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Effects of Moisture and Time on Stiffness of Unbound Aggregate Base Course Materials

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022395/00001

Material Information

Title: Effects of Moisture and Time on Stiffness of Unbound Aggregate Base Course Materials
Physical Description: 1 online resource (199 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Toros, Ulas
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: cementation, modulus, resilient, resonant, stiffness, strength, suction, unbound, unsaturated
Civil and Coastal Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Civil Engineering thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Resilient modulus and Young's modulus are parameters increasingly used to fundamentally characterize the behavior of pavement materials both in the laboratory and in the field. This study documents the small-strain Young's modulus and larger-strain resilient modulus response of unbound aggregate base coarse materials to various environmental conditions. The small-strain Young?s modulus experiments were conducted on laboratory compacted materials and field core materials by the author. The State Materials Office (SMO) conducted the resilient modulus experiments on laboratory compacted materials. The results of both tests are presented in this study. It is shown that the small-strain Young's modulus is not constant, even when held at constant moisture, and that significant changes in modulus will occur with drying and wetting of the material. The response to drying and wetting cycles appears to be repeatable, and suggests that the underlying mechanism that controls the response is reversible. It is also shown that the larger-strain resilient modulus demonstrated similar trends with small-strain Young's modulus, but the rate of change and magnitude of the effect are different between materials. The material response to drying and wetting cycles appears to be reasonably repeatable. Comparisons of both experiments revealed that the change in Young?s modulus with drying is much more dramatic than the resilient modulus, indicating that the drying effect is significantly reduced with higher strain. Lastly, the evidence suggests that these changes can be explained by the science of unsaturated soil mechanics: changes in moisture or moisture distribution results in changes in internal pore pressure, which affect the effective confining pressure constraining the material. The influence of this phenomenon is observed but is not as dramatic at higher strain.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Ulas Toros.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Hiltunen, Dennis R.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022395:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022395/00001

Material Information

Title: Effects of Moisture and Time on Stiffness of Unbound Aggregate Base Course Materials
Physical Description: 1 online resource (199 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Toros, Ulas
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: cementation, modulus, resilient, resonant, stiffness, strength, suction, unbound, unsaturated
Civil and Coastal Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Civil Engineering thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Resilient modulus and Young's modulus are parameters increasingly used to fundamentally characterize the behavior of pavement materials both in the laboratory and in the field. This study documents the small-strain Young's modulus and larger-strain resilient modulus response of unbound aggregate base coarse materials to various environmental conditions. The small-strain Young?s modulus experiments were conducted on laboratory compacted materials and field core materials by the author. The State Materials Office (SMO) conducted the resilient modulus experiments on laboratory compacted materials. The results of both tests are presented in this study. It is shown that the small-strain Young's modulus is not constant, even when held at constant moisture, and that significant changes in modulus will occur with drying and wetting of the material. The response to drying and wetting cycles appears to be repeatable, and suggests that the underlying mechanism that controls the response is reversible. It is also shown that the larger-strain resilient modulus demonstrated similar trends with small-strain Young's modulus, but the rate of change and magnitude of the effect are different between materials. The material response to drying and wetting cycles appears to be reasonably repeatable. Comparisons of both experiments revealed that the change in Young?s modulus with drying is much more dramatic than the resilient modulus, indicating that the drying effect is significantly reduced with higher strain. Lastly, the evidence suggests that these changes can be explained by the science of unsaturated soil mechanics: changes in moisture or moisture distribution results in changes in internal pore pressure, which affect the effective confining pressure constraining the material. The influence of this phenomenon is observed but is not as dramatic at higher strain.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Ulas Toros.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Hiltunen, Dennis R.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022395:00001


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EFFECTS OF MOISTURE AND TIME ON STIFFNESS OF UNBOUND AGGREGATE
BASE COARSE MATERIALS




















By

ULAS TOROS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008



































2008 Ulas Toros




































To my parents









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Sincere appreciation goes to Dr. Dennis R. Hiltunen for giving me the opportunity to work

on this research project with which most of the work was completed under. In addition, I would

like to thank Dr. Dennis R. Hiltunen for being my committee chairman who provided his

guidance, support and encouragement through the course of this study. Extended thanks go to

Dr. Reynaldo Roque, Dr. Mang Tia, and Dr. Guerry H. McClellan for serving as committee

members as well.

Special thanks are extended to the Florida Department of Transportation, the Project Panel

of John Shoucair, David Horhota and FDOT State Materials Office staff members Daniel

Pitocchi, Michael (Mike) Davis, Timothy (Tim) Blanton, and Glenn Johnson for their technical

support and encouragement.

I would like to thank my family who always encouraged me and supported me. I would

also like to thank my friends Serkan Ozdemir, Gaye Ozdemir, Baris Altiok, Basar Simsek, Burak

Berksoy and Onur Gursoy.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S .............................................................................. ......... ................ 4

L IS T O F T A B L E S .............................................................................. .............. 7

L IST O F F IG U R E S ........ ............................................................... ................ ........... 8

A B S T R A C T ............ ................... ............................................................. 19

CHAPTER

1 IN TROD U CTION ....................................... ............... ............... ............ .. 21

1.1 Problem Statem ent ..................................... ................. ............ ............ .. 21
1.2 Hypothesis ..................................................... ......... 23
1.3 O objectives of R research .............. ..................................................................... ...... 23
1.4 Scope of R research ............................................................ .. ............ .. ............ 23

2 LITERATURE REVIEW: Limerock Base Design in Florida...................................... 25

3 M ATERIALS ........................................ .................... 31

3.1 Sources and M ineralogy ................... .................................. ............................................ 3 1
3.2 Materials Collection and Characterization ............................................. .......... 33

4 E X PE R IM E N T S .......................................................................... .............. .. ............ 37

4.1 Free-free R esonant C olum n Testing ....................................................................... ... 37
4.1.1 Introduction .................................... .. .... .. .. ... .................... 37
4.1.2 Constrained Compression Wave Velocity and Constrained Compression
M odulus ................................ .. .... ..... ........................ ................ 38
4.1.3 Unconstrained Compression Wave Velocity and Young's Modulus.................. 38
4.1.4 Free-free Resonant Column Equipment Setup .................................................... 42
4.1.5 Free-free Resonant Column Environmental Conditioning............................. 45
4.1.6 Specim en Preparation .............. .................................................... .............. 48
4.1.7 Core M materials ......................................... 51
4.2 R esilient M odulus (M R) T testing ........................................................................... .... 53
4.2.1 Introduction ...................... ......... .......... .................... 53
4.2.2 Resilient Modulus Environmental Conditioning.............. .... ................ 53
4 .2 .3 S am ple P rep aration .......................................... ... ............... ....... ................ .. 54

5 FREE-FREE RESONANT COLUMN TEST RESULTS................................. ............... 58

5.1 Free-free Resonant Column Test Results of Laboratory Compacted Specimens............ 58
5.1.1 Introduction ............................................ 58









5.1.2 C constant M moisture ............................................... ...... .. .. .......... .. 58
5.1.3 D trying ................................. ................................... 6 1
5.2 Free-free Resonant Column Test Results of Field Cores .............................................. 70
5.2.1 Introduction ....................................... .............................70
5.2.2 Wetting and Drying Cycles of Field Cores ..................................... ................. 71

6 RESILIENT MODULUS (MR) TEST RESULTS ................................... .............. 75

6.1 Resilient Modulus (MR) Testing of Laboratory Compacted Specimens ..................... 75
6.1.1 Introduction ...................... ...................... .................... ......... 75
6.1.2 Resilient M odulus Test Conditions .............. ...... ........................ ........... 75
6.1.2.1 N ew berry and O cala ......... ........ ..................... .................................. 75
6.2 Response of Laboratory Compacted Specimens to Environmental Conditioning .......... 77
6.2.1 O ptim um M moisture ................................................... ................................. 77
6.2.2 Drying .............................................. ................. 79
6.2.2.1 O outdoor A m bient............................ ...... ....................... .. .. .... .......... .... 80
6.3 Comparisons of MR Test Results and FFRC Test Results for Drying Samples .............. 90

7 C L O S U R E .............. .... ........................................................................................................... 9 6

7.1 Summary of Findings ............................................... ............ .. 96
7 .2 C o n clu sio n ....... .. ............. ...................................................................... 9 8
7.3 Recommendation ............ .... ................................. ................ ........ 98

APPENDIX

A GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND MATERIAL PROPERTIES .................................... 99

B NEWBERRY INDIVIDUAL SMALL-STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS .............. 103

C OCALA INDIVIDUAL SMALL-STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS....................... 121

D LOXAHATCHEE INDIVIDUAL SMALL-STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS....... 132

E MIAMI INDIVIDUAL SMALL-STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS...................... 146

F GEORGIA INDIVIDUAL SMALL-STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS................... 160

G CORE MATERIALS INDIVIDUAL SMALL-STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS.. 174

H COMPARISON OF SMALL-STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS......................... 177

I INDIVIDUAL LARGE-STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS................................... 183

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ................. ......... ............................................................................ 196

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........................................ 199









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

3-1 Mineralogy of base course materials (McClellan et al. [2001]). ..................................... 32

3-2 M material parameters of 1st mini-stockpile (replicate) ........ ...................................... .. 36

4-1 The FFRC test results of synthetic specimens. ............. .................................... ........ 45

4-2 Number of compacted samples per material................................... .............. 49

4-3 The FFRC testing, target and measured specimen preparation parameters...................... 50

4-4 The MR testing, target, and measured specimen preparation parameters ..................... 56

A-1 Material parameters of 2nd replicates. ............................. .................... 101

A-2 M material parameters of 3rd replicates.............. ......... .. ......................... ...... ......... 102









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

2-1 Variation of Shear-Wave Velocity with Degree of Saturation for Different Materials.... 30

3-1 Approximate locations of Florida aggregate sources..................................................... 31

3-2 R presentation of soil sam ples........................................................ .......................... 33

3-3 Grain size distribution of materials collected from the 1st mini-stockpiles of each
source. .................................................. ...... ........ 35

4-1 Typical Florida limerock frequency response, and instant time (direct-arrival)
m easu rem ents.............................................................................................. .. 3 9

4-2 Displacement and strain amplitudes of a cylindrical specimen with free boundary
conditions at both ends at the first three longitudinal resonant modes........................... 41

4-3 Free-free resonant column test equipment and setup............................................ 43

4-4 Am bient conditions ................ ...... .............. .. .............. 46

4-5 O ven drying. ..................................................................... 47

4 -6 W ettin g ................... ................... .............................7

4-7 Specim en preparation and equipm ent. ........................................ ......................... 49

4-8 F field cores. ................................................................. ........... ..... 52

4-9 The MR testing equipment and setup with a typical sample. .......................................... 55

5-1 FFRC test results of first replicate exposed to constant moisture............................. 59

5-2 The FFRC test results of first replicate exposed to laboratory ambient. ......................... 62

5-3 Comparisons of the FFRC test results of Newberry exposed to ambient conditions. ...... 64

5-4 The FFRC test results of each material underwent first of several oven drying ............ 67

5-5 The FFRC test results of each material underwent first of several wetting.................... 68

5-6 The FFRC test results for drying and wetting cycles on Loxahatchee shell-rock .......... 69

5-7 The FFRC test results for wetting and drying cycles on field core 1 ............................ 72









5-8 The FFRC test results for the first wetting and drying cycles on field cores and
laboratory compacted Miami limerock, Young's modulus vs. moisture content while
w getting ............................................................... ........................... 73

5-9 The FFRC test results for the first wetting and drying cycles on field cores and
laboratory compacted Miami limerock, Young's modulus vs. moisture content while
drying ..................................... ........................ 74

6-1 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress. ........... ................................... 78

6-2 The resilient modulus test results of replicate 1............... ............................. ............... 81

6-3 The resilient m odulus test results of replicate 2 ............................................................ 82

6-4 The resilient modulus test results of replicate 3............... ............................. ............... 84

6-5 The resilient modulus test results of replicate 1 for wetting and drying........................... 87

6-6 The resilient modulus test results of replicate 2 for wetting and drying........................... 88

6-7 The resilient modulus test results of replicate 3 for wetting and drying........................... 89

6-8 Variations of Young's modulus and resilient modulus with moisture content............... 91

6-9 Variations of normalized Young's modulus and resilient modulus with moisture
c o n te n t ................... ................... ....................................................... .. 9 3

A-1 Grain size distribution of materials collected from the 2nd mini-stockpiles (replicates)
of each source. .......................................... .................... ......... ...... 99

A-2 Grain size distribution of materials collected from the 3rd replicates of each source..... 100

B-l Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, outdoor ambient..... 103

B-2 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, outdoor ambient.......................... 103

B-3 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, outdoor ambient........................ 104

B-4 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, outdoor ambient..... 104

B-5 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, outdoor ambient.......................... 105

B-6 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, outdoor ambient........................ 105

B-7 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, outdoor ambient..... 106

B-8 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, outdoor ambient.......................... 106

B-9 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, outdoor ambient........................ 107









B-10 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory
am bient................................. ... ......... ... .. .......................... ................ 107

B-11 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient...................... 108

B-12 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.................. 108

B-13 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, laboratory
a m b ie n t ..... .... .. ......... ....... ......... .. ............................................................... .............. 1 0 9

B-14 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient ................. 109

B-15 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient ................... 110

B-16 Variation of Young's with moisture content, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. .............. 110

B-17 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient ................. 111

B-18 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient ................... 111

B-19 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, constant moisture... 112

B-20 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moisture..................... 112

B-21 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. ................... 113

B-22 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant moisture... 113

B-23 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture..................... 114

B-24 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. ................... 114

B-25 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, constant moisture... 115

B-26 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, constant moisture..................... 115

B-27 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. ................... 116

B-28 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 116

B-29 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying ..................... 117

B-30 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ................... 117

B-31 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 118

B-32 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ................... 118









B-33 Variation Moisture Content with Time, replicate 2, wetting and drying...................... 119

B-34 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 119

B-35 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying .................... 120

B-36 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ................... 120

C-1 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory
am b ient........... ............... ................ .... ........................................................ 12 1

C-2 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient..................... 121

C-3 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.................. 122

C-4 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, constant moisture... 122

C-5 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moisture..................... 123

C-6 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. ................... 123

C-7 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant moisture... 124

C-8 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture..................... 124

C-9 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. ................... 125

C-10 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, constant moisture... 125

C-11 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, constant moisture..................... 126

C-12 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. ................... 126

C-13 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 127

C-14 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying ..................... 127

C-15 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ................... 128

C-16 Variation of Young's with Moisture Content, replicate 2, wetting and drying ............. 128

C-17 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying ................... 129

C-18 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ................... 129

C-19 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, wetting and
drying .................................. ........................ ....... .......... ..... 130









C-20 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying .................... 130

C-21 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ................... 131

D-1 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory
am b ien t ................... ................... ..................................................... .. 13 2

D-2 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient...................... 132

D-3 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.................. 133

D-4 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, laboratory
am bient ......... .................. .................................... ........................... 133

D-5 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient...................... 134

D-6 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient.................. 134

D-7 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, laboratory
am bient .......... ............. ....................................... ........................... 135

D-8 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient...................... 135

D-9 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient.................. 136

D-10 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, constant moisture... 136

D-11 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moisture........................ 137

D-12 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. .................... 137

D-13 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant moisture... 138

D-14 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture ................... 138

D-15 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. ................... 139

D-16 Variation of Young's with moisture content, replicate 3, constant moisture. .............. 139

D-17 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, constant moisture........................ 140

D-18 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture ..................... 140

D-19 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 14 1

D-20 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying ..................... 141

D-21 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ................... 142









D-22 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 142

D-23 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying .................... 143

D-24 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ................... 143

D-25 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture, content, replicate 3, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 144

D-26 Variation of moisture content with time replicate 3, wetting and drying .................... 144

D-27 Variation of Young's modulus with time replicate 3, wetting and drying. ................... 145

E-1 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory
am bient ......................... ....................................................................... .. 146

E-2 Variation of Moisture content with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.................... 146

E-3 Variation of Young's Modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient .................. 147

E-4 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, laboratory
am bient. ..................................................................................................... ......... 147

E-5 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient .................... 148

E-6 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient ................ 148

E-7 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, laboratory
am bient. ..................................................................................................... ......... 149

E-8 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient .................... 149

E-9 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient ................ 150

E-10 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, constant moisture... 150

E-11 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moisture....................... 151

E-12 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. ................... 151

E-13 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant moisture... 152

E-14 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture ................. 152

E-15 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. ................... 153

E-16 Variation of Young's with moisture content, replicate 3, constant moisture. ................ 153









E-17 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, constant moisture ................. 154

E-18 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. ................... 154

E-19 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 155

E-20 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying ..................... 155

E-21 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ................... 156

E-22 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 156

E-23 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying ................... 157

E-24 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ................ 157

E-25 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 158

E-26 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying ................... 158

E-27 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ................ 159

F-l Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory
a m b ie n t............ ............................. .. ............................................................................ 1 6 0

F-2 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient...................... 160

F-3 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient .................. 161

F-4 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, laboratory
am b ient ........................................................................ .......... ..... 16 1

F-5 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient ................ 162

F-6 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient ................ 162

F-7 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, laboratory
am b ient ........................................................................ .......... ..... 16 3

F-8 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient...................... 163

F-9 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient ................ 164

F-10 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, constant moisture... 164

F-11 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moisture..................... 165









F-12 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. ................... 165

F-13 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant moisture... 166

F-14 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture....................... 166

F-15 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. ................... 167

F-16 Variation of Young's with Moisture Content, replicate 3, constant moisture .............. 167

F-17 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, constant moisture ................. 168

F-18 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. ................... 168

F-19 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 169

F-20 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying .................... 169

F-21 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ................... 170

F-22 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 170

F-23 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying ................... 171

F-24 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ................... 171

F-25 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 172

F-26 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying ................... 172

F-27 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ................... 173

G-1 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, field core 1, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 174

G-2 Variation of moisture content with time, field core 1, wetting and drying..................... 174

G-3 Variation of Young's modulus with time, field core 1, wetting and drying .................. 175

G-4 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, field core 2, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 175

G-5 Variation of moisture content with time, field core 2, wetting and drying..................... 176

G-6 Variation of Young's modulus with time, field core 2, wetting and drying .................. 176









H-1 Variation of rate of change in small-strain modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory
am b ient ......... ...... .......... ................ .......... .................... .......... ..... 17 7

H-2 Variation of rate of change in small-strain modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory
am b ient ......... ...... .......... ................ .......... .................... .......... ..... 17 7

H-3 Variation of rate of change in small-strain modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory
am b ient ......... ...... .......... ................ .......... .................... .......... ..... 17 8

H-4 Variation of rate of change in small-strain modulus with time, replicate 1, constant
m moisture ............. ..... ........ .................................................. .. ......... 178

H-5 Variation of rate of change in small-strain modulus with time, replicate 2, constant
m moisture ............. ..... ........ .................................................. .. ......... 179

H-6 Variation of rate of change in small-strain modulus with time, replicate 3, constant
m moisture ............. ..... ........ .................................................. .. ......... 179

H-7 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient ................ 180

H-8 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient., laboratory
am b ien t ............. ......... .. .. ......... .. .. .................................................. 18 0

H-9 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient .................. 181

H-10 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. .................... 181

H-11 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. .................... 182

H-12 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. .................... 182

I-1 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 1, outdoor
am bient ....................... ......... .......... ........ .................. .......... ..... 183

1-2 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 2, outdoor
am bient ....................... ......... .......... ........ .................. .......... ..... 183

I-3 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 3, outdoor
am bient ....................... ......... .......... ........ .................. .......... ..... 184

1-4 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 1, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 184

I-5 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 2, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 185

1-6 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 3, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 185









1-7 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 1, outdoor ambient.... 186

1-8 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 2, outdoor ambient.... 186

I-9 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 3, outdoor ambient.... 187

I-10 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 1, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 187

I-11 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 2, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 188

I-12 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 3, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 188

1-13 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 1, outdoor
am b ien t ............. ......... .. .. ......... .. .. ..................................................... 18 9

I-14 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 2, outdoor
am b ien t ............. ......... .. .. ......... .. .. ..................................................... 18 9

1-15 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 3, outdoor
am b ien t ............. ......... .. .. ......... .. .. ..................................................... 19 0

I-16 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 1, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 190

1-17 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 2, wetting and
drying .................................. ........................ ....... .......... ..... 19 1

I-18 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 3, wetting and
drying .................................. ........................ ....... .......... ..... 19 1

1-19 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 1, outdoor ambient... 192

1-20 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 2, outdoor ambient... 192

1-21 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 3, outdoor ambient... 193

1-22 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 1, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 193

1-23 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 2, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 194

1-24 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 3, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 194









1-25 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Georgia, replicate 1, outdoor
am bient.................... ......... ........... ............................................. 195

1-26 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Georgia, replicate 1, wetting and
drying ..... ........................... ........................ ....... .......... ..... 195









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

EFFECTS OF MOISTURE AND TIME ON STIFFNESS OF UNBOUND AGGREGATE
BASE COARSE MATERIALS

By

ULAS TOROS

August 2008

Chair: Dennis R. Hiltunen
Major: Civil Engineering

Resilient modulus and Young's modulus are parameters increasingly used to

fundamentally characterize the behavior of pavement materials both in the laboratory and in the

field. This study documents the small-strain Young's modulus and larger-strain resilient modulus

response of unbound aggregate base coarse materials to various environmental conditions.

The small-strain Young's modulus experiments were conducted on laboratory compacted

materials and field core materials by the author. The State Material Office conducted the resilient

modulus experiments on laboratory compacted materials. The results of both tests are presented

in this study.

It is shown that the small-strain Young's modulus is not constant, even when held at

constant moisture, and that significant changes in modulus will occur with drying and wetting of

the material. The response to drying and wetting cycles appears to be repeatable, and suggests

that the underlying mechanism that controls the response is reversible. It is also shown that the

larger-strain resilient modulus demonstrated similar trends with small-strain Young's modulus,

but the rate of change and magnitude of the effect are different between materials. The material

response to drying and wetting cycles appears to be reasonably repeatable.









Comparisons of both experiments revealed that the change in Young's modulus with

drying is much more dramatic than the resilient modulus, indicating that the drying effect is

significantly reduced with higher strain.

Lastly, the evidence suggests that these changes can be explained by the science of

unsaturated soil mechanics: changes in moisture or moisture distribution results in changes in

internal pore pressure, which affect the effective confining pressure constraining the material.

The influence of this phenomenon is observed but is not as dramatic at higher strain.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Problem Statement

Roadway field studies in Florida have documented beneficial improvements with time, in

stiffness and strength properties of Florida limerock base materials (Zimpfer [1988], Gartland

and Eades [1979], Smith and Lofroos [1981], McClellan et al. [2000]).

Investigation of strength, time, and environmental condition relationships were initiated

following the 1962 Interim Design Guide based on the American Association of State Highway

Officials (AASHO)* Road Test. This interim guide required from each state Department of

Transportation (DOT) agency to establish layer coefficients applicable to its own practices and

based on its own experience due to the widely varying environment, traffic, and construction

practices.

In the late 1960's, the Office of Materials and Research (OMR)** began a field evaluation

program of existing pavements, which includes trenching, laboratory tests, and field tests to rate

and determine the strength and performance of Florida limestone base materials. From 1968 to

1971, test pit studies were conducted on various base materials to characterize their resistance to

repeated loads at optimum moisture, soaked moisture and drained conditions. In the mid 1970's,

a minimum Limerock Bearing Ratio (LBR) strength requirement was added to the limerock base

specification. In the early 1980's, Dynaflect and field plate load test were used in pavement

evaluation to determine soil support and modulus of base and subgrade materials.

In several of these studies, it has been documented that the mechanical properties of

limerock base change with time. Strength gain investigation of base materials of Florida,



*AASHO was changed to American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) on November 13, 1973
**Former name of state materials office









conducted by Zimpfer, from 1977 to 1978 on high carbonate limerock, from 1978 to 1979 on

low carbonate limerock and from 1979 to 1980 on low carbonate shell-rock were based on LBR

tests, test-pit plate tests, and laboratory unconfined compression tests. In all cases investigated

the plate test modulus and the unconfined compression strength, increased with both aging and

drying. It was suggested that one or some of the following factors caused these changes: internal

friction (for low carbonate limerock), reduction in field moisture, reconsolidation of the

carbonate base, and cementation.

With regard to layer coefficients used in design, Zimpfer et al. (1973), compared Florida

limestone and AASHO crushed limestone (i.e., layer coefficient (a2) = 0.14 and LBR = 140) and

established a layer coefficient of 0.15 for limerock materials and a minimum LBR strength

requirement of 100 to be used in the state of Florida based on these comparisons.

Smith and Lofroos (1981) recommended an increase of layer coefficient from 0.15 to 0.18

based on studies of strength and stiffness gains in limerock base materials over a period of five,

six, and nine years. A layer coefficient of 0.18 for limerock base is current Florida Department of

Transportation (FDOT) design practice.

The current pavement design process is transitioning from layer coefficient to resilient

modulus based procedures. While previous studies have documented changes in limerock bases

with time, the effect on resilient modulus has not been documented and thus, the influence of

these beneficial improvements on pavement performance cannot be quantified. Further, the

mechanisms for the changes have not been clearly established, and this prevents the introduction

of the expected stiffness and strength gains into feature design procedures. Therefore, there is a

need to more fully understand and verify the mechanisms, and quantify their influence on

material properties and pavement performance.









1.2 Hypothesis

It is believed that the time-dependent and moisture-dependent changes in mechanical

properties of Florida limerock base course materials, compacted at typical field moisture

contents, are due to the suction effects described by the science of unsaturated soil mechanics. A

redistribution of moisture or a reduction in amount of moisture will increase the level of suction,

which effectively increases the confining stress on the particulate material. It has been firmly

established that an increase in confinement level produces an increase in mechanical properties

such as stiffness and strength. This is a reversible process; an increase in moisture will lower the

suction, and remove the increase in effective confinement, which leads to a reduction in

previously obtained mechanical properties.

1.3 Objectives of Research

There are three goals in this study. The first goal is to use a relatively new small-strain

testing method (free-free resonant column) to study the mechanical properties of Florida

limerock base course materials. The second goal is to observe and document the stiffness gains

in Florida base materials with time and under varying environmental conditions. The third goal is

to identify a potential mechanism causing observed stiffness gains with time and under varying

environmental conditions. It is expected that the suction mechanism mentioned above can

explain the changes in material response to time and environmental condition.

1.4 Scope of Research

Five aggregate sources that are used as base materials in Florida were selected to study the

variation of stiffness with time and moisture associations of Florida base materials. Obviously

more than five sources are utilized by the profession. However, due to project life cycle time

restraints, the most commonly used base materials with high, moderate, low, and no carbonate

contents were selected. The base materials include a granite-based graded aggregate from









Georgia, a limestone based shell-rock from Loxahatchee, FL. Limerock from mine in Newberry,

Ocala, and Miami were chosen to represent northern, central, and southern limerock sources of

Florida, respectively. The standard FDOT procedures were followed to develop material models.

There are various means to measure the stiffness behavior of Florida base materials with

time and moisture, such as Resilient Modulus (MR) test, Unconfined Compression (qu) test, etc.

In this study, free-free resonant column (FFRC) and MR testing were used to determine the

stiffness behavior with time and various moisture levels of each material under different

environmental conditions.

The FFRC test measures small-strain elastic modulus. The benefit of measuring small-

strain modulus is to observe calcification cementationn), if exist, in the base course material. The

MR and qu tests are high-strain modulus based tests that would break the existing calcification

cementationn) bonds with in the material particles due to loading, which would prevent the

observation of calcification cementationn) phenomenon. The major reasons to decide using the

FFRC test are: 1) it is a non-destructive test method that provides the option to test the same

compacted material sample as many times as deemed necessary; 2) it is a quick way of testing.

The materials are exposed to one of four uniform types of environmental conditions. These

environment conditions are; laboratory ambient, outdoors, constant moisture, drying and wetting

cycles.

The State Materials Office (SMO) carried out the MR testing on exact same materials. The

specimens that were used for MR testing will be subjected to the same environmental

conditioning. The MR test, as mentioned above, is high-strain modulus based test. The main

reason to use MR test is to observe the material response to the higher strains thought to be more

indicative to field loading conditions.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW: LIMEROCK BASE DESIGN IN FLORIDA

According to the FDOT Materials Manual records, indicate that from the 1950's to the

early 1960's, the Department used a pavement design procedure with no direct consideration

given to the strength of the base course materials. However, base course material characteristics

were included following implementation of the AASHO Interim Design Guide of 1962.

Due to varying environmental conditions, traffic loads, and construction practices, the

1962 Guide required every state DOT agencies to institute layer coefficients that are appropriate

to local practices and experiences. To implement the 1962 Guide, FDOT initiated the

construction of experimental projects. The main principal of this program was to evaluate the

design criteria, and to institute layer coefficients for Florida materials and eventually implement

the layer coefficients into the design criteria. The experimental projects were built on US 90 in

Marianna, Florida, on US 19 in Levy County between Suwannee River and Chiefland, and on

US 90 in Okaloosa County near Crestview, Florida, respectively. Base materials, subgrade

materials, and the thickness of the pavement layers were studied in these regions of the State to

evaluate the environmental variables. In addition to the above, two more experimental projects

were built at Lake Wales and West Palm Beach mainly to determine base material equivalencies

from which data were collected to verify structural layer coefficients for base material

(McClellan et al. [2001]).

In mid 1970's, Limerock Bearing Ratio, LBR in short, strength limitations was

supplemented to the base materials specifications. The Florida LBR values were related to the

soil support values that are required for pavement design assessment. After intensive research

and modifications, the limerock base coefficients were set to 0.18 where LBR value is at least

100, based on Smith and Lofroos (1981).









Limerock has been specified as the "standard" base material used in Florida. In addition to

limerock base materials, shell materials and cemented coquina shell materials were also

considered as base materials to be used in Florida in the late 1960's, and shell-rock in the late

1980's. The basic specifications of these base materials required LBR value of at least 100 along

with other requirements.

Intensive studies conducted from early 1960's to late 1980's on observed strength gains in

Florida base materials. Laboratory, FDOT test pit, and field studies were conducted on high and

low carbonate limerock, bank and pit run shell, and cemented coquina shell base materials. The

base materials were tested under various environmental conditions.

First, Gartland and Eades (1979) treated two Florida limestones in the laboratory to

investigate the possible formation of carbonate cements. Samples were compacted in standard

Florida LBR molds and subjected to one of the following methods of treatment: 1) saturated with

CO2 enriched water; 2) soil was mixed with 1% NaC1, by dry weight of the sample, prior to

compaction; 3) samples were saturated with plain distilled water.

These treatments were conducted to simulate natural cementation processes, as previous

cementation experiments described in the literature produced only minor cementation. The

samples were cured either by cycles of wetting and drying or through a period of continual soak.

The LBR test was used to evaluate strength of the compacted material after treatment and

curing. Comparison of strength values indicated that all methods of treatment and curing resulted

in increased sample strength. Those samples cured by continual soaking showed the largest and

most consistent strength gains.

Surface area analysis was used to measure changes in particle size and pore volume

resulting from the formation of carbonate cement. When samples subjected to similar treatment









and curing methods were compared, there was a trend of decreasing surface area with increasing

sample strength.

Visual analysis of the carbonate cements was performed on the scanning electron

microscope (SEM). Grain contact cementing was evident at all particle sizes. Most treatment and

curing methods showed evidence of precipitated sparry calcite crystals. The void-filling sparry

calcite was most abundant in those samples cured by continual soak.

Second, Keyser et al. (1984) summarize experiments conducted by the FDOT on test

pavement sections. Results of rigid plate tests indicated significant increases after about 5 years

of service. Field data also indicated that drying of the materials occurred over this same time, and

the authors indicate that the moisture content reduction contributed significantly to the increase

in strength. The authors also suggest that other factors such as reconsolidation of the carbonate

base and cementation would also contribute to the increased strength after aging.

Third, Keyser et al. (1984) also summarize experiments of strength gain under controlled

environmental conditions. These investigations included laboratory unconfined compression

tests and plate tests on test pit sections. LBR tests were also performed. The laboratory

specimens and test pit sections were constructed at optimum moisture content and subjected to

various forms of aging, including constant moisture, slow drying, cycles of heating and cooling,

and oven-drying following aging. Unconfined compression strength and plate load modulus were

both observed to increase with increased aging and drying, and even showed slight increases

with aging while at constant moisture. The authors indicate that the largest changes during aging

resulted when a loss of moisture occurred during and after aging.









Thus, it is evident that previous experimental studies have documented increases in both

stiffness and strength of limerock base materials as a result of changes in time and environmental

conditioning.

Gartland and Eades (1979) clearly documented that a possible mechanism for these

increases is calcite-based cementation. However, it must be noted that cementation was observed

for fully saturated specimens. Further, the cementation was observed only after laboratory

techniques were specifically designed to induce cementation. They note that several previous

cementation experiments documented in the literature were hindered by lack of precipitation of

significant amounts of cement in reasonable periods of time. It should also be noted that

McClellan et al. (2000) were not successful in creating cementation in laboratory specimens

compacted and cured at optimum moisture content. Here, the significant increases in LBR values

due to cementation observed by Gartland and Eades (1979) were not observed, despite

significant efforts at mimicking the conditions necessary for cementation. The difference seems

to be that the specimens were not cured while in a saturated state.

On the other hand, Keyser et al. (1984) documented both stiffness and strength increases of

materials prepared at field moisture contents, and in less than a saturated condition. The authors

note that these increases were typically observed in conjunction with drying or loss of moisture

from the material.

The literature provides substantial evidence that so-called capillarity or suction effects

significantly explain these observations. It has been well documented in the science of

unsaturated soil mechanics (Lu and Likos [2005]) that increases in suction or negative pore

pressure will occur as water is removed from the material, and Singh et al. (2006) document that

high suction stresses are possible in aggregate base course materials. As documented by Wu,









Gray and Richart (1984), Qian et al. (1991), and Qian et al. (1993) for sand and silt soils, this

increased suction stress will effectively increase confinement and hence modulus.

It has long been established that the modulus of a particulate material is directly

proportional to level of confining pressure (Richart, Hall, and Woods [1970]). Among the first

studies for soil, Hardin and Richart (1963) reported results of resonant column tests on sands that

indicated shear modulus to be a function of isotropic confining pressure raised to power of 0.5.

Many subsequent studies have affirmed these basic findings including Fernandez (2000) and

Menq (2003), both of which contain extensive discussion of the literature on this subject. Menq

(2003) also demonstrates these fundamentals apply to larger particle sizes, e.g., gravels.

Cho and Santamarina (2001) conducted detailed particle level studies on the behavior of

unsaturated particulate materials include: glass beads, a mixture of kaolinite and glass beads to

increase the surface area, granite powder, and natural sand. Among their significant conclusions

include:

The contribution of capillarity to interparticle forces involves not only matric suction
(i.e., negative pore-water pressure), but the surface tension force along the edge of
menisci, as well.

The "equivalent effective stress" due to capillary forces increases with decreasing water
content, decreasing particle size, and increasing coordination. Specific surface is a
meaningful parameter in the characterization of unsaturated soils.

There are other factors in real soils that increase stiffness and strength at low saturation.
As water dries, fines migrate to contacts, and form buttresses between larger particles.
These buttresses increase the stiffness of the granular skeleton formed by the courser
grains. At the same time, the ionic concentration in the pendular water increases and
eventually reaches saturation causing the precipitation of salt crystals between the two
contacting particles. Salt precipitation also increases the stiffness of the particulate
skeleton. However, when specimen is re-saturated by flooding, the shear wave velocity
drops to its initial value.

Shear waves permit studying the evolution of effective interparticle forces. This is
particularly valuable in the pendular regime where direct measurement of the negative
pore-water pressure is not feasible. Figure 2-1 shows the results of small-strain stiffness
studies of slowly drying freshly remolded unsaturated soils. It should be noted from the











Figure 2-1 C that when the specimen is re-saturated by soaking, the shear wave velocity
drops to its initial values (square points). This result suggests that the light cementation
that develops during drying disappears upon wetting. It should also be noted that
significant stiffness changes occur with drying, even for mixture of uniform glass beads
and water (Figure 2-1 A).

The strain at menisci failure decreases with the decrease in water content. Unless the
water content is extremely small, menisci will fail at strains greater than the threshold
strain of the soil; therefore, partial saturation is a stabilizing force for the soil skeleton.
On the other hand, small menisci may fail before the strain at peak strength of soils
(depending on the degree of saturation). Thus, capillary forces at low water contents
cause an increase in the small-strain stiffness of soils, but may not contribute to the peak
strength.


1000
I

800-

o 6o0

2-
S400

S200-


0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Degree of saturation, S (-)

500

S400

" 300

200
a
S100 Drying
a Wetting
0 1 I'
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Degree of saturation, S (-)


0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Degree of saturation, S (-)


S200


S150
tso


S 100
.


0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Degree of saturation, S (-)


Figure 2-1. Variation of Shear-Wave Velocity with Degree of Saturation for Different Materials.
A) Clean Glass Beads (De-ionized Water). B) Mixture of Kaolinite and Glass Beads.
C) Granite Powder. D) Sandboil Sand (Cho and Santamarina [2001]).


180

160

140

120

S10oo

80


**. A
%0
'* A


'C




T= 500C T=210C


S*.. **..
** <


IC









CHAPTER 3
MATERIALS

3.1 Sources and Mineralogy

For this study, base course aggregates from five (5) aggregate sources (mines) were

selected from those commonly used in Florida to study the effects of moisture and time on

stiffness properties. Mines from Newbery (Mine # 26-002), Ocala (Mine # 36-246), and Miami

(Mine # 89-090) were chosen to represent limerock from northern, central, and southern Florida,

respectively. In addition, a limestone-based shell rock from Loxahatchee (Mine # 93-406), FL,

and a granite-based graded aggregate from Georgia (Mine # GA 178) were included in the study.

Approximate source locations are depicted in Figure 3-1.


0


* Newberry Mine # 26-002
A Ocala Mine # 36-246
* Loxahatchee Mine # 93-406
* Miami Mine # 89-090


Wdes
0 40 80 160 240 320

Figure 3-1. Approximate locations of Florida aggregate sources (FDOT homepage, SMO,
geotechnical materials system, aggregate acceptance source maps)









The Florida base course materials referred to in this study as Ocala, Loxahatchee, Miami,

and Newbery, are the from Ocala formation, Anastasia formation Coquina, Miami Oolite (Ft.

Thompson formation), and Ocala formation, respectively. The appropriate mineralogy of these

materials is depicted in Table 3-1.

Table 3-1. Mineralogy of base course materials (McClellan et al. [2001]).
Calcite Quartz Aragonite
Material Mine No Material Type Formation (%) Calcite Quz Ago

Ocala 36-246 Limerock Ocala 100 --- ---
Loxahatchee 93-406 Shell-Rock Shelly 38.5 37.4 24.6
Sediments
Miami 87-090 Limerock Ft. Thompson 76 18.5 ---
Newberry 26-002 Limerock Ocala 100 --- ---

According to Florida Department of Environmental Protection:

The Ocala Limestone consists of white to cream, Upper Eocene marine limestones, and

occasional dolostones. Generally, the Ocala limestone is soft and porous, but in places, it is hard

and dense because of cementation of the particles by crystalline calcite. The deposit is

remarkable in that it is composed of almost pure calcium carbonate: shells of sea creatures and

very tiny chalky particles. Ocala Limestone underlies almost all of Florida, but it is found at the

surface of the land only in a small portion of the state. Fossils present in the Ocala Limestone

include abundant large and smaller foraminifers, echinoids, bryozoans, mollusks, and rare

vertebrates (Florida Department of Environmental Protection Homepage, Florida Geological

Survey, Geology Topics; Ocala Limestone). The picture depicted in Figure 3-2 A is a

representation of the Ocala Limestone.

The Miami Limestone (formerly the Miami Oolite) is a Pleistocene marine limestone. It

occurs at or near the surface in southeastern peninsular Florida from Palm Beach County to Dade

and Monroe Counties and in the keys from Big Pine Key to the Marquesas Keys. The Miami

limestone consists of two facies: an oolitic facies and a bryozoan facies. The oolitic facies









consists of white to orangish gray, oolitic limestone with scattered concentrations of fossils.

Ooliths are small rounded grains so named because they look like fish eggs. Ooliths are formed

by the deposition of layers of calcite around tiny particles, such as sand grains or shell fragments.

The bryozoan facies consists of white to orangish gray, sandy, fossiliferous limestone. Beds of

quartz sand and limey sandstones may also be present. Fossils present include mollusks,

bryozoans, and corals. An excellent exposure is observable at Alice Wainright Park, in Coral

Gables, Dade County (Florida Department of Environmental Protection Homepage, Florida

Geological Survey, Geology Topics; Miami Limestone). The picture depicted in Figure 3-2 B is

a representation of the Miami Limestone.

The Loxahatchee shell-rock is Shelly sediments of Plio-Pleistocene age from the

Tertiary/Quaternary period.


A B















Figure 3-2. Representation of soil samples. A) The Ocala limestone. B) The Miami limestone.
(Florida department of environmental protection homepage, Florida geological
survey; geology topics)

3.2 Materials Collection and Characterization

To initiate the laboratory study, samples of the materials selected were provided by the

FDOT-SMO. The SMO determined and provided typical index parameters, including proctor









density, grain size analysis via sieve and hydrometer, specific gravity, and Atterberg limits.

Sampling of aggregates was done following the Florida Methods 1 (FM 1) T-002 that is similar

to AASHTO T2. The samples were collected from aggregate stockpiles utilizing a rubber

wheeled front-end loader. A sampling location on the stockpile was chosen to represent the area

being sampled so that the composite sample is representative of overall stockpile. The loader

removed material from the bottom of the pile perpendicular to the direction of the stockpile that

was created by dumping. Materials are removed from the face of the stockpile in order to obtain

a representative sample. Three buckets of material were scooped from the middle, left and right

of the stockpile, respectively. The material was scooped with the front-end loader bucket from

approximately 1 12 foot above the ground and the material was scooped with a bucket parallel

with the face of the stockpile. The bucket full of material was gently lowered from 3 to 4 feet to

produce the mini sample pile. Three mini sample-piles were created and laid side by side. The

upper 1/2 to 1/3 of the mini stockpiles was back bladed with the bucket's edge to expose the

center mass to be sampled. With a square-tipped shovel, the material from the center of the mini

stockpiles was scooped and filled into bags.

Following transport to the laboratory, the collected bags of samples were placed into a

thermostatically controlled drying oven at a temperature of 110F until the samples were friable.

The air-dried materials were removed from the oven and put on benches in laboratory to cool

down, followed by laboratory determination of index parameters.

Sieve analysis of fine and course aggregates was performed following the procedures in

AASHTO T27. Gradation of materials finer than 2 mm (No. 10) sieve was performed via

hydrometer test following the procedures in AASHTO T88. The grain size distribution graph of

material collected from the 1st mini-stockpile of each source is depicted in Figure 3-3. Refer to










Appendix A for the grain size distribution graphs of materials collected from the 2nd and 3rd

mini-stockpiles of each source.

100 -

90

80

70

s60

S50

I. 40

30

20

10 _


0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Grain Diameter (mm)
-*-NEWBERRY -xOCALA MIAMI LOXAHATCHEE GEORGIA


Figure 3-3. Grain size distribution of materials collected from the 1st mini-stockpiles of each
source.

Determination of specific gravity of fine aggregates and course aggregate were performed

following the FM 1 T-084 and T-085, which is similar to AASHTO T084 and T085 procedures,

respectively.

Determination of the plastic limit and plasticity index of the soils was performed following

the AASHTO T90, and the liquid limit of the soils was determined following the AASHTO T89.

Table 3-2 summarizes results for several of the index parameters for material collected

from the 1st mini-stockpile of each source. Refer to Appendix A for the summarized materials

parameters collected from the 2nd and 3rd mini-stockpiles of each source.









Table 3-2. Material parameters of 1st mini-stockpile (replicate)
Material
Parameter Georgia Loxahatchee Miami Newberry Ocala
Granite Shell Rock Limerock Limerock Limerock
Unified
Uifed GW-GM GP-GM GW-GM GM GM
Classification
D5o (mm)
Mean Grain 3.90 2.70 5.10 4.80 4.80
Size
Dio (mm)
Effective 0.045 0.088 0.088 0.05 0.05
Grain Size
Cu-The
Uniformity 144.4 73.9 93.2 192 176
Coefficient
Cz-The
Coefficient of 2.30 0.08 2.34 0.48 0.29
Curvature
Specific
Specific 2.700 2.709 2.707 2.720 2.720
Gravity
Void Ratio at
0.186 0.400 0.282 0.457 0.397
Optimum
Plastic Limit NP NP NP NP NP
Plasticity NP NP NP NP NP
Index
Liquid Limit NP NP NP NP NP









CHAPTER 4
EXPERIMENTS

4.1 Free-free Resonant Column Testing

4.1.1 Introduction

Poisson's ratio, thickness, and modulus of pavement materials in layered systems are

fundamental parameters affecting pavement performance; hence, these parameters are utilized to

characterize the behavior of the pavement materials. These fundamental parameters are essential

for a mechanistic-based design procedure and for realistic performance-based specifications,

therefore these fundamental parameters should be measured accurately, and the effect of

environmental conditions on the parameters should be quantified (Nazarian et al. [2002]).

In this research, the FFRC testing method (Kalinski and Thummaluru [2005]; Kim,

Kweon, and Lee [1997]; Kim and Stokoe [1992]; Menq [2003]; Nazarian, Yuan, and Aellano

[2002]) was used to determine the stiffness properties of Florida limerock base materials with

time and under various environmental conditions. This test measures the small strain elastic

modulus of the material, and the test can be conducted very quickly on specimens of material

commonly compacted in a laboratory. Further, the FFRC test is nondestructive, and thus can be

conducted many times on the same specimen after various types of conditioning, e.g., aging,

drying, and wetting.

Two different types of stress wave measurements can be conducted on a solid rod with

FFRC testing: resonance measurements and direct-arrival measurement. Since the dimensions of

the specimen are known, if the resonant frequencies can be determined, the unconstrained

modulus of the specimen can readily be determined using principles of wave propagation in a

solid rod (Richart et al. [1970]). Figure 4-1 A shows a typical frequency response spectrum of

the FFRC test on a cylindrical specimen of Florida limerock. In addition, if the direct-arrivals









can be measured, the constrained modulus can be determined. Figure 4-1 B shows a typical

instant time (direct-arrival) measurement of the FFRC test on a cylindrical specimen of Florida

limerock.

4.1.2 Constrained Compression Wave Velocity and Constrained Compression Modulus

Once the cylindrical specimen is excited along the center axis, the travel time of the

constrained compression wave is determined via the direct-arrival measurement. The constrained

compression wave velocity,v,, is calculated as


S= 4-1
P At

where: t = the length of the specimen,

At = the measured travel time of constrained compression wave (see Figure 4-1 B).

With known constrained compression wave velocity,v and the unit mass of the specimen, p,

the small-strain constrained modulus, M, can be calculated as


M=pv2 = 2 4-2


4.1.3 Unconstrained Compression Wave Velocity and Young's Modulus

There are three primary types of resonant vibrations that can occur in a solid cylindrical

rod: longitudinal, torsional, and flexural. Resonant measurements using longitudinal waves

represent a good way of measuring dynamic properties of soils and this type of resonant

measurement was used in this study. If an impulse load is applied to one end of a cylindrical

specimen, seismic energy over a large range of frequencies will propagate within the specimen.

The seismic energy depends on the dimensions and the stiffness of the soil is associated with one

or more frequencies. These ensnared frequencies resonate and propagate within the soil

specimen.

























0 450 900 1350 1800 2250 2700
Frequency, Hz


3150 3600 4050 4500


0.8
0.6
0.4

-0.2
-0.2 __________-_______
-0.4
0.25 -- At 4
0.2_
0.15
0.1 Accelerometer I
0.05
0 ,5\
-0.05
-0.1 /
-0.15-
-0.2
-0.25
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5


Time, msec


Figure 4-1. Typical Florida limerock frequency response, and instant time (direct-arrival)
measurements.


Resonant frequency at
First mode





^=^^^^^









The equation of motion of longitudinal waves can be expressed with the following partial-

differential equation

a2u 2 a2u
=vc 4-3
at2 c 2

where: u = displacement of the element in along the axis direction,

vc = unconstrained compression wave velocity,

x = coordinate,

t = time.

For various boundary conditions other solutions to the wave equations can be written as a

trigonometric series, which describes the shape of a solid rod vibrating in a natural mode

(Richart et al. [1970])

u = U(Ci cos wt + 2 sin cowt) 4-4

Where, U = the displacement amplitude along the axis direction

1, 2 = constants

Substituting Eq. 4.4 into Eq. 4.3 and evaluating the new equation gives


U = 3 cosX + 4 sin wx 4-5
Vc Vc

In the FFRC test, the cylindrical specimen is suspended in the air using flexible straps and

the boundary conditions are free at both ends as depicted in Figure 4-2 A. Therefore, for the

cylindrical specimen of length 1, the stress and the strain on the end planes are zero. The first

three longitudinal resonant modes are depicted in Figure 4-2 B. Considering that dU/dx = 0 at x

=0 and at x= 1

dU (w w x x _
d = (- sin + +4 cos ) = 0 4-6
dx v, v, ,










'_x A

-.-.-. Displacement
Strain

B


U=3 cos- (n=1)
1
Displacement in first mode




1
U2=53cos (n=2)

Displacement in second mode



3me
U3=3 COs- (n=3)
Displacement in third mode


Figure 4-2. Displacement and strain amplitudes of a cylindrical specimen with free boundary
conditions at both ends at the first three longitudinal resonant modes (Richart et al.
[1970], Menq [2003]).

If Eq. 4-6 is evaluated at x = 0, we get 4 = 0 and at x = 1, and assuming a non trivial

solution (z3 ; 0), we get (Richart et al. [1970])

nxyv
o,= n=1,2,3...

If a longitudinal impulse load is applied to a free-free cylindrical specimen in the first

mode of vibration and the frequency f, is measured, the unconstrained compression wave

velocity can be calculated from Eq. 4-7 as follows


< 1










w, = 2nf, = n c for n = 1 (first mode) 4-8


Evaluating Eq. 4-8, we get the unconstrained compression wave velocity

vc = 2ft 4-9

With known unconstrained compression wave velocity,ve, and the unit mass of the

specimen, p, the small-strain Young's modulus, E, can be calculated using the following

equation

E = p(2f )2 4-10

Once the constrained and unconstrained wave velocities are determined, Poisson's ratio

can be calculated from the combination of both as (Richart et al. [1970], Menq [2003])

2 2 2 2 2
+ ( -1 +8x ) ( -

VME 2 4-11
4x P


where: v is Poisson's ratio

With Poisson's ratio known, if deemed necessary the shear modulus of the specimen can

be calculated from the Young's modulus or constrained modulus as (Richart et al. [1970])


G = 4-12
2(1 + v)


G 4-13
2(v 1)

4.1.4 Free-free Resonant Column Equipment Setup

The FFRC testing system consists of several components (Figure 4-3), a dynamic signal

analyzer (DSA) or (oscilloscope), an instrumented impact hammer (Figure 4-3 B), and an










accelerometer (transducer) (Figure 4-3 C). The specimens are oriented horizontally and

suspended with flexible straps to achieve free-free boundary conditions (Figure 4-3 A). The basic

operational principal is to generate a compression wave with an instrumented hammer at one end

of the specimen and monitor the response from the other end of the specimen with the

piezoelectric accelerometer (Figure 4-3 D). The output signals from the accelerometer and

hammer are recorded with a signal analyzer, which performs data acquisition and signal

processing.




A B




I F












Rm l ptoifn eaFc h jTfine CoprUre IHr
65asurememIcm



.1992. Fu./ r. SEC .sliref e ManT j
1 FReal nss T. r IO









Figure 4-3. Free-free resonant column test equipment and setup. A) Overall setup. B)
InstFigure 4-3. Free-free resonant column test equipment acquind setup. ) Piezoelectric accelerometer.
Instrumented impact hammer. C) Data acquisition. D) Piezoelectric accelerometer.









In the seismic tests, the locations of the accelerometer and impact on the specimen ends

have negligible or no effect on the resonant frequencies, but the amplitude associated with each

resonance varies with these parameters. Even though the amplitudes are not as important as the

frequency at the peak amplitude, the appropriate locations should be chosen for a more strong

result (Nazarian et al. [2002]). After a series of tests conducted, the best test setup observed was

when the excitation is applied near the center of the specimen, and the location of the

accelerometer works best when it is placed on the same half of the specimen as the source but

not beyond two third-radius out from the center (Nazarian et al. [2002]). Following these

recommendations and studies, the accelerometer used in this study was glued to the center of one

end of the specimen. For higher repeatability and better results, a gentle impact of the

instrumented hammer was applied as close to the center as possible.

Following initial equipment setup, the FFRC system was subjected to verification tests

using synthetic samples. Three cylindrical synthetic specimens were used ranging approximating

from very soft sub-grade soil to that of a sub-base material (Durometer: A60, A95, D75, soft to

stiff, respectively).

These synthetic specimens were composed of polypropylene and polyurethane

components, and were selected to provide a range of stiffness typical of soil and base materials.

These materials are known to be durable, tough, and have a high resistance to abrasion, ozone,

radiation, weather, and oxygen. S. Nazarian agreed to independently test the same samples at

University of Texas at El Paso facilities to corroborate the results determined with the Florida

system. Table 4-1 shows the negligible differences between the University of Florida and

University of Texas-El Paso FFRC testing system.









Table 4-1. The FFRC test results of synthetic specimens.
A60 A95 D75
University of Florida, 1st mode
128 670 1544
Resonant Frequency (Hz)
University of Texas-El Paso, '1st 1
125 680.5 1546
mode Resonant Frequency (Hz)

4.1.5 Free-free Resonant Column Environmental Conditioning

In order to observe, quantify, and document the influence of time and environmental

conditions on the stiffness behavior of Florida base materials, the base materials were subjected

to the following environmental conditions:

Ambient Condition: There were two ambient conditions: laboratory ambient condition and

outdoor ambient condition. In laboratory ambient, the specimens were stationed on benches

inside the laboratory (Figure 4-4 A), and were exposed to the laboratory ambient air. In outdoor

ambient, the specimens were stationed on benches outside the laboratory (Figure 4-4 B), and

were exposed to the natural environmental conditions. In both cases, the specimens remained in

plastic cylinder molds. Immediately prior to resonant column testing, the specimen weight was

monitored to determine the concurrent moisture content and unit mass of the specimen (p). The

resonant column testing was monitored periodically as appropriate.

Constant Moisture: In constant moisture environmental conditioning, the specimens were

exposed to a moist, nearly 100% humidity condition in a curing room to maintain the optimum

moisture content level of each specimen (Figure 4-4 C). The specimens remained in cylindrical

molds and the open end of the specimens was sealed to avoid the penetration of water vapors

into the specimen, which could significantly alter the moisture content of the specimen (Figure

4-4 D). Immediately prior to each resonant column testing the specimen, weight was monitored

to determine the concurrent moisture content and unit mass of the specimen (p). The resonant

column testing was monitored periodically as appropriate.









LLL A


Figure 4-4. Ambient conditions. A) Laboratory ambient. B) Outdoor ambient. C) Constant
moisture curing room. D) Sealed specimens.

Oven Drying: In oven drying, the specimens remained in cylindrical molds and were

placed in a thermostatically controlled industrial oven (Figure 4-5 A) at 110F (Figure 4-5 B) and

subjected to air-drying. Immediately prior to each resonant column testing the specimen, weight

was monitored to determine the concurrent moisture content and unit mass of the specimen (p).

The resonant column testing was monitored periodically as appropriate.

Wetting: The cylindrical plastic molds that were used for wetting were prepared by drilling

holes with a diameter of 1/16-inch in a uniform manner across the base of the mold in 0.5-inch

interval and the holes were placed 0.25-inch above the base of the mold (Figure 4-6 A). The


EI-~ ~e









specimens remained in plastic cylindrical molds and were placed in soaking tank, a rectangular

tank approximately 26-inches in width x 60-inches in length x 10-inches diameter (Figure 4-6

B). The water depth was maintained at 5-inches with the samples in place to allow water access

through the perforated molds. Immediately prior to each resonant column testing the specimen,

weight was monitored to determine the concurrent moisture content and unit mass of the

specimen (p). The resonant column testing was monitored periodically as appropriate.


A B





-4l








Figure 4-5. Oven drying. A) Industrial air-drying oven. B) Thermostat.


A tB














Figure 4-6. Wetting. A) Perforated mold. B) Soak tank.









4.1.6 Specimen Preparation

The material that came from the quarry was placed into oven to be air dried until they

became friable. Material with particle sizes greater than 3% inch was crushed so that the entire

sample passes the 34 inch sieve by use of a mechanical jaw crusher. The pieces that have not

been reduced to the desired size by the mechanical crushing were broken down manually until

they passed the 34 inch sieve.

The materials were separated into portions matching the mini stockpiles from which they

were collected. Each of the separate portions was thoroughly mixed with amounts of water to

reach the optimum moisture content. The samples of soil-water mixtures were placed in nylon-

covered containers. Immediately prior to the compaction of the materials, representative samples

weighing at least a pound were taken for moisture content determination.

Three replicates of each material were compacted within a 6-inches x 12-inches plastic

cylinder mold placed and clamped within a split steel mold (Figure 4-7 A). Material was placed

in twelve lifts in 1-inch layers; the material was scarified after every other compacted 1-inch

layer, allowing the compacted layer to bond with fresh poured material. Each layer was

compacted with 56 uniformly distributed blows from al0-pound rammer, dropping free from a

height of 18-inch above the approximate elevation of each finally compacted layer (Figure 4-7

B). Following compaction, the outer split mold was removed, leaving the compacted specimen

within the plastic mold. Table 4-2 shows the number of compacted samples per material.

Comparisons of specimen unit weights with those from Proctor tests indicated that this procedure

produced specimens of maximum dry density. Table 4-3 shows the measured and targeted

specimen preparation parameters for FFRC testing. Following construction, specimens of each

material were exposed to one of four environmental conditions.



























Figure 4-7. Specimen preparation and equipment. A) 6-inches x 12-inches plastic cylindrical
mold and split steel mold. B) Compactor.


Table 4-2. Number of compacted samples per material.
Material
Environmental Mat
Conditioning Georgia Loxahatchee Miami Newberry Ocala
Conditioning .
Granite Shell-rock Limerock Limerock Limerock
Outdoor
Amn NA NA NA 3 NA
Ambient *
Laboratory 3 3 3 3 1**
Ambient
Constant
C3 3 3 3 3
Moisture
Wetting-
Wetting- 3 3 3 3 3
Drying Cycle
Following the initial FFRC testing on Newberry materials, comparison results of outdoor ambient and
laboratory ambient environmental conditioning showed negligible differences, therefore construction of
specimens for outdoor ambient environmental conditioning of other sources was deemed unnecessary.
SDue to insufficient material, only one (1) replicate of Ocala Limerock for laboratory ambient
environmental conditioning was prepared.









Table 4-3. The FFRC testing, target and measured specimen preparation parameters.
Source Conditioning Sample Moisture Content Dry Density
Target Measured Target Measured
% % pcf pcf
Replicate 1 9.8 10.95 122.0 120.30
S Moisture Replicate 2 10.3 9.88 121.3 119.39
SMoisture
X Replicate 3 9.9 9.98 122.5 122.03
Replicate 1 9.8 10.30 122.0 121.80
Laboratory Replicate 2 10.3 9.80 121.3 121.30
S Ambient
SReplicate 3 9.9 9.98 122.5 120.78
X Replicate 1 9.8 11.09 122.0 120.25
O Wetting &
S Wetting & Replicate 2 10.3 10.24 121.3 120.69
i-I Drying
DryinReplicate 3 9.9 10.49 122.5 121.03

Replicate 1 8.0 8.42 129.6 130.99
Constant
Moisture Replicate 2 7.2 7.89 130.4 132.08
Replicate 3 8.0 8.11 130.6 131.38
o Replicate 1 8.0 8.13 129.6 131.19
S Laboato Replicate 2 7.2 8.01 130.4 131.67
S Ambient
Replicate 3 8.0 7.86 130.6 132.36
Replicate 1 8.0 7.97 129.6 131.39
Wetting &
ing & Replicate 2 7.2 8.21 130.4 130.63
Drying
Replicate 3 8.0 8.17 130.6 131.95
Replicate 1 4.8 5.51 142.3 144.08
Constant
Moisture Replicate 2 4.8 5.56 142.8 143.85
Moisture
Replicate 3 5.0 5.14 142.5 143.59
Replicate 1 4.8 5.40 142.3 143.92
Laboratory Replicate 2 4.8 5.25 142.8 143.55
O Ambient
Replicate 3 5.0 5.12 142.5 144.11
Replicate 1 4.8 5.41 142.3 143.92
Wetting & Replicate 2 4.8 5.36 142.8 144.69
Drying
Replicate 3 5.0 5.46 142.5 144.31









Table 4-3. Continued.
Source Cg S Moisture Content Dry Density
Source Conditioning Sample
Target Measured Target Measured
% % pcf pcf
Replicate 1 13.0 12.51 116.5 115.78
Constant
Moisture Replicate 2 12.5 12.70 116.1 116.31
Replicate 3 13.0 12.61 115.9 116.25
r Replicate 1 13.0 12.70 116.5 116.21
S OAmutdr Replicate 2 12.5 12.49 116.1 115.80
Ambient
Replicate 3 13.0 12.48 115.9 115.98
y Replicate 1 13.0 12.68 116.5 117.03
Laboratory Replicate 2 12.5 12.60 116.1 116.08
Ambient
Z Replicate 3 13.0 12.57 115.9 116.11
Replicate 1 13.0 12.68 116.5 117.07
Wetting &
ig Replicate 2 12.5 12.41 116.1 116.55
Drying
Replicate 3 13.0 12.63 115.9 115.84
Replicate 1 10.9 10.99 120.1 120.67
Constant
Moisture Replicate 2 11.1 11.08 120.2 120.77
Replicate 3 11.3 11.22 120.4 120.93
SReplicate 1 11.1 11.06 120.2 121.25
< Laboratory NA NA NA NA NA
S Ambient
O NA NA NA NA NA
Replicate 1 10.9 11.15 120.1 121.56
Wetting &
ting& Replicate 2 11.1 11.20 120.2 121.57
Drying
Replicate 3 11.3 11.26 120.4 121.51

4.1.7 Core Materials

FDOT-SMO provided two intact field cores (Figure 4-8 A) drilled out from actual road

sections constructed in March 1996. Both field cores were Miami (Oolite) limerock and should

have similar mechanical parameters and mineralogy of Miami limerock (Mine# 87-090) used in

this study. Both cores were cut to same dimensions (5.94-inches x 7-inches), named as Miami

Core 01 are Miami Core 02, and identified as MC01 and MC02. The initial moisture contents of

MC01 and MC02 were 0.17% and 0.15%, respectively. PVC pipes were cut to serve as molds for

these field cores and were secured with two metal hose clamps. To allow absorption, 1/16-inch









diameter holes were drilled 0.25-inch above the base of the mold and in a uniform manner across

the base in 0.5-inch intervals. In order to avoid excessive water absorption, one of the open ends

was covered with latex. A nut was secured to the center of the field cores to attach the

accelerometer as deemed necessary. Following the construction of molds (Figure 4-8 B), the

field cores were subjected to wetting and drying environmental conditioning.


A B














Figure 4-8. Field cores. A) Intact field core. B) Field cores after preparations.

For wetting, specimens were placed in a pan where the water depth was maintained at 1/3

of the specimen height with the samples in place to allow water access through the perforated

molds. In oven drying, specimens were placed in a thermostatically controlled industrial oven at

110F and subjected to air-drying. In both cases, the specimens remained in molds. Immediately

prior to each resonant column testing the specimen, weight was monitored to determine the

concurrent moisture content and unit mass of the specimen (p). The resonant column testing

was monitored periodically as appropriate.









4.2 Resilient Modulus (MR) Testing


4.2.1 Introduction

The MR test is another way of characterizing pavement construction materials (Florida

limerock base materials, in this study) under a variety of material parameters and stress

conditions, and which simulates the conditions in a pavement subjected to moving wheel load.

The purpose of performing MR testing in this study is to document and quantify the effects) of

the changes in resilient modulus for Florida limerock base materials and find answers to the

following:

* Does stiffness increase also occur at working stresses and strains?
* Do the mechanisms causing stiffness and strength gains with time and under varying
environmental conditions also lead to a stiffer material under a design truckload?

In addition, comparing results of both FFRC and MR testing conducted on identical material

would lead to assessing the influence of test methods on material properties.

The MR testing in this study was performed by the FDOT-SMO laboratory technicians

following Section 9 of AASHTO T307-99: Resilient Modulus Test for Base/Subbase Materials.

Figure 4-9 shows the MR testing equipment and setup and a typical material sample.

4.2.2 Resilient Modulus Environmental Conditioning

In order to compare results of both FFRC and MR testing to assess the influence of testing

methods on the material properties, the specimens used for MR testing were exposed to the

following similar environmental conditioning as for the FFRC tests:

Optimum Moisture: Specimens remained in latex cover and were tested at optimum

moisture immediately after compaction.

Ambient Condition: For MR testing only outdoor ambient environmental conditioning was

used and specimens remained in latex cover. In outdoor ambient, the specimens were stationed

on benches outside the laboratory and were exposed to the natural environmental conditions.









Immediately prior to each MR testing, the specimen weight was monitored to determine the

concurrent necessary material parameters. MR testing was conducted and monitored on

Newberry, Ocala, Miami, and Loxahatchee materials after the specimens were exposed to

outdoor ambient air for 7, 14, and 21 days. Specimens of Georgia material were tested after the

specimens were exposed to outdoor ambient air for 2, 7, and 14 days.

Oven Drying: In oven drying, specimens were removed from the latex cover and placed in

a thermostatically controlled industrial oven (Figure 4-5 A) at 110F (Figure 4-5 B) and

subjected to air-drying. Immediately prior to each MR testing, the specimen weight was

monitored to determine the concurrent necessary material parameters. MR testing was conducted

and monitored on each material after the specimens were exposed to oven drying for 2 days.

Wetting: In wetting environmental conditioning, specimens remained in latex cover and

were placed in soaking tank. Immediately prior to each MR testing the specimen weight was

monitored to determine the concurrent necessary material parameters. MR testing was conducted

and monitored on each material after the specimens were allowed to absorb water for 4 days.

4.2.3 Sample Preparation

Sampling preparation for the MR test was conducted by the FDOT-SMO laboratory

technicians following AASHTO designations T2 for "Sampling of Aggregates", T248 for

"Reducing Samples of Aggregates to Testing Size", and Section 7 of T307-99 for "Preparation

of Test Specimens". Three replicates of 4-inches x 8-inches cylindrical specimens of each

material except Georgia were prepared for each environmental condition. For Georgia material,

two replicates of same dimensions were prepared for MR testing at optimum moisture and the

same replicates were used for MR testing under outdoor ambient conditions. One of the two

replicates was used for MR testing under drying condition following the outdoor ambient

condition. Table 4-4 shows the target and measured specimen preparation parameters for MR









testing. Following construction, specimens of each material were exposed to one of four

environmental conditions.


Figure 4-9. The MR testing equipment and setup with a typical sample.









Table 4-4. The MR testing, target, and measured specimen preparation parameters.
Source Conditioning Sample Moisture Content Dry Density
Target Measured Target Measured
% % pcf pcf
Replicate 1 9.8 10.0 122.0 121.8
T Moisture Replicate 2 10.3 10.1 121.3 120.7
SMoisture
X Replicate 3 9.9 10.0 122.5 121.7
Replicate 1 9.8 9.8 122.0 121.1
Outdoor Replicate 2 10.3 10.1 121.3 119.5
Ambient
t Replicate 3 9.9 9.8 122.5 121.1
Replicate 1 9.8 10.0 122.0 120.3
O Wetting &
Wetting & Replicate 2 10.3 10.2 121.3 119.3
Drying
Replicate 3 9.9 9.5 122.5 121.1
Replicate 1 8.0 7.8 129.6 132.1
Optimum
Moisture Replicate 2 7.2 7.3 130.4 131.3
Moisture
Replicate 3 8.0 7.8 130.6 133.4
Outdoor Replicate 1 8.0 7.6 129.6 129.3
S Am nt Replicate 2 7.2 7.0 130.4 129.7
SAmbient
Replicate 3 8.0 7.9 130.6 130.1
Replicate 1 8.0 7.9 129.6 131.5
Wetting & Replicate 2 7.2 7.3 130.4 132.4
Drying
Replicate 3 8.0 7.7 130.6 131.4
Replicate 1 5.0 4.1 142.5 140.9
Optimum
Moisture Replicate 2 5.0 4.8 142.5 139.4
NA NA NA NA NA
NA NA NA NA NA
Outdoor
Outdoor NA NA NA NA NA
O Ambient
NA NA NA NA NA
S& NA NA NA NA NA
Wetting &
ing & NA NA NA NA NA
Drying
NA NA NA NA NA









Table 4-4. Continued.
Source Conditioning Sample Moisture Content Dry Density
Target Measured Target Measured
% % pcf pcf
Replicate 1 13.0 12.9 116.5 116.5
Moisture Replicate 2 12.5 12.4 116.1 114.3
SMoisture
Replicate 3 13.0 12.9 115.9 115.4
SReplicate 1 13.0 12.7 116.5 116.1
SOutdoor
SuAmbient Replicate 2 12.5 13.0 116.1 114.1
Ambient
Replicate 3 13.0 12.9 115.9 116.0
Replicate 1 13.0 12.9 116.5 115.6
Z Wetting &
Dying Replicate 2 12.5 12.4 116.1 115.5
Drying
Replicate 3 13.0 12.8 115.9 115.3
Replicate 1 10.9 10.9 120.1 121.7
Optimum
Moisture Replicate 2 11.1 11.2 120.2 119.9
Replicate 3 11.3 11.4 120.4 120.6
SReplicate 1 10.9 10.9 120.1 120.4
Outdoor
tReplicate 2 11.1 11.1 120.2 118.1
) } Ambient
SReplicate 3 11.3 12.1 120.4 119.9
Replicate 1 10.9 10.7 120.1 120.3
Wetting &
Dying Replicate 2 11.1 10.9 120.2 119.6
Drying
Replicate 3 11.3 11.2 120.4 120.1









CHAPTER 5
FREE-FREE RESONANT COLUMN TEST RESULTS

5.1 Free-free Resonant Column Test Results of Laboratory Compacted Specimens

5.1.1 Introduction

This section is designated to document and discuss the response of laboratory-compacted

specimens of unbound aggregate that were exposed to environmental conditioning as discussed

in the previous chapter. The figures used in this chapter demonstrate the results of the first

replicate of each material. Appendices B through F present the individual results for each

material in all environmental conditions and for all replicates. Appendix H compares replicates 2

and 3 of each material to all environmental conditions.

5.1.2 Constant Moisture

Figure 5-1 presents resonant column test results for each of the five materials while being

held at constant moisture content. Young's modulus (E) versus time in days, both on arithmetic

scale, is presented in Figure 5-1 A. The data from Figure 5-1 A is re-plotted in Figure 5-1 B on

alternative scales to further illustrate the differences in behavior between the five materials.

Here, modulus ratio is plotted on the vertical axis, or the Young's modulus at any time (E)

divided by the Young's modulus at maximum dry density and optimum moisture content

immediately following compaction (Eopt). The logarithm of time in minutes is plotted on the

horizontal axis.

It should be noted from the figures that the small-strain modulus of all materials tested

while being held at constant moisture is not constant; on the contrary, the small-strain modulus

of all materials increases with increasing time. This behavior occurs under constant confinement,

volume, and moisture, therefore this behavior is not due to consolidation.











It should also be noted that the rate of modulus increase with time decreases with time, that


is, the largest change occurs early, and then gradually diminishes.


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
Time (days)
-- LOXAHATCHEE -- NEWBERRY -- OCALA -- MIAMI -*-GEORGIA


5



000
1000


10000 100000
Time (min)
--LOXAHATCHEE NEWBERRY -OCALA MIAMI -GEORGIA


1000000


Figure 5-1. FFRC test results of first replicate exposed to constant moisture.









Further, while the general trend of increasing modulus with time is common to all

materials tested, the rate of increase is considerably different. The Miami limerock displays a

very significant increase with time, while the increase for the Georgia granite is relatively small.

The behavior noted above is consistent with research results reported for other unbound

particulate materials, most notably soils (Afifi and Woods [1971]; Wu and Woods [1987]).

Described as the secondary or long-term time effect, these studies clearly demonstrated that the

modulus of sand, silt, and clay soils all increase with time while at constant moisture, volume,

and confining conditions. While a definitive mechanism for this behavior has not been proven,

Afifi and Woods (1971) suggest that it may be due to thixotropy, and Schmertmann (1992) might

attribute the behavior to so-called mechanical aging, or an increase in friction with time. Mitchell

and Soga (2005) indicate that chemical processes cementationn) are possible cause of aging.

In this study, it is hypothesized that the behavior observed could also be due to increased

suction or negative pore water pressure that occurs as the water in the material redistributes

following compaction into more preferential positions within the inter-particle void spaces. This

increased suction effectively adds confining stress to the particulate material and thereby

increases the resistance to deformation (stiffness). This phenomenon has been well documented

via resonant column tests on sand and silt soils by Wu, Gray, and Richart (1984). In addition, it

has long been established that the modulus of a particulate material is directly proportional to

level of confining pressure (Richart, Hall, and Woods [1970]). Among the first studies for soil,

Hardin and Richart (1963) reported results of resonant column tests on sands that indicated shear

modulus to be a function of isotropic confining pressure raised to a power of 0.5. Many

subsequent studies have affirmed these basic findings, including Fernandez (2000) and Menq









(2003), both of which contain extensive discussion of the literature on this subject. Menq (2003)

also demonstrates these fundamentals apply to larger particle sizes, e.g., gravels.

5.1.3 Drying

In this section, the influence of removal of water (drying) on the materials is discussed.

The results produced by placement of the specimens in ambient conditions either on laboratory

bench or in outdoor shade environments are very similar. Low-heat oven, laboratory bench, and

outdoor shade all produced a slow drying behavior as will be depicted in the figures.

5.1.3.1 Laboratory Ambient

Figure 5-2 presents resonant column test results for each of the five materials while being

exposed to laboratory ambient air. As expected, Figure 5-2 A demonstrates that placement of

specimens initially at optimum moisture content (time = 0) on laboratory bench slowly drives

water out from materials. Young's modulus (E) versus moisture content, both on arithmetic

scale, is presented in Figure 5-2 C. Young's modulus (E) versus time in days as the material

dries from optimum water content, both on arithmetic scale, is presented in Figure 5-2 B.

It should be noted from Figure 5-2 C that the materials underwent a dramatic increase in

small-strain modulus, as water is lost. The moisture content and modulus change occurs most

significantly at the early stages of drying exposure, after which the rates decrease with increasing

time (Figure 5-2 B).

As with the tests at constant moisture content, all five materials demonstrate similar trends,

but the rate of change and the magnitude of the effect are different between materials. It should

be noted that once again, the Miami limerock changes the most, while change in Georgia granite

is smallest.












13

12 A

11

10

9

8

7
0
o
g 6

cn 5

4

3

2

1

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750
Time (days)
LOXAHATCHEE --NEWBERRY -OCALA --MIAMI --GEORGIA



2600
B
2260

2000

1760

1600

1260 -

1000 -

760

600

260

0
0 60 100 160 200 260 300 360 400 460 600 660 600 660 700 760
Time (days)
,-LOXAHATCHEE --NEWBERRY -OCALA --MIAMI -GEORGIA


Figure 5-2. The FFRC test results of first replicate exposed to laboratory ambient.











2500
C
2250

2000

1750

1500

1250

S1000

750

500

250


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Moisture Content (%)
-- LOXAHATCHEE NEWBERRY OCALA MIAMI --GEORGIA


Figure 5-2. Continued.

5.1.3.2 Outdoor Ambient

Figure 5-3 presents the comparison of the resonant column test results for the first replicate

of Newberry material while being exposed to outdoor-shade and laboratory ambient air. Young's

modulus (E) versus time in days as the material dries from optimum water content, both on

arithmetic scale, is presented in Figure 5-3 A. Young's modulus (E) versus moisture content,

both on arithmetic scale, is presented in Figure 5-3 B. It is noted from the figures that either the

results produced by placement of the specimens in ambient conditions are almost identical.

Therefore, preparation of specimens for outdoor environment of other materials (Ocala,

Loxahatchee, Miami, and Georgia) was deemed unnecessary.












1250


1000




750




500




250




0








1200


1060


900


760


' 600
LU

460


300


160


0


A
-J


-J


-J


-J














0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750
Time (days)
-- NEWBERRY OUTDOOR AMBIENT NEWBERRY LABORATORY AMBIENT




I B


0 1 2 3 4 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1
Moisture Content (%)
SNEWBERRY OUTDOOR AMBIENT NEWBERRY LABORATORY AMBIENT



Figure 5-3. Comparisons of the FFRC test results of Newberry exposed to ambient conditions.









5.1.3.3 Oven Drying

As described in detail in the previous chapter the specimens were put in an oven at low

heat (110F) for relatively slow drying. The specimens underwent several oven-drying processes

during wetting and drying cycles. The influence of oven drying on the material response is

shown in both Figures 5-4, 5-6. The legends Dl, D2, D3, and D4 in Figures 5-6 represents the

first, second, third, and fourth oven drying cycle, respectively, on same specimen of the first

replicate of Loxahatchee shell-rock.

If figures regarding laboratory ambient, outdoor ambient, and oven-drying are compared

(Figures 5-2 C, 5-3 B, 5-4), it can be noted clearly that at any type of drying the materials

produces a dramatic increase in small-strain modulus as water is lost. The moisture content and

modulus change occurs most significantly at the early stages of drying exposure, after which the

rates decrease with increasing time.

Regardless of the drying method, the Miami limerock changes the most, while the changes

in Georgia granite is smallest. It should also be noted that after a certain period and moisture

level the stiffness of Loxahatchee shell-rock and Miami limerock becomes larger than Newberry

and Ocala limerock.

While the mechanism cannot be proven herein via the direct measurement of pore water

pressure or suction, the stiffening that occurs while materials underwent any type of drying can

again be explained by increase in suction. It has been well documented in the science of

unsaturated soil mechanics (Lu and Likos [2005]) that increases in suction or negative pore water

pressure will occur as water is removed from the material. As documented by Wu, Gray, and

Richart (1984) for sand and silt soils, this increased suction will effectively increase confinement

and hence modulus. The results in Figure 5-4 are very similar in behavior to those presented by









Cho and Santamarina (2001) in which they clearly demonstrate the effects of suction mechanism

on stiffness behavior while drying.

As previously discussed, Gartland and Eades (1979) have clearly demonstrated that

cementation is possible in Florida limerock base materials. While Gartland and Eades (1979)

measured materials strength and not stiffness, it is very likely that cementation will increase

material stiffness, and thus cementation is another possible mechanism to produce the results

presented herein. However, in an experiment recently completed by Campos (2007), FFRC tests

were conducted on laboratory samples of the same Loxahatchee, Miami, and Ocala materials

compacted at 1% wet of optimum moisture content and held at constant levels of relative

humidity (low = 11%, medium = 53%, high = 97%) for 30 days. In all cases (both materials and

relative humidity) the moisture levels reduced with time, and the stiffness values increased

significantly with time, which are consistent with the drying experiments presented herein. In

addition, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) image analysis of the specimen

at low humidity and after 30 days of aging did not reveal any calcite cement growth. Finally, it

should be noted that while the rate of change with respect to moisture content was smallest,

significant stiffness increases did occur upon drying the granite-based Georgia graded aggregate

presented earlier. It is expected that carbonate-based cementation cannot occur in this material.

This behavior of the Miami limerock relative to others is partially explained by the fact

that this material is coarsest, well graded, and at low void ratio. This trend in parameters will all

produce large small-strain modulus as demonstrated by Menq (2003). It is also hypothesized that

differences between these materials could also be created by differences in the relationship

between suction and moisture content, the so-called soil water characteristic curve. In fact,

mercury porosemetry tests on the Loxahatchee, Miami, and Ocala materials presented by










Campos (2007) indicate that the distribution of pore size is different between these three

materials, which should create different soil water characteristic curves.

2250

2000

1750

1500

1250

LU 1000

750

500

250

0 *..
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Moisture Content (%)
-NEWBERRY LOXAHATCHEE -- MIAMI tOCALA -GEORGIA


Figure 5-4. The FFRC test results of each material underwent first of several oven drying.

5.1.4 Wetting

Influence of the addition of water (wetting) on the material response is shown in both

Figures 5-5 and 5-6. The legends W1, W2, and W3 in Figures 5-6 represent the first, second, and

third, wetting cycle, respectively, on same the specimen of the first replicate of Loxahatchee

shell-rock. As expected, Figures 5-6 A demonstrates by way of example for the Loxahatchee

shell-rock that placement of a nearly dry specimen in a soaking tank allows the material to

slowly absorb water. Figure 5-6 B indicates that the material undergoes a dramatic decrease in

small-strain modulus as water is absorbed. The moisture content and modulus change occurs

most significantly at the beginning of exposure, after which the rates decrease with increasing

time. This behavior is further demonstrated in Figure 5-5 for all five materials. In this figure is










plotted the Young's modulus (E) versus moisture content as the materials are wetted from a

nearly dry condition. As with the tests during drying, all five materials demonstrate similar

trends, but the rate of change and the magnitude of the effect are different between materials. In

addition, the trends are consistent with a loss in suction and effective confinement as the

moisture content of the material increases, and is similar to the behavior shown in Figure 2-1 C

from Cho and Santamarina (2001).

2250

2000

1750

1500 -

1250

LU 1000

750

500

250 --

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Moisture Content (%)
NEWBERRY --LOXAHATCHEE ---MIAMI --OCALA --GEORGIA


Figure 5-5. The FFRC test results of each material underwent first of several wetting.

It is also interesting to note that a close comparison of Figure 5-4 and Figure 5-5 reveals

that the drying and wetting responses of a given material do not follow the same relationship.

There is a hysteretic phenomenon whereby a different modulus is measured while drying to

certain moisture content than while wetting to the same moisture content. This hysteretic

phenomenon is well known in unsaturated soil mechanics where the suction values reached at

common moisture content are different between drying and wetting (Lu and Likos [2005]).










5.1.5 Wetting & Drying Cycles

Figure 5-6 illustrates by way of example using the first replicate of Loxahatchee shell-rock

that each of the materials was subjected to several cycles of drying and wetting. The previous

sections described the material response to an individual drying or wetting exposure. The

following will describe the observed response due to repeated application of drying and then

wetting. It should be noted that while Figure 5-6 graphically depicts the response of only the

Loxahatchee material, the remaining four materials exhibited very similar trends in behavior.

The most important and attention grabbing phenomenon is that the material response

appears to be highly repeatable. Subsequent responses to drying and wetting are very similar to

the initial response. This suggests that the underlying mechanism for the response is largely

reversible, and is a significant additional indication that the suction/confining stress mechanism

hypothesized is plausible.


12
11
10
9
8
7 -
6










0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Time (days)
3D1 -W1 D2 -W2 -D3 -W3 D4


Figure 5-6. The FFRC test results for drying and wetting cycles on Loxahatchee shell-rock.










1300
1200
1100 -
1000
900
800
700
W 600
500 -
400
300 -
200
100

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Time (days)
-D1 -W1 -D2 -W2 -D3 -W3 -D4


Figure 5-6. Continued.

5.2 Free-free Resonant Column Test Results of Field Cores

5.2.1 Introduction

The previous sections have documented the response of laboratory-compacted specimens

of unbound aggregate to exposure of several moisture environments. It has been hypothesized

that a plausible underlying mechanism for this response is suction or negative pore pressure. A

significant question that arises from these results is whether this behavior occurs in the field in

unbound aggregate base course materials. This section will document test results to address this

question.









5.2.2 Wetting and Drying Cycles of Field Cores

Two intact field cores were exposed to cycles of wetting and drying similar to the

laboratory-compacted specimens and were subjected to the same testing routine. Figures 5-7 and

5-8 present results from laboratory resonant column tests on one of the two intact field cores that

were exposed to cycles of wetting and drying. Results of the both cores are presented in

Appendix G. It is indeed remarkable that it is possible to retrieve a field core intact, but this

occurs frequently with some of the Florida materials. Given the results presented in the previous

sections, it may not be surprising that two intact field cores were obtained from pavement

sections with base course material from a Miami limerock source. Indeed, the Miami limerock

can be very hard if the moisture content is below optimum.

The details about the field cores were described in the previous chapter. Each of the base

course pavement sections was approximately 10 years old at time of coring. When brought to the

laboratory, the cores were determined to be nearly dry. The specimens were prepared for

resonant column testing by mimicking the plastic mold environment that was used for

laboratory-compacted materials. Here, a split PVC sleeve was wrapped and then clamped around

the core circumference. Latex and wax were then used to seal one end of the core and the other

end remained exposed. Small holes were drilled around the perimeter of the covered end of the

sleeve to allow water entry when placed in a shallow water bath. In this state, the cores were

subjected to frequent resonant column tests while being exposed to cycles of wetting and drying.

Figure 5-7 presents moisture content and Young's modulus (E) versus time results for one

of the field cores. The response of the second core was very similar.


















6


-

0

0




2


1


0


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130
Time (days)
-W1 D1 -W2 D2 -W3 D3


2500

2250

2000

1750

1500

1250

1000

750

500

250

0


S25 50 75


100


125


150


Time (Days)
-W1 D1 -W2 -D2 -W3 -D3


Figure 5-7. The FFRC test results for wetting and drying cycles on field core 1










Figure 5-8 presents Young's modulus (E) versus moisture content results for the first

wetting and first drying cycles for each field core as well as for the Miami limerock laboratory-

compacted specimen. Most notably, it should be observed that the response of the field cores

appears very similar to that of the fresh, laboratory-compacted specimens. Even after 10 years of

service, the softening while wetting followed by a return to high stiffness when nearly dry,

appears to be very repeatable and reversible. Indeed, Figure 5-8 demonstrates that the response is

similar to that of a laboratory-compacted specimen of material from the same general source in

south Florida, and that aging has not significantly altered the material response. These results

appear to provide further justification for an underlying mechanism of changes in pore pressure,

a largely reversible and repeatable phenomenon.


3750
3500
3250
3000
2750
2500
2250
S2000 -
1750
1500
1250
1000
750
500 -
250
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Moisture Content (%)
-.-Miami -Core1 Core 2


Figure 5-8. The FFRC test results for the first wetting and drying cycles on field cores and
laboratory compacted Miami limerock, Young's modulus vs. moisture content while
wetting.











3750
3500
3250
3000
2750
2500
2250
S2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
750
500
250
0 ----*i **
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Moisture Content (%)

[-Miami -*-Core 1 -Core 2




Figure 5-9. The FFRC test results for the first wetting and drying cycles on field cores and
laboratory compacted Miami limerock, Young's modulus vs. moisture content while
drying.









CHAPTER 6
RESILIENT MODULUS (MR) TEST RESULTS

6.1 Resilient Modulus (MR) Testing of Laboratory Compacted Specimens

6.1.1 Introduction

As discussed previously, the FFRC test is an effective means for studying the influence of

specimen conditioning or material response, as the test is non-destructive and simple to

complete. However, the large-strain resilient modulus is thought to be more indicative of

material response under actual traffic loading. Thus, the FDOT-SMO conducted a limited

parallel study to investigate the material responses to conditioning via the MR test.

This chapter will document and discuss the response of laboratory-compacted specimens of

unbound aggregate that are exposed to environmental conditioning discussed in Chapter 4. The

figures used in this chapter demonstrate comparisons of the resilient modulus test results of three

replicates of each material corresponding to exposed environmental conditioning. Comparisons

of the response between the different materials will be presented for each condition. The

variation of the resilient modulus with bulk stress, per condition, of three replicates of each

material also, the variation of the resilient modulus with the bulk stress, per replicate,

corresponding to various moisture content levels of each material is presented in Appendix I.

6.1.2 Resilient Modulus Test Conditions

The details of samples, such as dimensions, number of samples, specimen preparation

parameters that are used in MR testing were discussed in Chapter 4. In this section, conditions

applied to each replicate of each material are presented.

6.1.2.1 Newberry and Ocala

The following conditions were applied to three replicates of each material. As designated

by the FDOT-SMO condition 1 represents optimum moisture condition.









Conditions 2, 3, and 3B represent outdoor ambient condition. Conditions 4 and 5 represent

wetting and drying conditions.

* Condition 1: Sample is packed to optimum moisture and tested via MR.
* Condition 2: Sample is packed to optimum moisture and then set outside for 7 days prior to
MR testing.

* Condition 3: Sample from condition 2 put back outside for 7 additional days (14 total)
prior to MR testing.

* Condition 3B: Sample from condition 3 put back outside for 7 additional days (21 total)
prior to MR testing.

* Condition 4: Sample is packed to optimum moisture and then dried in oven at 110F for 2
days before testing.

* Condition 5: Sample from condition 4 is soaked for 4 days and then re-tested.

6.1.2.2 Loxahatchee and Miami

The following conditions were applied to three replicates of each material. As designated

by the FDOT-SMO condition 1 represents optimum moisture condition. Conditions 2, 3, and 3B

represent outdoor ambient condition. Conditions 4 through 10 represent wetting and drying

conditions.

* Condition 1: Sample is packed to optimum moisture and tested via MR.
* Condition 2: Sample is packed to optimum moisture and then set outside for 7 days prior to
MR testing.

* Condition 3: Sample from condition 2 put back outside for 7 additional days (14 total)
prior to MR testing.

* Condition 3B: Sample from condition 3 put back outside for 7 additional days (21 total)
prior to MR testing.

* Condition 4: Sample is packed to optimum moisture and then dried in 110F oven for 2
days before MR testing.

* Condition 5: Sample from condition 4 soaked for 4 days and then re-tested.
* Condition 6: Sample from condition 5 dried in 110F oven for 2 days and then re-tested.
* Condition 7: Sample from condition 6 soaked for 4 days and then re-tested.
* Condition 8: Sample from condition 7 dried in 110F oven for 2 days and then re-tested.
* Condition 9: Sample from condition 8 soaked for 4 days and then re-tested.
* Condition 10: Sample from condition 9 dried in 110F oven for 2 days and then re-tested.


76









6.1.2.3 Georgia

The following conditions were applied to two replicates for optimum moisture and outdoor

ambient conditions, and one replicate for oven drying condition. Condition 1 represents optimum

moisture condition. Conditions 2, 3, and 4 represent outdoor ambient condition. Condition 5

represents oven drying condition.

* Condition 1: Sample is packed to optimum moisture and tested via MR.
* Condition 2: Sample from condition 1 set outside for 2 days prior to MR testing.
* Condition 3: Sample from condition 2 put back outside for 5 additional days (7 total) prior
to MR testing.

* Condition 4: Sample from condition 3 put back outside for 7 additional days (14 total)
prior to MR testing.

6.2 Response of Laboratory Compacted Specimens to Environmental Conditioning

This section will introduce the response of laboratory-compacted specimens of unbound

aggregate that are exposed to optimum moisture, outdoor ambient, and wetting and drying

cycles. Please note that resilient modulus tests with time at constant optimum moisture content

were not conducted in this study. However, McClellan et al. (2000) indicate that aging of

specimens at constant optimum moisture for up to 28-days had no observable effect on resilient

modulus.

6.2.1 Optimum Moisture

Sample preparation for FFRC and MR Test was similar and discussed in detail in Chapter

4. Figure 6-1 presents variation of the resilient modulus with bulk stress for three replicates of

each material. The bulk stress used here is the sum of the confining stresses and the actual

applied cyclic stress deviatorr stress). The procedure to find the resilient modulus includes fifteen

loading sequences (100 cycles per sequence) with a combination of five levels of confining

pressures (3,5, 10, 15, and 20 psi) and varying levels of deviator stress.












55000

50000

45000

40000
a.
'35000

* 30000
o
2 25000
r
20000
-
15000

10000

5000

0


0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Bulk Stress (psi)


A
























70 80 90 100


[-eLOXAHATCHEE --NEWBERRY *OCALA MIAMI GEORGIA


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Bulk Stress (psi)
-- LOXAHATCHEE -- NEWBERRY -- OCALA -- MIAMI -- GEORGIA


Figure 6-1. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress. A) Replicate 1.
Replicate 3.


B) Replicate 2. C)


55000

50000

45000

40000

35000

S30000
o
S25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

0


1 I










55000
C
50000

45000

S40000

35000

S30000

S25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Bulk Stress (psi)
-*- LOXAHATCHEE -- NEWBERRY -- OCALA -*- MIAMI


Figure 6-1. Continued.

It can be easily seen from the figures that the resilient modulus increases with an increase

of bulk stress while at constant moisture. This behavior may be explained as when the bulk stress

increases the normal contact forces between particles increases, which results in better

interlocking and frictional characteristics.

6.2.2 Drying

In this section, the influence of removal of water (drying) on the materials is discussed.

The results were produced by placement of the specimens in outdoor shade environment and

low-heat oven. As anticipated, both environmental conditioning methods produced relatively

slow drying behavior and this behavior is depicted in the figures. Based on the material behavior

observed under free-free resonant column testing (the results produced by placement of the

specimen in ambient conditions either on laboratory bench or in outdoor shade environments are









almost identical) preparation for laboratory ambient environment of materials was deemed

unnecessary.

6.2.2.1 Outdoor Ambient

Figures 6-2, 6-3 and 6-4 present resilient modulus test results for each of the five materials

while being exposed to outdoor ambient air for replicate 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Figures 6-2 A,

6-3 A, and 6-4 A demonstrate that placement of specimens initially at optimum moisture content

(time = 0) in outdoor shade drives water out from each replicate of each material. Variation of

resilient modulus at a representative bulk stress of 20 psi (MR (20)) with moisture content as the

material dries from optimum water content, both in arithmetic scale, is presented in Figures 6-2

C, 6-3 C, and 6-4 C for each replicate of every material. Variation of MR (20) with time in days,

both in arithmetic scales are presented in Figures 6-2 B, 6-3 B, and 6-4 B for each replicate of

every material. In Florida, the typical value of bulk stress is 20 psi for base course that

corresponds to a commonly used asphalt concrete thickness of 2 to 4 inches.

It should be noted from the Figures 6-2 C, 6-3 C, and 6-4 C that for all replicates, the

materials undergoes a notable increase, almost more than double, in resilient modulus as water is

lost. The moisture content and modulus change occurs continually for 21 days, and all five

materials demonstrate similar trends, but as was in the FFRC test the rate of change and

magnitude of the effect are different between materials. It should be noted that the Georgia

granite changes the most, while change in Newberry limerock is the smallest.




































0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Time (Days)
-- LOXAHATCHEE -- NEWBERRY OCALA -- MIAMI -- GEORGIA



55000
50000
5000
45000

40000

.35000

30000

S25000

20000

S15000

10000

5000

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Time
-*- LOXAHATCHEE -U- NEWBERRY OCALA -*- MIAMI -- GEORGIA


Figure 6-2. The resilient modulus test results of replicate 1.












55000

50000

45000

40000
0C
. 35000

I 30000

S25000

. 20000

15000

10000

5000

0


0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00

Moisture Content
-*-LOXAHATCHEE -- NEWBERRY OCALA -- MIAMI GEORGIA



Figure 6-2. Continued.


13

12 A

11

10

-9



O
-8


o7
S6

S5

4

3

2



0
0 -------~ i i i i i i 4,----------------

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Time (Days)
-- LOXAHATCHEE -- NEWBERRY -*- OCALA MIAMI -- GEORGIA



Figure 6-3. The resilient modulus test results of replicate 2.












55000

50000

45000

40000

35000

30000

25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

0


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Time
-- LOXAHATCHEE -- NEWBERRY -- OCALA -*- MIAMI GEORGIA


C























1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00

Moisture Content
-- LOXAHATCHEE -=- NEWBERRY OCALA -- MIAMI -- GEORGIA


Figure 6-3. Continued.


55000

50000

45000

40000
C.
E 35000
In
S30000

S25000

. 20000

S15000

10000

5000

0
0.(


)0
00o





































0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Time (Days)
-- LOXAHATCHEE -- NEWBERRY -- OCALA -- MIAMI



55000

50000

45000

40000

35000

S30000

S25000

S20000

S15000

10000

5000

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Time
-*-LOXAHATCHEE -U- NEWBERRY -- OCALA -*- MIAMI


Figure 6-4. The resilient modulus test results of replicate 3.










55000
C
50000

45000

S40000

S35000

30000

| 25000

.2 20000

o 15000

10000

5000

0
0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00
Moisture Content
-*- LOXAHATCHEE -U- NEWBERRY -- OCALA -- MIAMI


Figure 6-4. Continued.

6.2.2.2 Oven Drying

As described in Chapter 4, the specimens were put in an oven at low heat (110F) for

relatively slow drying, and the specimens underwent several oven drying processes during

wetting and drying cycles. Influence of oven drying on the material response is shown for

replicates 1, 2, and 3 in Figures 6-5, 6-6, and 6-7, respectively. As clearly demonstrated, the

modulus increases in Figures 6-5 B, 6-6 B, and 6-7 B corresponds directly with the moisture

reductions in Figures 6-5 A, 6-6 A, and 6-7 A.

If the outdoor ambient, and oven drying results are compared, it can be noted clearly that at

any type of drying produces a notable increase in resilient modulus. It should also be noted that

in drying all five materials demonstrate similar trends, but the rate of change and magnitude of

the effect are different between materials, and the resilient modulus of Ocala and Newberry

limerock (almost identical) changes the most. This would suggest that the hypothesized suction









mechanism has more effect on resilient modulus of Ocala and Newberry. Remember that the

effect was more pronounced at small-strain for Miami and Loxahatchee.

6.2.3 Wetting

For wetting, the specimens were put in water tanks to observe the influence of addition of

water, and the influence of wetting on the material response is shown for replicates 1, 2, and 3 in

Figures 6-5, 6-6, and 6-7, respectively. Placement of a nearly dry specimen in a soaking tank

allows the materials slowly to absorb water and this is demonstrated as the increasing trends in

Figures 6-5 A, 6-6 A, and 6-7 A. The decreasing trends in Figures 6-5 B, 6-6 B, and 6-7 B

represent the corresponding decrease in resilient modulus as water is absorbed. As with the tests

during drying, all five materials demonstrate similar trends, but the rate of change and the

magnitude of the effect are different between materials. Figures 6-5, 6-6, and 6-7 also reveals

that the drying and wetting responses of given materials do not follow the same relationship. It

should be noted that in Figure 6-6 B and Figure 6-7 B the second drying cycles show illogical

behavior of a decrease in resilient modulus during drying. This is assumed to be a technical error

or a clerical error during recording of data.

6.2.4 Wetting & Drying Cycles

This section will describe the observed response due to repeated application of drying and

then wetting. The materials were subjected to cycles of drying and wetting, as much as the

stability of the materials allowed. It is noted that the material response appears to be reasonably

repeatable. Subsequent responses to drying and wetting are similar to the initial response. This

suggests that the underlying mechanism for the response is largely reversible.




































0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Time (Days)
-*- LOXAHATCHEE -- NEWBERRY OCALA -- MIAMI -- GEORGIA



80000
75000
70000
65000
60000
". 55000
o
.- 50000
2 45000
S40000
M 35000
S30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Time
-- LOXAHATCHEE -U- NEWBERRY OCALA -*- MIAMI GEORGIA


Figure 6-5. The resilient modulus test results of replicate 1 for wetting and drying.












13

12

11

10

9

8

S7
0
S6

m 5
o
4

3

2

1

0
0






65000

60000

55000

50000

E. 45000

40000

S35000

o 30000

c 25000

'g 20000

15000

10000

5000

0


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Time (Days)
-- LOXAHATCHEE -- NEWBERRY -- OCALA -- MIAMI -- GEORGIA


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Time
-- LOXAHATCHEE -U- NEWBERRY -- OCALA -*- MIAMI


Figure 6-6. The resilient modulus test results of replicate 2 for wetting and drying.












13

12

11

10

9

8

7

S6



4

3

2

1

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Time (Days)
-*- LOXAHATCHEE -=- NEWBERRY -t- OCALA -*- MIAMI









6.3 Comparisons of MR Test Results and FFRC Test Results for Drying Samples

This section is dedicated to compare and discuss the differences or similarities in material

responses to FFRC test and MR test. Both test results showed increase in modulus for all

materials while there is a loss in moisture. Another significant behavior observed was that these

responses are largely reversible, such that the increased modulus decreases to the modulus at

optimum moisture, if not lower, when water is added. These behaviors indicate that the

hypothesized mechanism, which is the increase in modulus is due to the effective confining

stress created by the negative pore water pressure (suction) in the material, is plausible. The

Figure 6-8 shows variation of Young's modulus (E, ksi) and resilient modulus (MR, ksi) at a bulk

stress of 20 psi for same material with moisture content, in arithmetic scale. Because the

variation of MR with moisture content is not easily observed in this figure, the data were

replotted in Figure 6-9.

Here, modulus ratio is plotted on logarithmic vertical axis, or the modulus at any time (E,

MR) divided by the modulus at maximum dry density and optimum moisture content

immediately following compaction (Eopt, MRopt). Several observations are apparent from these

figures, including:

* It is interesting to make that the small-strain Young's modulus (E) and the resilient
modulus (MR) at 20-psi bulk stress at optimum moisture content are nearly the same. This
could be of practical value for future investigations.

* However, it is readily noted that the change in Young's modulus with drying is much more
dramatic. As described by Cho and Santamarina (2001), the effective confinement due to
suction is maintained at small-strain, whereas the resilient modulus test produces larger
strains that break the influence of suction. Despite this difference, it is still noted that
drying can produce a change in resilient modulus of approximately double.

* For the limerock materials the change in Young's modulus with drying in many orders of
magnitude, with Loxahatchee, Newberry, and Ocala changing by nearly a factor of 100,
and Miami by nearly 1000. However, it is interesting to note that the change in Georgia
granite is comparatively only about a factor of 10. Clearly, the effects of suction at small
strain are more significant on the limerock materials.












1000
FF-RC
A
900 MR

800


700

600


Z 500


uJ 400
\
300


200


100 Oc'i Driii 21 D.ij\
14 D.i, ""-DIJ s iI D.i.

0 *-----j
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
W%


1300
FF-RC
1200 MR B

1100

1000

900

800 ,

700

600

S500

400

300

200
Oven Drying
100 21 Days 14 Days 7 Days Da.I
o-----* -- *------ ~---
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
W%


Figure 6-8. Variations of Young's modulus and resilient modulus with moisture content. A)
Newberry. B) Ocala. C) Loxahatchee. D) Miami. E) Georgia.













-FF-RC

SMR


900


800


700


600
ue,

S 500
"o

uJ 400


300


200


100


0


21 D.is 14 D;i D.i '"
.


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11


II D.ni~


2300
2200
2100
2000
1900
1800
1700
1600
1500
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0


O 'n Dr in-_,
*


21 D.i\j 14 D.Is
D.i, ,


2 3


Figure 6-8. Continued.


O 'iI Dr. in_,

*


FF -RC

SMR


6 7


- D.ai%


8 9













-FF-RC

MR


600



500



c 400
a


m 300
UJ


200


O II Di-iin_
21 14 D.is D.is


0 1



Figure 6-8. Continued.


100










0

V* 10


w
Jm Oven Drying








1


3
W%


-FF-RC
* MR


21 Days


S
0


I D.ai%


14 Days


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
w%


Figure 6-9. Variations of normalized Young's modulus and resilient modulus with moisture
content. A) Newberry. B) Ocala. C) Loxahatchee. D) Miami. E) Georgia.


Ii D.ni~
S











































1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
w%




-FF-RC

MR




















Oven Drying 21 ).i
14 Days
* Days
01 s


0 1 2 3 4


5 6 7 8 9 10


Figure 6-9. Continued.


-FF.RC

. MR


3ven Drying

*


21 D.i\s


14 Days
*


7 Days
*


0 oi


0



a


uJ
IU


1000









100



















1
0


0:



LU
10









1











1000 L)
----. MR






100







,U
10






21 D.i D.
O i" DDi14D.l' .
** Il D.I? .

1 12458 9
0 1 2 4 6 78
0 4w%




-FF-RC
100

MR








2
"c 10

Ig



21 Days
7Days

14 F 6av C



0 2 3 4 5



Figure 6-9. Continued.









CHAPTER 7
CLOSURE

7.1 Summary of Findings

An investigation of characteristics of unbound aggregates used for base course in the state

of Florida was performed to study the mechanical properties, to observe and document the

stiffness gains with time and under varying environmental conditions, and to identify potential

mechanisms causing these changes. Small-strain moduli of laboratory-compacted specimens

were investigated via FFRC test to determine the stiffness properties of each material under

various conditions. Five aggregate sources were selected from those commonly used in Florida.

Mines in Newberry, Ocala, and Miami where chosen to represent limerock sources from

northern, central, and southern Florida, respectively. In addition, a limestone-based shell-rock

from Loxahatchee, FL, and a granite-based graded aggregate from Georgia were included in the

study. Sampling of each of these materials was conducted following standard FDOT procedures.

In addition to the fresh samples, two intact field cores that were exposed to cycles of wetting and

drying similar to the laboratory-compacted specimens were investigated. Following construction,

specimens of each material were exposed to one of four conditions as follows: ambient, constant

moisture, oven drying, and wetting. Finally, the SMO investigated these same fresh materials via

the resilient modulus test. The following are the findings of these investigations:

* While being held at constant moisture, the small-strain modulus of all materials tested is
not constant, but increases with increasing time. The rate of modulus increase with time
decreases with time. That is, the largest change occurs early, and then gradually
diminishes. While the general trend of increasing modulus with time is common to all
materials tested, the rate of increase is considerably different. The Miami limerock displays
a very significant increase with time, while the increase for the Georgia granite is relatively
small.

* Placement of the specimens in either ambient condition (laboratory bench or outdoor shade
environments) or in an oven slowly drives water from the material. As the water is lost due
to drying exposure, the materials undergo a dramatic increase in small-strain modulus. The
moisture content and modulus change occurs most significantly at the beginning of drying









exposure, after which the rate of change decreases with increasing time. As with the tests
at constant moisture, all five materials demonstrate similar trends, but the rate of change
and the magnitude of the effect are different between materials. Once again, the Miami
limerock changes the most, while the change in Georgia granite is smallest.

Placing specimens in a water tank allows the material to slowly absorb water, leading to an
increase in moisture content in the material. The increase in moisture content causes the
materials to undergo a dramatic decrease in small-strain modulus. The moisture content
and modulus change occurs most significantly at the beginning of exposure, after which
the rates decrease with increasing time. As with the tests during drying, all five materials
demonstrate similar trends, but the rate of change and the magnitude of the effect are
different between materials.

The drying and wetting responses of a given material do not follow the same relationships.
Rather, there is a hysteretic phenomenon whereby a different modulus is measured while
drying to certain moisture content than while wetting to the same moisture content.

With respect to cycles of drying and wetting, it is observed that the material response is
repeatable. Subsequent responses to drying and wetting are very similar to the initial
response. It is observed that these trends are displayed for the Florida limerock and shell-
rock materials, and for the granite-based graded aggregate from Georgia.

As for the two intact field cores, it is observed that the response of the field cores appears
very similar to that of the fresh, laboratory compacted specimens. Even after 10 years of
service, the softening while wetting followed by a return to high stiffness when nearly dry,
appears to be very repeatable and reversible. The response of field cores is similar to that
of a laboratory compacted specimen of material from the same general source in south
Florida and aging has not significantly altered the material response.

The resilient modulus increases with an increase of bulk stress at optimum moisture.

The removal of water leads to a notable increase in the larger-strain resilient modulus. The
rate of change and magnitude of the effect are different between materials as was observed
with the small-strain modulus. It should be noted that the Georgia granite changes the
most, while the change in Newberry limerock is the smallest.

As water is added to the materials, the larger-strain resilient modulus decreases in all
materials. All five materials demonstrate similar trends, but the rate of change and the
magnitude of the effect are different between materials.

As with the small-strain modulus, the drying and wetting responses of given materials do
not follow the same relationship. Rather, there is a hysteretic phenomenon whereby a
different modulus is measured while drying to certain moisture content than while wetting
to the same moisture content. With respect to cycles of drying and wetting, it is observed
that the material response is repeatable. Subsequent responses to drying and wetting are
very similar to the initial response.









* It is observed that the small-strain modulus is much larger than the resilient modulus,
indicating a stiffness reduction with increased strain.

* Removal of water causes a larger relative change in small-strain modulus than in resilient
modulus. However, the addition of water reduces these modulus increases back to the
values obtained at optimum moisture.

7.2 Conclusion

The stiffness or modulus of an unbound aggregate base course is not constant, but is

significantly influenced by changes in time, moisture, and stress. The evidence suggests that

these changes are explained by the science of unsaturated soil mechanics: changes in moisture or

moisture distribution results in changes in internal pore pressure, which affect the effective

confining pressure constraining the material. The influence of this phenomenon is observed but

is not as dramatic at higher strain.

7.3 Recommendation

1. The suction in the materials exposed to constant moisture could be measured simultaneously
with small-strain modulus, to observe the related behaviors.

2. Samples from materials exposed to wetting and drying could be taken and observed under
SEM for possible crystallization immediately after tested for small-strain modulus.

3. The increase in stiffness with time could be significant for design and specification
development, therefore means to answer the following questions should be found: At what
time following laboratory compaction of test specimens should resilient modulus be
determined if one expects the results to change with time? At what time following
compaction in the field should stiffness or modulus be determined if this parameter is
employed for quality acceptance and if one expects the value to change with time?










APPENDIX A
GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND MATERIAL PROPERTIES


0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10
Grain Diameter (mm)
NEWBERRY OCALA -- MIAMI LOXAHATCHEE -- GEORGIA


Figure A-1. Grain size distribution of materials collected from the 2nd mini-stockpiles
(replicates) of each source.





















100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0


0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Grain Diameter (mm)
-*-NEWBERRY -x- OCALA -- MIAMI -- LOXAHATCHEE -*- GEORGIA


Figure A-2. Grain size distribution of materials collected from the 3rd replicates of each source.


1/




_ __ ^ __.. __ ^ -^--



















Table A-1. Material parameters of 2nd replicates.
Material
Parameter Georgia Loxahatchee Miami Newberry Ocala
Granite Shell Rock Limerock Limerock Limerock
Unified
Uifed GW-GM GP-GM GW-GM GM GM
Classification
D5o (mm)
Mean Grain 5.00 0.75 12.00 2.40 2.40
Size
Dio (mm)
Effective 0.05 0.075 0.2 0.035 0.02
Grain Size
Cu-The
Uniformity 156 34.7 90 142.9 250
Coefficient
Cz-The
Coefficient of 3.103 0.185 5.625 0.386 0.625
Curvature
Specific 2.7000 2.7091 2.7072 2.7196 2.7203
Gravity
Void Ratio at
VoidRatioat 0.1889 0.403 0.285 0.456 0.399
Optimum
Plastic Limit NP NP NP NP NP
Plasticity NP NP NP NP NP
Index
Liquid Limit NP NP NP NP NP



















Table A-2. Material parameters of 3rd replicates.
Material
Parameter Georgia Loxahatchee Miami Newberry Ocala
Granite Shell Rock Limerock Limerock Limerock
Unified
Uifed GW-GM GP-GM GW-GM GM GM
Classification
D5o (mm)
Mean Grain 3.80 2.00 6.85 3.50 2.60
Size
Dio (mm)
Effective 0.04 0.085 0.11 0.05 0.02
Grain Size
Cu-The
Uniformity 160 69.4 100 150 250
Coefficient
Cz-The
Coefficient of 2.316 0.080 3.306 0.540 0.625
Curvature
Specific 2.7000 2.7091 2.7072 2.7196 2.7203
Gravity
Void Ratio at
0.189 0.395 0.280 0.459 0.400
Optimum
Plastic Limit NP NP NP NP NP
Plasticity NP NP NP NP NP
Index
Liquid Limit NP NP NP NP NP











APPENDIX B
NEWBERRY INDIVIDUAL SMALL-STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS


1200



1000



S800



S600



o 400



200



0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Moisture Content (%)

Figure B-1. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, outdoor ambient.


13
12
11







0
0
29







o4

3


1
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750

Time (days)

Figure B-2. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, outdoor ambient.














1000


S800


600

gI
400


200



0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750

Time (Days)

Figure B-3. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, outdoor ambient.


1200



1000



"6 800



-n
2
X 600











0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Moisture Content (%)
Figure B-4. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, outdoor ambient.












13

12

11

10

9

8

I7

06
O
S5 "

.a 4
o
0
3

2

1

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95
Time (days)

Figure B-5. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, outdoor ambient.


1200



1000



800o
oe

J600



400



200



0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95
Time (Days)

Figure B-6. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, outdoor ambient.
















800




M 600




I 400
o


200




0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Moisture Content (%)

Figure B-7. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, outdoor ambient.



13

12

11




8





3
10
90

o 6


o 4

3





0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750

Time (days)

Figure B-8. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, outdoor ambient.














800



w 600

Io

& 400



200



0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750

Time (Days)

Figure B-9. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, outdoor ambient.

1400


1200


,1000


2 800


600


400


200



0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Moisture Content (%)
Figure B-10. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory
ambient.











13

12
11

10

-9

8
C

06

5 4


3
2


0
15









0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750

Time (days)

Figure B- 1. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.



1400


1200


S1000


800




0
6 400


200



0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750

Time (Days)

Figure B-12. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.

















1000


S800



7 600

C
400


200


0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Moisture Content (%)

Figure B-13. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, laboratory
ambient.



13

12

11

10

9

8

|7

0 6


"4

3

2

1

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750

Time (days)

Figure B-14. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient.
















1000


n 800


600

I
400


200


0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750

Time (Days)

Figure B-15. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient.



1000




800




e 600
2



S400

I


200




0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Moisture Content (%)

Figure B-16. Variation of Young's with moisture content, replicate 3, laboratory ambient.











13

12

11

10

9

8

7

06

'5

o 4

3

2

1

0
0 25 50 75
Time (days)

Figure B-17. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient.



1000



800



a 600



M 400



200



0
0 25 50 75
Time (Days)

Figure B-18. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient.













60


50






S20






10
eI









0


11.00 11.25 11.50 11.75 12.00 12.25 12.50 12.75
Moisture Content (%)

Figure B-19. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, constant
moisture.


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600

Time (days)

Figure B-20. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moisture.




112


13.00


650 700


- -















60



45


I
j30
0


15



0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 6!
Time (Days)

Figure B-21. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture.


90

80

70

S60

S50

240
C /
S30

20

10

0
11.00 11.50 12.00 12.50
Moisture Content (%)

Figure B-22. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant
moisture.


50 700


13.00











13

12

11

10

9




06
4-
S6
6. 5



1

0
o 4
3

2


0


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700

Time (days)

Figure B-23. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture.



80


70


60


50


S40



0
20


10


0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700

Time (Days)

Figure B-24. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture.











80
75
70
65
60
S55
50
- 45
' 40
35
30
. 25
20
15
10
5
0


Moisture Content (%)

Figure B-25. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, constant
moisture.


13 ..
12 -1 0


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700

Time (days)

Figure B-26. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, constant moisture.














80
75
70
65
60
55
50
-45
40
35
?30
o 25
20
15
10
5
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600

Time (Days)

Figure B-27. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture.


900



750



S600
-- ~ D1 --W1

S450



300



150



0


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Moisture Content (%)


Figure B-28. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate
drying.


1, wetting and


650 700


--D2


1











13

12

11

10

9

S8

| -*-D1 -*-W1 *D2
06

5
4
.1S 4
0
3

2

1

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90
Time (days)
Figure B-29. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying.



900



750



600



S450
SI -0-D1 -*-W1 -*-D2


300
0


150



0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90
Time (Days)

Figure B-30. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying.











900



750



S600

9-D1 --W1

450



S300



150



0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Moisture Content (%)
Figure B-3 1. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, wetting and
drying.


800


700


600


- 500


S400


300
0
200


100


0


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1516 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Time (Days)
Figure B-32. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying.


-*-D1 -*-W1











13
12
11
10

9


E7
6 -+-D1 -*W1

.5

0
7k 3
2
1


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14151617 18 19202122232425262728293031 3233 343536

Time (days)
Figure B-33. Variation Moisture Content with Time, replicate 2, wetting and drying.


800


700


600


S500
2 -+D1 -*-W1
400


S300
C
l0
200


100


0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Moisture Content (%)

Figure B-34. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, wetting and
drying.











14
13
12
11
10

9

C
S7 -D1 -W1
0
06




70
6 4
3
2
















100
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Time (days)
Figure B-35. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying.


800


700


600





500



0
200


100



0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Time (Days)

Figure B-36. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying.











APPENDIX C
OCALA INDIVIDUAL SMALL-STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS


1300
1200
1100
1000
= 900
800
S700
E 600
g'500
| 400
300
200
100
0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --- i---- I --------i
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Moisture Content (%)

Figure C-1. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory
ambient.


12

11

10

9

8

S7

06

.3
I to 4



2

1
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Time (days)

Figure C-2. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.
U)-4







Figure C-2. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.










1300

1200

1100

1000

900

S800
S700

2 600

500

$ 400
300

200

100
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Time (Days)

Figure C-3. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.


100

90

80

-70

_60

150

30



20

10


10.25


10.50 10.75
Moisture Content (%)


11.00


Figure C-4. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, constant moisture.


I


S41











12

11

10

9

8

-7

6
o
05

a 4

3.

2

1

0


p~~-


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650
Time (days)

Figure C-5. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moisture.



100

90

80

S70

60



40
Iso



30

20

10

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650
Time (Days)

Figure C-6. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture.









































Moisture Content (%)

Figure C-7. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant moisture.


7
6

05
0

4

3

2

1

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Time (days)


400 450 500 550 600 650


Figure C-8. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture.





10.00


10.25


10.50


10.75


11.00


11.25














90

80

70

g60
I
50

040

S30

20

10

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Time (Days)

Figure C-9. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture.


10.50


10.75


11.00
Moisture Content (%)


Figure C-10. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, constant
moisture.


11.50


I I I I











12

11

10

9

8



6
-7


o
0
0 5


3 4

3

2

1

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650
Time (days)

Figure C- 1. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, constant moisture.



100

90

80

70

60

50

40

S30

20

10

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650
Time (Days)

Figure C-12. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture.













1000

900

800

700

I 600 --D1
U'
3 500 W1


2D2
400
-W2
300

200 -*-W3

100 D4

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Moisture Content (%)

Figure C-13. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, wetting and
drying.


12

10 <1 r
10 -'--1


0
U
E
o
u
g


9 -*-W1

8 0D2
*- W2
7
--D3
6
-+-W3
SD4
4

3

2

1

0


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Time (days)

Figure C-14. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying.











1100

1000
r//
900

800

700

S600
S- W1
Z500 D2
Tm* D2(
400W

300 -- D3

200 -W3

100 -- D4


0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425
Time (Days)

Figure C-15. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying.



1500
1400
1300
1200
1100
10oo00
S900 --1-

S800
I 700
M t600 -*-D 1
F 500 -1-W1
400 "- D2
300 -W2
200
--D3
100
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Moisture Content (%)

Figure C-16. Variation of Young's with Moisture Content, replicate 2, wetting and drying.













11

10

9

8

7
6




e4
- 3
3

2

1

0


-*-D1

-o-W1

* D2

"W3

- D3


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Time (days)

Figure C-17. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying.


1400
1300
1200
1100
-1000
. 900
800
700
600
500
)' 400
300
200
100
0


--D1

-*-W1


-"-W3
-*-D3


0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500

Time (Days)

Figure C-18. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying.










1400
1300
1200
1100
ooo1000
S900


S700 -D1
S600


400 D2
300
W2
200
100 --D3
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Moisture Content (%)
Figure C-19. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, wetting and
drying.


12


10 1 K


91 --D1


7

06
0
05

34

3

2

1

0


-*-W1

S0D2


-'-D3


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Time (days)
Figure C-20. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying.











1400
1300
1200
1100
.1000
900
2 800
| 700
S-"D1 4
600
S-*-W1
S500
S400 -D2
300 --W2
200 -D3
100
0
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500

Time (Days)
Figure C-21. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying.











APPENDIX D
LOXAHATCHEE INDIVIDUAL SMALL-STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS


1400


1200


_1000


.2 800


600


400


200



0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Moisture Content (%)

Figure D-1. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory
ambient.


11

10

9

8



I6

S5

I4



2

1

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Time (days)

Figure D-2. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.











1400


1200


-1000
x

- 800


i 600


> 400


200


0


Figure


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Time (Days)

D-3. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.


1400


1200


1000


S800


600


400


200


0
o -- -- --"-- -- -- ---- .---- .--- ,

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Moisture Content (%)

Figure D-4. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, laboratory
ambient.


550 600











10

9

8

7




0
o
4

3

2

1

0
0 50 100 150 200 250
Time (days)

Figure D-5. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient.



1400


1200


.1000


3 800


A 600


> 400


200


0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Time (Days)

Figure D-6. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient.














1200


1000


800


600


400


200


0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Moisture Content (%)
Figure D-7. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, laboratory
ambient.


550 600


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Time (days)

Figure D-8. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient.











1400
1300
1200
1100
-1000
900
2 800

X 700
600
S500
> 400
300
200
100
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Time (Days)

Figure D-9. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient.


40


35


S30


25

20


S15

10


5


n


10.00


10.25


10.50
Moisture Content (%)


10.75


11.00


Figure D-10. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, constant
moisture.














12.00


11.75


11.50


11.25


S11.00
o

10.75


S10.50


10.25


10.00


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Time (days)

Figure D- 1l. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moisture.




45

40

35

30






15


10

5



0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Time (Days)

Figure D-12. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture.


111)1ll11 Illrl











55

50

45

40

35

30

S25
20


15

10

5

0
9.00 9.10 9.20 9.30 9.40 9.50 9.60 9.70 9.80 9.90
Moisture Content (%)

Figure D-13. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant
moisture.


10.00

9.90

9.80

9.70

S9.60

: 9.50


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550
Time (days)

Figure D-14. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture.


10.00


600 650

































0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650
Time (Days)

Figure D-15. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture.


9.50


Figure D-16.


9.60 9.70 9.80 9.90 10.00 10.10
Moisture Content (%)
Variation of Young's with moisture content, replicate 3, constant moisture.


10.20











10.25


10.00



9.75

0

E 9.50
U)


9.25



9.00
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700

Time (days)

Figure D-17. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, constant moisture.




55

50

45

40

S35
S3

S25

S20

15

10

5

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700

Time (Days)

Figure D-18. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture.











1650

1500

1350

1200

e,1050

3900

Z 750 D1

S600 -*-W1

> 450 D2
W2
300
-* D3
150

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Moisture Content (%)

Figure D-19. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, wetting and
drying.


-0-W1

-0D2

-"W2

-*-D3


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Time (days)

Figure D-20. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying.


650 700











1650

1500 /

1350 /

S 1200
DD1
1050

900 W1

750 -02

I 600 / W2

450 --D3

300

150

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700

Time (Days)

Figure D-21. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying.


1350

1200

1050

900

750
D01
600 --W1

S-D2
450
--W2

300 -*-D3

150 W3
-D4
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Moisture Content (%)

Figure D-22. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, wetting and
drying.










11

10 -D1

9 -u-W1

8 -D2

7 W2

6 -D3
05











Time (days)
Figure D-23. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying.
1300










1200
1100
1000
1300 --D1


e 800 '-W1
11 700


700 D2
S 600





200 --D4
100
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Time (Days)

Figure D-24. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying.













1400

1200

1000

S800 -4-D1
S -G-W1

S600 D2

-*-W2
400
-*-D3

200 *W3
o D4


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Moisture Content (%)
Figure D-25. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture, content, replicate 3, wetting and
drying.



11

10 -D1 W A
/1


9 -*-W1

8 --D2

7 -W2


-*-D3

* W3

--D4


f


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550
Time (days)
Figure D-26. Variation of moisture content with time replicate 3, wetting and drying.












1400

1200
~D1
1000

S800 D2

S600 -- W2
S-*- D3
400 W
S| f*W3
200 -- D4

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700

Time (Days)
Figure D-27. Variation of Young's modulus with time replicate 3, wetting and drying.











APPENDIX E
MIAMI INDIVIDUAL SMALL-STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS


2500

2250

2000

1750

m 1500

S1250

c 1000

750

500

250

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Moisture Content (%)

Figure E-1. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory
ambient.


9

8

7

6


5

4

S3

2

1

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Time (days)

Figure E-2. Variation of Moisture content with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.




































Figure E


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 4;
Time (Days)

-3. Variation of Young's Modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Moisture Content (%)
Figure E-4. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, laboratory
ambient.


50 500




































0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Time (days)

e E-5. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient.


2500

2250

2000

S1750

S1500

1250

S1000

. 750

500

250

0


450 500


0 50 100 150 200 250
Time (Days)


300 350 400 450 500


Figure E-6. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient.


8

7

6





0
.5
, 4







1

0


Figur

































0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Moisture Content (%)
Figure E-7. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, laboratory


0 50 100 150 200 250
Time (days)


300 350 400 450 500


ambient.

Figure E-8. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient.











2500

2250

2000

1750

S1500

S1250

S1000

> 750

500

250

0


Figure I


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Time (Days)

E-9. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient.


7.50 7.75 8.00 8.25
Moisture Content (%)

Figure E-10. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, constant
moisture.


150 500











9


8

7

6

5


0



o
2

1

0


IIce t p


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Time (days)

Figure E- 1. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moisture.




50

45

40

35

S30

25

D 20

> 15

10

5


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Time (Days)

Figure E-12. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture.
















45

40

S35

30


15
g 20



10

5

0
7.00


7.25 7.50 7.75 8.(


Moisture Content (%)

Figure E-13. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant
moisture.


9

8

7

6






0
o4



.5


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Time (days)

Figure E-14. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture.


550 600













45

40

35

S30



20o

15

10

5

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Time (Days)

Figure E-15. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture.



55

50

45

40

~ 35

530

5 25

20
20

15

10

5

0
7.25 7.50 7.75 8.00 8.25
Moisture Content (%)

Figure E-16. Variation of Young's with moisture content, replicate 3, constant moisture.











9

8

7

6
.A

S,.
-5


S4

| 3
0
2

1

0


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Time (days)

Figure E-17. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, constant moisture.




50

45

40

? 35

S30

S25

S20

) 15

10

5


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Time (Days)

Figure E-18. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture.











3000

2750

2500

2250

S2000

5 1750

S1500

1250

o 1000

750

500

250

0


-D1

- D-W

--D2

--W2

--D3


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Moisture Content (%)

Figure E-19. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, wetting and
drying.



8


7


6




44
t -. -W1
S-D2

L 3\ -W2

0 V D3






0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Time (days)

Figure E-20. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying.











3000

2750

2500

2250

S2000

2 1750
o
1500

8 1250

o 1000

750

500

250

0



Figure I


--D1

-0-W1

- D2

--W2

-- D3


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Moisture Content (%)

Figure E-22. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, wetting and
drying.


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 5
Time (Days)
E-21. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying.


-'D1

-S-W1

--D2

W2

-*D3


i50 600


3000

2750

2500

2250

2000

1750

1500

1250

1000

750

500

250

0














a

7

6

5




JE 3




1

0


"-D1

--W1


-*D2

--W2

-*-D3


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Time (days)

Figure E-23. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying.


3000

2750

2500

2250

, 2000

S1750
3
i 1500

S1250

S1000

750

500

250

0


-- D1




*-D2

--W2

-4- D3


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Time (Days)

Figure E-24. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying.























-*+D1

--W1

*D2

W2

--D3


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Moisture Content (%)

Figure E-25. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, wetting and
drying.


9

8

7

-6
SJI --D1

H W1

0 4 D2


33

II

0

0


550 600


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Time (days)

Figure E-26. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying.


1











3000

2750

2500

2250

e 2000

1750
S-*-W1
1500

1250 D2

1000 --W2

750 D3

500

250

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Time (Days)

Figure E-27. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying.










APPENDIX F
GEORGIA INDIVIDUAL SMALL-STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS


0 1 2 3 4 5
Moisture Content (%)
Figure F-1. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory
ambient.


6


5


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500


Time (days)
Variation of moisture content with time, replicate


Figure F-2.


1, laboratory ambient.

































0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Time (Days)

Figure F-3. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.


0!
0 1 2 3 4 5
Moisture Content (%)
Figure F-4. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, laboratory
ambient.















5



-4

0E




2
0





0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Time (days)

Figure F-5. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient.




700
650
600
550
500
450
S400
350
300
250
o
200
150
100
50
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

Time (Days)

Figure F-6. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient.











700
650

600
550
, 500

.450
3400
350
S300

250
200
150
100
50
0


1 2 3 4 5 (
Moisture Content (%)


Figure F-7. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, laboratory
ambient.


6



5



-4



3
0


U 2



1



0


0 50 100 150 200 250
Time (days)


350 400 450 500


Figure F-8. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient.











700
650
600
550
? 500
"450
5 400
1 350
a 300
: 250
200
150
100
50
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Time (Days)

Figure F-9. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient.


70
65
60
55
50
.m, .


5.00 5.10 5.20 5.30 5.40
Moisture Content (%)

Figure F-10. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate
moisture.


1, constant




















- 'I
0
4 -

S
I 3'
o
3
0


;2-
o

E
0
5

1


01
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

Time (days)

Figure F-11. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moisture.


.~c~--t --


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

Time (Days)

Figure F-12. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture.


ru*L~




















0
5.30 5.40 5.50 5.1
Moisture Content (%)
Figure F-13. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant
moisture.


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Time (days)
Figure F-14. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture.


450 500


0"






































Figure


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 4

Time (Days)
F-15. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture.


50 500


5.00

Figure F-16.


510


5.10
Moisture Content (%)

Variation of Young's with Moisture Content, replicate 3, constant moisture.














OW s 0., 0


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Time (days)

e F-17. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, constant moisture.


450 500


5



-4





U2

0

1


Figure


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Time (Days)
Figure F-18. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture.














450

400

- 350
JC
i 300

S250

200

50


100

50

0


1 2 3 4 5 f


Moisture Content (%)

Figure F-19. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, wetting and
drying.


--D1

-*-W1

-*-D2

-*-W2

-*- D3


275 300


-*-D1

-*-W1

- D2

-*-W2

-*-D3


0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250
Time (days)

Figure F-20. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying.








































Figure F


500

450

400

= 350

300

250

0 200

S150

100

50

0


0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 2
Time (Days)

-21. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying.


o~~~ i


0 1 2 3 4 5
Moisture Content (%)

Figure F-22. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, wetting and
drying.


--D1

-a-W1

--D2

--OW2

--D3


!75 300


-*-D1

-*-W1

--D2

--VW2

-*-D3















5



4


C
0


E1






0
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250
Time (days)

Figure F-23. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying.




500

450

400

3 350

2 300

S250

C 200

150

100

50

0


- D1

--W1

--D2

-W2

- -D3


275 300


--D1

-0-W1

- D2

--W2

-*- D3


0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300

Time (Days)
Figure F-24. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying.











500 1


450

400

S350

D
i 300
~-0-W
S250
D
S200 -*-W

S150 -D:

100

50

0
0 1 2 3 4 5
Moisture Content (%)

Figure F-25. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, wetting and
drying.


0


B 2
o






0
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250
Time (days)

Figure F-26. Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying.


1


2

3


--9D1

-G-W1

SD2

-*W2

-*D3


275 300











500

450

400

7' 350

300

S250

c 200

150 I

100

50

0
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 2

Time (Days)
Figure F-27. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying.


--D1

--W1

--D2

-W2

--D3


!75 300











APPENDIX G
CORE MATERIALS INDIVIDUAL SMALL-STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS


0 1 2 3 4 5
Moisture Content (%)

Figure G-1. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, field core 1, wetting and
drying.


3
o









0
-1

02


.A A


---W1

- D1

-W2

-D2

-e-W3
-0-D3


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
Time (days)

Figure G-2. Variation of moisture content with time, field core 1, wetting and drying.






























i


2500

2250

2000

1750

1500

1250

1000

750


-*W-1
D1
SW2
--D2
- W3
--D3


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130
Time (Days)

-3. Variation of Young's modulus with time, field core 1, wetting and drying.


140 150


0 1 2 3 4 5
Moisture Content (%)
Figure G-4. Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, field core 2, wetting and
drying.


Ir


500

250

0



Figure G-

4000

3500

3000

-. 2500

S2000

1500

1000

500

0


r












5


4


E 3
0

a
u 2


1


0


a-






I


- -W1
-4-D1

--W2

*-D2


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130
Time (days)
Figure G-5. Variation of moisture content with time, field core 2, wetting and drying.



4000

3500

3000

2500
-W1
X 2000 _-*D1

1500 -*-W2

1000

500

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130
Time (Days)
Figure G-6. Variation of Young's modulus with time, field core 2, wetting and drying.












APPENDIX H
COMPARISON OF SMALL-STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS


1000








100

3.
o
UJ




10








1


0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Time (Days)
Figure H-1. Variation of rate of change in small-strain modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory
ambient.





1000







100
0
Ii.


--Loxahatchee

10 -Newberry


u Georgia




1
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Time (Days)
Figure H-2. Variation of rate of change in small-strain modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory
ambient.


-Loxahatchee
--Ocala
- Newberry
-Miami
- Georgia





























- Loxahatchee
-Newberry
-Miami
-Georgia


0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Time (Days)
Figure H-3. Variation of rate of change in small-strain modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory
ambient.


100












0
LU 10

o -Loxahatchee
-J
-Newberry
--Miami
-- Georgia
--Ocala


0 100


Figure H-4. Variation of rate
moisture.


200 300 400 500 600 700
Time (Days)
of change in small-strain modulus with time, replicate 1, constant


1000






















Loxahatchee
--Newberry
a. -Miami
o
J 10 -Georgia
-Ocala
ch]












0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time (Days)
Figure H-5. Variation of rate of change in small-strain modulus with time, replicate 2, constant
moisture.















a.
u 10

10
-J



-Loxahatchee
-Newberry
-Miami
Georgia
--Ocala


0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time (Days)
Figure H-6. Variation of rate of change in small-strain modulus with time, replicate 3, constant
moisture.











2500


2000




S1500




1000

>-o


500




0
0

Figure H-7.


2500




2000




1500
3



LP 1000
o



500




0


-Loxahatchee
-Newberry
-Miami
--Georgia
- Ocala


100 200 300 400 500 600
Time (Days)
Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.


- Loxahatchee
-Newberry
-Miami
Georgia


0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Time (Days)
Figure H-8. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient.,
laboratory ambient.

















2000




S1500


78

- 1000




500




0


0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Time (Days)
Figure H-9. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient.


-Loxahatchee
-Newberry
-Miami
-Georgia
-Ocala


2500


-Loxahatchee
-Newberry
-Miami
-Georgia


0

Figure H-10.


100 200 300 400 500 600
Time (Days)
Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture.














90


80


70










S30
-Loxa
20 -Newt
-Miam
10 -Geor

0
--Ocali


0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Time (Days)
Figure H-11. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture.




100


90


80


70










0
I 50




>- 30
-Loxa
20 -Newt
-Miam

10 --Geor
--Ocal;
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Time (Days)
Figure H-12. Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture.


hatchee
berry

I
gla
a


hatchee
berry
il
gia
a












APPENDIX I
INDIVIDUAL LARGE-STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS


90000


80000


70000


60000


50000


40000


30000


20000


10000


0


-- 12.90%

--1030%

--8.30%

--1.30%


0 20 40 60 80 100
Bulk Stress

Figure I-1. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 1, outdoor
ambient.


90000


80000


70000


60000


50000


40000


30000


20000


10000


0


0 20 40 60 80 100
Bulk Stress

Figure 1-2. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 2, outdoor
ambient.


--12.40%
--11.30%
--9.40%
-7.4 %
-0.40%












90000


80000


70000


60000


50000


40000


30000


20000


10000


0


--12.90%
--10.30%
--8.50%
--5.2 %
-2.20%


0 20 40 60 80 100
Bulk Stress

Figure 1-3. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 3, outdoor
ambient.


90000


80000


70000


60000


50000


40000


30000


20000


10000


-12.90%

S1.30%

-12.50%


0
0 20 40 60 80 100 1
Bulk Stress

Figure 1-4. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 1, wetting and
drying.












90000


80000


70000


60000


50000


40000


30000


20000


10000


0


I--



.I


0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Bulk Stress

Figure 1-5. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 2, wetting and
drying.


90000


80000


70000


60000


50000


40000


30000


20000


10000


--12.90%

-2.20%

--12.80%


0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Bulk Stress

Figure 1-6. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 3, wetting and
drying.


- 12.40%

-0.40%

-12.80%


II/
;i













120000




100000




80000
a.
IA

g 60000

2E
.0
' 40000

2000

20000


20 40 60 80 100 120
Bulk Stress
Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 1, outdoor ambient.




















S-- --11.20%
-8.40%
-6.20%
-3.9%
-0.40%


-10.90%
--7.70%
--7.0%
-- 5.00%
-1%


0 +-
0


Figure 1-7.


90000


80000


70000


60000


50000


40000


30000


20000


10000


0


Figure 1-8.


20 40 60 80 100 120
Bulk Stress
Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 2, outdoor ambient.


1












90000


80000


70000


60000


50000


40000


30000


20000


10000


0 +-
0


Figure 1-9.

120000




100000




S80000



60000

0.

40000



20000




0
a


- 11.40%
--9.40%
--7.60%
-5.50%
-0%


20 40 60 80 100 120
Bulk Stress
Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 3, outdoor ambient.


r-i


--10.90%

--1%

-10.00%


0 20 40 60 80 100
Bulk Stress
Figure 1-10. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 1, wetting and
drying.











90000


80000


70000


S60000
*aiS
a.
50000


40000
S0 --11.20%
30000
i -- 0.40%

20000 --10.50%


10000


0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Bulk Stress
Figure I-11. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 2, wetting and
drying.


90000


80000


70000


60000


50000


40000
-11.40%
30000 -


20000 --9.50%


10000


0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Bulk Stress
Figure 1-12. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 3, wetting and
drying.












80000


70000


60000


S50000


40000


S30000
0

SC 20000


10000


0


--10.00%
--5.70%
-4.90%
-4.10%
--0.20%


Bulk Stress
Figure 1-13. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 1, outdoor
ambient.


70000



60000



50000



CL 40000



o 30000



20000



10000



0


-10.10%
--5.10%
--430%
-- 360%
-0-40%


0 20 40 60 80 100 1
Bulk Stress
Figure 1-14. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 2, outdoor
ambient.












70000


60000



50000



a 40000



o 30000




DC
20000



10000


-10.10%
-5.10%
-4.30%
-3.60%
--0.40%


0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Bulk Stress
Figure 1-15. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 3, outdoor
ambient.


90000


80000


70000


60000


50000


o 40000


S30000


20000


10000


0


--10.00%
-0.20%
-9.20%
--0%
--2%
-0.40%
- 9.70%
--0%


0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Bulk Stress
Figure 1-16. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 1, wetting
and drying.












100000


90000


80000


70000


60000


50000

0
S 40000


Z 30000


20000


10000


0


-10.10%
-0.40%
-8.10%
-0.10%
--710%
--0%
-6.80%
-0%


0 20 40 60 80 100 1
Bulk Stress

Figure 1-17. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 2, wetting
and drying.


90000


80000


70000


60000


50000


g 40000


S30000


20000


10000


0


-10.00%
--020%
-7.90%
--0%
--8.00%
--0%
- 790%
--0%


0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Bulk Stress

Figure 1-18. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 3, wetting
and drying.











90000


80000


70000


60000


50000


o 40000


30000


20000


10000


0


--7.8%
--3.60%
--3.50%
-2.0%
--0.80%


0 20 40 60 80 100
Bulk Stress
Figure 1-19. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 1, outdoor
ambient.


90000


80000


70000


60000


50000


o 40000


30000


20000


10000


0


0 20 40 60 80 100
Bulk Stress
Figure 1-20. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 2, outdoor
ambient.


-7.30%
--3.00%
-2.30%
-1.60%
-0.60%












80000


70000


60000


S50000


40000



0

a
SC 20000


10000


--7.8%
-4.1%
--3.9%
-2.7%
-0.30%


Bulk Stress
Figure 1-21. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 3, outdoor
ambient.


100000


90000


80000


70000


S60000
I.

50000


40000


30000


20000


10000


0


0 20 40 60 80 100
Bulk Stress
Figure 1-22. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 1, wetting and
drying.


-7.8%
-0.80%
-6.30%
-0..2 %
-6.20%
-0.20%
--6.20%
-0%












90000


80000


70000


60000


50000


40000


30000


20000


10000


-7.30%
--0.60%
--7.20%
-0.10%
-7.20%
-0.10%
-7.00%
-0%


0 20 40 60 80 100
Bulk Stress
Figure 1-23. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 2, wetting and
drying.


100000


90000


80000


70000


S60000
I.

50000


40000


30000


20000


10000


0


--7.8%
--0.30%
--5.70%
-0.80%
-6.50%
-0.20%
--6.30%
-0.10%


0 20 40 60 80 100
Bulk Stress
Figure 1-24. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 3, wetting and
drying.











80000


70000


60000


50000


40000


30000


20000


10000


0


-4.1%
--1.60%
--1.00%
-0.6%


0 20 40 60 80 100
Bulk Stress
Figure 1-25. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Georgia, replicate 1, outdoor
ambient.


80000


70000


60000


50000


40000


30000


20000


10000


0


-4.80%
- 1.0%
-0.2%
-0.1%


0 20 40 60 80 100
Bulk Stress
Figure 1-26. Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Georgia, replicate 1, wetting and
drying.









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Ulas Toros was born in Adana, Turkey, in 1977, the son ofKemal Toros and Suzan Toros.

After graduating from high school, he entered the Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta,

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. He received his B.S. degree in civil engineering in June

1999. After graduation, he entered the University of Texas-El Paso, Texas. He received his M.S.

degree in structural engineering in May 2002. Upon graduation, he entered the University of

Florida. He received the M.E. degree in construction engineering and management in August

2003. In May 2004, Mr. Toros entered the Ph.D. degree program in civil engineering at the

University of Florida and received hid Ph.D. from the University of Florida in 2008.





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1 EFFECTS OF MOISTURE AND TIME ON STIFFNESS OF UNBOUND AGGREGATE BASE COARSE MATERIALS By ULAS TOROS A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Ulas Toros

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3 To my parents

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Sincere appreciation goes to Dr. Dennis R. Hiltunen for giving me the opportunity to work on this research project with which most of the work was completed under. In addition, I would like to thank Dr. Dennis R. Hiltunen for being my committee chairman who provided his guidance, support and encouragement through the course of this study. Extended thanks go to Dr. Reynaldo Roque, Dr. Ma ng Tia, and Dr. Guerry H. McClellan for serving as committee members as well. Special thanks are extended to the Florida Department of Transportation, the Project Panel of John Shoucair, David Horhota and FDOT State Materials Office staff members Daniel P itocchi Michael (Mike) Davis Timothy (Tim) Blanton, and Glenn Johnson for their technical support and encouragement. I would like to thank my family who always encouraged me and supported me. I would also like to thank my friends Serkan Ozdemir, Gaye Ozd emir, Baris Altiok, Basar Simsek, Burak Berksoy and Onur Gursoy.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS p age ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 19 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 21 1.1 Problem Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 21 1.2 Hypothesis ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 23 1.3 Objectives of Research ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 23 1.4 Scope of Research ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 23 2 LITERATURE REVIEW: Limerock Base Design in Florida ................................ ............... 25 3 MATERIALS ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 31 3.1 Sources and Mineralogy ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 31 3.2 Materials Collection and Characterization ................................ ................................ ...... 33 4 EXPERIMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 37 4.1 Free free Resonant Column Testing ................................ ................................ ................ 37 4.1.1 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 37 4.1. 2 Constrained Compression Wave Velocity and Constrained Compression Modulus ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 38 4.1.3 Unconstrained Compression Wave Velocity and Young's Modulus .................... 38 4.1.4 Free free Resonant Column Equipment Setup ................................ ...................... 42 4.1.5 Free free Resonant Column Environmental Conditioning ................................ .... 45 4.1.6 Specimen Preparation ................................ ................................ ............................ 48 4.1.7 Core Materials ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 51 4.2 Resilient Modulus ( M R ) Testing ................................ ................................ ...................... 53 4.2.1 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 53 4.2.2 Resilient Modulus Environmental Conditioning ................................ ................... 53 4.2.3 Sample Preparation ................................ ................................ ................................ 54 5 FREE FREE RESONANT COLUMN TEST RESULTS ................................ ..................... 58 5.1 Free free Resonant Column Test Results of Laboratory Compacted Specimens ............ 58 5.1.1 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 58

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6 5.1.2 Constant Moisture ................................ ................................ ................................ 58 5.1.3 Drying ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 61 5.2 Free free Resonant Column Test Results of Field Cores ................................ ................ 70 5.2.1 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 70 5.2.2 Wetting and Drying Cycles of Field Cores ................................ ........................... 71 6 RESILIENT MODULUS (M R ) TEST RESULTS ................................ ................................ 75 6.1 Resilient Modulus (M R ) Testing of Laboratory Compacted Specimens ......................... 75 6.1.1 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 75 6.1.2 Resilie nt Modulus Test Conditions ................................ ................................ ....... 75 6.1.2.1 Newberry and Ocala ................................ ................................ ........................... 75 6.2 Response of Laboratory Compacted Specimens to Environmental Conditioning .......... 77 6.2.1 Optimum Moisture ................................ ................................ ................................ 77 6.2.2 Drying ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 79 6.2.2.1 Outdoor Ambient ................................ ................................ ................................ 80 6.3 Comparisons of M R Test Results and FFRC Test Results for Drying Samples .............. 90 7 CLOSURE ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 9 6 7.1 Summary of Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 96 7.2 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 98 7.3 Recommendation ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 98 APPENDIX A GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND MATERIAL PROPERTIES ................................ .... 99 B NEWBERRY INDIVIDUAL SMALL STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS .............. 103 C OCALA INDIVIDUAL SMALL STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS ....................... 121 D LOXAHATCHEE INDIVIDUAL SMALL STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS ....... 132 E MIAMI INDIVIDUAL SMALL STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS ........................ 146 F GEORGIA INDIVIDUAL SMALL STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS ................... 160 G CORE MATERIALS INDIVIDUAL SMALL STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS .. 174 H COMPARISON OF SMALL STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS ............................. 177 I INDIVIDUAL LARGE STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS ................................ ...... 183 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 196 BIOGRAP HICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 199

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Mineralogy of base course materials (McClellan et al. [2001]). ................................ ...... 32 3 2 Material parameters of 1 st mini stockpi le (replicate) ................................ ........................ 36 4 1 The FFRC test results of synthetic specimens. ................................ ................................ 45 4 2 Number of compacted samples per material. ................................ ................................ .... 49 4 3 The FFRC testing, target and measured specime n preparation parameters. ..................... 50 4 4 The M R testing, target, and measured specimen preparation parameters. ........................ 56 A 1 Material parameters of 2 nd replicates. ................................ ................................ ............. 101 A 2 Material par ameters of 3 rd replicates. ................................ ................................ .............. 102

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Variation of Shear Wave Velocity with Degree of Saturation for Different Materials. ... 30 3 1 A pproximate locations of Florida aggregate sources. ................................ ....................... 31 3 2 Representation of soil samples. ................................ ................................ ......................... 33 3 3 Grain size distribution of materials collected from the 1 st mini stockpiles of each source. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 35 4 1 Typical Florida limerock frequency response, and instant time (direct arrival) measurements. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 39 4 2 Displacement and strain amplitudes of a cylindrical specimen with free boundary conditions at both e nds at the first three longitudinal resonant modes. ............................ 41 4 3 Free free resonant column test equipment and setup. ................................ ....................... 43 4 4 Ambient conditions. ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 46 4 5 Oven drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 47 4 6 Wetting. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 47 4 7 Specimen preparation and equipment. ................................ ................................ .............. 49 4 8 Field cores. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 52 4 9 The M R testing equipment and setup with a typical sample. ................................ ............ 55 5 1 FFRC test results of first replicate exposed to constant moisture. ................................ .... 59 5 2 The FFRC test results of first replicate exposed to laboratory ambient. .......................... 62 5 3 Comparisons of t he FFRC test results of Newberry exposed to ambient conditions. ...... 64 5 4 The FFRC test results of each material underwent first of several oven drying. .............. 67 5 5 The FFRC test results of each material un derwent first of several wetting. ..................... 68 5 6 The FFRC test results for drying and wetting cycles on Loxahatchee shell rock. ........... 69 5 7 The FFRC test results for wetting and drying cycles on field core 1 ............................... 72

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9 5 8 The FFRC test results for the first wetting and drying cycles on field cores and laboratory compacted Miami limerock, Young's modulus vs. moisture content while wetting. ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 73 5 9 The FFRC test res ults for the first wetting and drying cycles on field cores and laboratory compacted Miami limerock, Young's modulus vs. moisture content while drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 74 6 1 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress. ................................ ............................... 78 6 2 The resilient modulus test results of replicate 1. ................................ ............................... 81 6 3 The resilient modulus test results of replicate 2. ................................ ............................... 82 6 4 The resilient modulus test results of replicate 3. ................................ ............................... 84 6 5 The resilient modulus test results of replicate 1 for wetting and drying. .......................... 87 6 6 The resilient modulus test results of replicate 2 for wetting and drying. .......................... 88 6 7 The resilient modulus test results of replicate 3 for wetting and drying. .......................... 89 6 8 Variations of Young's modulus and resilient modulus with moisture content. ................ 91 6 9 Variations of normalized Young's modulus and resi lient modulus with moisture content. ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 93 A 1 Grain size distribution of materials collected from the 2 nd mini stockpiles (replicates) of each source. ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 99 A 2 Grain size distribution of materials colle cted from the 3 rd replicates of each source. .... 100 B 1 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, outdoor ambient. .... 103 B 2 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, o utdoor ambient. ......................... 103 B 3 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, outdoor ambient. ....................... 104 B 4 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, outdoor ambient. .... 104 B 5 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, outdoor ambient. ......................... 105 B 6 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, outdoor ambient. ....................... 105 B 7 Variation of Young 's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, outdoor ambient. .... 106 B 8 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, outdoor ambient. ......................... 106 B 9 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replica te 3, outdoor ambient. ....................... 107

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10 B 10 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 107 B 11 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient ..................... 108 B 12 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. ................... 108 B 13 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, laboratory ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 109 B 14 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient. ..................... 109 B 15 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient. ................... 110 B 16 Variation of Yo ung's with moisture content, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. .............. 110 B 17 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. ..................... 111 B 18 Variation of Young's modulus with time, repl icate 3, laboratory ambient. ................... 111 B 19 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, constant moisture. .. 112 B 20 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant mois ture. ....................... 112 B 21 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. ..................... 113 B 22 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant moisture. .. 113 B 23 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. ....................... 114 B 24 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. ..................... 114 B 25 Variation of Yo ung's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, constant moisture. .. 115 B 26 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. ....................... 115 B 27 Variation of Young's modulus with time replicate 3, constant moisture. ..................... 116 B 28 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 116 B 29 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ..................... 117 B 30 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ................... 117 B 31 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 118 B 32 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ................... 118

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11 B 33 Variation Moisture Content with Time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ....................... 119 B 34 Variati on of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 119 B 35 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ..................... 120 B 36 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ................... 120 C 1 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 121 C 2 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1 laboratory ambient. ..................... 121 C 3 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. ................... 122 C 4 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, constant moisture. .. 122 C 5 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. ....................... 123 C 6 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. ..................... 123 C 7 Var iation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant moisture. .. 124 C 8 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. ....................... 124 C 9 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. ..................... 125 C 10 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, constant moisture. .. 125 C 11 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3 constant moisture. ....................... 126 C 12 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. ..................... 126 C 13 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 127 C 14 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ..................... 127 C 15 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ................... 128 C 16 Variation of Young's with Moisture Content, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ............. 128 C 17 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ..................... 129 C 18 Variation of Young's modul us with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ................... 129 C 19 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 130

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12 C 20 Variation of moisture content with time, replica te 3, wetting and drying. ..................... 130 C 21 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ................... 131 D 1 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory ambien t. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 132 D 2 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. ..................... 132 D 3 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. ................... 133 D 4 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, laboratory ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 133 D 5 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient. ..................... 134 D 6 Variation of Young 's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient. ................... 134 D 7 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 135 D 8 Variation of moisture content with time, r eplicate 3, laboratory ambient. ..................... 135 D 9 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. ................... 136 D 10 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, constant mo isture. .. 136 D 11 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. ....................... 137 D 12 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. ..................... 137 D 13 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant moisture. .. 138 D 14 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. ....................... 138 D 15 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. ..................... 139 D 16 Variation of Young's with moisture content, replicate 3, constant moisture. ................ 139 D 17 Variation of moisture content with time, rep licate 3, constant moisture. ....................... 140 D 18 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. ..................... 140 D 19 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, wetting and dr ying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 141 D 20 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ..................... 141 D 21 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ................... 142

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13 D 22 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 142 D 23 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ..................... 143 D 24 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ................... 143 D 25 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture, content, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 144 D 26 Variation of moisture content w ith time replicate 3, wetting and drying. ...................... 144 D 27 Variation of Young's modulus with time replicate 3, wetting and drying. .................... 145 E 1 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, la boratory ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 146 E 2 Variation of Moisture content with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. ..................... 146 E 3 Variation of Young's Modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. ................... 147 E 4 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, laboratory ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 147 E 5 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient. ..................... 148 E 6 Var iation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient. ................... 148 E 7 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 149 E 8 Variation of moisture conte nt with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. ..................... 149 E 9 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. ................... 150 E 10 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, constant moisture. .. 150 E 11 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. ....................... 151 E 12 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. ..................... 151 E 13 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant moisture. .. 152 E 14 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. ....................... 152 E 15 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. ..................... 153 E 16 Variation of Young's with moisture content, replicate 3, constant moisture. ................ 153

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14 E 17 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. ....................... 154 E 18 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. ..................... 154 E 19 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 155 E 20 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ..................... 155 E 21 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ................... 156 E 22 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 156 E 23 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ..................... 157 E 24 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ................... 157 E 25 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 158 E 26 Variation of mois ture content with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ..................... 158 E 27 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ................... 159 F 1 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 160 F 2 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. ..................... 160 F 3 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. ................... 161 F 4 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, laboratory ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 161 F 5 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient. ..................... 162 F 6 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient. ................... 162 F 7 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 163 F 8 Variation o f moisture content with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. ..................... 163 F 9 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. ................... 164 F 10 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture co ntent, replicate 1, constant moisture. .. 164 F 11 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. ....................... 165

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15 F 12 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moistu re. ..................... 165 F 13 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant moisture. .. 166 F 14 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. ....................... 166 F 15 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. ..................... 167 F 16 Variation of Young's with Moisture Content, replicate 3, constant moisture. ............... 167 F 17 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. ....................... 168 F 18 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. ..................... 168 F 19 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture conte nt, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 1 69 F 20 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ..................... 169 F 21 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and dryi ng. ................... 170 F 22 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 170 F 23 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ..................... 171 F 24 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ................... 171 F 25 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 172 F 26 V ariation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ..................... 172 F 27 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ................... 173 G 1 Variation of Young's modulus with m oisture content, field core 1, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 174 G 2 Variation of moisture content with time, field core 1, wetting and drying. .................... 174 G 3 Variation of Young's modulus with time, field core 1, we tting and drying. .................. 175 G 4 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, field core 2, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 175 G 5 Variation of moisture content with time, field core 2, wetting and drying. .................... 176 G 6 Variation of Young's modulus with time, field core 2, wetting and drying. .................. 176

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16 H 1 Variation of rate of change in small strain modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 177 H 2 Variation of rate of change in small strain modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 177 H 3 Variation of rate of change in small strain modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 178 H 4 Variation of rate of change in small strain modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 178 H 5 Variation of rate of change in small strain modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moistur e. ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 179 H 6 Variation of rate of change in small strain modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 179 H 7 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. ................... 180 H 8 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient., laboratory ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 180 H 9 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. ................... 181 H 10 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. ..................... 181 H 11 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. ..................... 182 H 12 Variation of Young's mod ulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. ..................... 182 I 1 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 1, outdoor ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 183 I 2 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stre ss, Newberry, replicate 2, outdoor ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 183 I 3 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 3, outdoor ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 184 I 4 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 184 I 5 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 185 I 6 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress Newberry, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 185

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17 I 7 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 1, outdoor ambient. ... 186 I 8 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Oc ala, replicate 2, outdoor ambient. ... 186 I 9 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 3, outdoor ambient. ... 187 I 10 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, repl icate 1, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 187 I 11 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 188 I 12 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replic ate 3, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 188 I 13 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 1, outdoor ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 189 I 14 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 2, outdoor ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 189 I 15 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 3, outdoor ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 190 I 16 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatc hee, replicate 1, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 190 I 17 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 191 I 18 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress Loxahatchee, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 191 I 19 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 1, outdoor ambient. .. 192 I 20 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stres s, Miami, replicate 2, outdoor ambient. .. 192 I 21 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 3, outdoor ambient. .. 193 I 22 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami replicate 1, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 193 I 23 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 2, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 194 I 24 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 3, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 194

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18 I 25 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Georgia, replicate 1, outdoor ambient. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 195 I 26 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Georgia, r eplicate 1, wetting and drying. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 195

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19 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy EFFE CTS OF MOISTURE AND TIME ON STIFFNESS OF UNBOUND AGGREGATE BASE COARSE MATERIALS By ULAS TOROS August 2008 Chair: Dennis R. Hiltunen Major: Civil Engineering Resilient modulus and Young's modulus are parameters increasingly used to fundamentally charac terize the behavior of pavement materials both in the laboratory and in the field. This study documents the small strain Young's modulus and larger strain resilient modulus response of unbound aggregate base coarse materials to various environmental condit ions. The small strain Young's modulus experiments were conducted on laboratory compacted materials and field core materials by the author. The State Material Office conducted the resilient modulus experiments on laboratory compacted materials. The result s of both tests are presented in this study. It is shown that the small strain Young's modulus is not constant, even when held at constant moisture, and that significant changes in modulus will occur with drying and wetting of the material. The response t o drying and wetting cycles appears to be repeatable, and suggests that the underlying mechanism that controls the response is reversible. It is also shown that the larger strain resilient modulus demonstrated similar trends with small strain Young's modul us, but the rate of change and magnitude of the effect are different between materials. The material response to drying and wetting cycles appears to be reasonably repeatable.

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20 Comparisons of both experiments revealed that the change in Young's modulus wit h drying is much more dramatic than the resilient modulus, indicating that the drying effect is significantly reduced with higher strain. Lastly, the evidence suggests that these changes can be explained by the science of unsaturated soil mechanics: change s in moisture or moisture distribution results in changes in internal pore pressure, which affect the effective confining pressure constraining the material. The influence of this phenomenon is observed but is not as dramatic at higher strain.

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21 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Problem Statement Roadway field studies in Florida have documented beneficial improvements with time, in stiffness and strength properties of Florida limerock base materials (Zimpfer [1988], Gartland and Eades [1979], Smith and Lofroos [19 81], McClellan et al. [2000]). Investigation of strength, time, and environmental condition relationships were initiated following the 1962 Interim Design Guide based on the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO) Road Test. This interim g uide required from each state Department of Transportation (DOT) agency to establish layer coefficients applicable to its own practices and based on its own experience due to the widely varying environment, traffic, and construction practices. In the late 1960's, the Office of Materials and Research (OMR) began a field evaluation program of existing pavements, which includes trenching, laboratory tests, and field tests to rate and determine the strength and performance of Florida limestone base materials. From 1968 to 1971, test pit studies were conducted on various base materials to characterize their resistance to repeated loads at optimum moisture, soaked moisture and drained conditions. In the mid 1970's, a minimum Limerock Bearing Ratio (LBR) strength requirement was added to the limerock base specification. In the early 1980's, Dynaflect and field plate load test were used in pavement evaluation to determine soil support and modulus of base and subgrade materials. In several of these studies, it has b een documented that the mechanical properties of limerock base change with time. Strength gain investigation of base materials of Florida, AASHO was changed to American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) on November 13, 1973 Former name of state materials office

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22 conducted by Zimpfer, from 1977 to 1978 on high carbonate limerock, from 1978 to 1979 on low carbonate limerock and f rom 1979 to 1980 on low carbonate shell rock were based on LBR tests, test pit plate tests, and laboratory unconfined compression tests. In all cases investigated the plate test modulus and the unconfined compression strength, increased with both aging and drying. It was suggested that one or some of the following factors caused these changes: internal friction (for low carbonate limerock), reduction in field moisture, reconsolidation of the carbonate base, and cementation. With regard to layer coefficients used in design, Zimpfer et al. (1973), compared Florida limestone and AASHO crushed limestone (i.e., layer coefficient ( a 2 ) = 0.14 and LBR = 140) and established a layer coefficient of 0.15 for limerock materials and a minimum LBR strength requirement of 100 to be used in the state of Florida based on these comparisons. Smith and Lofroos (1981) recommended an increase of layer coefficient from 0.15 to 0.18 based on studies of strength and stiffness gains in limerock base materials over a period of five, si x, and nine years. A layer coefficient of 0.18 for limerock base is current Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) design practice. The current pavement design process is transitioning from layer coefficient to resilient modulus based procedures. Whil e previous studies have documented changes in limerock bases with time, the effect on resilient modulus has not been documented and thus, the influence of these beneficial improvements on pavement performance cannot be quantified. Further, the mechanisms f or the changes have not been clearly established, and this prevents the introduction of the expected stiffness and strength gains into feature design procedures. Therefore, there is a need to more fully understand and verify the mechanisms, and quantify th eir influence on material properties and pavement performance.

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23 1.2 Hypothesis It is believed that the time dependent and moisture dependent changes in mechanical properties of Florida limerock base course materials, compacted at typical field moisture cont ents, are due to the suction effects described by the science of unsaturated soil mechanics. A redistribution of moisture or a reduction in amount of moisture will increase the level of suction, which effectively increases the confining stress on the parti culate material. It has been firmly established that an increase in confinement level produces an increase in mechanical properties such as stiffness and strength. This is a reversible process; an increase in moisture will lower the suction, and remove the increase in effective confinement, which leads to a reduction in previously obtained mechanical properties. 1.3 Objectives of Research There are three goals in this study. The first goal is to use a relatively new small strain testing method (free free re sonant column) to study the mechanical properties of Florida limerock base course materials. The second goal is to observe and document the stiffness gains in Florida base materials with time and under varying environmental conditions. The third goal is to identify a potential mechanism causing observed stiffness gains with time and under varying environmental conditions. It is expected that the suction mechanism mentioned above can explain the changes in material response to time and environmental conditio n. 1.4 Scope of Research Five aggregate sources that are used as base materials in Florida were selected to study the variation of stiffness with time and moisture associations of Florida base materials. Obviously more than five sources are utilized by the profession. However, due to project life cycle time restraints, the most commonly used base materials with high, moderate, low, and no carbonate contents were selected. The base materials include a granite based graded aggregate from

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24 Georgia, a limestone based shell rock from Loxahatchee, FL. Limerock from mine in Newberry, Ocala, and Miami were chosen to represent northern, central, and southern limerock sources of Florida, respectively. The standard FDOT procedures were followed to develop material model s. There are various means to measure the stiffness behavior of Florida base materials with time and moisture, such as Resilient Modulus ( M R ) test, Unconfined Compression (q u ) test, etc. In this study, free free resonant column (FFRC) and M R testing were u sed to determine the stiffness behavior with time and various moisture levels of each material under different environmental conditions. The FFRC test measures small strain elastic modulus. The benefit of measuring small strain modulus is to observe calcif ication (cementation), if exist, in the base course material. The M R and q u tests are high strain modulus based tests that would break the existing calcification (cementation) bonds with in the material particles due to loading, which would prevent the obs ervation of calcification (cementation) phenomenon. The major reasons to decide using the FFRC test are: 1) it is a non destructive test method that provides the option to test the same compacted material sample as many times as deemed necessary; 2) it is a quick way of testing. The materials are exposed to one of four uniform types of environmental conditions. These environment conditions are; laboratory ambient, outdoors, constant moisture, drying and wetting cycles. The State Material s Office (SMO) carri ed out the M R test ing on exact same materials. The specimens that were used for M R testing will be subjected to the same environmental conditioning. The M R test, as mentioned above, is high strain modulus based test. The main reason to use M R test is to ob serve the material response to the higher strains thought to be more indicative to field loading conditions.

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25 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW: L IMEROCK BASE DESIGN IN FLORIDA According to the FDOT Materials Manual records, indicate that from the 1950's to the early 1960's, the Department used a pavement design procedure with no direct consideration given to the strength of the base course materials. However, base course material characteristics were included following implementation of the AASHO Interim Design Guide of 1962. Due to varying environmental conditions, traffic loads, and construction practices, the 1962 Guide required every state DOT agencies to institute layer coefficients that are appropriate to local practices and experiences. To implement the 19 62 Guide, FDOT initiated the construction of experimental projects. The main principal of this program was to evaluate the design criteria, and to institute layer coefficients for Florida materials and eventually implement the layer coefficients into the d esign criteria. The experimental projects were built on US 90 in Marianna, Florida, on US 19 in Levy County between Suwannee River and Chiefland, and on US 90 in Okaloosa County near Crestview, Florida, respectively. Base materials, subgrade materials, and the thickness of the pavement layers were studied in these regions of the State to evaluate the environmental variables. In addition to the above, two more experimental projects were built at Lake Wales and West Palm Beach mainly to determine base materia l equivalencies from which data were collected to verify structural layer coefficients for base material ( McClellan et al. [2001]). In mid 1970's, Limerock Bearing Ratio, LBR in short, strength limitations was supplemented to the base materials specificati ons. The Florida LBR values were related to the soil support values that are required for pavement design assessment. After intensive research and modifications, the limerock base coefficients were set to 0.18 where LBR value is at least 100, based on Smit h and Lofroos (1981).

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26 Limerock has been specified as the "standard" base material used in Florida. In addition to limerock base materials, shell materials and cemented coquina shell materials were also considered as base materials to be used in Florida in the late 1960's, and shell rock in the late 1980's. The basic specifications of these base materials required LBR value of at least 100 along with other requirements. Intensive studies conducted from early 1960's to late 1980's on observed strength gains i n Florida base materials. Laboratory, FDOT test pit, and field studies were conducted on high and low carbonate limerock, bank and pit run shell, and cemented coquina shell base materials. The base materials were tested under various environmental conditio ns. First, Gartland and Eades (1979) treated two Florida limestones in the laboratory to investigate the possible formation of carbonate cements. Samples were compacted in standard Florida LBR molds and subjected to one of the following methods of treatme nt: 1) saturated with CO 2 enriched water; 2) soil was mixed with 1% NaCl, by dry weight of the sample, prior to compaction; 3) samples were saturated with plain distilled water. These treatments were conducted to simulate natural cementation processes, as previous cementation experiments described in the literature produced only minor cementation. The samples were cured either by cycles of wetting and drying or through a period of continual soak. The LBR test was used to evaluate strength of the compacted m aterial after treatment and curing. Comparison of strength values indicated that all methods of treatment and curing resulted in increased sample strength. Those samples cured by continual soaking showed the largest and most consistent strength gains. Sur face area analysis was used to measure changes in particle size and pore volume resulting from the formation of carbonate cement. When samples subjected to similar treatment

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27 and curing methods were compared, there was a trend of decreasing surface area wit h increasing sample strength. Visual analysis of the carbonate cements was performed on the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Grain contact cementing was evident at all particle sizes. Most treatment and curing methods showed evidence of precipitated sp arry calcite crystals. The void filling sparry calcite was most abundant in those samples cured by continual soak. Second, Keyser et al. (1984) summarize experiments conducted by the FDOT on test pavement sections. Results of rigid plate tests indicated si gnificant increases after about 5 years of service. Field data also indicated that drying of the materials occurred over this same time, and the authors indicate that the moisture content reduction contributed significantly to the increase in strength. The authors also suggest that other factors such as reconsolidation of the carbonate base and cementation would also contribute to the increased strength after aging. Third, Keyser et al. (1984) also summarize experiments of strength gain under controlled env ironmental conditions. These investigations included laboratory unconfined compression tests and plate tests on test pit sections. LBR tests were also performed. The laboratory specimens and test pit sections were constructed at optimum moisture content an d subjected to various forms of aging, including constant moisture, slow drying, cycles of heating and cooling, and oven drying following aging. Unconfined compression strength and plate load modulus were both observed to increase with increased aging and drying, and even showed slight increases with aging while at constant moisture. The authors indicate that the largest changes during aging resulted when a loss of moisture occurred during and after aging.

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28 Thus, it is evident that previous experimental stud ies have documented increases in both stiffness and strength of limerock base materials as a result of changes in time and environmental conditioning. Gartland and Eades (1979) clearly documented that a possible mechanism for these increases is calcite bas ed cementation. However, it must be noted that cementation was observed for fully saturated specimens. Further, the cementation was observed only after laboratory techniques were specifically designed to induce cementation. They note that several previous cementation experiments documented in the literature were hindered by lack of precipitation of significant amounts of cement in reasonable periods of time. It should also be noted that McClellan et al. (2000) were not successful in creating cementation in laboratory specimens compacted and cured at optimum moisture content. Here, the significant increases in LBR values due to cementation observed by Gartland and Eades (1979) were not observed, despite significant efforts at mimicking the conditions necessar y for cementation. The difference seems to be that the specimens were not cured while in a saturated state. On the other hand, Keyser et al. (1984) documented both stiffness and strength increases of materials prepared at field moisture contents, and in le ss than a saturated condition. The authors note that these increases were typically observed in conjunction with drying or loss of moisture from the material. The literature provides substantial evidence that so called capillarity or suction effects signif icantly explain these observations. It has been well documented in the science of unsaturated soil mechanics (Lu and Likos [2005]) that increases in suction or negative pore pressure will occur as water is removed from the material, and Singh et al. (2006) document that high suction stresses are possible in aggregate base course materials. As documented by Wu,

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29 Gray and Richart (1984), Qian et al. (1991), and Qian et al. (1993) for sand and silt soils, this increased suction stress will effectively increase confinement and hence modulus. It has long been established that the modulus of a particulate material is directly proportional to level of confining pressure (Richart, Hall, and Woods [1970]). Among the first studies for soil, Hardin and Richart (1963) re ported results of resonant column tests on sands that indicated shear modulus to be a function of isotropic confining pressure raised to power of 0.5. Many subsequent studies have affirmed these basic findings including Fernandez (2000) and Menq (2003), bo th of which contain extensive discussion of the literature on this subject. Menq (2003) also demonstrates these fundamentals apply to larger particle sizes, e.g., gravels. Cho and Santamarina (2001) conducted detailed particle level studies on the behavior of unsaturated particulate materials include: glass beads, a mixture of kaolinite and glass beads to increase the surface area, granite powder, and natural sand. Among their significant conclusions include: The contribution of capillarity to interparticle forces involves not only matric suction (i.e., negative pore water pressure), but the surface tension force along the edge of menisci, as well. The "equivalent effective stress" due to capillary forces increases with decreasing water content, decreasing p article size, and increasing coordination. Specific surface is a meaningful parameter in the characterization of unsaturated soils. There are other factors in real soils that increase stiffness and strength at low saturation. As water dries, fines migrate to contacts, and form buttresses between larger particles. These buttresses increase the stiffness of the granular skeleton formed by the courser grains. At the same time, the ionic concentration in the pendular water increases and eventually reaches satur ation causing the precipitation of salt crystals between the two contacting particles. Salt precipitation also increases the stiffness of the particulate skeleton. However, when specimen is re saturated by flooding, the shear wave velocity drops to its ini tial value. Shear waves permit studying the evolution of effective interparticle forces. This is particularly valuable in the pendular regime where direct measurement of the negative pore water pressure is not feasible. Figure 2 1 shows the results of smal l strain stiffness studies of slowly drying freshly remolded unsaturated soils. It should be noted from the

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30 Figure 2 1 C that when the specimen is re saturated by soaking, the shear wave velocity drops to its initial values (square points). This result sug gests that the light cementation that develops during drying disappears upon wetting. It should also be noted that significant stiffness changes occur with drying, even for mixture of uniform glass beads and water (Figure 2 1 A ). The strain at menisci fail ure decreases with the decrease in water content. Unless the water content is extremely small, menisci will fail at strains greater than the threshold strain of the soil; therefore, partial saturation is a stabilizing force for the soil skeleton. On the ot her hand, small menisci may fail before the strain at peak strength of soils (depending on the degree of saturation). Thus, capillary forces at low water contents cause an increase in the small strain stiffness of soils, but may not contribute to the peak strength. A B C D Figure 2 1 Variation of Shear Wave Velocity with Degree of Saturation for Different Materials. A) Clean Glass Beads (De ionized Water). B) Mixture of Kaolinite and Glass Beads. C) Granite Powder. D) Sandboil Sand (Cho and Santamarina [2001]).

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31 CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS 3.1 Sources and Mineralogy For this study, base course aggregates from five (5) aggregate sources (mines) were selected from those common ly used in Florida to study the effects of moisture and time on stiffness properties. Mines from Newbery (Mine # 26 002), Ocala (Mine # 36 246), and Miami (Mine # 89 090) were chosen to represent limerock from northern, central, and southern Florida, respe ctively. In addition, a limestone based shell rock from Loxahatchee (Mine # 93 406), FL, and a granite based graded aggregate from Georgia (Mine # GA 178) were included in the study. Approximate source locations are depicted in Figure 3 1. Figure 3 1 Approximate locations of Florida aggregate sources ( FDOT h omepage, S MO, g eotech nical materials system, aggregate a cceptance source m aps ) Newberry Mine # 26 002 Ocala Mine # 36 246 Loxahatchee Mine # 93 406 Miami Mine # 89 090

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32 The Florida base course materials referred to in this study as Ocala, Loxahatchee, Miami, a nd Newbery, are the from Ocala formation, Anastasia formation Coquina, Miami Oolite (Ft. Thompson formation), and Ocala formation, respectively. The appropriate mineralogy of these materials is depicted in Table 3 1. Table 3 1 Mineralogy of base course materials (McClellan et al. [2001]). Material Mine No Material Type Formation (%) Calcite (%) Quartz (%) Aragonite (%) Ocala 36 246 Limerock Ocala 100 ----Loxahatchee 93 406 Shell Rock Shelly Sediments 38.5 37.4 24.6 Miam i 87 090 Limerock Ft. Thompson 76 18.5 --Newberry 26 002 Limerock Ocala 100 ----According to Florida Department of Environmental Protection : The Ocala Limestone consists of white to cream, Upper Eocene marine limestones, and occasional dolostones Generally, the Ocala l imestone is soft and porous, but in places, it is hard and dense because of cementation of the particles by crystalline calcite. The deposit is remarkable in that it is composed of almost pure calcium carbonate: shells of sea creatu res and very tiny chalky particles. Ocala Limestone underlies almost all of Florida, but it is found at the surface of the land only in a small portion of the state. Fossils present in the Ocala Limestone include abundant large and smaller foraminifers, ec hinoids, bryozoans, mollusks, and rare vertebrates (Florida Department of Environmental Protection Homepage, Florida Geological Survey, Geology Topics; Ocala Limestone). The picture depicted in Figure 3 2 A is a representation of the Ocala Limestone. The M iami Limestone (formerly the Miami Oolite) is a Pleistocene marine limestone. It occurs at or near the surface in southeastern peninsular Florida from Palm Beach County to Dade and Monroe Counties and in the keys from Big Pine Key to the Marquesas Keys. Th e Miami l imestone consists of two facies: an oolitic facies and a bryozoan facies. The oolitic facies

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33 consists of white to orangish gray, oolitic limestone with scattered concentrations of fossils. Ooliths are small rounded grains so named because they loo k like fish eggs. Ooliths are formed by the deposition of layers of calcite around tiny particles, such as sand grains or shell fragments. The bryozoan facies consists of white to orangish gray, sandy, fossiliferous limestone. Beds of quartz sand and limey sandstones may also be present. Fossils present include mollusks, bryozoans, and corals. An excellent exposure is observable at Alice Wainright Park, in Coral Gables, Dade County ( Florida Department of Environmental Protection Homepage, Florida Geological Survey, Geology Topics ; Miami Limestone ). The picture depicted in Figure 3 2 B is a representation of the Miami Limestone. The Loxahatchee shell rock is Shelly sediments of Plio Pleistocene age from the Tertiary/Quaternary period. A B Figure 3 2 Representation of soil samples. A) The Ocala limestone. B) The Miami limestone. ( Florida d epartment of environmental protection homepage, Florida geological survey; geology t opics ) 3.2 Materials Collecti on and Characterization To initiate the laboratory study, samples of t he materials selected were provided by the FDO T SMO. The SMO determined and provided typical index parameters, including proctor

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34 density, grain size analysis via sieve and hydrometer, sp ecific gravity, and Atterberg limits. Sampling of aggregates was done following the Florida Methods 1 (FM 1) T 002 that is similar to AASHTO T2. The samples were collected from aggregate stockpiles utilizing a rubber wheeled front end loader. A sampling lo cation on the stockpile was chosen to represent the area being sampled so that the composite sample is representative of overall stockpile. The loader removed material from the bottom of the pile perpendicular to the direction of the stockpile that was cre ated by dumping. Materials are removed from the face of the stockpile in order to obtain a representative sample. Three buckets of material were scooped from the middle, left and right of the stockpile, respectively. The material was scooped with the front end loader bucket from approximately 1 foot above the ground and the material was scooped with a bucket parallel with the face of the stockpile. The bucket full of material was gently lowered from 3 to 4 feet to produce the mini sample pile. Three mini sample piles were created and laid side by side. The upper 1/2 to 1/3 of the mini stockpiles was back bladed with the bucket's edge to expose the center mass to be sampled. With a square tipped shovel, the material from the center of the mini stockpiles w as scooped and filled into bags. Following transport to the laboratory, t he collected bags of samples were placed into a thermostatically controlled drying oven at a temperature of 110F until the samples were friable. The air dried materials wer e removed from the oven and put on benches in laboratory to cool down followed by laboratory determination of index parameters Sieve analysis of fine and course aggregates was performed foll owing the procedures in AASHTO T 27. Gradation of materials finer than 2 m m (No. 10) sieve was performed via hydrometer test following the procedures in AAS HTO T88. The grain size distribution graph of material collected from the 1 st mini stockpile of each source is depicted in F igure 3 3. Refer to

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35 Appendix A for the grain size distribution graphs of materials collected from the 2 nd and 3 rd mini stockpiles of each source. Figure 3 3 Grain size distribution of materials collected from the 1 st mini stockpiles of each source. Determination of specifi c gravity of fine aggregates and course aggregate were performed following the FM 1 T 084 and T 085, which is similar to AASHTO T084 and T085 procedures, respectively. Determination of the plastic limit and plasticity index of the soils was performed follo wing the AASHTO T90, and the liquid limit of the soils was determined following the AASHTO T89. Table 3 2 summarizes results for several of the index parameters for material collected from the 1 st mini stockpile of each source. Refer to Appendix A for the summarized materials parameters collected from the 2 nd and 3 rd mini stockpiles of each source.

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36 Table 3 2 Material p arameters of 1 st mini stockpile (replicate) Material Parameter Georgia Granite Loxahatchee Shell Rock Miami Limerock Newberry Limerock Ocala Limerock Unified Classification GW GM GP GM GW GM GM GM D 5 0 (mm) Mean Grain Size 3.90 2.70 5.10 4.80 4.80 D 10 (mm) Effective Grain Size 0.045 0.088 0.088 0.05 0.05 Cu The Uniformity Coefficient 144.4 73.9 93.2 192 176 Cz The Coefficient of Curvature 2.30 0.08 2.34 0.48 0.29 Specific Gravity 2.700 2.709 2.707 2.720 2.720 Void Ratio at Optimum 0.186 0.400 0.282 0.457 0.397 Plastic Limit NP NP NP NP NP Plasticity Index NP NP NP NP NP Liquid Limit NP NP NP NP NP

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37 CH APTER 4 EXPERIMENTS 4.1 Free free Resonant Column Testing 4.1.1 Introduction Poisson's ratio, thickness, and modulus of pavement materials in layered systems are fundamental parameters affecting pavement performance; hence, these parameters are utilized to characterize the behavior of the pavement materials. These fundamental parameters are essential for a mechanistic based design procedure and for realistic performance based specifications, therefore these fundamental parameters should be measured accurate ly, and the effect of environmental conditions on the parameters should be quantified (Nazarian et al. [2002]). In this research, the FFRC testing method (Kalinski and Thummaluru [2005]; Kim, Kweon, and Lee [1997]; Kim and Stokoe [1992]; Menq [2003]; Naza rian, Yuan, and Aellano [2002]) was used to determine the stiffness properties of Florida limerock base materials with time and under various environmental conditions. This test measures the small strain elastic modulus of the material, and the test can be conducted very quickly on specimens of material commonly compacted in a laboratory Further, the FFRC test is nondestructive, and thus can be conducted many times on the same specimen after various types of conditioning, e.g., aging drying, and wetting. Two different types of stress wave measurements can be conducted on a solid rod with FFRC testing: resonance measurements and direct arrival measurement. Since the dimensions of the specimen are known, if the resonant frequencies can be determined, the unc onstrained modulus of the specimen can readily be determined using principles of wave propagation in a solid rod (Richart et al. [1970]). Figure 4 1 A shows a typical frequency response spectrum of the FFRC test on a cylindrical specimen of Florida limeroc k. In addition, if the direct arrivals

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38 can be measured, the constrained modulus can be determined. Figure 4 1 B shows a typical instant time (direct arrival) measurement of the FFRC test on a cylindrical specimen of Florida limerock. 4.1.2 Constrained Comp ression Wave Velocity and Constrained Compression Modulus Once the cylindrical specimen is excited along the center axis, the travel time of the constrained compression wave is determined via the direct arrival measurement. The constrained compression wave velocity, is calculated as 4 1 where: = the length of the specimen, = the measured travel time of constrained compression wave (see Figure 4 1 B). With known constrained compression wave velocity, and the unit mass of the specimen, the small strain constrained modulus, M, can be calculated as 4 2 4.1.3 Unconstrained Compression Wave Velocity and Young's Modulus There are three primary types of resonant vibrations that can o ccur in a solid cylin drical rod: longitudinal, torsional, and flexural. Resonant measurements using longitudinal waves represent a good way of measuring dynamic properties of soils and this type of resonant measurement was used in this study. If an impulse load is applied to o ne end of a cylindrical specimen, seismic energy over a large range of frequencies will propagate within the specimen. The seismic energy d epends on the dimensions and the stiffness of the soil is associated with one or more frequencies. These ensnared fre quencies resonate and prop agate within the soil specimen.

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39 Figure 4 1 Typical Florida limerock frequency response, and instant time (direct arrival) measurements. 4500 Magnitude 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 450 90 0 1350 1800 2250 2700 3150 3600 4050 Frequency, Hz Resonant frequency at first mode 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Magnitude, V Time, msec Hammer Accelerometer t 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

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40 The equation of motion of longitudinal waves can be expres sed with the following partial differential equation 4 3 where: u = displacement of the element in along the axis direction, = unconstrained compression wave velocity, x = coordinate, t = time. For various boundary conditions other soluti ons to the wave equations can be written as a trigonometric series, which describes the shape of a solid rod vibrating in a natural mode (Richart et al. [1970]) 4 4 Where, U = the displacement amplitude along the axis direc tion 1 2 = constants Substituting Eq. 4.4 into Eq. 4.3 and evaluating the new equation gives 4 5 In the FFRC test, the cylindrical specimen is suspended in the air using flexible straps and the boundary conditions are free at both ends a s depicted in Figure 4 2 A. Therefore, for the cylindrical sp ecimen of length l, the stress and the strain on the end planes are zero. The first three longitudinal resonant modes are depicted in Figure 4 2 B. Considering that at x = 0 and at x = 4 6

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41 x U 1 = 3 cos (n=1) Displacement in first mode U 2 = 3 cos (n=2) Displacement in second mode U 3 = 3 cos (n=3) Displacement in third mode Displacement Strain A B Figure 4 2 Displacement and strain amplitudes of a cylindrical specimen with free boundary conditions at both ends at the first three longitudinal resonant modes (Ri chart et al. [1970], Menq [2003]). If Eq. 4 6 is evaluated at x = 0, we get = 0 and at x = # and assuming a non trivial solution ( ), we get (Richart et al. [1970]) n = 1, 2, 3 4 7 If a longitudinal impulse load is applied to a free free c ylindrical specimen in the first mode of vibration and the frequency is measured, the unconstrained compression wave velocity c an be calculated from Eq. 4 7 as follows

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42 for n = 1 (first mode) 4 8 Evaluating Eq. 4 8, we get the unconstrained comp ression wave velocity 4 9 With known unconstrained compression wave velocity, and the unit mass of the specimen, the small strain Young's modulus, E, can be calculated using the following equation 4 10 Once the constrain ed and unconstrained wave velocities are determined, Poisson's ratio can be calculated from the combination of both as (Richart et al. [1970], Menq [2003]) 4 11 where: is Poisson's ratio With Poisson's ratio known, if deemed necessary the shear m odulus of the specimen can be calculated from the Young's modulus or constrained modulus as (Richart et al. [1970]) 4 12 4 13 4.1.4 Free free Resonant Column Equipment Setup The FFRC testing system consists of several components (Figu re 4 3), a d ynamic s ignal a nalyzer (DSA) or ( oscilloscope), an i nstrumented i mpact h ammer (Figure 4 3 B ), and an

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43 f n a ccelerometer ( t ransducer) ( Figure 4 3 C ). The specimens a re oriented horizontally and suspended with flexible straps to achieve free free boun dary conditions (Figure 4 3 A ). The basic operational principal is to generate a compression wave with an instrumented hammer at one end of the specimen and monitor the response from the other end of the specimen with the piezoelectric accelerometer (Figur e 4 3 D ). The output signals from the accelerometer and hammer a re recorded with a signal analyzer, which performs data acquisition and signal processing. A B C D Figure 4 3 Free free resonant column test equipment and setup. A) Overall setup. B) Instrumented impact hammer. C) Data acquisition. D) Piezoelectric accelerometer.

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44 In the seismic tests, the locations of the accelerometer and impact on the specimen ends ha ve negligible or no effect on the resonant frequencies, but the amplitude associated with each resonance varies with these parameters. Even though the amplitudes are not as important as the frequenc y at the peak amplitude, the appropriate locations should be chosen for a more strong result (Nazarian et al. [2002]). After a series of tests conducted, the best test setup observed was when the excitation is applied near the center of the specimen and the location of the accelerometer works best when it is pla ced on the same half of the specimen as the source but not beyond two thi rd radius out from the center ( Nazarian et al. [2002]). Following these recommendations and studies, the accelerometer used in this study was glued to the center of one end of the spe cimen. For higher repeatability and better results, a gentle impact of the instrumented hammer was applied as close to the center as possible. Following initial equipment setup, the FFRC system was subjected to verification tests using synthetic samples. T hree cylindrical synthetic specimens were used ranging approximating from very soft sub grade soil to that of a sub base material (Durometer: A60, A95, D75, soft to stiff, respectively). These synthetic specimens were composed of polypropylene and polyuret hane components, and were selected to provide a range of stiffness typical of soil and base materials. These materials are known to be durable, tough, and have a high resistance to abrasion, ozone, radiation, weather, and oxygen. S. Nazarian agreed to inde pendently test the same samples at University of Texas at El Paso facilities to corroborate the results determined with the Florida system. Table 4 1 shows the negligible differences between the University of Florida and University of Texas El Paso FFRC te sting system

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45 Table 4 1 The FFRC test results of synthetic specimens. A60 A95 D75 University of Florida, 1 st mode Resonant Frequency (Hz) 128 670 1544 University of Texas El Paso, 1 st mode Resonant Frequency (Hz) 125 680. 5 1546 4.1.5 Free free Resonant Column Environmental Conditioning In order to observe, quantify, and document the influence of time and environmental conditions on the stiffness behavior of Florida base materials, the base materials were subjected to the following environmental conditions: Ambient Condition: There were two ambient conditions: laboratory ambient condition and outdoor ambient condition. In laboratory ambient, the specimens were stationed on benches inside the laboratory (Figure 4 4 A), and were exposed to the laboratory ambient air. In outdoor ambient, the specimens were stationed on benches outside the laboratory (Figure 4 4 B), and were exposed to the natural environmental conditions. In both cases, the specimens remained in plastic cylind er molds. Immediately prior to resonant column testing, the specimen weight was monitored to determine the concurrent moisture content and unit mass of the specimen ( ). The resonant column testing was monitored periodically as appropriate. Constant Moistu re: In constant moisture environmental conditioning, the specimens were exposed to a moist, nearly 100% humidity condition in a curing room to maintain the optimum moisture content level of each specimen (Figure 4 4 C). The specimens remained in cylindrica l molds and the open end of the specimens was sealed to avoid the penetration of water vapors into the specimen, which could significantly alter the moisture content of the specimen (Figure 4 4 D). Immediately prior to each resonant column testing the spec imen, weight was monitored to determine the concurrent moisture content and unit mass of the specimen ( # ). The resonant column testing was monitored periodically as appropriate.

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46 A B C D Figure 4 4 Ambient conditions. A) Laboratory a mbie nt. B) Outdoor a mbient C) Constant moisture curing room. D) Sealed specimens. Oven Drying: In oven drying, the specimens remained in cylindrical molds and were placed in a thermostatica lly controlled industrial oven (Figure 4 5 A) at 110F (Figure 4 5 B) and subjected to air drying. Immediately prior to each resonant column testing the specimen, weight was monitored to determine the concurrent moisture content and unit mass of the specim en ( # ). The resonant column testing was monitored periodically as appropriate. Wetting: The cylindrical plastic molds that were used for wetting were prepared by drilling holes with a diameter of 1/16 inch in a uniform manner across the base of the mold in 0.5 inch interval and the holes were placed 0.25 inch above the base of the mold (Figure 4 6 A). The

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47 specimens remained in plastic cylindrical molds and were placed in soaking tank, a rectangular tank approximately 26 inches in width x 60 inches in length x 10 inches diameter (Figure 4 6 B). The water depth was maintained at 5 inches with the samples in place to allow water access through the perforated molds. Immediately prior to each resonant column testing the specimen, weight was monitored to determine the concurrent moisture content and unit mass of the specimen ( # ). The resonant column testing was monitored periodically as appropriate. A B Figure 4 5 Oven drying. A) Industrial air drying ove n. B) Thermostat. A B Figure 4 6 Wetting. A) Perforated mold. B) Soak tank.

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48 4.1.6 Specimen Preparation The material that came from the quarry was placed into oven to be air dried until they beca me friable. Material with particle sizes greater than # inch was crushed so that the entire sample passes the # inch sieve by use of a mechanical jaw crusher. The pieces that have not been reduced to the desired size by the mechanical crushing were bro ken down manually until they passed the # inch sieve. The materials were separated into portions matching the mini stockpiles from which they were collected. Each of the separate portions was thoroughly mixed with amounts of water to reach the optimum mo isture content. The samples of soil water mixtures were placed in nylon covered containers. Immediately prior to the compaction of the materials, representative samples weighing at least a pound were taken for moisture content determination. Three replica tes of each material were compacted within a 6 inches x 12 inches p lastic cylinder mold placed and clamped within a split steel mold (Figure 4 7 A). Material was placed in twelve lifts in 1 inch layers; the material was scarified after every other compacte d 1 inch layer, allowing the compacted layer to bond with fresh poured material. Each layer was compacted with 56 uniformly distributed blows from a10 pound rammer, dropping free from a height of 18 inch above the approximate elevation of each finally comp acted layer (Figure 4 7 B). Following compaction, the outer split mold was removed, leaving the compacted specimen within the plastic mold. Table 4 2 shows the number of compacted samples per material. Comparisons of specimen unit weights with those from P roctor tests indicated that this procedure produced specimens of maximum dry density. Table 4 3 shows the measured and targeted specimen preparation parameters for FFRC testing. Following construction, specimens of each material were exposed to one of four environmental conditions.

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49 A B Figure 4 7 Specimen preparation and equipment. A) 6 inches x 12 inches plastic cylindrical mold and split steel mold. B) Compactor. Table 4 2 Number of compacted samples per material. Following the initial FFRC testing on Newberry materials, comparison results of outdoor ambient and laboratory ambient environmental conditioning showed negligible differences, therefore construction of specimens for outdoor ambient environmental conditioning of other sources was deemed unnecessary. ** Due to insufficient material, only one (1) replicate of Ocala Limerock for laboratory ambient environmental conditioning was prepared. Material Environmental Conditioning Georgia Granite Loxahatchee Shell r ock Miami Limerock Newberry Limerock Ocala Limerock Outdoor Ambient NA NA NA 3 NA Laboratory Ambient 3 3 3 3 1** Constant Moisture 3 3 3 3 3 Wetting Drying Cycle 3 3 3 3 3

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50 Table 4 3 The FFRC testing, target and measured specimen preparation parameters. Moisture Content Dry Density Source Conditioning Sample Target Measured Target Measured % % pcf pcf Replicate 1 9. 8 10.95 122.0 120.30 Replicate 2 10.3 9.88 121.3 119.39 Constant Moisture Replicate 3 9.9 9.98 122.5 122.03 Replicate 1 9.8 10.30 122.0 121.80 Replicate 2 10.3 9.80 121.3 121.30 Laboratory Ambient Replicate 3 9.9 9.98 122.5 120.78 Replicate 1 9.8 11.09 122.0 120.25 Replicate 2 10.3 10.24 121.3 120.69 LOXAHATCHEE Wetting & Drying Replicate 3 9.9 10.49 122.5 121.03 Replicate 1 8.0 8.42 129.6 130.99 Replicate 2 7.2 7.89 130.4 132.08 Constant Moisture Replicate 3 8.0 8.11 130.6 131.38 Replicate 1 8.0 8.13 129.6 131.19 Replicate 2 7.2 8.01 130.4 131.67 Laboratory Ambient Replicate 3 8.0 7.86 130.6 132.36 Replicate 1 8.0 7.97 129.6 131.39 Replicate 2 7.2 8.21 130.4 130.63 MIAMI Wetting & Drying Replicate 3 8.0 8.17 130.6 131.95 Replicate 1 4.8 5.51 142.3 144.08 Replicate 2 4.8 5.56 142.8 143.85 Constant Moi sture Replicate 3 5.0 5.14 142.5 143.59 Replicate 1 4.8 5.40 142.3 143.92 Replicate 2 4.8 5.25 142.8 143.55 Laboratory Ambient Replicate 3 5.0 5.12 142.5 144.11 Replicate 1 4.8 5.41 142.3 143.92 Replicate 2 4.8 5.36 142.8 144.69 GEORGIA Wetting & D rying Replicate 3 5.0 5.46 142.5 144.31

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51 Table 4 3. Continued. Moisture Content Dry Density Source Conditioning Sample Target Measured Target Measured % % pcf pcf Replicate 1 13.0 12.51 116.5 115.78 Replicate 2 12.5 12.70 116.1 116.31 Constant Moisture Replicate 3 13.0 12.61 115.9 116.25 Replicate 1 13.0 12.70 116.5 116.21 Replicate 2 12.5 12.49 116.1 115.80 Outdoor Ambient Replicate 3 13.0 12. 48 115.9 115.98 Replicate 1 13.0 12.68 116.5 117.03 Replicate 2 12.5 12.60 116.1 116.08 Laboratory Ambient Replicate 3 13.0 12.57 115.9 116.11 Replicate 1 13.0 12.68 116.5 117.07 Replicate 2 12.5 12.41 116.1 116.55 N EWBERRY Wetting & Drying Replicat e 3 13.0 12.63 115.9 115.84 Replicate 1 10.9 10.99 120.1 120.67 Replicate 2 11.1 11.08 120.2 120.77 Constant Moisture Replicate 3 11.3 11.22 120.4 120.93 Replicate 1 11.1 11.06 120.2 121.25 NA NA NA NA NA Laboratory Ambient NA NA NA NA NA Replicate 1 10.9 11.15 120.1 121.56 Replicate 2 11.1 11.20 120.2 121.57 OCALA Wetting & Drying Replicate 3 11.3 11.26 120.4 121.51 4.1.7 Core Materials FDOT SMO provided two intact field cores (Figure 4 8 A) drilled out from actual road sections co nstructed in March 1996. Both field cores were Miami (Oolite) limerock and should have similar mechanical parameters and mineralogy of Miami limerock (Mine# 87 090) used in this study. Both cores were cut to same dimensions (5.94 inches x 7 inches), named as Miami Core 01 are Miami Core 02, and identified as MC01 and MC02. The initial moisture contents of MC01 and MC02 were 0.17% and 0.15%, respectively. PVC pipes were cut to serve as molds for these field cores and were secured with two metal hose clamps. To allow absorption, 1/16 inch

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52 diameter holes were drilled 0.25 inch above the base of the mold and in a uniform manner across the base in 0.5 inch intervals. In order to avoid excessive water absorption, one of the open ends was covered with latex. A nut was secured to the center of the field cores to attach the accelerometer as deemed necessary. Following the construction of molds (Figure 4 8 B), the field cores were subjected to wetting and drying environmental conditioning. A B Figure 4 8 Field cores. A) Intact field core. B) Field cores after preparations. For wetting, specimens were placed in a pan where the water depth was maintained at 1/3 of the specimen height with the samples in place to allow water access through the perforated molds. In oven drying, specimens were placed in a thermostatically controlled industrial oven at 110F and subjected to air drying. In both cases, the specimens remained in molds. Immediately prior to each reson ant column testing the specimen, weight was monitored to determine the concurrent moisture content and unit mass of the specimen ( ). The resonant column testing was monitored periodically as appropriate.

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53 4.2 Resilient Modulus (M R ) Testing 4.2.1 Introduct ion The M R test is another way of characterizing pavement construction materials (Florida limerock base materials, in this study) under a variety of material parameters and stress conditions, and which simulates the conditions in a pavement subjected to mo ving wheel load. The purpose of performing M R testing in this study is to document and quantify the effect(s) of the changes in resilient modulus for Florida limerock base materials and find answers to the following: Does stiffness increase also occur at w orking stresses and strains? Do the mechanisms causing stiffness and strength gains with time and under varying environmental conditions also lead to a stiffer material under a design truckload? In addition, comparing results of both FFRC and M R testing co nducted on identical material would lead to assessing the influence of test methods on material properties. The M R testing in this study was performed by the FDOT SMO laboratory technicians following Section 9 of AASHTO T307 99: Resilient Modulus Test for Base/Subbase Materials. Figure 4 9 shows the M R testing equipment and setup and a typical material sample. 4.2.2 Resilient Modulus Environmental Conditioning In order to compare results of both FFRC and M R testing to assess the influence of testing method s on the material properties, the specimens used for M R testing were exposed to the following similar environmental conditioning as for the FFRC tests: Optimum Moisture: Specimens remained in latex cover and were tested at optimum moisture immediately afte r compaction. Ambient Condition: For M R testing only outdoor ambient environmental conditioning was used and specimens remained in latex cover. In outdoor ambient, the specimens were stationed on benches outside the laboratory and were exposed to the natu ral environmental conditions.

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54 Immediately prior to each M R testing, the specimen weight was monitored to determine the concurrent necessary material parameters. M R testing was conducted and monitored on Newberry, Ocala, Miami, and Loxahatchee materials aft er the specimens were exposed to outdoor ambient air for 7, 14, and 21 days. Specimens of Georgia material were tested after the specimens were exposed to outdoor ambient air for 2, 7, and 14 days. Oven Drying: In oven drying, specimens were removed from the latex cover and placed in a thermostatically controlled industrial oven (Figure 4 5 A) at 110F (Figure 4 5 B) and subjected to air drying. Immediately prior to each M R testing, the specimen weight was monitored to determine the concurrent necessary ma terial parameters. M R testing was conducted and monitored on each material after the specimens were exposed to oven drying for 2 days. Wetting: In wetting environmental conditioning, specimens remained in latex cover and were placed in soaking tank. Immedi ately prior to each M R testing the specimen weight was monitored to determine the concurrent necessary material parameters. M R testing was conducted and monitored on each material after the specimens were allowed to absorb water for 4 days. 4.2.3 Sample Pr eparation Sampling preparation for the M R test was conducted by the FDOT SMO laboratory technicians following AASHTO designations T2 for "Sampling of Aggregates", T248 for "Reducing Samples of Aggregates to Testing Size", and Section 7 of T307 99 for "Pre paration of Test Specimens". Three replicates of 4 inches x 8 inches cylindrical specimens of each material except Georgia were prepared for each environmental condition. For Georgia material, two replicates of same dimensions were prepared for M R testing at optimum moisture and the same replicates were used for M R testing under outdoor ambient conditions. One of the two replicates was used for M R testing under drying condition following the outdoor ambient condition. Table 4 4 shows the target and measured specimen preparation parameters for M R

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55 testing. Following construction, specimens of each material were exposed to one of four environmental conditions. Figure 4 9 The M R testing equi pment and setup with a typical sample.

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56 Table 4 4 The M R testing, target, and measured specimen preparation parameters. Moisture Content Dry Density Source Conditioning Sample Target Measured Target Measured % % pcf p cf Replicate 1 9.8 10.0 122.0 121.8 Replicate 2 10.3 10.1 121.3 120.7 Optimum Moisture Replicate 3 9.9 10.0 122.5 121.7 Replicate 1 9.8 9.8 122.0 121.1 Replicate 2 10.3 10.1 121.3 119.5 Outdoor Ambient Replicate 3 9.9 9.8 122.5 1 21.1 Replicate 1 9.8 10.0 122.0 120.3 Replicate 2 10.3 10.2 121.3 119.3 LOXAHATCHEE Wetting & Drying Replicate 3 9.9 9.5 122.5 121.1 Replicate 1 8.0 7.8 129.6 132.1 Replicate 2 7.2 7.3 130.4 131.3 Optimum Moisture Replicate 3 8.0 7.8 130.6 133.4 Replicate 1 8.0 7.6 129.6 129.3 Replicate 2 7.2 7.0 130.4 129.7 Outdoor Ambient Replicate 3 8.0 7.9 130.6 130.1 Replicate 1 8.0 7.9 129.6 131.5 Replicate 2 7.2 7.3 130.4 132.4 MIAMI Wetting & Drying Replicate 3 8.0 7.7 130.6 131.4 Replicate 1 5.0 4.1 142.5 140.9 Replicate 2 5.0 4.8 142.5 139.4 Optimum Moisture NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Outdoor Ambient NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA GEORGIA Wetting & Drying NA NA NA NA NA

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57 Table 4 4. Cont inued. Moisture Content Dry Density Source Conditioning Sample Target Measured Target Measured % % pcf pcf Replicate 1 13.0 12.9 116.5 116.5 Replicate 2 12.5 12.4 116.1 114.3 Optimum Moisture Replicate 3 13.0 12.9 115.9 115.4 Replicate 1 13.0 12.7 116.5 116.1 Replicate 2 12.5 13.0 116.1 114.1 Outd oor Ambient Replicate 3 13.0 12.9 115.9 116.0 Replicate 1 13.0 12.9 116.5 115.6 Replicate 2 12.5 12.4 116.1 115.5 NEWBERRY Wetting & Drying Replicate 3 13.0 12.8 115.9 115.3 Replicate 1 10.9 10.9 120.1 121.7 Replicate 2 11.1 11.2 120.2 119.9 Op timum Moisture Replicate 3 11.3 11.4 120.4 120.6 Replicate 1 10.9 10.9 120.1 120.4 Replicate 2 11.1 11.1 120.2 118.1 Outdoor Ambient Replicate 3 11.3 12.1 120.4 119.9 Replicate 1 10.9 10.7 120.1 120.3 Replicate 2 11.1 10.9 120.2 119.6 OCALA Wetti ng & Drying Replicate 3 11.3 11.2 120.4 120.1

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58 CHAPTER 5 FREE FREE RESONANT COLUMN TEST RESULTS 5.1 Free f ree Resonant Column Test Results of Laboratory Compacted Specimens 5.1.1 In troduction This section is designated to document and discuss the response of laboratory compacted specimens of unbound aggregate that were exposed to environmental conditioning as discussed in the previous chapter. The figures used in this chapter demonst rate the results of the first replicate of each material. Appendices B through F present the individual results for each material in all environmental conditions and for all replicates. Appendix H compares replicates 2 and 3 of each material to all environ mental conditions. 5.1.2 Constant Moisture Figure 5 1 presents resonant column test results for each of the five materials while being held at constant moisture content. Young's modulus (E) versus time in days, both on arithmetic scale, is presented in Fig ure 5 1 A. The data from Figure 5 1 A is re plotted in Figure 5 1 B on alternative scales to further illustrate the differences in behavior between the five materials. Here, modulus ratio is plotted on the vertical axis, or the Young's modulus at any time (E) divided by the Young's modulus at maximum dry density and optimum moisture content immediately following compaction (E opt ). The logarithm of time in minutes is plotted on the horizontal axis. It should be noted from the figures that the small strain m odulus of all materials tested while being held at constant moisture is not constant; on the contrary, the small strain modulus of all materials increases with increasing time. This behavior occurs under constant confinement, volume, and moisture, therefor e this behavior is not due to consolidation.

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59 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 1 5 0 2 0 0 2 5 0 3 0 0 3 5 0 4 0 0 4 5 0 5 0 0 5 5 0 6 0 0 6 5 0 7 0 0 T i m e ( d a y s ) E (ksi) ___ L O X A H A T C H E E N E W B E R R Y O C A L A M I A M I G E O R G I A 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 T i m e ( m i n ) E/Eopt ___ L O X A H A T C H E E N E W B E R R Y O C A L A M I A M I G E O R G I A It should also be noted that the rate of modulus increase with time decreases with time, that is, the largest change occurs early, and then gradually diminishes. A B Figure 5 1 FFRC test results of first replicate exposed to constant moisture.

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60 Further, while the general trend of increasing modulus with time is common to all materials tested, the rate of increase is considera bly different. The Miami limerock displays a very significant increase with time, while the increase for the Georgia granite is relatively small. The behavior noted above is consistent with research results reported for other unbound particulate materials, most notably soils (Afifi and Woods [1971]; Wu and Woods [1987]). Described as the secondary or long term time effect, these studies clearly demonstrated that the modulus of sand, silt, and clay soils all increase with time while at constant moisture, vol ume, and confining conditions. While a definitive mechanism for this behavior has not been proven, Afifi and Woods (1971) suggest that it may be due to thixotropy, and Schmertmann (1992) might attribute the behavior to so called mechanical aging, or an inc rease in friction with time. Mitchell and Soga (2005) indicate that chemical processes (cementation) are possible cause of aging. In this study, it is hypothesized that the behavior observed could also be due to increased suction or negative pore water pre ssure that occurs as the water in the material redistributes following compaction into more preferential positions within the inter particle void spaces. This increased suction effectively adds confining stress to the particulate material and thereby incre ases the resistance to deformation (stiffness). This phenomenon has been well documented via resonant column tests on sand and silt soils by Wu, Gray, and Richart ( 1984 ) In addition, it has long been established that the modulus of a particulate material is directly proportional to level of confining pressure (Richart, Hall, and Woods [1970]). Among the first studies for soil, Hardin and Richart (1963) reported results of resonant column tests on sands that indicated shear modulus to be a function of isotr opic confining pressure raised to a power of 0.5. Many subsequent studies have affirmed these basic findings, including Fernandez (2000) and Menq

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61 (2003), both of which contain extensive discussion of the literature on this subject. Menq (2003) also demonst rates these fundamentals apply to larger particle sizes, e.g., gravels. 5.1.3 Drying In this section, the influence of removal of water (drying) on the materials is discussed. The results produced by placement of the specimens in ambient conditions either on laboratory bench or in outdoor shade environments are very similar. Low heat oven, laboratory bench, and outdoor shade all produced a slow drying behavior as will be depicted in the figures. 5.1.3.1 Laboratory Ambient Figure 5 2 presents resonant column test results for each of the five materials while being exposed to laboratory ambient air. As expected, Figure 5 2 A demonstrates that placement of specimens initially at optimum moisture content (time = 0) on laboratory bench slowly drives water out from materials. Young's modulus (E) versus moisture content, both on arithmetic scale, is presented in Figure 5 2 C. Young's modulus (E) versus time in days as the material dries from optimum water content, both on arithmetic scale, is presented in Figure 5 2 B. It should be noted from Figure 5 2 C that the materials underwent a dramatic increase in small strain modulus, as water is lost. The moisture content and modulus change occurs most significantly at the early stages of drying exposure, after which the r ates decrease with increasing time (Figure 5 2 B). As with the tests at constant moisture content, all five materials demonstrate similar trends, but the rate of change and the magnitude of the effect are different between materials. It should be noted th at once again, the Miami limerock changes the most, while change in Georgia granite is smallest.

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62 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 0 5 0 1 0 0 1 5 0 2 0 0 2 5 0 3 0 0 3 5 0 4 0 0 4 5 0 5 0 0 5 5 0 6 0 0 6 5 0 7 0 0 7 5 0 T i m e ( d a y s ) Moisture Content (%) L O X A H A T C H E E N E W B E R R Y O C A L A M I A M I G E O R G I A 0 2 5 0 5 0 0 7 5 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 5 0 1 5 0 0 1 7 5 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 5 0 2 5 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 1 5 0 2 0 0 2 5 0 3 0 0 3 5 0 4 0 0 4 5 0 5 0 0 5 5 0 6 0 0 6 5 0 7 0 0 7 5 0 T i m e ( d a y s ) E (ksi) ___ L O X A H A T C H E E N E W B E R R Y O C A L A M I A M I G E O R G I A A B Figure 5 2 The FFRC test results of first replicate exposed to laboratory ambient.

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63 0 2 5 0 5 0 0 7 5 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 5 0 1 5 0 0 1 7 5 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 5 0 2 5 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 M o i s t u r e C o n t e n t ( % ) E (ksi) ___ L O X A H A T C H E E N E W B E R R Y O C A L A M I A M I G E O R G I A C Figure 5 2. Continued. 5.1.3. 2 Outdoor Ambient Figure 5 3 presents the comparison of the resonant column test results for the first replicate of Newberry material while being exposed to outdoor sh ade and laboratory ambient air. Young's modulus (E) versus time in days as the material dries from optimum water content, both on arithmetic scale, is presented in Figure 5 3 A. Young's modulus (E) versus moisture content, both on arithmetic scale, is pres ented in Figure 5 3 B. It is noted from the figures that either the results produced by placement of the specimens in ambient conditions are almost identical. Therefore, preparation of specimens for outdoor environment of other materials (Ocala, Loxahatche e, Miami, and Georgia) was deemed unnecessary.

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64 0 1 5 0 3 0 0 4 5 0 6 0 0 7 5 0 9 0 0 1 0 5 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 M o i s t u r e C o n t e n t ( % ) E (ksi) ___ N E W B E R R Y O U T D O O R A M B I E N T N E W B E R R Y L A B O R A T O R Y A M B I E N T 0 2 5 0 5 0 0 7 5 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 5 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 1 5 0 2 0 0 2 5 0 3 0 0 3 5 0 4 0 0 4 5 0 5 0 0 5 5 0 6 0 0 6 5 0 7 0 0 7 5 0 T i m e ( d a y s ) E (ksi) ___ N E W B E R R Y O U T D O O R A M B I E N T N E W B E R R Y L A B O R A T O R Y A M B I E N T A B Figure 5 3 Comparisons of the FFRC test results of Newberry exposed to ambient conditions.

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65 5.1.3.3 Oven Drying As described in detail in the previous chapter the specimens were put in an oven at low heat (110F) for relatively slow drying. The specimens underwent several oven drying processes during wetting and drying cycles. The influence of oven drying on the ma terial response is shown in both Figures 5 4, 5 6. The legends D1, D2, D3, and D4 in Figures 5 6 represents the first, second, third, and fourth oven drying cycle, respectively, on same specimen of the first replicate of Loxahatchee shell rock. If figures regarding laboratory ambient, outdoor ambient, and oven drying are compared (Figures 5 2 C, 5 3 B, 5 4), it can be noted clearly that at any type of drying the materials produces a dramatic increase in small strain modulus as water is lost. The moisture c ontent and modulus change occurs most significantly at the early stages of drying exposure, after which the rates decrease with increasing time. Regardless of the drying method, the Miami limerock changes the most, while the changes in Georgia granite is s mallest. It should also be noted that after a certain period and moisture level the stiffness of Loxahatchee shell rock and Miami limerock becomes larger than Newberry and Ocala limerock. While the mechanism cannot be proven herein via the direct measureme nt of pore water pressure or suction, the stiffening that occurs while materials underwent any type of drying can again be explained by increase in suction. It has been well documented in the science of unsaturated soil mechanics (Lu and Likos [2005]) that increases in suction or negative pore water pressure will occur as water is removed from the material. As documented by Wu, Gray, and Richart (1984) for sand and silt soils, this increased suction will effectively increase confinement and hence modulus. T he results in Figure 5 4 are very similar in behavior to those presented by

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66 Cho and Santamarina (2001) in which they clearly demonstrate the effects of suction mechanism on stiffness behavior while drying. As previously discussed, Gartland and Eades (1979) have clearly demonstrated that cementation is possible in Florida limerock base materials. While Gartland and Eades (1979) measured materials strength and not stiffness, it is very likely that cementation will increase material stiffness, and thus cementa tion is another possible mechanism to produce the results presented herein. However, in an experiment recently completed by Campos (2007), FFRC tests were conducted on laboratory samples of the same Loxahatchee, Miami, and Ocala materials compacted at 1% w et of optimum moisture content and held at constant levels of relative humidity (low = 11%, medium = 53%, high = 97%) for 30 days. In all cases (both materials and relative humidity) the moisture levels reduced with time, and the stiffness values increased significantly with time, which are consistent with the drying experiments presented herein. In addition, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) image analysis of the specimen at low humidity and after 30 days of aging did not reveal any calcite cement growth. Finally, it should be noted that while the rate of change with respect to moisture content was smallest, significant stiffness increases did occur upon drying the granite based Georgia graded aggregate presented earlier. It is expected that carbonate based cementation cannot occur in this material. This behavior of the Miami limerock relative to others is partially explained by the fact that this material is coarsest, well graded, and at low void ratio. This trend in parameters will all prod uce large small strain modulus as demonstrated by Menq (2003). It is also hypothesized that differences between these materials could also be created by differences in the relationship between suction and moisture content, the so called soil water characte ristic curve. In fact, mercury porosemetry tests on the Loxahatchee, Miami, and Ocala materials presented by

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67 0 2 5 0 5 0 0 7 5 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 5 0 1 5 0 0 1 7 5 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 M o i s t u r e C o n t e n t ( % ) E (ksi) N E W B E R R Y L O X A H A T C H E E M I A M I O C A L A G E O R G I A Campos (2007) indicate that the distribution of pore size is different between these three materials, which should create different soil water char acteristic curves. Figure 5 4 The FFRC test results of each material underwent first of several oven drying. 5.1.4 Wetting Influence of the addition of water (wetting) on the material response is shown in both Figures 5 5 and 5 6. The legends W1, W2, and W3 in Figures 5 6 represent the first, second, and third, wetting cycle, respectively, on same the specimen of the first replicate of Loxahatchee shell rock. As expected, Figures 5 6 A demonstrates by wa y of example for the Loxahatchee shell rock that placement of a nearly dry specimen in a soaking tank allows the material to slowly absorb water. Figure 5 6 B indicates that the material undergoes a dramatic decrease in small strain modulus as water is abs orbed. The moisture content and modulus change occurs most significantly at the beginning of exposure, after which the rates decrease with increasing time. This behavior is further demonstrated in Figure 5 5 for all five materials. In this figure is

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68 0 2 5 0 5 0 0 7 5 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 5 0 1 5 0 0 1 7 5 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 M o i s t u r e C o n t e n t ( % ) E (ksi) N E W B E R R Y L O X A H A T C H E E M I A M I O C A L A G E O R G I A plotte d the Young's modulus (E) versus moisture content as the materials are wetted from a nearly dry condition. As with the tests during drying, all five materials demonstrate similar trends, but the rate of change and the magnitude of the effect are different between materials. In addition, the trends are consistent with a loss in suction and effective confinement as the moisture content of the material increases and is similar to the behavior shown in Figure 2 1 C from Cho and Santamarina (2001). Figure 5 5 The FFRC test results of each material underwent first of several wetting. It is also interesting to note that a close comparison of Figure 5 4 and Figure 5 5 reveals that the drying and wetting response s of a given material do not follow the same relationship. There is a hysteretic phenomenon whereby a different modulus is measured while drying to certain moisture content than while wetting to the same moisture content. This hysteretic phenomenon is well known in unsaturated soil mechanics where the suction values reached at common moisture content are different between drying and wetting (Lu and Likos [2005])

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69 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 0 5 0 1 0 0 1 5 0 2 0 0 2 5 0 3 0 0 3 5 0 4 0 0 4 5 0 5 0 0 T i m e ( d a y s ) Moisture Content (%) D 1 W 1 D 2 W 2 D 3 W 3 D 4 5.1.5 Wetting & Drying Cycles Figure 5 6 illustrates by way of example using the first replicat e of Loxahatchee shell rock that each of the materials was subjected to several cycles of drying and wetting. The previous sections described the material response to an individual drying or wetting exposure. The following will describe the observed respon se due to repeated application of drying and then wetting. It should be noted that while Figure 5 6 graphically depicts the response of only the Loxahatchee material, the remaining four materials exhibited very similar trends in behavior. The most importan t and attention grabbing phenomenon is that the material response appears to be highly repeatable. Subsequent responses to drying and wetting are very similar to the initial response. This suggests that the underlying mechanism for the response is largely reversible, and is a significant additional indication that the suction/confining stress mechanism hypothesized is plausible. Figure 5 6 The FFRC test results for drying and wetting cycles on Loxahatche e shell rock.

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70 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 6 0 0 7 0 0 8 0 0 9 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 1 5 0 2 0 0 2 5 0 3 0 0 3 5 0 4 0 0 4 5 0 5 0 0 T i m e ( d a y s ) E (ksi) D 1 W 1 D 2 W 2 D 3 W 3 D 4 Figure 5 6. Continued. 5. 2 Free f ree Resonant Column Test Results of Field Cores 5.2.1 Introduction The previous sections have documented the response of laboratory compacted specimens of unbound aggregate to expo sure of several moisture environments. It has been hypothesized that a plausible underlying mechanism for this response is suction or negative pore pressure. A significant question that arises from these results is whether this behavior occurs in the field in unbound aggregate base course materials. This section will document test results to address this question.

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71 5.2.2 Wetting and Drying Cycles of Field Cores Two intact field cores were exposed to cycles of wetting and drying similar to the laboratory com pacted specimens and were subjected to the same testing routine. Figures 5 7 and 5 8 present results from laboratory resonant column tests on one of the two intact field cores that were exposed to cycles of wetting and drying. Results of the both cores are presented in Appendix G It is indeed remarkable that it is possible to retrieve a field core intact, but this occurs frequently with some of the Florida materials. Given the results presented in the previous sections, it may not be surprising that two in tact field cores were obtained from pavement sections with base course material from a Miami limerock source. Indeed, the Miami limerock can be very hard if the moisture content is below optimum. The details about the field cores were described in the prev ious chapter. Each of the base course pavement sections was approximately 10 years old at time of coring. When brought to the laboratory, the cores were determined to be nearly dry. The specimens were prepared for resonant column testing by mimicking the p lastic mold environment that was used for laboratory compacted materials. Here, a split PVC sleeve was wrapped and then clamped around the core circumference. Latex and wax were then used to seal one end of the core and the other end remained exposed. Smal l holes were drilled around the perimeter of the covered end of the sleeve to allow water entry when placed in a shallow water bath. In this state, the cores were subjected to frequent resonant column tests while being exposed to cycles of wetting and dryi ng. Figure 5 7 presents moisture content and Young's modulus (E) versus time results for one of the field cores. The response of the second core was very similar.

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72 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 2 0 1 3 0 T i m e ( d a y s ) Moisture Content (%) W 1 D 1 W 2 D 2 W 3 D 3 0 2 5 0 5 0 0 7 5 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 5 0 1 5 0 0 1 7 5 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 5 0 2 5 0 0 0 2 5 5 0 7 5 1 0 0 1 2 5 1 5 0 T i m e ( D a y s ) Youngs Modulus (ksi) W 1 D 1 W 2 D 2 W 3 D 3 Figure 5 7 T he FFRC test results for wetting and drying cycles on field core 1

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73 Figure 5 8 presents Young's modulus (E) versus moisture content results for the first wetting and first drying cycles for each field core as well as for the Miami limerock laboratory compac ted specimen. Most notably, it should be observed that the response of the field cores appears very similar to that of the fresh, laboratory compacted specimens. Even after 10 years of service, the softening while wetting followed by a return to high stiff ness when nearly dry, appears to be very repeatable and reversible. Indeed, Figure 5 8 demonstrates that the response is similar to that of a laboratory compacted specimen of material from the same general source in south Florida, and that aging has not si gnificantly altered the material response. These results appear to provide further justification for an underlying mechanism of changes in pore pressure, a largely reversible and repeatable phenomenon. Figure 5 8 The FFRC test results for the first wetting and drying cycles on field cores and laboratory compacted Miami limerock, Young's modulus vs. moisture content while wetting. 0 2 5 0 5 0 0 7 5 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 5 0 1 5 0 0 1 7 5 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 5 0 2 5 0 0 2 7 5 0 3 0 0 0 3 2 5 0 3 5 0 0 3 7 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 M o i s t u r e C o n t e n t ( % ) E (ksi) M i a m i C o r e 1 C o r e 2

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74 0 2 5 0 5 0 0 7 5 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 5 0 1 5 0 0 1 7 5 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 5 0 2 5 0 0 2 7 5 0 3 0 0 0 3 2 5 0 3 5 0 0 3 7 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 M o i s t u r e C o n t e n t ( % ) E (ksi) M i a m i C o r e 1 C o r e 2 Figure 5 9. The FFRC test results for the first w etting and drying cycles on field cores and laboratory compacted Miami limerock, Young's modulus vs. moisture content while drying.

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75 CHAPTER 6 RESILIENT MODULUS (M R ) TEST RESULTS 6 .1 Resilient Modulus (M R ) Test ing of Laboratory Compacted Specimens 6 .1.1 I ntroduction As discussed previously, the FFRC test is an effective means for studying the influence of specimen conditioning or material response, as the test is non destructive and simple to complete. However, the large strain resilient modulus is thought to be more indicative of material response under actual traffic loading. Thus, the FDOT SMO conducted a limited parallel study to investigate the material responses to conditioning via the M R test This chapter will document and discuss the response of la boratory compacted specimens of unbound aggregate that are exposed to environmental conditioning discussed in Chapter 4. The figures used in this chapter demonstrate comparisons of the resilient modulus test results of three replicates of each material cor responding to exposed environmental conditioning. Comparisons of the response between the different materials will be presented for each condition. The variation of the resilient modulus with bulk stress, per condition, of three replicates of each material a lso, t he variation of the resilient modulus with the bulk stress, per replicate, corresponding to various moisture content levels of each material is presented in Appendix I. 6.1.2 Resilient Modulus Test Conditions The details of samples, such as dimens ions, number of samples, specimen preparation parameters that are used in M R testing were discussed in Chapter 4. In this section, conditions applied to each replicate of each material are presented. 6.1.2.1 Newberry and Ocala The following conditions were applied to three replicates of each material. As designated by the FDOT SMO condition 1 represents optimum moisture condition.

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76 Conditions 2, 3, and 3B represent outdoor ambient condition. Conditions 4 and 5 represent wetting and drying conditions. Condi tion 1: Sample is packed to optimum moisture and tested via M R Condition 2: Sample is packed to optimum moisture and then set outside for 7 days prior to M R testing. Condition 3: Sample from condition 2 put back outside for 7 additional days (14 total) pr ior to M R testing. Condition 3B: Sample from condition 3 put back outside for 7 additional days (21 total) prior to M R testing. Condition 4: Sample is packed to optimum moisture and then dried in oven at 110F for 2 days before testing. Condition 5: Sample from condition 4 is soaked for 4 days and then re tested. 6.1.2.2 Loxahatchee and Miami The following conditions were applied to three replicates of each material. As designated by the FDOT SMO condition 1 represents optimum moisture condition. Condition s 2, 3, and 3B represent outdoor ambient condition. Conditions 4 through 10 represent wetting and drying conditions. Condition 1: Sample is packed to optimum moisture and tested via M R Condition 2: Sample is packed to optimum moisture and then set outsid e for 7 days prior to M R testing. Condition 3: Sample from condition 2 put back outside for 7 additional days (14 total) prior to M R testing. Condition 3B: Sample from condition 3 put back outside for 7 additional days (21 total) prior to M R testing. Condi tion 4: Sample is packed to optimum moisture and then dried in 110F oven for 2 days before M R testing. Condition 5: Sample from condition 4 soaked for 4 days and then re tested. Condition 6: Sample from condition 5 dried in 110F oven for 2 days and then re tested. Condition 7: Sample from condition 6 soaked for 4 days and then re tested. Condition 8: Sample from condition 7 dried in 110F oven for 2 days and then re tested. Condition 9: Sample from condition 8 soaked for 4 days and then re tested. Conditi on 10: Sample from condition 9 dried in 110F oven for 2 days and then re tested.

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77 6.1.2.3 Georgia The following conditions were applied to two replicates for optimum moisture and outdoor ambient conditions, and one replicate for oven drying condition. Cond ition 1 represents optimum moisture condition. Conditions 2, 3, and 4 represent outdoor ambient condition. Condition 5 represents oven drying condition. Condition 1: Sample is packed to optimum moisture and tested via M R Condition 2: Sample from conditio n 1 set outside for 2 days prior to M R testing. Condition 3: Sample from condition 2 put back outside for 5 additional days (7 total) prior to M R testing. Condition 4: Sample from condition 3 put back outside for 7 additional days (14 total) prior to M R te sting. 6.2 Response of Laboratory Compacted Specimens to Environmental Conditioning This section will introduce the response of laboratory compacted specimens of unbound aggregate that are exposed to optimum moisture, outdoor ambient, and wetting and dryin g cycles. Please note that resilient modulus tests with time at constant optimum moisture content were not conducted in this study. However, McClellan et al. (2000) indicate that aging of specimens at constant optimum moisture for up to 28 days had no obse rvable effect on resilient modulus. 6.2.1 Optimum Moisture Sample preparation for FFRC and M R Test was s imilar and discussed in detail in Chapter 4. Figure 6 1 presents variation of the resilient modulus with bulk stress for three replicates of e ach materi al. The bulk stress used here is the sum of the confining stresses and the actual applied cyclic stress (deviator stress). The procedure to find the resi lient modulus includes fifteen loading sequences (100 cycles per sequence ) with a combination of five l evels of confining pressures (3,5, 10, 15, and 20 psi) and var ying levels of deviator stress.

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78 A B Figure 6 1 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress. A) Replicate 1. B) Replicate 2. C) Replicate 3.

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79 C Figure 6 1. Continued. It can be easily seen from the figures that the re silient modulus increases with an increase of bulk stress while at constant moisture. This behavior m ay be explained as when the bulk stress increases the normal contact forces between particles increases which results in better interlocking and frictional characteristics. 6.2.2 Drying In this section, the influence of removal of water (drying) on the ma terials is discussed. The results were produced by placement of the specime ns in outdoor shade environment and low heat oven. As anticipated both environmental conditioning methods produced relatively slow drying behavior and this behavior is depicted in the figures. Based on the material behavior observed under free free resonant column testing (the results produced by placement of the specimen in ambient conditions either on laboratory bench or in outdoor shade environments are

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80 almost identical) preparat ion for laboratory ambient environment of materials was deemed unnecessary. 6.2.2.1 Outdoor Ambient Figures 6 2, 6 3 and 6 4 present resilient modulus test results for each of the five materials while being exposed to outdoor ambient air for replicate 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Figures 6 2 A, 6 3 A, and 6 4 A demonstrate that placement of specimens initially at optimum moisture content (time = 0) in outdoor shade drives water out from each replicate of e ach material. Variation of resilient modulus at a repr esentative bulk stress of 20 psi (M R (20)) with moisture content as the material dries from optimum water content, both in arithmetic scale, is presented in Figures 6 2 C, 6 3 C, and 6 4 C for each replicate of every material. Variation of M R (20) with tim e in days, both in arithmetic scales are presented in Figures 6 2 B, 6 3 B, and 6 4 B for each replicate of every material. In Florida, the typical value of bulk stress is 20 psi for base course that corresponds to a commonly used asphalt concrete thicknes s of 2 to 4 inches. It should be noted from the Figures 6 2 C, 6 3 C, and 6 4 C that for all replicates the materials undergoes a notable increase, almost more than double, in resilient modulus as water is lost. The moisture content and modulus change occ urs continually for 21 days, and all five materials demonstrate similar trends, but as was in the FFRC test the rate of change and magnitude of the effect are different between materials. It should be noted that the Georgia granite changes the most, while change in Newberry limerock is the smallest.

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81 A B Figure 6 2 The resilient modulus test results of replicate 1.

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82 C Figure 6 2. Co ntinued. A Figure 6 3 The resilient modulus test results of replicate 2.

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83 B C Figure 6 3. Continued.

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84 A B Figure 6 4 The resilient modulus test results of replicate 3.

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85 C Figure 6 4. Continued. 6.2.2.2 Oven Drying As described in Chapter 4, t he specimens w ere put in an oven at low heat ( 110F) for relatively slow drying, and the specimens underwent several oven drying processes during wetting and drying cycles. Influence of oven drying on the material response is shown for replicates 1, 2, and 3 in Figures 6 5, 6 6, and 6 7, respectively. As clearly demonstrated, the modulus increases in Figures 6 5 B, 6 6 B, and 6 7 B corresponds directly with the moisture reductions in Figures 6 5 A, 6 6 A, and 6 7 A. If the outdoor ambient, and oven drying results are com pared, it can be noted clearly that at any type of drying produces a notable increase in resilient modulus. It should also be noted that in drying all five materials demonstrate similar trends, but the rate of change and magnitude of the effect are differe nt between materials and the resilient modulus of Ocala and Newberry limerock (almost identical) changes the most. This would suggest that the hypothesized suction

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86 mechanism has more effect on resilient modulus of Ocala and Newberry. Remember that the eff ect was more pronounced at small strain for Miami and Loxahatchee. 6.2.3 Wetting For wetting, the specimens were put in water tanks to observe the influence of addition of water, and the influence of wetting on the material response is shown for replicates 1, 2, and 3 in Figures 6 5, 6 6, and 6 7, respectively. Placement of a nearly dry specimen in a soaking tank allows the materials slowly to absorb water and this is demonstrated as the increasing trends in Figures 6 5 A, 6 6 A, and 6 7 A. The decreasing t rends in Figures 6 5 B, 6 6 B, and 6 7 B represent the corresponding decrease in resilient modulus as water is absorbed. As with the tests during drying, all five materials demonstrate similar trends, but the rate of change and the magnitude of the effect are different between materials. Figures 6 5, 6 6, and 6 7 also reveals that t he drying and wetting responses of given materials do no t follow the same relationship. It should be noted that in Figure 6 6 B and Figure 6 7 B the second drying cycles show ill ogical behavior of a decrease in resilient modulus during drying. This is assumed to be a technical error or a clerical error during recording of data. 6.2.4 Wetting & Drying Cycles This section will describe the observed response due to repeated applicati on of drying and then wetting. The materials were subjected to cycles of drying and wetting, as much as the stability of the materials allowed. It is noted that the material response appears to be reasonably repeatable. Subsequent responses to drying and w etting are similar to the initial response. This suggests that the underlying mechanism for the response is largely reversible.

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87 A B Figure 6 5 The resilient mod ulus test results of replicate 1 for wetting and drying.

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88 A B Figure 6 6 The resilient modulus test results of replicate 2 for wetting and drying.

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89 A B Figure 6 7 The resilient modulus test results of replicate 3 for wetting and drying.

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90 6.3 Comparisons of M R Test Results and FFRC Test Results for Drying Samples This sect ion is dedicated to compare and discuss the differences or similarities in material responses to FFRC test and M R test. Both test results showed increase in modulus for all materials while there is a loss in moisture. Another significant behavior observed was that these responses are largely reversible, such that the increased modulus decreases to the modulus at optimum moisture, if not lower, when water is added. These behaviors indicate that the hypothesized mechanism, which is the increase in modulus is due to the effective confining stress created by the negative pore water pressure (suction) in the material, is plausible. The Figure 6 8 shows variation of Young's modulus (E, ksi) and resilient modulus (M R ksi) at a bulk stress of 20 psi for same materi al with moisture content, in arithmetic scale. Because the variation of M R with moisture content is not easily observed in this figure, the data were replotted in Figure 6 9. Here, modulus ratio is plotted on logarithmic vertical axis, or the modulus at an y time (E, M R ) divided by the modulus at maximum dry density and optimum moisture content immediately following compaction (E opt M Ropt ). Several observations are apparent from these figures, including: It is interesting to make that the small strain Young 's modulus (E) and the resilient modulus (M R ) at 20 psi bulk stress at optimum moisture content are nearly the same. This could be of practical value for future investigations. However, it is readily noted that the change in Young's modulus with drying is much more dramatic. As described by Cho and Santamarina (2001), the effective confinement due to suction is maintained at small strain, whereas the resilient modulus test produces larger strains that break the influence of suction. Despite this difference, it is still noted that drying can produce a change in resilient modulus of approximately double. For the limerock materials the change in Young's modulus with drying in many orders of magnitude, with Loxahatchee, Newberry, and Ocala changing by nearly a f actor of 100, and Miami by nearly 1000. However, it is interesting to note that the change in Georgia granite is comparatively only about a factor of 10. Clearly, the effects of suction at small strain are more significant on the limerock materials.

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91 Oven Drying 21 Days 14 Days 7 Days 0 Days Oven Drying 21 Days 14 Days 7 Days 0 Days A B Figure 6 8 Variations of Young's modulus and resilient modulus with moisture content. A) Newberry. B) Ocala. C) Loxahatchee. D) Miami. E) Georgia.

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92 Oven Drying 21 Days 14 Days 7 Days 0 Days Oven Drying 21 Days 14 Days 7 Days 0 Days C D Figure 6 8. Continued.

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93 Oven Drying 21 Days 14 Days 7 Days 0 Days Oven Drying 21 Days 14 Days 7 Days 0 Days E Figure 6 8. Continued. A Figure 6 9 Variations of norma lized Young's modulus and resilient modulus with moisture content. A) Newberry. B) Ocala. C) Loxahatchee. D) Miami. E) Georgia.

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94 Oven Drying 21 Days 14 Days 7 Days 0 Days Oven Drying 21 Days 14 Days 7 Days 0 Days B C Figure 6 9. Continued.

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95 Oven Drying 21 Days 14 Days 7 Days 0 Days Oven Drying 21 Days 14 Days 7 Days 0 Days D E Figure 6 9. Continued.

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96 CHAPTER 7 CLOSURE 7.1 Summary of Findings An investigation of characteristics of unbound aggregates used for base course in the state of Florida was performed to study the mechan ical properties, to observe and document the stiffness gains with time and under varying environmental conditions, and to identify potential mechanisms causing these changes. Small strain moduli of laboratory compacted specimens were investigated via FFRC test to determine the stiffness properties of each material under various conditions. Five aggregate sources were selected from those commonly used in Florida. Mines in Newberry, Ocala, and Miami where chosen to represent limerock sources from northern, ce ntral, and southern Florida, respectively. In addition, a limestone based shell rock from Loxahatchee, FL, and a granite based graded aggregate from Georgia were included in the study. Sampling of each of these materials was conducted following standard FD OT procedures. In addition to the fresh samples, two intact field cores that were exposed to cycles of wetting and drying similar to the laboratory compacted specimens were investigated. Following construction, specimens of each material were exposed to on e of four conditions as follows: ambient, constant moisture, oven drying, and wetting. Finally, the SMO investigated these same fresh materials via the resilient modulus test. The following are the findings of these investigations: While being held at cons tant moisture, the small strain modulus of all materials tested is not constant, but increases with increasing time. The rate of modulus increase with time decreases with time. That is, the largest change occurs early, and then gradually diminishes. While the general trend of increasing modulus with time is common to all materials tested, the rate of increase is considerably different. The Miami limerock displays a very significant increase with time, while the increase for the Georgia granite is relatively small. Placement of the specimens in either ambient condition (laboratory bench or outdoor shade environments) or in an oven slowly drives water from the material. As the water is lost due to drying exposure, the materials undergo a dramatic increase in s mall strain modulus. The moisture content and modulus change occurs most significantly at the beginning of drying

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97 exposure, after which the rate of change decreases with increasing time. As with the tests at constant moisture, all five materials demonstrat e similar trends, but the rate of change and the magnitude of the effect are different between materials. Once again, the Miami limerock changes the most, while the change in Georgia granite is smallest. Placing specimens in a water tank allows the materia l to slowly absorb water, leading to an increase in moisture content in the material. The increase in moisture content causes the materials to undergo a dramatic decrease in small strain modulus. The moisture content and modulus change occurs most signific antly at the beginning of exposure, after which the rates decrease with increasing time. As with the tests during drying, all five materials demonstrate similar trends, but the rate of change and the magnitude of the effect are different between materials. The drying and wetting responses of a given material do not follow the same relationships. Rather, there is a hysteretic phenomenon whereby a different modulus is measured while drying to certain moisture content than while wetting to the same moisture co ntent. With respect to cycles of drying and wetting, it is observed that the material response is repeatable. Subsequent responses to drying and wetting are very similar to the initial response. It is observed that these trends are displayed for the Florid a limerock and shell rock materials, and for the granite based graded aggregate from Georgia. As for the two intact field cores, it is observed that the response of the field cores appears very similar to that of the fresh, laboratory compacted specimens. Even after 10 years of service, the softening while wetting followed by a return to high stiffness when nearly dry, appears to be very repeatable and reversible. The response of field cores is similar to that of a laboratory compacted specimen of material from the same general source in south Florida and aging has not significantly altered the material response. The resilient modulus increases with an increase of bulk stress at optimum moisture. The removal of water leads to a notable increase in the larger strain resilient modulus. The rate of change and magnitude of the effect are different between materials as was observed with the small strain modulus. It should be noted that the Georgia granite changes the most, while the change in Newberry limerock is the smallest. As water is added to the materials, the larger strain resilient modulus decreases in all materials. All five materials demonstrate similar trends, but the rate of change and the magnitude of the effect are different between materials. As with the small strain modulus, the drying and wetting responses of given materials do not follow the same relationship. Rather, there is a hysteretic phenomenon whereby a different modulus is measured while drying to certain moisture content than while wetting to the same moisture content. With respect to cycles of drying and wetting, it is observed that the material response is repeatable. Subsequent responses to drying and wetting are very similar to the initial response.

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98 It is observed that the small strain modulus is much larger than the resilient modulus, indicating a stiffness reduction with increased strain. Removal of water causes a larger relative change in small strain modulus than in resilient modulus. However, the addition of water reduces these modu lus increases back to the values obtained at optimum moisture. 7.2 Conclusion The stiffness or modulus of an unbound aggregate base course is not constant, but is significantly influenced by changes in time, moisture, and stress. The evidence suggests that these changes are explained by the science of unsaturated soil mechanics: changes in moisture or moisture distribution results in changes in internal pore pressure, which affect the effective confining pressure constraining the material. The influence of this phenomenon is observed but is not as dramatic at higher strain. 7.3 Recommendation 1. The suction in the materials exposed to constant moisture could be measured simultaneously with small strain modulus, to observe the related behaviors. 2. Samples from mat erials exposed to wetting and drying could be taken and observed under SEM for possible crystallization immediately after tested for small strain modulus. 3. The increase in stiffness with time could be significant for design and specification development, th erefore means to answer the following questions should be found: At what time following laboratory compaction of test specimens should resilient modulus be determined if one expects the results to change with time ? At what time following compaction in the field should stiffness or modulus be determined if this parameter is employed for quality acceptance and if one expects the value to change with time?

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9 9 APPENDIX A GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUT ION AND MATERIAL PRO PERTIES Figure A 1 Grain size d istribution of materials collected from the 2 nd mini s tockpiles (r eplicates) of each s ource

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100 Figure A 2 Grain size d istribution of materi als collected from the 3 rd r eplicates of each s ource

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101 Table A 1 Material p arameters of 2 nd r eplicates Material Parameter Georgia Granite Loxahatchee Shell Rock Miami Limerock Newberry Limerock Ocala Lime rock Unified Classification GW GM GP GM GW GM GM GM D 50 (mm) Mean Grain Size 5.00 0.75 12.00 2.40 2.40 D 10 (mm) Effective Grain Size 0.05 0.075 0.2 0.035 0.02 Cu The Uniformity Coefficient 156 34.7 90 142.9 250 Cz The Coefficient of Curvature 3.103 0. 185 5.625 0.386 0.625 Specific Gravity 2.7000 2.7091 2.7072 2.7196 2.7203 Void Ratio at Optimum 0.1889 0.403 0.285 0.456 0.399 Plastic Limit NP NP NP NP NP Plasticity Index NP NP NP NP NP Liquid Limit NP NP NP NP NP

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102 Table A 2 Material p arameters of 3 rd r eplicates Material Parameter Georgia Granite Loxahatchee Shell Rock Miami Limerock Newberry Limerock Ocala Limerock Unified Classification GW GM GP GM GW GM GM GM D 50 (mm) Mean Grain Size 3.80 2.00 6.85 3.50 2.60 D 10 (mm) Effective Grain Size 0.04 0.085 0.11 0.05 0.02 Cu The Uniformity Coefficient 160 69.4 100 150 250 Cz The Coefficient of Curvature 2.316 0.080 3.306 0.540 0.625 Specific Gravity 2.7000 2.7091 2.7072 2.7196 2.7203 Void Ratio at O ptimum 0.189 0.395 0.280 0.459 0.400 Plastic Limit NP NP NP NP NP Plasticity Index NP NP NP NP NP Liquid Limit NP NP NP NP NP

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103 APPENDIX B NEWBERRY INDIVIDUAL SMALL STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS Figure B 1 Variation of Y oung's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, outdoor ambient. Figure B 2 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, outdoor ambient.

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104 Figure B 3 Variation of Young's modulu s with time, replicate 1, outdoor ambient. Figure B 4 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, outdoor ambient.

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105 Figure B 5 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, outdoor ambient. Figure B 6 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, outdoor ambient.

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106 Figure B 7 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, o utdoor ambient. Figure B 8 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, outdoor ambient.

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107 Figure B 9 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, outdoor ambient. Figure B 10 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.

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108 Figure B 11 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. Figure B 12 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.

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109 Figure B 13 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, laboratory ambient. Figure B 14 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient.

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110 Figure B 15 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient. Figure B 16 Variation of Young's with moisture content, replicate 3, laboratory ambient.

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111 Figure B 17 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. Figure B 18 Varia tion of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient.

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112 Figure B 19 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, constant moisture. Figure B 20 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moisture.

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113 Figure B 21 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. Figure B 22 Variation of Young's modulus wi th moisture content, replicate 2, constant moisture.

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114 Figure B 23 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. Figure B 24 Variation of Young's modulus with time replicate 2, constant moisture.

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115 Figure B 25 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, constant moisture. Figure B 26 Variation of moisture content with time, repli cate 3, constant moisture.

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116 Figure B 27 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. Figure B 28 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, wetting and drying.

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117 Figure B 29 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. Figure B 30 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and dryin g.

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118 Figure B 31 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, wetting and drying. Figure B 32 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying.

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119 F igure B 33 Variation Moisture Content with Time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. Figure B 34 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, wetting and drying.

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120 Figure B 35 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying. Figure B 36 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying.

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121 APPENDIX C OCALA INDIVIDUA L SMALL STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS Figure C 1 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. Figure C 2 Variation of moisture content with time, repli cate 1, laboratory ambient.

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122 Figure C 3 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. Figure C 4 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, constant moisture.

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123 Figure C 5 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. Figure C 6 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture.

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124 Figure C 7 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant moisture. Figure C 8 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture.

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125 Figure C 9 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. Figure C 10 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, constant moisture.

PAGE 126

126 Figure C 11 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. Figure C 12 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture.

PAGE 127

127 Figure C 13 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, wetting and drying. Figure C 14 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying.

PAGE 128

128 Figure C 15 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. Figure C 16 Variation of Young's with Moisture Content, replicate 2, wetting and drying.

PAGE 129

129 Figure C 17 Variation o f moisture content with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. Figure C 18 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying.

PAGE 130

130 Figure C 19 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, wetting and drying. Figure C 20 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying.

PAGE 131

131 Figure C 21 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying.

PAGE 132

132 APPENDIX D LOXAHATCHEE INDIVIDU AL SMALL STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS Figure D 1 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. Figure D 2 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.

PAGE 133

133 Figure D 3 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. Figure D 4 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, laboratory ambient.

PAGE 134

134 Figure D 5 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient. Figure D 6 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient.

PAGE 135

135 Figure D 7 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. Figure D 8 Variat ion of moisture content with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient.

PAGE 136

136 Figure D 9 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. Figure D 10 Variation of Young's mod ulus with moisture content, replicate 1, constant moisture.

PAGE 137

137 Figure D 11 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. Figure D 12 Variation of Young's modulus wi th time, replicate 1, constant moisture.

PAGE 138

138 Figure D 13 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant moisture. Figure D 14 Variation of moisture content with time replicate 2, constant moisture.

PAGE 139

139 Figure D 15 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. Figure D 16 Variation of Young's with moisture content, replicate 3, c onstant moisture.

PAGE 140

140 Figure D 17 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. Figure D 18 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture.

PAGE 141

141 Figure D 19 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, wetting and drying. Figure D 20 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying.

PAGE 142

142 Figu re D 21 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. Figure D 22 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, wetting and drying.

PAGE 143

143 Figure D 23 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. Figure D 24 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying.

PAGE 144

144 Figure D 25 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture, content, replicate 3, wetting and drying. Figure D 26 Variation of moisture content with time replicate 3, wetting and drying.

PAGE 145

145 Figure D 27 Variation of Young's modulus with time replicate 3, wetting and drying.

PAGE 146

146 APPENDIX E MIAMI INDIVIDUAL SMA LL STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS Figure E 1 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. Figure E 2 Variation of Moisture content with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.

PAGE 147

147 Figure E 3 Variation of Young's Modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambie nt. Figure E 4 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, laboratory ambient.

PAGE 148

148 Figure E 5 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient. Fig ure E 6 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient.

PAGE 149

149 Figure E 7 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. Figure E 8 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient.

PAGE 150

150 Figure E 9 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. Figure E 10 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, constant moisture.

PAGE 151

151 Figure E 11 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moisture. Figure E 12 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture.

PAGE 152

152 Figure E 13 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant moisture. Figure E 14 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture.

PAGE 153

153 Figure E 15 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. Figure E 16 Variation of Young' s with moisture content, replicate 3, constant moisture.

PAGE 154

154 Figure E 17 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. Figure E 18 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture.

PAGE 155

155 Figure E 19 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, wetting and drying. Figure E 20 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying.

PAGE 156

156 Figure E 21 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. Figure E 22 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replic ate 2, wetting and drying.

PAGE 157

157 Figure E 23 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. Figure E 24 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting an d drying.

PAGE 158

158 Figure E 25 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, wetting and drying. Figure E 26 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, wetting and dry ing.

PAGE 159

159 Figure E 27 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying.

PAGE 160

160 APPENDIX F GEORGIA INDIVIDUAL S MALL STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS Figure F 1 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. Figure F 2 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient.

PAGE 161

161 Figure F 3 Variation of Young's modulu s with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. Figure F 4 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, laboratory ambient.

PAGE 162

162 Figure F 5 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient. Figure F 6 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient.

PAGE 163

163 Figure F 7 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, re plicate 3, laboratory ambient. Figure F 8 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient.

PAGE 164

164 Figure F 9 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laborato ry ambient. Figure F 10 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, constant moisture.

PAGE 165

165 Figure F 11 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, constant moist ure. Figure F 12 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture.

PAGE 166

166 Figure F 13 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, constant moisture. Fig ure F 14 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, constant moisture.

PAGE 167

167 Figure F 15 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. Figure F 16 Variation of Young's with Moisture Content, replicate 3, constant moisture.

PAGE 168

168 Figure F 17 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 3, constant moisture. Figure F 18 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture.

PAGE 169

169 Figure F 19 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 1, wetting and drying. Figure F 20 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying.

PAGE 170

170 Figure F 21 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, wetting and drying. Figure F 22 Variation of You ng's modulus with moisture content, replicate 2, wetting and drying.

PAGE 171

171 Figure F 23 Variation of moisture content with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying. Figure F 24 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, wetting and drying.

PAGE 172

172 Figure F 25 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, replicate 3, wetting and drying. Figure F 26 Variation of moisture conte nt with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying.

PAGE 173

173 Figure F 27 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, wetting and drying.

PAGE 174

174 APPENDIX G CORE MATERIALS INDIV IDUAL SMALL STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS Figure G 1 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, field core 1, wetting and drying. Figure G 2 Variation of moisture content with time, field core 1, wetting and drying.

PAGE 175

175 Figure G 3 Variation of Young's modulus with time, field core 1, wetting and drying. Figure G 4 Variation of Young's modulus with moisture content, field core 2, wetting and drying.

PAGE 176

176 Figure G 5 Variation of moisture content with time, field core 2, wetting and drying. Figure G 6 Variation of Young's modulus with time, field core 2, wetting and drying.

PAGE 177

177 APPENDIX H COMPARISON OF SMALL STRAIN MODUL US TEST RESULTS Figure H 1 Variation of rate of change in small strain modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. Figure H 2 Variation of rate of change in small strain modulus wi th time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient.

PAGE 178

178 Figure H 3 Variation of rate of change in small strain modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. Figure H 4 Variation of rate of change in small strain modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture.

PAGE 179

179 Figure H 5 Variation of rate of change in small strain modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. Figure H 6 Vari ation of rate of change in small strain modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture.

PAGE 180

180 Figure H 7 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, laboratory ambient. Figure H 8 Va riation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, laboratory ambient., laboratory ambient.

PAGE 181

181 Figure H 9 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, laboratory ambient. Figure H 10 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 1, constant moisture.

PAGE 182

182 Figure H 11 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 2, constant moisture. Figure H 12 Variation of Young's modulus with time, replicate 3, constant moisture.

PAGE 183

183 APPENDIX I INDIVIDUAL LARGE STRAIN MODULUS TEST RESULTS Figure I 1 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 1, outdoor ambient. Figure I 2 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 2, outdoor ambient.

PAGE 184

184 Figure I 3 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 3, outdoor ambient. Figure I 4 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 1, wetting and drying.

PAGE 185

185 Figure I 5 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 2, we tting and drying. Figure I 6 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Newberry, replicate 3, wetting and drying.

PAGE 186

186 Figure I 7 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 1, outdoor ambient. Figure I 8 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 2, outdoor ambient.

PAGE 187

187 Figure I 9 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, O cala, replicate 3, outdoor ambient. Figure I 10 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 1, wetting and drying.

PAGE 188

188 Figure I 11 Variation of resilient modulus with bul k stress, Ocala, replicate 2, wetting and drying. Figure I 12 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Ocala, replicate 3, wetting and drying.

PAGE 189

189 Figure I 13 Variation of resilient mo dulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 1, outdoor ambient. Figure I 14 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 2, outdoor ambient.

PAGE 190

190 Figure I 15 Varia tion of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 3, outdoor ambient. Figure I 16 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 1, wetting and drying.

PAGE 191

191 Figure I 17 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 2, wetting and drying. Figure I 18 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Loxahatchee, replicate 3, wetting and drying.

PAGE 192

192 F igure I 19 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 1, outdoor ambient. Figure I 20 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 2, outdoor ambi ent.

PAGE 193

193 Figure I 21 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 3, outdoor ambient. Figure I 22 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 1, wett ing and drying.

PAGE 194

194 Figure I 23 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, replicate 2, wetting and drying. Figure I 24 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Miami, rep licate 3, wetting and drying.

PAGE 195

195 Figure I 25 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stress, Georgia, replicate 1, outdoor ambient. Figure I 26 Variation of resilient modulus with bulk stres s, Georgia, replicate 1, wetting and drying.

PAGE 196

196 LIST OF REFERENCES Afifi, S.S. and Woods, R.D. (1971). "Long Term Pressure Effects on Shear Modulus of Soils", Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division ASCE, Vol.97, No10, October, pp.1445 1460 Ca mpos, L.A. (2007). "Investigation of Stiffness Gain Mechanism in Florida Limestone Base Coarse Material", M.E. Thesis University of Florida, May, 67 pp. Cho, G.C. and Santamarina J. C. (2001). "Unsaturated Particulate Material Particle Level Study", Jour nal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering ASCE, Vol. 127, No. 1, January, pp. 84 96 Fernandez, A. L. (2000) "Tomographic Imaging the State of Stress", Ph.D. Dissertation Georgia Institute of Technology, 298 pp Florida Department of Environmen tal Protection Homepage, Florida Geological Survey, Geology Topics, Ocala Limestone, http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/geologictopics/rocks/ocala_limestone.htm. Accessed November 2, 2007 Florida Department of Environmental Protection Homepage, Florida Geo logical Survey, Geology Topics, Miami Limestone, http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/geologictopics/rocks/miami_limestone.htm Accessed November 2, 2007 Florida Dep artment of Environmental Protection Homepage, Florida Geological Survey, Geology Topics, Anastasia Formation Coquina, http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/geologictopics/ro cks/anastasia.htm Accessed November 2, 2007 Florida Department of Transportation Homepage, State Materials Office, Geotechnical Materials System, Aggregate Acceptance, Source Maps, http://www.dot.state.fl.us/statematerialsoffice/laboratory/geotechnical/aggregates/maps/in dex.htm Accessed November 1, 2007 Gartland, J.D. and Eades J.L. (1979). "Laboratory Investigation of Natural Cementation Ph enomena in Florida Limestone Base Course Materials Florida Limerock Cementation Investigation, S 18 77 Sponsored by the FDOT Department of Geology University of Florida, June 30 Hardin, B. O. a nd Richart, F. E., Jr. (1963). Elastic Wa ve Velocities in G ranular Soils", Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division ASCE, Vol. 89, No. SM1, February, pp. 33 65. Kalinski, M. E. and Thummaluru, M. S. R. (2005), "A New Free Free Resonant Column Device for Measurement of Gmax and Dmin at Higher Confini ng Stresses", Geotechnical Testing Journal ASTM, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 1 8

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197 Keyser J.H., Eades J.L., Ruth B.E., Zimpfer W.H., Smith L.L. (1984). "Marginal Aggregates for Highway Pavements," Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology No 30 Paris, pp.425 429 Kim, D. S., Kweon, G. C., and Lee, K. H. (1997). "Alternative Method of Determining Resilient Modulus of Compacted Subgrade Soils Using Free Free Resonant Column Test", Transportation Research Record 1577 TRB, Washington, D. C., pp. 62 69 Kim, D. S. and Stokoe, K. H., II (1992). "Characterization of Resilient Modulus of Compacted Subgrade Soils Using Resonant Column and Torsional Shear Tests", Transportation Research Record 1369 TRB, Washington, D. C., pp. 83 91 Lu, N. and Likos, W. J. (2005), Unsaturated Soil Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York, 556 pp McClellan G.H., Ruth B.E., Eades J.L., Fountain K.B., and Blitch G. (2001) "Evaluation of Aggregates for Base Course Construction" Final Report for FDOT, State Contract N o. B 9886 WPI 0510753, September Menq, F. Y. (2003). "Dynamic Properties of Sandy and Gravelly Soils", Ph.D. Dissertation The University of Texas at Austin, May, 363 pp Mitchell, J. K. and Soga, K. (2005) Fundamentals of Soil Behavior 3 rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, In c., Hoboken, New Jersey, 577 pp Nazarian, S., Yuan, D., and Arellano, M. (2002). "Quality Management of Base and Subgrade Materials with Seismic Methods", 8 1st Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers CD ROM Transportation Research Board, Wash ington, D. C., January Nazarian, S. Yuan, D. Tandon, V. and Arellano, M. (2002). "Quality Management of Flexible Pavement Layers with Seismic Methods," Research Project 0 1735 Development of Structural Field Testing of Flexible Pavement Layers Conducte d for Texas Department of Transportation Research Repo rt 1735 3F, December, pp.21 120 Qian, X., Gra y, D.H., and Woods, R.D. (1993). "Voids and Granulometry; Effects on Shear Modulus of Unsaturated Sands," Journal of Geotechnical Engineering., ASCE, Vol. 1 19, No2, February, pp. 295 314 Qian, X., Gray, D.H., and Woods, R.D. (199 1). "Resonant Column Tests on Partially Saturated Sands", Geotechnical Testing Journal 14(3), pp. 266 275 Richart, F. E., Jr., Hall, J. R., Jr., and Woods, R. D. (1970) Vibrations o f Soils and Foundations Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 414 pp Schmertmann, J. H. (1992). "The Mechanical Aging of Soils", Journal of Geotechnical Engineering ASCE, Vol. 117, No. 9, September, pp. 1288 1330.

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198 Singh, A., Roberson, R., Ra naivoson, A., Siekmeier, J., and Gupta, S. (2006). "Water Retention Characteristics of Aggregate and Granular Materials", Unsaturated Soils 2006, Geotechnical Special Publication No. 147 G A. Miller C E. Zapata S L. Houston and D G. Fredlund E d s., American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 1326 1337 Smith L.L. and Lofroos W.N. (1981). "Pavement Design Coefficients: A Re evaluation of Florida Base Materials", State of Florida Department of Transportation Research Report FL/DOT/OMR 235/81 February Wu S., Gray, D. H., and Richart, F. E., Jr. (1984). "Capillary Effects on Dynamic Modulus of Sands and Silts", Journal of Geotechnical Engineering ASCE, Vol. 110, No. 9, September, pp. 1188 1203 Wu, S. M. and Woods, R. D. (1987), "Time Effects on Shear Mod ulus of Unsaturated Cohesionless Soils," Soil Structure Interaction A. S. Cakmak, Ed., Elsevier, New York, pp. 243 256 Zimpfer, W.H. (1979). Florida Limerock Investigation; Strength Gain Study" Florida Department of Transportation Interim Report No.2 St ate Project Number U 03 December Zimpfer, W.H. (1988). "Review of FDOT Flexible Pavement Base Studies" Final Report for the Florida Department of Transportation, State Project Number 997000 7350, June Zimpfer, W.H., Smith, L.L., Potts, C.F., and Fuller S.L. (1973). "Structural Layer Coefficients for Flexible Pavement Design", Final Report Submitted to the Florida Department of Transportation Research Report 177, 45 pp

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199 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ulas Toros was born in Adana, Turkey, in 1977, the son of Kema l Toros and Suzan Toros. After graduating from high school, he entered the Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. He received his B.S. degree in civil engineering in June 1999. After graduation, he entered the Uni versity of Texas El Paso, Texas. He received his M.S. degree in structural engineering in May 2002. Upon graduation, he entered the University of Florida. He received the M.E. degree in construction engineering and management in August 2003. In May 2004, M r. Toros entered the Ph.D. degree program in civil engineering at the University of Florida and received hid Ph.D. from the University of Florida in 2008.