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Simulation-Based Capacity Estimation of Arterial Workzones

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022382/00001

Material Information

Title: Simulation-Based Capacity Estimation of Arterial Workzones
Physical Description: 1 online resource (135 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Jain, Mayank
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: arterial, capacity, simulation, work, workzones, zone
Civil and Coastal Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Civil Engineering thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Numerous states have policies that provide guidance for the institution of short term lane closures on arterial streets based on capacity estimates; however, it is not clear how the existing values were developed, and there are currently no tools to estimate the capacity of arterial lane closures. This estimation is important because capacity is used to forecast queues and delays. In this research, simulation was used to develop several intersection and work zone configurations and to obtain relationships between various factors and the capacity of the arterial work zone. A set of appropriate scenarios was developed considering the capabilities of the simulator, the impacts various factors may have on arterial work zone capacity, as well as the sensitivity of those factors with respect to the simulated capacity. Five regression models were developed to predict the capacity of the entire approach, the capacity of the left-turning lane group, and the capacity of the through and right-turning group for various arterial work zone configurations. Capacity is defined as a function of various factors including the percentage of left-turning vehicles, the distance of the work zone to the downstream intersection, and the g/C ratios of each lane group. Simulation of arterial work zones showed that the distance from the work zone to the downstream intersection affects the capacity of the entire arterial work zone. Increasing the available storage between the signal and the work zone models results in better utilization of the green at the intersection. The capacity of the arterial work zone is reduced when one of the movements is blocked by the other. The probability of such blockage increases when the g/C ratios are not optimal or when the channelization at the intersection is not optimal for the respective demands.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Mayank Jain.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Elefteriadou, Ageliki L.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022382:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022382/00001

Material Information

Title: Simulation-Based Capacity Estimation of Arterial Workzones
Physical Description: 1 online resource (135 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Jain, Mayank
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: arterial, capacity, simulation, work, workzones, zone
Civil and Coastal Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Civil Engineering thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Numerous states have policies that provide guidance for the institution of short term lane closures on arterial streets based on capacity estimates; however, it is not clear how the existing values were developed, and there are currently no tools to estimate the capacity of arterial lane closures. This estimation is important because capacity is used to forecast queues and delays. In this research, simulation was used to develop several intersection and work zone configurations and to obtain relationships between various factors and the capacity of the arterial work zone. A set of appropriate scenarios was developed considering the capabilities of the simulator, the impacts various factors may have on arterial work zone capacity, as well as the sensitivity of those factors with respect to the simulated capacity. Five regression models were developed to predict the capacity of the entire approach, the capacity of the left-turning lane group, and the capacity of the through and right-turning group for various arterial work zone configurations. Capacity is defined as a function of various factors including the percentage of left-turning vehicles, the distance of the work zone to the downstream intersection, and the g/C ratios of each lane group. Simulation of arterial work zones showed that the distance from the work zone to the downstream intersection affects the capacity of the entire arterial work zone. Increasing the available storage between the signal and the work zone models results in better utilization of the green at the intersection. The capacity of the arterial work zone is reduced when one of the movements is blocked by the other. The probability of such blockage increases when the g/C ratios are not optimal or when the channelization at the intersection is not optimal for the respective demands.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Mayank Jain.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Elefteriadou, Ageliki L.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022382:00001


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SIMULATION-BASED CAPACITY ESTIMATION OF ARTERIAL WORKZONES


By

MAYANK PRAKASH JAIN
















A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008

































O 2008 Mayank Prakash Jain




































To my parents










ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank the University of Florida and the Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering for

giving me the opportunity to participate in a transportation proj ect and produce unique research.

I thank my committee, comprised of Dr. Lily Elefteriadou, Associate Professor, committee chair,

and primary advisor; Dr. Scott Washburn, Associate Professor; and Dr. Kevin Heaslip, post

doctoral research associate. I thank them for the advice, guidance, and feedback throughout the

research and writing of the report. I would like also to thank McTrans and those involved with

software development. I thank them for providing insight into the details of the problems and

solutions within the algorithms, fundamental to the effective use of the software packages. I

thank the group of master' s and doctoral candidates that provided me with the technical support

and guidance when needed. Finally, I thank my friends, family, and loved ones for the emotional

support and encouragement throughout this endeavor.












TABLE OF CONTENTS

IM g e

ACKNOWLEDGMENT S .............. .................... 4


LIST OF TABLES ........._._ ...... .__ ..............7....


LIST OF FIGURES .............. .................... 9


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........._._ ...... .... .............. 13...


AB STRAC T ................ .............. 14


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION .............. .................... 16


1.1 Background ................. ................. 16.............
1.2 Obj ectives and Scope ................ ................. 17......... ...
1.3 Report Overview ................. ................. 17......... ....

2 LITERATURE REVIEW .............. .................... 18


2.1 Arterial Work Zone Design........................... .. ............. 18
2.2 State Methodologies for Computing Work Zone Capacity ................. ............... .... 19
2.3 Current FDOT Methodology .............. .................... 20
2.4 Arterial Work Zone Evaluation Tools............... ................. 22
2.4.1 W ZATA ................................... 22
2.4.2 QUEW Z .............. .................... 22
2.4.3 QuickZone Software .............. .................... 23
2.4.4 CA4PRS Software................ ............... 25
2.5 Summary of Literature and Conclusions ................. ..............._ 25........_...

3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY............... .............. 29


3.1 Introduction ................. ................ 29........ ....
3.2 Simulator Selection ................._ ................. ................ 29...
3.3 Modeling of Work Zones with CORSIM ................. ................. 31......... ..
3.4 Study Scenarios and Modeling Assumptions............... .............. 32
3.4.1 Network Configuration ................................... 33
3.4.2 Input Variables .................. .. .. ...... .... .............. 33....
3.5 Factors That Affect Arterial Work Zone Capacity .............. ...... .............. 33
3.6 Discussion on Factors .............. .................... 34
3.7 Sensitivity Analysis............... ............... 36
3.7.1 Length of Work Zone ................. ................. 36......... ...
3.7.2 Work Zone Lateral Position ................. ................. 37......... ...
3.7.3 Driveway Presence ................. ................. 37......... ....
3.7.4 Posted Speed Limit .............. .................... 38












Page


3.8 Simulation Scenarios............... ..... ............ 39
3.9 Required Number of Simulation Runs ...._. ......___._ ......._._. ...........4
3.10 Output from Simulations ........._.___..... .___ .............._ 41...
3.11 Summary .............. .................... 41

4 CAPACITY MODEL DEVELOPMENT ......__....._.__._ ......._._. ............5


4.1 Introduction .........._.... .. ....._._.. ........._._.... ... ..........5
4.2 Simulation Results for Cases When a Work Zone is Present ........._._... .. ......._._.... 51
4.3 Simulation Results for Cases without Work Zones (Base Case Scenarios)................. 53
4.4 Comparisons of Base Case and Work Zone Scenarios ........._.. _.... .._._........... 54
4.5 Capacity M odels .............. .. .. .. ... .. ... .............. 56
4.5.1 Models for 3 through 6 Lanes at Downstream Intersection............................. 57
4.5.2 Models for Arterials with 2 lanes at the Downstream Intersection.................. 60
4.6 Model Comparison............... .............. 61
4.7 Sensitivity Analysis............... ............... 62
4.8 Example Problems .............. .................... 63
4.8.1 Example Problem 1 ................................... 63
4.8.2 Example Problem 2............... ................... 65
4.8.3 Example Problem 3 .............. .................... 66

5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............. .................... 84


5.1 Summary .............. .................... 84
5.2 Conclusions ................. ................ 85..............
5.3 Future Research............... ............... 86


APPENDIX Analysis of Simulation Results ................. ...._._. ...._._. ...........8


A. 1 Lanes at Intersection with one Phase Only (Figure A-1)............... ............. .... 87
A.2 Two Lanes at Intersection with a Left-only Phase (Figure A-6) .............. ........_.... 88
A.3 Three Lanes at Intersection............... ............. 90
A.4 Four Lanes at Intersection............... ............. 92
A. 5 Five Lanes at Intersection .........._......... ......_._ .......... .............. 9
A.6 Six Lanes at Intersection (Figure A-67 and Figure A-68) ........._.._ .... ..._.._......... 96
A.7 Summary and Conclusions .............. .................... 97

REFERENCES .............. .................... 133


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........._.._ ..... ._._ .............._ 135...











LIST OF TABLES


Table Pan

2-1 Formulas for Determining Taper Lengths (MUTCD, 2003) .................... .............. 28

2-2 Lane Closure Capacity (FDOT Methodology) ................................... 28

3-1 Grouped Factors Affecting Work Zone Capacity ....._._.__ .... ... ._._ ......_._......... 46

3-2 Factors Affecting Work Zone Capacity ....._._.__ .... ... ..... ...._ _.. ..........4

3-3 Work Zone Length Sensitivity ........._.._...... ..___ ............... 47..

3-4 Work Zone Position Sensitivity ........._._._.....___.. ............... 48...

3-5 Driveway Sensitivity Analysis............... ............... 48

3-6 Posted Speed Limit Sensitivity .........._.... .............._ 48...__.. ...

3-7 Sensitivity Analysis .............. .................... 48

3-8 Changes in Network Properties .............. .................... 49

3-9 Geometric Variations ........._._._.....___.. .............._ 50...

3-10 Variables in Simulation............... .............. 50

3-11 Constraints for Variables .............. .................... 50

3-12 Sample Size............... ................. 50

4-1 Total Approach Capacity for Arterial Work Zones (in vph) .............. .................... 68

4-2 Through/Right Turn Approach Capacity for Arterial Work Zones (in vphpl) ........._...... 70

4-3 Left Turn Approach Capacity for Arterial Work Zones (in vphpl) .............. ................ 71

4-4 Base Case Intersection Capacities (in vph) ................. ................. 72......... ..

4-5 Base Case Through/Right Capacities (in vphpl )............... ................... 72

4-6 Base Case Left Turn Capacities (in vphpl) ................. ................. 73...........

4-7 Change in Total Approach Capacity When a Work Zone is Installed............................. 74

4-8 Change in the Through/Right Movement Capacity When a Work Zone Is Installed..... 75

4-9 Change in the Left Turn Movement Capacity When a Work Zone Is Installed ........._.... 76











Table Page

4-10 Maximum Left-turning Flow (MLTF) ................. ....____ .. .............. 77...

4-11 Maximum Through and Right-turning Flow (MTRF) ................. ......... ............... 77

4-12 Arterial Capacity (Cap) ................. ................. 78.............

4-13 Capacity for Arterials with Two Lanes and Single Phase .............. .................... 78

4-14 Capacity for Arterials with Two Lanes and Separate Left Turn Phase ............................ 78

4-15 Range of Applicable Values .........._ ...... ._ ....__ ...._ ............... 79











LIST OF FIGURES


Finr Page

2-1 Work Zone Setup [Source: MUTCD 2003]............... ................. 27

3-1 Network Configuration in CORSIM............... ................ 43

3-2 Network Map Showing Link Numbers ................. ................. 43............

3-3 Work Zone Length Sensitivity ................. ................. 44......... ...

3-4 Driveway Flow vs. Capacity ................. ................. 44......... ...

3-5 Lane Channelization Schemes for All Scenarios............... ............... 45

4-1 Schematic for Example 1 ................................... 68

4-2 Schematic for Example 2 ................ ..............68. .......... ...

4-3 Schematic for Example 3 .............. .................... 68

A-1 Scenario 2. 1 (Lane Channelization)............... ............ 99

A-2 Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 2. 1) ................ ................. 99...........

A-3 g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 2. 1) .............. .................... 99

A-4 Left-tumning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 2. 1) ................ ......... ............... 100

A-5 Right-tumning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 2. 1) ................. ................ ....__ 100

A-6 Scenario 2.2 (Lane Channelization) ................. ................. 101........ ...

A-7 Distance vs. Left-tumning Flow (Scenario 2.2)............... ................. 101

A-8 Distance vs. Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 2.2)............... ................. 101

A-9 Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.2) ......_......._.__........._ ..........10

A-10 Th/Rt g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.2) ......... ........_____ .. .............. 102.

A-11 Left-tumning Percentage vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 2.2) .................... .............. 103

A-12 Left-tumning Percentage vs. Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 2.2)............... ............... .. 103

A-13 Left-tumning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.2) ....._____ ........._ .............. 104

A-14 Right-tumning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.2)............... ............... .. 104











Finure Page

A-18 Number of Open Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0) .............. .................. .. 105

A-19 Number of Left-only Lanes vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 3.0) ................. .............. 106

A-20 Number of Left-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0) ................ ........... .......... 106

A-21 Th and Rt Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)............... ................. 107

A-22 Right-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0) ................ ................. 107...........

A-23 Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0) ................ ................. 108...........

A-24 Left-tumning g/C vs. Left-tumning Flow (Scenario 3.0) .............. .................... 108

A-25 Left-tumning g/C vs. Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 3.0) .............. .................... 109

A-26 Left-tumning g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)............... ................. 109

A-27 Th/Rt Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)............... ................. 110

A-28 Right-tumning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)............... .............. ... 110

A-29 Left-tumning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0) ................ ......... ............... 111

A-34 Number of Open Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0) .............. ................ .... 1 12

A-3 5 Left-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0) .............. .................... 1 13

A-36 Through and right Lanes vs. Left-tumning Volume (Scenario 4.0) .............. ................ 113

A-37 Through and Right Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0) ................ ....___ ............ 114

A-3 8 Right-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0) ....._____ .... ......... ... .._ ........14

A-39 Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0) .................._____ .. .............. 115..

A-40 Left Phase g/C vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 4.0)............... ................ 115

A-41 Left Phase g/C vs. Th/Rt Volume (Scenario 4.0) .............. .................... 116

A-42 Left Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0) .............. .................... 116

A-43 Left Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0) .............. .................... 117

A-44 Left-turning Percentage vs. Left-turning Volume (Scenario 4.0)............... ................. 117

A-45 Left-tumning Percentage vs. Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 4.0)............... ............... .. 118











Finure Page

A-46 Left-tumning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0) ................ ......................_. 118

A-47 Right-tumning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0)............... .............. ... 119

A-52 Number of Open Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0) .............. .................. .. 120

A-53 Number of Left Tumn Only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0) ................. ................ 120

A-54 Through and Right Lanes vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 5.0)............... .................. 121

A-55 Through and Right Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0) ................ ................ ...._ 121

A-56 Right-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0) ................ ................. 122...........

A-57 Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0) ................ ................. 122........ ..

A-58 Left Phase g/C vs. Lt Tumning Flow (Scenario 5.0)............... ................. 123

A-59 Left Phase g/C vs. Right-tumning Flow (Scenario 5.0)............... ............... .. 123

A-60 Left Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0) .............. .................... 124

A-61 Left Phase g/C vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 5.0)............... ................ 124

A-62 Through Right Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0) .............. .................... 125

A-63 Left-tumning Percentage vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 5.0) .............. ................... 125

A-64 Left-tumning Percentage vs. Th/Rt Volume (Scenario 5.0) ................ ..................... 126

A-65 Left-tumning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0) ................ ......... ............... 126

A-66 Right-tumning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)............... .............. ... 127

A-69 Number of Open lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0)............... ................. 128

A-70 Left-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0) .............. .................... 128

A-71 Through and Right Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0) ................ ....___ ............ 129

A-72 Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0) .................._____ .. .............. 129..

A-73 Left Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0) .............. .................... 130

A-74 Th/Rt Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0)............... ................. 130

A-75 Left-tumning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0) ....._____ ... .......... .............. 131










Figure Page

A-76 Right-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0)............... .............. ... 131









LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Construction Analysis for Pavement Rehabilitation Strategies

Department of Transportation

Florida Department of Transportation

Florida Department of Transportation Plans and Preparation Manual

Federal Highway Administration

Highway Capacity Manual

Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices

Oregon Department of Transportation

Queue and User Cost Evaluation of Work Zones

Lanes channelized as through and right lanes (shared lanes)

Sum of lanes marked as Th/Rt Lanes and right-only lanes

Work Zone Analysis Tool for the Arterial


CA4PRS

DOT

FDOT

FDOT PPM

FHWA

HCM

MUTCD

ODOT

QUEWZ

Th/Rt Lanes

Th & Rt Lanes

WZATA









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

SIMULATION BASED CAPACITY ESTIMATION OF ARTERIAL WORKZONES

By

Mayank Prakash Jain

August 2008

Chair: Lily Elefteriadou
Major: Civil Engineering

Numerous states have policies that provide guidance for the institution of short term lane

closures on arterial streets based on capacity estimates; however, it is not clear how the existing

values were developed, and there are currently no tools to estimate the capacity of arterial lane

closures. This estimation is important because capacity is used to forecast queues and delays. In

this research, simulation was used to develop several intersection and work zone configurations

and to obtain relationships between various factors and the capacity of the arterial work zone. A

set of appropriate scenarios was developed considering the capabilities of the simulator, the

impacts various factors may have on arterial work zone capacity, as well as the sensitivity of

those factors with respect to the simulated capacity. Five regression models were developed to

predict the capacity of the entire approach, the capacity of the left-turning lane group, and the

capacity of the through and right-turning group for various arterial work zone configurations.

Capacity is defined as a function of various factors including the percentage of left-turning

vehicles, the distance of the work zone to the downstream intersection, and the g/C ratios of each

lane group.

Simulation of arterial work zones showed that the distance from the work zone to the

downstream intersection affects the capacity of the entire arterial work zone. Increasing the









available storage between the signal and the work zone models results in better utilization of the

green at the intersection. The capacity of the arterial work zone is reduced when one of the

movements is blocked by the other. The probability of such blockage increases when the g/C

ratios are not optimal or when the channelization at the intersection is not optimal for the

respective demands.

Comparison of the arterial work zone capacity to the respective configurations with no

work zones showed that there are selected cases when installing a work zone may increase

capacity. Those increases typically occur when the intersection (prior to the work zone

installation) is congested. In those cases the work zone funnels traffic through the work zone,

and it becomes easier for vehicles to change lanes and reach their destination lane, because there

are fewer blockages. This increase was observed mostly for scenarios with 3 to 6 lanes at the

intersection approach.









CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Many state transportation agencies are experiencing growing congestion and traffic delays

because of work zones on arterial roads. This congestion results in delays for both motorists and

commercial vehicles. The delays also result in driver frustration, making some drivers willing to

take unsafe risks in an effort to bypass delays. The need to maintain adequate traffic flow

through short term and long term arterial work zones is vital on today's heavily-traveled

roadways. Research has been conducted on the factors that affect the work zone capacity on

freeways but little has been done to estimate the capacity of arterial work zones.

Numerous states (MassHighway, (2007), Missouri Department of Transportation (2004),

Washington Department of Transportation (WDOT) (2006), Oregon Department of

Transportation (ODOT) (2007), refer Sarasua et. al. (2004)) have policies that provide guidance

for the installation of short term work zone (lane closures) including maximum allowable traffic

flows, vehicle delays, and queue lengths. Those policies are based on capacity estimates;

however, it is not clear how the existing values were developed, and there are currently no tools

to estimate capacity. Generally, capacity values are obtained for each state as a function of traffic

stream characteristics, highway geometry, work zone location, type of construction activities,

and work zone configuration (Sarasua, 2004).

There have been empirical observations of various factors that affect the operation and

capacity of arterial work zones; however, literature lacks capacity estimation models.

The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) is currently interested in updating its

existing methodologies for estimating the capacity of arterial lane closures. This estimation is

important because capacity is used to obtain queues as well as delays. Currently, the FDOT










procedure of estimating capacity on arterials is an extension of the one used to estimate freeway

work zone capacity. The current methods have not been updated since 1995 and FDOT is

interested in an improved method that will facilitate the scheduling and managing of short term

work zone lane closures on arterials.

The existing procedure used by FDOT (PPM, 2000) for calculation of restricted capacity

for open road (i.e., freeways, multilane highways, and two-lane highways) and signalized

intersections applies an obstruction factor based on lateral clearance and travel lane width, a

work zone factor based on work zone length, and finally the g/C ratio to the base capacity to

estimate a restricted capacity. The procedure does not account for the operating characteristics

of the facility (i.e., speeds, characteristics of downstream workzone, etc.).

1.2 Objectives and Scope

The obj ective of this research was to identify the various geometric and traffic factors that

impact the capacity of an arterial work zone and to develop an analytical model to estimate work

zone capacity. Capacity models are estimated for the approach to a signalized intersection.

Additionally, models for predicting the maximum flow through left turn only and Through-right

(Th/Rt) lane group were also estimated.

1.3 Report Overview

Chapter 2 reviews the literature pertaining to the topic. It discusses the state of the art in

the field. Chapter 3 presents the methodology. It describes the scenario setup and the simulation.

Model development is presented in the chapter 4 along with the models developed for all the

scenarios. Chapter 5 presents the conclusions drawn from the research and the recommendations

for future work.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

An extensive literature review was conducted to identify and evaluate existing research

involving arterial work zone lane closures. Little research has been done to address the issue of

capacity in arterial work zones.

The first section discusses the design of work zones in the Manual on Uniform Traffic

Control Devices (FHWA, 2003). Review of the current FDOT methodology for capacity

calculation of work zones and its limitations are presented next. The third section summarizes

existing methods and approaches used by various states. It also provides an overview of work

zone capacity research and other tools available for work zone analysis. The last section includes

a brief summary of the findings and recommendations from the literature.

2.1 Arterial Work Zone Design

The 2003 version of the MUTCD provides guidance to transportation professionals on the

design of arterial work zones. This section presents the various features of an arterial work zone

based on these guidelines. Figure 2-1 presents a typical work zone implemented on an arterial.

The barrier seen in the figure would only be implemented on a high speed, longer term proj ect.

In applications without barriers, the general layout would maintain the other characteristics as

shown.

The work zone begins with an advance warning area which consists of various signs

informing drivers of a imminent geometric change. This is followed by the transition zone,

where a cone or barrel taper is utilized to guide drivers away from the closed lane and into the

open lane. Mathematical formulae exist to calculate the length of this taper depending on the

number of lanes closed, the length of work zone, and the speed of vehicles entering the work










zone. The formulae are presented in Table 2-1 and are a function of the width of the offset (work

area width) and the posted speed limit or the 85th percentile speed prior to work starting.

"Activity or work area" follows the "taper" which consist of workers and other equipment.

The end of the work zone is defined as the "termination area" where tapers may be used, if

required, to restore normal traffic flow. This area extends until the last road sign designating the

end of road work. The lengths of and around the work area are based on the activity that is being

conducted. The guidance from the MUTCD states that no work should be conducted in buffer

areas.

The MUTCD provides typical applications for work zones at and within intersections

however there are no guidelines for the minimum length of a work zone and its approaching

taper zone if the speed and length of work zone are not known. Such guidelines can act as

guiding values for safety norms. However there are guidelines for establishing the length of the

taper as a function of the length of the work zone and the prevailing speeds only.

This section presented a brief overview of a typical work zone setup. The next section will

detail the way work zone capacity is calculated by FDOT.

2.2 State Methodologies for Computing Work Zone Capacity

FHWA' s Rule on Work Zone Safety and Mobility (FHWA, 2005) requires states to

implement measures that maximize mobility without compromising the safety of highway

workers or road users. The rule suggests delay, speed, travel time, and queue lengths as possible

performance measures for the assessment of mobility (FHWA, 2005). The threshold limits for

these measures are defined on a state-by-state basis as a function of traffic stream characteristics,

highway geometry, work zone location, type of construction activities, and work zone

configuration (Sarasua, et. al., 2004).









There are several tools available for estimating work zone delay and queue length. These

are estimated based on capacity estimates which are used as input to those tools (Jiang and Adeli,

2004). Specific values are suggested, however, there is little information available on the relative

impacts of various work zone related factors on capacity. States provide suggested arterial work

zone capacities as follows:

Massachusetts: 1,170 to 1,490 vphpl; (MassHighway, 2007)
Missouri: 1,000 vphpl; (Missouri DOT, 2004)
Washington: 600 to 1,300 vphpl; (Washington DOT Design Manual, 2006)
Oregon: 1,200 to 1,600 passenger cars per hour per lane (pcphpl); (ODOT, 2007)
South Carolina: 800 vphpl. (Sarasua, et. al., 2004)


As shown there is wide variability in the values used, and there is no documentation on

how these values were obtained.

2.3 Current FDOT Methodology

FDOT has a procedure to determine the capacity of Work Zone Lane Closures on Multi-

Lane Signalized Arterials. Section 10.14.7 of FDOT PPM Volume I (1) (FDOT PPM, 2007)

describes the lane-closure analysis.

The lane closure analysis is used to calculate the peak hour traffic volume and the

restricted capacity for open road and signalized intersections. The analysis determines whether a

lane closure should be allowed, and if it' s allowed, then whether it should be implemented

during the day or night. The procedure first determines the demand, i.e., the peak hour traffic

volume. Next the user selects the appropriate 'basic" Capacity (C) from Table 2-1.

The Restricted Capacity (RC) for open road is then calculated as:

RCopen road =C x OF x WZF (equation 1.1)

where

C is the Base Capacity obtained from Table 2-1.

20










OF is obstruction Factor, which reduces the capacity of the remaining travel lane(s) by restricting
one or both of the following components: Travel lane width less than 12 ft. and lateral
clearance less than 6 ft.

WZF is Work Zone Factor, which is directly proportional to the length of the work zone. It
applies only to closures converted to two-way, one-lane.

Reduced capacity for arterials differs from freeways only if the lane closure is through or within
600 ft. of a signalized intersection. In this case, RC is given as:

RCartenalroad = RCopenroad x g/C (equation 1.2)


where

g C is the Ratio of effective Green to Cycle Time.

If the demand of the facility is below the restricted capacity (i.e., V< RC), there is no

restriction on the lane closure and no delay is expected. If the demand exceeds the restricted

capacity (i.e., V > RC), the analyst next considers the delays throughout the day to determine

when the lane closure will be permitted.

In summary, the existing FDOT procedure is based on the following:

The "basic capacity" of the arterial. These capacities do not consider geometric
characteristics of the site, such as vertical alignment, or other aspects related to the
saturation flow rate of the intersection approach.

Capacity reductions based on lane width and lateral clearance. More recent research
(HCM 2000) has shown that these may not play a significant role in reducing capacity.

The capacity reduction due to the signal (G/C ratio related reduction) applies to 600 ft.
upstream of a signalized intersection. The 600 ft. roughly account for the taper,
deceleration and storage for the intersection turning lane groups. However, the validity of
the 600 ft value should be assessed in light of the large variability in traffic volumes, G/C
ratios and queue lengths.

The existing procedure does not consider factors such as speeds upstream and through the
work zone, nor lane distributions and turning movement types. It also does not consider
actuated control and the resulting G/C ratio. These may impact the capacity of an arterial
work zone.









2.4 Arterial Work Zone Evaluation Tools

Several research papers focus on the capacity of freeway work zones, however very little

research specifically addresses capacity on arterial work zones. No specific procedure was found

that calculates the capacity of an arterial work zone or the capacity of a signalized intersection

downstream of a work zone. Existing work zone analysis packages focus on the estimation of

queue length and delays by using capacity as either input or an intermediate variable. This

section discusses various tools that have either been developed specifically to analyze arterial

lane closures, or that can be used to simulate arterial work zone operations.

Currently, three software products, QUEWZ, QuickZone, and CA4PERS, are used to

evaluate arterial work zones. A survey of State DOTs showed that QUEWZ and QuickZone were

widely used software packages for the estimation of queue lengths and delays in work zones

(Chitturi & Benekohal).

2.4.1 WZATA

In one of the earlier efforts to evaluate arterial work zone operations, Joseph et. al. (1988)

developed the Work Zone Analysis Tool for the Arterial (WZATA) to analyze and evaluate lane

closures between two signalized intersections. This tool requires as input the saturation flow rate

at each of the two intersections. WZATA estimates delay and queuing, but it is not clear if it can

estimate the impact of the work zone on the downstream intersection throughput.

2.4.2 QUEWZ

Memmott and Dudek (1984) developed Queue and User Cost Evaluation of Work Zones

(QUEWZ) to estimate user costs incurred due to lane closures. The software is designed to

evaluate work zones on freeways but is also adaptable to different types of highways. The model

uses capacity as input and analyzes traffic flow through lane closures. It helps plan and schedule

freeway work-zone operations by estimating queue lengths and additional road user costs. The

22










costs are calculated as a function of the capacity through work zones, average speeds, delay

through the lane closure section, queue delay, changes in vehicle running costs, and total user

costs. Since its development, QUEWZ has undergone two major modifications. One of these is

the ability to determine acceptable schedules for alternative lane closure configurations--

crossover or partial lane closure--based on motorist-specified maximum acceptable queue or

delay. The second of these improvements is the development of an algorithm that can consider

natural road user diversion away from the freeway work zone to a more desirable, unspecified,

alternate route (Associated Press, 1989).

There are a few software packages that use queuing analysis to determine queue lengths

and delay. These use capacity as either input or an intermediate variable. Absence of relevant

literature lead to study of these packages to understand the factors affecting the capacity. Two

software products, QuickZone and CA4PERS were studied for this project. Their algorithms and

with the inputs and outputs are discussed below.

2.4.3 QuickZone Software

FHWA has developed QuickZone (FHWA, 2000), an analytical approach to estimate and

quantify work zone delays. The software focuses on delays caused due to work zones but does

not estimate the capacity of the work zone.

The software algorithm requires the following input data:

1. Network data: Describing the mainline facility under construction as well as adj acent
alternatives in the travel corridor.

2. Project data: Describing the plan for work zone strategy and phasing, including capacity
reductions resulting from work zones.

3. Travel demand Data: Describing patterns of pre-construction corridor utilization.

4. Corridor Management Data: Describing various congestion mitigation strategies to be
implemented in each phase, including estimates of capacity changes from these
mitigation strategies. (FHWA, 2000)









The software takes the data presented above and compares expected travel demand against

proposed capacity by facility on an hour-by-hour basis for the life of the project to estimate delay

and mainline queue growth. This hour-by-hour estimation is conducted using a simple

deterministic queuing model for each link in the work zone impact area. Sections of the work

zone that are downstream from bottlenecks see lower travel demand because vehicle flow is

effectively metered at the upstream bottleneck. Queues on detour routes are also monitored.

Travel time delay is calculated at each bottleneck within the system by tracking the number of

queued vehicles. System delay is calculated by summing delay across all bottlenecks. QuickZone

first estimates total delay under the assumption that travel behavior will not change in response

to capacity reductions associated with the proj ect. This maximum delay profile is used to help

characterize the likely behavioral response in the travel corridor. The type and magnitude of

change in traveler behavior (as well as the mix of behaviors) will hinge on the severity and

duration of delay across proj ect phases. For example, a proj ect generating limited delay on the

mainline facility only during off-peak periods is likely to induce small changes in travel

behavior, primarily focused on a change of route on some alternative facility. Conversely, a

proj ect generating severe peak period delay will drive a broader and more complex traveler

response like a wider utilization of adj acent roadways, a shift in travel to non-peak periods, a

switch to transit or other modes, or a simple reduction in corridor demand as prospective trips are

simply cancelled or directed outside the travel corridor.

Regarding actuated signals, depending on the varying demand in the inbound and

outbound directions, QuickZone will identify the smallest cycle time that supports the travel

demand in each direction. This keeps the amount of delay to a minimum. Sometimes the

maximum cycle length must be used in order to clear as many vehicles as possible.









Once directional capacity is calculated, QuickZone tracks delays through the work zones,

calculating both; delay from signals (under-saturated delay) and delay from queuing when

demand exceeds effective capacity.

2.4.4 CA4PRS Software

In order to have an integrated analysis of design, construction, and traffic to provide a

schedule baseline for highway rehabilitation proj ects, a construction production analysis model

CA4PRS (Construction Analysis for Pavement Rehabilitation Strategies) software, was designed

for the California Department of Transportation. It is a knowledge-based computer simulation

model integrated with macroscopic and microscopic traffic simulation tools for estimating road

user delay cost due to construction work zone closures for highway rehabilitation and

reconstruction, especially under high traffic volume in the urban network. (Lee and Ibbs, 2005)

CA4PRS is a production analysis tool designed to estimate the maximum probable length

of highway pavement that can be rehabilitated or reconstructed given various proj ect constraints.

CA4PRS model evaluates "what-if" scenarios with respect to rehabilitation production by

comparing various input variables (alternatives). The input variables of CA4PRS are schedule

interfaces, pavement design and materials, resource constraints, and lane closure schemes. (Lee

and Ibbs, 2005)

2.5 Summary of Literature and Conclusions

Little research has been done to estimate the capacity of work zones on arterials. However,

some factors affecting the capacity on both arterial and freeway work zones have been studied

thus far. Some guidelines exist in FDOT PPM but they fail to consider the details of the work

zone configuration. Some software programs look at the delays caused due to work zones and

hence, account for some factors that might affect the capacity as well. QuickZone uses capacity

as input and calculates the delays to the users based on queuing theory. It also looks at the effect









of changing the cycle length on the delays and capacity. CA4PRS models looks at the

rehabilitation production only, by comparing various input variables.

The issue of the capacity determination of the work zones on arterials has not been

adequately addressed. It is not clear from the literature what factors affect the capacity of an

arterial work zone. Capacity is used as input but there are no tools to calculate capacity which

can be then used to estimate several other performance measures.

The next chapter discusses the proposed methodology for developing the models to

estimate work zone capacity on arterial roads.




































~bdl B






















S


.L


I p. a)450 m
(1,500 f]


Te mporary white
edge line


Crash cushion
( see Section 6F.82)
Buffer space
(optional}
Shoulder
tape~r
(optional)


~c/"/l


(Colonall


Note: See Tables 6H-2 and
6H~-3 for the meaning
oi the symbols andlor
ta~r exies usetd in


Figure 2-1 Work Zone Setup [Source: MUTCD 2003]


Typical Application 34











Table 2-1: Formulas for Determining Taper Lengths (MUTCD, 2003)
Speed Limit (S) Taper Length (L) Feet

40 mph or less L .. -

45 mph or more L = WF
where
L = taper length in feet
W = width of offset in feet
S = posted speed limit, or off-peak 85th-percentile speed prior to work starting, or the anticipated
operating speed in mph.


Capacity (VPH)
1400
1800
3600


Table 2-2: Lane Closure Capacity (FDOT Methodology)
Scenario
Existing 2-Lane-Converted to 2-Way, 1-Lane
Existing 4-Lane-Converted to 1-Way, 1-Lane
Existing 6-Lane-Converted to 1-Way, 2-Lane









CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This chapter presents a discussion on the next step to develop a simulation that can

accurately duplicate the effects of a work zone on the traffic stream. For this purpose, an

appropriate tool should be used. This chapter starts with a discussion on the selection of the

software package for simulation of the various scenarios involving work zones. Various software

packages are discussed with their capabilities and limitations. CORSIM, the tool used for this

proj ect, is then discussed in particular. The reasons for selecting CORSIM, along with the

specifics of the package are also discussed. The network configuration, the input variables and

the factors that affect the capacity described next. The chapter concludes with a discussion on

factors and sensitivity analysis with a description of the scenarios and the variables.

3.2 Simulator Selection

Simulation modeling cannot replace field data collection; it can, however, offer insights

into the relative capacities under different geometric configurations and traffic stream scenarios.

Software packages available for simulating traffic do not capture all the features of the

work zones on arterials. It has been found that most of the simulators do not have the capabilities

to explicitly model work zones (Ben-Akiva, et al., 2004). Ten (namely: AIMSUN, CORSIM,

MITSIMLab., VISSIM, Paramics, WATSIM, Cube Dynasim, DRACULA, INTEGRATION,

Transmodeler) of the available simulators were studied by Ben-Akiva, et al. (2004) and their

capabilities were assessed. The comparison is summarized below.

AIMSUN captures the effects of lane shifts, lane width reductions and reduced shoulder

width through the link characteristics, which affects the car-following model and acceleration

behavior. VISSIM also deals with these issues explicitly but the vehicular speeds are typically










very low while they move through arterial work zones in congested conditions making speed

related issues irrelevant.

MITSIMLab, Paramics, and WATSIM modify the link characteristics to change the free

flow speeds. This can be done in CORSIM as well. Most of the simulators, including CORSIM

can simulate weather conditions via proxy variables. Parameters that affect visibility and surface

quality may be changed, which then affect acceleration and lane changing behavior. For the

purpose of this proj ect, weather characteristics that affect drivers have not been considered

because of the time limitations.

Maximum and desired speeds mostly affect the acceleration of drivers in uncongested

conditions and have much less impact on accelerations in congested conditions and on lane

changing behaviors. (Ben-Akiva et al., 2004) Most of the simulators can model various vehicle

types.

Ben-Akiva et al., 2003 surveyed (for comparison of their capabilities simulating work

zones) AIMSUN, ARTEMIS, CORSIM, Cube Dynasim, DRACULA, INTTEGRATION,

MITSIM, Paramics, SimTraffic, TransModeler, VISSIM and WATSim. None of the surveyed

simulators explicitly model work zones. Ten of the above simulators capture work zone effects

by modeling it as a pre-defined incident. However, this approach does not necessarily capture all

the effects of work zones.

The software package CORSIM was selected for simulating work zones on arterials for

several reasons. First, the software, originally developed by FHWA, has been widely used and

validated in the past twenty years. Second, this software is available to the University of Florida

through McTrans, allowing for a high level of software support in understanding the software's

algorithms. Third, CORSIM includes most of the features that are available with other simulation









software at present. Some of the factors that are not available in CORSIM are not actually

required for arterial work zones as indicated in the last section.

The literature suggests that older versions of FRESIM~(the freeway simulation component

of CORSIM) were unreliable when simulating lane closures, as the software did not account for

slow-moving vehicles that severely impacted the queue lengths in the field (Dixon et al., 1995).

According to the conclusions of that research, the large queues observed in the field were due to

the existence of one or two vehicles in a data set that traveled inexplicably slow through the

work zone--much slower than the distribution of speeds in a simulation--and thus caused a

queue buildup that did not appear in the simulator. As a result, FRESI2~underestimated the

delay because vehicles did not behave in this manner in the simulation runs. Therefore, the

behavior of vehicles at the lane closure was not replicating actual conditions (Dixon et al., 1996).

The 1995 report used FRESIM~4.5, but the version used in this proj ect is CORSI2~yersion 5.1

release (McTrans, 2007).

This concludes the general discussion about all the simulation software packages and their

comparison. The following section will discuss the specifics to work zone setup using CORSIM.

3.3 Modeling of Work Zones with CORSIM

CORSIM does not have specific parameters for modeling work zones on arterials. The

software program does not consider merging operations within arterials, nor does it consider the

effect of the presence of workers and equipment. Vehicle type is not considered as a variable

because, even when CORSIM has capability to model heavy vehicles, it does not handle them

properly. The way heavy vehicles move in the CORSIM simulations is not satisfactory. It would

be better to let the model users to convert the heavy vehicles into passenger cars using standard

guidelines and then use that as input for the models. The results will therefore be given in

passenger vehicle units. Other software packages available at the TRC (such as AIMSUN), also









do not model work zones on arterials. The next closest alternative evaluated was to insert a link

with one or more lanes lesser than the upstream and downstream links, whose length would be

equal to the work-zone length. Figure 3-1 shows a CORSIM animation snapshot with this type of

configuration. As shown, the left (median) lane of the simulated work zone link is closed.

Approaching this simulated work zone (or lane drop), vehicles in CORSIM shift laterally,

rather than merge, when the lane on which they are traveling is dropped. Without comparing the

results with field data, it is impossible to say what effect this has on the performance of the

network and the capacity of the work zone.

Similarly, it is not possible to simulate work zones that lie in the middle lane of 3 or 4 lane

highways. If number of lanes in the dummy link that consists of the work zone is reduced then

the rest of the lanes would appear together. There is no way to separate them without making two

separate links with one lane each. This changes the way drivers would behave as compared to the

field conditions, it is therefore expected to result in different values as opposed to the field

conditions.

In conclusion, it is possible to replicate the presence of an arterial work zone in CORSIM

for all the cases. The effect of the factors that were not included in the simulations is not known.

If the left out variables are not very significant then the accuracy of the results would be better.

This cannot be predicted without comparing the results with the field data.

3.4 Study Scenarios and Modeling Assumptions

This section will present general outline of the network that was set up in CORSIM to

simulate all the work zones for this proj ect.










3.4.1 Network Configuration

There is slight difference in each of the scenario but the basic outline remains same. The

network (Figure 3-1) has work zone set up between the nodes 2 and 3. These nodes are dummy

nodes.

The dummy nodes are set up 300 ft apart in the above network making work zone 300 ft in

length. In this case, the link (2, 3) has only 1 lane while others have more lanes (Figure 3-2). The

arterial has two lanes in normal working conditions; so link (10, 2) has 2 lanes. There is a turn

pocket at the intersection resulting in three lanes in the link (3, 4). The nodes 8001 through 8004

represent virtual nodes for introducing and taking vehicles off the network. All the other links

have 2 lanes which remain unaltered in other scenarios as it does not impact the results (except

for links (4, 104) and (104, 8002) as these form receiving approach for the thorough traffic and

should therefore accommodate the number of lanes in the approach containing work zone).

3.4.2 Input Variables

There may be various scenarios that can affect the capacity of the work zone. This section

discusses the variables that were obtained from the literature. Since none of the literature

surveyed explicitly pointed any variable to be either more or less effective, a comprehensive list

of such variables was first made and then the suitable ones were selected from that list.

3.5 Factors That Affect Arterial Work Zone Capacity

This section presents the factors that have been found to affect the capacity of a work zone

on freeways, along with the corresponding reference source. Some of the factors that cannot

possibly affect the arterial work zone capacity have been skipped. These factors are grouped in

four categories as given in Table 3-1.










3.6 Discussion on Factors

Given the constraints in obtaining Hield data, it is not always possible to obtain information

for the entire range of possible scenarios that may occur. Simulation (or a combination of

simulation and Hield data collection) can be used to address all factors that may impact the

capacity and operational performance of an arterial work zone. These factors and the number of

scenarios that should be considered while simulating work zones or collecting data are discussed

below:

Signal control: The most important variable is the g/C (effective green to cycle length)

ratio for the study approach. Whether the signal is pretimed or not does not matter as this

research assumes the demand exceeds capacity of the work zone and in such a situation, actuated

signals act as pretimed too. Pedestrian phases may also be evaluated. Three to four scenarios

with varying g/C should be considered. The g/C ratios should also be varied for the protected left

turn phase if it is present.

Work zone distances to adjacent intersections: Preliminary simulation experiments

showed that the distance of the downstream intersection from the end of the work zone affects

operational quality of the link. This happens because vehicles are often blocked in the work

zone and cannot reach their target lane to take advantage of the green at downstream intersection.

It is important to obtain data related with work zones with varying distances to the downstream

intersection, and different locations of the work zone in the link. At least 4 to 5 scenarios can be

modeled using CORSIM. This variable will be discussed later in the text along with the approach

used for this proj ect. It may be noted now that this factor turns out to be very significant among

all the factors that are considered.

Presence of workers/equipment: The presence of workers and equipment is likely to

affect traffic stream. Two scenarios should be analyzed: one without workers present and one









with workers present. Because, this can only be observed in the Hield, this variable is not

considered in this study and should be studied if Hield data becomes available.

Geometric factors: The impact of the terrain and the grade of the approach should be

considered. Two to three scenarios with varying upgrades, in addition to one with level terrain,

should be measured. This cannot be simulated with CORSIM and is important for field data

collection only. The presence of turning pockets also eases out the congestion. This factor should

also be considered with simulation as well as Hield data collection.

Driveway presence: The presence of a driveway within the work zone may impact

operations mainly due to confusion or congestion within the work zone. While the confusion

may sometimes be created because drivers fail to notice a driveway (either because of improper

signs or because of visual distractions at the work zone site) may cause the capacity to go down.

Additional considerations: Factors such as signal coordination and the particular lane to

be closed relative to the downstream movements' demand is likely to have an impact on the

operation of work zone. Another factor that may impact operations is the presence of bicycles

and bicycle facilities. These factors may be investigated if data is collected since they cannot be

simulated.

Some of the factors were found to be infeasible with regards to simulation package being

used (CORSIM). Hence, they were not included in the initial list of the factors to be considered

for the pilot runs. All the factors discussed thus far are listed in Table 3-2. Heavy vehicles are not

adequately dealt with by CORSIM, so they were not included in the simulation runs. Instead the

capacity will simply be given out in terms of equivalent passenger vehicles. Similarly, other

factors that could not be simulated are also presented in the table.









Sensitivity analysis on some of the above factors was conducted to see if they affect the

capacity. This will be discussed in detail in the next section.

3.7 Sensitivity Analysis

Some of the factors that could be simulated were checked in terms of their impact on the

capacity of the work zone. A base scenario was considered for this analysis. The Base scenario

had two lanes in the approach with a left-only lane. Other features of the base scenario had

default values which can be assumed to have the values mentioned here unless specified

otherwise. The default value for length of the work zone is 300 ft. The distance from the

downstream end of the work zone to the downstream intersection was taken to be 300 ft as well.

The lateral position of work zone is the right lane. No driveways are present in the work zone.

The posted speed limit is 25 mph. A sensitivity analysis was conducted only on those factors that

were expected to have similar effects on the capacity as observed with the base scenario

mentioned above. Depending on the results of the analysis, they were either included or excluded

as variants in the proposed models. Each result is an average of five runs, which is the sample

size for the study.

3.7.1 Length of Work Zone

The length of work zone was varied from 100 ft through 1000 ft in steps of 100 ft and the

capacity of that scenario was found. Other factors were kept constant. Table 3-3 shows that the

change in the length does not have any significant effect on the work zone capacity. Figure 3-3

shows that the effect is neither significant nor consistently increasing or decreasing. Because the

length of the work zone was found not to have significant effect on the capacity, it was excluded

from consideration. It may be noted that since work zone effects the capacity due to the

additional lane changing at the start and end of the work zone area. Irrespective of the length










(assuming it to be a minimum of 100 ft) this phenomenon remains the same. There is no reason

to expect different results in other scenarios, so this factor can be excluded.

3.7.2 Work Zone Lateral Position

Work zones can be positioned at any of the lanes on the arterial. If one lane is closed on a

two-lane arterial then it can either lie on the left lane or right lane. Those two configurations

were simulated to determine whether the position of work zone has any effect on the capacity of

the arterial. An average of 5 runs each, were conducted on several different work zone

configurations. The results suggest that the position does not affect the capacity in the

simulation. The vehicles change lanes to their destination lane with almost the same efficiency

regardless of the position of the work zone. The capacity does not change significantly in this

case, making it unnecessary to vary the position of the work zone for different scenarios.(Table

3-4)

3.7.3 Driveway Presence

Sometimes, there is a driveway in the middle of the work zone. This driveway may not be

very easily seen because of equipment presence, improper signs, or drivers' inattentiveness. The

presence of such a driveway may affect the capacity of the work zone. To determine whether any

such effect is observable by CORSIM, the capacity of the work zone with a driveway was

compared with the one without a driveway. The percentage of volume going into the driveway

was also evaluated to determine whether it had an effect on the capacity.

As can be seen in Figure 3-4, the change in the capacity is not large and the effect is also

not very uniform. Hence, it was concluded that the variable does not have significant effect on

the capacity (Table 3-5). Since CORSIM does not handle vehicle turning in detail, it does not

make a smooth transition in the speed of a vehicle while it makes a turn. First, vehicles do not

slow down to make a turn in CORSIM. If a vehicle Einds a gap then it makes a turn without










stopping or slowing down, which is not realistic. Second, if the speed limit is different on the

arterial and the destination street, then CORSIM instantly switches the speed of the vehicle

without making a transition in the speed. Moreover, in case of driveways, the drivers in the

maj or roadway do not yield to the drivers in the driveway which lessens the impact of the

driveway. Therefore, this variable is not properly represented. Driveways were dropped out of

the list of the variables to be considered. Based on the above discussion, it can be concluded that

even multiple driveways would yield similar results when simulated in CORSIM. Therefore,

multiple driveways were not considered.

3.7.4 Posted Speed Limit

Speeds of vehicles plying through the work zone may affect its capacity but the posted

speed may or may not affect the same because at the intersection and in congested situation, the

actual speeds are already very low. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine whether

the posted speed affects the capacity. As it can be seen from Table 3-6, the speed limit increases

the capacity slightly, but the increase is not significant and is not steady. Further, it can be seen

in the simulation runs that the actual speed of the vehicles is very less as opposed to the posted

speed. This makes the speed limit irrelevant for any scenario. For this reason the factor was

excluded from the analysis.

Table 3-7 summarizes the results from the sensitivity analysis done in the last few

segments. The results are given in the last column and the values which were tested are given in

the middle column. Table 3-8 shows the changes in the network properties that were done so that

the simulation properly replicates the observed traffic on the field. With these settings, the traffic

produces much more realistic flows. The changes made are summarized in the table along with

the effect that they produce.










The following sections will discuss the approaches planned for the simulation scenarios

and the values of the factors that were used to finally simulate the work zone.

3.8 Simulation Scenarios

This section presents the scheme that was followed while developing the simulation

scenarios for the study. The final scheme used for the proj ect was arrived at after some

alterations in the scheme that the proj ect was started off with. The earlier approach to this proj ect

was that arterials with different number of lanes would be considered separately, i.e. there were

separate scenarios for 2, 3 and 4 lane arterials. This approach did not deal properly with the

turning pockets and the various possible channelization schemes. It was also noticed that there

was a good relation between the distance of the work zone to the downstream intersection,

available green time and the capacity. The distance between the work zone and intersection acted

as storage for the vehicles queued up prior to the intersection. This relation was the reason for the

change in the models and also the way simulations were conducted.

Secondly, the new approach also looks properly at the turning volumes of each lane group

along with the capacity of the whole approach. It would result in better models and allow for

better analysis of the situation. Lastly, it was realized that turning pockets cannot be tested for

their impact on the basis of any single scenario. They may be important in one scenario and may

not play a crucial role in affecting the capacity in other. So it is not possible to conduct a

sensitivity analysis on them and claim either of the above for all the other cases. They had to be

included in the simulation scenarios as variable. This would increase the number of cases and the

difficulty in understanding them as well with the earlier approach. The new approach also allows

for fewer models for all the cases and is easy to implement for the officials.

Scenarios were categorized on the basis of number of lanes at the intersection which

include turn pockets along with normal lanes. Each scenario has different possible lane










channelization schemes which are given in Figure 3-5. These channelization schemes are

representative of most common configurations found in the U.S. The scenarios vary in terms of

the geometry at the work zone. The total number of lanes in a normally working arterial may

vary for the same number of lanes at an intersection. For example, if there are 3 lanes at

intersection, then the arterial may have 2 lanes and the third may be a turn pocket. The arterial

may have 3 lanes and hence there is no turn pocket. Further, in case of 3 lanes in the arterial,

there are 2 possibilities: 1 lane open for traffic in the work zone or 2 lanes open for traffic in the

work zone. All the possibilities considered in this study are listed in Table 3-9.

They were all simulated to obtain the capacity with regards to all the other variables which

are listed in Table 3-10.

All of the combinations of the above variables were tried except for some of the specific

combinations which were not reasonable. These are listed in Table 3-11

3.9 Required Number of Simulation Runs

The required number of simulation runs for each scenario was estimated using Equation

3.1.


n = I (Equation 3.1)


where
n = Sample Size
sd = Standard Deviation
e = Error Tolerance


A network with two lanes in each direction was simulated 100 times to find the standard

deviation in the capacity of the approach. Then the z-test was used at a confidence level of 95%

with error tolerance of 100 veh/hr for the entire approach to find the sample size. The

calculations are shown in Table 3-12.









The base case scenario consists of the same simulation Eiles as in other scenarios but

without the work zone. This means that for the same values of factors such as the number of

open lanes in the work zone, g/C ratios etc.; the arterial is simulated without any work zone. The

results of these scenarios will be used to compare the capacity of the work zone in normal

conditions with its capacity after setting up a work zone. These comparisons can also be used to

better analyze the effect of a particular factor on the extent to which it affects the normal

capacity. They may later be used for purposes of modeling and charting. This will be discussed

more in the text later. The next section outlines the outputs that are obtained from the

simulations.

3.10 Output from Simulations

All the simulations produce 15-minute throughput for traffic that travels along the arterial

past the intersection, by each lane. These represent the maximum flow rates that can travel

through each lane group under the prevailing conditions. Given that there is demand starvation at

the intersection due to the presence of the work zone, these maximum flows are technically not

the capacity of each lane group. However, considering the system of the work zone and the

intersection, the capacity of the system is the sum of these maximum flows. These definitions are

used for the remainder of this thesis. "Work zone capacity" or just capacity indicates the capacity

of the system, while maximum flows mean the maximum throughput that can pass through

intersection from a particular lane group.

3.11 Summary

Various simulators are available for arterial simulation but none of them explicitly serve

the purpose of this proj ect. They do not take into consideration all the factors that may impact

driver behavior and the way traffic moves through a work zone. CORSIM was found to be easier

to work with given the available support for the software and researcher' s familiarity with it.









Some of the scenarios were developed based on the factors that were expected to impact the

capacity. Minimal research has so far been done on the analysis of capacity through arterial work

zone leaving only a tentative list of variables to be developed. It was not possible to simulate all

of the variables because of the limitations of the software package being used. Other factors were

removed from the list because the analysis showed that they do not affect the capacity in a

significant manner. Then, a scheme was developed to properly accommodate the variation of all

the factors with each other. Once completed, the sample size for the experiment was found out.

The variation of the individual lane group flow that goes out of the arterial at the downstream

intersection is expected to depend on different factors. The left-turning flow will depend more on

the left-turning percentage in the traffic stream and on the green time of the left-turning phase

but is expected to depend less on the percentage of vehicles turning right. On the other hand,

Th/Rt flow will not depend much on the left-turning percentage. So these flows (left-turning and

through right going) were also set as outputs along with the approach capacity. The list of the

variables used for the simulation is preliminary and does not imply that the excluded variables do

not impact the capacity. For example, the weather effects cannot be simulated in CORSIM

properly without calibration. Further analysis of the results will reveal the correlation between

the factors considered and the capacity. The next chapter summarizes the data from the

simulation and presents the models developed from the outputs of the simulation runs.



























Ist--TSL------ail~C-----~%t--~


F' b


Figure 3-1: Network Configuration in CORSIM


Figure 3-2: Network Map Showing Link Numbers


~C





1900 -



1700



1500



1300


1100











1900


1700


1500


1300


1100


O 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Length of Work Zone

Figure 3-3: Work Zone Length Sensitivity


5% 10%


15%


20%


25%


N\o
Driveway


Driveway Turning Percentage


Figure 3-4: Driveway Flow vs. Capacity











2 Lanes at the Intersection


It ~



Scenario 2.1 Scenario 2.2

3 Lanes at the Intersection


IIr Ir II


Scenario 3.1 Scenario 3.2 Scenario 3.3

4 Lanes at the Intersection






Scenario 4. 1 Scenario 4.2 Scenario 4.3 Scenario 4.4

5 Lanes at the Intersection


IItt I' Ill ~I III I ll


Scenario 5.1 Scenario 5.2 Scenario 5.3 Scenario 5.4

6 Lanes at the Intersection






Scenario 6.1 Scenario 6.2



Figure 3-5: Lane Channelization Schemes for All Scenarios











Table 3-1: Grouped Factors Affecting Work Zone Capacity
Work Zone Factors:
Length of the work zone (ft) (Kim et al. 200 1)
Work zone sign distance upstream of the work zone (ft) (Arguea, 2006)
Work intensity (presence of equipment and workers) (HCM, 2000)
Police presence
Configuration of the work zone, including channelization of traffic (Arguea, 2006)
Geometric Data:
Terrain or grade of each approach (%) (Kim et al. 2001)
Lane widths upstream, within, and downstream of the work zone (ft)
(HCM, 2000 and FDOT PPM 2000)
Lateral clearance upstream, within, and downstream of the work zone (ft) (FDOT PPM, 2000)
Tra~ffic Streamn Data:
Volumes by lane for various times of day (am and pm peak periods), focusing on congested
conditions (Arguea, 2006)
Percent heavy vehicles (HCM, 2000)
Other Environment-Related Factors:
Light conditions (daytime or nighttime with illumination)
Rain (no rain, light to moderate rain or heavy rain)











Table 3-2: Factors Affecting Work Zone Capacity
Factors C'ORSIM~
Simulation
Possible ?
Work Zone Data
Work Zone Length (ft) Yes
Distance of the Work Zone from the Downstream Intersection Yes
Work Zone Sign Distance Upstream of the Work Zone No
Work Intensity (Presence of Equipment and Workers) No
Police Presence No
Position of the Work Zone (Lane Closed) Yes
Geometric and Control Data
Terrain or grade (%) No
Lane Widths Upstream, Within, and Downstream of the Work Zone (ft) No
Lateral clearance upstream, within, and downstream of the work zone (ft) No
Driveway Presence Yes
Posted Speed Limit Yes
Lane Channelization at the Intersection (Including Turn Pockets) Yes
g/C ratios Yes
TrafJic Streamn Data
Volumes and Turning Percentages Yes
Presence of Bicycles No
Percentage of Heavy Vehicles No
Pedestrians No
Other Environment-Related Data
Light Conditions (Daytime or Nighttime with Illumination) No
Rain (No rain, Light to Moderate Rain or Heavy Rain) No


Table 3-3: Work Zone Length Sensitivity
Work Zone Length (ft) Capacity (veh/hr)
100 1638
200 1656
300 1672
400 1673
500 1679
600 1665
700 1657
800 1644
900 1642
1000 1646











Table 3-4: Work Zone Position Sensitivity
Position of Work Zone Capacity (veh/hr)
Right lane 1667
Left lane 1697


Table 3-5: Driveway Sensitivity Analysis
Driveway Percentage Capacity (veh/hr)
No Driveway 1476
5% 1534
10% 1440
15% 1548
20% 1491
25% 1590


Table 3-6: Posted Speed Limit Sensitivity
Posted Speed (mph) Capacity
25 1472
30 1476
35 1520
40 1508
45 1528


Table 3-7: Sensitivity Analysis
Included in
Factor Values Tested Experiment
al Design?
Work Zone Length 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, No
1000 ft
Distance from Work Zone to 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500 ft Yes
Intersection
Lateral Position of Work Zone Left, Right, and Center Lane Closure No
Driveway Presence 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% No
of intersection approach volume
Posted Speed Limit 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 MPH No
Lane Channelization at the Configurations shown in Figure 2 Yes
Intersection
g/C Ratios of Left and 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 (Left) 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 (Through) Yes
Through Phases
Tumn Pockets Left and Right Turn Pockets Yes
Right-tumning Percentage 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% Yes
Left-tumning Percentage 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, Yes
40%


















































_I Y


Table 3-8: Changes in Network Properties
Change Effect
Percentage of drivers This facilitates lane changing, and allows vehicles to get to their target
who cooperate with a lane before reaching the intersection. The problem with the use of the
lane changer was default value was that several vehicles unable to change lanes
increased from 50% proceeded to the intersection and had to wait there for an unreasonably
to 100% long time to change lanes, blocking other vehicles.


Time headway from
the subj ect vehicle to
the leading vehicle at
which all drivers will
attempt a lane change
was increased from 2
to 3 sec

Time headway from
the subj ect vehicle to
the leading vehicle at
which no drivers will
attempt a lane change
was raised from 5 sec
to 10 sec


Drivers will perform
lane changes 2000 ft
(default is 300 ft)
before their desired
turn

Safety Factor was
changed from .8 to
1.0


Increasing this time headway forces drivers to attempt lane changes
earlier. This is the headway that is small enough that all drivers would
desire a lane change.






This parameter, together with the previous one, creates the range within
which drivers attempt to make a lane change. Similarly to the previous
parameter, increasing this value results in earlier lane changes, because
drivers consider a lane change as far back as 10 seconds from the
leading vehicle. This significantly increases the probability that drivers
would make an early lane change and accounts to some degree for
information drivers may receive from work zone warning signs.


Increasing this value results in drivers seeking lane changing
opportunities earlier, and less likely to have to slow down or stop to
reach their "goal" lane.



This factor is used to compute the lane-changer' s estimation of the
deceleration that would be acceptable to the follower target vehicle. As
this value increases the acceptable risk increases and the margin of
safety decreases. At the same time the lane changes increase.










Table 3-9: Geometric Variations
Total Lanes on arterial Open lanes at Work Zone
2 1 Open (and 1 Closed)
3 1 Open (and 2 Closed) OR 2 Open (and 1 Closed)
4 2 Open (and 2 Closed) OR 3 Open (and 1 Closed)


Table 3-10: Variables in Simulation
Variable Values
Distance of Downstream Intersection from end of the Work-Zone 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 ft
g/C ratio of Left-turning Phase 0.1, 0.3, 0.5
g/C ratio of through and right Phase 0.3, 0.5, 0.7
Left-turning Volume 10%, 25%, 40%
right-turning Volume 10%, 25%, 40%


Table 3-11: Constraints for Variables
Number Constraints
1 0.7 g/C for Th/Rt phase only with 0.1 g/C for Left-turning phase
2 No double lefts with 0.1 g/C for Left-turning phase
3 0.5 g/C for Left-turning phase only with 0.3 Th/Rt phase
4 10% Left-turning percentage with only 0.1 and 0.3 g/C
5 40% Left-turning percentage with only 0.3 and 0.5 g/C
6 40% right-turning percentage with only 0.5 and 0.7 g/C


Table 3-12: Sample Size Calculations
Standard Deviation 098
: (95%) 001.96
e (Error Tolerance) 100
n (Sample Size) 004









CHAPTER 4
CAPACITY MODEL DEVELOPMENT

4.1 Introduction

This chapter presents all the simulation scenarios in a combined fashion. First, the data

from the simulation were analyzed to identify the cases exhibiting capacity increase followed by

summary on the same. Mathematical relationships between various factors and the capacity of

the arterial are presented next. The relationships between these factors and the flow getting

through each lane group (Left-turning vehicles and Th/Rt turning vehicles) is also provided.

4.2 Simulation Results for Cases When a Work Zone is Present

Summary of the capacity values and maximum flow for the simulated work zone scenarios

are presented in Table 4-1 through Table 4-3 tabulated by the total number of lanes at the

intersection, the number of closed lanes, and the through movement g/C ratio. The g/C ratio and

the number of lanes at downstream intersection were shown to have the largest effect on the

work zone capacity.Table 4-1 presents the total capacity of the work zone in vehicles per hour,

while Table 4-2 and Table 4-3 present the through/right-turning movement and the left-turning

movement maximum flows respectively, in vehicles per hour per lane. The minimum and

maximum values in these tables represent the lowest and highest values of capacity/flow

measured for the respective set of scenarios (e.g., for varying distances of the work zone to the

downstream intersection, varying turning movement percentages, channelization schemes at the

intersection, etc.) The first two-lane scenario is for an intersection approach with two through

lanes, while the second one is with one left turn lane and one through-and-right lane. The

remaining scenarios are for various combinations of lane channelization schemes, with the total

number of lanes at the intersection shown in the left most column. The number of open and

closed lanes refers to the work zone upstream of the intersection. Table 4-1 indicates that the










capacity of the arterial work zone generally increases with a higher through/right movement g/C

ratio, and with the number of lanes at the approach. Note that in some of the scenarios there is a

separate left turn phase with its own g/C ratio. In these cases, capacity was found to be affected

by both turning percentages and respective g/C ratios. The impact of the number of open and

closed lanes was not significant in terms of the total capacities obtained. The actual throughput

depended more on the distance of the work zone to the downstream intersection, as well as

various intersection factors. It was observed that if the "storage area" downstream of the work

zone (i.e. segment of link stretching from the end of the work zone to the downstream

intersection) could fill up during the red phase, such that the green could be fully utilized, the

number of lanes closed upstream did not affect the overall throughput. Capacity was generally

found to decrease when one movement blocked the other from reaching the downstream

intersection. This blockage was a function of the turning percentages and the distance of the

work zone to the downstream intersection. Table 4-2 tabulates the maximum flow of the

through/right movement per lane, which generally increases as a function of the respective g/C

ratio. Per lane throughput is not affected much by the total number of lanes at the approach, but

is generally affected by the g/C ratio. In some of the scenarios there is blockage to the through

movement by the left-turning traffic. This is a function of the percent of traffic turning left, the

respective g/C ratio, as well as the distance from the work zone to the downstream intersection.

Similarly, the number of open and closed lanes upstream did not always affect the throughput,

which was mostly a function of the distance to the downstream intersection and the g/C ratios

and turning movements at the intersection. Table 4-3 presents the same information for the left

turn movement. The g/C ratio for the left turn generally increases the movement' s maximum

flow, provided it is utilized effectively. Generally the throughput of each left turn lane is lower










than that of a through or through-and-right lane. The five and six lane scenarios include some

configurations with double left turn lanes, and generally those had higher throughput.

Appendix A describes the aggregate level trends of the capacity and individual lane group

flow with respect to each variable step by step. These trends do not necessarily give an idea of

how each factor may impact the capacity after controlling for others but the analysis provides

insight into the effects of these variables.

4.3 Simulation Results for Cases without Work Zones (Base Case Scenarios)

The purpose of simulating the same configurations without work zones (base case

scenarios) was to obtain a means of comparing the capacities with and without work zones. The

comparison is important because of the lack of available field data, since the results can provide

insight on capacity changes rather than absolute capacity estimates. These changes are reported

as a function of different geometric, traffic control, and work zone configurations.

The base case scenarios consider the same factors and assumptions as those of the work

zone scenarios. The total number of base case scenarios was 2800. This number is lower than

the total number of scenarios with work zones because the work zone factors are eliminated. The

results of the base case simulations are presented in Table 4-4 through Table 4-6. Table 4-4

presents the total capacity of the work zone in vehicles per hour, while Table 4-5 and Table 4-6

present the through/right-turning movement and the left-turning movement maximum flows

respectively in vehicles per hour per lane. The minimum and maximum values in the tables

represent the lowest and highest values for capacity obtained in the scenarios tested. As for the

work zone scenarios, the factor that affects capacity the most is the g/C of the left-tumning and

through/right-tuming movements. Capacity generally increases with increasing g/C ratio,

however there are some cases where it decreases. These occur when the demand is held

upstream, due to blockage (for example through vehicles blocking access to the left tumn lane).









In Table 4-3, the 4, 5, and 6 lane scenarios include cases with dual left turns, and it is

mainly because of these that the per lane capacity increases. In these cases the left-turning

vehicles have greater flexibility in choosing a lane, and there is less blockage to that movement.

4.4 Comparisons of Base Case and Work Zone Scenarios

The results of the 6640 work zone scenarios were next compared to the respective base

case scenarios. Table 4-7 through Table 4-9 show the percent change in capacity after the work

zone is installed (each number is the ratio of the capacity with the work zone over the capacity

without the work zone for the same geometric configuration and operational conditions). This

analysis was conducted by comparing each scenario within a particular category (number of

lanes, etc.) to its respective base case scenario, and identifying the scenario that had the highest

decrease in capacity, the scenario that had the lowest decrease in capacity, and calculating the

average change in capacity for the entire range of scenarios in the category.

As shown there are several scenarios that resulted in a capacity increase when a work zone

was installed. The increases in capacity typically occurred when the intersection in the base case

(prior to the work zone installation) is congested. In congested conditions, there is often

spillback from one movement to another, particularly if the g/C ratios and the channelization are

not optimal for the prevailing turning movement demands. In those cases thepresence of a work

zone results in a capacity increase, because it funnels (since there are lesser lanes in the work

zone, it acts as a funnel) traffic through the work zone, and it becomes easier for vehicles to

change lanes and reach their destination lane without being blocked. For example, on a three lane

arterial, if two lanes are closed then the vehicles would find it very easy to reach their destination

lane when they exit the work zone. They would not have to look for gaps as adj acent lanes would

be empty. As said above, if adequate green is not allotted for each turning movement (which is

the case in some scenarios) then the vehicles from that movement may block other traffic, but










with the installation of a work zone, it becomes easier for vehicles to reach their destination lanes

and hence the blocking effect is minimized. This increase was observed mostly for scenarios

with 3 to 6 lanes at the intersection approach.

As Table 4-7 shows, the worst drop in capacity was 46% for two lanes at the intersection,

and the maximum increase was 244% for five lanes at the intersection with one open lane and

two closed lanes. These extreme values were seen in scenarios that experienced highly

congested conditions causing blockage. Scenarios with a high left tumn percentage, with a low

left turn g/C and little storage resulted in severe blockage for vehicles exiting the work zone

which produces higher capacities with the work zone implemented. The two-lane scenario with

a left tumn lane had a capacity increase because of metering the number of left tumns that were

queued awaiting the left turn phase.

In Table 4-8, which shows the change in maximum flow for through and right turns, the

highest capacity drop is 39%, and the maximum increase was 376%, both for two lanes at the

intersection approach. The increase for the through/right movement only can be extremely high

for scenarios when that movement was blocked by another in the base case. In those cases, the

installation of a work zone allows for smoother flow of traffic downstream, because it meters the

demand to the intersection.

Table 4-9 presents the change in the maximum left turn movement flow. The highest drop

was 30% for two lanes at the intersection, and the maximum increase was 401% for five lanes at

the intersection with two open lanes and one closed lane. Because left turn capacities are much

lower than the through, the fluctuation percentage-wise is larger than that of the through/right

movement.









In summary, results of the simulations showed that the work zone had significant drops in

capacity when the arterial and downstream intersection in the base case was not congested.

However, when the intersection was congested in the base case (i.e., without the work zone),

installing a work zone had a metering effect which reduced the demand on the intersection and,

in cases where there was blockage caused by inadequate storage, the metering effect improved

the efficiency of the intersection.

4.5 Capacity Models

This section presents the capacity models for the 3.0 case through 6.0 cases first (i.e., the

arterials with 3, 4, 5 and 6 lanes at intersection) (Figure 3-5). The models are all significant at the

99.9% confidence level. There are some other variables that were significant at the 90%

confidence level but the R2 value did not improve much by including them. The models

developed are grouped into 3 sections. The first three models of the five apply to arterials with 3

through 6 lanes at the intersection including the turning pockets. The fourth and fifth models

apply to arterials with two lanes at the intersection. These arterials will have one open and one

closed lane through the work zone. The fourth model is applicable to those scenarios which have

only one phase for both lanes. The fifth model applies to scenarios with a separate left turn

phase. The two cases are considered separately for two reasons; the variables for Case 2. 1

(Figure 3-5) are different than the rest of the cases because there is only one phase for the

arterial. Another reason to separate the models was better accuracy of the models. When a

unified model was developed for all the cases, its adjusted R2 was very small and hence arterials

with more than 2 lanes at the intersection were considered separately.

In Case 2, it was noticed that the capacity of the individual lane groups depend on the

position of the work zone. So a model for the specific flows would not have good accuracy as

position of work zone was not varied among various scenarios. It is for this reason that only total










capacity models are given for Case 2. It may be noted that the total capacity of the arterial does

not get affected by the lateral position (i.e. right or left) in any of the cases.

Since, the lateral position of work zone does not affect the individual lane group flows in

all the other cases (except Case 2), separate lane group flow models are developed for the rest of

the cases.

The next section presents the models for arterials with 3 through 6 lanes at the intersection

along with the adjusted R2 for the models. The adjusted R2 Statistic gives the probability of

correct prediction of capacity from the model. Along with each coefficient, its standard error in

prediction and t-statistic is also reported.

4.5.1 Models for 3 through 6 lanes at Downstream Intersection

This section presents the models that are applicable to arterials with 3 through 6 lanes at

the downstream intersection to the work zone. There are three models which can be used to

predict the maximum left-turning flow expected to pass through the intersection, the sum of the

maximum of the through as well as right-turning traffic and the capacity for the arterial.

4.5.1.1 Maximum Left-turning Flow

Table 4-10 gives the statistical details of the model, it can be written in equation form as in

equation 4.1.

MlLTF = -337.1 + (41.9 x TTR) (803.3 x LTF) (207.9 x g CTTR) + (145.6 x No/Nt)
(1262.1 x LT x LTF x g/CLT) (0.1 x L) (Equation 4.1)

where

M~LTF : Maximum Left-turning Flow.

TTR: Sum of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes.

LTF: Fraction of vehicles turning left at the intersection.

(g/C)TTR: Green to Cycle time Ratio of the Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes.










Nd'Nt: Number of open lanes/ Total Number of Lanes.

LT : Number of Left-only Lanes.

(g/C)LT : Left-turning Phase Green to Cycle time Ratio.

L: Length of the segment stretching from the end of the work zone till the downstream
intersection.

All three models for cases 3.0 through 6.0 use the same set of factors (there is one

additional factor in the capacity model). The through and right lane group has a positive impact

on the capacity. Capacity goes up if the left-turning percentage goes up. It also increases with the

ratio of (number of open lanes/total number of lanes on the arterial), Th/Rt phase g/C ratio,

distance of the end of the work zone to the downstream intersection and left-only lanes.

4.5.1.2 Maximum Through and Right Flow

The model (Table 4-11) can be written as given in Equation 4.2.

M~TRF = -629.4 + (359.2 x TTR) (2535.6 x LTF) + (2168.2 x g/CTTR) + (602.2 x Nd/Nt)
(1773.6 x LT x LTF x g/CLT) + (0.3 x L) (Equation 4.2)



where

M~TRF: Maximum Through and Right Flow.

TTR: Sum of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes.

LTF: Fraction of vehicles turning left at the intersection.

(g/C)TTR: Green to Cycle time Ratio of the Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes.

Nd'Nt: Number of open lanes/ Total Number of Lanes.

LT : Number of Left-only Lanes.

(g/C)LT : Left-turning phase Green to Cycle time Ratio.

L: Length of the segment stretching from the end of the work zone till the downstream
intersection.










Through and right flow increases with increase in the through and right lanes, Th/Rt lane

group g/C ratio as well as distance from the end of the work zone to the downstream intersection,

left-only lanes and the left phase g/C ratio. The flow goes down with increase in the left-turning

percentage.

4.5.1.3 Arterial Capacity

Statistical details of the model are given in Table 4-12. It can be written as in equation 4.3.

Cap = -947 + (422.4 x TTR) (1751.45 x LTF) + (2378.5 x g CTTR) + (755.4 x No Nt) + (3078
x LT x LTF x g CLT) + (0.4 x L) (68. 6 x RT) (Equation 4.3)

where

Cap : Capacity of the arterial (veh/hr)

TTR: Sum of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes.

L TF: Fraction of vehicles turning left at the intersection.

(g C)TTR: Green to Cycle time Ratio of the Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes.

No N,: Number of open lanes/ Total Number of Lanes.

LT : Number of Left-only Lanes.

RT: Number of Right-only Lanes.

(g C)LT : Left-turning Phase Green to Cycle time Ratio.

L: Length of the segment stretching from the end of the work zone till the downstream
intersection.

This model has one additional factor compared to the previous two models: right-only

lanes, which has a negative impact on capacity. The increase in the through and right lanes

increases the capacity while the left-turning percentage leads to a reduction in capacity. Capacity

also increases with the Th/Rt phase g/C, Number of open lanes Total number oflan2es, left-only

lanes and left phase g/C and the distance of the downstream intersection from the end of the

work zone.










4.5.2 Models for arterials with 2 lanes at the Downstream Intersection

This section presents the models that can be used to predict the capacity for the arterials

with 2 lanes at the intersection.

4.5.2.1 Capacity for 2-lane arterial with single phase (Case 2.1)

This model (Table 4-13) applies to those arterials which have one lane open through the

work zone and a total of two lanes at the intersection without any turning pockets. Furthermore,

the intersection downstream has one phase for the entire approach. It can be written as in

equation 4.4.

Cap = 443.36 (1~685. 78 x g/C) (0.21 x L) (Equation 4.4)


where

Cap : Capacity of approach

g/C: Green to Cycle time ratio for the entire arterial

L: Length of the segment stretching from the end of the work zone till the downstream
intersection.

This model has only two variables, it can be deduced from the coeffiecients that the

capacity increases with the increases in g/C ratio predominantly and with the distance from the

end of the work zone to the downstream intersection as well.

4.5.2.2 Capacity for 2-lane arterial with left turn phase (Case 2.2)

This model (Table 4-14) is applicable to arterials which have one lane open through the

work zone and have a total of two lanes at the intersection without any turning pockets. In this

case, the intersection should have separate left-turning phase. (Equation 4.5)

Cap = 58. 68 (1~581.31 x g CTTR) (0.12 x L) (521.55 x g CLT) (Equation 4.5)


where










Cap : Capacity of approach
(g/C)TTR: Green to Cycle time Ratio of the Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes
(g/C)LT : Left Phase Green to Cycle time Ratio
L: Length of the segment stretching from the end of the work zone till the downstream
intersection.

This model implies that the capacity increases with the length of the section after the work

zone till the downstream intersection, with the Th/Rt phase as well. It also increases with the left

turn g/C ratio.

Above model is only applicable for a range of the values of each variable present in the

models. The range of values for which the model can be used are given in Table 4-15.

4.6 Model Comparison

This section will discuss typical results from the models given in the earlier section. The

models cannot be compared with the FDOT or the HCM methods on one to one basis because

none of the variables that were considered in these models are common to either of the two.

The HCM model is meant for freeways only and so, comparing it with the models above

does not make sense. The FDOT model has a extension for the arterials too. After calculating the

capacity of the work zone, the g/C is used to adjust for the effect of the intersection. Calculations

below give a typical range of capacity that can be obtained from the FDOT models:

Consider a 2 to 1 lane closure with base capacity of 1800vph. The following two cases can

be used to obtain the maximum and the minimum possible obtainable capacities.

Travel Lane Width: 9 ft with no Lateral Clearance. g/C =0.3. This gives Obstruction Factor

as 0.65. This yields the Restricted capacity = (1800 x 0.65 x 0.3) = 351 vph.

Travel Lane Width: 12ft and Lateral Clearance is 6ft, g/C = 0.7. This gives Obstruction

Factor as 1.00. This yields the Restricted capacity = (1800 x 1.00 x 0.7) = 1260 vph.

For 3 to 2 lane closure with 3600 vph base capacity; following cases can be considered:










Travel Lane Width: 9 ft with no Lateral Clearance. g/C =0.3. This gives Obstruction Factor

as 0.65. This yields the Restricted capacity = (3600 x 0.65 x 0.3) = 702 vph.

Travel Lane Width: 12ft and Lateral Clearance is 6ft, g/C = 0.7. This gives Obstruction

Factor as 1.00. This yields the Restricted capacity = (3600 x 1.00 x 0.7) = 2520 vph.

With the model developed in this thesis, the range of values for the above scenarios can be

found out for the same:

2-1 lane closure: Single phase for the entire arterial, Table 4-16 presents the results for case

2.1. For Case 2.2, the range is given in Table 4-17.

.So, for 2 to 1 lane closure, the capacity range is 598 to 1831 vph. 3-2 lane closure can be

estimated by the model for capacity of 3 through 6 lanes at intersection given in .

The FDOT model for 2-1 lane closure under-estimates the capacity as compared to the

estimated models. 3-2 model over estimates the maximum capacity of the work zone.

4.7 Sensitivity Analysis

This section evaluates the sensitivity of each variable used in the models with respect to

the capacity/flows. It is useful to understand how change in each variable affects the capacity.

Table 4-19 through Table 4-23 provide the results from this analysis. Each of these tables

presents the sensitivity and results for each of the variables presented earlier. The "Initial Value"

column under "Factor" determine the "Initial Cap". The "Final Value" column under "Factor" is

used to find the "Final Cap" values. The "% Change" columns report the change in the values of

capacity/flow and factor as a percentage of the initial values.

As can be seen from Table 4-19 the left-turning fraction results in the largest change in the

maximum left-turning flow. The next most important factor is the number of the through, Th/Rt

and right-only lanes, which has a positive impact on maximum flow.










The number of through, Th/Rt and right lanes, followed by the g/C for these lanes, are the

factors affecting the Th/Rt maximum flow (Table 4-20) the most.

The sum of through, Th/Rt and right-only lanes greatly affects the capacity (Table 4-21)

with a change of 69% when the factor is doubled. This is followed by the g/C ratio for the same

group of lanes.

Some of the values in the "Percent Change" column under flow are negative. These signify

that increasing those factors would reduce the maximum flow or capacity. Increasing the left turn

fraction in traffic as well as the number of left-only lanes on the arterial reduces the maximum

Th/Rt flow that can pass through the intersection (Table 4-20). This causes a negative change in

percentage. Likewise, left turn fraction, number of left-only and right-only lanes on the arterial

also have a negative impact on the arterial capacity (Table 4-21).

4.8 Example Problems

This section presents example problems of work zone capacity and lane group flow

estimation. Each example illustrates the use of the models shown above.

4.8.1 Example Problem 1

Calculate the capacity of a 3-to-2 lane closure with the following characteristics:

Total number of lanes in the arterial = 3
Number of lanes closed in the work zone = 1
Number of Left turn pocket = 1
No right turn pocket
Schematic of the Arterial along with the lane channelization at the downstream
intersection is given in Figure 4-1:
Number of through only lanes = 2
Number of through right lanes = 1
Number of right-only lanes = 0
Left-only lanes = 1
Signal has exclusive left turn phase with following g/C:
0 g/C for Th/Rt phase = 0.4
o g/C for left turn phase = 0.1
15% vehicles turn left at the intersection









*Distance from the end of the work zone to the downstream intersection is 500 ft


Inputs:

TTR (Through, through/right and right-only lanes) = 2+1 = 3

LTF (Left-turning fraction) = 0.15

(g/C)TTR (Green to Cycle time Ratio of the Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes) = 0.4

No/Nt : Number of open lanes/ Total Number of Lanes = 2/3

LT (Left-only Lanes) = 1

(g/C)LT (Left Phase g/C Ratio) = 0.1

L (Length of the section starting from the end of the work zone to the downstream

intersection) = 500 ft

Model Application:

(i) The maximum flow through the left-only lane can be estimated with model given in

equation 4.1:

MlLTF = -337.1 + (41.9 x TTR) + (803.3 x LTF) + (207.9 x g/CTTR) + (145.6 x Nd/Nt)

(1262.1J x LT x LTF x g/CLT) + (0.1 x L)

Substituting the values:

M~LTF = -337.1 + (41.9 x 3) + (803.3 x 0.15) + (207.9 x 0.4) + (145.6 x 0.67) + (1262.1 x

1 x 0.15 x 0.1) + (0.1 x 500)

M~LTF = 185 re/;l /trl.

(ii) The flow passing through the through, through/right and right-only lanes can be

estimated with model as in equation 4.2:

M7rRF = -629.4 + (359.2 x TTR) (2535.6 x LTF) + (2168.2 x g/CTTR) + (602.2 x No/Nt)

(1 773. 6 x LT x LTF x g/CLT) + (0.3 x L)










Substituting the above values:


M7TRF = -629.4 + (359.2 x 3) (2535.6 x 0.15) + (2168.2 x 0.4) + (602.2 x 0.67) + (1773.6

x 1 x 0.15 x 0.1) + (0.3 x 500)

M7TRF = 1504 nd;~l /rl.

(iii) The Capacity of the entire arterial can be calculated using the model given in equation

4.3:

Cap = -947 + (422.4 x TTR) (1751.45 x LTP) + (2378.5 x g/CTTR) + (755.4 x Nd/Nt)

(3078 x LT x LTP x g/CLT) + (0.4 x L) (168. 6 x RT)

Substituting the above values:

Cap = -947 + (422.4 x 3) (1751.45 x 0.15) + (2378.5 x 0.4) + (755.4 x 0.67) + (3078 x 1

x 0.15 x 0.1) + (0.4 x 500) -(168. 6 x 0)

Cap = 1776 nd;~l /rl.

4.8.2 Example Problem 2

Calculate the capacity of a 2-to-1 lane closure with the following characteristics:

Total number of lanes in the arterial = 2
Number of lanes closed in the work zone = 1
No Left turn pocket
No right turn pocket
Schematic of the Arterial along with the lane channelization at the downstream
intersection as given in Figure 4-2
The number of through only lanes = 0
Number of through right lanes = 1
Number of right-only lanes = 0
Left-only lanes = 1
Signal has exclusive left turn phase with following g/C ratios:
0 g/C ratio for Th/Rt phase = 0.4
o g/C ratio for left turn phase = 0.1
15% vehicles turn left at the intersection
Distance from the end of the work zone to the downstream intersection is 500 ft












(g/C)TTR (g/C Ratio of the Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes) = 0.4

(g/C)LT (Left Phase g/C Ratio) = 0.1

L (Length of the section starting from the end of the work zone to the downstream

intersection) = 500 ft

Model application:

The capacity can be estimated using model given in equation 4.4:

Cap = 58. 68 + (1581.31 x g/CTTR) + (0.1J2 x L) + (521.55 x g/CLT)

Substituting the values:

Cap = 58. 68 + (1581.31 x 0.4) + (0.12 x 500) + (521.55 x 0.1)

Cap = 805 re/;l /trl.

4.8.3 Example Problem 3

Calculate the capacity of a 2-to-1 lane closure with the following characteristics:

Total number of lanes in the arterial = 2
Number of lanes closed in the work zone = 1
No Left turn pocket
No right turn pocket
Schematic of the Arterial along with the lane channelization at the downstream
intersection as given in Figure 4-3
The number of through only lanes = 0
Number of through right lanes = 1
Number of right-only lanes = 0
Left-only lanes = 1
Signal has g/C ratio for entire arterial = 0.5
Distance from the end of the work zone to the downstream intersection is 500 ft
Inputs:

g/C (g/C ratio for entire arterial) = 0.5

L (Length of the section starting from the end of the work zone to the downstream

intersection) = 500 ft


Inputs:









Model Application (equation 4.5)

Cap = 443.36 + (1685. 78 x g/C) + (0.21 x L)

Cap = 443.36 + (1685. 78 x 0.5) + (0.21 x 500)

Cap = 1390 wh~l /trl.










'il

Figure 4-1: Schematic for Example 1

*I



Figure 4-2: Schematic for Example 2






Figure 4-3: Schematic for Example 3





Table 4-1: Total Approach Capacity for Arerial Work Zones tin vph)


0.3
M~in Max Average
697 1095 976
566 1248 755
578 1707 1019
577 1734 1022
574 1928 1000
672 1718 1332
666 1777 1352
578 2448 1416
574 2405 1409
694 2470 1405
864 1766 1552
1115 2898 1872
1065 2847 1877
1243 2854 1880
1547 3537 2157


Number of Number Number
Lanes at of Open of Closed
Intersection Lanes Lanes
2 (w/o lT Lane) 1 1
2 (w L lane) 1 1
3 2 1
1 2
4 3 1
2 1
2 2
1 2
1 1
5 3 1
2 1
o\ 2 2
1 2
6 2 2
3 1


Through/Right Movement g/C Ratio
0.5
M~in Max Average
1162 1718 1558
697 1454 1026
776 1713 1342
821 1745 1360
855 2388 1407
1038 1774 1558
974 1761 1594
927 2990 1908
909 2967 1912
1011 2996 1890
1314 1759 1671
1450 3811 2382
1522 3805 2386
1373 3994 2364
1582 3816 2633


0. 7
M~in Max Average
1574 1695 1650
894 1552 1288
1465 1712 1644
1512 1740 1679
1265 2698 2071
1619 1750 1681
1671 1771 1725
2263 3497 2750
2342 3413 2763
2214 3595 2764
1648 1754 1723
2687 3663 3270
2682 4128 3233
2545 4981 3251
2782 3685 3382





Table 4-2: Through/Right Turn Approach Capacity for Arterial Work Zones (in vphpl)


0.3
M~in Max Average
248 579 502
210 560 485
212 542 419
208 548 420
222 547 414
237 543 392
240 549 396
233 549 409
224 543 408
248 543 397
209 513 337
227 537 399
225 543 400
226 543 398
206 514 361


Number of Number Number
Lanes at of Open of Closed
Intersection Lanes Lanes
2 (w/o lT Lane) 1 1
2 (w L lane) 1 1
3 2 1
1 2
4 3 1
2 1
2 2
1 2
1 1
5 3 1
2 1
-a 2 2
1 2
6 2 2
3 1


Through/Right Movement g/C Ratio
0.5
M~in Max Average
301 958 785
474 981 809
262 876 611
280 864 617
312 928 641
324 768 491
326 780 502
278 930 600
285 935 601
308 935 588
266 526 385
275 917 552
270 916 553
260 917 544
257 796 480


0. 7
M~in Max Average
368 857 754
743 1394 1140
677 776 748
699 788 765
583 1264 959
488 555 516
512 569 530
699 1110 862
723 1079 866
693 1138 866
382 431 402
630 876 780
628 882 771
597 992 772
522 707 647













Table 4-3: Left Turn Approach Capacity for Arterial Work Zones (in vphpl)
Number of lanes at Number Number Left Turn Movement g/C Ratio
Intersection of Open of Closed 0.3 0.5 0.7
Lanes Lanes M~in Max Average Min Max Average Min Max Average


1
2
1
3
2
2
1
1
3
2
2
1
2
3


1
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
2


303
196
196
199
186
192
192
195
194
190
194
195
198
197


480
677
729
868
674
729
960
958
930
730
850
856
846
927


53
65
61
47
52
43
98
109
80
22
85
86
132
98


142
150
149
150
147
148
168
168
167
136
161
161
171
162


142
156
149
111
86
85
59
56
118
76
139
125
114
139


269
342
348
336
340
355
406
404
416
361
490
490
503
553


2 (w LT lane)
3


567
586
584
585
578
567
578
582
583
547
586
576
578
580


225
271
274
270
251
257
288
287
296
250
332
331
339
348











Table 4-4: Base Case Intersection Capacities (in vph)
Number of lanes at Number of Through/Right Movement g/C Ratio
Intersection Lanes on 0.3 0.5 0.7
Arteial in Max Average Min Max Average Min Max Average
2 (w/o LT Lane) 2 907 1106 1039 1604 2038 1784 2311 2969 2539
2 (w/ LT lane) 2 478 970 707 750 1482 1028 1134 1321 1261
3 2 551 1903 1004 845 2378 1419 1255 2742 2097
3 598 1932 993 865 2396 1393 1189 2750 1991
4 2 549 2478 1428 937 2995 1921 2334 3540 2762
3 674 2477 1436 987 3010 1919 2246 3662 2744
4 746 2500 1392 1037 2918 1875 2138 3786 2790
5 3 1125 2872 1916 1438 3996 2402 2582 4113 3257
4 1063 2902 1891 1346 3991 2337 2482 4395 3243
6 4 1442 3510 2254 1666 4745 2737 2622 4614 3661


Intersection Lanes on 0.3 0.5 0.7
Arteial in Max Average Min Max Average Min Max Average
2 (w/o LT Lane) 2 421 541 491 752 997 849 1090 1475 1208
2 (w/ LT lane) 2 392 554 477 537 925 781 1018 1183 1126
3 2 228 546 415 328 925 645 571 1287 970
3 228 535 406 319 914 634 548 1289 918
4 2 228 535 406 319 914 634 548 1289 918
3 229 544 412 285 927 604 722 1123 866
4 248 526 398 300 903 591 695 1166 860
5 3 248 526 398 300 903 591 695 1166 860
4 234 522 389 314 891 580 661 1203 875
6 4 234 522 389 314 891 580 661 1203 875


Table 4-5: Base Case Through/Right Capacities (in vphpl)
Number of lanes at Number of


Through/Right Movement g/C Ratio











Table 4-6: Base Case Left Turn Capacities (in vphpl)
Number of lanes at Number of Left Turn Movement g/C Ratio
Intersection Lanes on 0.3 0.5 0.7
Artril in M~ax Average M~in M~ax Average M~in M~ax Average
2 (w/ LT lane) 2 80 196 141 117 572 283 213 433 315
3 2 46 196 149 42 583 274 129 849 339
3 76 198 152 86 590 277 148 904 355
4 2 76 198 152 86 590 277 148 904 355
3 108 195 168 20 575 291 64 958 414
4 83 193 168 72 583 307 148 953 437
5 3 83 193 168 72 583 307 148 953 437
4 87 200 167 81 569 295 144 949 423
6 4 87 200 167 81 569 295 144 949 423











Table 4-7: Change in Total Approach Capacity When a Work Zone is Installed
Number of lanes at Number Number Through/Right Movement g/C Ratio
Intersection of Open of Closed 0.3 0.5 0.7
Lanes Lanes M~in Max Average Min Max Average Min Max Average


1
1
1


1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2


1.38
1.38
1.29
1.50
1.35
1.57
1.96
1.50
1.44
1.35
2.24
1.50
1.88
1.48
1.90


1.81
1.40
1.68
1.60
1.02
2.17
2.09
1.19
1.19
1.14
2.44
1.14
1.22
1.19
1.28


0.97
0.46
0.70
0.66
0.80
0.69
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.72
0.77
0.70
0.70
0.76
0.84


1.08
0.98
0.98
0.97
1.00
1.06
1.07
1.03
1.01
1.00
1.25
1.03
1.02
1.01
1.06


1.16
1.01
1.05
1.02
1.00
1.22
1.20
1.01
0.99
1.00
1.43
1.01
0.98
0.99
1.04


1.37
0.80
0.78
0.75
0.80
1.35
1.28
0.91
0.87
0.88
1.51
0.86
0.89
0.91
0.90


1.54
1.01
1.27
1.18
0.96
1.65
1.59
1.00
1.01
1.01
1.89
0.99
1.00
1.00
1.07


2 (w/o LT Lane)
2 (w LT lane)
3


1.00
0.78
0.75
0.64
0.72
0.79
0.75
0.77
0.70
0.75
0.91
0.84
0.69
0.78
0.79


1.56
1.28
1.48
1.40
1.37
1.83
2.06
1.33
1.31
1.27
2.33
1.30
1.38
1.31
1.77











Table 4-8: Change in the Maximum Through/Right Flow When a Work Zone Is Installed


Average
1.03
0.88
0.99
0.96
0.98
1.06
1.02
0.98
0.97
0.99
1.22
1.03
0.98
0.99
1.04


0.80
0.39
0.75
0.70
0.80
0.71
0.73
0.79
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.72
0.65
0.74
0.78


Average
1.19
0.99
1.05
1.03
1.00
1.23
1.18
1.00
0.98
1.00
1.43
1.00
0.96
0.98
1.03


0.86
0.69
0.79
0.71
0.71
0.77
0.73
0.73
0.66
0.76
0.86
0.84
0.69
0.77
0.73


Average
1.68
1.03
1.29
1.19
0.95
1.69
1.63
1.00
1.01
1.01
1.93
0.99
0.99
1.00
1.07


1.35
0.79
0.79
0.75
0.79
1.36
1.26
0.91
0.87
0.88
1.49
0.84
0.87
0.91
0.89


Number of lanes at
Intersection


2 (w/o LT Lane)
2 (w LT lane)


Number
of Open
Lanes
1
1
1
1
2


Number
of Closed
Lanes
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2


Through/Right Movement g/C Ratio


0.3

1.99
1.10
1.31
1.43
1.23
1.54
1.92
1.27
1.35
1.32
2.12
1.42
1.64
1.28
1.74


0.5

2.84
1.45
1.49
1.46
1.41
1.84
1.98
1.27
1.32
1.29
2.32
1.30
1.34
1.24
1.71


0.7

3.76
1.51
1.73
1.65
1.02
2.29
2.20
1.20
1.20
1.15
2.59
1.15
1.23
1.20
1.30











Table 4-9: Change in the Left Turn Movement Capacity When a Work Zone Is Installed


Average
1.12
0.99
1.03
1.03
1.24
1.25
1.00
0.99
1.00
1.57
1.09
1.09
1.00
1.08


0.30
0.63
0.68
0.76
0.88
0.75
0.74
0.64
0.71
0.87
0.91
0.84
0.88
0.87


Average
1.42
1.01
1.05
1.08
1.18
1.32
1.18
1.18
1.04
1.61
1.05
1.09
1.06
1.14


0.49
0.60
0.43
0.62
0.55
0.63
0.69
0.59
0.66
0.64
0.66
0.68
0.71
0.79


Average
1.37
0.98
1.02
1.07
1.15
1.30
1.24
1.19
1.03
1.51
1.05
1.16
1.11
1.22


0.48
0.61
0.61
0.77
0.60
0.69
0.61
0.56
0.63
0.64
0.67
0.73
0.72
0.94


Number of lanes at
Intersection


Number
of Open
Lanes
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
3
1
2
2
3
2
3


Number
of Closed
Lanes
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1


Left Turn Movement g/C Ratio


0.3

2.30
1.28
1.44
1.63
2.98
3.50
1.26
1.15
1.19
6.71
1.75
1.90
1.13
1.65


0.5

2.78
1.41
1.78
2.53
2.97
3.99
3.56
4.64
2.32
7.21
2.29
2.15
1.95
2.14


0.7

2.38
1.25
1.73
1.81
1.89
2.37
2.60
3.16
1.75
4.01
1.67
2.34
1.93
2.18


2 (w LT lane)
3

4





5




6





Variable Name Coefficients Standard Error t-stat
1 Constant -337.057 11.092 30.3
2 Number of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes (TTR) 41.907 1.834 22.8
3 Left-turning Fraction (LTF) 803.356 20.912 38.4
4 Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ((g/C)TTR) 207.909 14.492 14.3
5 Number of Open Lanes / Total Number of Lanes (No/Nt) 145.634 11.052 13.1
6 (Left-only Lanes) x (Left-turning %) x (Left Phase g/C) [(LT*LTF*(g/C)LT] 1262.069 27.434 46.0
7 Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 0.153 0.005 30.6
adjusted R2 = 0.701


Table 4-11: Maximum Through and Right-turning Flow (MTRF)
Variable Name Coefficients Standard Error t-stat
1 Constant -629.449 27.070 23.2
2 Number of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes (TTR) 359.162 4.476 80.2
3 Left-turning Fraction (LTF) -2535.577 51.033 49.6
4 Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ((g/C)TTR) 2168.250 35.366 61.3
5 Number of Open Lanes / Total Number of Lanes (No/Nt) 602.193 26.971 22.3
6 (Left-only Lanes) x (Left-turning %) x (Left Phase g/C) [(LT*LTF*(g/C)LT] 1773.573 66.950 26.4
7 Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 0.282 0.012 23.5
adjusted R" = 0.724


Table 4-10: Maximum Left-turning Flow (MLTF)





Variable Name Coefficients Standard Error t-stat
1 Constant -946.955 32.789 28.8
2 Number of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes (TTR) 422.389 5.562 75.9
3 Number of Right-only Lanes -168.580 9.935 16.9
4 Left-turning Fraction (LTF) -1751.447 61.788 28.3
5 Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ((g/C)TTR) 2378.501 42.812 55.5
6 Number of Open Lanes / Total Number of Lanes (No/Nt) 755.362 32.653 23.1
7 (Left-only Lanes) x (Left-turning %) x (Left Phase g/C) [(LT*LTF*(g/C)LT] 3078.002 81.083 37.9
8 Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 0.435 0.015 28.8
adjusted R2 = 0.640.


Table 4-13: Capacity for Arterials with Two Lanes and Single Phase
Variable Name Coefficients Standard Error t-stat
1 Constant 443.364 46.772 9.4
2 Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 0.208 0.040 5.2
3 /C Ratio for approach (gC) 1685.778 79.710 21.1
adjusted R" 0.782


Table 4-14: Capacity for Arterials with Two Lanes and Separate Left Turn Phase
Variable Name Coefficients Standard Error t-stat
1 Constant 58.682 73.550 0.7
2 Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ((g/C)TTR) 1581.307 119.964 13.1
3 Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 0.124 0.042 2.9
4 Left Turn g/C Ratio((g/C)LT) 521.551 114.665 4.5
adjusted R2 = 0.542


Table 4-12: Arterial Capacity (Cap)











Table 4-15: Range of Applicable Values
Variable Values
Distance of Downstream Intersection from end of the Work-Zone 100 to 1000 ft
g/C ratio of Left-turning Phase 0.1 to 0.5
g/C ratio of through and right Phase 0.3 to 0.7
Left-turning Fraction 0.10 to 0.40
Right-turning Fraction 0.10 to 0.40
# Open Lanes/ # Total Lanes 0.33 to 1.00
Right-only lanes 0 or 1
Left-only lanes 1 or 2
Sum of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes 2 to 4


Table 4-16: Model Comaprison (Case 2.1)
Variable Name Coefficients Min Max
1 Constant 443.364 1 1
2 Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 0.208 100 1000
3 g/C Ratio for approach (g/C) 1685.778 0.3 0.7
Capacity (vph) = 970 1831
Note that the values given here gives a typical range that may be expected. Some of the values from the
models may be still lower or higher than given here.












Variable Name Coefficients Min Max
1 Constant 58.682 1 1
2 Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ((g/C)TTR) 1581.307 0.07
3 Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 0.124 100 1000
4 Left Turn g/C Ratio((g/C)LT) 521.551 0.01

Capacity (vph) = 598 1342
* Note that the values given here gives a typical range that may be expected. Some of the values from the
models may be still lower or higher than given here.


Table 4-17: Model Comparison (a 2)










Table 4-18: Model Comaparison (3 through 6 lanes)
Variable Name Coefficients Min Max
1 Constant -946.955 1 1
2 Number of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes (TTR) 422.389 1 2
3 Number of Right-only Lanes -168.58 0 1
4 Left-turning Fraction (LTF) -1751.45 0.4 0.05
5 Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ((g/C)TTR) 2378.501
0.3 0.7
6 Number of Open Lanes / Total Number of Lanes (No/Nt) 755.362
1/3 1/3
7 (Left-only Lanes) x (Left-turning %) x (Left Phase g/C) [(LT xLTF x (g/C)LT] 3078.002 0.32 0.005
8 Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 0.435 100 1000
Capacity (vph) = 769 2009
Note that the values given here gives a typical range that may be expected. Some of the values from the models may be still lower or higher than given
here.


Table 4-19: Sensitivity Analysis (Left-turning Flow Model)
Factor Flow
Initial Final Percent Initial Final Change % Change
Factor Value Value Change Value Value in Flow in Flow
Number of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes (TTR) 2 4 100 119 202 84 71%
Left-turning Fraction (LTF) 0.2 0.4 100 194 393 199 102%
Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ((g/C)TTR) 0.3 0.6 100 140 202 62 45%
Number of Open Lanes / Total Number of Lanes
(No/Nt) 0.5 1 100 161 233 73 45%
(Left Phase g/C) 0.2 0.4 100 180 217 38 21%
Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 300 600 100 130 176 46 35%
Left-only Lanes 1 2 100 161 218 57 36%










Table 4-20: Sensitivity Analysis (Maximum Th/Rt Flow)
Factor Flow

Initial Final Percent Initial Final Change Change
Factor Value Value Change Value Value in Flow in Flow
Number of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes (TTR) 2 4 100 1045 1763 718 69%
Left-turning Fraction (LTF) 0.2 0.4 100 1268 814 -454 -36%
Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ((g OTTR) 0.3 0.6 100 1187 1837 650 55%
Number of Open Lanes / Total Number of Lanes
(No Nr) 0.5 1 100 1404 1705 301 21%
(Left Phase g/C) 0.2 0.4 100 1430 1484 53 4%
Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 300 600 100 1347 1432 85 6%
Left-only Lanes 1 2 100 1404 818 -586 -42%


Table 4-21: Sensitivity Analysis (Capacity)
Factor Capacity
Factor From To % Change From Change in % Change
Value Value in Factor Cap. To Cap. Cap. in Cap.
Number of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes (TTR) 2 4 100 1228 2073 845 69%
Number of Right-only Lanes 0 1 Plus One 1650 1482 -169 -10%
Left-turning Fraction (LTF) 0.2 0.4 100 1547 1289 -258 -17%
Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ((g OTTR) 0.3 0.6 100 1412 2126 714 51%
Number of Open Lanes / Total Number of
Lanes (No Nr) 0.5 1 100 1650 2028 378 23%
(Left Phase g/C) 0.2 0.4 100 1696 1789 92 5%
Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 300 600 100 1563 1694 131 8%
Left-only Lanes 1 2 100 1650 1099 -551 -33%















Table 4-22: Sensitivity Analysis (Case 2.1)
Factor Capacity
% Change Change % Change
Factor From Value To Value in Factor From Cap. To Cap. in Cap. in Cap.
Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 300 600 100 1180 1242 62 5%
g/C Ratio for arterial (g/C) 0.3 0.6 100 1053 1559 506 48%


Table 4-23: Sensitivity Analysis (Case 2.2)
Factor Capacity
% Change From Change % Change
Factor From Value To Value in Factor Cap. To Cap. in Cap. in Cap.
Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ((g/C)TTR) 0.3 0.6 100 647 1122 474 73%
Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 300 600 100 781 818 37 5%
Left Turn g/C Ratio((gC)LT) 0.2 0.4 100 858 962 104 12%









CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents a summary of the findings and the analysis regarding work zone

capacity. This is followed by a discussion on model applications. Conclusions from the research

are presented next. The chapter concludes with suggestions on subsequent research on this topic.

5.1 Summary

The current FDOT arterial work zone capacity estimation procedure is an extension of the

one used to estimate freeway work zone capacity, and does not account for various operating and

work zone characteristics of the facility (i.e. speeds, the position of the closed lanes, etc.). These

models are not based on any field study on arterial work zone or any simulation study. Other

state agencies also do not have any clearly defined methodology for calculating work zone

capacities, although they use assumed capacity values as part of guidelines on work zone set up.

Therefore, there is a need to develop an understanding of the factors that may affect the capacity

of a work zone, and develop models to estimate it.

To address this need a list of factors was their developed from the literature on work zone

capacity. A few factors were excluded from the study because of the limitations of simulation

software. The selected factors were used for simulating scenarios with variations in values. Since

no field data were available, simulation was used. A total of five models were then developed to

estimate the maximum flow through different lane groups as well as the capacity of the arterial.

Separate models had to be developed for arterials with two lanes at the downstream intersection

because these arterials operate in a different manner. The proposed models showed that the

downstream intersection has very significant effect on the capacity of the arterial work zone.

The proposed models are meant to be used for estimation purposes. These models can be

used to estimate the capacity of a work zone, which can be used as input into other software










packages, which estimate the delay through work zones. These models can help agencies plan

their strategies on work zone implemention.

5.2 Conclusions

Conclusions drawn from this research are as follows:

a) There has been very little research on the capacity of arterial work zones, despite the fact
that capacity is used as an important input in their evaluation. Work zone design
documents such as the MUTCD identify some of the factors affecting capacity, but they
do not specify their impact quantitavely.

b) Existing simulators do not specifically model arterial work zones.

c) The signalization of the intersection downstream of the work zone hugely affects the
capacity of the work zone. Factors such as the g/C, percentage of traffic turning left as
well as right, and the turning pockets were found to affect the capacity significantly.

d) Simulation of arterial work zones showed that the distance of the work zone to the
downstream intersection affects the capacity of the entire arterial work zone. Increasing
the available storage between the signal and the work zone results in better utilization of
the green at the intersection approach.

e) The capacity of the arterial work zone is reduced when one of the movements are blocked
by the other. The probability of such blockage increases when the g/C ratios are not
optimal or when the channelization at the intersection is not optimal for the respective
demands.

f) Comparison of the arterial work zone capacity to the respective configurations with no
work zones showed that there are selected cases when installing a work zone may
increase capacity. Those increases typically occur when the intersection (prior to the
work zone installation) is congested. In those cases the work zone funnels traffic through
the work zone, and it becomes easier for vehicles to change lanes and reach their
destination lane, because there are fewer blockages. This increase was observed mostly
for scenarios with 3-6 lanes at the intersection approach.

g) The capacity estimates obtained from the current FDOT procedure are based on an
entirely different set of input variables and therefore cannot be directly compared to the
capacity estimates obtained by the models developed in this research.

h) Since this research was entirely based on simulation, the results and conclusions should
be viewed with caution. It is likely that field observations would result in different
capacity values and that additional factors would affect the results. The trends observed
in the simulation however should generally be valid in the field.









5.3 Future Research


The following recommendations for further studies are made:

a) The models developed in this research should be applied on a trial basis to existing and
upcoming arterial work zone proj ects, so that they can be tested and validated before
being used in the field.

b) Field data should be collected at various sites and with various work zone configurations,
so that the procedures developed here can be thoroughly evaluated, and the simulated
capacity estimates compared to field estimates.

c) Specific guidance can be developed on traffic signal control strategies for intersections
downstream of a work zone, so that capacity can be maximized.

d) Research should be conducted to evaluate the capacity of an arterial work zone and its
impact on the upstream intersection. In those cases, spillback would result in a reduction
of the effective green for one or more of the upstream intersection approaches. In
addition, the upstream intersection would affect the arrival pattern to the work zone. The
analysis could answer the question: how many vehicles can pass through the system of an
intersection followed by a work zone.

e) Some of the variables like the work intensity, presence of police and workers in the work
zone and effect of warning signs could not be looked at due to lack of appropriate
features in the existing simulation software packages. These factors and other additional
factors may be examined when such a facility is available. The models presented in this
report are based on simulation alone. Field data should be collected from various work
zones to validate the models presented in this study. The data should have work zones
with varying configurations as in this study so that the models can be validated
thoroughly.

f) Another approach to the capacity calculation could be to design models which predict the
capacity on installation of a work zone in terms of fraction of the present capacity of the
approach. These fractions can then directly be applied to the capacity found by standard
methods like the FDOT and the HCM. The calibration of that kind of model will require
more field data, in addition to the data from the site with work zone, data from the same
site without work zone would also be required.

g) It would be useful to develop simulation software with options to replicate the work zone
features like taper, road signs, lane geometry. If the software packages incorporate these
features then the effect of these on capacity may also be tested. Various geometric
elements (such as lane width and shoulder width) are currently not considered in
CORSIM. Its algorithms should be modified to consider such factors generally, as well as
with respect to work zones.










APPENDIX A
ANALYSIS OF SIMULATION RESULTS
This appendix will discuss the results from the actual simulation runs. Results of each

scenario will be analyzed sequentially in the next section. The possible lane channelization will

be listed with the help of diagrams. Work zones might be set differently with each lane

channelization; these will be presented with the channelization. Finally, the results of the

simulation will be discussed in detail. The trends of the capacity of the approach with change in

different variables like the g/C ratios of different lane groups are discussed. Similar trends are

also explored for the hourly flows of each lane group (viz. left-turning and Th/Rt going traffic) if

necessary. All the flows are given in veh/hr. unless stated otherwise. These include the separate

Left-turning, Th/Lt, Th/Rt and the capacity of the approach as well. The analysis starts with 2

lanes at the intersection and goes through each scenario till 6 lanes at the intersection. It may be

noted that these lanes also include the turn pockets.

A.1 Lanes at Intersection with one Phase Only (Figure A-1)

The scheme has a combined Th/Lt lane and single phase for the entire approach. One lane

is closed and other is open to traffic. As discussed in the sensitivity analysis section (chapter 3),

the position of the work zone does not matter.

Capacity increases slightly with the increase in distance up to 250 ft. It remains unchanged

for distance up to 1000 ft. It may be concluded that the work zone affects the capacity up to 500

ft distance from the intersection, after that, its effect is not substantial (Figure A-2).

The capacity of the approach increases substantially as green increases (Figure A-3). This

capacity increase is quite significant when green increases to 0.5 but remains constant after that.

The reason for this is that g/C ratio of 0.5 satisfies the demand for vehicles and no green is

wasted hence giving more green does not help. In fact, if in some cases the green is more than










required which leads to wastage of green. Such inappropriate distribution of green leads to

blocking of traffic.

Both the left and the right-tumning percentages have almost no effect on the capacity, the

figures for both look similar (Figure A-4 and Figure A-5). This is because there is no separate

lane for left tumns and hence they are equally distributed with the through traffic.

This completes the small analysis of effect of some variables applicable to this scenario on

capacity .

A.2 Two Lanes at Intersection with a Left-only Phase (Figure A-6)

This scheme has a separate left turn lane instead of a Th/Lt lane. Figures representing

aggregate level trends follow with discussion on the same.

The left-turning flow increases as the distance from the end of the work zone to the

intersection increases from 100ft to 1000 ft (Figure A-7). It becomes constant after 500 ft. there

is one outlier at the 750ft distance which has the maximum capacity while the maj ority of the

data points show the trend discussed above. In cases with higher distances (500, 750 and 1000

ft); higher left-turning flow, 0.3 g/C for Lt turns and 0.5 g/C for Th/Rt traffic, the left turn lane

suffers demand saturation because the left-tumning vehicles get sufficient green time and hence

the left-turning flow is the highest for this g/C ratio. In case of 0.5 g/C for left tumns and 0.3 g/C

for Th/Rt turns, the Th/Rt traffic blocks the left-turning traffic at the work zone and hence the

left-turning flow is lower as compared to the former case.The left-turning vehicles may take

more time to join the queue when they have to travel 1000ft as compared to 750ft. Those

vehicles that do not find any queue because the green is still active when they reach the

intersection will take more time to travel to the intersection if the distance to the end of the work

zone is more which increases the left-turning flow.









The Th/Rt flow remains constant with respect to the distance (Figure A-8). There are two

outliers here too; they occur at 250 ft distance, 0.1 g/C for left tumns and 0.7 g/C for the Th/Rt

turning traffic. It takes more time for vehicles in the queue to move if the queue is longer. But

this difference is very slight and may not explain the phenomenon completely.

The capacity does not change much with distance in Figure A-9. It implies that the

capacity of the work zone with the most favorable g/C and other suitable parameters does not

optimize better with change in distance of intersection from the end of work zone. The reason for

this is that in this scenario, the blockage is almost same regardless of the storage length available.

It should be noted that maj or contribution of the Th/Rt flow to the capacity makes their trends

look alike.

The approach capacity increases with the Th/Rt g/C because the maj or part of the traffic is

the Th/Rt going traffic. (Figure A-10)

The left-tumning flow goes on increasing as the percentage of traffic turning left increases

in the traffic stream of the approach. (Figure A-1 1)

The Th/Rt flow first reduces and then remains constant with the increase in the left-tumning

traffic flow (Figure A-12). Even if the left-turning traffic increases, it does not block the Th/Rt

traffic and in the later two conditions, the green time is just enough to let the Th/Rt traffic to get

though and not block any traffic. Consequently, the entire green time is utilized in both those

cases resulting in the same flows.

Figure A-13 is a combination of the above two effects as illustrated by: Figure A-11 and

Figure A-12. The effect of the left-turning trend is suppressed by the Th/Rt trend because of the

difference in the quantity.










Figure A-14 shows that the capacity remains almost constant with the increase in the right-

turning traffic beyond 25%. The right-tumning vehicles do affect the Th/Rt flow but their effect

does not have much impact after they reach a particular percentage. This is because the

combination of the traffic stream has almost the same number of through vehicles followed by

the right-tumning vehicles (and vice versa) for those percentages of right-turning vehicles.

A.3 Three Lanes at Intersection

Possible lane channelization of the three lanes is as shown (Figure A-15, Figure A-16 and

Figure A-17). There are three possibilities that have been simulated. For each of the given

scenarios, connecting arterial may have 2 or 3 lanes under normal functioning. Work zones can

be set up in three ways as given in Table 3-9. (viz. 1 Open and 2 closed lanes, 2 open and 1

closed lane, 1 Open and 1 closed lane)

The approach capacity increases as the number of open lanes through the work zone

increase. (Figure A-18)

Capacity decreases with the increase in left-only lanes because the left-turning flow is

always less as compared with the combined through and right-turning flow (Figure A-19, Figure

A-20) and if lanes are assigned for the left-turning traffic then it does not allow the maj ority of

the traffic to pass through, so even if the left-tumning flow goes up, the total capacity goes down.

Further, it can be noticed that the left-turning flow also goes down for some cases because the

Th/Rt traffic blocks it as the queue builds up in those lanes going through the work zone as well,

not allowing enough left-tumning vehicles to get through the work zone as the green time permits.

Th and Rt lanes include through only, Th/Rt lanes and right-only lanes. As these increase,

the capacity of the approach also increases (Figure A-21). Since the Th/Rt flow is always greater

than the left-tumning flow, giving more passage to it helps increasing the capacity. It may be

noted that both the Th/Rt and left-turning traffic increases with the increase in through lanes and










right lanes. The increase in the left-turning traffic is caused due to its fewer blockages because of

the queuing of the Th/Rt traffic when it has less passage. This variable has a positive effect on

flows through all lane groups.

Most of the cases lose the capacity if a right-only lane is introduced (Figure A-22). It

appears that a Th/Rt lane serves the purpose better than a right-only lane. In a few cases when

the right-turning flow is too high, introducing a right-only lane just helps to keep the capacity the

same, but it does not help in any of the cases. It may be concluded that introducing a right-only

lane would in general, reduce the capacity.

With the increase in distance, the capacity increases a bit till 750 ft and remains almost the

same thereafter (Figure A-23). Therefore, the effect of an upstream work zone is not significant

at distances greater than 700ft (approx.)

Figure A-24 shows that the left-turning flow increases with more green time given to the

left turns.

Figure A-25 and Figure A-26 show that both Th/Rt flow as well as the capacity decreases

with the increase in the green time for left-turning vehicles. Since the left-turning flow is less the

Th/Rt flow' s trend is visible in the capacity the Eigure too.

Figure A-27 suggests that Th/Rt phase g/C ratio has a positive effect on the capacity of the

approach, this follows the trends discussed earlier in scenario 2.2.

Figure A-28 and Figure A-29 show that the capacity goes down in many cases while it also

comes up in some of the cases. The upper bound for both the Eigures has reduced in cases with

higher distances and more green while the lower bounds are the cases with lesser distances and

less g/C for the Th/Rt movements. The slight increase in the capacity of these cases is caused due










to the separation of traffic according to the turning movements. If the traffic goes in different

directions then the queuing is reduced in some of the cases with higher g/C.

This concludes the analysis of the factors that affect the capacity of the approach having

three lanes at the intersection. Arterials having 4 lanes when they meet the intersection will be

discussed next.

A.4 Four Lanes at Intersection

This section discusses the effect of various factors on the capacity as well as flows through

each lane group if necessary. Four possible lane channelizations have been used for simulation

purposes in this type of arterials. They are shown in following figures: Figure A-30, Figure A-31,

Figure A-32 and Figure A-33.

As expected, the capacity of the entire approach increases as the number of open lanes

through the work zone increase. (Figure A-34)

Capacity decreases with the increase in left-only lanes because the left-turning flow is

always less as compared with the combined through and right-turning flow (Figure A-3 5) and

more lanes are assigned for the left-tumning traffic then it does not allow the maj ority of the

traffic to pass through, so even if the left-turning flow increases, the total capacity decreases.

Unlike scenario 3.0, increasing the left-only lanes does not have negative impact on the cases

having maximum capacity.

Th and Rt lanes include through only, Th/Rt lanes and right-only lanes. As these increase,

the capacity of the approach also increases (Figure A-37). Since the Th/Rt flow is always greater

than the left-tumning flow, giving more passage to it helps increasing the capacity. It may be

noted that left-tumning traffic decreases with the increase in through and right lanes. But this

effect is not seen in the capacity trends because of less flow of left-turning traffic. (Figure A-36)









Most of the cases experience reduced capacity if a right-only lane is introduced (Figure

A-3 8). It appears that a Th/Rt lane serves the purpose better than a right-only lane. In a few cases

when the right-tumning fraction is more, introducing a right-only lane just helps to keep the

capacity constant, but it does not help in any of the cases. It may be concluded that introducing a

right-only lane would in general, reduce the capacity.

With the increase in distance, the capacity remains almost same for 100 ft and 250 ft. It

then starts to increase linearly from 500 ft till 1000 ft (Figure A-39). Unlike the previous cases,

the distance has positive effect on the capacity in this scenario and it varies approximately

linearly with distance. The increase is not significantly high.

Figure A-40 shows that the left-turning flow increases with more green time given to the

left turns for g/C 0.3 but it goes down at g/C of 0.5. In former case, the highest left flow is given

by the cases consisting two left-only lanes because they get sufficient passage time while in the

later case, the through and right-tumning green is not sufficient causing heavy queuing and

blocking of the left-only lanes as well as the blockage of the work zone itself. This causes the

left-turning flow to go down.

Figure A-41 and Figure A-42 show that both, Th/Rt flow, as well as the capacity, decrease

with the increase in the green time for left-turning vehicles. Low left-turning fraction leads to the

Th/Rt flow' s trend being visible in the capacity the figure too.

Above chart (Figure A-43) suggests that Th/Rt phase g/C ratio has a positive effect on the

capacity of the approach, this follows the trends discussed in all the earlier scenarios. The

increase is fairly linear and is same for the Th/Rt lane group flow. The left-tumning flow,

however, experience steep reduction at 0.7 g/C for Th/Rt because of less g/C.










The charts showing the effect of the increase in the left-turning traffic' s percentage on the

various flows are given in Figure A-44, Figure A-45 and Figure A-46. More the fraction of left-

turning vehicles in the traffic stream more will be the flow through the left-turning lanes and less

will be the flow through the Th/Rt lane group. The last chart simply shows the combined effect

of the two charts discussed above. It should be noted that the capacity can be better explained by

looking at the individual trends rather than the Einal capacity value.

A fraction of right-turning traffic in the traffic stream has relatively less effect on the

capacity (Figure A-47). The capacity reduced to 40% right-turning vehicles.

This completes the analysis of the factors that affect the capacity of the approach having

three lanes at the intersection. Arterials having five lanes when they meet the intersection will be

discussed next.

A.5 Five Lanes at Intersection

This section discusses the arterials with 5 lanes at the intersection. Possible lane

channelization schemes are shown in the following figures: Figure A-48, Figure A-49, Figure

A-50 and Figure A-51. With each of these channelization schemes, a work zone can be set up in

4 ways. These four ways are corresponding to the work zone setup on any arterial having 3 or 4

lanes under normal circumstances. (Refer Table 3-9: Geometric Variations) Let' s look at how the

variables affect the capacity of the arterial in this case.

Just like in Scenario 4.0, the capacity of the entire approach increases as the number of

open lanes through the work zone increase. (Figure A-52)

Capacity decreases with the increase in left-only lanes because the left-turning flow is

always less as compared with the combined through and right-turning flow (Figure A-53) and if

more lanes are assigned for the left-turning traffic then it does not allow the maj ority of the

traffic to pass through, so even if the left-turning flow goes up, the total capacity goes down. It










may be noted that in this case too, similar to Scenario 4.0, the left-turning flow goes up but that

increase is not huge in terms of fraction of the total capacity and does not have visible effect on

the capacity.

Th and Rt lanes include through only, Th/Rt lanes and right-only lanes. As these increase,

the capacity of the approach also increases (Figure A-55). Since the Th/Rt flow is always greater

than the left-tumning flow, giving more passage to it helps increasing the capacity. Left-turning

traffic decreases by greater amounts as compared with the last scenario. But this effect is not

seen in the capacity trends because of low flow of left-turning traffic (Figure A-54).

Introduction of a right turn only lane does not have any significant effect on the capacity

(Figure A-56). In this case, it does not matter if there is a right-only or a Th/Rt lane.

With the increase in distance, the capacity starts to increase slightly till 500 ft. Thereafter,

it remains almost constant till 1000 ft. Because there are too many lanes over which vehicles can

distribute themselves the distance does not have effect on capacity after 500 ft. (Figure A-57)

In Figure A-58, the left-tumning flow goes up dramatically at g/C ratio of 0.3 and then

remains constant at g/C of 0.5. The Th/Rt flow (Figure A-59) goes down consistently with the

same amount with the increase in g/C ratio. Finally, the capacity (Figure A-60) is same for the

first two g/C ratios (0. 1 and 0.3) and decreases at 0.5 g/C ratio because of the blockage of the

traffic due to less g/C to Th/Rt traffic. This traffic queues up and blocks the left-tumning traffic as

well as itself causing the entire capacity to go down.

Figure A-62 suggests that Th/Rt phase g/C ratio has a positive effect on the capacity of the

approach, this follows the trends discussed in all the earlier scenarios. The increase is fairly

linear and is same for the Th/Rt lane group flow. The left-turning flow, however, falls down

dramatically at 0.7 g/C for Th/Rt because it does not get any passage. (Figure A-61)









The effect of left-turning flow is same as was in scenario 4.0. The capacity of entire

approach goes down with increase in the left-tumning flow (Figure A-63, Figure A-64 and Figure

A-65). More the fraction of left-turning vehicles in the traffic stream more will be the flow

through the left-turning lanes and less will be the flow through the Th/Rt lane group. The last

chart simply shows the combined effect of the two. It should be noted that the capacity can be

better explained by looking at the individual trends rather than the Einal capacity value. But in

this scenario, the capacity is decreasing more evenly as compared to scenario 4.0 so it may be

possible to directly relate the effect to capacity rather than breaking it up into various flows.

A fraction of right-tumning traffic in the traffic stream has relatively less effect on the

capacity (Figure A-66). The capacity goes down slightly at 40% right-tumning vehicles.

This concludes the analysis of the factors that affect the capacity of the approach having

three lanes at the intersection. The next section is the last sub-section of the analysis. It will

discuss the effect of the variables on those arterials which have six lanes at the intersection.

A.6 Six Lanes at Intersection (Figure A-67 and Figure A-68)

This scenario has two assumed lane channelization schemes. Maj ority of the lanes act as

turn pockets (i.e, fixed channelization) leaving scope for less number of variations. Following

channelization schemes are considered: Figure A-67 and Figure A-68. The arterials with these

channelization schemes can have 3 or 4 lanes under normal functioning and hence a work zone

can be set up in 4 ways as given in Table 3-9.

As usual, capacity increases with more open lanes through the work zone (Figure A-69).

This is well explained in the earlier scenarios.

Capacity goes down, but not as much as the earlier scenarios with the increase in the left-

only lanes because the through and right traffic has sufficient lanes to use (Figure A-70).










Capacity increases as more lanes are allocated to the through and right traffic, this trend is

similar to the earlier trends (Figure A-71).

Except a few outliers at 100 ft distance, the capacity increases with the increase in

distance. The increase is constant and is relatively very less (Figure A-72).

The capacity decreases with the increase in the g/C ratio for the left-turning vehicles

(Figure A-73). The effect is more pronounced for the left-turning flow but the combined effect is

more significant at 0.5 g/C for left-turning traffic. The decrease is because of more percentage of

Th/Rt traffic than the left-turning traffic.

The Th/Rt g/C has a fairly linear effect on the capacity of the work zone with this kind of

arterial (Figure A-74). The increase is expected because of the reasons cited in earlier scenarios.

With the increase in the percentage of the left-tumning vehicles in the traffic, the entire

capacity goes down (Figure A-75) because of the blockage of either the left-tumning vehicles (at

low g/C ratio for left turns) or the Th/Rt vehicles (at low g/C for Th/Rt phase). Other than this,

the left-turning vehicles take more time to make the turns and hence lead to reduction in

capacity .

The right-turning percentage inversely affects the capacity of the approach because of the

less passage to the right-tumning vehicles as they have only one lane and block the through going

vehicles. (Figure A-76)

The next section will summarize the discussion of all the scenarios and conclude the

appendix.

A.7 Summary and Conclusions

The aggregate level trends of the change in the capacity and individual lane group flows

with respect to various factors was presented. This study does not suggest the trend that will

appear after controlling for all the other factors. It simply indicates that, in general, it may be









expected that the trend will be visible in the final models. It definitely gives an idea of how

traffic flows through work zone, and how the changes in some of the values affect the traffic

flow. This insight and analysis of each scenario separately will help define the final models

better. Summary table (Table A-1) gives an overview of the findings of this section.

The trends may not be visible in all the cases necessarily but represent the most common

trend in the data sets. It should be emphasized again that these are just typical aggregate level

trends and not the individual trends which may appear after controlling for rest of the variables.






















2000
1800
1600
1400
S1200
S1000
S800
600
400
200


0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100

Distance (ft)


2000
1800
1600
1400
S1200
S1000
i 800
600
400
200


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

g/C


Figure A-2: Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 2. 1)


Figure A-3: g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 2. 1)


Figure A-1: Scenario 2.1 (Lane Channelization)














2000
1800
1600
1400





600
400
200


0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

LeftTurning Percentage



Figure A-4: Left-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.1)


2000
1800
1600
1400
S1200
S1000


600
400
200


0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Right Turning Percentage

Figure A-5: Right-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 2. 1)




















600

500+


400

r 300

S200

100-


0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100

Distance (ft)


1600
1400
1200
>n 100080


ii600
400
200


0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100

Distance (ft)


Figure A-7: Distance vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 2.2)


Figure A-8: Distance vs. Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 2.2)


~I


Figure A-6: Scenario 2.2 (Lane Channelization)












1800
1600
1400
1200-
1000-
800
S600
400
200


0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100

Distance (ft)


1800-
1500
1400




d 1000


400 *
200


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

Th/Rt Phase e/C


Figure A-9: Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.2)


Figure A-10: Th/Rt g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.2)

















500

400


S300




100



0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Left Turning Percentage



Figure A-11: Left-turning Percentage vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 2.2)


1600

1400

1200

S1000

.9 800

S600

400

200


0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Left Turning Percentage

Figure A-12: Left-turning Percentage vs. Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 2.2)











1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200


0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Left Turning Percentage


Figure A-13: Left-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.2)


1800
1600
1400

2 1200
1000
S800
ii600
400
200


0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Right Turning Percentage

Figure A-14: Right-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.2)










Figure A-15: Scenario 3.1
(Lane Channelization)


















Figure A-16: Scenario 3.2
(Lane Channelization)








Figure A-17: Scenario 3.3
(Lane Channelization)
3000

2500

S2000

S1500

3 1000

500



0 1 2 3

Number of Open Lanes

Figure A-18: Number of Open Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)









1000
900
S800
>700
600

S400
3 00
100
10
0 1 2 3
Number of Left Only Lanes

Figure A-19: Number of Left-only Lanes vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 3.()

3000

2500

2 2000

S1500

Z 1000

500

0
0 1 2: 3
Number of Left Only Lanes

Figure A-20: Number of Left-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)







































3000

2500

2000




3 1000

500



O 1 2

Right Only Lanes

Figure A-22: Right-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)


3000

2500

S2000

S1500




500

0


0 1 2 3

Th and Rt Lanes


Figure A-21: Th and Rt Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)











3000

2500

S2000-

S1500-

d 1000-

500



0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100

Distance (ft)


Figure A-23: Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)


1000
900
S800
>700
600

no 500
S400
300



10

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Lt Phase g/C

Figure A-24: Left-turning g/C vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 3.0)





































- i


3000

2500



.9 1500

1 1000

500-


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
Lt Phalse g/C

Figure A-25: Left-turning g/C vs. Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 3.0)


3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0


0 0.1


0.3
Lt Phase g/C Ratio


Figure A-26: Left-turning g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)











3000

2500

~ zooo





Z 1000

500



0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

ThfRt Phase g/C

Figure A-27: Th/Rt Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)


3000

2500

S2000

S1500-

~31000-

500



0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Right Turning Percentage

Figure A-28: Right-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)











3000

2500






Z 1000

500



0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Left Turning Percentage

Figure A-29: Left-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)



















Figure A-30:Scenario 4.1 (Lane Channelization)








Figure A-31: Scenario 4.2 (Lane Channelization)


































4000

3500

3000



ch 2500


1000

500


0 1 2 3 4

Number of Open Lanes

Figure A-34: Number of Open Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0)


Figure A-32: Scenario 4.3 (Lane Channelization)









Figure A-33: Scenario 4.4 (Lane Channelization)








































1200

1000

S800

S600

400-

200-



0 1 2 3 4

Th and Rt Lanes


Figure A-36: Through and right Lanes vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 4.0)


4000

3500

3000

c,2500

S2000-



1000-

500


0 1 2 3

Left Only Lanes


Figure A-35: Left-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0)











4000 -

3500 -

3000-

'n2500

S2000


1000

500 -


0 1 2 3 4

Th and Rt Lanes


Figure A-37: Through and Right Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0)


0 1 2

Right Only Lanes


4000

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0


Figure A-3 8: Right-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0)










4000
3500
3000 -

~2500 -



1000-
500


0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100
Distance (ft)

Figure A-39: Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0)


-


1200

1000

800



2 00



0


0 0.1


0.3
Lt Phase g/C Ratio


Figure A-40: Left Phase g/C vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 4.0)











4000

3500

3000

S2500

.9 2000

S1500 -

1000 -

500


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Lt Phase g/C


Figure A-41: Left Phase g/C vs. Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 4.0)



4000

3500

3000







m 500

100


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Lt Phase g/C

Figure A-42: Left Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0)






































1200

1000

800


no 600

400-

200-



0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Left Turning Percentage

Figure A-44: Left-turning Percentage vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 4.0)


4000

3500

3000

S2500

b 2000
S1500-

1000

500


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

ThfRt Phase g/C

Figure A-43: Left Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0)











4000

3500

3000

2500

.92000



1000 -

500


0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Left Turning Percentage


Figure A-45: Left-turning Percentage vs. Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 4.0)


4000

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0


10% 20% 30% 40%

Left Turning Percentage


Figure A-46: Left-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0)










4000

3500

3000

25z00-


O 1500
1000

500


0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Right Turning Percentage

Figure A-47: Right-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0)







f Il'i



Figure A-48: Scenario 5.1 (Lane Channelization)







Figure A-49: Scenario 5.2 (Lane Channelization)








Figure A-50: Scenario 5.3 (Lane Channelization)























4500
4000
3500
.c 3000
S2500-

U 2000


1000
500


0 1 2 3 4


Number of Open Lanes


Figure A-52: Number of Open Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)


4500
4000
3500

2 3000
S2500
S2000

S1500
1000
500


0 1 2 3

Left Only Lanes


1 igure A-53: Number of Left Turn Only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)


Figure A-51: Scenario 5.4 (Lane Channelization)











1400

1200

'n1000



.c600

400-

200-



0 1 2 3 4 5

Th and Rt Lanes


1 igure A-54: Through and Right Lanes vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 5.0)


4500
4000
3500

S3000-
2500-
S2000-


1000
500


0 1 2 3 4 5

Th and Rt Lanes


Figure A-55: Through and Right Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)












4500
4000
3500

S3000
2500
S2000

S1500
1000
500


O 1 2

Right Only Lanes


Figure A-56: Right-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)


4500

4000
3500 -

2 3000- -
2500 -
4! 2000 -

S1500- -
1000
500


0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100

Distance (ft)


Figure A-57: Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)











1400

1200

> 1000

800

600

400

200

0


0 0.1 0.2 0.3

Lt Phase g/C


0.4 0.5 0.6


Figure A-58: Left Phase g/C vs. Lt Turning Flow (Scenario 5.0)



4500
4000
3500

cm 3000
3: 2500-
U-2000-


1000-
500


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Lt Phase g/C


Figure A-59: Left Phase g/C vs. Right-turning Flow (Scenario 5.0)











4500
4000
3500

E 3000-
2500-
S2000-

S1500
1000
500


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Lt Phase g/C


Figure A-60: Left Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)


1400

1200

> 1000

800

-600

S 400-

200-



0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

ThfRt Phaze g/C


Figure A-61: Left Phase g/C vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 5.0)











4500
4000
3500
E 3000
2500-
S2000-


1000
500


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

ThfRt Phase g/C


Figure A-62: Through Right Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)


1400

1200

> 1000

800





200-


0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Left Turning Percentage


Figure A-63: Left-turning Percentage vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 5.0)











4500
4000
3500
S3000

25000

S1500 -
1000 -
500


0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Left Turning Percentage


Figure A-64: Left-turning Percentage vs. Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 5.0)


4500
4000
3500
2 3000
S2500

g 2000 -


1000
500


0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Left Turning Percentage


Figure A-65: Left-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)



































Figure A-66: Right-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)








I I I I
I I II I
a~tI II I I'I



Figure A-67: Scenario 6.1 (Lane Channelization)



I IfII
lI lI
I IllI
I II I



Figure A-68: Scenario 6.2 (Lane Channelization)


4500

4000

3500

2 3000
S2500

P 2000 -

6 1500
1000

500


0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%


Right Turning Percentage





6000

5000

2 4000

S3000

S2000-

1000



0 1 2 3 4

Number of Open Lanes


Figure A-69: Number of Open lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0)


6000-

5000-

S4000-




S2000-

1000-

0-
0


1 2 3


Left Only Lanes


Figure A-70: Left-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0)











6000

5000

4000

S3000

S2000-

1000



0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Th and Rt Lanes


Figure A-71: Through and Right Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0)


(r $ *


0


6000

5000

S4000

S3000

S2000

1000

0


100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

Distance (ft)


1000 1100


Figure A-72: Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0)







































6000

5000

S4000

S3000

~32000-

1000



0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

ThfRt Phase g/C

Figure A-74: Th/Rt Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0)


6000

5000

4000

S3000

S2000

1000

0


0 0.1 0.2 0.3

Lt Phase g/C


0.4 0.5 0.6


Figure A-73: Left Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0)






































6000

5000

S4000

S3000

ii2000 -

1000



0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Right Turning Percentage

Figure A-76: Right-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0)


6000

5000

S4000

S3000-

S2000-

1000



0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Left Turning Percentage


Figure A-75: Left-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0)













Maximum value increases, Minimum values remain same
Maximum values decrease, minimum values remain almost same
Increase in capacity
No change
Goes down at very high values of 40% in some cases
Capacity goes down
Increases till 500 ft and then remains almost constant
Capacity goes down
Increases almost linearly


Trend for Capacity


I


evel Trends Summary


Table A-1: Aggregate L~
Factor
Number of Open lanes
Left-only Lanes
Th and Rt lanes
right-only Lanes
right-turning %
Left-turning %
Di stance
Left g/C
Th/Rt g/C











REFERENCES


Associated Press. (1989). "Model Helps Schedule Work-Zone Lane Closures." Better
Roads,Volume 59, Issue Number: 3, pp38-39.

Arguea D. (2006). "Simulation Based Approach to Estimate the Capacity of a Temporary
Freeway Work Zone Lane Closure." Master' s Thesis, University of Florida.

Dixon, K.K., A. Lorscheider, and J.E. Hummer. (1995). "Computer Simulation of I-95 Lane
Closures Using FRESIM." 65th ITE Annual Meeting. Compendium of Technical Papers.
Institute of Transportation Engineers, Denver, CO.

Dixon, K.K., J.E. Hummer, and A.R. Lorscheider. (1996). "Capacity for North Carolina Freeway
Work Zones." Transportation Research Record 1529. Transportation Research Board.
Washington, D.C.

Federal Highway Administration. (2003). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for
Streets and Highways, 2003 Edition. U.S. Department of Transportation.

Federal Highway Administration. (2000). "User' s Manual for QuickZone Beta 0.5
(unpublished)." U.S. Department of Transportation.

Federal Highway Administration. (2005). "Implementing the Rule on Work Zone Safety and
Mobility." Washington, DC.

FHWA Office of Operations. (2005). "Work Zone & Traffic Analysi s/Management,
information" (July 8, 2005).

Florida Department of Transportation. (2007). "FDOT Plans Preparation Manual." Section
10.12.7, Volume I.

Florida Department of Transportation. (2000). FDOT Plans Preparation Manual, Volume I.

Jiang X. and H. Adeli. (2004). "Obj ect-Oriented Model for Freeway Work Zone Capacity and
Queue Delay Estimation. Computer Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering." Vol. 19,
Pgs. 144-156.

Joseph, C. T., E. Radwan, and N. M. Rouphail. (1988). "Work Zone Analysis Model for the
Signalized Arterial." Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation
Board, No. 1 194, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies,
Washington, DC.

Kim, T., D. J. Lovell, and J. Paracha. (2001). "A New Methodology to Estimate Capacity for
Freeway Work Zones." Compendium of the 2001 Transportation Research Board Annual
Meeting, Washington DC.










Lee, E. B. and C. W. Ibbs. (2005). "A Computer Simulation Model: Construction Analysis for
Pavement Rehabilitation Strategies (CA4PRS)." Journal of Construction Engineering
Management, 131 (4).

Massachusetts Highway Department. (2007). "Massachusetts Highway Design Guidelines."
Boston, MA.

Memmott, J. L., and C. L. Dudek. (1984). "Queue and User Cost Evaluation of Work Zones
(QUEWZ)." Transportation Research Record 979. Transportation Research Board.
Washington, D.C.

Missouri Department of Transportation. (2004). "Work Zone Guidelines." Jefferson City, MO.

Oregon Department of Transportation. (2007). "Work Zone Traffic Analysis Manual." Salem,
OR.

Sarasua, W. A., W. J. Davis, D. B. Clarke, J. Kottapally, and P. Mulukutla. (2004). "Evaluation
of Interstate Highway Capacity for Short-Term Work Zone Lane Closures."
Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Board, No. 1877,
Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC., pp. 85-94.

Sterzin, E., Ben-Akiva, M.E. and, Toledo, T. (2005). "Influencing Factors in Microscopic Traffic
Simulation." Transportation Research Board Compendium of Papers, Washington, DC.

Transportation Research Board. (2000). "Highway Capacity Manual 2000." Washington, DC.

Washington State Department of Transportation. (2006). "Design Manual." Olympia, WA.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Mayank Prakash Jain was born in the city of Udaipur in India. He belongs to the state of

Rajasthan, the state with deserts. He went to high school in the city of lakes (Udaipur) and was

brought up there. After his +2 he went to Kota to prepare for Joint Enterance Exam to get

admission into one of the Indian Institutes of Technology. He completed his bachelor' s degree in

civil engineering at IIT Bombay. After that, he moved to University of Florida at Gainesville in

Florida to complete his master' s degree in civil engineering with specialization in transportation

engmneenng.





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1 SIMULATION-BASED CAPACITY ESTI MATION OF ARTERIAL WORKZONES By MAYANK PRAKASH JAIN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Mayank Prakash Jain

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3 To my parents

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank the University o f Florida and the Depa rtment of Civil and Co astal Engineering for giving me the opportunity to participate in a tr ansportation project and produce unique research. I thank my committee, comprised of Dr. Lily El efteriadou, Associate Professor, committee chair, and primary advisor; Dr. Scott Washburn, Asso ciate Professor; and Dr. Kevin Heaslip, post doctoral research associat e. I thank them for the advice, guidance, and feedback throughout the research and writing of the report. I would like al so to thank McTrans an d those involved with software development. I thank them for providing insight into the details of the problems and solutions within the algorithms, fundamental to the effective use of the software packages. I thank the group of masters and doctoral candidate s that provided me with the technical support and guidance when needed. Finally, I thank my fr iends, family, and loved ones for the emotional support and encouragement th roughout this endeavor.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS..............................................................................................................4LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. .........7LIST OF FIGURES........................................................................................................................9LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS....................................................................................................... 13ABSTRACT..................................................................................................................................14CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................161.1Background..................................................................................................................161.2Objectives and Scope...................................................................................................171.3Report Overview.......................................................................................................... 172LITERATURE REVIEW.................................................................................................182.1Arterial Work Zone Design.......................................................................................... 182.2State Methodologies for Com puting Work Zone Capacity.......................................... 192.3Current FDOT Methodology.......................................................................................202.4Arterial Work Zone Evaluation Tools..........................................................................222.4.1WZATA...........................................................................................................222.4.2QUEWZ........................................................................................................... 222.4.3QuickZone Software........................................................................................232.4.4CA4PRS Software............................................................................................252.5Summary of Literature and Conclusions......................................................................253RESEARCH METHODOLOGY...................................................................................... 293.1Introduction.................................................................................................................. 293.2Simulator Selection...................................................................................................... 293.3Modeling of Work Zones with CORSIM.................................................................... 313.4Study Scenarios and Modeling Assumptions...............................................................323.4.1Network Configuration.................................................................................... 333.4.2Input Variables.................................................................................................333.5Factors That Affect Arterial Work Zone Capacity...................................................... 333.6Discussion on Factors.................................................................................................. 343.7Sensitivity Analysis...................................................................................................... 363.7.1Length of Work Zone....................................................................................... 363.7.2Work Zone Lateral Position.............................................................................373.7.3Driveway Presence...........................................................................................373.7.4Posted Speed Limit..........................................................................................38

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6 Page 3.8Simulation Scenarios.................................................................................................... 393.9Required Number of Simulation Runs......................................................................... 403.10Output from Simulations.............................................................................................. 413.11Summary......................................................................................................................414CAPACITY MODEL DEVELOPMENT......................................................................... 514.1Introduction.................................................................................................................. 514.2Simulation Results for Cases When a Work Zone is Present...................................... 514.3Simulation Results for Cases without Work Zones (Base Case Scenarios)................. 534.4Comparisons of Base Case and Work Zone Scenarios................................................ 544.5Capacity Models.......................................................................................................... 564.5.1Models for 3 through 6 Lanes at Downstream Intersection............................. 574.5.2Models for Arterials with 2 lanes at the Downstream Intersection.................. 604.6Model Comparison....................................................................................................... 614.7Sensitivity Analysis...................................................................................................... 624.8Example Problems....................................................................................................... 634.8.1Example Problem 1.......................................................................................... 634.8.2Example Problem 2.......................................................................................... 654.8.3Example Problem 3.......................................................................................... 665CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................... 845.1Summary......................................................................................................................845.2Conclusions..................................................................................................................855.3Future Research............................................................................................................86APPENDIXAnalysis of Simulation Results........................................................................ 87A.1 Lanes at Intersection with one Phase Only (Figure A-1)................................................87A.2 Two Lanes at Inters ection with a Left-only Phase (Figure A-6).................................... 88A.3 Three Lanes at Intersection............................................................................................. 90A.4 Four Lanes at Intersection............................................................................................... 92A.5 Five Lanes at Intersection............................................................................................... 94A.6 Six Lanes at Intersection (Figure A-67 and Figure A-68)..............................................96A.7 Summary and Conclusions.............................................................................................97REFERENCES...........................................................................................................................133BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH......................................................................................................135

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 2-1 Formulas for Determining Taper Lengths (MUTCD, 2003)............................................ 282-2 Lane Closure Capacity (FDOT Methodology)................................................................. 283-1 Grouped Factors Affecting Work Zone Capacity............................................................ 463-2 Factors Affecting Work Zone Capacity............................................................................ 473-3 Work Zone Length Sensitivity.......................................................................................... 473-4 Work Zone Position Sensitivity........................................................................................ 483-5 Driveway Sensitivity Analysis.......................................................................................... 483-6 Posted Speed Limit Sensitivity......................................................................................... 483-7 Sensitivity Analysis....................................................................................................... ...483-8 Changes in Network Properties........................................................................................ 493-9 Geometric Variations........................................................................................................503-10 Variables in Simulation................................................................................................... ..503-11 Constraints for Variables................................................................................................. .503-12 Sample Size............................................................................................................... ........504-1 Total Approach Capacity for Arterial Work Zones (in vph)............................................ 684-2 Through/Right Turn Approach Capacity for Arterial Work Zones (in vphpl)................ 704-3 Left Turn Approach Capacity for Arterial Work Zones (in vphpl)................................. 714-4 Base Case Intersec tion Capacities (in vph)...................................................................... 724-5 Base Case Through/Right Capacities (in vphpl )............................................................. 724-6 Base Case Left Turn Capacities (in vphpl)...................................................................... 734-7 Change in Total Approach Capacity When a Work Zone is Installed............................. 744-8 Change in the Through/Right Movement Capacity When a Work Zone Is Installed..... 754-9 Change in the Left Turn Movement Capacity When a Work Zone Is Installed.............. 76

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8 Table Page 4-10 Maximum Left-turning Flow (MLTF).............................................................................. 774-11 Maximum Through and Right -turning Flow (MTRF)...................................................... 774-12 Arterial Capacity (Cap)................................................................................................... ..784-13 Capacity for Arterials with Two Lanes and Single Phase................................................784-14 Capacity for Arterials with Two La nes and Separate Left Turn Phase............................ 784-15 Range of Applicable Values.............................................................................................79

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 2-1 Work Zone Setup [Source: MUTCD 2003]......................................................................273-1 Network Configuration in CORSIM................................................................................. 433-2 Network Map Showing Link Numbers............................................................................. 433-3 Work Zone Length Sensitivity.......................................................................................... 443-4 Driveway Flow vs. Capacity............................................................................................. 443-5 Lane Channelization Schemes for All Scenarios.............................................................. 454-1 Schematic for Example 1.................................................................................................. 684-2 Schematic for Example 2.................................................................................................. 684-3 Schematic for Example 3.................................................................................................. 68A-1 Scenario 2.1 (Lane Channelization)..................................................................................99A-2 Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.1)................................................................................ 99A-3 g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.1)........................................................................................ 99A-4 Left-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.1)......................................................100A-5 Right-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.1).................................................... 100A-6 Scenario 2.2 (Lane Channelization)................................................................................101A-7 Distance vs. Left-turni ng Flow (Scenario 2.2)................................................................101A-8 Distance vs. Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 2.2)..........................................................................101A-9 Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.2).............................................................................. 102A-10 Th/Rt g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.2)............................................................................ 102A-11 Left-turning Percentage vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 2.2)....................................... 103A-12 Left-turning Percentage vs. Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 2.2)..................................................103A-13 Left-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.2)......................................................104A-14 Right-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.2).................................................... 104

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10 Figure Page A-18 Number of Open Lanes vs Capacity (Scenario 3.0) ......................................................105A-19 Number of Left-only Lanes vs Left-turning Flow (Scenario 3.0)................................. 106A-20 Number of Left-only Lane s vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)................................................ 106A-21 Th and Rt Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0).................................................................. 107A-22 Right-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)................................................................ 107A-23 Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0).............................................................................. 108A-24 Left-turning g/C vs. Left -turning Flow (Scenario 3.0)................................................... 108A-25 Left-turning g/C vs. Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 3.0).............................................................109A-26 Left-turning g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0).................................................................. 109A-27 Th/Rt Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0).................................................................. 110A-28 Right-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0).................................................... 110A-29 Left-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)......................................................111A-34 Number of Open Lanes vs Capacity (Scenario 4.0)......................................................112A-35 Left-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0).................................................................. 113A-36 Through and right Lanes vs. Le ft-turning Volume (Scenario 4.0)................................. 113A-37 Through and Right Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0)...................................................114A-38 Right-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0)................................................................ 114A-39 Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0).............................................................................. 115A-40 Left Phase g/C vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 4.0)......................................................115A-41 Left Phase g/C vs. Th/Rt Volume (Scenario 4.0)...........................................................116A-42 Left Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0)....................................................................116A-43 Left Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0)....................................................................117A-44 Left-turning Percen tage vs. Left-turning Volume (Scenario 4.0)...................................117A-45 Left-turning Percentage vs. Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 4.0)..................................................118

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11 Figure Page A-46 Left-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0) ......................................................118A-47 Right-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0).................................................... 119A-52 Number of Open Lanes vs Capacity (Scenario 5.0)......................................................120A-53 Number of Left Turn Only La nes vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)....................................... 120A-54 Through and Right Lanes vs. Le ft-turning Flow (Scenario 5.0).....................................121A-55 Through and Right Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)...................................................121A-56 Right-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)................................................................ 122A-57 Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0).............................................................................. 122A-58 Left Phase g/C vs. Lt Turning Flow (Scenario 5.0)........................................................123A-59 Left Phase g/C vs. Right -turning Flow (Scenario 5.0).................................................... 123A-60 Left Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)....................................................................124A-61 Left Phase g/C vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 5.0)......................................................124A-62 Through Right Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)................................................... 125A-63 Left-turning Percentage vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 5.0)....................................... 125A-64 Left-turning Percentage vs Th/Rt Volume (Scenario 5.0)............................................. 126A-65 Left-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)......................................................126A-66 Right-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0).................................................... 127A-69 Number of Open lanes vs Capacity (Scenario 6.0)........................................................128A-70 Left-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0).................................................................. 128A-71 Through and Right Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0)...................................................129A-72 Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0).............................................................................. 129A-73 Left Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0)....................................................................130A-74 Th/Rt Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0).................................................................. 130A-75 Left-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0)......................................................131

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12 Figure Page A-76 Right-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0) .................................................... 131

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13 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CA4PRS Construction Analysis for Pavement Rehabilitation Strategies DOT Department of Transportation FDOT Florida Department of Transportation FDOT PPM Florida Department of Transportation Plans and Preparation Manual FHWA Federal High way Administration HCM Highway Capacity Manual MUTCD Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices ODOT Oregon Department of Transportation QUEWZ Queue and User Cost Evaluation of Work Zones Th/Rt Lanes Lanes channelized as through and right lanes (shared lanes) Th & Rt Lanes Sum of lanes marked as Th/Rt Lanes and right-only lanes WZATA Work Zone Analysis Tool for the Arterial

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14 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science SIMULATION BASED CAPACITY ESTI MATION OF ARTERIAL WORKZONES By Mayank Prakash Jain August 2008 Chair: Lily Elefteriadou Major: Civil Engineering Numerous states have policies that provide guidance for the institution of short term lane closures on arterial streets based on capacity estimates; however, it is not clear how the existing values were developed, and there are currently no tools to estimate the capacity of arterial lane closures. This estimation is important because cap acity is used to forecast queues and delays. In this research, simulation was used to develop se veral intersection and work zone configurations and to obtain relationships between various factors and the capacity of the arterial work zone. A set of appropriate scenarios was developed considering the capabilities of the simulator, the impacts various factors may have on arterial work zone capacity, as well as the sensitivity of those factors with respect to the simulated capac ity. Five regression models were developed to predict the capacity of the enti re approach, the capacity of th e left-turning lane group, and the capacity of the through and right-turning group for various arterial work zone configurations. Capacity is defined as a functi on of various factors including the percentage of left-turning vehicles, the distance of the work zone to the downstream intersection, and the g/C ratios of each lane group. Simulation of arterial work zones showed th at the distance from the work zone to the downstream intersection affects the capacity of th e entire arterial work zone. Increasing the

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15 available storage between the signal and the work zone models results in better utilization of the green at the intersection. The capacity of the ar terial work zone is re duced when one of the movements is blocked by the other. The probabi lity of such blockage increases when the g/C ratios are not optimal or when the channelizat ion at the intersection is not optimal for the respective demands. Comparison of the arterial work zone capacity to the respective conf igurations with no work zones showed that there are selected ca ses when installing a work zone may increase capacity. Those increases typically occur when the intersection (prior to the work zone installation) is congested. In those cases the work zone funnels traffic through the work zone, and it becomes easier for vehicles to change lane s and reach their destination lane, because there are fewer blockages. This increase was observed mostly for scenarios with 3 to 6 lanes at the intersection approach.

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16 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Many state transportation agencies are experi encing growing congesti on and traffic delays because of work zones on arterial roads. This c ongestion results in delays for both motorists an d commercial vehicles. The delays also result in driver frustration, making some drivers willing to take unsafe risks in an effort to bypass delays The need to maintain adequate traffic flow through short term and long term arterial work zones is vital on t odays heavily-traveled roadways. Research has been conducted on the f actors that affect the work zone capacity on freeways but little has been done to estimate the capacity of arterial work zones. Numerous states (MassHighway, (2007), Misso uri Department of Transportation (2004), Washington Department of Transportati on (WDOT) (2006), Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) (2007), refe r Sarasua et. al. (2004)) have policies that provide guidance for the installation of short term work zone (l ane closures) including maximum allowable traffic flows, vehicle delays, and queue lengths. Those policies are based on capacity estimates; however, it is not clear how the existing values were developed, and ther e are currently no tools to estimate capacity. Generally, capacity values ar e obtained for each state as a function of traffic stream characteristics, highway geometry, work zone location, type of construction activities, and work zone configuration (Sarasua, 2004). There have been empirical observations of va rious factors that a ffect the operation and capacity of arterial work zones; however, literature lacks capacity estimation models. The Florida Department of Tr ansportation (FDOT) is curren tly interested in updating its existing methodologies for estimating the capacity of arterial lane closur es. This estimation is important because capacity is us ed to obtain queues as well as delays. Currently, the FDOT

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17 procedure of estimating capacity on arterials is an extension of the one used to estimate freeway work zone capacity. The current methods have not been updated since 1995 and FDOT is interested in an improved method that will facilitate the schedu ling and managing of short term work zone lane closures on arterials. The existing procedure used by FDOT (PPM, 2000) for calculation of restricted capacity for open road (i.e., freeways, multilane highways, and two-lane highways) and signalized intersections applies an obstruc tion factor based on lateral cl earance and travel lane width, a work zone factor based on work zone length, and finally the g/C ratio to the base capacity to estimate a restricted capacity. The procedure does not account for the operating characteristics of the facility (i.e., speeds, characteri stics of downstream workzone, etc.). 1.2 Objectives and Scope The objectiv e of this research was to identify th e various geometric and traffic factors that impact the capacity of an arterial work zone and to develop an analytical model to estimate work zone capacity. Capacity models are estimated fo r the approach to a signalized intersection. Additionally, models for predicting the maximum flow through left turn only and Through-right (Th/Rt) lane group were also estimated. 1.3 Report Overview Chapter 2 reviews the literatu re pe rtaining to the topic. It disc usses the state of the art in the field. Chapter 3 presents the methodology. It describes the scenario setup and the simulation. Model development is presented in the chapter 4 along with the models developed for all the scenarios. Chapter 5 presents the conclusions drawn from the research and the recommendations for future work.

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18 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW An extensive literature review was conducted to identify a nd evaluate existing research involving arterial work zone lane closures. Little research has b een done to address the issue of capacity in arterial work zones. The first section discusses the design of work zones in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (FHWA, 2003). Review of the current FDOT methodology for capacity calculation of work zones and its limitations ar e presented next. The th ird section summarizes existing methods and approaches used by various states. It also provides an overview of work zone capacity research and other tools available for work zone analysis. The last section includes a brief summary of the findings and recommendations from the literature. 2.1 Arterial Work Zone Design The 2003 version of the MUTCD pr ovides guidan ce to transportation professionals on the design of arterial work zones. This section presen ts the various features of an arterial work zone based on these guidelines. Figure 2-1 presents a typical work zone im plemented on an arterial. The barrier seen in the figure would only be implemented on a high speed, longer term project. In applications without barriers, the general layout would mainta in the other characteristics as shown. The work zone begins with an advance warning area which consists of various signs informing drivers of a imminent geometric chan ge. This is followed by the transition zone, where a cone or barrel taper is utilized to guide drivers away from the closed lane and into the open lane. Mathematical formulae exist to calcul ate the length of this taper depending on the number of lanes closed, the lengt h of work zone, and the speed of vehicles entering the work

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19 zone. The formulae are presented in Table 2-1 and are a function of the width of the offset (work area width) and the posted speed limit or the 85th percentile speed prior to work starting. Activity or work area follows the taper wh ich consist of workers and other equipment. The end of the work zone is defined as the termination area where tapers may be used, if required, to restore normal traffic flow. This area extends until th e last road sign designating the end of road work. The lengths of and around the wo rk area are based on the ac tivity that is being conducted. The guidance from the MUTCD states that no work should be conducted in buffer areas. The MUTCD provides typical appl ications for work zones at and within intersections however there are no guidelines for the minimum length of a work zone and its approaching taper zone if the speed and length of work zone are not known. Such guidelines can act as guiding values for safety norms. However there are guidelines for establishing the length of the taper as a function of the length of the work zone and the prevailing speeds only. This section presented a brief overview of a t ypical work zone setup. The next section will detail the way work zone capacity is calculated by FDOT. 2.2 State Methodologies for Computing Work Zone Capacity FHWAs Rule on W ork Zone Safety and M obility (FHWA, 2005) requires states to implement measures that maximize mobility wi thout compromising the safety of highway workers or road users. The rule suggests delay, speed, travel time, and queue lengths as possible performance measures for the as sessment of mobility (FHWA, 2005). The threshold limits for these measures are defined on a state-by-state basis as a function of traffic stream characteristics, highway geometry, work zone location, type of construction activit ies, and work zone configuration (Sar asua, et. al., 2004).

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20 There are several tools available for estimati ng work zone delay and queue length. These are estimated based on capacity estimates which are used as input to those tools (Jiang and Adeli, 2004) Specific values are suggested, however, there is little information available on the relative impacts of various work zone related factors on capacity. States provide suggested arterial work zone capacities as follows: Massachusetts: 1,170 to 1,490 vphpl; (MassHighway, 2007) Missouri: 1,000 vphpl; (Missouri DOT, 2004) Washington: 600 to 1,300 vphpl; (Washington DOT Design Manual, 2006) Oregon: 1,200 to 1,600 passenger cars per hour per lane (pcphpl); (ODOT, 2007) South Carolina: 800 vphpl. (Sarasua, et. al., 2004) As shown there is wide variability in the values used, and there is no documentation on how these values were obtained. 2.3 Current FDOT Methodology FDOT has a procedure to determine the capacity of Work Zone Lane Closures on MultiLane Signalized Arterials. Section 10.14.7 of FDOT PPM Volume I (1) (FDOT PPM, 2007) describes the lane-closure analysis. The lane closure analysis is used to ca lculate the peak hour traffic volume and the restricted capacity for open road and signalized intersections. The analysis determines whether a lane closure should be allowed, and if its allowed, then whether it should be implemented during the day or night. The pr ocedure first determines the demand, i.e., the peak hour traffic volume. Next the user selects the ap propriate basic Ca pacity (C) from Table 2-1. The Restricted Capacity (RC) for open road is the n calculated as: WZFOFC RC roadopen (equation 1.1) where C is the Base Capacity obtained from Table 2-1.

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21 OF is obstruction Factor, which reduces the capacity of the remaining travel lane(s) by restricting one or both of the following components: Trav el lane width less th an 12 ft. and lateral clearance less than 6 ft. WZF is Work Zone Factor, which is directly pr oportional to the length of the work zone. It applies only to closures conve rted to two-way, one-lane. Reduced capacity for arterials differs from freeway s only if the lane closur e is through or within 600 ft. of a signalized intersection. In this case, RC is given as: Cg RC RC /roadopen road arterial (equation 1.2) where g/C is the Ratio of effective Green to Cycle Time. If the demand of the facility is below the restricted capacity (i.e., V RC), there is no restriction on the lane closure and no delay is expected. If the demand exceeds the restricted capacity (i.e., V > RC), the analyst next consid ers the delays throughout the day to determine when the lane closure will be permitted. In summary, the existing FDOT proc edure is based on the following: The basic capacity of the arterial. These capacities do not consider geometric characteristics of the site, such as vertical alignment, or other aspects related to the saturation flow rate of the intersection approach. Capacity reductions based on lane width a nd lateral clearance. More recent research (HCM 2000) has shown that these may not play a significant role in reducing capacity. The capacity reduction due to the signal (G/C ra tio related reduction) applies to 600 ft. upstream of a signalized in tersection. The 600 ft. roughly account for the taper, deceleration and storage for the intersection turn ing lane groups. However, the validity of the 600 ft value should be assessed in light of the large variability in traffic volumes, G/C ratios and queue lengths. The existing procedure does not consider f actors such as speeds upstream and through the work zone, nor lane distributions and turning movement types. It also does not consider actuated control and the resulting G/C ratio. Th ese may impact the capacity of an arterial work zone.

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22 2.4 Arterial Work Zone Evaluation Tools Several research papers focus on the capacity of freeway work zones, however very little research specifically addresses capacity on arterial work zones. No specific procedure was found that calcu lates the capacity of an arterial work zone or the capacity of a signalized intersection downstream of a work zone. Existing work zone analysis packages focus on the estimation of queue length and delays by using capacity as eith er input or an intermediate variable. This section discusses various tools th at have either been developed specifically to analyze arterial lane closures, or that can be used to simulate arterial work zone operations. Currently, three software products, QUEWZ QuickZone and CA4PERS, are used to evaluate arterial work zones. A survey of St ate DOTs showed that QUEWZ and QuickZone were widely used software packages for the estimati on of queue lengths and delays in work zones (Chitturi & Benekohal). 2.4.1 WZATA In one of the earlier efforts to evaluate arterial work zone operations, Joseph et. al. (1988) developed the W ork Zone Analysis Tool for the Arterial (WZATA) to anal yze and evaluate lane closures between two signalized intersections. This tool requires as input the saturation flow rate at each of the two intersections. WZATA estimates delay and queuing, but it is not clear if it can estimate the impact of the work zone on the downstream inte rsection throughput. 2.4.2 QUEWZ Memmott and Dudek (1984) developed Queue and User Cost Evaluation of Work Zones (QUEWZ) to estim ate user costs incurred due to lane closures. The software is designed to evaluate work zones on freeways but is also adapta ble to different types of highways. The model uses capacity as input and analyz es traffic flow through lane clos ures. It helps plan and schedule freeway work-zone operations by estimating queue le ngths and additional road user costs. The

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23 costs are calculated as a func tion of the capacity through work zones, average speeds, delay through the lane closure section, queue delay, changes in vehicle running costs, and total user costs. Since its development, QUEWZ has under gone two major modificati ons. One of these is the ability to determine acceptable schedules for alternative lane closure configurations crossover or partial lane clos urebased on motorist-specified maximum acceptable queue or delay. The second of these improvements is the development of an algorithm that can consider natural road user diversion away from the freeway work zone to a more desirable, unspecified, alternate route (Associated Press, 1989). There are a few software packages that use queuing analysis to determine queue lengths and delay. These use capacity as either input or an intermediate variable. Absence of relevant literature lead to study of these packages to understand the factors affecting the capacity. Two software products, QuickZone and CA4PERS were studied for this project. Their algorithms and with the inputs and outputs are discussed below. 2.4.3 QuickZone Software FHWA has developed Q uickZone (FHWA, 2000), an analytical approach to estimate and quantify work zone delays. The software focuse s on delays caused due to work zones but does not estimate the capacity of the work zone. The software algorithm require s the following input data: 1. Network data: Describing the mainline facility under construction as well as adjacent alternatives in the travel corridor. 2. Project data: Describing the plan for work zone strategy and phasing, including capacity reductions resulting from work zones. 3. Travel demand Data: Describing patterns of pre-c onstruction corridor utilization. 4. Corridor Management Data: Describing various congestion mitigation strategies to be implemented in each phase, including estimates of capacity changes from these mitigation strategies. (FHWA, 2000)

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24 The software takes the data presented above and compares expected travel demand against proposed capacity by facility on an hour-by-hour basis for the life of the projec t to estimate delay and mainline queue growth. This hour-by-hou r estimation is conducted using a simple deterministic queuing model for each link in the wo rk zone impact area. Sections of the work zone that are downstream from bottlenecks see lower travel demand because vehicle flow is effectively metered at the upstream bottleneck. Queues on detour routes are also monitored. Travel time delay is calculated at each bottleneck within the system by tracking the number of queued vehicles. System delay is calculated by summing delay across all bottlenecks. QuickZone first estimates total delay under th e assumption that travel behavior will not change in response to capacity reductions associated with the project This maximum delay profile is used to help characterize the likely behavioral response in the trav el corridor. The type and magnitude of change in traveler behavior (as well as the mi x of behaviors) will hinge on the severity and duration of delay across project phases. For ex ample, a project generating limited delay on the mainline facility only during off-peak periods is likely to induce small changes in travel behavior, primarily focused on a change of route on some alternative facility. Conversely, a project generating severe peak period delay wi ll drive a broader and more complex traveler response like a wider utilization of adjacent road ways, a shift in travel to non-peak periods, a switch to transit or other modes, or a simple reduction in corridor demand as prospective trips are simply cancelled or directed outside the travel corridor. Regarding actuated signals, depending on the varying demand in the inbound and outbound directions, QuickZone will identify the sm allest cycle time that supports the travel demand in each direction. This keeps the amount of delay to a minimum. Sometimes the maximum cycle length must be used in order to clear as many vehicles as possible.

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25 Once directional capacity is calculated, QuickZ one tracks delays through the work zones, calculating both; delay from signals (under-sa turated delay) and delay from queuing when demand exceeds effective capacity. 2.4.4 CA4PRS Software In order to have an integrat ed analysis of design, construc tion, and traffic to provide a schedule baseline for highway rehabilitation proj ects, a construction production analysis m odel CA4PRS (Construction Analysis for Pavement Re habilitation Strategies) software, was designed for the California Department of Transportation. It is a knowle dge-based computer simulation model integrated with macroscopic and microsco pic traffic simulation tools for estimating road user delay cost due to construction work z one closures for highway rehabilitation and reconstruction, especially under high traffic vol ume in the urban network. (Lee and Ibbs, 2005) CA4PRS is a production analysis tool design ed to estimate the maximum probable length of highway pavement that can be rehabilitated or reconstructed given vari ous project constraints. CA4PRS model evaluates whatif scenarios with respect to rehabilitation production by comparing various input variable s (alternatives). The input vari ables of CA4PRS are schedule interfaces, pavement design and materials, resource constraints, and lane closure schemes. (Lee and Ibbs, 2005) 2.5 Summary of Literature and Conclusions Little research has been done to estim ate the capacity of work zones on arterials. However, some factors affecting the capacity on both arterial and freeway work zones have been studied thus far. Some guidelines exist in FDOT PPM but they fail to consider the details of the work zone configuration. Some software programs look at the delays caused due to work zones and hence, account for some factors that might affect the capacity as well. QuickZone uses capacity as input and calculates th e delays to the users based on queuing th eory. It also looks at the effect

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26 of changing the cycle length on the delays and capacity. CA4PRS models looks at the rehabilitation production only, by co mparing various input variables. The issue of the capacity determination of the work zones on arterials has not been adequately addressed. It is not clear from the lite rature what factors affect the capacity of an arterial work zone. Capacity is used as input but there are no tools to calculate capacity which can be then used to estimate se veral other performance measures. The next chapter discusses the proposed methodology for developing the models to estimate work zone capacity on arterial roads.

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27 Figure 2-1 Work Zone Setup [Source: MUTCD 2003]

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28 Table 2-1: Formulas for Determ ining Taper Lengths (MUTCD, 2003) Speed Limit (S) Taper Length (L) Feet 40 mph or less 45 mph or more where L = taper length in feet W = width of offset in feet S = posted speed limit, or off-peak 85th-percentile speed prior to work star ting, or the anticipated operating speed in mph. Table 2-2: Lane Closure Capacity (FDOT Methodology) Scenario Capacity (VPH) Existing 2-Lane-Converted to 2-Way, 1-Lane 1400 Existing 4-Lane-Converted to 1-Way, 1-Lane 1800 Existing 6-Lane-Converted to 1-Way, 2-Lane 3600

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29 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction This chapter presents a discussion on the next step to develop a sim ulation that can accurately duplicate the effects of a work zone on the traffic stream. For this purpose, an appropriate tool should be used. This chapter starts with a di scussion on the selection of the software package for simulation of the various sc enarios involving work zones. Various software packages are discussed with thei r capabilities and lim itations. CORSIM, the tool used for this project, is then discussed in particular. The reasons for se lecting CORSIM, along with the specifics of the package are also discussed. Th e network configuration, the input variables and the factors that affect the capacity described next. The chapter concludes with a discussion on factors and sensitivity analysis with a desc ription of the scenarios and the variables. 3.2 Simulator Selection Sim ulation modeling cannot replace field data collection; it can, however, offer insights into the relative capacities under different geometri c configurations and traffic stream scenarios. Software packages available for simulating tr affic do not capture all the features of the work zones on arterials. It has been found that most of the simula tors do not have the capabilities to explicitly model work zones (Ben-Akiva, et al., 2004). Ten (namely: AIMSUN, CORSIM, MITSIMLab., VISSIM, Paramics, WATSIM, C ube Dynasim, DRACULA, INTEGRATION, Transmodeler) of the available simulators were studied by Ben-Akiva, et al. (2004) and their capabilities were assessed. The comparison is summarized below. AIMSUN captures the effects of lane shifts, lane width re ductions and reduced shoulder width through the link characteristics, which affects the car-following model and acceleration behavior. VISSIM also deals with these issues explicitly but the vehicular speeds are typically

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30 very low while they move through arterial work zones in congested c onditions making speed related issues irrelevant. MITSIMLab, Paramics, and WATSIM modify th e link characteristics to change the free flow speeds. This can be done in CORSIM as we ll. Most of the simulators, including CORSIM can simulate weather conditions via proxy variables. Parameters that affect visibility and surface quality may be changed, which then affect accel eration and lane changing behavior. For the purpose of this project, weather ch aracteristics that affect drivers have not been considered because of the time limitations. Maximum and desired speeds mostly affect the acceleration of drivers in uncongested conditions and have much less impact on accelera tions in congested conditions and on lane changing behaviors. (Ben-Akiva et al., 2004) Most of the simula tors can model various vehicle types. Ben-Akiva et al., 2003 surveyed (for compar ison of their capabiliti es simulating work zones) AIMSUN, ARTEMIS, CORSIM, C ube Dynasim, DRACULA, INTEGRATION, MITSIM, Paramics, SimTraffic, TransModeler, VISSIM and WATSim. None of the surveyed simulators explicitly model work zones. Ten of the above simulators capture work zone effects by modeling it as a pre-defined inci dent. However, this approach does not necessarily capture all the effects of work zones. The software package CORSIM was selected for simulating work zones on arterials for several reasons. First, the software, originally developed by FHWA, has been widely used and validated in the past twenty years. Second, this so ftware is available to th e University of Florida through McTrans, allowing for a high level of so ftware support in underst anding the softwares algorithms. Third, CORSIM includes most of the f eatures that are availabl e with other simulation

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31 software at present. Some of the factors that are not available in CO RSIM are not actually required for arterial work zones as indicated in the last section. The literature suggests th at older versions of FRESIM (the freeway simulation component of CORSIM) were unreliable when simulating lane closures, as the software did not account for slow-moving vehicles that severe ly impacted the queue lengths in the field (Dixon et al., 1995). According to the conclusions of that research, th e large queues observed in the field were due to the existence of one or two vehicles in a data set that traveled inexplicably slow through the work zonemuch slower than the distribution of speeds in a simulationand thus caused a queue buildup that did not appear in the simulator. As a result, FRESIM underestimated the delay because vehicles did not behave in this manner in the simulation runs. Therefore, the behavior of vehicles at th e lane closure was not repli cating actual conditions (Dixon et al. 1996). The 1995 report used FRESIM 4.5, but the version used in this project is CORSIM version 5.1 release (McTrans, 2007). This concludes the general discussion about al l the simulation software packages and their comparison. The following section will discuss the specifics to work zone setup using CORSIM. 3.3 Modeling of Work Zones with CORSIM CORSIM does not have specific param eters for modeling work zones on arterials. The software program does not consider merging operati ons within arterials, no r does it consider the effect of the presence of workers and equipment. Vehicle type is not considered as a variable because, even when CORSIM has capability to model heavy vehicles, it does not handle them properly. The way heavy vehicles move in the CO RSIM simulations is not satisfactory. It would be better to let the model users to convert the he avy vehicles into passenger cars using standard guidelines and then use that as input for the models. The results will therefore be given in passenger vehicle units. Other software packages available at th e TRC (such as AIMSUN), also

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32 do not model work zones on arterials. The next cl osest alternative evaluated was to insert a link with one or more lanes lesser than the upstrea m and downstream links, whose length would be equal to the work-zone length. Figure 3-1 shows a CORSIM animation snapshot with this type of configuration. As shown, the left (m edian) lane of the simulate d work zone link is closed. Approaching this simulated work zone (or lane drop), vehicles in CORSIM shift laterally, rather than merge, when the lane on which they are traveling is droppe d. Without comparing the results with field data, it is impossible to say what effect this has on the performance of the network and the capacity of the work zone. Similarly, it is not possible to simulate work zone s that lie in the middle lane of 3 or 4 lane highways. If number of lanes in the dummy link th at consists of the work zone is reduced then the rest of the lanes would appear together. Ther e is no way to separate them without making two separate links with one lane each. This changes th e way drivers would behave as compared to the field conditions, it is therefore e xpected to result in different values as opposed to the field conditions. In conclusion, it is possible to replicate the presence of an ar terial work zone in CORSIM for all the cases. The effect of the factors that were not included in the simulations is not known. If the left out variables are not very significant then the accuracy of the results would be better. This cannot be predicted without compar ing the results with the field data. 3.4 Study Scenarios and Modeling Assumptions This sec tion will present general outline of the network that was set up in CORSIM to simulate all the work zones for this project.

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33 3.4.1 Network Configuration There is s light difference in each of the scenario but the basic outline remains same. The network ( Figure 3-1) has work zone set up between the nodes 2 and 3. These nodes are dummy nodes. The dummy nodes are set up 300 ft apart in the above network m aking work zone 300 ft in length. In this case, the link (2, 3) has only 1 lane while others have more lanes ( Figure 3-2). The arterial has two lanes in norm al working conditions; so link (10, 2) has 2 lanes. There is a turn pocket at the intersection resulting in three lanes in the link (3, 4). The nodes 8001 through 8004 represent virtual nodes for introducing and taking vehicles off the network. All the other links have 2 lanes which remain unaltered in other scen arios as it does not im pact the results (except for links (4, 104) and (104, 8002) as these form receiving approach for the thorough traffic and should therefore accommodate the number of lane s in the approach containing work zone). 3.4.2 Input Variables There m ay be various scenarios that can affect the capacity of the wo rk zone. This section discusses the variables that we re obtained from the literatu re. Since none of the literature surveyed explicitly pointed any variable to be ei ther more or less effective, a comprehensive list of such variables was first made and then the su itable ones were selected from that list. 3.5 Factors That Affect Art erial Work Z one Capacity This section presents the factor s that have been found to affect the capacity of a work zone on freeways, along with the corr esponding reference source. Some of the factors that cannot possibly affect the arterial work zone capacity have been skipped. These factors are grouped in four categories as given in Table 3-1.

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34 3.6 Discussion on Factors Given the constraints in obtaini ng field data, it is not always p ossible to obtain information for the entire range of possible scenarios that may occur. Simulation (or a combination of simulation and field data collection) can be used to address all factor s that may impact the capacity and operational performance of an arterial work zone. These factors and the number of scenarios that should be considered while simula ting work zones or collecting data are discussed below: Signal control: The most important variable is the g/C (effective green to cycle length) ratio for the study approach. Whether the signal is pretimed or not does not matter as this research assumes the demand exceeds capacity of th e work zone and in such a situation, actuated signals act as pretimed too. Pede strian phases may also be eval uated. Three to four scenarios with varying g/C should be considered. The g/C ratio s should also be varied for the protected left turn phase if it is present. Work zone distances to adjacent intersections: Preliminary simulation experiments showed that the distance of the downstream inters ection from the end of the work zone affects operational quality of the link. This happens because vehicles are often blocked in the work zone and cannot reach their target lane to take ad vantage of the green at downstream intersection. It is important to obtain data re lated with work zones with vary ing distances to the downstream intersection, and different locations of the work zone in the link. At least 4 to 5 scenarios can be modeled using CORSIM. This variable will be disc ussed later in the text along with the approach used for this project. It may be noted now that this factor turns out to be very significant among all the factors that are considered. Presence of workers/equipment: The presence of workers and equipment is likely to affect traffic stream. Two scenarios should be analyzed: one without wo rkers present and one

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35 with workers present. Because, this can only be observed in the field, this variable is not considered in this study and should be studi ed if field data becomes available. Geometric factors: The impact of the terrain and th e grade of the approach should be considered. Two to three scenarios with varying upgrades, in addition to one with level terrain, should be measured. This cannot be simulated w ith CORSIM and is important for field data collection only. The presence of turning pockets al so eases out the congestion. This factor should also be considered with simulation as well as field data collection. Driveway presence: The presence of a driveway within the work zone may impact operations mainly due to confusion or congestio n within the work zone. While the confusion may sometimes be created because drivers fail to notice a driveway (either because of improper signs or because of visual distra ctions at the work zone site) may cause the capacity to go down. Additional considerations: Factors such as signal coordina tion and the particular lane to be closed relative to the downstream movements demand is likely to have an impact on the operation of work zone. Another factor that may impact operations is the presence of bicycles and bicycle facilities. These factor s may be investigated if data is collected since they cannot be simulated. Some of the factors were found to be infeasib le with regards to simulation package being used (CORSIM). Hence, they were not included in th e initial list of the factors to be considered for the pilot runs. All the factors discussed thus far are listed in Table 3-2. Heavy vehicles are not adequately dealt with by CORSIM, s o they were not included in the simu lation runs. Instead the capacity will simply be given out in terms of equivalent passenger vehicles. Similarly, other factors that could not be simulated are also presented in the table.

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36 Sensitivity analysis on some of the above fact ors was conducted to see if they affect the capacity. This will be discussed in detail in the next section. 3.7 Sensitivity Analysis Som e of the factors that could be simulated were checked in terms of their impact on the capacity of the work zone. A base scenario was c onsidered for this analysis. The Base scenario had two lanes in the approach w ith a left-only lane. Other featur es of the base scenario had default values which can be assumed to have the values mentioned here unless specified otherwise. The default value for length of th e work zone is 300 ft. The distance from the downstream end of the work zone to the downstream intersection was taken to be 300 ft as well. The lateral position of work zone is the right la ne. No driveways are present in the work zone. The posted speed limit is 25 mph. A sensitivity anal ysis was conducted only on those factors that were expected to have similar effects on the capacity as observed with the base scenario mentioned above. Depending on the results of the an alysis, they were either included or excluded as variants in the proposed models. Each result is an average of five runs, which is the sample size for the study. 3.7.1 Length of Work Zone The length of work zone was varied f rom 100 ft through 1000 ft in steps of 100 ft and the capacity of that scenario was found. Other factors were kept constant. Table 3-3 shows that the change in the length does not have any signi ficant effect on the work zone capacity. Figure 3-3 shows that the effect is neither sign ificant nor consistently increasing or decreasing. Because the length of the work zone was found not to have significant effect on the capacity, it was excluded from consideration. It may be noted that since work zone effects the capacity due to the additional lane changing at the st art and end of the work zone area. Irrespective of the length

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37 (assuming it to be a minimum of 100 ft) this phenomenon remains the same. There is no reason to expect different results in other scen arios, so this factor can be excluded. 3.7.2 Work Zone Lateral Position Work zones can be positioned at any of the lane s on the arterial. If one lane is closed on a two-lane arteria l then it can eith er lie on the left lane or right lane. Those two configurations were simulated to determine whether the position of work zone has any effect on the capacity of the arterial. An average of 5 runs each, were conducted on several different work zone configurations. The results sugge st that the position does not affect the capacity in the simulation. The vehicles change la nes to their destination lane w ith almost the same efficiency regardless of the position of the work zone. Th e capacity does not change significantly in this case, making it unnecessary to vary the position of the work zone for different scenarios.( Table 3-4) 3.7.3 Driveway Presence Som etimes, there is a driveway in the middle of the work zone. This driveway may not be very easily seen because of equipment presence, improper signs, or drivers inattentiveness. The presence of such a driveway may affect the capac ity of the work zone. To determine whether any such effect is observable by CORSIM, the capacity of the work zone with a driveway was compared with the one without a driveway. The percentage of volume going into the driveway was also evaluated to determine whethe r it had an effect on the capacity. As can be seen in Figure 3-4, the change in th e capacity is not large and the effect is also not very unifor m. Hence, it was concluded that the variable does not ha ve significant effect on the capacity (Table 3-5). Since CORSIM doe s not handle vehicle turning in detail, it does not m ake a smooth transition in the speed of a vehicle while it make s a turn. First, vehicles do not slow down to make a turn in CORSIM. If a vehi cle finds a gap then it makes a turn without

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38 stopping or slowing down, which is not realistic. Second, if the speed limit is different on the arterial and the destination stre et, then CORSIM instantly swit ches the speed of the vehicle without making a transition in the speed. Moreover, in case of driveways, the drivers in the major roadway do not yield to the drivers in th e driveway which lessens the impact of the driveway. Therefore, this variab le is not properly represented. Driveways were dropped out of the list of the variables to be considered. Based on the above discussion, it can be concluded that even multiple driveways would yield similar re sults when simulated in CORSIM. Therefore, multiple driveways were not considered. 3.7.4 Posted Speed Limit Speeds of vehicles plying through the work zone m ay affect its capacity but the posted speed may or may not affect the same because at the intersection and in congested situation, the actual speeds are already very low. A sensitivit y analysis was conducted to determine whether the posted speed affects the capacity. As it can be seen from Table 3-6, the speed limit increases the capacity slightly, but the incr ease is not significant and is not steady. Further, it can be seen in the sim ulation runs that the actual speed of the vehicles is very less as opposed to the posted speed. This makes the speed limit irrelevant for any scenario. For this reason the factor was excluded from the analysis. Table 3-7 summarizes the results from the se nsitivity analysis done in the last few segm ents. The results are given in the last column and the values which were tested are given in the middle column. Table 3-8 shows the changes in the network properties that were done so that the sim ulation properly replicates the observed traffic on the field. W ith these settings, the traffic produces much more realistic flows. The change s made are summarized in the table along with the effect that they produce.

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39 The following sections will discuss the approa ches planned for the simulation scenarios and the values of the factors that were used to finally simulate the work zone. 3.8 Simulation Scenarios This section presents the schem e that was followed while developing the simulation scenarios for the study. The final scheme used for the project was ar rived at after some alterations in the scheme that the project was star ted off with. The earlier a pproach to this project was that arterials with different number of lanes would be considered sepa rately, i.e. there were separate scenarios for 2, 3 and 4 lane arterials. This approach did not deal properly with the turning pockets and the various pos sible channelization schemes. It was also noticed that there was a good relation between the distance of the work zone to the downstream intersection, available green time and the capacity. The distance between the work zone and intersection acted as storage for the vehicles queued up prior to the intersection. This relation was the reason for the change in the models and also th e way simulations were conducted. Secondly, the new approach also looks properly at the turning volumes of each lane group along with the capacity of the w hole approach. It would result in better models and allow for better analysis of the si tuation. Lastly, it was rea lized that turning pockets cannot be tested for their impact on the basis of any single scenario. They may be important in one scenario and may not play a crucial role in aff ecting the capacity in other. So it is not possible to conduct a sensitivity analysis on them and claim either of the above for all the other cases. They had to be included in the simulation scenarios as variable. This would increase the number of cases and the difficulty in understanding them as well with the earlier approach. The new approach also allows for fewer models for all the cases and is easy to implement for the officials. Scenarios were categorized on the basis of number of lanes at the intersection which include turn pockets along with normal lanes. Each scenario has different possible lane

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40 channelization schemes which are given in Figure 3-5. These channelization schemes are representative of m ost common c onfigurations found in the U.S. The scenarios vary in terms of the geometry at the work zone. The total numbe r of lanes in a normally working arterial may vary for the same number of lanes at an inte rsection. For example, if there are 3 lanes at intersection, then the arterial may have 2 lanes and the third may be a tu rn pocket. The arterial may have 3 lanes and hence there is no turn pocket. Further, in case of 3 lanes in the arterial, there are 2 possibilities: 1 lane ope n for traffic in the work zone or 2 lanes open for traffic in the work zone. All the possibilities consid ered in this study are listed in Table 3-9. They were a ll simulated to obtain the capacity with regards to all the other variables which are listed in Table 3-10. All of the combinations of th e above variables w ere tried ex cept for some of the specific combinations which were not reasonable. These are listed in Table 3-11 3.9 Required Number of Simulation Runs The required num ber of simulation runs for each scenario was estimated using Equation 3.1. zsd n (Equation 3.1) where n = Sample Size sd = Standard Deviation = Error Tolerance A network with two lanes in each direction was simulated 100 times to find the standard deviation in the capacity of the approach. Then the z -test was used at a confidence level of 95% with error tolerance of 100 veh/hr for the entire approach to find the sample size. The calculations are shown in Table 3-12.

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41 The base case scenario consists of the same simulation files as in other scenarios but without the work zone. This means that for the sa me values of factors such as the number of open lanes in the work zone, g/C ratios etc.; the ar terial is simulated without any work zone. The results of these scenarios will be used to compare the capacity of the work zone in normal conditions with its capacity after setting up a work zone. These comparisons can also be used to better analyze the effect of a particular fact or on the extent to wh ich it affects the normal capacity. They may later be used for purposes of modeling and charting. This will be discussed more in the text later. The next section outlines the outputs that are obtained from the simulations. 3.10 Output from Simulations All the sim ulations produce 15-minute throughput for traffic that travels along the arterial past the intersection, by each lane. These repres ent the maximum flow rates that can travel through each lane group under the prevailing conditi ons. Given that there is demand starvation at the intersection due to the presence of the work zone, these maximum flows are technically not the capacity of each lane group. However, consid ering the system of the work zone and the intersection, the capacity of the system is the sum of these maximum flows. These definitions are used for the remainder of this thesis. Work zone capacity or just capaci ty indicates the capacity of the system, while maximum flows mean the maximum throughput that can pass through intersection from a particular lane group. 3.11 Summary Various sim ulators are available for arterial simulation but none of them explicitly serve the purpose of this project. They do not take into consideration all the f actors that may impact driver behavior and the way traffic moves through a work zone CORSIM was found to be easier to work with given the available support for the software and researchers familiarity with it.

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42 Some of the scenarios were developed based on the factors that were expected to impact the capacity. Minimal research has so far been done on the analysis of capacity through arterial work zone leaving only a tentative list of variables to be developed. It was not possible to simulate all of the variables because of the limitations of the software packag e being used. Other factors were removed from the list because the analysis showed that they do not affect the capacity in a significant manner. Then, a scheme was develope d to properly accommodate the variation of all the factors with each other. Once completed, the sample size for the experiment was found out. The variation of the indi vidual lane group flow that goes out of the arterial at the downstream intersection is expected to depend on different f actors. The left-turning flow will depend more on the left-turning percentage in the traffic stream and on the green time of the left-turning phase but is expected to depend less on the percentage of vehicles turning right. On the other hand, Th/Rt flow will not depend much on the left-turning percentage. So these flows (left-turning and through right going) were also se t as outputs along with the appr oach capacity. The list of the variables used for the simulation is preliminary and does not imply that the excluded variables do not impact the capacity. For example, the weat her effects cannot be simulated in CORSIM properly without calibration. Furthe r analysis of the results will reveal the correlation between the factors considered and th e capacity. The next chapter summarizes the data from the simulation and presents the models develope d from the outputs of the simulation runs.

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43 Figure 3-1: Network Conf iguration in CORSIM Figure 3-2: Network Ma p Showing Link Numbers Link (4, 3) Work Zone Link (3, 2) Link (2, 10) N

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44 Figure 3-3: Work Zone Length Sensitivity Figure 3-4: Driveway Flow vs. Capacity

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45 2 Lanes at the Intersection Scenario 2.1 Scenario 2.2 3 Lanes at the Intersection Scenario 3.1 Scenario 3.2 Scenario 3.3 4 Lanes at the Intersection Scenario 4.1 Scenario 4.2 Scenario 4.3 Scenario 4.4 5 Lanes at the Intersection Scenario 5.1 Scenario 5.2 Scenario 5.3 Scenario 5.4 6 Lanes at the Intersection Scenario 6.1 Scenario 6.2 Figure 3-5: Lane Channelizati on Schemes for All Scenarios

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46 Table 3-1: Grouped Factors Affecting Work Zone Capacity Work Zone Factors: Length of the work zone (ft) (Kim et al. 2001) Work zone sign distance upstream of the work zone (ft) (Arguea, 2006) Work intensity (presence of equipment and workers) (HCM, 2000) Police presence Configuration of the work zone, including ch annelization of traffic (Arguea, 2006) Geometric Data: Terrain or grade of each approach (%) (Kim et al. 2001) Lane widths upstream, within, and downstream of the work zone (ft) (HCM, 2000 and FDOT PPM 2000) Lateral clearance upstream, within, and downstre am of the work zone (ft) (FDOT PPM, 2000) Traffic Stream Data: Volumes by lane for various times of day (am and pm peak periods), focusing on congested conditions (Arguea, 2006) Percent heavy vehicles (HCM, 2000) Other Environment-Related Factors: Light conditions (daytime or nighttime with illumination) Rain (no rain, light to moderate rain or heavy rain)

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47 Table 3-2: Factors Affecting Work Zone Capacity Factors CORSIM Simulation Possible? Work Zone Data Work Zone Length (ft) Yes Distance of the Work Zone from the Downstream Intersection Yes Work Zone Sign Distance Upstre am of the Work Zone No Work Intensity (Presence of Equipment and Workers) No Police Presence No Position of the Work Zone (Lane Closed) Yes Geometric and Control Data Terrain or grade (%) No Lane Widths Upstream, Within, and Downst ream of the Work Zone (ft) No Lateral clearance upstream, w ithin, and downstream of the work zone (ft) No Driveway Presence Yes Posted Speed Limit Yes Lane Channelization at the Intersec tion (Including Turn Pockets) Yes g/C ratios Yes Traffic Stream Data Volumes and Turning Percentages Yes Presence of Bicycles No Percentage of Heavy Vehicles No Pedestrians No Other Environment-Related Data Light Conditions (Daytime or Nighttime with Illumination) No Rain (No rain, Light to Moderate Rain or Heavy Rain) No Table 3-3: Work Zone Length Sensitivity Work Zone Length (ft) Capacity (veh/hr) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1638 1656 1672 1673 1679 1665 1657 1644 1642 1646

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48 Table 3-4: Work Zone Position Sensitivity Position of Work Zone Capacity (veh/hr) Right lane 1667 Left lane 1697 Table 3-5: Driveway Sensitivity Analysis Driveway Percentage Capacity (veh/hr) No Driveway 1476 5% 1534 10% 1440 15% 1548 20% 1491 25% 1590 Table 3-6: Posted Speed Limit Sensitivity Posted Speed (mph) Capacity 25 1472 30 1476 35 1520 40 1508 45 1528 Table 3-7: Sensitivity Analysis Factor Values Tested Included in Experiment al Design? Work Zone Length 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000 ft No Distance from Work Zone to Intersection 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500 ft Yes Lateral Position of Work Zone Left, Right, and Center Lane Closure No Driveway Presence 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% of intersection approach volume No Posted Speed Limit 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 MPH No Lane Channelization at the Intersection Configurations shown in Figure 2 Yes g/C Ratios of Left and Through Phases 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 (Left) 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 (Through) Yes Turn Pockets Left and Right Turn Pockets Yes Right-turning Percentage 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% Yes Left-turning Percentage 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40% Yes

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49 Table 3-8: Changes in Network Properties Change Effect Percentage of drivers who cooperate with a lane changer was increased from 50% to 100% This facilitates lane changing, and allo ws vehicles to get to their target lane before reaching the intersection. The problem with the use of the default value was that several ve hicles unable to change lanes proceeded to the intersection and had to wait there for an unreasonably long time to change lanes, blocking other vehicles. Time headway from the subject vehicle to the leading vehicle at which all drivers will attempt a lane change was increased from 2 to 3 sec Increasing this time headway forces drivers to attempt lane changes earlier. This is the headway that is small enough that all drivers would desire a lane change. Time headway from the subject vehicle to the leading vehicle at which no drivers will attempt a lane change was raised from 5 sec to 10 sec This parameter, together with the pr evious one, creates the range within which drivers attempt to make a lane change. Similarly to the previous parameter, increasing this value resu lts in earlier lane changes, because drivers consider a lane change as far back as 10 seconds from the leading vehicle. This significantly increases the probability that drivers would make an early lane change and accounts to some degree for information drivers may receive from work zone warning signs. Drivers will perform lane changes 2000 ft (default is 300 ft) before their desired turn Increasing this value results in drivers seeking lane changing opportunities earlier, and less likely to have to slow down or stop to reach their goal lane. Safety Factor was changed from .8 to 1.0 This factor is used to compute the lane-changers estimation of the deceleration that would be acceptable to the follower target vehicle. As this value increases the acceptable risk increases and the margin of safety decreases. At the same time the lane changes increase.

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50 Table 3-9: Geometric Variations Total Lanes on arterial Open lanes at Work Zone 2 1 Open (and 1 Closed) 3 1 Open (and 2 Closed) OR 2 Open (and 1 Closed) 4 2 Open (and 2 Closed) OR 3 Open (and 1 Closed) Table 3-10: Variables in Simulation Variable Values Distance of Downstream Intersection from end of the Work-Zone100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 ft g/C ratio of Left-turning Phase 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 g/C ratio of through and right Phase 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 Left-turning Volu me 10%, 25%, 40% right-turning Volu me 10%, 25%, 40% Table 3-11: Constraints for Variables Number Constraints 1 0.7 g/C for Th/Rt phase only with 0.1 g/C for Left-turning phase 2 No double lefts with 0.1 g/C for Left-turning phase 3 0.5 g/C for Left-turning phase only with 0.3 Th/Rt phase 4 10% Left-turning percentage with only 0.1 and 0.3 g/C 5 40% Left-turning percentage with only 0.3 and 0.5 g/C 6 40% right-turning percentage with only 0.5 and 0.7 g/C Table 3-12: Sample Size Calculations Standard Deviation 098 z (95%) 001.96 (Error Tolerance) 100 n (Sample Size) 004

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51 CHAPTER 4 CAPACITY MODEL DEVELOPMENT 4.1 Introduction This chapter presents all the sim ulation scenar ios in a combined fashion. First, the data from the simulation were analyzed to identify the cases exhibiting capacity increase followed by summary on the same. Mathematical relationships between various factors and the capacity of the arterial are presented next. The relationshi ps between these factors and the flow getting through each lane group (Left-turning vehicles and Th/Rt turning vehicles) is also provided. 4.2 Simulation Results for Cases When a Work Zone is Present Summ ary of the capacity values and maximum fl ow for the simulated work zone scenarios are presented in Table 4-1 through Table 4-3 tabulated by the to tal num ber of lanes at the intersection, the number of closed lanes, and the through movement g/C ratio. The g/C ratio and the number of lanes at downstream intersection were shown to have the largest effect on the work zone capacity. Table 4-1 presents the tota l capacity of the work zone in vehicles per hour, while Table 4-2 and Table 4-3 present the through/right-tur ning m ovement and the left-turning movement maximum flows respectively, in vehicles per hour per lane. The minimum and maximum values in these tables represent th e lowest and highest values of capacity/flow measured for the respective set of scenarios (e.g. for varying distances of the work zone to the downstream intersection, varying turning movement percentages, channelization schemes at the intersection, etc.) Th e first two-lane scenario is for an intersection approach with two through lanes, while the second one is with one left turn lane and one thr ough-and-right lane. The remaining scenarios are for various combinations of lane channelization schemes, with the total number of lanes at the inters ection shown in the left most column. The number of open and closed lanes refers to the work zone upstream of the intersection. Table 4-1 indicates that the

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52 capacity of the arterial work zone generally in creases with a higher thro ugh/right movement g/C ratio, and with the number of lanes at the approach. Note that in some of the scenarios there is a separate left turn phase with its own g/C ratio. In these cases, capacity was found to be affected by both turning percentages and re spective g/C ratios. The impact of the number of open and closed lanes was not significan t in terms of the total capacit ies obtained. The actual throughput depended more on the distance of the work zone to the downstream intersection, as well as various intersection factors. It was observed that if the stora ge area downstream of the work zone (i.e. segment of link stretching from th e end of the work zone to the downstream intersection) could fill up during the red phase, su ch that the green could be fully utilized, the number of lanes closed upstream did not aff ect the overall throughput. Ca pacity was generally found to decrease when one movement blocke d the other from reaching the downstream intersection. This blockage was a function of the turning percentages and the distance of the work zone to the downstream intersection. Table 4-2 tabulates the m aximum flow of the through/right movement per lane, which generally increases as a function of the respective g/C ratio. Per lane throughput is not affected much by the total number of lanes at the approach, but is generally affected by the g/C ratio. In some of the scenarios there is blockage to the through movement by the left-turning traffic. This is a fu nction of the percent of traffic turning left, the respective g/C ratio, as well as the distance from the work zone to the downstream intersection. Similarly, the number of open and closed lanes upstream did not always affect the throughput, which was mostly a function of the distance to the downstream intersection and the g/C ratios and turning movements at the intersection. Table 4-3 presents the same information for the left turn m ovement. The g/C ratio for the left turn generally increases the movements maximum flow, provided it is utilized effec tively. Generally the throughput of each left turn lane is lower

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53 than that of a through or through-and-right lane. The five and six lane scenarios include some configurations with double le ft turn lanes, and generally those had higher throughput. Appendix A describes the aggregate level tre nds of the capacity and individual lane group flow with respect to each variab le step by step. These trends do not necessarily give an idea of how each factor may impact the capacity after c ontrolling for others but the analysis provides insight into the effect s of these variables. 4.3 Simulation Results for Cases withou t Work Z ones (Base Case Scenarios) The purpose of simulating the same configurations without work zones (base case scenarios) was to obtain a means of comparing th e capacities with and wi thout work zones. The comparison is important because of the lack of available field data, since the results can provide insight on capacity changes rather than absolute capacity estimates. These changes are reported as a function of different geometric, traffi c control, and work zone configurations. The base case scenarios consider the same f actors and assumptions as those of the work zone scenarios. The total number of base case scenarios was 2800. This number is lower than the total number of scenarios with work zones b ecause the work zone factors are eliminated. The results of the base case si mulations are presented in Table 4-4 through Table 4-6. Table 4-4 presents the total capacit y of the work zone in vehicles per hour, while Table 4-5 and Table 4-6 present the through/right-turning m ovement a nd the left-turning movement maximum flows respectively in vehicles per hour per lane. Th e minimum and maximum values in the tables represent the lowest and highest values for capac ity obtained in the scenarios tested. As for the work zone scenarios, the factor that affects cap acity the most is the g/C of the left-turning and through/right-turning movements. Capacity ge nerally increases with increasing g/C ratio, however there are some cases where it decreas es. These occur when the demand is held upstream, due to blockage (for ex ample through vehicles blocking acce ss to the left turn lane).

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54 In Table 4-3, the 4, 5, and 6 lane scenarios incl ude cases with dual left turns, and it is m ainly because of these that the per lane capac ity increases. In these cases the left-turning vehicles have greater flexibility in choosing a lane, and there is le ss blockage to that movement. 4.4 Comparisons of Base Case and Work Zone Scenarios The results of the 6640 work zone scenarios were next com pared to the respective base case scenarios. Table 4-7 through Table 4-9 show the percent change in capacity after the work zone is installed (each n umber is the ratio of the capacity with the work zone over the capacity without the work zone for the same geometric configuration and operational conditions). This analysis was conducted by comparing each scenar io within a particular category (number of lanes, etc.) to its respective ba se case scenario, and identifying the scenario that had the highest decrease in capacity, the scenario that had the lowest decrease in capacity, and calculating the average change in capacity for the entire range of scenarios in the category. As shown there are several scenarios that result ed in a capacity increase when a work zone was installed. The increases in capacity typically occurred when the inters ection in the base case (prior to the work zone installation) is congested. In conge sted conditions, there is often spillback from one movement to another, particul arly if the g/C ratios and the channelization are not optimal for the prevailing turning movement demands. In those cases thepresence of a work zone results in a capacity increase, because it funnels (since there are le sser lanes in the work zone, it acts as a funnel) traffic through the work zone, and it becomes easier for vehicles to change lanes and reach their destination lane w ithout being blocked. For example, on a three lane arterial, if two lanes are closed then the vehicles would find it very easy to reach their destination lane when they exit the work zone. They would not have to look for gaps as adjacent lanes would be empty. As said above, if adequate green is not allotted for each turning movement (which is the case in some scenarios) then the vehicles fr om that movement may block other traffic, but

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55 with the installation of a work z one, it becomes easier for vehicles to reach their destination lanes and hence the blocking effect is minimized. This increase was observed mostly for scenarios with 3 to 6 lanes at the intersection approach. As Table 4-7 shows, the worst drop in capacity was 46% for two lanes at the intersection, and the m aximum increase was 244% for five lane s at the intersection wi th one open lane and two closed lanes. These extreme values were seen in scenarios that experienced highly congested conditions causing blocka ge. Scenarios with a high left turn percentage, with a low left turn g/C and little storage resulted in severe blockage for vehicles exiting the work zone which produces higher capacities with the work z one implemented. The two-lane scenario with a left turn lane had a capacity increase because of metering the number of left turns that were queued awaiting the left turn phase. In Table 4-8, which shows the change in maxi mum flow for through a nd right turns, the highest capacity drop is 39%, a nd the maximum increase was 376% both for two lanes at the intersection approach. The increas e for the through/right movement only can be extremely high for scenarios when that movement was blocked by another in the base case. In those cases, the installation of a work zone allows for smoother fl ow of traffic downstream, because it meters the demand to the intersection. Table 4-9 presents the change in the maximu m left turn m ovement flow. The highest drop was 30% for two lanes at the intersection, and th e maximum increase was 401% for five lanes at the intersection with two open lane s and one closed lane. Because left turn capacities are much lower than the through, the fluctuat ion percentage-wise is larger than that of the through/right movement.

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56 In summary, results of the simulations showed that the work zone had significant drops in capacity when the arterial and downstream inters ection in the base case was not congested. However, when the intersection was congested in the base case (i.e., without the work zone), installing a work zone had a metering effect which reduced the demand on the intersection and, in cases where there was blockage caused by inad equate storage, the metering effect improved the efficiency of the intersection. 4.5 Capacity Models This section presents the capacity m odels for the 3.0 case through 6.0 cases first (i.e., the arterials with 3, 4, 5 and 6 lanes at intersection) ( Figure 3-5). The models are all significant at the 99.9% confidence level. There are som e other va riables that were significant at the 90% confidence level but the R2 value did not improve much by including them. The models developed are grouped into 3 sections. The first thr ee models of the five apply to arterials with 3 through 6 lanes at the intersecti on including the turning pockets. The fourth and fifth models apply to arterials with two lanes at the inters ection. These arterials will have one open and one closed lane through the work zone. The fourth mode l is applicable to thos e scenarios which have only one phase for both lanes. The fifth model app lies to scenarios with a separate left turn phase. The two cases are considered separately for two reasons; the variables for Case 2.1 ( Figure 3-5) are different than the rest of the cases because th ere is only one phase for the arterial. Another reason to sepa rate the models was better ac curacy of the models. When a unified model was developed for all the cases, its adjusted R2 was very small and hence arterials with more than 2 lanes at the inters ection were considered separately. In Case 2, it was noticed that the capacity of the individual lane groups depend on the position of the work zone. So a model for the specific flows would not have good accuracy as position of work zone was not varied among various sc enarios. It is for this reason that only total

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57 capacity models are given for Case 2. It may be not ed that the total capacity of the arterial does not get affected by the latera l position (i.e. right or le ft) in any of the cases. Since, the lateral posi tion of work zone does not affect the individual lane group flows in all the other cases (except Case 2) separate lane group flow models are developed for the rest of the cases. The next section presents the models for arteri als with 3 through 6 la nes at the intersection along with the adjusted R2 for the models. The adjusted R2 statistic gives the probability of correct prediction of capacity from the model. Along with each coefficient, its standard error in prediction and t-statistic is also reported. 4.5.1 Models for 3 through 6 lanes at Downstream Intersection This section presents the models that are app licable to arterials w ith 3 through 6 lanes at the downstream intersection to the work zone. Th ere are three models which can be used to predict the maximum left-turning flow expected to pass through the intersection, the sum of the maximum of the throught as well as right-tur ning traffic and the capacity for the arterial. 4.5.1.1 Maximum Left-turning Flow Table 4-10 gives the statistical details of the m odel, it can be written in equation form as in equation 4.1. MLTF = -337.1 + (41.9 TTR) + (803.3 LTF) + (207.9 g/CTTR) + (145.6 No/Nt) + (1262.1 LT LTF g/CLT) + (0.1 L) (Equation 4.1) where MLTF : Maximum Left-turning Flow. TTR : Sum of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes. LTF : Fraction of vehicles turni ng left at the intersection. (g/C)TTR: Green to Cycle time Ratio of the Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes.

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58 No/Nt : Number of open lanes/ Total Number of Lanes. LT : Number of Left-only Lanes. (g/C)LT : Left-turning Phase Green to Cycle time Ratio. L: Length of the segment stretching from the end of the work zone till the downstream intersection. All three models for cases 3.0 through 6.0 use the same set of factors (there is one additional factor in the capacity model). The through and right lane gr oup has a positive impact on the capacity. Capacity goes up if the left-turning percentage goes up. It al so increases with the ratio of (number of open lanes/total number of lanes on the arterial), Th/Rt phase g/C ratio, distance of the end of the work zone to the downstream intersection and left-only lanes. 4.5.1.2 Maximum Through and Right Flow The model ( Table 4-11) can be written as given in Equation 4.2. MTRF = -629.4 + (359.2 TTR) (2535.6 LTF) + (2168.2 g/CTTR) + (602.2 No/Nt) + (1773.6 LT LTF g/CLT) + (0.3 L) (Equation 4.2) where MTRF: Maximum Through and Right Flow. TTR : Sum of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes. LTF : Fraction of vehicles turni ng left at the intersection. (g/C)TTR: Green to Cycle time Ratio of the Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes. No/Nt : Number of open lanes/ Total Number of Lanes. LT : Number of Left-only Lanes. (g/C)LT : Left-turning phase Green to Cycle time Ratio. L: Length of the segment stretching from the end of the work zone till the downstream intersection.

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59 Through and right flow increases with increase in the through and righ t lanes, Th/Rt lane group g/C ratio as well as distance from the end of the work zone to the downstream intersection, left-only lanes and the left phase g/C ratio. The flow goes down with increase in the left-turning percentage. 4.5.1.3 Arterial Capacity Statistical details of the model are given in Table 4-12. It can be wr itten as in equation 4.3. Cap = -947 + (422.4 TTR) (1751.45 LTF) + (2378.5 g/CTTR) + (755.4 No/Nt) + (3078 LT LTF g/CLT) + (0.4 L) (168.6 RT) (Equation 4.3) where Cap : Capacity of the arterial (veh/hr) TTR : Sum of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes. LTF : Fraction of vehicles turni ng left at the intersection. (g/C)TTR: Green to Cycle time Ratio of the Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes. No/Nt : Number of open lanes/ Total Number of Lanes. LT : Number of Left-only Lanes. RT: Number of Right-only Lanes. (g/C)LT : Left-turning Phase Green to Cycle time Ratio. L: Length of the segment stretching from the end of the work zone till the downstream intersection. This model has one additional factor compared to the previous tw o models: right-only lanes, which has a negative impact on capacity. The increase in the through and right lanes increases the capacity while the left-turning percen tage leads to a reduction in capacity. Capacity also increases with the Th/Rt phase g/C, Number of open lanes/Total number of lanes left-only lanes and left phase g/C and the distance of th e downstream intersection from the end of the work zone.

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60 4.5.2 Models for arterials with 2 lanes at the Downstream Intersection This section presents the models that can be used to pred ict the capacity for the arterials with 2 lanes at the intersection. 4.5.2.1 Capacity for 2-lane arterial with single phase (Case 2.1) This model (Table 4-13) applies to those arterial s which have one lane open through the work zone and a total of two la nes at the intersecti on without any turning pockets. Furtherm ore, the intersection downstream has one phase for the entire approac h. It can be written as in equation 4.4. Cap = 443.36 + (1685.78 g/C) + (0.21 L) (Equation 4.4) where Cap : Capacity of approach g/C : Green to Cycle time ratio for the entire arterial L: Length of the segment stretching from the end of the work zone till the downstream intersection. This model has only two variables, it can be deduced from the coeffiecients that the capacity increases with the increas es in g/C ratio predominantly and with the distance from the end of the work zone to the downstream intersection as well. 4.5.2.2 Capacity for 2-lane arterial with left turn phase (Case 2.2) This model (Table 4-14) is applicable to arterials which have one lane open through the work zone and have a total of two lanes at the intersection without any turning pockets. In this case, the intersection should have separa te left-turning phase. (Equation 4.5) Cap = 58.68 + (1581.31 g/CTTR) + (0.12 L) + (521.55 g/CLT) (Equation 4.5) where

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61 Cap : Capacity of approach (g/C)TTR: Green to Cycle time Ratio of the Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes (g/C)LT : Left Phase Green to Cycle time Ratio L: Length of the segment stretching from the end of the work zone till the downstream intersection. This model implies that the capacity increases wi th the length of the section after the work zone till the downstream intersection, with the Th/Rt phase as well. It also increases with the left turn g/C ratio. Above model is only app licable for a range of the values of each variable present in the models. The range of values for which the model can be used are given in Table 4-15. 4.6 Model Comparison This section will dis cuss typica l results from the models given in the earlier section. The models cannot be compared with the FDOT or the HCM methods on one to one basis because none of the variables that were considered in these models are common to either of the two. The HCM model is meant for freeways only a nd so, comparing it with the models above does not make sense. The FDOT model has a extens ion for the arterials too. After calculating the capacity of the work zone, the g/C is used to adju st for the effect of the intersection. Calculations below give a typical range of capacity that can be obtained from the FDOT models: Consider a 2 to 1 lane closure with base capacity of 1800vph. The following two cases can be used to obtain the maximum and the minimum possible obtainable capacities. Travel Lane Width: 9 ft with no Lateral Clearance. g/C =0.3. This gives Obstruction Factor as 0.65. This yields the Restricted capacity = (1800 0.65 0.3) = 351 vph. Travel Lane Width: 12ft and Lateral Clearance is 6ft, g/ C = 0.7. This gives Obstruction Factor as 1.00. This yields the Restri cted capacity = (1800 1.00 0.7) = 1260 vph. For 3 to 2 lane closure with 3600 vph base cap acity; following cases can be considered:

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62 Travel Lane Width: 9 ft with no Lateral Clearance. g/C =0.3. This gives Obstruction Factor as 0.65. This yields the Restricted capacity = (3600 0.65 0.3) = 702 vph. Travel Lane Width: 12ft and Lateral Clearance is 6ft, g/ C = 0.7. This gives Obstruction Factor as 1.00. This yields the Restri cted capacity = (3600 1.00 0.7) = 2520 vph. With the model developed in this thesis, the range of values for the above scenarios can be found out for the same: 2-1 lane closure: Single ph ase for the entire arterial, Table 4-16 presents the results for case 2.1. For Case 2.2, the range is given in Table 4-17. So, for 2 to 1 lane closure, the capacity range is 598 to 1831 vph. 3-2 lane closure can be estim ated by the model for capacity of 3 through 6 lanes at intersection given in The FDOT model for 2-1 lane closure under-es timates the capacity as compared to the estimated models. 3-2 model over estimates the maximum capacity of the work zone. 4.7 Sensitivity Analysis This section evaluates th e sensi tivity of each variable used in the models with respect to the capacity/flows. It is useful to understand how change in each variable affects the capacity. Table 4-19 through Table 4-23 provide the results from this analysis. Each of these tables presents the sensitivity and results for each of th e variab les presented earlier. The Initial Value column under Factor determine the Initial Cap. The Final Value column under Factor is used to find the Final Cap values. The % Cha nge columns report the change in the values of capacity/flow and factor as a per centage of the intial values. As can be seen from Table 4-19 the left-turning fraction re sults in the largest change in the maximum left-turning flow. The next most importa nt factor is the numbe r of the through, Th/Rt and right-only lanes, which has a positive impact on maximum flow.

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63 The number of through, Th/Rt and right lanes, followed by the g/C for these lanes, are the factors affecting the Th/Rt maximum flow ( Table 4-20) the most. The sum of through, Th/Rt and right-only lanes greatly affects the capacity ( Table 4-21) with a change of 69% when the factor is double d. This is followed by the g/C ratio for the sam e group of lanes. Some of the values in the Percent Change column under flow are negative. These signify that increasing those factors woul d reduce the maximum flow or cap acity. Increasing the left turn fraction in traffic as well as the number of le ft-only lanes on the arterial reduces the maximum Th/Rt flow that can pass through the intersection ( Table 4-20). This causes a negative change in percentage. Likewise, left turn fraction, num ber of left-only and right-only lanes on the arterial also have a negative impact on the arterial capacity ( Table 4-21). 4.8 Example Problems This section presents example problem s of work zone capacity and lane group flow estimation. Each example illustrates the use of the models shown above. 4.8.1 Example Problem 1 Calculate th e capacity of a 3-to-2 lane cl osure with the following characteristics: Total number of lanes in the arterial = 3 Number of lanes closed in the work zone = 1 Number of Left turn pocket = 1 No right turn pocket Schematic of the Arterial along with th e lane channelizati on at the downstream intersection is given in Figure 4-1: Num ber of through only lanes = 2 Number of through right lanes = 1 Number of right-only lanes = 0 Left-only lanes = 1 Signal has exclusive left turn phase with following g/C: o g/C for Th/Rt phase = 0.4 o g/C for left turn phase = 0.1 15% vehicles turn left at the intersection

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64 Distance from the end of the work zone to the downstream intersection is 500 ft Inputs: TTR (Through, through/right and ri ght-only lanes) = 2+1 = 3 LTF (Left-turning fraction) = 0.15 (g/C)TTR (Green to Cycle time Ratio of the Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes) = 0.4 No/Nt : Number of open lanes/ Total Number of Lanes = 2/3 LT (Left-only Lanes) = 1 (g/C)LT (Left Phase g/C Ratio) = 0.1 L (Length of the section starting from the end of the work zone to the downstream intersection) = 500 ft Model Application: (i) The maximum flow through th e left-only lane can be esti mated with model given in equation 4.1: MLTF = -337.1 + (41.9 TTR) + (803.3 LTF) + (207.9 g/CTTR) + (145.6 No/Nt) + (1262.1 LT LTF g/CLT) + (0.1 L) Substituting the values: MLTF = -337.1 + (41.9 3 ) + (803.3 0.15 ) + (207.9 0.4 ) + (145.6 0.67) + (1262.1 1 0.15 0.1 ) + (0.1 500 ) MLTF = 185 veh/hr. (ii) The flow passing through the through, through/right a nd right-only lanes can be estimated with model as in equation 4.2: MTRF = -629.4 + (359.2 TTR) (2535.6 LTF) + (2168.2 g/CTTR) + (602.2 No/Nt) + (1773.6 LT LTF g/CLT) + (0.3 L)

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65 Substituting the above values: MTRF = -629.4 + (359.2 3 ) (2535.6 0.15 ) + (2168.2 0.4 ) + (602.2 0.67 ) + (1773.6 1 0.15 0.1 ) + (0.3 500) MTRF = 1504 veh/hr. (iii) The Capacity of the entire arterial can be calculated using the model given in equation 4.3: Cap = -947 + (422.4 TTR) (1751.45 LTP) + (2378.5 g/CTTR) + (755.4 No/Nt) + (3078 LT LTP g/CLT) + (0.4 L) (168.6 RT) Substituting the above values: Cap = -947 + (422.4 3 ) (1751.45 0.15) + (2378.5 0.4) + (755.4 0.67) + (3078 1 0.15 0.1) + (0.4 500 ) (168.6 0) Cap = 1776 veh/hr. 4.8.2 Example Problem 2 Calculate th e capacity of a 2-to-1 lane cl osure with the following characteristics: Total number of lanes in the arterial = 2 Number of lanes closed in the work zone = 1 No Left turn pocket No right turn pocket Schematic of the Arterial along with th e lane channelizati on at the downstream intersection as given in Figure 4-2 The num ber of through only lanes = 0 Number of through right lanes = 1 Number of right-only lanes = 0 Left-only lanes = 1 Signal has exclusive left turn phase with following g/C ratios: o g/C ratio for Th/Rt phase = 0.4 o g/C ratio for left turn phase = 0.1 15% vehicles turn left at the intersection Distance from the end of the work zone to the downstream intersection is 500 ft

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66 Inputs: (g/C)TTR (g/C Ratio of the Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes) = 0.4 (g/C)LT (Left Phase g/C Ratio) = 0.1 L (Length of the section starting from the end of the work zone to the downstream intersection) = 500 ft Model application: The capacity can be estimated us ing model given in equation 4.4: Cap = 58.68 + (1581.31 g/CTTR) + (0.12 L) + (521.55 g/CLT) Substituting the values: Cap = 58.68 + (1581.31 0.4) + (0.12 500) + (521.55 0.1 ) Cap = 805 veh/hr. 4.8.3 Example Problem 3 Calculate th e capacity of a 2-to-1 lane cl osure with the following characteristics: Total number of lanes in the arterial = 2 Number of lanes closed in the work zone = 1 No Left turn pocket No right turn pocket Schematic of the Arterial along with th e lane channelizati on at the downstream intersection as given in Figure 4-3 The num ber of through only lanes = 0 Number of through right lanes = 1 Number of right-only lanes = 0 Left-only lanes = 1 Signal has g/C ratio for entire arterial = 0.5 Distance from the end of the work zone to the downstream intersection is 500 ft Inputs: g/C (g/C ratio for entire arterial) = 0.5 L (Length of the section starting from the end of the work zone to the downstream intersection) = 500 ft

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67 Model Application (equation 4.5) Cap = 443.36 + (1685.78 g/C) + (0.21 L) Cap = 443.36 + (1685.78 0.5) + (0.21 500) Cap = 1390 veh/hr.

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68 Figure 4-1: Schematic for Example 1 Figure 4-2: Schematic for Example 2 Figure 4-3: Schematic for Example 3

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69 Table 4-1: Total Approach Capacity for Arterial Work Zones (in vph) Through/Right Movement g/C Ratio 0.3 0.5 0.7 Number of Lanes at Intersection Number of Open Lanes Number of Closed Lanes Min Max Average Min Max Average Min Max Average 2 (w/o LT Lane) 1 1 697 1095 976 1162 1718 1558 1574 1695 1650 2 (w LT lane) 1 1 566 1248 755 697 1454 1026 894 1552 1288 2 1 578 17071019 776 1713 1342 1465 17121644 3 1 2 577 17341022 821 1745 1360 1512 17401679 3 1 574 19281000 855 2388 1407 1265 26982071 2 1 672 17181332 1038 1774 1558 1619 17501681 2 2 666 17771352 974 1761 1594 1671 17711725 1 2 578 24481416 927 2990 1908 2263 34972750 4 1 1 574 24051409 909 2967 1912 2342 34132763 3 1 694 24701405 1011 2996 1890 2214 35952764 2 1 864 17661552 1314 1759 1671 1648 17541723 2 2 1115 28981872 1450 3811 2382 2687 36633270 5 1 2 1065 28471877 1522 3805 2386 2682 41283233 2 2 1243 28541880 1373 3994 2364 2545 49813251 6 3 1 1547 35372157 1582 3816 2633 2782 36853382

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70 Table 4-2: Through/Right Turn Approach Ca pacity for Arterial Work Zones (in vphpl) Through/Right Movement g/C Ratio 0.3 0.5 0.7 Number of Lanes at Intersection Number of Open Lanes Number of Closed Lanes Min Max Average Min Max Average Min Max Average 2 (w/o LT Lane) 1 1 248 579 502 301 958 785 368 857 754 2 (w LT lane) 1 1 210 560 485 474 981 809 743 1394 1140 2 1 212 542 419 262 876 611 677 776 748 3 1 2 208 548 420 280 864 617 699 788 765 3 1 222 547 414 312 928 641 583 1264959 2 1 237 543 392 324 768 491 488 555 516 2 2 240 549 396 326 780 502 512 569 530 1 2 233 549 409 278 930 600 699 1110862 4 1 1 224 543 408 285 935 601 723 1079866 3 1 248 543 397 308 935 588 693 1138866 2 1 209 513 337 266 526 385 382 431 402 2 2 227 537 399 275 917 552 630 876 780 5 1 2 225 543 400 270 916 553 628 882 771 2 2 226 543 398 260 917 544 597 992 772 6 3 1 206 514 361 257 796 480 522 707 647

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71 Table 4-3: Left Turn Approach Capacity for Arterial Work Zones (in vphpl) Left Turn Movement g/C Ratio 0.3 0.5 0.7 Number of lanes at Intersection Number of Open Lanes Number of Closed Lanes Min Max Average Min Max Average Min Max Average 2 (w LT lane) 1 1 53 303 142 54 567 225 142 480 269 2 1 65 196 150 65 586 271 156 677 342 3 1 2 61 196 149 68 584 274 149 729 348 3 1 47 199 150 46 585 270 111 868 336 2 1 52 186 147 31 578 251 86 674 340 2 2 43 192 148 33 567 257 85 729 355 1 2 98 192 168 23 578 288 59 960 406 4 1 1 109 195 168 23 582 287 56 958 404 3 1 80 194 167 52 583 296 118 930 416 2 1 22 190 136 28 547 250 76 730 361 2 2 85 194 161 59 586 332 139 850 490 5 1 2 86 195 161 57 576 331 125 856 490 2 2 132 198 171 44 578 339 114 846 503 6 3 1 98 197 162 62 580 348 139 927 553

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72 Table 4-4: Base Case Inte rsection Capacities (in vph) Through/Right Movement g/C Ratio 0.3 0.5 0.7 Number of lanes at Intersection Number of Lanes on Arterial Min Max Average Min Max Average Min Max Average 2 (w/o LT Lane) 2 907 1106 1039 1604 2038 1784 2311 2969 2539 2 (w/ LT lane) 2 478 970 707 750 1482 1028 1134 1321 1261 2 551 1903 1004 845 2378 1419 1255 2742 2097 3 3 598 1932 993 865 2396 1393 1189 2750 1991 2 549 2478 1428 937 2995 1921 2334 3540 2762 3 674 2477 1436 987 3010 1919 2246 3662 2744 4 4 746 2500 1392 1037 2918 1875 2138 3786 2790 3 1125 2872 1916 1438 3996 2402 2582 4113 3257 5 4 1063 2902 1891 1346 3991 2337 2482 4395 3243 6 4 1442 3510 2254 1666 4745 2737 2622 4614 3661 Table 4-5: Base Case Th rough/Right Capacities (in vphpl) Through/Right Movement g/C Ratio 0.3 0.5 0.7 Number of lanes at Intersection Number of Lanes on Arterial Min Max Average Min Max Average Min Max Average 2 (w/o LT Lane) 2 421 541 491 752 997 849 1090 1475 1208 2 (w/ LT lane) 2 392 554 477 537 925 781 1018 1183 1126 2 228 546 415 328 925 645 571 1287 970 3 3 228 535 406 319 914 634 548 1289 918 2 228 535 406 319 914 634 548 1289 918 3 229 544 412 285 927 604 722 1123 866 4 4 248 526 398 300 903 591 695 1166 860 3 248 526 398 300 903 591 695 1166 860 5 4 234 522 389 314 891 580 661 1203 875 6 4 234 522 389 314 891 580 661 1203 875

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73 Table 4-6: Base Case Left Turn Capacities (in vphpl) Left Turn Movement g/C Ratio 0.3 0.5 0.7 Number of lanes at Intersection Number of Lanes on Arterial Min Max Average Min Max Average Min Max Average 2 (w/ LT lane) 2 80 196 141 117 572 283 213 433 315 2 46 196 149 42 583 274 129 849 339 3 3 76 198 152 86 590 277 148 904 355 2 76 198 152 86 590 277 148 904 355 3 108 195 168 20 575 291 64 958 414 4 4 83 193 168 72 583 307 148 953 437 3 83 193 168 72 583 307 148 953 437 5 4 87 200 167 81 569 295 144 949 423 6 4 87 200 167 81 569 295 144 949 423

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74 Table 4-7: Change in Total Approach Capacity When a Work Zone is Installed Through/Right Movement g/C Ratio 0.3 0.5 0.7 Number of lanes at Intersection Number of Open Lanes Number of Closed Lanes Min Max Average Min Max Average Min Max Average 2 (w/o LT Lane) 1 1 0.97 1.38 1.08 1.00 1.56 1.16 1.37 1.81 1.54 2 (w LT lane) 1 1 0.46 1.38 0.98 0.78 1.28 1.01 0.80 1.40 1.01 1 1 0.70 1.29 0.98 0.75 1.48 1.05 0.78 1.68 1.27 3 1 2 0.66 1.50 0.97 0.64 1.40 1.02 0.75 1.60 1.18 2 1 0.80 1.35 1.00 0.72 1.37 1.00 0.80 1.02 0.96 1 1 0.69 1.57 1.06 0.79 1.83 1.22 1.35 2.17 1.65 1 2 0.77 1.96 1.07 0.75 2.06 1.20 1.28 2.09 1.59 2 1 0.77 1.50 1.03 0.77 1.33 1.01 0.91 1.19 1.00 4 2 2 0.67 1.44 1.01 0.70 1.31 0.99 0.87 1.19 1.01 3 1 0.72 1.35 1.00 0.75 1.27 1.00 0.88 1.14 1.01 1 2 0.77 2.24 1.25 0.91 2.33 1.43 1.51 2.44 1.89 2 1 0.70 1.50 1.03 0.84 1.30 1.01 0.86 1.14 0.99 5 2 2 0.70 1.88 1.02 0.69 1.38 0.98 0.89 1.22 1.00 3 1 0.76 1.48 1.01 0.78 1.31 0.99 0.91 1.19 1.00 6 2 2 0.84 1.90 1.06 0.79 1.77 1.04 0.90 1.28 1.07

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75 Table 4-8: Change in the Ma ximum Through/Right Flow When a Work Zone Is Installed Through/Right Movement g/C Ratio 0.3 0.5 0.7 Number of lanes at Intersection Number of Open Lanes Number of Closed Lanes Min Max Average Min Max Average Min Max Average 2 (w/o LT Lane) 1 1 0.80 1.99 1.03 0.86 2.84 1.19 1.35 3.76 1.68 2 (w LT lane) 1 1 0.39 1.10 0.88 0.69 1.45 0.99 0.79 1.51 1.03 1 1 0.75 1.31 0.99 0.79 1.49 1.05 0.79 1.73 1.29 3 1 2 0.70 1.43 0.96 0.71 1.46 1.03 0.75 1.65 1.19 2 1 0.80 1.23 0.98 0.71 1.41 1.00 0.79 1.02 0.95 1 1 0.71 1.54 1.06 0.77 1.84 1.23 1.36 2.29 1.69 1 2 0.73 1.92 1.02 0.73 1.98 1.18 1.26 2.20 1.63 2 1 0.79 1.27 0.98 0.73 1.27 1.00 0.91 1.20 1.00 4 2 2 0.70 1.35 0.97 0.66 1.32 0.98 0.87 1.20 1.01 3 1 0.75 1.32 0.99 0.76 1.29 1.00 0.88 1.15 1.01 1 2 0.80 2.12 1.22 0.86 2.32 1.43 1.49 2.59 1.93 2 1 0.72 1.42 1.03 0.84 1.30 1.00 0.84 1.15 0.99 5 2 2 0.65 1.64 0.98 0.69 1.34 0.96 0.87 1.23 0.99 3 1 0.74 1.28 0.99 0.77 1.24 0.98 0.91 1.20 1.00 6 2 2 0.78 1.74 1.04 0.73 1.71 1.03 0.89 1.30 1.07

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76 Table 4-9: Change in the Left Turn Moveme nt Capacity When a Work Zone Is Installed Left Turn Movement g/C Ratio 0.3 0.5 0.7 Number of lanes at Intersection Number of Open Lanes Number of Closed Lanes Min Max Average Min Max Average Min Max Average 2 (w LT lane) 1 1 0.30 2.30 1.12 0.49 2.78 1.42 0.48 2.38 1.37 1 2 0.63 1.28 0.99 0.60 1.41 1.01 0.61 1.25 0.98 3 2 1 0.68 1.44 1.03 0.43 1.78 1.05 0.61 1.73 1.02 1 1 0.76 1.63 1.03 0.62 2.53 1.08 0.77 1.81 1.07 1 2 0.88 2.98 1.24 0.55 2.97 1.18 0.60 1.89 1.15 2 1 0.75 3.50 1.25 0.63 3.99 1.32 0.69 2.37 1.30 2 2 0.74 1.26 1.00 0.69 3.56 1.18 0.61 2.60 1.24 4 3 1 0.64 1.15 0.99 0.59 4.64 1.18 0.56 3.16 1.19 1 2 0.71 1.19 1.00 0.66 2.32 1.04 0.63 1.75 1.03 2 1 0.87 6.71 1.57 0.64 7.21 1.61 0.64 4.01 1.51 2 2 0.91 1.75 1.09 0.66 2.29 1.05 0.67 1.67 1.05 5 3 1 0.84 1.90 1.09 0.68 2.15 1.09 0.73 2.34 1.16 2 2 0.88 1.13 1.00 0.71 1.95 1.06 0.72 1.93 1.11 6 3 1 0.87 1.65 1.08 0.79 2.14 1.14 0.94 2.18 1.22

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77 Table 4-10: Maximum Left-turning Flow (MLTF) Variable Name Coefficients Standard Error t-stat 1 Constant -337.05711.09230.3 2 Number of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes (TTR) 41.907 1.83422.8 3 Left-turning Fraction (LTF) 803.35620.91238.4 4 Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ((g/C)TTR) 207.90914.49214.3 5 Number of Open Lanes / Total Number of Lanes (No/Nt) 145.63411.05213.1 6 (Left-only Lanes) x (Left-turning %) x (Left Phase g/C) [(LT*LTF*(g/C)LT] 1262.06927.43446.0 7 Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 0.153 0.00530.6 adjusted R2 = 0.701 Table 4-11: Maximum Through and Right-turning Flow (MTRF) Variable Name Coefficients Standard Error t-stat 1 Constant -629.44927.070 23.2 2 Number of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes (TTR) 359.1624.476 80.2 3 Left-turning Fraction (LTF) -2535.57751.033 49.6 4 Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ((g/C)TTR) 2168.25035.366 61.3 5 Number of Open Lanes / Total Number of Lanes (No/Nt) 602.19326.971 22.3 6 (Left-only Lanes) x (Left-turning %) x (Left Phase g/C) [(LT*LTF*(g/C)LT] 1773.57366.950 26.4 7 Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 0.2820.012 23.5 adjusted R2 = 0.724

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78 Table 4-12: Arterial Capacity (Cap) Variable Name Coefficients Standard Error t-stat 1 Constant -946.95532.78928.8 2 Number of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes (TTR) 422.389 5.56275.9 3 Number of Right-only Lanes -168.580 9.93516.9 4 Left-turning Fraction (LTF) -1751.44761.78828.3 5 Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ((g/C)TTR) 2378.50142.81255.5 6 Number of Open Lanes / Total Number of Lanes (No/Nt) 755.36232.65323.1 7 (Left-only Lanes) x (Left-turning %) x (Left Phase g/C) [(LT*LTF*(g/C)LT] 3078.00281.08337.9 8 Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 0.435 0.01528.8 adjusted R2 = 0.640. Table 4-13: Capacity for Arterials with Two Lanes and Single Phase Variable Name CoefficientsStandard Errort-stat 1 Constant 443.364 46.772 9.4 2 Distance of WZ from intersection (ft)0.208 0.040 5.2 3 g/C Ratio for approach ( g/C) 1685.778 79.710 21.1 adjusted R2 = 0.782 Table 4-14: Capacity for Arterials with Two Lanes and Separate Left Turn Phase Variable Name CoefficientsStandard Errort-stat 1 Constant 58.682 73.550 0.7 2 Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ((g/C)TTR) 1581.307 119.964 13.1 3 Distance of WZ from intersection (ft)0.124 0.042 2.9 4 Left Turn g/C Ratio((g/C)LT) 521.551 114.665 4.5 adjusted R2 = 0.542

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79 Table 4-15: Range of Applicable Values Variable Values Distance of Downstream Intersection from end of the Work-Zone100 to 1000 ft g/C ratio of Left-turning Phase 0.1 to 0.5 g/C ratio of through and right Phase 0.3 to 0.7 Left-turning Fraction 0.10 to 0.40 Right-turning Fraction 0.10 to 0.40 # Open Lanes/ # Total Lanes 0.33 to 1.00 Right-only lanes 0 or 1 Left-only lanes 1 or 2 Sum of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes 2 to 4 Table 4-16: Model Comaprison (Case 2.1) Variable Name CoefficientsMin Max 1 Constant 443.364 1 1 2 Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 0.208 100 1000 3 g/C Ratio for approach (g/C) 1685.778 0.3 0.7 Capacity (vph) = 970 1831 Note that the values given here gives a typical range that may be expected. Some of the values from the models may be still lower or higher than given here.

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80 Table 4-17: Model Comparison (Case 2.2) Variable Name CoefficientsMin Max 1 Constant 58.682 1 1 2 Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ((g/C)TTR) 1581.307 0.3 0.7 3 Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 0.124 100 1000 4 Left Turn g/C Ratio((g/C)LT) 521.551 0.1 0.1 Capacity (vph) = 598 1342 Note that the values given here gives a typical range that may be expected. Some of the values from the models may be still lower or higher than given here.

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81 Table 4-18: Model Comapari son (3 through 6 lanes) Variable Name Coefficients Min Max 1 Constant -946.955 1 1 2 Number of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes (TTR) 422.389 1 2 3 Number of Right-only Lanes -168.58 0 1 4 Left-turning Fraction (LTF) -1751.45 0.4 0.05 5 Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ((g/C)TTR) 2378.501 0.3 0.7 6 Number of Open Lanes / Tota l Number of Lanes (No/Nt) 755.362 1/3 1/3 7 (Left-only Lanes) (Leftturning %) (Left Phase g/ C) [(LT LTF (g/C)LT] 3078.002 0.32 0.005 8 Distance of WZ from intersection (ft) 0.435 100 1000 Capacity (vph) = 769 2009 Note that the values given here gives a typical range that may be expected. Some of the values from the models may be still l ower or higher than given here. Table 4-19: Sensitivity Analysis (Left-turning Flow Model) Factor Flow Factor Initial Value Final Value Percent Change Initial Value Final Value Change in Flow % Change in Flow Number of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes (TTR) 2 4100 1192028471% Left-turning Fraction (LTF) 0.2 0.4100 194393199102% Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ((g/C)TTR) 0.3 0.6100 1402026245% Number of Open Lanes / Total Number of Lanes (No/Nt) 0.5 1100 1612337345% (Left Phase g/C) 0.2 0.4100 1802173821% Distance of WZ from in tersection (ft) 300 600100 1301764635% Left-only Lanes 1 2100 1612185736%

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82 Table 4-20: Sensitivity Analys is (Maximum Th/Rt Flow) Factor Flow Factor Initial Value Final Value Percent Change Initial Value Final Value Change in Flow % Change in Flow Number of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes (TTR) 2 4 100 1045176371869% Left-turning Fraction (LTF) 0.2 0.4 100 1268814-454-36% Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ( (g/C)TTR) 0.3 0.6 100 1187183765055% Number of Open Lanes / Total Number of Lanes ( No/Nt) 0.5 1 100 1404170530121% (Left Phase g/C) 0.2 0.4 100 14301484534% Distance of WZ from in tersection (ft) 300 600 100 13471432856% Left-only Lanes 1 2 100 1404818-586-42% Table 4-21: Sensitivity Analysis (Capacity) Factor Capacity Factor From Value To Value % Change in Factor From Cap. To Cap. Change in Cap. % Change in Cap Number of Th, Th/Rt and Rt Lanes (TTR) 24100 1228207384569% Number of Right-only Lanes 01 Plus One 16501482-169-10% Left-turning Fraction (LTF) 0.20.4100 15471289-258-17% Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ( (g/C)TTR) 0.30.6100 1412212671451% Number of Open Lanes / Total Number of Lanes ( No/Nt) 0.51100 1650202837823% (Left Phase g/C) 0.20.4100 16961789925% Distance of WZ from in tersection (ft) 300600100 156316941318% Left-only Lanes 12100 16501099-551-33%

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83 Table 4-22: Sensitivity Analysis (Case 2.1) Factor Capacity Factor From Value To Value % Change in Factor From Cap. To Cap. Change in Cap. % Change in Cap Distance of WZ from in tersection (ft) 300600100 11801242625% g/C Ratio for arterial ( g/C) 0.30.6100 1053155950648% Table 4-23: Sensitivity Analysis (Case 2.2) Factor Capacity Factor From Value To Value % Change in Factor From Cap. To Cap. Change in Cap. % Change in Cap Th/Rt Phase g/C Ratio ( (g/C)TTR) 0.30.6100 647112247473% Distance of WZ from in tersection (ft) 300600100 781818375% Left Turn g/C Ratio( (g/C)LT) 0.20.4100 85896210412%

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84 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presents a s ummary of the findi ngs and the analysis regarding work zone capacity. This is followed by a discussion on model applications. Conclusions from the research are presented next. The chapter conc ludes with suggestions on subsequent research on this topic. 5.1 Summary The curren t FDOT arterial work zone capacity estimation procedure is an extension of the one used to estimate freeway work zone capacity and does not account for various operating and work zone characteristics of the facility (i.e. speed s, the position of the closed lanes, etc.). These models are not based on any field study on arte rial work zone or a ny simulation study. Other state agencies also do not have any clearl y defined methodology for calculating work zone capacities, although they us e assumed capacity values as part of guidelines on work zone set up. Therefore, there is a need to develop an understa nding of the factors that may affect the capacity of a work zone, and develop models to estimate it. To address this need a list of factors was their developed from the literature on work zone capacity. A few factors were excluded from th e study because of the limitations of simulation software. The selected factors were used for simu lating scenarios with variations in values. Since no field data were available, simulation was used. A total of five models were then developed to estimate the maximum flow through different lane gr oups as well as the capacity of the arterial. Separate models had to be developed for arterials with two lane s at the downstream intersection because these arterials operate in a different manner. The proposed models showed that the downstream intersection has very significant effect on the capacity of the arterial work zone. The proposed models are meant to be used for estimation purposes. These models can be used to estimate the capacity of a work zone, wh ich can be used as input into other software

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85 packages, which estimate the delay through work zones. These models can help agencies plan their strategies on work zone implemention. 5.2 Conclusions Conclusions drawn from this research are as follows: a) There has been very little research on the capac ity of arterial w ork zones, despite the fact that capacity is used as an important i nput in their evaluation. Work zone design documents such as the MUTCD identify some of the factors affecting capacity, but they do not specify their impact quantitavely. b) Existing simulators do not specifical ly model arterial work zones. c) The signalization of the intersection downstr eam of the work zone hugely affects the capacity of the work zone. Factors such as the g/C, percentage of tr affic turning left as well as right, and the turning pockets were found to affect the capacity significantly. d) Simulation of arterial work zones showed th at the distance of the work zone to the downstream intersection affects th e capacity of the entire arterial work zone. Increasing the available storage between the signal and th e work zone results in better utilization of the green at the inte rsection approach. e) The capacity of the arterial work zone is re duced when one of the movements are blocked by the other. The probability of such blocka ge increases when the g/C ratios are not optimal or when the channelization at the in tersection is not optimal for the respective demands. f) Comparison of the arterial work zone capacity to the respective conf igurations with no work zones showed that there are selected cases when installing a work zone may increase capacity. Those increases typically occur when the intersection (prior to the work zone installation) is congested. In t hose cases the work zone funnels traffic through the work zone, and it becomes easier for ve hicles to change lanes and reach their destination lane, because there are fewer bloc kages. This increase was observed mostly for scenarios with 3-6 lanes at the intersection approach. g) The capacity estimates obtained from the current FDOT procedure are based on an entirely different set of input variables and therefore cannot be dire ctly compared to the capacity estimates obtained by the mode ls developed in this research. h) Since this research was entirely based on si mulation, the results and conclusions should be viewed with caution. It is likely that field observations would result in different capacity values and that additional factors w ould affect the results. The trends observed in the simulation however should ge nerally be valid in the field.

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86 5.3 Future Research The following recomm endations for further studies are made: a) The models developed in this research shoul d be applied on a trial basis to existing and upcoming arterial work zone projects, so that they can be tested and validated before being used in the field. b) Field data should be collected at various site s and with various work zone configurations, so that the procedures developed here can be thoroughly evaluated, and the simulated capacity estimates compared to field estimates. c) Specific guidance can be developed on traffic si gnal control strategies for intersections downstream of a work zone, so th at capacity can be maximized. d) Research should be conducted to evaluate the capacity of an arterial work zone and its impact on the upstream intersection. In those cases, spillback would result in a reduction of the effective green for one or more of the upstream intersection approaches. In addition, the upstream intersection would affect the arrival pattern to the work zone. The analysis could answer the question: how many vehicles can pass through the system of an intersection followed by a work zone. e) Some of the variables like the work intensit y, presence of police and workers in the work zone and effect of warning signs could not be looked at due to lack of appropriate features in the existing simulation software packages. These factors and other additional factors may be examined when such a facility is available. The models presented in this report are based on simulation al one. Field data should be collected from various work zones to validate the models presented in this study. The data should have work zones with varying configurations as in this study so that the models can be validated thoroughly. f) Another approach to the capacity calculation could be to de sign models which predict the capacity on installation of a work zone in term s of fraction of the present capacity of the approach. These fractions can then directly be applied to the capacity found by standard methods like the FDOT and the HCM. The calibration of that kind of model will require more field data, in addition to the data from the site with work zone, data from the same site without work zone would also be required. g) It would be useful to develop simulation software with options to replicate the work zone features like taper, road signs lane geometry. If the software packages incorporate these features then the effect of these on capaci ty may also be tested. Various geometric elements (such as lane width and shoulder width) are currently not considered in CORSIM. Its algorithms should be modified to consider such factors generally, as well as with respect to work zones.

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87 APPENDIX A ANALYSIS OF SIMULATION RESULTS This appendix will discuss the results from the actual simulation runs. Results of each scenario will be analyzed sequentially in the next section. The possible lane channelization will be listed with the help of diagrams. Work z ones might be set differently with each lane channelization; these will be presented with the channelization. Finall y, the results of the simulation will be discussed in detail. The trends of the capacity of the approach with change in different variables like the g/C ra tios of different lane groups are discussed. Similar trends are also explored for the hourly flows of each lane gr oup (viz. left-turning and Th/Rt going traffic) if necessary. All the flows are given in veh/hr. unless stated otherwis e. These include the separate Left-turning, Th/Lt, Th/Rt and the capacity of th e approach as well. The analysis starts with 2 lanes at the intersection and goes through each scenar io till 6 lanes at the intersection. It may be noted that these lanes also include the turn pockets. A.1 Lanes at Intersection with one Phase Only ( Figure A-1) The schem e has a combined Th/Lt lane and sing le phase for the entire approach. One lane is closed and other is open to traffic. As discu ssed in the sensitivity analysis section (chapter 3), the position of the work zone does not matter. Capacity increases slightly with the increas e in distance up to 250 ft. It remains unchanged for distance up to 1000 ft. It may be concluded that the work zone affects the capacity up to 500 ft distance from the intersection, after that, its effect is not substantial ( Figure A-2). The capacity of the approach increas es substantially as green increases (Figure A-3). This capacity increase is quite significant when green increases to 0.5 but rem ain s constant after that. The reason for this is that g/C ratio of 0.5 sa tisfies the demand for vehicles and no green is wasted hence giving more green doe s not help. In fact, if in some cases the green is more than

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88 required which leads to wastage of green. Such inappropriate distributi on of green leads to blocking of traffic. Both the left and the right-turning percenta ges have almost no effect on the capacity, the figures for both look similar ( Figure A-4 and Figure A-5). This is becau se there is no separate lane for left turns and hence they are equa lly distributed with the through traffic. This com pletes the small analysis of effect of some variables applicable to this scenario on capacity. A.2 Two Lanes at Intersection with a Left-only Phase ( Figure A-6) This schem e has a separate left turn lane instead of a Th/Lt lane Figures representing aggregate level trends follow with discussion on the same. The left-turning flow increases as the distance from the end of the work zone to the intersection increases from 100ft to 1000 ft ( Figure A-7). It becomes constant after 500 ft. there is one outlier at the 750ft distan ce w hich has the maximum capacity while the majority of the data points show the trend discussed above. In cases with higher distances (500, 750 and 1000 ft); higher left-turning flow, 0.3 g/ C for Lt turns and 0.5 g/C for Th/R t traffic, the left turn lane suffers demand saturation because the left-turning vehicles get sufficient green time and hence the left-turning flow is the highest for this g/C ratio. In case of 0.5 g/C for left turns and 0.3 g/C for Th/Rt turns, the Th/Rt traffic blocks the left -turning traffic at the work zone and hence the left-turning flow is lower as compared to the former case.The left-turning vehicles may take more time to join the queue when they have to travel 1000ft as compared to 750ft. Those vehicles that do not find any queue because th e green is still active when they reach the intersection will take more time to travel to the in tersection if the distance to the end of the work zone is more which increases the left-turning flow.

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89 The Th/Rt flow remains constant with respect to the distance ( Figure A-8). There are two outliers here too; they occur at 250 ft distance, 0.1 g/C for left turns and 0.7 g/C for the Th/Rt turning traffic. It takes more tim e for vehicles in the queue to m ove if t he queue is longer. But this difference is very slight and ma y not explain the phenomenon completely. The capacity does not change much with distance in Figure A-9. It implies that the capacity of the work zone with the m ost favorab le g/C and other suitab le parameters does not optimize better with change in distance of inters ection from the end of work zone. The reason for this is that in this scenario, the blockage is almost same regardless of the storage length available. It should be noted that major co ntribution of the Th/Rt flow to the capacity makes their trends look alike. The approach capacity increases with the Th/Rt g/C because the major part of the traffic is the Th/Rt going traffic. ( Figure A-10) The left-turning flow goes on increasing as the pe r centage of traffic turning left increases in the traffic stream of the approach. ( Figure A-11) The Th/Rt flow first reduces and th en remains constant with the increase in the left-turning traffic flow ( Figure A-12). Even if the left-turning tr affic increases, it does not block the Th/Rt traffic and in the later two conditio ns, the green tim e is just enough to let the Th/Rt traffic to get though and not block any traffic. Consequently, the entire green time is utilized in both those cases resulting in the same flows. Figure A-13 is a combination of the above two effects as illustrated by: Figure A-11 and Figure A-12. The effect of the le ft-turning trend is suppressed by the Th/R t trend because of the difference in the quantity.

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90 Figure A-14 shows that the capacity remains almost constant with the increase in the rightturning traffic beyond 25%. The right-turning vehicl es do affect the Th/Rt flow but their effect does not hav e much impact after they reach a particular percentage. This is because the combination of the traffic stream has almost th e same number of through vehicles followed by the right-turning vehicles (and vi ce versa) for those percenta ges of right-turning vehicles. A.3 Three Lanes at Intersection Possible lane channelization of the three lanes is as shown ( Figure A-15, Figure A-16 and Figure A-17). There are three possibilities that have been sim ulated. For each of the given scenarios, connecting arterial may have 2 or 3 lanes under normal functioning. Work zones can be set up in three ways as given in Table 3-9. ( viz. 1 Open and 2 closed lanes, 2 open and 1 closed lane, 1 Open and 1 closed lane) The approach capacity increases as the num ber of open la nes through the work zone increase. ( Figure A-18) Capacity decreas es with the increase in left -only lanes because the left-turning flow is always less as compared with the co mbined through and right-turning flow ( Figure A-19, Figure A-20) and if lanes are assigned fo r th e left-turning traffic then it does not allow the majority of the traffic to pass through, so even if the left -turning flow goes up, the total capacity goes down. Further, it can be noticed that the left-turning flow also goes down for some cases because the Th/Rt traffic blocks it as the queue builds up in those lanes going through th e work zone as well, not allowing enough left-turning vehi cles to get through the work z one as the green time permits. Th and Rt lanes include through only, Th/Rt lane s and right-only lanes. As these increase, the capacity of the approach also increases ( Figure A-21). Since the Th/Rt flow is always greater than the left-turning flow giving more passage to it helps increasing the capacity. It may be noted that both the Th/Rt and left-turning traffic increases with the incr ease in through lanes and

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91 right lanes. The increase in the left-turning traffic is caused due to its fewer blockages because of the queuing of the Th/Rt traffic when it has less passage. This variable has a positive effect on flows through all lane groups. Most of the cases lose the capacity if a right-only lane is introduced ( Figure A-22). It appears that a Th/Rt lane serves the purpose better than a righ t-only lane. In a few cases when the right-turning flow is too high, introducing a right-only lane just helps to keep the capacity the sam e, but it does not help in any of the cases. It may be concluded that introducing a right-only lane would in general, reduce the capacity. With the increase in distance, the capacity increases a bit ti ll 750 ft and remains almost the same thereafter ( Figure A-23). Therefore, the effect of an upstream work zone is not significant at distances greater than 700ft (approx.) Figure A-24 shows that the left-turning flow in creases with more green tim e given to the left turns. Figure A-25 and Figure A-26 show that both Th/Rt flow as well as the capacity d ecreases with the increase in the green time for left-turning vehicles. Since the left-turning flow is less the Th/Rt flows trend is visible in the capacity the figure too. Figure A-27 suggests that Th/Rt phase g/C ratio has a positive effect on the capacity of the approach, this follows the trends discussed earlier in scenario 2.2. Figure A-28 and Figure A-29 show that the capacity goes do wn in many cases while it also comes up in some of the cases. The upper bound for both the figures has re duced in cases with higher distances and more green while the lowe r bounds are the cases with lesser distances and less g/C for the Th/Rt movements. The slight incr ease in the capacity of these cases is caused due

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92 to the separation of traffic accord ing to the turning movements. If the traffic goes in different directions then the queuing is reduced in some of the cases with higher g/C. This concludes the analysis of the factors that affect the ca pacity of the approach having three lanes at the intersection. Ar terials having 4 lanes when they meet the intersection will be discussed next. A.4 Four Lanes at Intersection This section discusses the eff ect of various factors on the cap acity as well as flows through each lane group if necessary. Four possible lane channelizations have been used for simulation purposes in this type of arterials. They are shown in following figures: Figure A-30, Figure A-31, Figure A-32 and Figure A-33. As expected the capacity of the entire appr oach increases as the number of open lanes through the work zone increase. ( Figure A-34) Capacity decreas es with the increase in left -only lanes because the left-turning flow is always less as compared with the co mbined through and right-turning flow ( Figure A-35) and more lanes are assigned for the le ft-turning traffic then it does not allow th e majority of the traffic to pass through, so even if the left-tur ning flow increases, the total capacity decreases. Unlike scenario 3.0, increasing th e left-only lanes does not have negative impact on the cases having maximum capacity. Th and Rt lanes include through only, Th/Rt lane s and right-only lanes. As these increase, the capacity of the approach also increases ( Figure A-37). Since the Th/Rt flow is always greater than the left-turning flow giving more passage to it helps increasing the capacity. It may be noted that left-turning traffic decreases with the increase in through and right lanes. But this effect is not seen in the capacity trends b ecause of less flow of left-turning traffic. ( Figure A-36)

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93 Most of the cases experience reduced capacity if a rightonly lane is introduced (Figure A-38). It appears that a Th/Rt lane serves the purpose better than a right-only lane. In a few cases when the right-turning fraction is m ore, introducing a right-only lane just helps to keep the capacity constant, but it does not help in any of the cases. It may be conc luded that introducing a right-only lane would in ge neral, reduce the capacity. With the increase in distance, the capacity remains almost sa me for 100 ft and 250 ft. It then starts to increase lin early from 500 ft till 1000 ft ( Figure A-39). Unlike the previous cases, the dis tance has positive effect on the capacity in this scenario and it varies approximately linearly with distance. The incr ease is not significantly high. Figure A-40 shows that the left-turning flow in creases with more green tim e given to the left turns for g/C 0.3 but it goes down at g/C of 0.5. In former case, the highest left flow is given by the cases consisting two left-onl y lanes because they get sufficient passage time while in the later case, the through and right -turning green is not suffici ent causing heavy queuing and blocking of the left-only lanes as well as the bl ockage of the work zone itself. This causes the left-turning flow to go down. Figure A-41 and Figure A-42 show that both, Th/Rt flow, as well as the capacity, decrease with the increase in the g reen time for left-turni ng vehicles. Low left-tur ning fraction leads to the Th/Rt flows trend being visible in the capacity the figure too. Above chart ( Figure A-43) suggests that Th/Rt phase g/C ratio has a positive effect on the capacity of the approach, this follows the trends discussed in all the earlier scenarios. The increase is fairly linear and is same for th e Th/Rt lane group flow. The left-turning flow, however, experience steep reduction at 0.7 g/C for Th/Rt because of less g/C.

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94 The charts showing the effect of the increase in the left-turning traffi cs percentage on the various flows are given in Figure A-44, Figure A-45 and Figure A-46. More the fraction of leftturning v ehicles in the traffic st ream more will be the flow through the left-turning lanes and less will be the flow through the Th/Rt lane group. The last chart simply shows the combined effect of the two charts discussed above. It should be no ted that the capacity can be better explained by looking at the individual tr ends rather than the final capacity value. A fraction of right-turning tra ffic in the traffic stream ha s relatively less effect on the capacity ( Figure A-47). The capacity reduced to 40% right-turning vehicles. This com pletes the analysis of the factors that affect the capacity of the approach having three lanes at the intersection. Ar terials having five lanes when they meet the intersection will be discussed next. A.5 Five Lanes at Intersection This section discusses the ar terials with 5 lanes at th e intersection. Possible lane channelization schemes are shown in the following figures: Figure A-48, Figure A-49, Figure A-50 and Figure A-51. With each of these channelization schem es, a work zone can be set up in 4 ways. These four ways are corresponding to the work zone setup on any arterial having 3 or 4 lanes under normal circumstances. (Refer Table 3-9: Geometric Variatio ns) Lets look at how the variab les affect the capacity of the arterial in this case. Just like in Scenario 4.0, the capacity of th e entire approach increases as the number of open lanes through the work zone increase. ( Figure A-52) Capacity decreas es with the increase in left -only lanes because the left-turning flow is always less as compared with the co mbined through and right-turning flow ( Figure A-53) and if more lanes are assigned for the le ft-turning traffic then it does not allow th e majority of the traffic to pass through, so even if the left-tur ning flow goes up, the total capacity goes down. It

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95 may be noted that in this case too, similar to Sc enario 4.0, the left-turning flow goes up but that increase is not huge in terms of fraction of the total capacity and does not have visible effect on the capacity. Th and Rt lanes include through only, Th/Rt lane s and right-only lanes. As these increase, the capacity of the approach also increases ( Figure A-55). Since the Th/Rt flow is always greater than the left-turning flow giving more passage to it helps increasing th e capacity. Left-turning traffic decreases by greater amounts as compared w ith the last scenario. But this effect is not seen in the capacity trends because of low flow of left-turning traffic ( Figure A-54). Introduction of a right turn only lane does not have any significant effect on the capacity ( Figure A-56). In this case, it does not matter if there is a right-only or a Th/Rt lane. With the increase in distance, th e capacity starts to increase s lightly till 500 ft. Thereafter, it remains almost constant till 1000 ft. Because th ere are too many lanes over which vehicles can distribute themselves the distance does not have effect on capacity after 500 ft. ( Figure A-57) In Figure A-58, the left-turning flow goes up dram atically at g/C ratio of 0.3 and then rem ains constant at g/C of 0.5. The Th/Rt flow ( Figure A-59) goes down consistently with the sam e amount with the increase in g/C ratio. Finally, the capacity ( Figure A-60) is same for the first two g/C ratios (0.1 and 0.3) and decreases at 0.5 g/C ratio because of the blockage of the traffic due to less g/C to Th/Rt traffic. This tra ffic queues up and blocks th e left-turning traffic as well as itself causing the entire capacity to go down. Figure A-62 suggests that Th/Rt phase g/C ratio has a positive effect on the capacity of the approach, th is follows the trends discussed in all the earlier scenarios. The increase is fairly linear and is same for the Th /Rt lane group flow. The left-t urning flow, however, falls down dramatically at 0.7 g/C for Th/Rt be cause it does not get any passage. ( Figure A-61)

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96 The effect of left-turning flow is same as was in scenario 4.0. The capacity of entire approach goes down with increa se in the left-turning flow ( Figure A-63, Figure A-64 and Figure A-65). More the fraction of left-turning vehicles in the traffic stream more will be the flow through the left-turning lanes and less will be the flow through the Th/Rt lane group. The last chart simply shows the combined effect of the tw o. It should be noted that the capacity can be better explained by looking at the in dividual trends rather than th e final capacity value. But in this scenario, the capacity is d ecreasing more evenly as compared to scenario 4.0 so it may be possible to directly relate the effect to capacity rather than breaking it up into various flows. A fraction of right-turning tra ffic in the traffic stream ha s relatively less effect on the capacity ( Figure A-66). The capacity goes down slight ly at 40% right-turning vehicles. This concludes the analysis of the factors that affect the capacity of the approach having three lanes at the intersection. Th e next section is the last sub section of the analysis. It will discuss the effect of the variab les on those arterials which have six lanes at the intersection. A.6 Six Lanes at Intersection ( Figure A-67 and Figure A-68) This scenario has two assum ed lane channeliza tion schemes. Majority of the lanes act as turn pockets (i.e, fixed channe lization) leaving scope for less number of variations. Following channelization schemes are considered: Figure A-67 and Figure A-68. The arterials with these channelization schem es can have 3 or 4 lanes under normal functioning and hence a work zone can be set up in 4 ways as given in Table 3-9. As usual, capacity increases with m o re open lanes through the work zone ( Figure A-69). This is well explain ed in the earlier scenarios. Capacity goes down, but not as much as the earl ier scenarios with the increase in the leftonly lanes because the through and right traffic has sufficient lanes to use ( Figure A-70).

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97 Capacity increases as more lanes are allocated to the through and right tr affic, this trend is similar to the earlier trends ( Figure A-71). Except a few outliers at 100 ft distance, the cap acity increases with the increase in distance. The increase is constant and is relatively very less (Figure A-72). The capacity decreases with the increase in the g /C ratio for the left-turning vehicles ( Figure A-73). The effect is more pronounced for th e left-turning flow but the com bined effect is more significant at 0.5 g/C for left-t urning traffic. The decrease is because of more percentage of Th/Rt traffic than the left-turning traffic. The Th/Rt g/C has a fairly linear effect on the cap acity of the work zone with this kind of arterial ( Figure A-74). The increase is expected because of th e reasons cited in earlier scenarios. With the increase in the percentage of the left-turning vehicles in th e traffic, the entire capacity goes down (Figure A-75) because of the blockage of eithe r the left-t urning vehicles (at low g/C ratio for left turns) or the Th/Rt vehicl es (at low g/C for Th/Rt phase). Other than this, the left-turning vehicles take more time to ma ke the turns and hence lead to reduction in capacity. The right-turning percentage inversely affects the capacity of the approach because of the less passage to the right-turning vehicles as they have only one lane and block the through going vehicles. ( Figure A-76) The next section will summari ze the discussion of all the scenarios and conclude the appendix. A.7 Summary and Conclusions The aggregate level trends of the change in the capacity and indi vidual lane group flows with respect to various factors was p resented. This study does not suggest the trend that will appear after controlling for all the other factors. It simply indica tes that, in general, it may be

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98 expected that the trend will be visible in the fi nal models. It definitely gives an idea of how traffic flows through work zone, and how the change s in some of the values affect the traffic flow. This insight and analysis of each scenario separately will help define the final models better. Summary table ( Table A-1) gives an overview of the findings of this section. The trends m ay not be visible in all the cas es necessarily but represent the most common trend in the data sets. It shoul d be emphasized again that these are just typical aggregate level trends and not the individual trends which may appear after controlling for re st of the variables.

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99 Figure A-1: Scenario 2.1 (Lane Channelization) Figure A-2: Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.1) Figure A-3: g/C vs. Ca pacity (Scenario 2.1)

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100 Figure A-4: Left-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.1) Figure A-5: Right-turni ng Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.1)

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101 Figure A-6: Scenario 2.2 (Lane Channelization) Figure A-7: Distance vs. Left-t urning Flow (Scenario 2.2) Figure A-8: Distance vs. Th /Rt Flow (Scenario 2.2)

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102 Figure A-9: Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.2) Figure A-10: Th/Rt g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.2)

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103 Figure A-11: Left-turning Percentage vs. Left-tur ning Flow (Scenario 2.2) Figure A-12: Left-turning Percentage vs. Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 2.2)

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104 Figure A-13: Left-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.2) Figure A-14: Right-turning Percenta ge vs. Capacity (Scenario 2.2) Figure A-15: Scenario 3.1 (Lane Channelization)

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105 Figure A-16: Scenario 3.2 (Lane Channelization) Figure A-17: Scenario 3.3 (Lane Channelization) Figure A-18: Number of Open La nes vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)

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106 Figure A-19: Number of Left-only Lane s vs. Left-turning Fl ow (Scenario 3.0) Figure A-20: Number of Left-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)

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107 Figure A-21: Th and Rt Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0) Figure A-22: Right-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)

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108 Figure A-23: Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0) Figure A-24: Left-turning g/C vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 3.0)

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109 Figure A-25: Left-turning g/C vs. Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 3.0) Figure A-26: Left-turning g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)

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110 Figure A-27: Th/Rt Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0) Figure A-28: Right-turning Percenta ge vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0)

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111 Figure A-29: Left-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 3.0) Figure A-30:Scenario 4.1 (Lane Channelization) Figure A-31: Scenario 4. 2 (Lane Channelization)

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112 Figure A-32: Scenario 4. 3 (Lane Channelization) Figure A-33: Scenario 4. 4 (Lane Channelization) Figure A-34: Number of Open La nes vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0)

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113 Figure A-35: Left-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0) Figure A-36: Through and right Lanes vs Left-turning Flow (Scenario 4.0)

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114 Figure A-37: Through and Right Lane s vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0) Figure A-38: Right-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0)

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115 Figure A-39: Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0) Figure A-40: Left Phase g/C vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 4.0)

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116 Figure A-41: Left Phase g/C vs Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 4.0) Figure A-42: Left Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0)

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117 Figure A-43: Left Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0) Figure A-44: Left-turning Percentage vs. Left-tur ning Flow (Scenario 4.0)

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118 Figure A-45: Left-turning Percentage vs. Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 4.0) Figure A-46: Left-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0)

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119 Figure A-47: Right-turning Percenta ge vs. Capacity (Scenario 4.0) Figure A-48: Scenario 5. 1 (Lane Channelization) Figure A-49: Scenario 5. 2 (Lane Channelization) Figure A-50: Scenario 5. 3 (Lane Channelization)

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120 Figure A-51: Scenario 5. 4 (Lane Channelization) Figure A-52: Number of Open La nes vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0) Figure A-53: Number of Left Turn On ly Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)

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121 Figure A-54: Through and Right Lanes vs Left-turning Flow (Scenario 5.0) Figure A-55: Through and Right Lane s vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)

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122 Figure A-56: Right-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0) Figure A-57: Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)

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123 Figure A-58: Left Phase g/C vs. Lt Turning Flow (Scenario 5.0) Figure A-59: Left Phase g/C vs. Right-turning Flow (Scenario 5.0)

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124 Figure A-60: Left Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0) Figure A-61: Left Phase g/C vs. Left-turning Flow (Scenario 5.0)

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125 Figure A-62: Through Right Phase g/ C vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0) Figure A-63: Left-turning Percentage vs. Left-tur ning Flow (Scenario 5.0)

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126 Figure A-64: Left-turning Percentage vs. Th/Rt Flow (Scenario 5.0) Figure A-65: Left-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0)

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127 Figure A-66: Right-turning Percenta ge vs. Capacity (Scenario 5.0) Figure A-67: Scenario 6. 1 (Lane Channelization) Figure A-68: Scenario 6. 2 (Lane Channelization)

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128 Figure A-69: Number of Open lane s vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0) Figure A-70: Left-only Lanes vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0)

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129 Figure A-71: Through and Right Lane s vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0) Figure A-72: Distance vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0)

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130 Figure A-73: Left Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0) Figure A-74: Th/Rt Phase g/C vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0)

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131 Figure A-75: Left-turning Percentage vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0) Figure A-76: Right-turning Percenta ge vs. Capacity (Scenario 6.0)

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132 Table A-1: Aggregate Level Trends Summary Factor Trend for Capacity Number of Open lanes Maximum value in creases, Minimum values remain same Left-only Lanes Maximum values decrease, minimum values remain almost same Th and Rt lanes Increase in capacity right-only Lanes No change right-turning % Goes down at very high values of 40% in some cases Left-turning % Capacity goes down Distance Increases till 500 ft and then remains almost constant Left g/C Capacity goes down Th/Rt g/C Increases almost linearly

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133 REFERENCES Associated Press. (1989). Model H elps Sche dule Work-Zone Lane Closures. Better Roads,Volume 59, Issue Number: 3, pp38-39. Arguea D. (2006). Simulation Based Approach to Estimate the Capacity of a Temporary Freeway Work Zone Lane Closure. Mast ers Thesis, University of Florida. Dixon, K.K., A. Lorscheider, and J.E. Hummer (1995). Computer Simulation of I-95 Lane Closures Using FRESIM. 65th ITE Annual M eeting. Compendium of Technical Papers. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Denver, CO. Dixon, K.K., J.E. Hummer, and A.R. Lorscheider. (1996). Capacity for North Carolina Freeway Work Zones. Transportation Research Record 1529. Transportati on Research Board. Washington, D.C. Federal Highway Administration. (2003). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2003 Edition. U.S. Department of Transportation. Federal Highway Administration. (2000). Users Manual for QuickZone Beta 0.5 (unpublished). U.S. Department of Transportation. Federal Highway Administration. (2005). Implementing the Rule on Work Zone Safety and Mobility. Washington, DC. FHWA Office of Operations. (2005). Work Zone & Traffic Analysis/Management, information (July 8, 2005). Florida Department of Transportation. (2007) FDOT Plans Preparation Manual. Section 10.12.7, Volume I. Florida Department of Transportation. (2000). FDOT Plans Preparation Manual, Volume I. Jiang X. and H. Adeli. (2004). Object-Oriented Model for Freeway Work Zone Capacity and Queue Delay Estimation. Computer Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering. Vol. 19, Pgs. 144-156. Joseph, C. T., E. Radwan, and N. M. Rouphail. (1988). Work Zone Analysis Model for the Signalized Arterial. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Board, No. 1194, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC. Kim, T., D. J. Lovell, and J. Paracha. ( 2001). A New Methodology to Estimate Capacity for Freeway Work Zones. Compendium of th e 2001 Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington DC.

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134 Lee, E. B. and C. W. Ibbs. (2005). A Comput er Simulation Model: Construction Analysis for Pavement Rehabilitation Strate gies (CA4PRS). Journal of Construction Engineering Management, 131 (4). Massachusetts Highway Department. (2007). M assachusetts Highway Design Guidelines. Boston, MA. Memmott, J. L., and C. L. Dudek. (1984). Queue and User Cost Evaluation of Work Zones (QUEWZ). Transportation Research Reco rd 979. Transportation Research Board. Washington, D.C. Missouri Department of Transportation. (2004). Work Zone Guidelines. Jefferson City, MO. Oregon Department of Transpor tation. (2007). Work Zone Traffic Analysis Manual. Salem, OR. Sarasua, W. A., W. J. Davis, D. B. Clarke, J. Kottapally, and P. Mulukutla. (2004). Evaluation of Interstate Highway Capacity for S hort-Term Work Zone Lane Closures. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Board, No. 1877, Transportation Research Board of the Na tional Academies, Washington, DC., pp. 85. Sterzin, E., Ben-Akiva, M.E. and, Toledo, T. (2005). Influencing Factors in Microscopic Traffic Simulation. Transportation Research Board Compendium of Papers, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board. (2000). Hi ghway Capacity Manual 2000. Washington, DC. Washington State Department of Transporta tion. (2006). Design Manual. Olympia, WA.

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135 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Mayank Prakash Jain was born in the city of Ud aipur in India. He belongs to the state of Rajasthan, the state with deserts. He went to hi gh school in the city of lakes (Udaipur) and was brought up there. After his +2 he went to Kota to prepare for Joint Enterance Exam to get admission into one of the Indian Institutes of Technology. He completed his bachelors degree in civil engineering at IIT Bombay. Af ter that, he moved to University of Florida at Gainesville in Florida to complete his masters degree in civil engineering with speciali zation in transportation engineering.