who assumed that their agenda was derived from the 'pure words of the Quran', or

the feminists who saw the government as the new colonizer in subjugating women, all were

working to seize power from the military junta and be in control. The weakened President

Benjedid was forced to open some doors for democratization and political liberalization that,

paradoxically, turned into 'the black decade', a decade that devastated thousands of lives and

triggered a mass mobility out of the country.

By 1991, there were more than 100 political parties mushrooming with the dream of

winning the municipalities, the parliamentary elections, and finally the presidency. The parties

differ tremendously in their imagination of a future Algeria from Berberism, Arab/nationalism,

Algerian Islamism, universal Islamism, secular atheism, and traditional Arab-Islamism. In the

parliamentary elections and to the surprise of many, the population voted for the Islamic Front

Party (FIS-Front of Islamic Salvation). However, the game of democracy was over when the

army decided to stop all free elections and return to the authoritarian rule, imprisoning anyone

who comes on its way. The armed confrontation between the army and the Armed Groups

ignited a wave of human rights abuses and terrorism, pushing thousands to flee to a safe refuge

for themselves and their loved ones.

These were the conditions within which the returning young scientists from the big US

universities had to work. Some of them took sides with the various parties, others were busy

finding a way to fit into the corrupted system of higher education, others had multiple social

problems to face that made them forget about the scientific dreams and academic research they

were planning to do. In addition, many of those who returned to Algeria from the American









universities with their PhD education state that they were disadvantaged in comparison to those

who studied in Europe, particularly in France. French language in Algeria still has great

influence in higher education in Algerian universities, especially in Algiers. Going back with a

PhD from the U.S. makes those who graduated from France be in a defensive position to a point

where some of these people would sometimes try to exclude their colleagues who graduated

from American universities. Even prior to the escalating violence in the 1990s that pushed

various sectors of the population to leave Algeria, the universities' competitions for power is one

of those tedious reasons that made many Algerian professors decide to come back to the States.

Second Im/migration to the U.S.

It is during the tragic 'black decade' of Algeria that the second wave of immigration to the

US started in greater numbers, and is still continuing until today if at a much smaller scale.

Algerians who decided to leave their homeland used various ways to escape the tragic situation

of their country, sometimes going to any country that would allow them entrance. Although

many found various ways to enter France it was not an easy task at all. Indeed, during that time

the French government restricted the entry of many others fearing the enormous flows of

Algerians asking for exile or refuge. Many others were not allowed to enter France because of

their age or political affiliation. In the early 1990s, the US launched the lottery visa program,

thereby allowing Algerian intellectuals and skilled professionals with their families to become

legal residents and eventually American citizens. Applying for the student, professional, or

lottery visas became known among the Algerian population as an opportunity for starting a new

life away from terror and chaos. Many Algerians, single, males, females, and families won the

lottery visa to migrate to America. Every year, hundreds embark, most of them for the first time,

to a place that is new in its environment, language, and culture.









Migration for studies or work and the role of network

During the 1990s crisis, many countries, including Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and

Australia, opened their doors for thousands of Algerians, giving them safe refuge for a short time

until they would feel safe to return home. Many of the bright scientists, when not killed in the

civil war that became the killing machine of thousands of innocent people, used their

connections with friends, universities, and colleagues to facilitate their re/entry to the US. As

Sabour (1997: 1-16) puts it in a different context, "the returnees find themselves between the

devil and the deep blue sea jammed in powerlessness and frustration." Of course being parents of

American born (citizens) children was for some the safest and easiest passage to the states.3

With several massacres at various populated residential areas and villages, not knowing

who is behind the killing made the situation more frightening. The spread of fear, violence and

lawlessness became the favorable conditions for illegal immigration to various countries,

including the United States. Hundreds of soldiers who defected from the army in protest against

the national violence found no other exit except illegal migration to the U.S and other places.

Many informal stories are told that many illegal immigrants came to the U.S. from Algeria using

illicit and fraudulent papers after going through several countries, including Europe, the Middle

East, and even as far as Australia. Were they succeed to pass without being caught, they would

end up starting an illicit journey and life that they never anticipated to be part of before. How

these immigrants manage to survive in the illicit world is an interesting project to be

investigated.

During these hard times, despite the fact that the governmental scholarship program had

ended by the late 1990s, many bright students found a way to apply for undergraduate studies in


3 As a structural factor, citizenship laws in the receiving country affect those who had had children born there.









the US relying on their own expenses and networking. After finishing his engineering degree

with honors from Algiers University, Nuwar decided to pursue his studies in American

universities. He is the youngest child in a family of four. His parents are both practicing medical

doctors in Algeria. Nuwar got his scholarship from an American institution on his own and came

for graduate school in 2000. His older brother, who had already finished a PhD in civil

engineering and was well established in the states, helped him and facilitated many things to

make Nuwar's migration a more or less smooth one. Networks and the presence pf kin in the

receiving country seems to be another structural factor facilitating the migration from Algeria to

the U.S. Nuwar, who is working on his PhD, got marriage to an Algerian American and both are

raising a daughter in the US.

Omar also came to do his undergraduate studies in the States when the safety situation in

Algeria began to deteriorate and terrorist acts intensified. A child of a military man, Omar used

his father's connections with American academics to get a smoother entrance to an American

university. He explains in Darja with few English sentences:

Uum, abuya (MSA), baba (D)-my father-was coming to America a lot. Because he...he
is in the army... he has missions in the air force...he used to come here for missions and
also go to Europe. So when I told them [parents] that I wanted to go overseas... especially
that at that time the situation was not that great, he [father]... he told me 'oui (F)-yes-I
will find out. It is not a bad idea.' He helped me...he, Baba knows how to speak
English... so I always look up to him. He spoke very well English; he spoke very good
French, hu...very good Arabic. He spoke them all...I looked up to him. I thought he
was smart (E) I wanted to be like him... so he was the one who helped me. He has an
American friend here in America. He called him and helped me to come here. So, non
seulement (F)-not only-he encouraged me but also helped me... I wouldn't be able to
get here without Baba.

Although Omar was raised in an upper middle class family, he was planning to finish his

undergraduate studies in Algeria. His decision to leave using his father's high connection came

as a way out of the unsafe environment in Algiers in the mid 1990s; he continues:









There was terrorism...I was studying in "Ben'aknoun" area [suburb of Algiers known for
its historical high schools and universities]. In that time, there was terrorism... I didn't
feel safe (E), there was no hope lil-future (b.f.E)-for the future-, I am studying but
what I am going to do (E)? I mean the economy (E) was low; even when you talk to
people nobody has hope...,And also safety...I didn't feel safe...something happened, I
mean...ya, a lot of things happened (E). I remember fil- institute ta'i (b.f.E)-in my
institute-[repeats], one was killed...one day before his graduation... (A student?) Ya a
student, they [terrorists] were killing students at that time, ya. And the problem is that
nobody knew who is killing...Where is this killing coming from nobody knew. So, I don't
know... I had dix ouit ans (F)-eighteen years old-...in that time I wanted to live my
life. I wanted to study. I wanted to work, I wanted... I had all that energy and knew that I
wasn't going to do anything with it... so of course, like the majority of youth at that time, I
thought of migration... I said I have to go. I started looking [for schools] and sending
[applications] and asking. Then, I had the opportunity to come to America and I came. But
the greatest reason that pushed me to leave was al-irhaab (MSA)-terrorism. But, I would
like to return [to Algeria] someday. Ya, I would like that. But I don't know what to do
(make a sound of laughter but not of a happy one) this is the great problem. Would I be
able to do what I am doing here? This is the problem.

Those who left during the period of the second migration fit perfectly with migration theories

which do include flight from danger as a major trigger of migration. Omar is an excellent

example of that class of people who are forced by a crisis to leave. He was raised in a high

middle class military family and went to an excellent school. However, the safety situation

pushed him to leave. His parents are like many other Algerian parents who worried about the

future education of their children, especially among the educated and middle class families.

Many such concerned parents pushed their children to leave the country when the crisis struck

and the security situation worsened. However, the dilemma for Omar is that he would like to

return one day. But, he is not prepared to live in a situation ofjoblessness or high uncertainty.

Today, as a graduate student in education, he is married, has a baby boy, owns a house and

works full time at the University of Florida. Looking again at the larger picture one faces a

puzzle: Why do people stay in the US instead of returning to their homeland? Economic factors

such as a fear of not finding an adequate job at home and family-related changes such as having









children born here and used to the American language and system of education seem to go a long

way in explaining the puzzle.

The lottery visa

Since the 1990s and until today many Algerians have taken the chance to win a lottery visa

to the United States of America, hoping to get them out of the unsafe conditions and for a better

life for them and their families. The data collected during my fieldwork shows that more than

half of the Algerian born interviewees came through the lottery visa during the 1990s (14/27

members and their families). They came as families and singles, males and females, looking for a

safe place where they hoped to start a productive life for them and their children. However, even

after the violence has for the most part subsided during the last few years, people are still coming

through the lottery visa, seeking a "productive life" for them and their children, a goal they could

presumably not achieve in Algeria.

When Mustafa finished his degree in economics in Algiers, he was not feeling safe and

looked for ways to leave the country to America. He explains in Darja how his friend, who

already had won the green card through the lottery program and was established at his sister's

place, helped him to get it:

... he [friend] told me; 'give me your pictures [I will apply for you] for la lotterie (F), al
qur'a (D)-the lottery.' if it was without papers, I wouldn't have come. [because] I am
sure I wouldn't be able to go back home.

For Mustafa, the lottery visa is a way out of the Algerian crisis and a safe passport to come back

home if so he whishes. He got influenced by his friend, yet, he did not choose the illegal road

because he is not ready to forget about his country. Would he have applied for the lottery visa

had he not known about his friend's experience?









FatiHa and her husband left their jobs, home and family and moved to Chicago. A mother

of two and expecting, wining the lottery visa was a life time opportunity for her. She explains in

(D) mixed with (F):

Me, personallement (F)-personally-, the day we played-applied for-la lotterie
(F)-lottery-to come, I was praying "oh my Lord, [make them] accept us." I am not
lying. I was wishing to come. (Why?) Eeeh! What should I say! Al-maricaan! (b.f.E)
that's what we know, al-maricaan, as we say, the greatest nation in the world..." pour moi
(F) -for me, the opportunity came up and would not be repeated. Like luck... when we got
la lotterie (F), we said, 'c'est une occasion qu'on'peut pas ratter (F)-it's an
opportunity that we can't miss, anraTiwha (Darja b-f-F)-if we miss it-that's it...that is
why we came.

Being able to come to America represents for FatiHa a win-win issue. Getting the 'green card' is

a privilege despite facing hardships of other kinds.

Similarly, Nazira explains how her husband was desperate to leave the country despite

having a stable job and a nice place to live in Algiers with their four children. After getting the

lottery visa, they did not hesitate to come to Chicago. She says in a South-Western Algerian

Arabic accent:

When my man -husband- came out in al-lotterie (D b.f.F), he was working technician
superieur (F) -higher technician [in a hospital]. I mean, we were al-Hamdullah -Thanks
to God [we were ok]. I didn't have a home and al-Hamdullah; my father bought me an
apartment. Then when we got al-lotterie (b. f.F), my man got crazy 'lal maricaan (D b. f
E) -about America (giggles). My husband was the one who encouraged me [to come.] I
mean, there were problems...uu... terrorism. In 1998, in Algeria, life was mixed up...when
we got la lotterie (D b. f.F), he-husband-told me, "we have to get out, we have to..."
my husband's friends were in Canada but we didn't know anyone in Amrica (D b. f.E)....


Winning the lottery is the first step in the migration process. Deciding of a destination in

America depends on the availability of social contacts and/or jobs. Many immigrants choose big

cities like Chicago where they would be able to be taxi drivers (or the like) as soon as they land.









Fleeing terrorism looking for stability

While some Algerians focused on the opportunity to enter America and live comfortably

(economic factor), others fled the trauma of terrorism (violence factor). Faruja, Fella and Hind

and their families were traumatized by terrorist acts before leaving everything behind and depart

when they got the lottery visa. Faruja is a Kabyle woman married with three children with the

oldest being 20 years old. Although illiterate, Faruja is a wise, courageous and kind woman. She

expresses her feelings on the crisis in Darja with a strong Kabyle accent saying:

For me, what brought us here; at that time, between 1995-1996... we were residing in
'citee La Montagne.' I mean, there were two of my brothers- in-law who work with the
government. They came [terrorists] to kill them many times... my neighbors where killing
each other. D' ailleurs (F)-moreover, when my neighbors clean-their houses-and
throw assashi (D b.f.F) taa' zbel kHel-the black garbage bag- they put them by the
door [for the garbage collector]. Sometimes, you know, I go to open it [bag]... I go and
come back-to it-,(repeat), and I close my eyes and open it...I say 'maybe my husband's
head is in it'...many people at that time were killed... I swear by God, I mean...the safety
conditions were very, very hard... all of them left [brothers-in-law.] The house was empty,
with no taste...then we left and that's it. My brother-in-law did for us the lottery and -our
names- came out. The one [brother-in-law] who was here, he spent seven years [with a
tourist visa], he didn't get it and my man -husband- got it (a smile on her face.) So, we
came...

The daily feeling of terror and fear pushed Faruja and many others to leave their homes, loved

ones and familiar places. Only the lucky ones got the lottery visa as an entry to a safer and stable

life.

Fella was an Arabic teacher and her husband was a computer analyst who got his bachelor

from England. They were both stable in their work. They already owned a car and built a house.

They were ready to move in when they were struck with terrorist acts in their families and

neighborhood. She explains in Darja and sometimes MSA expressions about the trauma she went

through:

[What brought us here was] Terrorism (E), terrorism...they [ the army] killed my
brother...they killed him, and they killed my cousin [from father's side].., my cousin was
an Imam. They took him...they imprisoned him for seven days, and he was under









torture... and then, when he was released he run away... he went to the
mountains...because he was... he was an Imam.... he was giving sermons... and... my
brother...my brother, he had no sin -he did nothing-...because of my cousin, the army
took him. They told him; "you have to tell us where he went [the cousin] or we kill you."
He told them; "I don't know." So, for three days, he stood fast...my brother, when they
killed him, they didn't kill him in a merciful way... difigurawah (D b.f.F) -they
completely disfigured him ...they made us run...they made us run, and they told us that
he is a terrorist ...but he had no relation with terrorism... I mean... So these are the
conditions.. .terrorism... and we were always scared in Barraqi 4... once we were in 'la
Montagne' [at her in-laws] also they came in... [There was shouting] "They are coming,
the killers, the slaughterers!!" we had to flee... I mean these are all the conditions ... when
we got....uu...we got la lotterie (F) we said, let's go, we better escape.

This educated woman is full of distress, sadness and worries. Although, as a family, they are

safer, she is not satisfied with the outcome of immigration. She still speaks of her well

established past, a past now gone as a result of terrorism. She says mixing Darja with a little

French and emphasizing certain topics in MSA:

[My brother-in-law] didn't have a house. [The family] encouraged him to come [to US] ...
but us, they were all against us to come. (Oh, why?) Parceque (F)-because-our
conditions were ok ...we had everything ...because here, all who came to Imarican (D
b.f.E), to make more money...we-my husband and I-were all against coming to
Imarican (D b.f.E) ... and also those who were religious-mdeyneen-used to tell us:
"Hram bash truHu lil marican-It is unlawful for you to go to America." (Shuuf -really)
ya'ni al- hidjra lil marican 'andha ghayaat u ahdaaf (MSA)-I mean, the migration to
America, it has its goals and its targets. Hna djina (D) li Talabil 'ilm (MSA)-we came
seeking knowledge. I mean, we brought our kids just to read-study. Now, we understand
what they used to tell us, they were right... True, I mean, I regretted and not regretted ...
when I came, I mean, I wished I remained in Algeria in a simple life...one would at least
win the afterlife [Nazira: but, you are...you are going to the mosque, you are praying -
performing salat... [Fella: but it is not because of me...it's [the future of] my kids [that is
gone.]

Fella feels that she was forced to leave Algeria. She believes that 'practicing Muslims' come to

'a non-Muslim' country such as America only for the sake of knowledge. Yet, that goal does not

seem to be fulfilled in the way she was hoping for. Fella and her family were well established in



4 Barreqi is a region where Fella and her family built their new home. It is of the areas in the suburb of Algiers that
had terrorist attacks and hundreds of its residents were massacred not knowing until today who exactly did the
killing of the innocent population.









Algeria. Fleeing to America to the big city of Chicago put both her and her husband in a

downward mobility situation. Fella seemed ashamed of her first work as a housemaid to an Arab

family in Chicago. Later on, she got a teaching position, tutoring Muslim children Arabic. Her

husband has lately started working as a taxi driver. What makes her distressed even more is her

teenage son who could not familiarize himself with the American school system that is far

different from that of Algeria and hence dropped out of school. Would Fella and her family go

back to Algeria since terrorism is less frequent? Isn't she getting used to the American system?

Isn't she finding her own niche in Chicago where a 'la Montagne' like community is growing

and creating new relations, activities and solidarities with old and new arrivals, relatives and

friends from other immigrant communities?

In comparison, Hind is more optimistic and thankful that her kids are away from the

traumas in Algeria. Her concern is to provide them with a safe environment to study and grow,

she says in Darja:

They [terrorists] were coming forcefully in 'La Montagne.' they tell us they are coming to
kill you...we were fleeing, running and scared...and the kids, you see them the most
traumatized and everything. So, we looked for safety...ya, it was terrorism (E), al-irhaab
(MSA) that brought us...uu... so our kids do not have to go through what we went through
... he -the person- studies -read- all his life and does not find work...we came for
'l'Mducation (F) -our kids education.

In the absence of safety everything is unstable, including studies, work and more generally daily

living. Those who left during the crisis period were driven by the safety dream that they thought

would fulfill all their goals of having a decent job, good education for their children, and

establishing a family and a community life living in peace. The people from populated

neighborhoods such as 'cite La Montagne' went through extremely severe conditions and

traumas. Those who left did not and cannot forget the horrifying daily images, yet, they are

determined to find piece and stability in their new home, despite its strangeness.









Fleeing hard conditions and looking for better opportunities

Although the traumas of terrorism and killing did not directly touch every Algerian, their

effects impacted on the lives of the large majority of Algerians. Economic instability, scarcity of

work, small wages, and social/cultural conflicts, all contributed to hasten the decision to leave

the homeland toward a foreign land. Terrorism was the cause of some of these economic

dilemmas, but not all. Asma is one of the seven women interviewed in the focus group in

Chicago. She is a homemaker in her mid-thirties, married, with two young children. When asked

about her family's situation before deciding to leave Algeria, she seems relieved to be in better

social and economic conditions and does not regret coming to America. She expresses her

thoughts in Darja, using little French in the middle, thereby giving an idea of the impact of

French language even on women who have little education; she says:

The first thing [is] l'appartement (F)-the apartment. I didn't have l'apartement (F)... I
told you, my son got older and was still sleeping m'aya fish-shambra (b.f.F)-in my
bedroom. [we had] no space... too much... we are a large [extended] family, may God
bless... a full house as we say, 'ten coming in, ten coming out...' el-Maricaan (b.f.E)
[was] the only solution. He-husband-won la lotterie (F)... bien que (F)-although, my
husband came [alone]... he stayed fifteen days in New York; fifteen days in Chicago; and
he didn't like the situation. He went back to Algeria... and when on his way back, he called
his work-in Algeria-... he told them 'I want to come back to my work'... they told him
'ok. Al-poste a'ata'ak (b.f.F)-your position-is ready, come.' When he went, they told
him 'no, no, you can't come back.' (ooh...) he [husband] said, 'don't talk to me about al-
maricaan anymore ...that country, I won't go back to it. I want to live by my children, I
die by my children.' So, we said ok. [but] I had already sold everything, my furniture, my
gold5.

Since she had not much money, Asma had to sell her furniture and gold to buy the tickets for

traveling. The undecidedness of her husband on migration gets complicated with his loss of his

job, thereby compounding the need for the family to leave for good. She continues:



5 Asma explains that she had to sell her gold in order to buy her ticket and travel to the US with her family. The gold
in the Algerian culture is usually the dowry given to the bride by the groom as a gift on the marriage day. To sell it
is a necessity but hard choice on the woman since it holds a special meaning to her.









After that, they [employers] started tricking him...tricking him.. tricking him until a
month had passed. When one month had passed, the last day, he told them, 'voila (F)-
here-, so I will start working.' Then they told him, 'we don't need you.' So, he stayed
deux mois (F)-two months-[without work] ...he didn't find what to do ... as we say,
sorry for the bad language, 'even a garbage man,' the lowest job, he couldn't get it...
when we were coming back, we were supposed to take the airplane the next day, his friend
came to him... he told him, 'voila (F), they are going to take you back to Al-poste (b.f.F).
I told him; 'it means, they are playing tricks on us.' That day, my visa [the visa to get to
America gained through the lottery] was going to expire... I entered in el-marican (b.f.E)
at three o'clock [in the afternoon], at twelve at night my visa and my son's were going to
expire! Ya... so, only [9] hours remained-in the life of the visa. wallahil 'atheem!
(CA)-I swear by God! ya... I told him... I am not lying to you... I told him, 'as they
tricked you the first time, they would trick you the second time. So, that's it, we go.' so we
came ...

These people were pushed to the extreme before departing in devastating uncertainties. Although

the husband had gone back to his country resolved not to come back to America with his family,

he had no guarantee to get back his job in Algeria, which would put them is severe financial

need. This case illustrates the point that the decision to immigrate is developed under

circumstances that are harsh and cruel and usually within totally uncertain situations. The would-

be immigrants end up leaving in a state of unstable emotions and maybe rage.

The women interviewees-FatiHa, Nazira, Faruja, Fella, and Asma-reside in Chicago

with their nuclear families, relatives and friends. Despite being homesick and haunted by the

painful memories of terrorism, all feel safer in their new place. However, living in their new

destinations confronts them with other challenges such as their children future education, values,

life style, religiosity, and sense of belonging. Some are still confused about the way to succeed

and their only income is from low wages jobs that may put their families in lower class

environment. The sanspapiers (F) blalwraq (D), or without papers, status of certain members

might add more stress when reunited with the extended family in Chicago or other places.

Although all of my interviewees said that they came with papers lottery or student visa, some









of them mentioned that they have family members who are without papers and are staying

illegally in America.

Escaping the national army service

Migration success of friends or relatives opened avenues for many young men not only to

study or work but also to avoid going to the obligatory national army service during the crisis.

The dilemma of going to 'the army' was of great concern for many families and their sons. As a

matter of fact, many young men were killed during their service. Mustafa explains why he

preferred to leave his country and not do his national service during the 1990s:

When we finish school [college], we have to do the army-the national service... I am not
against national service. I love my country but the problem is that [soldier] can die easily. I
had a neighbor who was in the marines. He was an officer and they killed him... bi'a -
someone told on him- and they killed him. He was the only child in his family, and he
died. So, national service yes...you get service back to your country yes...we build, plant
yes, but to get killed like that, it is not national service. So the national service is not any
more the way they used to say that when a guy goes to the national service he will become
a man... so I was doing anything to avoid going to the national service...

Getting his green card visa to America through the lottery saved him from the devastation of

killing innocent people and/or being killed. He had the alternative to leave his country, enter the

US legally, and begin a successful life. Other people who refused to join the armed service

during this chaotic period left the country illegally and looked for illicit ways to enter other

borders, which would be the beginning of an underground life and wasted years of survival not

knowing what would happen the next day.

Marriage: Al-maktuub [Providence]

Many Algerian women migrate because of marriage. Yet, there are those who consider

their stay in America temporary. They eventually, one day, would go back to Algeria to settle

among the extended family. Among my interviewees, at least four of the women came to the US

through marriage to Algerian men in America. Khadra, Fadila, Zahra and Manal have been here









for at least a few years of marriage, yet, they are not sure about their future. They are very

satisfied with their marriage and standard of living in the states. However, they still miss their

families and do not imagine their future life away from their parents and siblings. Khadra

graduated with a degree in economics and worked in an Algerian TV station. She met Mustafa in

college and they got married in 1999 after being engaged for a few years. She explains in Darja:

When I got engaged to Mustafa, I knew [that he was coming to America to make some
money for sometimes], but I wasn't thinking of coming. When he decided to come, he told
me that we get married then go. I told him I don't go to America...migration is not my
choice... I didn't like it... after that... (what made you change your mind?) al-maktuub
(D)-the written-[providence] giggles.(Algerians and al maktuub every one says it
giggle)....

Fadila also came to the US because of marriage. She also never thought of leaving the country

but after a few marriage proposals from Algerian men abroad, she finally accepted one of them.

Fadila is a Kabyle and was a linguistics graduate working comfortably in an Algerian teaching

institution. She explains her decision to accept her husband's marriage proposal and decision to

migrate to the US in fluent English:

I wasn't thinking to migrate but to go to England for studying. My mom was against the
idea. That's all. I never thought about migration even when I had many...uu.. .marriage
proposals, from immigrants. Even from USA, ones... I always said no. I don't know I said
yes for this one...laughs... al maktuub (D)-the written-[providence]. (how did you
meet?) with Fodil? (ya) actually we share a cousin... he was interested...he asked... he
asked his mom and sister to talk to me.. uu (so that's it... you didn't say 'he is in America I
don't want to go') I don't know because of Fodil... I always tell him "your mom did magic
to me" (sure black magic laughs) black magic, tmaSkhira (D)-just laughing... (black
magic to get you [marry her son] that's nice). Ngullu (D), c'est pas normal (F)-I tell
him, it's not normal, kifash hakdha saHratni yammak... biddaHk (D)-how is it? your
mom did magic to me... [I say it] laughily- giggles... Because his mom was really... (she
likes you) ya (that's nice) when I met Fodil, she was telling my aunt if she [Fadila] says
yes to Fodil, I will be very happy.. my aunt was telling her 'no Fadila is not interested to
go out of the country.' When I was 25 -26 [years old], I was telling everyone, 'I will marry
in Kouba' [an old neighborhood in the suburb of Algiers] (laughing... in your
neighborhood) just in my neighborhood, not far from my mom... being far from my mom









10 minutes is too much for me ( oh my God!) Now I am not far 10 minutes, I am 20 hours
(both saying SubHaan Allah6) (eh... al maktuub SaH.)-truly, it is providence.

Fadila would not have accepted to migrate to a foreign country such as America even for

marriage. Yet when a Kabyle man, who is also a far relative, approached her for marriage, she

did not hesitate to accept and moved to America. In comparison to many marriage cultures and

patterns in France, between Kabyles from Algeria and those of France, Fadila is following the

tradition of her ethnic group. In addition, marrying a man with an American citizenship

facilitates her stay and gives her privileges that other women and men do not have.

Manal also came to America through marriage. She was a teacher before getting married to

Omar who has a student visa. Manal also did not think she would one day be in America, yet she

accepted the marriage with Omar. She explains in Darja with an Eastern Algerian accent:

When did I think of migration? (Ya) I wasn't thinking of it AT ALL! Laugh. I was against
migrating for whatever reason, marriage or ... laugh... I saw people go to France... (you
didn't like going to France?) I know many people who got married, the wife stayed in the
country and the man left... (this is the old style of labor migration...) no, even now... it is
hard for a wife to get with her husband to France. Now, they get married, he tells her: "I
make you the papers" and she is waiting many years. I refused this completely. And with
Omar, I didn't accept until he told me that one day he will come back. (I laugh...even to
America?) I never thought of America. France, maybe we think about it but America (so
the reason for coming to America...), marriage only.

Manal's acceptance to marry an Algerian in America away from her family and her country but

eventually to go back home. She is waiting for the day she and her family would go back to

Algeria and settle there. Yet Omar has no idea how he would survive in Algeria since he got

used to the relatively easy and organized life in the U.S. Would they go back? For how long

would the temporary migration last? Is this a situation of 'le temporaire qui dure'-the

temporary that lasts? Many young Algerians are marrying in this way. It would be interesting to



6 SubHaan Allah is an expression that means "Praise be to God." It is used as a surprise statement among many
Muslim Arabs and non Arabs after saying or hearing something that they like.









find other young men who got married while here with girls from back home, for example

through family ties. For women, especially, this is a big shift; first by getting married and living

the family, but to also im/migrate. It would be interesting to test the types of stresses that face

young brides coming not only to new husbands but also to completely new environments. How

do they survive? Whether married or single for most new comers leaving home to a foreign place

is stressful and having a family member or a friend welcoming them is a big relief until they get

on their feet.

How do New Comers Make the Transition?

Having a family member or a close friend in the States facilitates the transition for many

new migrants and their families in their new environments. The hospitality is well appreciated.

Yet, quickly enough, the newly arrived ones would like to find jobs to sustain their families. Like

many new arrivals from Algeria, SalaH and his wife Sarah came in late 1990s through the lottery

visa with their three children. They chose to settle in Florida where a close family member was

already there. This case clearly illustrates how social networks are a major structural factor in the

adaptation process of the new migrant. In the Algerian ways of hospitality, the relative or kin feel

obligated to take care of his visitors at least for a few weeks until they find a job and a place to

live. However, the new comers try their best not to abuse this duty as the following case

illustrates.

Two years prior to their arrival, Sarah's younger brother got a research position at the

university after finishing his doctorate degree in chemistry from France. They are appreciative of

his hospitality as expressed by his brother-in-law: "we came to him directly. Without him, we

couldn't do anything." But as two educated independently-minded people, SalaH remembers

how both him and his wife did not hesitate to take any job that would put food on the table for

them and their three children. He says in Western Algerian Darja with an MSA emphasis:









... You have to throw yourself in the society... and forget...you have to focus on
something...so you have to go one step ahead or you won't be able to do anything. So, al-
Hamdullah...that hard period... that bottle neck... in a period of two years [ended]. Even
if he is a dear one, your family, but he is not forced to be responsible for you and your
kids... you come and stay for months... we stayed about 8 months [at the brother-in-law's
place]... that's a lot... you don't feel a 1'aise (F)-at ease. When it gets too long... you
say; I have to get out of this situation...

He continues explaining the types of small jobs that he and his wife had to take in order to get

economically and socially stable:

I was without a job, and the issue is that I have a family. I had to look for a job. In my first
year, I didn't know much English. I had to look for any job. The most important [at that
time] is that I had to get a weekly wage to sustain my family [Sarah: we were a [big]
family; [we had] three kids [SalaH: I worked at ... at night [at a local supermarket name]
almost for two years. That period helped me a lot... I looked for work at Arab [shops] I
couldn't find any. At the same time, I was preparing my exams [GRE] to enter [the
university]. [That period] was good so I could keep my family [together]...uuuh... at the
same time... I registered in a high school as ... as a substitute teacher (E) and I worked
well...that also helped me a lot...I taught all levels...there was a teacher, she helped me a
lot...may she get rewarded.. I was dealing with her very well... I was also very patient... I
was looking for an income mostly... and in that hard period, I needed to get some kind of
stability. [Finally] I entered the university. Before that, I worked three or four jobs just to
keep my life stable. I was even a paperboy...

SalaH considers work as a means to survival in a new and foreign place. He is not ashamed to

work anywhere and anything. Keeping his family together and getting stable was the most

important of his goals at this early stage of their new life. Yet, his ultimate goal is not only to just

survive but also to get accepted at the university and hence go back to being part of academia.

Today, SalaH is a PhD candidate at one of the top universities in the country and a teacher of the

French language. As he said to his wife: "you don't look for what you are doing look for what

you want to do later." He got past the days of hardship and is focusing now on what he loves to

do, teach, read and write.

His wife Sarah also worked in jobs that she would never think doing back in Algeria. Yet

when speaking of that experience, she commemorates it as the best learning opportunity among

the American people that left her with the most pleasant feelings, thereby somewhat forgetting









her hardship being away form home and the familiar faces of her loved ones. She explains with

her husband interfering:

I also worked at [SalaH: I took her with me....she worked with Jane, kaanat al-manager
ta' al-bakery (bfE and intersected into Darja sentence)-she [Jane] was the manager of
the bakery-and for me... my wife needed... she didn't know any English or anything... I
cared that she gets in [society] and speaks to people and learns... [Sarah: they were very
nice people... masha' allah-May God bless...until today [SalaH: I told her [manager] 'if
it is possible,' so she let her in with her...then she had other offers, I told her 'stay there
where you are, in an environment where you speak English. You learn the language with
them... you can learn everything... because you don't look for what you are doing now
look for what you want to do later.' [Sarah: Hatta (D) l'emploi du temps (F) kaan
msa'afni(D). parceque...flexible (F)-even the schedule was working for me, because...
[it was] flexible. (At what time were you working?) [SalaH: at the beginning... she started
at 4:00 in the morning. (wow (E) mashaa' allah (CA)) ya...the children were not too small
[Sarah: that is why when I talk to Malika [a Moroccan woman in the immigrant
community who is stressed because she can't find a job] I tell her 'you didn't see
anything... what did you see?" [What is happening to you is nothing comparing to me] if it
was only me and my husband, but having children [SalaH: anyway. her...her husband has
more than twelve years here...and he brought her... for us we had different situations.
[Sarah: I used to go at four in the morning because they needed someone to work that
early... [I worked for] almost two years.. But that was the best time to take away that
shock...[SalaH: I think working in P.. was one of the best steps to get her out of that
isolation. [Sarah: you imagine.., even now, when I speak of it I feel [emotional]. The lady
[manager] Jane... there is no other woman that I knew of at that time that was like
that... Jane, this woman...the American... at four o'clock when I wake up to go walking to
work... hadhil manager atta'i -my own manager... I find her waiting for me in the car.
She parks and waits for me near the door until I go out. When I go out, she picks me up
and takes me with her to work..[SalaH: we didn't have a car... (you mean without asking
her if she could pick you up?) [SalaH: she comes by herself [Sarah: I swear she comes by
herself. wanhar 'arfat ana (D) en seinte (F) 'amlatli wahd (D) al-baby shower (bfE)...
wala shuftu (D) fil alllaam (MSA)-and the day she knew I was pregnant, she gave me
one baby shower, I didn't even see it in dreams! [Salah: giggles. [Sarah: uqsimu billah
(CA) wala shuftu (D) fil alllaam (MSA)-I swear by God, I didn't even see it in
dreams-[Salah: hey..oui (F)-oh, ya... [Sarah: waah!...(D western Algerian accent)-
yes! at first I didn't think of the Americans like that...that level of kindness...Jane, she
was older than me by maybe 8 yrs..masha' Allah (CA) taghwi (D western accent)-may
God bless (CA), she is lovely (D)). [SalaH: a kind woman.[Sarah: I consider her like my
family (do you still have relations with her?) [SalaH: ya.. specially Sarah.

Sarah's first experience at work and social environment left her with a sense of welcome and

comfort in America. Despite the hardship of the first years, human kindness means everything to

this couple. As a professor by training in Algeria, she did not mind working as a baker in a local









supermarket. Although she mentions the kindness of a single American person, but coming from

her manager meant a lot to her. The manager's care left her with a positive feeling about the

whole society. A woman's touch that came out of care, kindness and love plays a role in

facilitating the transition from the language incompetence and social isolation to a competent and

confident citizen. As a new immigrant, Sarah was raised from a level of survival to a level of

human relations, communication and planning for big achievements for her and her family. After

a few more years, Sarah became a full time Arabic teacher at the same university with her

husband where she meets students from various ethnicities and backgrounds. Sarah is one of the

best among her colleagues to teach interested students Arabic language, culture and skills to

make them successful in life. In her turn, she is influencing many young students who have great

goals in life and who respect her and appreciate her love for teaching.

'La Montagne' Neighborhood

After winning the lottery visa or maybe coming illegally, many people from the same

neighborhood in Algiers meet again in the same neighborhood and community in Chicago. Hind,

a mother of five, explains in Darja how her neighborhood in Algiers is moving in name and in

many respects to the city of Chicago:

We used to call cite La Montagne (F) [the area or neighborhood called 'the mountain' in
Algiers], citee Chicago (F)... (no way! Giggle) many of those from 'La Montagne' are in
Chicago. [FatiHa: (she sings the following in French) they sang o, a, o, a, o, La Montagne
Chicago (F) until they came here. [Hind: I mean, Chicago is full of people from 'La
Montagne.' (they are settled all in Chicago ?) They are all settled in Chicago. When one
gets la lotterie (b.f.F), he/she finds all the family here.7

Cite La Montagne in Chicago represents the safe recreated neighborhood in which new comers

find solidarity and first support until they find a job.


7 We are sitting in the park at dusk, the loud sound of adhan al- Maghrib -call of sun-set prayer- comes from one of
the ladies cell phones. It is loud like that of a mosque back in Algiers. We were women and children loud in the
public park and visible.









Conclusion

This chapter began with a few questions: Why did Algerians leave? Who left? Under

what conditions do they end up living in France and the US? In answering them, it was necessary

to start with the time of colonized Algeria when conditions were created for the natives, the

colonizers and their off-spring to mingle and become connected forever. Until today, France

remains the closest destination for Algerian migrants for work, studies or family reunion. Yet, by

the end of the twentieth century, the destination of Algerian travelers and migrants moved much

farther, reaching the U.S. for similar reasons and new ones.

In comparison to the Algerians immigration to France, which is the largest among the

African continent, the Algerian immigration to the U.S. is still new and small. While the first

Algerian immigrants to France went for cheap labor, fifty years later, the first Algerians to

America came for higher learning. Yet, the two migrations are similar in that violence triggered

many migratory flows to both continents. On the one hand, hundreds of thousands left to France

as a result of violence during the war of independence in the late 1950s and, on the other hand,

thousands entered the U.S. fleeing the fear and instability that terrorism caused during the black

decade of the 1990s.

Algerians came in waves to the US; each wave representing different causes and goals.

The early comers in the late 1970s and the 1980s were students in search of knowledge in the

developed West with the goal in mind to go back home and build their country. The political

instability in the 1990s caused the second wave. What started with authoritarianism and

corruption led to human rights abuses, concentration camps and detention centers for thousands

of members of the opposition to the government. This policy of repression in conjunction with

wide spread terrorism led to the civil war that pushed thousands of Algerians to migrate to other

countries including America. During the turmoil, there were many kidnapping and killings of









intellectuals, journalists, doctors, academics, lawyers and judges by the hands of the military

forces and armed groups. The political situation in Algeria worsened to the point where those

who had different opinions from the government or the armed groups received death threats and

had to leave under severe circumstances. Their only insurance for survival was to leave their

home country to Europe, the Middle East, the U.S., and many other destinations around the

world. Those intellectuals who had connections in the U.S. started the process of immigration as

soon as they could and left everything behind, including their private practices, their jobs, their

houses, and belongings. Fleeing the carnage and instability in their country became of the

essence.

Despite thinking of immigration as a temporary situation, like those who are in France and

like the majority of immigrants, I would hypothesize that most Algerians in the United States

would not return to their home country despite real or perceived threats of racism and

discrimination in the jobs. They would say that they are satisfied, that they found safety, peace of

mind, and jobs and new professions where, if lucky, their expertise is used well and their income

is better than the one at home. I suppose they would be mostly satisfied with the political

freedom and civil liberties that they enjoy in America (although, there have been some changes

since 9/11). Therefore the question might be why go back? Ethnographic fieldwork and

interviews in the Algerian communities in the States would be the final stage to theorize about

Algerian immigration and give answers to my speculations. However, the aim of this thesis is to

follow this newly formed 'invisible sojourners' (Arthur 2000) among the African/Muslim/Arab

communities (Abrahim et al. 1983; Abraham 1983; Aswad 1974; Haddad: 1983; Sweet: 1980)

in their cultural adaptation in their new home where they meet new and old Diasporas and

communities and negotiate their settlement. The cultural, linguistic, and religious wealth of this









new Algerian Diaspora in America would be studied closely and compared to the Algerian

Diaspora in France, in its particular and complex forms, hoping to reveal to the reader part of the

'Algerian heritage,' a heritage that is intertwined in the languages, dialects, and way of life.









CHAPTER 3
BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON ALGERIAN LANGUAGES

Genesis and Development

Strategically, Algeria is positioned in the port of Africa. It has always been desired by

superpowers including the Romans, Portuguese, Arabs, Ottomans and finally the French (Zaleza

2005; Hunwick, John O. and Eve Troutt Powell. 2001). Because of its encounters, settlers and

colonizers, Algerian culture embodies one of the richest and the most diverse. Its people are

varied in languages, dialects and ways of life. The north part of Algeria is the most populated

with its cities that are located on the shores and ports of the Mediterranean Sea. It has access to

great neighboring countries of the Maghreb (Tunisia and Libya to the East and Morocco to the

west) and Europe (France to the North and Spain and Portugal to the North West of the

Mediterranean Sea).

The wide south part of Algeria links it to the riches of the rest of the African countries

starting with the surrounding nations from west to east, Mauritania, Mali and Niger continuing

Algerian natives' deep relation to ancient Africa. Yet, many contemporary politicians and

academics prefer to associate Algerians with Arabs (Middle East) more than Africans. This topic

is of great importance and many scholars are challenging such divide (e.g., Zaleza; Okome) that

is weakening the African continent by focusing only on elements of racial, ethnic and linguistics

criteria. However, in studying the people of North Africa, its African characteristics (phenotype,

linguistics, ideology, spirituality, religion, kinship structure) are rooted in the realities of its

inhabitants that would be evident in ethnographic comparative studies. Although there is a great

variety and heterogeneity within the intra boundaries of the African continent, yet, one cannot

neglect the strong bond among its inhabitants that is of a certain complexity that is hard to

abridge (Algeria color map: 2008).









On the north east of Algeria lay the Mountains of al-awraass, home of the proud Berbers

(Chaouia ethnic group) and the ancient cities of Constantine and Annaba close to the Tunisian

and Libyan cultures and dialects which are the route to the 'Middle East.' To the West, the great

cities of Tlmecen and Oran that were influenced by the migrating moors and Jews of Andalusia

and by their neighboring country Morocco in art, music, and love for knowledge. In the middle

North, the mountains of Kabylia, home of the major Berber ethnic group Kabyle and its

influence on the urban mix of all cultures and dialects in the capital Algiers and surrounding.

And finally to the south, the wide 'grand Sahara' and its inhabitants that are so diverse in their

various ethnic groups such as the berber ethnic groups Mezab and Touareg, who are a mix of

African, Berber, and Arab ideologies, religions, languages, and cultures. They are famous for

their independent minds, love for tea and dates, sitting on hand made camel-hear rugs, under a

tent in the middle of the desert in an oasis which is a symbol of life, stability, hospitality and

intellectual and economic exchange.

Between 1830 until 1962, Algeria was well known to the world as being one of the French

colonies and as the "grenier de l'Europe" by its rich soil that produced citrus, dates, vegetables,

and grains that was sent to feed the people of Europe at the time of the French colonialism. After

its independence in 1962 and after a decade of development as a free and young nation-state,

Algeria became a member of OPEC and one of the largest producers of natural gas and many

raw materials such as iron, copper and gold and gained great revenue from them. This endeavor

had to be met by educating its young population with skills and abilities that would be intrinsic

to the development of the various branches of science, technology, medicine and administration.

This chapter deals with the genesis and development of the languages of Algerian

immigrants. I will speak of Tamazight, Arabic-CA, MSA, Darja-and French. The first part is









a summary about these languages genesis and relationship to the North African region and to

each other in phonology, morphology, and lexical borrowing. The second part deals with these

languages role in nation building and the tensions and conflict that emerge in independent

Algeria. I present an analysis of the two dominant languages, Arabic and French and how they

compete in independent Algeria at the political, intellectual and social levels. I also deal with the

role of Arabic vernacular as the neutral communication between all ethnicities and Tamazight

the oral language that is in a slow process of being standardized.

Berber Languages and the First Contact with Arabic

In investigating the origin of the Berbers, there isn't one place mentioned but several

including Western Europe, sub Sahara Africa and Northeast Africa. However, for centuries,

various waves settled in North Africa and made up its indigenous populations. The term Berber

is derived from the Greek in reference to the people of North Africa; however, it was adopted by

the Romans, Arabs then the French. When identifying themselves, the people of North Africa

may use this term, the term qabayl-the tribes-(given to them by the Arab settlers) or the term

Imazighan-the free men (used by the speakers themselves.) They speak Tamazight or the

language of the people of Amazigh. In comparison to Algerian languages of today including

Arabic (literate and spoken) and French, Berber is the oldest of them all (Saadi Mokhrane 2002:

48). Like Cushitic, and Egyptian languages, Berber is part of the Hamitic grouping within the

afro-Asiatic language family.

From a sociolinguist point of view, there are many Berber languages each with mutually

intelligible dialects. The Algerian Berber languages are Kabyle (North), Chaouia (North),

Chenoua (central and West), Mzab (Mzab region), and Touareg language. For example Kabyle

(Taqbailit) has two intelligible dialects: Petite Kabylie dialects (East) and Grand Kabylie dialects

(center). The Berber speaking Algerians are estimated to be between 20-25% or as Chaker, a









specialized scholar in Berber studies, puts it: one out of five Algerians speaks Berber (Chaker

1984: 8-9).

The first Berber tribes' encounter with Arabs goes back to the 8th century. It was through

trade, conquer, and the spread of the faith of Islam through the Ulamas (scholars of Quran,

Hadith, Arabic and Fiqh). However, the extensive interaction did not take place before the

settlement of the Arab nomadic populations such as Banu Sulaim, Banu Hilal, and Banu Ma'qil

in North Africa in the 11th century. The Islamic teaching in madrassas, Zawiyas, and mosques,

became the channels for the teaching of the Arabic language. as truly stated by Wardaugh: "the

Islamization of the Maghrib preceded its Arabization; and the latter was never completed

(Wardaugh 1987: 178). One would say that the Islamization of the Imazighan people and the

adoption of Arabic as the language of learning were gradual, through conversion to Islam and the

practice of the religion. Yet, Tamazight remained the language of trade and daily

communication.

Until today, Tamazight, the oral indigenous language remains spoken and transmitted

generation after generation. People in mixed marriages between Berbers and Arabs would adopt

either languages or both depending on the social and regional milieu of the family. Yet, the

language of the Quran or the Classical Arabic (CA) was the venue for success in learning and

power through out the centuries of the Islamic civilization that north Africa and the Imazighan

people were part of it (Arab/Berber dynasties: Al-moravids 1044-1148; Al-muhads 1148-1248)

(Loimeir 2007). Throughout the Islamic empire, Algerians like other Mediterranean embraced

Arabic as the language of progress in mathematics, philosophy, geography, history, medicine and

literature (Gafaiti 2002: 40). Today, Algerians, with the rest of the world, honor famous names,

such as, Imru' al-qaiss (Arab poet), al-khawarizmi (mathematician and developer of arithmetic









and algorithm), Ibn Khaldun (father of social science), Ar-Rumi and Ibn Arabi (Sufi

philosophers), Ibn Rushd (or Aviros: pholisopher), and Ibn Sina or Avissina in medicine.

Summarized Comparison between Berber and Arabic Phonology and Morphology

In comparing Tamizight to Arabic we can see many similarities at the level of phonemes

and word order, however they different on expressing other grammatical information such as

number, gender and tense. Like Arabic, Tamazight is a language with only three vowels; a, i, u,

however, Arabic has three letters alif, waw, ya' that are consonants but also long vowels [aa],

[ii], [uu] when following a consonant. Tamazight has 38 consonants in comparison to 28

consonants in Arabic. Tamazight has phonemes that are not found in Arabic such as [tsh], [v],

[p], however, the other sounds are similar.

The grammatical information (number, gender, or tense) is different in Tamazight than

Arabic or French. For example the plural of amazigh (Berber man) is imazighan and the plural of

tamazight (female Berber) is timazighin. However, in Arabic expressing number is much more

complex. For example the plural for amazighi (Berber man) is amazighiuun /iin depending on

the case. The plural for amazighia (female Berber) is amazighiaat. However, in Arabic making

plural is a much more complex than Berber in which nouns have sound and broken plural that

require memorizing various pattern. For example plural for man or rajul is rijaal and the plural

for woman or imra'a is nissaa'. Most feminine words have the [at] sound at the end, however in

Berber an [ta] is added at the beginning of the word

The word order in Tamazight is VERB-SUBJECT-OBJEC. However, the Arabic language

has two, this previous one and the SUBJECT-VERB-OBJECT one. For example, "The girl ate

the apple" is in Tamazight "ate the girl the apple" but in Arabic both orders work. The phonetic

closeness between the two languages is of great importance which made the borrowing from

each other extensive (especially from Arabic to Berber). However, like any other two languages









in contact, the borrowed lexeme would always be adapted to the phonology and morphology of

the mother tongue.

Classical Arabic

Like Akkadian, Canaanite, Aramaic, Hebrew, and Ethiopic, Arabic is a Semitic language.

Semitic is also considered a major subfamily of the Afro-asiatic family of languages making

Arabic related to Berber even from far. Arabic was spread into many places including North

Africa, through the faith of Islam. Until today, oral and written recitation of Quran remains one

of the main sources for the Classical version of the language. (CA) basic structure is similar to

that of the Quranic Arabic and the preserved pre-Islamic poetry which are the closest to the Arab

Bedouin way of speech. In his book 'Arabic language,' Versteegh gives an excellent summary of

the development of orthography in the codification of the Qur'an and the codification of the pre-

Islamic poetry. He also explains how early Arab Grammarians use the language of the Bedouins

as the holders of "Arabic FaSiH"-eloquent-(Versteegh 1997: 50), a concept that until today is

used to categorize the literate from the vernacular. In the early stages of the Islamic empire, the

Arabic language went through its first process of standardization in connection to three main

topics: the invention of orthography, the elaboration of standardized norm of the language and

the invention and expansion of the lexicon.

Like many other languages, CA has been affected by contact with other tongues. Even the

assumed 'pure Arabic' Quranic text has foreign borrowed lexical items. Being arabiyyan

mubinan-a recitation that is Arabic and clear, Quran, a revelation from God, contains many

borrowed words from other languages. For example Versteegh reports that Muqatil, one of the

mid 8th century mufassir -Quranic interpreter, states thatfirdaws is a Greek word; yamm in a

Hebrew word, maqalid is a Nabataean word and Taha is a Syriac word (Versteegh 1993: 89-90

cited by Versteegh 1996). It is due to this flexibility even in a 'sacred' language that gave the









first Standardized Arabic language the ability to remain in use until the twentieth century when

the world situation required a second Standardization.

Modern Standard Arabic

Modem Standard Arabic (MSA) emerged in the 20th century with the 'rebirth' of Arabic in

post colonialism in most Arab countries in the 1950s and early 1960s. In the "modernization of

the language," new methods were used to create new vocabulary such as borrowing foreign

words, integrating foreign words morphologically and/or phonologically, translating foreign

words and extending the semantic of existing words and using analogy to extend existing root

(Versteegh 1996: 179-83).

MSA was derived from the CA and with such lexicon reform and modifications became

the language of government and modem instructions. Like the other modern nation-states, after

its independence, the new government in Algeria gave the standard Arabic the status of official

state language. Its prestige is derived from the CA, being the language of the Quran; yet, MSA is

learned only through formal education. The native languages acquired in infancy in North

African countries are Berber and Darja "both low in status since they have no written form or

role in education or administration" (Bentahila and Davies 1992: 198).

Darja

Darja is the Algerian Arabic dialect. One of the following terms: darizja, darja, or 'amiya

are used; yet, they all mean colloquial, vernacular or common speech. Like Berber, Darja is

based on the spoken only. If deciding to write, people switch to CA, MSA or French. it is

important to note that the linguistic discourse continues to position on the one hand, MSA as the

prestigious and correct language and on the other hand, Darja as the deviant one. This attitude

may be due mostly for the excess borrowing and codeswitching with other languages in contact

(see detailed examples with linguistic analysis of various expressions in chapter four).









From contacts with other languages, Darja, the spoken Algerian Arabic, uses lexical items

from Berber, Portuguese, Spanish, Turkish, French and lately English. Words such as: kuskus,

banio, kuzina, dey, lekol, and manager are consecutively each from the previous languages.

Through out the chapters, I put many quotes, in the context of the chapters, collected during my

fieldwork among the Algerian immigrants in the US, in which borrowed nouns, verbs, adverbs or

articles are used. When borrowing happens, I note it for example (bfF) -borrowed from French.

When borrowed from other languages, I similarly note it. The borrowing and complements can

be articles, nouns, or clauses. The linguistic flexibility of Darja with its regional variants in

Algeria widened its lexical range and gave it the privilege to be understood and used everywhere

in North Africa.

Dialects dine

Throughout North Africa or as it is called the Maghrib -the sitting of the sun [region]-

there is a strong linguistic similarities. One would say that there is a dialects "Cline" throughout

Mauritania, Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, and Libyan geographic areas. Despite using lexical

and phonetic variants, in general, the populations of this region are able to communicate without

difficulty. Passing that area toward the east, the dialects become more 'mashriqi'-Middle

Eastern-which are 'less similar' to western dialects. According to Versteegh, Egyptian Delta is

the borderline between Western and Eastern dialects (Versteegh 1997: 134). His map (p. 135) is

a good example to visualize one of the most frequently cited isoglosses in Arabic dialectology,

which divide the Western from the Eastern dialects. The following table (2-1) is an illustration of

the verb 'I write/we write' and how it changes from west to east as mentioned in Versteegh book

(1997):









Table 2-1. Illustration of the verb 'I write/we write'
Language lst person singular lst person plural
MSA Aktubu/ aktub Naktubu Naktub
Magrebi Niktib Nkitbu
Mashriqi Aktib Niktibu / niktib
English I write We write

While the western region is to some extent different from the eastern region, one would say with

confidence that the Middle East is not one region. As a matter of fact, they vary among each

other at other levels which are not the subject of this thesis. Following another division of the

Arabic dialects, Versteegh presents the geographically classified Arabic dialects (p.145) as

follows: the dialects of the Arabian Peninsula, Mesopotamian dialects, Syro-Lebanese dialects,

Egyptian dialects and the Maghrib dialects.

In contrast to the Egyptian dialect, Darja is not intelligible to most middle easterners. The

reason for the spread of the Egyptian among other Arab countries is that Egypt has been the

center for the Arabic/Islamic learning for centuries. Al-azhar University alone, have been visited

for centuries by students of knowledge from around the world. Until today, it holds the most

prestigious position in the world. Egypt is also well developed in the Arabic/Islamic literature

and cinematography. Its productions are read and viewed by all Arabs and as a result spread its

dialect. To many Arabs, Egypt is "Umm ad-dunia"-the mother of the world. As a matter of fact,

Arab populations including Saudis, the holders of the Ka'ba in Mecca, which all Muslims face

five times a day to perform prayers, tend to admire Egypt and imitate Egyptians. As Vesteegh

states, "Egyptian colloquialisms are rapidly gaining a position as prestige variants (Versteegh

1997: 197). However, I would argue that the author is still talking in the past. Today, especially

with satellite television and the internet, Arabic people, markedly, its young, are mixing their

dialects with English or French as prestige languages not Egyptian dialect as the author claims.









Algerian multidiaglossia

Algerian speech like that of other Arabs takes place in 'multiglossic' and multilingual

relationship between the various languages they have. In the Algerian situation, diglossia may

take place between FuSHa/ Darja (H variety/ L variety, a concept started by Ferguson 1959)

However, as Versteegh notes this model "restricted the notion of 'diglossia' to situations where

the low variety was genetically related to the high variety, of which it was a simplified version"

(Versteegh 1997: 190). In modifying Ferguson's model, Versteegh also explains that there is no

"distinction of two discrete varieties" which means the speaker has to choose one or the other by

a process of code-switching. Instead, one can say, there is a continuum of speech where "the two

varieties are the extremes" (p.190). In countries like Algeria, intellectuals do not speak one

language or the other with each other but use Berber, Darja, French, and MSA depending on the

social circumstances as well as their linguistic loyalties and solidarities. I experience this, myself

in the United States, adding English to the table, whenever I meet with other Algerians. That is

one reason, why most middle easterners do not understand Algerians or maghribis when they

speak among themselves. Yet, they maintain that Algerians speak French.

French in Algeria

French entrance to North Africa and specifically to Algeria was in 1830 as a colonizing

force. As mentioned earlier, the similarities between the Berber and Arabic speaking people is

that both are tribal people of afro-Asiatic bond. However, French language and people are of

Romance and Gallic ancestry separated from North Africans by the Mediterranean Sea.

Although both based on the alphabetical system, French and Arabic languages bear no

resemblance in their script. Yet, for strategic and economic reasons, Algeria was destined an

integral part of France. As a way of control, the French language was forced as the language of

administration and power. As a result, Arabic, a competing language of knowledge was









suppressed except during Muslim prayers. Algerians, Arabic or Berber speaking, were forced to

deal with officials in French. No interpretation was allowed and no official recognition was

given to either ones. By the end of the nineteenth century, a policy of assimilation was enforced

and the only way of advancement was through French. "In 1938, [Arabic] was declared a foreign

language by a law that was rescinded only in 1961, just prior to independence, by Charles de

Gaulle" (Saadi Mokhrane 2002: 52). The colonizing administration was enforced by thousands

of French and European migrants making the social making of the region more complex. Being

at an advantageous place, the colons were against the education of Algerians who were forced to

work in the colons farms and estate.

After more than a century of colonization, when the French left, a nation was formed in an

environment saturated by a language of discrimination, anger, and violence. Unlike the general

population, a minority of Algerians Arab and Berber were educated in French. Among those who

did, French elite was formed and used to govern after independence. However, the level of

Arabic literacy was at a desperate level and by independence less than few thousands were able

to read and write Arabic (Wardaugh 1987: 183). At independence, in 1962, the majority of

Algerians were illiterate, and French continued to be the language of administration, power, and

education. As a matter of fact, French remain widely used and despite the arabization programs

since independence, it retains an important role. Today most educated Algerians are fluent in

French and Standard Arabic.

Linguistic Conflict and Nation Building

Arabic/Politics and Linguistics Discourse

In 1962, Arabic was restored through a massive educational program. A cultural and a

political movement that started in the 1930s, continued in post independence as a symbol of

'linguistic decolonization' (Berger (ed.) 2002: 3). The shared idiom was "Islam is our religion,









Arabic is our language, Algeria is our land" (first said by Ibn Badis and later echoed by Messali

Haaj). Six years after independence, a decree was ordered designating Arabic to be used in all

civil service positions. However, French remained used in administration until 1990s. In 1998, a

new law generalized the exclusive use of Arabic in institutions and public service, yet, until

today, never fully implemented. The government linguistic war against French becomes a

complicated issue dividing Algerians between 'franchophone' and 'arabophone' and bringing in

the issue of ethnicity to further division when some Berbers include this war to be against

Berbers not French.

In independent Algeria, CA and MSA held not only a heritage and sacred function but also

a nationalist and an Arab-Muslim identity revival. It plays a major role in religious functions at

the individual level during Islamic worship. However, at the social level, CA is used in common

and civil law in marriage, divorce and inheritance. Finally, CA took back its role in the religious

discourse and the Mosque.

Darja the 'Neutral' Tongue

Darja remains the natural medium of ordinary speech. At times of conflict between

Arabophone and Francophone nobody think of it as a militant way of speech. Darj a remains the

channel for freedom in expression and fluidity in word choice. There is constant use of Berber,

Arabic and French at various degrees. Yet, in contrast to MSA and French literacy, Darja

remains the language of the illiterate and common people. A linguistic discourse takes place

between those who defend it as the Algerian language and a colloquial creativity (MalHun

poetry) and those who try to correct its laHn or solecism. However, when listening to

Muwashahat genra of Andalusia or the Algiers sha'bi music Algerians do not consider the

colloquial as less than CA or MSA but as a heritage that is rooted in the Maghrib.









Berber Reform and Ethnic Revival

In post independent Algeria, Tamazight remained the oral language of millions of

Algerians. However, a movement has formed and requesting the change of the language status to

a national language and standardize it to a literate language. At the same time, an ethnic identity

revival of the Pre-Arab-Islam presence took place, making the divide not only between

Arabophone and berberists but between the Berbers factions. While members from the Kabyles

embraced a 'cultural activism' speaking against the use of Arabic, many other Kabyles and other

Berber groups do not agree with the war against Arabic and Islam. However, the feelings of

ethnic belonging and tribalism emerged as a counter response to nationalism and pan-arabism

that made Arabic the national language of the land neglecting other heritages and silencing any

movement that asks for reform. The Algerian government finally allowed the teaching of

Tamazight language at schools. The current Algerian president, President Bouteflika signed a

decree which became law; however, the teaching of the language is still at its preliminary stages.

There is still a debate on what characters to use; the old Tifinagh (used among Tuareg), Arabic or

Roman script. The first classes started inl995-1996 academic year in Kabiya and as Saadi-

Mokrane says: "[it] suggests] the possibility that Berber will become the second national

language, once it is taught in all the country's schools" (Saadi-Mokrane 2002: 48).

French: Not National but Integrated Language

As mentioned earlier, the French language asserted itself in Algeria amid the tumult of

colonization. The irony is that among those who were fighting French during arabization were

the elite whose education was mostly in French. As a matter of fact, the French-speaking elite

continued using French at the time of independence as the language of economic, scientific and

technological power. Despite declaring Arabic the only national language in the country, French

continues to be the tool in bureaucracy and learning. The topic of eliminating French from









Algeria comes and goes like swinging mood in post colonial Algeria depending on the political

climate. At times of disenchantment with social and political tensions, French language is

blamed for remaining in the nation. At other times, those who were raised during colonialism

reminisce about the language of high culture. In present Algeria, many monuments such as street

names and buildings remain as a reminder of the time of the French colonial period. As a matter

of fact, my neighborhood where I was raise is still called 'cite Fougeroux' after a French

personality despite renaming it officially 'Rostomia' after a figure during the Rustamid dynasty

in the 8th century Algeria.

Conclusion

This background information on the origin, linguistic and political situation of the present

languages-Tamazight, Arabic, and French-of Algeria is of great importance. One would not

value the topic of 'the Algerian languages in the Diaspora' (France and the US) unless

understanding the connections of the languages to each other and to their users. The Algerian

languages starting with Tamazight-the ancestral language, classical Arabic-the language of

faith, French-the language of modernization, modem standard Arabic-the national language,

and finally Darja-the spoken tongue-are inseparable in the mind and life of every Algerian.

As a matter of fact, their fate in the Diaspora depends greatly on the perceptions of their holders

as well as other factors in their new homes.









CHAPTER 4
CODESWITCHING AND BORROWING: CONTACT BETWEEN ARABIC AND FRENCH
VS. ARABIC AND ENGLISH

Algerian Arabic (Darja) is characterized as having great lexical borrowing from other

languages, especially from French as mentioned in the previous chapter. In this chapter, I discuss

a number of ways of Algerians' speech (all examples are from my data collection), the choices of

the matrices or the underlying structures that my interviewees rely on, and a variety of inserted

words or expressions that they borrow from other languagess.

However, before presenting examples of codeswitching and borrowing it is important to

understand the Arabic matrices of both regional (Darja) and standard (MSA) as well as analyze

their mutual relationships. The Arabic matrix is followed by an English and French translation to

allow the reader to see how Arabic as a Semitic language differs from French and English (as

western languages) and how French and English are closer to each other more than to Arabic.

Table 2-2. An example of (D) in comparison to MSA, E, and F, which is not yet influenced by
foreign borrowing:
Language Example
D "Al- 'unSur ta' al-'arabiya Muhim bazzaf(D)
The element Belongs the Arabic Important a lot
MSA (1) "Al- 'unSur at-taabi' lil-'arabiya Muhimun jiddan
The element Belongs To the Arabic Important a lot
MSA (2) 'unSur al-'arabiya Muhimum jiddan
Element The Arabic Important a lot

E trans ofD : The element of Arabic is extremely important.

F trans of D: 1' element de l'arabe est extr6mement important.

The matrix of D is the same as that of MSA. However, certain lexical divergences make the

words more regional. Some of the transformations may first seem for non speakers or to those

who do not understand D to be different. In this example, I have four observations to make that

show the morphological explanation behind this divergence:










* The term ta'-of (E) or de (F)-used in D is not found in the structure of MSA (2). Yet,
this does not mean it is not Arabic. It is important to note that all Arabic dialects have the
ability to use CA or MSA elements and alter them in ways that would fit their needs. The
term ta'is thus a word constructed from the CA or MSA (1) word taabi' which means
belonging to. However, the bilabial phoneme [b] of the later is omitted and the new lexical
meaning belonging to is ta' in Algerian or bita'in Egyptian (just as in English the
contraction of "do not" to "don't").

* The word muhim important-in D is not that different from the CA or MSA muhimun
since the only difference is the omission of un (a sign of indefiniteness), which is rare to
find in modern Arabic dialects. However, in CA and MSA, un only appears as a case
marker in the middle of a sentence, but is omitted at a pausal situation and would be
muhim like in the dialect.

* The word bazzaf-very-in D is based on the MSA and CA root word zaf-commotion.
However, the word that is mostly used in MSA in this context isjiddan-very. Yet, the
word bazzaforiginate from an Arabic word bi az-zafwhich means with great noise or
commotion. Such meaning is also used in Egyptian dialect saying bizzuffa. However, it is
used in a different context than the one presented in the Algerian example.

* Finally, when comparing the following possessive clauses: "Al- 'unSur ta' al- 'arbiya in D
to 'unSur al- 'arabiya" in MSA (2) one would say that both are Arabic. However, as a
possessive form, the first one would not be proper in MSA in this context but would work
in saying 'unSur al- 'arabiya or Al- 'unSur at-taabi' lil- 'arabiya [the] element of Arabic
[language] or the element belonging to the Arabic [language].

We can see how colloquial Algerian Arabic is very strongly related to CA and MSA. However,

because of the above syntax or semantics change, D appears, at first, as a separate language from

MSA. As shown up above, Arabic-MSA, D, CA-differs tremendously in word order and

syntax from the western languages-E or F-which are much closer to each other in word order

and in lexical. Yet, Arabic, like other languages, has the ability to insert other languages

elements in its matrix or be inserted in other languages matrices, as illustrated in the examples in

the following paragraphs.









Description of Codeswitching in General

Using the "insertion approach", Boumans and Caubet (1999) state that "code switching is

viewed as the insertion of smaller or larger constituents from one language, to be called the

embedded [inserted] language, into a syntactic frame set by another language, the matrix

language" (Boumans and Caubet 1999: 113). They explain that the former governs the selection

and relative order of the constituent parts that make up the structure, whether their constituents

are from the same language or another language-the embedded language. The process of

identifying the matrix language leads to "the conclusions that word order and function

morphemes are usually indicative of the matrix language" (Boumans and Caubet 1999:115).

They and others also argue that in codeswitching between languages, "marker tense and/or

aspect on the verb, verbal inflection is a reliable indicator of the matrix language" (Klavans

1985; Treffer-Daller 1994: 204 in Boumans and Caubet 1999:116). Based on these authors'

extensive and explicit definition, the following examples illustrate how this codeswitching works

between French and Darja, Darja and French, Darja and English, and, finally, English and Darja.

The examples also illustrate the kinds of borrowed words that are used in each situation and how

the inflection works.

Matrix illustration

French Matrix

In the following we see how the two French matrices are used in a continuous going back

and forth between various languages French, English, Arabic then French matrices:

Mon profune fois quand elle ma entendu (F) nahdar (D). Elle m'a dit.. .en parlant des
verbes...les verbes irreguliers et tout Ca. Elle m'a dit (F): french is [a] crazy, crazy
language...(E) Wallah ; qalat li : (D) o le francais pour l'apprendre il n'est pas facile (F). >
Ana (D), j'ai lu beaucoup de bouquins (F).









In this situation, this recent Algerian immigrant to the Chicago area is still going back and forth

between the US and Algeria. She speaks French at home with her husband and daughter and

when meeting other Algerians. In this example, she uses French as the matrix; however, she

inserts D conjugated verb (nahdar) instead of (je parle) in her first part of speech. In her

sentence she is still using the French matrix, however, she inserts what her teacher told her in

English: "French is [a] crazy, crazy language." Then she uses Arabic (D) (wallah, qalat li)-I

swear, she told me, when she wants to assure something. She could have said in French: "je

t'assure"-I assure you [that she told me.] However, in this situation, she chooses to use the

Arabic Islamic oath "wallah"-[I swear] by God-to make her point, following it with an Arabic

sentence "qalat li"-she told me. Then she goes back to her French matrix and finishes the

sentence without any foreign insertion. She then starts a new French matrix using at the

beginning the Arabic pronoun 'ana' (me or I) instead of the French pronoun (moi). She finishes

her talk explaining how she became competent in French by reading a lot of books. In this small

paragraph, we can see how this Algerian interviewee uses the French matrix in general.

However, she relies on other matrices from Arabic and English. She clearly demonstrates her

various linguistic abilities in retrieving such matrices when needed to express herself with other

Algerians who are able to understand all three languages that she uses.

The next example shows other complex uses of French matrix inserted with an Arabic

matrix, with the use of French borrowed lexical followed by an English matrix. The expression is

followed by a translation in French then in English to highlight the difference.

Je t'en pris telephone li

Je t'en pris telephone moi

Please call me









In this French matrix the inserted part is a French verb [telephon-er-]. The French verb is uttered

phonologically and morphologically. Using the stem of the verb then conjugating it in Arabic in

the imperative form (you (feminine)) telephone and complemented by a prepositional phrase li-

to me-based on the verb pattern-doing something to/for me-such as uktubi li-write to

me-or uTbukhi li-cook for me-and so on.

The following utterance shows the use of the previous matrix and code switching with English:

Je t'en pris telephone li a n'importe quel moment email me anything

Je t'en pris telephone moi a n'importe quel moment email moi n'importe

Please call me at any time email me anything

This kind of borrowing is very common in Maghribi languages. Arabic conjugation is applied to

French verbs and reinserted to code switch with French matrix as shown in this example or used

in an Arabic matrix as we will see in the following examples.

Arabic Matrix

My data shows how Algerians vary in using French or Arabic matrices. They do it

depending on the speech community and social situation they are in. In the following, I illustrate

how French verbs are borrowed and adapted to Arabic morphology. They are conjugated in

Arabic and inserted in Arabic matrices. In case of the three following examples, the French verbs

are from the regular verbs having an infinitive form-er [e] in French. As shown by Boumans

and Caubet, Algerians also use French irregular verbs such as 'souffrir' however in morphology;

Algerians apply the same form of Arabic conjugation for both regular and irregular French verbs.

On the one hand, the French 'il a souffert' becomes [sufra]-he suffered-to express the past

tense. On the other hand, the French 'il souffre' becomes [ysufri] in Arabic-he is suffering or

he suffers to express the progressive present (Boumans and Caubet 1999:158-160).

Phonologically, the verb souffre is pronounced with French [r]-a velar voiced. When used in an









Arabic matrix or as a borrowed word, it would be pronounced with an Arabic accent saying sufra

with a flapped r.

Use of (F) adverbial expressions in Arabic matrix

d'ailleurs (F) ki jat waHda jdida, kunna nahhadru

As a matter of fact when came one person new we were speaking

As a matter of fact, when a new person came -in the Chicago MCC community-, we were

speaking [to her in MSA].

This is a good example of borrowed words; the French word [d'ailleurs] is used as an adverb at

the beginning of the Darja matrix.

Use of (F) verbial expressions in Arabic matrix

Difigureweh (they disfigured him)

The verb is borrowed from French regular verb 'defigurer' ruled by Arabic morphology and

phonology using the Arabic syntax then inserted into Arabic matrix.

D: difigur (flapped r) ewe h

F: defigure Ils ont 1 < ils l'ont defigure >

E: disfigured they him they disfigured him >

MSA: shawwah-whoo-h

Remarkit-haa (I noticed it or her).

The verb is borrowed from the French regular verb 'remarquer.'

The Arabic morphology is applied then inserted into Arabic matrix.

D: Remarki t haa

F: remarque j'ai 1 je l'ai remarque >

E: noticed I it o I noticed it >

MSA: LaahaDhtuhaa














Kanu issiyu (they were trying).

The verb is borrowed from the French regular verb 'essayer' and conjugated using Arabic

morphology [issiyu] and syntax then inserted into Arabic matrix.

D: kanu yssiy u

F: avez essaye ils o ils avez essaye >

E: they were trying they were trying >

MSA: Kanu yuHaawiluun

Kifaash nexplikihalek (how do I explain it to you).

The verb is borrowed from the French regular verb 'expliquer', conjugated using Arabic

grammatical rule, and then inserted into Arabic matrix. Phonologically, the verb is pronounced in

Arabic accent.

D: kifaash ne xpliki ha lek

F: Comment je explique 1' te Comment je te l'explique >

E: how I explain it [to] you How do I explain it to you >

MSA: kaifa ashraHuuhaa lek

In these four examples, the French regular verb is used by Algerian and Maghribis in

general using Arabic conjugation to inflate the verbs in perfect, imperfect and imperative tenses.

The verbs are then inserted in Arabic matrix or reinserted in French matrix.

In the case of English verbs, Algerians in America like other immigrants start using some

verbs in the same way. I couldn't find any one from among my interviewees who uses these

verbs. However, I did observe that a few verbs such as 'to hug' and 'to write' are sometimes









used. A mother would for example tell her daughter 'hug me' using Arabic conjugation as

follows:

Huggini (hug (f.s.) me).

The verb is borrowed from the English verb 'hug.' The Arabic grammar is applied to conjugate

it and the result is then inserted into Arabic matrix using the Arabic imperative form.

D: Hug-g- i ni

E: Hug you (f.m) me "hug me"

A conjugation of the verb 'to write' [rayt] would be as follow in the perfect, imperfect and

imperative Darja as used by Boumans and Caubet with the French verb 'croiser' [krwaze] to

cross:

Perfect imperfect imperative

SG PL SG PL SG PL

1 rayti-t rayti-na n-rayti n-rayti-w

2 m rayti-t raytitu t-rayti t-rayti-w rayti raytu

2f rayti-ti raytitu t-rayti t-rayti-w rayti raytu

3m rayta rayta-w yrayti y-rayti-w

3f rayta-t rayta-w t-rayti y-rayti-w

Among other Arab Americans such as Lebanese and Palestinian dialects, Rouchdy (1992) finds

that other English verbs are used in Arabic matrices such as: Kalnet id-daar (I cleaned the

house); kalnetu (I cleaned it); baraknahaa (we parked it). However, she found that the suffix

pronoun is never borrowed such as in kalne it (Rouchdy 1992: 43-44). I would argue along in a

similar way that huggi-ni would never be huggi-me and the suffix pronoun would not be

borrowed. While names and verbs are borrowed, inflectual affixes and pronouns are not.









Another phenomenon among second generation immigrants is the use of Arabic verbs

while applying English morphology and phonology and then inserting them in English matrix.

For example, in the case of the verb to pray, that is performing Salat which is not praying as in

making a prayer, I noticed many young Algerians using the verb Solly-perform the Salat-in

English sentences with an 'ing' ending as follows:

Algenglish: I am Solling [I'm Solling]

D: Rani n Solli [ranin-Solli]

E I am praying

When using Arabic verbs into English matrices the stem 'Soll' is used before applying any

conjugation. The morphology however is that of English. The prefix and suffix, that are markers

of progressive present, gender and number in Arabic, are omitted and instead the English

grammar (ing) is used. In this way, an Algerian who has limited knowledge of Arabic

conjugation would not bother but use just one form "are" or "were sollying." In Darja, there is

already the omission of the dual and third person feminine plural in comparison to MSA. I would

say that like the French verbs, many more English verbs would be integrated in this manner

among Algerians as it is the case amongst Moroccans and Tunisians as well as amongst other

Arabs in the case of English verbs.

Arabic matrix (borrowed English lexical)

My Algerians interviewees mentioned many English words that are being used in their

Arabic or even French speech with an Arabic phonology, some examples of which are: TV, crib,

blanket, cell phone, sofa, car seat, dishwasher, microwave, Christmas, gift, culture, Spanish,

Chinese, high school, church, school, teacher, home work, bus, America, American,

citizenshipp, cab driver, delivery, September eleven, tee shirt, manager.









I noticed that Algerians use English lexemes on a need basis by introducing them slowly

into their speech. Many interviewees either intentionally or unintentionally use these words in

their speech. Omar came to the US at the age of twenty years old and has been in the States for

more than twelve years. His wife Manal came from Algeria when they got married three years

ago. Omar is fluent in English. However, Manal is at a beginning stage of understanding and

speaking English. They explain to me that many English words entered their lexical and

sometimes replacing Arabic or French words in their speech. Manal explains in Darja:

I mean [we use] small terms. For example (F), we do not say televiziuun but TV', crib of
[baby's name], couverture (F) is almost gone, we use blanket-baby blanket, cellphone,
car seat, dish-washer, and sofa.

However, her husband still used the French word for sofa saying: "I usefoteye" or fauteuil in

French. Yet in using the word thermometer they find themselves mixing both French and English

terms depending on what they are speaking of. Omar explains showing his amazement of the

changes in their language:

For example (F) [we say] "dirilo (D) thermometre (F)"-measure his temperature. We say
thermometre not thermometer. (Ah, ok) But we read it in English (F) '99.5 ninety nine
point five.' If it was in percent, we read it in Arabic or French (F) but in Fahrenheit, we
read it in English (F)...that is weird (he is amazed that they do it. It seems he never thought
about it).

Zahra, a mother of two boys, uses intentionally more Arabic words when possible. Yet in

certain situation, she explains; only English lexical apply. For example, she finds herself using

English words for new appliances, such as microwave but still says khizaana (MSA) for

cupboard or any other holding closet or chest. Yet she chooses to use only Arabic words in her

home and does not use, for example, the French word Frigidaire-used in Darja for refrigerator.

She rather uses thallaja from MSA. To know more about the borrowed words from English to


1 It is important to mention that televiziuun is already a borrowed word that have been arabized long ago and used as
an Arabic word that is been replaced with the English word TV.









Darja in their context, see Table 2-3 at the end of this chapter. Choosing a word, as simple as the

word cup, may have a different explanation for different persons and families. Why would one

use cup in English, kaass in Arabic, or verre or tasse in French? Memories and various

perceptions and influences shape people's attitudes and speeches when they move with their

culture and language to a foreign land. Investigating how and when they do start using the

dominant language lexical reveals other sentiments, attitudes, and loyalties as it will be shown in

chapter four and six.

The definite article [al]

Like many other Arabs, Algerians apply the Arabic definite and indefinite rules in

borrowing words from English, something they have already been doing before with French. In

Arabic, a word is indefinite if mentioned without the [al]. For example, while the word

khizanah-closet-is indefinite, al-khizanah is definite. However, the word starting with the

phoneme [t], when defined, would be assimilated such as in televiziun / at-televiziun. The same

rules are applied to words borrowed from other languages. Many examples have been mentioned

in this data whether the borrowed words are Portuguese Sala / as-Sala, Spanish banio / al-banio,

French cadeau / al-cadeau, or English manager / al-manager. In the Arabic language, the

alphabet is divided into two categories depending on whether we are able to assimilate the al in

the letter or not, respectively calling them (lam shamsiya) and (lam qamariya) based on a

comparison with the two exemplar models of shams / ash-shams (sun) and qamar / al-qamar

(moon). These two models are to be followed depending on the proximity of the [1] and the next

phoneme to the place of articulation. From the data in Table 2-3, most words are assimilated

except if the words are used as predicate. For example labes ti shurt (flapped r)-he was wearing

a tee shirt. Or ana rajli kabi My husband [is] a cab driver, using cabi in a singular form.

However, it is used in plural when speaking of many cab drivers such as in the following









example: safi hathu rjalhum ga' kabiya-so, all of these [women's] men [husbands] [are] cab

drivers. Modifiers are borrowed and used mostly in this indirect way. It is however hard to find

borrowed adjectives as direct modifiers. One possible explanation for this scarcity is word order

because the orders of the words are different in Semitic from western languages. For example,

'the beautiful flower' in English or 'la belle rose' in French would be al-warda al-jamila in

Arabic, having the modifier following the noun and agreeing in definiteness, gender and number.

In the following pages, Table 2-3, I present more examples for the use of definite and non-

defined words in context.

Table 2-3. Borrowed words from E into D among later immigrants
ENGLISH Algerian D (Algerian D. context Translation to
pronunciation spoken) English
1 TV Tivi Television Asha'li at-tivi Turn (FS) on the
TV
2 Crib Krib Sriir (flapped r) Fil- krib In the crib
(flapped r)
3 Blanket Blanket Kuvertur Taqriben, The [word]


(flapped r or F r)


4 Cell phone Selfown

5 Sofa Sofa

6 car seat Coor siit
(flapped r)
7 Dishwasher Dishwashar
(flapped r)
8 Microwave Maycrowev
(flapped r)
9 Manager Manager
(flapped r)
10 Chrismas, Krismess


Mobayl -mobil

Foteye (fauteuil)

NA

Ghassalah


NA


Mas'uul
/responsible (F r)

La nowel


couverture (F r)
raHet,
nastakkadmu
blanket
Kalmini fis-
selfown
Ngulus-Sofa

Al-coor siit fit-
tonobil
At-Tbassa fid-
dishwashar

Hathal-
maycrowev jdid

Al-manager ta'i


bash meytab'ush
al-krismess
hatha.


couverture, is
almost gone [from
our speech] we use
blanket
Call me on the cell
phone
We say: sofa

The car seat [is] in
the car
The dishes [are] in
the dishwasher

This microwave [is]
new

My manager


So they don't
follow this
Christmas









Table 2-3. Continued


ENGLISH


11 Gift

12 Bus


13 School


14 Teacher


15 High school



16 High school
degree

17 Culture


18 Church


19 Spanish



20 Chinese


21 Home work


22 whole sale


23 Delivery


Algerian
pronunciation
Gift

Bus


Skuul


Titcher
(flapped r)

haye skool



hay skuul
degri
(flapped r)
Coltchor


Tchurtch


Spanish
/sbanish


Tchainiiz


Homework
(flapped r)


Hol sail


Delivri
(flapped r)


D (Algerian
spoken)
Kado / hadeya

Troley(flapped
r) / Hafilah
Lekul/ l'ekol/
msiid / madrassa
(flapped r)
ash-shikha / al-
mudarissa /
lanstitutris
Lissey /lissi /
thaanawiya


Bak / bakaloriya
(flapped r)

Al-'adaat / at-
turaath /
tradition (F r)
L'eglize /
kaniissa

Isbaniya /
sbeniyuliya


Siiniy


Al-wajeb / le
devoar (F r)


Bal-jamla


Muwazzi' /


D. context


nashriwalhum
les (F) gifts
nakhud al-bus


ma Hebsh
yaq'ud fes-skuul

At-titcher dyalu,
s un amerikan (F
r)
besh ikemmel al
hay skuul u
baTTal

'alal'aqal tgeeb
al-hay skuul
degri
Al-coltcher
ta'al'jazaer

rajul khruj m'a
zuj nssa m-
tchurtch
To me, lukan
yat'allam as-
spanish it's
better
Walla yat'allam
ach-chiniiz
dart al-homwork
(flapped r)

Yakhdam hol
sail

Yakhdam hol sal
... edelivri


Translation to
English
We buy them gifts

I take the bus


He didn't want to
stay in the school

His teacher is an
American (f)

So he would finish
the high school then
he dropped

At least she gets the
high school degree

The Algerian
culture

A man came out of
the church with two
women
To me, if he learns
Spanish, it's better


Or he learns
Chinese
Did (I or you -m-)
the homeword


He works [as]
whole sale
[delivery]
He works [as]
whole
sale... delivery












Table 2-3. Continued.
ENGLISH Algerian
pronunciation
24 Cab Caabi/caabiya
driver(S)


25 America

26 American
(f.s)

27 Citizen(ship)


28 September
eleven

29 tee shirt


Marikan
(flapped r)
Amrikiya
(flapped r)

As-sitizen


September
alleven
(flapped r)
ti shurt
(flapped r)


D (Algerian
spoken)
Taxieur




Marikan /
amriika
Amrikiya
(trilled r) /
ameriken (F r)
Al-jinsiya / la
nasionaliti
Hdesh sebtember
/ onz decembre
(F r)
Triko (flapped r)


D. context

ana radjli kabi/
safi hathu
rj alhum ga'
kabiya

hna fil-marikan

nHass ruHi rani
amrikiya

Madam ad-diit
as-sitizen
Fi Darbet
sebtember
alleven
labess ti shurt
(flapped r)


Translation to
English
My man [husband]
[is] a cab driver /so,
all of these
women'ss men
[are] cab drivers
Here in America

I feel [myself] I am
an American (f.s)

Since I took the
citizenship]
When september
eleven happened

He wore a Tee shirt


Conclusion

In this chapter, we have seen how two linguistic phenomena, borrowing and code

switching, are used amongst the Algerian immigrants in language contact. While those who have

contact with French, back in Algeria or in France, inter-exchange between French and Arabic,

those who come to the US start borrowing and code switching between English and Arabic in

addition to French, and sometimes replacing the French speech. During language contact,

gradual changes take place within the native language as well as on the dominant language,

thereby providing us sometimes with information on other attitudes, sentiments, and loyalties

that would always play a role in language maintenance, shift or loss.









CHAPTER 5
LANGUAGE CONTACT AND CONFLICT IN THE EARLY ALGERIAN DIASPORA:
FRANCE

Introduction

In chapter two, I presented the various ethnic, religious, and political communities of

Algeria who were pushed into migrating and exile as groups and individuals. It embodied the

elements necessary to reconstruct their identities and that of the future generations in the

diaspora. The present chapter examines these elements in the paradoxical situation of the new

home, France, which represents a complex political environment producing conflicting identities

and belonging.

This chapter is divided into five parts. The first part focuses on the language, a door to

other cultural codes that is never neutral in the human experience, especially that of the

Algerians in a post colonial era in the land of the colonizer. In this part, I will first look at the

French language competence, a critical step to escape the emigre state of mind. I then examine

the endeavor of teaching and transmitting mother tongue. In part two, I examine the efforts to

revive and transform Kabyle in France from an oral to a literary language bearing in mind the

political complexities the two nation-states-France and Algeria. In part three, I touch upon the

paradox of nationality and citizenship for the French of Algerian origin and their sense of

belonging. Part four deals with the 'Beurs', a reminder of racial exclusion and a voice of

solidarity and difference. Finally, part five includes vignettes of the 'Beurs' generation and

excerpts of their 'double socialization' in a society that ties them to the 'land of origin' as a

reminder of their forever foreignness.

Linguistics Performance and Cultural Belonging on the French Soil

Language is a social, cultural and political artifact. Therefore, debates on language policies

are of concern to all individual speakers of a language. France, like many other modem nation-









states, exercises its power in nationalizing its culture by controlling the means of cultural

reproduction. As stated by Hargreaves, "while it is difficult for the state to exercise direct control

over day-to-day family life, it exerts strong and sometimes a decisive influence over education

and the media" (Hargreaves 1995: 87). In the formal system of education through which the

child passes in preparation for adulthood, while subject-matters such as history and geography

familiarize the child with landmarks and events of national significance, national language

occupies a place of pride. Like their counterparts who have native parents, immigrant children

first linguistic influence would be their families. "Linguistic, moral and other codes inherited

from their country of origin naturally dominate during these early years" (Hargreaves 1995: 88).

Mother tongue and culture maintenance is also facilitated by the chain migration and mutual

support and cultural practices shared by immigrants originating in the same village, region or

city. It is as well supplemented by associations with social, cultural and sometimes political

objectives which were until 1981 (Socialist-led administration) illegal in France (La Tribune

Fonda 1991 in Hargreaves 1995: 89). For many French, the 'foreigners' right of association'

undermines 'la France pour les Francais' and the total assimilation of all immigrants into the

French society. French politicians and educators maintain an ideology and a process of

assimilation. They believe that, for the long run, acculturation works and every immigrant would

become French. Yet, for the migrant, adapting to their new environment is based on a different

imagination.

When they first migrate, foreign workers and students often expect to pursue economic or

educational project without having a major effect on their cultural identity. As Hargreaves states

it well:

In reality it is impossible to separate politics from culture. At the same time, certain kinds
of cultural competence are indispensable to effective economic participation which require









of most workers and students to acquire a minimal competence in the language of the
receiving country if they are to function effectively in the employment, schooling, and
housing markets. They may take a purely instrumental view of foreign-language
acquisition, thereby retaining a primordial attachment to their native tongue, but in this and
other respects their cultural repertoire widens significantly as the length of their stay
extends (Hargreaves 995: 95).

Like many other ethno cultural French groups, as regard to their linguistic performance, Algerian

immigrants who originate from various regions in Algeria have different dialects and accents,

yet, they communicate in mutually intelligible due to their agreement on the same cultural codes.

Being able to use French, Arabic or Kabyle would be a means of inclusion or exclusion from 'a

wealth of communicative acts,' (Hargreaves 1995: 86). Because children are around the family

in early age, they will be influenced by the family's culture. However, in France the state not

only requires by law that all children, regardless of their nationality, attend school from 6 to 16.

The state also provides free nursery schools since three years old as well as encourages students

to remain in it well beyond the minimum school-leaving age (Hargreaves 1995: 89).

French competency

Like many other ethnic groups in France, such as the Portuguese, Italians or Turkish, in the

1960s and 1970s, Algerians' French language competency was little. Algerian men laborers were

little or never schooled. In comparison to the men, the Algerian women were less educated. And

even with free classes, many of them would never reach the level of competence as shown by the

1992 household survey conducted jointly by INSEE and INED on Immigrant women coming in

early 1970s. The study shows that only 35% Algerian born males and 25% Algerian born

females had some schooling. 10% males and 46% females had difficulty understanding French

TV news. Finally, 16% males and 57% females spoke little or no French. In choosing the

language of communication among each other, whereas Kabyle men tend to valorize French and

speak it among each other, with women speak Kabyle. However, when speaking to their kids,









they all speak French, if in a simplified way. Interestingly, as mentioned in chapter two, among

the stigmatized harkis, even the young ones, speak Algerian Arabic (personal communication

with Tassadit: 2007). In comparing Algerian to Portuguese immigrants, Hargreaves reports that

"the proportion of Algerian men who said they had had some schooling in French was twice as

large as that reported by Portuguese men. And with the longer average period of settlement,

Algerian men still speaking little or no French were far less numerous than their Portuguese

counterparts" (Hargreaves 1995: 99). This finding is to be expected since most Algerian

immigrants were born under French colonialism and would be much more familiar with French

than Portuguese or other foreigners in France.

When landing into France, the first migrants arrive with their primordial cultural

attachments from countries of origin. Their aim is not to stay but to make a living and go back

home. In dealing with their offspring, on the one hand, they expect them to profit instrumentally

from school and work hard, for education is seen as a passport to better jobs than those held by

most immigrant workers. On the other hand, they take it for granted that their kids would be like

them in their cultural norms and codes. One might imagine that this approach would work.

However, in reality, the result may put these parents in a state of hysteria in dealing with the

seeming rebellious children. Despite the parents' insistence on remaining distant from the

cultural norms dominant in the receiving country, the children, whose formative years are spent

in the land to which the older generation has moved to, tend to internalize their peers' cultural

codes not only as means but as desirable objects in their own rights.

It is true that language competence is derived from language performance. However, every

experience is different and one could not generalize this hypothesis. As Hargreaves finds,

linguistic competence is not particular, nor is cultural competence a zero-sum game. He









continues saying that: "An individual may learn new languages without reducing their

competency in their native tongue. As a matter of fact, elements of diverse cultures frequently

co-exist within a person. This does not mean that conflicts may not arise, however, frequently;

cultural diversity provides a stimulus for the creation of new synthesis" (Hargreaves 1995: 98).

At the same time, an individual may have competency in a cultural code without identifying with

the ethno-cultural group with which it is most closely associated. So French citizens of Algerian

origin may be fluent in the French language, which is the dominant language of the society in

which they live, yet they would perceive it as a code which remains fundamentally foreign to

them, even if their native tongue falls into disuse. At an affective level, a mother tongue is likely

to retain a strong hold on the mind of many immigrants and their off-spring, for whom it remains

a sense of belonging more than of daily communication.

Mother tongue teaching

The French political and legal institutions, paradoxically, until 1980s, considered the

populations of Algerian origins 'foreign migrant workers.' Despite their large numbers, length of

stay and their French citizenship, they were simultaneously racialized by the European Marxist

and praxis theories as the permanent uprooted and suffering victims of modernity (Silverstain

2005: 373). Also, the workers themselves believed in the 'myth of return,' a dream that is pushed

to its ultimate point and beyond. Only after death, with a burial place in the land of birth, will

many immigrants finally accomplish their return journey of which they have dreamed since their

initial departure (Chaib 1994 in Hargreaves 1995: 133). This mosaic of perceptions had long

hidden the social, cultural and psychological realities. These temporary situations escalate the

neglect of the minority rights represented in the language, culture and religion of these 'transient'

populations and remove the burden of the French institutions and society. Between 1970s 90s,

with the French agreement, Algeria was part of the sending countries providing Arabic teachers









to teach Standard Arabic in primary French schools to the children of immigrants. However, only

a small number of schools participate (14% in primary and 7% in secondary schools and

declining), which means, only a minority of children are getting tutoring in their 'native

language' (Hargreaves 1995: 101-102). According to Hamid who taught in French schools for

twelve years, the Arabic class is one to three times a week, not mandatory on Arabic speaking

students, and unpopular among other students (personal interview with Hamid: 2007). In

general, the languages of migrants are the most stigmatized and when choosing a foreign

language most students choose European languages and most of the time "English which is

associated with image of glamour and commercial utility" (Hargreaves 1995: 102).

In case of Algerians and other Maghribis in France, the dilemma is that the Arabic they are

taught (MSA or fuSHa) at school is a different form that of their mother tongue Darja, Kabyle or

other dialects of berber language. As shown in chapter two, the fuSHa "bears only a distant

resemblance to the dialects spoken by their parents" (Jerab 1988 in Hargreaves 1995: 101).

Religious discourse-Friday sermon, short TV program or special lectures-to the Algerian

ethnic communities are challenging as shown by Kepel in the following example. At the 'grand

Mosquee de Paris', Cheikh Abbas, the designated Imam from Algeria, would speak in 'middle

language' to facilitate the message to the French audience of rural Algerian origins who are

mostly used to the Algerian dialect more than Standard Arabic. This type of speech is based on

simple syntax used in dialect but uses once in a while more sophisticated expressions from the

written Arabic. In speaking about tolerance, cheikh Abbas says: "al islam salama wa ukhuwa wa

tassamuh" Islam = peace, brotherhood and tolerance" (Kepel 1987: 332). However, their young

children, if present, and other non-Arabic speaking Muslims and converts would need his

translator, Mr. Guessoum, the bilingual professor who was sent by the Algerian government to









fulfill the task. Lately, there has been a call for 'a French Islam' which would exclude the fluent

Arabic speaking preachers and teachers brought from Algeria and other Arabic countries such as

Morocco, Syria, and Lebanon. What would this forced isolation from universal Islam do to

adherents of the Islamic religion? Would they forget about Arabic or valorize it symbolically in

their minds as the language of the Quran? Policies related to language, cultural and religious

adherence in France have been contested on many levels depending on the political climates. As

a result, peoples respond to it in their own ways that may surprise the policy makers with what

they did not expect.

The Kabyle revival in France: from oral to literary language

Until recently, the majority of Algerian immigrants to France were Kabyle/Berber (Chaker

1988 in (Hargreaves 1995: 101). However, when it comes to teaching mother tongue, only

politically recognized languages are taught. Unfortunately, Kabyle is still conceived by many

Algerians and French-government and population-as an oral language and sometimes, out of

ignorance, a dialect of Arabic. Karima Direche-Slimani, an Algerian born History professor at a

secondary school at Marseille, devotes her study to the recent immigration flux in the

Mediterranean Basin. In her book "Histoire de l'emigration Kabyle en France au XXeme siecle"

(1996), Direche-Slimani focuses not only on the reasons behind the journey but analyzes the

attitude and perspective of the Kabyle people on their own migration experience. For her, from

the beginning of its history in the twentieth century, this migrant group has been distinctively

producing intense militant, political and identity actions and discourses. She adds that for many

Kabyles exile becomes the hub for political, militant and cultural action. In the 1980s, Berber

identity was revived at a time when official Algeria preached a cultural monolithism and rigid

linguistics planning. The author's studies on various cultural and political associations founded

by young French of Kabyle origin conclude that in their efforts, they pursue an extraordinary









continuity of the tradition in valorizing Berber identity in its cultural and militant form. This

book represents a rupture from the image of the simple labor or Muslim Maghrebin migration.

Instead, the Kabyle immigrants to France are depicted by their identity sentiment, which is

preserved in the various contexts since the first migrants put their feet in the foreign land.

According to the author, there are three types of identity manifestations: linguistic valorization,

the matrimonial strategies represented in endogamy believed to preserve the continuity of the

community, and the strong attachment to the country's customs and village. "While tamurt

home-becomes a mythical and fantastic place, where all hopes and dreams are possible,

paradoxically, it is the loss of hope that made it possible" (my translation: Direche-Slimani:

1007: 129). Yet, for many Kabyles, a fantasy of the 'imagined community' of the Tamazight-

Berber homeland-would be all what they need to organize and politically unite,

notwithstanding their inability to speak the language intended to revive and emancipate it from

oral to written status. In the world of politics, many Kabyle activists in France and Algeria, who

seek to valorize Kabyle, speak French, and while denigrating Arabic and portraying it as the

language of the colonizers.

Kabyle is considered the major dialect/language among the Berber diasporic communities,

a bond between the Kabyle speaking and a symbol of difference from the Arab, French or other

language communities. In the last twenty years, the language and culture of the Kabyle and other

Berber languages have been revived and revalorized under the banner of 'Pan-Berbere' identity.

Tifinagh ancient script (used by Touareg, one of the Berber groups in Southern Algeria), has

been revived and used with roman script to write the Kabyle since the latter has been for a long

time used only as an oral language and tradition. In these efforts, the Berber revivalists-









researchers and activists-aim to bring the Berber language and dialects to the same rank as

Arabic or French; a linguistic, political, and identity redemption which could take intense forms.

The revival of Kabyle that was planned in France was politically manifested in the form of

riots against the Algerian government in the Grand Kabylian major city Tizi Ouzou. In early

1980s, the social dissatisfaction was a protest of the Kabyle ethnic group against the government

denial of the teaching of the Berber language. The aim of the Berber activists is for Berber to

have the same national status as standard Arabic in Algeria. Recently, Berber language started to

be taught in certain areas in Algeria where there is a majority of Berber ethnic groups, however,

to this day, it is based on voluntary basis where it remains optional for the schools to teach. In

France, the only major success of Kabyles activists is still at the level of oral preservation.

According to Chakir, there is a desire to valorize the Berber language and convert it to a written

language which is seen in the rise in the number of candidates in the baccalaureat oral exam, and

in the classes given by the Berber associations (Kratochwil 1999). Interestingly, at the

baccalaureat exam, Berber has shown to be the second after the regional languages of France

(Breton, Occitan, Basque, Alsatian, Corsican, etc) to be requested as an optional oral exam. The

numbers that started in the range of 30s and 40s in 1979 became 500s in 1987, and in the

thousands in 1992 (Chakir 1999: 7), a fact that Berber language is somehow transmitted orally to

the second generation of children of France. However, we don't have the details on how hard or

easy is the exam in comparison to the spoken language. Would these exams be done as a political

gesture to satisfy the minority language holders? How do these children prepare for these oral

exams? How challenging is it? However, we can say that there is a basic knowledge of the

simple language that has been preserved and transmitted among some Berber speakers in France.

As Chakir puts it:









From the sociolinguistics point of view, the numbers reflect a strong bond of the young
Berber speakers of France to their language: one can even speak of a militant adhesion, and
the data confirm that Berber is in fact objectively a language of France (Chakir 1999: 7).

Berber has been present as an academic discipline since 1913 at INALCO (and also until the

decolonization, in Algiers and Rabat). However, until late 1990s the Berber as the language of a

minority population has been ignored except in the form of traces in venues such as special radio

programs for the immigrant workers or translators/ interpreters for the Berber (Algerian Kabyle

and Moroccan Tachelhit) language in courthouses in the major metropolitan areas. As Chakir

puts it:

One will easily agree that these traces are tenuous and do not represent an
acknowledgement of Berber or the Berber speakers of France: this is at the most a discrete
consideration, a marginal tolerance of the sociolinguistic reality (Chakir: 8).

Despite these efforts, maintaining mother tongue Arabic and Kabyle alike is in danger of

attrition since the immigrants resort to speak French to their kids. As Fadila, herself a Kabyle

immigrant to the U.S., tells me about her second and third generation cousins in France;

When they reach 18-20 years of age, they seldom visit Algeria especially if they marry
someone from France. Even when they were little, we would speak to them in Arabic or
Kabyle but they respond in French-a universal behavior of immigrants' children. Today,
the 2-3 generations in the family speak only French. Even when marrying a cousin from
Algeria [who knows Arabic and Kabyle], she speaks to her kids in French and would only
resort to Arabic when she is mad at them (Personal interview with Fadila in U.S. 2007).

Analyzing a language survey conducted on 2000 parents from nine immigrant communities, on

mother tongue maintenance, Hargreaves finds that when Algerian immigrants were asked which

language they usually spoke when addressing their children; the results indicate that 70% among

Berber and 50% among Arabic speaking responded to speak French to their children. From my

own observations, I would agree with Hargreaves that Kabyles tend to speak more French to

their kids than Arabic speaking Algerians. However, if the parents are illiterate, their

communication would be very simple and limited either speaking in Kabyle or French since both









parents and children are incapable to understand each other fully except on common daily needs.

Alain Romey in his book "perception de la culture d'origine chez les enfants des immigres

algeriens" (pp151-159) in "L'Islam en France ed. by Bruno Etienne", explains that spoken

Arabic or Berber are linguistic vehicles used in customary actions only, such as solving everyday

problems. Yet, on the literary or symbolic level, the students admit not to be able to know this

level of abstraction in their mother tongue. To the disappointment of the parents, the children

who are cut off from their cultural and normative milieu would only know the practical language

(Romey 1991: 153). On the other hand, the majority of the parents do not master French to

express to their kids these abstract visions which represent the principal base in relation to the

culture of origin. From a linguistic point of view, the children do not accept the norms because

they don't understand the language and do not have the necessary language that refers to the

cultural norms. As a result, the dialogue with the parents becomes harder and harder, the

language of the foundation 'infrastructure' is impoverished and the communication weakens

which restrict them more and more at the linguistic level and leads them to refer to new concepts

conveyed by the French language (Romey 1991: 153). In observing the children listening to

vernacular poetry (Arabic or Kabyle songs), Romey noticed that the children do not understand

its symbolic aspect. Yet, when asked about their future children and language, they hope that

they would teach them the language and even dream that just by talking to their children Arabic

or Kabyle they would know the culture. I would agree with the author, if this is the situation of

the second generation which lost tremendously the comprehension of the language of origin,

what would be the situation of the third generation (Romey 1991: 154)?

In addition to the absence of their cultural milieu, in France, there is a linguistic unification

tradition hostile to diversity. A highly centralized country, the French state has a quasi-monopoly









on the national education system, intervening heavily in cultural matters, and has forever been

conducting a linguistic policy exclusively oriented toward French. Given this situation, one

would wonder, how would Berber or Algerian Arabic be given any importance while the

regional languages of France (Breton, Occitan, Basque, Alsatian, Corsican, etc) have been

marginalized for several centuries? As Chaker rightly analyzes:

Berber was neither a modern foreign language nor a regional language of France, which
consequently put Berber in a position of not considering it to be taught. As a matter of fact,
the teaching of minority languages Berber and Arabic is considered an impediment to
integration into French society.

This linguistic ideology aims at linguistic assimilation, implying the disappearance of the origin

language of the immigrants. Chakir does not ignore the politics of France saying that, those

welcomed to become French citizens are asked to erase any visible or audible traces of an

external origin which is the reason for the tenacious opposition to any 'communitarian drift'. As

a matter of fact, American and Anglo-Saxon communitarianism is considered as a counter-model

by the vast majority of the political class and of the elites (Chakir 1999: footnotes 9).

The Paradox of Nationality and Citizenship

Today, French of Algerian origin do not all hold French nationality, despite being part of a

French department during colonialism and/or living for a long time in present France and being a

French born. By the Algerian independence in 1962, the status of French was changed to that of

Algerian except for those who asked for the French nationality or those promised protection such

as shown in the case of the pieds noirs, Jews and Harkis and their children who kept their

nationality by entering the French territory. Until the 1993 reform of the nationality code, the law

was that migrant workers, even those who had been in the country since the 1960s, do not have

citizenship unless they apply for it and get accepted. However, their children born in France

would get French nationality by birth. After 1990s, the 3 million Frenchmen who fought during









French colonialism resented the automatic acquisition of citizenship by the children of those who

fought against them. As a result, the law changed to that any immigrant or even their French

born children would be able to obtain citizenship only through 'acquisition;' that is, if they apply

for it. On the other side, the Algerian government after independence gave every person of

Algerian origin the right to an Algerian nationality which could automatically be passed to

children. This is a law based onjus sanguinis, which therefore create de facto bi-nationals at

birth (Hargreaves 1995: 137-8). In their minds, the workers who left their homeland at a time of

war are still living in the time of liberating it from colonialism and dream of going back to it as

an Algerian citizen shouting 'taHya al-Jazair-long live Algeria!' For these men, embracing the

enemy's nationality, despite living on its land, would be a sign of treason for the patrie and be

Harkis. When deciding to get the French nationality, they would prefer the paradox of living

under one roof with "two nationalities, separated by a history full of controversies constantly

exhumed" (my translation: Kepel 1987: footnote 330), rather than sell out their evidence of their

rootedness to the land of their ancestors. This attitude is emphasized by the continuous political

changes between France and Algeria and is truly affecting the population especially the second

and third generation by being ambivalent to sending and host countries.

The 'Beurs': An Identity Construct and a Racialized Generation

The second generation of Algerian immigrants has been categorized in France as the

'beurs.' They have been classified in general as a low economic and social class. After the

1970s, with the unification of the immigrant families, despite their successful acculturation, the

second generation remained second class citizens. The literature is full of examples of the daily

reminders of racial exclusion, represented in institutional forms (education tracking, police

brutality and judicial prejudice), racially motivated assaults or more ordinary difficulties (for

example, in searching for job and apartment) (Derdurian 2004; Gafaiti 2001; Souida 1989;









Hargreaves 1995; Silverman 1991; Santelli 2001; Barsali 2003; Amselle 2003; Unger and

Conley 1996).

In speaking of the 'beurs' and the hybrid identities, many researchers find that the children

of immigration express themselves in every mean of expression, including among others videos,

projections, traditional musicological supports, paintings and sculptures (Coulaud 19-20 in

Derdurian 2004: 106). These authors represent the 'beurs' as being 'Muslims, who are refusing

assimilation in the French society.' For these authors, in their suburban cities of France,

'Muslims of North African or sub-Saharan origins, living in France consider religion the prime

point of reference of their identity over and above concurrent citizenship.' It is thought as being

the obstacle toward full assimilation into French society and to be absorbed into the main culture

in the French sense of being a citizen. What these authors miss is that the issue is much more

complex and sometimes has primordial attachment that makes 'devotion to Islam' explanation a

superficial and simplistic one. Yet other researchers, who specialize in North African ethnic

minorities, dig deeper in the meaning of these youth's 'Islamic' attachment. For example,

Hargreaves explains that:

For many people brought up by Muslims immigrants would be impossible to break
altogether with Islam without causing profound distress to their parents. Islam is in this
sense a primordial attachment, the denial of which is almost literary unthinkable. Yet, this
is not the same as saying that it is a primary source of values in the life projects of young
Muslims (Hargreaves 1995: 122).

This intricate reality of Muslims of Algerian origin is just one example of many other scenarios

of independent and group adherence.

The term 'beurs' was a creation of the second generation of immigrants from the French

'verlan' or slang, originating from a reversal of the word 'Arab'. In the eyes of the 'French de

souche', the 'beurs' and 'beurette' are the off-spring of the Arabs who are associated with

violence, crime, backwardness and an unwillingness to be part of the French republic during the









expansion. In his book "histoire colonial et immigration", Eric Savarene, depicts the continuity

of the colonial stereotypical imagination of the Algerian in present France cinema:

A dominant stereotype is elaborated during the colonial period, in which the Arab-in the
generic and abstract sense-would be at the same time, aggressive and dangerous, a cheat
and a thief, traitor and liar, fanatic and intolerant. Adding to this qualification, [an Arab is]
refractory-resistant-to the French culture. Since the 1960s to the 1980s, the
cinematographers inherit this imaginary and stereotype and should self appropriate these
different cliche (my translation of Savarene 2000: 37).

These cliches include generations of kids and teenagers called 'issue d'immigration' of North

African origin and their parents. However, as shown by Gafaiti, this terminology is worthy of

being seriously used as a social science category much like the 'Black', 'African American',

'hispanic', 'latinos' in the U.S literature (Gafaiti 2001). Echoing many others, Hargreaves shows

how this term took many turns and was finally embraced in the 1980s by the youths as a symbol

of difference and fight against discrimination and racism saying:

As a symbol of in betweeness, they position themselves both within and beyond the
cultural norms dominant in France, such as using English mixed with slang instead of
'good French' just to make a point, which could be troubling for some parents who see the
international youth culture as a sign of being influenced by peers without ostensibly
submitting specifically to French norms (Hargreaves 1995: 108).

The marginalization of the Beurs does not occur only in the ghettoes and low social status

neighborhoods where Algerians, Arab and Kabyle, and other African immigrants would be

secluded in a communitarianismm' that symbolizes the rootedness of the immigrants to their

language, and other cultural codes. Discrimination is sensed by many children of immigrants in

being singled out for their ethnicities and foreignness despite their success in life, French cultural

attachments and citizenship.

Vignettes of the 'Beurs' generation: In this section I present some anecdotes that

symbolize the realities of the Beurs, issue d'immigration and the French of Algerian origin









focusing on their anguish and aspirations due to their duality in their socialization and to the

condition of their social and professional insertion in France (Said Bouamama 1996).

Both Karim Kacel, a singer and a musician and Mohand Amara, a sculptor graduating

from the prestigious Fine Arts School show their frustration with the French public and media

focus on their ethnicity more than their artistic achievements. "Seventy percent of the people

think I am an Arab who sings in French and thirty percent [think] uniquely of my work" says

Kacel (Lotfi in Derdirian 2004: 60). As a sculptor, Mohand Amara expresses the same frustration

about journalists who interview him with very little interest in his work, he says:

Someone would come. He would ask if I'm a sculptor. He would look at my work for two
minutes and would then say 'let's talk about you.' What interest the person was essentially
my social context...they didn't care about my work. It was always journalists who had
nothing to do with the work of art. I got to the point where I was so fed up that I refused all
[interviews] (Derdirian interviews 1994 in Derdirian 2005: 60).

The ethnicity of minority artists and novelists represents both a source of creative inspiration and

a potential threat to their freedom of expression. As Derdian wonders, "[the challenge is how to

find ways of] exploiting the creative resources of their ethnicity without becoming submerged

within and subsumed by it" (Derdirian 2005: 67).

In France, acquiring citizenship is highly politicized and many among the children of

immigrants despite their civic participation would be denied or delayed that right and privilege

and would forever inherit the immigrant status from their parents. Farid l'Haoua, a second

generation immigrant, uses "main dans la main"-hand in hand-slogan in solidarity with other

immigrants to stand against racism. He does not have a citizenship despite being in France for

more than twenty years, being married to a French woman and having a child born in France. He

was an active leader of 'l'egalite et contre le racism'-equality and against racism-march in

1983. Twenty years later, his pessimism is stronger:









Every body is French except me...today, discrimination is worse than any other time
before....there is a radicalization among the French population...we don't hesitate to say
for renting an apartment: "sorry sir, we don't take Arabs or blacks." One thing to
recognize, for sure, today, people are more frank...they don't take any trouble saying it
and the worse, this racist attitude is among the elite and middle class.., it is not any more
shameful to teach at the university and to have xenophobian or revisionist remarks...youth
who are French for two or three generations and they are still called "les jeunes issues de
l'immigration"! -youth originating from or descended from immigration! (Interview by
Barsali 2003)

In comparison, Abdel Aissou is an optimistic who found a way to serve his community. He

proudly states that he is "ni Francais plus, ni Francais moins, mais membre de la mosaique

France"-not more nor less French, but a member of the mosaic of France. Born in Algeria in

1959 and a child of an illiterate mother, speaking Arabic, Kabyle and French, today, Aissou is

happy that his children have a better childhood than his. He took part in the march against

racism, started 'radio beurs', wrote a book on the 'les beurs, l'ecole et la France' (1987) and in

1991 got his Doctorate in political science and finally became the 'sous prefet', working as a

politician. For him, "the march brought consciousness in us that our generation was different

than that of the generation of our parents. We want to exist under the norms of the French

society." He works for the religious rights of Muslims in France, that is, to be able to live their

faith and pray in decent and recognized places. Twenty years later, he thinks that they got

something out of their civil right movement. For Aissou, people shouldn't neglect the

achievements of the second generation in various institutions such as teaching, art journalism,

who have a role in shaping the French landscape. His dream is to keep the movement going and

give a hand to the graduates of the banlieux in finding jobs. Disadvantaged children count on

these activists to give them support and guide them in escaping the social determinism. The

singers, activists and artists are the inheritors of the marchers in imagination and action. Aissou's

optimistic prospect is to "put a cover on the pains of yesterday [and] move. His motto in life is a

phrase of Rene Char who guides [his] steps of a man, an official and a civil servant: vas ta









chance, serre ton bonheur, a te regarder ils s'habitueront" (take your chance, be in the service of

your happiness, looking at you, they will get used to [it].) (My translation) (Barsali: 2003)

Chafia Amrouche was born in Algeria in 1969. Coming from a Kabyle family, she is fluent

in all three languages, including Darja and French. Amrouche is the oldest of six children all

successful men and women of immigrant parents to France. She is a designer and professor in

architecture in 'l'ecole d'architecture de Paris'. In her family, she is a sister and a second mother.

According to her brother Nabil, whom she helped design his restaurant 'le Chant du couvert,'

"she is the shoulder of the family," that is, every one in the family counts on her. A successful

entrepreneur, Amrouche seems disturbed by the discrimination in France expressing her

imagined world without faces or skin color... an imagined city where they all meet, with clean

streets, green landscape, and small houses. Her slogan is "afous Fatima"-The Hand of Fatima-

in Kabyle is the woman's hand painted with Henna that spreads friendship among its people. As

a child of an immigrant, Amrouche is a successful professional in her country France, yet still

related to her Kabyle roots, language, and family solidarity, the way it has always been done in

the Algerian culture. She describes herself as being a daughter of dominant Kabyle women

(Barsali 2003)

Finally Zair Kedadouche represents an acculturated child of immigration in France. 'Zair

le Gaulois' is an autobiography of an immigrant child who feels very assimilated despite poverty

and racism. The book summarizes the invisible elements that made the author proud of his past, a

past represented in his immediate family and in his Frenchness and in being a Gaulois, without

forgetting his father, a garbage collector, carrier of FLN suitcases, who is buried in Algeria, and

his mother, illiterate but trilingual who speaks Arabic, Kabyle and French. He describes his

grandmother who visited them after his father's death as 'coming from a different culture' who









speaks only Kabyle but uses French words such as 'degueulasse' to insult him in Kabyle. His

mother tongue was his mother simple French. Darja and Kabyle were spoken among relatives

but he never picked it up. For Kedadouche, his mother believed that Algeria was French; she

loved France and its 'modern culture.' As a young bride, she came to join her husband in France,

dreaming to move to a palace but was instead shocked to get the dilapidated houses of

Bidonville, a place where brothers, sisters, and cousins met once again, just like in the village to

face the harshness of life that they have to quickly accommodate to. After the tragic death of her

husband, Mrs. Kedadouche raised her five children in the bidonville-slumps-of Aubervilliers

before moving to a more spacious and more descent apartment in the HLM. From his childhood

memories, Zair recalls the parties (weddings, baptism, or Ramadan and sometimes Noel). These

ceremonies and happy occasions are the recreated traditions in the diaspora, where Kabyle, Arab

and even communist French workers listen to Arabic and Kabyle music, shouting the 'youyous'

and eating a lot of couscous and pastries.

The tragic death of the father and later on the sickness of the mother changed his life

forever. Zair as well as his siblings were put in different adoptive families and institutions in

Belgium, Switzerland, and France. The author and his brother Said were placed in an institution

in France. The loss of his father started a new chapter that represents the construction of Zair

French identity engrained in the belief in "nos ancetres les gaulois". This tragic life seems to

affect the author's psyche forever, as represented in his childhood antagonism, confusion, and

then decision to stick with one thing that is profitable and that made a difference in his life,

proud to be gaulois. It is in this institution and the summer vacations in the French country side

that he learned that shoes of little students have to be polished, how to say 'mademoiselle'









instead of 'mamzelle' and 'non merci' instead of 'non!' However, as a poor child, when

returning home, old manners quickly take over.

As a French speaking, the author is sensible to the illiteracy of many Algerians including

his mother. He is proud of her personal effort in learning much just by imitating. He still

remembers his mother's innocent pronunciation mistakes that would give different meanings

when speaking French. She would say 'la quirche' instead of 'la quiche' and l'aziatique instead

of 'la sciatique' and would sing to his daughter 'ainsi font font font les petites marionettes'

saying 'un chiffon fon fon les petites marionettes' that today are things to remember and laugh

about.

In his poor neighborhood, school was the only secure place. He does not comprehend how

95 % of the students would be oriented toward handicraftship or technical schools and only a

minority would be able to go to classical high schools where most French de souche students go.

At school, there were two groups the 'fous' crazy kids and the 'others' who were 'les francais de

souche' and those children of immigrants, like him, who called themselves the 'gaulois'.

Although, his mother decided from the beginning to speak to her kids in French even if it

is simple, she succeeded in transmitting to them many manners and norms that were from her

country of origin. Kadedouche cannot stop childhood traditions such as eating couscous with

water melon that he first found weird but started to like and appreciate. He never visited Algeria.

He never had the opportunity to go for two or three months for summer vacation and get

accustomed to Algerian languages, cultures and learn of his roots like many children of

immigrants. Instead, every summer, during the long summer vacation he used to go to 'colonies

de vacance' for the school kids of the Aubergine neighborhood where he discovered France and

constructed his gaulois identity.









Kadadouche, secular French, sees Islam as an outsider. For him, France is the best country

in Europe for mixed marriages between French and foreigners where integration is working

wonderfully. For him, the French secular system means diversity of origins and unity of men,

with an emphasis on the foreigners forgetting, ignoring or detesting their origins and cultures of

their ancestors.

In choosing a name for his daughter, he made sure that it won't be an Arab name. Her

name is Oriane, a gaulois name and a choice of his French wife, meaning 'duchesse de

Guermanes.' Her middle name is Sarah, found among Arabs, Jews and Catholics. He thinks this

way no one would suspect her Arab origin that his generation is stigmatized with forever.

Interestingly, others of his generation may play the 'naming game' for other human

reconciliations. As Bouamama reports, the naming of the child plays a great role in reopening

communication channels with maghribis families that have been in marital conflict. He states

that in intercultural marriages, opting for a name that would be acceptable by both cultures is the

best choice. Some could see this attitude as a sign of integration, however, the author see it as a

way of exiting from the intercultural confrontation, especially in case of a maghrebi woman

marrying a French man (Bouamama 1996:132). Bouamama cites B. Augustin saying:

The choice of a name is never neutral. Looking of one, sometimes being conflicting
become the object of long discussions before getting to an agreement. Most of the time, the
name that goes in both countries would be chosen. As a matter of fact, this child might
become a 'fix' between the parents, because it is the objective link of educative marks."
Bouamam adds "and the place of symbolic and identity competition" (my translation).

When a French student says to his niece who has an Arabic name: 'enleve tes sales mains

d'arabes'-take out you dirty Arab hands, Kedadouche is not alarmed that old discriminatory

French attitude is transmitted to the youngest generations. Instead, he laughs and remembers how

they, the 'beurs' used to call each other that.









In speaking about the Muslim community, Kedadouche, whose relation to being Muslim

ends on being 'involuntarily circumcised', resorts to the French secular ideology in criticizing

Islam and Muslim as well as in defending them. The author admits frankly that he does not

believe in God. He sees the foulard or veil as oppressing woman and thinks that French should

unite in forbidding women wearing it in France. Yet, he accepts the growing presence of

Muslims in France-about 5 million people. He supports the passing of a legislature that puts the

government in charge of building and controlling mosques, short of which [Muslim] foreign

financiers would build these places of cults (mosques). He imagines the French Muslim

community free from hardliner foreign governments' influence, with no exported Arabic

speaking imams from the Arab countries (such as Algeria). He wants an open-minded Islam

which authorizes the sermon of Baudelaire or Voltaire. He is for mosques that are built by

French and controlled by French where Muslims like his mother would go to pray without being

targeted as suspects, or feeling intimidated by the imam's eloquent sermon in Arabic that the

majority of attendees do not understand anyway.

As a child of an immigrant who is proud of being gaulois, he is aware of the continuous

discrimination against ethnic minorities, French of Algerian or other Muslim or African origin.

As a politician, he expresses his frustration saying:

Integration would be complete when the night news (20 heurs of TF 1) would be presented
by Louisa Chabana or by Mohamed Mondlaki... or when there will be judges from the
'beurs'-it is not yet done! It would be a wonderful sign. I am against affirmative action of
America but yet, it is unbelievable, not one 'beur' in the assemble! (Kedadouche 1996:
216)

When visiting the US in a series of conferences on integration, right after the bombing of the

world trade center, he visited the ghettoes of New York. In comparison to France, he could not

believe the extent of violence and disparities. An important incident made him think of the extent

and deep global prejudices against Arabs. He says: the host of the house I was invited to, asks









me: "you have a lot of Arabs [in France]?" what to say? "oh ya, a lot!"... "So keep them!" she

tells me. Hours later, she tells me that she wasn't able to find my name in the Christian calendar.

And I said it came like this: "Zair, vous savez, c'est d'origine espagnole..." Zair, the 'gaulois',

has a name that would forever remind him of his 'Arab' origin, yet, he chooses to cover it up and

evades the narrow minded people to escape their discrimination that may spoil his present and

future situation. Though, he could have told the lady the truth, that the name 'Zair' is of Arab

origin and that it means 'hope' and use it as a means of reaching out to others in the U.S., the

multiculturalist country and the land of immigrants. But Zair, le gaulois, chooses his answer and

his road of integration that fits his personal character, philosophy and dreams.

Conclusion

The Algerian Diaspora in France is one of the most multifaceted on many levels,

culturally, linguistically, religiously, politically, and historically. As shown above, there is a

continuous dialectic between these elements producing identities that diverge at times and

converge at others to both home and host cultures and countries. In all that, language plays a

consequential role in emphasizing certain belongings and solidarities in time and space. A focus

on language maintenance, loss, or performance creates the illusion of a superficial identity that if

working alone would mean one culture one adherence. However, in diasporic communities,

national, religious, or ethnic identities surface at specific changing times and disclose old, hidden

and complex loyalties such as those illustrated in the profiles of the 'beurs' generation and their

"double consciousness." The next chapter, based on this significant information about the

Algerian Diaspora in France, addresses the question of how Algerian in the United States are

culturally, politically, and psychologically different or similar with their counterparts in France.









CHAPTER 6
THE ALGERIAN LANGUAGES IN THE UNITED STATES


This chapter explores the linguistic situation of the Algerian immigrants in the US by

focusing on the changes in their perceptions and attitudes toward their language (s) as

experienced in the Anglophone environment. The chapter will document how linguistic

outcomes among Algerians who immigrated to the United States differ from those who

immigrated to France as well as those who did not leave the home country. In case of the

migration to the US, Algerian languages, whether, Kabyle, Arabic-including its vernacular

Darja-or French play different roles in America than they played in Algeria or France. In

America the survival of these languages depends on whether they fulfill a practical and/or

symbolic meaning. This general theme is developed through an approach that probes how the

Algerian immigrants in the US represent and use these languages. In this pursuit, the chapter

specifically addresses the following issues: (I) the dominance of the English language in a

multicultural society and how Algerians perceive the role of proficiency in English as a road to

success, (II) the attrition of the French language and its replacement with Arabic and English in

spite of the fact that the French language is embedded in the cultural memories of Algerians, (III)

the role of parental tongues (Tamazight and Arabic) and the changes in the perceptions and

attitudes of the people who speak them (on the one hand, perceiving them as the off-spring's

connectors to the rich heritage in time and space and, on the other hand, accepting the reality of

the limited use in the English-dominated environment), and (IV) the case of Arabic contact and

conflict with other Arabs in the Diaspora and the development of new identities and solidarities.

English Language Dominance in a Multicultural Society

Upon their first arrival to the US, Algerians quickly understand that in order to succeed in

their new home they have to acquire survival skills, thereby placing English proficiency as the









most significant. 'American English is different from the one taught in Algeria' is one of the

very first remarks they make. Back home, they were used to the lexicon and phonology of British

English. Moreover, the few hours of English classes per week at junior and high school do not

prepare them well, at least not enough to become as proficient as they are in Arabic and French.

Despite being able to communicate, the new comers nonetheless have weak English.

We will further see that linguistic outcomes are in part a function of the economic position

and aspirations of the migrant. In the struggle with the linguistic limitations, they also become

aware of the phenomenon of individualism and the role it plays in economic success. Back

home, the individual depends greatly on various networks in every aspect of life activities. Yet as

new immigrants, they are determined to learn the ways of success. However, individualism and

personal choice become both a blessing and a curse. Upon arrival to America, Algerians can be

divided more or less into two broad orientations. The members of the first attitude rationalize

that it is too late for them to start over and build a better life. They hence remain working in their

primary survival jobs, such as taxi drivers or wage workers in factories. As a result, they almost

never move beyond from a working class position. The members of the second opinion learn

from the experiences of previous immigrants that without acquiring adequate English language

and other skills, it would be hard to find decent jobs. Resolving to achieve a better life for them

and their families, many Algerian immigrants are able to realize in a short period of time what

many immigrants do not achieve during decades.

As discussed in chapter two, Algerians started coming in the late 1970s at a time when the

American people were experiencing great social developments which eventually resulted in a

change in the perceptions of various social, ethnic, and religious groups. It is in fact not

unreasonable to argue that the civil rights movement is one of the greatest achievements that new









immigrants have been benefiting from since the 1970s. Indeed, it has been a major catalyst in

creating new mindsets among Americans to denounce racism against African Americans. This

historical development in America stimulated further tolerance and opened the way to new

immigrant populations to keep and share their memories, traditions and languages in the

multicultural society of America. There is a shared impression among my Algerian interviewees

that 'Americans' are 'gentle', 'nice', and 'friendly.' The interviewees notice the openness of the

American society to foreigners as a unique feature which is not found everywhere, and to some

extent true even after 9/11. In contrast with those going to France, at the time of their arrival to

the multicultural context of the American cities, Algerians feel at ease in a foreign land within

which they are today settling in and adopting as their new home.

In the US, until a decade ago, despite English dominance in all institutions, the debate with

or against making the English language the official language of America by law was still at its

peak, as shown by Christal (1997) in his book "English as a Global Language." For example, one

of the most moderate bills on the English language sponsored by Representative Bill Emerson in

1996, titled "the Bill Emerson English Language Empowerment Act," "saw itself partly as a

means of empowering immigrants giving them greater opportunities to acquire English." When

it went to a vote in August 1996, the House of Representatives passed it but the bill did not reach

the Senate (Christal 1997: 119-23). However, what captured my attention in this process are the

responses that came in favor or against it. On the one hand, the officials who were supporting the

bill see the passing of the law as a move to protect the nation from 'balkanization', as referred to

by Newt Gingrich, the Speaker of the House at that time. According to the logic of this view,

English is like the 'glue' uniting the various ethnic groups and languages under its umbrella. On

the other hand, the political argument against this bill argued that making English official is









unnecessary since most immigrants since a long time have been assimilated anyway by the time

they reach the second or third generation.

These politicians' debate and similar ones notwithstanding, neither the Algerian

immigrants nor most other immigrants desire isolation and separatist ethnic groups. Their

attachment to their native language derives from fear of a quick disappearance of these

languages. From the migrant point of view, what is in danger is not English but the other

languages. Fatiha, a newly Algerian immigrant to Chicago, expresses this feeling well in a

discussion with her English teacher:

When I was studying [English,] my teacher, she knew I had a son who was five years old.
He was in kindergarten going to first grade. She used to tell me: "why don't you speak to
your son in English so your English improves?" I used to tell her: "no." I remember like
today, I told her: "[if], I don't learn [English] today, I learn it tomorrow. But," I told her:
"if I get my son used to speak to him English (F) so I learn...I make him lose his
language...but, my son is five years old, if he loses the language, he will never get it
back." I remember very, very well (F) (Fatiha: Kabyle).

The fear of losing the parental language haunts Fatiha's thoughts. Despite being open to learn

English for communication with non-Arabic speaking people, Fatiha as well as many other

Algerian immigrants keep speaking to their children in their mother tongue. They fear a quick

loss of their language and the unlikelihood to regain it. In their new home, they understand that

they can't function without good English skills, yet, they are consistent in speaking to their child

in their mother tongues.

Algerians' Perception of English vs. Migrating Languages

Despite their attachments to their parental languages and dialects, like many other new

immigrants, Algerians acknowledge the dominance of English, not only in the US but also in the

rest of the world. They perceive English as 'alive', 'good' and the first language in the world

today. They notice that even in Algeria, many are speaking English. Fella explains:









Before, we only heard it [English] in high schools (F). Now, in homes, you hear them
speak English (F). Last year, we [when visiting Algeria] were so surprised. We said, when
we learned English (F), all people-in Algeria-are learning it (laughing) (Fella: Arab).

This global interest in English is illustrated by Nuwar, a PhD student in 'Nano-technology' in

one of the best universities in the country. For this young immigrant, English is a scientific

language that is technologically and globally dominant over French (Nuwar: Arab). The wish of

many Algerian Arab and Berber newcomers is to speak English well even if they don't end up

permanently residing in the US (Zahra: Arab). However, for many, learning it and keeping

Algerian mother tongues are at the same level of priority and they don't see this as a threat or

obstacle to developing/having a strong sense of citizenship and belonging in America.

Proficiency in English, Names, Citizenship and Success

For many, being a 'citizen' and American born, means fluency in English. For Algerians,

fluency in English is not a choice because success depends on it. Being immigrants and bearing

the 'labels of otherness', such as having Arabic names and profiles, as stated by Dawud and

others, unconsciously creates a pressure to be fluent in English, which in the final analysis may

or may not minimize the frustration and tension. When speaking about his fourteen years old

son, Dawud explains:

Well, he needs to [be fluent in English,] because one of the things that have been a
problem is his name. Uuu...having a name like Farid already labels him as an outsider.
And soo... if on top of it, he had a language problem, a lot of people, they see his name,
they think Egyptian. ya, and before he opens his mouth, they already have a perception
about him, which is totally false. So, he has to speak like a native, otherwise... (Dawud:
Arab/Berber).

Dawud represents parents of the most assimilated children among the interviewees also

interestingly the one who expresses the most this impression of xenophobia after 9/11/.

Although no other immigrant (parents or children) raised the issue of the stigma of Arabic names

in America, it is an important phenomenon worthy of exploration in a future project.









Despite the existing openness toward multiculturalism, immigrants are forced to focus on

English more than any other language, including their mother tongue. Yet, many remain

incompetent in English; a situation that may deprive them of higher positions if going on the job

market. Having English only in governmental and educational establishments (although in

certain areas Spanish is also used) forces the new comers to assimilate in the language as soon as

possible for education, professional work, public service or just to be able to carry out daily

routines such as shopping, going to the doctor or having a chat with a neighbor.

Algerians, old and new comers, educated and less educated, professionals and workers, all

are aware of the dominant status of English in this country. They understand since the day they

decide to immigrate and settle in any American city or suburb that they and their families have to

learn English (Ahmed: Arab; Yasmina: Berber; Hind: Arab). In short, as expressed by Asma who

is excited to start for the first time in her life English classes since she immigrated in 2001,

"English (F) is necessary" (Asma: Arab). Today, she is able to communicate with people such as

her child's teacher and the people in her neighborhood Chicago parks. While the use of Arabic

and French is more limited to interactions with Arab and North African language communities,

English is the means of contact with the majority of American residents irrespective of their

ethnic, religious, generational or social status. In speaking about the importance of English to

their children, Algerian immigrants perceive it as natural for a child to learn the language of the

environment. They actually would be worried if their child did not speak the language of the

school and the playground with other kids. Their statement is: "[He] is American of course he

has to learn English. In their identity, the following generations are perceived by their parents as

'Americans' without forgetting their ancestral languages, which is the link to their roots.









English Proficiency and Identity

English proficiency and the identity theme appear to be much more emphasized within the

second generation of Algerians in comparison with the first generation. Lamia sees her

proficiency and fluency in English not just as a means for success but also as an essential part of

her 'American identity.' She imagines her baby daughter as becoming an excellent speaker in

English, saying:

I don't know, for me, it is very important for her to learn English. For me, English is a big
part of my...I guess, my identity. And even if we have to live in another country, I would
imagine coming to the US frequently and, it...It...I don't know...I feel it's more my home
than any other place (Lamia: Arab/Berber/American).

Although she is firm in expressing her feeling of 'American belongingness,' Lamia does not

neglect her roots. She believes in the importance of keeping the languages of Algeria alive and in

transmitting them to her daughter at her first stages of learning abilities:

I think, Darja is important to be able to maintain our Algerian roots, and then CA is
important from a religious point of view. So, she can read the Quran and other texts and
then umm...English is important from what we said before. For me all three are ranked... I
don't know...I think when she is young, I rank Arabic and Darja as first especially Darja
it's more important; and then as she gets older for her to learn Arabic because, as we said;
if we are here, English would be the easiest for her to learn. But, also for me, it is
important that she learns English at a high level. You know, at an intellectual level as she
gets older.

Lamia, a second generation mother, includes Darja in her daily communication with her toddler

with the intention of transmitting and maintaining the dialect at the personal and social levels-

such as being with grand parents, Algerian friends and relatives in the states or back home in

Algeria. Being American interacts with also being Algerian and Muslim. Each sense of

belonging influences the others in sometimes harmonious and at other times conflicting ways,

depending on personal, social and environmental claims.

In sum, Algerian immigrants' interest in success might be the driving force behind their

focus on proficiency in the dominant language in the US. Upper mobility is an aim that new









comers target. Yet, they acknowledge that they cannot move on from the condition that they

began with unless they excel in the language of communication and acquire a good

understanding of the skills needed for economic success. Their children also do not have a choice

except to excel. The professional Algerian immigrants expect their children from the first years

of school to enroll in gifted programs in English and other subject matters. In comparison to their

level of English (with an accent), parents see their children no less than being at the top of their

schools. Their children are their pride in learning the language of success in the US, much in the

same way that they had been the pride of their parents back in Algeria by becoming proficient in

French the language of intellectual emancipation, education and success at the time.

French (F) Maintenance among Algerian Americans

Despite English being introduced strongly in Algeria today as mentioned earlier, French

is still perceived as the language of education. Yet English is replacing it among Algerian

immigrants in the US. Moreover, when asked which parental languages do they teach their kids,

many parents choose the Arabic language. In contrast to the first generation of Algerian

immigrants wherein French was more or less dominant, French is omitted from the second

generation repertoire of languages. This is illustrated in the following paragraphs which show

some of the changes in Algerians' perceptions and attitudes toward French. In general, there

were three general perceptions on the question of the importance of French transmission among

the interviewees, both intellectuals and non intellectuals: (1) French is important because

Algerians speak it; (2) French is one of the ties to Algerian history; (3) French is not important

and other languages are much more important in the US.

French, a Language of Communication in Algerian American Families

Many Algerian migrants-especially among recent first generation migrants-believe

that their kids should learn French because it is still a spoken language in Algeria. These









Algerians share the common goal of planning to return eventually to Algeria or go to France, in

the near or far future. During my fieldwork among the Algerian interviewees, I found a variety of

attitudes towards the use of French within their families. That they all belong to the same

generation and that all were educated in French does not prevent them from holding different

attitudes and displaying different degrees of loyalty toward the daily use and transmission of

French. Some embrace French as a way of communication, others totally reject it, yet still the

majority uses it (unconsciously) in their daily speech in Darja. For example, in addition to

English, Yasmina and Dawud, who use French as a means of communication at home, explain

the importance of the French language in their family and to their teenage son as follows:

I have no doubt, because he [teenage son] already picked it [French] up on his own...it is
important because I communicate in that language and most of my family communicate in
that language. So it's important to him, to learn French first [before Darj a]" (Yasmina:
Kabyle) [When visiting France, French would be the way of communication and especially
with his cousins (Dawud: Arab/Berber).

Contrary to this couple who are maintaining French speaking at home and even aspiring to live,

in France one day, a very different scenario is presented by Ahmed. This Algerian American

intellectual has eliminated French from his repertoire of daily used languages and has instead

replaced it with both Arabic and English. He would not consider French as a priority despite

being fluent in it and despite recognizing its importance in the historical literature of Algeria. He

explains, mixing English and Darja:

French, manahhadrush biha ga'...for me, French idha t'allamha it's good for him idha
mat'allamhash I don't really [care]. Again, to me, it's not really a priority2






2 "French, we don't speak with it at all. For me, French, if he -son- learns it, it's good for him [but] if he doesn't
learn it, I don't really [care]. Again, to me, it's not really a priority (Ahmed: Arab).









Ahmed does not consider French a priority in the US, yet, others may do. In the Diaspora,

deciding on their language repertoire depends on various reasons such as keeping the ties with

relatives or personal attachment to the French language historical legacy.

French, a Language of a Rich Literature and its Rootedness in Algerian History

My interviews of Algerian intellectuals indicated that French is not only important at the

communicative level but also because of its interwoven complex relations with Algerian history

and culture. Dawud, Kamal, and Salima believe that it is important for their children and grand

children to learn and maintain a good intellectual level in French because of its rich literature,

especially as it relates to Algeria. In addition to using it as a means of communication at home,

they believe that the next step for their children is to learn how to read and write French and

hence take advantage of the French literature to learn more about Algerian roots. Again, Dawud

explains:

Because, if he [son] is interested again in his roots; he could learn a lot through French. He
needs to learn it to be able to read things in French about Algerian history and things like
that. So, either French or Arabic or preferably both would be very useful to him (Dawud:
Arab/Berber).

Dawud and many others like him grew up in the early sixties in Algeria. They understand the

importance of French literature to their intellectual growth. They would love to see their children

being familiarized with some of that rich heritage. Ahmed does not use French in the US, yet he

expects that he would encourage his son later on to learn French, too (Ahmed: Arab). Kamal who

is a professor in social sciences, not only taught his daughter French but would like to see his

grand daughter following on that tradition too, he says in English:









Ya, it is extremely important...to understand the history of her [his grand daughter]
parents, place of birth al-jazair (MSA)...to understand the history of colonialism and to
get a broader perspective on the literatures from Europe (Kamal Arab/Berber).3

Salima, Kamal's cousin, also a French lover and a first generation immigrant, emphasizes that

French rich literature cannot be replaced by any translation, she says in English:

[French] is also a rich culture. When you read in French, you would have a wide range of
opportunities of literature, and the French are known to have a great literature. I wish they
[kids] can read [books] like 'the Prince' in French "le petit prince" which, in translation,
they always give different meanings. Reading a book in its native language [is important].
I loved French, fortunately most of my education was in French... and we have been
pushed to learn French more than Arabic (MSA) (Salima: Arab).

Although Salima has a strong desire to transmit French heritage to her kids in the US, she does

nonetheless put Arabic (MSA) at a higher position, stating that "I would love them [kids] to learn

French but not as much as Arabic." In Salima's situation and similar ones, it seems that the

priority is put on Arabic as a much more instrumental and needed language due to its daily use,

as a dialect, and its role in religious learning, practice and identity.

French Neglect, Loss and Replacement in the US

Despite, its 'precious' place in the minds of many Algerians, many Algerian immigrants

have more or less ignored the transmission of the French language to their children. It is not as

simple as it might look according to Duniya, a Berber immigrant who speaks more French than

Darja or Kabyle even with her small daughter. She explains: "it's a good language (F) ...that is

not easy...its grammar... is not easy (F)" (Duniya: Berber). To be realistic, Fatiha, a Berber

young woman who is fluent in French and who works as a translator at a US airport, explains





3An interesting discursive exchange took place between Kamal and his daughter Lamia, thereby providing a good
example of generational shift over language perceptions and value. Speaking of her young daughter future with
French she says: "by the time she gets older probably everything will be translated into English. For Kamal who
learned French in Algeria, its intellectual supremacy is valorized. However, in the American cities, in the age of fast
electronics, Lamia does not perceive French in the same way as her father.









that in the US this language, which has been part of the Algerian identity, is not needed anymore.

She says code-switching between Darja and French:

For those who are in Algeria, French concerns them. But when I speak about my son, here,
in America, I don't see at all why he should learn French. After my experience in the
airport, I translated few times. They [Americans] don't speak French -giggles. I am
saying the truth, I am telling you...uu... it's high class -to speak French-, but, I
translated at the airport. I mean French in this country, is not important (Fatiha: Berber).

Fatiha appears to be influenced by French as she goes back and forth between Darja and French

often and borrows words from French. Yet, as an immigrant, she describes French as not needed

for her children's success in the US.

As a matter of fact, the majority of Algerians in the US express a clear preference for

teaching and encouraging their children to learn languages other than French. I noted this attitude

across generational, educational, ethnic, and gender differences. The interviewees prefer that

their children learn a language that is more needed in the US and at the global level. Fatiha does

not hesitate to put Spanish as the second most important language in the world after English. She

has already decided that her son's second language would not be French but Spanish, should he

have a choice. Some children are already aware of the unimportance of French in the US as

stated by Asma: "my son does not want [to learn French]. He told me, 'if I learn it [French] no

one would understand me.' So, I prefer (F) him to study Spanish. We are not going now-to

Algeria" (Asma: Arab)4. Asma is realistic and valorizes what would make her son more

successful in 'his country,' America. In comparison to most individuals and parents of the first

generation, second generation Algerian parent do not see French as part of their children's future.

For example, Lamia doesn't see French in her baby girl's future unless she chooses to:





4 Yet in comparison, a Berber would not consider Spanish to be more important to her child than CA or Darja.









Ya for me, it is more important that she [daughter] learns English than French." ["You
learned French yourself," I say ["ya, if she learns it at school, if she chooses to learn it that
is fine, but we are not going to teach her ourselves. And it depends where we live; if we
live here maybe French isn't that important. It is better to learn Spanish than French.

As shown by the various interviewees, the relationship of French language with Algerians in

America is an important theme. Symbolically, this connection expresses the complexity of a

long, ongoing relation at home and in the Diasporas. Yet, practically, many Algerians would

prefer to replace French by another language that appears to be more useful in the US and would

make a difference in their children's success in life.

In sum, though we have a diversity of opinions regarding French, the dominant reaction

seems to be to consider it unimportant for children in America. This devaluation of French in

the eyes of many Algerian immigrants is interesting. Let's not forget that French is perceived,

intellectually, as having been the dominant language during and in post colonial Algeria. French

is also still embodied in many immigrants' daily linguistic repertoires. Many French words have

been incorporated into Darja and some still use French with family members or friends.

However, in choosing instrumental language skills and performances for them and their children,

Algerian immigrants use the changing world-the hegemony of English and globalization-as

their point of reference. Hind explains that "even (F) [in] Algeria, now, it becomes all English

(F)" (Hind, Arab). This statement would force us to ask: if even in Algeria English is displacing

French, how much stronger will that tendency be in the U.S.?

There is a sharp contrast between the attitudes of Algerian immigrants in France and the

US as regard to their children adopting English as a language. Whereas Algerians who immigrate

to the US for the most part embrace the fact that their children opt for English, those in France

worry when their children prefer English over French. As explained in chapter five, this behavior

is interpreted by Algerian parents in France as a sign of teenager's rebellion and hybridism. The









hegemony of the American technological power draws the minds of millions into using English

instead of French even in its own land, France. Despite the rich culture and philosophy of

France, Algerians in America perceive French as simply not useful. Some go as far as replacing

it by a much more useful language such as Spanish. I would say that being fluent in a language

does not necessarily mean being 'loyal' to its use and transmission to the next generations. For

many immigrants, they speak fluently French and their common speech-Darja-is mixed with

French at various degrees. Yet as a language, French most probably would not be the first on

their list to transmit to their children in America. However, they also use more English with their

children, at the work place, and in other activities outside the home. The incentives to maintain

the spoken French are rather limited. Therefore, to teach how to read and write French is not a

priority. This is illustrated in the case of Lamia who learned French in American schools.

Because French is absent from her daily repertoire of linguistic communication, she is not

attached to it as she is to her mother tongue Arabic.

Algerian Mother Tongues in the Diaspora

When asked about their mother tongue(s), Algerians specify them as Kabyle or Darja.

Algerians still speak these "languages" daily within their families and with North Africans in

general. In the following paragraphs, I present the three ways of speech among Algerians in the

US focusing on the attitudes of the speakers and non-speakers among Algerians toward these

ways of speech. I also address the issue of what it means to them whether these ways of speaking

are or are not transmitted to their kids. I begin with Kabyle as a separate language then focus,

first, on spoken Arabic or Darja and, second, on literate Arabic MSA.

Tamazight/Kabyle/Berber Language in the Diaspora

As well put by Faruja, "language opens the doors to the place we enter." According to

'Kabilya' tradition, when entering a 'souq' (a village bazaar) traders would have to speak the









local language should they want to succeed in their trades. Yet, as a result of inter-marriage

between the Arabs and Berbers, Darja may become the spoken language however with some

influence from Berber. Today, Darja or common Arabic is intelligible to Arabs and most Berber,

thereby contributing to make and preserve an interactive relationship between the two traditions,

with as, little friction as possible. However, for many Berbers, Tamazight-the language of the

free-or Kabyle-the language of the tribes-is the language that has been orally transmitted for

thousands of years from their ancestors. In the Diaspora, Kabyle is the mother tongue and the

language of communication among Berbers. For the majority of the Berber interviewees (5 out

of 6), Kabyle is the only language of communication with relatives who do not know much

Arabic such as grand parents. However these parents all know Darja and speak it to their

Algerian Arab friends and sometimes even to their kids or other Berbers. They consider Kabyle

as a defining part of their identity. As Duniya proudly puts it: "It is an honor [to know Kabyle,] I

am Kabyle." Their sense of belonging and representation is expressed in Kabyle words and

phrases which are impregnated with long collective memories. When speaking of her toddler,

Fadila does not hesitate to state that "It's our identity. So she [daughter] has to speak Kabyle."

Yet, there are others who have already drifted away from using this language in their daily

speech, thereby more or less jettisoning cultural continuity. They however are aware of their

limitation and express it with a sense of guilt. Among the intermarried with Darj a speakers, there

are those who left Kabyle fall.

I think for me it would be very helpful if I learned it with him [son] too (giggles) because, I
feel I didn't do my job, transmitting [Kabyle] (Yasmina, Berber).5





5 Yasmina followed this expression with a gesture pointing to the various Berber artifacts displayed on a mental in
her living room.









Yasmina and people like her find themselves in situations where they have been away from their

original habitus for a long time some twenty years or so. They do not see themselves as

transmitters of their language and culture to their children6. They feel that they have lost the

"milieu" which would have provided a smooth and mostly unconscious transmission of language

to the children. A sense of 'guilt' turned into a motivator for linguistic and cultural continuity is

what has remained. Kabyle would be hard to fulfill the role of a mother tongue except for those

who made a decisive choice that 'Tamazight,' the language of the free, would remain a defining

feature of their habitus in the Diaspora.

However, the conflicting emotions between continuity and loss are not expressed

homogeneously among all Algerians. In comparison to the Berber immigrants, the majority of

Arab Algerians are indifferent to the issue of preserving Kabyle in the Diaspora. Despite being

part of their heritage, they are unable to speak Kabyle and it is seldom that an Arab learns this

language unless living in a household or region where everyone speaks Kabyle. Kabyle is alien

even more in the Diaspora since when meeting Darja speaking Algerians, they switch to Darja

since most Kabyle are fluent in Darja. This thus makes a child of an Arab much less acquainted

with Kabyle than his/her parents. Algerian Berber ethnic groups are the only ones who use

Kabyle. Darja speaking Algerians do not see any necessity to learn Kabyle or teach it since all

Berbers speak Arabic (both Darja and MSA). Zahra, an Arab Algerian in the US, states that:

I don't speak Kabyle, so I don't teach it. I don't see it necessary... I am not in the
environment where they use Kabyle where they need to speak it. I don't say there is no
way; there is always a way but I don't see it necessary to teach it (Zahra: Arab).

Such Arab Algerians are neither able nor interested in teaching Kabyle because their children

won't need it, especially those who have no Kabyle background in their families. Others, if only

6 As my advisor Dr. Murray (2008) points: "it may be determined by chronological variables. The desire to transmit
Kabyle may dwindle after 15 -20 in the states.









hypothetically though, would not mind their children learning Kabyle as the language of their

friends, such as those in 'La Montagne' community in Chicago. For others, despite considering

Kabyle a part of their culture ta' al-bled (Darja) [of the home country] (Ahmed, Arab), they do

not give it a high priority when contemplating teaching it to their kids. Ahmed, whose wife is

European American, states that:

...to be honest at this stage, he [son] is still young, and there are too many things on the
plate to deal with (Ahmed: Arab).

Although many Algerians consider Kabyle a part of their 'Algerian heritage,' Kabyle is valorized

like any other foreign language. Such parents would thus encourage their children to learn it only

if the children are themselves interested in doing so. Yet, they acknowledge that Tamazight has

been neglected in Algeria at the policy level. They hope that future generations in Algeria would

have better opportunities to learn it as a second language at school. Souad, an intellectual and

Arabic literature teacher, expresses her disappointment that until today Algerian children are not

allowed to learn Kabyle like they learn Arabic at school: "I am very sorry that Kabyle was not

taught in Algeria" (Souad: Arab). As a matter of fact, neither the institutions of learning nor the

families that are formed from mixed marriages care about Kabyle learning and maintenance.

Among those in the Diaspora, those who are still eager to maintain and transmit this old, rich,

oral language are but a minority abroad.

Moreover, many Arab/Berbers from mixed marriages feel awkward not to be able to use a

language which is a defining element of their sense of identity. Despite knowing words here and

there in Kabyle, they usually don't feel confident enough to transmit them to their kids. Exiled

from its milieu, Kabyle, which is an orally transmitted language, is faced with tremendous

difficulties. Nonetheless, the Arab/Berbers, much like the Arabs, hope that the young and future

generations of Algerians would be able to learn Kabyle at school. We have indicated that there









are Kabyle speakers and activists intent on reviving the language in France. This linguistic

activism vis-a-vis Kabyle is totally absent among Algerian migrants in the U.S.

In conclusion, in comparing Berbers', Arabs', and Arab/Berbers' perceptions and attitudes

toward one of their language heritage I find that the degree of attachment to language depends on

the level of language fluency. For Berbers who are competent in using their language, it is

natural to think of transmitting Kabyle to their children as a means for communication, keeping

and strengthening family attachment, and preserving identity and lineage continuity. However,

the Arabs do not have any attachment to the Kabyle language despite acknowledging it as part of

their heritage. They also do not see any necessity to learn it or teach it since all Berbers speak

Arabic (both Darja and MSA). In reality, it has generally been taken for granted for a Berber to

learn Arabic but not the other way around. Being part of the identity or heritage would not be an

incentive to learn Kabyle since everybody in Algeria is assumed to know Darja, and, if not, they

would know French.

The Arabic Language and dialect Maintenance and Transmission in the Diaspora

Algerians consider the Arabic language as a mother tongue and as the language of

ancestry; whether in its former/written form or its dialect/spoken form. Whereas Classical

Arabic-CA-and Modern Standard Arabic-MSA-are for the most part used at the religious

and intellectual levels, Darja is used in the common daily speech. In it various accents and tones,

Darja is the language that connect the people of the Maghreb.

Darja, the Langua Franca among North Africans

Like Kabyle, Darja is more specific to the Algerian region in North Africa. Darja is the

mother tongue and language of daily communication for the majority of Algerians, whether

Arabs, Arab/Berbers, or Berbers. "We have to talk to them [kid] [in Darja] so they understand us.

We don't have to teach it," says Fella (Arab). "It is a must (F)...they can't forget it," says Asma









(Asma Arab). Darja, which is an oral language, just like Kabyle, is transmitted through

performance and practice and as such it is often the only communication channel with grand

parents (Asma; Nuwar; Zahra). Kamal, an Arab/Berber, who has already raised a daughter in the

US and who is fluent in Darja, MSA, French and English, expresses his thoughts about his grand

daughter (third generation) who is about two years old:

You don't have to teach it [Darja], she is learning it. It is the main means of
communication with her parents, grandparents or with the family back in Algeria. It is part
of the environment, the family... it is crucial.

In comparison to other immigrants in the U.S., the intergenerational transmission of Darj a

by Algerians is much less secure than the transmission of Spanish by Mexicans or Portuguese by

Brazilians because there is no written language in Darja. Yet, most Algerians, even those who

did not transmit Darja to their children and do not consider it part of their linguistic repertoire,

still perceive it as the most important component of their Algerian identity. Dawud is an

Arab/Berber and married to Yasmina, a Berber woman. They both speak French and English

with each other and with their fourteen years old son. He shared with me the following dream

that he had about his son's future:

Many years ago, I had this silly dream... [I thought] maybe I can teach him [Darja] well
enough, so he can go to Algiers on the street and nobody would recognize he was from
America (Dawud: Arab/Berber).

Yet, Dawud realizes that being away from the Algerian social milieu and not speaking to his son

in Darja in time makes his wish turn into a mirage, not a dream. He blames his 'failure' with his

son on the oral character of the language and highlighting a widely common belief that 'Darj a

has no structure':

Again, the same problem, [like Kabyle] because of the lack of writing and structure [in
Darja], it is not an easy thing to learn as an outsider. To me it's like these foreigners who
learn Arabic from Egyptian books then go to Algeria -giggles (Dawud: Arab/Berber).









Being away from the milieu, the place of continuous cultural interaction, Dawud accepts his loss.

Despite dreaming of maintaining continuity in and through language, being away from home is

the beginning of a generational split and hence the birth of a new generation which is far from

the influence of various cultural mnemonics. However, the rupture does not take place for

immigrants who are not completely isolated from other Arab or Algerian communities. Yet, new

views materialize when the Arabic linguistic varieties meet, as we will see later.

Algerians' attitude towards the vernacular (D) vs. literate (MSA): Algerian people

perception of the standard and the vernacular takes sometimes contradicting opinions. For an

outsider, it is important to understand that in general in Arab countries, whereas Darja / 'amiya is

not a written language, likewise MSA is simply not a spoken language. Darja is the way of

communication among Algerian immigrants and with family members back in Algeria as well as

with other Maghribis. However, many Algerians valorize MSA and perceive it as more

important than Darja. Although, like all Arabs, no two Algerians speak to each other in MSA,

and would feel like a reporter or a school teacher doing it, yet, they proclaim greater importance

to MSA. This attitude toward their spoken tongue may be related to factors such as their

linguistics ability to use both Darja and MSA in their social environment with fluidity. For

example, Manal, who came to the US three years ago, is more fluent in Darja and MSA than

French and English. She perceives Darja as secondary to MSA. By learning Standard Arabic, she

believes that in no time, her child will be able to know Darja and speak it. Speaking in Darja, she

says:

...if he [son] learns MSA, automatikian (F), he would learn Darja." I interfered saying:
"humm... taDrbi 'uSfurain be Hajar (MSA) [you are targeting two birds by one shot]."
She smiles and replies; "ya... Arabic fuSHa [MSA] is the one that would make him learn
Darja...for sure... (Manal: Arab).









On the other hand, her husband Omar has been in the US for more than twelve years and is less

fluent in MSA than Darja, French and English. Omar disagrees with Manal in putting Darja in a

secondary position; he says, code switching between (D) and (E):

[For] me, Darja... is very important...like Arabic [MSA]...he has to know it...I think, it
is very, very important...because Darja is the way of communication. When he goes
there-to Algeria-he has to know how to deal with people (Omar: Arab).

I found these conflicting attitudes stimulating for further investigation among other Algerian

immigrants. And, indeed, it turned out that the split was more complex than I had previously

thought. Various reasons seem to explain the occurrence of such conflicting attitudes. Ahmed,

who is married to a European American and who is fluent in four languages, decides to omit

Darja from his child's repertoire altogether and instead prefers using only MSA and English.

Notice that in the following paragraph, during the interview, Ahmed codeswitchs in a skillful

way between (E) and (D), not between (E) and (A) revealing his approach to the maintenance of

parental language:

[Darja] is not a priority to me. It's important, 'labali, kiyruH lil zjazair. BaSSaH, if he
can yahdar al-lughal 'arabiya, he can communicate ... yanzjam; he can communicate
filzjazair always. He can always do that. Although, Darizja is also important to him... it's
good to practice. YatsarraH alsanah. Yafham shwiya kiman gulu.., al-culture ta'
al'zjazair fimatkhaS bil zjazair... tudkhul fiha ad-darizja hadhik. Hadhik rubbama.
As I said there are too many things. I emphasize 'ala al 'arabiya giggles (Ahmed Arab)7.

Although, when speaking to other Algerians, Ahmed uses Darja with English, when teaching his

son Arabic, he excludes Darja and uses MSA during Arabic or Quranic lessons. For a person

who has been in the US for more than twenty years, with little contact with Algeria and married

to a European American, his aim is not to preserve a regional dialect used among Algerians from


7 [Darja is not a priority to me. I know it's important when he goes to Algeria. But, if he can speak MSA, he can
communicate...he can, he can always communicate in Algeria. He can always do that. Although Darja is also
important to him, it's good to practice. His tongue gets fluent; he understands some, as we say...Algerian culture in
which Darja is part of that. In that sense, maybe [he is going to miss some of it.] As I said, there are too many things.
I emphasize on Arabic [now] giggles.









various regions. He rather prefers MSA and CA, that is, the languages of reading and writing and

international communication.

Many other Algerians as well as other Arabs disagree with such an approach to learning

Arabic which concentrates purely on MSA. Fadila is a Kabyle speaking linguist. She explains

that learning Darja comes prior to going to school and learning MSA. Today, with her three

years old daughter, she uses both Darja and Kabyle, focusing on the spoken language only.

Speaking in English, she says:

If I teach her MSA, first, no one will communicate with her, it won't help her to speak
MSA with her cousins (Fadila Berber).

Similarly, Samir and Lamiss believe that the spoken precedes the standard, focusing on the

importance of accumulating a wide range of vocabulary. Samir comes from a mixed marriage of

a Syrian father and an Algerian mother. He is married to Lamiss who is Syrian. Although Samir

gives greater prestige to MSA, he agrees with his wife that learning of the spoken language

comes "naturally." Contrary to what Manal and Ahmed say about the use of MSA, Lamiss

explains in Syrian:

Those who learn MSA only are going to be limited in their language, but those who speak
Darja or 'Amiya [in Syrian] would have wider range of vocabulary (Lamiss Syrian).

Her husband supports her on this idea, saying:

Because the Arabic language in not present in the American environment, and if the
parents do not pay extra effort, the children would not learn Arabic. That is why the
learning of Arabic should be with great effort and Darja should support that; because, the
thinking process is going to be in Arabic. After that, the child would need extra effort in
MSA [writing, reading and morphology] (Samir: Syrian/Algerian).

On the one hand, according to this couple, there is continuity between Darja and MSA. On the

other hand, those who give more significance to MSA than Darja may limit the natural context

within which their children practice their mother tongue. However, these seeming differences

between Darja and MSA are more hypothetical than practical. In reality, every situation is









different. For example, in case of mixed marriages between Algerians and non-Arab Americans,

the spoken tongue is English, and MSA is taught for reading and writing only. But in Algerian

households, where Arabic is the spoken language at home, the interaction is in Darja, not MSA.

Yet, others, especially when transmitting both Darja and MSA, face problems that did not fall

under parents' responsibilities in the past but rather under that of the school, a topic that we will

come back to when we discuss the issue of contact with other Arab communities.

In summary, much like Kabyle, Darja is the spoken tongue among the various Algerian

ethnicities. Although, in principle, some valorize MSA more than Darja, in practice, Darja is the

mother tongue and precedes MSA in being transmitted to the child orally. In comparison to the

written practices, that would come later, Darja is incorporated in daily practices, activities and

ways of expressions (Connerton, 1989: 39), nevertheless, both -Darja and MSA- being

transmitted 'in and as traditions.'

Although, like other Arabs, Algerians do not perceive the colloquial as being a written

language yet, they don't consider it a distinct language from MSA or CA. Darja seems to play

the role of a foundational stage for later learning of writing and reading Arabic. Having said this,

because they are in the Diaspora and in contact with other Arab-Middle Easterners-dialects,

some Algerians wish they had only MSA as oral and written language. They believe that by

learning the 'proper Arabic,' an Algerian American would be able to communicate not only with

his/her fellow Algerians and North Africans but also with other Arabs, and any one who

understands and knows Arabic. This approach, although very pragmatic, is not realistic since the

language of communication in most Algerian households is Darja, not MSA. Yet, one may

wonder: Given these perceptions of self and cultural codes in the minds of many Algerian









immigrants, would Darja be transmitted to and maintained in the next generations? Such a

question would be a good topic for future inquiry.

Arabic FuSHa: MSA and CA

For many, speaking FuSHa-the language of eloquence-enables them to communicate

with any one, both in the 'bled'-country-and the world (Fella Arab; Zahra Arab; Hind Arab;

Duniya Berber; Ahmed Arab). The significance of Arabic derives from its widespread use by

millions of people around the world (Zahra Arab; Hind Arab; Dawud Arab/Berber). Yasmina, a

Berber with no proficiency in MSA, perceives Arabic as a desired language for her teenager son

to learn (Yasmina: Berber). However, "other Berbers [not my interviewees] who are against the

use of Arabic in Algeria, would not incorporate Arabic teaching" explains Tassa'dit (Berber).

For those promoting it and who are fluent in its standardized version, Arabic is a rich

language for its "scientific and intellectual ability" (Samir Syrian/Algerian). Such immigrants

anticipate teaching Arabic not only at a basic level but also at the level where one can excel in

using it to speak and write, that is, at a high level of proficiency. Lamia, a second generation

Algerian American, imagines her toddler learning it at the level of intellectual proficiency. For

her, reading and writing Quran is basic, however a deeper learning is still required. She says:

I think it is good to learn [Arabic] as much as possible because I see it with myself. I am
able to read any book in Arabic [Such as] religious books. [My ability to understand,]
depends on the books. If they are complex, I can understand parts and some parts I can't.
But if it is basic, I can understand. I can get the jist of it (Lamia: Arab/Berber/American).

Although she is able to understand, for example, the context and meanings when reading Arabic

books, Lamia would like her daughter to become "better" than her. This is the story of a

successful second-generation parent that many new comers see as possible to achieve. Many

however don't know about the 'invisible work' (Okita 2002) that Lamia's parents had invested in

her to make her who she turned out to be. Such an achievement is realized with a clear









'perception of self and place' (Casey, E. S. 1996) as well as strong dedication to cultural

maintenance in the Diaspora. One can only wonder whether, as a new couple, Lamia and Nuwar

would be able to achieve what the first immigrant parents did.

Arabic and religious continuity

Whereas many Algerians consider Darj a as the maintainer of cultural continuity between

the Diaspora and the homeland and roots, they valorize Arabic as a means for preserving their

religious identity. "Hiya Halaqat al waSI bid-deen (MSA)-[Arabic] is the link to the deen

(Islam as a way of life)," says Samir. Following Anderson's 'imagined communities' (1991), I

would say that Arabic is collectively imagined and remembered as the bond between Algerians,

other Arabs, and Muslims in general. This connection extends over thousands of years in sharing

a strong past that originated in Arabia and stretched to many world regions with the flourishing

of Islam as a religion and a civilization. This standing is not only achieved as a result of its use in

specific performances but also because of its embeddings in the Muslim daily life. Algerian

immigrants from the various ethnic groups were raised in a mixture of Islamic/Arabic/African

cultures and environments where the distinction between profane and sacred is less than in the

secular West. Reading, writing, listening and reciting of Quran (Revelation), du'aa (prayer), and

dhikr (meditation), are not only included in mosques and schools but are also practiced, sensed,

and enjoyed in various landscapes. Whether at the mosque, the zawia, the 'madrassa', the home,

the market, on the street, or on radio and television, Islamic expressions which are most of the

time expressed in the Arabic language are hard to avoid. The majority of my interviewees do

valorize the transmission and maintenance of Arabic for the sake of their religious sense of

belonging, despite a high level of heterogeneity in their 'religiosity'. There is a widespread desire

to see their children becoming able to read, write, and understand Quran in its original language.

Salima, a professional in an American company in Chicago, expresses this shared perception:









CA is very important to us basically because of the religious matter. Our sacred book
Quran is in Arabic. We want them [children] to be able to read it and comprehend it
(Salima: Arab).

In order to achieve such a 'noble' achievement, Ahmed, who also is a professional in upper

Chicago, is giving his son the foundations of Arabic, on his own and on a daily basis. Ahmed

does so because: "Al-'unSur ta'al- 'arbiya muhim bazzaf(D) [the Arabic element is extremely

important]." Arabic is a key element not only in understanding religion but also in understanding

Algeria's history.

Arabic and historical continuity

For many Algerians in the US, Arabic is not only the language of religion and Quran, it

also is the language of the Algerian/Arab/Muslim history. Like French, the Arabic language is

intertwined with Algerian history. Being fluent in it is a chance to study ancestral history, roots

and culture, or as put by Ahmed:

... [son] to know his history. If he doesn't know his native language, he will miss a lot. So I
want him to learn that, so he can understand a history book in Arabic (Ahmed: Arab).

Ahmed's approach is based on the idiom that 'the culture of any society can only be known from

within,' and language is essential to achieving that goal. It is through learning and performing

stories, songs and oral history in Arabic that a strong and lasting bond with the roots would form

(Dawud: Arab/Berber). Bob, an American convert to Islam and Tassa'dit's husband, understands

that the culture of any people has to be taught in its original language. In their sense of belonging

and continuity, there is contiguity between the written, spoken, profane and religious. Arabic is

the language that ties Algerians to their deep temporal and spatial sense of belonging that they

would like to see continue among their children in the Diaspora.









Arabic and the Arab/Muslim identity

In America, Algerians settle in many cities where they become part of large Arab Muslim

communities, making Arabic language become a part of their sense of identity. As expressed by

Ahmed, the Arabic language is the link that brings together Arab Americans or Algerian

Americans in one identity. When asked about their ethnicity and identity many Algerians-

especially Arabs-say that they are 'Arab'. Yet others do prefer to define themselves as

'Muslim', thereby mixing religious and ethnic identities together. For some of them, being a

Muslim is connected to being an Arab (Omar: Arab). Yet, others like Lamiss, who is originally

from Syria, would disagree with this hybridism, explaining that learning how to speak Arabic is

something fundamental. "We are Arabs [and] we have to learn Arabic. I don't think that

someone who is 'religious' is Arabized," she explains. According to her, if a person claims an

Arab identity, he or she has to know the language. However, her husband differs with her saying:

"I think of myself as an Arab even if I spoke another language (Samir: Syrian/Algerian). Much

like to what happened to many immigrants such as Spanish, Italian or Indian; Arab immigrants in

America may lose their Arabic language. However, their sense of Arabic identity may become

stronger, valorizing the 'symbolic belonging. The next generations may forget how to speak

Kabyle, Darja or read Arabic. Yet, remembrance of their ancestors and roots would always

remain, even if only in a diminished form. As pointed out by many scholars (Rouchdy ed. 2002),

the parental language such as Arabic may reappear in the following generations when conditions

permit it to become valorized and used again, thereby prompting the new generations to relearn

the language as well as reinvent the traditions of their ancestors and homeland.

The Arabic language and the American foreign policy

In the last decade or so, and, especially after 9/11 and the invasion of Iraq, the Arabic

language have become more valorized in the US to a noticeable level, not only by those who









speak and use it and see it as part of their sense of identity but also by state policies and

institutional programs. Algerians like other Arabs take notice how various Americans are

interested to work in or visit the Middle East and value the learning of MSA to a level of fluency

at which they would become able to communicate with the Arab people. As an Arabic teacher, I

am amazed to find how many American students want to learn Arabic and want to understand it

to go to the Middle East and do research or be in diplomatic workplace. During the interviews, I

wasn't surprise to find that Algerian immigrants take the contemporary world condition

seriously, much like most other people in the post-modem world. Among the Interviewees,

Algerian Intellectuals such as Ahmed and Dawud identify the political and diplomatic advantage

for future generations to become proficient in Arabic today. As mentioned earlier, Ahmed is

completely committed to teach MSA to his seven years old son. However, when speaking about

his fourteen years old son, Dawud emphasizes the advantage of having a North African

background and speaking Arabic, while at the same time emphasizing that at this stage it is a

choice that his son would have to make for himself in the near future. In today's world, Kamel

wishes for his grand daughter and future generations to embrace and learn Arabic not only for

ethnic, national, or religious functionalities and belonging, but also for being part of an

increasingly more cosmopolitan world.

Arabic Dialects Contact and Conflict

Darja and the Accommodation of Other Arabic Dialects

It is not a surprise to hear Arabs who originally are from the Middle East say to North

Africans: "You speak Berber and French." This attitude toward North Africans is an example of

dialect contact and linguistic accommodation (Giles 1987) between conformity and resentment

of the Algerians toward Middle Easterners. The topic of "dialects contact" (Trudjill 1986), and,

specifically the 'accommodation theory', was developed two decades ago (Giles et al. 1991;









Giles & Coupland 1991). This theory is essential to the study of language contact in the Diaspora

in general and applies well to the Algerian case. As Giles explains, "each one of us will have

experienced 'accommodating' verbally and non-verbally to others, in the general sense of

adjusting our communication actions relative to those of our conversation partners, and been

aware of others accommodating (or failing to accommodate) to us" (Giles & Coupland 1991:60

in S'hiri 2002:149). Yet, as mentioned by S'hiri (2002) in her case study between Tunisian and

Middle Eastern journalists, and as I found in my own Algerian case study during my field word,

the accommodation process is more often then oriented in one direction, from the Tunisians,

Algerians or Moroccans to the Middle Easterners. However, in such communication, there is

always a set of other factors that play an important role in deciding how to accommodate the

interlocutors, why they do accommodate them, and how the process would become reciprocal.

When meeting other Arabs, Algerians are sometimes pressed to change the way they

speak. When meeting in the Diaspora, many Arab communities in the US make the following

remark to an Algerian: 'I don't understand what you are saying. You speak French and Berber.'

The 'Berber' classification as 'not understandable or barbar' seems to follow Algerians even

outside Algeria. The term Berber originated with the Romans and Greeks which they used to

characterize other languages than theirs. Yet, until today, Algerians whether Arab or Imazighen

are still called Berber by Arabs when they hear Algerians speak Darja or Kabyle. In many cases,

when it happens for the first time, many Algerians become extra sensitive about their differences

with the other 'Arabs.' Until then they believed that their sense of self is that of 'Arabs'.

However, the moment they open their mouth to speak when what for them counts as part of

Arabic, their sense of 'Arabness' disappears. At that moment, they have to decide in what









language they speak to the Egyptian, Syrian, Saudi or any other Middle Easterner 'Arab.' As

Omar explains:

When I speak to an Egyptian or a Syrian my speech changes and I don't feel a 1'aise (F)
[comfortable.] I don't use French. I only use Arabic (MSA)...I [also] use English, if I
don't know a word in Arabic, or I can't remember it. But usually I use Arabic with them.
They don't understand French. Sometimes we use their dialect... personally, I don't like it.
I would try not to do it (Omar: Arab).

This conscious switch in language makes both Algerians and other Middle Easterners aware of

their linguistic differences. Despite accommodating to the interlocutor and deciding to speak in

MSA, Omar refuses to use their dialect on the ground that "they don't speak my dialect, why

should I?" He disagrees with his wife who converses with other Arabs in their dialect so that

they would feel comfortable with her.

Manal is much fluent than Omar in MSA. She also is fluent in a variety of Arabic dialects,

such as Egyptian which is the most understood among other Arabs. She realizes the limitation of

many Arabs in understanding North African speech and, as a result, she accommodates them in a

friendly gesture. She makes sure she doesn't use any French and uses words and expressions that

are common in her interlocutors' dialect. Like Manal, many other Algerians are very flexible.

They seem able to switch from Darja, to MSA, to other Arabic dialects, to French, or to English.

This ability to go from one linguistic repertoire to another is very common among the

intellectuals who are able to understand their languages and various Arabic dialects. Their

strategy to accommodate others is very tactful. It is a skill that gives them the ability to adapt to

various linguistic/cultural environments. However, conversing using others' languages or

dialects does not mean neglecting one's own dialect or language. These intellectuals do have

many other opportunities to switch to their languages) and speak it/them. Yet, sometimes they

refrain from using others' dialects and instead use MSA, the language which is shared by all

Arabs, as a sign of solidarity but also as a code of linguistic neutrality.









During my field work as well as from general observation of Algerian immigrants, I find

that among Algerians, these conflicting situations do not seem to be bothersome. To the contrary,

Algerians show their gratefulness of being with other people who share many codes of their

cultures. Being among other Arabs, even if they have to accommodate and converse using

others' dialects and ways of speech, many Algerians care to protect and enrich their sense of

belonging to the Arab/Muslim community. For example, in accommodating the new and old

Arab residents in Gainesville Florida, Manal is pleased to have many friends from various Arab

countries such as Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Palestine, Egypt, Jordan, and Syria,

to name a few. As a young couple, Manal and Omar interact with other Arabs at various social

levels and with many other American friends, taking pride in the multicultural community they

enjoy and call home.

Dialects vs. MSA and the Dilemma of Having a Middle Eastern Arabic Teacher

Algerians do not fully come to realize the differences amongst the Arabic tongues until

Middle Easterners begin to teach their kids. The use of spoken dialects in teaching becomes a

problem. On the one hand, the Middle Eastern teacher thinks that the Algerian child who speaks

the Algerian dialect does not really speak Arabic. And, on the other hand, the Algerian parents

protest the use of Arabic dialects in classroom teaching. Yet, in the communities under study,

people do recognize two important limitations. First, the availability of linguistic continuity in

the Diaspora requires cooperation and resources among Arabs. Second, although not desired, the

use of dialects in the teaching of Arabic remains a common practice. However, Algerian and

other Arabs take the situation with an open mind and learn how to benefit from skillful members

of the communities in working together and transmit their language, what they value as essential.

When attending Sunday school at the local mosque, the Algerian child goes "yaqral-

'arabiya,"-read/study Arabic, the language they speak at home. However, when the teacher









speaks, the student is puzzled that her/his language is not exactly the same as the one used at

home. This primary interaction brings frustration to the "natural" linguistic environment of many

Algerian families and may sometimes develop into a persuasion that Darja is not Arabic. Fatiha,

a Berber who is able to speak Kabyle, Darja, MSA, French and English fluently, is disturbed by

the reality that she faces in America when interacting with other Arabic dialects at the Arabic

institutions of learning:

We, our kids, nakhdu shi 'a For example (F) when I put him in the mosque -to study
Arabic-...my son...his name is A.A.Y (Arabic first and last name). Of course (F) his name
is Arab... "TaHki 'Arabi?"(Middle Eastern Dialect) [you speak Arabic?] his Middle
Eastern teacher would say. My son would answer in Darja. They (the teachers) are right;
our kids do not speak Arabic at all. The Darja did not help them at all...did not help them
at aaaal... the big problem with us the Algerians and Maghrebis, we can understand the
language [Arabic]...but our dialect, it has no relation with Arabic, our speech is French
(F) more than it is Arabic (Fatiha: Berber).

For Fatiha, the Algerian dialect is not Arabic. Because it seems to her not intelligible to other

Arabs, she perceives it as a waste of time to first speak Darja then learn MSA, an idea that is

shared by other interviewees (e.g., Ahmed; Salima; Fella). They live in a dilemma between pride

and frustration. When they meet with other Algerians or relatives, Darja is used in their casual

and commemorating expressions (see Appendix C for the Henna ritual songs). Yet, as shown in

the previous example, the interviewee believes that Darja is not worth calling an Arabic dialect.

One might explain Fatiha's dilemma by her 'Imazighen' ethnicity since in her situation, Darja

and MSA are both second languages anyway. Ethnically, she does not consider herself Arab but

rather Tamazight. Yet, a second explanation might be that these Arabs are not challenged enough

to learn how to listen and pick up the regional 'Arabic' lexical that Algerians use and that may

more or less differ from other Arab dialects.



8 Nakhdu shi 'a is an expression in Darja that cannot be translated literally. However, it means 'supposedly we speak
Arabic.'









However, not many Algerian immigrants share Fatiha's perplexity. As a matter of fact,

many others are concerned that other Arabs use their own dialects instead of MSA in teaching

children the Arabic language. If that is indeed the case, they believe that the Algerian children

are hence not learning MSA, which would be useful for reading and writing. They instead are

learning other Arabic dialects. For example, there have been reports that in the classroom,

teachers use lexical such as "gamussa" (meaning cow in Egyptian instead of baqara in MSA) or

"shu baddak?" in the Levant dialects instead of"matha tureed?" in MSA-what do you want?

For these frustrated Algerian parents the solution for the 'dialect problem in the classroom' is as

follow: First, the teacher should speak only in MSA without relying on any dialect or English.

The parents then need to practice speaking MSA at home after returning from the 'madrassa'-

the school at the mosque. In multiethnic Arab/Muslim communities, this is seen as the best way

for the children to learn quickly and become competent in reading and writing Arabic,

specifically Quranic text.

Despite being very critical of the Arabic teaching at the level of the community and of their

efforts as parents, the focus group in Chicago and many other Algerians are actively involved in

their children's lives. Despite the daily pressures of English language dominance around them

and the multiethnic environment, their efforts seem to be fruitful. In my presence, the Algerian

children were able to communicate with their parents in Darja, Kabyle or English. As a

community, their mutual solidarity as well as with other Arabs is strong, with the new comers

often providing a means of continuity with their heritage.



Conclusion

In conclusion, Algerians come to the United States with a rich and complex linguistic

heritage. Yet, when embarking in the states, on the one hand, Algerians find themselves obliged









to become quickly proficient in English, the language of intellectual and economic dominance,

social integration and success. On the other hand, they are reluctant, at least at the first and

second generational level, to abandon certain elements of their linguistic heritage French,

Kabyle, Darja and MSA. Their effort to maintain their language performance of and proficiency

in their mother tongues is fascinating to investigate. Despite being imbedded in the Algerian

common speech, yet, as a separate language, French is hard to maintain in America. With the

prevalence of English, French become unnecessary, neglected, and vanish quickly from the

Algerian immigrants' repertoire in general. Kabyle, a Berber dialect may have one of the two

fates among Algerian immigrants. Where there is a large community of Kabyle speakers, Berber

maintenance could be possible at least among the first generation. However, since Algerians,

Arab and Kabyle speakers, interact with each other in Darja, the possibility for the second

generation of Berbers to speak it is very little. Since Darja is the mother tongue of the majority of

Algerians, ever among Berber, it could be preserved for generations. However it would be

transformed tremendously. As mentioned earlier, Darja is already influenced greatly by other

languages and specially borrowed words from French. However, in the U.S., its speakers start

borrowing from English, as shown earlier. This phenomenon could make Darja harder to be

understood for middle easterners. However, in case of exchanging French with English words

this may facilitate other Arabs to understand Darja better than before. Finally, as a literate

language, Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is perceived as the way to preserve Islamic religion

and teachings, in maintaining historical continuity with the Arabic/Islamic heritage, and in

strengthening the bond among Arab Muslim Americans. With the solidarity with other Arab

Muslim communities, some elements of the MSA could be transmitted and maintained.









However, in comparison to those in Algeria, the second generation of MSA proficiency remains,

in general, at a basis level.









CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter consists of two sections: a conclusion and a recommendation. In the

conclusion section, I first compare the situation of Algerian languages in the United States to that

of France. Second, I compare Algerians to other immigrants in the U.S. In the recommendation

section, I suggest a methodology for teaching and transmitting language in multicultural/multi-

linguistic communities in America.

Conclusion

In conclusion, I would first observe that being fluent or competent in the language of the

host country represents the way to economic and educational success among both Algerians in

France and the United States. As shown in chapters five and six, those who do not understand the

game of upper mobility remain stuck for years in their initial situation. The literature about

Algerians in France is rich of stories and documentation of those early migrants who remained

linguistically isolated for generations in France. This situation not only harmed their economic

accomplishments but also their social image and that of their future generations. The laborers,

low class workers and exiles and their families, whose aim and hope was to return to the

ancestral land were forced into isolation, classified as the 'beurs' neighborhoods and ostracized

from the dominant culture and the society at large. However, in the case of Algerian migrants to

the U.S., it is seldom to find a large Algerian or Maghribi community that remains isolated from

the dominant language and culture. As a matter of fact, in comparison to France, in America they

are forced to quickly learn English in order to survive. Yet, Algerian parents, especially the

educated ones, in both countries, see their success and that of their children in being fluent in

French in France and to be fluent in English in America. They very much follow the template of









their own upbringing: they were the pride of their parents back home in Algeria by becoming

proficient in French, the language of intellectual emancipation, education and success at the time.

The second section of comparison between the French experiences to that of America deals

with the dynamic of maintenance and loss of mother tongue languages, specifically Kabyle and

Darja. Logically, being in close proximity to the home country, Algeria, one would think that

Algerians in France favor the maintenance of mother tongues in the Algerian communities.

However, as shown in chapter five, among the offspring of the early immigrants, French is

becoming the most prominent language while Darja or Kabyle are lesser and lesser used. Having

a large sub-community of the same language community does not necessarily keep the language

spoken. Three main reasons explain why this is the case: 1. Most educated Algerians in France

are francophone which means their means of communication in the intellectual and work

environment was French even before they or their parents migrated. 2. The early illiterate

Algerians who migrated to France for labor work or were exiled-Harkis and Algerian Jews-

still speak Darja and/or Kabyle, there is however a generational gap between them and their off-

spring. The transmitted language lexically and morphologically is performed only at a minimum

level. 3. Children spend most of their development years in school where French is the only

means of formal education, which minimizes their exposure to the Arabic and/or Kabyle

languages. Similar conditions apply to those coming to the U.S., however with the difference that

English is the predominant language at school, work, and most intellectual environments. The

second generation if they understand their parents' languages, in general, they tend to feel more

comfortable expressing themselves in English than Kabyle, Darja, MSA, or French.

Having said that, it is only fair to note that there are those among the immigrants, whether

in France or the U.S., who are conscious about their language identity and who spend extra effort









to maintain the mother tongue(s), both at the spoken and literate (written) level. While this is a

minority it is important to mention that the similarity between those in France and those in the

U.S. is in the availability of the social and community support to perform and maintain the

languages in a natural environment.

The two groups can also be compared along the dimension of teaching Arabic. In France,

teaching the children of Algerian origin has been coordinated between the sending and the

hosting countries. However, in the US, there is no program set up in public schools to teach

Arabic as a foreign language for any Arabic community. Hypothetically, one would say that

having the migrating or paternal language taught at school is the best way of transmitting it to the

children of migrants. However, as shown in Chapter five, the program in France is a failing one

for many political, social, and pedagogical reasons. Yet, at the community level, what is

practiced in both countries is that Arabic is taught by the Maghrebis -in France-and by the

Arabs-in the U.S. However, this teaching is done on a voluntary basis and in an experimental

fashion. Some results are achieved but without going much beyond the minimum basic level of

reading, writing, and language skills, both in France and America. This dilemma is expressed by

Algerians in both countries. However, what many Algerians are aware of at this tentative way of

maintaining the language is the extreme difference between the spoken-Darja-and literal

Arabic-MSA. In both countries, the younger generations of whether French or American of

Algerian origin become frustrated when they begin to learn the Standard Arabic only to find out

that they are learning a new language, rather than their mother tongue as they were expecting.

Politics is one of the reasons behind such a challenge. When it comes to teaching the mother

tongues, only politically recognized languages are taught. Unfortunately, many Algerians and

French, government and population alike, still think of Kabyle as an oral language and,









sometimes, out of sheer ignorance, a dialect of Arabic. While in France Kabyle is being revived

by Berber activists, their primary aim is to be able to organize freely and set up programs that

would be implemented mostly in Algerian schools. In the U.S., such programs do not exist.

Therefore, being far from home and isolated from the Kabyle influence, the language at the

spoken level seems to go rapidly into disuse, much more than in France.

Another point of comparison between the two migrations is that the Algerians in France

perceive the French people as discriminating against Algerians and Maghribis in general but

those in the U.S., do not. This post-colonial consciousness seems to influence the younger

generations in the way they approach French or English learning in either country. Those in

France are always reminded of their inferiority and foreignness to the French despite the claims

of integration constantly made by officials from the government. This simply means the obvious

fact that the political and social rules and norms influence the individual and collective

perceptions of the codes of the parental culture and that of the dominant culture. Hence, French

citizens of Algerian origin may be fluent in the French language, which is the dominant language

of the society in which they live, yet they would perceive it as a code which remains

fundamentally foreign to them, even if their native tongue falls into disuse. At a practical level, it

seems that mother tongue often retains-at least symbolically-a strong hold on the minds and

hearts of many immigrants and their offspring because it shapes their sense of belonging more

than just providing a means of daily communication. Moreover, in comparing Algerians in

France and America the most important component that surfaces is the geographical, historical,

and political contiguity of France to Algeria. However, in comparing Algerians to other

migrating communities in the U.S., one can find other types of comparative factors in relation to

the maintenance and loss of their paternal languagess.









Like other, old and new, migrating communities, Algerians have great code switching and

lexical borrowing from other languages in contact. As presented in chapters three and six, there

is a great deal of code switching and lexical borrowings among older and younger Algerian

generations. For example, there are a lot of English words brought into Darja that would not be

spoken by Algerians in France or in Algeria. As presented in chapter three, there is a great

lexical borrowing such as manager, crib, cell phone and others that have been included little by

little into Darja in America, sometimes replacing an Arabic or French word and at other times

adding to them.

Algerians in America are similar to newer migrant communities in their desire to learn

English while at the same time maintain their mother tongue. This new phenomenon, as

explained in chapter six, was not common in early 1900s when the Italians, Germans, or Irish did

not want their children to speak Italian, German or Irish but to speak English as a sign of being

'true American.' it seems to be a universal desire to learn English but also a desire to maintain

their native language. Like the Jews in the mid-twentieth century who tried to preserve Yiddish,

the Lebanese to preserve Lebanese, or Hispanics who tried to preserve Spanish, the new Algerian

communities embrace English proficiency; yet, they also desire to transmit their paternal tongues

to their off-spring in America.

However, the dilemma that Algerians and other Arabic speaking migrants face is that their

Darja/Amiya is going to be more difficult to preserve than the preservation of Spanish among

Hispanics or Portuguese among Brazilians. I suggest that one of the reasons is that in comparison

to Spanish neither Darja nor Kabyle would receive official support because they are not written

languages. As a matter of fact, while the US government is involved in the teaching of other

languages, such as Spanish, French, or Chinese, Arabic-the mother tongue of majority of Arab









Americans-is not yet supported to be taught at schools as a foreign language except in some

Universities.

In contrast with other migrants, Algerians do not expect their spoken language to be

written. They differentiate between the formal Arabic fuSHa-the language of eloquence-and

the informal Darja-common or vernacular. Despite being proud of their tongue, they perceive

Darja as laHn-deviant-and not appropriate for being written, preservation, or documentation.

By sitting in a class to learn Arabic, they believe Darja, or the common speech, would

contaminate Arabic, the language of Quran and poetry. This lingering sense that Darja is

'contaminated,' 'not really Arabic' or 'not a good language' seems to be one of the most

important factors of dialect / language conflict in the Diaspora. The Algerian dialect with other

middle easterners can be compared to the linguistics situation among Hispanic communities,

Peruvian, Mexican, Dominican, or Cuban migrants, who more or less understand each other.

Although there is some sense that Cubans speak 'bad Spanish,' there is a sense that all Hispanics

speak the same language and understand each other. However, the Arab migrant communities

perceive Maghribis and especially Algerians as not speaking Arabic but rather Berber and/or

French. Whether Egyptians, Mesopotamians, Syrians or 'Golfians, Arabs have difficulty to

understand Darja. One of the difficulties of Darja is that it has such a high percentage of French

vocabulary, much like the way Puerto Rico Spanglish is. As shown throughout my informants'

speeches, the spoken Algerian may be totally Arabic with a few French borrowed words or with

extreme borrowing and codeswiching such that the person has to be bilingual in both French and

Arabic to be able to understand; which is not the case for most Arabs.

In analyzing this conflict one would understand the genesis of the linguistic tensions

between Algerians and North Africans on the one hand and Middle Easterners on the other. As









put by Professor Murray: "[in America, Algerians have] a dual history of lexical borrowing"

(Murray 2008: personal communication). The Algerian spoken language has incorporated a large

number of French idioms which have become a standard part of Darja. When migrating to the

U.S., they bring that with them. They don't drop their French idioms. They use them in their

speech with each other and add to them English ones as well. On the one hand, one can argue

that the American Darja becomes exceptionally rich in terms of adding vocabulary idioms

borrowed from two European languages-French and English. On the other hand, it becomes

'doubly contaminated.' In other words, the Algerian Arabic is rejected by Middle Easterners

similarly to the way the Spanish from Puerto Rico is rejected by Argentineans because there is so

much English in it. However, the Argentineans nonetheless understand the Puerto Ricans -

because they understand English but Egyptians or Saudis who understand English do not

understand this new Algerian Arabic, as they didn't understand the old one1. This might irritate

some Algerians and North Africans because they become conscious about their speech with

other Arabs who are 'Arabs' like them. Unlike an American who won't change her English when

meeting a British or a Cuban who won't change his Spanish when meeting a Mexican, Algerians

change. The irony sometimes is that even if they try to speak standard Arabic, in a way that all

Arabs understand or are expected to understand, they are laughed at because the Arabs do not

speaks it in common communication saying "ya-khti, 'arabi?!"-what [you speak MSA]. In the

end, speaking Darja is not understood and speaking literate Arabic is ridiculed by the other Arabs

who might think, for example: "she speaks like a reporter or a president." We can thus conclude

that Algerians suffer in the Arab world serious linguistic discrimination. This is not much

dissimilar to Puerto Ricans and Cubans who are laughed at by Columbians and Argentineans,

SI thank my advisor Dr. Murray for the discussions on this topic and for his insights in relation to linguistics matters
in which he is the expert.









with the important difference that the pressure is much stronger in the Algerian case. The

Algerians actually try to change their language whereas the Puerto Ricans and Cubans will

continue talking the way they do.

Another important difference with other language communities is that the situation of

Arabic in the U.S. has become politically sensitive in positive and negative aspects since the

September 11th, 2001 bombing of World Trade Center, the beginning of the war on terrorism and

the 2003 war invasion of Iraq. Arabic speakers including Algerians are aware of the greater

interest in Arabic learning in the country. Yet, they see that the language is taught at the college

level only. Algerians, like other Arabs, are more reluctant to speak Arabic on the street for fear

of discrimination and racism against them because people might associate them with terrorists. In

that sense, there seems to be a tendency from the Arabic speaking people not to show their

Arabic language. After 9/11, the interest in studying Arabic now seems much similar to how the

Russian was "the language of the enemy" during the cold war. Likewise, contrasting how Arabic

and Spanish are perceived by those who seek to learn them is also instructive. Currently, people

study Spanish not because it is the language of the enemy. However, Arabic is becoming the

most taught and studied language at top colleges but perceived as the language of those who

'hate us.' In conclusion, I would say that the situation of Algerians as migrants to the U.S. is

somewhat unique. Algerians experience a "double socio-pressure" against their language. On the

one hand, they are self-conscious with their Darja when speaking to Middle Easterners for

linguistic reasons and on the other hand, with Americans for political reasons.









Recommendations

I now suggest an alternative approach to language contact in multicultural Arabic

communities. Doing the interviews with my Algerian informants reminded me of my own

experience as an immigrant living among various linguistic communities. My impressions about

language and dialects in contact are somewhat different from the views of certain of my

interviewees as I try to show in the following paragraphs. In analyzing the statement of the

"Middle Easterners' inability to understand the Algerian dialect," I would say that I accept their

unfamiliarity with French-since Darja may have a fair number of French lexemes. However,

when an Algerian does not mix French, I argue that it is easy to communicate with other Arabs if

they change their attitude and pay closer attention to what is being said. I remember years ago in

the mid 1980s, I lived around many Middle Easterners and interacted with various Arab

nationals on a daily basis, with some at the level of friendship. I was raising a daughter and

spoke to her in Darja everywhere, at home and around my Arab friends, whether Egyptians,

Iraqis, Saudis or Palestinians. My close friends, especially two neighbors, an Iraqi and an

Egyptian, were picking up Algerian lexical idioms as well as my family picking some of theirs.

After a while, we all comfortably understood each other's dialect and interacted with each other

in our own dialects, sometimes even using each other's vocabulary2 or MSA. For example, a

dialogue would go between my then five years old daughter who speaks Darja and my Egyptian

friend who speaks Egyptian (Appendix D).

The short dialogue between an Algerian child whose mother tongue is Darja and an

Egyptian woman whose tongue is Egyptian that took place in 1987 is an example of 'mutual'

dialect contact in the Diaspora. In the following paragraph, I use the dialogue (appendix D) to


2 In his book 'Dialect in Contact' Turdgill, (1982) explains this topic in relation to various speech communities.









analyze various linguistic elements. I translated each utterance based on the way the other would

say it, to MSA, and then to English. The context of this conversation is at my Egyptian friend's

house. She is a generous woman and always insists on her visitors, young and old, to eat or drink

something when visiting her saying "laazem Tashrub Haagua-you have to drink something!"

She interacts with my daughter and without difficulty they would both understand each other. On

the one hand, my Egyptian friend got used to Algerian words and expressions such as

manhabbush, bazzaf bark, barkay, [I don't like it, a lot, only, enough or stop it (fem)] that are

not part of her Egyptian dialect. And, on the other hand, my daughter got used to Egyptian words

and expressions such as 'aiza, 'eh, leesh, mish 'aiza, maa bahabbu, 'awi, bass, di, kifaya [you

want (fem), what, why, don't want, I don't like it, a lot, only, this, enough] that are not part of

her Algerian dialect.

In comparing the two dialects to MSA, it is obvious how different both Algerian and

Egyptian are from the standardized language. For example, the word what is expressed in

Egyptian as 'eh and in Algerian as wash or 'ash, but in one of the MSA variety, it is madha or

maa, which seem at first without any mutual relations. Yet, when going back to the 'fabrication'

and 'creation' of the Arabic varieties, one can find them most of the time related to CA which in

time became used as specific and regional lexical only. I would say that all three originated from

the CA. For example, the MSA or CA expression 'aiyu shay 'in -Which or what thing, is in case

of the Egyptian, only the first phoneme-glottal stop-['] followed by a schwa and ended by a

soft [h] is preserved as 'eh. In the Algerian case, from the expression 'aiyu shay 'in only the first

consonant ['] followed by a vowel [a] of the first word then the first phoneme [sh] of the second

word are combined and preserved as one new lexical 'ash. In other situations, the phoneme ['] is









replaced by [w] to form wesh and sometimes 'ashin or washin keeping the [in] grammatical case

at the end.

At school, children learn MSA which is a standardized form of Classical Arabic, wherein

both madha and 'aiyu shay would be learned depending on the context. Yet, educators,

especially in the Diaspora, do not approach the teaching of language from a sociolinguistic and a

comparative approach which is essential to contextualizing the language taught at school. As a

matter of fact, the approach of teaching MSA, at least in the Diaspora with very limited

educational skills, is too systematized and exclusivist. A child saying wash hadha what is this

in Algerian or an Egyptian saying 'eh or 'esh da would be corrected by certain teachers to say

maa hadha only. As shown in Chapter six, parents also object to teachers using a variety of

Arabic in the classroom. In these situations, the student would be expected to correct his home

language or to keep the divide between the home and school language. For many Arab educators

and others who are not familiar with the linguistic richness of Arabic, 'Standard Arabic' is the

only 'true language', thereby neglecting other ways of speech as being laHn deviant. This

approach to the teaching of Arabic language affects, on the one hand, the rich language by

restricting it and, on the other hand, affecting the Arabic speakers and their off-spring in

neglecting their rich heritage. The Arabic language is able to incorporate various tongues. Yet,

for reasons such as lack of knowledge and sometimes political aims to control through language

planning, people approach Arabic learning from a constricting and exclusivist venue, which

would restrict the students to only read and write the script with limited comprehension. Their

understanding and use of the language at an intellectual level would always be at its lowest,

lacking strong socio-linguistic foundations.









To become proficient in a language, continuity must develop between the spoken, the read,

and the written, between the sacred and the common, as well as between the old and the new.

Language is dynamic, however, not in a sense of becoming restricted and different, but rather in

being full of life using the information from the past and the present, the corporal and the

abstract, with fluidity and ease. Language transmission and language maintenance incorporate

embodied practices-performed and inscribed-that come naturally, with ease and even at the

unconscious level of social memory (Connerton 1989). Children of many Arab immigrants grow

up to appreciate the various linguistic repertoires around them and use them in their favor.

Because an early influence by various Arabic dialects on such children in their natural settings,

today, as adults, they are able to interact with Egyptians, Iraqis, Syrians, Algerians, or other

Arabic dialects, as well as English speaking, all without having to tell any one that she or he does

not understand what they are saying to them. It is through performance and living among other

ethnicities and cultures that the second generation is able to acquire this skill to become multi-

language/dialect proficient in the multicultural environment of America.

Although this example is related to the Algerian dialect in contact with the Egyptian

dialect meeting in the Diaspora and how both speakers are able to understand each other, the

approach can be applied to many other communities in the world. As a matter of fact it shows

how humans are capable of understanding each other using various codes whether speech, sign,

or thoughts. Another application in which this approach would be used is in preparing language

teaching curriculum that is inclusive of various dialects of a language.









APPENDIX A
SCHEDULE INTERVIEW

1. Where were you born?

2. Tell me about the places you lived in prior coming to the United States?

3. Where did you get your various levels of education? (From pre-school to highest level) and

in what languagess?

4. What is your highest level of education?

5. What is or are your mother tongue (s)?

6. How many languages do you know and speak? What are they?

7. When and where did you learn each one of them?

8. Who taught you these languages?

9. When, where, and with who do you use and/or speak the specific language (s)?

10. In what language do you speak with your child?

11. Do you teach your child how to write, read and/or comprehend your mother language (s)

12. If you don't teach your child yourself, do you have other ways of transmitting your native

language (s) to your child, explain how and how often do you do that?

13. Tell me what it means to you to teach your child each of the following languages; Amazighi,

Arabic, Darja, French, English or other languages?

14. What activities do you have with your child that you believe teach your child something

about your culture, ethnicity and/or religion?

15. Do you socialize with other migrants from Algeria?

16. What type of social activities do you have that you think are helping your child to learn your

native languagess, religion, and/or your culture?

17. If you where working prior to migration, what type of work did you do?









18. After migrating, what type of study (ies) and/or works) did you do?

19. If you are a student now, what are you studying? Are you satisfied or not with the type of

studies you do now? Explain why?

20. If you are working now, what type of work do you do? Are you satisfied or not with the type

of work you do now? Explain why?

21. How would you compare your life today to the one before you migrated?

22. When, if possible, did you think of the possibility to migrate?

23. What or who influenced you to migrate? Tell me about how she/he/ they influenced you?

24. How would you describe the person you were before migrating?

25. How would you describe the person you are today?

26. Would you describe the event that led to your migration?

27. Before migrating, would you describe your life then?

28. How would you describe how you viewed America then?

29. Tell me about what does it meet to be an immigrant?

30. What is your sex; age; and ethnicity?









APPENDIX B
INFORMANTS BACKGROUND


Table 2-4. Informants background information (AR=Arabic, FR=French, EN=English;
GNV=Gainesville, FL; CMI=Champaign,IL)
Pseudo GenderAddress Ethnicity Marital Formal Mother
-name status language Tongue
1 Omar Male GNV Arab-Algerian MarriedAR,FR, EN Darja
2Manal Female GNV Arab-Alg MarriedAR,FR, EN Darja
3 Samir Male GNV Arab -Alg/Syrian MarriedAR,FR, EN Darja/Syrian
4Lamiss FemaleGNV Arab- Syrian MarriedAR,FR, EN Syrian
5 Salah Male GNV Arab-Alg MarriedAR,FR, EN Darja
6 Sarah Female GNV Arab-Alg MarriedAR,FR, EN Darja
7 Zahra Female CMI Arab-Alg MarriedAR, EN Darja
8 Fadila Female CMI Berber-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Kabyle
9Mustafa Male CMI Arab-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Darja
10Khadra FemaleCMI Arab/Berber-Alg Married AR, FR Darja
11 Bob Male CMI Eur. American MarriedEN US English
12 Tassa'ditFemale CMI Berber-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Kabyle
13 Nuwar Male CMI Arab-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Darja
14Lamia Female CMI Arab/Berber/American Married AR, EN, little FR Darja
15 Kamel Male GNV Arab/Berber Alg. Married AR,FR, EN Darja
16Ahmed Male ChicagoArab-Alg MarriedAR,FR, EN Darja
17Jawad Male Chicago Arab-Tunisian Married AR,FR, EN Tunisian
18 Salima Female Chicago Arab-Alg MarriedAR,FR, EN Darja
19Faruja Female Chicago Berber-Alg MarriedNo Schooling Kabyle
20Fella Female Chicago Arab-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Darj a
21 Hind Female Chicago Arab-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Darja
22Duniya Female ChicagoBerber-Alg MarriedAR,FR, EN Kabyle
23 Fatiha Female Chicago Berber-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Kabyle
24Nazira Female Chicago Arab-Alg MarriedAR, EN Darja
25Asma Female Chicago Arab-Alg MarriedAR, Little FR, ENDarja
26Dawud Male GNV Arab/Berber-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Darja
27 Yasmina Female GNV Berber-Alg MarriedFR, EN, little AR Kabvle









Table 2-5. Informants' other background information.


Pseudo Gender
-name
1 Omar Male
2Manal Female
3 Samir Male
4Lamiss Female
5 Salah Male
6 Sarah Female
7Zahra Female
8Fadila Female
9Mustafa Male
10Khadra Female
11Bob Male
12 Tassadit Female
13Nuwar Male
14Lamia Female
15 Kamel Male
16Ahmed Male
17Jawad Male
18Salima Female
19Faruja Female
20Fella Female
21Hind Female
22Duniya Female
23 Fatiha Female
24Nazira Female
25 Asma Female
26Dawud Male
27 Yasmina Female


Number
of children
I Boy, 6 Months
I Boy, 6 Months
1 Girl, 2 Months
1 Girl, 2 Months
2 Boys. 2 Girls
2 Boys. 2 Girls
2 Boys. 1 Girl
1 Girl, 2 Years
1 Girl, 8 Months
1 Girl, 8 Months
1 Boy, 3 Years
1 Boy, 3 Years
1 Girl, 15 Months
1 Girl, 15 Months
1 Girl, 25 Years
1 Boy, 9 Years
2 Girls, 1 Boy
2 Girls, 1 Boy
1 Girl, 2 Boys
3 Boys, 1 Girl
2 Girls, 1 Boy
1 Girl
2 Boys, Pregnant
1 Girl, 1 Boy
1 Boy, Pregnant
1 Boy
1 Boy


Occupation


Level of edu.


Age


Phd Student Close To Graduate Early30s
Home-Maker B.S. In Economics Mid- 20s
Professor PhD In Computer Sc. Late 20s
Home-Maker B.S. In Eng.Lit Mid- 20s
Phd Student 2 Masters Mid- 40s
Arabic TeacherMasters In Arabic Lit. Early- 40s
Home-Maker High School Degree Late 20s
Home-Maker B.S. In Ling. Early- 30s
Manager B.S. In Economics Mid- 30s
Home-Maker B.S. In Economics Early30s
Professor PhD In Plant Sc. Mid- 40s
Professor PhD In Plant Sc. Late 30s
Phd Student 3 Masters In Engeniring Early 30s
Home-Maker B.S. In Psychology Mid-20s
Professor Double PhD Late 40s
Consultant PhD In Elec. Eng. Late 40s
Consultant PhD In Social Science Mid- 40s
Consultant Masters In Computer Sc. Mid-40s
Home-Maker No Official Schooling Mid-30s
Arabic TeacherB.S. In Arabic Lit. Mid-30s
Home-Maker Associate Degree Early 30s
Home-Maker Associate Degree Early 30s
Home-Maker Associate Degree Early 30s
Home-Maker Primary Edu. Mid-30s
Home-Maker Primary Edu. Early 30s
Professor PhD In Physics Mid 40s
Professor PhD In Physics Late 40s









APPENDIX C
AL-HENNA


An Algerian bridal Henna ritual from K. Arfi's fieldwork for Master's in Cultural Anthropology

done in summer 2007.

Al-Henna Taqdiim/Tbughir (Songs) and Twalwiil (Ululations)

At an Algerian friends son's wedding in New York, one of the invited friends of Algerian

origin sang these very traditional songs that are specially sung when the Henna is done on the

bride's hand in Darja. The Henna powder was mixed by one of the friends and brought to the

bride to be applied on her hands. All the women, teenage girls and children-all of Algerian

origin were sitting and standing around the bride ready for singing and/or performing the

twalwiil. Yamina was the expert in the taqdiim so she is leading the songs and those who know

the words would sing along. However, it seems that she is the only one who knows them and

once in a while I remember few lines from my childhood memories when I used to be in Algeria

and be around my family especially my aunts who were professionals. Traditionally, in Algeria,

the Henna is done by the most revered women in the house. The mother-in-law of the groom's

aunt (Zahra) was visiting from Algeria and she was honored and asked to perform the Henna to

the bride. Later on, another young woman of Moroccan origin, who moved from Orlando Florida

and got married lately to an Algerian man, finished the Henna by making designs on the hands of

the bride. The bride's two hands were beautifully designed and colored in the orange color that

would take few days to go away. This is the symbolic sign of being a bride that night and having

the two families come together on this happy occasion.

Yamina performed several traditional songs while the Henna was designed slowly on the

hands of the bride. At the end of each taqdiim, a large group of women and young girls

performed the twalwiil in one voice which make it sound like a musical instrument. In the









following, I will transcribe the taqdiim with a tentative translation, followed by twelwiil. I

divided the taqdiims into themes that were mostly said in that order. However the procession

always starts with a prayer bringing the audience and performance together.

Prayer Songs

Bismillah bismillaah..u biha yabdal-baadi, u biha yabdal-baadi..Qaddemt rabbi wan-bii
Mohammed siid syaadii... Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii

[We start] by the name of Allah, by the name of Allah... and by it starts the one who starts
[when one starts something important]... I present before me my Lord and the Prophet
Mohammed the Master of my Masters [my ancestors]... Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii

Sallu Sallu 'anbii u ya naass al matlaayma.. u ya naass al matlaayma..alli ma Sallaa 'anbi u
maahuushi minnaa.. Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii

Pray upon the Prophet Oh you who are gathered... Oh you who are gathered...any one
who does not pray upon the Prophet is not one of us... Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii

Songs Praising Bride's Beauty and Clothes

U ya raqbat al-jammaaraa, U ya raqbat al-jammaaraa. Jaa yar'a fiha nHel u yaHsablu
nuwwaara... Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii...

Oh [bride with] a neck [like] pearls, Oh [bride with] a neck [like] pearls. Flew around it
bees, thinking it was a flower... yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii...

ESghira kharjat lil Hanna u fatHat darbet eelayzaar, u fatHat darbet eelayzaar. al-'ain
mkaHla mghamja wal wajh yaDwi kii nhaar... yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii..

The young one is coming out for the Henna and she took off part of the veil, and she took
off part of the veil, the eye is [beautified by] eye liner [kuHl] and the face is lighting like
the day [light] ... yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii...

Wer-rahii lalla Sghiraa...u rahii talbess qaaTha, u rahii talbess qaaTha, satr Allah wa
jnaaH jibriil wal-HaTTa wataat-ha Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii

Where is she my young miss... she is putting on the Caftan, she is putting on the Caftan,
may Allah's protection and Jibriil's [Angel Gabriel] wing be over her [from evil eye] and
[look how] the elegance fits on her. Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii

Songs Praising Bride's Attributes and Praying for the Groom

Wa Hmaama rahii t'alli wa Hmaama rahi maajia, wa Hmaama rahi maajia, hadhi martek
yaakhuya yaj'alhaalek saajia. Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii









One pigeon is flying away and one pigeon is coming down, and a pigeon is coming down,
this is your wife Oh little brother may she be agreeable. Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii

Al Hmaama HaTatlu fis-saaHa, u HaTatlu fis-saaHa. Hathi martek yaakhuya u
yaj'alhaalek SaalHaa. Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii

The pigeon landed in his terrace...landed in his terrace, this is your wife Oh little brother
may she be among the pious. Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii

Songs of In-laws Praising the Bride

RaHna ITriiq ab'iida, wa tmash-shinaa wa 'eenaa... wa tmash-shinaa wa 'eenaa.. .wal
qinaa sajraal Hluwaa u laqqamnaa wad-diinaa... (mashaa' Allah, haila.-praise the Lord,
this song is great.) Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii

We went to a long journey, and we walked and got tired... and we walked and got
tired... and we found a sweet tree and we cut [a branch] and took from it [the tree]..
Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii

RaHna ITriiq ab'idaa u faaress yardef faarass, u faaress yardef faaress..Kath-tharti 'linaa
shruTaak ya ramgat aT-Taawass (all laugh) Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii [the groom's
mother: lukaan kayan alli y'awanha (ayya Tal'u..win rahii? Waluu?) [a guest: ana? Ana ma
na 'rafsh...(Walu?)

we went on a long journey and horses running after horses, and horses running after
horses, you made your demands too many Oh the beautiful ] one like the tail of at-Tawaass
[a peacock with colorful upper tail] Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii [the groom's mother: some
one should help her (come on say what you know...nothing?) [a guest: me I don't know
nothing...] (nothing?)

Songs of In-laws Bribing the Bride who is Supposedly Sad Leaving her Parents

U yaa lallaa Sghiira, was-sukti maa tabkiishii.. was-sukti maa tabkiishii..jabnalek u qaaT
edh-hab u bsarwaal Hshaaishii.. Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii

Oh my young miss stop and don't cry... and stop and don't cry...we brought you a QaaT
[vest in gold embroidered velvet] of gold and with it greenish pans .... (traditional bridel
suite) Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii

Songs of the Bride Consent of Marriage and the Father's Role as her Delegate

Kharjet najmet aS-SbaaH u shufu baash atkalmat.. u shufu baash atkalmat.. khraj baabahaa
lil jma'a u ghiir klaamu elli thbaat. Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii

Came out the morning star and see what did she say... and see what did she say ... came
out her father to the ljma'a [group] and only his talk was heard [his words were respected
and taken well]... Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii









Tallet najmet aS-SbaH ul qaaDhi Hal ktuubuu, wel qaaDhi Haal ktuubuu..Sghira saa'at
edh- hab, daarha fii maktuubuu.Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii (we have to translate every
thing. I look at the bride's mother who is African American and could not understand the
Algerian songs) [haki tsejli u mbe'da translation. [the bride's mother: ana baah
nsejlak..sajjaltiha? (ooo yes!) mashaa' Allah ya'Tiik aSSaHHa. (zidi maazaal... maa shaa'
Allah, la la. Nqa'dek waHdek wat-sajlihumli.

came out the morning star and the qaaDhi [marriage judge] opened his books, and the
qaaDhi opened his books, the young one, the bride is like the pocket watch; he put it in his
pocket Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii

(We have to translate every thing looking at the bride's mother who is African American
and could not understand the Algerian songs) [you are recording, after that we translate.
[the bride's mother: I need to record them. are you recording (ooo yes!) Praise be to Allah,
may God give you health. (say more...is there more... maa shaa' allah, I will take you
alone and you record them to me all).

The Song of the Bride Close Relatives Comforting the Bride and Each Other that the
Groom is of a Good Stock

U yaa lalla Sghiraa u ma tabkiish gbaalii.. u ma tabkiish gbaalii..wantiya lalla Sghira
waddek wliid Hlaali Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii

Oh my young miss...don't cry in front of me... don't cry in front of me...and you are my
young miss and the one you took you [for marriage] is rightful [from a good family].

Song Praising the Bride's Family

RuHu ruuHu yaal Hrayeer u ruHu Trig gbaalaa.. u ruHu Triig gbaalaa..jibu ziinat
aal'rayeess u mahishii manwaalaa... Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii

Go, go, Oh women [of good families] and go on the straight path... and go on the straight
path...bring the most beautiful bride who is from a good family...
Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii. End of Taqdiim



The Second Generation and the Algerian Heritage

I started talking to Farida, who is born and raised in the U.S. She is a college student.

Farida (Fa) is Yamina's (Y) niece. We spoke in Darja.

I: kash ma Hfatti A?

Fa: eh

I: kash ma Hfatti min khaaltak? saHiiH? shaaTra banti... haakdhaak..non... parceque









(F) hadhu maa bqawsh..qlaal annaass alli ya"arfuhum...(...) al mafruuD hakdhak

atbughiir... yakhruj hakdhaak.

Y: Khti waHHad-ha..tbuqar 'la wlad-ha.. 'la rajal-ha.. 'liha (hadha huwal 'aSl..tkharjuhum

sur place (F) kayen kalimaat 'assassiya..u mba'd tsammi..kul waHed bismuu...

I: ana justement dirasti habba na 'raf kifash elwaldiin rahum inaqlu attaqaliid watturaath

lawladhum

Y: eeh...mashaa allah! Wash min domain

I: ana fil anthropology

Y: eeh..

I: cultural yassamma... justement Habbit taqaliid 'aishinha annass..hadhil furSa..aHssan

waHda (giggle) baSSaH hadhuma.. .el waHad iHab yafham..esque (F) lawleed.. .qui,qui

tqulihum.. .es-que lewlaad yaffahmu el kalimaat u ma'anihuum?

Y: Banti mazalet Sghira 'ala kulli Haal tabghihum..tabghi zHuw...

I: Kima mathalan..bnaat Hania?

Y: El-kbaar yaffahmu el-Hanna yHabbuha... kishghul idiruha fi munaasabaa la'raass.

Iqullek, nalbsu taa' hna.. .baSSaH el-Hanna tandaar ...

In translation:

I: did you memorize any Farida?

Fa: ya..

I: did you memorize any from your aunt? Really.. Good girl...good... because (F) these are

not anymore.. very few people who know them...this is how should a taqdiim/tbughiir

be... it comes out [naturally] like this...









Y: My sister, she tbughar [sings] alone about her kids... about her husband... about

herself...this is the way it used to be. It comes out right away (F) .There are basic words

and you name after that every one by his name...

I: I am, as a matter of fact (F) in my study; I would like to know how are the parents

transmitting the tradition and culture to their kids?

Y: Ya...praise be to God. In which domain (F)

I: I am in anthropology (E)

Y: Ya..

I: Cultural.. I mean...as a matter of fact (F) I wanted to see how people practice their

tradition this is an occasion... the best (giggle)...but these [taqdiim] one would like to

understand... are (F) the children...when you tell them... do (F) the kids understand the

words, their meanings?

Y: My daughter is still young, but she likes them. She likes fooling around [with words]...

I: Like for example Hania's daughters? (Yamina's nieces)

Y: The older ones they understand ...the Henna they love it...they put it on in special

occasions... like weddings; they tell you they wear clothes of here (Western)... but the

henna will be done...









APPENDIX D
DIALOGUE BETWEEN AN ALGERIAN AND AN EGYPTIAN

The following is a dialogue between an Algerian child speaking Darja and an Egyptian

woman speaking Egyptian. Under each utterance, I write the other's way of saying it, then in

MSA then in English:

Egyptian friend: 'Aiza takli 'eh (name)? (Egyptian dialect)
Wash Habba takli (name)? (Algerian dialect)
Matha tuhibbin an ta'kulii (name)? (MSA)
[What would you like to eat (name)?]
Daughter: Manish habba nakul (Algerian dialect)
Mish 'aiza aakul (Egyptian dialect)
Laa 'uriidu an aakul (MSA)
[I don't want to eat.]
Egyptian friend: Leash mush 'aiza? (Egyptian dialect)
A'laash makish Habba? (Algerian dialect)
Limaadha laa turiidiin? (MSA)
[Why you don't want to?]
Daughter: Manhabuush bazzaf (Algerian dialect)
Ma bahabbush 'awi (Egyptian dialect)
Laa 'uHibbuhu kathiiran. (MSA)
[I don't like it a lot]
Egyptian friend: Bess di! (Egyptian dialect)
Bark hadhi (Algerian dialect)
[Khudhi] hadhihi faqaT (MSA)
[[Take] just this [piece]]
Daughter: Lalaa! Barkay! (Algerian dialect)
La"a! kifaaya! (Egyptian dialect)
Laa! [hadha] Yakfii! (MSA)
[No! [this is] enough!]









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Khadidja Arfi was born and raised until early adulthood in Algeria. She obtained a

teaching degree, a Licence in Biological Science in 1981 from The Univesity of Houari

Boumedienne in Algiers, Algeria. She received a second bachelor's degree in anthropology from

Southern Illinois University at Carbondale in 2006. She was admitted to the anthropology

department at the University of Florida in 2006 in the subfield of cultural anthropology. She

obtained a TA position in 2006 as an independent instructor to teach a course on beginning

Arabic (levels one and two) in the African and Asian languages program. She taught in summer

2008 an Arabic culture course at UF. She has been tutoring and volunteering to teach the Arabic

language and the religion of Islam in various communities, where she has lived with her husband

and daughter in various cities in the United States for the past two decades. She currently lives

with her husband in Archer, Florida.





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LANGUAGES OF ALGERIAN DIASPORA IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH ALGE RIAN DIASPORA IN FRANCE By KHADIDJA ARFI A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2008 Khadidja Arfi 2

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To the Algerian Community in the United States 3

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to present my tha nks and gratitude to my advi sor Dr. Gerald Murray and my committee members Dr. Abdoulaye Kane and Dr. Maria Stoilkova for their mentoring, advice, encouragement, and positive critic throughout this project. I also extend my appreciation to my professors in the Anthropology Department at th e University of Florid a and Southern Illinois University for their mentoring in anthropological knowledge in general. I am grateful to the Algerian community in the US, specifically thos e who welcomed me in their homes and allowed me to write about their lives. I am grateful to my parents, who never stopped showing their love and compassion until they passed away. I appreciate my brothers and si sters and family-in-law for their closeness and respect. I am mostly thankful for my daughter Soumayas kindness, love and friendship. I am pleased for having her husband Noureddine as a son-in-law. I am the most grateful for their precious daughter, my granddaughter Mariam, a gi ft from God, who I hope would follow on the footsteps of her ancestors in th eir love for knowledge and living in harmony. Finally, my greatest thanks is for my husband Badredines love, respect, compassion, and companionship. Our journey together has been full of cherished moments, growing together in a continuous reciprocity of ideas and thoughts about life and scie nce. I hope this paper is a beginning in an endeavor in academic writing, seek ing knowledge and doing good on earth. 4

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........8 ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................................9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .11 Literature Review.............................................................................................................. .....12 Methodology...........................................................................................................................17 Native Anthropology and Reflexivity.............................................................................17 Data Collection and Fieldwork........................................................................................19 Comparative Analysis.....................................................................................................21 Structure and Organization of the Thesis...............................................................................22 2 BACKGROUND AND ASSESSMENT: TH E ALGERIAN IM/MIGRATION TO FRANCE AND THE U.S.......................................................................................................26 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........26 Algerian Im/migration to France............................................................................................28 Labor Migration...............................................................................................................30 War and Family Reunion.................................................................................................32 Pieds Noirs...............................................................................................................33 Algerian Jews...........................................................................................................36 Harkis.......................................................................................................................36 Algerian Migration to the United States.................................................................................40 Mission of Higher Education...........................................................................................41 Graduates Return to Serve in a Conflict-Ridden Homeland...........................................47 Second Im/migration to the U.S......................................................................................49 Migration for studies or work and the role of network............................................50 The lottery visa.........................................................................................................53 Fleeing terrorism looking for stability.....................................................................55 Fleeing hard conditions and looking for better opportunities..................................58 Escaping the national army service..........................................................................60 Marriage: Al-maktuub [Providence]........................................................................60 How do New Comers Make the Transition?...................................................................63 La Montagne Neighborhood.........................................................................................66 Conclusion..............................................................................................................................67 3 BACKGROUND INFORMATI ON ON ALGERIAN LANGUAGES.................................70 Genesis and Development......................................................................................................70 5

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Berber Languages and the First Contact with Arabic.....................................................72 Summarized Comparison between Berber and Arabic Phonology and Morphology.....74 Classical Arabic............................................................................................................... 75 Modern Standard Arabic.................................................................................................76 Darja................................................................................................................................76 Dialects cline............................................................................................................77 Algerian multidiaglossia..........................................................................................79 French in Algeria.............................................................................................................79 Linguistic Conflict and Nation Building................................................................................80 Arabic/Politics and Linguistics Discourse.......................................................................80 Darja the Neutral Tongue.............................................................................................81 Berber Reform and Ethnic Revival.................................................................................82 French: Not National but Integrated Language...............................................................82 Conclusion..............................................................................................................................83 4 CODESWITCHING AND BORROWING: CONTACT BETWEEN ARABIC AND FRENCH VS. ARABIC AND ENGLISH..............................................................................84 Description of Codeswitching in General...............................................................................86 Matrix illustration...................................................................................................................86 French Matrix..................................................................................................................86 Arabic Matrix..................................................................................................................88 Use of (F) adverbial expressions in Arabic matrix..................................................89 Use of (F) verbial expressions in Arabic matrix......................................................89 Arabic matrix (borrowed English lexical)................................................................92 The definite article [al].............................................................................................94 Conclusion..............................................................................................................................97 5 LANGUAGE CONTACT AND CONFLI CT IN THE EARLY ALGERIAN DIASPORA: FRANCE..........................................................................................................98 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........98 Linguistics Performance and Cultura l Belonging on the French Soil....................................98 French competency................................................................................................100 Mother tongue teaching..........................................................................................102 The Kabyle revival in France: fr om oral to literary language................................104 The Paradox of Nationality and Citizenship.........................................................................109 The Beurs: An Identity Construct and a Racialized Generation........................................110 Conclusion............................................................................................................................120 6 THE ALGERIAN LANGUAGES IN THE UNITED STATES..........................................121 English Language Dominance in a Multicultural Society....................................................121 Algerians Perception of Eng lish vs. Migrating Languages..........................................124 Proficiency in English, Names, Citizenship and Success..............................................125 English Proficiency and Identity...................................................................................127 French (F) Maintenance among Algerian Americans..........................................................128 6

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French, a Language of Communication in Algerian American Families......................128 French, a Language of a Rich Literature and its Rootedness in Algerian History........130 French Neglect, Loss and Replacement in the US........................................................131 Algerian Mother Tongues in the Diaspora...........................................................................134 Tamazight/Kabyle/Berber Language in the Diaspora...................................................134 The Arabic Language and dialect Maintena nce and Transmission in the Diaspora.....138 Darja, the Langua Franca among North Africans.........................................................138 Arabic FuSHa: MSA and CA........................................................................................144 Arabic and religious continuity..............................................................................145 Arabic and historical continuity.............................................................................146 Arabic and the Ar ab/Muslim identity.....................................................................147 The Arabic language and the American foreign policy.........................................147 Arabic Dialects Contact and Conflict...................................................................................148 Darja and the Accommodation of Other Arabic Dialects..............................................148 Dialects vs. MSA and the Dilemma of Having a Middle Eastern Arabic Teacher.......151 Conclusion............................................................................................................................153 7 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.................................................................156 Conclusion............................................................................................................................156 Recommendations................................................................................................................ .164 APPENDIX A SCHEDULE INTERVIEW..................................................................................................168 B INFORMANTS BACKGROUND.......................................................................................170 C AL-HENNA..........................................................................................................................172 Al-Henna Taqdiim/Tbughir (Songs) and Twalwiil (Ululations)..........................................172 Prayer Songs...........................................................................................................173 Songs Praising Brides Beauty and Clothes...........................................................173 Songs Praising Brides Attributes and Praying for the Groom..............................173 Songs of In-laws Praising the Bride.......................................................................174 Songs of the Bride Consent of Marriage and the Fathers Role as her Delegate...174 The Song of the Bride Close Relatives Comforting the Bride and Each Other that the Groom is of a Good Stock.....................................................................175 Song Praising the Brides Family...........................................................................175 The Second Generation and the Algerian Heritage..............................................................175 D DIALOGUE BETWEEN AN ALGERIAN AND AN EGYPTIAN....................................178 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................179 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................183 7

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 An Illustration of the verb I write/we write..........................................................................78 2-2 An example of (D) in comparison to MSA, E, and F, which is not yet influenced by foreign borrowing:.............................................................................................................84 2-3 Borrowed Words from E into D among later immigrants:......................................................95 2-4 Informants background information......................................................................................170 8

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Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts LANGUAGES OF ALGERIAN DIASPORA IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH ALGE RIAN DIASPORA IN FRANCE By Khadidja Arfi August 2008 Chair: Gerald Murray Major: Anthropology This work explores the dynamics of the Algeri an languages in contact in the United States in comparison with the first Algerian Diaspora to France. In my case study, I specifically focus on the changes in the perceptions of Algerians towards their languages, and on the dynamics of adaptation in their new linguistic communities. This thesis will contribute to the field of social sciences in that it deals with Algerian languages and their speakers, a linguistic community that has seldom been studied in the United States. There are five traditionally important languages in Algeria: Quranic Arabic (CA), Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), Darja (North African Ar abic dialect), Berber (Kabyle) and French. Neither CA nor MSA are spoken in the homes or on the street in Algeria, but both are important for religious, nationalistic, educational, and/or symbolic reas ons. In the recent phenomenon of migration to the U.S., migrating adults and thei r children have been forced to learn English, thereby drastically reducing the opportunities and/or th e need to learn CA, MSA, and French. Both Darja and Berber continue to be transmitted orally to children as both are used for daily communication in most homes. Although CA, MS A, and French are no longer functionally 9

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10 important for daily communication or survival in an American society, their loss among migrant children generates identity tensi ons and concerns among the adult migrants. The thesis explores to some depth the ensuing language struggles, su ccessful adaptations (or lack thereof), and losses.

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This study explores the dynamics of the Algeri an languages in contact in the United States in comparison with the first Algerian Diaspora (which occurred in France). In my case study, I specifically focus on the following aspects: first, the changes in the pe rceptions of Algerians towards their languages, and, second, the dynami cs of adaptation in their new linguistic communities. This thesis will contribute to the fi eld of social sciences in that it deals with Algerian languages and their spea kers, a linguistic community that has seldom been studied in the United States. There are five traditionally important langua ges in Algeria: Qu ranic Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), Darja (North African vernacular based on, but not completely mutually intelligible with, other Arabic di alects), Berber (Kabyle) and French. Many Algerians know all five languages. Yet most Algerians know at leas t three. Neither Quranic Arabic nor Modern Standard Arabic are spoken in the homes or on th e street in Algeria, but both are important for religious, nationalistic, and/or sy mbolic reasons. In the recent phe nomenon of migration to the U.S., migrating adults and their children have b een forced to learn English, thereby drastically reducing the opportunities and/or the need to learn Quranic Arabic, MSA, and French. Both Darja and Berber continue to be transmitted or ally to children as both are used for daily communication in most homes. However, these children no longer have automatic access to the other three languages since the la tter owe their continual presen ce on the Algerian linguistic map to formal/institutional education in public and private schools. Although these three languages are no longer functionally important for daily communication or surv ival in an American society, the new home for the new immigrants and their children, the loss of these three languages among migrant children generates identity tensions a nd concerns among the adult migrants. The thesis 11

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explores to some depth the ensu ing language struggles, successful adaptations (or lack thereof), and losses. Literature Review In 1953 Weinreich pioneered the first study on the topic of language contact. Since then, many other scholars have investigated languages in contact and conflict from various angles. In situations of contact with dominant language (s), many researchers fo cus on the dynamics of maintenance, shift, loss and re vival of minority languages. Jo shua Fishman, who became known as the father of language mainte nance and language shift, was the first to coin it in 1966 in his famous book Language Loyalties in the United States. This book was written at a time of Americanization. Fishman became impassioned about studying the extent and status of cultural and language maintenance efforts (Fishman 1966: 16) in America at a time of the dominance of English only law which was the symbol of one integration and assimilation. Yet, thirty years later, in 1992, the complexity of this topic brough t him together in a conference with many other scientists and researchers from multiple disciplines such as linguistics, education, psychology, sociology, political science, and anthropology from all over the world (Fishman 1992: 396). Yet, according to Fishman, among many researchers, there is a down playing of language maintenance and over-emphasizing of language shift. He explains that there is a negative side of the language maintenance/shift cont inuum, a fact evidenced by deta iled studies on attrition, shift, endangerment, loss and death. He notes that, in comparison, topics such as reversal, revival, restoration, revitalization and de stabilization are much less closely studied and are in fact infrequently mentioned. Or, as he put it: The inability of living in accord with ones own preferred model of the historically validated good life language maintenance a nd language shift are not just topics that constitute part of the sociolinguistic enterprise ; they are processes; that are part and parcel of the very agony and the very joy of individu al and collective life itself. The struggle for reversing language shift is part of the struggle for language shift. These two struggles 12

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always have and always will go on and we are all intimately involved in these struggles ourselves. There is no escape, neither as scie ntists, as citizens nor even just as human beings (Fishman 1992: 402-3). In my empirical ethnographic work with the Al gerian language community case in the U.S., I add to the previous research a number of new phe nomena that have seldom been studied before. I thus show how struggles for sh ift and reversing, ma intenance and loss are expressed and acted upon. In my case study, the contact and conflic t is not only with the dominant language Englishbut also amongst various Arab dialects (e.g., Egyptian, Sy rian, Saudi, or Iraqi.) This makes the aspirations and pro cesses to maintain and transm it the home language much more complex. In an edited book, Maintenance and Loss of minority languages (1992), Fase William, Koen Jaspaert and Sjaak Kroon argue that in vari ous cases of mobility and displacement even the voluntary migration has an impact on the transm issibility of ones own culture (e.g., religion) language to the next generations Most parents and grand parent s wish for the day that their values and behaviors are transmitted to their offsprings. These topics are at the heart of my research. Whether in the firstFranceor the lateAmericamigration, my fundamental question is about the fate of the migrating language s. In the Algerian situation, I suspect that language shift and fluctuation in language use may happen as a result of the following. The dominant group does not know Arabic, Berber or French, thereby forcing Algerians to learn English as quickly as possible in order to su rvive. Unlike the Pennsylvania Dutch or German immigrants (Fase et al. 1992: 5) who isolated th emselves from the majority society and refused to speak English, Algerians do not segregate themse lves. To the contrary, they integrate quickly in the community at large and thus face the ch allenge of communicating in the dominant groups language. This is how members of the minority Be rber and Arabic group shift toward the use of the dominant language in most of their contact with the dominant group. However, much like the 13

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case of other language communities (Fase et al. 1992: 6), the extent of the shift in Berber and Arabic will be determined by the extent of the interethnic communications that is established. As put by Fase and associates: As long as there is a minority group, as long as the minority group is not demographically broken up, the use of the minority language will not disappear unless the norms of language use within the group ar e changed [which would make the bilingualism disappear all together] (Fase et al. 1992: 7). My case study shows that as long as we have a group speaking Arabic, Berber and or French, and English, evolving towards a form of a stable bilingualism, the shift is not complete. A bilingual/trilingual community is established, speaking English with the English speaking communities and the other languages and sometim es as well as English inside the group. I suggest that when looked at from the inside the group might be defined as one of the following categories: Berber, Arab-Berber, North African, Middle Eastern or the larger group of Arabic speaking people. Investigating within the minor ity group(s) is a tricky situation however; it reveals many complex issues, tensions, and loyalties. What la nguage (s) or dialect (s) do the members speak? Who is speaking the other languag e or dialect? Who would try to learn the others dialect or language and is it always one way? Who is a mi nority within a minority group (s)? Dialects in contact is a major theme in this thesis. This topic has been studied by many scholars since the 1970s. For example, Giles et al. (1973), Giles et al. (1987), Giles & Coupland (1991) deal with the accommodation theory. Trudjill (1982, 1983 and 1986) considers various cases from the world emphasizing accommodation theory but also studying cases of dialect mixture and even the growth of new dialects. Finally, Shiri ( 2002) presents a case of Tunisian and middle Easterners intellectuals in Engl and. She presents attitudes of convergence and divergence of the former speaking to the latter. 14

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Dialects in Contact inquiry is essential to the st udy of language contact in the Diaspora in general and applies well to the Algerian cas e. However, I noticed that in the previous American literature as well as in the literature that specializes more on the Arabs, such as Sulaiman (2000) and Roushdy (2002), an absence of such studies, that is, on the topic of dialectology, despite higher leve ls of contact between the Arab communities in the U.S. with the exception of Shiris study published in Roushdys edited book 2002. However, Shiris case was done in Europe not America. In my case I study the perceptions of Algerians when meeting other Arabs and their testimonies about the tensions and accommoda tions, or lack thereof, when meeting other Arabs. As discussed in Chapter 5, the Algerian dilemma is doubly tested by being in contact with English as a dominant language but also by dealing with other Arab communities and the latters attitudes toward Algerians in general as bei ng non-Arabic speaking people. We can say that the categorization of A rab American as one homogeneous minority group in America can easily be contested. Outs ide the group, the member s speak the dominant English language. However, within the Arab Americans there are many other subgroups of minority groups. For example, when a North Af rican meets an Egyptian, it is the Algerian, Moroccan or Tunisian who would accommodate by speaking the Egyptian dialect or by refusing to conform and speak standard Arabic or even English. In case of a Berber, on many occasions those who only know Berber, French, and Darja would speak English to an Egyptian because of the latters inability to unders tand Darja. So, in order to communicate, members of this minority group, who seem to be part of one uni fied language communityArabic, would resort to using within the group the language of the dominant societyEnglish. I would argue that in order to understand the processes of language main tenance and language shift, it is imperative to 15

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investigate changes in language choice(s) in intra-group communications and ask under what conditions and how do these changes occur. I also focus on the study of language loss or changes as well as langua ge proficiency as it relates to the individual rath er than the group. Throughout this work, I focus on addressing the following questions: Who is losing the abilit y to use the language(s)? What are the characteristics and values of th e lost in relation to the indi vidual? What are the linguistic elements that are affected? How does the process of loss affect these elements? Which elements are affected, which are not, and why? In this pur suit, it is important to investigate the peoples sense of being as well as their perceptions on la nguage shift and loss of certain language(s) or dialect(s). In the Algerian la nguages case study, I thus investigat e and try to understand how the human mind deals with language incompetence/competence and co mpetence/performance within the social environments. Fishman (1966), Fase et al. (1992), Portes & Schauffler ( 1996) and many others put emphasis on the dynamics of language(s) shift, maintenance and loss in a community. I would suggest that migrating with four or five language s is an asset. To forget them and replace them with one language is a loss for the individual, community and soci ety at large. My study shows through empirical work and ethnographic examples not only the dilemmas, tensions and conflicts in language contact. The study also brings forth and highlights the invisible work of the Algerian migrating speech communities. In the privacy of their homes and in their local communities, the members of these new comers to America work to maintain and transmit their linguistic wealth which has traversed oceans and mountains and come to a continent to have a new beginning. This beginning is in the hands of those who love to communicat e in various tongues and cherish 16

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the human ability to speak in different tongues. Sc ience is proving again and again that a child is able to learn several languages at once; yet it is up to us to prove it in practice. Methodology In this section, I address the meaning and importance of being a reflexive native anthropologist when studying my own culture. In the research design, I explain my fieldwork strategy, how I collected the data, and how I chos e my informants, their number and where they are from. Finally, I explain the im portance of using comparative study, especially is the case of Algerian migrating groups. Native Anthropology and Reflexivity When I geared my interest toward the study of cultural anthropology in the year 2001, as a discipline, historically, anthropology had already overcome the problem of positivism. A sustained problematization of ethnographic texts eventually led to the development of the reflexivity approach. In the ear ly 1980s, researchers such as Barbara Myerhoff and Jay Ruby (1982) advocated the topic of reflexivity whic h became part of anthropology, especially for native anthropologists. Reflexive anthropology took away the overe mphasis on objectivity that has been haunting anthropologists for too long. Being reflective during ethnographic work is not about discovering and describing the realit ies of the other to us. Ra ther, it is to reflect and be responsible as well as accountable for what we write and how we represent the matter and the people investigated. Through reflexivity we are not s hy to say that as researchers we are affected by our informants and they are affected by us. Su ch work not only reflects the realities of the cultures under study. It also acknow ledges the obvious fact that we are humans before being researchers, remain humans as we investigate, and cannot escape being so when we interpret the results of our findings. We interact with each ot her at a psychosocial/social level before taking 17

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the data and using it in ethnogra phic writings. Yet, the emphasis on reflexivity when it comes to what is labeled as native anthropologist beco mes an obligation more th an it is for non-native anthropologists. When starting this project, I had in mind the study of my people who migrate in the United States of America. Yet, I understood th at it does present a variety of challenges. However, I believe that its benefits surpass it s limitations. It is true that I am studying the languages of Algerians, languages of people coming from the same culture I grew up in and relate to. However, when doing fieldwork, the challenge is not produced as a result of being Algerian, Arab, Berber, Muslim, or a woman. In fact the most daunting challenge I found was that my interviewees think I am joking in asking them what they assume I already know about my culture. It was not a surprise to me, and, as a matter of fact, I went prepared to face such attitudes. Indeed, I formulated my questions and intervened when needed to ask follow-up questions in ways that pushed my interview ees to express their t houghts and opinions in a reflective manner. Critics of Native anthropology may state that there is a bias toward native informants or that we might take for granted wh at we are supposed to investigate in the first place. However, during my fieldwork and writing, I found that the challenge came from something else. My own understanding might sometimes c onflict with my interviewees opinions and I sometimes would feel an urge to contest them, much like any other anthropologist. As Ryang emphases in her writings about native anthropol ogists dilemmas and problems (1997; 2005), it is assumed that being from the same culture means perceiving and applying the same codes the same way. In looking at native anthropologist s this way, the heterogeneity of cultures and human in general is rather dismissed. This study is important to me as it is not only the story of Algerian 18

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immigrants but also of my own. As Charlotte Al l Davis says it well: We must remind ourselves that we tell our stories through others (All Davies 2007:10). What I learned from this experience is that being reflexive means remaining in constant social mutuality between me and my informants before, during, and after my fieldwork. Yet, I recognize that my position in the field influences the data that I acquire the same way my interviewees influenced my id eas and writing. As a novel native anthropologist I would hope to stay at a high level of deep thinking and achie vement the way many scholars who influenced my thoughts did before and still are. Achievemen ts such as those by Appadurai, Ong, Abu-Lughud, Assad, Ryang and many others as leading native anthropologists encourage me to achieve and achieve to the best. As Ryang puts it best: Of course not all anthropologist s and scholars with various na tive or other connections can make their cultural assets useful, but at least we should be able to question the validity of the image of anthropologists as a group of scholars who as a rule do fieldwork and stick to writing about the people in the field, who are presumably different from the culture where the anthropologist comes from; fieldwork is he re taken as something that is necessarily juxtaposed or counterpoised to her 'native' culture. It would be a ll the better if the anthropologist could use her own example to explore further the society she studies and that example does not have to be alien to, or far from, everyday practices of the studied society. Putting things this way at least enable s us to avoid exoticism and other branches of Orientalism including Occidentalism. It also al lows for coexistence of 'nativeness' (in the transformative sense, as in the cases of O ng and Appadurai) with an thropology, rather than dismissing it as contra dictory (Ryang 1997: 39). Data Collection and Fieldwork I did fieldwork in three places: Gainesville, Florida; Champaign and Chicago, Illinois. I initiated my interviews the first week of June 2006 in Gainesville then traveled on the first week of July to Illinois where I spent three weeks then returned one more time at the end of August for a few days during which I met more Algerians. I chose these three cities because I was interested to find two or three categories of Algerian migrants, namely, professionals, students, and workers. I chose to have a comparative study betw een the two or three groups as well as compare 19

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the Arabic speaking to the Amazighi speaking Algerians. Finally, I compare the Algerian migrants to those in France. I got my interviewees in a snowball fashion, through personal connections, family relations and friends. The interviews were all held in a family setting at the homes of the interviewees, except for one focus group of seven women with wh om I arranged a meeting in a public park in Chicago for a few hours. My questions schedule wa s designed in semi-structured interviews and open-ended questions designed prim arily around family history and other relevant questions to the topic studied (appendix A). When needed there was a follow up through telephone, e-mails, and/or personal visits. I also did participant observati on whenever I got with some Algerian friends and relatives during family and fr iends visits, ladies for coffee, making Algerian pastriesBaqlawaand at one Algerian wedding in New York for a few days. In these informal meetings, I had also the opportunity to observe younger generations of various ages and gender of Algerian/Americans in family and ceremonial settings. I conducted 27 personal interviews for more than 30 hours in total, with each mee ting lasting no less than two hours. The 26 interviewees were proportionally divided, as reve aled by the interviewees themselves; gender: 10 male and 17 female, ethnicity: 15 Arab, 6 Berber 4 AraboBerber, 1 AraboBerber American, and 1 European American, educational level, and status (Appendix B) (Table 2-4). My analysis of the data actually started when I chose the topic to study, crafted my questions, decided on my informants, and the us e of the language during the interviews. Each interview was recorded on a digital recorder in E nglish, Arabic, or both. I transcribed the tapes in the language they were spoken. If English was used I transcribed them the same way. However, sometimes Arabic is included too and I would thus transcribe it in English phonetics then translate it to English. When the interviews are in ArabicDarja, I transcribe them using roman 20

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phonetics then translate them by myself (only 13/ 26 informants spoke in Arabic). During this time consuming but valuable work, I spent a bout 300 hours transcribing and translating the interviews. The content analysis was done in va rious ways. Sometimes I started it during the transcription, especially when important in formation would pop up. I would comment on it, and write in bold the theme that may be of importan ce later on. I find this activity to be of great importance and very useful because while listeni ng to the taped interviews again and transcribe it, I remember the facial impressions and the mean ing of that specific mome nt. I thus learned that data analysis cannot be done in one step but is rather a multilayer analysis that brings out interesting themes to form the end project. Comparative Analysis The data I collected in the three previously mentioned American cities was used as my core information for Chapter 6 Language Contac t and Conflict in the U.S. In the process, I compare my findings with those migrating to Fr ance. Of course, I did not do my complete research in France. I relied on personal phone ca lls with Algerians currently living or who lived in France for a long time and who understand the sociolinguistic situ ation over there. I cant say that they were enough to give me a deep understanding on the situa tion. Thus, I relied on previous work done by Algerians, French, and Am erican researchers on the topic. The French literature on the Algerians in France is rich a nd varied. In comparison, the American academia on the matter is almost minimum in relation to Al gerians migrating to the U.S., especially when we compare American scholarly work on other migrating speech communities. The work I am presenting is I believe one of the first on Algerian s in the U.S. I hope that it will contribute to build a larger bibliography on Algerian s and North Africans in the U.S.A. 21

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Structure and Organization of the Thesis This thesis consists of an introduction and six chapters. Chapter 2 presents the various social groups that have been traced to migrate from Algeria since the be ginning of the twentieth century until today to both France and the Unite d States and for what possible reasons. In the first part I address the various social groups who went to Fran ce since early tw entieth century until independence. I focus on the Algerians who were sent to fight for France during WWI and WWII, the labor workers after WWII, and the expatriates from Alge ria at the break of independence including pieds noir Algerian Jews and Harkis In the second part, I present the social groups who came to the United States in the late 1970s first as students and then in the 1990s as voluntary and semi-voluntary migrants, es pecially through the lo ttery visas during and after the break of violence in Algeria. In order to better grasp the situation of language(s)/dialects contact and conflict of Algerian s with other old and new immigra nt communities in the United States, which is the aim of this thesis, this chapter is significant for tracing the development of the Algerian migration to thes e two important destinations, France and the U.S, focusing on similarities and differences in migrant motiva tions and linguistic experiences. This chapter answers questions such as: What are the social gr oups that migrated from Algeria? When and under what conditions did they l eave their country to become residents and citizens of two different continents beyond seas and oceans away from their homeland? What made many Algerians like other Africans ex plore new routes and destinations of migration other than Europe, in the last three decades? Chapter 3 is a summary on the genesis and de velopment of the langua ges of Algeria as well as the linguistic tensions in post-colonial Algeri a. I present the languages starting with Tamazight then followed by ArabicCA, MSA, Darja, and finally French. I present these languages relationships to the North African region and to each other in phonology, 22

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morphology, and lexical borrowing. I look at these languages role in nation building and the tensions and conflict that emerge in independe nt Algeria. I, specifically, analyze the two dominant languages, Arabic and French and how they compete in independent Algeria at the political, intellectual, and social levels. I make note of two importa nt points: First, Darja plays a neutral role as a way of comm unication between all ethnicities Second, Tamazight, the language of Berber ethnic groups, is slowly being standa rdized and moving beyond its oral character. Chapter 4 is a linguistic analysis expl aining the phenomenon of codeswitching and borrowing between the languages migrating from Alge ria to the United States. In order to do that it is important to understand the Arabic matrices of both regional (Darja) and standard (MSA) as well as analyze their mutual relationships. Ye t, when meeting the Western languages, first French and then English, the interaction with each other open new ways of use that are worth studying in the domain of language contact. In chapter 5, I discuss the Alge rians sociolinguistic experien ce in France. It focuses on im/migrants and French citizens of Algerian or igin in France since early migrations and in contemporary situations. The chapte r is divided into five parts. The first explains the importance of competence in the dominant language a way to escape the migr state of mind. The second part investigates the endeavor to teach and transmit mother tongues Arabic and Kabyle. I specifically examine the efforts to revive and tr ansform Kabyle in France from an oral to a literary language bearing in mi nd the political complexities th e two nation-states, France and Algeria. In part three, I touc h upon the paradox of nationality a nd citizenship for the Muslim French of Algerian origin and their sense of belonging. Part four deals with the Beurs, a reminder of racial exclusion and a voice of solidarity and differenc e. Finally, part five includes 23

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vignettes of the Beurs generati on and excerpts of their double so cialization in a society that ties them to the land of origin as a reminder of their forever foreignness. Chapter 6 presents the case study of this thesis. It explores the linguistic situation of the Algerian immigrants in the US by focusing on ch anges in their perceptions and attitudes toward their language(s) as experienced in the Anglophone environment. I document when appropriate how linguistic outcomes among Algerians who immigrat ed to the United States differ from those who immigrated to France as well as those who did not leave the home country. Based on my empirical data done in the three communities mentioned in the methodology section, I attempt to explain how the migrating Algerian languages to the U.S., whether, Kabyle, Arabic including its vernacular Darja, or French play different roles in America than wh at they played in Algeria or France. I explain how in America the survival of these languages depends on whether they fulfill a practical and/or symbolic meaning a nd function. This general theme is developed through an approach that probes how the Algerian immigrants in the US represent and use these languages. In this pursuit, the chapter specifi cally addresses the following issues: (I) the dominance of the English language in a multicul tural society and how Algerians perceive the role of proficiency in English as a road to success, (II) the attriti on of the French language and its replacement with Arabic and English in spite of the fact that the French language is embedded in the cultural memories of Algeri ans, (III) the role of parental tongues (Tamazight and Arabic) and the changes in the perceptions and attitudes of the people who speak them, and (IV) the case of Arabic contact and conflict with other Arabs in the Diaspora and the development of new identities and solidarities. Chapter 7 presents the conclusion and s uggests some recommendations. I specially summarize the similarities and differences between Algerian languages in the U.S. and France. I 24

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25 then compare the Algerian languages in the U.S. to other minority language communities, focusing on two important linguistic characters (either as being oral or written) and how this may or may not affect the transmission of the mo ther tongues to younger generations. Whether the new Algerian Diaspora would survive in the new world and how its linguistic heritage might evolve are two questions that I try to answer in the section on reco mmendations. In sum, I propose a method of approaching dialects contact ba sed on an ethics that encourages and accepts variety in language in a multic ultural/multilingual society that America is already or transforming to.

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CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND AND ASSESSMENT: THE AL GERIAN IM/MIGRATION TO FRANCE AND THE U.S. Introduction Since the early twentieth centu ry, Algerians have been trav eling and migrating to France which is much closer and familiar to them than the United States, both in language and culture. Various Algerian ethnic and reli gious groups first immigrated to France. Only much later did Algerians migrate to the U.S. In order to be tter grasp the situation of language(s)/dialects contact and conflict of Algerian s both with other older and newe r immigrant communities in the United States, which is the aim of this thes is, it is necessary to somewhat retrace the development of the Algerian migration to these two important destinations, France and the U.S, focusing on similarities and differences in migr ant motivations and linguistic experiences. What are the social groups th at migrated from Algeria? When and under what conditions did they leave their country to become re sidents and citizens of two different continents, beyond seas and oceans, far away from their homeland? What made many Algerians like other Africans explore new routes and destinations of migration ot her than Europe in the last three decades? In order to answer these and other complex questions, a multi-disciplinary approach that goes beyond the labor migration South/North form ula is needed. In th e age of globalization, research on international migrati on can no longer be mono-disciplina ry and national in focus. In accordance with Edmondton and Passel (1994), Castle s explains that we need an approach that links between the world economy, migratory processes, minority formation and social change (Castles 2000: 90). In studying immigration, ethnicity and the in tegration of Americas newest arrival, Edmondton and Passel not ice an increase in immigrati onlegal, illegal migration or refugeesin the 1970s and 1980s (Edmondton and Pa ssel 1994: 2). In a study of ethnicity and globalization, Castles (2000) gives great importance to non-econom ic factors such as policy 26

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change, the Immigration Act of 1965 that reintr oduced immigration to th e United States or the world dramatic change in 1980s (e.g., oil crisis, end of cold war, fa ll of Berlin Wall), leading to a phenomenal increase in the number of immigrants to the U.S. (Castles 2000: 8). According to Mobasher and Sadri, four decades [after the oblig ation of the National Orig in Act and its quota system that have been replaced by the immigr ation Act of 1965], the volume of immigrants to the U.S. is again approaching the levels of Eur opean immigration of the early twentieth century. The U.S. has become the desired destination of millions of immigrants from Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America, South America, As ia, and Africa (Mobasher & Sadri eds/ 2004: xi). In this chapter, I follow the chronological development of the Algerian migration to France then to the US. In this pursuit I focus on the social, politicalglobal and localwith an emphasis, if need be on class, gender, ethnicity and religion. The information in this chapter relies on several sources: First, I draw on ava ilable secondary literature on the Algerian/France situation. Second, I utilize fieldwor k data that I collected in thr ee American cities where I met with Algerians individually, in groups and in acti vities. Finally, I draw on the fact that I am an immigrant to the states and hence I do draw, when appropriate, on my own insights and life experiences. This chapter is divided into two parts. The fi rst one deals with the Algerian migration to France while the second one discusses the case of the United States. In brief, I present a comparative analysis of the two migrations first to France then to America. In this pursuit I draw parallels between old and new Algerian migration and hence find the similarities and differences in demographic, political, socio and economic dimensions that would help in explaining the cultural adaptations in a new home America. 27

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Algerian Im/migration to France Algerias relation to France star ted long ago with the French seizure of the then Ottoman capital Algiers in 1830. At that time, the migra tion was from France and Europe to Algeria. Nearly two million French settlers came in wa ves and proclaimed that Algeria was French (Cohen 1995: 13). In 1830, the Algerian population was about four millions. Due to poverty and an epidemic of cholera, it dropped to 2.5 millions in 1890. By the Algerian independence 1962, it was less then ten millions peoples. In the 132 years of colonization, the FrenchEuropean settlers colonized and controlled the fertile Algeri an land to turn it into l e grenier de lEurope, exporting grains, citrus and other natural resource s to benefit them and the French Republic. As a result, Algeriansboth Arab and Berberbecame laborers and wage workers to the colons sometimes in their own ancestral land. Many landless indigenous people had to resettle to urban areas and big cities looking for daily work just enough to keep them alive. By the turn of the twentieth century, many Algerians, especially Be rber men from the Kabylia mountainous regions crossed the sea in search of work in France. I begin with a discussion of the various Algerian ethnic, re ligious, and political communities and the reason behind their im/migra tion to France. The oldest migratory flows between the two countries started from the north to the south in the 1830s when settlers from various European countries were encouraged by th e French colonizers to immigrate to, settle in, and take control of vast fertile lands in Algeria. In contrast, the south to north migration did not begin before 1900s with at the beginning assumi ng the form of labor migration. Due to land loss and extreme poverty, thousands of Algerian, es pecially males from the Kabyle region of Northern Algeria, became guest workers in variou s French cities. Algerians played an important role in replacing French labor force during WWI. They were also used in many dangerous activities such as cl earing minefields, an activity in which tens of thousands of lives were lost. 28

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Contrary to other African coloni zed countries, because they were French citizens, Algerians had the advantage of moving freelyyet disc riminated against from the Frenchbetween France and Algeria which was considered a Fren ch department. Since the end of WWII, the number of Algerians entering France increased, es pecially with the intensified violence of the war of liberation. As a result, si nce the late 1950s the character of migration shifted to a forced immigration of various groups. Among these gr oups were members who reunited with their families. Yet, others fled the violent situati on leaving behind properties, jobs and a homeland. There were the Pieds Noirs, the Algerian Jews, and the Muslim Harkis. Until today, various political, religious, or ethnic groups remain attached to the memories of a lost home. Yet, their social, political and economic adaptations in their new home, France, depend on complex factors which may be beyond personal choices and desires. I dwell on these issues in more detail later in the chapter. In the second part of the chap ter, I present the course of Algerian im/migration to the U.S. focusing on its global and nationa l causes. After Algeria became independent and since the late 1970s, Algerian migrants started looking elsewh ere for immigration, especially after France limited the entrance visas for Algerians (as well as other third word c ountries) due to economic crisis and deteriorating political relations between the two coun tries. However, by this time, young Algerians were traveling to other Western countries including the U.S. for higher education with the aim to return and engage in the development of their independent nation-state. Despite its smaller number, in comparison to the Algerian migration to France, immigration to the U.S. is significant because of its relation to major global changes. The complexity of the issue suggests that there are several explic it and implicit factors needed to account for a (relatively speaking) massive migration of Algerians from different socio-economic statuses, as 29

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presented in this part of the chapter. I propose that there were in fact two distinct waves of migration from Algeria to the US, one in the late 1970s oriented toward higher education and a second wave starting during the black decade of the 1990s. Among those fleeing in these hard times were many graduates of US colleges and uni versities who had return ed earlier to serve a homeland which soon became engulfed in a major and bloody conflict. Entering the U.S. became legalized through the visa lottery and professional or student visa s that the American government made available to thousands of Algerians lookin g for a safe place for their families away from terrorism and the chaotic period in Algeria in the 1990s. Deciding to leave their own country and familiar place is not easy, yet, being safe a nd stable in their social and economic lives became vital. Many young men were fleeing enlistme nt in the national m ilitary service during the crisis, hence preferring to leav e the country than to participate in the killing of their people. Many young women found marriage to be a safe way out if they found a good match in the states where they would be able to start a family and be safe. The transition to a new environment such as the U.S would not be easy without social soli darities and the human touch of many Algerians and Americans. Labor Migration A July 15, 1914 French law considered Algerians to be French subjects, thereby differentiating them from the French citizens. The law however became an advantage for mobility. Contrary to Tunisia and Morocco that we re both protectorates after being occupied in 1881 and 1912 respectively, Algeria was theoreti cally not a colony but an extension of Metropolitan France (Cohen 1995: 14). As a result, few thousands of Algerians, predominantly Kabyles migrated to various French cities of Ma rseille, Paris and the No rth region as laborers in the chemical, mining and metal industries. During WWI, the number of Algerians in France increased close to some one hundred thousands to replace the French who were in the trenches. 30

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Many were used to clear minefields and in other dangerous activiti es. According to Stora (1992), one hundred seventy three thous ands Algerians were drafted into the army, twenty five thousands of whom lost their lives during th e war (Stora 1992: 14 in Lucassen 2005: 173). Until the 1950s, emigration to France remained male dominated, with a focus on income generation and sending remittances. Like the Mexican farmers in the United States, the early men who migrated to France did not have a need to become fluent in French in order to survive. Their immediate objective was to work hard, collect money and send remittances back to the village, to their families who were in extreme need of resources. The exceptional arrangement of free mobility was also justified by the blood debt of France toward the Algerians in two world wars (Mallaird 2005: 64). Alge rians believed in De Gaulles speech in Constantine on October 3, 195 8 when he called the people of Algeria fullfledged Frenchmen. Since Algerian Muslims or Arabs, as they we re called, already held French citizenship by assimilation, once they were in Fr ance, they were allowed to circulate freely between France and Algeria. Yet, upon arriving to France, these young men lived in poor and crowded conditions. They were mostly busy w ith hard work and had seldom any time to socialize with other French. They were moved to more descent bachelor s residents and housed with their peers speaking their mother tongue and cooking the same food they used to eat back in the village in Kabylia. This social seclusion fr om the rest of the French population was also beneficial to the French government to have more control on the Algerian war (1954 1962) which the FLN Front de Liberation Nationale or Front of Nationa l Liberationdecided to export to France as a strategy of gaining more inte rnational as well as Fren ch recognition of their struggle to free the country. 31

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War and Family Reunion In the 1950s and early 1960s the family reunion and immigration intens ified as a result of the war of liberation declared by the FLN in early 1950s. In a personal inte rview, Fadila, one of the new AlgerianKabyleimmigrants to the US, narrates the case of her first cousin who left at the age of sixteen to France becoming the first of four generations of Algerian immigrants; she explains in Darjathe Algerian dialect: It was in 1944. My cousin was 16 years old when he left his village in Kabylia to go to France looking for work. Yet, he was an adhere nt of FLN against the French colonialism. He got married with his cousin who was only 13 years old and left her behind in the village [with the extended family and sending money and visiting when possible]. 16 years later, in 1960, she joined him to France. They used to speak only Kabyle; however, they knew Darja and fuSHa. He got self educated in French and became a businessman owning a hotel in Barbess, called Le Pr intanier (personal interview wi th Fadila. in U.S. 2007). Scarcity of work during colonialism and extrem e poverty pushed many illiterate Algerian men to be enrolled in the labor force in the rebuilding of France after WWII. This first contact with the French outside Algeria will eventually turn out be of a special type. During the war for independence betw een1954, many more Algerians fled the country with their families looking for safety, better living conditions, and education. As Vencent Viet explains: About 14.000 single workers and 1,800 families fled the country and arrived to France to find poor housing in the shantytowns of Lyons, Marseilles, or the Paris area. More than 130,000 people were considered as not having ad equate housing and lived in overcrowded, furnished rental units. Housing had become a crucial issue to the Algerian migration to France. However, the authorities then had only the housing of the bachelor workers in mind. Family housing did not look like a priority, but the tensions in Algeria in the 1950s had triggered a migration of families, raising from three thousand to twenty thousand between 1953 and 1960. These families did not have access to housing because of a lack of available apartments and their lack of assimilation. Thus speci al public funds were raised to build halfway houses (Vencent Vi et 1993 in Mallaird 2005:63-65). 32

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The early Algerian community pe rceived the economic and labor migration as a shameful and a temporary solution (Kepel 1987: 318). They re mained socially, linguistically, and culturally isolated. To their dismay, the intensified violent war triggered an immigration that would forever be part of France. Those who fled forever the unsafe conditions of war were not only the workers and their families. Many other ethnic, religious, and politi cal groups also fled the country. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the pieds-noirs, Jews, and Harkis were among the many Algerians leaving their homeland and place of birth forever and seeking their new destination mostly in France, which had lost control over the vast la nds of Algeria. At the eve of the Algerian independence, the spread of fear and terror from various resistan ce groups, the freedom fighter of the FLN or the saboteurs to De Gaulles i ndependence proposals, the OAS (Organization de lArme Secrete), all set in motion the traumatic flight of hundreds of thousands of families who left with just the clothes they were wearing. Pieds Noirs The newly formed Algerian communities in France had different e xperiences, involvement and attachment to the Algerian land, language s and cultures. One of these groups was the pieds noirs or black feet, who got their name from the black boots that the ea rly French settlers used to wear. They represent hundreds of thousands of EuropeansFrench, Italians, Portuguese, Spanish and Swissand their families who since th e late nineteenth century were brought to form new colonies. The colons, as they were called, owned a nd managed the fertile land that had been taken by force from the indigenous population and then used for the benefit of the French administration. They were all eager to co ntrol the population with all means necessary to use their labor with little reward. My childhood me mories are still vivid with my grandmothers 33

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stories that she time again and again narrated to me until they became almost a lived experience for me: When I was growing up, in newly independent Algeria, I first learne d about the colons from my grandmother story telling. When she wa s little in the early twentieth century, in the small town of Benshud in the city port of Dellys, she lived on her family farm. With the advancement of the French adm inistration to the area, 160 miles east of the Capital Algiers, the family farm was seized and th e French colon became the legitimate owners and managers, forcing the real owners to live in small mud houses on the farm where the whole family worked daily, the men on the fa rm and the women in the colons house. Like slaves, they work for the gain of the colons without any pay but just enough to be fed as a family. Linguistically, on the one hand, these co lons got intimate with the culture of the locals, interacting with them daily and learning Kabyle or Darja and on the other, the locals picked up the colons tongues and ways. The pieds noirs generation didnt call home any other place but Algeria where they were raised in the peaceful air of the country side. They never imagined being forced to leave their privileged life. Until today, when the safety situ ation permits, they visit the places where they lived before. Marcel Jeulent, a 40 years old math ematician of leftist, an ti-colonial convictions, returned in 1972 for the first time to what had be en his familys orange grove southeast of Oran (Western Algeria) where he grew up. He recalls: There is a hill that dominates the village and I climbed it. Th e orange groves are like an oasis, and very beautiful. And I suddenly had the feeling we should never have abandoned it (cited in Markham, 1988). A fearful, violent experience and a psychological shift, the pieds noirs forced return to France has never been fully accepted. Although they were provided governmental housing HLMor became farmers in southern France and ev en were, later on, part of right-wing politics, their situation in France would ne ver replace the fertile lands and peaceful living in various parts of Algeria. I wonder how their children, who were raised among other colons and farmers, reacted to the total change around them. I im agine that they would have as ked their parents about their fellow villagers, farmers, and classmates. Where is the authors great grandmother who used to 34

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say in the Algerian dialect takul kasra you want to eat bread, when she gave the little child a piece of freshly baked agrarian bread fresh from the traditional oven. Such memories kept the Algerian home alive in the heart of the pieds noirs. However, despite these reminiscences, they quickly assimilated like other Fren ch minorities, linguist ically and culturally, and disappeared in modern France. Their up-rootedness is similar to that of the little Kabyle who could not forget his village home in the mountain but at the same time who got us ed to his new environment in the cities of France. The pied noi r would incorporate new elements in his French culture in constructing his new identity. As Markham states: [the pieds noirs] children are losing the pieds noirs sing song accent (Markham James M. 1988). Wh at remained is a feeling of loss that haunts them deep in their memory. As concerns their linguistic ad aptation, the fluency of the pi eds noirs in th e languages of Algeria swiftly declined, and they became, for all practical purposes, monolingual speakers of French. The few words in Darja or Kabyle that th ey might still remember would always resonate in their heads from their golden years in Algeri a. Such words would be expressed by some when visiting home, their place of birth and up-bringing or chatting and reminiscing with an Algerian friend in France. However, other pieds noirs wh o never reconciled to their exodus would instead shout vas ten! Sale Arab!go home! Dirty Arab !, a spiteful derogatory term, in addressing the immigrants and their off-spring who become s capegoats to the pied noirs hatred and rage. Colonizers, in adhering to their ideology of land and resources expl oitation, do not plan to deal with the psychological effects on the people. As a matter of fact, they do not plan for the millions who are forced to leave the only place they ev er knew as home (Clifford: 1997: 248) and put them one more time in exile, such is the case of the Algerian Jews. 35

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Algerian Jews As a minority group, the Algerian Jews were put between, on the one side, the French colonizers and, on the other side, the Arab and Kabyle nationalists. Fearful for their lives, truly or falsely accused of collaborating with French colonialism, the well established Jewish families of Algiers, Constantine, or Oran left foreve r to a foreign land. Although familiar with French culture from their colonized country, going to France was not easy. Despite being, like the majority of Algerians, full citizens of France, it took perseverance and sometimes compliance to get established in France, migrate to the United States or the newly formed Israeli state. In the modern French society, Algerian Jews are fully assimilated. However, as Professor Hamid has pointed out, until today, some of them still maintain the Algerian Darja. Members of Jewish communities such as the one in Belleville speak fluently both Algerian and French. When going to the Jewish market in Belleville, Hamid wa s surprised that the Jewish merchant spoke to him fluently in DarjaAlgerois or Algiers accentwhen he kne w of Hamids Algerian origin. Hamid was raised in independent Algeria and in the late 1980s became a graduate student in Paris where he has the opportunity, for the first time, to socialize with Algerian Jews who still maintain their language despite being assimilated in the French society (p ersonal interview with Hamid: 2007). Harkis The Harkis are a special category of Algerian immi grants. In Mallairds words, these are the misfortune Muslim auxiliaries of the Fr ench army in Algeria (Mallaird 2005: 68). In contrast with the Jews, some of the Harkis clearly collaborated with the French army and administration against the rebelsFLNand the population. Yet, others were falsely accused by FLN members or other Algerians for various po litical or personal re asons. The collaborating Harkis were Arabs and Kabyles who seized the opportunity to gain wealth, sometimes, violating 36

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the honor of their brethrens and villa gers. In the last few years befo re the end of the war, France was desperate to stop the rebellion and insurgen ce. Using the population ag ainst each other was a tactic that might have worked cheaply for them but devastated, foreve r, whole villages and pushed its residents to exile both internally and externally. These Harkis lost their humanity before embarking in abusing the people they cont rolled. The French administration put in charge of the village predatory local individuals called by the locals, goumi/goumia put in control of localsor Harki/Harkatraitor. Because of their language abilities and cultural sameness with the indigenous people, the Harkis facilitated many complex tasks for the colonizers. The following is my personal child memories from my grandmothers and elders narratives about a Harki that became imprinted forever with bad meanings in my mind: I never forget the story of the day my father decided to leave his home in the village and move the majority of the family to the urban city of Algiers. Our house in the village was in a French settlement that starte d to be vacant of its French residents who were fleeing to France as a result of the con tinuous violence in the mid-1950s My father bought the house from a colon and moved the extended family of ten, leaving behind their ancestors home at the foot of the mountain of Kabylia when the fighting intensified. The mudjahidiins (freedom fighters) were always coming to the ancestors house asking for food. Afterwards, the French army raid will foll ow kicking and harassing the residents for any trace of the fellaga name given by the French to the Algerian rebels meaning bombers. Buying a home in the village was a dream comi ng true. The most rewarding of all was that the children were advantaged to just cross the street for school where together colons and indigenous children learn side by side French literature, math and social studies. My father finally felt that he is giving his kids and his nephews what he was deprived of, an education under better conditions. However, around 1961, one Harki started harassing him and many other villagers asking for in formation on the mudjahidiins. When the harassments intensified, fearing the worse, my father took the whole family and moved to Algiers in the new governmen tal housing that France built for the growing French population. My grandparents stayed behind in the house to watch the animals in the stable. The Harki, without permission or cons ideration of the family, decided to move in our house. The dilemma is that if they objected they would be associated with the rebels and severely punished. When the Harki did not find my father and brother home, he got mad and started harassing my grandmother fo r more information. As I know my courageous grandmother, she handled him wise ly and avoided his madness. Still, he decided to take the house by forc e and turn it into a partying pl ace for the French soldiers, drinking, dancing, and using profanities. My grandmother never forgot those hard moments and when narrating the story again and again, she always remembered the young 37

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woman that this vicious man, one day, brought with him to her home. When my grand mother asked her about their relationship, the woman told her about her Kabyle family from a village in the mountain, how the Hark i terrorized her family and forced her to accompany him and be his rape victim, abducting her from her family against her will. She would tell this to my grandmother. However when the Harki is present, to avoid his cruelty she would pretend to be his w ife. According to my grandmother, after independence, this specific man who had devast ated many other families did not have a chance to escape the wrath of the population. To his misfortune, he was captured and put to death by the angry mob. Many Harkis, who had escaped the vengeance of FLN and an angry population, fled to various cities of France and hence were able to rebuild their lives if in a controversial and hostile environment that would forever affect th eir identity and that of their offspring. France had to fulfill many promises to all those who served her in the colonizing and oppressing millions of families of Algeria. The Harkis and their families were among those flown by boats to France fleeing the retribution of the freed and angry population. According to a 1990 census, there are today about 500,000 Harkis and their descendents in France. However, they are doubly stigmatized, regarded as traitors by their follo w Algerians and as outsi ders by many members of the French population. They are, for example, discriminated against and marginalized in both housing and employment markets (Hargreaves: 1995: 78). As French subjects of Algerian origin, whether Arab or Kabyle speaking, their social status ranks among the lowest in their new home, France. With little sc hooling and skills, they remained marginalized and ignored, notwithstanding their struggle to assimilate in the larger French society. In general, their offspring are among the disadvantaged commun ities who are called the beurs and whose linguistic competence in French, Arabic, or Kabyle is poor while their religious allegiance is shaky. Although I will speak about the Algerian langua ges experience in France in detail in chapter five, in these few lines, I would like to summarize and compare the linguistic situation of the four groups who left Algeria during colonial ism and on the verge of Algerian independence. 38

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First, the AlgerianKabyle and Arablaborers in France started leaving Algeria for work in France during colonialism. Many of them remained in France in post colonialism. However, linguistically, they remained isolated thinki ng they will one day return back home. In comparison to these laborers, the pied noirs, Algeri an Jews and the Harkis were forced to leave on the verge of independence, f earing the retribution of the angry populations on them. The pieds noirs were European settlers in Algeria. In Al geria, their offspring gr ew up speaking Darja and Kabyle in addition to French, Portuguese, Spanish or Italian. After their exile to France, they assimilated into the French population and language. However, they kept their emotional connection to Algeria as their pl ace of birth and childhood memories Contrary to the pieds noirs who were of European origin, the Jews were of North African origin and spoke Darja like any other Algerian. However, after they were exiled to France, they assimilated in the French population yet kept their linguistic heritage. Finally, the Harkis are Algerian Muslims, Arabs or Kabyles. They never forgot their language and longing for home. However, because of the stigmatization ag ainst them, they are discriminated against in France. In comparison to the other groups the linguistic competence of Harkis and that of their off-spring is poor. The pa rents as well as the chil dren are weak both in Arabic and French.1 In chapter 5, I will focus on language dynamics among the Muslim Kabyle and Arab laborers, Harkis and migrants in general. In sum, a contact relationship that began more than a century a nd a half ago between France and Algeria symbolizes strong bitter /sweet cultural relations, conflicts and interdependence at the levels of labor force, population and education. In the newly formed 1 For more information on Harkis in France see Geraldine Enjevine (2006) who investigated the Harki identity in France; Nina Sutherlen (2006) who has spoken about the silence of Harkis in France; Emmanuelle Brillet (2003) who gave a voice to the Harkis heritage in France; and Michelle Chosset (2007) for a general discussion. 39

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Algerian socialist government in the mid-1960s, the understanding was that the remittances and foreign currency play an important role in ac hieving the economic independence when finally the scattered children would return home to their loved ones and their heritage in free Algeria. As shown in the previous paragraphs, France was a nd is still in great need for the Algerian cheap laborers and young generations repl acing the aging French population. However, in the case of education, Algerians have always been attracted to and reliant on the French in education and administration management. Despite the tightening of entry visas to France in the last twenty years, thousands of Algerians do go to France both legally and illegal ly seeking work and under/graduate education in vari ous fields. Yet, since the late 1970s, Algerians started looking elsewhere too, especially after France limited the nu mber of entry visas for Algerians (as well as other third word countries) due to economic crisis and deteriorating poli tical relations between the two countries. The young Algerian nation-state looked up at various ot her modern nations for educating their young generations such as Northern Europe and Russia and later on the United States of America. Algerian Migration to the United States The Algerian im/migration to the United Stat es has much in common with those from other African countries, Easter n Europe, and many Third World countries. By the late 1970s, Algerians were in the midst of what the world was going through due to great pressures resulting from the unfolding of the cold war. The Algeri an government led by the late president Houari Boumedienne, who passed away in late 1979, left th em thinking that everything is well managed. There also were widespread popular misconcepti ons about how to succeed in life and whom to follow, the East or the West. Nor was it clear which ideology was going to lead them to the success that they had been anticip ating for more than a century. Is it Russian socialism or US Capitalistic ideology? Many Alge rians entertained the dream that the only way to build their 40

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lives and their country was to travel to the We st and learn from the developed countries the sciences, technology and administrative skills and then go back home with enough knowledge and expertise. They wanted to let the world see what they can do as Algerian citizens proud of their rich heritage. This was the context within which Algerian immigration to the US began. The Algerian im/migration to the US was of a special kind; a kind that a single theory of migration cannot satisfactorily explain. Many explanations given to the South/North mobility or the brain drain ar e too simple for the Algerian case because they neglect the personal, psychological, social and political driving forces behind it. Those involved in the first Algerian migration to the U.S. remained marginal in ma ny studies, if totally unexplored. Examples of questions that need to be addre ssed in the Algerian case are: W hy did or do Algerians migrate to the US? Who is migrating? Is the migration c ontinuing? Why those who returned from the US to Algeria did eventually leave Algeria again? I s uggest that the answer to these questions entails going beyond pull-push, chain, or network th eories of migration. The complexity of the case leads me to argue that there are several factors (some obvious, others hidden) needed to satisfactorily explain the migrati on of Algerians from different socio-economic strata. Many of these factors, I argue, are not captured by the mo dels of migration that place exclusive emphasis on economic motivations or on the flight from viol ence. This would be pres ented in the rest of this chapter. Mission of Higher Education As explained below, the search for education is a major factor in the first Algerian migration to the U.S. According to El-Watan ( an Algerian national newspaper, widely read inside Algeria), the official statistical data (CREAD) of 2000 shows that 80,000 graduates from higher education have left Algeria since the 1970s and about 3000 would join them each year (Grim in El Watan: 2007). As previously discussed, Algerians have been migrating, especially to 41

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France, for many reasons, includi ng higher learning. However, the fi rst Algerian migration to the United States came in the late 1970s and early 19 80s from various regions of Algeria through the Algerian government scholarship with a missi on of acquiring knowledge in the developed West. These young men and women were supposed to return home to help build the young nation-state under the leadership of an effective government. A socialist authoritarian government ruled ove r independent Algeria until the late 1970s. Although the regime claimed to be somewhat parliamentary, the state was in reality under the control of one man, Houari Boumedienne. As described by Quandt, Boumedienne was at beginning of his career as president in 1965 har dly known to the public at large, but quickly, became the formidable leader, ascetic, and a st rong nationalist, with more of an Arabist education than most of his contemporaries (Quandt 1998: 23). Under this presidency, the masses were almost treated like observers w ho would passively wait for payoff from his technocratically managed social and economic e xperiment (Quandt 1998: 27) Indeed, the newly decolonized population was spoiled by partially usi ng the riches of petroleum and natural gas sales to subsidize many of the exported merchandi se. Free health care and free education were provided to everyone. While less th an fifteen percent of the a dult population was literate, the majority of the young population was in great ne ed of a well established and consolidated education system. Certainly, the un iversal education system in th e newly independent nation paid off. A good number of br ight bilingual students in Arabic and French graduated with honors from Algerian high schools and colleges and were confident enough to travel to Anglophone universities for higher education. Since the late 1970s and for the first time, the best graduates from the Algerian universities were competing w ith the best students in universities such as the 42

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University of Michigan, the University of Il linois, the University of Wisconsin, Stanford University, MIT, and many other fine institutio ns of higher learning in the United Stated. Although many Algerians had in the past gone to study in France and some are still doing it, it is only in the late 1970s and early 1980s th at students of sciences started opting for the US as a place for graduate studies in physics, math ematics, and engineering. From the Algerians interviewed this summer, 5/27 were from among this generation. They all got a government sponsorship for being the best among their cl ass and came seeking hi gher degrees with the intention of ultimately going back to transmit to their fellow Algerians the scientific and technical knowledge that they acquired at some of the best universities in America. For example, Ahmed, Yasmina, Dawud, Kamel and Salimatwo females (Yasmina and Salima) and three males, all came to earn a higher degree in scie nces. For these people, coming to the US for higher learning was a privilege for it is known fo r its advancement in sciences and technology. Ahmed is married to a European American ps ychologist, has an eight years son and is successfully settled in Northern Chicago as a computer consultant in a reputed company. When asked about his decision to come to the US, Ahmed explains that it wasnt planned but it just happened. Ahmed speaks in English still with an accent and mixes some Algerian Darja (D) and French (F). Near the middle of th e interview, he stated that: I never thought about it (giggles.) It just happened. It is not haja alli khammamt fiha (D).-something that I thought about. It just ha ppened. In my time, I came to study. I didnt plan for it. Maybe today people are doing it. I didnt pack my suite case and say ok. Assalaamu alaiku (D)-peace be with you, meaning good by. It just evolved. So, at first, there was no intention of migration, and the intention was to go back makansh (D) no way cest a dire (F) I mean even when I finished my masters, even when I finished my PhD, it wasnt even in my mind (why di d you choose United States and not France or other countries?) ok at the time, I had th e choice between U S and Switzerland (for your bachelor?) ya, there were competitionsthere were companies they give a testso I did the two. One of them nroH allaswiss (D with word b.f.F2) I go to Switzerland and do 2 Abbrev b.f.F: the Darja world (allaswiss) borrowed from French 43

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civil engineeringI didnt like that. We were a group of students, we all decided to apply to al marican (D b. f. E then inserted into E sentence) America. So it wasnt well studied and Haja alli khammamna fiha (D)something that I though about-, jat al marican (D) America came up, so lets go. His original intent was obvious to him in the 1980s. He was to study in the United States and then go back home and work as a university pr ofessor at the Tlemcen University in Western Algeria, or maybe become a scientist in Algerian companies. Yet, Ahmeds life here in the US steadily evolved in a different direction, making him one of the first Algerian immigrants and citizens in the U.S. Yasmina and her husband Dawud earned thei r PhDs in physics and have been both teaching at the same college for the last twelve years while raising their teenage son. They both earned their Bachelor degrees in physics from Bab Ezouar University in Algiers and came to the US when they earned government scholarships to the US. Yasmina explains in fluent English: Actually before I went to Bab Ezouar, I thought to go to France. Unfortunately; my family could not afford to send me there. I wanted to go to undergrad school in France. So, very early on I wanted to go abroad and leave the environment. After college I did apply to France to some schools but they didnt re spond to methen I thought to apply for the scholarship to come to the states. We had the options of France, England and the US. Her husband Dawud, whom she met in the US af ter both finishing their PhDs, had the same thoughts: I thought to come to the US when I was in college in Algeria for one thing because of physics. The United States was the best at th e timemaybe it is not the case anymore. In the 1970s and the 1980s, I was very interested. I wa nted to go to Berkley that is why I went to college to study physics but not before I do my four years in Bab Ezouar. So I was planning to go later but as I said just for a while not to live but just to study. The possibility of wining a government scholars hip was a great incentive for many students from the working and low and middle classes to venture outside the country to an environment that is foreign in language, culture and climate. Like many male students of her generation, as a woman, Yasmina takes this opportunity and uses it for her advantage : 44

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Les bourse (F)the scholarshipsI just saw the possibility that was offered to me. Actually, most of my friends who did physics went to France. I was one of the few girls who came here. From my class, they all went to France. It was me and another friend who came here. She ended up in Boston. She only di d her masters and then went home. When she came here, I have been in touch with her maybe once. She was in Boston when I arrived here. I was in Wash ington for the language school These young men and women were well informed a bout the possibility of studying abroad and because of their educational placements were able to win government scholarships, an opportunity made available through Algerian sc holarship program. This program became the driving force in seeki ng overseas education. Kamel finished his PhD in physics in six years in 1988 and is the only one among this group who went back to Algeria with the intention of staying and teaching at the University of Bab Ezouar. Before coming to the US, Kamel explains that he traveled a lot and was not afraid to leave home at the age of 22 years with his new wife who finished her degree in biology. He explains: I traveled to different places to Morocco, France, England, e ither visiting family or as a touristit was an eye opener. I was exposed to different cultures, different life styles. It made me more excited for visiting more a nd even living abroad. So, these were very positive experiences I had since the age of thirteen. Although coming from a working class family, Kamel and his seven siblings were all well educated. Their father was one of the Algerians who got primary and secondary education in French during colonialism. In independent Algeri a, he always worked in an office as a higher secretary or accountant. His mo ther never went to school yet she was behind many of her children successes and was apprecia ted very much. Even with a la rge family, the 8 siblings all got higher education and four of them studied abroad; all are professionals living either in Algeria or abroad. Salima is Kamels paternal cousin. She was among the people interviewed in Northern Chicago. Salima is married to Jawad, a Tunisian man whom she met in Canada while doing her 45

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masters degree in computer scie nce. After finishing, they got married and since then settled in North America while raising three children. They moved to the US for better job opportunities. At the present time her husband works in a computer company and she works as a free-lance computer consultant. She explains how she deci ded first to go study abroad. She explains in English: It was all about going to a foreign country to study it was all about that and who can do that. When I was working, I wanted to go for six months to study and do some research. First, I wanted to go study in France. And, in f act, I got a scholarship to go to France. I got the money and everything. I just needed a kind of sponsorship from a company I never got the approval from my company, so I just missed the opportunity to get the scholarship. So, one day, I was just joking with my dad, I said: if I get six months to Canada, would you let me go? He said yes, thinking I would never get that opport unity then I got it. The interesting part, it was meant to be for a senior person [in the company] but he didnt know anything about the research, so they volunteered me to go. (if you had the opportunity to come to the US would you have come?) No, because it was the barrier of language ya, I stayed in Canada mostly for Jawad husband. Ahmed, Yasmina, Dawud, Kamel and Salima are among the students who came in the late 1970s and 1980s to study in the be st universities in the United States and Canada with the obligation to finish their degrees and go back to Algeria. Yet, af ter finishing their studies, only Kamel went back for two years only to finally co me back as an academic working in various universities in the cities of Am erica. While being a professor in physics, Kamel prepared another PhD in social science. Today, he is a professor in political science in one of the top universities. What pushed these people to come to the US wa s their thirst for knowledge and sciences of the developed west. Their stay was supposed to be te mporary to finish their Masters or PhDs and then go back to the Algerian institutions of learning. They sought to teach the younger Algerian generations what they had learned from the a dvanced universities of France, Switzerland or America. 46

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Graduates Return to Serve in a Conflict-Ridden Homeland The future Masters and PhD holders in physic s, engineering, mathematics and computer science came from the first gene ration of independent Algerian intellectuals. In the late 1980s and 1990s, before the great crisis ignited, hundreds of new Algerian scientists returned to theie homeland to assume important posit ions in the large universities in the capital Algiers and other large cities. For the first time Al geria would have Algerian scien tists and professors who have knowledge, understanding, and the belief in a co mmon agenda to train the young generation and build a strong developed country. Chadli Ben Jadid, another military person, imme diately took over the presidency after the death of President Boumedienne in 1979. After a decade, the Algerian society, which had been paternalized under French coloni alism, began to rebel under th e new authoritarian regime. The Berberists from Kabylia were fighting for the right to include the teaching of the Berber language with the roman or its ancient script. The traditional Muslim s were unhappy with the moral values and reminded the government that Algerian fought for the Muslim/Arab Algerian identity. The middle class intellectuals were uns atisfied with the corruption and the weakening of the infrastructure of the government. The Algerian population was transforming and dividing into political, religious, ethnic groups and partie s, and a military junta, each with their own agenda for the future government and society. Democracy and freedom of speech became concepts and slogans that each group used differently, influenced by various ideologies and for their own benefit. By 1988, after th e sharp fall in oil prices, the authoritarian government was not able to manipulate the economica lly disadvantaged population anymor e. Rioting, a sign of social dismay with the government became chaotic in the capital Algiers and in many other cities. The tragedy was that the angry society became a t ool in the hands of groups with their own ideological and political agendas. Each party was trying to convince th e fed-up population that 47

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they represented the only true and sincere program to correct the mistakes of the previous corrupt government. Whether the Berberists and the Fr ancophones who were sup ported by the French, the Islamists who assumed that their agenda was derived from the pure words of the Quran, or the feminists who saw the government as the new colonizer in subj ugating women, all were working to seize power from the military junta and be in control. The weakened President Benjedid was forced to open some doors for democratization and political liberalization that, paradoxically, turned into the black decade, a decade that devastated thousands of lives and triggered a mass mobility out of the country. By 1991, there were more than 100 political parties mushrooming with the dream of winning the municipalities, the pa rliamentary elections, and finall y the presidency. The parties differ tremendously in their imagination of a futu re Algeria from Berberism, Arab/nationalism, Algerian Islamism, universal Islamism, secular at heism, and traditional Arab-Islamism. In the parliamentary elections and to the surprise of many, the population voted for the Islamic Front Party (FISFront of Islamic Salvation). Howeve r, the game of democracy was over when the army decided to stop all free elections and retu rn to the authoritarian rule, imprisoning anyone who comes on its way. The armed confrontatio n between the army and the Armed Groups ignited a wave of human rights a buses and terrorism, pushing thousands to flee to a safe refuge for themselves and their loved ones. These were the conditions within which the returning young scientists from the big US universities had to work. Some of them took side s with the various parties, others were busy finding a way to fit into the corrupted system of higher education, others had multiple social problems to face that made them forget about th e scientific dreams and academic research they were planning to do. In addition, many of those who returned to Algeria from the American 48

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universities with their PhD education state that they were disadvantaged in comparison to those who studied in Europe, particul arly in France. French language in Algeria still has great influence in higher education in Al gerian universities, especially in Algiers. Going back with a PhD from the U.S. makes those who graduated from France be in a defensive position to a point where some of these people would sometimes try to exclude their co lleagues who graduated from American universities. Ev en prior to the escalating violence in the 1990s that pushed various sectors of the population to leave Algeria, the universities competitions for power is one of those tedious reasons that made many Algerian pr ofessors decide to come back to the States. Second Im/migration to the U.S. It is during the tragic black decade of Algeri a that the second wave of immigration to the US started in greater numbers, and is still con tinuing until today if at a much smaller scale. Algerians who decided to leave th eir homeland used various ways to escape the tragic situation of their country, sometimes going to any country that would allow them entrance. Although many found various ways to enter Fr ance it was not an easy task at all. Indeed, during that time the French government restricted the entry of many others fearing the enormous flows of Algerians asking for exile or re fuge. Many others were not allowed to enter France because of their age or political affiliation. In the early 1990s, the US laun ched the lottery visa program, thereby allowing Algerian intellectuals and skille d professionals with their families to become legal residents and eventually American citizen s. Applying for the student, professional, or lottery visas became known among the Algerian population as an opportunity for starting a new life away from terror and chaos. Many Algerians, single, males, females, and families won the lottery visa to migrate to America. Every year, hundreds embark, most of them for the first time, to a place that is new in its envi ronment, language, and culture. 49

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Migration for studies or work and the role of network During the 1990s crisis, many countries, including Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Australia, opened their doors for thousands of Alge rians, giving them safe refuge for a short time until they would feel safe to return home. Many of the bright scientists, when not killed in the civil war that became the killing machine of thousands of innocent people, used their connections with friends, universit ies, and colleagues to facilitate their re/entry to the US. As Sabour (1997: 1) puts it in a different context, the returnees find themselves between the devil and the deep blue sea jammed in powerlessne ss and frustration. Of course being parents of American born (citizens) children was for some the safest and easiest passage to the states.3 With several massacres at various populated residential areas a nd villages, not knowing who is behind the killing made the situation more frightening. The spread of fear, violence and lawlessness became the favorable conditions for illegal immigration to various countries, including the United States. Hundred s of soldiers who defected from the army in protest against the national violence found no othe r exit except illegal migration to the U.S and other places. Many informal stories are told that many illegal immigrants came to the U.S. from Algeria using illicit and fraudulent papers after going through several countries, including Europe, the Middle East, and even as far as Australia. Were they succeed to pass without being caught, they would end up starting an illicit j ourney and life that they never antic ipated to be part of before. How these immigrants manage to survive in the illicit world is an interesting project to be investigated. During these hard times, despite the fact th at the governmental scholarship program had ended by the late 1990s, many bri ght students found a way to appl y for under/graduate studies in 3 As a structural factor, citizenship laws in the receiving country affect those who had had children born there. 50

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the US relying on their own expenses and netw orking. After finishing his engineering degree with honors from Algiers University, Nuwar d ecided to pursue his studies in American universities. He is the youngest ch ild in a family of four. His pa rents are both practicing medical doctors in Algeria. Nuwar got hi s scholarship from an American institution on his own and came for graduate school in 2000. His older brother, who had already finished a PhD in civil engineering and was well establis hed in the states, helped him and facilitated many things to make Nuwars migration a more or less smooth one Networks and the presence pf kin in the receiving country seems to be another structural factor facilitating the migration from Algeria to the U.S. Nuwar, who is working on his PhD, got marriage to an Algerian American and both are raising a daughter in the US. Omar also came to do his undergraduate studies in the States when th e safety situation in Algeria began to deteriorate and terrorist acts intensified. A child of a military man, Omar used his fathers connections with American academics to get a smoother entrance to an American university. He explains in Darja with few English sentences: Uum, abuya (MSA), baba (D)my fatherwas coming to America a lot. Because hehe is in the army he has missions in the air fo rcehe used to come here for missions and also go to Europe. So when I told them [par ents] that I wanted to go overseasespecially that at that time the situation was not that great, he [father]he told me oui (F)yesI will find out. It is not a bad idea. He helped mehe, Baba knows how to speak English so I always look up to him. He spoke very well English; he spoke very good French, huvery good Arabic. He spoke them allI looked up to him. I thought he was smart (E) I wanted to be like himso he was the one who helped me. He has an American friend here in America. He called him and helped me to come here. So, non seulement (F) not onlyhe encouraged me but also helped meI wouldnt be able to get here without Baba. Although Omar was raised in an upper middle cl ass family, he was planning to finish his undergraduate studies in Algeria. His decision to leave using hi s fathers high connection came as a way out of the unsafe environment in Algiers in the mid 1990s; he continues: 51

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There was terrorismI was studying in B enaknoun area [suburb of Algiers known for its historical high schools and universities ]. In that time, there was terrorism I didnt feel safe (E), there was no hope lil-future (b.f.E)for the future, I am studying but what I am going to do (E)? I mean the economy (E) was low; even when you talk to people nobody has hope, And also safetyI didnt feel safesomething happened, I meanya, a lot of things happened (E). I remember filinstitute tai (b.f.E)in my institute[repeats], one was killedone day before his graduation(A student?) Ya a student, they [terrorists] were killing students at that time ya. And the problem is that nobody knew who is killingWhere is this killing coming from nobody knew. So, I dont knowI had dix ouit ans (F)eighteen years old in that time I wanted to live my life. I wanted to study. I wanted to work, I wantedI had all that energy and knew that I wasnt going to do anything with itso of course, like the majority of youth at that time, I thought of migrationI said I have to go. I started looking [for schools] and sending [applications] and asking. Then, I had the opport unity to come to America and I came. But the greatest reason that pushed me to leave was alirhaab (MSA)terrorism. But, I would like to return [to Algeria] someday. Ya, I would like that. But I dont know what to do (make a sound of laughter but not of a happy one ) this is the great problem. Would I be able to do what I am doing here? This is the problem. Those who left during the period of the second mi gration fit perfectly wi th migration theories which do include flight from danger as a major trigger of migration. Omar is an excellent example of that class of people who are forced by a crisis to leave. He was raised in a high middle class military family and went to an excellent school. However, the safety situation pushed him to leave. His parents are like many other Algerian parents who worried about the future education of their child ren, especially among the educated and middle class families. Many such concerned parents pushed their children to leave the country when the crisis struck and the security situation worsened. However, th e dilemma for Omar is that he would like to return one day. But, he is not prepared to live in a situation of joble ssness or high uncertainty. Today, as a graduate student in education, he is married, has a baby boy, owns a house and works full time at the University of Florida. Looking again at the larger picture one faces a puzzle: Why do people stay in the US instead of returning to their homeland? Economic factors such as a fear of not finding an adequate job at home and family-related changes such as having 52

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children born here and used to the American lan guage and system of education seem to go a long way in explaining the puzzle. The lottery visa Since the 1990s and until today many Algerians have taken the chance to win a lottery visa to the United States of America, hoping to get them out of the unsafe conditions and for a better life for them and their families. The data collected during my fieldwork shows that more than half of the Algerian born in terviewees came through the lotte ry visa during the 1990s (14/27 members and their families). They came as fami lies and singles, males and females, looking for a safe place where they hoped to start a productive life for them and their children. However, even after the violence has for the most part subsided during the last few years, people are still coming through the lottery visa, seeking a productive life for them and their children, a goal they could presumably not achieve in Algeria. When Mustafa finished his degree in economic s in Algiers, he was not feeling safe and looked for ways to leave the country to Ameri ca. He explains in Da rja how his friend, who already had won the green card th rough the lottery program and was established at his sisters place, helped him to get it: he [friend] told me; give me your pictures [I will apply for you] for la lotterie (F), al qura (D)the lottery. if it was without papers, I wouldnt have come. [because] I am sure I wouldnt be able to go back home. For Mustafa, the lottery visa is a way out of the Algerian crisis and a safe passport to come back home if so he whishes. He got influenced by hi s friend, yet, he did not choose the illegal road because he is not ready to forget about his coun try. Would he have applied for the lottery visa had he not known about his friends experience? 53

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FatiHa and her husband left their jobs, home a nd family and moved to Chicago. A mother of two and expecting, wining the lottery visa was a life time opportunity for her. She explains in (D) mixed with (F): Me, personallement (F)personally, the day we played applied for la lotterie (F)lotteryto come, I was praying oh my Lord, [make them] accept us. I am not lying. I was wishing to come. (W hy?) Eeeh! What should I say! Al-maricaan! (b.f.E) thats what we know, al-maricaan, as we say, the greatest nation in the world pour moi (F) -for me, the opportunity cam e up and would not be repeated. Like luck when we got la lotterie (F), we said, cest une occasion quonpeut pas ratter (F) its an opportunity that we cant miss, anraTiwha (Darja bf F)if we miss itthats itthat is why we came. Being able to come to America represents for Fati Ha a win-win issue. Getting the green card is a privilege despite facing hardships of other kinds. Similarly, Nazira explains how her husband wa s desperate to leave the country despite having a stable job and a nice place to live in Algi ers with their four chil dren. After getting the lottery visa, they did not hesita te to come to Chicago. She says in a South-Western Algerian Arabic accent: When my man husbandcame out in al-lotterie (D b.f.F), he was working technicien superieur (F) higher technician [in a hospital]. I mean, we were al-Hamdullah -Thanks to God [we were ok]. I didnt have a home and al-Hamdullah; my father bought me an apartment. Then when we got al-lotterie (b. f.F), my man got crazy lal maricaan (D b. f. E) -about America (giggles). My husband wa s the one who encouraged me [to come.] I mean, there were problemsuuterrorism. In 1998, in Algeria, life was mixed upwhen we got la lotterie (D b. f.F), hehusbandtold me, we ha ve to get out, we have to my husbands friends were in Cana da but we didnt know anyone in Amrica (D b. f.E). Winning the lottery is the first step in the mi gration process. Deciding of a destination in America depends on the availability of social contacts and/or jobs. Ma ny immigrants choose big cities like Chicago where they woul d be able to be taxi drivers (o r the like) as soon as they land. 54

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Fleeing terrorism l ooking for stability While some Algerians focused on the opportunity to enter America and live comfortably (economic factor), others fled the trauma of te rrorism (violence factor). Faruja, Fella and Hind and their families were traumatized by terrorist ac ts before leaving everything behind and depart when they got the lottery visa. Faruja is a Ka byle woman married with three children with the oldest being 20 years old. Although illiterate, Faruja is a wise courageous and kind woman. She expresses her feelings on the crisis in Darja with a strong Kabyle accent saying: For me, what brought us he re; at that time, between 1995 we were residing in citee La Montagne. I mean, there were two of my brothersin-law who work with the government. They came [terrorists] to kill them many timesmy neighbors where killing each other. D ailleurs (F)moreover, when my ne ighbors cleantheir housesand throw assashi (D b.f.F) taa zbel kHelthe blac k garbage bag they put them by the door [for the garbage collector]. Sometimes, you know, I go to open it [bag]I go and come backto it,(repeat), and I close my eyes and open itI say maybe my husbands head is in itmany people at that time were killed I sw ear by God, I meanthe safety conditions were very, very har d all of them left [brother s-in-law.] The house was empty, with no tastethen we left and thats it. My brother-in-law did for us the lottery and our namescame out. The one [brother-in-law] who was here, he spent seven years [with a tourist visa], he didnt get it and my man hus bandgot it (a smile on her face.) So, we came The daily feeling of terror and fear pushed Fa ruja and many others to leave their homes, loved ones and familiar places. Only the lucky ones got the lottery visa as an entry to a safer and stable life. Fella was an Arabic teacher and her husband was a computer analyst who got his bachelor from England. They were both stable in their wo rk. They already owned a car and built a house. They were ready to move in when they were struck with terrorist acts in their families and neighborhood. She explains in Darja and sometimes MSA expressions about the trauma she went through: [What brought us here was] Terrorism (E), terrorism they [ the army] killed my brotherthey killed him, and they killed my cousin [from fathers side]my cousin was an Imam. They took himthey imprisoned him for seven days, and he was under 55

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torture and then, when he was released he run away... he went to the mountainsbecause he washe was an Imam.he was giving sermons andmy brothermy brother, he had no sin he did nothing-because of my cousin, the army took him. They told him; you have to tell us where he went [the cous in] or we kill you. He told them; I dont know. So, for three days, he stood fastmy brother, when they killed him, they didnt kill him in a merciful way difigurawah (D b.f.F) they completely disfigured him they made us runthey made us run, and they told us that he is a terrorist but he had no relation with terrorism I m eanSo these are the conditionsterrorism and we were always scared in Barraqi 4 once we were in la Montagne [at her in-laws] also they came in [There was shouting] They are coming, the killers, the slaughterers!! we had to flee I mean these are all the conditions when we got.uuwe got la lotterie (F) we said, lets go, we better escape. This educated woman is full of distress, sa dness and worries. Although, as a family, they are safer, she is not satisfied with the outcome of immigration. She sti ll speaks of her well established past, a past now gone as a result of terrorism. She says mixing Darja with a little French and emphasizing certain topics in MSA: [My brother-in-law] didnt have a house. [The family] encouraged him to come [to US] but us, they were all agai nst us to come. (Oh, why?) Parceque (F)becauseour conditions were ok we had everythi ng because here, all who came to lmarican (D b.f.E ) to make more moneywemy husband and Iwere all against coming to lmarican (D b.f.E) and also those who were religiousmdeyneenused to tell us: Hram bash truHu lil marican It is unlawful for you to go to America. (Shuuf -really) yani alhidjra lil marican andha ghayaat u ahdaaf (MSA)I mean, the migration to America, it has its goals and its targets. Hna djina (D) li Talabil ilm (MSA)we came seeking knowledge. I mean, we brought our ki ds just to readstudy. Now, we understand what they used to tell us, they were rightT rue, I mean, I regrette d and not regretted when I came, I mean, I wished I remained in Algeria in a simple lifeone would at least win the afterlife [Nazira: but you areyou are going to th e mosque, you are praying performing salat[Fella: but it is not because of meits [ the future of ] my kids [that is gone.] Fella feels that she was forced to leave Algeria. She believes that practicing Muslims come to a non-Muslim country such as America only for the sake of knowledge. Ye t, that goal does not seem to be fulfilled in the way she was hoping for. Fella and her family were well established in 4 Barreqi is a region where Fella and her family built their ne w home. It is of the areas in the suburb of Algiers that had terrorist attacks and hundreds of its residents we re massacred not knowing until today who exactly did the killing of the innocent population. 56

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Algeria. Fleeing to America to the big city of Chicago put both her and her husband in a downward mobility situation. Fella seemed ashamed of her first work as a housemaid to an Arab family in Chicago. Later on, she got a teaching position, tutoring Muslim children Arabic. Her husband has lately started working as a taxi driv er. What makes her distressed even more is her teenage son who could not familia rize himself with the American school system that is far different from that of Algeria and hence dropped out of school. Would Fella and her family go back to Algeria since terrorism is less frequent ? Isnt she getting used to the American system? Isnt she finding her own niche in Chicago wh ere a la Montagne like community is growing and creating new relations, activities and solidari ties with old and new arrivals, relatives and friends from other im migrant communities? In comparison, Hind is more optimistic and th ankful that her kids are away from the traumas in Algeria. Her concern is to provide them with a safe envir onment to study and grow, she says in Darja: They [terrorists] were coming forcefully in L a Montagne. they tell us they are coming to kill youwe were fleeing, running and scaredand the kids, you see them the most traumatized and everything. So, we looked for safetyya, it was terrorism ( E), al-irhaab (MSA) that brought usuu so our kids do not have to go through what we went through he the personstudies readall his life and does not find workwe came for lducation (F) our kids education. In the absence of safety everything is unstable, including studies, work a nd more generally daily living. Those who left during the crisis period were driven by the safety dream that they thought would fulfill all thei r goals of having a decent job, good education for their children, and establishing a family and a community life living in peace. The people from populated neighborhoods such as cite La Montagne we nt through extremely se vere conditions and traumas. Those who left did not and cannot forget the horrifying daily images, yet, they are determined to find piece and stability in their new home, despite its strangeness. 57

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Fleeing hard conditions and l ooking for better opportunities Although the traumas of terrorism and killing did not directly touch every Algerian, their effects impacted on the lives of the large majority of Algerians. Economic instability, scarcity of work, small wages, and social/cultural conflicts, all contributed to hasten the decision to leave the homeland toward a foreign land. Terrorism was the cause of some of these economic dilemmas, but not all. Asma is one of the seven women interviewed in the focus group in Chicago. She is a homemaker in her mid-thirti es, married, with two young children. When asked about her familys situation before deciding to le ave Algeria, she seems relieved to be in better social and economic conditions and does not re gret coming to America. She expresses her thoughts in Darja, using little French in the mi ddle, thereby giving an idea of the impact of French language even on women who have little education; she says: The first thing [is] lappartement (F)the apartment. I didnt have lapartement (F) I told you, my son got older and was still sleeping maya fish-shambra (b.f.F)in my bedroom. [we had] no space too much we are a large [extended] family, may God blessa full house as we say, ten coming in, ten coming out el-Maricaan (b.f.E) [was] the only solution. Hehusbandwon la lotterie (F ) bien que (F) although, my husband came [alone] he stayed fifteen days in New York; fifteen days in Chicago; and he didnt like the situation. He went back to Algeriaand when on his way back, he called his workin Algeriahe told them I want to come back to my work they told him ok. Al-poste aataak (b.f.F) your positionis ready, come. When he went, they told him no, no, you cant come bac k. (ooh) he [husband] said dont talk to me about almaricaan anymore that country, I wont go back to it. I want to live by my children, I die by my children. So, we said ok. [but] I ha d already sold everything, my furniture, my gold5. Since she had not much money, Asma had to se ll her furniture and gold to buy the tickets for traveling. The undecidedness of her husband on migration gets complicated with his loss of his job, thereby compounding the need for the family to leave for good. She continues: 5 Asma explains that she had to sell her gold in order to buy her ticket and travel to the US with her family. The gold in the Algerian culture is usually the dowry given to the bride by the groom as a gift on the marriage day. To sell it is a necessity but hard choice on the woman since it holds a speci al meaning to her. 58

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After that, they [employers] started tricking himtricking himtricking him until a month had passed. When one month had pa ssed, the last day, he told them, voila (F) here, so I will start working. Then they to ld him, we dont need you. So, he stayed deux mois (F) two months[without work] he didnt fi nd what to do as we say, sorry for the bad language, even a garbage man, the lowest job, he couldnt get it when we were coming back, we were supposed to take the airplane the next day, his friend came to him he told him, voila (F) they are going to take you back to Al-poste (b.f.F). I told him; it means, they are playing tricks on us. That day, my visa [the visa to get to America gained through the lottery ] was going to expire I entered in el-marican (b.f.E) at three oclock [in the afternoon] at twelve at night my visa and my sons were going to expire! Yaso, only [9] hours rema inedin the life of the visa. wallahil atheem! (CA)I swear by God! ya I told him I am no t lying to you I told him, as they tricked you the first time, they would trick you th e second time. So, thats it, we go. so we came These people were pushed to the extreme before departing in devastati ng uncertainties. Although the husband had gone back to his country resolved not to come back to America with his family, he had no guarantee to get back his job in Algeri a, which would put them is severe financial need. This case illustrates the point that the decision to immigrate is developed under circumstances that are harsh and cruel and usuall y within totally uncertain situations. The wouldbe immigrants end up leaving in a stat e of unstable emotions and maybe rage. The women intervieweesFatiHa, Nazira, Faruja, Fella, and Asmareside in Chicago with their nuclear families, relatives and frie nds. Despite being homesick and haunted by the painful memories of terrorism, all feel safer in their new place. However, living in their new destinations confronts them with other challenges such as their children future education, values, life style, religiosity, and sense of belonging. So me are still confused about the way to succeed and their only income is from low wages jobs that may put their families in lower class environment. The sans papiers (F) blalwraq (D), or without papers, status of certain members might add more stress when reunited with the extended family in Chicago or other places. Although all of my interviewees said that they came with papers lottery or student visa, some 59

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of them mentioned that they have family members who are w ithout papers and are staying illegally in America. Escaping the national army service Migration success of friends or relatives opened avenues for many young men not only to study or work but also to avoid going to the ob ligatory national army se rvice during the crisis. The dilemma of going to the army was of great concern for many families and their sons. As a matter of fact, many young men were killed duri ng their service. Mustafa explains why he preferred to leave his co untry and not do his nationa l service during the 1990s: When we finish school [college], we have to do the armythe national serviceI am not against national service. I love my country but the problem is that [soldier] can die easily. I had a neighbor who was in the marines. He was an officer and they killed him bia someone told on himand they killed him. He was the only child in his family, and he died. So, national service yesyou get service back to your country yeswe build, plant yes, but to get killed like that, it is not nationa l service. So the national service is not any more the way they used to say that when a guy goes to the national service he will become a man so I was doing anything to a void going to the national service Getting his green card visa to America through the lottery saved him from the devastation of killing innocent people and/or bei ng killed. He had the alternative to leave his coun try, enter the US legally, and begin a successful life. Other people who refused to join the armed service during this chaotic period left the country ille gally and looked for illicit ways to enter other borders, which would be the beginning of an underground life and wasted years of survival not knowing what would happen the next day. Marriage: Al-maktuub [Providence] Many Algerian women migrate because of marr iage. Yet, there are those who consider their stay in America temporar y. They eventually, one day, would go back to Algeria to settle among the extended family. Among my interviewees, at least four of the women came to the US through marriage to Algerian men in America. Kh adra, Fadila, Zahra and Manal have been here 60

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for at least a few years of marriage, yet, they are not sure about their future. They are very satisfied with their marriage and standard of livin g in the states. However, they still miss their families and do not imagine their future life aw ay from their parents and siblings. Khadra graduated with a degree in economics and worked in an Algerian TV station. She met Mustafa in college and they got married in 1999 after being e ngaged for a few years. She explains in Darja: When I got engaged to Mustafa, I knew [tha t he was coming to America to make some money for sometimes], but I wasnt thinking of coming. When he decided to come, he told me that we get married then go. I told him I dont go to America...migration is not my choiceI didnt like itafter that( what made you change your mind?) al-maktuub (D)the written[providence] giggles.(Algerians and al maktuub every one says it giggle). Fadila also came to the US because of marriage She also never thought of leaving the country but after a few marriage proposal s from Algerian men abroad, she finally accepted one of them. Fadila is a Kabyle and was a linguistics graduate working comfortably in an Algerian teaching institution. She explains her decision to accept her husbands marriage proposal and decision to migrate to the US in fluent English: I wasnt thinking to migrate but to go to England for studying. My mom was against the idea. Thats all. I never thought about migration even when I had manyuumarriage proposals, from immigrants. Even from USA, onesI always said no. I dont know I said yes for this onelaughs al maktuub (D)the written[providence]. (how did you meet?) with Fodil? (ya) actually we share a cousin he was interestedhe asked he asked his mom and sister to talk to me.. uu (so thats it you didnt sa y he is in America I dont want to go) I dont know because of F odilI always tell him your mom did magic to me (sure black magic laughs) black magic, tmaSkhira (D)just laughing (black magic to get you [marry her son] thats nice). Ngullu (D), cest pas normal (F)I tell him, its not normal, kifash hakdha saHratni yammak biddaHk (D) how is it? your mom did magic to me[I say it] laughily giggles Because his mom was really(she likes you) ya (thats nice) when I met Fodil, she was telling my aunt if she [Fadila] says yes to Fodil, I will be very happymy aunt was telling her no Fadila is not interested to go out of the country. When I was 25 -26 [year s old], I was telling everyone, I will marry in Kouba [an old neighborhood in the s uburb of Algiers] (laughing in your neighborhood) just in my ne ighborhood, not far from my mo m being far from my mom 61

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10 minutes is too much for me ( oh my God!) Now I am not far 10 minutes, I am 20 hours (both saying SubHaan Allah6) (eh al maktuub SaH.)truly, it is providence. Fadila would not have accepted to migrate to a foreign country such as America even for marriage. Yet when a Kabyle man, who is also a far relative, approached her for marriage, she did not hesitate to accept and moved to America. In comparison to many marriage cultures and patterns in France, between Kabyles from Algeri a and those of France, Fadila is following the tradition of her ethnic group. In addition, marrying a man with an American citizenship facilitates her stay and gives her privileg es that other women and men do not have. Manal also came to America through marriage. She was a teacher before getting married to Omar who has a student visa. Mana l also did not think she would one day be in America, yet she accepted the marriage with Omar. She explains in Darja with an Eastern Algerian accent: When did I think of migration? (Ya) I wasn t thinking of it AT A LL! Laugh. I was against migrating for whatever reason, marriage or laughI saw people go to France(you didnt like going to France?) I know many peopl e who got married, the wife stayed in the country and the man left(this is the old st yle of labor migration) no, even now it is hard for a wife to get with her husband to Fr ance. Now, they get married, he tells her: I make you the papers and she is waiting many ye ars. I refused this completely. And with Omar, I didnt accept until he told me that one day he will come back. (I laugheven to America?) I never thought of America. France, maybe we think about it but America (so the reason for coming to America), marriage only. Manals acceptance to marry an Algerian in Amer ica away from her family and her country but eventually to go back home. She is waiting for the day she and her family would go back to Algeria and settle there. Yet Omar has no idea how he would su rvive in Algeria since he got used to the relatively easy a nd organized life in the U.S. W ould they go back? For how long would the temporary migration last? Is this a situation of le temporaire qui durethe temporary that lasts? Many young Al gerians are marrying in this wa y. It would be interesting to 6 SubHaan Allah is an expression that means Praise be to God. It is used as a surprise statement among many Muslim Arabs and non Arabs after saying or hearing something that they like. 62

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find other young men who got married while here with girls from back home, for example through family ties. For women, esp ecially, this is a bi g shift; first by get ting married and living the family, but to also im/migrate. It would be in teresting to test the type s of stresses that face young brides coming not only to new husbands but also to completely new environments. How do they survive? Whether married or single for mo st new comers leaving home to a foreign place is stressful and having a family member or a fri end welcoming them is a big relief until they get on their feet. How do New Comers Make the Transition? Having a family member or a close friend in the States facilitates the transition for many new migrants and their families in their new en vironments. The hospitality is well appreciated. Yet, quickly enough, the newly arrived ones would like to find jobs to sustain their families. Like many new arrivals from Algeria, SalaH and his wife Sarah came in late 1990s through the lottery visa with their three children. They chose to sett le in Florida where a cl ose family member was already there. This case clearly i llustrates how social networks are a major structural factor in the adaptation process of the new migrant. In the Algeri an ways of hospitality, th e relative or kin feel obligated to take care of his visitors at least for a few weeks until they find a job and a place to live. However, the new comers try their best not to abuse this duty as the following case illustrates. Two years prior to their arri val, Sarahs younger brother got a research position at the university after finishing his docto rate degree in chemistry from France. They are appreciative of his hospitality as expressed by his brother-in-law : we came to him directly. Without him, we couldnt do anything. But as two educated i ndependently-minded people, SalaH remembers how both him and his wife did not hesitate to take any job that would put food on the table for them and their three children. He says in We stern Algerian Darja with an MSA emphasis: 63

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You have to throw yourself in the society and forgetyou have to focus on somethingso you have to go one step ahead or you wont be able to do anything. So, alHamdullahthat hard period that bottle neck in a period of two years [ended]. Even if he is a dear one, your family, but he is not forced to be responsible for you and your kids you come and stay for m onths we stayed about 8 mont hs [at the brother-in-laws place] thats a lot you dont feel a laise (F) at ease. When it gets too long you say; I have to get out of this situation He continues explaining the types of small jobs th at he and his wife had to take in order to get economically and socially stable: I was without a job, and the issue is that I have a family. I had to look for a job. In my first year, I didnt know much English. I had to l ook for any job. The most important [at that time] is that I had to get a weekly wage to sustain my family [Sarah: we were a [big] family; [we had] three kids [SalaH: I worked at at night [at a local supermarket name] almost for two years. That period helped me a lotI looked for work at Arab [shops] I couldnt find any. At the same time, I was preparing my exams [GRE] to enter [the university]. [That period] was good so I c ould keep my family [together]uuuhat the same timeI registered in a high school as as a substitute teacher (E) and I worked wellthat also helped me a lotI taught all le velsthere was a teacher, she helped me a lotmay she get rewarded.. I was dealing with her very wellI was also very patientI was looking for an income mostlyand in that hard period, I needed to get some kind of stability. [Finally] I entered the university. Before that, I worked three or four jobs just to keep my life stable. I was even a paperboy SalaH considers work as a means to survival in a new and foreign place. He is not ashamed to work anywhere and anything. Keeping his family together and getting stable was the most important of his goals at this earl y stage of their new life. Yet, his ultimate goal is not only to just survive but also to get accepted at the university and hence go back to being part of academia. Today, SalaH is a PhD candidate at one of the top universities in the countr y and a teacher of the French language. As he said to his wife: you dont look for what you are doing look for what you want to do later. He got past the days of ha rdship and is focusing now on what he loves to do, teach, read and write. His wife Sarah also worked in jobs that sh e would never think doing back in Algeria. Yet when speaking of that experien ce, she commemorates it as th e best learning opportunity among the American people that left her with the most pleasant feelings, thereby somewhat forgetting 64

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her hardship being away form home and the fam iliar faces of her loved ones. She explains with her husband interfering: I also worked at [SalaH: I took her with me.she worked with Jane, kaanat al-manager ta al-bakery (bfE and intersected into Darja sentence)she [Jane] was the manager of the bakeryand for memy wife neededshe didnt know any English or anythingI cared that she gets in [society] and speaks to people and learns[Sarah: they were very nice peoplemasha allahMay God blessuntil today [SalaH: I told her [manager] if it is possible, so she let her in with herthen she had other offers, I told her stay there where you are, in an environment where you speak English. You learn the language with them you can learn everything because you dont look for what you are doing now look for what you want to do later. [Sarah: Hatta (D) lemploi du temps (F) kaan msaafni(D) parcequeflexible (F) even the schedule was working for me, because... [it was] flexible. ( At what time were you working?) [SalaH: at the beginning she started at 4:00 in the morning. (wow (E) mashaa allah (CA)) yathe children were not too small [Sarah: that is why when I talk to Ma lika [a Moroccan woman in the immigrant community who is stressed because she can t find a job] I tell her you didnt see anything what did you see? [What is happeni ng to you is nothing comparing to me] if it was only me and my husband, but having chil dren [SalaH: anyway. herher husband has more than twelve years hereand he brought her for us we had different situations. [Sarah: I used to go at four in the morning because they needed someone to work that early[I worked for] almost two years.. But that was the best time to take away that shock...[SalaH: I think working in P.. was one of the best steps to get her out of that isolation. [Sarah: you imagineev en now, when I speak of it I feel [emotional]. The lady [manager] Jane there is no other woman th at I knew of at that time that was like thatJane, this womanthe Americanat four oclock when I wake up to go walking to workhadhil manager attai my own manager... I find her waiting for me in the car. She parks and waits for me near the door until I go out. When I go out, she picks me up and takes me with her to work..[SalaH: we didnt have a car(you mean without asking her if she could pick you up?) [SalaH: she comes by herself [Sarah: I swear she comes by herself wanhar arfat ana (D) en seinte (F) amlatli wahd (D) al-baby shower (bfE)... wala shuftu (D) fil aHlaam (MSA) and the day she knew I was pregnant, she gave me one baby shower, I didnt even see it in dreams! [Salah: giggles. [Sarah: uqsimu billah (CA) wala shuftu (D) fil aHlaam ( MSA)I swear by God, I di dnt even see it in dreams[Salah: hey..oui (F)oh, ya [ Sarah: waah!...( D western Algerian accent) yes! at first I didnt think of the Ameri cans like thatthat leve l of kindnessJane, she was older than me by maybe 8 yrs.. masha Allah (CA) taghwi (D western accent ) may God bless (CA), she is lovely (D)). [SalaH: a kind woman.[Sarah: I consider her like my family (do you still have relations with her?) [SalaH: ya.. specially Sarah. Sarahs first experience at work and social environment left her with a sense of welcome and comfort in America. Despite the hardship of th e first years, human kindness means everything to this couple. As a professor by training in Algeri a, she did not mind worki ng as a baker in a local 65

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supermarket. Although she mentions the kindness of a single American person, but coming from her manager meant a lot to her. The managers care left her with a positive feeling about the whole society. A womans touch that came out of care, kindness and love plays a role in facilitating the transition from the language inco mpetence and social isolation to a competent and confident citizen. As a new immigrant, Sarah was ra ised from a level of survival to a level of human relations, communication and planning for big achievements for her and her family. After a few more years, Sarah became a full time Arab ic teacher at the same university with her husband where she meets students from various ethni cities and backgrounds. Sarah is one of the best among her colleagues to teach interested students Arabic language, culture and skills to make them successful in life. In her turn, sh e is influencing many young students who have great goals in life and who respect her an d appreciate her love for teaching. La Montagne Neighborhood After winning the lottery visa or maybe coming illegally, many people from the same neighborhood in Algiers meet again in the sa me neighborhood and community in Chicago. Hind, a mother of five, explains in Darja how her neighborhood in Algiers is moving in name and in many respects to the city of Chicago: We used to call cite La Montagne (F) [the area or neighborhood cal led the mountain in Algiers], citee Chicago (F) (no way! Giggle) many of those from La Montagne are in Chicago. [FatiHa: (she sings the following in French) they sang o, a, o, a, o, La Montagne Chicago (F) until they came here. [Hind: I mean, Chicago is full of people from La Montagne. (they are settled a ll in Chicago ?) They are all settled in Chicago. When one gets la lotterie (b.f.F), he/she finds all the family here.7 Cite La Montagne in Chicago represents the safe recreated neighborhood in which new comers find solidarity and first s upport until they find a job. 7 We are sitting in the park at dusk, the loud sound of adhan alMaghrib call of sun-set prayercomes from one of the ladies cell phones. It is loud like that of a mosque back in Algiers. We were women and children loud in the public park and visible. 66

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Conclusion This chapter began with a few questions: Why did Algerians leave? Who left? Under what conditions do they end up living in France a nd the US? In answering them, it was necessary to start with the time of colonized Algeria wh en conditions were created for the natives, the colonizers and their off-spring to mingle and become connected forever. Until today, France remains the closest destination for Algerian migr ants for work, studies or family reunion. Yet, by the end of the twentieth century, the destination of Algerian trav elers and migrants moved much farther, reaching the U.S. for sim ilar reasons and new ones. In comparison to the Algerians im/migration to France, which is the largest among the African continent, the Algerian immigration to the U.S. is still new and small. While the first Algerian immigrants to France went for cheap la bor, fifty years later, the first Algerians to America came for higher learning. Yet, the two migr ations are similar in th at violence triggered many migratory flows to both continents. On th e one hand, hundreds of thousands left to France as a result of violence during the war of independence in the late 1950s and, on the other hand, thousands entered the U.S. fleeing the fear and in stability that terrorism caused during the black decade of the1990s. Algerians came in waves to the US; each wa ve representing different causes and goals. The early comers in the late 1970s and the 1980s were students in search of knowledge in the developed West with the goal in mind to go back home and build their country. The political instability in the 1990s caused the second wave. What started with authoritarianism and corruption led to human rights abuses, concentrat ion camps and detention centers for thousands of members of the opposition to the government. Th is policy of repression in conjunction with wide spread terrorism led to the civil war that pu shed thousands of Algerians to migrate to other countries including America. During the turmoil, there were many kidnappings and killings of 67

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intellectuals, journalists, doctors, academics, lawyers and judges by the hands of the military forces and armed groups. The political situation in Algeria worsened to the point where those who had different opinions from the government or the armed groups received death threats and had to leave under severe circumstances. Their on ly insurance for survival was to leave their home country to Europe, the Mi ddle East, the U.S., and many other destinations around the world. Those intellectuals who had connections in the U.S. started the process of immigration as soon as they could and left everything behind, in cluding their private practices, their jobs, their houses, and belongings. Fleeing the carnage and in stability in their c ountry became of the essence. Despite thinking of immigration as a temporary situation, like those who are in France and like the majority of immigrants I would hypothesize that most Algerians in the United States would not return to their home country despit e real or perceived threats of racism and discrimination in the jobs. They would say that they are satisfied, that they found safety, peace of mind, and jobs and new professions where, if luc ky, their expertise is used well and their income is better than the one at home I suppose they would be mostly satisfied with the political freedom and civil liberties that they enjoy in America (although, there have been some changes since 9/11). Therefore the question might be why go back? Ethnogr aphic fieldwork and interviews in the Algerian communities in the Stat es would be the final stage to theorize about Algerian immigration and give answers to my specu lations. However, the aim of this thesis is to follow this newly formed invisible sojourne rs (Arthur 2000) among the African/Muslim/Arab communities (Abrahim et al. 1983; Abraha m 1983; Aswad 1974; Haddad: 1983; Sweet: 1980) in their cultural adaptation in their new home where they meet new and old Diasporas and communities and negotiate their settlement. The cultu ral, linguistic, and religious wealth of this 68

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69 new Algerian Diaspora in America would be st udied closely and compared to the Algerian Diaspora in France, in its particul ar and complex forms, hoping to re veal to the reader part of the Algerian heritage, a heritage that is intert wined in the languages, dialects, and way of life.

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CHAPTER 3 BACKGROUND INFORMATI ON ON ALGERIAN LANGUAGES Genesis and Development Strategically, Algeria is positioned in the port of Africa. It has always been desired by superpowers including the Romans, Portuguese, Arab s, Ottomans and finally the French (Zaleza 2005; Hunwick, John O. and Eve Troutt Powell. 2001). Because of its encounters, settlers and colonizers, Algerian culture embodi es one of the richest and the most diverse. Its people are varied in languages, dialects a nd ways of life. The north part of Algeria is the most populated with its cities that are located on the shores and ports of the Mediterranean Sea. It has access to great neighboring countries of th e Maghreb (Tunisia and Libya to the East and Morocco to the west) and Europe (France to the North and Sp ain and Portugal to the North West of the Mediterranean Sea). The wide south part of Algeria links it to the riches of the rest of the African countries starting with the surrounding nations from west to east, Maurita nia, Mali and Niger continuing Algerian natives deep relation to ancient Africa. Yet, many contemporary politicians and academics prefer to associate Algerians with Arabs (Middle East) more than Africans. This topic is of great importance and many scholars are challenging such divi de (e.g., Zaleza; Okome) that is weakening the African contin ent by focusing only on elements of racial, ethnic and linguistics criteria. However, in studying the people of Nort h Africa, its African characteristics (phenotype, linguistics, ideology, spirituality, re ligion, kinship structure) are ro oted in the realities of its inhabitants that would be evident in ethnographic comparative st udies. Although there is a great variety and heterogeneity within the intra boundaries of the African continent, yet, one cannot neglect the strong bond among its inhabitants that is of a certain complexity that is hard to abridge (Algeria color map: 2008). 70

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On the north east of Algeri a lay the Mountains of al -awraass, home of the proud Berbers ( Chaouia ethnic group) and the ancient cities of Constantin e and Annaba close to the Tunisian and Libyan cultures and dialects wh ich are the route to the Middle East. To the West, the great cities of Tlmecen and Oran that were influen ced by the migrating moors and Jews of Andalusia and by their neighboring country Mo rocco in art, music, and love for knowledge. In the middle North, the mountains of Kabylia home of the major Berber ethnic group Kabyle and its influence on the urban mix of all cultures a nd dialects in the capita l Algiers and surrounding. And finally to the south, the wide grand Sahara and its inhabitant s that are so diverse in their various ethnic groups such as the berber ethnic groups Mezab and Touareg who are a mix of African, Berber, and Arab ideologies, religions, languages, and cultures. They are famous for their independent minds, love for tea and dates, sitting on hand made camel-hear rugs, under a tent in the middle of the desert in an oasis which is a symbol of life, stability, hospitality and intellectual and economic exchange. Between 1830 until 1962, Algeria was well known to the world as being one of the French colonies and as the grenier de lEurope by its rich soil that produced ci trus, dates, vegetables, and grains that was sent to feed the people of Europe at the time of the French colonialism. After its independence in 1962 and after a decade of development as a free and young nation-state, Algeria became a member of OP EC and one of the largest pro ducers of natural gas and many raw materials such as iron, copper and gold and ga ined great revenue from them. This endeavor had to be met by educating its young population with skills and abilities that would be intrinsic to the development of the various branches of science, technology, medici ne and administration. This chapter deals with the genesis and development of the languages of Algerian immigrants. I will speak of Tamazight, ArabicCA, MSA, Darjaand French. The first part is 71

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a summary about these languages genesis and rela tionship to the North African region and to each other in phonology, morphology, and lexical borro wing. The second part deals with these languages role in nation building and the tensi ons and conflict that emerge in independent Algeria. I present an analysis of the two dominant languages, Ar abic and French and how they compete in independent Algeria at the political, intellectual and social levels. I also deal with the role of Arabic vernacular as the neutral comm unication between all ethni cities and Tamazight the oral language that is in a sl ow process of being standardized. Berber Languages and the First Contact with Arabic In investigating the origin of the Berbers, there isnt one place mentioned but several including Western Europe, sub Sahara Africa an d Northeast Africa. However, for centuries, various waves settled in North Africa and made up its indigenous populations. The term Berber is derived from the Greek in reference to the pe ople of North Africa; however, it was adopted by the Romans, Arabs then the French. When iden tifying themselves, the people of North Africa may use this term, the term qabayl the tribes(given to them by the Arab settlers) or the term Imazighan the free men (used by the speakers themselves.) They speak Tamazight or the language of the people of Amazigh. In comparison to Algerian languages of today including Arabic (literate and spoken) and French, Berber is the oldest of them all (Saadi Mokhrane 2002: 48). Like Cushitic, and Egyptian languages, Berb er is part of the Hamitic grouping within the afro-Asiatic language family. From a sociolinguist point of view, there are many Berber languages each with mutually intelligible dialects. The Algerian Berber la nguages are Kabyle (North), Chaouia (North), Chenoua (central and West), Mzab (Mzab regi on), and Touareg language. For example Kabyle (Taqbailit) has two intelligible dialects: Petite Ka bylie dialects (East) a nd Grand Kabylie dialects (center). The Berber speaking Algerians are estim ated to be between 20-25% or as Chaker, a 72

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specialized scholar in Berber studies, puts it: one out of five Algerians speaks Berber (Chaker 1984: 8). The first Berber tribes encounter with Arabs goes back to the 8th century. It was through trade, conquer, and the spread of the faith of Islam through th e Ulamas (scholars of Quran, Hadith, Arabic and Fiqh). However, the extens ive interaction did not take place before the settlement of the Arab nomadic populations such as Banu Sulaim, Banu Hilal, and Banu Maqil in North Africa in the 11th century. The Islamic teaching in ma drassas, Zawiyas, and mosques, became the channels for the teaching of the Arab ic language. as truly stated by Wardaugh: the Islamization of the Maghrib preceded its Arabization; and the latter was never completed (Wardaugh 1987: 178). One would say that the Is lamization of the Imazighan people and the adoption of Arabic as the language of learning were gradual, th rough conversion to Islam and the practice of the religion. Yet, Tamazight re mained the language of trade and daily communication. Until today, Tamazight, the oral indigenous language remains spoken and transmitted generation after generation. People in mixed marr iages between Berbers and Arabs would adopt either languages or both depending on the social and regional milieu of the family. Yet, the language of the Quran or the Classical Arabic (CA) was the venue for success in learning and power through out the centuries of the Islamic civilization that north Africa and the Imazighan people were part of it (Ara b/Berber dynasties: Al-mor avids 1044; Al-muhads 1148) (Loimeir 2007). Throughout the Islamic empire, Algerians like other Mediterranean embraced Arabic as the language of progress in mathematics, philosophy, geography, history, medicine and literature (Gafaiti 2002: 40). Today, Algerians, with the rest of the world, honor famous names, such as, Imru al-qaiss (Arab poe t), al-khawarizmi (mathematician and developer of arithmetic 73

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and algorithm), Ibn Khaldun (fat her of social science), A r-Rumi and Ibn Arabi (Sufi philosophers), Ibn Rushd (or Av iros: pholisopher), and Ibn Sina or Avissina in medicine. Summarized Comparison between Berber and Arabic Phonology and Morphology In comparing Tamizight to Arabic we can see many similarities at the level of phonemes and word order, however they different on expr essing other grammatical information such as number, gender and tense. Like Arabic, Tamazight is a language with only three vowels; a, i, u, however, Arabic has three letters alif, waw, ya that are conson ants but also long vowels [aa], [ii], [uu] when following a consonant. Tam azight has 38 consonants in comparison to 28 consonants in Arabic. Tamazight has phonemes that are not found in Arabic such as [tsh], [v], [p], however, the other sounds are similar. The grammatical information (number, gender, or tense) is different in Tamazight than Arabic or French. For example the plural of amazi gh (Berber man) is imazighan and the plural of tamazight (female Berber) is timazighin. However, in Arabic expressing number is much more complex. For example the plural for amazighi (Berber man) is amazighiuun /iin depending on the case. The plural for amazighia (female Berbe r) is amazighiaat. However, in Arabic making plural is a much more complex than Berber in which nouns have sound and broken plural that require memorizing various pattern. For example plur al for man or rajul is rijaal and the plural for woman or imraa is nissaa. Most feminine words have the [at] sound at the end, however in Berber an [ta] is added at the beginning of the word The word order in Tamazight is VERB-SUBJ ECT-OBJEC. However, the Arabic language has two, this previous one and the SUBJECT-VERB-OBJECT one. For example, The girl ate the apple is in Tamazight ate the girl the appl e but in Arabic both orders work. The phonetic closeness between the two langua ges is of great importance wh ich made the borrowing from each other extensive (especially from Arabic to Berber). However, like any other two languages 74

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in contact, the borrowed lexeme would always be adapted to the phonology and morphology of the mother tongue. Classical Arabic Like Akkadian, Canaanite, Aramaic, Hebrew, and Ethiopic, Arabic is a Semitic language. Semitic is also considered a major subfamily of the Afro-asiatic family of languages making Arabic related to Berber even from far. Arab ic was spread into ma ny places including North Africa, through the faith of Islam. Until today, oral and written recitation of Quran remains one of the main sources for the Classical version of the language. (CA) basic structure is similar to that of the Quranic Arabic and the preserved preIslamic poetry which are the closest to the Arab Bedouin way of speech. In his book Arabic language Versteegh gives an excellent summary of the development of orthography in the codificati on of the Quran and the codification of the preIslamic poetry. He also explains how early Arab Grammarians use the language of the Bedouins as the holders of Arabic FaSiHeloquent(Versteegh 1997: 50), a concep t that until today is used to categorize the literate from the vernacular. In the early stages of the Islamic empire, the Arabic language went through its first process of standardizati on in connection to three main topics: the invention of orthogr aphy, the elaboration of standa rdized norm of the language and the invention and expansion of the lexicon. Like many other languages, CA has been affect ed by contact with other tongues. Even the assumed pure Arabic Quranic text has foreign borrowed lexical items. Being arabiyyan mubinan-a recitation that is Arabic and clear, Quran, a revela tion from God, contains many borrowed words from other languages. For example Versteegh reports that Muqatil, one of the mid 8th century mufassir Quranic interpreter, states that firdaws is a Greek word; yamm in a Hebrew word, maqalid is a Nabataean word and Taha is a Syriac word (Versteegh 1993: 89-90 cited by Versteegh 1996). It is due to this flexibility even in a s acred language that gave the 75

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first Standardized Arabic language the ability to remain in use until the twentieth century when the world situation required a second Standardization. Modern Standard Arabic Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) emerged in the 20th century with the rebirth of Arabic in post colonialism in most Arab countries in th e 1950s and early 1960s. In the modernization of the language, new methods were used to cr eate new vocabulary such as borrowing foreign words, integrating foreign words morphologically and/or phonologically, translating foreign words and extending the semantic of existing wo rds and using analogy to extend existing root (Versteegh 1996: 179). MSA was derived from the CA and with such lexicon reform and modifications became the language of government and modern instructi ons. Like the other modern nation-states, after its independence, the new government in Algeria gave the standard Arabic th e status of official state language. Its prestige is derived from the CA being the language of the Quran; yet, MSA is learned only through formal education. The nati ve languages acquired in infancy in North African countries are Berber and Darja both low in status since they have no written form or role in education or administration (Bentahila and Davies 1992: 198). Darja Darja is the Algerian Arabic di alect. One of the following terms: darizja, darja, or amiya are used; yet, they all mean colloquial, vern acular or common speech. Like Berber, Darja is based on the spoken only. If deciding to write, people switch to CA, MSA or French. it is important to note that the linguis tic discourse continues to pos ition on the one hand, MSA as the prestigious and correct language and on the other hand, Darja as th e deviant one. This attitude may be due mostly for the excess borrowing and codeswitching with other languages in contact (see detailed examples with li nguistic analysis of various expressions in chapter four). 76

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From contacts with other languages, Darja, th e spoken Algerian Arabic, uses lexical items from Berber, Portuguese, Spanish, Turkish, Fr ench and lately English. Words such as: kuskus, banio, kuzina, dey, lekol, and manager are consecutively each from the previous languages. Through out the chapters, I put ma ny quotes, in the context of the chapters, collected during my fieldwork among the Algerian immi grants in the US, in which borrowed nouns, verbs, adverbs or articles are used. When borrowing happens, I not e it for example (bfF) -borrowed from French. When borrowed from other languages, I simila rly note it. The borrowing and complements can be articles, nouns, or clauses. The linguistic flexibility of Darj a with its regional variants in Algeria widened its lexical range and gave it the privilege to be understood and used everywhere in North Africa. Dialects cline Throughout North Africa or as it is called the Maghrib the sitting of the sun [region]there is a strong linguistic simila rities. One would say that there is a dialects Cline throughout Mauritania, Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, and Libyan geographic areas. Despite using lexical and phonetic variants, in general, the populations of this region are able to communicate without difficulty. Passing that area toward the east, th e dialects become more mashriqiMiddle Easternwhich are less similar to western dialects. According to Verstee gh, Egyptian Delta is the borderline between Western and Eastern dialects (Versteegh 1997: 134). His map (p. 135) is a good example to visualize one of the most freq uently cited isoglosses in Arabic dialectology, which divide the Western from the Eastern dialects The following table (2-1) is an illustration of the verb I write/we write and how it changes from west to east as mentioned in Versteegh book (1997): 77

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Table 2-1. Illustration of the verb I write/we write Language 1st person singular 1st person plural MSA Aktubu / aktub Naktubu / Naktub Magrebi Niktib Nkitbu Mashriqi Aktib Niktibu / niktib English I write We write While the western region is to some extent diffe rent from the eastern region, one would say with confidence that the Middle East is not one region. As a matter of fact, they vary among each other at other levels which are not the subject of this thesis. Following another division of the Arabic dialects, Versteegh presents the geographi cally classified Arabic dialects (p.145) as follows: the dialects of the Arabian Peninsula, Mesopotamian dialects, Syro-Lebanese dialects, Egyptian dialects and the Maghrib dialects. In contrast to the Egyptian dialect, Darja is not intelligible to most middle easterners. The reason for the spread of the Egyptian among other Arab countries is that Egypt has been the center for the Arabic/Islamic learning for centuries Al-azhar University al one, have been visited for centuries by students of knowledge from around the world. Until today, it holds the most prestigious position in the world. E gypt is also well developed in the Arabic/Islamic literature and cinematography. Its productions are read and viewed by all Arabs and as a result spread its dialect. To many Arabs, Egypt is Umm ad-dunia the mother of the world. As a matter of fact, Arab populations including Saudis, the holders of the Kaba in Mecca, which all Muslims face five times a day to perform prayers, tend to admire Egypt and imitate Egyptians. As Vesteegh states, Egyptian colloquialisms are rapidly gain ing a position as prestige variants (Versteegh 1997: 197). However, I would argue th at the author is still talking in the past. Today, especially with satellite television and the internet, Arabic people, markedly, its young, are mixing their dialects with English or French as prestige languages not Egyptia n dialect as the author claims. 78

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Algerian multidiaglossia Algerian speech like that of other Arabs takes place in multiglossic and multilingual relationship between the various languages they have. In the Algerian situation, diglossia may take place between FuSHa/ Darja (H variety/ L variety, a concept started by Ferguson 1959) However, as Versteegh notes this model restricted the notion of diglossia to situations where the low variety was genetically related to the hi gh variety, of which it was a simplified version (Versteegh 1997: 190). In modifying Fergusons model, Versteegh also explains that there is no distinction of two discrete varieties which mean s the speaker has to choose one or the other by a process of code-switching. Instead, one can say, there is a continuum of speech where the two varieties are the extremes (p.190). In countries like Algeria, intelle ctuals do not speak one language or the other with each other but use Berber, Darja, French, and MSA depending on the social circumstances as well as th eir linguistic loyalties and solidar ities. I experience this, myself in the United States, adding English to the table, whenever I meet with other Algerians. That is one reason, why most middle east erners do not understand Algerians or maghribis when they speak among themselves. Yet, they maintain that Algerians speak French. French in Algeria French entrance to North Africa and specifica lly to Algeria was in 1830 as a colonizing force. As mentioned earlier, the similarities be tween the Berber and Arabic speaking people is that both are tribal people of afro-Asiatic bond. However, French language and people are of Romance and Gallic ancestry separated from North Africans by the Mediterranean Sea. Although both based on the alphabetical system, French and Arabic languages bear no resemblance in their script. Yet, for strategic and economic reasons, Algeria was destined an integral part of France. As a wa y of control, the French language was forced as the language of administration and power. As a result, Arab ic, a competing language of knowledge was 79

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suppressed except during Muslim prayers. Algerians, Arabic or Berber speaking, were forced to deal with officials in French. No interpretation was allowed and no official recognition was given to either ones. By the end of the nineteen th century, a policy of assimilation was enforced and the only way of advancement was through French. In 1938, [Arabic] was declared a foreign language by a law that was rescinded only in 196 1, just prior to independence, by Charles de Gaulle (Saadi Mokhrane 2002: 52). The colonizi ng administration was enforced by thousands of French and European migrants making the social making of the region more complex. Being at an advantageous place, the colons were agains t the education of Algerians who were forced to work in the colons farms and estate. After more than a centu ry of colonization, when the French left, a nation was formed in an environment saturated by a language of discrimi nation, anger, and violence. Unlike the general population, a minority of Algerians Arab and Berber were educated in French. Among those who did, French elite was formed and used to govern after independence. However, the level of Arabic literacy was at a desper ate level and by independence less than few thousands were able to read and write Arabic (W ardaugh 1987: 183). At independence, in 1962, the majority of Algerians were illiterate, and Fr ench continued to be the langua ge of administration, power, and education. As a matter of fact, French remain widely used and despite the arab ization programs since independence, it retains an important role. Today most edu cated Algerians are fluent in French and Standard Arabic. Linguistic Conflict and Nation Building Arabic/Politics and Linguistics Discourse In 1962, Arabic was restored through a massive educational program. A cultural and a political movement that started in the 1930s, co ntinued in post indepe ndence as a symbol of linguistic decolonization (Berger (ed.) 2002: 3). The shared idiom was Islam is our religion, 80

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Arabic is our language, Algeria is our land (first said by Ibn Badis and later echoed by Messali Haaj). Six years after independence, a decree wa s ordered designating Arabic to be used in all civil service positions. However, French remain ed used in administration until 1990s. In 1998, a new law generalized the exclusive use of Arabic in institutions and public service, yet, until today, never fully implemented. The government linguistic war against French becomes a complicated issue dividing Algerians between franchophone and arabophone and bringing in the issue of ethnicity to furthe r division when some Berbers in clude this war to be against Berbers not French. In independent Algeria, CA a nd MSA held not only a heritage and sacred function but also a nationalist and an Arab-Muslim identity revival. It plays a major role in religious functions at the individual level during Islamic worship. However, at the social level, CA is used in common and civil law in marriage, divorce and inheritance. Finally, CA took back its role in the religious discourse and the Mosque. Darja the Neutral Tongue Darja remains the natural medium of ordi nary speech. At times of conflict between Arabophone and Francophone nobody think of it as a militant way of speech. Darja remains the channel for freedom in expression and fluidity in word choice. Th ere is constant use of Berber, Arabic and French at various degrees. Yet, in contrast to MSA and French literacy, Darja remains the language of the i lliterate and common people. A linguistic discourse takes place between those who defend it as the Algerian language and a colloqu ial creativity (MalHun poetry) and those who try to correct its laHn or solecism. However, when listening to Muwashahat genra of Andalusia or the Algiers shabi music Algerians do not consider the colloquial as less than CA or MSA but as a heritage that is ro oted in the Maghrib. 81

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Berber Reform and Ethnic Revival In post independent Algeria, Tamazight remained the oral language of millions of Algerians. However, a movement has formed and requesting the change of the language status to a national language and standardize it to a literate language. At the same time, an ethnic identity revival of the Pre-Arab-Islam presence took place, ma king the divide not only between Arabophone and berberists but between the Berber s factions. While members from the Kabyles embraced a cultural activism speaking against th e use of Arabic, many other Kabyles and other Berber groups do not agree with the war against Arabic and Isla m. However, the feelings of ethnic belonging and tribalism emerged as a c ounter response to nationalism and pan-arabism that made Arabic the national la nguage of the land neglecting ot her heritages and silencing any movement that asks for reform. The Algerian government finally allowed the teaching of Tamazight language at schools. Th e current Algerian president, President Bouteflika signed a decree which became law; however, the teaching of th e language is still at its preliminary stages. There is still a debate on what characters to us e; the old Tifinagh (used among Tuareg), Arabic or Roman script. The first classe s started in1995-1996 academic year in Kabiya and as SaadiMokrane says: [it] suggest[s] the possibility that Berber will become the second national language, once it is taught in all the countrys schools (Saadi-Mokrane 2002: 48). French: Not National but Integrated Language As mentioned earlier, the French language a sserted itself in Algeria amid the tumult of colonization. The irony is that among those who were fighting French during arabization were the elite whose education was mostly in French. As a matter of fact, the French-speaking elite continued using French at the time of independenc e as the language of economic, scientific and technological power. Despite declaring Arabic th e only national language in the country, French continues to be the tool in bureaucracy and le arning. The topic of eliminating French from 82

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83 Algeria comes and goes like swinging mood in pos t colonial Algeria de pending on the political climate. At times of disenchantment with soci al and political tensions, French language is blamed for remaining in the nation. At other tim es, those who were raised during colonialism reminisce about the language of high culture. In present Algeria, many monuments such as street names and buildings remain as a reminder of the time of the French colonial period. As a matter of fact, my neighborhood where I was raise is still called cite Fouge roux after a French personality despite renaming it officially Rostomia after a figure during the Rustamid dynasty in the 8th century Algeria. Conclusion This background information on the origin, lingu istic and political situ ation of the present languagesTamazight, Arabic, and Frenchof Algeria is of great importance. One would not value the topic of the Algerian languages in the Diaspora (France and the US) unless understanding the connections of the languages to each other and to their users. The Algerian languages starting with Tamazightthe ancestra l language, classical Arabicthe language of faith, Frenchthe language of modernization, modern standard Arabicthe national language, and finally Darjathe spoken tongu eare inseparable in the mind a nd life of every Algerian. As a matter of fact, their fate in the Diaspora de pends greatly on the percep tions of their holders as well as other factors in their new homes.

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CHAPTER 4 CODESWITCHING AND BORROWING: CONT ACT BETWEEN ARABIC AND FRENCH VS. ARABIC AND ENGLISH Algerian Arabic (Darja) is ch aracterized as having great lexical borrowing from other languages, especially from French as mentioned in the previous chapter. In this chapter, I discuss a number of ways of Algerians speech (all exampl es are from my data co llection), the choices of the matrices or the underlying stru ctures that my interviewees re ly on, and a variety of inserted words or expressions that they borrow from other language(s). However, before presenting examples of c odeswitching and borrowing it is important to understand the Arabic matrices of both regional (Darja) and standard (MSA) as well as analyze their mutual relationships. The Arabic matrix is followed by an English and French translation to allow the reader to see how Arabic as a Semitic language differs from French and English (as western languages) and how French and English ar e closer to each other more than to Arabic. Table 2-2. An example of (D) in comparison to MSA, E, and F, which is not yet influenced by foreign borrowing: Language Example D AlunSur ta al-arabiya Muhim bazzaf (D) The element Belongs the Arabic Important a lot MSA (1) AlunSur at-taabi lil-ara biya Muhimun jiddan The element Belongs To the Arabic Important a lot MSA (2) unSur al-arabiya Muhimum jiddan Element The Arabic Important a lot E trans of D : The element of Arabic is extremely important. F trans of D: l lmen t de larabe est extrmement important. The matrix of D is the same as that of MSA. However, certain lexical divergences make the words more regional. Some of the transformations may first seem for non speakers or to those who do not understand D to be differe nt. In this example, I have f our observations to make that show the morphological explana tion behind this divergence: 84

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The term ta of (E) or de (F)used in D is not f ound in the structure of MSA (2). Yet, this does not mean it is not Arabic. It is importa nt to note that all Arab ic dialects have the ability to use CA or MSA elements and alter th em in ways that would fit their needs. The term ta is thus a word constructed from the CA or MSA (1) word taabi which means belonging to. However, the bilabial phoneme [b] of the later is omitted and the new lexical meaning belonging to is ta in Algerian or bita in Egyptian (just as in English the contraction of do not to dont). The word muhim importantin D is not that different from the CA or MSA muhimun since the only difference is the omission of un (a sign of indefiniteness), which is rare to find in modern Arabic dialects. However, in CA and MSA, un only appears as a case marker in the middle of a sentence, but is omitted at a pausal situation and would be muhim like in the dialect. The word bazzaf veryin D is based on the MSA and CA root word zaf commotion. However, the word that is mostly used in MSA in this context is jiddan very. Yet, the word bazzaf originate from an Arabic word bi az-zaf which means with great noise or commotion. Such meaning is also used in Egyptian dialect saying bizzuffa However, it is used in a different context than the one presented in the Algerian example. Finally, when comparing the following possessive clauses: Al-unSur ta al-arbiya in D to unSur al-arabiya in MSA (2) one would say that both are Arabic. However, as a possessive form, the first one would not be proper in MSA in this context but would work in saying unSur al-arabiya or Al-unSur at-taabi lil-arabiya [the] element of Arabic [language] or the element belong ing to the Arabic [language]. We can see how colloquial Algerian Arabic is very strongly rela ted to CA and MSA. However, because of the above syntax or semantics change, D appears, at first, as a separate language from MSA. As shown up above, ArabicMSA, D, CA differs tremendously in word order and syntax from the western languagesE or Fwhich ar e much closer to each other in word order and in lexical. Yet, Arabic, like other language s, has the ability to insert other languages elements in its matrix or be inserted in other languages matrices, as illustrated in the examples in the following paragraphs. 85

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Description of Codeswitching in General Using the insertion approach, Boumans and Caubet (1999) state that code switching is viewed as the insertion of smaller or larger constituents from one language, to be called the embedded [inserted] language, into a syntactic frame set by another language, the matrix language (Boumans and Caubet 1999: 113). They e xplain that the former governs the selection and relative order of the constituent parts that make up the structure, whether their constituents are from the same language or another languagethe embedded language. The process of identifying the matrix language leads to the conclusions that word order and function morphemes are usually indicative of the ma trix language (Boumans and Caubet 1999:115). They and others also argue that in codeswitc hing between languages, marker tense and/or aspect on the verb, verbal inflec tion is a reliable indicator of the matrix language (Klavans 1985; Treffer-Daller 1994: 204 in Boumans a nd Caubet 1999:116). Based on these authors extensive and explicit definition, the following ex amples illustrate how this codeswitching works between French and Darja, Darja and French, Da rja and English, and, finally, English and Darja. The examples also illustrate th e kinds of borrowed words that are used in each situation and how the inflection works. Matrix illustration French Matrix In the following we see how the two French ma trices are used in a continuous going back and forth between various languages French, English, Arabic then French matrices: Mon prof une fois quand elle ma entendu (F) nahdar (D). Elle m a diten parlant des verbesles verbes irrguliers et tout a. E lle ma dit (F): french is [a] crazy, crazy language(E) Wallah ; qalat li : (D ) le franais pour lapprendr e il nest pas facile (F). Ana (D), jai lu beaucoup de bouquins (F). 86

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In this situation, this recent Al gerian immigrant to the Chicago ar ea is still going back and forth between the US and Algeria. She speaks Fren ch at home with her husband and daughter and when meeting other Algerians. In this example, she uses French as the matrix; however, she inserts D conjugated verb (nahdar) instead of (j e parle) in her first part of speech. In her sentence she is still using the French matrix, how ever, she inserts what her teacher told her in English: French is [a] crazy, crazy language. Then she uses Arabic (D) (wallah, qalat li)I swear, she told me, when she wants to assure something. She could have said in French: je tassureI assure you [that she to ld me.] However, in this situation, she chooses to use the Arabic Islamic oath wallah[I swear] by Godto make her point, following it with an Arabic sentence qalat lishe told me. Then she goes back to her French matrix and finishes the sentence without any foreign insertion. She then starts a new French matrix using at the beginning the Arabic pronoun ana (me or I) instead of the French pronoun (moi). She finishes her talk explaining how she became competent in French by reading a lot of books. In this small paragraph, we can see how this Algerian interv iewee uses the French matrix in general. However, she relies on other matrices from Arabic and English. She clearly demonstrates her various linguistic abilities in retrieving such matr ices when needed to express herself with other Algerians who are able to understand all three languages that she uses. The next example shows other complex uses of French matrix inserted with an Arabic matrix, with the use of French borrowed lexical followed by an E nglish matrix. The expression is followed by a translation in French then in English to highlight the difference. Je ten pris telephoni li Je ten pris telephone moi Please call me 87

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In this French matrix the inserted part is a Fren ch verb [telephon-er-]. Th e French verb is uttered phonologically and morphologically. Using the stem of the verb then conjugating it in Arabic in the imperative form (you (feminine)) telephoni and complemented by a prepositional phrase li to mebased on the verb patterndoing something to/for mesuch as uktubi liwrite to meor uTbukhi licook for meand so on. The following utterance shows the use of the prev ious matrix and code switching with English: Je ten pris telephoni li a n importe quel moment email me anything Je ten pris telephone moi a nimpor te quel moment email moi nimporte Please call me at any time email me anything This kind of borrowing is very common in Maghrib i languages. Arabic conj ugation is applied to French verbs and reinserted to code switch with Fr ench matrix as shown in this example or used in an Arabic matrix as we will see in the following examples. Arabic Matrix My data shows how Algerians vary in usi ng French or Arabic matrices. They do it depending on the speech community and social situ ation they are in. In the following, I illustrate how French verbs are borrowed and adapted to Arabic morphology. They are conjugated in Arabic and inserted in Arabic matrices. In case of the three following examples, the French verbs are from the regular verbs having an infinitive former [e] in French. As shown by Boumans and Caubet, Algerians also use Fr ench irregular verbs such as souffrir however in morphology; Algerians apply the same form of Arabic conjugation for both regul ar and irregular French verbs. On the one hand, the French il a souffert b ecomes [sufra]he sufferedto express the past tense. On the other hand, the French il souffre becomes [ysufri] in Arabiche is suffering or he suffers to express the progressive present (Boumans and Caubet 1999:158-160). Phonologically, the verb souffre is pronounced with French [r]a velar voiced. When used in an 88

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Arabic matrix or as a borrowed word, it would be pronounced with an Arabic accent saying sufra with a flapped r. Use of (F) adverbial expressions in Arabic matrix dailleurs (F) ki jat waHda jdida, kunna nahhadru As a matter of fact when came one person new we were speaking As a matter of fact, when a new person came in the Chicago MCC community-, we were speaking [to her in MSA]. This is a good example of borrowed words; the Fren ch word [dailleurs] is used as an adverb at the beginning of the Darja matrix. Use of (F) verbial expressions in Arabic matrix Difigureweh (they disfigured him) The verb is borrowed from French regular ve rb dfigurer ruled by Arabic morphology and phonology using the Arabic syntax then inserted into Arabic matrix. D: difigur (flapped r) ewe h F: dfigure Ils ont l ils lont dfigur E: disfigured they him they disfigured him MSA: shawwah-whoo-h Remarkit-haa (I noticed it or her). The verb is borrowed from the French regular verb remarquer. The Arabic morphology is applied then inserted into Arabic matrix. D: Remarki t haa F: remarqu jai l je lai remarqu E: noticed I it I noticed it MSA: LaahaDhtuhaa 89

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Kanu issiyu (they were trying). The verb is borrowed from the French regular verb essayer and conjugated using Arabic morphology [issiyu] and syntax then inserted into Arabic matrix. D: kanu yssiy u F: avez essaye ils ils avez essaye E: they were trying they were trying MSA: Kanu yuHaawiluun Kifaash nexplikihalek (how do I explain it to you). The verb is borrowed from the French regular verb expliquer, conjugated using Arabic grammatical rule, and then insert ed into Arabic matrix. Phonologi cally, the verb is pronounced in Arabic accent. D: kifaash ne xpliki ha lek F: Comment je expli que l te Co mment je te lexplique E: how I explain it [to] you How do I explain it to you MSA: kaifa ashraHuuhaa lek In these four examples, the French regular verb is used by Algerian and Maghribis in general using Arabic conjugation to inflate the verbs in perfect, imperfect and imperative tenses. The verbs are then inserted in Arabic matrix or reinserted in French matrix. In the case of English verbs, Algerians in America like other immigrants start using some verbs in the same way. I couldnt find any one from among my interviewees who uses these verbs. However, I did observe that a few verbs such as to hug and to write are sometimes 90

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used. A mother would for example tell her daughter hug me using Arabic conjugation as follows: Huggini (hug (f.s.) me). The verb is borrowed from the English verb hu g. The Arabic grammar is applied to conjugate it and the result is then inserted into Arabic matrix using the Arabic imperative form. D: Hug-gi ni E: Hug you (f.m) me hug me A conjugation of the verb to write [rayt] w ould be as follow in the perfect, imperfect and imperative Darja as used by Boumans and Caubet with the French verb croiser [krwaze] to cross: Perfect imperfect imperative SG PL SG PL SG PL 1 rayti-t rayti-na n-rayti n-rayti-w 2 m rayti-t raytitu t-rayti t-rayti-w rayti raytu 2f rayti-ti raytitu t-rayti t-rayti-w rayti raytu 3m rayta rayta-w yrayti y-rayti-w 3f rayta-t rayta-w t-rayti y-rayti-w Among other Arab Americans such as Lebanese and Palestinian dialect s, Rouchdy (1992) finds that other English verbs are used in Arabic ma trices such as: Kalnet id-daar (I cleaned the house); kalnetu (I cleaned it); baraknahaa (we parked it). Ho wever, she found that the suffix pronoun is never borrowed such as in kalne it (Rouchdy 1992: 43-44). I would argue along in a similar way that huggi-ni would never be huggi-me and the suffix pronoun would not be borrowed. While names and verbs are borrowed, inflectual affixes and pronouns are not. 91

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Another phenomenon among second generation immigrants is the use of Arabic verbs while applying English morphology and phonology and then inserting them in English matrix. For example, in the case of the verb to pray, that is performing Salat which is not praying as in making a prayer, I noticed many young Algerians using the verb Sollyperform the Salatin English sentences with an ing ending as follows: Algenglish: I am Solling [Im Solling] D: Rani n Solli [ranin-Solli] E I am praying When using Arabic verbs into E nglish matrices the stem Soll is used before applying any conjugation. The morphology however is that of English. The prefix and suffix, that are markers of progressive present, gender and number in Arabic, are omitted and instead the English grammar (ing) is used. In this way, an Al gerian who has limited knowledge of Arabic conjugation would not bother but us e just one form are or were sollying. In Darja, there is already the omission of the dual an d third person feminine plural in comparison to MSA. I would say that like the French verbs, many more Eng lish verbs would be integrated in this manner among Algerians as it is the case amongst Moroc cans and Tunisians as well as amongst other Arabs in the case of English verbs. Arabic matrix (borrowed English lexical) My Algerians interviewees mentioned many En glish words that are being used in their Arabic or even French speech with an Arabic phonology, some examples of which are: TV, crib, blanket, cell phone, sofa, car seat dishwasher, microwave, Christmas, gift, culture, Spanish, Chinese, high school, church, school, teach er, home work, bus, America, American, citizen(ship), cab driver, delivery, Sept ember eleven, tee shirt, manager. 92

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I noticed that Algerians use English lexeme s on a need basis by introducing them slowly into their speech. Many interviewees either intent ionally or unintentiona lly use these words in their speech. Omar came to the US at the age of tw enty years old and has been in the States for more than twelve years. His wife Manal came fr om Algeria when they got married three years ago. Omar is fluent in English. However, Mana l is at a beginning st age of understanding and speaking English. They explain to me that many English words entered their lexical and sometimes replacing Arabic or French words in their speech. Manal explains in Darja: I mean [we use] small terms. For example (F), we do not say televiziuun but TV1, crib of [babys name], couverture (F) is almost gone, we use blanketbaby blanket, cell phone car seat, dish-washer, and sofa However, her husband still used the French word for sofa saying: I use foteye or fauteuil in French. Yet in using the word thermometer they find themselves mixing both French and English terms depending on what they are speaking of. Omar explains showing his amazement of the changes in their language: For example (F) [we say] dirilo (D) thermometre (F)measure his temperature. We say thermomtre not thermometer (Ah, ok) But we read it in English (F) .5 ninety nine point five. If it was in percent, we read it in Arabic or French (F ) but in Fahrenheit, we read it in English (F)that is weird (he is am azed that they do it. It seems he never thought about it). Zahra, a mother of two boys, uses intentiona lly more Arabic words when possible. Yet in certain situation, she explains; only English lexi cal apply. For example, she finds herself using English words for new appliances, such as microwave but still says khizaana (MSA) for cupboard or any other holding clos et or chest. Yet she chooses to use only Arabic words in her home and does not use, for example, the French word Frigidaire used in Darja for refrigerator. She rather uses thallaja from MSA. To know more about the borrowed words from English to 1 It is important to mention that televiziuun is already a borrowed wo rd that have been arabized long ago and used as an Arabic word that is been replaced with the English word TV. 93

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Darja in their context, see Table 2-3 at the end of this chapter. Choosing a word, as simple as the word cup, may have a different explanation for different persons and families. Why would one use cup in English, kaass in Arabic, or verre or tasse in French? Memories and various perceptions and influences shape peoples attitu des and speeches when they move with their culture and language to a foreign land. Investigating how and when they do start using the dominant language lexical reveals other sentiments, at titudes, and loyalties as it will be shown in chapter four and six. The definite article [al] Like many other Arabs, Algerians apply the Arabic definite and indefinite rules in borrowing words from English, something they have already been doing before with French. In Arabic, a word is indefinite if mentioned without the [al]. For example, while the word khizanahclosetis indefinite, al-khizanah is de finite. However, the word starting with the phoneme [t], when defined, would be assimilated such as in televi ziun / at-televiziun. The same rules are applied to words borrowed from other languages. Many examples have been mentioned in this data whether the borrowe d words are Portuguese Sala / as-S ala, Spanish banio / al-banio, French cadeau / al-cadeau, or English manage r / al-manager. In the Arabic language, the alphabet is divided into two cate gories depending on whether we are able to assimilate the al in the letter or not, respectively calling them (lam shamsiya) and (lam qamariya) based on a comparison with the two exemplar models of shams / ash-shams (sun) and qamar / al-qamar (moon). These two models are to be followed depe nding on the proximity of the [l] and the next phoneme to the place of articulation. From the da ta in Table 2-3, most words are assimilated except if the words are used as predicate. For example labes ti shurt (flapped r)he was wearing a tee shirt. Or ana rajli kabi My husband [is] a cab driver, using cabi in a singular form. However, it is used in plural when speaking of many cab drivers such as in the following 94

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example: safi hathu rjalhum ga kabiya so, all of these [womens] men [husbands] [are] cab drivers. Modifiers are borrowed and used mostly in this indirect way. It is however hard to find borrowed adjectives as direct modifiers. One possible explanation for this scarcity is word order because the orders of the words are different in Semitic from western languages. For example, the beautiful flower in Englis h or la belle rose in French would be al-warda al-jamila in Arabic, having the modifier following the noun a nd agreeing in definitene ss, gender and number. In the following pages, Table 2-3, I present mo re examples for the use of definite and nondefined words in context. Table 2-3. Borrowed words from E into D among later immigrants ENGLISH Algerian pronunciation D (Algerian spoken) D. context Translation to English 1 TV Tivi Television Ashali at-tivi Turn (FS) on the TV 2 Crib Krib (flapped r) Sriir (flapped r) Filkrib In the crib 3 Blanket Blanket Kuvertur (flapped r or F r) Taqriben, couverture (F r) raHet, nastakkadmu blanket The [word] couverture, is almost gone [from our speech] we use blanket 4 Cell phone Selfown Mobayl mobil Kalmini fisselfown Call me on the cell phone 5 Sofa Sofa Foteye (fauteuil) Ngulus-Sofa We say: sofa 6 car seat Coor siit (flapped r) NA Al-coor siit fittonobil The car seat [is] in the car 7 Dishwasher Dishwashar (flapped r) Ghassalah At-Tbassa fiddishwashar The dishes [are] in the dishwasher 8 Microwave Maycrowev (flapped r) NA Hathalmaycrowev jdid This microwave [is] new 9 Manager Manager (flapped r) Masuul /responsible (F r) Al-manager tai My manager 10 Chrismas, Krismess La nowel bash meytabush al-krismess hatha. So they dont follow this Christmas 95

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Table 2-3. Continued ENGLISH Algerian pronunciation D (Algerian spoken) D. context Translation to English 11 Gift Gift Kado / hadeya nashriwalhum les (F) gifts We buy them gifts 12 Bus Bus Troley(flapped r) / Hafilah nakhud al-bus I take the bus 13 School Skuul Lekul/ lekol / msiid / madrassa (flapped r) ma Hebsh yaqud fes-skuul He didnt want to stay in the school 14 Teacher Titcher (flapped r) ash-shikha / almudarissa / lanstitutris At-titcher dyalu, s un amerikan (F r) His teacher is an American (f) 15 High school haye skool Lissey /lissi / thaanawiya besh ikemmel al hay skuul u baTTal So he would finsh the high school then he dropped 16 High school degree hay skuul degri (flapped r) Bak / bakaloriya (flapped r) alalaqal tgeeb al-hay skuul degri At least she gets the high school degree 17 Culture Coltchor Al-adaat / atturaath / tradision (F r) Al-coltcher taaljazaer The Algerian culture 18 Church Tchurtch Leglize / kaniissa rajul khruj ma zuj nssa mtchurtch A man came out of the church with two women 19 Spanish Spanish /sbanish Isbaniya / sbeniyuliya To me, lukan yatallam asspanish its better To me, if he learns Spanish, its better 20 Chinese Tchainiiz Siiniy Walla yatallam ach-chiniiz Or he learns Chinese 21 Home work Homework (flapped r) Al-wajeb / le devoar (F r) dart al-homwork (flapped r) Did (I or you m-) the homeword 22 whole sale Hol sail Bal-jamla Yakhdam hol sail He works [as] whole sale [delivery] 23 Delivery Delivri (flapped r) Muwazzi / Yakhdam hol sal edelivri He works [as] whole saledelivery 96

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Table 2-3. Continued. ENGLISH Algerian pronunciation D (Algerian spoken) D. context Translation to English 24 Cab driver(S) Caabi/caabiya Taxieur ana radjli kabi/ safi hathu rjalhum ga kabiya My man [husband] [is] a cab driver /so, all of these [women]s men [are] cab drivers 25 America Marikan (flapped r) Marikan / amriika hna fil-marikan Here in America 26 American (f.s) Amrikiya (flapped r) Amrikiya (trilled r) / ameriken (F r) nHass ruHi rani amrikiya I feel [myself] I am an American (f.s) 27 Citizen(ship) As-sitizen Al-jinsiya / la nasionaliti Madam ad-diit as-sitizen Since I took the citizen[ship] 28 September eleven Sebtember alleven (flapped r) Hdesh sebtember / onz decembre (F r) Fi Darbet sebtember alleven When september eleven happened 29 tee shirt ti shurt (flapped r) Triko (flapped r) labess ti shurt (flapped r) He wore a Tee shirt Conclusion In this chapter, we have seen how tw o linguistic phenomena, borrowing and code switching, are used amongst the Algerian immigrants in language contact. While those who have contact with French, back in Algeria or in Fr ance, inter-exchange between French and Arabic, those who come to the US start borrowing and code switching between English and Arabic in addition to French, and sometimes replacing the French speech. During language contact, gradual changes take place within the native la nguage as well as on the dominant language, thereby providing us sometimes with information on other attitudes, sentiments, and loyalties that would always play a role in la nguage maintenance, shift or loss. 97

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CHAPTER 5 LANGUAGE CONTACT AND CONFLICT IN THE EARLY ALGERIAN DIASPORA: FRANCE Introduction In chapter two, I presented the various ethni c, religious, and political communities of Algeria who were pushed into migrating and exil e as groups and individu als. It embodied the elements necessary to reconstruct their identiti es and that of the future generations in the diaspora. The present ch apter examines these elements in the paradoxical situation of the new home, France, which represents a complex political environment producing conflicting identities and belonging. This chapter is divided into five parts. The first part focuses on the language, a door to other cultural codes that is never neutral in the human e xperience, especially that of the Algerians in a post colonial era in the land of the colonizer. In this part, I will first look at the French language competence, a critical step to escape the migr state of mind. I then examine the endeavor of teaching and transmitting mother tongue. In part two, I examine the efforts to revive and transform Kabyle in Fr ance from an oral to a litera ry language bearing in mind the political complexities the two nation-statesFran ce and Algeria. In part three, I touch upon the paradox of nationality and citizen ship for the French of Algeri an origin and their sense of belonging. Part four deals with the Beurs, a reminder of racial excl usion and a voice of solidarity and difference. Finally, part five in cludes vignettes of the Beurs generation and excerpts of their double socializa tion in a society that ties them to the land of origin as a reminder of their forever foreignness. Linguistics Performance and Cultural Belonging on the French Soil Language is a social, cultural and political ar tifact. Therefore, deba tes on language policies are of concern to all individual speakers of a language. France like many other modern nation98

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states, exercises its power in nationalizing it s culture by controlling the means of cultural reproduction. As stated by Hargreaves, while it is difficult for the state to exercise direct control over day-to-day family life, it exerts strong a nd sometimes a decisive influence over education and the media (Hargreaves 1995: 87). In the fo rmal system of education through which the child passes in preparation for adulthood, while subject-matters such as history and geography familiarize the child with landmarks and events of national significance, national language occupies a place of pride. Like their counterparts who have native parents, immigrant children first linguistic influence would be their familie s. Linguistic, moral and other codes inherited from their country of origin naturally dominate during these early year s (Hargreaves 1995: 88). Mother tongue and culture maintenance is also facilitated by the chai n migration and mutual support and cultural practices shar ed by immigrants originating in the same village, region or city. It is as well supplemented by associations with social, cultural and sometimes political objectives which were until 1981 (Socialist-led ad ministration) illegal in France (La Tribune Fonda 1991 in Hargreaves 1995: 89). For many Fren ch, the foreigners right of association undermines la France pour les Fr anais and the total assimilati on of all immigrants into the French society. French politicians and educat ors maintain an ideology and a process of assimilation. They believe that, for the long r un, acculturation works and every immigrant would become French. Yet, for the migrant, adapting to their new environment is based on a different imagination. When they first migrate, foreign workers and students often expect to pursue economic or educational project without having a major effect on their cultural identity. As Hargreaves states it well: In reality it is impossible to separate politics from culture. At the same time, certain kinds of cultural competence are indispensable to e ffective economic partic ipation which require 99

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of most workers and students to acquire a minimal competence in the language of the receiving country if they ar e to function effectively in the employment, schooling, and housing markets. They may take a purely instrumental view of foreign-language acquisition, thereby retaining a pr imordial attachment to their native tongue, but in this and other respects their cultural repertoire widens significantly as the length of their stay extends (Hargreaves 995: 95). Like many other ethno cultural French groups, as rega rd to their linguistic performance, Algerian immigrants who originate from various regions in Algeria have different dialects and accents, yet, they communicate in mutually intelligible du e to their agreement on the same cultural codes. Being able to use French, Arabic or Kabyle would be a means of inclusion or exclusion from a wealth of communicative acts, (Hargreaves 1995: 86). Because children are around the family in early age, they will be influenced by the fa milys culture. However, in France the state not only requires by law that all child ren, regardless of th eir nationality, attend school from 6 to 16. The state also provides free nursery schools since th ree years old as well as encourages students to remain in it well beyond the minimu m school-leaving age (Hargreaves 1995: 89). French competency Like many other ethnic groups in France, such as the Portuguese, Italians or Turkish, in the 1960s and 1970s, Algerians French language compet ency was little. Algerian men laborers were little or never schooled. In comparison to the me n, the Algerian women were less educated. And even with free classes, many of them would never reach the level of competence as shown by the 1992 household survey conducted jointly by INS EE and INED on Immigrant women coming in early 1970s. The study shows that only 35% Al gerian born males and 25% Algerian born females had some schooling. 10% males and 46% females had difficulty understanding French TV news. Finally, 16% males and 57% females spoke little or no Fr ench. In choosing the language of communication among each other, whereas Kabyle men tend to valorize French and speak it among each other, with women speak Ka byle. However, when speaking to their kids, 100

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they all speak French, if in a simplified way. Interestingly, as mentioned in chapter two, among the stigmatized harkis even the young ones, speak Algerian Arabic (personal communication with Tassadit: 2007). In compari ng Algerian to Portuguese immigran ts, Hargreaves reports that the proportion of Algerian men who said they had had some schooling in French was twice as large as that reported by Portuguese men. And w ith the longer average period of settlement, Algerian men still speaking little or no French were far less numerous than their Portuguese counterparts (Hargreaves 1995: 99) This finding is to be ex pected since most Algerian immigrants were born under French colonialism and would be much more familiar with French than Portuguese or other foreigners in France. When landing into France, the first migrants arrive with their primordial cultural attachments from countries of origin. Their aim is not to stay but to make a living and go back home. In dealing with their offspring, on the one hand, they expect them to profit instrumentally from school and work hard, for education is seen as a passport to better jobs than those held by most immigrant workers. On the other hand, they take it for granted that th eir kids would be like them in their cultural norms and codes. One mi ght imagine that this approach would work. However, in reality, the result may put these pare nts in a state of hysteri a in dealing with the seeming rebellious children. Despite the parent s insistence on remaining distant from the cultural norms dominant in the receiving country the children, whose formative years are spent in the land to which the older generation has move d to, tend to internalize their peers cultural codes not only as means but as desi rable objects in their own rights. It is true that language comp etence is derived from language performance. However, every experience is different and one could not gene ralize this hypothesis. As Hargreaves finds, linguistic competence is not pa rticular, nor is cultural competence a zero-sum game. He 101

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continues saying that: An individual may learn new languages w ithout reducing their competency in their native tongue. As a matter of fact, elements of diverse cultures frequently co-exist within a person. This does not mean th at conflicts may not aris e, however, frequently; cultural diversity provides a stimulus for the cr eation of new synthesis (Hargreaves 1995: 98). At the same time, an individual may have competen cy in a cultural code without identifying with the ethno-cultural group with which it is most clos ely associated. So French citizens of Algerian origin may be fluent in the French language, which is the dominant langua ge of the society in which they live, yet they would perceive it as a code which remains fundamentally foreign to them, even if their native tongue falls into disuse. At an affective level, a mother tongue is likely to retain a strong hold on the mi nd of many immigrants and their off-spring, for whom it remains a sense of belonging more than of daily communication. Mother tongue teaching The French political and legal institutions paradoxically, until 1980s, considered the populations of Algerian origins foreign migrant workers. Despite their large numbers, length of stay and their French citizenship, they were si multaneously racialized by the European Marxist and praxis theories as the permanent uprooted and suffering victims of modernity (Silverstain 2005: 373). Also, the workers themselves believed in the myth of return, a dream that is pushed to its ultimate point and beyond. Only after death, with a burial place in the land of birth, will many immigrants finally accomplish their return journey of which they have dreamed since their initial departure (Chaib 1994 in Hargreaves 1995: 133). This mosaic of perceptions had long hidden the social, cultural and ps ychological realities. These tem porary situations escalate the neglect of the minority rights represented in the language, culture and religi on of these transient populations and remove the burden of the French institutions and soci ety. Between 1970s 90s, with the French agreement, Algeria was part of the sending countries providing Arabic teachers 102

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to teach Standard Arabic in primary French scho ols to the children of immigrants. However, only a small number of schools participate (14% in primary and 7% in secondary schools and declining), which means, only a minority of chil dren are getting tutori ng in their native language (Hargreaves 1995: 101-1 02). According to Hamid who taught in French schools for twelve years, the Arabic class is one to three times a week, not mandatory on Arabic speaking students, and unpopular among ot her students (personal interv iew with Hamid: 2007). In general, the languages of migrants are the mo st stigmatized and when choosing a foreign language most students choose European language s and most of the time English which is associated with image of glamour and commercial utility (Hargreaves 1995: 102). In case of Algerians and other Maghribis in Fran ce, the dilemma is that the Arabic they are taught (MSA or fuSHa) at school is a different form that of thei r mother tongue Darja, Kabyle or other dialects of berber language. As shown in chapter two, the fuSH a bears only a distant resemblance to the dialects spoken by their pa rents (Jerab 1988 in Hargreaves 1995: 101). Religious discourseFriday sermon, short TV program or special lecturesto the Algerian ethnic communities are challenging as shown by Ke pel in the following example. At the grand Mosque de Paris, Cheikh Abbas, the designated Imam from Algeria, would speak in middle language to facilitate the message to the French audience of rural Algerian origins who are mostly used to the Algerian dialect more than Standard Arabic. This type of speech is based on simple syntax used in dialect but uses once in a while more sophisticated expressions from the written Arabic. In speaking about tolerance, ch eikh Abbas says: al islam salama wa ukhuwa wa tassamuh Islam = peace, brotherhood and tole rance (Kepel 1987: 332). However, their young children, if present, and other non-Arabic sp eaking Muslims and converts would need his translator, Mr. Guessoum, the bilingual professor who was sent by the Algerian government to 103

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fulfill the task. Lately, there has been a call for a French Islam which would exclude the fluent Arabic speaking preachers and teac hers brought from Algeria and other Arabic countries such as Morocco, Syria, and Lebanon. What would this fo rced isolation from universal Islam do to adherents of the Islamic religion ? Would they forget about Arabic or valorize it symbolically in their minds as the language of the Quran? Poli cies related to language, cultural and religious adherence in France have been contested on many levels depending on the political climates. As a result, peoples respond to it in their own ways that may surprise the policy makers with what they did not expect. The Kabyle revival in France: fr om oral to literary language Until recently, the majority of Algerian immigr ants to France were Kabyle/Berber (Chaker 1988 in (Hargreaves 1995: 101). However, when it comes to teaching mother tongue, only politically recognized language s are taught. Unfortunately, Kabyl e is still conceived by many Algerians and Frenchgovernment and populationas an oral language and sometimes, out of ignorance, a dialect of Arabic. Ka rima Direche-Slimani, an Algeri an born History professor at a secondary school at Marseille, devotes her study to the recent immigration flux in the Mediterranean Basin. In her book Histoire de lemigration Kabyle en France au XXeme sicle (1996), Direche-Slimani focuses not only on the reasons behind the journey but analyzes the attitude and perspective of the Kabyle people on their own migration experience. For her, from the beginning of its history in the twentieth century, this migrant group has been distinctively producing intense militant, political and identity actions and discourses. She adds that for many Kabyles exile becomes the hub for political, milita nt and cultural action. In the 1980s, Berber identity was revived at a time when official Algeria preached a cultural monolithism and rigid linguistics planning. The authors studies on various cultural and political associations founded by young French of Kabyle origin conclude that in their efforts, they pursue an extraordinary 104

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continuity of the tradition in valorizing Berber identity in its cultural and militant form. This book represents a rupture from the image of the simple labor or Muslim Maghrebin migration. Instead, the Kabyle immigrants to France are de picted by their identity sentiment, which is preserved in the various contexts since the first migrants put their feet in the foreign land. According to the author, there are three types of identity manifestations: linguistic valorization, the matrimonial strategies repres ented in endogamy believed to pr eserve the continuity of the community, and the strong attachment to the countrys customs and village. While tamurt homebecomes a mythical and fantastic place, where all hopes and dreams are possible, paradoxically, it is the lo ss of hope that made it possible (my translation: Direche-Slimani: 1007: 129). Yet, for many Kabyles, a fantas y of the imagined community of the Tamazight Berber homelandwould be all what they need to organize and politically unite, notwithstanding their inability to speak the language intended to re vive and emancipate it from oral to written status. In the world of politics, many Kabyle activ ists in France and Algeria, who seek to valorize Kabyle, speak French, and while denigrating Arabic a nd portraying it as the language of the colonizers. Kabyle is considered the majo r dialect/language among the Be rber diasporic communities, a bond between the Kabyle speaking and a symbol of difference from the Arab, French or other language communities. In the last twenty years, the language and culture of the Kabyle and other Berber languages have been revi ved and revalorized under the ba nner of Pan-Berbere identity. Tifinagh ancient script (used by Touareg, one of the Berber groups in Southern Algeria), has been revived and used with roman script to writ e the Kabyle since the latter has been for a long time used only as an oral language and tradition. In these efforts, the Berber revivalists 105

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researchers and activistsaim to bring the Berb er language and dialects to the same rank as Arabic or French; a linguistic, political, and identity redemption whic h could take intense forms. The revival of Kabyle that was planned in Fran ce was politically manifested in the form of riots against the Algerian government in the Gr and Kabylian major city Tizi Ouzou. In early 1980s, the social dissatisfaction was a protest of the Kabyle ethnic group against the government denial of the teaching of the Berber language. The aim of the Berber activists is for Berber to have the same national status as standard Arabic in Algeria. Recently, Berber language started to be taught in certain areas in Al geria where there is a majority of Berber ethnic groups, however, to this day, it is based on voluntary basis wher e it remains optional for the schools to teach. In France, the only major success of Kabyles activists is still at the level of oral preservation. According to Chakir, there is a desire to valori ze the Berber language and convert it to a written language which is seen in the rise in the number of candidates in the baccalaureat oral exam, and in the classes given by the Berber associa tions (Kratochwil 1999). Interestingly, at the baccalaureat exam, Berber has shown to be the second after the regional languages of France (Breton, Occitan, Basque, Alsatian, Corsican, etc) to be requested as an optional oral exam. The numbers that started in the range of 30s and 40s in 1979 b ecame 500s in 1987, and in the thousands in 1992 (Chakir 1999: 7), a fact that Berb er language is somehow transmitted orally to the second generation of children of France. Howe ver, we dont have the details on how hard or easy is the exam in comparison to the spoken la nguage. Would these exam s be done as a political gesture to satisfy the minority language holders ? How do these children prepare for these oral exams? How challenging is it? However, we can say that there is a basic knowledge of the simple language that has been preserved and tr ansmitted among some Berber speakers in France. As Chakir puts it: 106

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From the sociolinguistics point of view, the numbers re flect a strong bond of the young Berber speakers of France to their language: one can even speak of a militant adhesion, and the data confirm that Berber is in fact objec tively a language of Fran ce (Chakir 1999: 7). Berber has been present as an academic discip line since 1913 at INALCO (and also until the decolonization, in Algiers and Rabat). However, un til late 1990s the Berber as the language of a minority population has been ignored except in the fo rm of traces in venues such as special radio programs for the immigrant workers or translators/ interpreters for the Berber (Algerian Kabyle and Moroccan Tachelhit) language in courthouses in the major metropolitan areas. As Chakir puts it: One will easily agree that these traces are tenuous and do not represent an acknowledgement of Berber or the Berber speakers of France: this is at the most a discrete consideration, a marginal tolerance of th e sociolinguistic reality (Chakir: 8). Despite these efforts, maintaining mother tongue Arabic and Kabyle alik e is in danger of attrition since the immigrants resort to speak Fr ench to their kids. As Fadila, herself a Kabyle immigrant to the U.S., tells me about her se cond and third generation cousins in France; When they reach 18 years of age, they sel dom visit Algeria especially if they marry someone from France. Even when they were l ittle, we would speak to them in Arabic or Kabyle but they respond in Frencha univers al behavior of immigrants children. Today, the 2-3 generations in the family speak only French. Even when marrying a cousin from Algeria [who knows Arabic and Kabyle], she spea ks to her kids in French and would only resort to Arabic when she is mad at them (Personal interview with Fadila in U.S. 2007). Analyzing a language survey conducted on 2000 pa rents from nine immigrant communities, on mother tongue maintenance, Hargreaves finds th at when Algerian immigrants were asked which language they usually spoke when addressing thei r children; the results indicate that 70% among Berber and 50% among Arabic speaking responded to speak French to th eir children. From my own observations, I would agree with Hargreaves that Kabyles tend to sp eak more French to their kids than Arabic speaki ng Algerians. However, if the parents are illiterate, their communication would be very simple and limited eith er speaking in Kabyle or French since both 107

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parents and children are incapable to understand each other fu lly except on common daily needs. Alain Romey in his book perception de la cu lture dorigine chez les enfants des immigres algeriens (pp151) in LIslam en France ed by Bruno Etienne, explains that spoken Arabic or Berber are linguistic ve hicles used in customary actions only, such as solving everyday problems. Yet, on the literary or symbolic level, the students admit not to be able to know this level of abstraction in their mo ther tongue. To the disappointmen t of the parents, the children who are cut off from their cultural and norma tive milieu would only know the practical language (Romey 1991: 153). On the other hand, the majori ty of the parents do not master French to express to their kids these abstr act visions which represent the principal base in relation to the culture of origin. From a linguistic point of vi ew, the children do not accept the norms because they dont understand the language and do not have the necessary language that refers to the cultural norms. As a result, the dialogue with the parents becomes harder and harder, the language of the foundation infrastructure is impoverished and the communication weakens which restrict them more and more at the linguistic level and leads them to refer to new concepts conveyed by the French language (Romey 1991: 1 53). In observing the ch ildren listening to vernacular poetry (Arabic or Kabyle songs), Ro mey noticed that the ch ildren do not understand its symbolic aspect. Yet, when asked about th eir future children and language, they hope that they would teach them the language and even dream that just by talking to their children Arabic or Kabyle they would know the culture. I would agree with the author, if this is the situation of the second generation which lost tremendously the comprehension of the language of origin, what would be the situation of th e third generation (Romey 1991: 154)? In addition to the absence of their cultural m ilieu, in France, there is a linguistic unification tradition hostile to dive rsity. A highly centralized country, the French state has a quasi-monopoly 108

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on the national education system, intervening he avily in cultural matters, and has forever been conducting a linguistic policy excl usively oriented toward Fren ch. Given this situation, one would wonder, how would Berber or Algerian Arabic be given any importance while the regional languages of France (B reton, Occitan, Basque, Alsatian, Corsican, etc) have been marginalized for several centuries ? As Chaker rightly analyzes: Berber was neither a modern foreign language nor a regional language of France, which consequently put Berber in a position of not c onsidering it to be taught As a matter of fact, the teaching of minority languages Berber and Arabic is considered an impediment to integration into French society. This linguistic ideology aims at linguistic assim ilation, implying the disappearance of the origin language of the immigrants. Chakir does not igno re the politics of Fr ance saying that, those welcomed to become French citizens are asked to erase any visible or audible traces of an external origin which is the reason for the tenacious opposition to any communitarian drift. As a matter of fact, American and Anglo-Saxon comm unitarianism is considered as a counter-model by the vast majority of the political class and of the elites (Cha kir 1999: footnotes 9). The Paradox of Nationality and Citizenship Today, French of Algerian orig in do not all hold French nation ality, despite being part of a French department during colonia lism and/or living for a long time in present France and being a French born. By the Algerian independence in 1962, the status of French was changed to that of Algerian except for those who asked for the French nationality or those promised protection such as shown in the case of the pieds noirs, Jews and Harkis and their children who kept their nationality by entering the French territory. Unt il the 1993 reform of the nationality code, the law was that migrant workers, even those who had been in the country since the 1960s, do not have citizenship unless they apply for it and get accepted. However, their children born in France would get French nationality by birth. After 1990s, the 3 million Frenchmen who fought during 109

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French colonialism resented the automatic acquisi tion of citizenship by th e children of those who fought against them. As a result, the law change d to that any immigrant or even their French born children would be able to obtain citizenship only through acquisition; that is, if they apply for it. On the other side, the Algerian governme nt after independence gave every person of Algerian origin the right to an Algerian natio nality which could automatically be passed to children. This is a law based on jus sanguinis, which therefore create de facto bi-nationals at birth (Hargreaves 1995: 137). In their minds, the wo rkers who left their homeland at a time of war are still living in the time of liberating it from colonialism a nd dream of going back to it as an Algerian citizen shouting taHya al-Jazair long live Algeria! For th ese men, embracing the enemys nationality, despite living on its land, would be a sign of treason for the patrie and be Harkis When deciding to get the French national ity, they would prefer the paradox of living under one roof with two nationa lities, separated by a history fu ll of controversies constantly exhumed (my translation: Kepel 1987: footnote 330), rather than sell out th eir evidence of their rootedness to the land of their ancestors. This attitude is emphasized by the continuous political changes between France and Algeria and is trul y affecting the population especially the second and third generation by being ambivale nt to sending and host countries. The Beurs: An Identity Construct and a Racialized Generation The second generation of Algerian immigrants has been categorized in France as the beurs. They have been classi fied in general as a low economic and social class. After the 1970s, with the unification of the immigrant families, despite their succe ssful acculturation, the second generation remained second class citizens. The literature is full of examples of the daily reminders of racial exclusion, represented in institutional forms (e ducation tracking, police brutality and judicial prejudice), racially motivated assaults or more ordinary difficulties (for example, in searching for job and apartment) (Derdurian 2004; Gafaiti 2001; Souida 1989; 110

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Hargreaves 1995; Silverman 1991; Santelli 2001 ; Barsali 2003; Amse lle 2003; Unger and Conley 1996). In speaking of the beurs and th e hybrid identities, many researchers find that the children of immigration express themselves in every m ean of expression, including among others videos, projections, traditional musicological supports, paintings and sculptures (Coulaud 19 in Derdurian 2004: 106). These authors represent the beurs as being Muslims, who are refusing assimilation in the French society. For these authors, in their subur ban cities of France, Muslims of North African or sub-Saharan origin s, living in France consider religion the prime point of reference of their identity over and above concurrent citizenship. It is thought as being the obstacle toward full assimilation into French so ciety and to be absorbed into the main culture in the French sense of being a citizen. What these authors miss is that the issue is much more complex and sometimes has primordial attachment that makes devotion to Islam explanation a superficial and simplistic one. Yet other resear chers, who specialize in North African ethnic minorities, dig deeper in the meaning of thes e youths Islamic attachment. For example, Hargreaves explains that: For many people brought up by Muslims immigrants would be impossible to break altogether with Islam without causing profound distress to thei r parents. Islam is in this sense a primordial attachment, the denial of whic h is almost literary un thinkable. Yet, this is not the same as saying that it is a primar y source of values in the life projects of young Muslims (Hargreaves 1995: 122). This intricate reality of Muslims of Algerian or igin is just one example of many other scenarios of independent and group adherence. The term beurs was a creation of the second generation of immigrants from the French verlan or slang, originating from a reversal of the word Arab. In the eyes of the French de souche, the beurs and beurette are the offspring of the Arabs who are associated with violence, crime, backwardness and an unwillingness to be part of the French republic during the 111

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expansion. In his book histoire colo niale et immigration, Eric Sa varene, depicts the continuity of the colonial stereotypical imagination of the Algerian in present France cinema: A dominant stereotype is ela borated during the colonial peri od, in which the Arabin the generic and abstract sensewoul d be at the same time, aggressive and dangerous, a cheat and a thief, traitor and liar, fa natic and intolerant. Adding to this qualification, [an Arab is] refractoryresistantto the French culture. Since the 1960s to the 1980s, the cinematographers inherit this imaginary and stereotype and should se lf appropriate these different clich (my translation of Savarene 2000: 37). These clichs include generations of kids and teenagers called issue dimmigration of North African origin and their parents. However, as shown by Gafaiti, this terminology is worthy of being seriously used as a social science category much like the Black, African American, hispanic, latinos in the U.S literature (Gafaiti 2001). Echoing many others, Hargreaves shows how this term took many turns and was finally embraced in the 1980s by the youths as a symbol of difference and fight against discrimination and racism saying: As a symbol of in betweeness, they position themselves both within and beyond the cultural norms dominant in Fr ance, such as using English mixed with slang instead of good French just to make a point, which coul d be troubling for some parents who see the international youth culture as a sign of bei ng influenced by peers without ostensibly submitting specifically to French norms (Hargreaves 1995: 108). The marginalization of the Beurs does not occur only in the ghettoes and low social status neighborhoods where Algerians, Arab and Kabyl e, and other African immigrants would be secluded in a communitarianism that symbolizes the rootedness of the immigrants to their language, and other cultural codes. Discrimination is sensed by many children of immigrants in being singled out for their ethnicities and foreignn ess despite their success in life, French cultural attachments and citizenship. Vignettes of the Beurs generation: In this section I present some anecdotes that symbolize the realities of the Beurs, issue di mmigration and the French of Algerian origin 112

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focusing on their anguish and aspirations due to th eir duality in their so cialization and to the condition of their social and professional insertion in France (Said Bouamama 1996). Both Karim Kacel, a singer and a musician and Mohand Amara, a sculptor graduating from the prestigious Fine Arts School show th eir frustration with the French public and media focus on their ethnicity more than their artistic achievements. Seventy percent of the people think I am an Arab who sings in French and th irty percent [think] unique ly of my work says Kacel (Lotfi in Derdirian 2004: 60). As a sculpt or, Mohand Amara expresses the same frustration about journalists who interview him with very little interest in his work, he says: Someone would come. He would ask if Im a sc ulptor. He would look at my work for two minutes and would then say lets talk about you. What interest the person was essentially my social contextthey didn t care about my work. It was always journalists who had nothing to do with the work of art. I got to th e point where I was so fed up that I refused all [interviews] (Derdirian interv iews 1994 in Derdirian 2005: 60). The ethnicity of minority artists and novelists represents both a sour ce of creative inspiration and a potential threat to th eir freedom of expression. As Derdian wonders, [the challenge is how to find ways of] exploiting the creative resources of their ethnicity without becoming submerged within and subsumed by it (Derdirian 2005: 67). In France, acquiring citizenship is highly politicized and many among the children of immigrants despite their civic participation would be denied or delayed th at right and privilege and would forever inherit the immigrant status from their parents. Farid lHaoua, a second generation immigrant, uses main dans la main hand in handslogan in solidarity with other immigrants to stand against racism. He does not have a citizenship despite being in France for more than twenty years, being married to a Fren ch woman and having a child born in France. He was an active leader of legalite et contre le racismequality and against racismmarch in 1983. Twenty years later, his pessimism is stronger: 113

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Every body is French except metoday, discri mination is worse than any other time before.there is a radicalization among the French populationwe don t hesitate to say for renting an apartment: sorry sir, we dont take Arabs or blacks. One thing to recognize, for sure, today, people are more frankthey dont take any trouble saying it and the worse, this racist at titude is among the elite and mi ddle classit is not any more shameful to teach at the university and to have xenophobian or revisionist remarksyouth who are French for two or three generations a nd they are still called les jeunes issus de limmigration! -youth originating from or descended from immigration! (Interview by Barsali 2003) In comparison, Abdel Aissou is an optimistic who found a way to serve his community. He proudly states that he is ni Fr anais plus, ni Franais moins, mais membre de la mosaque Francenot more nor less French, but a member of the mosaic of France. Born in Algeria in 1959 and a child of an illiterate mother, speaki ng Arabic, Kabyle and French, today, Aissou is happy that his children have a better childhood than his. He to ok part in the march against racism, started radio beurs, wrote a book on the les beurs, lcole et la France (1987) and in 1991 got his Doctorate in political science and fi nally became the sous pr fet, working as a politician. For him, the march brought conscious ness in us that our ge neration was different than that of the generation of our parents. We want to exist under the norms of the French society. He works for the religi ous rights of Muslims in France, th at is, to be able to live their faith and pray in decent and recognized places. Tw enty years later, he thinks that they got something out of their civil right movement For Aissou, people shouldnt neglect the achievements of the second generation in various institutions such as teaching, art journalism, who have a role in shaping the French landscape. His dream is to keep the movement going and give a hand to the graduates of the banlieux in finding jobs. Disadvantaged children count on these activists to give them support and guide them in escaping the social determinism. The singers, activists and artists are the inheritors of the marchers in imagination and action. Aissous optimistic prospect is to put a cover on the pain s of yesterday [and] move. His motto in life is a phrase of Rene Char who guides [his] steps of a man, an official and a civil servant: vas ta 114

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chance, serre ton bonheur, a te regarder ils shab itueront (take your chance, be in the service of your happiness, looking at you, they will get used to [it].) (My translat ion) (Barsali: 2003) Chafia Amrouche was born in Algeria in 1969. Coming from a Kabyle family, she is fluent in all three languages, including Darja and Frenc h. Amrouche is the oldest of six children all successful men and women of immigrant parents to France. She is a designer and professor in architecture in lecole darchite cture de Paris. In her family, sh e is a sister and a second mother. According to her brother Nabil, whom she help ed design his restaurant le Chant du couvert, she is the shoulder of the family, that is, every one in the family counts on her. A successful entrepreneur, Amrouche seems disturbed by the discrimination in France expressing her imagined world without faces or skin coloran imagined city where they all meet, with clean streets, green landscape, and small houses. He r slogan is afous FatimaThe Hand of Fatima in Kabyle is the womans hand painted with Henna that spreads friendship among its people. As a child of an immigrant, Amrouche is a successful professional in her country France, yet still related to her Kabyle roots, language, and family solidarity, the way it has always been done in the Algerian culture. She describes herself as being a daughter of dominant Kabyle women (Barsali 2003) Finally Zair Kedadouche repres ents an acculturated child of immigration in France. Zair le Gaulois is an autobiography of an immigran t child who feels very assimilated despite poverty and racism. The book summarizes the invisible elemen ts that made the author proud of his past, a past represented in his immediate family and in his Frenchness and in being a Gaulois, without forgetting his father, a garbage collector, carrier of FLN suitcases, who is bu ried in Algeria, and his mother, illiterate but tril ingual who speaks Arabic, Kabyle and French. He describes his grandmother who visited them after his fathers death as coming from a different culture who 115

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speaks only Kabyle but uses French words such as dgueulasse to insult him in Kabyle. His mother tongue was his mother simple Frenc h. Darja and Kabyle were spoken among relatives but he never picked it up. For Kedadouche, his mother believed that Algeria was French; she loved France and its modern culture. As a young bride, she came to join her husband in France, dreaming to move to a palace but was instead shocked to get the dilapidated houses of Bidonville, a place where brothers, si sters, and cousins met once agai n, just like in the village to face the harshness of life that they have to quickly accommodate to. After the tragic death of her husband, Mrs. Kedadouche raised her five childre n in the bidonvillesl umpsof Aubervilliers before moving to a more spacious and more de scent apartment in the HLM. From his childhood memories, Zair recalls the part ies (weddings, baptism, or Rama dan and sometimes Nol). These ceremonies and happy occasions are the recreated traditions in the diaspora, where Kabyle, Arab and even communist French workers listen to Arabic and Kabyle music, shouting the youyous and eating a lot of couscous and pastries. The tragic death of the father and later on the sickness of the mother changed his life forever. Zair as well as his siblings were put in different adoptive families and institutions in Belgium, Switzerland, and France. The author and hi s brother Said were placed in an institution in France. The loss of his father started a new ch apter that represents the construction of Zair French identity engrained in the belief in nos anctre s les gaulois. This tr agic life seems to affect the authors psyche forever, as repres ented in his childhood an tagonism, confusion, and then decision to stick with one thing that is profitable and that made a difference in his life, proud to be gaulois. It is in th is institution and the summer vaca tions in the French country side that he learned that shoes of little students have to be polished, how to say mademoiselle 116

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instead of mamzelle and non merci instea d of non! However, as a poor child, when returning home, old manner s quickly take over. As a French speaking, the author is sensible to the illiterac y of many Algerians including his mother. He is proud of her personal effort in learning much just by imitating. He still remembers his mothers innocent pronunciation mist akes that would give different meanings when speaking French. She would say la quirche instead of la quiche and laziatique instead of la sciatique and would sing to his daughter ainsi font font font les petites marionettes saying un chiffon fon fon les pe tites marionettes that today ar e things to remember and laugh about. In his poor neighborhood, school was the only se cure place. He does not comprehend how 95 % of the students would be oriented toward handicraftship or technical schools and only a minority would be able to go to classical high sc hools where most French de souche students go. At school, there were two groups th e fous crazy kids and the other s who were les francais de souche and those children of immigrants, like him, who called themselves the gaulois. Although, his mother decided from the beginning to speak to her kids in French even if it is simple, she succeeded in transmitting to them many manners and norms that were from her country of origin. Kadedouche cannot stop childhood traditions such as eating couscous with water melon that he first found we ird but started to like and apprec iate. He never visited Algeria. He never had the opportunity to go for two or three months for summer vacation and get accustomed to Algerian languages, cultures a nd learn of his roots like many children of immigrants. Instead, every summer, during the long summer vacation he used to go to colonies de vacance for the school kids of the Aube rgine neighborhood where he discovered France and constructed his gaulois identity. 117

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Kadadouche, secular French, sees Islam as an outsider. For him, France is the best country in Europe for mixed marriages between French and foreigners where integration is working wonderfully. For him, the French secular system means diversity of or igins and unity of men, with an emphasis on the foreigners forgetting, ig noring or detesting their origins and cultures of their ancestors. In choosing a name for his daughter, he made sure that it wont be an Arab name. Her name is Oriane, a gaulois name and a choice of his French wife, meaning duchesse de Guermanes. Her middle name is Sarah, found among Arabs, Jews and Catholics. He thinks this way no one would suspect her Arab origin that his generation is stigmatized with forever. Interestingly, others of his generation ma y play the naming game for other human reconciliations. As Bouamama reports, the naming of the child plays a gr eat role in reopening communication channels with maghribis families that have been in marital conflict. He states that in intercultural marriages, opting for a name that would be acceptable by both cultures is the best choice. Some could see this attitude as a sign of integrati on, however, the author see it as a way of exiting from the intercul tural confrontation, especially in case of a maghrbi woman marrying a French man (Bouamama 1996:132). Bouamama cites B. Augustin saying: The choice of a name is never neutral. Looking of one, sometimes being conflicting become the object of long discussions before ge tting to an agreement. Most of the time, the name that goes in both countries would be chos en. As a matter of f act, this child might become a fix between the parents, because it is the objective link of educative marks. Bouamam adds and the place of symbolic and identity competition (my translation). When a French student says to his niece who has an Arabic name: enlve tes sales mains darabestake out you dirty Arab hands, Kedadouche is not alarmed that old discriminatory French attitude is transmitted to the youngest generations. Instead, he laughs and remembers how they, the beurs used to call each other that. 118

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In speaking about the Muslim community, Ke dadouche, whose relation to being Muslim ends on being involuntarily circum cised, resorts to the French secular ideology in criticizing Islam and Muslim as well as in defending them. The author admits frankly that he does not believe in God. He sees the foulard or veil as oppressing woman and thinks that French should unite in forbidding women wearing it in Fran ce. Yet, he accepts the growing presence of Muslims in Franceabout 5 million people. He suppor ts the passing of a legislature that puts the government in charge of building and controlli ng mosques, short of which [Muslim] foreign financiers would build these places of cults (mosques). He imagin es the French Muslim community free from hardliner foreign governme nts influence, with no exported Arabic speaking imams from the Arab countries (such as Algeria). He wants an open-minded Islam which authorizes the sermon of Baudelaire or Voltaire. He is for mosques that are built by French and controlled by French where Muslims lik e his mother would go to pray without being targeted as suspects, or feeli ng intimidated by the imams eloque nt sermon in Arabic that the majority of attendees do not understand anyway. As a child of an immigrant who is proud of be ing gaulois, he is aw are of the continuous discrimination against ethnic minorities, French of Algerian or other Mus lim or African origin. As a politician, he expresses his frustration saying: Integration would be complete when the night news (20 heurs of TF1) would be presented by Louisa Chabana or by Mohamed Mondlakior when there will be judges from the beurs-it is not yet done! It w ould be a wonderful sign. I am against affirmative action of America but yet, it is unbelievable, not one beur in the assembl e! (Kedadouche 1996: 216) When visiting the US in a series of conferences on integration, right after the bombing of the world trade center, he vi sited the ghettoes of New York. In comparison to France, he could not believe the extent of violence and disparities. An important incident made him think of the extent and deep global prejudices against Arabs. He sa ys: the host of the house I was invited to, asks 119

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me: you have a lot of Arabs [in France]? what to say? oh ya, a lot! So keep them! she tells me. Hours later, she tells me that she wasnt able to find my name in the Christian calendar. And I said it came like this: Zair, vous savez, cest dorigine espagnole Zair, the gaulois, has a name that would forever remind him of his A rab origin, yet, he chooses to cover it up and evades the narrow minded people to escape their discrimination that may spoil his present and future situation. Though, he could have told the la dy the truth, that the name Zair is of Arab origin and that it means hope and use it as a m eans of reaching out to others in the U.S., the multiculturalist country and the land of immigrants. But Zair, le gaulois, chooses his answer and his road of integration that fits his personal characte r, philosophy and dreams. Conclusion The Algerian Diaspora in France is one of the most multifaceted on many levels, culturally, linguistically, religious ly, politically, and historically. As shown above, there is a continuous dialectic between these elements producing identities that diverge at times and converge at others to both home and host cultures and countries In all that, language plays a consequential role in emphasizing certain belong ings and solidarities in time and space. A focus on language maintenance, loss, or performance creates the illusion of a superficial identity that if working alone would mean one culture one adherence. However, in diasporic communities, national, religious, or ethnic id entities surface at specific changi ng times and disclose old, hidden and complex loyalties such as those illustrated in the profiles of the beurs generation and their double consciousness. The next chapter, based on this significant information about the Algerian Diaspora in France, addresses the quest ion of how Algerian in the United States are culturally, politically, and ps ychologically different or similar with their counterparts in France. 120

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CHAPTER 6 THE ALGERIAN LANGUAGES IN THE UNITED STATES This chapter explores the li nguistic situation of the Algerian immigrants in the US by focusing on the changes in their perceptions and attitudes toward their language (s) as experienced in the Anglophone environment. The chapter will document how linguistic outcomes among Algerians who immigrated to the United States differ from those who immigrated to France as well as those who did not leave the ho me country. In case of the migration to the US, Algerian languages, whet her, Kabyle, Arabicincluding its vernacular Darjaor French play different roles in America than they played in Algeria or France. In America the survival of these languages depends on whether they fulfill a practical and/or symbolic meaning. This general theme is deve loped through an approach that probes how the Algerian immigrants in the US represent and us e these languages. In this pursuit, the chapter specifically addresses the follo wing issues: (I) the dominance of the English language in a multicultural society and how Algerians perceive the role of proficiency in English as a road to success, (II) the attrition of the French language and its replacement with Arabic and English in spite of the fact that the French language is embedded in the cultu ral memories of Algerians, (III) the role of parental tongues (Tamazight and Arabic) and the changes in the perceptions and attitudes of the people who speak them (on th e one hand, perceiving them as the off-springs connectors to the rich heritage in time and space and, on the other hand, accepting the reality of the limited use in the English-dominated environm ent), and (IV) the case of Arabic contact and conflict with other Arabs in the Diaspora and the development of new identities and solidarities. English Language Dominance in a Multicultural Society Upon their first arrival to the US, Algerians qu ickly understand that in order to succeed in their new home they have to acquire survival sk ills, thereby placing English proficiency as the 121

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most significant. American English is different from the one taught in Algeria is one of the very first remarks they make. Back home, they were used to the lexicon and phonology of British English. Moreover, the few hours of English clas ses per week at junior and high school do not prepare them well, at least not e nough to become as proficient as they are in Arabic and French. Despite being able to communicate, the new comers nonetheless have weak English. We will further see that linguistic outcomes ar e in part a function of the economic position and aspirations of the migrant. In the struggle with the linguistic limitations, they also become aware of the phenomenon of individualism and the role it plays in economic success. Back home, the individual depends greatly on various networks in every as pect of life activities. Yet as new immigrants, they are determined to learn th e ways of success. However, individualism and personal choice become both a blessing and a curse. Upon arrival to America, Algerians can be divided more or less into two broad orientations. The members of the first attitude rationalize that it is too late for them to start over and build a better life. They hence remain working in their primary survival jobs, such as taxi drivers or wage workers in factories. As a result, they almost never move beyond from a working class posi tion. The members of the second opinion learn from the experiences of previous immigrants that without acquiring ad equate English language and other skills, it would be hard to find decent jobs Resolving to achieve a better life for them and their families, many Algerian immigrants are able to realize in a short period of time what many immigrants do not achieve during decades. As discussed in chapter two, Algerians starte d coming in the late 1970s at a time when the American people were experiencing great social developments which eventually resulted in a change in the perceptions of va rious social, ethnic, and religi ous groups. It is in fact not unreasonable to argue that the civi l rights movement is one of the greatest achievements that new 122

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immigrants have been benefiting from since th e 1970s. Indeed, it has been a major catalyst in creating new mindsets among Ameri cans to denounce racism against African Americans. This historical development in America stimulated further tolerance and opened the way to new immigrant populations to keep and share thei r memories, traditions and languages in the multicultural society of America. There is a shared impression among my Algerian interviewees that Americans are gentle, n ice, and friendly. The interviewees notice the openness of the American society to foreigners as a unique f eature which is not found everywhere, and to some extent true even after 9/11. In contrast with those going to France, at the time of their arrival to the multicultural context of the American cities, Algerians feel at ease in a foreign land within which they are today settling in and adopting as their new home. In the US, until a decade ago, despite English domi nance in all institutions, the debate with or against making the English language the official language of America by law was still at its peak, as shown by Christal (1997) in his book Eng lish as a Global Language. For example, one of the most moderate bills on the English langua ge sponsored by Representative Bill Emerson in 1996, titled the Bill Emerson English Language Empowerment Act, saw itself partly as a means of empowering immigrants giving them great er opportunities to acqu ire English. When it went to a vote in August 1996, the House of Repr esentatives passed it but the bill did not reach the Senate (Christal 1997: 119). However, what captured my attention in this process are the responses that came in favor or against it. On the one hand, the official s who were supporting the bill see the passing of the law as a move to protect the nation from balkanization, as referred to by Newt Gingrich, the Speaker of the House at that time. According to th e logic of this view, English is like the glue un iting the various ethnic groups an d languages under its umbrella. On the other hand, the political argument against this bill argued that making English official is 123

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unnecessary since most immigrants since a long time have been assimilated anyway by the time they reach the second or third generation. These politicians debate and similar one s notwithstanding, neither the Algerian immigrants nor most other immigrants desire isolation and separatist ethnic groups. Their attachment to their native language derives fr om fear of a quick di sappearance of these languages. From the migrant point of view, what is in danger is not English but the other languages. Fatiha, a newly Alge rian immigrant to Chicago, expr esses this feeling well in a discussion with her English teacher: When I was studying [English,] my teacher, sh e knew I had a son who was five years old. He was in kindergarten going to first grade. She used to tell me: why dont you speak to your son in English so your English improves? I used to tell her: no. I remember like today, I told her: [if], I dont learn [English] today, I learn it tomorrow. But, I told her: if I get my son used to speak to him English (F) so I learnI make him lose his languagebut, my son is five years old, if he loses the language, he will never get it back. I remember very, very well (F) (Fatiha: Kabyle). The fear of losing the parental language haunts Fatihas thoughts. Despite being open to learn English for communication with non-Arabic speaking people, Fatiha as well as many other Algerian immigrants keep speaking to their child ren in their mother tongue. They fear a quick loss of their language and the unl ikelihood to regain it. In their new home, they understand that they cant function without good Eng lish skills, yet, they are consis tent in speaking to their child in their mother tongues. Algerians Perception of English vs. Migrating Languages Despite their attachments to their parental languages and dialects, like many other new immigrants, Algerians acknowledge the dominance of English, not only in the US but also in the rest of the world. They perceive English as ali ve, good and the first language in the world today. They notice that even in Algeria, many are speaking English. Fella explains: 124

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Before, we only heard it [English] in high schools (F). Now, in homes, you hear them speak English (F). Last year, we [when visiting Algeri a] were so surprised. We said, when we learned English (F), all peoplein Algeriaare l earning it (laughing) (Fella: Arab). This global interest in Englis h is illustrated by Nuwar, a PhD student in Nano-technology in one of the best universities in the country. For this young immigr ant, English is a scientific language that is technologically and globally dominant over French (Nuwar: Arab). The wish of many Algerian Arab and Berber newcomers is to speak English well even if they dont end up permanently residing in the US (Zahra: Arab ). However, for many, learning it and keeping Algerian mother tongues are at the same level of priority and they dont s ee this as a threat or obstacle to developing/having a strong sense of citizenship and belonging in America. Proficiency in English, Names, Citizenship and Success For many, being a citizen and American born, means fluency in English. For Algerians, fluency in English is not a choice because suc cess depends on it. Being immigrants and bearing the labels of otherness, such as having Arab ic names and profiles, as stated by Dawud and others, unconsciously creates a pre ssure to be fluent in English, which in the final analysis may or may not minimize the frustration and tensi on. When speaking about his fourteen years old son, Dawud explains: Well, he needs to [be fluent in English,] because one of the things that have been a problem is his name. Uuuhaving a name like Fa rid already labels him as an outsider. And soo if on top of it, he had a language pr oblem, a lot of people, they see his name, they think Egyptian. ya, and before he opens his mouth, they alre ady have a perception about him, which is totally false. So, he ha s to speak like a native, otherwise (Dawud: Arab/Berber). Dawud represents parents of the most assi milated children among the interviewees also interestingly the one who expresses the most this impression of xenophobia after 9/11/. Although no other immigrant (p arents or children) rais ed the issue of the stigma of Arabic names in America, it is an important phenomenon wort hy of exploration in a future project. 125

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Despite the existing openness toward multicultura lism, immigrants are forced to focus on English more than any other language, includ ing their mother tongue. Yet, many remain incompetent in English; a situation that may depr ive them of higher positi ons if going on the job market. Having English only in governmental and educational establ ishments (although in certain areas Spanish is also used) forces the new comers to assimilate in the language as soon as possible for education, professional work, public serv ice or just to be ab le to carry out daily routines such as shopping, going to the doc tor or having a chat with a neighbor. Algerians, old and new comers, educated and less educated, pr ofessionals and workers, all are aware of the dominant status of English in this country. They unders tand since the day they decide to immigrate and settle in any American city or suburb that they and their families have to learn English (Ahmed: Arab; Yasmina: Berber; Hind: Arab). In short, as expressed by Asma who is excited to start for the firs t time in her life English classes since she immigrated in 2001, English (F) is necessary (Asma: Arab). Today, she is able to communicate with people such as her childs teacher and the people in her neighbo rhood Chicago parks. While the use of Arabic and French is more limited to interactions w ith Arab and North African language communities, English is the means of contact with the major ity of American resident s irrespective of their ethnic, religious, generational or social status. In speaking about the importance of English to their children, Algerian immigrants perceive it as natural for a child to learn the language of the environment. They actually would be worried if their child did not speak the language of the school and the playground with othe r kids. Their statement is: [He] is American of course he has to learn English. In their id entity, the following generations are perceived by their parents as Americans without forgetting th eir ancestral languages, which is the link to their roots. 126

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English Proficiency and Identity English proficiency and the identity theme app ear to be much more emphasized within the second generation of Algerians in comparison with the first generation. Lamia sees her proficiency and fluency in English not just as a means for success but also as an essential part of her American identity. She imagines her baby daughter as becoming an excellent speaker in English, saying: I dont know, for me, it is very important for he r to learn English. For me, English is a big part of myI guess, my identity. And even if we have to live in another country, I would imagine coming to the US frequently and, it...I t...I dont knowI feel its more my home than any other place (Lamia: Arab/Berber/American). Although she is firm in expressing her feeli ng of American belongingness, Lamia does not neglect her roots. She be lieves in the importance of keeping th e languages of Algeria alive and in transmitting them to her daughter at her first stages of learning abilities: I think, Darja is important to be able to ma intain our Algerian roots, and then CA is important from a religious point of view. S o, she can read the Quran and other texts and then ummEnglish is important from what we said before. For me all three are ranked I dont knowI think when she is young, I rank Arab ic and Darja as first especially Darja its more important; and then as she gets older for her to learn Arabic because, as we said; if we are here, English would be the easiest for her to learn. But, also for me, it is important that she learns English at a high leve l. You know, at an inte llectual level as she gets older. Lamia, a second generation mother, includes Darj a in her daily communication with her toddler with the intention of transmitting and maintaining the dialect at the personal and social levels such as being with grand parents, Algerian friends and relatives in the states or back home in Algeria. Being American interacts with also being Algerian and Mus lim. Each sense of belonging influences the others in sometimes harmonious and at other times conflicting ways, depending on personal, social and environmental claims. In sum, Algerian immigrants interest in success might be the dr iving force behind their focus on proficiency in the dominant language in the US. Upper mobility is an aim that new 127

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comers target. Yet, they acknow ledge that they cannot move on from the condition that they began with unless they excel in the la nguage of communication and acquire a good understanding of the skills needed for economic su ccess. Their children also do not have a choice except to excel. The professional Algerian immigran ts expect their children from the first years of school to enroll in gifted programs in English and other subject matters. In comparison to their level of English (with an accent), parents see their children no less than being at the top of their schools. Their children are their pride in learning the language of success in the US, much in the same way that they had been the pride of their pa rents back in Algeria by becoming proficient in French the language of intellectual emanci pation, education and success at the time. French (F) Maintenance am ong Algerian Americans Despite English being introduced strongly in Algeria today as mentioned earlier, French is still perceived as the language of education. Yet Eng lish is replacing it among Algerian immigrants in the US. Moreover, when asked which parental languages do they teach their kids, many parents choose the Arabic language. In co ntrast to the first ge neration of Algerian immigrants wherein French was more or less dominant, French is omitted from the second generation repertoire of languages. This is illustrated in the fo llowing paragraphs which show some of the changes in Algerians perceptions and attitudes toward Fren ch. In general, there were three general perceptions on the question of the importance of French transmission among the interviewees, both intellect uals and non intellectuals: (1) French is important because Algerians speak it; (2) French is one of the ties to Algerian history; (3) French is not important and other languages are much more important in the US. French, a Language of Communication in Algerian American Families Many Algerian migrantsespecially among recent first generation migrantsbelieve that their kids should learn French because it is still a spoken language in Algeria. These 128

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Algerians share the common goal of planning to return eventually to Algeria or go to France, in the near or far future. During my fieldwork amo ng the Algerian interview ees, I found a variety of attitudes towards the use of French within thei r families. That they all belong to the same generation and that all were educ ated in French does not prevent them from holding different attitudes and displaying different degrees of loyalty toward th e daily use and transmission of French. Some embrace French as a way of communi cation, others totally reject it, yet still the majority uses it (unconsciously) in their daily sp eech in Darja. For example, in addition to English, Yasmina and Dawud, who use French as a means of communication at home, explain the importance of the French language in their family and to their teenage son as follows: I have no doubt, because he [teenage son] alr eady picked it [French] up on his ownit is important because I communicate in that langua ge and most of my family communicate in that language. So its important to him, to learn French first [before Darja] (Yasmina: Kabyle) [When visiting France, French would be the way of communication and especially with his cousins (Dawud: Arab/Berber). Contrary to this couple who are maintaining Fren ch speaking at home and even aspiring to live, in France one day, a very differe nt scenario is presented by Ahmed. This Algerian American intellectual has eliminated French from his repert oire of daily used languages and has instead replaced it with both Arabic and English. He w ould not consider French as a priority despite being fluent in it and despite rec ognizing its importance in the historic al literature of Algeria. He explains, mixing English and Darja: French, manahhadrush biha ga for me, French idha tallamha its good for him idha matallamhash I dont really [care]. Again, to me, its not really a priority2. 2 French, we dont speak with it at all. For me, French, if he sonlearns it, its good for him [but] if he doesnt learn it, I dont really [care] Again, to me, its not really a priority (Ahmed: Arab). 129

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Ahmed does not consider French a priority in the US, yet, others may do. In the Diaspora, deciding on their language repertoi re depends on various reasons su ch as keeping the ties with relatives or personal attachment to th e French language historical legacy. French, a Language of a Rich Literature and its Rootedness in Algerian History My interviews of Algerian intellectuals indicated that French is not only important at the communicative level but also because of its interwoven complex relations with Algerian history and culture. Dawud, Kamal, and Salima believe that it is important for th eir children and grand children to learn and maintain a good intellectual level in French because of its rich literature, especially as it relates to Algeria. In addition to using it as a means of communication at home, they believe that the next step for their children is to learn how to r ead and write French and hence take advantage of the French literature to learn more a bout Algerian roots. Again, Dawud explains: Because, if he [son] is interested again in hi s roots; he could learn a lot through French. He needs to learn it to be able to read things in French about Algerian history and th ings like that. So, either French or Arabic or preferab ly both would be very useful to him (Dawud: Arab/Berber). Dawud and many others like him grew up in the early sixties in Algeria. They understand the importance of French literature to their intellectua l growth. They would love to see their children being familiarized with some of that rich herita ge. Ahmed does not use French in the US, yet he expects that he would encourage his son later on to learn Frenc h, too (Ahmed: Arab). Kamal who is a professor in social scien ces, not only taught his daughter Fr ench but would like to see his grand daughter following on that tradition too, he says in English: 130

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Ya, it is extremely importantto understand the history of her [his grand daughter] parents, place of birth al-jazair (MSA)to understand the history of colonialism and to get a broader perspective on the literatures from Europe (Kamal Arab/Berber).3 Salima, Kamals cousin, also a French lover an d a first generation immigrant, emphasizes that French rich literature cannot be replaced by any translation, she says in English: [French] is also a rich culture. When you read in French, you would have a wide range of opportunities of literature, and the French are known to have a great literature. I wish they [kids] can read [books] like the Prince in French le petit prince which, in translation, they always give different meanings. Readi ng a book in its native language [is important]. I loved French, fortunately most of my e ducation was in Frenchand we have been pushed to learn French more than Arabic (MSA) (Salima: Arab). Although Salima has a strong desire to transmit Fren ch heritage to her kids in the US, she does nonetheless put Arabic (MSA) at a higher position, stating that I w ould love them [kids] to learn French but not as much as Arabic. In Salima s situation and similar ones, it seems that the priority is put on Arabic as a much more instrume ntal and needed language due to its daily use, as a dialect, and its role in reli gious learning, practice and identity. French Neglect, Loss and Replacement in the US Despite, its precious place in the minds of many Algerians, many Algerian immigrants have more or less ignored the transmission of the French language to thei r children. It is not as simple as it might look according to Duniya, a Be rber immigrant who speaks more French than Darja or Kabyle even with her small daughter. She explains: its a good language (F) that is not easyits grammar is not easy (F) (Duniya: Berber). To be realistic, Fatiha, a Berber young woman who is fluent in French and who works as a translator at a US airport, explains 3An interesting discursive exchange took place between Kamal and his daughter Lamia, thereby providing a good example of generational shift over language perceptions and value. Speaking of her young daughter future with French she says: by the time she gets older probably ev erything will be translated into English. For Kamal who learned French in Algeria, its intellectual supremacy is valo rized. However, in the American cities, in the age of fast electronics, Lamia does not perceive French in the same way as her father. 131

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that in the US this language, which has been part of the Algerian identity, is not needed anymore. She says code-switching between Darja and French : For those who are in Algeria, French concerns them. But when I speak about my son, here, in America, I dont see at all why he should learn French. After my experience in the airport I translated few times. They [Americans] dont speak French giggles. I am saying the truth I am telling youuu its high class to speak French-, but, I translated at the airport. I mean French in this country, is not important (Fatiha: Berber). Fatiha appears to be influenced by French as sh e goes back and forth between Darja and French often and borrows words from French. Yet, as an immigrant, she describes French as not needed for her childrens success in the US. As a matter of fact, the majority of Algeri ans in the US express a clear preference for teaching and encouraging their children to learn la nguages other than French. I noted this attitude across generational, educational, ethnic, and gend er differences. The interviewees prefer that their children learn a language th at is more needed in the US a nd at the global level. Fatiha does not hesitate to put Spanish as the second most important language in the world after English. She has already decided that her s ons second language would not be French but Spanish, should he have a choice. Some children are already aware of the unimportance of French in the US as stated by Asma: my son does not want [to learn Fr ench]. He told me, if I learn it [French] no one would understand me. So, I prefer (F) him to study Spanish. We are not going nowto Algeria (Asma: Arab)4. Asma is realistic and valorizes what would make her son more successful in his country, Amer ica. In comparison to most individuals and parents of the first generation, second generation Algerian parent do not see French as part of their childrens future. For example, Lamia doesnt see French in he r baby girls future unless she chooses to: 4 Yet in comparison, a Berber would not consider Spanish to be more important to her child than CA or Darja. 132

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Ya for me, it is more important that she [d aughter] learns English than French. [You learned French yourself, I say [ ya, if she learns it at school, if she chooses to learn it that is fine, but we are not going to teach her our selves. And it depends where we live; if we live here maybe French isnt that important. It is better to learn Spanish than French. As shown by the various interviewees, the rela tionship of French language with Algerians in America is an important theme. Symbolically, this connection expresses the complexity of a long, ongoing relation at home a nd in the Diasporas. Yet, practically, many Algerians would prefer to replace French by anothe r language that appears to be more useful in the US and would make a difference in their ch ildrens success in life. In sum, though we have a diversity of opinions regarding French, the dominant reaction seems to be to consider it unimportant for childre n in America. This devaluation of French in the eyes of many Algerian immigr ants is interesting. Lets not fo rget that French is perceived, intellectually, as having been the dominant language during and in post colonial Algeria. French is also still embodied in many i mmigrants daily linguist ic repertoires. Many French words have been incorporated into Darja and some still us e French with family members or friends. However, in choosing instrumental language skill s and performances for them and their children, Algerian immigrants use the changing worl dthe hegemony of English and globalizationas their point of reference. Hind explains that even (F) [in ] Algeria, now, it becomes all English (F) (Hind, Arab). This statement would force us to ask: if even in Algeria English is displacing French, how much stronger will that tendency be in the U.S.? There is a sharp contrast betw een the attitudes of Algerian immigrants in France and the US as regard to their children adopting Englis h as a language. Whereas Algerians who immigrate to the US for the most part embrace the fact that their children opt for English, those in France worry when their children prefer English over Fren ch. As explained in chap ter five, this behavior is interpreted by Algerian parent s in France as a sign of teenag ers rebellion and hybridism. The 133

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hegemony of the American technological power dr aws the minds of millions into using English instead of French even in its own land, Fran ce. Despite the rich cu lture and philosophy of France, Algerians in America perceive French as simply not useful. Some go as far as replacing it by a much more useful language such as Spanis h. I would say that being fluent in a language does not necessarily mean being loyal to its us e and transmission to th e next generations. For many immigrants, they speak fluently French and their common speechDarjais mixed with French at various degrees. Yet as a language, French most probably would not be the first on their list to transmit to their children in America. However, they also use more English with their children, at the work place, and in other activit ies outside the home. The incentives to maintain the spoken French are rather limited. Therefore, to teach how to read and write French is not a priority. This is illustrated in the case of Lamia who learned French in American schools. Because French is absent from her daily repe rtoire of linguistic communication, she is not attached to it as she is to her mother tongue Arabic. Algerian Mother Tongues in the Diaspora When asked about their mother tongue(s), Al gerians specify them as Kabyle or Darja. Algerians still speak these languages daily w ithin their families and with North Africans in general. In the following paragraphs, I present the three ways of speech among Algerians in the US focusing on the attitudes of the speakers and non-speakers among Algerians toward these ways of speech. I also address the issue of what it means to them whether these ways of speaking are or are not transmitted to their kids. I begin with Kabyle as a separate language then focus, first, on spoken Arabic or Darja and, second, on literate Arabic MSA. Tamazight/Kabyle/Berber Language in the Diaspora As well put by Faruja, language opens the doors to the place we enter. According to Kabilya tradition, when entering a souq (a vi llage bazaar) traders w ould have to speak the 134

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local language should they want to succeed in thei r trades. Yet, as a result of inter-marriage between the Arabs and Berbers, Darja may b ecome the spoken language however with some influence from Berber. Today, Darja or common Arab ic is intelligible to Arabs and most Berber, thereby contributing to make and preserve an in teractive relationship between the two traditions, with as, little friction as possi ble. However, for many Berbers, Tamazightthe language of the freeor Kabylethe language of the tribesis the language that has been orally transmitted for thousands of years from their an cestors. In the Diaspora, Kabyle is the mother tongue and the language of communication among Berbers. For the ma jority of the Berber interviewees (5 out of 6), Kabyle is the only language of communication with rela tives who do not know much Arabic such as grand parents. However thes e parents all know Darja and speak it to their Algerian Arab friends and sometimes even to thei r kids or other Berbers. They consider Kabyle as a defining part of their identity. As Duniya proudly puts it: It is an honor [to know Kabyle,] I am Kabyle. Their sense of belonging and repr esentation is expressed in Kabyle words and phrases which are impregnated with long collec tive memories. When speaking of her toddler, Fadila does not hesitate to stat e that Its our identity. So she [daughter] has to speak Kabyle. Yet, there are others who have already drifted away from using this language in their daily speech, thereby more or less jet tisoning cultural conti nuity. They however are aware of their limitation and express it with a sense of guilt. Am ong the intermarried with Darja speakers, there are those who left Kabyle fall. I think for me it would be very helpful if I le arned it with him [son] too (giggles) because, I feel I didnt do my job, transm itting [Kabyle] (Yasmina, Berber).5 5 Yasmina followed this expression with a gesture pointing to the various Berber artifacts displayed on a mental in her living room. 135

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Yasmina and people like her find themselves in situations where they have been away from their original habitus for a long time some twenty years or so. They do not see themselves as transmitters of their language and culture to their children6. They feel that they have lost the milieu which would have provided a smooth and mostly unconscious transmission of language to the children. A sense of guilt turned into a motivator for linguistic and cultura l continuity is what has remained. Kabyle would be hard to fulf ill the role of a mother tongue except for those who made a decisive choice that Tamazight, th e language of the free, would remain a defining feature of their habitu s in the Diaspora. However, the conflicting emotions between continuity and lo ss are not expressed homogeneously among all Algerians. In comparison to the Berber immigran ts, the majority of Arab Algerians are indifferent to the issue of preserving Kabyle in the Diaspora. Despite being part of their heritage, they are unable to speak Ka byle and it is seldom that an Arab learns this language unless living in a house hold or region where everyone speaks Kabyle. Kabyle is alien even more in the Diaspora since when meeting Darja speaking Algerians, they switch to Darja since most Kabyle are fluent in Darja. This thus makes a child of an Arab much less acquainted with Kabyle than his/her parents. Algerian Be rber ethnic groups are the only ones who use Kabyle. Darja speaking Algerians do not see any n ecessity to learn Kabyle or teach it since all Berbers speak Arabic (both Darja and MSA). Zahra, an Arab Algerian in the US, states that: I dont speak Kabyle, so I dont teach it. I dont see it necessary I am not in the environment where they use Kabyle where they need to speak it. I dont say there is no way; there is always a way but I dont s ee it necessary to teach it (Zahra: Arab). Such Arab Algerians are neither able nor inte rested in teaching Kabyle because their children wont need it, especially those who have no Kabyle background in their families. Others, if only 6 As my advisor Dr. Murray (2008) points: it may be determined by chronological variables. The desire to transmit Kabyle may dwindle after 15 -20 in the states. 136

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hypothetically though, would not mind their children learning Kabyle as the language of their friends, such as those in La Montagne community in Chicago. For others, despite considering Kabyle a part of their culture ta al-bled (Darja) [of the home country] (Ahmed, Arab), they do not give it a high priority when contemplating teaching it to their kids. Ahmed, whose wife is European American, states that: to be honest at this stage, he [son] is still young, and there are too many things on the plate to deal with (Ahmed: Arab). Although many Algerians consider Ka byle a part of their Algerian heritage, Kabyle is valorized like any other foreign language. Such parents would thus encourage their ch ildren to learn it only if the children are themselves interested in doing so. Yet, they acknowle dge that Tamazight has been neglected in Algeria at the policy level. Th ey hope that future generations in Algeria would have better opportunities to lear n it as a second langua ge at school. Souad, an intellectual and Arabic literature teacher, expresses her disappoin tment that until today Algerian children are not allowed to learn Kabyle like they learn Arabic at school: I am very sorry that Kabyle was not taught in Algeria (Souad: Arab). As a matter of fact, ne ither the institutions of learning nor the families that are formed from mixed marriages care about Kabyle learning and maintenance. Among those in the Diaspora, those who are still eager to maintain and transmit this old, rich, oral language are but a minority abroad. Moreover, many Arab/Berbers from mixed marriag es feel awkward not to be able to use a language which is a defining element of their sens e of identity. Despite knowing words here and there in Kabyle, they usually dont feel confid ent enough to transmit them to their kids. Exiled from its milieu, Kabyle, which is an orally transmitted language, is faced with tremendous difficulties. Nonetheless, the Arab/Berbers, much like the Arabs, hope that the young and future generations of Algerians would be able to learn Kabyle at school. We have indicated that there 137

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are Kabyle speakers and activists intent on revi ving the language in France. This linguistic activism vis--vis Kabyle is totally absent among Algerian migrants in the U.S. In conclusion, in comparing Berbers, Arabs, and Arab/Berbers pe rceptions and attitudes toward one of their language heritage I find that the degree of attachment to language depends on the level of language fluency. For Berbers who are competent in using their language, it is natural to think of transmitti ng Kabyle to their children as a means for communication, keeping and strengthening family attachment, and preserving identity and lineage continuity. However, the Arabs do not have any atta chment to the Kabyle language de spite acknowledging it as part of their heritage. They also do not see any necessity to learn it or teach it since all Berbers speak Arabic (both Darja and MSA). In reality, it has generally been take n for granted for a Berber to learn Arabic but not the other wa y around. Being part of the identity or heritage would not be an incentive to learn Kabyle since everybody in Algeri a is assumed to know Darja, and, if not, they would know French. The Arabic Language and dialect Maintena nce and Transmission in the Diaspora Algerians consider the Arabic language as a mother tongue and as the language of ancestry; whether in its former/written form or its dialect/spoken form. Whereas Classical ArabicCAand Modern Standard ArabicMSAare for the most part used at the religious and intellectual levels, Darja is used in the comm on daily speech. In it various accents and tones, Darja is the language that conne ct the people of the Maghreb. Darja, the Langua Franca among North Africans Like Kabyle, Darja is more specific to the Algerian region in Nort h Africa. Darja is the mother tongue and language of daily communica tion for the majority of Algerians, whether Arabs, Arab/Berbers, or Berbers. We have to talk to them [kid] [in Darja] so they understand us. We dont have to teach it, says Fella (Arab). It is a must (F)they cant forget it, says Asma 138

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(Asma Arab). Darja, which is an oral la nguage, just like Kabyle, is transmitted through performance and practice and as such it is of ten the only communication channel with grand parents (Asma; Nuwar; Za hra). Kamal, an Arab/Berber, who ha s already raised a daughter in the US and who is fluent in Darja, MSA, French and English, expresses his thoughts about his grand daughter (third generation) who is about two years old: You dont have to teach it [Darja], she is learning it. It is the main means of communication with her parents, gr andparents or with the family b ack in Algeria. It is part of the environment, the family it is crucial. In comparison to other immigrants in the U.S ., the intergenerational transmission of Darja by Algerians is much less secure than the tran smission of Spanish by Mexicans or Portuguese by Brazilians because there is no written language in Darja. Yet, most Algerians, even those who did not transmit Darja to their children and do not consider it part of thei r linguistic repertoire, still perceive it as the most important compone nt of their Algerian identity. Dawud is an Arab/Berber and married to Yasmina, a Berber woman. They both speak French and English with each other and with their fourteen years ol d son. He shared with me the following dream that he had about his sons future: Many years ago, I had this silly dream [I thought] maybe I can teach him [Darja] well enough, so he can go to Algiers on the stre et and nobody would recognize he was from America (Dawud: Arab/Berber). Yet, Dawud realizes that being aw ay from the Algerian social milieu and not speaking to his son in Darja in time makes his wish turn into a mirage, not a dream. He blames his failure with his son on the oral character of the language and hi ghlighting a widely common belief that Darja has no structure: Again, the same problem, [like Kabyle] because of the lack of writing and structure [in Darja], it is not an easy thing to learn as an outsider. To me its like these foreigners who learn Arabic from Egyptian books then go to Algeria giggles (D awud: Arab/Berber). 139

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Being away from the milieu, the place of contin uous cultural interacti on, Dawud accepts his loss. Despite dreaming of maintaining continuity in and through language being away from home is the beginning of a generational sp lit and hence the birth of a ne w generation which is far from the influence of various cultural mnemonics. However, the r upture does not take place for immigrants who are not completely isolated from other Arab or Algerian communities. Yet, new views materialize when the Arabic linguistic varieties meet, as we will see later. Algerians attitude towards the vernacular (D) vs. literate (MSA) : Algerian people perception of the standard and the vernacular takes sometimes contradicting opinions. For an outsider, it is important to understand that in ge neral in Arab countries, wh ereas Darja / amiya is not a written language, likewise MSA is simply not a spoken language. Darja is the way of communication among Algerian immigrants and with family members back in Algeria as well as with other Maghribis. However, many Algeri ans valorize MSA and perceive it as more important than Darja. Although, like all Arabs, no two Algerians speak to each other in MSA, and would feel like a reporter or a school teacher doing it, yet, th ey proclaim greater importance to MSA. This attitude toward their spoken tongue may be rela ted to factors such as their linguistics ability to use both Da rja and MSA in their social e nvironment with fluidity. For example, Manal, who came to the US three year s ago, is more fluent in Darja and MSA than French and English. She perceives Darja as second ary to MSA. By learning Standard Arabic, she believes that in no time, her child will be able to know Darja and speak it. Speaking in Darja, she says: if he [son] learns MSA, automatikian (F), he would learn Darj a. I interfered saying: humm taDrbi uSfurain be Hajar (MSA) [you are targeting two birds by one shot]. She smiles and replies; ya Arabic fuSHa [M SA] is the one that would make him learn Darjafor sure (Manal: Arab). 140

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On the other hand, her husband Omar has been in the US for more than twelve years and is less fluent in MSA than Darja, French and English. Omar disagrees with Manal in putting Darja in a secondary position; he says, code switching between (D) and (E) : [For] me, Darja is very important like Arabic [MSA]he has to know it I think, it is very, very important because Darja is the way of communication. When he goes thereto Algeriahe has to know how to deal with people (Omar: Arab). I found these conflicting attit udes stimulating for further investigation among other Algerian immigrants. And, indeed, it turned out that the split was more complex than I had previously thought. Various reasons seem to explain the occu rrence of such conflicting attitudes. Ahmed, who is married to a European American and who is fluent in four languages, decides to omit Darja from his childs repertoi re altogether and instead pref ers using only MSA and English. Notice that in the following paragraph, during th e interview, Ahmed codeswitchs in a skillful way between (E) and (D), not between (E) and (A) revealing hi s approach to the maintenance of parental language: [Darja] is not a priority to me. Its important, labali, kiyruH lil zjazair. BaSSaH, if he can yahdar al-lughal arabiya, he can communicate yanzjam ; he can communicate filzjazair always. He can always do that. Although, Darizja is also important to himits good to practice. YatsarraH alsanah. Yafham shwi ya kiman gulu al-culture ta alzjazair fimatkhaS bil zjazair... tudkhul fiha ad-darizja hadhik. Hadhik rubbama As I said there are too many things. I emphasize ala al arabiya giggles (Ahmed Arab)7. Although, when speaking to other Algerians, Ahme d uses Darja with English, when teaching his son Arabic, he excludes Darja and uses MSA dur ing Arabic or Quranic lessons. For a person who has been in the US for more than twenty year s, with little contact with Algeria and married to a European American, his aim is not to preserve a regional dialect us ed among Algerians from 7 [Darja is not a priority to me. I know its important when he goes to Algeria. But, if he can speak MSA, he can communicatehe can, he can always co mmunicate in Algeria. He can always do that. Although Darja is also important to him, its good to practice. His tongue gets fluent; he understands some, as we sayAlgerian culture in which Darja is part of that. In that sense, maybe [he is go ing to miss some of it.] As I said, there are too many things. I emphasize on Arabic [now] giggles. 141

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various regions. He rather prefers MSA and CA, that is, the languages of reading and writing and international communication. Many other Algerians as well as other Arabs di sagree with such an approach to learning Arabic which concentrates purely on MSA. Fadila is a Kabyle speaking linguist. She explains that learning Darja comes prior to going to school and learning MSA. Today, with her three years old daughter, she uses both Darja and Kabyle, focusing on the spoken language only. Speaking in English, she says: If I teach her MSA, first, no one will communi cate with her, it wont help her to speak MSA with her cousins (Fadila Berber). Similarly, Samir and Lamiss believe that the spoken precedes the standard, focusing on the importance of accumulating a wide range of voca bulary. Samir comes from a mixed marriage of a Syrian father and an Algerian mother. He is married to Lamiss who is Syrian. Although Samir gives greater prestige to MSA, he agrees with his wife that learning of the spoken language comes naturally. Contrary to what Manal and Ahmed say about the use of MSA, Lamiss explains in Syrian: Those who learn MSA only are going to be li mited in their language, but those who speak Darja or Amiya [in Syrian] would have wi der range of vocabulary (Lamiss Syrian). Her husband supports her on this idea, saying: Because the Arabic language in not present in the American environment, and if the parents do not pay extra effort, the children would not learn Arabic. That is why the learning of Arabic should be with great effort and Darja should support that; because, the thinking process is going to be in Arabic. Afte r that, the child would need extra effort in MSA [writing, reading and morphol ogy] (Samir: Syrian/Algerian). On the one hand, according to this couple, there is continuity between Darja and MSA. On the other hand, those who give more significance to MSA than Darja may limit the natural context within which their children pr actice their mother tongue. Howeve r, these seeming differences between Darja and MSA are more hypothetical than practical. In reality, every situation is 142

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different. For example, in case of mixed marriag es between Algerians and non-Arab Americans, the spoken tongue is English, and MSA is taught for reading and writing only. But in Algerian households, where Arabic is the spoken language at home, the interaction is in Darja, not MSA. Yet, others, especially when transmitting both Darja and MSA, face problems that did not fall under parents responsibilities in the past but rather under that of the school, a topic that we will come back to when we discuss the issue of contact with other Arab communities. In summary, much like Kabyle, Darja is th e spoken tongue among the various Algerian ethnicities. Although, in principle, some valorize MSA more than Da rja, in practice, Darja is the mother tongue and precedes MSA in being transmitted to the child orally. In comparison to the written practices, that would come later, Darja is incorporated in daily practices, activities and ways of expressions (Connerton, 1989: 39), nevertheless, both Dar ja and MSAbeing transmitted in and as traditions. Although, like other Arabs, Algerians do not perceive the colloquial as being a written language yet, they dont consider it a distinct language from MS A or CA. Darja seems to play the role of a foundational stage for later learning of writing and reading Arabic. Having said this, because they are in the Diaspora and in contac t with other ArabMiddle Easternersdialects, some Algerians wish they had only MSA as oral and written language. They believe that by learning the proper Arabic, an Algerian Ameri can would be able to communicate not only with his/her fellow Algerians and North Africans but also with other Arabs, and any one who understands and knows Arabic. This approach, although very pragmatic is not realistic since the language of communication in most Algerian ho useholds is Darja, not MSA. Yet, one may wonder: Given these perceptions of self and cultural codes in the minds of many Algerian 143

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immigrants, would Darja be transmitted to and maintained in the next generations? Such a question would be a good t opic for future inquiry. Arabic FuSHa: MSA and CA For many, speaking FuSHathe language of eloquenceenables them to communicate with any one, both in the ble dcountryand the world (Fella Arab; Zahra Arab; Hind Arab; Duniya Berber; Ahmed Arab). The significance of Arabic derives from its widespread use by millions of people around the world (Zahra Arab ; Hind Arab; Dawud Arab/Berber). Yasmina, a Berber with no proficiency in MSA, perceives Ar abic as a desired language for her teenager son to learn (Yasmina: Berber). However, other Be rbers [not my interviewees] who are against the use of Arabic in Algeria, would not incorporat e Arabic teaching explains Tassadit (Berber). For those promoting it and who are fluent in its standardized versi on, Arabic is a rich language for its scientific and intellectual abil ity (Samir Syrian/Algerian). Such immigrants anticipate teaching Arabic not only at a basic leve l but also at the level where one can excel in using it to speak and write, that is, at a high level of profic iency. Lamia, a second generation Algerian American, imagines her toddler learning it at the level of intellectual proficiency. For her, reading and writing Quran is basic, however a deeper learni ng is still required. She says: I think it is good to learn [Arabic] as much as possible because I see it with myself. I am able to read any book in Arabic [Such as] religious books. [My abil ity to understand,] depends on the books. If they are complex, I can understand parts and some parts I cant. But if it is basic, I can unders tand. I can get the jist of it (L amia: Arab/Berber/American). Although she is able to understand, for example, the context and meanings when reading Arabic books, Lamia would like her daughter to become b etter than her. This is the story of a successful second-generation parent that many new comers see as possible to achieve. Many however dont know about the invisi ble work (Okita 2002) that Lami as parents had invested in her to make her who she turned out to be. Su ch an achievement is realized with a clear 144

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perception of self and place (Casey, E. S. 1996) as well as strong dedication to cultural maintenance in the Diaspora. One can only wonde r whether, as a new couple, Lamia and Nuwar would be able to achieve what the first immigrant parents did. Arabic and religious continuity Whereas many Algerians consider Darja as the maintainer of cultural continuity between the Diaspora and the homeland and roots, they va lorize Arabic as a means for preserving their religious identity. Hiya Halaqat al waSl bid-deen (MSA)[Arabic] is the link to the deen (Islam as a way of life), says Samir. Follo wing Andersons imagine d communities (1991), I would say that Arabic is collectively imagined and remembered as the bond between Algerians, other Arabs, and Muslims in general. This conne ction extends over thousands of years in sharing a strong past that originated in Arabia and stretched to many wo rld regions with the flourishing of Islam as a religion and a civiliz ation. This standing is not only ach ieved as a result of its use in specific performances but also because of its embeddings in the Muslim daily life. Algerian immigrants from the various ethnic groups were raised in a mixture of Islamic/Arabic/African cultures and environments where th e distinction between profane a nd sacred is less than in the secular West. Reading, writing, lis tening and reciting of Quran (R evelation), duaa (prayer), and dhikr (meditation), are not only included in mosq ues and schools but are also practiced, sensed, and enjoyed in various landscapes. Whether at th e mosque, the zawia, the madrassa, the home, the market, on the street, or on radio and televi sion, Islamic expressions which are most of the time expressed in the Arabic language are hard to avoid. The majority of my interviewees do valorize the transmission and main tenance of Arabic for the sake of their religious sense of belonging, despite a high level of heterogeneity in th eir religiosity. There is a widespread desire to see their children becoming able to read, writ e, and understand Quran in its original language. Salima, a professional in an American company in Chicago, expresses this shared perception: 145

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CA is very important to us basically b ecause of the religious matter. Our sacred book Quran is in Arabic. We want them [childre n] to be able to re ad it and comprehend it (Salima: Arab). In order to achieve such a noble achievement, Ahmed, who also is a professional in upper Chicago, is giving his son the foundations of Arabic, on his own and on a daily basis. Ahmed does so because: Al-unSur ta al-arbiya muhim bazzaf (D) [the Arabic element is extremely important]. Arabic is a key element not only in understanding religion bu t also in understanding Algerias history. Arabic and historical continuity For many Algerians in the US, Arabic is not only the language of religion and Quran, it also is the language of the Al gerian/Arab/Muslim history. Like French, the Arabic language is intertwined with Algerian histor y. Being fluent in it is a chance to study ancestral history, roots and culture, or as put by Ahmed: [son] to know his history. If he doesnt know his native language, he will miss a lot. So I want him to learn that, so he can underst and a history book in Arabic (Ahmed: Arab). Ahmeds approach is based on the idiom that the culture of any society can only be known from within, and language is essential to achieving that goal. It is thr ough learning and performing stories, songs and oral history in Arabic that a strong and lasting bond with the roots would form (Dawud: Arab/Berber). Bob, an American convert to Islam a nd Tassadits husband, understands that the culture of any people has to be taught in its original la nguage. In their sense of belonging and continuity, there is contiguity between the written, spoken, profane and religious. Arabic is the language that ties Algerians to their deep temporal and spatia l sense of belonging that they would like to see continue among their children in the Diaspora. 146

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Arabic and the Arab/Muslim identity In America, Algerians settle in many cities where they become part of large Arab Muslim communities, making Arabic language become a part of their sense of identity. As expressed by Ahmed, the Arabic language is the link that br ings together Arab Americans or Algerian Americans in one identity. When asked about their ethnicity and id entity many Algerians especially Arabssay that they are Arab. Yet others do prefer to define themselves as Muslim, thereby mixing religious and ethnic id entities together. For so me of them, being a Muslim is connected to being an Arab (Omar: Arab). Yet, others like Lamiss, who is originally from Syria, would disagree with this hybridism, explaining that learning how to speak Arabic is something fundamental. We are Arabs [and] we have to learn Arabic. I dont think that someone who is religious is Arabized, she explains. According to her, if a person claims an Arab identity, he or she has to know the language. However, her husband differs with her saying: I think of myself as an Arab even if I spoke another language (Samir: Syrian/Algerian). Much like to what happened to many immi grants such as Spanish, Italian or Indian; Arab immigrants in America may lose their Arabic language. However, their sense of Arabic identity may become stronger, valorizing the symbolic belonging. The next generations may forget how to speak Kabyle, Darja or read Arabic. Yet, remembran ce of their ancestors and roots would always remain, even if only in a diminished form. As pointed out by many scholars (Rouchdy ed. 2002), the parental language such as Arabic may reappe ar in the following gene rations when conditions permit it to become valorized and used again, th ereby prompting the new generations to relearn the language as well as reinvent the tradi tions of their ancestors and homeland. The Arabic language and the American foreign policy In the last decade or so, and, especially af ter 9/11 and the invasion of Iraq, the Arabic language have become more valorized in the US to a noticeable level, not only by those who 147

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speak and use it and see it as part of their se nse of identity but also by state policies and institutional programs. Algerians like other Arabs take notice how various Americans are interested to work in or visit the Middle East and value the learning of MSA to a level of fluency at which they would become able to communicate with the Arab people. As an Arabic teacher, I am amazed to find how many American students want to learn Arabic and want to understand it to go to the Middle East and do research or be in diplomatic workplace. During the interviews, I wasnt surprise to find that Algerian immigrants take th e contemporary world condition seriously, much like most other people in th e post-modern world. Am ong the Interviewees, Algerian Intellectuals such as Ahmed and Dawud identify the political and diplomatic advantage for future generations to become proficient in Arabic today. As mentioned earlier, Ahmed is completely committed to teach MSA to his seven years old son. However, when speaking about his fourteen years old son, Dawud emphasizes the advantage of having a North African background and speaking Arabic, while at the same time emphasizing that at this stage it is a choice that his son would have to make for himself in the near future. In todays world, Kamel wishes for his grand daughter and future generations to embrace and learn Arabic not only for ethnic, national, or religious functionalities and belonging, but also for being part of an increasingly more cosmopolitan world. Arabic Dialects Contact and Conflict Darja and the Accommodation of Other Arabic Dialects It is not a surprise to hear Arabs who orig inally are from the Middle East say to North Africans: You speak Berber and French. This at titude toward North Afri cans is an example of dialect contact and linguistic accommodation (Gil es 1987) between conformity and resentment of the Algerians toward Middle Ea sterners. The topic of dialect s contact (Trudjill 1986), and, specifically the accommodation theory, was de veloped two decades ago (Giles et al. 1991; 148

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Giles & Coupland 1991). This theory is essential to the study of language contact in the Diaspora in general and applies well to the Algerian case. As Giles explains, each one of us will have experienced accommodating verbally and non-ve rbally to others, in the general sense of adjusting our communication actions relative to those of our c onversation partners, and been aware of others accommodating (or failing to accommodate) to us (Giles & Coupland 1991:60 in Shiri 2002:149). Yet, as mentioned by Shiri (2002) in her case study between Tunisian and Middle Eastern journalists, and as I found in my own Algerian case study during my field word, the accommodation process is more often then orie nted in one direction, from the Tunisians, Algerians or Moroccans to the Middle Easterners However, in such communication, there is always a set of other factors th at play an important role in deciding how to accommodate the interlocutors, why they do accommodate them, and how the process would become reciprocal. When meeting other Arabs, Algerians are so metimes pressed to change the way they speak. When meeting in the Diaspora, many Arab communities in the US make the following remark to an Algerian: I dont understand what you are saying. You speak French and Berber. The Berber classification as not understandable or barbar seems to follow Algerians even outside Algeria. The term Berber originated with the Romans and Greeks which they used to characterize other languages than theirs. Yet, until today, Algerians whether Arab or Imazighen are still called Berber by Arabs wh en they hear Algerians speak Darja or Kabyle. In many cases, when it happens for the first time, many Algerians become extra sensitive about their differences with the other Arabs. Until then they believed that their sense of self is that of Arabs. However, the moment they open their mouth to speak when what for them counts as part of Arabic, their sense of Arabness disappears. At that moment, they have to decide in what 149

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language they speak to the Egyptian, Syrian, Sa udi or any other Middle Easterner Arab. As Omar explains: When I speak to an Egyptian or a Syrian my speech changes and I dont feel a laise (F) [comfortable.] I dont use French. I only us e Arabic (MSA)I [als o] use English, if I dont know a word in Arabic, or I cant rememb er it. But usually I use Arabic with them. They dont understand French. Sometimes we us e their dialectpersonally, I dont like it. I would try not to do it (Omar: Arab). This conscious switch in language makes both Alge rians and other Middle Easterners aware of their linguistic differences. Despite accommodating to the interlocutor and deciding to speak in MSA, Omar refuses to use their dialect on the ground that they dont speak my dialect, why should I? He disagrees with hi s wife who converses with other Arabs in their dialect so that they would feel comfortable with her. Manal is much fluent than Omar in MSA. She al so is fluent in a vari ety of Arabic dialects, such as Egyptian which is the most understood among other Arabs. She realizes the limitation of many Arabs in understanding North African speech and, as a result, she accommodates them in a friendly gesture. She makes sure she doesnt use any French and uses words and expressions that are common in her interlocutors dialect. Like Manal, many othe r Algerians are very flexible. They seem able to switch from Darja, to MSA, to other Arabic dialects, to French, or to English. This ability to go from one linguistic repert oire to another is very common among the intellectuals who are able to understand their languages and various Arabic dialects. Their strategy to accommodate others is ve ry tactful. It is a skill that gi ves them the ability to adapt to various linguistic/cultural envi ronments. However, conversing using others languages or dialects does not mean neglecting ones own dial ect or language. These intellectuals do have many other opportunities to switch to their language(s) and speak it/them. Yet, sometimes they refrain from using others dialects and instead use MSA, the language which is shared by all Arabs, as a sign of solidarity but also as a code of linguistic neutrality. 150

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During my field work as well as from genera l observation of Algerian immigrants, I find that among Algerians, these conflicting situations do not seem to be bothersome. To the contrary, Algerians show their gr atefulness of being with other pe ople who share many codes of their cultures. Being among other Arabs, even if th ey have to accommodate and converse using others dialects and ways of speech, many Algeri ans care to protect and enrich their sense of belonging to the Arab/Muslim community. For example, in accommodating the new and old Arab residents in Gainesville Florida, Manal is pleased to have many friends from various Arab countries such as Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Sa udi Arabia, Palestine, Egypt, Jordan, and Syria, to name a few. As a young couple, Manal and Omar interact with other Arabs at various social levels and with many other American friends, taking pride in the multicultural community they enjoy and call home. Dialects vs. MSA and the Dilemma of Havi ng a Middle Eastern Arabic Teacher Algerians do not fully come to realize the differences amongst the Arabic tongues until Middle Easterners begin to teach their kids. Th e use of spoken dialects in teaching becomes a problem. On the one hand, the Middle Eastern teacher thinks that the Algerian child who speaks the Algerian dialect does not really speak Arab ic. And, on the other hand, the Algerian parents protest the use of Arabic dialects in classr oom teaching. Yet, in the communities under study, people do recognize two important limitations. First, the availability of linguistic continuity in the Diaspora requires cooperation and resource s among Arabs. Second, although not desired, the use of dialects in the teachi ng of Arabic remains a common practice. However, Algerian and other Arabs take the situation with an open mind and learn how to benefit from skillful members of the communities in working together and transm it their language, what they value as essential. When attending Sunday school at the local mosque, the Algerian child goes yaqral- arabiya,read/study Arabic, the language they speak at home. However, when the teacher 151

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speaks, the student is puzzled th at her/his language is not exactly the same as the one used at home. This primary interaction br ings frustration to the natural linguistic environment of many Algerian families and may sometimes develop into a persuasion that Darja is not Arabic. Fatiha, a Berber who is able to speak Kabyle, Darja, MS A, French and English fluently, is disturbed by the reality that she faces in America when intera cting with other Arabic dialects at the Arabic institutions of learning: We, our kids nakhdu shia 8. For example (F) when I put him in the mosque to study Arabic my sonhis name is A.A.Y (Ara bic first and last name). Of course (F) his name is Arab TaHki Arabi? (Middle Eastern Dialect) [you speak Arabic?] his Middle Eastern teacher would say. My son would answer in Darja. Th ey (the teachers) are right; our kids do not speak Arabic at all. The Darja did not help them at alldid not help them at aaaalthe big problem with us the Al gerians and Maghrebis, we can understand the language [Arabic]but our dialect, it ha s no relation with Arabic, our speech is French (F) more than it is Arabic (Fatiha: Berber). For Fatiha, the Algerian dialect is not Arabic. Because it seems to her not intelligible to other Arabs, she perceives it as a waste of time to firs t speak Darja then learn MSA, an idea that is shared by other intervie wees (e.g., Ahmed; Salima; Fella). Th ey live in a dilemma between pride and frustration. When they meet with other Algerian s or relatives, Darja is used in their casual and commemorating expressions (see Appendix C for the Henna ritual songs). Yet, as shown in the previous example, the interviewee believes that Darja is not worth calling an Arabic dialect. One might explain Fatihas dilemma by her Imazighe n ethnicity since in her situation, Darja and MSA are both second languages anyway. Ethnical ly, she does not consider herself Arab but rather Tamazight. Yet, a second explanation might be that these Arabs are not challenged enough to learn how to listen and pick up the regional Arabic lexical that Algerians use and that may more or less differ from other Arab dialects. 8 Nakhdu shia is an expression in Darja that cannot be transl ated literally. However, it m eans supposedly we speak Arabic. 152

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However, not many Algerian immigrants shar e Fatihas perplexity. As a matter of fact, many others are concerned that other Arabs use their own dialects instead of MSA in teaching children the Arabic language. If th at is indeed the case, they believe that the Algerian children are hence not learning MSA, which would be useful for reading and writing. They instead are learning other Arabic dialects. For example, ther e have been reports that in the classroom, teachers use lexical such as gamussa (meaning co w in Egyptian instead of baqara in MSA) or shu baddak? in the Levant dial ects instead of matha tureed? in MSAwhat do you want? For these frustrated Algerian pare nts the solution for the dialect pr oblem in the classroom is as follow: First, the teacher should speak only in MSA without relying on any dialect or English. The parents then need to pract ice speaking MSA at home after returning from the madrassa the school at the mosque. In multiethnic Arab/Muslim communities, this is seen as the best way for the children to learn quickly and become competent in reading and writing Arabic, specifically Quranic text. Despite being very critical of the Arabic teach ing at the level of the community and of their efforts as parents, the focus group in Chicago and many other Algerians are actively involved in their childrens lives. Despite the daily pressures of Englis h language dominance around them and the multiethnic environment, their efforts seem to be fruitful. In my presence, the Algerian children were able to communicate with their parents in Darja, Kabyle or English. As a community, their mutual solidarity as well as wi th other Arabs is strong, with the new comers often providing a means of continuity with their heritage. Conclusion In conclusion, Algerians come to the United States with a rich and complex linguistic heritage. Yet, when embarking in the states, on the one hand, Algerians find themselves obliged 153

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to become quickly proficient in English, the la nguage of intellectual and economic dominance, social integration and success. On the other hand, they are reluctant, at least at the first and second generational level, to abandon certain el ements of their linguistic heritage French, Kabyle, Darja and MSA. Their effort to maintain their language performa nce of and proficiency in their mother tongues is fascinating to inves tigate. Despite being imbedded in the Algerian common speech, yet, as a separate language, French is hard to ma intain in America. With the prevalence of English, French become unnecessar y, neglected, and vanish quickly from the Algerian immigrants repertoire in general. Ka byle, a Berber dialect may have one of the two fates among Algerian immigrants. Where there is a large community of Kabyle speakers, Berber maintenance could be possible at least among th e first generation. However, since Algerians, Arab and Kabyle speakers, interact with each other in Darja, the po ssibility for the second generation of Berbers to speak it is very little. Si nce Darja is the mother t ongue of the majority of Algerians, ever among Berber, it could be pr eserved for generations. However it would be transformed tremendously. As men tioned earlier, Darja is already influen ced greatly by other languages and specially borrowed words from Fren ch. However, in the U.S., its speakers start borrowing from English, as shown earlier. This phenomenon could make Darja harder to be understood for middle easterners. However, in ca se of exchanging French with English words this may facilitate other Arabs to understand Darja better than before. Finally, as a literate language, Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is per ceived as the way to preserve Islamic religion and teachings, in maintaining historical continuity with the Arabic/Islamic heritage, and in strengthening the bond among Arab Muslim Americans. With the solidarity with other Arab Muslim communities, some elements of the MSA could be transmitted and maintained. 154

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155 However, in comparison to those in Algeria, th e second generation of MSA proficiency remains, in general, at a basis level.

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CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter consists of two sections: a conclusion and a recommendation. In the conclusion section, I first compare the situation of Algerian language s in the United States to that of France. Second, I compare Algerians to other immigrants in the U.S. In the recommendation section, I suggest a methodology for teaching and transmitting language in multicultural/multilinguistic communities in America. Conclusion In conclusion, I would first observe that bei ng fluent or competent in the language of the host country represents the way to economic and educational success among both Algerians in France and the United States. As shown in chapte rs five and six, those who do not understand the game of upper mobility remain stuck for years in their initial situat ion. The literature about Algerians in France is rich of stories and documentations of those early migrants who remained linguistically isolated for generations in France. This situation not onl y harmed their economic accomplishments but also their social image and th at of their future generations. The laborers, low class workers and exiles and their families, whose aim and hope was to return to the ancestral land were forced into isolation, classified as the beurs neighborhoods and ostracized from the dominant culture and the society at large. However, in the case of Algerian migrants to the U.S., it is seldom to find a large Algerian or Maghribi community that remains isolated from the dominant language and culture. As a matter of fact, in comparis on to France, in America they are forced to quickly learn Englis h in order to survive. Yet, Al gerian parents, especially the educated ones, in both countries, se e their success and that of their children in being fluent in French in France and to be fluent in English in America. They very much follow the template of 156

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their own upbringing: they were the pride of their parents back home in Algeria by becoming proficient in French, the language of intellectual emancipation, e ducation and success at the time. The second section of comparison between the Fr ench experiences to that of America deals with the dynamic of maintenan ce and loss of mother tongue la nguages, specifically Kabyle and Darja. Logically, being in close proximity to th e home country, Algeria, one would think that Algerians in France favor the maintenance of mother tongues in the Algerian communities. However, as shown in chapter five, among the o ffspring of the early immigrants, French is becoming the most prominent language while Darj a or Kabyle are lesser and lesser used. Having a large sub-community of the same language community does not necessarily keep the language spoken. Three main reasons explain why this is the case: 1. Most educated Algerians in France are francophone which means their means of communication in the intellectual and work environment was French even before they or th eir parents migrated. 2. The early illiterate Algerians who migrated to France for labor work or were exiledHarkis and Algerian Jews still speak Darja and/or Kabyle, there is however a generational gap between them and their offspring. The transmitted language lexically and mo rphologically is performed only at a minimum level. 3. Children spend most of their devel opment years in school where French is the only means of formal education, which minimizes th eir exposure to the Arabic and/or Kabyle languages. Similar conditions apply to those coming to the U.S., however with the difference that English is the predominant langua ge at school, work, and most intellectual environments. The second generation if they understand their parents languages, in general, th ey tend to feel more comfortable expressing themselves in Englis h than Kabyle, Darja, MSA, or French. Having said that, it is only fair to note that there are those among th e immigrants, whether in France or the U.S., who are conscious about th eir language identity and who spend extra effort 157

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to maintain the mother tongue(s), both at the spok en and literate (written) level. While this is a minority it is important to mention that the similarity between those in France and those in the U.S. is in the availability of the social a nd community support to perform and maintain the languages in a natural environment. The two groups can also be compared along th e dimension of teaching Arabic. In France, teaching the children of Algerian origin has been coordinated between the sending and the hosting countries. However, in the US, there is no program set up in public schools to teach Arabic as a foreign language for any Arabic community. Hypothetically, one would say that having the migrating or paternal language taught at school is the best way of transmitting it to the children of migrants. However, as shown in Chap ter five, the program in France is a failing one for many political, social, and pe dagogical reasons. Yet, at th e community level, what is practiced in both countries is that Arabic is taught by the Maghrebis in Franceand by the Arabsin the U.S. However, this teaching is d one on a voluntary basis and in an experimental fashion. Some results are achieved but without going much beyond the minimum basic level of reading, writing, and language skills, both in Fr ance and America. This dilemma is expressed by Algerians in both countries. Howeve r, what many Algerians are awar e of at this tentative way of maintaining the language is the extreme diff erence between the spoke nDarjaand literal ArabicMSA. In both countries, the younger genera tions of whether French or American of Algerian origin become frustrated when they be gin to learn the Standard Arabic only to find out that they are learning a new language, rather than their mother tongue as they were expecting. Politics is one of the reasons behind such a ch allenge. When it comes to teaching the mother tongues, only politically recognized languages are taught. Unfortunately, many Algerians and French, government and population alike, still think of Kabyle as an oral language and, 158

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sometimes, out of sheer ignorance, a dialect of Arabic. While in France Kabyle is being revived by Berber activists, their primary aim is to be able to organize freely and set up programs that would be implemented mostly in Algerian schools. In the U.S., such programs do not exist. Therefore, being far from home and isolated from the Kabyle influence, the language at the spoken level seems to go rapidly into disuse, much more than in France. Another point of comparison between the two mi grations is that the Algerians in France perceive the French people as discriminating against Algerian s and Maghribis in general but those in the U.S., do not. This post-colonial consciousness seems to influence the younger generations in the way they approach French or English learning in either country. Those in France are always reminded of their inferiority a nd foreignness to the French despite the claims of integration constan tly made by officials from the govern ment. This simply means the obvious fact that the political and social rules and norms influence the individual and collective perceptions of the codes of the pa rental culture and that of the dominant culture. Hence, French citizens of Algerian origin may be fluent in the French language, which is the dominant language of the society in which they live, yet they would perceive it as a code which remains fundamentally foreign to them, even if their native tongue falls into disuse. At a practical level, it seems that mother tongue often retainsat l east symbolicallya strong hold on the minds and hearts of many immigrants and their offspring b ecause it shapes their sense of belonging more than just providing a means of daily communi cation. Moreover, in comparing Algerians in France and America the most important component that surfaces is the geographical, historical, and political contiguity of France to Algeria. However, in comparing Algerians to other migrating communities in the U.S., one can find othe r types of comparative factors in relation to the maintenance and loss of their paternal language(s). 159

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Like other, old and new, migrating communitie s, Algerians have great code switching and lexical borrowing from other languages in contact. As presented in chapters three and six, there is a great deal of code switching and lexical borrowings among older and younger Algerian generations. For example, there ar e a lot of English words brought into Darja that would not be spoken by Algerians in France or in Algeria. As presented in chapter th ree, there is a great lexical borrowing such as manager, crib, cell phone and others that have been included little by little into Darja in America, sometimes replacing an Arabic or French word and at other times adding to them. Algerians in America are similar to newer mi grant communities in their desire to learn English while at the same time maintain their mother tongue. This new phenomenon, as explained in chapter six, was not common in early 1900s when the Italians, Germans, or Irish did not want their children to speak Italian, German or Irish but to speak English as a sign of being true American. it seems to be a universal desire to learn English but also a desire to maintain their native language. Like the Jews in the midtwentieth century who trie d to preserve Yiddish, the Lebanese to preserve Lebanese, or Hispanics who tried to preserve Sp anish, the new Algerian communities embrace English proficiency; yet, they also desire to transm it their paternal tongues to their off-spring in America. However, the dilemma that Algerians and other Arabic speaking migrants face is that their Darja/Amiya is going to be more difficult to preserve than the preservation of Spanish among Hispanics or Portuguese among Brazilians. I suggest that one of the reasons is that in comparison to Spanish neither Darja nor Kabyle would receive official suppor t because they are not written languages. As a matter of fact, while the US gove rnment is involved in the teaching of other languages, such as Spanish, French, or Chinese, Ar abicthe mother tongue of majority of Arab 160

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Americansis not yet supported to be taught at schools as a fore ign language except in some Universities. In contrast with other migr ants, Algerians do not expect their spoken language to be written. They differentiate between the formal Arabic fuSHathe language of eloquenceand the informal Darjacommon or vernacular. Desp ite being proud of their tongue, they perceive Darja as laHndeviantand not appropriate fo r being written, preservation, or documentation. By sitting in a class to learn Arabic, they believe Darja, or the common speech, would contaminate Arabic, the language of Quran a nd poetry. This lingering sense that Darja is contaminated, not really Ar abic or not a good language s eems to be one of the most important factors of dialect / la nguage conflict in the Diaspora. Th e Algerian dialect with other middle easterners can be compared to the li nguistics situation among Hispanic communities, Peruvian, Mexican, Dominican, or Cuban migrants who more or less understand each other. Although there is some sense that Cubans speak bad Spanish, there is a se nse that all Hispanics speak the same language and understand each other. However, the Arab migrant communities perceive Maghribis and especially Algerians as not speaking Arabic but rather Berber and/or French. Whether Egyptians, Mesopotamians, Syri ans or Golfians, Arab s have difficulty to understand Darja. One of the difficulties of Darja is that it has such a high percentage of French vocabulary, much like the way Puerto Rico Spa nglish is. As shown throughout my informants speeches, the spoken Algerian may be totally Arab ic with a few French borrowed words or with extreme borrowing and codeswiching such that the person has to be bilingua l in both French and Arabic to be able to understand; which is not the case for most Arabs. In analyzing this conflict one would understand the genesis of the linguistic tensions between Algerians and North Africans on the one hand and Middle Easterners on the other. As 161

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put by Professor Murray: [in America, Algeri ans have] a dual history of lexical borrowing (Murray 2008: personal communication). The Algeri an spoken language has incorporated a large number of French idioms which have become a standard part of Darja. When migrating to the U.S., they bring that with them. They dont drop their French idioms. They use them in their speech with each other and add to them English ones as well. On the one hand, one can argue that the American Darja becomes exceptionally rich in terms of adding vocabulary idioms borrowed from two European languagesFrench and English. On the other hand, it becomes doubly contaminated. In other words, the Alge rian Arabic is reject ed by Middle Easterners similarly to the way the Spanish from Puerto Rico is rejected by Argentineans because there is so much English in it. However, the Argentineans nonetheless understand the Puerto Ricans because they understand English but Egyp tians or Saudis who understand English do not understand this new Algerian Arabic, as they didnt understand the old one1. This might irritate some Algerians and North Africans because they become conscious about their speech with other Arabs who are Arabs like them. Unlike an American who wont change her English when meeting a British or a Cuban who wont change his Spanish when meeting a Mexican, Algerians change. The irony sometimes is that even if they try to speak standard Ar abic, in a way that all Arabs understand or are expected to understand, th ey are laughed at because the Arabs do not speaks it in common communication saying ya-kh ti, arabi?!what [you speak MSA]. In the end, speaking Darja is not understood and speaking literate Arabic is ridi culed by the other Arabs who might think, for example: she speaks like a reporter or a president. We can thus conclude that Algerians suffer in the Arab world serious linguistic discriminati on. This is not much dissimilar to Puerto Ricans and Cubans who ar e laughed at by Columbians and Argentineans, 1 I thank my advisor Dr. Murray for the discussions on this topic and for his insights in relation to linguistics matters in which he is the expert. 162

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with the important difference that the pressure is much stronger in the Algerian case. The Algerians actually try to change their language whereas the Puerto Ricans and Cubans will continue talking the way they do. Another important difference with other langu age communities is that the situation of Arabic in the U.S. has become politically sens itive in positive and negative aspects since the September 11th, 2001 bombing of World Trade Center, the beginning of the war on terrorism and the 2003 war invasion of Iraq. Arabic speakers in cluding Algerians are aw are of the greater interest in Arabic learning in the country. Yet, they see that th e language is taught at the college level only. Algerians, like other Arabs, are more reluctant to speak Arabic on the street for fear of discrimination and racism against them because people might associate them with terrorists. In that sense, there seems to be a tendency from the Arabic speaking people not to show their Arabic language. After 9/11, the in terest in studying Arabic now seems much similar to how the Russian was the language of the enemy during th e cold war. Likewise, contrasting how Arabic and Spanish are perceived by those who seek to le arn them is also instructive. Currently, people study Spanish not because it is the language of the enemy. However, Arabic is becoming the most taught and studied language at top colleges but perceived as the language of those who hate us. In conclusion, I would sa y that the situation of Algerians as migrants to the U.S. is somewhat unique. Algerians experience a double socio-pressure against th eir language. On the one hand, they are self-conscious with their Da rja when speaking to Middle Easterners for linguistic reasons and on the other hand, with Americans for political reasons. 163

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Recommendations I now suggest an alternative approach to language contact in multicultural Arabic communities. Doing the interviews with my Al gerian informants reminded me of my own experience as an immigrant living among various linguistic communities. My impressions about language and dialects in contac t are somewhat different from the views of certain of my interviewees as I try to show in the following paragraphs. In analyzi ng the statement of the Middle Easterners inabili ty to understand the Algerian dialec t, I would say that I accept their unfamiliarity with Frenchsince Darja may have a fair number of French lexemes. However, when an Algerian does not mix French, I argue that it is easy to communicate with other Arabs if they change their attitude and pay closer attention to what is being said. I remember years ago in the mid 1980s, I lived around many Middle Easterners and intera cted with various Arab nationals on a daily basis, with some at the level of friendship. I was raising a daughter and spoke to her in Darja everywhere, at home and around my Arab friends, whether Egyptians, Iraqis, Saudis or Palestinians. My close friends especially two neighbors, an Iraqi and an Egyptian, were picking up Algerian lexical idioms as well as my family picking some of theirs. After a while, we all comfortably understood each ot hers dialect and intera cted with each other in our own dialects, sometimes even using each others vocabulary2 or MSA. For example, a dialogue would go between my then five years old daughter who speaks Darja and my Egyptian friend who speaks Egyptian (Appendix D). The short dialogue between an Algerian ch ild whose mother tongue is Darja and an Egyptian woman whose tongue is Egyptian that took place in 1987 is an example of mutual dialect contact in the Diaspora. In the following paragraph, I use the dialogue (appendix D) to 2 In his book Dialect in Contact Turdgill, (1982) explai ns this topic in relation to various speech communities. 164

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analyze various linguistic elements. I translated each utterance based on the way the other would say it, to MSA, and then to English. The context of this conversation is at my Egyptian friends house. She is a generous woman and always insi sts on her visitors, young and old, to eat or drink something when visiting her saying laazem Tashrub Haaguayou have to drink something! She interacts with my daughter and without difficulty they woul d both understand each other. On the one hand, my Egyptian friend got used to Algerian words and expressions such as manhabbush, bazzaf, bark, barkay, [I dont like it, a lot, only, e nough or stop it (fem)] that are not part of her Egyptian dialect. And, on the ot her hand, my daughter got used to Egyptian words and expressions such as aiza, eh, leesh, mish aiza, maa bahabbu, awi, bass, di, kifaya [you want (fem), what, why, dont want, I don t like it, a lot, only, this, enough] that are not part of her Algerian dialect. In comparing the two dialects to MSA, it is obvious how different both Algerian and Egyptian are from the standardized language. For example, the word what is expressed in Egyptian as eh and in Algerian as wash or ash but in one of the MSA variety, it is madha or maa which seem at first without any mutual relations. Yet, when going back to the fabrication and creation of the Arabic vari eties, one can find them most of the time related to CA which in time became used as specific and regional lexical only. I would say that all three originated from the CA. For example, the MSA or CA expression a iyu shayin Which or what thing, is in case of the Egyptian, only the first phonemeglottal stop[] followed by a schwa and ended by a soft [h] is preserved as eh. In the Algerian case, from the expression a iyu sh ayin only the first consonant [] followed by a vowel [a] of the first word then the first phoneme [sh] of the second word are combined and preserved as one new lexical ash. In other situations, the phoneme [] is 165

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replaced by [w] to form wesh and sometimes ashin or washin keeping the [in] grammatical case at the end. At school, children learn MSA which is a standa rdized form of Classical Arabic, wherein both madha and aiyu shay would be learned depending on the context. Yet, educators, especially in the Diaspora, do not approach the teaching of language from a sociolinguistic and a comparative approach which is essential to cont extualizing the language taught at school. As a matter of fact, the approach of teaching MSA, at least in the Diaspora with very limited educational skills, is too systematiz ed and exclusivist. A child saying wash hadha what is this in Algerian or an Egyptian saying eh or esh da would be corrected by certain teachers to say maa hadha only. As shown in Chapter six, parents also object to teachers using a variety of Arabic in the classroom. In these situations, th e student would be expected to correct his home language or to keep the divide between the home and school language. For many Arab educators and others who are not familiar with the linguisti c richness of Arabic, Standard Arabic is the only true language, thereby neglecti ng other ways of speech as being laHn deviant. This approach to the teaching of Arabic language affects, on the one hand, the rich language by restricting it and, on the other hand, affecting the Arabic speak ers and their off-spring in neglecting their rich heritage. Th e Arabic language is able to in corporate various tongues. Yet, for reasons such as lack of knowledge and some times political aims to control through language planning, people approach Arabic learning from a c onstricting and exclus ivist venue, which would restrict the students to only read and write the script w ith limited comprehension. Their understanding and use of the langua ge at an intellectual level would always be at its lowest, lacking strong sociolinguistic foundations. 166

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167 To become proficient in a language, continu ity must develop between the spoken, the read, and the written, between the sacred and the comm on, as well as between the old and the new. Language is dynamic, however, not in a sense of becoming restricted and di fferent, but rather in being full of life using the information from th e past and the present, the corporal and the abstract, with fluidity and ease. Language tr ansmission and language maintenance incorporate embodied practicesperformed and inscribedthat come naturally, with ease and even at the unconscious level of social memory (Connerton 1989). Children of many Arab immigrants grow up to appreciate the various linguistic repertoi res around them and use them in their favor. Because an early influence by various Arabic dial ects on such children in their natural settings, today, as adults, they are able to interact with Egyptians, Iraqis, Syrian s, Algerians, or other Arabic dialects, as well as English speaking, all without having to tell any one that she or he does not understand what they are saying to them. It is through performance and living among other ethnicities and cultures that the second generation is able to acquire this skill to become multilanguage/dialect proficient in the multicultural en vironment of America. Although this example is related to the Algerian dialect in contact with the Egyptian dialect meeting in the Diaspora and how both sp eakers are able to understand each other, the approach can be applied to many other communities in the world. As a matter of fact it shows how humans are capable of understanding each ot her using various codes whether speech, sign, or thoughts. Another application in which this approach would be used is in preparing language teaching curriculum that is inclusiv e of various dialec ts of a language.

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APPENDIX A SCHEDULE INTERVIEW 1. Where were you born? 2. Tell me about the places you lived in prior coming to the United States? 3. Where did you get your various le vels of education? (From preschool to highest level) and in what language(s)? 4. What is your highest level of education? 5. What is or are your mother tongue (s)? 6. How many languages do you know and speak? What are they? 7. When and where did you learn each one of them? 8. Who taught you these languages? 9. When, where, and with who do you use and/ or speak the specific language (s)? 10. In what language do you speak with your child? 11. Do you teach your child how to write, read an d/or comprehend your mother language (s) 12. If you dont teach your child yourself, do you have other ways of transmitting your native language (s) to your child, explai n how and how often do you do that? 13. Tell me what it means to you to teach your child each of the following languages; Amazighi, Arabic, Darja, French, English or other languages? 14. What activities do you have with your child that you believe teach your child something about your culture, ethnic ity and/or religion? 15. Do you socialize with other migrants from Algeria? 16. What type of social activities do you have that you think are helping your child to learn your native language(s), religion, and/or your culture? 17. If you where working prior to migration, what type of work did you do? 168

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169 18. After migrating, what type of st udy (ies) and/or work(s) did you do? 19. If you are a student now, what are you studying? Are you satisfied or not with the type of studies you do now? Explain why? 20. If you are working now, what type of work do you do? Are you satisfied or not with the type of work you do now? Explain why? 21. How would you compare your life today to the one before you migrated? 22. When, if possible, did you think of the possibility to migrate? 23. What or who influenced you to migrate? Tell me about how she/he/ they influenced you? 24. How would you describe the pers on you were before migrating? 25. How would you describe the person you are today? 26. Would you describe the event th at led to your migration? 27. Before migrating, would you describe your life then? 28. How would you describe how you viewed America then? 29. Tell me about what does it meet to be an immigrant? 30. What is your sex; age; and ethnicity?

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APPENDIX B INFORMANTS BACKGROUND Table 2. Informants background information (AR=Arabic, FR=French, EN=English; GNV=Gainesville, FL; CMI=Champaign,IL) Pseudo -name Gender Address Ethnicity Marital status Formal language Mother Tongue 1 Omar Male GNV Arab-Algerian Married AR,FR, EN Darja 2 Manal Female GNV Arab-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Darja 3 Samir Male GNV Arab -Alg/Syrian Married AR,FR, EN Darja/Syrian 4 Lamiss Female GNV ArabSyrian Married AR,FR, EN Syrian 5 Salah Male GNV Arab-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Darja 6 Sarah Female GNV Arab-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Darja 7 Zahra Female CMI Arab-Alg Married AR, EN Darja 8 Fadila Female CMI Berber-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Kabyle 9 Mustafa Male CMI Arab-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Darja 10 Khadra Female CMI Arab/Berber-Alg Married AR, FR Darja 11 Bob Male CMI Eur. American Married EN US English 12 Tassadit Female CMI Berber-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Kabyle 13 Nuwar Male CMI Arab-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Darja 14 Lamia Female CMI Arab/Berber/American Married AR, EN, little FR Darja 15 Kamel Male GNV Arab/Berber Alg. Married AR,FR, EN Darja 16 Ahmed Male Chicago Arab-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Darja 17 Jawad Male Chicago Arab-Tunisian Married AR,FR, EN Tunisian 18 Salima Female Chicago Arab-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Darja 19 Faruja Female Chicago Berber-Alg Married No Schooling Kabyle 20 Fella Female Chicago Arab-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Darja 21 Hind Female Chicago Arab-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Darja 22 Duniya Female Chicago Berber-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Kabyle 23 Fatiha Female Chicago Berber-Alg Married AR,FR, EN Kabyle 24 Nazira Female Chicago Arab-Alg Married AR, EN Darja 25 Asma Female Chicago Arab-Alg Married AR, Little FR, EN Darja 26 Dawud Male GNV Arab/BerberAlg Married AR,FR, EN Darja 27 Yasmina Female GNV Berber-Alg Married FR, EN, little AR Kabyle 170

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Table 2. Informants other background information. Pseudo -name Gender Number of children Occupation Level of edu. Age 1 Omar Male I Boy, 6 Months Phd Student Close To Graduate Early30s 2 Manal Female I Boy, 6 Months Home-Maker B.S. In Economics Mid20s 3 Samir Male 1 Girl, 2 Months Professor PhD In Computer Sc. Late 20s 4 Lamiss Female 1 Girl, 2 Months Home-Maker B.S. In Eng.Lit Mid20s 5 Salah Male 2 Boys. 2 Girls Phd Student 2 Masters Mid40s 6 Sarah Female 2 Boys. 2 Girls Arabic Teacher Masters In Arabic Lit. Early40s 7 Zahra Female 2 Boys. 1 Girl Home -Maker High School Degree Late 20s 8 Fadila Female 1 Girl, 2 Years Ho me-Maker B.S. In Ling. Early30s 9 Mustafa Male 1 Girl, 8 Months Manager B.S. In Economics Mid30s 10 Khadra Female 1 Girl, 8 Months Ho me-Maker B.S. In Economics Early30s 11 Bob Male 1 Boy, 3 Years Professor PhD In Plant Sc. Mid40s 12 Tassadit Female 1 Boy, 3 Years Professor PhD In Plant Sc. Late 30s 13 Nuwar Male 1 Girl, 15 Months Phd Stude nt 3 Masters In Engeniring Early 30s 14 Lamia Female 1 Girl, 15 Months Home -Maker B.S. In Psychology Mid-20s 15 Kamel Male 1 Girl, 25 Years Professor Double PhD Late 40s 16 Ahmed Male 1 Boy, 9 Years Consultant PhD In Elec. Eng. Late 40s 17 Jawad Male 2 Girls, 1 Boy Consultant PhD In Social Science Mid40s 18 Salima Female 2 Girls, 1 Boy Consulta nt Masters In Computer Sc. Mid-40s 19 Faruja Female 1 Girl, 2 Boys Home -Maker No Official Schooling Mid-30s 20 Fella Female 3 Boys, 1 Girl Arabic Teacher B.S. In Arabic Lit. Mid-30s 21 Hind Female 2 Girls, 1 Boy Home-Maker Associate Degree Early 30s 22 Duniya Female 1 Girl Home-Maker Associate Degree Early 30s 23 Fatiha Female 2 Boys, Pregnant Home-Maker Associate Degree Early 30s 24 Nazira Female 1 Girl, 1 Boy Home-Maker Primary Edu. Mid-30s 25 Asma Female 1 Boy, Pregnant Home-Maker Primary Edu. Early 30s 26 Dawud Male 1 Boy Professor PhD In Physics Mid 40s 27 Yasmina Female 1 Boy Professor PhD In Physics Late 40s 171

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APPENDIX C AL-HENNA An Algerian bridal Henna ritual from K. Arfi s fieldwork for Masters in Cultural Anthropology done in summer 2007. Al-Henna Taqdiim/Tbughir (Songs) and Twalwiil (Ululations) At an Algerian friends sons wedding in New York, one of the invited friends of Algerian origin sang these very traditional songs that are specially sung when the Henna is done on the brides hand in Darja. The Henna powder was mixed by one of the friends and brought to the bride to be applied on her ha nds. All the women, teenage girl s and childrenall of Algerian origin were sitting and standing around the bride ready for singing and/or performing the twalwiil. Yamina was the expert in the taqdiim so she is leading the songs and those who know the words would sing along. However, it seems that she is the only one who knows them and once in a while I remember few lines from my ch ildhood memories when I used to be in Algeria and be around my family especially my aunts w ho were professionals. Traditionally, in Algeria, the Henna is done by the most revered women in the house. The mother-in-law of the grooms aunt (Zahra) was visiting from Algeria and sh e was honored and asked to perform the Henna to the bride. Later on, another young woman of Moro ccan origin, who moved from Orlando Florida and got married lately to an Al gerian man, finished the Henna by making designs on the hands of the bride. The brides two hands were beautifully designed and colored in the orangey color that would take few days to go away. This is the sy mbolic sign of being a br ide that night and having the two families come together on this happy occasion. Yamina performed several traditional songs while the Henna was designed slowly on the hands of the bride. At the end of each taqdiim, a large group of women and young girls performed the twalwiil in one voice which make it sound like a musical instrument. In the 172

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following, I will transcribe the taqdiim with a tentative translation, followed by twelwiil. I divided the taqdiims into themes that were mos tly said in that order. However the procession always starts with a prayer bringing the audience and performance together. Prayer Songs Bismillah bismillaah..u biha yabdal-baadi, u bi ha yabdal-baadi..Qaddemt rabbi wan-bii Mohammed siid syaadii Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii [We start] by the name of Allah, by the name of Allahand by it starts the one who starts [when one starts something important]I pr esent before me my Lord and the Prophet Mohammed the Master of my Masters [my ancestors] Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii Sallu Sallu anbii u ya naass al matlaayma.. u ya naass al matlaayma..alli ma Sallaa anbi u maahuushi minnaa.. Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii Pray upon the Prophet Oh you who are gath ered Oh you who are gatheredany one who does not pray upon the Prophet is not one of us Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii Songs Praising Brides Beauty and Clothes U ya raqbat al-jammaaraa, U ya raqbat al-j ammaaraa. Jaa yara fiha nHel u yaHsablu nuwwaaraYuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii Oh [bride with] a neck [like] pearls, Oh [bri de with] a neck [like] pearls. Flew around it bees, thinking it was a floweryuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii ESghira kharjat lil Hanna u fatHat darbet eelayzaar, u fatHat darbet eelayzaar. al-ain mkaHla mghamja wal wajh yaDwi kii nhaar yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii.. The young one is coming out for the Henna and sh e took off part of the veil, and she took off part of the veil, the eye is [beautified by] eye liner [kuHl] and the face is lighting like the day [light] yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii Wer-rahii lalla Sghiraau rahii talbess qaaTha u rahii talbess qaaTha, satr Allah wa jnaaH jibriil wal-HaTTa wataat-ha Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii Where is she my young missshe is putting on the Caftan, she is putting on the Caftan, may Allahs protection and Jibr iils [Angel Gabriel] wing be over her [from evil eye] and [look how] the elegance fits on her. Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii Songs Praising Brides Attribut es and Praying for the Groom Wa Hmaama rahii talli wa Hmaama rahi maajia, wa Hmaama rahi maajia, hadhi martek yaakhuya yajalhaalek saajia. Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii 173

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One pigeon is flying away and one pigeon is coming down, and a pigeon is coming down, this is your wife Oh little brothe r may she be agreeable. Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii Al Hmaama HaTatlu fis-saaHa, u HaTatlu fis-saaHa. Hathi martek yaakhuya u yajalhaalek SaalHaa. Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii The pigeon landed in his terracelanded in his terrace, this is your wife Oh little brother may she be among the pious. Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii Songs of In-laws Praising the Bride RaHna lTriiq abiida, wa tmash-shinaa wa eenaa wa tmash-shinaa wa eenaawal qinaa sajraal Hluwaa u laqqamnaa wad-diinaa(m ashaa Allah, haila.praise the Lord, this song is great.) Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii We went to a long journey, and we walked and got tired and we walked and got tiredand we found a sweet tree and we cut [a branch] and took from it [the tree].. Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii RaHna lTriiq abidaa u faaress yardef faarass, u faaress yardef faaress..Kath-tharti linaa shruTaak ya ramgat aT-Taawass (a ll laugh) Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii [the grooms mother: lukaan kayan alli yawanha (ayya Tal u..win rahii? Waluu?) [a guest: ana? Ana ma na rafsh(Walu?) we went on a long journey and horses runni ng after horses, and horses running after horses, you made your demands too many Oh the [beautifu] one like the tail of at-Tawaass [a peacock with colorful upper tail] Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii [the grooms mother: some one should help her (come on say what you knownothing?) [a guest: me I dont know nothing] (nothing?) Songs of In-laws Bribing the Bride who is Supposedly Sad Leaving her Parents U yaa lallaa Sghiira, was-sukti maa tabkiishii .. was-sukti maa tabkiishii..jabnalek u qaaT edh-hab u bsarwaal Hshaaishii.. Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii Oh my young miss stop and dont cry and stop and dont crywe brought you a QaaT [vest in gold embroidered velvet] of gold and with it greenish pans .(traditional bridel suite) Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii Songs of the Bride Consent of Marriage and the Fathers Role as her Delegate Kharjet najmet aS-SbaaH u shufu baash atkalm at.. u shufu baash atkalmat.. khraj baabahaa lil jmaa u ghiir klaamu elli thbaat. Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii Came out the morning star and see what di d she sayand see what did she say came out her father to the ljmaa [group] and only hi s talk was heard [his words were respected and taken well] Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii 174

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Tallet najmet aS-SbaH ul qaaDhi Hal kt uubuu, wel qaaDhi Haal ktuubuu..Sghira saaat edhhab, daarha fii maktuubuu.Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiii ii (we have to translate every thing. I look at the brides mother who is African American and could not understand the Algerian songs) [haki tsejli u mbeda tran slation. [the brides mother: ana baah nsejlak..sajjaltiha? (ooo yes!) mashaa Allah yaTiik aSSaHHa. (zidi maazaalmaa shaa Allah, la la. Nqadek waHdek wat-sajlihumli. came out the morning star and the qaaDhi [marriage judge] opened his books, and the qaaDhi opened his books, the young one the bride is like the pocke t watch; he put it in his pocket Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii (We have to translate every thing looking at the brides mother who is African American and could not understand the Algerian songs) [ you are recording, after that we translate. [the brides mother: I need to record them. are you recording (ooo yes!) Praise be to Allah, may God give you health. (say moreis th ere moremaa shaa allah, I will take you alone and you record them to me all). The Song of the Bride Close Relatives Comfo rting the Bride and Each Other that the Groom is of a Good Stock U yaa lalla Sghiraa u ma tabkiish gbaalii.. u ma tabkiish gbaalii..wantiya lalla Sghira waddek wliid Hlaali Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii Oh my young missdont cry in front of me dont cry in front of meand you are my young miss and the one you took you [for marriage] is rightful [from a good family]. Song Praising the Brides Family RuHu ruuHu yaal Hrayeer u ruHu Trig gb aalaa.. u ruHu Triig gbaalaa..jibu ziinat aalrayeess u mahishii manwaalaa Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii Go, go, Oh women [of good fam ilies] and go on the straight pathand go on the straight pathbring the most beautiful br ide who is from a good family Yuuyuyuyuyuyuyuuuuiiiii. End of Taqdiim -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The Second Generation and the Algerian Heritage I started talking to Farida, who is born and ra ised in the U.S. She is a college student. Farida (Fa) is Yaminas (Y) niece. We spoke in Darja. I: kash ma Hfatti A? Fa: eh I: kash ma Hfatti min khaaltak? saHiiH? shaaTra bantihaakdhaak..nonparceque 175

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(F) hadhu maa bqawsh..qlaal annaass alli yaarfuhum() al mafruuD hakdhak atbughiir yakhruj hakdhaak. Y: Khti waHHad-ha..tbuqar la wlad-ha.. la raja l-ha.. liha (hadha huwal aSl..tkharjuhum sur place (F) kayen kalimaat assassiya..u mbad tsammi..kul waHed bismuu I: ana justement dirasti habba na raf kifash elwaldiin rahum inaqlu attaqaliid watturaath lawladhum Y: eehmashaa allah! Wash min domain I: ana fil anthropology Y: eeh.. I: cultural yassamma justement Habbit taqa liid aishinha annass..hadhil furSa..aHssan waHda (giggle) baSSaH hadhumael waHad iHab yafham..esque (F) lawleedqui,qui tqulihumes-que lewlaad yaffahmu el kalimaat u maanihuum? Y: Banti mazalet Sghira ala kulli Haal tabghihum..tabghi zHuw I: Kima mathalan..bnaat Hania? Y: El-kbaar yaffahmu el-Hanna yHabbuhaki shghul idiruha fi munaasabaa laraass. Iqullek, nalbsu taa hnabaSSaH el-Hanna tandaar In translation: I: did you memorize any Farida? Fa: ya.. I: did you memorize any from your aunt? Really.. Good girlgood because (F) these are not anymorevery few people who know themthis is how should a taqdiim/tbughiir beit comes out [naturally] like this 176

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Y: My sister, she tbughar [sings] alone about her kidsabout her husbandabout herselfthis is the way it used to be. It comes out right away (F) .There are basic words and you name after that every one by his name I: I am, as a matter of fact (F) in my study; I would like to know how are the parents transmitting the tradition and culture to their kids? Y: Yapraise be to God. In which domain (F) I: I am in anthropology (E) Y: Ya.. I: Cultural.. I mean as a matter of fact (F) I wanted to see ho w people practice their tradition this is an occasiont he best (giggle)but these [taqdiim] one would like to understandare (F) the childrenwh en you tell them do (F) the kids understand the words, their meanings? Y: My daughter is still young, but she likes them. She likes fooling around [with words] I: Like for example Hania s daughters? (Yaminas nieces) Y: The older ones they understand the Henna they love itthey put it on in special occasionslike weddings; they tell you they wear clothes of here (Western)but the henna will be done 177

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APPENDIX D DIALOGUE BETWEEN AN ALGERIAN AND AN EGYPTIAN The following is a dialogue between an Alge rian child speaking Darja and an Egyptian woman speaking Egyptian. Under each utterance, I write the others way of saying it, then in MSA then in English: Egyptian friend: Aiza takli eh (name)? (Egyptian dialect) Wash Habba takli (name)? (Algerian dialect) Matha tuhibbin an takulii (name)? (MSA) [What would you like to eat (name)?] Daughter: Manish habba nakul (Algerian dialect) Mish aiza aakul (Egyptian dialect) Laa uriidu an aakul (MSA) [I dont want to eat.] Egyptian friend: Leash mush aiza? (Egyptian dialect) Alaash makish Habba? (Algerian dialect) Limaadha laa turiidiin? (MSA) [Why you dont want to?] Daughter: Manhabuush bazzaf (Algerian dialect) Ma bahabbush awi (Egyptian dialect) Laa uHibbuhu kathiiran. (MSA) [I dont like it a lot] Egyptian friend: Bess di! (Egyptian dialect) Bark hadhi (Algerian dialect) [Khudhi] hadhihi faqaT (MSA) [[Take] just this [piece]] Daughter: Lalaa! Barkay! (Algerian dialect) Laa! kifaaya! (Egyptian dialect) Laa! [hadha] Yakfii! (MSA) [No! [this is] enough!] 178

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LIST OF REFERENCES Abraham, S. Y. 1983. Detroits Arab-Ameri can Community: A Survey of Diversity and Commonality. In: Arabs in the New World, ed ited by S. Y. Abraham and N. Abraham. Wayne State University Ce nter for Urban Studies. Abraham, S. Y. and N. Abraham. Eds. 1983. Ar abs in the New World. Wayne State University Center for Urban Studies. WorldAtlas.com Inc. Algeria large color map. http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/africa/lgco lor/dzcolor.htm accessed on 5/18/2008 4:00 PM Anderson B., R. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso. Apraku, K. K. 1996. African migrs in the Unite d States: A Missing Link in Africas Social and Economic Development. New York: Praeger. Arthur J. A. 2000. Invisible So journers: African Immigrant Di aspora in the United States. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. Aswad, B. C. 1974. Arabic Speaking Communities in American Cities. New York: The Center for Migration Studies. Bentahila, A. & E. E. Davies. 1992. Convergen ce and Divergence: Two Cases of Berber Language PageHandbook of African La nguages. African Studies Center. Berber Language PageHandbook of Afri can Language Resources (ASC) (MSC) http://www.isp.msu.edu/afrlang/Berber-root.html accessed on 3/13/2008 10:01 AM. Berger, A.-E., ed. 2002. Algeria in Others Languages. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Boumans, L. and D. Caubet. 2000. Modelling in trasentential Codeswitching: A Comparative Study of Algerian/French in Algeria and Mo roccan/Dutch in the Netherlands. In: Arabic as a Minority Language edited by J. O. Berlin, pp. 113-180. New York : Mouton de Gruyter. Casey, E. S. 1996. How to Get from Space to Pl ace in a Fairly Short St retch of Time. In: Senses of Place, edited by S. Feld & K. H. Basso, pp. 13-52. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press. Castles, S. 2000. Ethnicity and Globalization. New York: Sage Publications. Christal, D. 1997. English as a Global La nguage. Cambridge University Press. Cohen, R. 1995. The Cambridge Survey of World Migration. New York: Cambridge University Press. 179

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Connerton, P. 1989. How Societies Remember. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Coulaud, P. 1985. Les enfants de limmigration et les honneurs de la cimaise: Radiographie dune exposition. Centre de Creation Industrielle, Paris. Derderian, R. L. 2004. North Africans in Contem porary France: Becoming Visible. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. Edmondton, B. and J. S. Passel. 1994. Immigrati on and Ethnicity: The Inte gration of Americas Newest Arrival. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute Press. Fase, W., K. Jaspaert, and S. Kroon. 1992. Ma intenance and Loss of Minority Languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamin Publishing Company. Fishman, J. A. 1966. Language Loyalty in the Un ited States: The Maintenance and Perpetuation of Non-English Mother Tongues by American Ethnic and Religious Groups. The Hague: Mouton. Fishman, J. A. 1995. Good Conferences in a Wick ed World: On Some Worrisome Problems in the Study of Language Maintenance and Langu age Shift. In: The State of Minority Languages: International Perspectives on Surv ival and Decline, edited by W. Fase, K. Jaspaert, S. Kroon. Exton, PA : Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers. Gafati, H. 2002. The Monotheism of the Othe r: Language and De/Construction of National Identity in Postcolonial Algeria. In: Alge ria in Others Languages, edited by A. E. Berger, pp. 19-44. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. Giles, H. 1973. Accent Mobility: A Model and So me Data. Anthropological Linguistics 15: 87 105. Giles, H. and N. Coupland. 1991. Language: Cont exts and Consequences. New York: Open University Press. Giles, H., J. Coupland, and N. Coupland. 1991. C ontext of Accommodation: Developments in Applied Sociolinguistics. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. Grim, N. 100 000 entrepreneurs algriens tablis ltranger. El Watan Archive March 19, 2007. Haddad, Y. 1983. Arab Muslims and Islamic Institutions in America: Adaptation and Reform. In: Arabs in the New World, edited by Abraha m, S. Y. and N. Abraham. Detroit: Wayne State University Center for Urban Studies. Hargreaves, A. G. 1995. Immigration Race and Ethnicity in Contemporary France. New York: Routledge. Hunwick, John O. and Eve Troutt Powell. 2001. The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Muslim World. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers. 180

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Hooglund, E. J. 1987. Crossing the Waters. Washingt on, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. Kedadouche, Z. 1996. Zair le Gaulois. Paris: Edition Grasset Fasquelle. Kratochwil, G. 1999. Some Observations on th e First Amazigh World Congress (August 27-30, 1997, Tafira, Canary Islands). Die Welt des Islams, New Service 39: 149-158. Loimeir Roman. 2008. Lecure on Islam in Af rica. University of Florida. USA. Lucassen, L. 2005. The Immigrant Threat: The Integr ation of Old and New Migrants in Western Europe since 1850. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Maillard, D. 2005. The Muslims in France and the French Model of Integration. Mediterranean Quarterly Winter Issue: 63-78. Markham, J. M. 1988. For Pieds Noir, the Anger Endure. The New York Times http://query.nytimes.c om/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DEFDE1539F935A35757C0A96E94 8260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all accessed on 11/14/2007 2:26 PM Massey, D. S., A. Joaquin, H. Graeme, A. Kh ourani, A. Pellegrino, and J. E. Taylor. 1998. Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the E nd of the Millennium. Oxford: Clarendon Press Oxford. Mobasher, M. M. and M. Sadri. 2004. Migra tion Globalization and Ethnic Relations: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Upper Saddle Ri ver, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Myerhoff, B. and J. Ruby. 1982. Introduction. In: A Crack in the Mirror: Reflexive Perspectives in Anthropology, edited by J. Ruby. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Okita, T. 2002. Invisible Work: Bilingualism, Language Choice, and Childrearing in Intermarried Families. Philadelphia: Benjamins Pub. Co. Portes, A. and R. Schauffler. 1996. Langua ge Acquisition and Loss Among Children of Immigrants. In: Origins and Destinies : Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in America, edited by S. Pedraza and R. G. Rumbaut, pp. 432-443. Belmont, CA : Wadsworth. Quandt, W. B. 1998. Between Ballots & Bullets: Algerias Transition fr om Authoritarianism New York: Brookings Institution Press. Rouchdy, A. 2002. Language Contact and Language Conflict in Arabic : Variations on a Sociolinguistic Theme. London: Curzon. Ryang, S. 1997. Native Anthropology and Other Problems. Dialectical Anthropology 22: 23-49. Ryang, S. 2005. Dilemma of a Native: On Locati on, Authenticity, and Reflexivity. Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 6 (2): 143-157. 181

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182 Saadi-Mokrane, D. 2002. The Algerian Linguicide In: Algeria in Others Languages, edited by A. E. Berger, pp. 44-60. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. S'hiri, S. 2002. Speak Arabic Please!: Tunisian Arabic Speakers Linguistic Accommodation to Middle Easterners. In: Aleya Language Contact and Language Conflict in Arabic: Variations on a Sociolinguistic Them e, edited by A. Rouchdy, pp. 149-177. London: Curzon. Silverstein, P.A. 2005. Immigrant Racialization and the New Savage Slot: Race, Migration, and Immigration in the New Europe. Annual Review Anthropology 34: 363-384. Soykok, J. 2006. Algerian President: France Committed Genocide in Algeria. The Journal of Turkish Weekly 11/14/2007 1:42 PM. Stora, B. 1992. Ils Veunait DAlgerie: LImmigr ation Algerienne en Fr ance (1912-1992). Paris : Fayard. Sweet, L. E. 1980. Reconstruction a Lebanese Villa ge Society in a Canadian City. In: Arab Speaking Communities in American Cities, edited by A. Barbara. The Center for Migration Studies of New York, Inc. 3rd edition. Trudgill, P. 1986. Dialects in Contact. New York: Blackwell. Versteegh, K. 1996. Linguistic At titudes and the Origin of Speech in the Arab World. In: Understanding Arabic, edited by A. Algibali. Ca iro: The American University in Cairo Press. Versteegh, K. 1997. The Arabic Language. Ed inburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Wardaugh, R. 1987. Languages in Competition. New York: Basil Blackwell Incorporation. Weinreich, U. 1953. Languages in Contact New York: Linguistic Circle. Zeleza, P. T. 2005. Rewriting the African Diaspo ra: Beyond the Black Atlantic. African Affairs 104/414:35-68.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Khadidja Arfi was born and raised until ear ly adulthood in Algeria. She obtained a teaching degree, a Licence in Biological Science in 1981 from The Univesity of Houari Boumedienne in Algiers, Algeria. She received a second bachelors degree in anthropology from Southern Illinois University at Carbondale in 2006. She was admitted to the anthropology department at the University of Florida in 2006 in the subfield of cultural anthroplogy. She obtained a TA position in 2006 as an independent instructor to teach a course on beginning Arabic (levels one and two) in the African and Asian languages program. She taught in summer 2008 an Arabic culture course at UF. She has be en tutoring and volunteering to teach the Arabic language and the religion of Islam in various co mmunities, where she has lived with her husband and daughter in various cities in the United States for the past two decades. She currently lives with her husband in Archer, Florida. 183


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