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Juiced Media

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022371/00001

Material Information

Title: Juiced Media Media Frames in Sports Magazines and Adolescent Steroid Use
Physical Description: 1 online resource (75 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bornstein, Adam
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Steroid use in sports is a problem that first began with Russian weightlifting teams in the Olympics in the 1950s and expanded to professional sports in the 1970s and 80s. While many sports instigated rules to prevent usage, new designer drugs kept athletes ahead of testing, and in some sports (most notably Major League Baseball) there was no testing for illegal anabolic substances. Despite dramatic body changes in baseball players and record breaking statistics in the 1990s and the early part of the 21th Century, testing was not implemented until 2003. Once testing began and government investigations looked into steroid use in baseball, it became apparent that steroids and other performance-enhancing supplements were frequently used in Major League Baseball. Between the early 1990s and the 2000s, athletes in all sports and at all levels ? professional, collegiate, and amateur ? were caught and punished for using steroids. The use of steroids and their benefits became an overwhelmingly common topic of discussion in sports magazines from 2002-2007. Research showed that steroid use in the adolescent population went from about 2% in the late 1980s to as high as 20% in some university-based research. This study was designed to determine the content of the steroid articles in popular sports magazines, and the potential impact that the frames in the sports articles could have on increasing experimental behavior of adolescent steroid use, or even lead to chronic and dangerous steroid abuse. A framing analysis of the magazines Sports Illustrated and The Sporting News from 2002-2007 revealed three primary frames: beneficial, warning, and social implications. The majority of articles included subframes that mentioned the numerous benefits of steroid use, suggesting that the coverage could encourage the usage of illegal performance-enhancing supplements in the adolescent population.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Adam Bornstein.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Walsh-Childers, Kim B.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022371:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022371/00001

Material Information

Title: Juiced Media Media Frames in Sports Magazines and Adolescent Steroid Use
Physical Description: 1 online resource (75 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bornstein, Adam
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Steroid use in sports is a problem that first began with Russian weightlifting teams in the Olympics in the 1950s and expanded to professional sports in the 1970s and 80s. While many sports instigated rules to prevent usage, new designer drugs kept athletes ahead of testing, and in some sports (most notably Major League Baseball) there was no testing for illegal anabolic substances. Despite dramatic body changes in baseball players and record breaking statistics in the 1990s and the early part of the 21th Century, testing was not implemented until 2003. Once testing began and government investigations looked into steroid use in baseball, it became apparent that steroids and other performance-enhancing supplements were frequently used in Major League Baseball. Between the early 1990s and the 2000s, athletes in all sports and at all levels ? professional, collegiate, and amateur ? were caught and punished for using steroids. The use of steroids and their benefits became an overwhelmingly common topic of discussion in sports magazines from 2002-2007. Research showed that steroid use in the adolescent population went from about 2% in the late 1980s to as high as 20% in some university-based research. This study was designed to determine the content of the steroid articles in popular sports magazines, and the potential impact that the frames in the sports articles could have on increasing experimental behavior of adolescent steroid use, or even lead to chronic and dangerous steroid abuse. A framing analysis of the magazines Sports Illustrated and The Sporting News from 2002-2007 revealed three primary frames: beneficial, warning, and social implications. The majority of articles included subframes that mentioned the numerous benefits of steroid use, suggesting that the coverage could encourage the usage of illegal performance-enhancing supplements in the adolescent population.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Adam Bornstein.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Walsh-Childers, Kim B.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022371:00001


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1 J U I C E D M E D I A : M E D I A F R A M E S I N S P O R T S M A G A Z I N E S A N D A D O L E S C E N T S T E R O I D U S E B y A D A M B O R N S T E I N A T H E S I S P R E S E N T E D T O T H E G R A D U A T E S C H O O L O F T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A 2008

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2 2008 A da m B or ns t e i n

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3 A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S I w oul d l i ke t o t ha nk t he c ha i r of m y t he s i s c om m i t t e e D r K i m W a l s h C hi l de r s f o r t he e xt e ns i ve t i m e a nd e f f o r t s he c ont r i but e d t o t hi s pr oj e c t a nd f or he r unl i m i t e d pa t i e nc e T he c om pl e t i on of t hi s pr oj e c t w oul d a l s o ha ve not be e n pos s i bl e w i t hout t he a s s i s t a nc e f r om m y ot he r t w o c om m i t t e e m e m be r s D r J ul i e D odd a nd P r of e s s or T e d S pi ke r T he i r c ont r i but i ons a nd a s s i s t a nc e gr e a t l y i m pr ove d t he qua l i t y a nd a ppl i c a bi l i t y of m y p r oj e c t I t ha nk m y pa r e nt s a nd t hr e e br ot he r s f or t he i r l ove e nc our a ge m e nt a nd f or not d i s ow ni ng m e de s pi t e m y obs e s s i ve de s i r e t o i m pr ove t he w or l d of he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s N one of m y a c c om pl i s hm e nt s w oul d be pos s i bl e w i t hout t he i r p r e s e nc e

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4 T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S pa ge A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 L I S T O F T A B L E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 P E R F O R M A N C E E N H A N C E M E N T G L O S S A R Y O F T E R M S . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 A B S T R A C T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N A N D B A C K G R O U N D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 I nt r oduc t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 B a c kgr ound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2 R E V I E W O F L I T E R A T U R E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 M a l e B ody I m a ge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 S oc i oc ul t ur a l I m pa c t a nd M e di a F r a m i ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 S t e r oi ds i n t he M e di a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 T he P s yc hol ogy: W hy A dol e s c e nt s T a ke S t e r oi ds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3 M E T H O D S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 4 R E S U L T S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 B e ne f i c i a l F r a m e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 W a r ni ng F r a m e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 S oc i a l I m pl i c a t i ons F r a m e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 5 C O N C L U S I O N A N D D I S C U S S I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 S t udy L i m i t a t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 F ut ur e R e s e a r c h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 A P P E N D I X A C O D E S H E E T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 B C O D E B O O K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 C B A S E B A L L S T E R O I D T I M E L I N E : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

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5 R E F E R E N C E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

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6 L I S T O F T A B L E S T a bl e pa ge 4 1 C odi ng s c he m e f or s t e r oi d us e a r t i c l e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

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7 P E R F O R M A N C E E N H A N C E M E N T G L O S S A R Y O F T E R M S C l om i phe ne C i t r a t e A pr e s c r i pt i on dr ug t ypi c a l l y us e d f or t he t r e a t m e nt of f e m a l e i n f e r t i l i t y i t i s t a ke n by m a l e a t h l e t e s t o ne ga t e t he e f f e c t s of i nc r e a s e d e s t r oge n, a r e s ul t of a na bol i c s t e r oi d a bus e H um a n C hor i oni c G ona dot r opi n ( H C G ) A hor m one p r oduc e d na t ur a l l y dur i ng p r e gna nc y, H C G i s t a ke n by a na bol i c s t e r oi d us e r s t o s t i m ul a t e t he pr o duc t i on o f t e s t os t e r one w hi c h i s s uppr e s s e d a s a r e s ul t of s t e r oi d us e H um a n G r ow t h H or m one ( H G H ) T he pr i m a r y pur pos e o f t he na t ur a l l y oc c ur r i ng gr ow t h hor m one i s t he m a i nt e na nc e of nor m a l bon e gr ow t h f r om bi r t h t o a dul t hood. S ynt he t i c H G H i s t ypi c a l l y u s e d by phys i c i a ns t o t r e a t gr ow t h di s or de r s but a t hl e t e s of t e n a bus e t he dr ug t o bui l d m us c l e a nd de c r e a s e f a t us ua l l y i n c onj unc t i on w i t h a na bol i c s t e r oi ds T he ge ne r i c na m e f o r s ynt he t i c a l l y pr oduc e d H G H i s s om a t r opi n; br a nd na m e s i nc l ude G e not r opi n a n d S a i z e n N a ndr ol one T hi s s ynt he t i c a na bol i c s t e r oi d ha s be e n us e d t o t r e a t a ne m i a os t e opor os i s a nd b r e a s t c a r c i nom a I t bui l ds m us c l e a nd i nc r e a s e s r e d bl ood c e l l c ount S t a noz ol ol T hi s s ynt he t i c a na bol i c s t e r oi d i s t ypi c a l l y us e d t o t r e a t a r a r e i m m une di s e a s e i n hum a ns a nd t o i nc r e a s e a ppe t i t e m us c l e m a s s a nd e ne r gy i n a ni m a l s of t e n hor s e s r e c ove r i ng f r om i l l ne s s or i nj ur y. I t m i ght be pr e f e r r e d by a t hl e t e s w ho va l ue s pe e d be c a us e i t doe s n't bui l d m us c l e qui c kl y. A l s o, s om e a bus e r s c l a i m t ha t s t a noz o l ol unl i ke s om e ot he r s t e r oi ds doe s n't c a us e w a t e r r e t e nt i on. W i ns t r ol i s a br a nd na m e T r e nbol one A s ynt he t i c a na bol i c s t e r oi d t ha t s om e c l a i m i s a m or e pot e nt m us c l e bui l de r t ha n t e s t os t e r one i t pr om ot e s r e d bl ood c e l l pr oduc t i on a nd i nc r e a s e s t he r a t e of gl yc oge n r e pl e ni s hm e nt bot h of w hi c h a i d i n pos t w or kout r e c ove r y.

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8 A bs t r a c t of T he s i s P r e s e nt e d t o t he G r a dua t e S c hool of t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e nt o f t he R e qui r e m e nt s f or t he D e g r e e of M a s t e r of A r t s i n M a s s C om m uni c a t i on J U I C E D M E D I A : M E D I A F R A M E S I N S P O R T S M A G A Z I N E S A N D A D O L E S C E N T S T E R O I D U S E B y A da m B or ns t e i n A ugus t 2008 C ha i r : K i m W a l s h C hi l de r s M a j or : M a s s C om m uni c a t i on S t e r oi d us e i n s por t s i s a pr ob l e m t ha t f i r s t be ga n w i t h R us s i a n w e i ght l i f t i ng t e a m s i n t he O l ym pi c s i n t he 1950s a nd e xpa nde d t o pr o f e s s i ona l s por t s i n t he 1970s a nd 80s W hi l e m a ny s por t s i ns t i ga t e d r ul e s t o pr e ve nt us a ge ne w de s i g ne r dr ugs ke pt a t hl e t e s a he a d of t e s t i ng, a nd i n s om e s por t s ( m os t not a bl y M a j or L e a gue B a s e ba l l ) t he r e w a s no t e s t i ng f or i l l e ga l a na bol i c s ubs t a nc e s D e s pi t e dr a m a t i c body c ha nge s i n ba s e ba l l pl a ye r s a nd r e c or d br e a ki ng s t a t i s t i c s i n t he 1990s a nd t he e a r l y pa r t of t he 21 t h C e nt ur y t e s t i ng w a s not i m pl e m e nt e d unt i l 2003 O nc e t e s t i ng be ga n a nd gove r nm e nt i nve s t i ga t i ons l ooke d i nt o s t e r oi d us e i n ba s e ba l l i t be c a m e a ppa r e nt t ha t s t e r oi ds a nd ot he r pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc i ng s uppl e m e nt s w e r e f r e que nt l y us e d i n M a j or L e a gue B a s e ba l l B e t w e e n t he e a r l y 1990s a nd t he 2000s a t hl e t e s i n a l l s por t s a nd a t a l l l e ve l s pr of e s s i ona l c ol l e gi a t e a nd a m a t e ur w e r e c a ught a nd puni s he d f or us i ng s t e r oi ds T he us e of s t e r oi ds a nd t he i r be ne f i t s be c a m e a n ove r w he l m i ngl y c om m on t op i c of di s c us s i on i n s por t s m a ga z i ne s f r om 2002 2007 R e s e a r c h s how e d t ha t s t e r oi d us e i n t he a do l e s c e nt popul a t i on w e nt f r om a bout 2 % i n t he l a t e 1980s t o a s hi gh a s 20% i n s om e uni ve r s i t y ba s e d r e s e a r c h. T hi s s t udy w a s de s i gne d t o de t e r m i ne t he c ont e nt o f t he s t e r oi d a r t i c l e s i n pop ul a r s por t s m a ga z i ne s a nd t he pot e nt i a l i m pa c t t ha t t he f r a m e s i n t he s por t s a r t i c l e s c oul d ha ve on i nc r e a s i ng e xpe r i m e nt a l be ha vi or o f

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9 a dol e s c e nt s t e r oi d us e or e ve n l e a d t o c hr oni c a nd da nge r ous s t e r oi d a bus e A f r a m i ng a na l ys i s of t he m a ga z i ne s Spor t s I l l us t r at e d a nd T he Spor t i ng N e w s f r om 2002 2007 r e ve a l e d t h r e e pr i m a r y f r a m e s : be ne f i c i a l w a r ni ng, a nd s oc i a l i m pl i c a t i ons T he m a j or i t y of a r t i c l e s i nc l ude d s ubf r a m e s t ha t m e nt i one d t he nu m e r ous be ne f i t s o f s t e r oi d us e s ugge s t i ng t ha t t he c ove r a ge c oul d e nc our a ge t he us a ge of i l l e ga l pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc i ng s uppl e m e nt s i n t he a dol e s c e nt popul a t i on.

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10 C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N A N D B A C K G R O U N D I n t r od u c t i on I n c ont e m por a r y A m e r i c a n s oc i e t y, s por t s e xi s t a s a pow e r f ul c ul t u r a l i n f l ue nc e on t he a t t i t ude s a nd be ha vi or s of t he ge ne r a l popul a t i on A s m e di a c ove r a ge of a t hl e t i c s a nd pr of e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s ha s i nc r e a s e d, s o ha s t he obs e s s i on w i t h a t hl e t i c a l l y gi f t e d i c ons P a s t r e s e a r c h s ugge s t s t ha t s por t s ha ve a pow e r f ul i n f l u e nc e on t he l i ve s of A m e r i c a ns ( W a nn, M e l ni c k, R us s e l l & P e a s e 2001) a nd f a m ous a t hl e t e s t r a ns c e nd t he i r r ol e s i n a t hl e t i c s a nd f unc t i on a s r ol e m ode l s w ho i nf l ue nc e m i l l i ons of pe opl e pa r t i c ul a r l y a dol e s c e nt s a nd c hi l dr e n ( H a r r i s 1994 ) W hi l e s por t s c ove r a ge i n t he m e di a t r a di t i ona l l y ha s f oc us e d on t he a t hl e t i c p r ow e s s of gi f t e d i ndi vi dua l s o r t he s uc c e s s e s of gr e a t t e a m s t he br i dge be t w e e n t he 20 t h a nd 21s t c e nt ur i e s us he r e d i n a c l oud o f unc e r t a i nt y i n a t h l e t i c s a nd a s hi f t i n m e di a c ove r a ge C om pe t i t i on a nd t he de s i r e t o be c om e t he be s t ha ve p r e s s ur e d m a ny a t h l e t e s t o r e l y on i l l e ga l c he m i c a l s uppl e m e nt s t ha t i m pr ove a t hl e t i c pr ow e s s T he s t e r oi d e r a a r e f e r e nc e t ha t pr i m a r i l y r e l a t e s t o ba s e ba l l f r om t he l a t e 1980s unt i l 2005, r e pr e s e nt s t he da nge r ous r i s ks a t hl e t e s t a ke t o m a i nt a i n t he i r j obs a nd, i n s om e s i t ua t i ons a c c om pl i s h t r e m e ndous f e a t s A s go ve r ni ng bodi e s ha ve e nga ge d i n t hor ough i nve s t i ga t i ons of s t e r oi d us a ge s t or i e s a bout t he us e of s t e r oi ds a nd i l l e ga l a na bol i c a ndr oge ni c s ubs t a nc e s ( A A S ) ha ve f r e que nt l y dom i na t e d s por t s r e l a t e d m e di a c ont e nt T he m e di a s por t r a ya l of a hi gh f r e que nc y of s t e r oi d us e by popul a r pr of e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s ha s pot e nt i a l l y da nge r ous i m pl i c a t i ons f o r yout h w ho i dol i z e a nd i de nt i f y w i t h t he i r f a vor i t e a t hl e t e s C r i t i c s c ha r ge t ha t t he na m i ng o f a t hl e t e s w ho ha ve us e d s t e r oi ds ne ga t i ve l y i nf l ue nc e s m i l l i ons of young i ndi vi dua l s ( S m i t h 2005 )

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11 T he i nf us i on o f s t e r oi d r e l a t e d a r t i c l e s i n t he m e di a m a y ha ve a s oc i oc ul t ur a l i m pa c t on a dol e s c e nt m a l e body i m a ge A s t i m e ha s pa s s e d, a t hl e t e s ha ve be c om e bi gge r a nd s t r onge r a nd t he r i s k i s t ha t c ont e m por a r y s por t s c ove r a ge m a y ha ve us he r e d i n a ne w e xpe c t a t i on o f a m us c ul a r phys i que t ha t i s onl y a c hi e va bl e f or m os t a dol e s c e nt s vi a t he us e of i l l e ga l dr ugs ( B l oui n & G ol d f i e l d, 1995) T he bi gge r m e a ns be t t e r i de ol ogy, w hi c h i s p r om i ne nt l y di s s e m i na t e d i n a t hl e t i c s a nd by s t e r o i d us e r s ha s a l t e r e d t he c ul t ur a l i de a l i m a ge o f t he m a l e body ( L e i t G r a y & P ope 2002) N ot onl y a r e t oda y's a t hl e t e s bi gge r s t r onge r a nd f a s t e r t ha n t hos e of t he pa s t but t he i m a ge s of m e n por t r a ye d i n t he m e di a w he t he r a t hl e t e s or n ot r e f l e c t t h os e of t oda y's a t hl e t e S om e m e n's f i t ne s s a nd bodybui l di ng m a ga z i ne s i nc l ude pi c t ur e s of hype r m us c ul a r m a l e s w ho a r e a s di f f e r e nt f r om t he a ve r a ge m a n a s s t i c k t hi n s upe r m ode l s a r e f r om t he a ve r a ge w om a n I n e f f e c t a dva nc e s i n s c i e nc e s pe c i f i c a l l y t he us e of s t e r oi ds hum a n gr ow t h hor m one a nd ot he r a na bol i c a ndr oge ni c s ubs t a nc e s ha ve c r e a t e d a ne w e xpe c t a t i on of m us c ul a r m a s c ul i ni t y t ha t i s e pi t om i z e d by s om e of t he m os t i nf l ue nt i a l i ndi vi d ua l s i n s oc i e t y: pr of e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s W hi l e t he m e di a c ont i nue t o f oc us on t he pr e va l e nc e of s t e r oi ds i n s por t s t he pr e s e nc e a nd e f f e c t i ve ne s s of s t e r oi d a bus e i n s por t s ha s a l r e a dy i nj e c t e d i t s e l f i nt o s oc i e t y a nd, of t e n, i nt o t he l i f e s t yl e s of t oda y's yout h v i a e xt e ns i ve m e di a ( H o f f m a n e t a l 2008 ) W hi l e m uc h of t he m e di a c ove r a ge a ppe a r s t o f oc u s on t he m or a l i nde c e nc y of s t e r oi d us i ng pr of e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s a dol e s c e nt s a r e a l r e a dy s uf f e r i ng a s a r e s ul t of t r y i ng t o c opy t he i r r ol e m ode l s I n 2003 16 ye a r ol d T a yl or H oot e n b e c a m e t he unde r publ i c i z e d pos t e r c hi l d of hype r m a s c ul i ni t y gone w r ong H oot e n w ho w a s obs e s s e d w i t h bui l di ng t he i de a l m us c ul a r m a l e body, t ur ne d t o s t e r oi ds t o s pa r k g r ow t h i n t he hop e of a ugm e nt i ng hi s s uc c e s s on t he ba s e ba l l

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1 2 f i e l d. A s a r e s ul t of hi s s t e r oi d us e H oot e n be c a m e de pr e s s e d a nd ha nge d hi m s e l f j us t one m ont h a f t e r hi s 17t h bi r t hda y S t e r oi d r e l a t e d de a t hs s uc h a s T a yl or H oot e n's a r e f r e que nt l y ove r s ha dow e d by ot he r m e di a c ove r a ge r e ga r di ng t he s m or ga s bor d of dopi ng a l l e ga t i ons i n pr o f e s s i ona l s por t s A t hl e t i c i c ons s uc h a s ba s e ba l l pl a ye r s M a r k M c G w i r e a nd B a r r y B onds T ou r de F r a nc e w i nne r F l oyd L a ndi s O l ym pi c g ol d m e da l i s t s M a r i on J one s a nd J us t i n G a t l i n, a nd P r o B ow l l i ne ba c ke r s B i l l R om a now s ki a nd S ha w n M e r r i m a n ha ve a l l c r e a t e d he a dl i ne s f or t he i r us e of a na bol i c a nd r oge ni c s ubs t a nc e s w hi c h i nc r e a s e t e s t os t e r one i n t he body a nd a l l ow f o r unna t ur a l ga i ns i n l e a n m us c l e m a s s T he pr obl e m i s n t j us t w i t h t he i m a ge por t r a ye d i n s por t s S t e r oi ds a r e i l l e ga l s uppl e m e nt s t ha t ha ve ne ga t i ve l ong t e r m c ons e que nc e s t ha t c a n t be c om pr e he nde d by a dol e s c e nt s T he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of s t e r oi ds a n i m p r ove d body o r i m p r ove d pe r f o r m a nc e c oul d e a s i l y ove r w he l m pot e nt i a l he a l t h p r obl e m s t ha t m i ght not s how up f or m or e t ha n 10 ye a r s W i t h pr of e s s i ona l s por t s pot e nt i a l l y f unc t i oni ng a s a n e duc a t i ona l f o r um on t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of s t e r oi ds t he m e di a s c ove r a ge of t oda y's a t hl e t e s m a y r e i nf or c e a m us c ul a r m a l e body c onc e pt i on a nd, m or e i m por t a nt l y pot e nt i a l l y m a y i nf l ue nc e a dol e s c e nt s t o e nga ge i n e xpe r i m e nt a t i on w i t h i l l e ga l s ubs t a nc e s t ha t a r e pr ove n t o bui l d m us c l e a nd a i d i n r e c ove r y f r om m us c ul a r s t r e s s or s S t e r oi ds a l l ow f o r g r e a t e r ga i ns i n m a s s s t r e ngt h t r a i ni ng out put a nd vol um e a nd a l l ow t he body t o r e c upe r a t e qui c ke r t ha n na t ur a l a t hl e t e s I f a dol e s c e nt s be l i e ve t ha t m us c ul a r bodi e s a nd a t hl e t i c a c hi e ve m e nt s c a n be a c hi e ve d onl y by unna t ur a l m e a ns t he n t he m e di a c ove r a ge of s por t s c oul d be pe r pe t ua t i ng a n unr e a l i s t i c body i m a ge e nt i c i ng young m e n t o e xpe r i m e nt w i t h da nge r ous d r ugs a nd c r e a t i ng a ps yc hol ogi c a l ne e d f o r m us c ul a r i t y A s r e c e nt l y a s 2006, s t udi e s s ugge s t t ha t 5% t o 10 % of a dol e s c e nt s us e s t e r oi ds ( C a f r i V a n de n B e r g, T hom ps on, 2006; C e nt e r s f or D i s e a s e C ont r ol a nd P r e ve nt i on, 2006) T he T a yl o r

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13 H oot e n s t or y, w hi c h w a s not a n i s ol a t e d i nc i de nt br i ngs i nt o que s t i on t he m e di a 's r ol e i n i nc r e a s i ng a dol e s c e nt s t e r oi d us a ge i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s W hi l e a n i nc r e a s e i n c ove r a ge of s t e r oi d us e i n pr of e s s i ona l a t hl e t i c s i s a ppa r e nt a nd t he c r e a t i on of t he m us c ul a r m a l e i de a l ha s be e n e s t a bl i s he d t hr ough r e s e a r c h ( A gl i a t a & T a nt l e f f D unn, 2004; B r ow n, B a s i l & B oc a r ne a 2003; C a f r i va n de n B e r g, & T hom ps on, 20 06; L a w & L a br e 2002 ; L e i t G r a y, & P ope 2002; W r i ght G r oga n, & H unt e r 2000 ) i t ha s ye t t o be de t e r m i ne d w ha t m e c ha ni s m s r e i nf or c e e xpe r i m e nt a t i on w i t h A A S e s pe c i a l l y i n t he a dol e s c e nt s e gm e nt of t he popul a t i on D e t e r m i ni ng w ha t s oc i e t a l f a c t or s m i ght be c ont r i but i ng t o t he i nc r e a s e i n s t e r oi d us e i s e s s e nt i a l t o c ha ngi ng t he t r e nd. T he m e di a s c r e a t i on of t he m us c ul a r i de a l i s not onl y a bout s upe r f i c i a l a e s t he t i c s T he ne e d t o m a t c h a m e di a c r e a t e d body i m a ge c a n c r e a t e ps yc hol ogi c a l i na de qua c i e s i n m a l e s t ha t l e a d t o f e e l i ngs of i nf e r i or i t y ( L e i t G r a y, & P ope 2002) T he s e f e e l i ngs of i nf e r i o r i t y c a n c a us e a r e l i a nc e on unna t ur a l m e t hods t o i nc r e a s e s i z e a nd m us c ul a t ur e ( L a w & L a br e 2002) W hi l e t hi s pa t t e r n e xpl a i ns how a nd w hy a dol e s c e nt m a l e s w oul d e xpe r i m e nt w i t h s t e r oi ds i t doe s not r e ve a l w hi c h m e di um p r ovi de s t he i n f or m a t i on t ha t w oul d i nc r e a s e a dol e s c e nt s l i ke l i hood of e nga gi ng i n s t e r oi d us e G i ve n t he s e r i ous he a l t h r i s ks of a dol e s c e nt us e of s t e r oi ds a nd ot he r pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc i ng s ubs t a nc e s r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r ne w s m e di a c ove r a ge o f pr of e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s s t e r oi d us e i s i nde e d a n i m po r t a nt s our c e of i nf o r m a t i on f or a dol e s c e nt s a nd, i f s o, w he t he r t ha t i n f or m a t i on s our c e i s m or e l i ke l y t o e nge nde r pos i t i ve or ne ga t i ve a t t i t ude s t ow a r d s t e r oi d us e a m ong a dol e s c e nt m a l e s T hi s s t udy t he r e f or e w a s de s i gne d t o de t e r m i ne t he t ype o f s por t s m e di a c ont e nt t ha t i s p e r va s i ve i n m a ga z i ne s a popul a r a nd i nf l ue nt i a l f o r m o f c om m uni c a t i on a m ong a dol e s c e nt m a l e s S pe c i f i c a l l y t he s t udy i nve s t i ga t e d

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14 w he t he r s por t s m a ga z i ne c ont e nt us e d f r a m e s t ha t pr i m e a dol e s c e nt r e a de r s t o a s s oc i a t e s t e r oi d us e w i t h phys i c a l a nd s oc i a l be ne f i t s T he r e m a i nde r of C ha pt e r 1 p r ovi de s a ddi t i ona l ba c kgr ound i nf or m a t i on a bout t he f r e que nc y of a dol e s c e nt s t e r oi d us e a nd t he s i gni f i c a nt he a l t h c ons e que nc e s t ha t c a n r e s ul t w he n a dol e s c e nt s s t r i ve t o a c hi e ve t he hype r m us c ul a r l o ok r e pr e s e nt e d by s t e r oi d us i ng a t hl e t e s e s pe c i a l l y w he n t he y a t t e m pt t o e m u l a t e t he s e a t hl e t e s by us i ng s t e r oi ds a nd ot he r i l l e ga l pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc i ng dr ugs C ha pt e r 2 i nc l ude s a r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e r e l a t i ng t o m a l e body i m a ge a nd t he c r e a t i on of t he hype r m us c ul a r m a l e body i de a l a s w e l l a s a r e vi e w of s oc i a l c om pa r i s on/ s oc i a l c ogni t i ve t he or y, w hi c h, a l ong w i t h f r a m i ng t he or y i s t he t he or e t i c a l unde r pi nni ng f o r t he s t udy. C ha pt e r 3 de s c r i be s t h e m e t hods t o be us e d i n t he s t udy, C ha pt e r 4 pr e s e nt s t he r e s ul t s a nd t he f i na l c ha pt e r i nc l ude s t he c onc l us i ons a nd di s c us s i on of t he i m pl i c a t i ons of t he s t udy r e s ul t s B ac k gr ou n d D e s pi t e t he m e di a 's a ppa r e nt l y i nt e ns e c ove r a ge of dopi ng s c a nda l s a nd i ndi r e c t a t t e m pt s t o r a i s e a w a r e ne s s a nd di s c our a ge s t e r oi d us a ge r e s e a r c h i ndi c a t e s t ha t s t e r oi d c ons um pt i on ha s be e n i nc r e a s i ng i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s m os t not a bl y a m ong m a l e a dol e s c e nt s ( R i c c i a r de l l i M c C a be & R i dge 2006) T he us e of a na bol i c a nd r oge ni c s ubs t a nc e s by a dol e s c e nt s ha s m or e t ha n doubl e d i n t he pa s t de c a de a nd e xpe r t s c ont e nd t ha t t he a c t ua l us a ge i s l i ke l y gr e a t e r t ha n t he num be r s i ndi c a t e ( R i c c i a r de l l i e t a l 2006) I n a 1996 s t udy, a ge ne r a l i z e d l ook a t t he ove r a l l p opul a t i on r e ve a l e d t ha t 4 % t o 11% of m a l e s ha d us e d s t e r oi ds a t l e a s t onc e a s ha d 5% t o 2. 5% of f e m a l e s ( W r obl e w s ki 1996) A l t hough bot h m e n a nd w om e n e xpe r i m e nt w i t h A A S m e n a r e m or e c om m onl y t he us e r s of t he i l l e ga l s ubs t a nc e s a nd t hus m os t r e s e a r c h f oc us e s on m a l e s ( M c C r e a r y & S a s s e 2000)

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15 S om e of t he m os t di s t ur bi ng s t a t i s t i c s a r e f ound i n a dol e s c e nt s t e r oi d us a ge S t udi e s i ndi c a t e t ha t s t e r oi d us a ge by t e e na ge r s i s i nc r e a s i ng. S om e of t he e a r l i e s t r e s e a r c h on s t e r oi d us e i n hi gh s c hool boys be ga n i n 1987 I n a n e a r l y s t udy, a s a m pl e o f f oot ba l l pl a ye r s a n a t r i s k popul a t i on f or s t e r oi d us e w a s s ur ve ye d. I n t he s t udy, 1 1% o f f oot ba l l pl a ye r s f r om O r e gon a dm i t t e d s t e r oi d us a ge ( G ol dbe r g e t a l 1990) T he t e s t w a s t he n r e pe a t e d i n 1991 i n I ndi a na w i t h t he num be r i nc r e a s i ng t o 5. 5% ( C l e a r y e t a l 1992) D ur i ng t he 10 ye a r pe r i od f r om 1993 t o 2003 a na bol i c a ndr oge ni c s ubs t a nc e a bus e i n t he a dol e s c e nt popul a t i on c ont i nue d t o i nc r e a s e I n 19 93, r e s e a r c h i ndi c a t e d t ha t a ppr oxi m a t e l y one of e ve r y 45 hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s ha d e xpe r i m e nt e d w i t h s t e r oi ds a t l e a s t onc e ( N a t i ona l C e nt e r f or C hr oni c D i s e a s e P r e ve nt i on a nd H e a l t h P r om ot i on, 2003) T ha t nu m be r ha d i nc r e a s e d t o 1 i n e ve r y 27 s t ude nt s by 1999 a nd by 2003 t he l i f e t i m e s t e r oi d us e ha d r e a c he d 1 i n e ve r y 16 hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s ( N a t i ona l C e nt e r f or C hr oni c D i s e a s e P r e ve nt i on a nd H e a l t h P r om ot i on 2003) G i ve n t ha t t he ge ne r a l t r e nd i ndi c a t e s a n i nc r e a s e i n a dol e s c e nt s t e r oi d us e de t e r m i ni ng c ont r i but i ng c a us a l f a c t or s t a ke s on g r e a t e r i m po r t a nc e C ont e m por a r y r e s e a r c h s how s t ha t s t udy r e s ul t s va r y s i gni f i c a nt l y i n t e r m s o f t he pe r c e nt a ge of a d ol e s c e nt s w ho us e s t e r oi ds J ohns on, J a y, S houp, a nd R i c ke r t ( 1989) t e s t e d a s a m pl e of hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s a nd f ound t ha t 11% of a dol e s c e nt m a l e s e i t he r ha d us e d or w e r e us i ng s t e r oi ds T he s e f i gu r e s w e r e c or r obo r a t e d by a s t udy c onduc t e d by B a hr ke Y e s a l i s a nd B r ow n ne a r l y 10 ye a r s l a t e r ( 1998) T he i r r e s e a r c h r e ve a l e d t ha t 4 % t o 12% of h i gh s c hool boys us e d s t e r oi ds ( B a hr ke Y e s a l i s & B r ow e n, 1998) I n 2000, Y e s a l i s a nd B a hr ke f ound t ha t 3% t o12% of a dol e s c e nt m a l e s ha d us e d a na bol i c a ndr oge ni c s ubs t a nc e s a t l e a s t onc e O ne of t he m os t r e c e nt publ i s he d s t udi e s on a dol e s c e nt s t e r oi d us e r e ve a l e d t ha t a ppr oxi m a t e l y 10% of a dol e s c e nt boys ha d us e d s t e r oi ds ( C a f r i V a n de n B e r g T hom ps on,

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16 2006) T he s a m pl e c a m e f r om 269 hi gh s c hool boy s i n F l or i da w ho r a nge d i n a ge f r om 13 t o 18 ye a r s ol d. I f t he 10% f i gur e w a s a ppl i e d t o t he 200 6 A m e r i c a n hi gh s c hool popul a t i on, m or e t ha n one m i l l i on h i gh s c hool boys w oul d be us i ng s t e r oi ds ( C a f r i V a n de n B e r g T ho m ps on, 2006 ) I n s l i ght c ont r a s t t o uni ve r s i t y ba s e d r e s e a r c h, t he C e nt e r s f or D i s e a s e C ont r ol c onduc t e d i t s ow n a na l ys i s of a dol e s c e nt s t e r oi d us a ge A l t ho ugh t he r a t e s of us a ge a r e not a s dr a m a t i c a s t hos e c i t e d i n j our na l r e s e a r c h, t he C D C f i ndi ngs c or r obor a t e t he i nc r e a s e i n us e A 2005 C D C s ur ve y of hi gh s c hoo l s t ude nt s f ound t ha t 5% of t h e a dol e s c e nt s s ur ve ye d r e por t e d us i ng non pr e s c r i be d s t e r oi ds ( C e nt e r s f or D i s e a s e C ont r ol a nd P r e ve nt i on, 2006) T he s e f i gu r e s w e r e m i r r or e d by a 2005 Y out h R i s k B e ha vi or s ur ve y t h a t r e por t e d a l i f e t i m e i nc i de nc e of s t e r oi d us e i n 4. 8% of boys i n a s ur ve y of ne a r l y 14 000 h i gh s c hool s t ude nt s ( E a t on e t a l 2006 ) D e s pi t e t he va r i a nc e i n t he s t a t i s t i c s t he ge ne r a l c o ns e ns u s a m ong a c a de m i c r e s e a r c he r s i s t ha t a dol e s c e nt s t e r oi d us a ge i s m or e pr e va l e nt t ha n w ha t r e s e a r c h s how s ( A gl i a t a & T a nt l e f f D unn, 2004; C a f r i V a n de n B e r g & T hom ps on, 2 006; J ohns on e t a l 1989; Y e s a l i s & B a hr ke 2000) T he unde r e s t i m a t e s a r e a t t r i but e d t o t he di f f i c ul t y i n ga t he r i ng ge ne r a l i z a bl e s a m pl e s a nd obt a i ni ng hone s t r e s pons e s f r om a dol e s c e nt s on s ur ve ys R e s e a r c he r s f e a r t ha t t he ge ne r a l s e c r e c y of s t e r oi d us e r s a nd t he t e nde nc y of a dol e s c e nt s t o r e s pond i n a s oc i a l l y de s i r a bl e f a s hi on unde r m i ne t he a c c ur a c y of t he f i gur e s ( A gl i a t a & T a nt l e f f D unn 2004; C a f r i V a n de n B e r g, & T hom ps on, 2006; Y e s a l i s & B a hr ke 2000 ) D e s pi t e a ne c dot a l e vi de nc e a bout t he ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s of s t e r oi ds a de a r t h o f s t udi e s pr ove s t he l ong t e r m ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s o f s t e r oi d a bus e ( W r obl e w s ki 1996) T he s t udi e s t ha t pr ove t he l ong t e r m de t r i m e nt s f oc us on c ont r ol l e d dos a g e s a nd not t he t ypi c a l hi ghe r dos e s t ha t a t hl e t e s a l l e ge dl y s ubj e c t t he i r bodi e s t o T he W e b s i t e of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s O f f i c e of N a t i ona l D r ug C ont r ol P ol i c y l i s t s t he f ol l ow i ng i nf o r m a t i on a bo ut t he de t r i m e nt a l s i de e f f e c t s of s t e r oi d us a ge :

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17 A na bol i c s t e r oi d a bus e ha s be e n a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a w i de r a nge of a dve r s e s i de e f f e c t s r a ngi ng f r o m s om e t ha t a r e phys i c a l l y una t t r a c t i ve s uc h a s a c ne a nd br e a s t de ve l opm e nt i n m e n, t o ot he r s t ha t a r e l i f e t hr e a t e ni ng. M os t of t he e f f e c t s a r e r e ve r s i bl e i f t he a bus e r s t ops t a ki ng t he dr ug but s om e c a n be pe r m a ne nt I n a d di t i on t o t he phys i c a l e f f e c t s a na bol i c s t e r oi ds c a n a l s o c a us e i nc r e a s e d i r r i t a bi l i t y a nd a g gr e s s i on. S om e of t he he a l t h c ons e que nc e s t ha t c a n oc c ur i n bot h m a l e s a nd f e m a l e s i nc l ude l i ve r c a nc e r he a r t a t t a c ks a nd e l e va t e d c hol e s t e r ol l e ve l s I n a ddi t i on t o t hi s s t e r oi d us e a m ong a dol e s c e nt s m a y pr e m a t ur e l y s t op t he l e ngt he ni ng of bone s r e s ul t i ng i n s t unt e d gr ow t h P e opl e w ho i nj e c t s t e r oi ds a l s o r un t he r i s k of c ont r a c t i ng or t r a ns m i t t i ng he pa t i t i s or H I V S om e s t e r oi d a bus e r s e xpe r i e nc e w i t hdr a w a l s ym p t om s w he n t he y s t op t a ki ng t he dr ug T he s e w i t hdr a w a l s ym pt om s i nc l ude m ood s w i ngs f a t i gue r e s t l e s s ne s s l os s of a ppe t i t e i ns om ni a r e duc e d s e x dr i ve a nd de p r e s s i on. T hi s de pr e s s i on c a n l e a d t o s ui c i de a t t e m pt s a nd i f l e f t unt r e a t e d, c a n pe r s i s t f or a ye a r o r m o r e a f t e r t he a bus e r s t ops t a ki ng t he dr ugs ( ht t p: / / w w w w hi t e hous e dr ugpol i c y. gov/ d r ugf a c t / s t e r oi ds / i nde x. ht m l ) S om e r e s e a r c h i ndi c a t e s t ha t s t e r oi d us e ha s ne ga t i ve he a l t h e f f e c t s bu t be c a u s e of e t hi c a l i s s ue s r e s e a r c he r s ha ve f ound i t di f f i c ul t t o s t udy t he l ong t e r m s a f e t y of s t e r oi d us e a nd a l m os t a l l r e s e a r c h f oc us e s e xc l us i ve l y on a dul t s a nd not on a dol e s c e nt s ( R os e nf i e l d, 2005) S t e r oi d us e ha s be e n a s s oc i a t e d w i t h ne ga t i ve s i de e f f e c t s s uc h a s gyne c om a s t i a f or m i ng p l a que on t he a r t e r i e s a t r ophi e d t e s t i c l e s l i m i t e d s pe r m p r oduc t i on, l i ve r di s or de r s a nd a l t e r e d ne ur oe ndoc r i ne f unc t i oni ng ( D ha r e t a l 2005 ; L a ne e t a l 2006) T he us e of A A S a l s o ha s be e n l i nke d t o ps yc hi a t r i c d i s or d e r s i nc l udi ng hypom a ni a a ggr e s s i ve ne s s de pr e s s i on a nd i nc r e a s e i n s ui c i da l c ogni t i ons a nd s ui c i de ( B r ow e r 2002 ) S t e r oi d us e a l s o ha s be e n l i nke d t o pr e m a t u r e he a r t a t t a c ks s t r oke s a nd t he pr e m a t ur e de a t hs of a t hl e t e s a nd bodybui l de r s ( M i l l m a n & R os s 2003) M os t s t udi e s a r e l i m i t e d by s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e s ( be c a us e of t he ne ga t i ve s t i gm a of s t e r oi d us e ) t he i m pos s i bi l i t y of a doubl e bl i nd pl a c e bo c ont r ol l e d s t udy, a nd t he i na bi l i t y t o pr ovi de s t e r oi da l dos a ge s t ha t r e f l e c t t he a m ount s us e d by a t hl e t e s a nd bodybui l de r s w ho a bus e t he dr ugs ( B l ue & L om ba r do, 1999) M os t i ns t i t ut i ona l r e vi e w boa r ds a r e he s i t a nt t o s t udy t he e f f e c t s of a na bol i c s t e r oi ds on t he a t hl e t i c popu l a t i on a nd a p pr ove r e s e a r c h i n a non c l i ni c a l popul a t i on ( H of f m a n & R a t a m e s s 2006) T h i s c a us e s m a ny u ni ve r s i t y ba s e d s t udi e s t o r e l y on a t hl e t e s a nd bodybui l de r s t ha t s e l f a dm i ni s t e r t he dr ugs w hi c h m a ke s i t ha r d t o m oni t or dos a ge s us e d. A c a de m i c r e s e a r c h doe s n t ha ve s i gni f i c a nt doubl e bl i nd e vi de nc e on t he i m pl i c a t i ons o f a bus i ve s t e r oi d us e a s oppos e d t o us e of s t e r oi ds t a ke n und e r m e di c a l s upe r vi s i on ( H o f f m a n & R a t a m e s s 2006) M os t a t hl e t e s w ho us e s t e r oi ds c yc l e t he i l l e ga l d r ugs f or l onge r pe r i ods of

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18 t i m e a t hi ghe r dos e s t ha n w oul d be a l l ow e d t o be t e s t e d by a r e vi e w boa r d ( H of f m a n & R a t a m e s s 2006) I n c om pa r i s on, r e s e a r c h ha s c ons i s t e nt l y pr ove n t h a t c om bi ni ng e xe r c i s e w i t h t he us e of s t e r oi ds or e xoge nous t e s t os t e r one c a n i nc r e a s e m us c l e a nd f a t f r e e m a s s ( B ha s i n e t a l 1996) S t e r oi ds a ppe a l t o a dol e s c e nt s be c a us e r e s e a r c h a n d m e di a c ove r a ge r e ve a l t ha t A A S us e i nc r e a s e s s t r e ngt h, i m pr ove s a ppe a r a nc e pe r f o r m a nc e a nd r e c ove r y, a nd i nc r e a s e s m us c l e m a s s w hi l e de c r e a s i ng a di pos e t i s s ue ( T a nne r e t a l 1995 ) T he s t r e ngt h of e vi de nc e s uppor t i ng t he be ne f i t s of s t e r oi ds bot h s c i e nt i f i c a l l y a nd a ne c dot a l l y i n t he m e di a pot e nt i a l l y l i m i t s t he a bi l i t y t o de t e r a dol e s c e nt s f r om c opyi ng t he s t e r oi d us e of p r of e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s l e a vi ng young i ndi vi dua l s s us c e pt i bl e t o m e di a i nf l ue nc e t ha t c ou l d e nc our a ge a nd pi que i nt e r e s t i n s t e r oi d us e

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19 C H A P T E R 2 R E V I E W O F L I T E R A T U R E M al e B od y I m age T he m e di a 's i nf l ue nc e on m a l e body i m a ge i s a bu r ge oni ng c onc e r n i n s oc i e t y, but t he i s s ue ha s r e c e i ve d c ons i de r a bl e a t t e nt i on a nd r e s e a r c h onl y w i t h i n t he pa s t 10 ye a r s ( G r i ns poon & S e e l y, 2006) P a s t r e s e a r c h i ndi c a t e s t ha t c ogni t i ve a nd be ha vi or a l c onc e r ns r e l a t i ng t o body i m a ge a r e s oc i oc ul t ur a l i n na t ur e a nd de r i ve i n pa r t f r om i m a ge s di s pl a ye d i n t he m e di a ( C a f r i Y a m a m i ya B r a nni c k, & T hom ps on, 2005 ) O r i gi n a l l y, m os t r e s e a r c h on body i m a ge f oc us e d on f e m a l e s ( H a r r i s on & C a nt or 1997) A s t r ong c onn e c t i on be t w e e n body i m a ge a w a r e ne s s a nd da nge r ous di e t a nd e xe r c i s e r e gi m e ns i n a dol e s c e n t f e m a l e s be c a m e a ppa r e nt i n m a i ns t r e a m c ul t ur e i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ( B l oui n & G ol df i e l d 1 995) F e m a l e body i m a ge pr o bl e m s w e r e m a ni f e s t e d i n a dr i ve f o r t hi nne s s t ha t w a s r e pr e s e nt e d i n t he m e di a by m ode l s f e a t ur i ng e xt r e m e l y t hi n phys i que s ( S i l ve r s t e i n, P e r due P e t e r s on, & K e l l y, 1986 ) T he r e s e a r c h on body i m a ge f oc us e d on t he w r ong obs e s s i on i n t e r m s of a m o r e pr o m i n e nt pa t hol ogy i n t he m a l e ge nde r W he r e a s f e m a l e s de s i r e t o be t hi n a nd m i m i c t he m e di a 's por t r a ya l of t he i de a l w om a n ( t he s t e r e ot ypi c r unw a y m ode l ) t he m a l e obs e s s i on, a t l e a s t i n t he pa s t t w o de c a de s ha s f oc us e d on t he de s i r e t o be c om e m or e m us c ul a r ( M c C r e a r y & S a s s e 2000) I nt e r e s t i n t he m a l e body i m a ge ha s i nc r e a s e d a s t he m e di a 's por t r a ya l o f t he i de a l m a l e body ha s be c om e m or e p r onounc e d. F r om 1967 t o 1997, t he m a l e body t ype di s pl a ye d i n t he m a ga z i ne s G Q R ol l i ng St one a nd Spor t s I l l us t r at e d be c a m e m or e m us c ul a r a nd l e a n ( L a w & L a br e 2002 ) L a w a nd L a br e pe r f o r m e d a c ont e nt a na l ys i s on t he m a ga z i ne s a nd de t e r m i ne d t ha t m us c ul a r i t y i n m a l e s i nc r e a s e d a l m os t 30% dur i ng t he 30 ye a r pe r i od ( 2002 ) T he m e di a w e nt f r om po r t r a yi ng a body t ype t ha t w a s e a s y t o a t t a i n r e p r e s e nt e d by t he body of J ohn W a yne t o

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20 f oc us i ng on hype r m us c ul a r m a l e s s uc h a s A r nol d S c hw a r z e ne gge r or S yl ve s t e r S t a l l one ( V a r t a ni a n e t a l 2001) I n a ddi t i on t o c ha nge s i n popul a r m a ga z i ne i m a ge s c e nt e r f ol ds i n P l ay gi r l m a ga z i ne r e f l e c t e d t he s a m e t r e nd; be t w e e n 1970 a nd 2000, t he m us c ul a r i t y of P l ay gi r l m ode l s s i gni f i c a nt l y i nc r e a s e d ( L e i t P ope & G r a y, 2001) B y 1997 t he ne w i m a ge o f t he i de a l m a l e body w a s r e pr e s e nt e d by a n e xt r e m e f or m of pe r f e c t i on t ha t w oul d be di f f i c ul t f or m os t m e n t o a t t a i n ( L a w & L a br e 2002) T he i de a l m a l e body b e c a m e de f i ne d by a n e xt r e m e m us c ul a r i t y t ha t r e pr e s e nt e d a hype r m a s c ul i ne pe r s ona ( P ope P hi l l i ps & O l i va r di a 2000) A l ong w i t h t he c ha ngi ng i m a ge of t he m a l e body i n t he m e di a t he s ha pe of p r o f e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s bodi e s be ga n t o be c om e m or e m us c ul a r a s w e l l ( P ope P hi l l i ps & O l i va r di a 2000) W he n c om bi ne d w i t h t he i m a ge s of m e n i n popul a r m e di a r e s e a r c he r s a r gue t ha t t he i de a l m a l e body i s now r e pr e s e nt e d by t he hype r m us c ul a r pr ot ot ype w h i c h i s t ypi c a l l y a c hi e va bl e onl y by us e o f s t e r oi ds S por t s a nd f i t ne s s m a ga z i ne s a r e pot e nt m e di um s f or t r a ns m i t t i ng s oc i oc ul t ur a l pr e s s ur e t o i nc r e a s e m us c ul a r i t y. T he s e m a ga z i ne s r e i nf or c e t he i m por t a nc e of m a l e m us c ul a r i t y a s a c ul t ur a l s t a nda r d a nd r e i nf or c e t he i de ol ogy t ha t m e n w ho obt a i n t he s e unr e a l i s t i c body t ype s a r e r e w a r de d ( B ot t a 2003) A s t he m us c ul a r m a l e body be c om e s m o r e c om m o npl a c e a ne w s oc i a l c ons t r uc t o f body i m a ge i s c r e a t e d ( C a f r i e t a l 2005 ) T he ne w body i m a ge i s l i nke d w i t h s u c c e s s good l ooks popul a r i t y a nd w e a l t h ( A gl i a t a & T a nt l e f f D unn 2 004; B r ow n e t a l 2003) T he r e i s a gr ow i ng w e a l t h of e vi de nc e t ha t s uppor t s t he i de a t ha t c ul t u r a l s t a nda r ds f or body i m a ge a r e ope n t o c ha nge a nd t ha t t he s e s t a nda r ds a r e us ua l l y de t e r m i ne d by t he m e di a a nd hi ghl y publ i c i z e d f i gur e s ( G r oe t z L e vi ne & M ur na n 2002)

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21 T hi s ne w c ul t ur a l s t a nda r d ha s c r e a t e d a pe r c e i ve d ne e d, e nc our a gi ng m e n a nd boys t o de s i r e t o be c om e m or e m us c ul a r ( G r oga n & R i c ha r ds 2002; M c C r e a r y e t a l 2003 ) T hi s a s s o c i a t i on pr ovi de s e xt r a i nc e nt i ve f or m a l e s t o t r y t o bui l d a s i m i l a r t ype o f body i n t he hope of m i m i c ki ng t he s uc c e s s of f a m ous i ndi vi dua l s w ho pos s e s s t he i de a l m a l e body ( B r ow n e t a l 2003) M or e i m por t a nt l y i nc r e a s e d e xpos ur e t o m us c ul a r pe r f e c t bo di e s m a y de c r e a s e a n i ndi vi dua l 's s e l f i m a ge a nd s ubs e que nt l y a ugm e nt t he de s i r e t o i m p r ove one 's body t o m e e t t he body i de a l a s a m e a ns of i nc r e a s i ng i nt e r na l s a t i s f a c t i on ( L a w & L a br e 2002; M c C r e a r y & S a s s e 2000) R e s e a r c h s uppor t s t he not i on t ha t s oc i oc ul t ur a l e xp e c t a t i ons e nc our a ge t he de s i r e t o c opy t he m us c ul a r body ( B us h, M a nn & B us h, 2004 ) M a l e a dol e s c e nt s i n G e ne r a t i on Y ( t hos e bor n f r om 1977 1994) r e por t e d i n s ur ve ys t ha t t he y l oo k t o a t hl e t e s f o r be ha vi or a l nor m s a nd t r y t o m i m i c a t hl e t e s be h a vi or a s a m e a ns t o i nc r e a s e s uc c e s s ( B us h, M a r t i n & B us h, 2004) E a r l i e r r e s e a r c h c onduc t e d by B a ndur a ( 1986) pr ovi de d e vi de nc e of t he pow e r of m e di a m ode l s s uc h a s a t hl e t e s or e nt e r t a i ne r s t o i n f l ue nc e a t t i t ude s a nd b e ha vi or a nd t o e s t a bl i s h a c ul t ur a l s t a nda r d. I n a ddi t i on t o a l t e r i ng body i m a ge i de a l s pa s t s t ud i e s ha ve r e ve a l e d t ha t t he m e di a i nf l ue nc e m e n's be ha vi or ( A gl i a t a & T a nt l e f f D un n, 2004; B r ow n e t a l 2003 ; L e i t e t a l 2002) S oc i e t a l va l ue s i nf l ue nc e t he de s i r e t o us e dr ugs t o a c hi e ve s u c c e s s ( Y e s a l i s & B a hr ke 2000) I n t he book T he A doni s C om pl e x, P ope e t a l ( 200 0) r e por t e d t ha t 50 % o f boys be t w e e n t he a ge s of 11 a nd 17 be l i e ve t ha t t he i de a l m a l e body s how n i n t he m e di a i s onl y a t t a i na bl e t hr ough t he us e of s t e r oi ds A nd i t i s t he m e di a t ha t i nf l ue nc e t he r a t i ona l e be hi nd e xpe r i m e nt a t i on w i t h s t e r oi ds a nd ot he r a na bol i c a ndr oge ni c s ubs t a nc e s ( B l oui n & G ol d f e i l d, 1995; M c C r e a r y & S a s s e 2000)

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22 A dol e s c e nt s l ook a t s por t s f i gur e s i n t he m e di a a nd vi e w m us c ul a r i t y a s one o f t he pr i m a r y f a c t or s l e a di ng t o t he i r s uc c e s s ( Y e s a l i s & B a hr ke 2000) T he c onne c t i on r e ve a l s t ha t m one y, f a m e a nd a t hl e t i c p r ow e s s c a n be a c hi e ve d by t hos e w ho ha ve a s uf f i c i e nt l y m us c ul a r phys i que ( B r ow n e t a l 2003) A dol e s c e nt de s i r e t o us e s t e r oi ds ha s c ont i nue d t o i nc r e a s e a s t he pr e s s ur e t o s uc c e e d i n s por t s a nd m a t c h t he i de a l body i m a g e ha s gr ow n ( Y e s a l i s & B a hr ke 2000) S t e r oi d us e i s be c om i ng m or e p r e va l e nt i n a dol e s c e nt a t hl e t e s a nd non a t hl e t e s ( Y e s a l i s & B a hr ke 2000) a nd t he m a j or i t y of c ur r e nt r e s e a r c h s e e m s t o a r gue t ha t t he i nc r e a s e i n s t e r oi d us a ge i n a dol e s c e nt s i s a t t r i but a bl e a t l e a s t i n pa r t t o t he unr e a l i s t i c m a l e body i m a ge t ha t f r e que nt l y a ppe a r s i n t he m e di a a nd t he m e di a 's f o c us on s t e r oi d us a ge i n s por t s a nd bodybui l di ng ( C a f r i e t a l 2 005; L a w & L a br e 200 2; L e i t G r a y & P ope 2002; L e i t e t a l 2001; M c C r e a r y & S a s s e 2000; P ope e t a l 2000; W r obl e w s ka 1996; Y e s a l i s & B a hr ke 2000 ) R e s e a r c h on m a l e body i m a ge a nd t he dr i ve f or m u s c ul a r i t y i ndi c a t e s t ha t t he m e di a ha ve a s t r ong e f f e c t on m a l e s pe r c e pt i ons of t he i r bod i e s P ope e t a l ( 2000) f ound t ha t m e n de s i r e t o be a n a ve r a ge of 28 pounds m or e m us c ul a r t ha n t he i r c ur r e nt body t ype S om e of t hi s de s i r e t o ga i n m us c l e i s de r i ve d f r om t he m e di a 's po r t r a ya l s of t h e i de a l body ( P ope G r ube r e t a l 2000) B y por t r a yi ng m us c ul a r pe r f e c t i on a s t he s t a nda r d, t he m e di a m a ke m e n m or e a w a r e of t he i r ow n bodi e s a nd he i ght e n a s e ns e of i na de qua c y ( L or e nz e n, G r i e ve & T hom a s 2004 ) T he i m por t a nc e o f t he m e di a 's por t r a ya l of t he m a l e body a nd t he f oc us on t he m us c ul a r i t y of a t hl e t e s m a y be a s m uc h of a r e f l e c t i on of m e di a de pe nde nc e a s i t i s a n i s s ue of f r a m i ng T e e na ge r s a r e t he m os t a t r i s k t a r ge t s f or a t hl e t e m ode l i ng be c a us e of t he a ge g r oup's hi gh m e di a us e ( B us h, M a r t i n & B us h, 2004) A s t e e na ge r s s e a r c h f or t he i r ow n i nde pe nde nc e t he y of t e n t ur n t o t he m e di a f or m ode l s t o m i m i c a nd i n m e di a por t r a ya l s of a t hl e t e s a dol e s c e nt s s e e t he s e r ol e m ode l s a s t he s t a nda r d o f m a s c ul i ni t y a nd s uc c e s s ( B us h, M a r t i n, & B us h, 2004)

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23 S oc i oc u l t u r al I m p ac t a n d M e d i a F r am i n g W hi l e t he m e di a 's c ove r a ge of s t e r oi ds m a y be i n t e nde d t o c onde m n us a ge a nd i nc r e a s e a w a r e ne s s of t he de t r i m e nt s of t he i l l e ga l dr ugs t h e r e i s no e vi de nc e t ha t t he m e di a a t t e nt i on t o s t e r oi ds de c r e a s e s a dol e s c e nt s i nt e r e s t i n or a p pr o va l of s t e r oi d us e I ns t e a d, ps yc hol ogi c a l m ode l i ng, f r a m i ng, s oc i oc ul t ur a l e f f e c t s a nd s oc i a l c om pa r i s on m a y oc c ur a s a r e s ul t o f t he i nunda t i on w i t h s t e r oi d r e l a t e d s t or i e s U nde r s t a ndi ng w he t he r a nd how t he m e di a pl a c e pr e s s ur e on a dol e s c e nt s t o a dhe r e t o c e r t a i n phys i c a l e xpe c t a t i ons i s e s s e nt i a l t o de t e r m i ni ng w he t he r t he m e di a c ont r i but e t o a dol e s c e nt s t e r oi d us e T he w a ys t ha t m e di a f r a m e s c a n i m pa c t a n i ndi vi dua l 's de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s c oul d he l p t o e xpl a i n t he s i m ul t a ne ous i nc r e a s e s i n s t e r oi d r e l a t e d m e di a c ove r a ge a nd a dol e s c e nt 's us a ge of t he i l l e ga l pe r f o r m a nc e e nha nc e r s S t e r e ot ypi c ge nde r r ol e s pus h boys t ow a r ds s por t s w hi c h pl a y a r ol e i n s oc i a l i z a t i on a nd popul a r i t y; a nd t he bodi e s of a t hl e t e s i nf l ue nc e a do l e s c e nt s pe r c e pt i ons of i de a l body i m a ge ( R i c c i a r de l l i e t a l 2006) R e s e a r c h i ndi c a t e s t ha t m a ny a dol e s c e nt m a l e s de t e r m i ne i de a l body i m a ge by l ooki ng a t popul a r s por t s f i gu r e s ( B r ow n B a s i l & B oc a r ne a 2003) T he s e a t hl e t e s s e t a s t a nda r d f or body t ype t ha t r e p r e s e nt s m a s c ul i ni t y, s uc c e s s a nd popul a r i t y. A 2006 s t udy s ugge s t e d t ha t one of t he r e a s ons a dol e s c e nt s w a nt t o m i r r or t he bodi e s o f f a m ous a t hl e t e s i s r oot e d i n s oc i a l c om pa r i s on t he or y; t he m or e a t t r i b ut e s a dol e s c e nt s s h a r e i n c om m on w i t h a t hl e t e s t he m or e l i ke l y t he y a r e t o s ha r e s i m i l a r s uc c e s s ( R i c c i a r de l l i e t a l 2006) T he m e s s a ge i s not a bout ga i ni ng w e a l t h, but t ha t s t e r oi d us e l e a ds t o be t t e r bodi e s t ha t a r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s uc c e s s or popul a r i t y. T he m e di a di s s e m i na t e t he not i on t ha t t he m us c ul a r body i s t he i de a l f or m e n a nd t ha t t hos e w ho do not ha ve t he i de a l body t ype ne e d t o t a ke a ny s t e p ne c e s s a r y t o a c hi e ve t ha t i de a l ( M or r i s on, K a l i ny & M or r i s on, 2004 ) T he p r obl e m w i t h t he i m a ge s of m e n por t r a ye d i n t he m e di a m os t not a bl y w i t h s uc c e s s f ul pr of e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s w ho ha ve us e d s t e r oi ds s uc h a s J os

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24 C a ns e c o, a nd t o a l e s s e r e xt e nt i ndi vi dua l s f e a t ur e d i n bodybui l di ng m a ga z i ne s s uc h a s e i ght t i m e M r O l ym pi a R onni e C ol e m a n i s t ha t t he hy pe r m us c ul a r i de a l m a l e body i s una c hi e va bl e f or m os t m e n t hr ough na t ur a l m e a ns ( B l oui n & G o l df i e l d, 1995 ) T he pr ol i f e r a t i on o f m us c ul a r m a l e s i n t he m e di a c e r t a i nl y doe s not gua r a nt e e t h a t a dol e s c e nt s w i l l de ve l op body i m a ge pa t hol ogy. I n f a c t t he m e di a 's pr om ot i on o f i n s ha pe m e n c a n e nc our a ge he a l t hi e r m o r e f i t be ha v i or a nd he l p i nc r e a s e a c t i vi t y ( A gl i a t a & T a n t l e f f D unn, 2004) H ow e ve r i nunda t i on w i t h t he s e i m a ge s a l s o m a y c a us e s om e i ndi vi dua l s t o i nt e r na l i z e a ne e d t o m a t c h t he m us c ul a r bodi e s por t r a ye d i n t he m e di a l e a di ng t o pa t hol ogi c a l pr obl e m s w he n t he i m a ge s be c om e t he pr i m a r y r e pr e s e nt a t i on of a ge nde r a s i s t he s i t ua t i on w i t h t he pr om i ne nc e of t he m us c ul a r m a l e a nd s t e r oi d bui l t a t hl e t e s ( C a f r i e t a l 2005) C a f r i e t a l de m ons t r a t e d t he i m por t a nc e o f i nt e r na l i z a t i on ve r s us a w a r e ne s s i n e s t a bl i s hi ng a s oc i oc ul t ur a l i de a l f or body i m a ge ( 2005) I f a m e s s a ge i s i nt e r na l i z e d ( a n a c t i ve pr oc e s s ) t he m e di a ha ve a n i m pa c t on t he t hought s a nd be ha vi or s of a n i nd i vi d ua l I n c ont r a s t i f a n i ndi vi dua l i s a w a r e of a n i m a ge ( a pa s s i ve pr oc e s s ) t he i m a ge c onundr um c a n be a voi de d. T he m e di a 's f r a m i ng of t opi c s c a n e xa c e r ba t e t he p r obl e m of i nt e r na l i z a t i on of c onc e pt s on a ny i s s ue i nc l udi ng body i m a ge A nd i f t he m us c u l a r body i m a ge i s i nt e r na l i z e d, t hi s c oul d l e a d t o a dol e s c e nt s t e r oi d us e T he f r a m i ng of i nf o r m a t i on c a n ha ve a pot e nt e f f e c t on t he be l i e f s a nd opi ni ons of i ndi vi dua l s ( S c he uf e l e 1999) F r a m i ng r e l a t e s t o t w o e l e m e nt s of hum a n c ogni t i on: s e l e c t i on a nd s a l i e nc e ( E nt m a n, 1993) A c c or di ng t o E nt m a n ( 1993) T o f r a m e i s t o s e l e c t s om e a s pe c t s of a pe r c e i v e d r e a l i t y a nd m a ke t he m m or e s a l i e nt i n a c om m uni c a t i ng t e xt i n s uc h a w a y a s t o pr o m ot e a pa r t i c ul a r p r obl e m de f i ni t i on c a us a l i nt e r pr e t a t i on, m or a l e va l ua t i on a nd/ or t r e a t m e nt r e c om m e nda t i on f or t he i t e m de s c r i be d ( p. 52) I n ot he r w or ds t he w a y t ha t t he m e di a de s c r i be a c e r t a i n t opi c t he s ub i s s ue s t he m e di a f oc us on, t he f r e que nc y w i t h w hi c h c e r t a i n c onc e pt s a ppe a r t he w a y t ha t i nf o r m a t i on i s

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25 por t r a ye d c a n i m pa c t how t he r e c e i ve r o f t he i nf or m a t i on i nt e r p r e t s i nf o r m a t i on a nd t he opi ni ons he or s he d r a w s f r om t he m e di a c ont e nt ( E nt m a n, 1993) F r a m e s c a n e ve n i m pa c t a c ul t ur a l m i nds e t a nd t he s oc i ol ogi c a l i de a l s he l d b y i ndi vi dua l s a nd g r oups i n s oc i e t y ( S c he uf e l e 1999) F r a m e s i nc r e a s e s a l i e nc e or t he a w a r e ne s s of pa r t i c ul a r s oc i e t a l i s s ue s by r e pe a t e d e xpos ur e T hi s f o r m o f r e pe t i t i on o r r e i n f or c e m e nt a ugm e nt s t he pos s i bi l i t y t ha t a n i nd i vi dua l w i l l be c om e m or e know l e dge a bl e a bout a pa r t i c ul a r i s s ue a nd a s s i gn m e a ni ng t o t ha t i s s ue t ha t i s c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he m e di a s f r a m i ng of t ha t i s s ue ( F i s ke & T a yl o r 1991) K a hne m a n a nd T ve r s ky pr ovi de d e xpe r i m e nt a l e vi de nc e t ha t f r a m e s c a n ha ve a s t r ong i m pa c t on l a r ge a udi e nc e s ( 1984) T he i r e xpe r i m e nt s on de c i s i on m a ki ng on t he ba s i s of t e xt ua l f r a m e s i ndi c a t e d t ha t f r a m e s hi ghl i ght s om e a s pe c t s of r e a l i t y a nd di r e c t a t t e nt i o n a w a y f r om ot he r s F r a m e s c a n t a ke a ge ne r a l i z e d t opi c f oc us on one a s pe c t a nd s ha pe p ubl i c opi ni on f or t he m a s s e s or f or s ubgr oups w i t h e nough r e pe a t e d e xpos ur e ( K a hne m a n & T ve r s ky, 1984) I n t e r m s o f s t e r oi d us e a nd a dol e s c e nt s t he m e di a m a y be f r a m i ng s t or i e s i n a w a y t ha t i nc r e a s e s t he l i ke l i hood of e xpe r i m e nt a t i on w i t h m us c l e e nha nc i ng i l l e ga l s ubs t a nc e s I f t he m e di a c ons t a nt l y f oc us on m us c ul a r body t ype s t hr ough w r i t t e n c ont e nt a bout t he s uc c e s s e s of s t e r oi d us e r s or t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of s t e r oi ds i n c r e a t i ng m us c ul a r i t y a nd/ or s t r e ngt h o r vi a pi c t ur e s i n m a ga z i ne s t he y m a y t ur n a dol e s c e nt s f oc us a w a y f r o m t he ne ga t i ve c ons e que nc e s a nd da nge r s T he f oc us c oul d s hi f t t o t he pot e nt i a l be ne f i t s l i nke d t o s t e r oi d us a ge S t e r oi d s i n t h e M e d i a S t e r oi ds a r e dr ugs t ha t a r e not us e d f o r t he pl e a s ur e de r i ve d f r om t he i r us a ge but r a t he r f or t he r e s ul t s t he y pr oduc e i n m us c l e gr ow t h T he r e f o r e e l i c i t i ng i nt e r e s t i n t he be ne f i t s o f s t e r oi ds c a n i nc r e a s e us a ge ( J ohns on e t a l 1989 ) T he m e di a 's c ons t a nt c ove r a ge of s t e r oi ds a nd

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26 e xpl oi t a t i on i n m a ga z i ne s m a y pl a y a r ol e i n t he e t i ol ogy of s t e r oi d e xpe r i m e nt a t i on ( C hung, 2001) W he n C a na di a n O l ym pi c s pr i nt e r B e n J ohns on t e s t e d pos i t i ve f or s t e r oi ds i n 1988 a nd w a s s t r i ppe d of hi s go l d m e da l t he r e w a s a s ubs e que nt i nc r e a s e i n s t e r oi d us e a m ong a dol e s c e nt s ( C hung, 2001) T e e na ge r s w e r e m a de a w a r e o f t he c a pa bi l i t i e s of s t e r oi d us e a nd w e r e p r ovi de d, vi a t he m e di a w i t h t he s pe c i f i c s of s t e r oi d us e a nd how t o t a ke t he i l l e ga l s ubs t a nc e T h e know l e dge a bout s t e r oi ds w a s no l onge r t a boo; t he m e di a ha d put a f a c e on s t e r oi ds a nd t ha t f a c e w a s one of s uc c e s s T he i m a ge m a y ha ve m ot i va t e d a dol e s c e nt s t o m i m i c s t e r oi d us i ng a t hl e t e s i n or de r t o a c hi e ve t he m us c ul a r i de a l or t h e be ne f i t s of a t hl e t i c s uc c e s s ( C hung, 2001) I n ge ne r a l onc e a dol e s c e nt s be c om e i nf or m e d a bo ut a n i s s ue t ha t c a n pr ov i de be ne f i t s t he y a r e m or e l i ke l y t o be c om e i nvol ve d i n t he be ha vi or i f i t s e r ve s i nt r i ns i c dr i ve s T h e P s yc h ol ogy: Wh y A d ol e s c e n t s T ak e S t e r oi d s F oc us i ng on s uc c e s s f ul a t hl e t e s a s e xa m pl e s of s t e r oi d us e r s c a n pot e nt i a l l y l e a d t o da nge r ous e xpe r i m e nt a l be ha vi or s i n a dol e s c e nt s ( B r ow n, e t a l 2003) A c c or di ng t o s oc i oc ul t ur a l t he or y, t he m e di a p r oduc e t he s t r ong e s t s oc i oc ul t ur a l pr e s s ur e f or t he c ha ngi ng bo dy i de a l a nd t he ne e d f or a dol e s c e nt s t o t a ke dr a s t i c be ha vi or s t o m i m i c t he a ppe a r a nc e of t he i r m ode l s a nd he r oe s ( L e vi ne & H a r r i s on, 2004; T ho m ps on e t a l 1999) M e di a i m a ge s m a ke a dol e s c e nt s f e e l i na de qua t e or ba d a bout t he i r bodi e s a nd t he s e e m ot i ons c r e a t e pr e s s ur e t o m a t c h up t o a n of t e n unr e a l i s t i c be a ut y i de a l ( D i t t m e r 2005 ) P s yc hol ogi c a l i na de qua c i e s or t he pr e s s ur e t o m e e t t he phys i c a l i de a l c r e a t e d by t he m e di a c a n a i d i n t he f or m a t i on of t he ps yc hol ogi c a l di s e a s e know n a s m us c l e dys m or phi a ( L e one S e dor y, & G r a y 2005) M us c l e dys m or phi c di s or d e r ( M D D ) w hi c h i s a s ubc a t e gor y of obs e s s i ve c om pul s i ve di s or de r i s a ps yc hol ogi c a l di s or de r i n w hi c h i ndi vi dua l s pe r c e i ve t he m s e l ve s a s be i ng l e s s m us c ul a r t ha n t he y a c t ua l l y a r e ( O l i va r di a 2001) A c c or di ng t o

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27 O l i va r di a ( 2001) t hough m us c l e dys m or phi a c a n o c c ur i n e i t he r m a l e s or f e m a l e s i t pr e dom i na nt l y a f f l i c t s m e n. W hi l e t he r e a r e d i f f e r e nt de gr e e s of m us c l e dys m or phi a s i m i l a r t o a s l i di ng s c a l e of s e ve r i t y, s uf f e r e r s s e l f e s t e e m i s de pe nde nt on t he i r m us c ul a r i t y ( O l i va r di a 2001) T he a ve r a ge a ge of ons e t f o r M D D i s 19 ye a r s of a ge ( O l i va r di a P ope & H uds on, 2000) S ur ve ys c onduc t e d by O l i va r di a e t a l ( 2000) r e ve a l e d t ha t m e n w i t h m us c l e dys m or phi a a r e a f f e c t e d by s oc i oc ul t ur a l i nf l ue nc e s T he s ubj e c t s i n t he s t udy de s i r e d t o m a t c h t he m a l e body i m a ge a s por t r a ye d by t he m e di a a nd t he i r c r a vi ng f or m or e m us c ul a r i t y i nc r e a s e d t he pa t hol ogy of t he di s or de r by boos t i ng t he m ot i va t i on t o s pe nd m o r e t i m e w or ki ng out ( O l i va r di a e t a l 2000) W hi l e s t e r oi d us a ge i s not l i m i t e d t o s uf f e r e r s o f M D D t he di s or de r hi ghl i ght s a n i m por t a nt a s pe c t of m e di a i nf l ue nc e T hos e w ho s uf f e r f r om M D D a r e s t r ongl y i nf l ue nc e d by s oc i oc ul t ur a l f a c t or s pa r t i c ul a r l y t he m e di a 's por t r a ya l of a t hl e t e s or nor m a l m e n w ho a r e e xt r e m e l y m us c ul a r a nd l e a n ( O l i va r di a 2001) O l i va r di a 's r e s e a r c h a l s o i ndi c a t e s t ha t m e n be l i e ve t ha t t he r e i s a c ul t ur a l e xpe c t a t i on f or phys i c a l a ppe a r a nc e a nd t ha t t he body e xpe c t a t i on i s de f i ne d by e xt r e m e m us c ul a r i t y ( 2001) S oc i a l c om pa r i s on t he or y r e l a t i ng t o m a l e body i m a ge a w a r e ne s s s ugge s t s t ha t m e n c om pa r e t he m s e l ve s t o t he a t hl e t e s a nd c ove r m od e l s f ound i n m a ga z i ne s ( M or r i s on, K a l i ny & M or r i s on, 2004) N ot onl y a r e s oc i a l c om pa r i s ons e ndur i ng, but t he s e upw a r d s oc i a l c om pa r i s ons t e nd t o c r e a t e ne ga t i ve s e l f e va l ua t i ons l e a di ng t o a s t r ong de s i r e t o a l t e r t he body. T hi s c a us e s a n i nc r e a s e i n dr a s t i c m e a s ur e s t o a l t e r body t ype s uc h a s t he us e of s t e r oi ds i n or de r t o c onf or m t o s oc i e t a l pr e s s ur e s t o l ook m us c ul a r ( M or r i s on, K a l i ny & M o r r i s on, 2004) A c c or di ng t o s oc i a l c ogni t i ve t he or y, t he m e di a pl a y a pow e r f ul r ol e i n s ha pi ng a dol e s c e nt de s i r e s by pr ovi di ng m ode l s f or bot h a ppe a r a nc e a nd be ha vi or ( B a ndur a 2001) I f t he m e di a

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28 e s t a bl i s h a m us c ul a r m a l e body t ype a s t he i de a l t he n m e n, a nd e s pe c i a l l y a dol e s c e nt s w i l l obs e r ve t hi s t e nde nc y a nd t r y t o m i m i c t he i de a l M or e s pe c i f i c a l l y, i f a dol e s c e nt s a r e i nunda t e d w i t h c ove r a ge s how i ng t ha t a t hl e t e s ga i n t he t ype of m us c ul a r i t y t ha t r e s ul t s i n s uc c e s s f a m e or f or t une by us i ng s t e r oi ds t he n t he y a r e l i ke l y t o a c c e pt t hi s de pi c t i on a s r e a l i t y a nd w or k t o m i m i c t hi s m ode l f or s uc c e s s W he n a dol e s c e nt s a r e c ons t a nt l y e xpos e d t o a pa r t i c ul a r i m a ge o f m e n, s uc h a s w ha t ha s be c om e t he no r m i n m a ga z i ne s t hi s i m a ge be c om e s i ns t i l l e d a s t he m od e l or pr ot ot ype t o f ol l ow ( B a ndur a 2001 ) I t i s i m po r t a nt t o not e t ha t pe r s ona l i t y e va l ua t i ons a r e a l s o m a de ba s e d on phys i c a l a ppe a r a nc e ( T a nt l e f f & T hom ps on, 1992 ) T hi s i s e s pe c i a l l y c r uc i a l dur i ng a dol e s c e nc e w he n t he i m por t a nc e of m a i nt a i ni ng popul a r i t y or be i ng vi e w e d by pe e r s i n a pos i t i ve m a nne r i s he i ght e ne d. I n a 1992 s t udy i n w hi c h r e s ponde nt s e va l ua t e d t he pe r s ona l i t y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of i ndi vi dua l s ba s e d on t he i r bod i e s T hom ps on a nd T a nt l e f f f ound e vi de nc e t ha t bot h m a l e s a nd f e m a l e s a ppr a i s e d m us c ul a r c he s t s on m a l e s a s s y m bol i z i ng a s s e r t i ve a t hl e t i c s e xua l l y a t t r a c t i ve a nd popul a r i ndi vi dua l s I n c ont r a s t t hos e w i t h l e s s m us c ul a r phys i que s w e r e c a t e gor i z e d a s l one l y a nd de pr e s s e d. I n ge ne r a l young m e n f e e l u nc om f or t a bl e be i ng v i e w e d a s l e s s m us c ul a r or s ki nny ( F i e l d e t a l 2005) w hi c h onl y r e i nf or c e s t he de s i r e t o be c om e m o r e m us c ul a r a nd t he pe r c e i ve d ne e d t o do w ha t i t t a ke s t o a c hi e ve a l e v e l of m us c ul a r i t y t ha t i ns t i l l s c on f i de nc e T he m e di a s c ove r a ge of s t e r oi ds pos e s a s i gni f i c a n t t hr e a t o f ps yc hol ogi c a l m ode l i ng be c a us e of t he f r e que nc y o f c ove r a ge M ode l i ng d oe s not oc c ur i f i ndi vi dua l s c a nnot r e m e m be r t he s t i m ul us w hi c h t yp i c a l l y r e s ul t s f r om i n f r e que nt e xpos ur e t o a n i de a or c onc e pt ( B a ndur a 1986) B ut w i t h s t e r oi d us e t he c ons t a nt s pot l i ght on a t hl e t e s us a ge i nunda t e s s oc i e t y w i t h a m us c ul a r body i m a ge m ode l a nd a p r ot ot ype f or s u c c e s s t ha t i s e a s y t o r e m e m be r a nd, unf or t una t e l y, e a s y t o m i m i c due t o t he w i de s pr e a d a va i l a bi l i t y of s t e r oi ds R e s e a r c h s ugge s t s

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29 t ha t m e n a r e b e i ng e xpos e d t o a de l uge of m us c ul a r i m a ge s a nd a r t i c l e s i n t he m e di a s how t oda y's a t hl e t e s a s a r e pr e s e nt a t i on t he i de a l m a l e b ody: a m us c ul a r l ook de f i ne d by a V t a pe r a nd e xt r e m e l e a nne s s a nd de ns i t y ( L a w & L a b r e 2 002) O ne of t he b i gge s t pr obl e m s f r o m m e di a c ove r a ge i s a n a ppa r e nt f oc us on t he be ne f i t s ga i ne d f r om s t e r oi d us e T he r e a ppe a r s t o be a di s p a r a t e a m ount of a t t e nt i on pa i d t o s uc c e s s f ul a t hl e t e s s uc h a s B a r r y B onds w ho ha ve b r oke n r e c or ds w i t h a n a l l e ge d a s s i s t f r om i l l e ga l pe r f or m a nc e e nh a nc i ng dr ugs I n t he a dol e s c e nt p opul a t i on, t he pe r c e pt i on of e f f e c t i ve ne s s of s t e r oi ds f unc t i ons a s s oc i a l r e i nf or c e m e nt f or us a g e ( G ol dbe r g, 1996) N i ne t y s e ve n pe r c e nt of a dol e s c e nt s t e r oi ds us e r s s ur ve ye d i n a 1996 s t udy i ndi c a t e d t ha t r e pe a t e d us e w a s i nf l ue nc e d by m e di a por t r a ya l s of s t e r oi d i nduc e d i nc r e a s e s i n s t r e ngt h, m us c l e m a s s a nd s uc c e s s ( G ol dbe r g) T he r e a s ons f or s t e r oi d us e a r e not l i m i t e d t o de s i r e f or pe r s ona l i m pr ove m e nt or be c om i ng s t r onge r F e e l i ngs o f i na de qua c y a l s o c a n l e a d t o u s a g e S oc i a l c om pa r i s on t he or y s how s t ha t i ndi vi dua l s w i l l ba s e t he i r ow n s e l f c onf i de nc e on i de a l i m a ge s por t r a ye d i n t he m e di a ( F e s t i nge r 1954 ) I f a di s c r e pa nc y i s pe r c e i ve d be t w e e n one s e l f a nd t he i de a l t he n be ha vi or a l c ha nge s oc c ur t o l e s s e n t he ga p be t w e e n t he s e l f a nd t he i de a l ( E l l i o t & D e vi ne 1994 ) B y t ha t r e a s oni ng, i f a dol e s c e nt s f e e l t ha t t he y do not m a t c h t he m us c ul a r i de a l or a r e not a c hi e vi ng s uc c e s s i n a gi ve n s por t t he n t he y w i l l go t o e xt r e m e m e a s ur e s s uc h a s s t e r oi d us e i n or de r t o m a t c h t he i de a l body t ype a nd r e s t or e s e l f c onf i de nc e F e s t i nge r 's r e s e a r c h ( 1954) a l s o i ndi c a t e s t ha t s oc i a l c om pa r i s on c a n be a voi de d by r e j e c t i ng t he i de a s a nd opi ni ons o f t he m a j or i t y i n t hi s c a s e r e j e c t i ng t he m us c ul a r m a l e i de a l H ow e ve r r e j e c t i ng m a i ns t r e a m s oc i oc ul t ur a l s t a nda r ds i s di f f i c ul t f or a dol e s c e nt s w ho de s i r e popul a r i t y t ha t i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h body a ppe a r a nc e ( M c C r e a r y & S a s s e 2000) R e j e c t i ng t he

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30 m a l e m us c ul a r i de a l w oul d m e a n r i s ki ng s oc i a l i s o l a t i on by not c onf or m i ng t o t he s oc i a l l y c ons t r uc t e d s t a nda r d c r e a t e d by t he m e di a W hi l e e vi de nc e e xi s t s t ha t a dol e s c e nt s a r e us i ng s t e r oi ds a nd t ha t us e i s i nc r e a s i ng, t he c a us e s of a n i nc r e a s e i n us a ge a r e unknow n. V e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h ha s be e n c onduc t e d on t he f a c t or s c ont r i but i ng t o s t e r oi d us e i n a dol e s c e nt s d e s pi t e t he t he or e t i c a l e xpl a na t i ons f or s uc h us e D e t e r m i ni ng w he t he r popul a r m e di a a r e f r a m i ng s t e r oi d us e i n a w a y t ha t m a y e nc our a ge a dol e s c e nt s t e r oi d us e c oul d he l p de t e r m i ne i f t he r e i s a s yne r gi s t i c e f f e c t be t w e e n t he m e di a 's p or t r a ya l of t he i de a l m a l e body a nd t he i nunda t i o n of s t e r oi ds c ove r a ge i n s por t s I n a n a t t e m pt t o de t e r m i ne how m e di a popul a r w i t h a dol e s c e nt s f r a m e d s t e r oi d us e r s s t e r oi d r e l a t e d a r t i c l e s i n Spor t s I l l us t r at e d a nd T he Spor t i ng N e w s w e r e a na l yz e d. R Q 1: W ha t f r a m e s a ppe a r m os t i n s t e r oi d r e l a t e d a r t i c l e s i n Spor t s I l l us t r at e d a nd T he Spor t i ng N e w s ? R Q 2: D oe s t he c ont e nt o f s t e r oi d r e l a t e d a r t i c l e s i n Spor t s I l l us t r at e d a nd T he Spor t i ng N e w s f oc us on t he be ne f i t s or de t r i m e nt s of s t e r oi d us e ? R Q 3: W he r e i s t he i nf o r m a t i on a bout t he de t r i m e nt s of s t e r oi d us e a nd i l l e ga l pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc e r s l oc a t e d i n a r t i c l e s i nc l ude d i n Spor t s I l l us t r at e d a nd T he Spor t i ng N e w s ? R Q 4: D o s t e r oi d r e l a t e d m a ga z i ne a r t i c l e s i n Spor t s I l l us t r at e d a nd T he Spor t i ng N e w s r e i nf or c e t he us e of s t e r oi ds a s a w a y t o i m p r ove a t hl e t i c pe r f or m a nc e o r a c hi e ve t he m us c ul a r m a l e i de a l ? R Q 5: D o Spor t s I l l us t r at e d a nd T he Spor t i ng N e w s di f f e r i n t he f r a m e s pr ovi de d i n t he i r c ont e nt ?

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31 C H A P T E R 3 M E T H O D S I n or de r t o i nve s t i ga t e w he t he r t he m e di a 's c ove r a g e of s t e r oi ds i n f l ue nc e s a dol e s c e nt s e xpe r i m e nt a t i on w i t h a nd/ o r us a ge of i l l e ga l a na bo l i c s t e r oi ds a f r a m i ng a na l ys i s of m a ga z i ne s w a s c onduc t e d f or t hi s s t udy. S pe c i f i c a l l y s t e r oi d r e l a t e d a r t i c l e s publ i s he d be t w e e n J a nua r y 2002 a nd D e c e m be r 2007 i n t w o m a ga z i ne s Spor t s I l l us t r at e d a nd T he Spor t i ng N e w s w e r e a na l yz e d f or t he f r a m e s us e d i n s t or i e s a bout s t e r oi d us e T hi s t i m e pe r i od w a s s e l e c t e d be c a us e dur i ng t ha t f i ve ye a r pe r i od, s t e r oi d c ove r a ge i nt e ns i f i e d due t o c ha ngi ng s t e r oi d a nd dr ug t e s t i ng pol i c i e s i n pr o f e s s i ona l a t hl e t i c s a nd t he O l ym pi c s ( s e e ba s e ba l l s t e r oi d t i m e A ppe ndi x C ) T he m i d poi n t of t hi s t i m e pe r i od 2005 m a r ke d a ye a r t ha t i nc l ude d s e ve r a l e ve nt s t ha t c ha nge d t he na t i on s a w a r e ne s s of s t e r oi d us e t h r o ughout pr of e s s i ona l a nd a m a t e ur s por t s m os t not a bl y i n M a j or L e a gue B a s e ba l l ( M L B ) A t hl e t e s a t hl e t i c a dm i ni s t r a t or s a nd pol i t i c i a ns w e r e c a l l e d be f or e a g r a nd j ur y t o t e s t i f y a bout s t e r oi d u s e i n pr of e s s i ona l s por t s ul t i m a t e l y c ul m i na t i ng w i t h a C ongr e s s i ona l he a r i ng on s t e r oi d us e i n ba s e ba l l i n M a r c h 2005 T hi s he a r i ng f e a t ur e d f or m e r S t L oui s C a r di na l s ba s e ba l l pl a ye r a nd f o r m e r s i ngl e s e a s on hom e r un r e c or d hol de r M a r k M c G w i r e r e f us i ng t o t a l k a bout t he p a s t a nd hi s pot e nt i a l s t e r oi d us e M c G w i r e s s i l e nc e a ppe a r e d t o i m pl i c a t e hi m a s a pa s t s t e r oi d us e r a nd s ugge s t e d t ha t hi s us e w a s j us t a m i c r oc os m of a l a r ge r d r ug i s s ue i n s por t s a nd t hr o ughout s oc i e t y. T he c ongr e s s i ona l he a r i ng i nc l ude d s om e of t he t op na m e s i n ba s e ba l l i nc l ud i ng B a l t i m or e O r i ol e s s t a r R a f a e l P a l m i e r o, w ho ve he m e nt l y de ni e d e ve r us i ng s t e r oi ds S ho r t l y a f t e r h i s c l a i m s P a l m i e r o w a s s us pe nde d f or s t e r oi d us e a nd 2005 w a s hi s f i na l ye a r i n t he m a j or l e a gue s T he s e l e c t e d s a m pl e pe r i od e nde d w i t h t he D e c e m be r 2007 r e l e a s e of t he M i t c h e l l R e por t B a s e d on f or m e r S e na t or G e or ge M i t c he l l s i nve s t i ga t i on of s t e r oi d us e a nd a bus e i n ba s e ba l l t he r e po r t l i s t e d a l m os t 90 pl a ye r s

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32 w ho a l l e ge dl y ha d us e d s t e r oi ds a nd r e c om m e nde d c ha nge s t ha t ne e de d t o be m a de t o t he s por t T he s e e ve nt s a nd t he num e r ous s t e r oi d a l l e ga t i ons a nd r e ve l a t i ons t ha t oc c ur r e d i n a l l s por t s dur i ng t hi s pe r i od, l e d t o a n a ppa r e nt i nc r e a s e i n m e di a c ove r a ge a bout s t e r oi ds bot h a t t he pr of e s s i ona l a nd a m a t e ur l e ve l A s e a r c h us i ng L e xi s N e xi s r e ve a l e d t ha t t he dr a m a t i c s hi f t i n s t e r oi d r e l a t e d ne w s c ove r a ge s t a r t i ng i n 2002. F r o m 1996 2001 a s e a r c h us i ng t he t e r m s pr of e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s a nd s t e r oi ds yi e l de d 195 a r t i c l e s i n m a j or pa pe r s I n c om pa r i s on, a s e a r c h w i t h t he s a m e ke yw or ds f r o m 2002 2007 pr oduc e d 706 a r t i c l e s i n m a j or pa pe r s Spor t s I l l us t r at e d a nd T he Spor t i ng N e w s s por t s m a ga z i ne s popul a r w i t h 12 t o 19 ye a r ol d m a l e s w e r e a na l yz e d f or t he s t udy. R e s e a r c h i ndi c a t e s t ha t 8 of e ve r y 10 t e e na ge r s r e a d m a ga z i ne s ( M a ga z i ne P ubl i s he r s of A m e r i c a [ M P A ] 2003 ) A ddi t i ona l l y, m a ga z i ne s ha ve a gr e a t e r i nf l ue nc e on t e e ns t ha n ot he r f or m s of m e di a a nd t he t op 25 t e e n ge nr e m a ga z i ne s r e a c h a l a r ge r a udi e nc e t ha n t he t op 25 t e l e vi s i on pr og r a m s ( M P A 2003 ) I n t e r m s of s a l i e nc e t e e na ge r s a r e l e s s l i ke l y t o m ul t i t a s k w hi l e r e a di ng m a ga z i ne s ( M P A 2003) T hi s a l l ow s f o r gr e a t e r a t t e nt i on a nd a bs or pt i on, w hi c h, a c c or di ng t o s oc i a l c om pa r i s on t he or y c a n ha ve a s i gni f i c a nt i m pa c t on i nf l ue nc i ng t hought pr oc e s s e s a nd be ha vi or ( F e s t i nge r 1954 ) R e s e a r c h a l s o i ndi c a t e s t ha t a dol e s c e nt s not onl y a r e i m pa c t e d by p i c t ur e s of m us c ul a r f i gur e s but t ha t c ont e nt i n m a ga z i ne s a bout m us c u l a r i t y or f i t ne s s a c hi e ve m e nt s a l s o e nha nc e t he s oc i oc ul t ur a l pr e s s ur e t o be c om e m or e m us c ul a r ( B ot t a 2003) T hi s e f f e c t ha s be e n s how n t o ha ve a n e f f e c t i n pr e l i m i na r y s t udi e s f oc us i ng on m a ga z i ne s i m pa c t on m a l e body i m a ge I n s ur ve ys B ot t a ( 2003) f ound a n i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n t he r e a di ng of s por t s m a ga z i ne s a nd body s a t i s f a c t i on. T hos e w ho r e a d s por t s m a ga z i ne s w e r e m or e l i ke l y t o ha ve l ow e r l e ve l s of body s a t i s f a c t i on. L ow e r l e ve l s o f body s a t i s f a c t i on i n m a l e a dol e s c e nt s i nc r e a s e t he l i ke l i hood of a l t e r i ng be ha vi or i n or de r t o i nc r e a s e i nt e r na l s a t i s f a c t i on ( D i t t m e r 2005 )

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33 Spor t s I l l us t r at e d a nd T he Spor t i ng N e w s w e r e s e l e c t e d a s t he publ i c a t i ons f or t he f r a m i ng a na l ys i s be c a u s e t e e na ge r s c ons t i t ut e a t l e a s t 15% of e a c h m a ga z i ne s r e a de r s hi p t he num be r of pe opl e w ho r e a d t he m a ga z i ne but do not ne c e s s a r i l y s ubs c r i be ( c i r c ul a t i on) o r a t l e a s t t w o m i l l i on a dol e s c e nt r e a de r s f or e a c h m a ga z i ne T he s e f i gur e s ha ve be e n e s t a bl i s he d i n p r i or r e s e a r c h a s t he c ut of f l e ve l s f or pub l i c a t i ons t o be de s i gna t e d a s ha vi ng s i gni f i c a nt a dol e s c e nt r e a c h a nd i nf l ue nc e ( M e di a m a r k R e s e a r c h, 2004) Spor t s I l l us t r at e d i s t he l a r ge s t w e e kl y A m e r i c a n s por t s m a ga z i ne a nd i t s a dol e s c e nt r e a de r s hi p a c c ount s f or m o r e t ha n 22 % o f i t s t o t a l r e a de r s hi p; t he m a ga z i ne ha s a ye a r l y r e a de r s hi p o f a l m os t 5 m i l l i on a dol e s c e nt s ( K a i s e r F a m i l y F ounda t i on, 2004 ) Spor t s I l l us t r at e d a l s o ha s t he hi ghe s t a ggr e ga t e t ot a l of a dol e s c e nt m a l e r e a de r s a m ong t he m os t popul a r m a ga z i ne s r e a d b y t e e na ge r s ( M e di a m a r k R e s e a r c h I nc 2002) A l t hough T he Spor t i ng N e w s doe s not ha ve a s l a r g e a n a ggr e ga t e r e a c h, 30% of t he m a ga z i ne s r e a de r s hi p i s a dol e s c e nt s T he r e f or e bot h publ i c a t i ons r e a c h a br oa d e xpa ns e of t he t e e na ge popul a t i on a nd a r e pub l i c a t i ons t ha t c oul d i nf l ue nc e a dol e s c e nt s i nt e r e s t i n a nd a t t i t ude s a bout s t e r oi d us e I n pe r f o r m i ng t he f r a m i ng a na l ys i s m ul t i p l e a s pe c t s of t he s e l e c t e d m a ga z i ne a r t i c l e s w e r e a na l yz e d i n or de r t o a ns w e r t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons T o de t e r m i ne t he qua nt i t y o f s t e r oi ds r e l a t e d a r t i c l e s t he m a ga z i ne s w e r e c ode d f o r a f i ve ye a r pe r i od ( 2002 2007) A s t e r oi ds r e l a t e d a r t i c l e w a s ope r a t i ona l l y de f i ne d a s a ny a r t i c l e t ha t f oc us e d on t he us e o f s t e r oi ds or i l l e g a l pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc i ng dr ugs a nd w a s a t l e a s t 200 w or ds i n l e ngt h. T he ne c e s s a r y l e ngt h w a s e s t a bl i s he d a t 200 w or ds t o e l i m i na t e s upe r f l uous a r t i c l e s t ha t br i e f l y m e nt i one d s t e r oi ds but m os t l i ke l y w oul d no t f oc us r e a de r a t t e nt i on on s t e r oi d us e ; i n a d di t i on, t he r e s e a r c he r be l i e ve d i t w oul d be unl i ke l y t ha t s a l i e nt f r a m e s c oul d be de v e l ope d i n f e w e r t ha n 200 w or ds A l l i s s ue s e xc e pt f or c om m e m o r a t i ve i s s ue s w e r e us e d dur i n g t he s e l e c t e d t i m e f r a m e T he a r t i c l e s w e r e

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34 r e a d a nd c ode d us i ng t he c odi ng s he e t ( S e e A ppe n di x A ) a nd i ns t r uc t i ons w e r e f ol l ow e d s pe c i f i c a l l y a c c or di ng t o t he e xpl a na t i ons pr ovi de d i n t he c ode book ( S e e A ppe ndi x B ) E a c h a r t i c l e w a s a na l yz e d i n t e r m s o f i t s i nf or m a t i on a n d s t or y s t r uc t ur e f or c om pone nt s t ha t c oul d i nf l ue nc e r e a de r s pe r c e pt i ons of a nd i nt e r e s t s i n s t e r oi ds B e f or e c odi ng t he a c t ua l t i m e pe r i od f o r t he s t udy, a pr e c odi ng t r i a l w a s c onduc t i ng on a r t i c l e s f r om 2001 2002 i n bot h publ i c a t i ons t o de t e r m i ne t he t ype s of f r a m e s t ha t m i ght be f ound i n t he a r t i c l e s a nd t o t e s t t he c ode book a nd c ode s he e t m e a s ur e s T he f r a m e s t ha t w e r e doc um e nt e d s e r ve d a s t he f ounda t i on f or t he a c t ua l c odi ng pr oc e s s A s s e s s i ng t he f r a m e s pr e s e nt e d i n t he a r t i c l e s dur i ng t he s a m pl e t i m e f r a m e he l pe d t o r e ve a l w he t he r r e pe t i t i on of pa r t i c ul a r f r a m e s i n s t e r oi ds r e l a t e d s t or i e s c oul d ha ve a n i nf l ue nc e on t he i nc r e a s e i n t e e na ge us e B e c a us e r e s e a r c h ha s ye t t o be c onduc t e d on t he pot e nt i a l i nf l ue nc e of s t e r oi ds r e l a t e d a r t i c l e s t he f r a m i ng a na l ys i s w a s de s i gne d t o he l p bui l d a f ounda t i on f o r un de r s t a ndi ng t he t ype o f c ont e nt t h a t i s di s s e m i na t e d t o t he publ i c a nd, m os t i m por t a nt l y f or t hi s s t udy, t o a dol e s c e nt s

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35 C H A P T E R 4 R E S U L T S T he a na l ys i s of t he m a ga z i ne s pr oduc e d f i ve ye a r s a m pl e s f r om Spor t s I l l us t r at e d a nd T he Spor t i ng N e w s f or a t ot a l of 98 a r t i c l e s D ur i ng t h e s t udy pe r i od, Spor t s I l l us t r at e d publ i s he d 61 s t or i e s t ha t m e t t he e s t a bl i s he d c r i t e r i a f o r a na l ys i s w hi l e T he Spor t i ng N e w s publ i s he d 37 a r t i c l e s A l l a r t i c l e s w e r e obt a i ne d e l e c t r oni c a l l y vi a t he A c a de m i c S e a r c h P r e m i e r s e a r c h e ngi ne E a c h m a ga z i ne w a s s e a r c he d f or t he ke yw or d s t e r oi ds a nd a r t i c l e s t ha t di d not m e e t t he s a l i e nc e f r a m e c r i t e r i a w e r e e l i m i na t e d f r o m t h e a na l ys i s A n i ni t i a l s e a r c h i n Spor t s I l l us t r at e d pr ovi de d 208 r e s ul t s f or a r t i c l e s t ha t i nc l ude d t he ke yw or d s t e r oi ds O ne hund r e d f or t y s e ve n a r t i c l e s w e r e r e m ove d f r om a na l ys i s b e c a us e t he s t or y w a s t oo s hor t or be c a us e t he a r t i c l e on m e nt i one d t he w or d s t e r oi ds onl y i n p a s s i ng. T he s e a r c h i n T he Spor t i ng N e w s r e s ul t e d i n 156 a r t i c l e s of w hi c h 119 w e r e r e m ove d ba s e d on t he c r i t e r i a O nc e a l l of t he a r t i c l e s ha d be e n a c c um ul a t e d, e a c h a r t i c l e w a s r e a d i n i t s e nt i r e t y a nd c ode d f or t he f r a m e s pr e s e nt e d, t he t ype s of s our c e s us e d, w ha t t opi c s w e r e di s c us s e d i n t he a r t i c l e a nd w he r e i n t he a r t i c l e t he de t r i m e nt s of s t e r oi d us e w e r e m e nt i one d. T he c on t i nuous c om pa r a t i ve m e t hod w a s us e d t o de t e r m i ne s ub f r a m e s a nd ove r a r c hi ng f r a m e s i n t h e c ont e nt A c r os s bot h SI a nd T SN 20 pe r c e nt o f t he c ode d a r t i c l e s w e r e e di t or i a l s t yp i c a l l y w r i t t e n by c ol um ni s t s s uc h a s R i c k R e i l l y i n SI or a s a t hl e t e c om m e nt a r i e s s uc h a s D e t r oi t T i ge r s pi t c h T odd J one s i n T SN T he s e a r t i c l e s t ypi c a l l y i nc l ud e d no s our c e s ot he r t ha n t he w r i t e r T he a r t i c l e s c ode d r a nge d i n l e ngt h f r om a ppr ox i m a t e l y 300 w or ds t o l e ngt hy f e a t ur e s t ha t r a n m or e t ha n 8, 000 w o r ds S I t ypi c a l l y i nc l ude d l onge r a r t i c l e s r a ngi ng be t w e e n 3000 a nd 7000 w or ds w i t h a l ong of m or e t ha n 8000 w or ds I n c ont r a s t t he m a j or i t y o f a r t i c l e s i n T SN w e r e be t w e e n 500 1000 w or ds A s w oul d be e xpe c t e d f or s por t s m a ga z i ne s e ve r y a r t i c l e c ode d f oc us e d on t he

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36 r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s t e r oi ds a nd s por t s w i t h t he va s t m a j or i t y di s c us s i ng s t e r oi ds us e i n M a j or L e a gue B a s e ba l l R Q 1: W ha t f r a m e s a ppe a r m os t of t e n i n s t e r oi d r e l a t e d a r t i c l e s i n S po r t s I l l us t r a t e d a nd T he S por t i ng N e w s ? T hr e e m a j or f r a m e s be ne f i c i a l w a r ni ng, a nd s oc i a l i m pl i c a t i ons w e r e i de nt i f i e d a s t he ove r a r c hi ng f r a m e s t ha t a ppe a r e d i n t he m a ga z i ne a r t i c l e s f r om bot h publ i c a t i ons F r om t hos e t hr e e f r a m e s I i de nt i f i e d ni ne s ubf r a m e s t ha t c oul d be c a t e gor i z e d i nt o one of t he t hr e e i de nt i f i e d f r a m e s T he s e s ubf r a m e s i nc l ude d: s uc c e s s phys i c a l i m pr ove m e nt a l l ur e he a l t h da nge r f e a r puni s hm e nt e pi de m i c i ndi f f e r e nc e a nd e duc a t i ona l S uc c e s s phys i c a l i m pr ove m e nt a nd a l l ur e w e r e c a t e gor i z e d a s t he c om p one nt s of t he be ne f i c i a l f r a m e T hr e e ot he r s ubf r a m e s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s pa r t o f t h e w a r ni ng f r a m e : he a l t h da nge r f e a r a nd puni s hm e nt A nd a s pa r t of t he s oc i a l i m pa c t f r a m e s ubf r a m e s i nc l ude d e pi de m i c i ndi f f e r e nc e a nd e duc a t i ona l T he br e a kdow n o f t he s ubf r a m e s i n t he a r t i c l e s c ode d i s s how n i n T a bl e 4 1 ( num be r s a r e a m ount of oc c ur r e nc e s i n a l l a r t i c l e s a na l yz e d) : T a bl e 4 1 C odi ng s c he m e f or s t e r oi d us e a r t i c l e s B e ne f i c i a l f r a m e W a r ni ng f r a m e S oc i a l i m pa c t f r a m e S uc c e s s : 86 H e a l t h da nge r : 11 E pi de m i c : 40 P hys i c a l i m pr ove m e nt : 38 F e a r : 14 I ndi f f e r e nc e : 20 A l l ur e : 25 P uni s hm e nt : 50 E duc a t i ona l : 26 B e n e f i c i al F r am e T he m os t c om m on f r a m e i n bot h publ i c a t i ons w a s t he be ne f i c i a l f r a m e w hi c h r e f l e c t e d c om pone nt s w i t hi n t he s e l e c t e d a r t i c l e s t ha t f oc us e d on a ny be ne f i t s r e a l pe r c e i ve d, or pot e nt i a l t ha t w e r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s t e r oi d us e or ot he r i l l e ga l a na bol i c s ubs t a nc e s A ny s t a t e m e nt t ha t c oul d pr ovi de c ogni t i ve i nc e nt i ve s t o e xpe r i m e nt w i t h or ha bi t ua l l y us e i l l e ga l

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37 pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc i ng s uppl e m e nt s w a s c l a s s i f i e d i n t hi s f r a m e T he f r a m e w a s s ubdi vi de d i nt o t hr e e s ubf r a m e s : s uc c e s s a e s t he t i c e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd a l l ur e S u c c e s s : T he s uc c e s s s ubf r a m e w a s t he m os t popul a r f r a m e i n t he be ne f i c i a l f r a m e a nd t he m os t pr e v a l e nt s ubf r a m e i de nt i f i e d i n a l l a r t i c l e s S uc c e s s c oul d be c l a s s i f i e d i n m a ny di f f e r e nt w a ys P r i m a r i l y, t he s uc c e s s s ubf r a m e w a s i ndi c a t i ve of p r of e s s i ona l a c hi e ve m e nt s m a de by a t hl e t e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h or a l l e ge d t o be u s i ng s t e r oi ds T hi s i nc l ude d br e a k i ng r e c or ds i m pr ove d pe r f o r m a nc e w hi l e t a ki ng A A S i n c om p a r i s on t o pr i o r pe r f or m a nc e a nd de c r e a s e d pe r f or m a nc e a f t e r s t oppi ng A A S a s oppos e d t o w h i l e us i ng. F or e xa m pl e SI s M a r c h 13, 2006, e di t i on i nc l ude d a n a r t i c l e de s c r i bi ng t he book G am e of Shadow s w hi c h of f e r e d a hi s t or y of B a r r y B onds a l l e ge d us e of s t e r oi ds dur i ng hi s pur s ui t of t he M a j or L e a gue B a s e ba l l hom e r un r e c or d: T ha t of f s e a s on, t he a ut hor s w r i t e he be ga n w ha t be c a m e a m a s s i ve dopi ng r e gi m e n i nvol vi ng ye a r s of us e a nd a c or nuc opi a of d r ugs T he t r a ns f or m a t i on w a s l i ke not hi ng t ha t e ve r ha s ha ppe ne d i n t he ga m e T hr ough 1998 B on ds a ve r a ge d one hom e r un e ve r y 16 1 a t ba t s S i nc e t he n he ha s hi t hom e r uns a l m os t t w i c e a s f r e que nt l y one e ve r y 8. 5 a t ba t s T he s e ve n be s t hom e r un f r e que nc y r a t e s of B onds 's c a r e e r a l l ha ve c om e i n t he s e ve n s e a s ons s i nc e t he a ut hor s s a y he be ga n hi s s t e r oi d us e R e m e m be r w e 'r e t a l ki ng a bout a pl a ye r w ho t ur ne d 35 ye a r s ol d i n t he f i r s t s e a s on t ha t t he a ut h or s s a y he pl a ye d w hi l e us i ng s t e r oi ds A t a n a dva n c e d ba s e ba l l a ge B onds ha s pl a ye d be t t e r t ha n a t a ny ot he r t i m e i n hi s c a r e e r ( 3/ 13/ 06) S om e a r t i c l e s a l s o f oc us e d on ge ne r a l c ha nge s t ha t oc c ur r e d i n ba s e ba l l a f t e r s t e r oi d t e s t i ng w a s f i na l l y i m pl e m e nt e d. C om m e nt s f oc us e d on t h e c ha nge s i n pl a ye r pe r f or m a nc e a f t e r s t e r oi d us e a nd how t hos e di m i ni s he d s ki l l s m a de s t e r oi d pl a ye r s e xpe nda bl e onc e t e s t i ng w a s i m pl e m e nt e d. F o r i ns t a nc e s e ve r a l hi gh pr of i l e pl a ye r s w ho a l l e ge dl y us e d s t e r oi ds ha d t he i r a bi l i t i e s que s t i one d onc e s t e r oi d t e s t i ng w a s i m pl e m e nt e d i n ba s e ba l l I n r e ga r d t o P a ul L o D uc a a f or m e r A l l S t a r c a t c he r one a nonym ous ge ne r a l m a na ge r ha d t o s a y, C onc e r ni ng L o D uc a s t a f f not e s f r om t ha t s a m e s e a s on r e ve a l G ot o f f t he s t e r oi ds . T ook a w a y a l o t of ha r d l i ne dr i ve s . w oul d c o n s i de r t r a di ng. ( 12/ 24/ 07)

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38 D i s c us s i ons of pe r f or m a nc e i m pr ove m e nt s a l s o i nc l ude d s pe c ul a t i on a bout w ha t f o r m e r pr of e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s c oul d ha ve a c hi e ve d i f t he y h a d us e d i l l e ga l s ubs t a nc e s s uc h a s s t e r oi ds w he n t he y pl a ye d. T he s e pe r f or m a nc e ba s e d c a t e g or i z a t i ons r e f l e c t e d a n i de ol ogy of de pe nde nc y t he i de a t ha t t he i m p r ove m e nt s a nd r e c or ds w e r e m or e of a r e f l e c t i on of s t e r oi d us e t ha n o f ha r d w or k a nd how p r e vi ous r e c or ds a nd g r e a t pl a ye r s c oul d ha ve be e n e ve n be t t e r i f t he e a r l i e r pl a ye r s ha d u s e d i l l e ga l s ubs t a nc e s I n a n i nt e r vi e w w i t h R oge r M a r i s J r t he s on of f or m e r s i ngl e s e a s on hom e r un r e c or d hol de r R oge r M a r i s t he younge r M a r i s r e f l e c t e d on w ha t h i s f a t he r c oul d ha ve done on s t e r oi ds T he m i nd boggl e s a t t he t hough t of how m a ny ho m e r uns hi s da d w oul d've hi t on s t e r oi ds H G H c r e a t i ne or a ndr o H e w a s na t ur a l l y b i g a ny w a y, s a ys M a r i s H e got a l l hi s m us c l e s doi ng r a i l r oi ds [ R oge r S r l a i d r a i l r oa d t r a c k f or hi s f a t he r a f or e m a n. ] S o I don't know a l ot m or e t ha n 61 I gua r a nt e e you A l ot m or e ( S I 4/ 1/ 05) S uc c e s s w a s a l s o i de nt i f i e d a s t a ngi bl e c onc r e t e b e ne f i t s s uc h a s f a m e a nd f o r t une F oc us i ng on c a r s m a ns i ons o r bi g m one y c ont r a c t s f or a l l e ge d o r p r ove n us e r s of i l l e ga l a na bol i c s ubs t a nc e s pr ovi de d a l i nk be t w e e n f i na n c i a l s e c ur i t y a nd t he us e o f ba nne d s ubs t a nc e s I n a n a r t i c l e a bout f or m e r s l ugge r J os C a ns e c o, t he a ut hor t r i e d t o de s c r i be C a ns e c o s l i f e s t yl e w hi l e s e r vi ng hous e a r r e s t f or l e ga l t r oubl e s H e i s a bi gge r w e a l t hi e r va s t l y m o r e r e now ne d hu m a n be i ng. N ot l ong a go t he f i r s t que s t i on C a ns e c o m i ght ha ve a s ke d, w he n s e nt e nc e d t o hous e a r r e s t w a s W hi c h hous e ? H e ha d f i ve o f t he m i nc l udi ng a 22 000 s qua r e f o ot e s t a t e i n W e s t on, F l a pa t r ol l e d by $25, 000 t ur t l e s I t ha d f ou r a c r e s a 5, 500 s qua r e f oot gym a w a t e r f a l l l a goon, pool c a ve s J a c uz z i koi ponds a l l ove r t he pl a c e s a i d C a ns e c oH e pa r e d hi s f l e e t o f B e nz e s t o t hr e e N a vi ga t or s t o t w o a nd R ol l s e s t o one ( S I 6/ 30/ 03) I n a s pe c i a l s e c t i on on a l l e ge d s t e r oi d us e r s Spor t s I l l us t r at e d i nc l ud e d t he f ol l ow i ng e xa m pl e s of f i na nc i a l s uc c e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t e r oi d us e : O ut f i e l de r G a r y M a t t he w s J r w hos e c a r e e r ye a r w i t h t he T e xa s R a nge r s i n 2006 e a r ne d hi m a f i ve ye a r $50 m i l l i on f r e e a ge nt de a l w i t h t he L os A nge l e s A nge l s w a s s e nt G e not r opi n ( gl os s a r y, pa ge 63) i n 2004 T he pr e s c r i pt i on w a s w r i t t e n by a doc t o r a t a now de f unc t a nt i a gi ng c l i ni c i n F l o r i da

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39 K ur t A ngl e a 1996 O l ym pi c gol d m e da l w i nni ng f r e e s t yl e w r e s t l e r a nd now a s t a r pr of e s s i ona l w r e s t l e r r e c e i ve d t w o pr e s c r i pt i ons f or t r e nb ol one a nd one f or na nd r ol one be t w e e n O c t obe r 2004 a nd F e b r ua r y '05 ( S I 3 12. 07) T he f r a m e a l s o r e f l e c t e d ge ne r i c r e f e r e nc e s t o i m pr ove d a t hl e t i c pe r f o r m a nc e T hi s a ppe a r e d w i t h c om m e nt s t ha t m e nt i one d l onge r ho m e r uns a nd f a s t e r pi t c hi ng. F or e xa m pl e i n a T S N a r t i c l e a bout t he c ha nge s i n t he pe r f or m a nc e of pl a ye r s w ho us e d s t e r oi ds D a ve K i ndr e d w r ot e S t e r oi ds bui l d s t r e ngt h a nd s o c r e a t e t w o l e ve l s of pl a y ( T S N 1/ 28/ 05 ) S i m i l a r l y a T S N a r t i c l e a bout pe r f or m a nc e c ha nge s i n ba s e ba l l i nc l ude d t hi s e xp l a na t i on: B y i nc r e a s i ng t he i r s t r e ngt h pl a ye r s a r e a bl e t o hi t t he ba l l s ha r de r a nd f a r t he r T he us e of s t e r oi ds e nha nc e s r e c ove r y t i m e be t w e e n w or kout s M us c l e t i s s ue br e a ks dow n dur i ng w e i ght t r a i ni ng, a nd s t e r oi ds r e pl e ni s h t he m us c l e s W he n s om e one i s t a ki ng s t e r oi ds he c a n l i f t ha r d one da y t he n c om e ba c k a nd l i f t t he n e xt T he m or e y ou l i f t t he s t r onge r you be c om e H i t t e r s de m ons t r a t e i nc r e a s e d ba t s pe e d, a nd pi t c he r s ga i n l i f e on t he i r f a s t ba l l s ( T S N 3/ 15/ 04 ) I n r e f e r e nc e t o pi t c he r s a bi l i t y a n S I a r t i c l e i nc l ud e d a quot e f r om O a kl a nd A t hl e t i c s ge ne r a l m a na ge r B i l l y B e a ne : I t doe s s e e m l i ke t he r e a r e a num be r o f pi t c he r s t hr ow i ng 90, 91 t hi s ye a r w ho w e r e 94, 95, 96 i n pr e vi ous ye a r s I don't know t he r e a s on f or t h a t ( S I 5/ 30/ 05) A nd i t t e r m s of ba t t i ng s t a t i s t i c s T he pos t m ode r n hi t t i ng e r a unof f i c i a l l y be ga n i n 1 993, t he ye a r ba s e ba l l e xpa nde d t o C ol or a do a nd F l or i da T he r a t e of hom e r uns pe r g a m e j um pe d 24% f r om 1 44 t o 1 78. H om e r s a nd m us c l e s ha ve ke pt gr ow i ng s i nc e t he n L a s t ye a r t hough s om e pundi t s t i e d t he a bs e nc e of a 50 hom e r un hi t t e r t o t he s t e r oi d t e s t i ng, t he r a t e of hom e r s r os e a ga i n, f r om 2. 09 pe r ga m e i n 2002 t o 2. 14 P e r ga m e i n 2003, hom e r uns f l e w ou t 49% m or e of t e n t ha n t he y di d a s r e c e nt l y a s 1992 a nd 146% m or e of t e n t ha n i n 1933 ( S I 3. 15 04) P h ys i c al i m p r ove m e n t : I n a ddi t i on t o t he s uc c e s s f r a m e phys i c a l i m p r ove m e nt w a s a not he r s ubf r a m e t ha t w a s pa r t of t he be ne f i c i a l f r a m e A s oppos e d t o t he s uc c e s s s ubf r a m e w hi c h f oc us e d m or e on be ne f i t s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a t hl e t i c pe r f or m a nc e t hi s s ubf r a m e di s c us s e d s pe c i f i c phys i ol ogi c a l a nd phys i c a l i m pr ove m e nt s R a t he r t ha n t a l ki ng a bout s t a t i s t i c s t he

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40 phys i c a l i m pr ove m e nt f r a m e f oc us e d on g r e a t e r m us c ul a t ur e a nd i m pr ove d phys i c a l a bi l i t i e s s uc h a s m or e s t r e ngt h, pow e r or qu i c ke r r e c ove r y S om e e xa m pl e s of t he phys i c a l i m pr ove m e nt s ubf r a m e i nc l ude d t he s e e xa m pl e s H i s c he s t s houl de r s a nd a r m s a r e m a s s i ve e vi de nc e of ye a r s o f us i ng t he pr oduc t s i nc l udi ng s t e r oi ds t ha t he de ve l ope d. ( S I 10/ 9/ 06 ) H G H i s a popul a r d r u g a m ong a t hl e t e s A s ynt he t i c hor m one H G H i s t hought by s om e t o a c c e l e r a t e r e c ove r y t i m e s s pe e d he a l i ng, de c r e a s e body f a t a nd pa r t i c ul a r l y w he n c om bi ne d w i t h s t e r oi ds i nc r e a s e m us c l e m a s s a nd t he r e f or e s t r e ngt h ( S I 3/ 12/ 07 ) I n s pe c i f i c r e l a t i on t o p r of e s s i ona l ba s e ba l l pl a ye r s t w o e xa m pl e s t ha t r e pr e s e nt e d t he a t hl e t i c s ubf r a m e i nc l ude d, C a ns e c o i s i ns t r uc t i ve t oo, on how a nd w hy s t e r oi ds w or k s o w e l l T he y m a de hi m f a s t e r a nd s t r onge r a l l ow e d hi m t o s w i ng a he a vi e r ba t h e l pe d hi m m a i nt a i n hi s ba t s pe e d ove r t he l e ngt h of ot he r w i s e gr ue l i ng s e a s ons a nd s w e l l e d hi s c onf i de nc e T he pow e r s you ga i n c a n f e e l a l m os t s upe r hum a n, he w r i t e s I t 's r i ve t i n g t e s t i m ony, not f r om a l a b t e c hni c i a n, uni ve r s i t y pr of e s s or or uni on l a w ye r bu t f r om a r e a l l i f e c a s e s t udy. O ne of m a ny s a t i s f i e d c us t om e r s ( S I 2/ 21/ 05 ) O ne s um m e r V a n S l yke s t ood out s i de a ba t t i ng c a ge i n H ous t on a nd w a t c he d A s t r os s l ugge r K e n C a m i ni t i 25 pounds he a vi e r t ha n dur i ng t he pr e vi ous s e a s on, s m oke ba l l a f t e r ba l l ove r t he f e nc e V a n S l yke poi nt e d t o C a m i ni t i a nd t w i c e t o a P i r a t e s c oa c h, pa nt om i m e d i nj e c t i ng a ne e dl e i nt o hi s ow n r e a r e nd. I ha d w or ke d m y a s s of f t ha t of f s e a s on, s a y s V a n S l yke a nd ga i ne d s e ve n pound s ( S I 3/ 8/ 05 ) T he s ubf r a m e a l s o i nc l ude d r e f e r e nc e s t o body i m a ge c onc e r ns a nd i m pr ove d a ppe a r a nc e A r t i c l e s w oul d di s c us s r a pi d w e i ght a nd m us c l e ga i ns a nd de s c r i be s t e r oi d us e r s w i t h f l a t t e r i ng t e r m s i nc l udi ng s upe r he r o or A doni s a nd m e nt i on us e r s phys i c a l a t t r a c t i ve ne s s or a ppe a l t o t he oppos i t e s e x. A n e xa m pl e of ba s e ba l l pl a ye r s s upe r hum a n a ppe a r a nc e oc c ur r e d i n a D e c e m be r 26, 2005 a r t i c l e i n S I T he f i ve pl a ye r s w e r e bi g a nd s t r i ki ng f i gu r e s a nd i n uni f or m C a ns e c o, S os a a nd M c G w i r e ha d onc e l ooke d a s i f t he y'd s t e ppe d out of a M a r ve l c om i c ( S I 12/ 26 / 05 )

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41 I n r e f e r e nc e t o t he g r ow i ng s i z e of t he ho m e r un hi t t e r s i n ba s e ba l l a s c out w a s quot e d a s s a yi ng, N obody c a n put on t ha t ki nd of m us c l e m a s s i n a p e r i od of t hr e e m ont hs w i t hout doi ng s t e r oi ds ( T S N 12 / 27/ 04) A l l u r e : T he l a s t s ubf r a m e i de nt i f i e d i n t he be ne f i c i a l f r a m e w a s a l l u r e T hi s s ubf r a m e w a s c ha r a c t e r i z e d by w or ds a nd ph r a s e s t ha t r e f l e c t e d t he de s i r e t o t a ke a na bol i c s ubs t a nc e s s uc h a s s t e r oi ds or hum a n g r ow t h ho r m one ( H G H ) a nd/ or t he di f f i c ul t y of r e s i s t i ng us e of s uc h s ubs t a nc e s T he s ubf r a m e f oc us e d on t he a ddi c t i ve qua l i t i e s of t he i l l e ga l s uppl e m e nt s a nd t he r a t i ona l e f or us i ng t he s uppl e m e nt s de s pi t e t he pu bl i c s a ppa r e nt l a c k of a c c e pt a nc e S om e e xa m pl e s of t he a l l ur e s ubf r a m e i nc l ude d t he f ol l o w i ng: W e l l C a n't you he a r a ki d ba s e ba l l pl a ye r ? I f s t e r oi ds a r e n't a ga i ns t t he r u l e s a nd i f t he y'r e not goi ng t o k i l l m e t hi s ve r y s e c ond, w hy not us e t he m ? E s pe c i a l l y i f t he t r a de of f i s a ga i n i n s t r e ngt h, e ndu r a nc e qui c kne s s a nd t a l l pi l e s of m one y. ( T S N 11/ 24/ 03) A n e xa m pl e t ha t f oc us e d on t he t r a ns f or m a t i on o f J os C a n s e c o e m pha s i z e d t he dr a w of s t e r oi d us e I w a s a ne r d, a l i t t l e dw e e b, w he n I w a s a ki d, C a ns e c o s a i d f our da ys be f or e t he a r r e s t I n hi gh s c hool I w a s s ki nny a nd l i t t l e I a m t he pe r f e c t e xa m pl e of B e f or e a nd A f t e r T oda y, a t 38 C a ns e c o i s a C a r r a r a m a r bl e s c ul pt ur e I r un i nt o pe opl e a l l t he t i m e w ho kne w m e i n hi gh s c hool a nd a l ot of t he m don' t r e c ogni z e m e a s t he s a m e guy, he s a i d. T he y' r e a l w a ys l i ke Y ou ha ve c ha nge d s o m uc h. Y ou've t ur ne d i nt o a di f f e r e n t hu m a n be i ng. ( S I 6/ 30/ 03) O t he r e xa m pl e s f oc us e d on t he a ppa r e nt popul a r i t y or f r e que nc y of s t e r oi d us e T he s e e xa m pl e s di d not f oc us on a n e pi de m i c s pr e a d o f t he dr ugs but i ns t e a d di s c us s e d t he not i on t ha t s uc c e s s f ul or c om pe t i t i ve i nd i vi dua l s w e r e us i ng i l l e ga l s ubs t a nc e s T he s ubf r a m e ga ve t he a ppe a r a nc e t ha t s t e r oi ds i n a t hl e t i c s w e r e t he nor m a nd t ha t e ve r yone w a s us i ng t he m

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42 E xa m pl e s of t he a l l ur e due t o popul a r i t y f r a m e i nc l ude d pa r a gr a phs f r om bot h m a ga z i ne s F or i ns t a nc e a M a r c h 2007 S I a r t i c l e di s c us s e d t he i m pa c t of s por t s m e di a on a dol e s c e nt a t hl e t e s : K i ds a r e w a t c hi ng E S P N or r e a di ng S P O R T S I L L U S T R A T E D a nd m a ki ng e ve r y e f f o r t t o ga i n a c om pe t i t i ve e dge s a ys S oa r e s t he A l ba ny C ount y D A T ha t w e ha ve s t e r oi ds a nd hum a n gr ow t h ho r m one s o r e a di l y a va i l a bl e pr e s e nt s a c l e a r a nd p r e s e nt da nge r ( S I 3/ 12/ 07) A not he r e xa m pl e i nc l ude d quot e s f r om a f or m e r b odybui l de r r e ga r di ng t he ubi qu i t y of s t e r oi ds us e a m ong hi s pe e r s I us e d t o pow e r l i f t a nd bodybui l d A bout 85 pe r c e nt of t he m a l e s a t m y gym us e d s t e r oi ds A l ong l i s t o f p r of e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s a nd bodybui l de r s f r e que nt e d t he gym a nd got t he i r s t uf f Y ou c oul d a l w a ys f i nd s om e one t ha t ha d a bo t t l e o f t e s t os t e r one or w i ns t r o l ( T S N 7/ 12/ 04) T he a l l ur e s ubf r a m e a l s o i nc l ude d e xc e r pt s t ha t r a t i ona l i z e d t he us e of s t e r oi ds a s m i s unde r s t ood c he m i c a l c om pounds T he s e e xa m p l e s i ns t e a d f oc us e d on s t e r oi ds or g r ow t h hor m one s a s s ubs t a nc e s t ha t w i l l be c om m onl y us e d i n t he f ut ur e a nd a r e no t pr ove n t o be de t r i m e nt a l t o t he body i n s a f e dos e s I n one a r t i c l e P a t r i c k A r no l d, t he c r e a t or of t w o s u bs t a nc e s t ha t w e r e a l l e ge dl y us e d by B a r r y B onds s ha r e d hi s opi ni on on a na bol i c s uppl e m e nt s : C l e a r l y, A r nol d w i l l c ont i nue t o pus h s uppl e m e nt s t o t he e dge o f w ha t C a t l i n a nd ot he r s c ons i de r s a f e ye t he 's not t a r ge t i ng j us t bodybui l d e r s a nym or e T he w hol e a nt i a gi ng i ndus t r y i nt e r e s t s m e he s a ys T he r e a r e s o m a n y a ve nue s I ha ve n't e xpl or e d i n t ha t T he bodybui l di ng s i de i s s o s a t ur a t e d a nd ha s t h i s s t i gm a a nd I 'm a l m os t a f r a i d t o c om e out w i t h s om e t hi n g t ha t w o r ks be c a us e s om e one [ i n l a w e nf or c e m e nt ] w i l l c om e a f t e r you B ut a l ot of t he s t uf f t ha t i nc r e a s e s m us c l e a nd he l ps l os e f a t a l s o he l ps t he qua l i t y of l i f e f or ol de r pe opl e A nd a t hl e t e s w i l l t ur n t o t he a nt i a gi ng w or l d be c a us e i t w i l l be e a s i e r t o ge t t he dr ugs t he y w a nt t he r e t ha n f r om t he bodybui l di ng w or l d. T he s i de e f f e c t s w e r e m i ni m a l a nd A r nol d be c a m e c onvi nc e d ( a s he s t i l l i s ) t ha t s t e r oi ds ha d be e n gi ve n a ba d r a p. ( S I 10/ 9/ 06 ) A l l ur e a l s o m a ni f e s t e d a s a l a c k o f puni s hm e nt f or t he us e of s t e r oi ds A r t i c l e s w oul d e i t he r di s c us s t he r e l a t i ve l y m i l d pe na l t i e s f or s t e r o i d us e r s or how e a s y i t w oul d be f o r pe opl e t o

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43 t a ke i l l e ga l pe r f o r m a nc e e nha nc i ng s uppl e m e nt s w i t hout be i ng c a ught A l t hough t he s ubf r a m e s a l l ude d t o c he a t i ng, t he pr e dom i na nt m e s s a ge w a s t ha t i f you w e r e c a r e f u l you c oul d ge t a w a y w i t h us i ng ba nne d s ubs t a nc e s T he s e f r a m e s w e r e m os t a ppa r e nt w he n di s c us s i ng ba s e ba l l a nd i t s dr ug pol i c y: T he pol i c y doe s ha ve i t s s i gni f i c a nt l oophol e s P l a ye r s c a n s t i l l us e hum a n gr ow t h hor m o ne ( T hough i t i s l i s t e d a s a ba nne d s ubs t a nc e ba s e ba l l doe s not s c r e e n f o r i t be c a us e onl y a bl ood t e s t c a n de t e c t i t s us a ge ) T he r a m pa n t us e of a m phe t a m i ne s a nd ot he r s uc h s t i m ul a nt s i s t a c i t l y a ppr ove d by t he i r om i s s i on f r o m t he ba nne d l i s t D e s i gne r s t e r oi ds m a nuf a c t ur e d t o be unde t e c t a bl e i n t e s t s t he s uc c e s s or s t o T H G t he s t e r oi d a t t he c e nt e r of t he B A L C O s c a nda l w i l l c ont i nue t o be i nve nt e d. P l a ye r s c a n a l s o us e l ow e r dos e s of s t e r oi ds t o a voi d de t e c t i on. ( S I 2/ 21/ 05) A l s o, i n a r e f l e c t i on on t he di f f i c ul t y of c a t c hi ng u s e r s of H G H H G H i s t he ne xt s t e p be yond s t e r oi ds a nd i t s i l l i c i t us e i s not ne w a m ong a t hl e t e s I t ha s w onde r f ul r a m i f i c a t i ons w he n a ppl i e d t o he l p s pur t he gr ow t h o f s t unt e d c hi l d r e n, bu t i t i s on ba s e ba l l 's l i s t of ba nne d d r ugs T he c a t c h, o f c o ur s e : P l a ye r s a r e not t e s t e d f or i t T he onl y w a y a nd i t 's not i nf a l l i bl e t o de t e c t H G H i s w i t h bl ood t e s t s a nd t hos e a r e n't pe r m i t t e d unde r t he c ur r e nt c ont r a c t t ha t gove r ns t he t e a m s a nd pl a ye r s ( T S N 5/ 19/ 06 ) War n i n g F r am e T he l e a s t c om m on f r a m e i n t he a r t i c l e s a na l yz e d w a s t he w a r ni ng f r a m e D e s pi t e ha vi ng t he s e c ond m os t c om m on s ubf r a m e ove r a l l a s a c o l l e c t i ve t he w a r ni ng f r a m e w a s t he l e a s t pr e va l e nt i n t he a r t i c l e s t ha t w e r e a na l yz e d. T h i s f r a m e de m ons t r a t e d e xa m pl e s t ha t c oul d pot e nt i a l l y de t e r a dol e s c e nt s f r om us i ng or e xpe r i m e nt i ng w i t h A A S T he w a r ni ng t he m e i nc l ude d t hr e e m a j or s ubf r a m e s : puni s hm e nt he a l t h da nge r a nd f e a r P u n i s h m e n t : T he m os t c om m on s ubf r a m e i n t he d a nge r f r a m e a nd t he s e c ond m os t c om m on s ubf r a m e i de nt i f i e d i n t he s t udy, w a s t he puni s hm e nt s ubf r a m e T hi s s ubf r a m e f oc us e d on t he l a c k o f s oc i a l a c c e pt a nc e of a na bol i c s t e r oi d s a nd ot he r i l l e ga l pe r f o r m a nc e e nha nc e r s A t hl e t e s w ho w e r e a l l e ge d or pr ove n us e r s of ba nn e d pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc i ng s ubs t a n c e s w e r e c ons i s t e nt l y l a be l e d a s c he a t e r s a nd poor r ol e m od e l s T he c he a t i ng r e f e r e nc e w a s i nc l ude d i n a l m os t e ve r y c ol um n w r i t t e n a bout s t e r oi d us e

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44 A n e xa m pl e of t he puni s hm e nt s ubf r a m e w a s i nc l ude d i n m a ny a r t i c l e s t ha t j udge d t he va l i di t y of B a r r y B ond s r e c or ds W he t he r B onds ne ve r hi t s a not he r ho m e r un or hi t s 48 m or e w hi c h w oul d gi ve hi m t he m os t of a l l t i m e he ne ve r c a n be r e ga r de d w i t h ho nor or f ul l l e gi t i m a c y. S ha dow s pa i ns t a ki ngl y c a t a l ogs hi m a s a s e r i a l dr ug c he a t a nd t hus t he e ye poppi ng s t a t s t ha t he ha s a c c r ue d s t a nd a l l t oo l i t e r a l l y a s t oo good t o be t r u e ( S I 3/ 12/ 06) I n one c ol um n by f or m e r S I c ol um ni s t R i c k R e i l l y, t he a ut hor s ha r e s hi s t hought s on w he t he r s t e r oi d us e r s s houl d be a l l ow e d i n t he H a l l of F a m e B ot t om l i ne : T he y c he a t e d. W hi c h m e a ns t he i r nu m be r s a r e di r t i e r t ha n B oobs c om D on't vot e t he r a t s i n ( S I 8/ 15/ 05 ) S i m i l a r l y, a n a r t i c l e i n T he Spor t i ng N e w s c onde m ne d B a r r y B onds f or hi s us e s t a t i ng, I w oul d l i ke B a r r y B onds t o ow n up t o i t a l l a nd s a y he m a de a poo r c ho i c e T he n he c oul d be c om e a di f f e r e nt e xa m pl e t o t he s e ki ds H e ne e ds t o a pol ogi z e not f or w ha t he ha s done t o hi m s e l f bu t f o r c r e a t i ng a s i t ua t i on w he r e c he a t i ng i s O K a nd not onl y O K but a r e qui r e m e nt ( T S N 12/ 27/ 04 ) O t he r a r t i c l e s di dn t f oc us a s m uc h on i ndi vi dua l c he a t e r s but i ns t e a d di s c us s e d how t he c ol l e c t i ve c he a t i ng i n s por t s ha d t a i n t e d s por t s a nd a t hl e t i c a c hi e ve m e nt s W hi l e t he s e r e f e r e nc e s di d not m e nt i on a c onc r e t e pun i s hm e nt f r om a n a t h l e t i c or ga ni z a t i on or t he gove r nm e nt t he a r t i c l e s a l l ude d t o a pun i s hm e nt i n t he c our t o f pub l i c opi ni on. T hi s i s w or s e t ha n t he B l a c k S ox s c a nda l T e r e n c e s a ys T ha t w a s s e ve r a l pl a ye r s f i xi ng one W or l d S e r i e s T h i s i s a m uc h l a r ge r g r oup o f p l a ye r s f i xi ng r e c or ds t ha t m a y l a s t f or de c a de s T hi s s t or y ha s be c om e ba s e ba l l 's W a t e r ga t e I t s t a r t e d a s a m i nor b r e a k i n a nd j us t ke pt gr ow i ng, w e e k a f t e r w e e k. ( S I 3/ 28/ 05 ) A nd, E ve r yt hi ng i s de va l ue d now t he pl a ye r t he e r a t he hom e r un A nd i t r e m a i ns di f f i c ul t t o e va l ua t e w he r e t hi s a l l goe s B onds i s t he bi gge s t n a m e t he s l ugge r t r yi ng t o m a ke h i s t or y, but t hi s i s n't j us t a bout hi m I t 's a bout t he e nt i r e s p or t a s por t t ha t ha s l os t a m e a s ur e of i nnoc e nc e not j us t f or t he m om e nt but f o r good ( T S N 5/ 19/ 06) H e al t h D an ge r : A r t i c l e s t ha t i nc l ude d t he he a l t h d a nge r s ubf r a m e t e nde d t o i nc l ude e xa m pl e s of t he ne ga t i ve phys i ol ogi c a l c ons e que nc e s of us i ng a na bol i c s t e r oi ds or ot he r a na bol i c

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45 s ubs t a nc e s A l l he a l t h da nge r s ubf r a m e e xa m pl e s m e nt i one d s i gni f i c a nt phys i ol ogi c a l de t r i m e nt s i nc l udi ng t he f o l l o w i ng c ons e que nc e s : i nt e r na l f a i l u r e of or ga ns s uc h a s t he ki dne ys or l i ve r c a r di ova s c ul a r di s e a s e gyne c om a s t i a hor m one di s r upt i on a nd ps yc hol ogi c a l da m a ge O ne a r t i c l e i nc l ude d t he phys i c a l a i l m e nt s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h us e of H G H : T he r i s ks of H G H us e a r e a bunda nt i nc l udi ng di a b e t e s m us c l e a nd j oi nt pa i n hype r t e ns i on, c a r pa l t unne l s yndr om e a bnor m a l e nl a r ge m e nt of o r ga ns a nd a dva nc e m e nt of c a r di ova s c ul a r di s e a s e s S om e r e s e a r c he r s be l i e ve H G H c a n a c c e l e r a t e c a nc e r T he i s s ue i s pr e t t y s t r a i ght f or w a r d s a ys M a r k S c hut t a a U ni ve r s i t y o f P e nns yl va ni a e ndoc r i nol ogi s t Y ou'r e gi vi ng pe opl e a ho r m one t ha t c a n pot e nt i a l l y i nc r e a s e t he gr ow t h of a bnor m a l c e l l s S c hut t a a l s o not e s t ha t t he A m e r i c a n C ol l e ge of E ndoc r i nol ogy doe s not r e c om m e nd us i ng H G H t o t r e a t a dul t s e xc e pt i n t he e xc e e di ngl y r a r e i ns t a nc e t ha t a pa t i e nt pr oduc e s no gr ow t h hor m one na t ur a l l y. ( S I 3/ 12/ 07 ) F e ar : T he f e a r s ubf r a m e m ove d a w a y f r om ge ne r i c s t a t e m e nt s t ha t f oc us e d on t he da nge r ous na t ur e of s t e r oi ds a nd s i m i l a r c om poun ds T he f e a r s ubf r a m e i ns t e a d na r r ow e d i t s f oc us t o s pe c i f i c a ne c dot e s a nd s t or i e s t ha t r e l a ye d t r a gi c t a l e s of i ndi vi dua l s bot h a dol e s c e nt s a nd a dul t s w ho ha d s uf f e r e d o r e ve n di e d i n c onn e c t i on w i t h t he i r s t e r oi d us e T he f e a r f r a m e w a s a ve r s i ve pr ovi di ng e xt r e m e ne ga t i ve e xa m pl e s a nd goi ng i nt o s i gni f i c a nt de t a i l di s c us s i ng t he s uf f e r i ng. M a ny of t he f e a r s ubf r a m e e xa m pl e s w e r e a ppa r e nt i n e di t or i a l s t ha t w e r e a ppa r e nt l y a i m e d a t s t e r oi d pr e ve nt i on. O ne a r t i c l e f oc us e d on t he phys i c a l s uf f e r i ng of B r a d C unni ng ha m a 29 ye a r ol d a m a t e ur bodybui l de r a nd how hi s body c om pl e t e l y b r oke d ow n be c a us e of s t e r oi d a bus e I ns t e a d he l a y f a c e dow n on hi s m om 's f l oo r on t ha t D e c e m be r m or ni ng dyi ng H i s he a r t s t oppe d a nd pa r a m e di c s s hoc ke d hi m e i ght t i m e s t o no a va i l O n t he ni nt h t r y he w a s r e vi ve d, a nd he w a s r us he d t o B a yl or M e di c a l C e nt e r i n G a r l a nd. T he y ga ve hi m no c ha nc e of s ur vi vi ng, s a ys J ul i a he r e ye s w e l l i ng u p. A c ha pl a i n m e t m e a t t he door ( S I 4/ 24/ 06) I n a not he r d r a m a t i c e xa m pl e i n T he Spor t i ng N e w s a f or m e r a dol e s c e nt s t e r oi d us e r s ha r e d hi s e xpe r i e nc e s : A f t e r us i ng f or onl y f ou r m ont hs m y pe r s ona l i t y c ha nge d. I be c a m e de p r e s s e d a l ong w i t h a l l of m y buddi e s I l os t a l ot of ha i r m y t e s t e s s hr unk, m y m oods be c a m e unc ont r ol l a bl e

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46 S o I s t oppe d c om pl e t e l y. W e l l i t di dn't e nd t he r e A f t e r a f e w m ont hs m y t e s t os t e r one l e ve l w a s l ow e r t ha n a l i t t l e g i r l 's M y hor m one l e v e l s w e r e s o m e s s e d up t ha t I w e nt e ve n m or e nut s ( no pun i n t e nde d) I c oul dn't s l e e p. M y m us c l e s w e r e w a s t i ng. I w e nt f r om a r i ppe d 222 pounds t o 170 i n l e s s t ha n s e ve n m ont h s A l l o f m y j oi nt s hur t I w a s s i c k a l l t he t i m e I ha d no s e x dr i ve e ve n w he n c onf r ont e d by t he m os t be a ut i f ul gi r l ( da m ni t ) I c ont i nue d t o l os e w e i ght m y di ge s t i ve s ys t e m w a s t ot a l l y o f f I f e l t l i ke c r a p T he d oc t or s t ol d m e t ha t I ne e d t o w a i t i t ou t unt i l I f e e l be t t e r W ha t ? U nt i l I f e e l be t t e r ? W he n t he he l l w i l l t ha t be ? I l ooke d i n t he m i r r or a nd w ha t di d I s e e ? S om e l i t t l e w e a k, t e s t os t e r one l e s s s i c ky. A l l f o r a f e w m o r e pounds of m us c l e a nd s t r e ngt h! I t 's i r oni c I s t a r t e d out p r e t t y da m n s t r ong na t ur a l l y but us i ng s t e r oi ds I e nde d u p w e a ke r t ha n w he n I s t a r t e d! ( T S N 7/ 12/ 04) O t he r a r t i c l e s f oc us e d on t he ps yc hol ogi c a l pr obl e m s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s t e r oi d us e T a yl or H oot e n, t he hi gh s c hool ba s e ba l l pl a ye r w ho c om m i t t e d s ui c i de dur i ng w i t hdr a w a l f r om s t e r oi ds w a s m e nt i one d i n s e ve r a l a r t i c l e s O ne pa s s a ge t ha t f oc us e d on H oot on s s t or y s a i d, H e ha d us e d t he dr ug w i t hout h i s pa r e nt s know l e d ge a nd, w he n he t r i e d t o qui t be c a m e s o e ngul f e d by de pr e s s i on t ha t he ha nge d hi m s e l f i n h i s r oom l e a vi ng a not e t ha t r e a d, I l ove you guys I m s or r y a bout e ve r yt hi ng ( S I 4/ 24/ 06 ) O t he r f e a r s ubf r a m e e xa m pl e s w e r e s pe c i f i c a l l y di r e c t e d a t a dol e s c e nt s a nd i ndi vi dua l s w ho s uf f e r e d f r om us e T hi s i nc l ude d D r S c ot t 's a c a r di a c s ur ge on. D oe s he e ve r s t op t o t hi nk t ha t e ve r y ba t t i ng p r a c t i c e pi t c h he t hr ow s e ve r y i m pr ove m e nt t ha t J ona t ha n m a ke s t a ke s hi m one s t e p c l os e r t o a w or l d w he r e hi s s on m a y be f or c e d t o m a ke a c hoi c e : t o c a s h i n hi s dr e a m a nd a l l t he s e ho ur s t he y've s pe nt t oge t he r or t a ke a d r ug t ha t c oul d r a va ge hi s he a r t ki dne ys a nd l i ve r c a us e i m pot e nc e hi gh b l ood pr e s s ur e a nd m ood s w i ngs s o s e ve r e t ha t t he y c oul d i nduc e hi m t o do w ha t t he s ons of t hos e pa r e nt s a t l a s t w e e k's he a r i ngs di d? T o pr e s s a gun t o hi s he a d a nd ki l l hi m s e l f a s 19 ye a r ol d E f r a i n M a r r e r o of V a c a vi l l e C a l i f di d i n S e pt e m be r o r t o ha ng hi m s e l f i n h i s be dr oom a s 17 ye a r o l d T a yl or H oot on, t he c ous i n o f f o r m e r m a j or l e a gue pi t c he r B ur t H oot on d i d i n J ul y 2003 i n P l a no, T e xa s ? ( 4/ 24 / 06, S I ) S oc i al I m p l i c at i o n s F r am e T he f i na l f r a m e i de nt i f i e d i n t he a r t i c l e s w a s one t h a t r e f l e c t e d s t e r oi ds s oc i a l i m pa c t or i nf l ue nc e T he a r t i c l e s c ode d f oc us e d on a va r i e t y of t opi c s a nd m a ny a r t i c l e s di d not ne c e s s a r i l y e m pha s i z e t he be ne f i t s or de t r i m e nt s of s t e r oi ds I n s t e a d, t he a r t i c l e s di s c us s e d how s t e r oi d s c a nda l s i n s por t s w e r e i ndi c a t i ve of ge ne r a l t r e nds a nd t he s oc i a l i m pl i c a t i ons of us i ng s t e r oi ds T he t hr e e s ubf r a m e s i nc l ude d w e r e : e pi de m i c i ndi f f e r e nc e a nd e duc a t i ona l

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47 E p i d e m i c : T he e pi de m i c s ubf r a m e e m pha s i z e d t he w i de s pr e a d us e of s t e r oi ds i n a l l s por t s w i t h a s pe c i f i c e m pha s i s on bot h M a j or L e a gue B a s e ba l l a nd t he O l ym pi c s B e yond s por t s s e ve r a l a r t i c l e s a l s o r e f e r e nc e d t he e a s e of a c c e s s t o s t e r oi ds a nd t he e a s e of us e D r C ha r l e s Y e s a l i s a p r of e s s or a t P e nn S t a t e U ni v e r s i t y a nd a pr o m i ne nt s t e r oi d r e s e a r c he r w a s quot e d i n a T S N s t or y a bout t he f r e que nc y of s t e r oi d us e i n s por t s R e f e r r i ng t o e s t i m a t e s of s t e r oi d a bus e i n s por t s Y e s a l i s s a i d t h a t t he pe r c e nt a ge of us e r s w a s m ul t i pl e t i m e s hi ghe r t ha n t ha t a nd c a l l e d s t e r oi d us e a m ong a t hl e t e s gr os s l y e pi de m i c Y e s a l i s e xpe r i e nc e i s t ha t s t e r oi d t e s t s us ua l l y m e a n not hi ng be c a us e m os t us e r s a nd s uppl i e r s a r e s o s ophi s t i c a t e d t ha t onl y t he s t upi d, c a r e l e s s a nd f ool i s h ge t c a ught I f 5 t o 7 pe r c e nt a r e s o f ool i s h a s t o be f ound out he f i gur e s m a ny m or e go unde t e c t e d e s pe c i a l l y i n a s por t t ha t onl y a ye a r a go m a de i t o nl y a pe t t y v i ol a t i on t o us e s t e r oi ds ( T S N 12/ 1/ 03 ) I n a r e c e nt S I a r t i c l e t he a ut hor a r gue d t ha t t he a b us e of s t e r oi ds a l t hough s e e m i ngl y on t he pa t h t o i m pr ove m e nt i s s t i l l a pr obl e m i n s por t s a nd s oc i e t y, T he S t e r oi d E r a i s be i ng pe r c e i ve d by t he publ i c a s a t hi ng of t he pa s t e ve n i f i n t r u t h t he pr obl e m of pe r f o r m a nc e e nha nc i ng dr ugs i s ongoi ng a nd i nc r e a s i ngl y c om pl i c a t e d. ( S I 11/ 26/ 07) I n d i f f e r e n c e : T he i ndi f f e r e nc e s ubf r a m e w a s c ha r a c t e r i z e d by pa s s a ge s t ha t di s c us s e d a s e ns e of a pa t hy t ow a r d s t e r oi d us e f r o m pr o f e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s j udgi ng t he i r pe e r s a nd f r om s por t s f a ns j udgi ng p r o f e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s a nd i n r e l a t i on t o t he dr ug t e s t i ng pol i c i e s i n s por t s O f t e n t he s e i ndi f f e r e nc e e xa m pl e s r e f e r r e d t o M a j or L e a gue B a s e ba l l w hi c h unt i l 2003 ha d no s t e r oi d t e s t i ng r e qui r e m e nt T w o a r t i c l e s i n T he Spor t i ng N e w s l a m e nt e d t he l a c k of d i s c i pl i ne i n M a j or L e a gue B a s e ba l l a nd pr ovi de d e xa m pl e s of t he i ndi f f e r e nc e s ubf r a m e E i t he r w a y i t w on't be pr e t t y f or ba s e ba l l N or s houl d i t be L i ke B onds ba s e ba l l s houl d r e a p w ha t i t ha s s ow n. V i r t ua l l y e ve r y ot he r m a j or s por t i n t he w or l d ha s ha d r ul e s a ga i ns t s t e r oi ds us e f or ye a r s B a s e ba l l da l l i e d unt i l 2002 a ye a r a f t e r B onds hi t 73 hom e r uns i n a s e a s on. O ne ne e d not be t e r m i na l l y c yni c a l t o l ook a s ka nc e a t M L B a nd i t s P l a ye r s A s s oc i a t i on. I t 's obvi ous t he r u l i ng pow e r s c ondon e d s t e r oi ds us e A f t e r a l l hom e r uns

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48 br ought ba c k c us t om e r s l os t w he n t hos e pooh ba hs c a nc e l e d m uc h of t he 1994 s e a s on a nd di d w ha t w or l d w a r s a nd a n e a r t hqua ke ha d ne ve r done : c a l l of f a W or l d S e r i e s ( T S N 4/ 28/ 06) M L B di dn't s i m pl y s t i c k i t s he a d i n t he s a nd, i t bur i e d i t s e nt i r e m us c l e bound body, c r e a t i ng a n e nvi r onm e nt i n w hi c h e ve r y pl a ye r i s u nde r s us pi c i on. F i r s t M L B ha d no dr ug pol i c y. T he n, i t e na c t e d a l a ugha bl e d r ug pol i c y. A nd now t ha nks t o a f e de r a l i nve s t i ga t i on of f ou r m e n a c c us e d of di s t r i but i ng s t e r o i ds t o p r of e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s M L B 's c o c ons pi r a t or s t he s e e no e vi l ow ne r s a nd t he he a r no e vi l p l a ye r s uni on ha ve f or f e i t e d c ont r ol of t he i s s ue ( T S N 3/ 8 / 04) F or gi ve ne s s w a s a l s o pa r t of t he i ndi f f e r e nc e s ubf r a m e S e ve r a l a r t i c l e s a l s o not e d t ha t f a ns f or ga ve t he i r f a vor i t e a t hl e t e s f or s t e r oi d us e or t ha t s t e r oi d us e w a s a c c e pt a bl e i n s por t s t ha t a r e m or e phys i c a l l y de m a ndi ng on t he body s uc h a s f oot ba l l T he a r t i c l e s i de nt i f i e d a hypoc r i t i c a l bi a s t ow a r d t r e a t m e nt o f s t e r oi d us e r s i n di f f e r e nt s p or t s A s k S ha w ne M e r r i m a n: F oot ba l l pl a ye r s c a n f i nd a bs ol ut i on f or t he i r s t e r oi d s i ns B ut i n ba s e ba l l t he s t a i n ne ve r f a de s ( S I 1/ 8/ 07) T he s a m e a r t i c l e on M e r r i m a n m e nt i one d how s t e r oi d us e w a s r a t i ona l i z e d ba s e d on t he ne e d t o e nt e r t a i n f a ns a nd on f a ns de s i r e t o s e e m or e pow e r s t r e ngt h, a nd s pe e d i n t he pr of e s s i ona l s por t s t ha t t he y pa y t o s e e T hi s pr e s s ur e t o pe r f or m s e e m i ngl y j us t i f i e d t he ne e d f o r a nd a l l e ge dl y r a m pa nt us e o f s t e r oi ds i n s por t s M e r r i m a n t e s t e d pos i t i ve f or t he s t e r oi d na ndr ol on e a dr ug he s a ys he ne ve r know i ngl y t ook a nd m us t ha ve i nge s t e d t h r ough d r um r ol l p l e a s e a t a i nt e d s uppl e m e nt T ha t 's hi s s t or y, a nd he 's s t i c ki ng t o i t N ot t ha t i t m a t t e r s a ny m or e W he n t he s ubj e c t i s f oot ba l l w e a r e e i t he r ve r y f o r gi vi ng o r ve r y f or ge t f ul M e r r i m a n i s a f e r oc i ous a nd s pe e dy l i ne ba c ke r w ho f i ni s he d w i t h 17 s a c ks a nd f our f or c e d f um bl e s i n 12 ga m e s T ha t 's good e nough f or m os t pe opl e i f not J a s on T a yl or t he D ol phi ns de f e ns i ve e nd w ho c om pl a i ne d l a s t w e e k t ha t you r e a l l y s houl dn't be a bl e t o f a i l a t e s t l i ke t ha t a nd pl a y i n t hi s l e a gue t o be gi n w i t h. ( S I 1/ 8/ 07) E d u c at i on al : W hi l e t he num be r of a r t i c l e s w a s l i m i t e d, s om e of t he f e a t ur e s i n bot h m a ga z i ne s i nc l ude d e duc a t i ona l s ubf r a m e s t ha t de f i ne d s t e r oi ds a nd pe r f o r m a nc e e nha nc i ng dr ugs T ypi c a l l y t he s ubf r a m e s i nc l ude d i n f or m a t i on a t t r i but e d t o a m e di c a l doc t or o r a uni ve r s i t y r e s e a r c he r T he s ubf r a m e s e xpl a i ne d ho w s t e r oi ds a nd ot he r s uppl e m e nt s l i ke H G H

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49 w or k a nd di s c us s e d t he f ut ur e di r e c t i ons of s por t s s uppl e m e nt a t i on. O t he r e duc a t i ona l i nf or m a t i on a l s o d i s c us s e d t he dos a ge s us e d by pr o f e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s t he t ype s of d r ugs us e d by a t hl e t e s a nd t he va r i ous e f f e c t s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h us e I n de s c r i bi ng H G H f or e xa m pl e a n S I a r t i c l e e xpl a i ne d: H G H c a n be pr e s c r i be d by doc t o r s f or l e gi t i m a t e m e di c a l pur pos e s H i s t or i c a l l y, t hi s ha s m e a nt c om ba t i ng r a r e pi t ui t a r y di s e a s e a nd t r e a t i n g pa t i e nt s w i t h pr o gr e s s i ve l y de bi l i t a t i ng c ondi t i ons r e s ul t i ng f r o m A I D S a nd s om e f or m s of c a nc e r Y e t l a t e l y s om e doc t or s ha ve a s c r i be d a l i be r a l de f i ni t i on t o l e gi t i m a t e m e di c a l pur pos e s c ont e ndi ng t ha t a gi ng i s i n e f f e c t a pr ogr e s s i ve l y de bi l i t a t i ng d i s e a s e a nd t ha t a ny pa t i e nt s w i t h d i m i ni s hi ng hor m one l e ve l s a r e e l i gi bl e f o r t he dr ug. T he A m e r i c a n A c a de m y of A nt i A gi ng M e di c i ne a C hi c a g o ba s e d gr oup t ha t s uppor t s us i ng H G H t o r e pl a c e gr ow t h hor m one a s i t s l e ve l s de c l i ne w i t h a ge c ount s m or e t ha n 10, 000 he a l t h c a r e pr a c t i t i one r s a m ong i t s m e m be r s T hi s of f l a be l or unor t hodox us e of H G H i s t he s our c e of s i gni f i c a nt c ont r ove r s y i n t he m e di c a l c om m uni t y. I t 's a r us e s a ys D r T hom a s P e r l s a n a s s oc i a t e pr of e s s or a t B os t on U ni ve r s i t y S c hool of M e di c i ne w ho m a i nt a i ns t he w e bs i t e a nt i a gi ngqua c ke r y. c om T he publ i c ha s e qua t e d hor m one s w i t h you t h, a nd H G H i s t he dr ug of c hoi c e f or t he s e huc ks t e r s t o pus h. ( T h r ough a s poke s m a n t he a c a de m y s a i d i n a s t a t e m e nt t o S I t ha t P e r l s 's c om m e nt i s on t he l e ve l of t ha t of a 'f l a t e a r t h s oc i e t y' uni nf o r m e d pe r s on. ) ( S I 3/ 12/ 07) A not he r f e a t ur e s t or y i nc l ude d a n i nt e r vi e w be t w e e n a r e por t e r a nd t h e a nonym ous D r X a c r e a t or of de s i gne r s t e r oi ds I n t hi s a r t i c l e t he r e a de r l e a r ns : I a s ke d how he c r e a t e d T H G H e e xpl a i ne d t ha t i t i s a s ubs t a nc e t ha t i s c he m i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o G e s t r i none ( a n i nf e r t i l i t y dr ug ) a nd T r e nbol one ( a n a na bol i c s t e r oi d ) a nd t ha t i t ha d be e n a r ound s i nc e t he l a t e 1990s W hi l e D r X w a s n't t he f i r s t t o m a ke i t he r e f i ne d t he pr oc e s s a nd w a s one of t he f e w w ho c oul d pr oduc e a nd di s t r i but e t he s ubs t a nc e H e 'd ge t G e s t r i none by s e ndi ng w om e n t o a f e r t i l i t y s pe c i a l i s t w ho'd w r i t e t he pa s s [ pr e s c r i pt i on ] a nd w e 'd pa y c a s h. D oc t or s l ove t ha t m a n. W e 'd s pe nd a c oupl e hundr e d s pi n i t [ m i x t he c om pone nt s ] a nd s e l l i t f or a c oupl e t hous a nd. ( S I 4/ 25/ 05 ) A Spor t s I l l us t r at e d a r t i c l e a l s o t a ught r e a de r s a bout B a r r y B onds a l l e ge d i l l e ga l s uppl e m e nt r out i ne : T he c r e a m ( a t e s t os t e r one ba s e d ba l m ) t he c l e a r ( T H G ) hu m a n gr ow t h hor m one D e po T e s t os t e r one a nd t r e nbol one ( s t e r oi ds ) i ns ul i n, C l om i d ( a f e m a l e f e r t i l i t y d r ug us e d t o e nha nc e t he e f f e c t s of t e s t os t e r one ) a nd M oda f i ni l ( a n a nt i na r c ol e ps y dr ug us e d a s a s t i m ul a nt ) A c c or di ng t o t he C hr oni c l e B onds t e s t i f i e d t ha t he us e d t he c r e a m a nd t he c l e a r but di d not know t he y w e r e s t e r oi ds B onds ha s not be e n c ha r ge d w i t h a ny c r i m e H i s pe r s ona l t r a i ne r G r e g A nde r s on, i s unde r i ndi c t m e nt a s pa r t o f t he B A L C O i nve s t i ga t i on. ( S I 2/ 21/ 05)

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50 I n t he e a r l i e r r e f e r e nc e d a r t i c l e a bout B r a d C unni n gha m t he a m a t e ur bodybui l de r w ho s uf f e r e d s e ve r e c ons e que nc e s f r om hi s a bus e C unni ngha m de s c r i be d hi s dos i ng c yc l e : I w a s doi ng a bout 500 m i l l i g r a m s of T e s t on Q V 2 00 a w e e k, s t a c ki ng t ha t w i t h D e c a Q V 300 a nd us i ng W i ns t r ol a nd E qui po i s e t oo. I c oul d w or k out ha r d f o r a n hour a nd a ha l f W i t hout s t e r oi ds I 'd ge t t i r e d a f t e r 45 m i nu t e s T h e dr ugs he us e d w e r e m a de by Q ua l i t y V e t one of t he c om pa n i e s ow ne d by A l be r t o S a l t i e l C ohe n a nd a f a vo r i t e br a nd w i t hi n hi s c i r c l e of l i f t e r s a nd t r a i ne r s ( S I 4/ 24/ 06) E duc a t i ona l s ubf r a m e s a l s o pr ovi de d i nf or m a t i on on t he l e ga l r a m i f i c a t i ons of s t e r oi d us e T he a r t i c l e s di s c us s e d t he di f f e r e nt l e ga l opt i ons f o r pr o f e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s us i ng s t e r oi ds a nd m e nt i one d t he pe na l t i e s a nd l e ga l r a m i f i c a t i ons f o r publ i c c ons um pt i on o r s a l e of s t e r oi ds T he w or s t c a s e s c e na r i o i nvol ve s c ha r ge s of pe r j u r y a nd obs t r uc t i on o f j us t i c e a nd s e r vi ng a f e w m ont hs i n j a i l A t t he ve r y l e a s t s om e one c onvi c t e d of t hos e c r i m e s w oul d be pl a c e d on pr oba t i on. ( S I 3/ 1/ 04) A nd, Y e s but i t a ppe a r s m or e l i ke l y t ha t t he y w oul d be c ha r ge d w i t h pe r j u r y t ha n d r ug us e S om e of t he a t hl e t e s w ho t e s t i f i e d be f or e a f e de r a l gr a nd j ur y i n t he B A L C O c a s e r e por t e dl y r e c e i ve d l i m i t e d i m m u ni t y. H ow e ve r t h e a t hl e t e s c oul d be c ha r ge d w i t h pe r j ur y i f pr os e c ut or s be l i e ve s om e of t he m l i e d t o t he gr a nd j ur y. ( T S N 4/ 12/ 04) R Q 2: D oe s t he c ont e nt o f s t e r oi d r e l a t e d a r t i c l e s i n S I a nd T S N f oc us on t he be ne f i t s o r de t r i m e nt s of s t e r oi d us e ? T he va s t m a j o r i t y o f t he a r t i c l e s a na l yz e d f oc us e d on t he num e r ous be ne f i t s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s t e r oi d us e D e s pi t e t he ov e r w he l m i ng out r a ge t ha t w a s e xpr e s s e d by c ol um ni s t s a nd t he ne ga t i ve m or a l a ppr a i s a l s m a de of s t e r oi d u s e r s m os t o f t he a r t i c l e s s pe nt m or e t i m e d i s c us s i ng how s t e r oi ds c a n be ne f i t a t hl e t e s or i ndi vi dua l s a nd r a r e l y f oc us e d on t he ne ga t i ve phys i c a l c ons e que nc e s of s t e r oi d us e A l t hough s om e of t he s a m pl e a r t i c l e s f oc us e d on t he ne ga t i ve s i de e f f e c t s a nd m a de i t c l e a r t ha t s t e r oi d us e c a n l e a d t o a n e a r l y de a t h m os t a r t i c l e s t ha t w e r e c r i t i c a l of s t e r oi d us e pr i m a r i l y c e nt e r e d on m or a l j udgm e nt s a bout t he de c i s i on t o us e i l l e ga l pr oduc t s T he m a j or i t y of a r t i c l e s a na l yz e d di d not e duc a t e r e a de r s a bout t he r i s ks a nd da nge r s i nvol ve d w i t h us e R e a de r s f r e que nt l y w oul d be s ubj e c t e d t o di s c us s i ons of

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51 i m pr ove d a t hl e t i c pe r f or m a nc e s uc h a s gr e a t e r s t r e ngt h, m o r e pow e r be t t e r e ndur a nc e a nd qui c ke r r e c ove r y. T he f r a m e s a l s o f oc us e d on t he p r of e s s i ona l s uc c e s s of s t e r oi d us e r s i m p r ove d phys i c a l a bi l i t i e s a nd t he l a c k of puni s hm e nt f o r us e r s W hi l e bot h be ne f i t s a nd ha r m s w e r e i nc l ude d i n t he a r t i c l e s t he f r e que nc y a nd qua nt i t y of r e f e r e nc e s t o t he be ne f i t s of s t e r oi ds w hi c h doc t or s r e i t e r a t e d a nd r e i nf o r c e d a s i n di s put a bl e out w e i ghe d a nd ove r w he l m e d t he ne ga t i ve pr obl e m s l i nke d t o s t e r oi d us e R Q 3: W he r e i s t he i nf o r m a t i on a bout t he de t r i m e nt s of s t e r oi d us e a nd i l l e ga l pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc e r s l oc a t e d i n a r t i c l e s i nc l ude d i n S po r t s I l l us t r a t e d a nd T he S por t i ng N e w s ? E a c h a r t i c l e t ha t w a s c ode d w a s a na l yz e d f or t he l o c a t i on of t he ne ga t i ve f r a m e m a t e r i a l di s c us s i ng s t e r oi d us e T he c ode r ha d t o de t e r m i ne i f t he ne ga t i ve f r a m e s w e r e i n t he l e a d of t he s t or y, t he f i r s t t hi r d o f t he s t or y, t he m i dd l e t hi r d o r t he f i na l t hi r d o f t he s t o r y. W i t h t he e xc e pt i on of f ou r s t or i e s e ve r y s t or y t ha t i nc l ude d ne ga t i ve or de t r i m e nt a l f r a m e m a t e r i a l r e f e r e nc e d t ha t i n f or m a t i on i n t he m i ddl e o r f i na l t hi r d of t he a r t i c l e A l s o, i t w a s c om m on f o r t he be ne f i t s t o be l i s t e d be f o r e t he de t r i m e nt s i n a r t i c l e s O ve r a l l t he r e w e r e onl y 11 a r t i c l e s t ha t i nc l ude d he a l t h da nge r s ubf r a m e s a nd 14 t ha t f oc u s e d on a f e a r s ubf r a m e R Q 4: D o s t e r oi d r e l a t e d m a ga z i ne a r t i c l e s i n S por t s I l l us t r a t e d a nd T he S po r t i ng N e w s r e i nf or c e t he us e of s t e r oi ds a s a w a y t o i m p r ove a t hl e t i c pe r f or m a nc e o r a c hi e ve t he m us c ul a r m a l e i de a l ? T he be ne f i c i a l f r a m e i nc l ude d t he t h r e e s ubf r a m e s s uc c e s s a t hl e t i c i m pr ove m e nt a nd a l l ur e t ha t r e i nf or c e d t he i de a t ha t s t e r oi ds a l t hough i l l e ga l undoubt e dl y i m pr ove pe r f o r m a nc e a nd c a n p r ovi de a m o r e m us c ul a r a nd a t hl e t i c body W hi l e no w r i t e r di r e c t l y s t a t e d t ha t t a ki ng s t e r oi ds w a s t he w a y t o a c hi e ve t he i de a l body, a t t r i but e d s our c e s a nd s t a t e m e nt s f oc us e d on t he be ne f i t s of i l l e ga l pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc e m e nt a nd t he a t hl e t i c be ne f i t s t ha t c a n be de r i ve d f r om s t e r oi d us e

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52 F or e xa m pl e t he i nt e r vi e w w i t h t he s t e r oi d c r e a t or know n a s D r X boa s t e d t o t he w r i t e r : G i ve m e s i x w e e ks a nd I 'd ha ve you i n t he be s t s ha pe of your l i f e T hi s pr ovi de d a di r e c t pow e r f ul s t a t e m e nt t ha t a l l ude d t o t he f a c t t ha t s t e r oi ds a r e a qui c k f i x t o s ol vi ng body i m a ge c onc e r ns a nd a c hi e vi ng pe a k f i t ne s s R Q 5: D o S po r t s I l l us t r a t e d a nd T he S por t i ng N e w s di f f e r i n t he f r a m e s pr ovi de d i n t he i r c ont e nt ? T he f r a m e s pr e s e nt e d i n bot h m a ga z i ne s w e r e ve r y s i m i l a r E a c h f r a m e a nd t he c or r e s pondi ng s ubf r a m e s t ha t w e r e i de nt i f i e d i n t h e c odi ng pr oc e s s w e r e s i m i l a r l y d i s pl a ye d i n t he a r t i c l e s t ha t w e r e a na l yz e d f or t he s e l e c t e d t i m e pe r i od. A f e w di f f e r e nc e s di d s t a nd out a nd i nt e r e s t i ngl y, t he y m i ght be c onne c t e d t o t he m a ga z i ne s m i s s i on s t a t e m e nt s T he m i s s i on s t a t e m e nt f or Spor t s I l l us t r at e d i s : Spor t s I l l us t r at e d i s t he m os t r e s pe c t e d s por t s br a n d i n t he w or l d. E a c h w e e k, t he m a ga z i ne c ove r s t he pe opl e pa s s i ons a nd i s s ue s of num e r ou s s por t s w i t h t he j ou r na l i s t i c i nt e gr i t y t ha t ha s m a de i t t he c ons c i e nc e of a l l s por t I t i s s ur pr i s i ng, e nga gi ng a nd i n f or m a t i ve a nd a l w a ys w i t h a poi nt o f vi e w t ha t put s i t s r e a de r s i n t he ga m e I n c ont r a s t t he m i s s i on s t a t e m e nt f o r T he Spor t i ng N e w s r e a ds T he S por t i ng N e w s i s t he onl y s por t s m e di a c om pa ny de di c a t e d t o t he m os t pa s s i ona t e f a ns W e e duc a t e a nd e nt e r t a i n our c ons um e r s a bo ut t he t e a m s t he y l ove by t a ki ng t he m pl a c e s t he y c a n t vi s i t out of t he s t a nds a nd i ns i d e t he a c t i on w i t h a f r e s h pe r s pe c t i ve pr ovoc a t i ve j our na l i s m a nd i n de pt h a na l ys i s t o S e e a di f f e r e nt ga m e Spor t s I l l us t r at e d c ont a i ne d ne a r l y t w i c e a s m a ny s t e r oi d r e l a t e d a r t i c l e s a s T he Spor t i ng N e w s w hi c h w a s s ur pr i s i ng s i nc e bot h publ i c a t i on s a r e w e e kl y. B ut c ons i de r i ng t he i r i n t he ga m e i de ol ogy, SI c l e a r l y a t t e m pt s t o c a pt ur e t he s oc i a l f a br i c of s por t s w hi c h r e c e nt l y ha s be e n i nunda t e d w i t h s t e r oi d a l l e ga t i ons a c r os s a l l s por t s T he Spor t i ng N e w s a l s o i nc l ude d m or e r e f e r e nc e s c l a s s i f i e d i n t he w a r ni ng f r a m e f e a t ur i ng m or e he a l t h da nge r a nd e duc a t i ona l s ubf r a m e s T hi s w oul d a ppa r e nt l y pa r a l l e l t he i r go a l t o e duc a t e a nd e nt e r t a i n t he i r r e a de r s B ot h m a ga z i ne s ha d s i m i l a r f r e que nc y pe r a r t i c l e o f t he be ne f i c i a l a nd s oc i a l i m pl i c a t i on f r a m e s B ut de s pi t e t he s m a l l e r s a m pl e T he Spor t i ng N e w s i nc l ude d m or e he a l t h da nge r f r a m e s

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53 t ha t w e nt i nt o de t a i l s f r om doc t or s a nd c r e di bl e s o ur c e s t ha t de t a i l e d t he s pe c i f i c phys i ol ogi c a l c ons e que nc e s of s t e r oi d us e a nd e duc a t e d r e a de r s on t he di f f e r e nt t ype s o f s t e r oi ds us e d by a t hl e t e s

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54 C H A P T E R 5 C O N C L U S I O N A N D D I S C U S S I O N T he f r a m i n g a na l ys i s of s t e r oi d r e l a t e d a r t i c l e s i n t w o m a ga z i ne s Spor t s I l l us t r at e d a nd T he Spor t i ng N e w s f r om 2003 t o 2007 r e ve a l e d t h r e e pr i m a r y f r a m e s T he s e f r a m e s a l l ow e d f or t he c a t e gor i z a t i on of t he di f f e r e n t i nf or m a t i on s ubf r a m e s t ha t w e r e di s s e m i na t e d i n t he m a ga z i ne a r t i c l e s O ne f r a m e be ne f i c i a l f oc us e d on t he b e ne f i c i a l a s pe c t s a nd pos s i bi l i t i e s of s t e r oi d us e ; t he w a r ni ng f r a m e e m pha s i z e d t he ne ga t i ve c ons e que nc e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t he us e of t he i l l e ga l dr ugs a nd a t hi r d f r a m e s oc i a l i m pl i c a t i on s r e f l e c t e d t he m e di a s a ppr a i s a l of s t e r oi d us e a nd e duc a t e d r e a de r s on t he r ol e s t e r oi d us e pl a ys i n s oc i e t y. D e s pi t e t hr e e t he m e s t ha t a ppe a r t o pr ovi de ba l a nc e d c ove r a ge of s t e r oi d us e i n s por t s t he r e a r e m a ny r e a s ons t o be c onc e r ne d t ha t t he pr o l i f e r a t i on of s t e r oi ds r e l a t e d a r t i c l e s i n m a ga z i ne s popul a r a m ong a dol e s c e nt s s uc h a s SI a nd T SN c oul d be i ns t i ga t i ng, r e i n f or c i ng, or pe r pe t ua t i ng s t e r oi d us e i n t he a dol e s c e nt popul a t i on. A t t he c onc l us i on of t he c odi ng pr oc e s s i t w a s ve r y a ppa r e nt t ha t t he be ne f i c i a l f r a m e w a s di s c us s e d f r e que nt l y i n a r t i c l e s a nd w a s i nc l ude d i n s ubs t a nt i a l l y m or e a r t i c l e s t ha n t he ot he r t w o f r a m e E ve n e di t o r i a l a r t i c l e s t ha t w e r e s e e m i ngl y w r i t t e n t o c onde m n s t e r oi d u s e a nd t he a t hl e t e s w ho us e d i l l e ga l dr ugs s t i l l i nc l ude d f r a m e s t ha t r e f e r e nc e d t he be ne f i t s of s t e r oi d us e A nd w hi l e t he l i s t of e nc our a gi ng f r a m e s w a s s e e m i ngl y e ndl e s s t he l i s t of da nge r f r a m e s t ha t c oul d de t e r us e w a s l i m i t e d. A l t hough t he ne ga t i ve c ons e que nc e s of s t e r oi d us e a r e s e ve r e t he c ove r a ge of ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s w a s l a c ki ng i n qua nt i t y i n c om pa r i s on t o t he e nc our a gi ng a s pe c t s t hus m a ki ng s t e r oi ds a ppe a r m or e a ppe a l i ng t ha n da nge r ous T h e c ont e nt of t he s e t w o popul a r m a ga z i ne s pr ovi de s e nough r e a s on t o be c onc e r ne d t ha t m a ga z i ne s a pow e r f ul c om m uni c a t i ve m e di um f or a dol e s c e nt s c oul d pot e nt i a l l y be a s s i s t i ng or c ont r i but i ng t o a dol e s c e nt us e a nd i nt e r e s t i n A A S

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55 T he m ul t i t ude of be ne f i t s l i s t e d i n t he num e r ous a r t i c l e s pr ovi de s e nough i nf or m a t i on t o c r e a t e t he pot e nt i a l f or ps yc hol ogi c a l r e i nf or c e m e n t B e c a us e m os t of t he a r t i c l e s f oc us e d on f a m ous a nd s uc c e s s f ul a t hl e t e s t he f r a m e s s ugge s t t ha t t he m a ga z i ne s m a y c ont r i but e t o s oc i oc ul t ur a l pr e s s ur e t o f ol l ow t he pa t h t o s uc c e s s t ha t ha s be e n e s t a bl i s he d by c ur r e nt pr of e s s i ona l s S t e r oi d us e i n t he a dol e s c e nt popul a t i on i s m os t c om m on a m ong a t hl e t e s w ho pl a y s por t s t ha t de m a nd s t r e ngt h a nd s i z e ( B a hr ke Y e s a l i s K ops t e i n & S t e phe ns 2000; S t i l ge r 1999) I n a ddi t i on s ur ve ys ha ve s how n t ha t m a l e a dol e s c e nt s be l i e ve t ha t s t e r oi ds c a n i m pr ove a t hl e t i c pe r f or m a nc e ( F a i ge nba um e t a l 1998; H o f f m a n, e t a l 2007 ) T he f i ndi ng t ha t be ne f i c i a l f r a m e s w a s t he m os t c om m on a m ong t h e s e a r t i c l e s c om bi ne d w i t h p r i or r e s e a r c h a bout a dol e s c e nt a t t i t ude s t ow a r d s t e r oi d us e onl y f ur t he r s t he c onc e r n a bout t he i m pa c t of m a ga z i ne s t e r oi d a r t i c l e s on a dol e s c e nt us e t e nde nc i e s E ve n i f s om e a r t i c l e s pr e s e nt e d bot h s i de s of t he s t e r oi d i s s ue t he be ne f i t s a nd t he de t r i m e nt s t he de s i r e t o e xpe r i m e nt w i t h, b e gi n, or c ont i nue us e of s t e r oi ds c a n be i nc r e a s e d by a gr e a t e r a w a r e ne s s of t he d r ugs w hi c h a r t i c l e s a b out s t e r oi ds m a y pr ov i de A w a r e ne s s c a n i nc r e a s e t he l i ke l i hood of e xpe r i m e nt a t i on w i t h pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc i ng dr ugs a nd be c om i ng m or e a w a r e of t he be n e f i c i a l a s pe c t s of s t e r oi d us e pos i t i ve l y r e i nf or c e s t he de s i r e t o e xpe r i m e nt w i t h or us e i l l e ga l a na bol i c s ubs t a nc e s ( C or bi n, F e yr e r P he l ps e t a l 1994; K om or os ki & R i c ke r t 1992) M os t i m por t a nt l y, s e ve r a l s t udi e s ha ve i ndi c a t e d t h a t a n i nc r e a s e i n a w a r e ne s s a bout t he t opi c of s t e r oi ds o r t he i r pot e nt i a l be ne f i t s i nc r e a s e s f a vor a bl e a t t i t ude s t ow a r d e xpe r i m e nt a t i on w i t h s t e r oi ds a nd a ugm e nt s t he pot e nt i a l f o r us a ge ( C a f r i e t a l 2005; D i t t m e r 2005; F i e l d e t a l 2005) A m ul t i t ude of s t udi e s ha ve s how n t ha t a n i nc r e a s e i n know l e dge e s pe c i a l l y w he n c om bi ne d w i t h be l i e f s l i nk i ng a t hl e t i c s uc c e s s or m us c l e bui l di ng c a pa bi l i t i e s t o s t e r oi ds

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56 i nc r e a s e s pos i t i ve a t t i t ude s t ow a r d a nd t he pos s i bi l i t y of e xpe r i m e nt a t i on w i t h A A S ( C ha ng, & M oor e 1990; C or b i n, F e yr e r P he l ps e t a l 1994 ; K om or os ki & R i c ke r t 1992; K r ow c huk, A ngl i n, G oodf e l l ow e t a l 1989 ) T he pe r c e pt i on o f t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a t hl e t e s s uc c e s s e s a nd s t e r oi d us e ha s be e n de m ons t r a t e d pr i or t o t hi s s t udy H of f m a n, e t a l ( 2007) f ound t ha t 10 % t o 20% of t e e na ge boys be l i e ve t ha t pr of e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s a r e de pe nde nt on i l l e ga l pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc e r s s uc h a s s t e r oi ds t o i m p r ove pe r f or m a nc e i n t he i r s por t s T he i nf l ue nc e of a t hl e t e s on a dol e s c e nt be ha vi or s w a s a l s o e xhi bi t e d i n t he H o f f m a n e t a l s t udy. B e t w e e n 18% a nd 24 % o f boys s a i d t ha t pr of e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s i nf l ue nc e t he i r de c i s i on a bout s t e r oi d us e a nd a m ong a dol e s c e nt s w ho ha d e ve r us e d s t e r oi ds m o r e t ha n 63 % s a i d t ha t pr of e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s i nf l ue nc e d t he i r us e ( H of f m a n, e t a l 2007 ) A l t hough ne ga t i ve f r a m e s w e r e i nc l ude d i n s e ve r a l a r t i c l e s t hos e ne ga t i ve s t a t e m e nt s ge ne r a l l y f oc us e d on m o r a l j udgm e nt s of us e r s a nd not on t he phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l ha r m c a us e d by s t e r oi d us e T he r e w e r e t w o m a j o r i s s ue s w i t h t he ne ga t i ve s t a t e m e nt s : 1) t he y w e r e c ont a i ne d l a t e i n a r t i c l e s a nd 2) t he r e w a s a w i l l i ngne s s t o r a t i ona l i z e a nd f or g i ve us e r s W hi l e t he l a t e pos i t i oni ng of t he ne ga t i ve f r a m e s i s not a s m uc h o f a n i s s ue i n T he Spor t i ng N e w s be c a us e of t he s hor t e r l e ngt h of a r t i c l e s i t i s pr ob l e m a t i c i n S por t s I l l us t r at e d w he r e a r t i c l e s w e r e f r e que nt l y l onge r t ha n 3 000 w or ds W he n ne ga t i ve f r a m e s a r e bur i e d a t t he e nd, i t i s ve r y l i ke l y t ha t t hos e f r a m e s w i l l not be s a l i e nt w i l l be ove r l ooke d, or w i l l pot e nt i a l l y go unr e a d by a dol e s c e nt s A nd w he n ne ga t i ve c r i t i c a l m or a l j udgm e nt s w e r e m a d e of a t hl e t e s w ho ha d c he a t e d i n t he i r s por t s om e w r i t e r s f a ns a nd pl a ye r s s t i l l di s pl a ye d a ge ne r a l i ndi f f e r e nc e or a pa t hy t o s t e r oi d us e i n s por t s I n a r t i c l e s w he r e no i ndi f f e r e nc e w a s a ppa r e nt t he r e w a s s t i l l a w i l l i ngne s s t o f or gi ve s t e r oi d us e r s or t o r a t i ona l i z e t ha t s om e a t hl e t e s be c a us e of t he phys i c a l de m a nds of t he s por t

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57 a nd t he ne e d t o pr ovi de hi gh qua l i t y e nt e r t a i nm e nt t o t he f a ns w e r e pr e s s ur e d i nt o a pos i t i on i n w hi c h s t e r oi ds c oul d be c ons i de r e d a va l i d a nd t e m pt i ng opt i on, t hus r a t i ona l i z i ng t he us e o f i l l e ga l pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc i ng dr ugs T he doubl e s t a nda r d w a s m os t a ppa r e nt w he n c om pa r i ng a t hl e t e s us e i n ba s e ba l l t o a t hl e t e s us e i n f oot ba l l S t e r oi d us e i n f oot ba l l a m o r e phys i c a l s por t w a s s e e n a s a ne c e s s i t y t o de a l w i t h t he phys i c a l s t r e s s or s of t he j ob a nd a s a w a y t o pr ovi de t he hi ghe s t f or m o f e nt e r t a i nm e nt A nd e ve n w i t h ba s e ba l l s om e f a ns t ha t w e r e quot e d di dn t m i nd t he us e of s t e r oi ds be c a us e i t c r e a t e d a m or e e nt e r t a i ni n g pr oduc t H ow e ve r e ve n a r t i c l e s t ha t i nc l ude d onl y da nge r a nd e duc a t i ona l f r a m e s a bout s t e r oi ds m i ght not be e nough t o de t e r a dol e s c e nt s i nt e r e s t i n s t e r oi d us e R e s e a r c h by H of f m a n e t a l of f e r e d a s hoc ki ng de m ons t r a t i on of a dol e s c e nt s w i l l i ngne s s t o r i s k t he i r l ong t e r m he a l t h f or t he s hor t t e r m be ne f i t s pr ov i de d by s t e r oi ds ( 20 07) M or e t ha n 3 000 a dol e s c e nt s i n 8 t h 12 t h gr a de s w e r e s ur ve ye d a bout s t e r oi ds a nd t he r e w a s a n i nc r e a s e i n e a c h s uc c e e di ng gr a de i n r e por t e d w i l l i ngne s s t o us e s uppl e m e nt s t o r e a c h f i t ne s s goa l s e ve n i f i t m e a nt de t r i m e nt a l he a l t h pr obl e m s or a s hor t e r l i f e s pa n. A l m os t 15% of 12 t h gr a de boys de m ons t r a t e d a w i l l i ngne s s t o t a ke s uppl e m e nt s t ha t w oul d da m a ge t he i r he a l t h, a nd a l m os t 9% s a i d t he y w oul d be w i l l i ng t o t a ke a s uppl e m e nt t ha t w oul d s hor t e n t he i r l i f e a s l ong a s t he pr oduc t he l pe d t he m a c hi e ve t he i r f i t ne s s goa l s ( H of f m a n, e t a l 2007) E ve n i n s i t ua t i ons t ha t don t f oc us on a ny be ne f i c i a l a t t r i but e s us i ng pr of e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s a s e xa m pl e s of s t e r oi d us e r s a ut om a t i c a l l y p r ovi de s t he a s s um pt i on t ha t s t e r oi ds a r e c onne c t e d w i t h s uc c e s s S t e r oi d us e i s pos i t i ve l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t he de s i r e t o be t he be s t i n c om pe t i t i on a nd s por t s a nd t hi s c om pe t i t i ve dr i ve i nc r e a s e s t he a l l ur e o f a pr oduc t t ha t p r om i s e s t o he l p t e e na ge r s a c hi e ve t he i r goa l s B y f oc us i ng on w i nni ng s uc c e s s be ne f i t s a nd t he a l l ur e o f us e t he m e di a m a y f os t e r a r i s k t a ki ng a t t i t ude i n a dol e s c e nt s ( Y e s a l i s & B a hr ke 2000) A ddi t i ona l s t udi e s

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58 s how t ha t a dol e s c e nt s pe r c e i ve t he m e di a 's c ove r a ge of t he m us c ul a r i de a l a s pos i t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h s por t s a nd a t hl e t i c i m a ge s a nd t ha t t he i m a ge s i n t he m e di a s e r ve a s pr oof t ha t gr e a t e r m us c ul a r i t y w i l l r e s ul t i n m or e s uc c e s s i n s por t s ( M c C r e a r y & S a s s e 2000) I f t he c onne c t i on i s m a de t ha t s t e r oi d s gi ve you m o r e m u s c l e a nd m or e m us c l e e qua l s gr e a t e r s uc c e s s t he n t he a r t i c l e s t ha t i nc l ude t he s e f r a m e s r i s k t r i gg e r i ng a c ha i n r e a c t i on t ha t po t e nt i a l l y c a n l e a d t o s t e r oi d us e E ve n t he m o r a l c onde m na t i on s e e n i n m a ny a r t i c l e s a s r e pr e s e nt e d by t he pun i s hm e nt s ubf r a m e w hi c h w a s t he m os t c om m on ne ga t i ve f r a m e obs e r ve d i n t he a na l ys i s a nd c om m onl y r e f e r r e d t o us e r s a s c he a t e r s m a y not be e nough t o de t e r a dol e s c e nt us e r s S t e r o i d us e i s t ypi c a l l y vi e w e d ne ga t i ve l y by t he publ i c but i ndi vi dua l s a r e s t r ongl y i n f l ue nc e d by out c om e s t ha t a r e pe r c e i ve d a s r e w a r di ng e ve n i f t ha t be ha vi or c r e a t e s m or a l di l e m m a s ( B a ndur a 2001) I f i ndi v i dua l s a r e m or e c onc e r ne d w i t h out c om e s a nd i nt r i ns i c d r i ve t he n t he y w i l l be w i l l i ng t o r i s k s oc i a l r e j e c t i on ( B a ndu r a 1986 ) A l t hough t he ge ne r a l pub l i c vi e w s s t e r oi d us e a s i m m or a l i nc or r e c t o r da nge r ous a dol e s c e nt s e xpe r i m e nt i ng w i t h s t e r oi ds c oul d pe r c e i ve t he s e s uppl e m e nt s a s be ne f i c i a l or e ve n ne c e s s a r y t o t he i r pe r s ona l goa l s I f t hi s oc c ur s t he n t he ne ga t i ve pe r c e pt i ons c a n be r a t i ona l i z e d a s uni m po r t a nt a nd t he l i ke l i hood of be ha vi or a l m ode l i ng, i n t hi s c a s e w i t h A A S us e m a y be i nc r e a s e d. E ve n i f us e r s a r e a w a r e o f t he ne ga t i ve s i de e f f e c t s t he y a r e w i l l i ng t o r i s k de t r i m e nt a l ph ys i ol ogi c a l pr obl e m s i n e x c ha nge f o r t he m ul t i t ude of a e s t he t i c be ne f i t s s e e m i ngl y of f e r e d b y t he i l l e ga l dr ugs ( P e c c i & L om ba r do, 2000) P r i or r e s e a r c h ha s a l s o s how n t ha t a l a r ge pe r c e nt a ge of a dol e s c e nt s do not be l i e ve t ha t s t e r oi ds a r e a s i gni f i c a nt t h r e a t t o t he i r he a l t h ( J oh n s t on, e t a l 2006) T hus i t i s pl a us i bl e t ha t a dol e s c e nt s w oul d be w i l l i ng t o l e a r n a bout s t e r oi d s or t ha t e nc our a gi ng m e di a c ove r a ge a bout s t e r oi d us e c oul d pr om ot e a de s i r e t o l e a r n m o r e or e ve n be gi n us e T he ove r a l l c onc e r n i s t ha t

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59 t he f r a m e s pr e s e nt e d e i t he r w i l l ha ve no di s c our a gi ng e f f e c t on a dol e s c e nt s t e r oi d us e or w i l l i nc r e a s e t he i nt r i gue a nd de s i r e t o e xpe r i m e nt w i t h da nge r ous dr ugs A n e ve n bi gge r i s s ue c oul d be c onne c t e d t o s t e r oi d us e by a dol e s c e nt s not i nvol ve d i n a t hl e t i c s I f one of t he p r i m a r y c ons e que nc e s of us e ( a s por t r a ye d i n t he m a ga z i ne s ) i s m or a l c onde m na t i on a nd puni s hm e nt t he n t he r e i s no c o ns e que nc e of us e f or non a t hl e t e s T he y c a n t be c ons i de r e d c he a t e r s or c r e a t i ng a n un l e ve l p l a yi ng f i e l d i f t he r e a r e n o r ul e s a ga i ns t us e f or a e s t he t i c pur pos e s W hi l e s t e r oi d us e i s i l l e ga l a do l e s c e nt s e nga ge i n i l l e ga l be ha vi or s a l l t he t i m e T hus t he a dol e s c e nt s a r e f a c e d w i t h a va r i e t y of be ne f i t s a nd no r e a l a c t ua l i z e d t h r e a t i f t he ne ga t i ve phys i c a l c ons e que nc e s a r e m a de s a l i e nt i n a r t i c l e s T he i s s ue t hus be c om e s de t e r m i ni ng t he op t i m a l w a y f or t he m e di a t o pr ovi de i nf or m a t i on a bout s t e r oi ds W hi l e i t i s i m pos s i bl e f o r t he m e di a i n pa r t i c ul a r s por t s m a ga z i ne s t o a voi d t he i s s ue a l t oge t he r t he m e di a s houl d be c ons c i e nt i ous of i t s pot e nt i a l i m pa c t on a dol e s c e nt s t e r oi d us e T he bi gge s t p r obl e m i s t ha t a ny m e nt i on of s t e r oi ds i n a t hl e t i c s c oul d p ot e nt i a l l y e l i c i t i nt e r e s t i n t he i l l e ga l dr ugs be c a us e of s oc i a l c om pa r i s on t he or y a nd t he l i nk be t w e e n t he i l l e ga l dr ugs a nd s uc c e s s f u l a t hl e t e s H ow e ve r a r t i c l e s t h a t pr ovi de s om e ba c kgr ound a bout t he dr ugs s uc h a s how t he y a r e i l l e ga l not onl y i n s por t s but i n a l l f a c e t s of s oc i e t y a nd t he de t r i m e nt a l c ons e que nc e s of us e c oul d he l p de t e r t he us a ge of i l l e ga l pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc e r s A be s t pr a c t i c e f or s por t s j ou r na l i s t s m a y be t he i nc l us i on of a t l e a s t one pa r a gr a ph t ha t pr ovi de s ba c kgr ound i nf or m a t i on on t he i l l e ga l dr ug t ha t i s be i ng di s c us s e d i n t he a r t i c l e B y i nc l ude d t hi s i nf or m a t i on, t he r e a de r s w i l l be pr ovi de d w i t h s om e f ounda t i on o f unde r s t a ndi ng o f t he t opi c i ns t e a d of r i s ki ng be i ng i nf l ue nc e d t o e xpe r i m e nt w i t h t he dr ugs be c a us e of t he pe r c e i ve d be ne f i t s F or e xa m pl e a n a r t i c l e i n M a r c h 2007 i n Spor t s I l l us t r at e d pr ovi de d a l i s t o f i l l e ga l pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc i ng dr ugs a nd e xpl a i ne d how t he y w or ke d ( s e e A ppe ndi x D ) W hi l e t he i de a l

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60 i nf or m a t i on w oul d f oc us m o r e on t he pot e nt i a l t hr e a t s t hi s e duc a t i ona l a ppr oa c h i s m o r e a l ong t he l i ne s of w ha t i s ne e de d i n a r t i c l e s a bout s t e r oi d s T he r e ne e ds t o be a s e ns e of s oc i a l r e s pons i bi l i t y i n j our na l i s t s t o not onl y c ove r t he t o pi c but t o e ns ur e t ha t t he t opi c s di s c us s e d e s pe c i a l l y he a l t h r e l a t e d t opi c s a r e p l a c e d i n a c o nt e xt w he r e pe opl e w i l l not c a r e l e s s l y e nga ge i n da nge r ous be ha vi or s be c a us e of t he i n f or m a t i on pr ovi de d. S t e r oi ds a ppe a r t o be a p r obl e m be c a us e of t he i r s c i e nt i f i c a l l y pr ove n e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd a l a c k of f oc us on t he pot e nt i a l l y de a dl y c ons e que nc e s of us e B y f oc us i ng m or e on t he r i s ks i nvol ve d i n us e a nd t he l e ga l c ons e que nc e s t he r e i s a gr e a t e r pos s i bi l i t y o f a v e r s i ve l y c ondi t i oni ng a dol e s c e nt s t o be a f r a i d of us a ge E a c h s t e r oi ds r e l a t e d f e a t ur e w oul d i de a l l y c ont a i n a t l e a s t one pa r a gr a ph l oc a t e d e a r l y i n t h e s t or y t ha t br i e f l y m e nt i ons t he i l l e ga l a nd da nge r ous e f f e c t s of i l l e ga l pe r f o r m a nc e e nha nc e r s s uc h a s s t e r oi ds a nd H G H W hi l e t hi s m a y be r e pe t i t i ve t he s e w a r ni ng f r a m e s w i l l i nc r e a s e t he s a l i e nc e of t he da nge r of s t e r oi d l i ke s uppl e m e nt s a nd m i ght pr ovi de a gr e a t e r ba l a nc e t o t he c ur r e nt be ne f i c i a l he a vy f r a m e s t ha t a r e a ppa r e nt i n s por t s m a ga z i ne s P r ogr a m s t ha t t e a c h a dol e s c e nt s a bout t he da nge r s of s t e r oi ds ha ve a l r e a dy pr ove n e f f e c t i ve i n c ha ngi ng a t t i t ude s a nd be ha vi or s T w o O r e gon H e a l t h & S c i e nc e U ni ve r s i t y pr ogr a m s A T L A S ( A dol e s c e nt s T r a i ni ng a nd L e a r ni ng t o A voi d S t e r oi ds ) a nd A T H E N A ( A t hl e t e s T a r ge t i ng H e a l t h E xe r c i s e a nd N ut r i t i on A l t e r na t i ve s ) ha ve e xpe r i e nc e d s uc c e s s i n r e duc i ng t he de s i r e f or a nd us e of a na bol i c s t e r oi ds by i nf o r m i ng t e e na ge r s a bout t he da nge r s of pr oduc t s a nd of f e r i ng he a l t hi e r s a f e r a l t e r na t i ve s ( O H S U Spor t s I l l us t r at e d pa r t ne r t o pr e ve nt s t e r oi d, dr ug us e a m ong t e e n a t hl e t e s 200 6) A c c or di ng t o a 2006 p r e s s r e l e a s e t he A T L A S p r ogr a m l e d t o 50% r e duc t i on i n ne w us e of a na bol i c s t e r oi ds i n A T L A S t r a i ne d s t ude nt s Spor t s I l l us t r at e d pa r t ne r e d w i t h t he t w o pr ogr a m s i n 2006 by p r ovi di ng a $1 m i l l i on gr a nt t o c ont i nue r e s e a r c h a nd de ve l opm e nt o f a nt i dr ug p r ogr a m s ( O H S U Spor t s I l l us t r at e d

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61 pa r t ne r t o pr e ve nt s t e r oi d dr ug us e a m ong t e e n a t hl e t e s 2006) T he ne xt l ogi c a l s t e p s e e m s t o be f or t he m a ga z i ne t o i m p l e m e nt s o m e of t he e duc a t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s us e d by t he pr og r a m i n i t s c ove r a ge S t u d y L i m i t at i on s W hi l e t hi s s t udy pr ovi de s ne w i n f or m a t i on a bout t he c ont e nt f r a m e s t ha t a r e p r e s e nt e d i n popul a r s por t s m a ga z i ne s t he da t a pr ovi de no w a y of de t e r m i ni ng how m a ny a dol e s c e nt s r e a d t he s e a r t i c l e s or w he t he r t he i r pe r c e pt i ons o f t he i n f or m a t i on w oul d be s i m i l a r t o t he r e s e a r c he r s i nt e r pr e t a t i ons D e s pi t e hi gh a dol e s c e nt r e a de r s hi p i n bot h m a ga z i ne s s ubs c r i pt i ons c ont a i n m a ny a r t i c l e s i n e a c h i s s ue a nd t o a s s um e t ha t a do l e s c e nt s r e a d e ve r y a r t i c l e t ha t r e l a t e s t o s t e r oi ds i n e ve r y i s s ue i s ve r y p r e s um pt uous A dol e s c e nt s m a y s ki m or e ve n s ki p s t e r oi d r e l a t e d a r t i c l e s c om pl e t e l y a nd t hus m i s s t he di f f e r e nt f r a m e s pr e s e nt e d. F u t u r e R e s e ar c h F ur t he r r e s e a r c h w oul d ha ve t o be c onduc t e d on t h e r e a di ng pa t t e r ns of a dol e s c e nt s i n s por t s m a ga z i ne s a nd s pe c i f i c a l l y f or s t e r oi d r e l a t e d a r t i c l e s O t he r f ut u r e r e s e a r c h c oul d us e f oc us gr oups w i t h a dol e s c e nt s t o pr ovi de a c l e a r e r pi c t ur e of a dol e s c e nt s a t t i t ude s t ow a r d s t e r oi ds t he i r pe r c e pt i on of t he m e di a s de pi c t i on of s t e r oi d us e a m ong pr of e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s a nd t he i m pa c t of t he m e di a s po r t r a ya l a nd de l i ve r y o f s t e r oi d i nf o r m a t i on. R e s e a r c h t ha t c om pa r e s t he m a ga z i ne s f r a m e s t o a dol e s c e nt s pe r c e pt i ons of m a ga z i ne c ove r a ge of s t e r oi ds a nd t o t he i r know l e dge be l i e f s a nd a t t i t ude s r e ga r di ng s t e r oi d us e w oul d pr ovi de be t t e r i ns i ght i nt o t he i nf l ue nc e of t he a r t i c l e s on a dol e s c e nt de c i s i on m a ki ng. A not he r pot e nt i a l l y c on f oundi ng c ha r a c t e r i s t i c o f t he s t udy w a s t he publ i c a t i ons s e l e c t e d f or a na l ys i s T he r e s e a r c h w a s de s i gne d t o e xa m i n e a nd a na l yz e a r t i c l e s i n popul a r m a ga z i ne s t ha t w oul d be r e a d by a dol e s c e nt s M a ga z i ne s t ha t a r e not r e a d by a s i gni f i c a nt num be r of a dol e s c e nt s a r e unl i ke l y t o i nc r e a s e t he s a l i e nc e of t he i s s ue a nd t hus w oul d not ha ve a n

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62 i nf l ue nc e on t e e na ge c ogni t i ons a nd be ha vi o r s i n r e l a t i on t o i l l e ga l pe r f o r m a nc e e nha nc e m e nt B ot h m a ga z i ne s s e l e c t e d a r e s por t s m a ga z i ne s a nd one c oul d a r gue t ha t s por t s m a ga z i ne s a r e e s s e nt i a l l y f e a t ur e be a t s on a va r i e t y of di f f e r e nt s por t s a nd t he j ob o f t he j our na l i s t s i s not t o c ove r t he he a l t h a s pe c t s of t he t opi c I ns t e a d, t he s e m a ga z i ne s f oc us on t he s oc i e t a l i s s ue s s uc h a s c he a t i ng, a nd w hy t he r e a de r s s houl d c a r e a bout w ha t i s oc c ur r i ng i n t he w or l d of s por t s a s w e l l a s r e por t i ng on t he s pe c i f i c s por t s ga m e s a nd a t hl e t e s r e a de r s w a nt t o know a bout T he m a ga z i ne s a r e l i ke l y t o f oc us on pos i t i ve a t t r i but e s of s uc c e s s f ul a t hl e t e s r e ga r dl e s s of t he i r m or a l obl i ga t i ons be c a us e t ha t i s t he m a ga z i ne s pr i or i t y. E ve n t hough t he a r t i c l e s w e r e he a vi l y s l a nt e d t ow a r d t he be ne f i c i a l f r a m e t he s a m e t ype s of f r a m e s c oul d be e xpe c t e d i n a ny s por t s pe c i f i c m a ga z i ne S por t s a r e ga m e s of s t a t i s t i c s s o s ha r i ng t he i nc r e di bl e a c hi e ve m e nt s of a t hl e t e s r e ga r dl e s s of w he t he r t he y us e dr ugs i s a pr i or i t y of a s por t s m a ga z i ne s a ge nda A na l yz i ng he a l t h a nd f i t ne s s m a ga z i ne s l i ke l y w ou l d pr oduc e a ve r y di f f e r e nt s e t o f f r a m e s r e ga r di ng s t e r oi d us e but t hos e m a ga z i ne s do no t ha ve t he s a m e qua nt i t y of a dol e s c e nt r e a de r s a s t he publ i c a t i ons c hos e n f or t he s t udy. A not he r i m por t a nt t opi c f or f ut ur e r e s e a r c h w oul d be t he r e l a t i ons hi ps a m ong f i t ne s s m a ga z i ne c ove r a ge body i m a ge a nd t he a t t i t ude s of pe opl e w ho us e s t e r oi ds but w ho a r e not i nvol ve d i n s por t s I n a 2000 s t udy B a hr ke e t a l de t e r m i ne d t ha t 16 % t o 36% of a dol e s c e nt s t e r oi d us e r s w e r e not a t hl e t e s a nd di d not pa r t i c i p a t e i n a ny g r oup or i ndi vi dua l s por t O t he r r e s e a r c h c oul d f ur t he r i nve s t i ga t e m us c l e dys m or p hi c di s or de r t he de s i r e f or i nc r e a s e d m us c ul a r i t y a nd t he di f f e r e nt m e di um s t ha t i nf l u e nc e a nd pe r pe t ua t e body i m a ge pa t ho l ogy a nd f os t e r t he s e ns e t ha t m e n ne e d t o r e l y on i l l e ga l a n a bol i c s ubs t a nc e s t o a t t a i n t he i r i de a l body goa l s

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63 F ut ur e r e s e a r c he r s m a y be a bl e t o de t e r m i ne how m uc h s t e r oi d r e l a t e d m e di a c ont e nt a dol e s c e nt s c on s um e a nd w ha t r ol e i f a ny, t he m e di a pl a y i n t he t r oubl i ng f r e que nc y of a dol e s c e nt a nd a dul t s t e r oi d us e M or e r e s e a r c h, bot h qua l i t a t i ve a nd qua nt i t a t i ve i s ne e de d be f or e t he m e di a c a n be a s s um e d t o pl a y a ny c a us a l r ol e i n a dol e s c e nt s t e r oi d us e H ow e ve r t he r e s ul t s of t he s t udy do i ndi c a t e t ha t t he c ove r a ge o f s t e r oi ds i n m a ga z i ne s oc c ur s f r e que nt l y a nd t ha t t he a r t i c l e s f r a m e t he i s s ue s i n w a ys t ha t a r e m or e l i ke l y t o i nc r e a s e i nt e r e s t i n us e r a t he r t ha n de t e r r i ng a dol e s c e nt s f r om e xpe r i m e nt a t i o n w i t h e f f e c t i ve ye t ve r y da nge r ous dr ugs

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64 A P P E N D I X A C O D E S H E E T 1. C a s e : 2. C ode r : 3. P ubl i c a t i on: 4. D a t e : 5. H e a dl i ne : 6. T ype of a r t i c l e : H a r d ne w s F e a t ur e E di t or i a l 7. A r t i c l e l e ngt h: 8. L e a d: 9. F r a m e s : T ype s : C ount / T ot a l s : Q uot e s t ha t e xe m pl i f y f r a m e : 10. L oc a t i on of ne ga t i ve s i de e f f e c t s of s t e r oi d us e L e a d 1 s t t hi r d M i ddl e t hi r d L a s t t hi r d 11. S ou r c e s us e d t o va l i da t e a r gum e nt s : H ow m a ny: T ype s : D oc t or s / R e s e a r c he r B odybui l de r s T e e na ge us e r s P r of e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s A m a t e ur a t hl e t e s G ove r nm e nt of f i c i a l s A t hl e t i c of f i c i a l s A t hl e t i c T r a i ne r s O t he r 12. S t o r y i nc l ude s : S t e r oi ds ( de f i ni t i on) A t hl e t e us a ge P r of e s s i ona l A m a t e ur T e e n S uppl e m e nt us a ge S uppl e m e nt s ( i n ge ne r a l ) R e gul a t or y bodi e s G ove r nm e nt O l ym pi c c om m i t t e e P r of e s s i ona l s por t ( N F L N B A M L B N H L )

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65 N C A A D oc t or s L a w s a ppl yi ng t o s t e r oi ds B e ne f i t s of A A S D a nge r s of A A S P hys i c a l c ons e que nc e s ( ne ga t i ve ) M e nt a l c ons e que nc e s ( ne ga t i ve ) B ody i m a ge C he a t i ng

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66 A P P E N D I X B C O D E B O O K 1. C a s e : W r i t e t h e t i t l e of t he a r t i c l e a nd t he de s i gna t e d num be r a s s i gne d t o t he m a ga z i ne a r t i c l e 2. C ode r : w r i t e r t he c ode r s na m e 3. P ubl i c a t i on: I ndi c a t e t he publ i c a t i on w he r e t he a r t i c l e w a s publ i s he d 4. D a t e of a r t i c l e : m m / dd/ yy 5. H e a dl i ne : W r i t e t he he a dl i ne s of t he a r t i c l e a nd t he qui c kr e a d a ny s ubt i t l e t ha t i s i nc l ude d. A l s o not e i f t he f ont i s bol d, unde r l i ne d i t a l i c i z e d, or a di f f e r e nt f ont f r om t he r e s t of t he a r t i c l e 6. T ype of a r t i c l e : H N : H a r d ne w s A r t i c l e s houl d be f a c t ua l ne w s w i t hout opi ni on T he t one i s s e r i ou s a nd ur ge nt F : F e a t ur e A r t i c l e i s w r i t t e n t o e nt e r t a i n or i nf o r m t he r e a de r a nd c ont a i ns e l e m e nt s f ound i n s hor t s t or i e s T he r e i s a c l e a r l e a d t ha t i s m e a nt t o gr a b t he r e a de r s a t t e nt i on. T one i s c onve r s a t i ona l E : E di t or i a l A r t i c l e e xpr e s s e s a po i nt of vi e w or opi ni on. T ypi c a l l y s hor t 7. A r t i c l e l e ngt h: A pp r oxi m a t e i n w or ds t he l e ngt h of t he ne w s a r t i c l e I f t he w o r d c ount i s a va i l a bl e w r i t e t he e xa c t num be r I f not c ount t he num be r o f w or ds i n t he f i r s t pa r a gr a ph a nd di vi de by t he nu m be r o f l i n e s i n t he f i r s t pa r a gr a ph M ul t i pl e t hi s num be r by t he t ot a l num be r o f l i ne s i n t he a r t i c l e R e c or d t hi s num be r 8. L e a d: T he pa r t o f t he s t or y t ha t i ndi c a t e s t he f oc us of t he s t or y T he l e a d i s o f t e nt i m e s t he f i r s t s e nt e nc e ( i n a ha r d ne w s / s um m a r y l e a d) or l o c a t e d w i t hi n t he f i r s t pa r a gr a ph S om e t i m e s i n a f e a t ur e s t or y, a de l a ye d l e a d i s us e d a nd i t i s l oc a t e d i n t he s e c ond or t hi r d pa r a gr a ph. W r i t e ve r ba t i m one t o t w o s e nt e nc e s t ha t c a pt ur e t he f oc us of t he s t or y. 9. F r a m e s : W hi l e r e a di ng t he a r t i c l e c a r e f ul l y a na l yz e e ve r y pa r a gr a ph f or w or d us a ge l oc a t i on of a t t r i but i on s our c e s us e d, opi ni ona t e d v s f a c t ua l i nf o r m a t i on, dr a m a t i c a ne c dot e s a nd us e of da t a f i gur e s a nd p r e s e nt a t i on of t he m a i n i s s ue s T he m a i n i de a i s t o i de nt i f y a nd e xa m i ne t he f r a m e s p r e s e nt e d t ha t a r e r e l a t e d t o s t e r oi d us a ge a nd how t he s e f r a m e s c oul d s w a y/ m ol d t he r e a de r s i nt e r p r e t a t i on of t he t opi c I t i s i m po r t a nt t o c ode f or bot h m ot i va t i ona l a nd de t r i m e nt a l f r a m e s f o r a ny t opi c t ha t i s c ove r e d i n t he a r t i c l e C ount / t ot a l s : C ount t he num be r of t i m e s t ha t a s pe c i f i c f r a m e i s r e f e r e nc e d a nd t ot a l t he a m ount of t i m e s t he f r a m e w a s us e d i n t he e nt i r e a r t i c l e Q uot e s t ha t e xe m pl i f y f r a m e : I f t he r e a r e a ny quot e s f ul l o r pa r t i a l t ha t r e p r e s e nt t he f r a m e di r e c t l y w r i t e t he m dow n.

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67 10. L oc a t i on of ne ga t i ve s i de e f f e c t s of s t e r oi d us e : M a ke not e of t he l oc a t i on o f t he e xpl a na t i on of ne ga t i ve s i de e f f e c t s r e l a t e d t o s t e r oi ds F oc us on l oc a t i on i n t he a r t i c l e o f ne ga t i ve phys i ol ogi c a l de t r i m e nt s of s t e r oi d us e a n d not on opi ni ona t e d j udgm e nt s a bout pe opl e w ho us e s t e r oi ds T he pur pos e i s t o de t e r m i ne w he r e o r i f r e a de r s a r e m a de a w a r e of t he ne ga t i ve phys i c a l pr obl e m s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s t e r oi d us e 11. S our c e s t o va l i da t e a r gum e nt s : I de nt i f y t he na m e s a nd t i t l e s of t he i ndi vi dua l s t ha t a r e quot e d o r pa r a ph r a s e d i n t he s t or y A l s o i de nt i f y a ny non hum a n s our c e s s uc h a s I n t e r ne t W e b s i t e s books or pa m phl e t s H ow m a ny: R e c or d t he nu m be r o f di f f e r e nt s our c e s r e f e r e nc e d. I f a pe r s on i s m e nt i one d m or e t ha n onc e onl y r e c or d f or t he f i r s t oc c ur r e nc e W r i t e t he num be r ne xt t o t he a ppr opr i a t e c a t e gor y f r om t he l i s t t ha t f ol l ow s : D oc t or s / R e s e a r c he r B odybui l de r s T e e na ge us e r s P r of e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s A m a t e ur a t hl e t e s G ove r nm e nt of f i c i a l s A t hl e t i c of f i c i a l s A t hl e t i c T r a i ne r s O t he r 12. S t or y i nc l ude s : A f t e r r e a di ng t he a r t i c l e de t e r m i ne t he f oc us of t he s t or y by i nc l udi ng w ha t t opi c s a nd w ho w a s m e nt i one d i n t he a r t i c l e I f a ny of t he f ol l ow i ng t op i c s a r e i nc l ude d i n t he a r t i c l e s um m a r i z e w ha t de t a i l s w e r e i nc l ude d a nd w r i t e dow n t he pa ge nu m be r i n t he a r t i c l e T he c a t e gor i e s a r e br oa d s o e xa m pl e s c a n be us e d i n m or e t ha n one c a t e gor y. S t e r oi ds ( de f i ni t i on) A t hl e t e us a ge P r of e s s i ona l A m a t e ur T e e n S uppl e m e nt us a ge S uppl e m e nt s ( i n ge ne r a l ) R e gul a t or y bodi e s G ove r nm e nt O l ym pi c c om m i t t e e P r of e s s i ona l s por t ( N F L N B A M L B N H L ) N C A A D oc t or s L a w s a ppl yi ng t o s t e r oi ds B e ne f i t s of A A S D a nge r s of A A S

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68 P hys i c a l c ons e que nc e s ( ne ga t i ve ) M e nt a l c ons e que nc e s ( ne ga t i ve ) B ody i m a ge C he a t i ng

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69 A P P E N D I X C B A S E B A L L S T E R O I D T I M E L I N E : ( r e t r i e ve d f r om : ht t p: / / w w w ba l t i m or e s un. c om / s por t s / ba s e ba l l / ba l s p. t i m e l i ne 14de c 14, 0, 3186232. s t or y? pa ge = 1 ) A u gu s t 1998 R e por t e r s s py a j a r o f a ndr os t e ne di one a pr oho r m one s t e r oi d pr e c ur s or t ha t i s s ol d ove r t he c ount e r i n M a r k M c G w i r e 's l oc ke r dur i ng hi s c ha s e of R oge r M a r i s s i ngl e s e a s on hom e r un r e c or d. A p r i l 2001 B a s e ba l l i ns t i t ut e s s t e r oi d t e s t i ng f or m i no r l e a gue pl a ye r s M ay 2002 I n a S po r t s I l l us t r a t e d c ove r s t or y K e n C a m i ni t i a d m i t s he us e d s t e r oi ds dur i ng hi s 1996 M os t V a l ua bl e P l a ye r s e a s on. A u gu s t 2002 B a s e ba l l a nnounc e s pl a ns f or a nonym ous s ur ve y" t e s t i ng of bi g l e a gue r s N ove m b e r 2003 B a s e ba l l a nnounc e s t ha t 5 t o 7 pe r c e nt o f m a j o r l e a gue r s f a i l e d s ur ve y t e s t i ng, t r i gge r i ng t he c r e a t i on of a m a nda t or y t e s t i ng pr ogr a m D e c e m b e r 2003 T e n pl a ye r s i nc l udi ng B a r r y B onds t e s t i f y be f or e a f e de r a l gr a nd j ur y i n c onne c t i on w i t h t he B A L C O i nve s t i ga t i on. N ove m b e r 2004 T he S a n F r a nc i s c o C hr oni c l e obt a i ns l e a ke d t e s t i m ony i n w hi c h J a s on G i a m bi a dm i t s us i ng s t e r oi d s a nd B onds s a ys he a l l ow e d hi s t r a i ne r t o a ppl y a c r e a m t ha t he t hought w a s f l a xs e e d oi l Jan u ar y 2005 B a s e ba l l a nd i t s pl a ye r s uni on a gr e e t o a t e s t i ng pr ogr a m t ha t w i l l r e ve a l t he na m e s of f i r s t t i m e s t e r oi d of f e nde r s a nd i m pos e s t i f f e r pe na l t i e s F e b r u ar y 2005 F or m e r s l ugge r J os e C a ns e c o r e l e a s e s a n a ut obi ogr a phy, a dm i t t i ng s t e r oi d us e a nd l e ve l i ng a l l e ga t i ons a t ot he r s i nc l udi ng M c G w i r e M ar c h 200 5 S i x a c t i ve a nd f or m e r pl a ye r s t e s t i f y be f or e a C ongr e s s i ona l pa ne l i nve s t i ga t i ng s t e r oi d us e i n ba s e ba l l M c G w i r e s a ys he doe s n't w a nt t o di s c us s t he pa s t O r i ol e s f i r s t ba s e m a n R a f a e l P a l m e i r o i s s ue s a f i nge r w a ggi ng de ni a l of s t e r oi d us e A p r i l 2005 T a m pa B a y o ut f i e l de r A l e x S a nc he z be c om e s t he f i r s t m a j or l e a gue r s us pe nde d unde r t he ne w dr ug pol i c y.

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70 A u gu s t 2005 P a l m e i r o's pos i t i ve t e s t f or S t a noz ol ol i s a nnounc e d. N ove m b e r 2005 P l a ye r s a gr e e t o s t i f f e r s t e r oi d pe na l t i e s of 50 ga m e s f or a f i r s t o f f e ns e 100 ga m e s f or a s e c ond a nd a l i f e t i m e ba n f o r a t hi r d M ar c h 2006 B a s e ba l l a nnounc e s t ha t f or m e r S e n. G e or ge M i t c h e l l w i l l l e a d a f ul l i nve s t i ga t i on of pa s t s t e r oi d us e i n t he ga m e Ju n e 2006 T he hom e o f f o r m e r O r i ol e s r e l i e ve r J a s on G r i m s l e y i s r a i de d by f e de r a l a g e nt s G r i m s l e y a dm i t s t o us i ng H G H a nd a l l e ge dl y s ha r e s na m e s of ot he r dr ug us e r s Ju n e 2006 F or m e r O r i ol e D a vi d S e gui a dm i t s us i ng H G H w i t h a doc t or s pr e s c r i pt i on O c t ob e r 2006 T he L os A nge l e s T i m e s r e por t s t ha t t he O r i ol e s M i gue l T e j a da B r i a n R obe r t s a nd J a y G i bbons a r e a m ong t he pl a ye r s na m e d i n G r i m s l e y's a f f i da v i t T he f a c t s of t he s t or y a r e di s put e d by a n a t t or ne y i nvol ve d w i t h t he c a s e S e p t e m b e r 2007 S por t s I l l us t r a t e d r e por t s t ha t G i bbons a l l e ge dl y r e c e i ve d pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc e r s f r om a n O r l a ndo F l a pha r m a c y. N ove m b e r 2007 B onds t he ne w hom e r un ki ng i s i ndi c t e d on f e de r a l pe r j ur y c ha r ge s f or a l l e ge dl y l yi ng a bout s t e r oi d us e D e c e m b e r 2007 T he M i t c he l l R e por t i s r e l e a s e d, na m i ng 87 pl a ye r s l i nke d t o pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc i ng dr ugs i nc l udi ng s e ve n M V P s a nd 31 A l l S t a r s

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75 B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H A da m M a r k B or ns t e i n w a s bor n i n 1982 a nd r a i s e d i n N or t hb r ook, I L T he s e c ond of f ou r boys A da m gr e w up i n t he nor t he r n s ubur bs of I l l i noi s gr a dua t i ng f r om G l e nbr ook N o r t h H i gh S c hool i n 2000 a nd t he n m ovi ng t o B oul de r C ol o r a do, t o a t t e nd t he U ni ve r s i t y of C ol or a do. H e e a r ne d hi s B A i n ps yc hol ogy f r om t he U ni ve r s i t y of C ol or a do a nd gr a dua t e d S um m a C um L a ude A f t e r gr a dua t i on he s pe nt t w o ye a r s w or k i ng a s a f a c ul t y m e m be r a t t he U ni ve r s i t y o f C ol or a do a s a pr of e s s i ona l r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a nt i n t he C U S t e r e ot ypi ng a nd P r e j udi c e l a b. W hi l e i n C ol or a do, A da m a l s o f r e e l a nc e d f or l oc a l ne w s pa pe r s T he B oul de r D ai l y C am e r a, a nd T he C ol or ado D ai l y H e e nr ol l e d i n t he m a s t e r s pr ogr a m a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da a nd w i l l be e a r n i ng a n M A M C i n j our na l i s m A da m w or ke d a t T he G ai ne s v i l l e Sun dur i ng hi s t i m e i n g r a dua t e s c hool w a s t he l e c t ur e a s s i s t a nt f or M M C 2100: W r i t i ng f or M a s s C om m uni c a t i on, a nd w a s a w a r d a s M os t O ut s t a ndi ng G r a dua t e S t ude nt i n t he C ol l e ge of J our na l i s m a nd C om m uni c a t i ons U pon g r a dua t i on, A da m w i l l be gi n w o r k a s t he f i t ne s s e di t or f or M e n s H e a l t h m a ga z i ne A da m i s t he s on of I r a a nd S a ndy B or ns t e i n, a nd ha s t h r e e br ot he r s : J os h, A a r on, a nd J or da n


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