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Effects of Spokesperson and Message Type on Cosmetic Surgery Advertising among Korean Women

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022362/00001

Material Information

Title: Effects of Spokesperson and Message Type on Cosmetic Surgery Advertising among Korean Women
Physical Description: 1 online resource (84 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Kang, Mihyun
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: advertisement, advertising, aesthetic, celebrity, cosmetic, effects, endorsement, experiment, korean, mancova, message, model, plastic, spokesperson, surgery
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: With the rise in popularity of cosmetic surgery in Korea, it is beneficial to consider the advertising elements that affect the likelihood of cosmetic surgery advertising. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the effects of spokesperson and message type on cosmetic surgery advertising among Korean women and to measure advertising effectiveness by using celebrity/non-celebrity endorsements and emotional/rational message frames. A sample of 143 Korean female college students, ages 20 to 30, participated in a 2 x 2 between-group, posttest-only experiment. They were asked to complete a questionnaire measuring the effectiveness of cosmetic surgery advertising, and a MANCOVA was used to analyze two main effects 'spokesperson and message' and interaction effects. Korean female collegiate students who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising featuring a celebrity spokesperson showed a more favorable attitude toward the advertisement, the advertised clinic, and intent to visit for a consultation than those exposed to advertising featuring a non-celebrity spokesperson did (P < .05). The former also had a more positive attitude toward the ads, the advertised clinic, and intent to visit for a consultation when they were exposed to a cosmetic surgery ad with an emotional message rather than one with a rational message (P < .05). Most importantly, there appeared to be a significant interaction effect on intent to visit the advertised clinic for a consultation for a cosmetic surgery ad with a celebrity spokesperson and an emotional message as opposed to an ad with a non-celebrity spokesperson and a rational message.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Mihyun Kang.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Goodman, Jennifer R.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2009-02-28

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022362:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022362/00001

Material Information

Title: Effects of Spokesperson and Message Type on Cosmetic Surgery Advertising among Korean Women
Physical Description: 1 online resource (84 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Kang, Mihyun
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: advertisement, advertising, aesthetic, celebrity, cosmetic, effects, endorsement, experiment, korean, mancova, message, model, plastic, spokesperson, surgery
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: With the rise in popularity of cosmetic surgery in Korea, it is beneficial to consider the advertising elements that affect the likelihood of cosmetic surgery advertising. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the effects of spokesperson and message type on cosmetic surgery advertising among Korean women and to measure advertising effectiveness by using celebrity/non-celebrity endorsements and emotional/rational message frames. A sample of 143 Korean female college students, ages 20 to 30, participated in a 2 x 2 between-group, posttest-only experiment. They were asked to complete a questionnaire measuring the effectiveness of cosmetic surgery advertising, and a MANCOVA was used to analyze two main effects 'spokesperson and message' and interaction effects. Korean female collegiate students who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising featuring a celebrity spokesperson showed a more favorable attitude toward the advertisement, the advertised clinic, and intent to visit for a consultation than those exposed to advertising featuring a non-celebrity spokesperson did (P < .05). The former also had a more positive attitude toward the ads, the advertised clinic, and intent to visit for a consultation when they were exposed to a cosmetic surgery ad with an emotional message rather than one with a rational message (P < .05). Most importantly, there appeared to be a significant interaction effect on intent to visit the advertised clinic for a consultation for a cosmetic surgery ad with a celebrity spokesperson and an emotional message as opposed to an ad with a non-celebrity spokesperson and a rational message.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Mihyun Kang.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Goodman, Jennifer R.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2009-02-28

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022362:00001


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EFFECTS OF SPOKESPERSON AND MESSAGE TYPE ON COSMETIC SURGERY ADVERTISING AMONG KOREAN WOMEN By MIHYUN KANG A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE RE QUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008 1

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2008 Mihyun Kang 2

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To my parents, Jungbok Kang and Hwasoon Im and my sister, Mi-Geum Kang 3

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my gratitude to all the people who helped me in the completion of my Masters degree. I believe that I am very lucky to have these amazing people around me. In all sincerity, I first want to acknowledge my ch air, Dr. Robyn Goodman, for her attentive support and enduring guidance throughout two years of study at the University of Florida. During every single moment that I have gone through the last two years, she has been not only an academic advisor, but also a mentor in my personal life. My heartfelt apprecia tion is extended to Dr. Marilyn Roberts and Dr. Chang-Hoan Cho. Wit hout their encouragement, emotional support, and efforts, I could not have completed my thesis. I must not forget to thank the great friends and colleagues I have m et during my masters years in Florida, especially Chang-Dae Ham, Dr. Hyun Jung Yun, Eun Soo Rhee, Jae Hee Park, Jeungah Kim, Minkil Kim, Sooyeon Kim, Wan Se op Jung, and Yeuseong Kim. Because of their endless support and affection, I have had excitin g, enjoyable, and memorable masters years even during stressful and depressing moments. Though this thesis is a minor work, I dedicate it to m y beloved family. My parents, Jungbok Kang and Hwasoon Im, have supported me ev ery step of the way and have been the light of my life at the darkest moments during my years of education in the United States. My dear sister, Mi-Geum Kang, who has been my clos est friend for the last 26 years, has always helped me be confident and strong through her en couraging words and her love. Without their unconditional love and belief in me I could not have achieved all the things I have accomplished today. Last, but certainly not least, my final gratitude goes to Kiseok Hong, who has stood by m e for the last ten years with advice, encour agement, and an everlasting belief in me. 4

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................7LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................8ABSTRACT .....................................................................................................................................9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................11 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................14 Cosmetic Surgery ....................................................................................................................14Korean Women and Cosmetic Surgery ...........................................................................15Mass Medias Influence on Cosmetic Surgery ................................................................16Celebrity Endorsement ...........................................................................................................18Benefit .............................................................................................................................18Credibility ........................................................................................................................19The Effect of Celebrity Endorse ment in Korean Advertising .........................................20Message Characteristics ..........................................................................................................21Affect and Cognition .......................................................................................................21Appeals ............................................................................................................................21Responses ........................................................................................................................23Cultural Dimensions ...............................................................................................................23Halls Cultural Dimensions: The Degr ee of Context in Communication Style ..............23Hofstedes Cultural Dimension: Uncertainty Avoidance ................................................24Theoretical Foundations .........................................................................................................25Elaboration Likelihood Model An alysis of Source Factors ............................................25Dual Mediation Hypothesis.............................................................................................27Hypotheses and Rationale .......................................................................................................28Spokesperson Effects on Cosmetic Surgery Advertising ................................................28Message Effects on Cosmetic Surgery Advertising ........................................................29Interaction Effects of Spokesperson a nd Message Type on Cosmetic Surgery Advertising ...................................................................................................................303 METHOD...............................................................................................................................32 Research Design .....................................................................................................................32Operational Definitions of Variables ......................................................................................33Independent Variables.....................................................................................................33Stimuli Development .......................................................................................................33 5

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Measurement ...........................................................................................................................35Manipulation Check Measures ........................................................................................35Dependent Measures .......................................................................................................36Covariates ........................................................................................................................37Pretest of Experiment .............................................................................................................40Main Test of Experiment ........................................................................................................40Participants ......................................................................................................................40Procedure .........................................................................................................................41Analysis ...........................................................................................................................414 RESULTS...............................................................................................................................43 Manipulation Check ................................................................................................................43Correlation Check ...................................................................................................................44Covariates ...............................................................................................................................44Hypotheses Testing .................................................................................................................455 DISCUSSION.........................................................................................................................57 Experimental Results Explicated ............................................................................................57Managerial Implications .........................................................................................................59Conclusion ..............................................................................................................................60Limitations ..............................................................................................................................60Suggestions for Future Research ............................................................................................62 APPENDIX A FREQUENCY OF CELEBRITIES MENTIONED IN THE PRIOR SURVEY ...................63B PHOTOS AND MESSAGES USED IN THE STIULUS ADVERTISEMENTS.................64C ACTUAL ADVERTISEMENT USED IN THE EXPERIMENT AS STIMULI CELEBRITY SPOKESPERSON WITH EMOTIONAL/RATIONAL MESSAGES...........65D ACTUAL ADVERTISEMENT USED IN THE EXPERIMENT AS STIMULI NONCELEBRITY SPOKESPERSON WITH EMOTIONAL/RATIONAL MESSAGES...........66E QUESTIONNAIRE............................................................................................................ ....67LIST OF REFERENCES...............................................................................................................75BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................84 6

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Demographic information of the participants in the experim ent..........................................424-1 Manipulation check of stimuli........................................................................................... ...504-2 Correlation of dependent variables in MANCOVA.............................................................514-3 Multivaria te test results............................................................................................... .........514-4 Results of between-subjects test........................................................................................ ...524-5 Descriptive statistics of MANCOVA...................................................................................53 7

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4-1 Interaction effect on attitude toward ad................................................................................ 544-2 Interaction effect on at titude toward advertised clinic.........................................................554-3 Interaction effect on intent to visit for a consultation...........................................................56B-1 Message and spokesperson types..........................................................................................6 4 8

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Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising EFFECTS OF SPOKESPERSON AND MESSAGE TYPE ON COSMETIC SURGERY ADVE RTISING AMONG KOREAN WOMEN By Mihyun Kang August 2008 Chair: J. Robyn Potter Goodman Major: Advertising With the rise in popularity of cosmetic surgery in Korea, it is benefi cial to consider the advertising elem ents that affect the likelihood of cosmetic surgery advertising. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the effects of spokesperson and message type on cosmetic surgery advertising among Korean women and to measure advertis ing effectiveness by using celebrity/non-celebrity endorsements and emotional/rational message frames. A sample of 143 Korean female college student s, ages 20 to 30, participated in a 2 x 2 between-group, posttest-only experim ent. They were asked to complete a questionnaire measuring the effectiveness of cosmetic surg ery advertising, and a MANCOVA was used to analyze two main effects spokesperson and message and interaction effects. Korean female collegiate students who were exposed to cosm etic surgery advertising featuring a celebrity spokesperson showed a more favorable attitude toward the advertisement, the advertised clinic, and intent to visit for a consultation than those exposed to advertising featuring a non-celebrity spokesperson did (P < .05). The former also had a more positive attitude toward the ads, the advertised clinic, and intent to visit for a consultation when they were exposed to a cosmetic surgery ad with an emotional message rather than one with a rational message (P < .05). Most importantly, there app eared to be a significan t interaction effect on 9

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intent to visit the advertised clinic for a consul tation for a cosmetic surgery ad with a celebrity spokesperson and an emotional message as opposed to an ad with a non-celebrity spokesperson and a rational message. 10

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Pounds Beauty a Korean m ovie about the controvers ial issue of cosmetic surgery, was rated one of the best movies in Korea in 2006. The satirical movie portrays an unattractive womans disturbing pursuit of perf ect physical appearance, in whic h she gets cosmetic surgery; the movie concludes that physical appearance is not as important as people usually think. This movie was rated as the best because it represen ted the current situation, problems, and issues surrounding cosmetic surgery th at Korean society faces. In Korea, the total revenue of the cosmetic surgery industry exceeded $50 0 billion US in 2000; indeed, experts estimated th at the actual market revenu e would be over $1 trillion US considering that cosmetic surgery is not an insured medical service (Kang, 2001). This amount is not surprising given the growi ng popularity of cosmetic surgery. One out of four adults has undergone cosmetic surgery (Jeon, 2004), and mo re than 63% of high school female students want to get cosmetic surgery (Han, 2003). Moreover, a new concept of cosmetic surgery has emerged the so-called filial cosm etic surgery for grandparent s (Baek, 2006; Kim, 2002). It is what their children offer them as a present to make them l ook younger (Baek, 2006; Woo, 2006). This type of surgery usually treats aging problems by Botox or laser pee ling (Baek, 2006; Son, 2007). As reports show, cosmetic surgery is no longer dominated by ce rtain age groups; rather it is popular for all generations (Lee, Lim and Chang 2006). Interestingly, Koreans tend to hide the fact that they got cosm etic surgery even though the rate of such surgery increases every year Historically, Korean society has followed Confucianism, so it has been taboo to talk a bout getting surgery. C onfucianism insists on keeping ones genetically-given appearance be cause changing appearance represents a kind of 11

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unfilial attitude towards ones parents. In addi tion, Confucianism emphasizes inner beauty more than physical attractiveness, so it degrades women who receive cosmetic surgery for reasons of beauty. However, it is not clear whether traditional Conf ucianism played a part in the dearth of cosmetic surgery advertising from the 1970s to the mid-1990s (Lee et al., 2006). Meanwhile, since the late 1990s, cosmetic surg ery advertising has si gnificantly increased in Korea due to several changes. Initially, there was an increa sing demand for cosmetic surgery, spurred by the development of better medical pro cedures, loss of stigma, high economic ability, and the portrayal of cosmetic su rgery in the mass media (Lee et al., 2006; Sarwer et al., 2004). Advances in cosmetic surgery medical procedures re sulted in better surgical results, with faster recovery times, higher safety r ecords, and better consumer sa tisfaction (Sarwer et al., 2004; Swami et al., 2008). Moreover, Koreans no longer live in a Confucian world. Since they do not follow Confucian ideas as much as in previous eras, Koreans have started to view cosmetic surgery more positively. In addition, indivi duals higher incomes a nd the price competition among cosmetic surgery clinics have made cosmetic surgery possible for many people (Edmonds, 2007; Swami et al., 2008). Finally, as the media portrayal of cosmetic surgery increases, the vicarious experience influences pe ople more, which has led to an increase in cosmetic surgery (Lee et al., 2006) by lowering anxiety levels and heightening the wi llingness to undergo procedures (Swami et al., 2008). Since the history of cosmetic surgery advertis ing is quite short in Korea, advertisers do not have clear ideas how to effectively approach cust om ers. It is possible that the strategies used in cosmetic surgery advertising differ from those used for regular product lines because, compared with other surgeries and products, cosme tic surgery has had different motivations and different decision-making proce sses (Pruzinsky & Edgerton, 1990). More to the point, people 12

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want to obtain more accurate and public information about cosmetic surgery rather than just by word-of-mouth, which has served as the most power ful advertising tool to spread information on cosmetic surgery. In this vein, this study focuses on how to create effective advertising for cosm etic surgery procedures in order to improve the b rand image of cosmetic surgery and increase customers purchasing intention, which in the pr esent study is represented by intention to get a consultation. This study specifically looks at how spokesperson type (celebrity vs. noncelebrity), message type (emoti onal vs. rational), and the inter action effects between these two elements affect consumer responses to advertising because these characteristics determine both the attributes and the effectiveness of the advertisement. 13

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter reviews the literature releva nt to the relationship between celebrity endorsem ent and message type in cosmetic surg ery advertising as well as their theoretical approaches. It employs literature pertaining to the perception of cosmetic surgery in general, mass media influence on cosmetic surgery, a nd the relationship between Korean women and cosmetic surgery. It also discu sses the benefits and ch aracteristics of cele brity endorsements in advertising, its cultural assessment in Korea, and the linear relationships between how message types influence attitudes. Moreover, two cultural di mensions appear to explain characteristics of Korean culture, and two theories apply to the overall body of literature. The purpose of the literature review is to delineate th e overall shape of this study base d on previous research. It also presents a critique of the literatur e in order to illustrate how this study contributes to the general knowledge of the present topic. Cosmetic Surgery Cosmetic surgery is defined as surgery wh ich is designed to corre ct defects which the average prudent observer would consider to be within the range of nor mal (Goin & Goin, 1986, p. 86). There are two types of cosmetic surgery: resto rative and type changing (Goin & Goin, 1986). Restorative surgery aims to restore an individuals original physical appearance (Pruzinsky & Edgerton, 1990), and type-changing surgery aims to create a new appearance that an individual has never possessed (Goin & Goin, 1986). Nowadays, cosmetic surgery is mostly type-changing surgery. Clarke et al. (2007) poi nt out that surgical procedures and non-surgical procedures, such as Botox injections, chemical peels, injectable fillers, laser hair rem oval, and microdermabrasion, are certainly different. While non-surgical procedures ofte n aim to alter physical appearance 14

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based on logic of visibility, cosmetic surger y aims to change its or iginality (Gibson, 2006). According to the American Society for Aest hetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS), there was a 743 percent increase among women, and an 886 perc ent increase among men, in non-surgical procedures from 1997 to 2007. Compared with n on-surgical procedures, cosmetic surgical procedures have increased at a relatively low rate by a bout 142 percent among women and 3 percent among men since 1997. Most non-surgical procedures deal with the visible signs of aging. Due to the fast administration, quick recovery time, reasonable price, and temporary nature of non-surgical proce dures, consumers consider them more appealing than permanent cosmetic surgery (Bayer, 2005). Korean Women and Cosmetic Surgery Conventionally, Asian countries including Korea, have developed a standard of ideal beauty based on both in ner virtue and physical attractiveness (Lin, 1988). Recently, however, the unique Asian standards of beauty have chan ged to Westernized standards of beauty, which surmount ethnic and temporal fash ion (p. 43). Several researcher s insist that Asian females are apt to think that Caucasian females are more physically attractive than they are; this may explain the influence of the Westernized standards of be auty in many Asian countries (Hueston et al., 1985; Lin, 1988). Asians are more likely to undergo cosmetic surgery procedures than any other ethnic group (Lee & Rudd, 1999), and doubleeyelid surgery is the m ost popular cosmetic surgery among Asians (Lin, 1988). Likewise, in Korea, co smetic surgery is very popular among Koreans, and double-eyelid surgery is the most frequently received cosmetic surgery. A study conducted by Lee and Rudd reported that 75 % of their subjects who had unde rgone cosmetic surgery had received eyelid surgery (1999), and another study conducted by L ee et al. (2006) indicated that 94% of their subjects had had eyelid surgery. 15

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Regarding age, cosmetic surgery procedures have become popular among teenagers as well as young adult females in Korea (Eshima, 1993), and unmarried collegiate female students in their 20s have had the most cosmetic surgery b ecause they are highly interested in fashion as well as physical appearance (Lee, 1992). These cosmetic surgery procedures have been based on Korean womens desire to have a more Westernized beauty (Lee & Rudd, 1999). As research shows, mass media that portray Caucasian models in magazines, on TV shows, or in music videos may make Korean women admire the We stern look because they compare their bodies with the Western look, which in turn tends to influence their self-est eem and ideal body image (Lee & Rudd, 1999). Self-esteem, body image, and focus on physical beauty all appear to be major driving forces in cosm etic surgery according to a study conducted by Lee et al. (2006). Forty-six percent of Koreans said they underwent cosmetic surger y to be more self-confident, 29% answered to become more attractive, and 12.6% answered to get a better job. Thos e who had or would like to have cosmetic surgery showed more interest in physical attractiven ess than did those who were not interested in getting cosmetic surgery. The former were also not satisfied with their current appearance and thought that they had experi enced discrimination due to their appearance. In addition, those who felt dissatisfaction with their appearance had more favorable attitudes toward having cosmetic surgery. Mass Medias Influence on Cosmetic Surgery According to several studies, the increase in cos metic surgery was initially due to the increase in the demand for ideal beauty. Mo reover, the reasons for the rapidly developing cosmetic surgery industry included changes in individuals perception of beauty, suppliers competition (which generates moderate pricing), social demand, the influence of the mass media, and improvement in individuals economic abili ties. Among these reasons, most researchers 16

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believe the influence of the mass media is the most important factor driving growth in the cosmetic surgery industry (Lee et al., 2006; Sarwer et al., 2004; Swami et al., 2008). However, despite the rapid growth in cosme tic surgery pro cedures and the awareness of the medias effect on them, few empirical stud ies have been conducted on the mass media and cosmetic surgery (Delinsky, 2005). Only about 240 articles on plasti c surgery had been published before the year 2000 (Sullivan, 2001), and few of these st udies looked at the implications of the mass media on cosmetic surg ery. According to a study by Sarwer et al. (2004), the media and entertainment industry influence consumers attitu de undergoing cosmetic surgery in two ways direct and indirect. Television programs, articles, magazines, and advertisements presenting the re cent flow of cosmetic surgery have increased public awareness of the benefits of cosmetic surgery and of how to accomplish these benefits. In addition, the medias direct portrayal of cel ebrities who have undergone electiv e cosmetic surgery has led to greater awareness of cosmetic surgery in societ y (Sarwer et al., 2004; Tait, 2007). A less direct impact of the media is in its portrayal of what constitutes societal ideals of beauty such as fullbreasted thin bodies, big eyes, no wrinkles which usually cannot be obtained through natural methods (Harrison, 2003; Sarwer et al., 2004). Delinsky (2005) also found that exposure to m edia messages significantly influences individuals knowledge of and likelihood of having cosmetic surg ery. Therefore, individuals attitudes toward cosmetic surgery become more positive as they learn more about cosmetic surgery through media exposure. As with vicarious and personal experience, exposure to media messages might increase perceived familiarity with and knowledge of both cosmetic surgery procedures and people who have undergone or wi ll undergo cosmetic surgery. Hence, cosmetic surgery is perceived as an appropriate pers onal response to body dissatisfaction. 17

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Moreover, a few studies have l ooked at how cosmetic surgery is presented in the media. Most have found that the media tend to focus on the positive aspects of cosmetic surgery by emphasizing its normalization among individuals and by not emphasizing its risks and dangers (Woodstock, 2001). Celebrity Endorsement Benefit Boorstin (1961) defines celebrities as people known for being well-know n (p. 57) based on their public achievements in the areas of film, sports, entertainment, politics, the economy, etc. (Blackwell et al., 2001). In terms of product endorse ment, a celebrity is considered a well-known person who is either direc tly or indirectly asso ciated with the product he or she endorses (e.g. Tiger Woods for Nike golf products) (Frieden, 1984). Celebrities promote their endorsed product in various ways, such as testimonials, assignment of a celebritys name (e.g. Nikes Air Jordan products), appear ance in advertising, employ ment as a model of a company brand, etc. (Baek, 2005). Therefore, as celebrities images are associated with an endorsed product, the meanings attached to the products by their images transfer to consumers via consumption (McCracken, 1989). Because advertisers believe that messages conveyed by a well-known spokesperson bring better advertising reca ll and attention for som e consumer s, advertising through celebrity endorsement prevails (Ohanian, 1991). Advertisers are eager to spend a lot of money to connect their products or brands to cer tain celebrities (Fer le & Choi, 2005), possibly because celebrity endorsements generate greater sales (Agrawal & Kamakura, 1995; Mathur et al., 1997). According to industry sources, more than 25% of U.S. advertising uses celebrity endorsement, and celebrities were featured in approximately one quarter of all U.S. TV commercials (Erdogan, Baker, & Tagg, 2001). Hence, todays industry is fascinated with celebrity endorsement 18

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(Schickel, 1985). Credibility The more credible the source is, the more e f fective the advertising is in influencing consumers attitudes and behavior al intentions (Sternthal et al ., 1978). Researchers have found that highly credible sources produce more pos itive changes in cons umers attitudes and behavioral changes than less credible sources do (Ohanian, 1991). Since celebrities are often associated with a high status because of thei r wide recognition and fame (Ferle & Choi, 2005), they are considered more credib le than non-celebrities. Thus, due to their cr edible images, celebrities are expected to have a stronger, more favorable impact on the measures of advertising effectiveness: i.e., att itude toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intention (Atkin & Block, 1983; Freiden, 1984) as well as better advertising r ecall or brand name recognition (Friedman & Friedm an, 1979; Petty et al., 1983). Most research related to celebrity endorse m ent has focused on source credibility and attractiveness models, which suggests that celebrities influence consum ers through attributes such as trustworthiness, attractiveness, likea bility, familiarity, and expertise (Ohanian, 1990, 1991). Meanwhile, consumers consider that not all celebrities are equally credible; rather, these consumers determine the credibility of an endorser through their ow n subjective judgments (Ferle & Choi, 2005). Therefore, endorsers perceived as credible regardless of their factual credibility are expected to show more positive effects on a consumers attitude toward advertising (Ferle & Choi, 2005). Based on previous research, Oh anian (1990) reproduced three dimensions of celebrity endorser cr edibility: expertise, trustworthin ess, and attractiveness. That is, celebrity endorsers are consider ed credible when they are percei ved to be conversant, truthful, and physically attractive. 19

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The Effect of Celebrity Endorsement in Korean Advertising As mentioned earlier, celebrity endorsement is one of the m ost popular advertising strategies in the U.S. (Agrawal & Kamakura, 1995), and its rate is increasing every year. While numerous studies have examined the effectivenes s of celebrity endorsement in U.S. advertising, relatively little is known a bout international a dvertising contexts (Baek, 2005). According to several recent studies, Kor ean advertisem ents also depend greatly on celebrity endorsements, with ev en heavier usage of celebrities than in the U.S. (Baek, 2005; Cutler et al., 1995). As found in Sons study (2 001), about 32% of TV commercials in Korea included celebrity endorsements, and 59% of TV commercials in primetime used celebrity endorsements. Like U.S. advertisers, Kor ean advertisers believe that using celebrity endorsements in advertising is the most effective strategy to distinguish their products from their competitors products; as a result, the popularity of celebrity endorsements is thriving (Lee, Paek, & Kim, 2004). An empirical study demonstrated that Korean s show m ore favorable attitudes towards ads with celebrity endorsements regardless of the type of product (Y oon & Chae, 2004). This phenomenon can be explained by Ferle and Chois (2005) study, which f ound that in Korea as well as in the U.S., celebrities are perceived as more credible than non-celebrities because of their broad recognition and popularit y in society. Moreover, they have a high profile and status in society as well as the extra power given to them via repeated media exposure (Ferle & Choi, 2005). With its firm Confucian ideas, Korean so ciety has emphasized the values of respect and social class (Chang, 1979); this l onging to increase ones status and respect explains the strong dependence on celebrity endorsement s and status appeals in Korean advertising (Cutler et al., 1995). For that reason, celebrities are expected to show a socially desira ble and credible image 20

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to consumers, and thus, Koreans are more likely to be influenced by advertising with celebrity endorsement than by advertising with non-cel ebrity endorsement (Ferle & Choi, 2005). Message Characteristics Affect and Cognition Cognition is described as appraisals, interp retations, schem as, attributions, and strategies (Berkowitz, 1993, p. 12) or evaluation, analysis, and positive/negative beliefs about the attributes of a stimulus object (Fabrigar & Petty, 1999). Affect is defined as the positive and/or negative feelings and em otions that an individual associ ates with an attitude object (Fabrigar & Petty, 1999). The majority of re search done during the 1970s and before focused more on cognition than on affect, so research related to advertisements revolved around cognitive reactions (Lemanski, 2007). Howeve r, beginning in the 1980s, researchers started exploring the importance of affect and since then, affect has rece ived much research attention (e.g., Batra & Ray, 1986). In recent research, affect and cognition have been studied together rather than separately Several researchers have insisted that attitudes generated by a stim ulus object are m ostly affected by both the affective and cogniti ve characteristics of the obj ect (Breckler & Wiggins, 1989; Zanna & Rempel, 1988). Appeals There is a long history of studies on the t ype and im pact of me ssage appeals (Scott & Stout, 1987; Weinberger & Gulas, 1992; LaTour & Henthorne, 1994; De Pelsmacker & Geuens, 1996; De Pelsmacker et al., 2002). Early studies dealt prim arily with message appeals (emotional vs. rational) (Scott & Stout, 1987), and studies precisely evalua ting these appeals in terms of effectiveness of communication explain e ither that there is no difference between those two appeals or that emotional appeals are more effective (McGuire, 1969). In addition, recent 21

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studies that have dealt with message appeals a nd responses show that a rational message stirs up cognitive responses while an emotional message evokes affective responses (e.g., Roselli et al., 1995). As affective and cognitive appeals have been the foundation of various studies, they can also be investigated in order to classify advertising aim ed at persuading either consumers affective or their cognitive beha viors. An early study by Puto a nd Wells (1984) investigated the differences between affective and cognitive appeals in terms of informational and transformational advertising. According to thei r study, informational adve rtising is defined as advertising that presents impor tant, relevant, easily understandab le facts and valid information and concerns as being mostly cognitive appeals. The other type of adve rtising, transformational advertising, is defined as mainly emotional and generally experiential, which means that it makes the audience visualize using the product. The aut hors also insist that effective advertising must be informational, transformational, or even in corporate elements of both types of appeal. However, recent studies have looked at these two appeal types in di fferent ways. Leigh et al. (2006) looked at tw o characteristics of advertisem ents cognitive and affective based on predictor variables. The predictor variables of co gnitive aspects, defined as characteristics that would promote cognitive elaboratio n (p. 108), include meaningful ness, length of exposure, and product positioning, while the predic tor variables of aff ective aspects, which are related to an ads ability to attract attention (p. 108), consist of attractiveness, quality of copy execution, and ability to predict ad content and structure. Mu ch research exploring a ffect and cognition now generally use those labels rather than definitions from the era of Puto and Wells (Lemanski, 2007). 22

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Responses Compared with affective res ponses, cognitive responses are generally rational, conscious, and analytical and are believed to pass th rough higher order processing (B erkowitz, 1993; Epstein, 1993; Hoch & Loewenstein, 1991). Affe ctive responses typical ly occur quickly upon exposure to stimulus objects. They are emotiona l, attract attention, and tend to be lower order processes (Zajonc, 1980). In looking at cognition and aff ect, researchers have found that when exposed to an ad with an inf ormational/rational me ssage, individuals in high need for cognition are more attracted to the ad (De Pelsmacker et al., 1998; Ruiz & Sicilia, 2004). These i ndividuals respond more favorably in terms of attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention when they are in the thinking process (Hoyer & Maclnnis, 2007). In contrast, when the ad presents an emotional message, individuals in high preference for affect show favorable attitudes toward the ad (De Pelsmacker et al., 1998; So jka & Giese, 1997). Thus, these individuals responded more positively to attitude toward ad attitude toward bra nd, and purchase intention (Hoyer & Maclnnis, 2007). Cultural Dimensions Halls Cultural Dimensions: The Deg ree of Context in C ommunication Style Hall (1984) categorized cultures based on the degree of context in their comm unication style. He classified cultures into two categories: a high-context communication style and a lowcontext communication style. A high-context communicatio n style is one in which most of the information is already either in th e physical context or internalized in the person while very little is in the coded, explicit, transmitted part of the message," while a low-context communication style is just the opposite; i.e., the mass of the information is vest ed in the explicit code" (p. 91). In a high-context culture, messages are shared in an implicit and abstract manner. 23

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Communication in a low-context culture is more explicit and straightforw ard. Western cultures such as the United States are often considered as low-context cultures, while Eastern cultures such as Japan and Korea show a high-context communication style (Hall, 1976). Several crosscultural studies have app lied the concept of these two communi cation styles to advertising. In general, a high-context culture is characterized by emotional and symbolic communication with indirect verbal expressions, wh ereas advertising in a low-contex t culture typically includes more information and facts with rhet orical styles (e.g., Cutler & Java lgi, 1992; de Mooij, 1998; Lin, 1993; Miracle et al., 1992; Mueller, 1987). Hofstedes Cultural Dimens ion: U ncertainty Avoidance Uncertainty avoidance, one of the cultural typologies proposed by Hofstede (1983), refers to the extent to which the m embers of a cu lture feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations (Hofstede, 1991, p. 113). In high uncertainty avoidance cultures such as Korea and Japan, individuals depend more on truth, expert s, and formal rules than low uncertainty avoidance cultures do (Hofstede, 1983; Gudykunst et al., 1996). Kor eas high uncertainty avoidance is due to its long history of Conf ucianism, which has emphasized saving face and avoiding shame (Zhang & Gelb, 1996). In contrast in low uncertainty a voidance cultures such as the United States, individuals are more tole rant of and comfortable with unknown situations (Hofstede, 1991). According to a study by Zandpour et al. (1994), high uncertainty avoidance cultures rely more on believable sources to pr ovide coherent reasoning and information. The implication of this study for celebrity endorseme nt in advertising shows that a high uncertainty avoidance culture requires credib ility, trustworthiness, and expertise of endorsers, especially for risk-taking products such as luxury goods or newly introduced items on the market. 24

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Theoretical Foundations Based on the literature, two th eories serve as background for the present study. The first theory, the Elaboration Likelihood Model (EL M ), contributes to th e understanding of information processing and evaluation. This th eory deals with how spokesperson and message types are evaluated via two track s. Another theory, the Dual Mediation Hypothesis (DMH), helps explicate Aad Ab PI processes; this present study premises strong linear relationships between Aad and Ab, and Ab and PI. Elaboration Likelihood Model Analysis of Source Factors According to Petty et al. (1986), the ELM dis tinguishes two different routes to evaluate inform ation based on an individu als motivation and ability to process information: a central route and a peripheral route. While at titudes developed or changed through the central route are postulated to be relatively persistent, predicti ve of behavior, and resistant to change until they are challenged by cogent contrary informa tion along the dimension or dimensions perceived central to the merits of the object (p. 234), peripheral route attitudes are postulated to be relatively less persistent, resistan t, and predictive of behavior (p. 234). To determine the route taken, the first deliberation is whether the indivi dual is motivated to evaluate the presented information based on his/her personal relevance, responsibility, or need for cognition. If the individual is motivated to proce ss information, the central route is followed. If the individual is not motivated to process information, the periphera l route is employed. If peripheral cues such as attractive sources or positive/negative affect are presented, relatively temporary attitudes may be changed. If both central and peripheral information were not available at this consideration, the preliminary attitudes would. 25

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Individuals who are highly motivated to pro cess information but do not have the ability to process it will follow the peripheral route as lo ng as the peripheral cues are present. However, individuals with both the motivation and the ability to process information will follow the central route for cognitive processing, which dete rmines initial attitudes such as negative/positive/neutral. When individuals are not motivated or do not have the ability to process information fully, the peripheral route is used, which mean s that attitudes are formed or changed by characteristics not directly related to the processed information. More to the point, many variables can affect the elaboration likelihood model (Petty et al., 1987). One of the m, source attractiveness how attractive an endorser is based on physical beauty in advertising was studi ed by Petty et al. (1986). They found that source attractiveness can play three different roles according to th e ELM: serving as peripheral cues, playing as persuasive arguments, and affecting th e level of argument elaboration. Under conditions of relatively low elaborat ion likelihood w hich means subjects were in low need for cognition source attractiveness acted as a peripheral cue, improving attitudes whether a message enclosed strong or weak ar guments (e.g., advertisement for an electric typewriter with an attractive source). Under conditions of re latively high elaboration likelihood which means subjects were in high need fo r cognition increased source attractiveness was more important as a central cue and was serv ed up as a persuasive argument (e.g., a new shampoo advertisement with an attractive endorser, which could make customers feel that the new shampoo product could make th eir hair look like the attractive endorsers hair). Lastly, under the conditions of relatively moderate elaboration likelihood, source attractiveness influenced the argument elaboration, which incr eases persuasion if the argument is strong, but decreases persuasion if it is weak. 26

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Dual Mediation Hypothesis The Dual Mediation Hypothesis will help e xplain the relationship between consum ers attitudes toward cosmetic surgery advertising (Aad) and their attitudes to ward the advertised clinics (Ab), as well as the formation of purchase in tention (PI), or, in this case, undergoing cosmetic surgery (Brown & Stayman, 1992; Ma cKenzie & Lutz, 1989; MacKenzie et al., 1986; Mitchell & Olson, 1981; Shimp, 1981). To explicate the causal re lationships among these three measures of advertising effec tiveness, MacKenzie et al. (1986) used ad-related cognitions (Cad) and brand-related cognitions (Cb). While Cad indicates recipients pe rceptions of an ads exposure, Cb refers to recipients percepti ons of the advertised brand in an exposed ad (Lutz et al., 1983). In particular, the Dual Mediation Hypothesis analyzes the conjectur ed relationships by em ploying the differences between the central and pe ripheral routes to atti tude change from the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). Ab is influenced directly by both Aad and Cb, while Cad indirectly influences Ab via Aad. In this path, the relationship between Aad and Ab reflects the peripheral route. The other re lationship to attitudes from Cb reflects the central route (MacKenzie et al., 1986; Teng et al., 2007). In other words, after ad exposure generates feelings, subjects with positive feelings will have a favorab le attitude toward an ad (Edell & Burke, 1987; Gardner, 1985) based on their cognitive and aff ective reactions to the ad content (Lutz & Swasy, 1977). Moreover, affective reactions to the ad co ntent will positively impact affective reactions to the advertised brand (Yi, 1990). Furthermore, the Dual Mediation Hypothe sis explains the re lationship between Ab and Purchase Intention (PI). PI is a type of individuals judgmen t about buying a specific brand. Both actual buying and anticipated buyi ng of a specific brand are measures of PI (Laroche et al., 1996; Laroche & Sadokierski, 1994; M acKenzie et al., 1986). According to se veral researchers, 27

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positive attitude toward a brand shows a significant intention to buy that brand, thus indicating a positive relationship between Ab and PI. As Ab is influenced by Aad, and PI is influenced by Ab, the dual mediation hypothesis indicates strong linear relationships between Aad and Ab and between Ab and PI (Brown & Stayman, 1992; MacKenzie et al., 1986). \ Hypotheses and Rationale Spokesperson Effects on Cosmetic Surgery Advertising Based on the literature review, celebrities hav e more credibility than non-celebrities (Atkin & Block, 1983; Freiden, 1984), and credibility is one of the major ways to produce a more favorable attitude toward advertising (Ste rnthal et al., 1978). Furthermore, the Dual Mediation Model explains the relationship between a consumers attitude toward an ad and his or her attitude toward the brand and purchase inten tion (MacKenzie et al., 1986). It elaborates how an attitude toward an ad can affect an attit ude toward the brand and purchase intention. The model follows this path: 1) consumers are exposed to an ad; 2) they have either cognitive or affective responses; 3) responses lead consumers to like or dislik e the ad; 4) a positive attitude toward the ad brings a positive attitude toward the brand; and 5) a positive attitude toward the brand leads to the consumers purchase intention. In this respect, if a stimulus advertisement (cosmetic surgery advertisement) affects consumers attitudes toward the advertisement, it can be expected that these attitudes affect the consum ers attitudes toward the brand, which in turn affect purchase intention, which, in the present study, can be repres ented by intent to visit for a consultation. Moreover, since a woman tends to evaluate her physical attractiveness more negatively than a man evaluates his, women have reported a greater likelihood of getting cosmetic surgery than men have (Brown et al ., 2007; Lee & Rudd, 1999). Therefore, this study is examines women only: 28

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H1a: Those who are exposed to cosmetic surgery a dvertising with a celebrity will have a more favorable attitude toward the ad than t hose who are exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with a non-celebrity. H1b: Those who are exp osed to cosmetic surgery a dvertising with a celebrity will have a more favorable attitude toward the advertised clinic than those who are exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with a non-celebrity. H1c: Those who are exposed to cosmetic surgery a dvertisin g with a celebrity will be more likely to visit the clinic to get a consultation than those who are exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with a non-celebrity. Message Effects on Cosmetic Surgery Advertising According to Acker and Stayman (1992), an em otional m essage can be classified as an advertising message that brings about affective responses in consumers, while a rational message evokes cognitive responses (Puto & Wells, 1984; Belch & Belch, 1998). Although most studies point out that a positive emotiona l message produces more favorabl e attitudes toward advertising in general, there are some contradictory studies that indicate that a rational message leads to more positive advertising res ponses via cognition (De Pelsmacker et al., 1998). Therefore, which message type the emotiona l or the rational is more effective in advertising is an ongoing and, at this point, difficult -to-predict research topic. M eanwhile, as cosmetic surgery is classified as a beauty-related product (Holbrook, 1978), and ma ny researchers point out that beauty-related products fit better with an em otional message, the emotional message can be expected to elicit more positive attitudes toward the ad. Moreover, as the Dual Mediation Model explains the linear relationships among attitude toward an ad, attitude toward the advertised clinic, and intent to visit for a consultati on, the following hypotheses can be projected: 29

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H2a: Those who are exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with an emotional message will have a more favorable attitude toward the ad than those who are exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with a rational message. H2b: Those who are exp osed to cosmetic surgery advertising with an emotional message will have a more favorable attitude toward the advertised clinic than those who are exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with a rational message. H2c: Those who are exposed to cosmetic surgery a dvertising with an emotional m essage will be more likely to visit the clinic to get a consul tation than those who are exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with a rational message. Interaction Effects of Spokesperson and Mess age Type on Cosmetic Surgery Advertising Because beauty-related products are promoted better with em otional messages (Holbrook, 1978) and attractive endorsers (Pet ty et al., 1987), the celebrity/ emotional message combination is expected to attract more customers for cosm etic surgery a beauty-related product. In addition, according to research, Ko rea is categorized as a colle ctivistic country with a highcontext communication style that depends on symbols and implicit expression rather than explicit words (Hall, 1976) and is categorized as a country with high uncertainty avoidance, which means having a preference for a wellknown source rather than an unknown source (Hofstede, 1984). Based on these two cultural dimensions, the celebrity/emotional message combination is expected to be more eff ective than the non-celebrity/rational message combination in measuring advertising effectiveness among Koreans. H3a: There will be an in teraction effect between spokesperson and message type in cosmetic surgery advertisements. 30

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H3b: For cosmetic surgery advertisements, the celebrity/emotional message combination will yield more favorable attitudes toward the ad than the non-celebrity/rational message combination. H3c: For cosmetic surgery advertisements, the celebrity/emotional message combination will yield m ore favorable attitudes toward the adve rtised clinic than th e non-celebrity/rational message combination. H3d: For co smetic surgery advertisements, the celebrity/emotional message combination will yield more favorable attitudes toward intent to visit for a consultation to the advertised clinic to get a consultation than the non-celebrity/rational message combination. 31

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CHAPTER 3 METHOD Research Design The present study used an experimental research design to inves tigate the effects of spokesperson and m essage type on cosmetic surgery advertising among Korean women. It is the most appropriate method for testing hypotheses fo r two reasons. First, experts on research methods state that research proj ects that include relatively we ll-defined and narrow concepts and propositions are well suited to experiments (Babbie, 2001; Davis, 1997). Second, and more importantly, experiments are the only method that satisfies the three crit eria for evidence of causation: (1) proper ordering one event must pr ecede another event in or der to cause it, (2) time relevance an event that leads to another event should vary and chan ge together, and (3) no extraneous variable to be confident that the ma nipulations of an indepe ndent variable actually caused the changes in the dependent variable, all alternat ive explanations should be eliminated. The experiment manipulated both spokespers on type and m essage type and examined the hypotheses using a 2 x 2 between-group, posttest -only design. The spokesperson-type factor consisted of a celebrity and a non-celebrity, and the message-type factor involved an emotional message and a rational message. Participants were assigned to one of four experim ental conditions: (1) an ad with an emotional message and a celebrity, (2) an ad w ith an emotional message and a non-celebrity, (3) an ad with a rational message and a celebrity, and (4) an ad with a rational message and a noncelebrity. Since each condition should include at least 30 subjects to satisfy the reliability of the experiment (Agresti & Finlay, 1997), at least 120 students were required. Given that the study examined participant measures of advertising eff ectiveness, other variable s that could influence the results of the study should be co ntrolled as covariates. Four covariates were controlled for 32

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this study. As a result, a multivariate analysis of covariance, MANCOVA, was used to analyze the data. Operational Definitions of Variables Independent Variables An operational definition is how a concept will be m easur ed (Babbie, 2001, p. 125). Because this study employed two independent variab les, and each independent variable has two attributes, four levels must be operationally defined. The first independent variable, spokespers on, is defined as anyone who attem pts to deliver or speak the message or theme of an advertisement. In the present study, celebrities and non-celebrities were used as the two different spokespersons. A cel ebrity is defined as someone who is famous in the areas of movies, music, s ports, etc., so that people easily recognize who he/she is. A non-celebrity is defined as a nor mal person who is not well known by the public. The second independent variable, message, is de fined as inform ation that is delivered by an advertisement. The present study used two message types, emotional and rational. An emotional message is an advertising message that reminds people of feelings or emotions such as happiness, fear, anger, or love. A rational message is one that people process and recognize based on reason rather than emotion. Stimuli Development Development of the advertising stimuli that tested the influence of the independent variable consisted of several stages. In the firs t stage, 22 Korean fem ale students were given five minutes to list five Korean female celebrity na mes they thought were beautiful and credible. This survey was conducted by a Korean Masters st udent at Yonsei University in Seoul, Korea, prior to the main experiment. The celebrity na mes were then ranked ba sed on the frequency of mentions, and the most frequently mentioned cele brity was used in the stimulus advertisement. 33

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(See Appendix A for celebrity names mentioned and rankings.) The picture of the most mentioned celebrity was selected from the Web site www.naver.com based on her pose and the photos resolution. Because this study was c oncerned with cosmetic surgery and the copy focused on eye surgery, photos that focused on th e face were chosen. Because the photos might have needed to be enlarged, the researcher also looked for higher resolution photos. For the non-celebrity, the rese archer chose five fem ale photographs from womens homepages on Cyworld.com, an online social network in Korea that is similar to MySpace in the U.S. (See Appendix B for photos used in stimulus advertisements.) These five female photographs were chosen so th at the womens age, hairstyle, makeup, pose, etc., were comparable to the celebrity who had been selected in the earlier stage. Using a similar approach as outlined above, a panel of 23 Korean female students were asked to indicate the most attractive woman from the five non-celebrity photos. For the two message types emotional and ration al the researcher selected messages from real cosmetic surgery advertisements in Korea. The messages were revamped somewhat by combining several advertisements from the Web. (See Appendix C for the emotional/rational messages used in stimulus advertisements.) Both types of messages used talked about eyelid surgery since that is the most frequently r eceived cosmetic surgery among Korean women. A study conducted by Lee and Rudd ( 1999) reported that 75% of thei r subjects who had undergone cosmetic surgery received eyelid surgery, a nd another study conducted by Lee et al. (2006) indicated that 94% of their su bjects had had eyelid surgery. As the two studies show, double eyelid surgery is the most popular cosmetic su rgery in Korea, and its rate is increasing. Using these spokespersons and messages, the advertising stimuli were created in Adobe InDesign, a print layout program Th ere were four advertisements for the study: 1) an ad with an 34

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emotional message and a celebrity, 2) an ad w ith an emotional message and a non-celebrity, 3) an ad with a rational message and a celebrity, and 4) an ad with a rational message and a noncelebrity. The advertising stimu li were on 8.5x11-inch paper, and a bogus clinic appeared as the advertised brand to avoid any possible familiarity effect generated from brand awareness. In addition, each layout was identical in terms of typeface, placement, and element sizes. The only differences ware in the actual copy and the visual. (See Appendixes C and D for the actual advertising stimuli used in the experiment.) Measurement The dependent variables, covariates, and ba sic demographic questions were m easured using a questionnaire. (See Appendi x E for the complete questionnair e for the study.) It assessed manipulation checks of the spokesperson and message types, credibility a nd attractiveness of the spokesperson, Aad, Ab(clinic), VI(clinic), perceived importance of cosmetic surgery, exposure to positive word of mouth, current appearance sati sfaction, internalized sociocultural attitudes toward physical attractiveness, a nd demographic characteristics (age, education, HHI). With the exception of the demographic information, all vari ables utilized seven-po int bipolar scales. Manipulation Check Measures A series of questions was asked about whet her the stim ulus advertisements presented celebrity/non-celebrity spokesperson and emotional/rational message as the study had planned. The actual questions included To me, this ad vertisement presents an emotional/rational message and The model presented here is non-c elebrity/celebrity. For each question, sevenpoint bipolar rating scales were used, ranging from a rational message (1) to an emotional message (7), and from a non-celebr ity (1) to a celebrity (7). 35

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Additionally, regarding the firs t (H1a, H1b, H1c) and the third (H3a to H3d) hypotheses, whether the celebrity was percei ved as more credible and phy sically attractive than the noncelebrity were checked. The perceived credibilit y was tested by three seven-point bipolar Likerttype (strongly disagree/strongly agree) measures. The scales included items relating to the spokespersons level of cr edibility, such as The model presen ted here is credible, The model presented here is trustworthy, and The model presented here is believable. As these statements were employed from previous research that had tested their reliability and validity (Brackett & Carr, 2001), they were strongly correlated ( = .96). Based on the general acceptance level of .70 for a coefficient consiste ncy test (Babbie, 2001), the results showed a high level of reliability. The physical attractiveness of the spokesperson was also exam ined using three sevenpoint bipolar Likert-type (strongly disagree/strongly agree) measur es. The scales included items asking about the spokespersons le vel of physical attractiveness, such as The model presented here is attractive, In my opi nion, the model presented here is good looking, and The model presented here is pretty. Th ese scales were adopted from Feick and Higies study (1992) and yielded a Cronbachs alpha reliability coefficient of .96. Dependent Measures Three dependent variables were measured in this study: 1) attitude toward the advertisem ent [Aad], 2) attitude toward the advertised clinic [Ab(clinic)], and 3) intent to visit for a consultation at the advertised clinic [VI(clinic)]. Attitude toward advertising was measured using four seven-point semantic differential scales that asked participants how they felt a bout the stim ulus advertisement; questions included To me, the advertisement about cosmetic surgery is unlikable/likeable, To me, the 36

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advertisement about cosmetic surgery is bad/goo d, To me, the advertisement about cosmetic surgery is negative/positive, and To me, th e advertisement about cosmetic surgery is unfavorable/favorable. These four scales were adopted from previous research that had tested their reliability and validity (i.e., Andrews et al., 1994; Muehling, 1987), and the measures were highly reliable, with a Cronbachs al pha reliability coefficient of .96. Attitude toward the advertised clinic was m easured by anothe r four seven-point semantic differential scales that included To me, the advertised clinic in the ad is bad/good, To me, the advertised clinic in the ad is dislike quite a lot/li ke quite a lot To me, the advertised clinic in the ad is unpleasant/pleasan t, and To me, the advertised clin ic in the ad is poor quality/good quality. These four scales were also adopted from previous research that had tested their reliability and validity (Biehal et al., 1992; Ga rdner, 1985; Mitchell, 1986), and in the present study, these scales showed a high level of reliability ( = .96). Intent to visit for a consulta tion was m easured by asking partic ipants intentions to visit the advertised clinic for consu ltation. Three seven-point Likert-t ype (strongly disagree/strongly agree) measures were used, includ ing participants intention to visit the clinic based on the time frame: The next time I need the service of co smetic surgery, I will choos e Dr. Beauty, If I had needed cosmetic surgery during the past year, I would have selected Dr. Beauty, and In the next year, if I need cosmetic surgery, I will sele ct Dr. Beauty. These scales were adopted from Taylor and Bakers study (1994) and yielded a Cronbachs alpha re liability coefficient of .91. Covariates Level of involvement with cosmetic surgery, exposure to positive wo rd of mouth, current appearance satisfaction, and internalized sociocul tural attitudes toward physical attractiveness were considered to be c ovariates of this study. 37

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The first covariate, level of involvement with cosmetic surgery, is defined as how important an individual feels cosm etic surgery is to herself. It was used as a covariate because the various levels of an individuals intention to get cosmetic surgery could confound the true results of the study, which measured advertisi ng effectiveness based on spokesperson/message types. According to a study by Pe tty et al. (1986), consumers highl y involved in certain products are more attracted to advertising that promotes the product than consumers with low involvement are. Thus, participants level of involvement related to cosmetic surgery shoul d be controlled for. This first covariate was measured by a singl e sta tement with three descriptive items: Using the following descriptors, please describe how important cosmetic surgery is to you. The statement included three descript ors: nonessential/essential, not beneficial/beneficial, and not needed/needed. Because they were adopted fr om reliable research (Jain & Srinivasan, 1990; Laurent & Kapferer, 1985; Rosbergen & Wedel, 1997), Cronbachs alpha reliability coefficients score yielded .89. The second covariate, exposure to positive word of m outh, is defined as having an experience of hearing good stories about cosmetic surgery from ones friends, family, relatives, etc. The reason that it was considered a covariate is related to vicarious experience. The study by Delinsky (2005) found that subjects with friend s or relatives who received cosmetic surgery showed a greater likelihood of getting cosmetic surgery because of an increase in reliable information from people that they could believe; t hus, this variable needed to be controlled for. This second covariate utilized three Likert-type (strongly disagree/str ongly agree) scales that a sked whether the participants had heard any positive stories about cosmetic surgery from friends, family, or relatives: I have heard positive things about cosmetic surgery, I have close friends or relatives who have undergone cosmetic su rgery and are satisfied w ith its results and I 38

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have close friends or relatives who recommended co smetic surgery for me. The measures came from a previous journal articl e (Price & Arnould, 1999) and yiel ded a Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient of .82. Current appearance satisfaction, which is defi ned as an individual s level of happiness with her physical attracti veness, was considered the third cova riate in this study. Since previous research showed that lower self-perceived physi cal attractiveness prom oted a higher likelihood of receiving cosmetic surgery (Brown et al., 2007), subjects who perceived themselves as unattractive may be predisposed to having cosmetic surgery. Current appearance satisfaction was measured by the 16-item Physical Appearance State and Trait Anxiety Scale (PASTAS). The PASTAS, developed by Thompson (1996), is a measure of the anxiety level one has toward one s body or specific parts of the body. For this study, nine of the 16 items were used. The othe r seven items dealt with entire body issues, but this thesis focused on facial issues, not body i ssues. Therefore, the following single question with 9 descriptors was employed based on a five-point scale (Never to Always): In general, I feel anxious, tense, or nervous about my eyes/nose/lips/forehead/neck/chin/ cheekbones/cheeks/ears. However, since this study measured Korean womens attitudes, and they were more apt to avoid extremes than other ethnic groups because of their high uncertainty avoidance (Hofst ede, 1984), the five-point scales were changed to seven-point scales for more accu rate analysis. The reliability was = .73. The last covariate in this study is internal ized sociocultural attitudes toward physical attractivenes s. It is defined as societal influences on ones body image. Several researchers have claimed that the failure to obtai n societal ideals of physical a ttractiveness evokes stronger self39

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body dissatisfaction and possibly lead s people to consider having cosm etic surgery to get a more socially-desired appearance (Del insky, 2005; Brown et al., 2007). This covariate was measured by a 9-item So ciocultur al Attitude toward Appearance Questionnaire Revised Female Version (SATAQ). The SATAQ, consisting of 21 items, is a measure of how women compare themselves to ot her women based on various social situations. It also used seven-point scales instead of five-point scales for the same reason the PASTAS scale was changed, and it was narrowed down to ni ne items related to the present study. (See Appendix E for the specific questions.) In this st udy, the internal consiste ncy alpha for this scale was .74. Pretest of Experiment Prior to the full experiment, 29 college student s, sim ilar in demographics to those from the main experiment sample, participated in a pretest. The purpose of the pretest was to discover wording problems as well as any unexpected ma tters. Based on the pretest results, the terms emotional message and rational message were ela borated to explain what they were and how they were different. Main Test of Experiment Participants Participants were recruited among undergradu ate and graduate students f rom several universities in Seoul, Korea. A ll of them were 20-30-year-old women; the average age was 22. A total of 143 students participated in the study. More than half of them were undergraduate students (79%). Sixty-one were freshmen (42.7%), 16 were sophomores (11.2%), 21 were juniors (14.7%), 15 were senior s (10.5%) and 25 were graduate students (17.5%). They voluntarily participated in the study. Their average House Hold Income (HHI) was between $30,000 and $49,999. Though many of them answered that their HHI was under $30,000 40

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(31.4%), statistics showed mostly simila r distributions between $30,000 and $39,999 (17.9%), $40,000 and $49,999 (16.4%), $50,000 and $59,999 (13.6%), and over $70,000 (13.6%). Procedure The experiment was conducted in a classroom prior to th e participants normal class time, and they were seated in a zigzag style to prevent one participant from seeing anothers answers. The stimulus advertisements and a questionnaire were placed in four different folders numbered 1 to 4, and by using a random number table generator, 150 integers from 1 to 4 were generated. By the order of rando m numbers, stimulus materials we re placed in another folder; then, participants selected one folder from the top. Thus, the experiment allowed subjects to be randomly assigned to each condition. Prior to being exposed to the advertisement, subjects were told th at the purpose of the study was to explore Korean wom ens attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Participants were exposed to the stimulus advertisement for two minutes. The exposure time was determined by a previous experiment that used similar measur es (i.e., Ferle & Choi, 2005). Next, they were asked to fill out the questionnaire. Participants responded to manipulation check measures first, followed by measures of attitude toward advertising [Aad], attitude toward the advertised clinic [Ab(clinic)], and intent to visit for a consultation from the advertised clinic [VI(clinic)]. Measures of several covariates and demographic information we re collected at the end of the experimental questionnaire. Analysis The present study employed The St atistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 13 for W indows) for statistical data analysis. Given the presence of multiple dependent variables and independent variables and four covariates, MANCOVA was conducted. It was run with two independent variables (type of spokesperson/type of message ), three dependent variables 41

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(attitude toward the cosmetic surg ery ad, attitude toward the advertised clinic, and intent to visit for a consultation from the advertised clinic), and four covariates (involvement level with cosmetic surgery, prior exposure to positive word of mouth, current appearance satisfaction, and internalized sociocultu ral attitudes toward physical attractiveness). Table 3-1. Demographic information of the participan ts in the experiment Demographics Frequency Valid Percent Age 20-23 24-26 27-30 Total 111 21 11 143 77.6 14.7 7.7 100 Educational Background Freshmen Sophomores Juniors Seniors Graduate Students Others Total 61 16 21 15 25 5 143 42.7 11.2 14.7 10.5 17.5 3.5 100 HHI Under $30,000 $ 30,000 ~ $ 39,999 $ 40,000 ~ $ 49,999 $ 50,000 ~ $ 59,999 $ 60,000 ~ $ 69,999 Over $ 70,000 Total 44 25 23 19 10 19 143 31.4 17.9 16.4 13.6 7.1 13.6 100 42

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was conducted to tes t the hypotheses that spokesperson type and message type would aff ect 1) attitude toward an advertisement [Aad], 2) attitude toward the advertised clinic [Ab(clinic)], and 3) intent to visit advertised clinic for a consultation [VI(clinic)]. For the analysis, the hypotheses were examined in several stages. First, manipul ation checks for independent va riables were conducted. Then, correlation checks for dependent variables were exam ined. Finally, the hypotheses were tested. Manipulation Check A series of questions was asked about whet her the stim ulus advertisements presented celebrity/non-celebrity spokesperson and emotional/rational message as the study had planned. As shown in Table 4-1, the ANOVA for the mean scores of particip ants recognition of spokesperson types showed a signifi cant difference between two means [ Mcelebrity = 6.52, Mnoncelebrity = 1.18, F1,141 = 1302.55, p < .01], and the additional one-sample t-test for each spokesperson type on the median value 4 from the seven-point scale al so noted significance [tcelebrity = 17.98, p < .01; tnon-celebrity = 56.67, p < .01]. Likewise, pa rticipants r ecognition of message types also showed a statistically significant difference between two means [ Memotional = 5.06, Mrational = 2.33, F1,141 = 178.16, p < .01] [ temotional = 6.75, p < .01; trational = 12.70, p < .01]. The measure of credibility i.e., which spokesp erson (celebrity/non-cele brity) was considered more or less credible was tested by an independent t-test. As noted in reliable previous research (e.g., Atkin & Block, 1983; Ferle & Choi, 2005; Freiden, 1984), the celebrity spokesperson was considered more credible ( M = 4.66, SD = 1.61) than the non-celebrity ( M = 2.38, SD = 1.37; t141 = 9.12, p < .01) based on three combined credibility measuring items. In addition, the physical attractiveness of the spokesp erson i.e, whether a celebrity was perceived 43

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more attractive than a non-celebrity was examin ed. As shown in Table 4-1, an independent ttest for mean scores of perceived physical attractiveness of spokesperson was significantly different based on three combined phys ical attractiveness measuring items (Mcelebrity = 5.83, SD = 1.45; Mnon-celebrity = 2.70, SD = 1.70; t141 = 11.83, p < .01). Consequently, it was assumed that participants who were exposed to ads with a celebrity or a non-celebrity spokesperson perceived them as they were meant to be perceived, as they had with the emotional/rational messages. Correlation Check The present study dealt with three dependent variables [Aad, Ab(clinic), VI(clinic)] assumed to be conceptually related to one another becau se the study required showing the empirical relationship among dependent variable s; changes in one variable were associated with changes in other variables (Babbie, 2001). Th e high Pearsons correlation coefficients meant that variables were conceptually related to one another, and the three dependent variables in the present study were significantly correlated. As shown in Table 4-2, Pear sons correlation between Aad and Ab(clinic) was r = .85, p < .05, between Ab(clinic) and VI(clinic) was r = .81, p < .05, and between Aad and VI(clinic) was r = .78, p < .05. Covariates Involvement level with cosmetic surgery, e xposure to positive word of m outh, current appearance satisfaction, and internalized sociocul tural attitudes toward physical attractiveness were considered as covariates a nd were controlled in this study. Several scales described in the Method chapter measured the four covariates. Ta ble 4-3 shows the multivariate test results. The effect of the participants involvement level with cosmetic surgery was not statistically significant [F3, 133 = 2.64, Wilks Lambda = .94, p > .05]. It was also found that the effect on dependent variables of participants prior expo sure to positive word of mouth about receiving 44

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cosmetic surgery was not statistically significant [F3, 133 = 1.69, Wilks Lambda = .96, p > .05]. The same result was found for participan ts current appearance satisfaction [F3, 133 = 2.34, Wilks Lambda = .95, p > .05]. However, the effect of pa rticipants internalized sociocultural attitude towards physical attractivene ss on dependent variables was statistically significant [F3, 133 = 2.98, Wilks Lambda = .94, p < .05]. As a result, it is concluded that the subjects internalized sociocultural attitudes toward physical attractiveness played an im portant role in their evaluations of advertising effectiveness; however, the effect of these attitudes on the variab ility of advertising effectiveness measures was controlled because it was incorpor ated into the data analysis as covariates in MANCOVA. Hypotheses Testing Prior to hypotheses testing analysis, MANC OVAs assum ption of homoscedasticity was checked with a Boxs M test. As it was signi ficant at the alpha level of .05, there were differences in the amount of variances of the gr oups of dependent variables, so the assumption was violated. However, according to Hair et al. (2006), the violation of equal variance assumption has minimal impact if the groups are of approximately equal size (largest sample size smallest groups size < 1.5). The largest gr oup sample size was 37 and the smallest group sample size was 35 in the present experiment (37 35 = 1.06 < 1.5), so the groups were considered to have minimal impact on the violat ion of equal variance assumption. Consequently, the further analysis was a ppropriate for the study. According to the MANCOVA results in Ta b le 4-3, the interac tion effect between spokesperson and message type on the combined dependent variables was not statistically significant [F3, 133 = 1.51, Wilks Lambda = .97, p > .05], a nd the main effects of spokesperson [F3, 133 = 21.75, Wilks Lambda = .67, p < .05] and message [F3, 133 = 18.34, Wilks Lambda = .71, p < .05] were statistically significant. Th is meant that the spokesperson type and the 45

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message type affected the three de pendent variables. In particul ar, based on the value of Wilks Lambda, the main effect of spokesperson played the most important role in this study. Hypothesis 1: Main effect of spokesperson ty pe on m easures of advertising effectiveness [Aad, Ab(clinic), and VI(clinic)]. As shown in Table 4-3, the main effect of spokesperson type on three combined dependent variables indicated stat istical significance [F3, 133 = 21.75, Wilks Lambda = .67, p < .05] and thus was supported. Hypothesis 1a stated that participants expos ed to cosm etic surgery advertising with a celebrity would have a more favor able attitude toward the ad than those who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with a non-celebrit y. The results indicated the main effect of spokesperson type on attit ude toward advertising [F1,135 = 51.64, p = .00], such that participants who viewed the ad with a celebrity ( M = 4.55, SD = 1.52) showed a more favorable attitude toward the ad than did participants who viewed the ad with a non-celebrity ( M = 2.97, SD = 1.43). Thus, hypothesis 1a was supported; i.e., pe ople who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with a celebrity spok esperson had a more favorable attitude toward the advertisement than those who were exposed to cosmetic surger y advertising with a noncelebrity spokesperson. Based on the dual mediation model (MacK enzie et al., 1986), hypothesis 1b proposed that participants exposed to cosm etic surgery advertising with a celebri ty would have a more favorable attitude toward the adve rtised clinic than those who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with a non-celebrity. The results showed the main effect of spokesperson type on attitude toward advertised clinic [F1,135 = 50.33, p = .00], such that participants who viewed the ad with a celebrity ( M = 4.48, SD = 1.24) listed a more favorable at titude toward the advertised clinic than did participants who viewed the ad with a non-celebrity ( M = 3.03, SD = 1.36). Thus, hypothesis 1b was supported; i.e., people who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with 46

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a celebrity spokesperson had a more favorable att itude toward the advertised clinic than those who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with a non-cel ebrity spokesperson. Hypothesis 1c stated that participants expos ed to cosm etic surgery advertising with a celebrity said that they were more likely to visi t the clinic for a consulta tion than those who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with a non-celebrity. The resu lts indicated the main effect of spokesperson type on intent to visit for a consultation [F1,135 = 52.81, p = .00], such that participants who viewed th e ad with a celebrity ( M = 3.97, SD = 1.42) said that they were more likely to visit the advertised clinic for a consulta tion than participants wh o viewed the ad with a non-celebrity were (M = 2.43, SD = 1.24). Thus, hypothesis 1c wa s supported; i.e., people who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with a celebrity spokesperson said that they were more likely to visit the advertised clinic for a consultation than those who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with a non-celebr ity spokesperson. (See Tables 4-4 and 4-5 for statistical test results and means.). Hypothesis 2: Main effect of m essage type on m easures of advertising effectiveness [Aad, Ab(clinic), and VI(clinic)]. As shown in Table 4-3, the main effect of message type on the three combined dependent variables indi cated statistical significance [F3, 133 = 18.34, Wilks Lambda = .71, p < .05] and thus was supported. Hypothesis 2a stated that participants exposed to cosm etic surgery advertising with an emotional message would have a more favorable attitude toward the ad than those who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with a rational message. The results indicated the main effect of message type on at titude toward advertising [F1,135 = 53.68, p = .00], such that participants who viewed the ad with an emotional message ( M = 4.61, SD = 1.36) showed a more favorable attitude toward the ad than did participants who viewed the ad with a rational message 47

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( M = 2.91, SD = 1.52). Thus, hypothesis 2a was supported; i.e., people who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with an emotional message had a more favorable attitude toward the advertisement than those who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with a rational message. Based on the Dual Mediation Model (MacK enzie et al., 1986), hypothesis 2b proposed that participants exposed to co sm etic surgery advertising with an emotional message would have a more favorable attitude toward the advertised clinic than thos e who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with a rational message. The re sults showed the main effect of message type on attitude toward advertised clinic [F1,135 = 36.37, p = .00], such that participants who viewed the ad with an emotional message ( M = 4.40, SD = 1.29) listed a more favorable attitude toward the advertised clinic than did participants who viewed the ad with a rational message ( M = 3.11, SD = 1.39). Thus, hypothesis 2b was supported; i.e ., people who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with an emotional message had a more favorable attitude toward the advertised clinic than those who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with a rational message. Hypothesis 2c stated that participants expos ed to cosm etic surgery advertising with an emotional message said that they were more likely to visit the clinic for a consultation than those who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertisin g with a rational message. The results indicated the main effect of message type on intent to visit for a consultation [F1,135 = 31.56, p = .00], such that participants who viewed the ad with an emotional message ( M = 3.84, SD = 1.43) said that they were more likely to visit the advertised c linic for a consultation th an did participants who viewed the ad with a rational message ( M = 2.56, SD = 1.38). Thus, hypothesis 2c was supported; i.e., people who were exposed to cosm etic surgery advertising with an emotional 48

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message said that they were more likely to visit the advertised clinic for a consultation than those who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with a rational message. (See Tables 4-4 and 4-5 for statistical test results and means.) Hypothesis 3: Interaction effect of spokesperso n and m essage type on measures of advertising effectiveness [Aad, Ab(clinic), and VI(clinic)]. According to the MANCOVA results in Table 4-3, though the interacti on effect between spokesperso n and message type on the combined dependent variables was not statistically significant [F3, 133 = 1.51, Wilks Lambda = .97, p > .05], the individual ANCOVA results indicat ed significance on intent to visit for a consultation, and thus the hypothesis was part ially supported. (See Table 4-4 for individual ANCOVA results.) Hypotheses 3a, 3b, 3c, and 3d explored whether there were any interaction effects between spokesperson type and m essage type on m easures of advertising effectiveness, but only in intent to visit [VI(clinic)] was the interaction effect of m odel and message type discovered [F1,135 = 3.96, p = .05]. The result of the interaction effect can be analyzed more accurately with mean differences. According to Table 4-4, participants who were exposed to the ad with the celebrity spokesperson/emotional message combination ( M = 4.41, SD = 1.46) were more likely to display favorable VI(clinic) compared with people who view ed the non-celebrity/rational message combination ( M = 1.64, SD = .71). An additional t-test measuring mean differences between these two combinations was conducted, and its result was also st atistically significant [t71 = 10.34, p = .00]. In terms of message type comparison with s pokesperson type in the detailed results, the m ean difference between ads with the celebrity spokesp erson/emotional message ( M = 4.41, SD = 1.46) and the celebrity spokesperson/rational message ( M = 3.52, SD = 1.26) 49

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combinations was smaller than the mean di fference between ads w ith the non-celebrity spokesperson/emotional message ( M = 3.26, SD = 1.15) and non-celebr ity/rational message ( M = 1.64, SD = .71) combinations. This meant that the statistical significance of intent to visit was mainly because of the message type differences with non-celebrity spokespersons rather than differences with celebrity spokespersons. Thus, hypotheses 3a and 3d were supported; i.e., people who were exposed to cosmetic su rgery advertising w ith the celebrity spokesperson/emotional message combination said that they were more likely to visit the advertised clinic for a consulta tion than those who were exposed to cosmetic surgery advertising with the non-celebrity spokesp erson/rational message combination. In addition, hypotheses 3b and 3c, which proposed that the interaction eff ects between spokesperson type and message type on Aad [F1,135 = .61, p = .44] and Ab(clinic) [F1,135 = 2.19, p = .14] would exist, were not supported. (Figures 4-1, 4-2, and 4-3.) Table 4-1. Manipulation check of stimuli Stimuli Mean S.D. F Type of spokesperson Celebrity Non-celebrity 6.52 1.18 1.18 .42 1302.55* Type of message Emotional Rational 5.06 2.33 1.32 1.11 178.16* Credibility (Mcelebrity = 4.66, SD = 1.61; Mnon-celebrity = 2.38, SD = 1.37; t = 9.12*) Attractiveness (Mcelebrity = 5.83, SD = 1.45; Mnon-celebrity = 2.70, SD = 1.70; t = 11.83*) N = 143, *p < .05 50

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Table 4-2. Correlation of depe ndent variables in MANCOVA Attitude toward advertising Attitude toward advertised c linic Intent to visit for a consultation Attitude toward advertising 1.00 Attitude toward advertised clinic .85* 1.00 Intent to visit for a consultation .78* .81* 1.00 N = 143, *p < .05 Table 4-3. Multivariate test results Effect Wilks Lambda F Hypothesis df Error df p-value Covariates 1. Involvement level with cosmetic surgery .94 2.64 3 133 .05 2. Exposure to positive word of mouth .96 1.69 3 133 .17 3. Current appearance satisfaction .95 2.34 3 133 .08 4. Internalized sociocultural attitudes toward physical attractiveness .94 2.98* 3 133 .03* Variables Type of spokesperson .67 21.75* 3 133 .00* Type of message .71 18.34* 3 133 .00* Spokesperson Message .97 1.51 3 133 .22 N = 143, *p < .05 Boxs M = 50.63, F = 2.7, P = .00 51

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Table 4-4. Results of between-subjects test Source Dependent variables SS df MS F p-value Spokesperson 1. Attitude toward advertising 71.58 1 71.58 51.64* .00* 2. Attitude toward advertised clinic 62.69 1 62.69 50.33* .00* 3. Intent to visit for a consultation 70.58 1 70.58 52.81* .00* Message 1. Attitude toward advertising 74.40 1 74.40 53.68* .00* 2. Attitude toward advertised clinic 45.29 1 45.29 36.37* .00* 3. Intent to visit for a consultation 42.18 1 42.18 31.56* .00* Spokesperson*Message 1. Attitude toward advertising .84 1 .84 .61 .44 2. Attitude toward advertised clinic 2.72 1 2.72 2.19 .14 3. Intent to visit for a consultation 5.29 1 5.29 3.96* .05* N = 143, *p < .05 52

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Table 4-5. Descriptive statistics of MANCOVA Spokesperson Message Mean SD Emotional 5.33 1.31 Rational 3.75 1.30 Celebrity Total 4.55 1.52 Emotional 3.87 .97 Rational 2.12 1.27 Non-celebrity Total 2.97 1.43 Emotional 4.61 1.36 Rational 2.91 1.52 Attitude toward advertising Total Total 3.76 1.67 Emotional 4.97 1.25 Rational 3.96 1.01 Celebrity Total 4.48 1.24 Emotional 3.79 1.05 Rational 2.31 1.23 Non-celebrity Total 3.03 1.36 Emotional 4.40 1.29 Rational 3.11 1.39 Attitude toward advertised clinic Total Total 3.75 1.49 Emotional 4.41 1.46 Rational 3.52 1.26 Celebrity Total 3.97 1.42 Emotional 3.26 1.15 Rational 1.64 .71 Non-celebrity Total 2.43 1.24 Emotional 3.84 1.43 Rational 2.56 1.38 Intent to visit for a consultation Total Total 3.19 1.54 t-test result between celebrity/emotional and non-celebrity/rati onal combinations (Mcelebrity/emotional = 4.41, SD = 1.46; Mnon-celebrity/rational = 1.64, SD = .71; t = 10.34*) N = 143, *p < .05 53

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Figure 4-1. Insignificant interacti on effect of spokesperson and m essage type on attitude toward ad Celebrity Non-celebrity 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Rational message Emotional message Estimated marginal means 54

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Celebrity Non-celebrity 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Rational message Emotional message Estimated marginal means Figure 4-2. Insignificant interacti on effect of spokesperson and message type on attitude toward advertised clinic 55

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Figure 4-3. Interaction effect of spokesperson and m essage t ype on intent to visit for a consultation Emotional message Celebrity Non-celebrity 2.0 3.0 4.0 Rational message Estimated marginal means 56

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CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The purpose of the present study was to explore how to create effective advertising for cosm etic surgery procedures in order to improve the brand image of cosmetic surgery. This study specifically looked at what sort of spoke sperson (celebrity vs. non-celebrity) and message type (emotional vs. rational) most positively influenced consumers responses to cosmetic surgery advertising. The theories of the El aboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and the Dual Mediation Hypothesis (DMH) were examined. By using an experimental research design and utilizing MANCOVA data analysis this study found theorized constr ucts that were related to spokesperson and message effects on cosmetic surgery advertising. The following paragraphs discuss the findings related to the hypotheses. Experimental Results Explicated Hypothesis 1 proposed that a celebrity spokesp erson influenced m easures of cosmetic surgery advertising effectiveness more positively than a non-celebrity sp okesperson. This result was statistically significant a nd the hypothesis was therefore suppor ted. This finding confirms findings in previous literature that found that a cele brity endorser has a stronger impact on the formation of positive attitudes toward advertis ing, advertised brand, and purchase intention (Atkin & Block, 1983; Freiden, 1984). The study result also supported th e linear relationships between attitude toward advertis ing and attitude toward brand, and attitude toward brand and purchase intention proposed by MacKenzie et al. (1986). Overal l findings from Hypothesis 1 confirmed that celebrities are perceived as more credible than non-celebriti es, most likely due to their broad recognition and popular ity (Ferle & Choi, 2005), and th at the more credible the source is, the more effective the advertising is in influencing consumers attitudes and behavioral 57

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intentions (Sternthal et al., 1978), with celebrity endorsement being more effective than noncelebrity endorsement. Moreover, an empirical study demonstrated that Koreans show more favorable attitudes towards ads with celebrity endorsement regardless of the product category (Yoon and Chae, 2004). Hypothesis 2 stated that an emotional message influences m easures of cosmetic surgery advertisings effectiveness more positively than a rational message. This hypothesis, too, was supported. This finding implies that for a beau ty-related product or service, an emotional message can be expected to show more positiv e attitudes toward the ad (Holbrook, 1978); this follows the dual mediation hypothesis (MacKenzie et al., 1986). This finding also supports studies related to cultural dimensions. Because Korea is categorized as a collectivistic country with a high-context communication style, which depends on symbols and implicit expression rather than explicit word s (Hall, 1976), the results showing th at Koreans exposed to an emotional cosmetic surgery message have a more favorable at titude toward the ad than those exposed to a rational cosmetic surgery message were to be expected. Hypothesis 3, concerning the relationship be tween spokesperson types and m essage types, was partially supported in this study. Though the multivariate test result was not significant, individual ANCOVA results indicated that the celebrity spokesperson/emotional message combination in cosmetic surgery advertising woul d produce a more favorable intent to visit for a consultation compared with the non-celebrity/r ational message combination; thus, the result supports Hall (1976) and Hofstede s cultural dimensions (1984) as well as Holbrook (1978) and Petty et al.s study (1987). According to th eir research, the celebrity/emotional message combination attracts more customers for cosmetic surgery because the Korean communication style depends on implied expressions, like those found in an emotional message, rather than on 58

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direct words, like those found in a rational message (Hall, 1976); moreover, Korea is categorized as a country with high uncertain ty avoidance, which means that Koreans prefer a well-known source rather than an unknown source (Hofstede, 1984). In addition, since aesthetic products are promoted better with an emotional message (Hol brook, 1978) and attractive endorsers (Petty et al., 1987), the celebrity/emo tional message combination for cosmetic surgery advertisements is more effective in measuring advertisi ng effectiveness among Koreans than the noncelebrity/rational message combination is. Interestingly, the individual ANCOVA results go against the logic of the Dual Mediation Hypothesis (Mackenzie et al., 1986) since only one m easure of advertising effectiveness intent to visit f or a consultation was significant. Ho wever, this can be explained by multiple roles for source attractiveness from ELM (Petty et al., 1987). For so me objects, such as aesthetic products, endorsers attractiveness driven by crediil ity is an important de terminant of likelihood under high involvement. In general, intent to visit for a consulta tion after exposure to a cosmetic surgery advertisement requires a high level of involvement compared with psychological reactions such as measuring atti tudes toward the advertisement or toward the brand. Thus, in this case, source attractiveness plays a stronger role in measuring intent to visit than in measuring attitude toward an ad and a brand. As a ratio nal support, the first hypothe ses can be elaborated under the same explanation. Though all three AN COVA results showed the significance (all pvalues were p = .00) of celebrity spokesperson ef fects on measures of advertising effectiveness, the higher F-value for intent to visit (F = 52.81) showed the st ronger impact of an attractive celebrity spokesperson compared with the other tw o measures of advertising effectiveness. Managerial Implications Aside from the theoretical implications, this study also has marketing implications. There has been little cos metic su rgery advertising in Korea, so, until now, little was known about 59

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the best message strategies for positive attit ude formation and purchase intention. However, based on the experimental results described in this study, advertisers and marketers should use celebrity endorsement for cosmetic surgery because cel ebrities have more credibility than noncelebrities and the credibility of advertising is the main factor in forming a positive attitude. This suggestion is further bolstered by the fact that regardless of the product category, Koreans show a more favorable attitude towards ads w ith celebrity endorsement (Yoon & Chae, 2004). Moreover, employing an emotional message rather than a rational message for advertising in the Korean cosmetic surgery industry is a strong st rategy that advertisers and marketers should pay attention to because, based on their cultural t ypologies, Koreans are more attracted to an emotional message than to a rational message. Thus, these two dimensions celebrity endorser and emotional message seem to provide the stro ngest strategies and results for the cosmetic surgery industry. Conclusion This study contributes to th e form erly established body of knowledge through its focus on cosmetic surgery and Korean cultural values in order to investigate the underlying process of the formation of attitudes toward advertising based on spokesperson and message type. While previous research examined celeb rity endorser and message effect s on the advertis ing of various products, none has explored those two elements in cosmetic surgery advertisements. In addition, though there are some studies exploring celebrity endorsement effectiveness in the Korean market (e.g., Baek, 2005; Ferle & Choi, 2005), this is the one of the first studies to undertake message effectiveness in Korea. Hopefully, this study will initiate resear ch about how marketers and advertisers mediate spokesperson and message appropriately to generate effective cosmetic surgery advertisements in the Korean market. 60

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Limitations As with any study, the present study notes some lim itations. First, using college students can raise concerns about generaliz ing the findings to th e larger population; th is means that the general population may not yield results similar to those found in this study. Petersons study (2001), based on the meta-analysis of students and non-students sampling, suggests replicating the current study, which used college students, by using non-student samples before generalizing the findings. Second, this study should be aware of the reliabil ity of the scales used to m easure the two covariates current appearance satisfaction and internalized sociocultural attitudes toward physical attractiveness which scored rela tively lower reliability coefficients ( = .73 and = .74, respectively). The scales measuring both c ovariates were initially 16 items and 21 items, but they were reduced to the 9 items that were considered relevant to the present study. Therefore, there could be unexpected variances during reshaping procedures. In addition, since these covariates are somewhat broad concepts that are hard to narrow down to one dimension, it would be helpful for future studies to run each of the 9 items into data analysis separately and see whether the results are different from this study. Third, though some of the lite rature relevant to celebrity endorsement and cosmetic surgery was employed from studies based on Korean cultural values, most of the literature, scales, and theories designed for this study were based on American standards. Many researchers have concerns about applying studies based on American standards to other countries (Andrews et al., 1994), so there is a need for scal es and measures within cultural values to find meaningful results. Fourth, for more accurate experimental desi gn, one m ore dimension should be added to manipulation check measures. Based on the celebritys credibility measure, this study looked at 61

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two dimensions out of the three proposed by Oh anian (1990) trustworth iness and attractiveness because the main attribute influencing c onsumers from the celebrity was credibility transferred from attractiveness or vice versa. Th erefore, another dimension expertise was left out of the study. However, as expertise is one of the dimensions of celeb rity endorser credibility, it should be included as well for more mature study. Another limitation is related to message gene ration. Message does not represent only one characteristic. Every m essage has two characte ristics emotional and rational. Yet studies havent found a clear boundary betw een these two message types. Nevertheless, it is necessary to create messages which convey the same contents but using different characteristics. Suggestions for Future Research Cosmetic surgery has not been studied enough in the Korean advertising industry, especially g iven the dramatic increases in such su rgery every year. Though this is the one of the first studies to put Korean cosmetic surgery advertising under the academic microscope, it employed only two advertising elements endorse r and message type that have been widely used in other product categories. There have be en studies measuring advertising effectiveness based on many other variables, so adding these variables to the presen t study could strengthen the findings related to cosme tic surgery advertising. In addition, replicating this study using males may be intere sting since cosm etic surgery procedures among males are increa sing, too. Moreover, this study should also be conducted in other countries and culture s since social and cultural factors in fluence perceptions of ideal beauty (Hueston et al., 1985). 62

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APPENDIX A FREQUENCY OF CELEBRITIES MENT IONED IN THE PRIOR SURVEY Rank Name Frequency Percentage 1 Taehee Kim 15 14.2 2 Youngae Lee 11 10.5 3 Gain Han 9 8.6 4 Hyegyu Song Sooae Yeisul Han 6 5.7 7 Jeemin Han Jeehyun Jeon 4 3.8 63

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APPENDIX B PHOTOS AND MESSAGES USED IN THE STI ULUS ADVERTISEMENTS B A Figure B-1. Emotional versus rational messa ge. A) Celebrity. B) Noncelebrity. Emotional message: Take the Beauty of the Wo rld, with Y our Beautiful Eyes Dr. Beauty Rational message: No Scar. No Bruise. The Safe Eye Surgery Is Possible at Dr. Beauty 64

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APPENDIX C ACTUAL ADVERTISEMENT USED IN THE EXPERIMENT AS STIMULI CELEBRITY SPOKE SPERSON WITH EMOTIONAL/RATIONAL MESSAGES 65

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APPENDIX D ACTUAL ADVERTISEMENT USED IN THE EXPERIMENT AS STIMULI NONCELEBRITY SPOKES PERSON WITH EMOTIONAL/RATIONAL MESSAGES 66

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APPENDIX E QUESTIONNAIRE This study is interested in finding out Korean wo m ens attitude toward cosmetic surgery. Please read the following questions carefully and give the most proper answers. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers, so please be honest when you answer the questions. Please look at the attached a dvertisem ent and answer the following questions carefully. ADVERTISEMENT 67

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1. Have you ever seen this advert isement? Please check in the blank. Yes ( ) No ( ) Unsure ( ) Please check the one answ er that best reflects your attitudes for each question. 2. To me, this advertisement presents: Rational message (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5 )-----(6 )-----(7) Emotional message 3. The model presented here is: Non-celebrity (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4 )----(5)-----(6)----(7) Celebrity 68

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Please check the one answer that best reflects your attitudes for each question. Now, Ill ask you some questions a bout the models attractiveness. 4. The model presented here is attractive. Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5 )-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree 5. In my opinion, the model presented here is good looking. Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5 )-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree 6. The model presented here is pretty. Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5 )-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree Now, Im going to ask you some questions about the models credibility. 7. The model presented here is credible. Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5 )-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree 8. The model presented here is trustworthy. Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5 )-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree 9. The model presented here is believable. Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5 )-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree 69

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Please check the one answer that best reflects your attitudes for each question. 10. To me, the advertisement about cosmetic surgery is: a) Unlikable (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4 ) -----(5)-----(6)----(7) Likable b) Bad (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5 )----(6)-----(7) Good c) Negative (1)-----(2)-----(3)-----(4)-----(5)-----(6)-----(7) Positive d) Unfavorable (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)-----(6 )-----(7 ) Favorable 11. To me, the advertised clinic in the ad is: a) Bad (1)-----(2)----(3)-----(4)-----(5 )----(6)-----(7) Good b) Dislike quite a lot (1)----(2 )-----(3)-----(4 )-----(5)-----(6)----(7) Like quite a lot c) Unpleasant (1)-----(2 )-----(3 )-----(4)----(5)-----(6)----(7) Pleasant d) Poor quality (1)----(2 )-----(3)-----(4 )-----(5)-----(6)----(7) Good quality 12. The next time I need th e service of cos metic surg ery, I will choose Dr. Beauty Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5 )-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree 13. If I had needed the service of cosmetic surg ery during the past years, I would have selected Dr. Beauty Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5 )-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree 14. In the next year, if I need the services of cosmetic surgery, I will select Dr. Beauty Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5 )-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree 70

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Please check the one answer that best reflects your attitudes about cosmetic surgery. 15. Using the following descriptors, please desc ribe how im portant cosm etic surgery is to you a) Nonessential (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4)-----(5)-----(6 )-----(7 ) Essential b) Not beneficial (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4 )-----(5)-----(6)----(7) Beneficial c) Not needed (1)-----(2)-----(3)----(4 )-----(5) -----(6)-----(7) Needed 16. I have heard positive thi ngs about cosm etic surgery Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5 )-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree 17. I have close friends or rela tives who have undergone cosm etic surgery and are satisfied with its results. Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5 )-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree 18. I have close friends or relatives who recomm ended cosmetic surgery for me Strongly disagree (1)-----(2 )-----(3)-----(4)----(5 )-----(6)----(7) Strongly agree 71

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Please read each statement and circle the numb er that best indicates the extent to which each statement holds true in general. Never 1 (2)---------(3)---------(4)---------(5 )----------(6) Always 7 19. In general, I feel anxi ous, tense, or nervous about a) My eyes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 b) My nose 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 c) My lips 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 d) My forehead 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 e) My neck 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 f) My chin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 g) My cheekbone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 h) My cheek 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 i) My ears 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 72

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Please read each of the following items, a nd circle the number that best reflects your agreement with the statement Completely Disagree 1 (2)---------(3)---------(4)---------(5 )----------(6) Completely agree 7 20. TV shows and movies that show women 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 in good physical appearance make me wish that I were in be tter physical appearance 21. I do not wish to look like the female models 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 who appear in TV show or movies 22. I tend to compare my face to TV and movie 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 starts 23. Attractiveness is very important if you want 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 to get ahead in our culture 24. Its important for people to l ook attractive if 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 they want to succeed in todays culture 25. In todays society, its not im portant to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 always look attractive 26. I often read magazines and compare my 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 appearance to the female models 27. How I look does not affect my mood in 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 social situations 38. I often compare my appearance to people 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 73

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The following questions are about your demogra phic information. Please check or write in answers about yourself. 29. How old are you? _________ years old 30. What is your current class level in university or college? (Please check one) Freshman ( ) Sophomore ( ) Junior ( ) Senior ( ) Graduate ( ) Other ( ) 31. What is your familys average annual Hous e Hold Income level? (Please check one) a) Under $ 30,000 ( ) b) $ 30,000 ~ $ 39,999 ( ) c) $ 40,000 ~ $ 49,999 ( ) d) $ 50,000 ~ $ 59,999 ( ) e) $ 60,000 ~ $ 69,999 ( ) f) Over $ 70,000 ( ) Thank you 74

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Mihyun Kang was born in 1982, and grew up in South Korea. She completed her undergraduate study ma joring in advertising at the Greenlee School of Journalism and Communication, Iowa State University, and conti nued her masters degree in the College of Journalism and Communications at the University of Florida in 2006. After she completes her masters courses at the University of Florid a, she will join the doctoral program of the Department of Advertising at the University of Texas at Austin starting in August 2008. 84