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Newspapers and Urban Growth

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022361/00001

Material Information

Title: Newspapers and Urban Growth How an Old Medium Responds to a New Trend
Physical Description: 1 online resource (144 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Owen, Gordon
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: advertising, communicative, coverage, cultural, development, effects, florida, growth, marketing, media, newspaper, newsroom, orlando, reporting, social, staff, urban
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis examines the impact of urban growth on The Orlando Sentinel and staff perceptions of that change. By analyzing in-depth interviews conducted with staff members from the editorial, circulation, and advertising departments, and through an analysis of The Sentinel's 'Local In-Depth' section, this study reveals trends that may be occurring on a larger scale at other newspapers across the state and country. Though few studies have been conducted that bring together mass communication and urban planning theories, this study bridges that gap using Robert Putnam's (2000) Social Capital Theory and media organization/pressures theory (Shoemaker & Reese, 1991) to analyze how the newspaper has reacted to the changing community around it. While the qualitative approach of this study will not provide generalizable data, it will provide detailed, first-hand accounts of a potentially nationwide trend, laying the groundwork for future qualitative and quantitative analysis in this area. As a Grounded Theory study, this study posits that urban growth does affect newspaper, but not every newspaper will be affected in the same way.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Gordon Owen.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Cleary, Johanna.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022361:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022361/00001

Material Information

Title: Newspapers and Urban Growth How an Old Medium Responds to a New Trend
Physical Description: 1 online resource (144 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Owen, Gordon
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: advertising, communicative, coverage, cultural, development, effects, florida, growth, marketing, media, newspaper, newsroom, orlando, reporting, social, staff, urban
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis examines the impact of urban growth on The Orlando Sentinel and staff perceptions of that change. By analyzing in-depth interviews conducted with staff members from the editorial, circulation, and advertising departments, and through an analysis of The Sentinel's 'Local In-Depth' section, this study reveals trends that may be occurring on a larger scale at other newspapers across the state and country. Though few studies have been conducted that bring together mass communication and urban planning theories, this study bridges that gap using Robert Putnam's (2000) Social Capital Theory and media organization/pressures theory (Shoemaker & Reese, 1991) to analyze how the newspaper has reacted to the changing community around it. While the qualitative approach of this study will not provide generalizable data, it will provide detailed, first-hand accounts of a potentially nationwide trend, laying the groundwork for future qualitative and quantitative analysis in this area. As a Grounded Theory study, this study posits that urban growth does affect newspaper, but not every newspaper will be affected in the same way.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Gordon Owen.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Cleary, Johanna.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022361:00001


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NEWSPAPERS AND URBAN GROWTH:
HOW AN OLD MEDIUM RESPONDS TO A GROWING TREND



















By

GORDON VAN OWEN


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008


































2008 Gordon Van Owen

































To my parents, friends, and professors, for without your unending support and guidance, this
thesis would not have been finished.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

It is a pleasure to thank the many people who made this thesis possible. I would like to

thank my colleagues from the College of Journalism and Communications, whose constant

academic support made graduate school less stressful and more enjoyable. Specifically, I would

like to thank Professors Ted Spiker, Julie Dodd, and Lauren Hertel; their guidance and open ears

helped in formulating my research questions. I would also like to thank Meredith Cochie,

Shannon McAleenan, Adam Bornstein, and Brittany Rajchel, who have worked their way

through this program with me. I will miss the time we have spent together.

I would also like to thank my acquaintances from outside the College of Journalism and

Communications for their friendship during the thesis-writing process, including Ben Pickos,

Natalie Peters, Cassie Tooke, and Toccarra Thomas, as well as the 18 participants in this study.

I am personally indebted to my committee members for all of their hard work and

dedication to this field of research. My chair, Dr. Johanna Cleary, has been a soothing voice and

a kind heart during this research and information-gathering process. Without her advice, I never

would have made it past my first semester of graduate school. Dr. Ronald Rodgers helped shape

this thesis in more ways than I can imagine. Finally, I would like to thank Dr. Ruth Steiner for

agreeing to be on my committee, even though we had little to no previous relationship.

This research would not have been possible without the financial and personal support of

my grandparents, Joyce and Johnny Harvey. I owe them a great deal more than money can buy.

Lastly, and most importantly, I wish to thank my parents, Ann and Klaus Bixler, and my sister,

Lila Bixler. They bore me, raised me, supported me, encouraged me, and taught me the

importance of a good education. To them, I dedicate this thesis.









TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S ............................................................................................................4

LIST OF FIGURES ............................................. .. ......... ............................ 8

L IST O F TA B LE S ............................................................................................... 9

A B S T R A C T ............... ............................................................... .......................................... 10

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ....................................... ........... ............................ 12

2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................................................................................. 18

H history of U rban P planning .................................................. ............................................. 19
H history of U rb an G row th ......................................................................... ...... .............. 20
The Economy of Cities ................................ ........... ............................ 24
N action al G row th T ren d s .............................................................................. .............. 2 7
G ro w th in F lo rid a ................................................................................................................ .. 2 8
Growth in Orlando .................................. .. .......... ............................. 29
A H history of N ew sp ap ers......................................................................... ...... .............. 33
G row th an d th e M edia ........................................................................................................... 3 5
R obert Park and the Chicago School ...................................... ........................ .............. 37
S o cial C ap ital ....................................................................................................... .......... 3 8
Cultural Geography .................................... .. ......... ............................ 40
T he M iddletow n Studies.................................................. .............................................. 4 1
C om m unity Identity and the M edia........................................ ........................ .............. 42
N ew spaper C overage of G row th ................................................................... .............. 44
Growth Effects and Newspaper Readership.................................................................... 46
T h eo retical A p p ro ach .................................................................................... .. ................. 5 0
Social Capital Theory .................................. ........... ............................ 50
C u ltiv atio n T h eo ry ............................................................................................................... .. 5 2
M edia O organization T heory ................................................. ............................................ 53
Com m unicative Planning Theory ................................................................... .............. 54
Principles of Broad-based Urban Planning...................................................................... 55
Sum m ary ................................................................................................................ . 55
R research Q uestions/H ypotheses. .................................................................... .............. 56

3 M E T H O D ............................................................................................................. ........... 5 8

G ro u n d ed T h eo ry ................................................................................................................ ... 5 9
L ong and A active Interview s................................................. ............................................ 60
W hy O rlan d o ........................................................................................................ ........ .. 6 0
W hy T he O rlando Sentinel .................................................. ............................................ 6 1
Defining The Sentinel's Coverage Area ....................................................................... 61
P articip an ts ........................................................................................................... ........... 6 2









P ro c e d u re ............................................................................................................. .. ........... 6 3
T h e m e s .. . ........ ................................................................ ........................................... 6 5

4 R E SU L T S ............................................................................................................ .............. 67

H I : G ro w th ............................................................................................................................ 6 7
H 2: Effects on Content ..........................................................................................................71
H 3: Effects on C overage ........................................................................................ 75
H 4 : C irc u latio n ..................................................................................................................... 7 9
H 5: M marketing of Products ..................................................................................... 82
H 6: Staff D evelopm ent and H iring ...................................................................................... 84
A analysis of Local In-D epth .................................................................................... 91

5 D IS C U S S IO N ........................................................................................................................ 9 5

H I ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ......9 5
H 2 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ......9 6
H 3 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ......9 7
H 4 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ......9 8
H 5 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ......9 9
H 6 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ......9 9

6 CONCLUSION ...................................................................................... 101
G ro w th ............................................................................................................... .. ........... 1 0 1
C o n te n t............... ............................................................... .......................................... 1 0 2
C o v e ra g e .............................................................................................................................. 1 0 2
F in a n c e s ............................................................................................................. .. ........... 1 0 3
C irc u la tio n ........................................................................................................................... 1 0 4
R e le v a n c y ............................................................................................................................ 1 0 5
D e m o g ra p h ic s ...................................................................................................................... 1 0 5
L o c a liz e d F o c u s ................................................................................................................... 1 0 5
N ew sroom O rg anization ...................................................................................................... 106
S ta ffi n g ............................................................................................................... .. ........... 1 0 7
A analysis of Local In-D epth ........................................................................................... 108
Implications for Planning ................................................................. .. 108
D ev elop m ent of T h eory ....................................................................................................... 10 9
Development of Grounded Theory .................................................................... ................ 111
L im itatio n s to th e S tu dy ....................................................................................................... 1 13
F u rth e r R e se a rc h .................................................................................................................. 1 14

APPENDIX

A MAP OF ORLANDO SENTINEL COVERAGE AREA........ ...... ...............115

B IR B F O R M S ................................................................................................1 16

C SAMPLE E-MAIL ......................................................................................... 118



6









D SAMPLE INFORMED CONSENT FORM ...................................................... 119

E SAMPLE INTERVIEW PROTOCOL...................................................... 121

F T H E PA R T IC IPA N T S ................................................................ ............... 122

G ORLANDO SENTINEL EDITORIAL CODE OF ETHICS .........................125

H MEMO FROM CHARLOTTE HALL ...................................................................133

I SAMPLE CODING SHEET................. ............................................................. 136

J STAFF STRUCTURE AT THE SENTINEL.....................137

L IS T O F R E F E R E N C E S ............................................................................................................ 13 8

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................................... ............................................. 143





































7









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

1 Population and population percentage change, 1950-Present............................ 33










LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

1 USA Today article examining population of the U.S.............................................28

2 M ap of the O rlando M SA .................................................................. .............. 32

3 A map showing the growth rates of counties across the U.S............... ............... 33











Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication

NEWSPAPERS AND URBAN GROWTH:
HOW AN OLD MEDIUM RESPONDS TO A GROWING TREND

By

Gordon Van Owen
August 2008

Chair: Johanna Cleary
Major: Mass Communication

This grounded theory study combines qualitative interviews and content analysis methods

to better understand the impact of urban growth on The Orlando Sentinel. Interviews were

conducted with 18 Sentinel staff members from the newspaper's editorial, advertising,

circulation, and marketing departments from December 2007 to March 2008. Respondents were

asked to describe the steps the newspapers has taken to reflect the growing community it covers

and to outline how urban growth has influenced the day-to-day operations at the newspapers.

They were also asked to provide a personal definition for the term "growth." Drawing on Robert

Putnam's Social Capital Theory and several media organization and urban planning theories, this

thesis shows that urban development has had an effect on The Orlando Sentinel. Specifically,

growth has impacted the newspaper's definition of growth, content, coverage, staffing, finances,

circulation, relevancy, demographics, localized focus, and newsroom organization.

Several participants said that growth "defines the newspaper," and that growth has also

influenced content, coverage, and staffing by becoming the focus for news gathering staff. The

results also show growth has had an inverse effect on the newspaper's finances. The interviews

revealed that despite a rapidly-growing market, The Sentinel has faced significant budget cuts









and financial woes. Circulation has been affected too. Participants said that the paper has shifted

its focus from being a regional, metropolitan paper, to being one focused on local issues.

However, this localized focus has become increasingly difficult to achieve because of the area's

changing demographics. The study found that growth was also a contributing factor in The

Sentinel's two most recent staff reorganizations.

The data gathered from this study suggests that urban growth does have an effect on

newspapers; however, it is difficult to determine specific influences of growth because growth

can occur in countless ways and newspapers can respond to meet their community's unique

demands.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The Orlando Sentinel's downtown office looks out of place among Orlando's modern

skyline. In fact, the blue-trimmed stucco decor of the building might find a better fit along

Miami's South Beach rather than Orlando's business hub. Either way, the view from Jane

Healy's second-story office is breathtaking. In one direction, the editorial page editor can see the

towering construction cranes putting together another high-rise condominium on Orlando's

famed Church Street. In the opposite direction, she can see Interstate 4 as it slices downtown

Orlando in half, bringing thousands of commuters into the area's urban core. For Healy, a

decades-long Orlando resident, the area has dramatically evolved right before her eyes.

However, Orlando's metropolitan vibe is a relatively new phenomenon. During the late

19th and early 20th centuries, the area was known for its orange groves and heavy reliance on

agriculture to support the local economy. That all changed when a cartoon mouse took up

residence in a storybook castle about 20 miles southwest of downtown Orlando. Since Walt

Disney decided to open his East Coast theme park in the 1960s, the area has seen remarkable

population growth and development (Foglesong, 2001). Indeed, from 1950 to 2000, the Orlando

area grew by 1.4 million people and now has a population of more than 2.1 million (U.S. Census

Bureau, 2000c).

In many ways, Disney's decision to come to Florida transformed the state, making it one

of the world's top tourist destinations. Disney's theme park brought with it significant population

growth, as well as urban problems, such as traffic congestion, noise, pollution, and crowded

schools (Foglesong, 2001). However, such rapid growth does not come without its problems.

Crime, traffic congestion, and other urban issues have accompanied the more than 1.5 million









people who have moved into the Orlando area since the Magic Kingdom opened its doors in

1971 (Foglesong, 2001).

While Orlando matured from a quiet, citrus community into one of the nation's leading

metropolitan areas, so did its communications outlets. As they watched the area evolve around

them, they too saw growth in readership and viewership. The nine-county Orlando television

market expanded rapidly during this time, turning it into the nation's 19th-largest television

market (Nielsen, 2007). Meanwhile, the area's newspaper, The Sentinel, also experienced the

benefits of the population boom. Circulation numbers continued to climb, and with the

population increase, more news was available to print (BurrellesLuce, 2007). However, The

Sentinel's success was relatively short lived. Like other newspapers, the paper's circulation

began to decline in the earlier parts of this decade (Sentinel circulation, 2005). This trend is

prevalent at newspapers as a more highly connected readership base began to get its news from

online sources rather than relying on the aging print product (Filistrucchi, 2005).

Thomas and Nain (2005) attribute this decline to the globalization of economies and the

corporate ownership of the media. For local media, they have had to adapt to new corporate

business models, which has led to a shift in content. Newspapers were once the primary source

for local news, but chain ownership has led local newspapers to place a stronger emphasis on

national and international news, leaving less space for local coverage. Further problems ensued.

When urban newspapers did report on local events, they were often negative in nature and

focused on the crime and other urban issues facing their coverage area (Artwick & Gordon,

1998). This negative coverage helped promote suburbanization, which contributed to the flight of

upper- and middle-class whites to the suburbs (Isenberg, 2005).









In his 2006 book, Community Journalism: Relentlessly Local, Jock Lauterer argued, "the

history of the newspaper is bound up with the history of cities" (p. 13). Lauterer's assertion is

based on a series of trends that unite urban growth and the newspaper business. His first

conclusion is that newspapers rely on cities for funding, news, and resources to stay relevant in

an age of Internet and television news (Lauterer, 2006). He also suggests that cities depend on

newspapers to keep residents informed about events and other goings on in the area, a suggestion

that the Project for Excellence in Journalism confirms with their State of the News Media Report,

2006. This report says, "Newspapers remain the most effective way to reach a broad audience

and deliver results for advertisers" (Project, 2006). Third, Lauterer argues that the growth of

cities and newspapers are closely related as populations grow, so does newspaper readership -

however, this trend may not apply to circulation, as we will discuss later in this study. Finally,

Lauterer states that change and development are often covered in the newspaper.

This study focuses on the Orlando area in Central Florida. This region was chosen for this

study because of its relatively recent growth and development. In many ways, Orlando is one of

the few metropolitan areas in the United States to come of age in the modern era, and is one of

the nation's largest and fastest-growing communities (Census Bureau, 2007). The Orlando-

Kissimmee MSA is currently the 27th largest in the country (Census Bureau, 2007). The Orlando

Sentinel was chosen for this study because of its location in a fast-growing metropolitan area and

because of its high circulation numbers. Statistics show that The Sentinel is representative of

current newspaper trends, including a decline in circulation, lower readership numbers, and

flattening ad revenue (The New York Times, 2007).

Yet the questions remain: Can a city's newspaper remain largely unaffected by the growth

going on around it? What kinds of effect has this growth had on local media? For decades









newspapers have been charged with the watchdog role of the media. They have critiqued the

government and shed light on the impact of urban growth, but have they ever taken the time to

consider what impact this growth has had on their day-to-day operations?

This study answers these questions by analyzing staff perceptions of how growth has

affected one newspaper in Florida. Participants in this study were asked to discuss their opinions

and perceptions of growth effects on their day-to-day duties at the newspaper.

While previous research has focused on media content in relation to urban growth

(Artwick & Gordon, 1998), this study examines the impact of urban growth on newspapers,

namely The Orlando Sentinel, through qualitative, in-depth interviews. For triangulation, an

analysis of the articles from The Sentinel's "Local In-Depth" section was conducted to determine

if staff perceptions were adequately reflected in the pages of the newspaper. Sixteen staff

members from The Sentinel's editorial staff, circulation department, advertising department, and

marketing team were interviewed. Two former employees were also interviewed for this study,

for a grand total of 18 participants. A qualitative approach was chosen for this study because

little previous research has been conducted in this area and qualitative approaches yield personal,

in-depth analysis. While this approach will not produce generalizable data, it may indicate large

trends occurring at urban newspapers across the country. Participants for this study, including

representatives of the editorial, marketing, advertising, and circulation departments, were chosen

based on their job title and description as listed on The Orlando Sentinel's website.

The data collected from the interviews revealed that The Sentinel has been affected by

urban growth in Orlando. Ten themes were chosen for analysis: content, coverage, staffing,

growth, finances, circulation, relevancy, demographics, localized focus, and newsroom

organization. These themes were common discussion points in most of the interviews. The data









showed that the newspaper's content and coverage have been affected by growth because of the

increased amount of news that arises because of a larger, more diverse population. Most of the

participants also emphasized a new focus on relevant, localized stories because the changing

readership demands it. The newsgathering element of coverage has also been affected because

reporters have to travel greater distances due to the growing suburban fringe. Staffing at the

newspaper has also been altered because the newspaper is forced to hire new employees from

outside the Orlando region because The Sentinel is the only dominant newspaper in the area,

making local training outside of The Sentinel rare. Participants said that growth was a

determining factor in the paper's decision to restructure the newsroom. The researcher also asked

each participant to define "growth" and explain its impact on the newspaper in their own terms.

Overwhelmingly, participants said that growth defines the community and the newspaper. The

newspaper's financial and budgetary problems can be partly attributed to growth since the

newspaper has to spend more money to gather more information because of the increase in news

in the area. The study found that urban growth has had an inverse effect on circulation. While the

population of the Orlando area has dramatically increased in the last several decades, The

Sentinel's circulation flatlined in the 1990s and began declining in the early parts of this decade.

Lastly, current and former Sentinel staff members highlighted the changing demographics of the

area's population as a significant factor affecting the newspaper. Specifically, they said that the

growth of the Hispanic community has shifted their content and coverage focus.

One goal of this study was to generate theory. Thus, the researcher proposes that urban

growth does, in fact, affect newspapers in a number of ways. Specifically, urban newspapers face

unique challenges to the way they address the news and cover urban areas that rural newspapers

do not. These challenges include increased news to cover, more people to inform, and more









opportunities for marketing/advertising because of the higher rate of population. Urban

newspapers must react to these challenges in ways unique to their own communities since every

urban area consists of different demographics and readership habits.









CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

I will [tell] the story as I go along
Of small cities no less than of great.
Most of those which were great once
Are small today; and those which in my
Own lifetime have grown to greatness,
Were small enough in the old days.
-Herodotus

For more than two centuries, the history of American newspapers has been closely related

to the histories of the cities they cover, and as cities have grown, so have their newspapers

(Kaniss, 1991). However, as cities began facing urban decay in the second half of the 20th

century (i.e. crime, traffic congestion, etc.), newspapers also fell on hard times. Industry statistics

have shown that newspaper circulations have been declining and advertising revenue is

beginning to level off, no longer bringing in record amounts of money (State of News Media,

2007). While several factors may contribute to this decline, including the advent of new media

on the Internet, no research has explored a possible link between this decline and urban growth.

While the current body of literature lacks any significant research on the cause and effect

relationship that may exist between urban growth and current trends in the media, some studies

have examined other related factors, such as media content and perceptions of urban growth

(Artwick & Gordon, 1998). This study remedies that lack of research by going beyond the

examination of media coverage of urban issues and analyzing the effects of urban growth on

newspapers, specifically The Orlando Sentinel.

To fully understand the relationship that exists between mass communications studies and

urban development theory, a discussion of urban growth and its history is necessary. Also, a

statistical review of recent growth trends both nationally and in the Orlando area is important to

understand how growth has transformed the United States and this region of Florida. A review of









the effects of this growth and its impact on social capital the phsycological connection felt

toward one's community and community connectivity will explain how this growth affects

residents and, in turn, the media in this city. Finally, this literature review will conclude with a

review of the relevant theory.

History of Urban Planning

The need for urban planning comes from the necessity to regulate industry and land use.

Mandelker writes that, "the use of land requires the coming together of a complex set of social,

economic and physical forces, held together by a vision of the desired outcome" (2005, p. 1).

Although planning did not emerge as a profession until after the Columbian Exposition in

1893 (Hall, 2002), employees in cities across the country had been working on water regulation,

park building, etc, for decades, starting as early as the 1840s and '50s (Fishman, 1987). Planning

gained legal backing on the state level with the Standard Planning Enabling Acts of the 1920s,

which gave states and other local municipalities the legal right to plan their communities to meet

their own needs (Hall, 2002). This was a significant shift from early planning regulation, which

called for nationwide plans rather than a local focus. These new laws signaled a dramatic shift in

planning history and practice. Previously, no such legislation existed, which meant that little

efforts in planning had been made up to that point. Prior to the 1920s, planning was relatively

small in scope but was being conducted even before local governments got the power to do so

under the Enabling Acts. In cities like New York and Chicago, local planners had been

organizing their cities for decades. Regional planning also had an early start in the areas around

New York City (Hall, 2002).

Early planning trends relied primarily on economics as their driving force. Following the

Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century, millions of people moved from the countryside









into American cities. This created the need for coordinated cities with planned streets and other

public services (Hall, 2002). However, such planning was not consistent from city to city, or

region to region, and efforts at planning were often unsuccessful. Pollution became a significant

problem in urban areas and slums began to encroach on urban areas in cities across the country

(Hall, 2002). By the dawn of the 20th century, cities such as New York were implementing

regional plans to address the demands of a sprawling metropolis, which often expanded past

municipal boundaries and into surrounding areas.

The modern idea of urban planning emerged with the Hoover administration's Standard

Enabling Acts (Mandelker, 2005). These two pieces of legislation explicitly gave the power and

regulatory planning authority to the states, which often then gave the power to local

municipalities. This form of localized planning still exists today in most cities and states.

However the powers vested to local governments and authorities have expanded considerably

since the early legislation of the 1920s. For example, cities are allowed by the Constitution to

regulate land use and development, as well as coordinate aesthetic values for the general welfare

and safety of the public (Mandelker, 2005). This expansion of government regulation and

planning powers reflects the changing demands of cities as they have grown throughout the last

century.

History of Urban Growth

The notion of urban planning is by no means a new one. The ancient Romans applied many

similar planning principles that urban planners still utilize today, such as transportation, water

conduits (utilities), etc. However, as civilization has developed through time, the demands on

planners have changed to meet those changing needs. Modern planning consists of the "process

of making land use plans" and can occur at any level within the government, including local,









regional, state, and federal (Mandelker, 2005, p. 2). This planning process is often the result of

increases in population and economic development, as well as for meeting the demands of an

evolving public.

The history of urban growth, with its heavy emphasis on urban development, began in the

United States as early as the 18th century. By the time the American Revolution began in the

1770s, the New England states were already experiencing considerable growth in their cities. At

about this time, the nation's economy was shifting from an agrarian base to an industrial one,

which resulted in a nationwide emigration into the cities. With the nation's economy growing,

and the promise of new opportunity, immigrants from around the world also began moving into

American cities in unprecedented numbers.

However, this explosion of city residents did not occur overnight; it was a gradual process

that spanned more than two centuries. In 1790, only six cities in the United States had more than

8,000 residents; by 1920, 923 cities held that distinction (Eno, 2006).

If urban populations swelled in the decades following the American Revolution, they

exploded following the Civil War. The post-war Industrial Revolution helped bring industry to

the nation's cities, and with those new jobs came the potential for growth. Americans began

leaving their farms in the country and moving into the cities in search of higher-paying jobs and

prosperity. However, this rapid population growth led to a variety of problems, including

sanitary issues, cramped housing conditions and pollution. (Hall, 2002). These problems laid the

foundation for early urban planning, as discussed in the previous section. Such undesirable

conditions did not deter the population from moving into urban areas. The United States Census

Bureau (1990) showed that in 1860, less than 20% of the American population lived in cities,

and by 1990, more than 75% of the population did.









This trend of urban population growth continued throughout the 20th century and even into

the 21st. At the beginning of the 20th century, politicians began to see the need for regulation of

growth and development (Hall, 2002). Journalists known as muckrakers led this reform

movement by writing about the degrading state of inner-city areas and factories where residents

worked. Although limited in scope, these resulting early regulations laid the foundation for later

growth trends, including the Standard Enabling Acts (Mandelker, 2005).

This idea of regulated growth continued throughout the rest of the 20th century in a series

of phases and trends, which were often the result of development trends and other implications.

Among these phases are: Urban Renewal, Urbanism, and New Urbanism (Hall, 2002).

World War II proved to be a turning point for urban growth practices. Following the model

of the German Autobahn system, the United States government began construction on the federal

highway system, which would forever alter the American landscape (Hall, 2002). The highway

system allowed almost uninterrupted travel between cities and led to a mass exodus of the upper

and middle classes from urban areas (Putnam, 2000). This process became known as

suburbanization. Central cities began to reel from this loss of population. Downtown areas

became desolate shells of their former selves as downtown shops closed and highly populated

areas became virtual ghost towns (Isenberg, 2005). The idea of owning land and a large, single-

family home in the suburbs was more appealing to veterans returning home from war than living

in a crime-ridden, urban area. New cities such as Levittown, New York, became the standard for

development for most of the latter half of the 20th century.

However, Dolores Hayden, as part of Margaret Marsh's anthology History of Metropolitan

Development (2007), says the growth of American suburbs began in the 1820s, but took full

swing with "streetcar buildouts" beginning at about 1870 (p. 646). These buildouts followed









public transportation systems and encouraged development near rail stops. Hayden states that the

buildouts were followed by "mail order and self-built" suburbs, which were constructed around

the turn of the century (p. 647). These suburbs were followed by sitcom suburbs starting in the

1940s; these suburbs were popularized by television sitcoms such as "Leave It to Beaver," "I

Love Lucy," and "The Brady Bunch" a few years later. According to Marsh, "Suburban-like

development of rural fringes 'intensified' around 1980," which caused tremendous growth at the

edges of urban areas (p. 646). Marsh and Hayden also argue that suburbanization was a middle-

class ideal that eventually made its way down to the middle class by the 20th century (p. 648).

The 1960s and '70s proved to be a turning point for downtown development and urban

growth patterns. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s brought riots and other movement-

related activity to downtown areas (Isenburg, 2005). If the rise of the suburbs had not destroyed

downtown business, this activity certainly did. The violence that ensued in cities like Detroit,

Los Angeles, and other cities across the South led businesses to close and middle class residents

to flee to the suburbs (Isenburg, 2005). This exodus to the suburbs left behind an urban

population that was less affluent, which, because of social stigmas, kept suburbanites from

returning to downtown areas (Isenburg, 2005).

Most recent urban planning trends have been the result of suburbanization. As planners

began to realize that unregulated land development would lead to environmental problems and

other issues, they began to promote in-fill development. This earliest form of this type of

development was known as Urban Renewal (Hall, 2002). Under this program, governments were

able to condemn abandoned or derelict buildings and replace them with public housing.

However, the Urban Renewal projects often became slums themselves and simply replaced one

downtrodden area with another (Hall, 2002). Another recent trend that emerged in the 1990s and









early 21st century has been New Urbanism, which relies on a town-style form of development

that emphasizes walkable streets with parking, and a return to the traditional town center form of

development (Hall, 2002).

The Economy of Cities

As cities developed throughout the 20th century, critics of urban planning also began

voicing their concerns. One of these critics, Jane Jacobs, became a popular supporter for

neighborhood preservation and wrote extensively about the economy of cities. As one of urban

planning's most renowned authors and scholars, Jacobs is a significant part of planning

literature, as it exists today. In The Economy of Cities (1969), Jacobs argues against agricultural

primacy, which suggests that cities are dependent on farmers and rural areas to sustain their

economies. Instead, she suggests, "rural economies, including agricultural work, are directly

built upon city economies and city work" (Jacobs, 1969). Jacobs suggests this economic system

exists because agricultural advancements are often discovered at colleges and universities that

are often located in cities. This indicated a dramatic shift in the American economic landscape

and is important for this study because of the effects of growth on urban newspapers compared to

rural ones.

The Economy of Cities also provides several important definitions for the purposes of this

study. At the end of her book, Jacobs provides several definitions for some crucial urban

planning themes, including: "city," "metropolitan area," "town," and "village." Jacobs defines a

"city" as "a settlement that consistently generates its economic growth from its own local

economy" (1969). She defines a metropolitan area as the same as a city economically, but

politically, it is a metropolitan area that has grown beyond the city's formal boundaries and









engulfed other neighboring cities (1969). Jacobs defines a town as a settlement that does not

"generate growth from its own local economy," and a village is a smaller town (1969, p. 262).

Jacobs' economic outlook for cities presents a unique view in the overall history of urban

development and marks a clear shift in the dominance of urban life over that of their rural

counterpart. This shift occurred as advancements in agriculture yielded more products with less

effort, giving more rural residents the opportunity to leave the rural areas and move to the cities.

However, this influx of urban residents began to strain inner-city locales, sending higher-class

residents to the suburbs.

Understanding the economy of cities is important for this study because of the effects urban

economics has on newspapers. A strong local economy can signal strong readership and

circulation gains for newspapers (Kaniss, 1991). Kaniss describes this type of economic pressure

as the result of consolidated business practices in downtown areas. She said that before the

1870s, cities consisted of multiple, small business pockets; but after the 1870s, those pockets

moved into urban areas and consolidated into modem downtown, with centralized business

districts and residential neighborhoods (Kaniss, 1991).

For newspapers, this evolving urban core meant a change in their economic model was

necessary. As development trends progressed, and other social movements began forcing

middle- and upper-class residents out of downtown, the urban population became a less powerful

purchasing block (Kaniss, 1991). So rather than cater to political or other biased interests,

newspapers had to begin focusing on suburban residents to maintain their audience (Kaniss,

1991). However, suburbanization created a fragmented news market. Since the population had

shifted from a concentrated urban locale to small, more numerous suburban cities, newspapers

had to begin reaching out to an ever-expanding news market. Kaniss suggests that this growth









pattern created other economic pressures as well, including advertising, the publisher's ties to the

local community, and a bias toward downtown areas in content. Kaniss showed how those

businesses that were once located in the downtown areas were moving into the suburbs and

taking their advertising dollars with them. With this move to the suburbs, newspapers lost

advertising revenue. This decline in revenue is partially attributed to the focus of newspapers'

content. Many newspapers often focused their coverage on issues happening in the more urban

downtown areas. However, when residents and businesses began moving to the suburbs,

coverage did not immediately follow suit. Kaniss also showed that newspaper editors and

publishers were often closely socially connected to the the communities they covered. This

resulted in greater coverage of the immediate community surrounding the paper rather than the

forming communities on the fringe of the city (Kaniss, 1991).

Kaniss (1991) argues that newspapers should remain interested in the economic growth of

their cities because of the effects this growth has on the publication. Newspaper profits are

directly dependent on audience size and advertising dollars, which suggests that the larger the

population, and the stronger the economy, the more potential audience members and advertisers

the newspaper can reach (Kaniss, 1991). Molotch (1976) called metropolitan newspapers an

example of a business whose interests are anchored in the growth of its locality. Molotch said

that newspapers are dependent on growth.

The history of modern newspapers is wrapped around this economic dependency.

Throughout the 20th century, newspaper ownship trends changed dramatically. Independent

owners were often bought out by media corporations, which led to media conglomeration and

chain ownership (Baldasty, 1992). Today, most newspapers are owned by a small number of

chain owners, which concentrates information resources and the creation of news.









National Growth Trends

The U.S. has been experiencing steady population growth since the first settlers founded

the early colonies. Throughout the country's three-century-long history, several eras of extreme

growth have caused surges in the population. Most of these surges are equated with high

amounts of immigration from various parts of the world, including Europe, Asia, and Latin

America, as well as times of significant economic change (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000a). The

Census Bureau projects the current population of the U.S. to be approximately 303,300,000. The

United States crossed the 300 million mark in October 2006, roughly 40 years after it reached

200 million. Current growth models project the population to reach 400 million by 2040 (U.S.

Census Bureau, 2007). This population growth pattern suggests that the population's growth rate

will continue to grow at a fast pace in the next several decades, surpassing previous growth rates.

As previous literature has suggested, the American landscape has changed over the years.

Early Americans relied on agriculture for their day-to-day livelihood. However, as the 19th

century progressed, new advancements in agricultural technology shifted the country's economy,

leading it down a more industrial path. This industrialization brought unprecedented amounts of

people into American cities. The U.S. Census Bureau (1990) showed that in 1860, less than 20%

of the American population lived in cities, and by 1990, more than 75% of the population did.

The Eno (2006) reports that in 2006, approximately 80% of Americans either worked or lived in

cities or their expanding suburbs. Eno also reports than 50 metropolitan areas now have more

than one million people, up from 39 in 1990, which suggests that this trend of rapid, urban

population growth continued throughout the 1990s.

While the nation as a whole has been experiencing population growth for more than three

centuries, this growth has not been proportional in all parts of the country. The Fannie Mae









Foundation (2001) showed that the Sunbelt States -the Southern and Southwestern states,

including Florida grew at a rate much faster than the rest of the nation. The foundation's study

showed the U.S. grew by more than 130 million people from 1950 to 2000 (Fannie Mae, 2001).

Understanding national growth trends is important because of their implications on the

state of Florida and the Orlando metropolitan area. These changes in population alter

development trends, as well as urban planning practices and other cultural interactions.



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Figure 1: USA Today article examining population in the United States.
This figure shows the population distribution of the United States. It is easy to see from the
red dots that most of the population of the United States resides in urban areas. The article
originally ran in USA Today on October 27, 2006.

Growth in Florida

According to the Fannie Mae report (2001), Florida is considered one of the Sunbelt

region's "big three" states, which means that it had some of the fastest population growth rates

from the 1950s, until the report was published in 2001. Florida's population grew from about 3

million in 1950, to more than 16 million in 2000 (Fannie Mae, 2001). This is a 477% change in









the population during this time. The U.S. Census Bureau estimates Florida's 2006 population at

more than 18 million (2006). Most of this growth has been concentrated in the urban areas of

South and Central Florida, specifically near Miami, Fort Lauderdale, West Palm Beach, Tampa,

St. Petersburg, and Orlando.

Florida is currently the fourth-largest state in the nation, according to the U.S. Census

Bureau (2006), and the Florida Statistical Absract (2006) counts 19 metropolitan statistical areas

throughout the state. The Abstract also reports significant growth in the Orlano area. Orange

County had a 32.3% population increase between 1990 and 2000 (Bureau of Economic and

Business Research, 2006). Lake County had a 38.4% increase; Osceola County grew by 60.1%;

and Seminole County grew by 27%. Overall, the Orlando-Kissimmee metro area grew by 18.8%

(Buruea of Economic and Business Research, 2006).

Growth in Orlando

Before Disney came to town, Orlando was a wild frontier at the heart of Florida. In many

ways, the area resembled a TV Western town more than a Southern city (Dickinson, 2003).

Founded in 1875, Orlando quickly became Florida's largest inland city. In the early days, the city

relied heavily on the state's citrus industry for economic vitality; however, the area was also a

popular winter vacation spot for "snowbirds," Northern tourists who come to Florida to escape

the harsh winters of the north.

Orlando was a relatively quiet town before Walt Disney opened the Magic Kingdom in

1971. Back then, the area was home to more orange trees than hotel rooms, and traffic

congestion did not plague the area's roads. However, it was the area's well-networked

transportation system that influenced Disney's decision to build in the area (Foglesong, 2001).

The area's transportation network was advanced throughout the 1960s by the Federal Highway









Act, which built Interstate 4 through the area, and the state of Florida's decision to build the

Florida Turnpike through the area. These two roads intersect halfway between downtown

Orlando and Walt Disney World. The area's legislative delegates in Tallahassee were influential

in bringing these two roads to the area (Foglesong, 2001).

Entertainment wasn't the only driving force behind Orlando's booming economy during

the latter half of the 20th century. Prior to Disney's announcement, Orange County had also been

awarded a number of military-based programs, including a Naval Training Center under

President Johnson, and the Martin Marrietta Corp. (now known as Lockheed Martin), a defense

contractor, also located its headquarters in the area (Foglesong, 2001). Other significant growth

came from the area's citrus industry, even though it would begin to decline as more people

moved into the area and agricultural land was replaced with homes and other development.

The area's newspapers, The Orlando Sentinel Star and The Evening Reporter-Star, played

an important role in the area's early growth and in bringing Disney to the area (Fogleson, 2001).

The papers' publisher, Martin Anderson, came to Orlando in 1931 when a Texan named Charles

Marsh purchased both papers. Anderson put the nearly bankrupt newspapers back in the black,

and purchased them from Marsh in 1945 (Foglesong, 2001). As owner of the area's largest

media outlet, Anderson never wavered and often used his influence to sway public policy.

Interstate 4's path is a result of Anderson's influence; he believed the highway should slice

through downtown Orlando, arguing that it would bring suburbanites into the area. However,

personal motives also influenced that stance because the highway would make it easier for his

carriers to deliver his newspaper (Foglesong, 2001). Under Anderson's leadership, the

newspapers' readership soon exceeded the population of the city. He eventually combined the









two newspapers, making The Sentinel Star one of the state's four major newspapers. The name

was changed to The Orlando Sentinel in the early 1980s.

Anderson often used the editorial pages of his newspapers to sway public opinion and to

promote the economic development he thought the area needed. According to Foglesong (2001),

Anderson used the newspaper's influence to promote local delegates to the State Transportation

Board, which was influential in bringing the Florida Turnpike through Orlando. He also led a

group of local businessmen that helped lure Disney into the area.

Disney's arrival dramatically transformed the Orlando area. Prior to Disney's opening in

the early 1970s, Orlando was a sleepy community with a growing retirement community. Most

of Orange County was orange groves. Between Disney's opening in 1971 and 1999, Orange

County's population more than doubled from 344,000 to 846,000 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000a).

Now that number is more than 1 million. Orlando has consistently been ranked among the

nation's ten fastest-growing urban areas, and in 1994, it was the nation's fastest growing urban

region. Orlando has the second most hotel rooms of any city in the country, only behind Las

Vegas. Orange County was not the only Central Florida County to experience growth as a result

of this boom in the tourism industry. The surrounding counties, Osceola, Seminole, and Lake,

have seen significant population increases as well. The four-county Metropolitan Statistical

Area, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau (2000a) had a population of 520,000 in 1970. By

2000, the population approached 2 million. As of 2005, Orlando was the seventh-fastest-growing

area in the country (Newman, 2005). Other factors have contributed to the region's growth as

well, including an increase in defense contracting, the growth of the University of Central

Florida, and the growing service industry.









The area has a high number of temporary residents in its tourists and wintering snow birds

that move into the area during the winter. In 1969, 3.5 million people visited Central Florida. In

1971, the year the Magic Kingdom opened, 10 million people visited the area. By 1982,

following the grand opening of Epcot, Orlando was the most popular tourist destination in the

world (Foglesong, 2001). When MGM Studios opened in 1989, the number of tourists surpassed

30 million, and by 2001, Disney said that 55 million visitors visited Orlando (Foglesong, 2001).

As growth and development transformed the area's culture, environment, and economy,

they have also affected the area's crime rate, traffic, and other urban issues such as housing and

low-paying jobs resulting from the influx of low-paying service jobs (Foglesong, 2001).




















Figure 2: Map of the Orlando Metropolitan Statistical Area.

This map shows the Orlando Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined by a U.S.
Census Bureau map. The MSA includes the four-county region of Lake, Orange, Osceola,
and Seminole Counties. In 2007, the Census Bureau estimated the area's population to be
about 1,862,790, making it the 27th largest MSA in the country (Census Bureau, 2007).










Table 1: Population and population percentage change, 1950-Present; *Estimates
according to U.S. Census.

Year Orange County City of Orlando Four-county Region State of Florida

1950 114,950 52,367 189,579 2,771,000

1960 263,540 (129%) 88,135 (68%) 394,899 (108%) 4,952,000 (79%)

1970 344,311 (30.6%) 99,066 (12%) 522,575 (32%) 6,791,000 (37%)

1980 470,865 (36.7%) 128,291 (29.5%) 804,774 (54%) 9,747,000 (44%)

1990 677,491 (43.8%) 164,674 (28%) 1,224,844 (52%) 12,938,000 (33%)

2000 896,344 (32.3%) 184,639 (12%) 1,561,715 (28%) 15,982,000 (24%)

*2007 1,070,000 (19.4%) 226,000 (22.4%) 1,862,790 (19%) 18,500,000 (16%)



Fastest-growing areas in the South
The 50 fastest-growing metro areas were concentrated in two regions
27 in the South and 20 in the West.
Change in metro areas' population, July 1, 2006 to July 1, 2007
Loss i Gain New York was the most
US. total: +1.0% populous metro area.
S'w4h 18.8 million people.








1-

Dailas-Fort Worth had the New Orleans was the eighth-
largest numeric gain, fastest growing metro area. with
increasing by 162,250 its population climbing 4 percent.
SOURCE, U.S. Census Bureau AP

Figure 3: A map showing the growth rates of counties across the U.S. (MSNBC, 2007).
This map, from an MSNBC news story about growth rates in the U.S., shows that all of the
counties in Central Florida reported population growth between July 2006 and July 2007.

A History of Newspapers

Tebbel writes that the "history of the American newspapers is a record of the

Establishment's effort to control the news and of private individuals to disclose it without









restriction," (1963, p. 11). The history of newspapers in the United States is closely connected to

the history of the nation. As a fledging nation, the country's newspapers were often biased,

localized reports. By the 20th century, with the emergence of the booming American economy,

newspapers became commercialized entities. The first attempt to print a domestic news report in

America was in Boston in 1689. The Present State of the New-English Affairs was, like other

broadsheet newspapers that followed, a biased piece meant to spread the religious views of the

Puritans that had fled England and settled in the United States.

During the American Revolution in the late 18th century, newspapers were "proliferating"

(Tebbel, 1963, p. 33). At this time, cities often had multiple newspapers, with a neighborhood or

local focus. Also, ownership patterns were beginning to shift. Instead of being owned by printers,

newspapers were being bought by editors (Tebbel, 1963). Tebbel writes that pamphleteering was

popular at this time as well. During the war, newspapers and pamphlets served as propaganda

tools for the forming republic and were often used to recruit support for the revolution. This ideal

of using newspapers as propaganda continued into the 19th century.

By 1820, there were 512 newspapers in the United States. Most were weeklies, and few

had circulations above 1,500 (Tebbel, 1963). However, the press during this time was still

largely political and helped promote the agendas of the nation's political parties. Since

newspapers were largely read by educated elites, they were the perfect outlet to spread political

messages (Tebbel, 1963).

In the years following the Civil War, journalists began to take heed of their perceived

public servant role (Tebbel, 1963). This can be attributed to the growth of mass media at this

time. Tebbel writes that "everything contributed to growth of the mass media. The constant

expansion of education and the consequent rise in literacy created more potential readers every









years" (1963, p. 127). By the turn of the century, media moguls such as William Randolph

Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer began to emerge in New York. This started the early phases of

newspaper commercialization, a trend that would continue through the 20th century (Tebbel,

1963). When the 20th century began, newspapers in big cities were already physically larger and

had larger circulation and advertising revenue than their rural counterparts.

Big-business newspapers gave way to chain ownership in the latter half of the 20th century.

This concept was created by Hearst and E.W. Scripps (Tebbel, 1963).

Growth and the Media

Growth has had a significant effect on rural and weekly newspapers, too. According to

Tebbel, weekly newspapers have a "high mortality rate because so many of them were used for

special purposes and dropped when that purpose was not satisfied" (1963, p. 250). Rural

journalism reached its peak in 1914 and had become a necessary part of rural life because it

recorded life n these areas, including births, deaths, marriages, social events, etc. (Tebbel, 1963).

According to Tebbel, crime is rarely covered in rural weeklies and editors are focused primarily

on local news.

The decline of rural newspapers began in the 1920s when economic and ownership trends

favored mergers and suspended production of these newspapers. This trend was accelerated

during the Great Depression (Tebbel, 1963).

Throughout the 19th century, industrialization and urbanization altered the country. They

also created an environment that created a new kind of commercial newspaper. While

industrialization created advertising, urbanization created the need "for a newspaper that went

from being a political advocate and to attempting to make sense of a dispersed community"

(Baldasty, 1992, p. 139).









Readers also changed their use patterns during this time. Urban residents began using the

media for a specific set of uses. According to Leo Jeffries, et al. (1999) the basic purposes media

serve for society include: information, correlation, continuity, entertainment, and mobilization.

However, Jeffries, et al, noted that urban and community newspapers began functioning in very

different ways. They suggested that about 35 years ago, community papers began filling the local

void that large, urban papers were ignoring. In Jeffries' study, Morris Janowitz noted, "The big

mass media are less relevant for guiding community-based activities" (1999, p. 89) and

suggested the urban press should strengthen its decentralized roots and maintain its community

focus. This emphasis on national news may be the result of commercial factors affecting larger

newspapers (Kaniss, 1991).

However, as media use in cities began to peak in the 1960s, the media's portrayal of urban

life also began to change. Crime became a problem in many urban centers and urban decay

began to take hold in certain neighborhoods. As a result of news judgment and newsworthiness,

such stories began to occur more frequently than locally based feature stories, thus newspapers

began to paint a generally negative picture of urban life (Dreier, 2005). As a result, readers began

to associate fear and other, similar emotions to urban areas. When Claudette Artwick and

Margaret Gordon (1998) set out to explain how newspapers portray U.S. cities, their study

showed this trend of frequent, negative coverage and concluded that such coverage built an

"unfavorable image of cities."

In 2005, Peter Dreier confirmed Artwick and Gordon's study. His study revealed that major

news media reinforce an "overwhelmingly negative and misleading view of urban America"

(2005, p. 193). As all three researchers showed in their studies, this negative coverage creates a

negative view of urban life. What contributes to this problem is that readers rarely experience









crime themselves and rely on what they read in the newspaper to tell them about a specific area.

Thus, if an area is portrayed as crime-ridden, outsiders will view it as such. Part of the reason

this cycle persists, Dreier writes, is because newspapers rarely have paid beat reporters assigned

to poor neighborhoods and rely on breaking news in these areas.

Zelnik (2006) argued that a focus on community, or local, news is what supports

newspaper growth. He suggests that newspaper readers are most interested in the news that most

directly affects them, which is often on the local level. Zelnik's (2006) argument suggests that

newspapers should focus on local coverage, yet still include some national and international

news.

Robert Park and the Chicago School

At the dawn of the 20th century, Robert Park and his disciples launched a new study into

urban reporting. For their study, Park and the School analyzed how urban coverage is structured

and discussed a number of changes taking place in urban media. Rolf Lindner chronicled Park

and his colleague's work in The Reportage of Urban Culture: Robert Park and the Chicago

School (1996). One of Park's assertions that Lindner (1996) discusses in his book is Park's claim

that the press is an invention meant to put people in the place of others. What Park is arguing

here, at least in an urban sense, is that the media portray life in the city for those in the suburbs,

giving them a sense of life in an area that they do not live in.

Park's most significant contribution to the sociology of culture is his notion of the

"marginal man." This notion places a man on the cusp of two cultures without really belonging

to either (Lindner, 1996). Like the marginal man, urban residents live in cities, but are less

connected to the city center. On the other hand, they also feel disconnected from their neighbors

in the suburbs.









Social Capital

Putnam's Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival ofAmerican Community (2000)

examines urban impact on social life. In this book, Putnam launches one of the pivotal theories

that transcends both urban planning and mass communications studies. "The core idea of social

capital theory is that social networks have value," and that "Social contacts affect the

productivity of individuals and groups" (2000, p. 19).

Putnam's notion of social capital becomes an important theory when considered within the

context of urban development history. According to Putnam (2000), social capital began to

decline following the 1960s. At about this time, the American suburbs reached the peak of their

isolationism and people began to feel increasingly less connected to the surrounding city.

Suburbanites had grown weary of city life because of the negative picture of urban life painted

by newspapers (Dreier, 2005). What makes this '60s-era peak of social capital so significant is

that it coincides with the peak of overall newspaper readership. Putnam contributes both of these

declines to changes in lifestyle habits, such as television viewing, longer commutes to and from

work, and less interaction with one's community. However, no research has been conducted

directly relating this decline in social capital and its link to the decline in newspaper readership.

Putnam's social capital argument is based on a declining trend of civic participation and

organizational membership. Putnam notes that since the 1960s, Americans have become

increasingly less involved in their communities and less engaged in civic duties (such as

attending government meetings, etc). Putnam's research revealed a peak in involvement at about

1960, which he attributes to a number of social changes that took place around this time,

including: business and time pressures, residential mobility (people were moving at more

frequent rates), the civil rights movement, suburbanization and sprawl, and the television.









Putnam believes that these events and social limitations contributed to the decline of social

capital because of their isolationist effects. He shows that because people have to spend more

time driving from the suburbs to work in urban areas, and because TV is a private activity,

people are spending less time interacting and more time on their own. Suburbanization created

the need for more automobiles because workers began to have to commute into the central city

for work. The time spent driving also hampered community involvement because people were

spending the time in the car alone.

The impact on social capital as a result of urban growth was not limited to involvement

within people's communities. Other issues such as interpersonal trust and sense of community

also felt the negative impact of growth. Lee, Cappella, and Southwell (2003) showed a reported

decline in trust Americans have for each other. Lee et al. also showed that the people with the

lowest levels of civic engagement and interpersonal trust are young people and the less educated

(Lee, et al. 2003). Previous research has shown that young people and those with lower

education levels do not read newspapers as much as the elderly and better educated (Rattner,

2007). However, "newspaper reading is consistently and positively related to trust, talking to

neighbors and talking about politics," (Lee, et al., 2003, p. 431). The connectivity provided by

newspapers may be explained by the shared information that newspapers provide. Since

newspaper readers often live in or near the same metropolitan area, they share the common

knowledge found in the newspaper, thus giving them the information necessary to participate in

society and increase their social trust (Lee, et al., 2003).

However, despite this connectivity related to newspaper reading, there is a disparity

between urban and rural trust. According to a study by Christopher Beaudoin and Esther Thorson

(2004), rural communities have higher levels of social integration and attachment than urban









communities do. Being socially connected, according to Beaudoin and Thorson, is "expected to

spur pro-social behaviors such as voting and volunteering." This expectation can be partly

associated with media usage. According to Beaudoin and Thorson's study, television hard news

(broadcast stories on breaking news that is non-feature in nature) is positively associated with

civic engagement, while newspaper hard news is associated with civic engagement and

interpersonal trust.

Jane Jacobs suggests that suburbanization and a decline of sidewalk usage have had a

profound impact on community trust. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961),

Jacobs argues that as the suburbs continued to expand, residents began using sidewalks less and

less, and as a result, they became less familiar with their neighbors and stopped participating in

community-related activities such as stopping by the bar for a drink and talking with other

passers by.

Cultural Geography

Jordan et al (1994) define cultural geography as the study of cultural products and their

variation across space and place. Cultural geography focuses on describing and analyzing the

ways government, the economy, religion, language, and other issues remain constant from one

place to another. It also emphaszied how humans act spatially. Cultural geography is important

in determining the effects of growth on newspapers because it may account for some of the

changes in media habits among urban residents. This is possible because cultural geography

studies the theories of cultural assimilitation and reviews the ways various groups of people

interact within a given society.

Cultural geography can be paired with Putnam's Social Capital Theory to better explain

how newspaper define their coverage area. While Putnam's (2000) theory says that people feel a









psychological connection to their immediate community, Jordan says that as cities grow, the

cultural identity of the city grows with it, but physically and mentally. For example, during the

high-growth period of the 1990s, newspapers began opening burueas in suburban areas on the

fringe of the urban core in an attempt to better cover the news in those areas and to assimilate

those growing areas into the larger metropolitan area. By doing this, newspapers hoped to

increase circulation and readership.

The Middletown Studies

Urban growth and the suburbanization of American cities did not come without its effects.

As more people first began to move into urban centers, several sociological changes began to

take place among city residents, as Robert and Helen Lynd revealed in Middletown: a Study in

Modern American Culture (1929). The Middletown studies were an attempt by social

anthropologists to determine why average Americans do what they do. Although it is not exactly

known which city the Lynds decided to examine, it is often understood to be Muncie, Indiana.

For the study, the Lynds examined existing documents and statistics, conducted interviews, and

surveyed citizens about their day-to-day activities. At the most basic level, the Lynds realized

that almost nothing changes, no matter how much time passes (1929). However, the Lynds did

reveal several other conclusions that are crucial to this study of newspaper readership and urban

development.

Through the Middletown Studies, the Lynds learned that by 1929, almost one-third of the

children planned to go to college (1929). This was a dramatic increase from the previous century,

when students rarely expected to graduate high school, much less attend college. This is crucial

for this study of newspaper readership. As Robert Putnam revealed in his 2000 book Bowling









Alone, people with higher education levels are more likely to be newspaper readers and be more

involved in their communities.

Other observations that the Lynd study (1929) revealed include a rise in radio and automobile

use. For Putnam, 70 years later, these increases have significant impact on what Putnam calls

"social capital," which addresses the benefits of social networking and community involvement.

Since listening to the radio is often done alone or in small groups, it does not allow for listeners

to engage with others within their communities. Meanwhile, automobile use keeps drivers

separated from their communities because of long commute times as a result of suburbanization.

The Lynds noted that this rise in radio and automobile use caused a decline in other, more social

activities, such as book clubs, public lectures, and the fine arts, which the Lynds attribute to a

breakdown of family ties and neighborhood socialization (1929).

However, the most important observation from the Middletown Studies reveals that

newspapers serve as the primary medium for communication in towns and cities. This early

reliance found in the Middletown Studies shows a continued dependency on newspapers for

information. As recently as 2006, city residents relied on newspapers to find out what was going

on in their communities, and according to the Project for Excellence in Journalism's online 2006

State of the News Media Report, "newspapers remain the most effective way to reach a broad

audience and deliver results for advertisers" (2006).

Community Identity and the Media

These studies on social capital and community trust all relate back to the ideas of "sense of

community" and "community identity." The term "sense of community" refers to a personal

quality that involves a feeling of involvement between people and their communities (Davidson

& Cotter, 1991). Communities, according to Davidson and Cotter, can mean geographic









locations (such as neighborhoods), functional entities (groups), and the workplace. Ellen Shearer

(1999) agrees and states that "identity and sense of belonging are often defined geographically,

particularly by newspapers." However, she also argues that identity and sense of community can

also deal with race, language, ethnic origin, sexual orientation, stage in life (age), and other

commonalities.

Tuchman (1978) recognized the role newspapers play in creating this sense of community

among the populous. She said that newspapers allow geographically dispersed peoples to be able

to relate to one another through reporting about common experiences. In doing so, newspapers

allow city residents to understand one another's ethnic and neighbor cultures.

While community and one's identity with it may vary by region, and other characteristics,

local media often serve as a uniting factor. Shearer argued, "The daily newspaper plays a vital

role in reflecting a community's identity and, in fact, reinforcing readers' sense of membership

in the community" (1999). Ivan Emke, in a presentation to the Canadian Sociology and

Anthropology Association (2001) agreed, saying that newspapers continue to be a major source

for local and regional news. Stempel's study (1991) said that 81.5% of editors say that

community newspapers are the primary source for local information. Newspapers also are

important to fostering ties to the community, Emke argues. He also says that newspapers create

ties to place, process, and structure. Newspapers, then, become a unifying force for a community.

They create broader links to the world, and can strengthen links between community members

and integrate new people into the community.

Jeffries, et al. (2007) supported Putnam's notion that newspaper reading promotes

community involvement. They showed that reading the newspaper "is not merely a reflection of

demographics and the values people hold. Reading the newspaper and talking about things seen









in the media and the interpersonal communication patterns add additional explanatory power...."

(Jeffries, et al., 2007, p. 17). Their study suggests that for readers, being involved in the

community is a value set. Jeffries, et al. (2007) also showed that those who have strong values

toward social order and social networks are more open to creating new relationships with

strangers and are more likely to talk about current events and other issues discussed in the media.

Reader (2006) found that reporters and other newspaper staff members follow the theory of

connectivity in their jobs. Reader's research showed that journalists in small markets are more

likely to be more in touch with, and more concerned with, the communities they cover. This

raises several questions about the role of newspapers and their relationships with the

communities they cover. "Connectivity" deals with the level of intimacy journalists have with

their communities, which Reader suggests can affect how journalists do their jobs, specifically

when dealing with ethical considerations (2006).

Kaniss (1991) admits that finding news that is appealing to all suburbanites has been

difficult for newspapers. While 19th-century newspapers could turn to the city and local

government for news, modern newspapers must reach out to a larger number of local

governments for news. This increase in municipalities has led some newspapers to focus on

governments with a regional focus (Kaniss, 1991). This regional sourcing has helped newspapers

created an area-wide identity. However, Kaniss also notes that reporters and editors believe that

the city is still important to suburbanites because, journalists say, cities control the fate of

metropolitan areas and the suburbs "could not survive without the cities" (1991, p. 66).

Newspaper Coverage of Growth

Crime, pollution, and other urban issues were not the only cultural implications of growth.

Local media have also had to deal with this change in population and the resulting development









patterns. While newspaper ownership patterns shifted during the 20th century to reflect the

evolving American economy, other effects were influencing newspapers. When newspapers

became the products of chain ownership, their coverage also shifted to focus more on national

and international news (Thomas & Nain, 2005). This left a tremendous gap in local news

coverage. Other studies have shown that local coverage began to focus primarily on crime and

other negative elements of city life (Artwick & Gordon, 1998). Artwick and Gordon reported

that when newspapers did cover city life, it was usually negative. This promoted suburban

growth because this coverage made affluent suburbanites weary of the city, which led to

population declines in urban areas (Isenberg, 2005).

Reader (2006) reported that journalists in rural areas face different challenges than their

urban counter parts. He suggested that many of these issues are related to the journalists'

connectivity to the communities they report on. These issues can range from ethical concerns, to

conflict of interest issues because of the reporter's ties with sources and other community

members (Reader, 2006).

However, this trend of downtown decline seems to be waning. Isenberg (2005) suggests a

shift in ideology has created a sense of nostalgia about these inner city, downtown areas. She

said Americans are now experiencing sentimental feelings toward the traditional downtown area

- often typified as the downtown of the 1940s and '50s and are coming back downtown to live,

work, and play (Isenberg, 2005). This change in perception has led people to move back into the

once-abandoned inner-city areas. New developments, the New Urbanism movement, and other

revitalization efforts have helped contribute to this trend, which promotes walkable streets and a

return to street-level business (Isenberg, 2005). Isenberg also cited suburban build out as one









reason for this return to the city. Simply put, people do not want to live and commute long

distances from work.

Growth Effects and Newspaper Readership

Urban growth impacts many areas of life in cities. From regulations to transportation, urban

planners have significant influence over the lives of local residents. During this process of

regulation growth, local media may also be affected.

The Project for Excellence in Journalism (2007) said that for the third consecutive year,

daily and Sunday newspaper circulation fell sharply in 2006, but noted that losses may level off

in 2007. The 2008 State of the News Media 2008 report did not show any leveling off and that

the declines continued in 2007. Overall, the Project noted that circulation was down 2.8% daily

and 3.4% on Sunday compared to the year before. The declines in Sunday circulation have been

significantly higher than daily circulation, dating back to at least 1990 (Project for Excellence in

Journalism, 2007). Part of this decline can be attributed to the closing of evening newspapers.

The Project said that morning circulation is as high as it has ever been.

The report said that the biggest losers were newspapers in large metro markets like Los

Angeles, Boston, San Francisco, and Philadelphia. The top 50 newspapers in circulation lost, on

average, 3.6% daily.

With these declines in circulation, newspapers have begun looking for a more positive way

to market their product to advertisers (Project for Excellence in Journalism, 2007). One way they

have done this is by emphasizing online readership and asserting that they are losing subscribers

to their own websites and that readers are simply changing platforms. Another way newspapers

have kept an upbeat tone is by emphasizing readership over circulation. Readership represents

the total number of adults that read the paper, which averages 2.3 times the number of









newspapers printed (Project for Excellence in Journalism, 2007). The Project reported that

readership is on the decline too, but it is not declining as fast as circulation. According to The

Orlando Sentinel, the paper's circulation is only about 230,000, but the overall readership is well

above 700,000.

Readership and subscription varies by age and education levels as well. In 2006, only 35%

of people between 18 and 24 read a newspaper in a given week, while older readers, those over

65, were also reading the newspapers less (Project for Excellence in Journalism, 2007). Sixty-

four percent of those people with a postgraduate degree read a newspaper during the week, while

only 47% of high school graduates do.

The State of the News Media Report (2007) cites several reasons why people have stopped

reading newspapers. In line with Putnam's (2000) Social Capital Theory, the report suggests that

people do not have time to read the newspaper. According to the report, this trend has been

growing since the 1960s the same time that Putnam calls the peak of social capital in the

United States. The second most common reason for this decline in readership is convenience

(Project for Excellence in Journalism, 2007). This may be attributed to increased commutes from

the suburbs, as well as traffic congestion and television use.

Jock Lauterer (2006) concluded that newspapers rely on cities for funding, news, and

resources to stay relevant in the age of Internet and television news. However, he suggests that

this dependency is mutual and that city residents rely on newspapers to stay informed. The

Project for Excellence in Journalism confirms this by arguing, "Newspapers remain the most

effective way to reach a broad audience and deliver results for advertisers" (Project, 2006).

Lauterer provides two other relations between newspapers and their cities. First, he says that as









populations grow, so does newspaper readership (although this might not be the case with

circulation), and second, he says that newspapers report on growth and development.

Based on the studies discussed thus far, it is clear that urban media face a unique set of

challenges that their rural counterparts do not. These challenges include economic issues,

coverage, content, and connectivity. Newspapers not only contribute to the overall image of a

city, but also encourage a sense of community togetherness and stimulate belonging with

communities. However, newspaper readership can also be a measurement of urbanization.

Robert Park, of the Chicago school, wrote in 1929:

Newspaper circulation may be represented schematically in a
succession of concentric circles, defining a series of zones zones
of declining circulation, since newspaper circulation, like land
values, tends to decline in regular gradients from the center of the
city to its circumference; and from the city itself to the limits of the
metropolitan area. These gradients of declining newspaper
circulation measure the area or urban influence; they measure, in
short, the extent and degree of urbanization.

These concentric circles of declining circulation show how social capital and community

belonging fade deeper into the suburbs. They are also the focus of this study. However, what

Park's study fails to address is why these people on the fringe of the metropolitan area do not

read the newspaper.

To reach out to these residents on the fringe of coverage areas, newspapers have responded

with zoned editions to cater to the needs of these fringe areas. Zoned editions are specialized

sections of the newspapers that cater to the needs of specific parts of the community, often

focusing coverage on a more narrow area. Bogart (1989) said that zoned editions were used to

reach out to those areas on the periphery of coverage areas and to increase circulation and

revenue. However, some newspapers have begun to eliminate zoned editions because of budget

and staff cuts.









This decline in readership may be attributed to a number of factors. Previously reviewed

studies have suggested that media bias against city life may be an influence. Others implicate a

lack of social connection to a community or city. Others still blame a decline in social capital.

According to Rattner (2007), circulation has been on the decline for more than 20 years, and the

pace of decline is accelerating. He also attributes a loss of young readers to this decline in

circulation. Putnam (2000) would argue that young people do not read newspapers because they

do not feel socially connected to their communities. Chan and Goldthrope (2007), showed that

newspaper readership is related to social status, stating that educational and income levels often

indicate higher levels of newspaper readership. Meanwhile, Rattner also writes that the amount

of time spent reading newspapers is also on the decline as more readers get their news on the

Internet.

Shoemaker and Reese (1996) argue that the kind of community affects media content. They

said the media are affected by the defining characteristics of the community they cover. For

example, a more culturally diverse community should have a newspaper with more culturally

diverse content. This happens because various media must operate within the bounds of their

community's local economy and culture. This includes the physical and social layout of the area.

Geographic patterns also have an effect on news coverage and content. Dominick (1997),

showed that their is an uneven distribution of news coverage, focusing primarily on the two

coasts of the United States. As a result of these two trends, Shoemaker and Reese (1996) showed

that larger newspapers and television stations, in more densely populated areas, are forced into a

sporadic news-coverage pattern, where they only cover specific events rather than everything

that happens within a community.









The Orlando Sentinel's recent growth patterns highlight this nationwide trend of circulation

decline. The Orlando Business Journal reported in 2005 that The Sentinel had experienced an

11% drop in circulation during the previous twelve months one of the steepest rates of decline

in the country. In 2007, The Senitnel's editor in chief sent a memo to the staff outlining staff cuts

and staffing issues being faced by the newspaper (Romenesko, 2007). The full memo can be read

in Appendix H.

Theoretical Approach

While little research has been conducted that simultaneously examines both mass

communications and urban planning theories, there has been research that suggests these two

distinct areas are more related than the current body of literature suggests. Existing research has

a high concentration of study on media representation of urban areas and urban media content.

No studies were found that examine growth effects on newspapers. However, several theoretical

approaches from both areas of study are crucial to this study of growth effects. To better

understand these effects, this study will consider several of these dual-purpose theories,

including: Robert Putnam's Social Capital Theory (2000), Shoemaker and Reese's hypothesis of

media organization (1991), and Lucy's (1988) theory about public participation within planning.

It will also rely on the Grounded Theory research method to develop further theoretical

understanding on this topic. While this study draws on a wide-ranging group of theory, it's this

multiplicity of theoretical approaches that will bridge the gap between communications studies

and urban planning theory.

Social Capital Theory

The underlying theoretical foundation for this research rests on Robert Putnam's (2000)

Social Capital Theory. Putnam's theory is one of the few in the current body of literature that









examines both urban planning and mass communications in relation to social capital. This study

does not rely on Putnam's specific findings but rather on the broad implications of his theory.

In his book, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (2000),

Putnam suggests that Americans have been experiencing a decline in civic participation and

social connectivity (social capital) since the 1960s. By using data from the Roper Social and

Political Trends and the DDB Needham Life Style reports, Putnam (2000) argues that Americans

have become more socially disconnected than ever before. Putnam's research shows that public

participation peaked in the 1950s and '60s, and has steadily declined ever since (2000). Bowling

Alone argues that this decline in social capital is the result of several factors, including pressures

of time and money, mobility, sprawl, technology, the mass media, and generational differences.

Putnam (2000) argues that the federal highway system broke up the traditional city core by

allowing residents to move into the suburbs, distorting their sense of place and community.

According to Putnam, a strong sense of community is necessary to promote activities that

emphasize social capital, such as reading the newspaper. This dismantling of community values

made the population more socially mobile. Bowling Alone showed that one in five Americans

move each year and are likely to do so again (Putnam, 2000). Also, longer commutes and more

time in traffic has contributed to a decline is social capital and newspaper readership the public

does not have time to participate (Putnam, 2000).

Putnam's analysis of the mass media showed a steady decline in newspaper readership,

which is considered a strong form of social participation and a "mark of substantial civic

engagements. Only a newspaper can put the same thought at the same time before a thousand

readers... so hardly any democratic association can carry on without a newspaper" (Putnam,









2000, p. 218). Putnam's findings suggest that newspaper readership began to decline at the time

social capital reached its peak in the 1960s, despite significant growth in urban population.

Putnam's implications of mobility, sprawl, and the mass media are important for this study

considering that Interstate 4 was constructed through downtown Orlando at about the time

Putnam suggests social capital began to decline. This led to similar trends in suburbanization

experienced in other cities around the country; it also made the Orlando area heavily reliant on

commuting. Also, The Orlando Sentinel's circulation numbers reflect the decline in readership

[circulation] that Putnam describes in his study.

Cultivation Theory

Gerbner and Gross's (1976) Cultivation Theory argues that the media can have significant

effects on the attitudes and behavior of the public based on their representation of certain issues

in the press. Exposure to media, over time, cultivates the audience's perceptions of reality. Other

studies have suggested that newspapers portray cities in a negative light, cultivating an often

negative stereotype of inner-city areas (Dreier, 2005). This helped contribute to the decline of

these inner city areas and the rise of suburban areas by presenting urban areas as crime ridden

and in other negative lights (Isenberg, 2005). To meet this changing populace, newspapers and

other media began catering to the suburban audience, but this population shift does not

necessarily affect circulation numbers.

These findings are significant for this study because of the growth effects the Orlando area

has experienced during the last several decades and The Sentinel's portrayal of those effects.

Although this study is not a content analysis of The Sentinel's coverage, the effects of

Cultivation Theory may influence the audience's perceptions of the newsapper's coverage of

growth and its implications.









Media Organization

Media Organization Theory suggests that newspaper development and content is the direct

reflection of society. Newspapers' content reflects the community they cover (Shoemaker and

Reese, 1996). Shoemaker and Reese (1996) hypothesize that five factors influence media

content: society, socialization and attitudes, media-organizational routines, social institutions

outside the media, and ideological positions.

Findings from Westley and Maclean (1957) suggest that the media are merely information

brokers. Gerbner (1969) showed how mass media are operating under pressure from external

powers, including clients, advertisers, competitors, and other authorities. McQuail (2005) states

that those working within a media organization must be decision makers, despite the varying

constraints placed on the media. Many of these decisions are based on relationships with the

audience (readers). Research by Weaver and Wilhoit (1986) showed that individual members of

the audience were the most active respondents to the media.

Other pressures related to media organization are far reaching, and can include: news and

entertainment, diversity, etc. Engwall (1978) calls newspapers a "hybrid organization" because

of the dual nature of newspapers as manufacturer-server to the public. Breed (1955) showed that

newspaper publishers often set "policy" that affects newspaper coverage and organization; his

study focused on how such "policy" came to be followed, and showed that such policies could

circumvent journalistic norms, could be disputed, and not followed by staff members. However,

Breed (1955) stated that publishers' policy is often followed.

Shoemaker and Reese state that "the kind of community from which a medium operates

also affects content. The community is the environment in which the medium must operate, and









therefore the community's economy and culture as well as its physical and social layout will affect

the media" (1996, p. 211). They report that the size of the market also affects the medium.

Communicative Planning Theory

While mass communications theories are important to this study, several urban planning

approaches must also be considered to better understand the relationship between growth and

newspaper operation. According to Habermas (1984), Communicative Planning Theory

examines the communications processes for problem structuring and policy development at the

local level. At the most basic level, this theory suggests that urban planners must communicate

with the public about growth-related problems and development.

In Florida, state law requires that planners give public notice of any hearings to land-use

code changes or other government action. Often, newspapers are the most common medium for

spreading these types of messages aside from direct mail. Though this does not necessarily mean

public agreement with planners' action is guaranteed, it does suggest that public input is

important for the planning process.

Although this study does not include interviews with urban planners, it may prove useful

for analysis because of the types of coverage contained within the pages of the newspaper.

Reporters and editors may have difficulty covering the day-to-day operations of planning and

may be forced to limit coverage of such operations. Another aspect worth noting regarding urban

planning is newspapers are often the primary media used by planners to relay information about

upcoming meetings and regulatory changes. If growth has affected newspapers in a negative way

(i.e. declining circulation/readership), planners are not notifying as many people as possible

about these changes.









Principles of Broad-based Urban Planning

In a 1988 response to the American Planning Association's thirteen principles, William H.

Lucy argued that the APA had too narrowly defined the role of urban planners. Lucy (1988)

argued that the planning profession was too broad to be characterized in one-sentence

terminology. He suggested that planners should serve a public interest and support public

participation. However, the broad nature of planning is what makes the impacts of growth so

unique. Urban planners must address a wide range of issues in urban settings, ranging from

transportation and environmental concerns to land use regulations and zoning.

Lucy's (1988) criticism raised the alarm of public participation. His argument that the

public should take an active role is be reflected in recent trends of reader participation in online

newspaper forums and reader responses (Schultz, 2000). This idea of public participation is a

digression from Putnam's Social Capital Theory (2000), which suggests that public participation

is on the decline. Putnam would argue that the more involved citizens are in civic organizations,

the more socially connected they are to a community and the more likely they are to subscribe to

the local newspaper (2000).

Summary

The review of the literature shows significant gaps in the literature and theory regarding

urban journalism. While some studies have shown that the media portray urban areas in a

negative light and this portrayal has contributed to the middle-class flight to the suburbs, other

research has shown that newspapers serve as a source of community identity by giving a diverse

public a way to be united under a common banner/name. The research shows that this notion of

community identity is important in promoting Social Capital among urban residents. However,

Social Capital, according to Putnam, has been declining since the 1960s; this decline is attributed









to the increased commute time from the suburbs to the commercial areas downtown and because

of a decline in newspaper readership. The literature suggests that there is a direct connection

between this decline in readership and the expansion of urban areas into the suburbs.

The literature also provided a significant amount of data on the growth and development

patterns of the Orlando area. Census Bureau data showed that the Orlando area has tripled in

population since Walt Disney World opened in the early 1970s. This rapid-growth pattern is

expected to slow during the current economic downtown. However, the literature suggests that

the region will continue to grow, just at a slower rate.

The theoretical approach for this study was fairly broad. Since no theory exists that directly

addresses the concept of urban communication, the researcher felt that it was necessary to

discuss theories that may contribute to the grounded theory approach of this study.

Research Questions/Hypotheses

HI: Urban growth has had an effect on The Orlando Sentinel.

o RI: How has urban growth affected The Orlando Sentinel?

H2: Urban growth has influenced content by being a significant topic within coverage.

o R2: Is urban growth a major topic in The Sentinel's pages?

H3: Urban growth has caused The Sentinel to change its coverage tactics and patterns for

gathering news in the Orlando area.

o R3: How has The Sentinel altered its coverage to meet the demands of growth?

H4: Urban growth in Orlando has influenced the newspaper's circulation patterns,

resulting in targeted subscription offers.

o R4: How has The Sentinel's circulation been affected by urban growth?









* H5: Urban growth has affected the newspaper's marketing campaign by requiring varied

approaches to marketing the newspaper.

o R5: What marketing approaches has The Sentinel adopted as a result of growth?

* H6: Urban growth has affected staff development.

o R6: Where does The Sentinel hire most new staff members from?









CHAPTER 3
METHOD

This study used qualitative methods to determine the effects of urban growth on The

Orlando Sentinel, a large, local paper in Central Florida with a circulation of roughly 230,000

daily and 335,000 on Sunday. The researcher conducted 18 in-depth interviews with various

current and former staff members to determine their perceptions of growth and its effects on the

newspaper, and then analyzed articles from the newspaper to triangulate the data.

The researcher chose a qualitative approach to this study because of the in-depth,

personalized analysis that results from such methods and because qualitative research studies can

be used to uncover meaning associated with a trend or personal experience (Hoshman, 1989).

This study analyzes personal responses to growth and staff perceptions of the effects of growth

on the newspaper. To gather the data, the following methods were used: developing codes,

categories, and themes; generating a working hypothesis; and analyzing data collected from in-

depth interviews with newspaper staff members.

This study explores the effects of urban growth on The Orlando Sentinel, specifically

analyzing the effects on content, coverage, advertising, marketing, and staff development of the

newspaper. This method follows the basic approach as defined by Creswell (1998). Creswell

defines qualitative research as "an inquiry process of understanding based on distinct

methodological traditions of inquiry that explore a social or human problem" (1998, p. 15).

For this study, the researcher contacted 30 potential participants via e-mail to ask for

voluntary participation. Eighteen people responded. Those who agreed to participate were then

interviewed over a four-month period regarding their opinions and personal feelings about the

effects of growth on The Orlando Sentinel. Each participant was also asked to define "growth" in

their own way. The interviews were recorded using an audio recorder attachment for an iPod and









later transcribed. The transcribed interviews were then coded and categorized based on

prominent themes from the data. These themes were content, coverage, staffing, growth,

finances, circulation, relevancy, demographics, local, and newsroom organization. These themes

are defined below.

After coding and theming the data, the researcher triangulated it by comparing data shared

during the interviews to articles published in The Sentinel. This triangulation method was chosen

to see if the staffs' perceptions accurately reflected what has been happening within the

newspaper itself.

The researcher used this data to generate new theory under the Grounded Theory method of

qualitative research.

Grounded Theory

Grounded Theory is a research methodology that emphasizes the generation of theory from

data during research. This study relies on this approach because of the lack of existing theory

regarding urban growth effects and the media. Creswell defines Grounded Theory as the attempt

to generate or discover theory that relates to a particular situation (1998). This study does this by

focusing on growth's effects on The Orlando Sentinel and the implications for other newspapers

across the country.

The process of data analysis in a Grounded Theory study is systematic and follows a

standard format, which includes:

Open coding, in which the research forms initial categories of information about the

phenomenon being studied,

Axial coding, in which the investigator assembles data in new ways following open

coding.









Selective coding, in which the reading identifies a story line and integrates the categories

from axial coding.

Finally, the researcher may create a conditional matrix (Cresswell, 1998, p. 57).

This research method was chosen because of the lack of existing theory in the current body

of literature. It was also chosen because current trends in the newspaper industry show that many

urban areas are developing into one-newspaper markets. This study will lay the foundation for

later studies.

Long and Active Interviews

McCracken (1988) calls the long interview one of the most powerful qualitative methods

and states that no other method is more revealing. This method was used to better understand the

effects of urban growth on The Orlando Sentinel in hopes that the trends revealed by this study

could lay the foundation for future research on other newspapers. By interviewing individuals

about their reflections and perceptions of growth effects, this study provides in-depth, personal

observations about such trends happening in Orlando.

Why Orlando?

In a sense, Orlando and its newspaper both came of age in the modern era. The Orlando

area was chosen for this study because of its high rate of growth since the 1960s, specifically

since the opening of Walt Disney World in South Orange County. Since the park's opening in

1971, the area's population has more than tripled, and the growth rate has consistently ranked as

one of the top in the country for the last several decades, often ranking in the top ten nationwide

(See Table 1). This growth characteristic is important for this study because some cities around

the country are experiencing stagnant or negative growth; and since this study focuses on the









effects of growth, a community experiencing positive growth was essential. This region was also

selected because it is home to a large newspaper (The Orlando Sentinel).

Why The Orlando Sentinel

The Orlando Sentinel was chosen as the sample newspaper for this study because of its

location in a fast-growing metropolitan area (see above). Statistics show that The Sentinel has

shown signs that signify modern trends in the newspapers business: i.e. rising ad revenue but

declining circulation numbers (The New York Times, 2007). As a result of these shifts in media

consumerism, The Sentinel may have changed its approach to delivering the news, content, and

staff development, making it a primary candidate for analysis.

Defining The Sentinel's Coverage Area

For the purposes on this study, the researcher used The Orlando Sentinel's definition of its

coverage area for analysis. The Sentinel's coverage area includes the four-county Metropolitan

Statistical Area (MSA), as defined by the United States Census Bureau, as its core coverage area.

The MSA comprises Orange, Osceola, Seminole, and Lake Counties. However, The Sentinel's

coverage area extends beyond the four-county region to include areas of Brevard County, West

Volusia County, and Northeast Polk County, as is shown by the Orlando Sentinel's coverage

area map shown in Appendix A. The Sentinel's coverage area includes the cities of Orlando,

Winter Park, Apopka, Altamonte Springs, Sanford, Deland, Deltona, Kissimmee, Haines City,

Clermont, and Leesburg, among others (Census, 2000a).

According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2000b), the four-county MSA has an estimated

population of 2 million people, with Orange County as the center of the region with a population

of more than 1 million. Altogether, The Sentinel's complete, seven-county coverage area has a

population of roughly 3 million.









Participants

For this study, the researcher used The Orlando Sentinel's online staff directory to contact

staff members for participation in this study. Potential participants were sent an e-mail (See

Appendix C) that introduced the researcher and explained the premise of the study. The

participants were asked to take part in a short interview to discuss their views and opinions of

growth in Orlando and its effects on The Sentinel. The e-mail explained the basis of this study as

an attempt to better understand the effects of urban growth on the newspaper and the staffs'

perceptions of the resulting changes.

While 30 current and former staff members from The Sentinel were contacted for

participation in this study, only 18 agreed to participate. Two of the participants were former

employees of the newspaper who had left The Sentinel within the last 12 months. One of these

former employees was a former intern and eventual staff member at The Sentinel's Volusia and

Lake County bureaus. They worked for the newspaper for approximately 15 months. The other

former employee was a 20-year veteran of the newspaper who most recently served as the

paper's associate managing editor for metropolitan news. All other participants are current

employees of the newspaper and included two reporters (one business reporter and one city of

Orlando reporter), eight editors (including the editor in chief, the Lake County bureau editor, a

deputy online editor, the national/state editor, two government editors, the managing editor, the

associate managing editor for content development, and the editorial page editor), one

advertising representative/marketing services director, the product marketing manager, an online

editor/reporter, the circulation director, the staff development editor, and the reader

representative (ombudsman).









Participants were chosen based on willingness to participate and not based on professional

experience, length of residency in the Orlando area, gender, or age. Some participants had been

working in the newspaper industry for more than 40 years, while others were relative newcomers

to the business. Many participants began their careers at other newspapers and came to The

Sentinel for various reasons.

At the beginning of each interview, participants were asked to read and sign the Informed

Consent Form (See Appendix D), showing their voluntary participation in the study.

Procedure

Selecting Participants. The researcher began searching for potential participants by

searching The Orlando Sentinel's online staff directory. After browsing through the entire staff

directory, the researcher sent an e-mail to 28 current staff members that outlined the purpose of

the study and asked the recipients if they would be willing to participate in the study. The initial

e-mail was sent to Sentinel staff members at all levels, including the publisher, editor in chief,

managing editor, several beat editors and reporters, as well as members of the production,

advertising, circulation and marketing departments. A follow-up e-mail was sent when a

potential participant would respond. Several participants were asked to identify any former

employees they felt would be willing to participate in the study. Three former employees were

contacted by e-mail, and two responded and participated in the study.

Data Collection: Qualitative, in-depth interviews were conducted in person with each

participant. The researcher conducted and transcribed all of the interview data. The interviews

took place at a location designated by the participant to ensure a comfortable environment for the

participants. Of the 18 interviews, 15 took place at The Sentinel's downtown Orlando office.

Twelve of those 15 interviews took place in the newsroom or in the participant's personal office.









Two were conducted in the newspaper's cafeteria, and one was conducted in the lobby of the

newspaper at a private cubicle. One interview was conducted at The Sentinel's Lake County

Bureau where the participant worked. Another was conducted at a restaurant near the University

of Central Florida because the participant was no longer an employee at The Sentinel. One

interview was conducted over the phone. The interviews were conducted between December

2007 and March 2008.

Prior to each interview, the researcher prepared an interview guide to ensure certain

research questions were addressed in each interview. See Appendix E for an example of an

interview guide. Individual guides were prepared for each interview so that questions could be

targeted based on the participant's role at the newspaper. Participants were not asked any

questions unrelated to their duties at the newspaper. For example, the online editor was not asked

any questions related to print advertising.

The researcher recorded each interview with an audio-recording iPod attachment, and the

researcher took notes during the interviews to highlight the primary points made by each

participant. Following each interview, the researcher and the participant debriefed about the

interview to clarify any unclear statements or information and to ask any final, follow-up

questions. The researcher then debriefed alone and wrote down any thoughts or comments about

the interview. No in-person, follow-up interviews were necessary; however, some follow-up e-

mails were sent to several participants to clarify phrasing or other wording. No extra information

was gathered from these follow-up e-mails. They were strictly used for clarification purposes.

The researcher chose to analyze the articles from The Sentinel's "Local In-Depth" section

because it was a commonly referred to during the interviews. "Local In-Depth" is a Monday









section that was created in January 2006. It has covered a wide variety of growth-related issues

from a regional perspective.

Data Analysis and Writing: A potential problem for qualitative researchers is evidentiary

adequacy. For this study, each interview lasted between 30 minutes and one hour. Once all of the

interviews were completed and transcribed, the researcher coded the data for common themes

and phrases. The themes and categories were then sorted, compared, and analyzed until they

were fully saturated.

Saturation: After conducting and analyzing 18 interviews, the researcher began to notice

common themes emerging from the data. These themes are defined below.

Themes

The analysis of the data presented in the interviews is divided into ten categories/themes:

content, coverage, staffing, growth, finances, circulation, relevancy, demographics, localized

focus, and newsroom organization.

Gi ,f i ti. For the purposes of this study, growth will encompass a number of definitions,

including the population growth of The Orlando Sentinel's coverage area and the land

development in that region

Content: Content refers to the actual information printed in The Orlando Sentinel or

published on the newspaper's website, orlandosentinel.com.

Coverage: Coverage refers to the newspaper's reporting and news-gathering techniques. It

also refers to the emphasis reporters and editors place on certain topics when generating story

ideas or drafting content.

Staffing: The term "staffing" refers to the development of and hiring of staff members for

The Orlando Sentinel.









Finances: Finances refers to the newspaper's financial and budget outlook. This also

encompasses any financial resources at the newspaper.

Circulation: Circulation includes the number of newspapers printed each day, as well as

the number of home-delivery subscriptions, penetration rate of the paper, and readership, which

is the number of people who read the paper each day and is often calculated at 2.5 times the

number of papers sold.

Relevancy: Relevancy refers to the audiences' perceptions of the newspaper's content.

Demographics: Demographics refer to the changing population of The Sentinel's coverage

area.

Localized Focus: Localized focus refers to the content of the newspaper and its focus on

covering local issues over national and international news.

Newsroom Organization: Newsroom organization refers to the structure of The Sentinel's

newsroom. The Sentinel reorganized its newsroom staff structure in May 2007.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

After conducting and transcribing 18 in-depth interviews with various Sentinel employees

from December 2007 to March 2008, the researcher found that urban growth does have an effect

on newspapers, at least The Orlando Sentinel. While qualitative data is not generalizable to broad

samples, it can be indicative of a larger trend across the country. Ten overall themes emerged

from the data, including content, coverage, staffing, and circulation, and four of the six

hypotheses were fully supported, two were not. An analysis of The Sentinel's "Local In-Depth"

section also showed how growth has affected content at the newspaper.

Of the 18 participants, six were women and 12 were men. Sixteen were Caucasian. One

was African American. One was Hispanic. The age demographics skewed largely toward the

older, with only one participant being under 25. For a biography of each participant, please see

Appendix F.

H1: Growth

H1 said urban growth has affected The Orlando Sentinel. HI was supported based on the

data collected through the interviews. All of the participants in the study cited at least one way

that growth has affected the day-to-day operations of the newspaper and their job within the

company. While participants may not have mentioned the same types of effects, all of them

reached the conclusion that growth had affected their day-to-day job at Orlando Sentinel

Communications and the newspaper in general.

In total, 17 of the participants discussed their personal definitions and opinions of growth;

all of them talked about the effect of growth on the newspaper. The participants overwhelmingly

said that growth was a defining characterisitc of the Orlando area and the newspaper.









Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall called growth a "major topic" and "the most important issue

that the newspaper covers" because of the resources the paper devotes to it and because it

"affects every, single aspect of life [in Central Florida]." She said the area's population growth

had helped The Sentinel reach more people than ever before and that this increased reach is

"partly a growth issue because the place has grown, and it's also growth in the way people use

media." Editorial Page Editor Jane Healy agreed. "Growth drives everything here, not just the

local economy, but the state's as well," said Healy, who observed that growth is a "definitive

characteristic" of the community, "definitive of this newspaper," and that readers are "interested

in it too," which makes it a frequent topic of conversation in the newspaper.

If Orlando had never grown, it would have been a sleepy, kind of
orange grove town. So almost everything about it, whether it's the
tourism growth, or just the subdivision growth, it's totally defined
Orlando. It's a different type of growth now. It's getting much
more diverse than it ever was before.

Hall's and Healy's views reflect the positive and pragmatic view of urban growth found in

the data. Other than a few observations about the increase in problems such as crime and traffic,

most of the participants cited positive effects of growth on the newspaper. Like Hall and Healy,

Product Marketing Manager Lisa Bridges called growth a "good thing," but, she noted the paper

has not benefited from the growth as might be expected because as the area's population has

surged in recent years, the newspaper's circulation has declined. The participants cited several

reasons for this, including changes in reader habit and the shift to the Internet, a lack of

reinvestment back into the newspaper for marketing purposes, and content relevancy. John

Cutter, a deputy online editor, disagreed with Healy's assessment that readers are interested in

growth more than any other topic. He said, "I think they [readers] would talk about the effects of

growth, but I'm not sure that the word 'growth' would come out of their mouths."









All 15 of the participants working as editors and reporters said growth had affected the

newsgathering process at the newspaper. These responses answered RI, which asked how urban

growth had affected The Orlando Sentinel. Associate Managing Editor for Content Development

Steve Doyle and Government Editor Mark Skoneki said growth has become integrated into the

newsroom and the newsgathering process by driving decisions about what stories to cover and

how to frame them. "Growth seems to be a component in just about everything that we're

interested in," said Skoneki, who called growth one of the biggest topics in the newspaper in the

last year because of the city of Orlando and Orange County's new venues project. But, Doyle

noted in addition to changing its focus on what it covers as news, the paper has also expanded

the areas that it covers. He pointed to the fact that because The Sentinel's core coverage area

(Orange, Seminole, and Osceola counties) has built out. He said most of the available land in

those counties is nearly gone and new development is occurring in the suburban fringe. The

paper has expanded the areas where it covers and gathers news in the suburban fringe as part of

an effort to increase its circulation, Doyle said.

Another government editor, Debbie Salamone, echoed Skoneki's and Doyle's sentiment

about growth, noting that it had "molded" The Sentinel. In other words, Salamone asserted,

growth was "the number one story" at The Sentinel because it affects every aspect of life and has

become "the engine that drives the paper." Indeed, Orlando government reporter Mark Schlueb

called growth "the quintessential Florida story."

Lake County Bureau Editor Jerry Fallstrom said growth had made Lake County a

"bedroom community" for Orlando because the city's sphere of influence has extended as the

area has developed.









Former Assistant Managing Editor for Metropolitan News Sean Holton said growth had

caused him to worry about the work habits of reporters. He said when he arrived at The Sentinel

in 1987, fears of traffic and commuting to cover stories was a greater concern because the area

lacked an integrated highway system. However, as Scott Powers (2006) showed in his "Local In-

Depth" article, "Building the Beltway," the Orlando area has worked for more than a decade to

build a beltway around the Orlando area to meet increasing traffic demands.

Other interviews revealed that growth had affected The Sentinel's hiring practices,

newsroom organization, marketing efforts, and circulation trends. Staff Development Editor

Dana Eagles said that growth had affected staff recruitment because as the area has grown, the

way the paper covers the region has changed, which has led to different newsroom operations

models and two newsroom reorganization efforts in the last two years alone. Circulation Director

Norbert Ortiz said the area's population growth is a "huge benefit" for the newspaper because

"Florida has a tendency to attract Baby Boomers, who are often newspaper readers and more

likely to subscribe to the newspaper." Other participants disagreed with Ortiz's conclusion about

the region's population and readership habit.

The business side of the newspaper also sees the effects of growth. Marketing Services

Director Gary Winters and Product Marketing Director Lisa Bridges both said that growth has

made their individual jobs easier. Winters said that being in a high-growth community makes

marketing the newspaper to national advertisers easy because it means there are more customers

for advertisers to reach. He said:

I've told people that if you can't market Orlando, you've got to get
out of the marketing business. We've got a great market here. It's
always growing; usually one of the fastest in the nation and often
one of the fastest in the state. Just the population growth, along
with the employment growth and all the new industry we've had, it
is something we can boast about to practically anybody.










Bridges agreed. From her perspective, the growth has brought more people into the region for

her team to market the paper to.

H2: Effects on Content

H2 posited that urban growth has influenced content by being a significant topic within

coverage. This hypothesis was supported by all of those interviewed from the editorial staff,

including all 11 current and former editors, the reader representative, and three current and

former reporters/columnists. Participants discussed a range of topics related to content that

included the scaling back of some of the newspaper's sections as well as targeting and focusing

news stories around the issue of growth and its effects. Six of the participants cited changes in

the nature of crime stories as one of the biggest effects of growth on the newspaper's content.

The interviews also support R2, which asked if urban growth is a major topic in The

Sentinel's pages. Both Debbie Salamone, government editor, and Mark Russell, managing editor,

discussed, in detail, the paper's "Local In-Depth" section. Salamone and Russell both said the

section was created as a direct response to the region's growth and as a means to educate the

readership about growth-related issues. Salamone said the section covers a wide variety of

subjects related to growth and may analyze a trend or educate the public. She cited Christopher

Sherman's October 22, 2007, story titled "Governments turn to CRAs to pay for a better future,"

as an example of a story where the paper explained a growth-related topic community

redevelopment agencies. Russell said:

We've done a couple of things to try and meet that challenge
[growth in the community]. We started this new section, now I
guess it's not so new now, it's more than a year old now, called
"Local In-Depth." It's a Monday section; it once was part of our
'Local and State' section. So we tried to turn most of the page over
to a weekly feature on the growing region. So literally a page that
looks at growth in the region, and we look at things ranging from









school population and the prevalence of portables on high school
campuses to the exotic animals that populate our region, to impact
fees and how they inhibit growth in communities.

Russell also said that even writers and columnists at the paper's bureaus are encouraged to place

an emphasis on growth, because "it affects their regions more than it does other areas in a

pronounced way." He said the paper tries to place bureaus in high-growth areas so that the paper

can adequately cover those areas. Salamone said that she believes the newspaper should reflect

the defining characteristics of the community; in this case, growth.

Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall said, "Growth is a subject we cover intensively." However,

she observed, when she arrived at the newspaper in 2004, the coverage of the "human side" of

growth was not there. Government Editor Mark Skoneki agreed. "It seems like every time we

tackle an issue there is always some sort of, at the very least, an underpinning about growth if

that's not the focus of the story," he said. He described how government stories are also often

growth related, such as Tamara Lytle's February 4, 2008, "Local In-Depth" story titled "5 things

you have at stake in Congress," which discussed legislation regarding the economy, and Rick

McKay's March 12, 2007, story "Downtown's dirty dozen," which reported on traffic engineers

in downtown Orlando. Lake County Editor Jerry Fallstrom said, "Almost everything in Lake

County is a growth story, or has been, but because of pressure on our reporters to contribute to

the main newspaper, as well as the Lake Edition, our bureau has had to broaden our focus."

Fallstrom said one way they have done this is through their crime coverage. He said, for

example, if a small crime happens in Lake County, it will probably be covered in a news brief.

However, large crimes must be covered so that they appeal to a broader Orlando audience.









Nation/State Editor Bob Shaw said that urban areas, like Orlando and Miami, "are arguably

the craziest areas of the state and make for terrific stories that people enjoy reading." He said

urban growth creates a bevy of strange happenings that make for good news to read.

Both of the current reporters interviewed, Beth Kassab and Mark Schlueb, said editors

encourage them to incorporate growth into their stories. "[Because of growth], there really is no

shortage of topics to write about," said Beth Kassab, a business reporter and columnist. "That's

one really good thing, because there seems to be a lot happening here right now." She said that

despite the recent economic downtown, "Even if growth is booming or if growth is slowing

down, both are extremely important stories."

Manning Pynn, a 23-year veteran of The Sentinel and the reader representative, said during

his tenure at the paper the types of stories The Sentinel pursues has changed. He said that

throughout the 1990s, The Sentinel perceived itself as a metropolitan newspaper, much like The

New York Times, because "it concerned itself with cosmopolitan issues, international issues,

national issues, as well as local issues." Pynn used the newspaper's September 11 coverage as an

example. "Following the attacks, we devoted the entire Al section to New York and Washington

coverage. However, we did not have a Central Florida focus." He said that readers grew

accustomed to this approach to news, but the paper could not sustain this expensive coverage

because of changes in readership habits. People were not subscribing to the newspaper as much

and were reading online, which does not generate as much ad revenue as the print edition of the

paper. He said the newspaper began to switch its focus to local news earlier this decade.

While all of the editorial employees that participated in the study said that growth was a

major topic for the newspaper, eight of the participants said the content must remain relevant to

readers and other consumers in order for the newspaper to hold onto its readers and remain









viable. One way several of the participants said the paper can do this is by reflecting the area's

changing demographics in the newspaper by writing about race issues. "I feel as if our content is

relevant to people, and we're finding new ways to make it more relevant online," Editor in Chief

Charlotte Hall said. Mark Russell agreed with Hall's assessment about relevancy and local

content.

Debbie Salamone said readers are looking for local and useful news that is relevant to

them. "In Orlando, everyone wants a newspaper that caters to them, but that's hard to do."

Product Marketing Director Lisa Bridges said that the newspaper's content must remain

relevant in order for her to market it to the community. "What we need to do as a product is stay

relevant with consumers, and that's the main thing. We need to have stories in there; you can do

all the marketing you want, but you need to stay relevant with consumers, and then we can

market that," she said. Circulation Director Norbert Ortiz agreed.

Nearly all of the respondents who discussed the content of the newspaper and its website

mentioned an increased demand for more local content. However, two distinct schools of thought

emerged: reader demands and an altered focus for the newspaper. Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall

said part of the problem The Sentinel has faced as a result of their expanding coverage area is

that people "have an identity with their area in terms of their schools and traffic issues and

infrastructure things." She said readers want "local-local" coverage, which she defined as

coverage with a specifically Central Florida focus rather than national or international. She added

that providing such "local-local" coverage is difficult and costly for the newspaper.

Steve Doyle, associate managing editor for content development, agreed with the other

participants. He said, "Readers in those new communities, and old communities, want a

newspaper that, really, is tailored for them." Even The Sentinel's bureaus have placed an









emphasis on local coverage. "We're definitely local," Lake County Editor Jerry Fallstrom said.

"You know, Orlando has got the bigger picture of what they're trying to cover, but in Lake we

have a definite local focus."

Government Editor Debbie Salamone said this localized focus is a new trend at the paper.

John Cutter, deputy online editor, said the website has incorporated new tools for "hyperlocal"

coverage as a result of the demands from users. He said,

We are probably going to tighten the focus because we've built out
too many neighborhood places and didn't really have enough ways
to get people involved in it. So we're probably going to start, a bit
more systematically, to try to build up interest and content on
different parts of it to see if we can show the sort of the full
richness of [the site].

Manning Pynn said the newspaper should be known as the source for "all information

locally." However, he said that the current online business model has made this mantra difficult

to accomplish since readers have come to expect information for free on the web. He also

mentioned the shift in focus from local to regional and back to local. Holton called this

localization of the news the future for newspapers.

H3: Effects on Coverage

H3 suggests that growth has caused The Sentinel to change its coverage tactics and patterns

for gathering news in the Orlando area, and R3 asked how The Sentinel has altered its coverage

to meet the demands of growth. The analysis of the interviews confirmed H3, because all 15 of

the participants from the editorial side of the newspaper cited specific changes to the news-

gathering process at The Sentinel because of the effects of growth, such as traffic, congestion,

reporter lifestyle changes, and the changing nature of the types of stories covered by the

newspaper.









Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall said the newspaper "devotes a lot of resources to covering all

of the issues surrounding growth." She said,

When I first arrived here four years ago, I thought that we weren't
covering growth adequately. I mean, the element we were missing
was coverage of the human side of growth and what that meant for
the community. We were covering the infrastructure growth okay,
you know, the sort of land use issues, environment, what roads do
you build, transportation messes. We were covering schools well,
too. I really felt like we had a changing community here because
growth here was really about influx of people here from other
places, not, you know, all of a sudden everyone having 20 babies.

Managing Editor Mark Russell said every reporter, regardless of their beat, is encouraged

to examine the issue of growth and how people are reacting to it. He also noted a change in the

type of story he encourages when reporters are covering national news. He said, "I would give

them [reporters] specific instructions to 'come back with a Central Florida angle.'" David

Damron's (2007) July 9, 2007, story about local ratification of the Kyoto Protocol highlights this

localizing of national/international stories. Russell said the "Local In-Depth" section one of the

ways the newspaper has "addressed the conundrum" of covering a growing region.

We decided that the land-use function should be a part of every
team, almost every team, to have that [growth] really as a focus,
especially for this region. But there are some regions of our
coverage area that are, the development issues are more prominent
and more prevalent. One of them is Lake County, which is
probably seeing some of the fastest growth rates around here in the
last 10 years.

Assistant Managing Editor Steve Doyle said growth has "forced us to continually redefine

how we cover news, how we circulate the paper, how we understand different communities that

spring up." He added:

What growth does is create new communities that you have to
cover, and you have to go out and learn what they are and how best
to reach them. It's hard for newspapers to cover those communities
effectively because there are so many of them, and everybody in









new communities and old communities wants a newspaper that is
tailored for them.

Government Editor Mark Skoneki said growth has caused his reporting staff to have to be

more careful when selecting stories because there is more news to cover.

Well, we cover less. We have to cherry pick more. We, I think if
you go back and look at the paper 15 years ago, we covered much
more routine things much more intensively. We were at more city
council meetings in the smaller towns. We were involved in many
more very local disputes. We do less of that now because we have
fewer people to do it.

Nation/state Editor Bob Shaw called growth the impetus for everything he and his reporting staff

do. He said growth has affected coverage because it creates more news that needs to be covered

and "we could use more people [reporters] because there are more suburbs to cover, more

accidents, more murders, more of everything." He said that since the newspaper is not keeping

pace with the number of reporters and editors it employs, its coverage is declining. Lake County

Editor Jerry Fallstrom said the bureau is starting to try to cover news in different ways because

there is too much news to cover. "We might try to cover things with a brief, or something with a

photo, or get something on the web. We started a blog in Lake County."

Government Editor Debbie Salamone and former Assistant Managing Editor for

Metropolitan News Sean Holton both observed that changes to the local demographics and

lifestyle changes had affected the newspaper's coverage. Salamone said one of the biggest

changes in coverage has been that of the Hispanic community. She also noted that the newspaper

had gotten rid of its growth reporter.

Orlando Government Reporter Mark Schlueb said he has "had to become much more

attuned and adept at covering growth issues" because of the region's growth and staff cuts. He

said he has to use a different layer of sources for coverage because of the role developers and









planning boards play in the area's growth. Now that he is the sole Orlando government reporter,

he said he often cannot cover Municipal Planning Board Meetings and other minor committees

because of time. "I do monitor them, but they're not closely covered," he said. "Certainly there's

more stuff now that we're not covering that people are noticing, especially in suburban cities like

Winter Park and Maitland, where we had spent a lot of time in the past, so they kind of have a

sense of entitlement to coverage," he said.

Former Sentinel reporter Christine Dellert said, "In a growing community like this one, it's

very important to have reporters that know the community and are familiar with the people, the

officials and the area."

Sean Holton emphasized the evolving focus of the newspaper's coverage during his 20-

year tenure at the newspaper. He said the newspaper has retreated from the suburban areas and

concentrated its staff at the newspapers downtown newsroom.

We had a bureau in Winter Park and Pine Hills; we had a bureau in
Apopka; and at one point we had one in South Orange in
Edgewood or Belle Isle. But the demands of growth on the region
make it a more difficult proposition to cover local news on the
micro level because you have too many communities. And you
can't grow your reporting staff. So the traditional coverage kind of
got lost because the little cities weren't really in that, they became
less important than the giant developments in unincorporated
areas. It just turned the old fashioned model on its head.

Holton did say coverage is "more of a pick and choose effort." He said reporters must choose

stories that are of interest to the entire region, not just on the local level "Twenty years ago you

wouldn't have had stories about growth issues in Lake County and how they connect to other

areas in the region." However, he said, "readers want to know what's going on in their city, but

the extent of that coverage really started to go away and has diminished."









Manning Pynn said: "We cover the things that have come to Orlando and made the area

grow. We cover tourism. Of course that was hardly an issue in the 1960s and into the 1970s, but

it certainly became an issue when Disney arrived." He also said, "Well, the obvious thing is that

there are new things to be covered here: the growth of the theme parks and all the various

attendant industries that have sprung up around it."

H4: Circulation

H4 said that urban growth in Orlando has influenced the newspaper's circulation patterns

and resulted in targeted subscription offers. This hypothesis was only partially supported by the

interviews. The participants revealed that urban growth has affected the newspaper's circulation

patterns, however not in the way an outside observer might guess. The interviews showed an

inverse effect on advertising. H4 was only partially supported, because the interviews revealed

there have not been any targeted subscription efforts as a result of growth. Circulation Director

Norbert Ortiz said he may raise subscription rates rather than decrease them.

Thirteen of the 18 participants discussed the effects of growth on circulation and readership

during their interviews. "The problem is that growth and the number of people in Central Florida

has not been matched by similar growth in advertising and circulation," Bob Shaw said.

Former Assistant Managing Editor Sean Holton agreed.

The Sentinel was in this really booming area where the newspaper
was growing along with it, or trying to grow along with it, and if
you look at the numbers at how they have grown, and go back to
1970, and look at the cumulative growth of those counties, and
look at the circulation, you can see that the population growth has
outstripped the circulation growth, and in recent years the
circulation growth has actually slipped a little.









He said that another element contributing to this decline in circulation is the changing news

habits of readers. However, he noted, despite the decline in circulation, the newspaper's

readership has actually increased.

Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall supported Shaw and Holton's conclusions. "Just because a

community grows in population does not mean that the newspaper grows in circulation. Our

growth sort of peaked out, and then trends began to happen to sort of caused newspaper

circulation to go down nationwide. We've declined some, just as all papers have." She also

supported Holton's assertion that The Sentinel's readership has actually increased despite the

circulation decline. She said the newspaper's readers are primarily white, long-time residents,

with higher income and education. Norbert Ortiz, circulation director, said a large percentage of

homeowners in the area read the paper.

Managing Editor Mark Russell said that circulation has been in a "tailspin" in recent years.

"If you look at our region, because it's growing, we haven't kept pace with the growth," he said.

He added that even though the newspaper's circulation has flatlined recently, the paper's

penetration rate in the market has actually decreased because there are more people in the

Orlando area.

Steven Doyle, associate managing editor for content development, and Norbert Ortiz both

said circulation was up in 2007, although it increased by only 0.5-1%. Doyle did not attribute

this minor circulation growth to urban growth in the region. He said the circulation declines The

Sentinel has experienced in recent years were actually "self-inflicted wounds" because the

newspaper cancelled its Third Party Circulation and hotel programs. For a Third Party

Circulation programs the newspaper sends copies to vendors in other parts of the country, who

then sell single copies of the newspaper on behalf of The Sentinel. Hotel programs involve









providing free copies of the newspaper to hotels throughout the region, which then leave them,

free of charge, outside of each hotel room. Despite the minor gains in circulation, Doyle agreed

with Russell that the paper's penetration rate has decreased. "We used to have a 60% penetration

on Sunday, but now it's down to about 42%, but that is because the market [population] is up.

So while our penetration is down, the number of people reading is actually higher because there

are more people in the market," he said. He said the paper reaches about 80 to 90% of adults in

the area through the newspaper, website, and ads.

John Cutter, deputy online editor, said that the newspaper's website has had a 20-40%

increase in traffic during the last year. Other participants supported this assertion and noted that

there has been a big shift in readers to the website because nationwide reading habits support

online news.

Circulation Director Norbert Ortiz confirmed that the circulation had experienced moderate

growth in 2007. "We've actually been growing our base of home delivery customers," and that

circulation growth has been the result of "continuing to improve our service and continuing to

develop different features for people." He projected that the newspaper would continue to see

small growth in the early parts of 2008 and would flatline in the second half of the year.

However, he believes that the circulation will eventually continue to decline at about 1% a year.

However, Manning Pynn, the reader representative, said the newspaper "has not grown

commensurately with the population." He said this trend is the result of growth because the

people moving to Orlando are not part of the traditional newspaper reading demographic.

"Newspaper readers tend to be a little older, a little more highly educated, and wealthier than the

average individual. And the growth of Orlando has been a product of the service industry and









tourism interests." He also said that the circulation declines really started in the last decade and

up until that point, the paper had actually been keeping pace with the growth.

Product Marketing Director Lisa Bridges said: "The fact that our circulation is down versus

the trend for the population is huge. We should at least try to be at least within the same trending

line, we might be way below, but trending the same and what not." Marketing Services Director

Gary Winters called circulation "critical" to the paper's advertising success. He said the recent

declines in circulation have forced his office to "press readership numbers" over circulation,

which means the number of people who actually read the paper, not just those that subscribe to

it. He said the national average for calculating readership is two to two-and-a-half times

circulation.

H5: Marketing of Products

H5 posited that urban growth has affected the newspaper's marketing campaign by

requiring varied approaches to marketing the newspaper. Based on the interviews with Product

Marketing Manager Lisa Bridges and Marketing Services Director Gary Winters, H5 is

supported.

Lisa Bridges said the greatest effect of growth on the marketing of the newspaper has been

the increase in the number of people to market the product to. She also said her department has

tried multiple methods to promote the company's products. "We do everything from mass media

campaigns, using outdoor billboards, print ads in specific magazines and within our newspaper

product. We do radio; we do online ads; we really just kind of do a variety of different things;

and then we also do, more specifically, website marketing," she said. Bridges said that they have

been able to increase the circulation, partly because they've dramatically increased the amount of

outdoor billboards that we have in the market. She said that growth has also created "a whole









other group of people who focus on." The newspaper has also tried varied approaches to online

marketing as well, including e-mail advertising and creating applications on social networking

sites such as Facebook and Myspace for people to download.

Gary Winters, the marketing services director, said the region's growth has made

marketing the Orlando market to potential advertisers easier because advertisers appreciate

growing markets because of more potential customers. He said that with more people moving

into the region, advertisers see the potential of reaching more customers.

However, both participants said financial problems at the newspaper have also affected the

marketing and advertising departments. Both Bridges and Winters said decreases in staff have

limited the types of marketing and recruitment of advertisers their departments have been able to

do. Bridges specifically said her team has not been able to participate in many local events

because there "aren't enough workers to cover them." While budgets have been cut, Winters

said, "We've had really pretty steady growth in advertising revenue, which has been great.

Recently it's gotten a little tougher and we're looking at spreading out and finding new

categories of business to go after."

All of the participants cited financial changes at the newspaper as a result of growth. The

responses varied, however, and the focus of each conversation varied from advertising revenue

to circulation dollars to budget cuts. Some participants were hesitant to talk about the financial

state of the newspaper and spoke in relatively vague terms.

Because of the budget cuts to marketing and the subsequent decline/stagnation of

advertising revenue, other parts of the budget have been cut. Steve Doyle, associate managing

editor of content development, said, "One of the things we try not to do whenever we have to cut









the budget is affect the news gathering group, unless for some reason we're not going to do

something anymore, but we want to have as many feet on the street as possible."

Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall said newspapers have two primary expenses: people and

paper. "If you get into a situation where you need to make cutbacks, those are the two places you

go," she said.

R5 asked what marketing approaches has The Sentinel adopted as a result of growth. Based

on the interviews, it was found that The Sentinel uses several marketing approaches to promote

its products. These include billboard advertisements in the targeted parts of the core market,

smaller signs at targeted locations, television and radio ads, print ads, and online efforts

including e-mail marketing, ads on orlandosentinel.com, and applications on social networking

sites. The participants cited financial problems as having an effect on the types of marketing their

staffs have been able to do, but they have noticed an upswing in circulation in recent months.

Business Columnist and Reporter Beth Kassab said growth "affects advertising, which

affects circulation, and eventually you get to a point where it does affect your newsroom

resources."

H6: Staff Development and Hiring

H6 said urban growth has affected staff development at The Orlando Sentinel. All of the

participants, regardless of their position with the newspaper, said growth had affected hiring and

staff development. Several of the participants said growth was a contributing factor in the

newspaper's most recent newsroom reorganization efforts. Other topics related to staffing

discussed by the participants included editorial staffing, budgetary constraints, hiring, and staff

development. A flow chart explaining the staff structure at The Sentinel can be found in

Appendix J.









Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall said: "[Growth] obviously affects us in the terms of the way

we staff, of the way we create beats." She noted that the newsroom had 260 staff members in

January 2008. Managing Editor Mark Russell also discussed the size of the newsroom.

There's an old adage that a newspaper should have one staffer for
every 1,000 in circulation, if I remember this correctly. So when I
got here in 2004, we had a newsroom of 310 staffers, maybe [3]20.
So 310 staffers, so by that reckoning, we should've had 310,000
daily circulation, but we didn't. We didn't have that, we don't have
that now. Our circulation now is down to about 230 or 235,000,
and our staff size is still about 270 or 272, so we're still higher in
terms of staff then the measurement would suggest if you're
looking at a strict measurement of one staffer for every 1,000 in
circulation.


He attributed the high staff size to the paper's "ambition" and the rise in revenue in the 1990s.

He said:

With that growth of the revenue came more ambition to do serious
journalism, to have great packages, greater sports, greater business.
So it was a professionalizing of a reporting staff and a newspaper
that [had] greater ambition to do investigative reporting, food
reporting, you know, become a complete package of topics as a
metropolitan paper. We're higher than that and with good reason
because we have great ambition as a paper of covering the whole
state.


Debbie Salamone mentioned the organization of the newspaper's beats. "We don't have a

reporter who is a growth reporter anymore. We had that over many years and that person was

supposed to be covering a lot of the growth management issues in terms of growth plans and big

developments and all this sort of stuff, but that's a very hard beat for a reporter." She said one

reason the paper no longer has a growth reporter is that editors did not see it as a successfully-

done beat. "It's like it's a bit of a financial decision to not have that position anymore," she said.









Mark Schlueb said budget cuts forced the company (Tribune) to leave some positions

unfilled, which has created additional stress on him as a reporter because he is now the sole

reporter covering city government in Orlando. Previously, the newspaper had two reporters

covering Orlando government. He said that many smaller government boards do not get covered

now because of this reduction in staff. "There's a total of 84 cities in our coverage area," he said.

"If you think we have a reporter in 84 cities, you're crazy."

Staff changes were also found at The Sentinel's bureaus as well as its primary newsroom in

downtown Orlando. Jerry Fallstrom, Lake County bureau editor, said, "We've got a limited staff;

a staff that has been shrunk because of the realities of the newspaper business. So we have fewer

reporters covering more; it's a bigger county. It's a lot bigger county." He said that there are

more demands for his reporters to write for the main paper. He said this decline in reporting staff

is mostly financial. "I mean we've had positions that we haven't been able to fill, this has

happened in the last few years, when somebody will leave, they might not fill the position. That

has happened a couple of times in the last few years."

Christine Dellert, who also worked at the Lake County Bureau, said, "It's funny, the bureau

in Lake shrunk while the population out there grew, so we the editors had to prioritize their

resources." She also noted:

We had two reporters leave while I was there. Actually, we shrunk,
and then we grew. We had seven reporters and two editors. We lost
two reporters, which was tough for a while. We had to work extra
hours and weekends sometimes to make up for what those two
reporters did. Then we grew again and added maybe two or three
reporters.

While staff changes have been minor at the Lake County Bureau, other bureaus at the paper have

been shut down. Sean Holton said, "The staffing and bureau structure changed [because of









growth], and so did the actual physical design of the newspaper where there are fewer of those

zoned editions."

Closing suburban bureaus has been a cost-cutting effort at The Sentinel. However, several

of the participants discussed how the closings have influenced their day-to-day duties and

workload. Most of Orlando's growth has taken place in the suburban areas, which creates more

news to be covered in those areas. By closing these bureaus, The Sentinel risks missing out on

potential news stories and reporters face longer commutes to cover the news.

John Cutter noted that The Sentinel has used "citizen journalists" to create "hyper local"

content instead of paying for a reporter to do it. "So the other way that it [growth] has influenced

us is that as this area has gotten bigger, so have these sort of smaller units [communities] within

it, and we can do a better job online of covering them [small communities] than print can do."

Reliance on citizen journalists may pose dangerous risks for the newspaper. These citizen

journalists are not contracted employees and are not required to follow The Sentinel's code of

ethics, (See Appendix G).

Several current and former staff members also discussed the changing staff demographics.

Sean Holton said:

The biggest story of Orlando's growth as far as demographics has
been the growth of the Hispanic population. The paper has done
great strides to keep up with that. The newsroom has done pretty
well in terms of Hispanic reporters. The African American portion
of the staff has been more challenging to maintain as a reflection of
the community and the African American segment of the
population in Orlando.

Debbie Salamone agreed. She said she can remember the newsroom having "hardly any

Hispanic people on our staff. Now, it's younger, more Hispanic."









R6 asked if most of The Sentinel's new hires were from the Orlando area. Dana Eagles, the

staff development editor in charge of recruitment, said growth has had "direct implications on

staffing." He said that being in a growth market like Orlando, it is easier to recruit potential staff

because "there is a lot of news, which is an important factor and an attractive thing for

journalists." However, Eagles said that growth has had some negative effects on staffing as well.

"One negative thing about growth for staffing has been the changes in lifestyle factors that come

with being bigger." He said, "The interesting thing about attracting journalists in a growth

market is that the very things that make it more interesting to cover might make it not quite as

good of a place to live. Because the big city issues also mean that they affect you personally."

Eagles said he recruits most new hires from outside of the Orlando area because The Sentinel is

the only large newspaper in the region, which means there are limited opportunities in Orlando

for journalists to receive training and build a career other than The Sentinel.

Another effect growth has had on The Sentinel is that it has partially contributed to the

newspaper's two recent newsroom reorganizations. Eight of the participants discussed newsroom

reorganization during their interviews.

Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall said the newsroom should reflect what is going on in the

community and that it must be restructured every few years to match changes in the market.

"Since Orlando is defined by growth, the newsroom and the paper's organization should be, too.

If we just say here and said what we thought was news, we would be disconnected from the

community; we wouldn't do a very good job at all." She said one response to the region's growth

that came about during a recent reorganization was the creation of a demographics team whose

goal is to cover race and other issues, specifically Hispanic affairs as part of the Hispanic beat.

Hall said that the newspaper has been able to do a better job covering demographic issues









because of its recent reorganization. "It's interesting because we have cut staff. I'm not going to

give you the numbers because those are pretty confidential, and we have a smaller newsroom

today, and we've also cut newshole out of the paper," she said.

Mark Russell also mentioned the creation of new beats as a response to growth. "Another

answer is about a year and a half ago, we created a new beat on the Metro Desk that would now

be housed under our Public Service team. It was a growth beat and planning beat." However, that

beat was short lived. "We had her for about a year and a half and decided we could better deploy

that reporter on a data team doing computer-assisted reporting," he said.

When asked about reorganizing the newsroom, Russell said that the newspaper tries to

preserve staff coverage that the newspaper and readers care about the most and that the first areas

to be cut are often those who cover non-essential issues for the paper. "I think that it has made us

more responsive and more nimble," he said.

Regarding recent staff changes at the newspaper, Beth Kassab, a business reporter and

columnist, said: "It is never good to see a reduction of the reporting staff, or the editing staff.

Last year we did see a reduction in the editing staff that didn't really affect the reporters. Our

editor has said she wants to keep, she calls it, 'feet on the street,' people like me and other people

sitting out there in those desks." She said that staff reductions create more work for fewer people.

She said this reduction in staff has led the paper to cut some of the "luxuries" it used to have,

such as targeted sections, zoned editions, etc.

Sean Holton said that the reorganization of the staff was one reason why he decided to

retire in the summer of 2007. "The newsroom was scaled back because it was smaller, and I just

didn't see where my place in the new structure just wasn't going to be as challenging as some of

the other jobs that I'd had," he said.









Few details were revealed during the interviews about the specific changes made to the

staff during the reorganization in 2007. Charlotte Hall said those numbers were "confidential."

To read a memo sent by Hall to The Sentinel's staff about the 2007 reorganization, see Appendix

H. However, Manning Pynn said, "The entire newsroom had to reapply for their jobs again, and

many people changed supervisors and the divisions of the newsroom changed."

Dana Eagles presented a more positive outlook of the reorganization. He said, "We also

realigned the way the newsroom was organized in order to be able to meet the needs of both the

web and the newspaper going forward." He said the area's growth contributed to this

reorganization because growth creates more news and different types of news, and the newspaper

had to respond to those changing news trends. He affirmed Pynn's statement that staff members

had to reapply for their jobs when he said:

Once the new table of organization was set, a number of newly
created jobs were open, and current staff members were invited to
apply and we have several rounds of interviews and that sort of
thing. So staff members were able to compete for those newly-
created jobs that represented not just new management positions,
but in some cases new beats that were created to meet the needs of
readers and web users.

Eagles said: "The organizational changes were very much related to how we see the content

needs of the newspaper and the website changing. I don't feel that's from content priorities."

R6 asked if most of The Sentinel's new hires are from the Orlando area. According to Staff

Development Editor Dana Eagles, most new hires are not from the Orlando area because there

are little opportunities for professional journalists to gain experience in Orlando because The

Sentinel is the only large newspaper in the region. He also mentioned the changing skill set

needed in today's journalism market, but did not specify any particular skills that he looks for

when hiring new employees for the newsroom.









Analysis of Local In-Depth

It can be argued that this section is a distillation of The Sentinel's response to growth in

terms of coverage and growth. It was chosen for analysis because all of the participants that

discussed "Local In-Depth" said it was created in direct response to growth in the Orlando area.

The researcher analyzed the 71 articles from The Sentinel's online "Local In-Depth" section. The

first article included in the study ran in the newspaper and online on Janurary 30, 2006, and the

most recent article included in the study was the April 7, 2008 story on Florida's budget. These

articles are the same as those that appeared in the print edition of the newspaper. This section

was chosen for analysis because, according to several participants, it was created in response to

growth and as a means to educate the region about the area's growth-related problems and

concerns. The articles were approximately 1,000 words each and began running in the newspaper

on Monday starting in January 2006. The articles were coded for the topic being presented and

for their sentiment toward growth.

For a sample coding sheet, please see Appendix I.

Debbie Salamone said the section was created as a response to growth and that the stories

are "all growth related." After coding the stories for their topic, word count, and focus, the

researcher found this to be true. Of the 71 articles found on The Sentinel's online "Local In-

Depth" section, all of them were somehow related to growth or an effect of growth. One story,

which focused on highways in the area, called "Building the Beltway," began by recounting

Orlando's growth since the opening of Walt Disney World. It reads:

In the beginning, there was Interstate 4. And it was not good.
Back when Walt Disney World was a single park, SeaWorld was
its lone competition, and International Drive was a modest
collection of hotels, restaurants and gas stations, Orlando's future
as a congested metropolis was being written (Powers, 2006).









Salamone described the section as "all stories that have to do with how our region is affected by

growth and includes topics such as the environment, transportation, urban planning, and any kind

of issues." She also called it one of the "most popular things" The Sentinel has done in recent

years. Story ideas for the section, she said are generated by the reporters. She works with each

reporter to narrow the focus before they begin reporting.

Mark Russell said that the "Local In-Depth" section was "one of a couple of things we

have done to try and meet the challenge of growth." He described it as "a page that looks at

growth in the region." He said that the section is more "visually appealing" than the normal

"Local and State" section and is "something that you can really sell to readers in a very eye-

catching way."

After analysis, the researcher found that all of the articles in the "Local In-Depth" section

did, in fact, focus on growth or other growth-related issue. The researcher found that the articles

focused on 12 primary topics: budget/taxes, education, demographics/race, environment,

roads/transportation, history of the community, development, technology, cultural trends, the

local economy, crime, and housing.

Five of the 71 articles were written about budget and other tax issues that have come about

because of growth. This represents 7.1% of the "Local In-Depth" section. However, while

Debbie Salamone and Mark Russell said that the section tries to have a local focus, the analysis

showed that three of the five budget/tax-related stories were written for a statewide or national

perspective.

Nine of the stories written were about education, representing 12.7% of the coverage.

While the topics of these stories revolved around education, the focus of each story was

pointedly different. For example, one story discussed the declining number of students in public









schools in Central Florida, while another had to do with the increasing female-male gender gap

at the college level. However, all of these education stories did mention growth as a cause for the

topic being discussed.

Approximately 11% of the articles studied focused on the demographics of the region, or

eight of the stories. Five of them discussed the growth and impact of the changing minority

population.

Twenty-two of the articles analyzed had to do with the environment and the effects of

growth on the local landscape. This represented the largest single topic in the study and was

equal to 21.3% of the overall story total. During her interview, Debbie Salamone mentioned that

growth was a personal topic of interest for her. As editor of the section, she has control over the

types of stories discussed in the section.

Roads and transportation issues were the topic of eight of the stories, or 11% of the sample.

However, the focus of these stories was fairly wide in scope. Two of the articles dealt with the

construction of new roads in the region, while other analyzed the region's growing traffic

problem and congestion. Again, growth was cited as the primary cause of the topic under

review in every story.

One article, or 1.3% of the sample, discussed preserving the regional's historical landmarks

by placing "historical markers" throughout the region. They reporter suggests that these

historical markers are crucial for remembering the past that shaped the region into what it is

today.

Development was another topic that was covered in eight (11%) of the sample. These

articles also covered a wide focus in their reporting. One story focused on the city of Orlando's









haphazard annexation policies, while two reported on the attempts by two of the region's smaller

communities to control growth.

The effects of new technology that resulted from growth were discussed in four of the

articles, or 5.7% of the sample.

The effect of growth on the region's cultural trends was discussed in two of the articles.

This represents the second-smallest group of any found in the study.

Finally, the local economy, crime, and housing were each discussed in one article.









CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

HI: Growth affects The Sentinel

After analyzing the interviews, it is clear that growth has had an effect on The Orlando

Sentinel. Although the participants each cited their own observations about the effects of growth,

it is clear that urban development does have an effect on newspapers in general. However, this

case study of The Orlando Sentinel cannot be generalized to newspapers across the country

because growth trends vary from region to region and city to city. For example, newspapers in

the Rust Belt cities of the Northeast and Midwest may be facing the effects of negative, or

inverse, growth because of economic conditions in their coverage areas. Even newspapers in

other high-growth areas may be experiencing different effects that are more reflective of their

communities. However, based on the data gathered here, it is clear that growth in the Orlando

area has had an effect on The Sentinel and the results may be indicative of trends in some other

cities in the United States.

The researcher tried to leave the meaning of the term "growth" open to analysis and relied

on personal definitions from the participants. Most of the participants included in this study

defined growth broadly rather than speaking in specific terms. In fact, most of them referred to

growth in terms of population increases and the effects the influx of people in the Orlando region

has had on the newspaper. For Sentinel employees, more people living in Central Florida means

more news to cover, more crime, more potential readers, more marketing capabilities, and more

advertising revenue. Though this increased population has not yielded the expected results of

increased circulation, increased ad revenue, and increased circulation, it is clear that growth has

had an effect on the newspaper. Some participants also discussed economy growth in terms of









diversifying the local economy, and physical growth because of development and new

construction.

For planners, the influence of growth on the local newspaper is important to monitor. If

growth continues to have negative affects on circulation and readership habits, planners will soon

have to rely on another medium to inform the public of upcoming meetings, changes to

regulations, and other growth management issues.

H2: Growth and Content

H2 said that growth has had an influence on content by becoming a central topic in the

newspaper. This proved true in this study. Growth should continue to be a primary topic in the

pages of The Sentinel because growth has become a characteristic that defines the Central Florida

region. As Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall said, "Growth defines this region, therefore it defines

this newspaper."

As noted, in response to R2, which asked if urban growth was a major topic in The

Sentinel's pages, the interviews suggest that growth is, in fact, a major topic in the newspaper

and is encouraged by editors. All of the participants from the editorial side of the newspaper said,

in different ways, that growth was the most important issue in Central Florida.

This result suggests that The Sentinel should continue having a growth focus in its stories

so long as growth is a major issue in Central Florida. However, the editors and reporters must be

wary that growth patterns might change, so the newspaper's coverage of growth should reflect

that potential change. And the lesson for other newspapers is that they should also be conscious

of growth, even if their community is experiencing a different type of growth.

Robert Park's 1929 findings that circulation represents growth by a series of concentric

circles is not representative of the Orlando area. Several of the participants said the newspaper's









core readership is spread out through several counties in Central Florida. Some of those counties

are not contiguous. For example, Norbert Ortiz, the vice president of circulation, called the

Villages a high-growth area for the newspaper, yet the Villages is located more than an hour

away from The Sentinel's core market area of Orange and Seminole Counties.

H3: Coverage

The decrease in staffing and changing coverage tactics highlights one way that growth has

affected The Orlando Sentinel. Lauterer (2006) said the growth of cities and newspapers are

closely related and as populations grow, so does newspaper readership. At The Orlando Sentinel,

this trend has proved true, despite circulation declines. The area's population has swelled in the

last several decades, and readership has followed suit. However, during the last five years, the

newspaper's circulation has declined while readership has increased. This increase is due to

increased traffic to the newspaper's website. Thus, it appears that growth has an inverse effect on

newspaper circulation and readership. Staffing has also been affected because financial problems

at the newspaper have forced the managerial staff to cut some staff members. This creates more

work for the remaining editors and reporters.

Based on the interviews, H3 is supported. Growth has affected the coverage and news-

gathering tactics at The Orlando Sentinel. In response to R3, the participants cited several

different effects on the newspaper's coverage, including: a new, targeted focus on growth when

selecting stories to cover; new criteria when determining which reporter to send to cover an

event; and lifestyle changes as a result of growth (such as traffic congestion, commute times,

etc). Longtime staff members of The Sentinel also noted a shift in the coverage of the newspaper,

particularly since the 1980s. Both Pynn and Holton said the newspaper now focuses much more

on local news with a growth angle than national or international news. Jeffries (1999) argues that









community newspapers fill the void that urban newspapers can not fill because of their sheer size

and focus. This study shows that The Sentinel is attempting to redefine itself by having a more

localized focus rather than the national or international focus the paper had throughout the 1990s.

The results suggest that The Sentinel must keep an open mind to its news-gathering

techniques if it wishes to remain relevant to its readers, especially since its coverage area is

constantly adding new residents and new communities. The top-tier editors must continue to

encourage lower-level editors and reporters to cover new communities and other trends that may

arise as a result of growth. This type of flexibility from management is important when covering

an evolving community. Newspapers in other regions should follow this advice. Charlotte Hall

said that newspapers should be reflective of the communities they cover.

H4: Circulation

The interviews revealed that growth has had an inverse effect on circulation at The

Sentinel. Several of the participants said despite the region's growth, the paper's circulation has

declined; some participants blamed this decline on the type of people moving to the Central

Florida region, characterizing them as non-traditional newspaper readers. So while H4 was

partially supported because there have clearly been effects on circulation that resulted from

growth, there have been no targeted subscription offers as a result of the decline. R4 asked how

The Sentinel's circulation has been affected by growth. The interviews suggest that there has

been an inverse effect because of growth and that the circulation has declined because of the type

of people moving to the Orlando area. Instead of offering discounted rates, Ortiz said that he and

his team try to target their circulation improvement efforts at core sections of the coverage area,

including Orange and Seminole counties, as well as high-growth areas such as Lake County, the

Four Corners area, and Northeast Polk County. Ortiz said residents in those areas are more









typical newspaper readers. Based on the interviews, if The Sentinel can continue this trend of

positive circulation growth, it should not have to implement any type of discount subscription

program to encourage more readers to subscribe to the newspaper. However, further attempts to

reach out to the changing demographic base of The Sentinel's market area are encouraged.

Several pieces of literature report that newspapers grow along with their communities.

However, this is not the case in Orlando, where the newspaper has been outstripped by

population growth. While several factors were cited as reason behind this, including budget and

staff cuts, this study shows that the earlier literature is not necessarily valid in every instance.

H5: Effects on Marketing

The results suggest that to maintain the limited circulation growth The Sentinel experienced

last year, the newspaper must devote more budgetary resources to marketing and advertising

recruitment. With such large numbers of new residents moving into the Orlando area, it is

important for the newspaper to market itself as the primary source of information for the region.

This is a universal conclusion based on the interviews gathered in this study. Other newspapers

in different parts of the country should consider investing money in their operations to promote

their products as well. Circulation Director Norbert Ortiz said The Sentinel had decreased its

investment in itself in recent years because of financial trouble, but he also noted that when The

Sentinel devoted more money to marketing and customer service improvements, the newspaper

saw marginal gains. Thus, this investment should be encouraged.

H6: Effects on Hiring/Staffing

Based on the interviews, growth has had an effect on the newspaper's staffing and hiring

processes as well as been a contributing factor in the newspaper's recent newsroom

reorganization efforts. Other newspapers may have faced similar changes, depending on their









market and current financial status. Like much of the data found in this study, generalizable

results for all newspapers are difficult to determine.









CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION

From the interviews, it is evident that urban growth has had an effect on The Orlando

Sentinel. The results showed varying degrees of influence on each of the ten themes analyzed.

All of the participants cited growth as a major influence on the newspaper; they all said that

growth has also affected the types of stories covered in the newspaper as well as the way the

newspaper goes about covering the news. The three non-editorial participants also cited growth

as a factor influencing their day-to-day jobs as promoters of the newspapers and other products

at Orlando Sentinel Communications.

Growth

Growth was cited as a significant influence on the newspaper in multiple ways. Several

editorial staff members said growth was a defining characteristic of the newspaper and the

community. They also said growth has an effect on virtually every part of the newspaper's

operation. Since all of the participants cited growth as a significant factor influencing The

Sentinel's content, coverage, newsroom structure, etc., the newspaper's editorial staff should

place a greater emphasis on growth in their day-to-day jobs at the newspaper. Particularly, the

effects of growth on the community should play a larger role on the decision making process at

every level of the newspaper. For example, editors should remain conscious of the commute time

reporters face when covering stories in the suburbs or other fringe areas. Reporters must also be

considerate of their target/core readership when developing story ideas.

Many of the participants said that growth was influential in nearly all aspects of life in

Orlando, and most of the participants said that growth had affected their daily functions at the

newspaper. The editors said because of growth, there is simply more news to be covered in the

area. The two reporters said that growth creates a bevy of news topics to write about. The non-









editorial staff said that growth has made the paper easier to promote because there are more

people to market the product to. Thus, growth should be a consideration at all levels of the

newspaper.

Content

The interviews also revealed that growth has had an effect on the newspaper's content.

Many of the participants said growth creates more news and also causes more crime, traffic

problems, and other growth-related issues. The two reporters who participated in this study said

that this creates more work and stress for them because of the increased amount of work

resulting from the growth and due to the declining number of reporters working in the newsroom

because of the newspaper's financial situation/newsroom reorganizations as a response to

growth. The Sentinel's reporters should be aware that growth may be a contributing factor to a

news story, even if the story does not seem directly growth-related, such as a crime or education

story. Susan Jacobson's story titled "Where have all the students gone?" discussed why the

area's public schools were suffering enrollment declines, while the area's population was

growing. This is a strong example of an education story that considers the effects of growth.

Other participants said that it is the role of the newspaper to create understanding and explain

growth to the various segments of the population. This informative role makes including growth

as a possible cause for all news stories crucial. One story that exemplifies the newspaper's role

as explainer is Denise-Marie Balona's February 5, 2007, story titled "How growth drives taxes,"

which explains how growth affects property taxes in the area. As stated before, reporters and

editors should consider growth a topic of great import when assigning and drafting stories.

Coverage

Coverage refers to the practice of gathering news and story ideas. Some, but not all, of the

respondents said that growth played a role in determining what types of stories The Sentinel









includes in its pages. Specifically, several of the editors said that growth has impacted crime

stories the most. Former Assistant Managing Editor Sean Holton said growth also affected how

he assigned stories to reporters when he worked at the newspaper. He cited that area's growing

traffic problems as one consideration when he assigned stories since reporters do not necessarily

live in the communities that they cover. Government Editor Mark Skoneki said growth was a

major topic for his five-reporter team. He said that it is a factor in just about every topic his

reporters cover. While The Sentinel should not make growth the primary focus of every news

story, it should consider growth as a cause for the action or event being reported. As a result,

editors and reporters should be conscious of growth when assigning and covering stories.

Finances

All of the participants said the newspaper industry is facing hard times under the current

business model. They said The Sentinel is no different and recent budget cuts have forced staff

cuts, changes in coverage, and a reduction in the newshole. While cost-cutting efforts are

encouraged to promote profitability, the newspapers content should never suffer as a result.

Charlotte Hall said that she wants as many "feet on the street as possible" and that the paper

would try to avoid cutting reporting positions. This assertion proved true in the paper's most

recent newsroom reorganization. Most of the staff cuts that occurred were editor positions.

However, based on the interviews, the newspaper must work diligently to develop a new

business model that incorporates more revenue from the web to ease fears about job stability and

the future of the news industry. Nearly all of the editorial participants in the study seemed fearful

that future budget cuts may cost them their jobs if their beat or section is not deemed crucial by

the executive editors.

Financial problems at the newspaper were also shown to have an effect on the marketing,

circulation, and advertising departments as well. All three participants from these sections said









that budget cuts had led to staff reductions in their departments and that fewer resources were

available for them to promote the product. Norbert Ortiz, the circulation director, said that in

order to be successful, and increase circulation, the paper must invest money in itself. Based on

the interviews, the newspaper should avoid making any further cost-cutting efforts in any of

these areas. Otherwise, they face further circulation declines. This relates to urban growth

because population increases mean that there are more potential customers coming into the

region. However, if the paper does not invest in a campaign to reach those new residents, the

potential readers will not utilize the newspaper as a source for local information.

Circulation

The interviews revealed that growth has had an inverse effect on The Sentinel's circulation

during the last few years. The literature shows that while the area's population dramatically

increased throughout the 1990s and early 21st century, the paper's circulation numbers have not

kept pace. Several reasons were provided by the participants for this trend. One common one

was that those people moving into the Orlando area are not typical newspaper readers. Several

participants said that traditional newspaper readers are older people with families who own

homes. They cited the area's rising youth population and large number of apartment renters as

the cause of this circulation trend. To counter this trend, The Sentinel should develop new

marketing and promotional techniques aimed at increasing readership among the non-traditional

demographics that are moving into Orlando. Also, a greater emphasis should be placed on the

newspaper's online content to encourage younger area residents to get into the habit of reading

the newspapers content. Circulation Director Norbert Ortiz said that the paper needs to develop a

way to encourage readers to use both products. Gary Winters, the marketing services director,

said that circulation plays a crucial role in recruiting national advertisers into the paper because









advertisers are interested in knowing how large the paper's "reach" is. Thus, the higher the

circulation, the more ad revenue that can be generated.

Relevancy

Eight of the participants cited relevant content as an important factor in a growing region's

content. Most of the participants who mentioned relevant content said that The Sentinel must

continue to write stories that are relevant to the changing demographics. While this attempt at

relevancy may require expanding the depth and breadth of coverage, it is encouraged because

readers will find greater value in the product and continue to subscribe to the paper or read its

online content.

Demographics

Nearly all of the participants said the area's demographics have changed as a result of

growth. Most of the long-time Sentinel employees said the growth of the Hispanic community

has most dramatically altered the community and the newspaper's staff and coverage. Debbie

Salamone, a government editor, said a few years ago it was difficult to find a Spanish-speaking

staff member. Now, Dana Eagles, the staff development editor, said, minority candidates are

preferred because of their ability to communicate with a larger percentage of the population. The

newspaper should continue to hire minority staff members to better reflect the committee it

covers. Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall said that the newsroom should be a reflection of the

community. The interviews suggest that The Sentinel is working to achieve this, but still has a

ways to go before it becomes truly representative of the Orlando community.

Localized Focus

Both reporters and several of the editors who participated in the study said that they have

seen an increased demand for local coverage. Reader Representative Manning Pynn said that this

demand represents a paradigm shift for the newspaper. He said that as the area continued to grow









in population and diversity, the newspaper began to see itself as a metropolitan newspaper and,

as such, it required the newspaper to expand its content offerings. However, Pynn said the paper

has begun to retarget its focus on local issues in recent years. While he said that this has been a

nationwide trend, he also said that local readers want more local coverage of their communities.

Deputy Online Editor John Cutter emphasized the website's ability for local content because of

community journalists and bloggers. Several participants said that the newspaper should be the

information source for local news because readers can find national and international news on

television and online. This local focus should be continued. Since the reporters and editors are

most familiar with the Orlando area, their frame of reference for coverage certainly has a local

bias.

Newsroom Organization

The interviews revealed that The Sentinel has experienced two major newsroom

reorganizations during the last two years. While neither one of the reorganizations resulted in a

mass layoff of reporters, the editing staff was cut by almost one-third. These reorganizations

were the result of growing economic and financial pressures on the newspaper. Charlotte Hall,

The Sentinel's editor in chief, said that the reorganizations were done to make the newsroom

more reflective of the changing community and to place greater emphasis on certain beats, such

as growth. They can also be attributed to the inverse effect on the newspaper's circulation and

advertising revenue that occurred as a result of growth and the changing demographics of the

community. However, the interviews suggest that the lower-level staff members are wary of such

reorganization effort. The paper should space out large reorganization efforts over longer periods

of time to avoid staff fatigue.









Staffing

Dana Eagles, the staff development editor, went into great detail about how growth has

affected the newspaper's hiring, recruitment, and staff development programs. He said that

because The Sentinel is the only large newspaper in the market, and when a position becomes

available he often has to look outside of Orlando to find qualified candidates to fill open

positions at the newspaper. To attract top candidates to the newspaper, The Sentinel should target

its recruitment efforts at areas facing similar growth as Orlando because he wants to bring people

familiar with growth issues to Orlando. This type of recruitment of new staff members would

ensure that the new hire was familiar with growth-related issues and prepared to cover stories

with a growth-related emphasis. Other participants in this study cited growth as a contributing

factor to the newspaper's budget cuts, which has directly led to the reduction of the number of

newsroom employees, such as editors. Charlotte Hall, editor in chief, said the newspaper has

tried to preserve the number of reporters on staff by reshuffling them within the new newsroom

structure rather than directly laying them off. The Sentinel may wish to consider another staff

reorganization effort to guarantee that important growth-related issues are being adequately

covered by the staff. Another reorganization could also encourage reporters and editors to

continue their emphasis on growth.

Another key issue raised regarding staffing at The Sentinel was the decline of the paper's

bureau system. Several participants said The Sentinel had closed a number of its bureaus in

various counties throughout the coverage area. These include the suburban bureaus in Orange

County, the bureau in Daytona Beach, and the Haines City Bureau in Polk County. While the

cost-saving efforts of these closings are understandable, the paper must be sure to continue to

cover these areas to encourage more circulation and readership.









Analysis of "Local In-Depth"

The content analysis of The Sentinel's "Local In-Depth" section supported what many of

the participants talked about during their interviews. For example, several of the participants

cited an emphasis on local stories in the newspaper. All of the stories in "Local In-Depth" have a

local or regional focus toward Central Florida. Other participants said that growth has become a

significant topic and focus of news coverage in The Sentinel. All of the stories in "Local In-

Depth" address a growth-related issue and cover a wide range of topics, including environmental

concerns, property taxes, recycling, technological advancements, and other demographic

concerns such as race, gender, and age. This type of content should be encouraged in the

newspaper. Not only are the stories written in a clear, explanatory way, but they break down

complex issues in an easy-to-understand fashion. Debbie Salamone said the paper cut its growth

beat reporter because it is a difficult beat to cover and is often viewed as "boring and

complicated." If The Sentinel decides to bring back the growth beat, the reporter should be

encouraged to cover growth issues in a similar fashion.

Implications for Planning

Though this study did not involve any urban planners, its results do present some alarming

findings for the planning profession. Based on the data collected, it is clear that urban growth

does affect newspapers. However, many planning professionals rely on newspapers as a means

of communicating with the public. Often, public services announcements and other announced

changes to local regulations and growth management plans are announced in the newspaper. This

presents two potential problems. First, if more and more people are relying on the Internet for

information, they are not seeing the printed government ads announcing meetings, proposed

changes, etc. Second, if fewer people are reading the newspaper, are planners are successful in

making sure that the public is well informed about local issues? If newspapers continue to see a









decline in circulation, planners should consider alternative ways to communicate with the public.

Habermas' Communicative Planning Theory should be adjusted to meet this cultural shift.

These geographic and cultural changes resulting from growth are important for planners to

understand. Planners rely on an informed and active citizenry as part of their day-to-day jobs. If

the public is not engaging in the primary type of media consumption that planners use to relay

information, there becomes an efficiency issue. Having an informed public is crucial for

democracy on any level to succeed.

Another planning-related topic that comes out of this data is the notion of cultural

geography and newspaper readership. Just because cities grow physically and geographically, the

culture does not necessarily follow suit. Jerry Fallstrom, The Sentinel's Lake County Bureau

editor, said Orlando's sphere of influence has grown to incorporate Lake County, but Lake

County still considers itself a separate entity. This cultural identification pattern is crucial for

newspapers and planners to understand. Planners must work on a regional level in order to

achieve cohesiveness. Newspapers must understand this cultural shifts within their coverage

region in order to market their product and plan news coverage.

Development of Theory

This study examines the effects of urban growth on newspapers through the use of several

mass communications and urban planning theories, including Putnam's (2000) Social Capital

Theory, Gerbner and Gross's Cultivation Theory (1976), Shoemaker and Reese's Media

Organization Theory (1996), Habermas' Communicative Planning Theory (1984), and Lucy's

Broad Based Planning Theory (1988).

Based on the interviews, several of the participants discussed the newspaper's role in

developing a sense of community in the Orlando area. Particularly, Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall

said that the newspaper should try to cover "all of the community," even though she also said the









newspaper focuses its coverage toward the interests of its core readership educated, wealthy,

whites. This role of community builder plays well into Putnam's Social Capital Theory (2000),

which suggests that members of the public feel more socially connected to their communities

when they read the local newspaper. Other editors agreed with Hall that it is the newspaper's role

to help create a sense of community, particularly in a "community in formation" such as

Orlando. However, none of the participants were able to adequately describe how the newspaper

actually does this. So while Putnam's theory states that newspaper readers have more social

capital, newspaper staff members are unable to describe how their work actually encourages this.

Gerbner and Gross' Cultivation Theory (1976) deals with television viewership but can be

applicable to newspaper readers as well. It suggests that exposure to media coverage, over time,

changes the audience's perceptions of reality. All of the reporters and editors that participated in

this study said growth has become a central focus at The Sentinel and several said that it is the

area's defining characteristic. Although this study did not examine audience response to the

newspaper's growth coverage, there is a possibility that The Sentinel's coverage of growth

promotes a certain view of growth. Further research is needed to draw any conclusions.

Based on the interviews, Shoemaker and Reese's newsroom organization theory (1996)

proves true at The Orlando Sentinel. The theory suggests that newsrooms are organized to reflect

society. All of the top-tier editors that participated in the study, including the editor in chief, staff

development editor, and managing editor, said that the newspaper's two recent staff

reorganizations were attempts at making the newsroom more reflective of the area's changing

populace and as a result of growth. Charlotte Hall said because growth has been such an impetus

in the Orlando region, the newsroom needed to be restructured to make growth a more

widespread topic at the newspaper.









Habermas' Communicative Planning Theory (1984) states that urban planners should

communicate with the public about issues in planning policy and practice. However, none of the

participants in the study directly mentioned using the paper as a means of helping urban

planners. However, Government Editor Debbie Salamone said the "Local In-Depth" section has

been used as a means of explaining growth topics, such as community redevelopment agencies,

to the readers. An October 22, 2007, story titled "Governments turn to CRAs to pay for a better

future" did just that (Sherman, 2007). Since none of the participants directly mentioned The

Sentinel as a medium for government planners to address the public, there was no direct

contribution to Habermas' theory.

Lucy's Broad-based Planning Theory (1988) also emphasized public involvement in the

planning process. Again, since none of the participants directly cited The Sentinel as a means of

promoting public involvement in the planning process, it is difficult to draw any conclusions

about the newspaper's contribution to this theory. But, since some of the participants said that

part of their job is to educate the public on growth issues, it can be assumed that this could

potentially influence public participants. Again, further analysis of audience response to growth

coverage is needed to make any further conclusions in those areas.

Development of Grounded Theory

The purpose of this study was to develop theory regarding the effects of urban growth on

newspapers by specifically focusing on the Orlando area and The Orlando Sentinel. While this

study presents a relatively limited view of the effects of growth on newspapers, it did provide

significant data about how a newspaper in a high-growth area has been affected. While the

theory posited below is indicative of a high-growth area, other newspapers in different parts of

the county may be experiencing similar results. For example, The Detroit Free-Press, in Detroit,

MI, may have been affected by the decline of the American auto industry and the resulting









decline in the city's economy. Though it may not be affected by growth in the same way as The

Sentinel has, it probably has been affected in some way. Las Vegas, another American urban area

that has seen significant urban growth in recent years, may have led to similar effects as Orlando

on the newspaper there.

Based on the interviews, the following theory can be posited: urban growth will have an

effect on newspapers located in urban areas. However, each newspaper will be affected by

growth in different ways and will respond to that growth in a way that the newspaper believes

best reflects their individual community. Thus, there is not a definitive answer on how

newspapers should respond to growth. As shown with the examples of Detroit and Las Vegas,

different urban areas experience growth at different rates. Cities could be experiencing positive

growth (population increases, new construction, etc.) or they could experience negative growth

(decreases in population, recessive economy, etc.). Thus, it is difficult to make specific

conclusions about the effects of growth on newspapers based on this analysis of The Orlando

Sentinel. A broad approach to this theory to encompass newspapers in all types of urban areas is

needed to address the varying growth trends across the country.

The interviews gathered in this study suggest that a newspaper located in a fast-growing

area may have to alter its hiring process and newsroom organization more frequently to address

the changing demographics in the community. For example, Orlando has seen significant growth

in the Hispanic community. As a result, Debbie Salamone mentioned how The Sentinel has

worked to hire more minority candidates to better cover this demographic shift. This is evident

by the number of "Local In-Depth" stories dedicated to the Hispanic community. Of the 71

articles, five of the stories dealt with the Hispanic community, including Victor Manuel Ramos'

April 9, 2007, story called "Immigrants see Florida as a path to American dream" (2007). It also









suggests that growth is a major issue in high-growth areas and should thus be a major focus in

almost any type of story, including crime, education, the economy, etc. The "Local In-Depth"

section as a whole is one response to growth. Mark Skoneki also cited The Sentinel's coverage of

the venues project in downtown Orlando as one way of growth fueling a government story.

These stories have been written by multiple authors and can be found under the "Downtown

Makover" section of orlandosentinel.com.

Limitations to the Study

One limitation of this study was that the interviews were conducted over several months

rather than in a short, consecutive period of time. During the four-month span in which the

interviews took place, several events occurred nationally and in the Orlando area that dominated

local news coverage and were constant examples used during the interviews. For example, those

participants whose interviews took place in December 2007 and January 2008 highlighted

Florida's upcoming primary elections as an example of the newspaper's coverage. The primary

also led to an increase in government-related examples from staff members. Participants whose

interviews occurred in February and March often focused on the area's slowing economy and the

decline in the housing market as their primary examples. This may have skewed the data since

elections and the economy may have different growth-related implications. Had the interviews

been conducted closer together, the examples used by participants may have been more cohesive

rather than disjointed.

Also, since most of the participants in the study were white, a greater emphasis on

recruiting minority participants would have been helpful. The researcher could have also

contacted more former employees. Other demographic challenges faced in this study include a

skewed number of staff members on the editorial side of the newspaper. Of the 18 participants,









15 of them were current or former editorial staff members. Only three were from the

business/advertising/marketing side of the paper's operations.

Further Research

Any subject related to urban development and media studies is strongly encouraged since

the current body of literature is relatively sparse in this area. There are a number of different

types of studies that could arise based on these topics. These include: content analyses to

determine the representation of growth by the media; content analyses of urban planning-related

stories to see if the media portrays growth in a positive or negative light; other qualitative studies

could be conducted with urban planners to better understand their view of the media's coverage

of growth and other growth-related issues/effects.

In terms of growth effects on newspapers, a comparative study focusing on a newspaper in

a different region of the country would be beneficial to see if the trends found at The Sentinel are

replicated in other areas of the county. Other comparative studies that examine newspapers in

slow-growth or no-growth areas could also be conducted to see how negative growth affects

newspapers in those areas.

A content analysis of The Sentinel's, or any other newspaper, coverage of growth could be

conducted to determine if newspapers take a pro- or anti-growth stance in their pages. Also, a

survey of newspaper readers could reveal changes made in reader perceptions about growth. This

could contribute to the Cultivation Theory that suggests that with more exposure, the audience's

perception of reality will change.















APPENDIX A
ORLANDO SENTINEL COVERAGE AREA





Orlando Sentinel coverage area


In addition to its main office downtown, the Orlando Sentinel has bureaus
throughout a six-county coverage area in east Central Florida (with city names
in blue). The newspaper also has bureaus in Tallahassee, Miami, Kennedy Space
Center, Washington, D.C. and San Juan, Puerto Rico.


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APPENDIX B
IRB FORMS


Title of Protocol: Newspapers and Urban Growth: How an Old Medium Responds
to a Growing Trend

Principal Investigator: Gordon Van UFID #: 4978-9190
Owen
Degree / Title: MAMC Mailing Address:
2338 N.W. 38th Ave. #305

Gainesville, FL 32605
Department: Journalism
Email Address & Telephone Number:

Editor02@ufl.edu, (407) 375-7106
Co-Investigator(s): UFID#:

Supervisor: Johanna Cleary UFID#:

Degree / Title: PhD, Assistant Professor Mailing Address:
3062 Weimer Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611
Department: Telecommunications Email Address & Telephone Number:
jcleary@jou.ufl.edu, (352) 846-0226


Date of Proposed Research: March/April 2008

Source of Funding (A copy of the grant proposal must be submitted 1 ith this protocol if
funding is involved):

N/A
Scientific Purpose of the Study:
To analyze the impacts of urban growth on modern mass media, specifically
newspapers.









Describe the Research Methodology in Non-Technical Language: (Explain what will
be done i ith or to the research participant.)
Qualitative, in-depth interviews will be conducted with staff members of The
Orlando Sentinel. Each participant will be asked a series of questions about how the
area's growth has influenced the newspaper's business and staffing decisions as well
as influences its print and online content. Participants will include reporters,
editors, and other newspaper staff members.


Describe Potential Benefits and Anticipated Risks: (If risk of physical, psychological
or economic harm may be involved, describe the steps taken to protect participant.)
There are no benefits for participating in this study other than to further promote
social science research. There is no harm to participants for associating with this
study.


Describe How Participant(s) Will Be Recruited, the Number and AGE of the
Participants, and Proposed Compensation:
The researcher will start with the staff directory on The Orlando Sentinel's website.
The researcher will call the Sentinel's office to arrange interview times with the
participants. Each participant will be asked to sign an informed consent form.
Approximately 20 interviews will be conducted, but that number may change
depending on developing research questions and unexpected discoveries throughout
the interview process. No more than 30 interviews will be conducted. The
participants are working professionals and may range in age from their mid-20s to
their 60s.

Describe the Informed Consent Process. Include a Copy of the Informed Consent
Document:
Prior to each interview date, the researcher will e-mail a copy of the informed
consent forms to each participant so that they may read over it. Then, on the
interview date, the researcher will present each participant with a copy of the
informed consent forms and ask them to sign it before the interview begins.

Principal Investigator(s) Signature: Supervisor Signature:




Department Chair/Center Director Date:
Signature:










APPENDIX C
SAMPLE E-MAIL SENT TO PARTICIPANTS

Date:

Dear (recipient),

My name is Gordon Van Owen, and I am master's student at the University of Florida. I am
currently working on my thesis, which focuses on how Orlando's urban growth has impacted The
Orlando Sentinel. I am writing to see if you would be willing to participate in a brief, in-person
interview to talk about your role at The Sentinel in covering Orlando's growth and what the
newspaper has done as a result of that growth.

The information shared during the interview may be kept anonymous if you so choose, and no
identifying information will be used in the data. I would like to audio record the interview to
insure accuracy. There is no compensation for participating in this study, and your participation
is completely voluntary and you are free to withdraw from the study at any time.

As (recipient's job title) for Orlando Sentinel Communications, your role at the paper and your
perspective on growth impacts is crucial. I believe that the insight you can provide because of
your position at the paper would be invaluable for my study. I will be home, in Orlando, for the
holidays and my schedule is wide open. I realize that as an editor, time is of the essence for you,
thus I am making myself available to fit your busy schedule.

I appreciate your consideration on this matter and understand that your schedule may not permit
an in-person interview. If you are not available, is there anyone else at the paper you would
recommend for me to speak with?

Again, I appreciate your time on this matter. I read The Sentinel's online newspaper every day
from Gainesville and always look forward to reading the newspaper's growth-related stories and
the neighborhood blogs. As a nearly life-long Orlando resident, I've seen firsthand how the city
has changed over the years, and now, as a future journalist myself, I appreciate how much work
journalists such as your self put in on a daily basis.

If you have any questions about your rights as a participant, please contact UF's IRB02 office at
P.O. Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250 or by phone at (352) 392-0433.

Sincerely,

Gordon Van Owen
Master's Student
University of Florida
College of Journalism and Communications









APPENDIX D
SAMPLE INFORMED CONSENT FORM

Please read this document carefully before you decide to participate in this study.
Protocol Title: Newspapers and Urban Growth: How an Old Medium Responds to a New Trend


Purpose of the research study:
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of urban growth on The Orlando Sentinel.


What you will be asked to do in the study:
You will be engaged in an in-depth interview with the researcher. The interviews should last
roughly one hour to two hours, and will be conducted in a place of your choice to guarantee
comfort and familiarity. You will be asked a series of warm-up and clarification questions.
Following those basic questions, the researcher will then ask you a series of questions to gauge
your feelings on urban growth in the Orlando area and how that growth has impacted The
Orlando Sentinel. At times, you may be asked to clarify your answer so that the researcher can
guarantee accuracy in his report. Following the interview, you may be asked to clarify any points
the researchers may be unclear or unsure about. This step is to assure accuracy.


Time required:
1 to 2 hours


Risks and Benefits:
The researcher does not intend for there to be any risks in association with this study. The
researcher does not anticipate that you will benefit directly by participating in this study.


Compensation:
There is no compensation for participating in this study.


Confidentiality:
Your identity will be kept confidential if you wish it to be so. Since this study is grounded in
qualitative research methods, knowing your name and title will provide validation to the
information you provide based on your level of expertise and years in the field. Your name may
be used in the final report.


Voluntary participation:
Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating
in this study.











Right to withdraw from the study:
You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence.


Whom to contact if you have questions about the study:
Gordon Van Owen, Master's Student, Department of Journalism, College of Journalism and
Communications, the University of Florida, G035 Weimer Hall, Gainesville; E-mail:
editor02@ufl.edu; Phone: 407-375-7106.
You may also contact Dr. Johanna Cleary, Assistant Professor, College of Journalism and
Communications, the University of Florida, 3062 Weimer Hall, Gainesville; E-mail:
jcleary@jou.ufl.edu; Phone: 352-846-0226.


Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study:
IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; Phone 392-0433.


Agreement:
I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the study, and I
have received a copy of this description.
Participant: Date:


Principal Investigator: Date:










APPENDIX E
SAMPLE INTERVIEW PROTOCOL

Participant: Dana Eagles, recruitment and staff development editor, The Orlando Sentinel
Date of Interview: Dec. 18, 2007
Location of Interview: Eagles' office at The Orlando Sentinel newsroom in downtown Orlando.
Setting: Private office with door closed. Shades open on window overlooking the newsroom.


Guide/Questions:

Begin by explaining the study to the participant and asking them to sign the informed

consent form. Explain that by signing the form, they agree to participate in the study.

As summary questions as needed. For example, ask about their tenure at The Sentinel,

professional background, duties, etc. These questions can be used as an ice breaker.

In your own words, explain your day-to-day duties at The Sentinel.

How do you define "urban growth"?

In your opinion, how has Orlando's urban growth impacted The Sentinel?

What role do you believe The Sentinel plays in building social capital in Orlando?

Has The Sentinel made any changes to hiring process in response to urban growth?

Could you please explain those changes?

Do you perceive these changes as positive or negative for the newspaper? Explain.

What types of changes have been made among the editorial staff/staff structure?

What is your role within The Sentinel's current business model and how does that

position correlate to these growth-related issues?

How has urban growth effected the types of staff development and training programs you

implement here at The Sentinel?









APPENDIX F
THE PARTICIPANTS

Charlotte Hall is the editor in chief of The Orlando Sentinel. She has been with the

newspaper since 2004. Prior to working at The Sentinel, Hall was the vice president of planning

for Newsday in Long Island, NY. She is in charge of all of the news gathering at the newspaper,

which includes all of the reporters, copy editors, editors, photographers, and graphic artists.

Jane Healy is the editorial page editor at The Orlando Sentinel. She has been with The

Sentinel since 1973 and has worked as a metro reporter, editorial writer, managing editor, and

editorial page editor. She won the Pulitzer Prize in 1988 for her series "Florida's Shame," which

focused on Central Florida's growth and environment.

Mark Russell is the managing editor of The Orlando Sentinel and is in charge of the day-to-

day operations of the newsroom and the newspaper's content. He has been with The Sentinel

since 2004.

Steve Doyle is a 27-year employee at The Sentinel and is currently the associate managing

editor for content development. He is in charge of the editorial data and information desk, as well

as the coordinator for editorial technology. He has also worked as the sports, business, and

features section editor.

Bob Shaw is the national/state editor at The Sentinel and is in charge of the newspaper's

bureaus in Washington, D.C., Tallahassee, and Miami. He also oversees the reporters in charge

of covering NASA, hurricanes, and two state rovers. He has been with The Sentinel for seven

years.

Jerry Fallstrom is an editor at The Sentinel's Lake County Bureau. He is responsible for

coordinating the bureau's coverage of county government as well as coverage of nearby Marion

and Sumter counties and he has been with the newspaper for 15 years.









Mark Skoneki is a government editor at The Orlando Sentinel and has been with the

newspaper for 19 years. He works with the team of reporters that covers Orlando and Orange

County politics, as well as the environment, transportation, and military affairs.

Debbie Salamone is a government editor with The Orlando Sentinel and is in charge of the

"Local and State" section of the paper and is the coordinator of the weekly "Local In-Depth"

section. She has been with The Sentinel for 20 years.

John Cutter is the deputy online editor for onlandsentinel.com and has been with the

newspaper for three years. He is in charge of updating the website throughout the day. He is the

first editor in the newsroom each morning. Cutter also helps coordinate The Sentinel's

multimedia packages.

Mark Schlueb is the Orlando government reporter for The Orlando Sentinel. His coverage

focuses specifically on government in the city of Orlando. He has been a reporter at The Sentinel

since 2001.

Beth Kassab is a business reporter and columnist for The Orlando Sentinel. Her columns

focus on the business community in Orlando, as well as growth and development. She has been

with the newspaper for about seven years.

Manning Pynn was the reader representative for The Orlando Sentinel and began his career

at the newspaper in the 1960s, when he worked as an assistant to the then owner/publisher

Martin Andersen. He left the paper for a few years, and returned for good in 1983. He became

reader representative in 2001 and retired in March 2008.

Dana Eagles is the staff development editor and is in charge of recruiting new staff and

coordinating the paper's internship and staff-development programs. He also plans all of the









paper's staff recognition programs. Part of his duties includes attending job fairs to recruit. He

has been in this position for about seven years.

Norbert Ortiz is the circulation director at The Orlando Sentinel and is in charge of growing

and managing the newspaper's circulation. His office also oversees customer service, billing, and

delivery of the newspaper. He has been with The Sentinel for 10 months.

Lisa Bridges is the product marketing manager. She and her team market the newspaper

through billboards, signs, print advertisements, e-mail marketing, etc. She has been with the

newspaper for 10 years.

Gary Winters oversees the Marketing Services team at The Orlando Sentinel and is in

charge of marketing the newspaper to national advertisers, including department stores, auto

dealerships, etc. He has worked for The Sentinel for 26 years.

Sean Holton retired from The Orlando Sentinel in June 2007 after 20 years at the paper.

When he retired, he was the associated managing editor for metropolitan news. He had also

worked as an investigative reporter and national correspondent.

Christine Dellert is a former reporter at The Sentinel's Lake and Volusia County Bureaus.

She began her career with The Sentinel as a student intern while at the University of Central

Florida. She was the lead reporter of the Trenton Duckett case in 2006. She left The Sentinel

after 15 months as an employee in 2007.









APPENDIX G
THE SENTINEL'S CODE OF ETHICS


The Orlando Sentinel's Editorial Code of Ethics (Revised 2006)

Journalists' obligation to serve the public by pursuing and reporting the truth independently is
more than a lofty principle it is the very foundation of our daily work. Our success as a news
organization depends absolutely on our credibility, which we maintain by gathering and
presenting the news vigorously; by making decisions that are as free as possible of influence
from self-interest or special interests; and by conducting ourselves in ways that earn the trust of
our community.

This Editorial Code of Ethics for the Orlando Sentinel, incorporating Tribune Publishing's Code
of Editorial Principles, can help to safeguard our credibility. It applies to all Editorial staff
members, including those in administrative or clerical roles. By following its guidelines and
openly discussing ethical issues as they emerge, each of us can take responsibility for protecting
the Sentinel's reputation as a reliable and trustworthy source of information.

1. Conflicts of Interest

Memberships. Editorial staffers should not have membership in, any financial relationship with,
or other ties to a business or institution if they have regular and continuing influence over any
aspect of coverage of the organization. They should avoid situations in which their activities in
connection with any group or cause could be perceived as influencing what the Sentinel
publishes or broadcasts.

Political activities. Political organizations present particular challenges. Donor lists are public
information, so there are no "private" donations to a party or cause. For that reason and because
it would be impractical to police exceptions no Editorial staffer, whether involved in political
coverage or not, may donate to or be active in such groups.

Family and personal relationships. Editorial staffers should avoid involvement in stories
dealing with family members and close friends and the businesses or causes in which friends and
relatives take part.

Investments. Reporters, columnists and editorial writers should not write about companies or
industries in which they or their family members have an investment, nor should they invest in
companies or industries about which they report or write regularly. Similarly, editors should not
make news decisions about companies or industries in which they or their family members have
an investment. When recusing themselves is impractical, they should ask another editor to
review their decisions. Editorial staffers may invest in mutual funds if the funds are not limited
to the industries about which they make news decisions. In no case should financial information
being gathered for publication be used for personal gain.









Gifts and meals. No Editorial staffer should accept any gift or discount of material value offered
because of the employee's journalistic responsibilities. This includes promotional items, meals,
and tickets to theme parks and shows. Gifts arriving by mail should be returned with a note of
explanation. Staffers may accept a cup of coffee or an inexpensive lunch from a source, however,
provided that the staffer can return the favor. A reporter covering a banquet or similar event may
accept a free soft drink or an hors d'oeuvre but should arrange to pay for a meal. Reporters
covering a news conference where food is served should use their best judgment. If there is no
way to pay for the meal at the time, the reporter should attempt to pay for it later.

Admission to events. Staffers may accept free admission to events they are assigned to cover but
should never insist on free entry; the company will reimburse them for ticket charges. Working
journalists also may accept passes to special facilities, such as press boxes or press tables, for
which tickets are not sold. Staffers who are not covering an event should not accept tickets from
publicists even if they pay for them because doing so can create the appearance of special
treatment.

Review copies. Books, CDs, DVDs, video games, software and similar products sent to the
Sentinel for review are considered news handouts. They may be used by beat writers for review
or for office reference. Those not kept for these purposes should be donated to libraries or to
charitable organizations, not added to staffers' personal collections.

Personal gain. Editorial staffers must not use their job Terms, professional connections,
business cards or letterhead for personal advantage, whether to obtain tickets to a show, settle a
dispute or obtain a price break. Discounts made available by the company to all employees may
be accepted, however, because they are widely available to employees of large companies.

Confidential information. Staff members have access to information that must be held in
confidence to prevent other news organizations from beating the Sentinel on a story or to
otherwise protect the company's interests. Confidential information may include such things as
notes and other research material; unpublished stories, editorials and images; the names of
anonymous sources; preprinted advertising; and personnel or financial information. In general,
company business should not be discussed with outsiders unless it is necessary for the
performance of the job, and discretion should be used in sharing information within the
company. Reporters may, of course, discuss information gathered for a story in order to verify it
or to get reaction from other sources.

Contests and awards. Staffers should not enter contests sponsored by trade or advocacy groups
- even if those contests are administered by a journalism organization or school because they
may exist primarily to promote those groups' agendas. The Editorial Department maintains a list
of approved national, regional and state contests whose central purpose is to recognize
journalistic excellence. Staffers who want to enter contests not on the list must first obtain the
permission of the Managing Editor or Editorial Page Editor. Staff members also should refrain
from accepting unsolicited awards from trade or advocacy organizations.

Disclosure of conflicts. When conflicts of interest are unavoidable but not obvious to readers,
they should be disclosed in the story. The Sentinel should cover its own businesses and its parent









company as it would any other business, but in stories about the finances of Tribune Co., for
example, a sentence explaining that Tribune owns the Sentinel should be included.

Collaboration with Advertising. It is appropriate for the Editorial and Advertising departments
to work together to build audiences and, by extension, the company's financial strength, but
never in a way that would give advertisers an opportunity to influence news coverage. Editors
also may work with marketing, circulation or other departments to improve the newspaper's
business, but they should never do anything that could jeopardize the integrity of the news
report.

Legal troubles of staff members. The Sentinel should report on the legal troubles of its own
employees promptly and fairly, using the same standards of newsworthiness applied to others.
There should never be the suggestion of a cover-up to keep the spotlight off a Sentinel staff
member who is charged with a crime when it would have been focused on others in similar
circumstances.

2. Outside Activities

Ownership of work. All ideas, research, notes and other work that staffers produce on company
time, whether text or images, belong to the company. This material may not be sold to another
publication or news service without permission of the Editor or the Editorial Page Editor.
Syndication of work or the publication of books based on information gathered on Sentinel time
also must be approved in advance by the Editor or Editorial Page Editor.

Freelancing. Staffers may perform freelance work on their own time, provided that the Sentinel
receives their first and best efforts. Staffers should consider only media that exhibit high
journalistic standards. Freelance assignments must be individually approved in advance by the
Managing Editor or Editorial Page Editor, and several basic criteria must be met before approval
will be considered. The proposed freelance assignment must not:

Appear in any medium that competes directly with any Orlando Sentinel
Communications or Tribune Co. business.
Allow another news outlet to "scoop" the Sentinel.
Be published or broadcast by any organization that the journalist covers or one that has
the Sentinel as its client for that particular project.
Interfere with the staffer's Sentinel duties, create the appearance of a conflict of interest or
compromise the staffer's professional reputation.

Staffers who pursue approved freelance assignments should keep their freelancing separate from
their Sentinel work, and sources should be clearly told for whom the work is being done.

Television and radio appearances. Because the Sentinel produces broadcast programming in
partnership with television and radio stations, appearances in all non-Sentinel programs must be
approved in advance by the Managing Editor or Editorial Page Editor. Broadcast appearances
must meet the freelancing criteria found above. In addition, editors will consider the promotional
value that the appearance may have for the Sentinel.









Personal Web publishing. Staffers who operate their own Web sites or publish personal blogs
must not post information on topics they cover for the Sentinel. They also should be mindful that
their personal postings can affect their credibility as journalists and, by extension, the Sentinels
credibility as a news organization. Thus, they should avoid postings that reveal personal biases or
that otherwise compromise their professionalism.

3. Accuracy and Integrity

Breaking the law. Editorial staffers will not engage in illegal activities in pursuit of news, and
editors will not encourage or tolerate illegal behavior.

Fabrication. Fabrication has no place in journalism and will not be tolerated. To guard against
confusion, fictional and satirical writing should be clearly labeled if there could be any doubt in
readers' minds about whether such writing deals with real events and persons.

Plagiarism. Plagiarism the taking of wording or ideas from another person or organization
without attribution is a cardinal sin of journalism and will not be tolerated. When original
information, quotes, ideas and distinctive language from other sources are used in our reports,
they should clearly be attributed. Sentences or paragraphs taken from wire stories should be
attributed either within the text or by a shirttail explaining that wire services were used in
compiling the report.

Deception in reporting. Misrepresenting one's identity to get information is generally
unacceptable, although there may be occasional exceptions. A restaurant critic, for example, may
need to make reservations under an alias. Reporters who contact news sources with the intention
of gathering material for a story should be candid about who they are and what they are doing.

Fictitious names. The use of a fictitious name to protect a subject's privacy should be used only
as a last resort. In these rare cases, the use of the pseudonym must be explained to readers and
approved by the Managing Editor.

Posing and alteration of photographs. Photographers must not stage or direct the content of
news photographs or alter the elements of a news scene. This does not preclude a reasonable
degree of posing in non-news situations or the art direction of studio photographs. Once taken, a
photo must not be altered in any way that turns it into something the photographer did not see in
the viewfinder. Changes must be limited to standard quality adjustments applied by imaging
technicians.

Photo illustrations. The combination of photography and illustration to create a "photo
illustration" is acceptable in cases in which the subject matter is complex, abstract or difficult to
convey through documentary photography. However, all photo illustrations must contain an
element of the absurd so exaggerated that the image could not be confused with a documentary
photo. These pieces must be labeled as photo illustrations, and their use must be approved by a
supervising design or photo editor.









Datelines. A dateline should be used only when the bylined reporter has gathered information at
that location. It must never be used in a way that misleads the reader about where the reporter
has traveled for the story.

Excerpts. With proper attribution, we may excerpt brief passages of books, articles and other
published works in reviews and in news stories about the work being excerpted. But when using
excerpts of more than a few lines from copyrighted works, we must first obtain permission from
the publisher.

Opinion. Expressing opinion is the privilege of columnists, critics and editorial writers. Other
Orlando Sentinel journalists must strive to avoid injecting opinion into their news reports. The
same principle applies to community speeches, blogs and broadcast appearances. A practical
guideline: If you wouldn't write it in your news story, don't say it in these other venues.

Correction of errors. When we publish information that is inaccurate or misleading, we will
make every effort to publish the correct information as quickly as possible and to prevent the
publication of similarly erroneous information in the future. The procedures and format for
correcting errors are detailed in the Corrections and Clarifications Policy.

4. Anonymous Sources

"On the record" is the rule. We attribute information we publish in the Sentinel so that readers
can judge for themselves the worth of what they read. We avoid attributing information to people
we cannot identify in print because doing so can undermine our credibility. Sometimes, however,
vital information cannot be attributed to identified sources. When we withhold a source's
identity, responsibility for the reliability of that information falls to the Sentinel rather than to the
person providing it.

To limit the use of anonymous sources, we should begin all interviews with the presumption that
they are on the record. No statements made on the record can be taken off the record
retroactively. We should not grant anonymity merely because someone asks for it, nor should we
offer anonymity unless it is a condition of receiving information we regard as vital.

Reporters and sources do not always agree on the definitions of terms used in source
negotiations, so we should use this common vocabulary and strive to ensure that sources
understand it:

On the record: Information can be published and attributed to identified individuals.

Background/not for attribution: Information can be published but not attributed to identified
individuals.

Deep background: Information can be published but not attributed to anyone. It also can be used
as the basis for further reporting if the source is not identified.









Off the record: Information cannot be published and cannot be used as the basis for further
reporting other than to guide the reporter.

Five considerations. Before publishing anonymous information, we should consider these
questions:

Does the importance of the article outweigh any potential damage to the newspaper's
credibility?
Is the information to be attributed to an anonymous source necessary?
Have all efforts to obtain the information from someone we can identify been exhausted?
Does the person providing the information have a legitimate reason for remaining
anonymous, and can we explain that reason in the story?
Are we certain that the person providing the information does not have an ulterior
motive?

Even when we can answer "yes" to all of these questions, we should follow these additional
guidelines in using anonymous sources:

We should resort to the use of anonymous sources only for vital never innocuous -
information, and only to provide information of which they have firsthand knowledge. We
should help the reader to evaluate the worth of the information by providing as much description
of the source as possible without revealing his or her identity; ensure that by shielding the
identity of one person we are not putting anyone else in jeopardy; make every effort to find
additional sources who are independent of one another to corroborate the information; and avoid
making an anonymous source the sole basis of a story.

Conversely, we should not allow someone whose identity we are protecting to level a personal
attack; allow the description of an anonymous source to be altered without consulting the
reporter who gathered the information and agreed to the anonymity; or refer anonymously to
other journalists unless they are the subjects of a news report.

Approval of editors. Reporters should obtain the approval of supervising editors before granting
anonymity. In cases where that is impractical, reporters should discuss the agreement with their
editors before writing the story. In any case, they must disclose the source's identity to their
editors, and sources who are granted anonymity must be informed of that requirement. Associate
Managing Editors are responsible for knowing the identity of anyone referred to anonymously in
a section for which they are responsible or in the reporting of anyone they oversee. The
approving editor's initials should appear in the copy in notes next to any reference to an
anonymous source, but the name of the source should not be entered into the computer system.
The Editor, Managing Editor or Editorial Page Editor must also approve the use of any
anonymous source.

Protection of anonymous sources. Any journalist promising a source anonymity should be
aware that he or she may face contempt-of-court penalties imposed by a judge if the journalist
refuses to comply with a court order to identify the source. It is the reporter's responsibility to









ensure that all parties involved in an agreement to protect someone's identity understand the level
of anonymity being granted and the conditions under which that agreement will not be honored.

Wire reports. We have less control over the use of anonymous sources in wire stories, but these
pieces should meet the same basic standards as staff-written stories. Any wire story relying on
anonymous sources must be of overriding importance to our readers. Information attributed to
anonymous sources must be necessary to the article, must not be available on the record and
must not contain personal attacks. Reports from other news organizations that rely on
anonymous sources should be limited to information that is plausible and to subjects on which
those organizations have access and expertise.

"Phantom" attribution. We should avoid attributing information to vague groups such as
"experts," "informed sources," "key officials," "knowledgeable sources," "observers" or
"onlookers." We should not refer to anonymous "sources" when, in fact, there is just one. We
should not refer anonymously to someone identified elsewhere in an article as if he or she is
more than one person. And we should avoid seeming to attribute information through use of
nebulous phrases such as "it is believed that" or "it is expected that."

5. Decency, Fairness and Privacy

Gruesome images. The newspaper, Web site and television segments we produce should be
sensitive in the depiction of uncovered dead bodies, particularly faces. Caution always is
required before publicizing vivid images of dying and death.

Children. Reporting on children poses special challenges. Children often are eager to talk and be
photographed, but they may have no idea of the potential consequences of having their names,
pictures and words in the newspaper, on the Web or on television. Whenever possible, we should
seek the approval of parents before interviewing, photographing or filming a child especially
when dealing with sensitive topics. Whether we have permission or not, we must always be
mindful that children are not responsible for their words or actions in the same way adults are.

Ambushing. "Ambushing" news sources should generally be avoided. Photographs or video
from such encounters often appear accusatory merely because the subject was caught off guard.

Surreptitious recording. Under some circumstances, Florida law prohibits the use of tape
recorders unless all parties consent to the recording of the conversation. Although there are times
that such consent is not necessary, legal advice should be sought before using hidden tape
recorders and cameras in gathering news, and such surreptitious use must be approved in
advance by the Editor.

Lack of response. Efforts to reach news sources should allow them reasonable time to respond,
even if it means delaying a report to include their comment.

"No comment." A "no comment" response from an individual in the news should be phrased
neutrally. The most neutral way to explain a person's desire not to be quoted in a news story is to
say the person "would not comment." The phrase "refused to comment" should be reserved for









situations in which the person questioned would be expected to respond to a serious allegation -
because of his or her office or role in the news event but purposely avoids doing so.

Quotations. Quotes may be shortened through the use of ellipses and other generally understood
and accepted editing devices, but editing should not distort the meaning of the person who is
quoted. If a quote includes a slur or a profanity, it should be used only when the value of the
story depends on it.

Names of sexual assault victims. With rare exceptions, we do not publish or broadcast the
names of sexual assault victims without their consent. Exceptions require the approval of the
Managing Editor or Editorial Page Editor.

Names of suspects. Generally, adult criminal suspects may be identified only when charges have
been filed and juveniles only if they have been charged as adults. Exceptions must be approved
by the Managing Editor or Editorial Page Editor.

Uncorroborated reports. We should not violate our own standards by publishing or
broadcasting uncorroborated reports about a person just because other organizations have done
so. The same applies to identifying people who have said they were sexually assaulted and have
been identified elsewhere.

Identification of race. Generally, a person's race belongs in a story only if reporters and editors
can articulate its relevance. The same principle applies to religion, ethnic origin and sexual
orientation.

Political candidates. Individuals running for public office open themselves to particularly close
media scrutiny. Reporters and their editors should consult regularly about which pieces of
information about the candidate are of sufficient importance to warrant publication.









APPENDIX H
MEMO FROM CHARLOTTE HALL

May 1, 2007
To: All
From: Charlotte Hall

This morning I announced a new organization for our newsroom and a reduction in staff
positions.

The new structure is a major step in transforming our newsroom for the digital and print worlds.
It will alter the way we do our work and enable us to move more rapidly. It will not change our
commitment to excellent journalism or our mission to serve readers with the most relevant and
credible news and information in Central Florida.

We also will have to eliminate about two dozen positions in the newsroom over the next month
to six weeks. We will offer a voluntary separation program in some areas. I hope that the
voluntary program, along with a handful of open positions, will allow us to keep involuntary
terminations to a minimum.

The new structure reflects the way we would build our newsroom if we were starting from
scratch today with our dual goals of increasing Web audience rapidly and maintaining newspaper
readership.

Our winning edge in the battle for audience will be our superiority in gathering local news for
different platforms. This means our priority will be keeping "feet on the street" reporters and
photographers. It also means we will flatten the management structure.

We would restructure our newsroom even if did not have to reduce our staff. Why? Because we
need to change the way we think and act so we can succeed in the new world, both in print and
online. We need to be quicker, less hierarchical, more entrepreneurial and more flexible. We
need to lead change, not resist it.

We are facing a watershed in the way readers and advertisers use media, certainly the most
difficult period in the history of American newspapers. This requires bold and sometimes painful
action to survive and prosper.

THE NEW NEWSROOM
We will divide the newsroom into teams that gather news and production desks that edit and
package the news. As the importance of digital media grows, we need to think of ourselves as a
continuous news and information engine, not as a "newspaper" organized along the lines of
traditional newspaper sections.

From the current Metro, Features, Business and National divisions, we will create five
newsgathering teams: the Public Service Team, the Breaking News Team, the Communities
Team, the How We Live Team and the Business and Consumer Team.










At the same time, we will consolidate news and features production to provide more flexibility
and efficiency. The Production Desk will be headed by Ann Hellmuth working with the merged
copy desk and three news editors one each for the A-section, the feature sections, and the local
and weekend news sections. The news editors will coordinate and choose stories for their
sections. We will also merge news and features design.

Kim Marcum will head the How We Live reporting team. Lisa Cianci will head the Business and
Consumer Team, which also will include health writers. Bonita Burton will lead Visuals,
including the merged design team. Lynn Hoppes will lead Sports, and Anthony Moor will lead
Online. We also will create a Data Team to help us build databases for the Web, and that team
will report to Steve Doyle and Anthony.

Associate Managing Editor/Metro Sean Holton has decided to leave the Sentinel after 20 years of
distinguished service. Sean is one of the great class acts in journalism, and we will sorely miss
his leadership, intelligence, honesty and creativity. I also want to thank him personally for his
support and guidance since I became editor in 2004. Sean[s last day will be June 1. Please see
the Newsroom Briefing page for a message from Russ and me about Sean. CONTINUED
BELOW

Orlando Sentinel cuts jobs, reorganizes newsroom 5/1/2007 1:49:35 PM

Today we will post jobs and begin seeking applicants to head the Public Service, Breaking News
and Communities teams.

After the team leaders are named next week, we will post other editing jobs. There will be fewer
editing jobs in the new structure, and all editors in areas affected by the reorganization will need
to apply for positions. The process will be open, without any preferred candidates. I encourage
people to think about trying something new. Some reporting beats also will be eliminated and
some new ones will be created, and we will post all available reporting jobs as well. The new
newsroom organization will take effect June 4, after the voluntary separation program ends.

WHAT ARE OUR GOALS?
As we have thought about the reorganization and the need to operate with a smaller newsroom,
three imperatives have guided us:

We must grow audience rapidly on the Web. That means changing the way we work. It means
gaining new skills and creating new beats. It means becoming a multimedia, 24/7 news
operation. It means creating new databases and managing user-generated content.

We must keep the newspaper strong. That means a sharper emphasis on watchdog journalism,
consumer journalism, unique local coverage, personally useful news, innovative storytelling and
provocative commentary. We must focus relentlessly on what readers perceive as valuable D not
on our preconceptions or traditions.

We must each take ownership of our work. Every staff member needs to take personal









responsibility for making the newspaper and web site a success. Individual creativity,
commitment and energetic action will be rewarded. The flatter management structure will
require more self-discipline, initiative and self-management.

This will be a tumultuous time for each of us. Russ, I and the newsroom leadership team will
communicate frequently and candidly with you. The meetings today are the first step. We are
also creating a special area on Newsroom Briefing to share information about the new newsroom
and the voluntary separation program.

Russ and I need your help, your creativity and your energy in shaping the new newsroom. We
have a huge opportunity to succeed and prosper in the new media world. It is not too late. We
still own the local franchise for news and information. Our success is up to us.

I know you will ask if this reorganization is the end of change for the foreseeable future. No, it is
the beginning of change. We are living through a media revolution in which change will be
continuous. Change is scary for all of us I there is risk, there is fear. But not changing is far
more risky and a far greater threat to the survival of our company and our craft.

Yes, we face tough and challenging days ahead. We will make mistakes, and we will pick
ourselves up and fix them. Some days will be terrifying; some will be exciting.

One thing I know for certain: We will pass through this storm with courage, hope and heart, and
we will build a newsroom for the future.

Thank you.









APPENDIX I
SAMPLE CODING SHEET


Title of Article:

Date Ran in Paper:

Focus (This article is about....):









APPENDIX J
STAFF STRUCTURE AT THE SENTINEL


Tribune Company
(Owner: Sam Zell)


Writers/Reporters
(Schlueb, Kassab)


This flow chart was designed by the researcher based on data collected during the interviews.
The Sentinel does not have a public document outlining their staff structure.









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Gordon Van Owen was born February 5, 1984, in Bad Hersfeld, Germany. His family

moved to Orlando, FL, in 1985. He graduated from Pine Castle Christian Academy, near

Orlando, in 2002. He earned his B.A. in English and his B.S. in journalism from the University

of Florida in 2006. He also spent a semester studying 20th century British history and literature at

the University of Cambridge, in England, and wrote an analysis of the recent urban development

trends of the City of Cambridge, which earned highest marks from his professors. He is currently

a master's degree candidate in the University of Florida's College of Journalism and

Communications and is working toward a minor in urban and regional planning from UF's

College of Design, Construction, and Planning.

As an undergraduate, Gordon worked as a news intern for several newspapers in the

Gainesville area, putting the skills he learned at the University of Florida's College of Journalism

and Communications to the test. These newspapers include The Independent Florida Alligator,

The High Springs Herald, and The Gainesville Sun. He was also a contributing writer for several

on-campus publications, including the College of Journalism and Communications' alumni

magazine The Communigator. His editorials from The Independent Florida Alligator and his

stories from The Washington Times have been syndicated in a number of other publications

across the country, both online and in print. Since enrolling in graduate school in 2006, Gordon

has continued to develop his professional skills by continuing to intern at several different

newspapers, including The Gainesville Sun, The Alligator, and The Washington Times in

Washington, DC. While working for The Alligator, Gordon served as the freelance editor and a

columnist.

Throughout his career at the University of Florida, Gordon has also worked for the

university's Office of Admissions, first in the processing office, and later as an Admissions









Ambassador at the Welcome Center, where he greeted more than 30,000 visitors a year. Gordon

was also an active member in the Greek community and served as a student senator in UF's

Student Government. Within the College of Journalism and Communications, he served as vice-

president of the Journalism and Communications Ambassadors and president of the College of

Journalism and Communications College Council.

Gordon's research interests include urban growth effects on mass media, as well as

journalists' perceptions of growth and the representation of growth in the media. His other

interests include literary journalism, magazine writing, and Social Capital Theory.

After completing his degree, Gordon plans to move to New York City and join Teach for

America in their efforts to end educational inequality by working at a disadvantaged school in

the city. While there, he hopes to continue freelance writing for a newspaper or magazine. After

working in the professional world for a few years, Gordon hopes to return to graduate school and

earn a Ph.D.





PAGE 1

1 NEWSPAPERS AND URBAN GROWTH: HOW AN OLD MEDIUM RESPONDS TO A GROWING TREND By GORDON VAN OWEN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

PAGE 2

2 2008 Gordon Van Owen

PAGE 3

3 To my parents, friends, and professors, for without your unending support and guidance, this thesis would not hav e been finished.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS It is a pleasure to thank the many people who made this thesis possible I would like to thank my colleagues from the College of Journalism and Communications, whose constant academic support made graduate school less stressful and more enjoyable. Specifically, I would like to thank Professors Ted Spiker, Julie Dodd, and Lauren Hertel; their guidance and open ears helped in formulating my research questions. I would also like to thank Meredith Cochie, Shannon McAleenan, Adam Bornstein, and Brittany Rajchel, who have worked their way through this program with me. I will miss the time we have spent together. I would also like to thank my acquaintances from outside the College of Journalism and Communications for their fri endship during the thesis -writing process, including Ben Pickos, Natalie Peters, Cassie Tooke, and Toccarra Thomas, as well as the 18 participants in this study. I am personally indebted to my committee members for all of their hard work and dedication to this field of research. My chair, Dr. Johanna Cleary, has been a soothing voice and a kind heart during this research and information -gathering process. Without her advice, I never would have made it past my first semester of graduate school. Dr. Ronald Ro dgers helped shape this thesis in more ways than I can imagine. Finally, I would like to thank Dr. Ruth Steiner for agreeing to be on my committee, even though we had little to no previous relationship. This research would not have been possible without the financial and personal support of my grandparents, Joyce and Johnny Harvey. I owe them a great deal more than money can buy. Lastly, and most importantly, I wish to thank my parents, Ann and Klaus Bixler, and my sister, Lila Bixler. They bore me, raise d me, supported me, encouraged me, and taught me the importance of a good education. To them, I dedicate this thesis.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.............................................................................................................4 LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................................ 8 LIST OF TABLES .......................................................................................................................... 9 ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................. 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 12 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ....................................................................................... 18 History of Urban Planning ..................................................................................................... 19 History of Urban Growth ....................................................................................................... 20 The Economy of Cities .......................................................................................................... 24 National Growth Trends ........................................................................................................ 27 Growth in Florida .................................................................................................................. 28 Growth in Orlando ................................................................................................................. 29 A History of Newspapers ....................................................................................................... 33 Growth and the Media ........................................................................................................... 35 Robert Park and the Chicago School ..................................................................................... 37 Social Capital ......................................................................................................................... 38 Cultural Geography ............................................................................................................... 40 The Middletown Studies ........................................................................................................ 41 Community Identity and the Media ....................................................................................... 42 Newspaper Coverage of Growth ........................................................................................... 44 Growth Effects and Newspaper Readership .......................................................................... 46 Theoretical Approach ............................................................................................................ 50 Social Capital Theory ............................................................................................................ 50 Cultivation Theory ................................................................................................................. 52 Media Organization Theory ................................................................................................... 53 Communicative Planning Theory .......................................................................................... 54 Principles of Broad-based Urban Planning ............................................................................ 55 Summary ................................................................................................................................ 55 Research Questions/Hypotheses ............................................................................................ 56 3 METHOD .............................................................................................................................. 58 Grounded Theory ................................................................................................................... 59 Long and Active Interviews ................................................................................................... 60 Why Orlando ......................................................................................................................... 60 Why The Orlando Sentinel .................................................................................................... 61 Defining The Sentinel's Coverage Area ................................................................................ 61 Participants ............................................................................................................................ 62

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6 Procedure ............................................................................................................................... 63 Themes ................................................................................................................................... 65 4 RESULTS .............................................................................................................................. 67 H1: Growth ............................................................................................................................ 67 H2: Effects on Content .......................................................................................................... 71 H3: Effects on Coverage ........................................................................................................ 75 H4: Circulation ..................................................................................................................... 79 H5: Marketing of Products .................................................................................................... 82 H6: Staff Development and Hiring ........................................................................................ 84 Analysis of Local In-Depth ................................................................................................... 91 5 DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................................ 95 H1...95 H2...96 H3...97 H4...98 H5...99 H6...99 6 CONCLUSION. Growth ................................................................................................................................. 101 Content ................................................................................................................................. 102 Coverage .............................................................................................................................. 102 Finances ............................................................................................................................... 103 Circulation ........................................................................................................................... 104 Relevancy ............................................................................................................................ 105 Demographics ...................................................................................................................... 105 Localized F ocus ................................................................................................................... 105 Newsroom Organization ...................................................................................................... 106 Staffing ................................................................................................................................ 107 Analysis of Local In-Depth ................................................................................................. 108 Implications for Planning.108 Development of Theory ....................................................................................................... 109 Development of Grounded Theory ...................................................................................... 111 Limitations to the Study ....................................................................................................... 113 Further Research .................................................................................................................. 114 APPENDIX A MAP OF ORLANDO SENTINEL COVERAGE AREA....................115 B IRB FORMS..................... C SAMPLE E-MAIL........................

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7 D SAMPLE INFORMED CONSENT FORM................... .. E SAMPLE INTERVIEW PROTOCOL..................... F THE PARTICIPANTS.....................122 G ORLANDO SENTINEL EDITORIAL CODE OF ETHICS ...................... H MEMO FROM CHARLOTTE HALL .... ........................133 I SAMPLE CODING SHEET.....................136 J STAFF STRUCTURE AT THE SENTINEL..............137 LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................................................................................ 138 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ...................................................................................................... 143

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 Population and population percentage change, 1950 -Present..

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 USA Today article examining population of the U.S.................................................. 28 2 Map of the Orlando MSA .......................................................................................... 32 3 A map showing the growth rates of counties across the U.S......................................33

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10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication NEWSPAPERS AND URBAN GROWTH: HOW AN OLD MEDIUM RESPONDS TO A GROWING TREND By Gordon Van Owen August 2008 Chair: Johanna Cleary Major: Mass Communication This grounded theory study combines qualitative interviews and content analysis methods to better understand the impact of urban growth on The Orlando Sentinel Interviews were conducted with 18 Sentinel staff members from the newspapers editorial, advertising, circulation, and marketing departments from December 2007 to March 2008. Respondents were asked to describe the steps the newspapers has taken to reflect the growing community it covers and to outline how urban growth has influenced the day-to-day operations at the newspapers. They were also asked to provide a personal definition for the term growth. Drawing on Robert Putnams Social Capital Theory and several media organization and urban planning theories, this thesis shows that urban development has had an effect on The Orlando Sentinel. Specifically, growth has impacted the newspapers definition of growth, content, coverage, staffing, finances, circulation, relevancy, demographics, localized focus, and newsroom organization. Several participants said that growth defines the newspaper, and that growth has also influenced content, coverage, and staffing by becoming the focus for news gathering staff. The results also show growth has had an inverse effect on the newspapers finances. The interviews revealed that despite a rapidly-growing market, The Sentinel has faced significant budget cuts

PAGE 11

11 and financial woes. Circulation has been affected too. Participants said that the paper has shifted its focus from being a regional, metropolitan paper, to being one fo cused on local issues. However, this localized focus has become increasingly difficult to achieve because of the areas changing demographics. The study found that growth was also a contributing factor in The Sentinel s two most recent staff reorganization s. The data gathered from this study suggests that urban growth does have an effect on newspapers; however, it is difficult to determine specific influences of growth because growth can occur in countless ways and newspapers can respond to meet their comm unitys unique demands.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The Orlando Sentinel s downtown office looks out of place among Orlandos modern skyline. In fact, the blue -trimmed stucco dcor of the building might find a better fit along Miamis South Beach rather tha n Orlandos business hub. Either way, the view from Jane Healys second-story office is breathtaking. In one direction, the editorial page editor can see the towering construction cranes putting together another high -rise condominium on Orlandos famed Church Street. In the opposite direction, she can see Interstate 4 as it slices downtown Orlando in half, bringing thousands of commuters into the areas urban core. For Healy, a decades-long Orlando resident, the area has dramatically evolved right before he r eyes. However, Orlandos metropolitan vibe is a relatively new phenomenon. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the area was known for its orange groves and heavy reliance on agriculture to support the local economy. That all changed when a ca rtoon mouse took up residence in a storybook castle about 20 miles southwest of downtown Orlando. Since Walt Disney decided to open his East Coast theme park in the 1960s, the area has seen remarkable population growth and development (Foglesong, 2001). In deed, from 1950 to 2000, the Orlando area grew by 1.4 million people and now has a population of more than 2.1 million (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000c). In many ways, Disneys decision to come to Florida transformed the state, making it one of the worlds top tourist destinations. Disneys theme park brought with it significant population growth, as well as urban problems, such as traffic congestion, noise, pollution, and crowded schools (Foglesong, 2001). However, such rapid growth does not come without its p roblems. Crime, traffic congestion, and other urban issues have accompanied the more than 1.5 million

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13 people who have moved into the Orlando area since the Magic Kingdom opened its doors in 1971 (Foglesong, 2001). While Orlando matured from a quiet, citru s community into one of the nations leading metropolitan areas, so did its communications outlets. As they watched the area evolve around them, they too saw growth in readership and viewership. The nine -county Orlando television market expanded rapidly du ring this time, turning it into the nations 19th-largest television market (Nielsen, 2007). Meanwhile, the areas newspaper, The Sentinel also experienced the benefits of the population boom. Circulation numbers continued to climb, and with the populatio n increase, more news was available to print (BurrellesLuce, 2007). However, The Sentinel s success was relatively short lived. Like other newspapers, the papers circulation began to decline in the earlier parts of this decade ( Sentinel circulation 2005). This trend is prevalent at newspapers as a more highly connected readership base began to get its news from online sources rather than relying on the aging print product (Filistrucchi, 2005). Thomas and Nain (2005) attribute this decline to the globaliz ation of economies and the corporate ownership of the media. For local media, they have had to adapt to new corporate business models, which has led to a shift in content. Newspapers were once the primary source for local news, but chain ownership has led local newspapers to place a stronger emphasis on national and international news, leaving less space for local coverage. Further problems ensued. When urban newspapers did report on local events, they were often negative in nature and focused on the crime and other urban issues facing their coverage area (Artwick & Gordon, 1998). This negative coverage helped promote suburbanization, which contributed to the flight of upperand middle -class whites to the suburbs (Isenberg, 2005).

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14 In his 2006 book, Community Journalism: Relentlessly Local, Jock Lauterer argued, the history of the newspaper is bound up with the history of cities (p. 13). Lauterers assertion is based on a series of trends that unite urban growth and the newspaper business. His first conclu sion is that newspapers rely on cities for funding, news, and resources to stay relevant in an age of Internet and television news (Lauterer, 2006). He also suggests that cities depend on newspapers to keep residents informed about events and other goings on in the area, a suggestion that the Project for Excellence in Journalism confirms with their State of the News Media Report, 2006. This report says, Newspapers remain the most effective way to reach a broad audience and deliver results for advertisers (Project, 2006). Third, Lauterer argues that the growth of cities and newspapers are closely related as populations grow, so does newspaper readership however, this trend may not apply to circulation, as we will discuss later in this study. Finally, Lauterer states that change and development are often covered in the newspaper. This study focuses on the Orlando area in Central Florida. This region was chosen for this study because of its relatively recent growth and development. In many ways, Orlando is one of the few metropolitan areas in the United States to come of age in the modern era, and is one of the nations largest and fastest -growing communities (Census Bureau, 2007). The Orlando Kissimmee MSA is currently the 27th largest in the country (Cens us Bureau, 2007). The Orlando Sentinel was chosen for this study because of its location in a fast -growing metropolitan area and because of its high circulation numbers. Statistics show that The Sentinel is representative of current newspaper trends, inclu ding a decline in circulation, lower readership numbers, and flattening ad revenue ( The New York Times, 2007). Yet the questions remain: Can a citys newspaper remain largely unaffected by the growth going on around it? What kinds of effect has this growt h had on local media? For decades

PAGE 15

15 newspapers have been charged with the watchdog role of the media. They have critiqued the government and shed light on the impact of urban growth, but have they ever taken the time to consider what impact this growth has h ad on their day -to-day operations? This study answers these questions by analyzing staff perceptions of how growth has affected one newspaper in Florida. Participants in this study were asked to discuss their opinions and perceptions of growth effects on their day -to-day duties at the newspaper. While previous research has focused on media content in relation to urban growth (Artwick & Gordon, 1998), this study examines the impact of urban growth on newspapers, namely The Orlando Sentinel through qualita tive, in -depth interviews. For triangulation, an analysis of the articles from The Sentinel s Local In-Depth section was conducted to determine if staff perceptions were adequately reflected in the pages of the newspaper. Sixteen staff members from The Sentinel s editorial staff, circulation department, advertising department, and marketing team were interviewed. Two former employees were also interviewed for this study, for a grand total of 18 participants. A qualitative approach was chosen for this stud y because little previous research has been conducted in this area and qualitative approaches yield personal, in-depth analysis. While this approach will not produce generalizable data, it may indicate large trends occurring at urban newspapers across the country. Participants for this study, including representatives of the editorial, marketing, advertising, and circulation departments, were chosen based on their job title and description as listed on The Orlando Sentinel s website. The data collected from the interviews revealed that The Sentinel has been affected by urban growth in Orlando. Ten themes were chosen for analysis: content, coverage, staffing, growth, finances, circulation, relevancy, demographics, localized focus, and newsroom organization. T hese themes were common discussion points in most of the interviews. The data

PAGE 16

16 showed that the newspapers content and coverage have been affected by growth because of the increased amount of news that arises because of a larger, more diverse population. Mo st of the participants also emphasized a new focus on relevant, localized stories because the changing readership demands it. The newsgathering element of coverage has also been affected because reporters have to travel greater distances due to the growing suburban fringe. Staffing at the newspaper has also been altered because the newspaper is forced to hire new employees from outside the Orlando region because The Sentinel is the only dominant newspaper in the area, making local training outside of The Sentinel rare. Participants said that growth was a determining factor in the papers decision to restructure the newsroom. The researcher also asked each participant to define growth and explain its impact on the newspaper in their own terms. Overwhelmingl y, participants said that growth defines the community and the newspaper. The newspapers financial and budgetary problems can be partly attributed to growth since the newspaper has to spend more money to gather more information because of the increase in news in the area. The study found that urban growth has had an inverse effect on circulation. While the population of the Orlando area has dramatically increased in the last several decades, The Sentinel s circulation flatlined in the 1990s and began decli ning in the early parts of this decade. Lastly, current and former Sentinel staff members highlighted the changing demographics of the areas population as a significant factor affecting the newspaper. Specifically, they said that the growth of the Hispanic community has shifted their content and coverage focus. One goal of this study was to generate theory. Thus, the researcher proposes that urban growth does, in fact, affect newspapers in a number of ways. Specifically, urban newspapers face unique chall enges to the way they address the news and cover urban areas that rural newspapers do not. These challenges include increased news to cover, more people to inform, and more

PAGE 17

17 opportunities for marketing/advertising because of the higher rate of population. U rban newspapers must react to these challenges in ways unique to their own communities since every urban area consists of different demographics and readership habits.

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18 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE I will [tell] the story as I go along Of small citi es no less than of great. Most of those which were great once Are small today; and those which in my Own lifetime have grown to greatness, Were small enough in the old days. -Herodotus For more than two centuries, the history of American newspapers has been closely related to the histories of the cities they cover, and as cities have grown, so have their newspapers (Kaniss, 1991). However, as cities began facing urban decay in the second half of the 20th century (i.e. crime, traffic congestion, etc.), ne wspapers also fell on hard times. Industry statistics have shown that newspaper circulations have been declining and advertising revenue is beginning to level off, no longer bringing in record amounts of money ( State of News Media 2007). While several fac tors may contribute to this decline, including the advent of new media on the Internet, no research has explored a possibile link between this decline and urban growth. While the current body of literature lacks any significant research on the cause and e ffect relationship that may exist between urban growth and current trends in the media, some studies have examined other related factors, such as media content and perceptions of urban growth (Artwick & Gordon, 1998). This study remedies that lack of resea rch by going beyond the examination of media coverage of urban issues and analyzing the effects of urban growth on newspapers, specifically The Orlando Sentinel To fully understand the relationship that exists between mass communications studies and urban development theory, a discussion of urban growth and its history is necessary. Also, a statistical review of recent growth trends both nationally and in the Orlando area is important to understand how growth has transformed the United States and this reg ion of Florida. A review of

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19 the effects of this growth and its impact on social capital the phsycological connection felt toward ones community and community connectivity will explain how this growth affects residents and, in turn, the media in this c ity. Finally, this literature review will conclude with a review of the relevant theory. History of Urban Planning The need for urban planning comes from the necessity to regulate industry and land use. Mandelker writes that, the use of land requires the coming together of a complex set of social, economic and physical forces, held together by a vision of the desired outcome (2005, p.1). Although planning did not emerge as a profession until after the Columbian Exposition in 1893 (Hall, 2002), employees in cities across the country had been working on water regulation, park building, etc, for decades, starting as early as the 1840s and 50s (Fishman, 1987). Planning gained legal backing on the state level with the Standard Planning Enabling Acts of the 1920s, which gave states and other local municipalities the legal right to plan their communities to meet their own needs (Hall, 2002). This was a significant shift from early planning regulation, which called for nationwide plans rather than a local focus These new laws signaled a dramatic shift in planning history and practice. Previously, no such legislation existed, which meant that little efforts in planning had been made up to that point. Prior to the 1920s, planning was relatively small in scope but was being conducted even before local governments got the power to do so under the Enabling Acts. In cities like New York and Chicago, local planners had been organizing their cities for decades. Regional planning also had an early start in the areas arou nd New York City (Hall, 2002). Early planning trends relied primarily on economics as their driving force. Following the Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century, millions of people moved from the countryside

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20 into American cities. This created the n eed for coordinated cities with planned streets and other public services (Hall, 2002). However, such planning was not consistent from city to city, or region to region, and efforts at planning were often unsuccessful. Pollution became a significant problem in urban areas and slums began to encroach on urban areas in cities across the country (Hall, 2002). By the dawn of the 20th century, cities such as New York were implementing regional plans to address the demands of a sprawling metropolis, which often e xpanded past municipal boundaries and into surrounding areas. The modern idea of urban planning emerged with the Hoover administrations Standard Enabling Acts (Mandelker, 2005). These two pieces of legislation explicitly gave the power and regulatory pla nning authority to the states, which often then gave the power to local municipalities. This form of localized planning still exists today in most cities and states. However the powers vested to local governments and authorities have expanded considerably since the early legislation of the 1920s. For example, cities are allowed by the Constitution to regulate land use and development, as well as coordinate aesthetic values for the general welfare and safety of the public (Mandelker, 2005). This expansion of government regulation and planning powers reflects the changing demands of cities as they have grown throughout the last century. History of Urban Growth The notion of urban planning is by no means a new one. The ancient Romans applied many similar plann ing principles that urban planners still utilize today, such as transportation, water conduits (utilities), etc. However, as civilization has developed through time, the demands on planners have changed to meet those changing needs. Modern planning consist s of the process of making land use plans and can occur at any level within the government, including local,

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21 regional, state, and federal (Mandelker, 2005, p. 2). This planning process is often the result of increases in population and economic developme nt, as well as for meeting the demands of an evolving public. The history of urban growth, with its heavy emphasis on urban development, began in the United States as early as the 18th century. By the time the American Revolution began in the 1770s, the New England states were already experiencing considerable growth in their cities. At about this time, the nations economy was shifting from an agrarian base to an industrial one, which resulted in a nationwide emigration into the cities. With the nations economy growing, and the promise of new opportunity, immigrants from around the world also began moving into American cities in unprecedented numbers. However, this explosion of city residents did not occur overnight; it was a gradual process that spanned more than two centuries. In 1790, only six cities in the United States had more than 8,000 residents; by 1920, 923 cities held that distinction (Eno, 2006). If urban populations swelled in the decades following the American Revolution, they exploded following the Civil War. The post -war Industrial Revolution helped bring industry to the nations cities, and with those new jobs came the potential for growth. Americans began leaving their farms in the country and moving into the cities in search of higher -paying jobs and prosperity. However, this rapid population growth led to a variety of problems, including sanitary issues, cramped housing conditions and pollution. (Hall, 2002). These problems laid the foundation for early urban planning, as discussed in t he previous section. Such undesirable conditions did not deter the population from moving into urban areas. The United States Census Bureau (1990) showed that in 1860, less than 20% of the American population lived in cities, and by 1990, more than 75% of the population did.

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22 This trend of urban population growth continued throughout the 20th century and even into the 21st. At the beginning of the 20th century, politicians began to see the need for regulation of growth and development (Hall, 2002). Journali sts known as muckrakers led this reform movement by writing about the degrading state of inner -city areas and factories where residents worked. Although limited in scope, these resulting early regulations laid the foundation for later growth trends, includ ing the Standard Enabling Acts (Mandelker, 2005). This idea of regulated growth continued throughout the rest of the 20th century in a series of phases and trends, which were often the result of development trends and other implications. Among these phase s are: Urban Renewal, Urbanism, and New Urbanism (Hall, 2002). World War II proved to be a turning point for urban growth practices. Following the model of the German Autobahn system, the United States government began construction on the federal highway system, which would forever alter the American landscape (Hall, 2002). The highway system allowed almost uninterrupted travel between cities and led to a mass exodus of the upper and middle classes from urban areas (Putnam, 2000). This process became known as suburbanization. Central cities began to reel from this loss of population. Downtown areas became desolate shells of their former selves as downtown shops closed and highly populated areas became virtual ghost towns (Isenberg, 2005). The idea of owning land and a large, single family home in the suburbs was more appealing to veterans returning home from war than living in a crime -ridden, urban area. New cities such as Levittown, New York, became the standard for development for most of the latter half o f the 20th century. However, Dolores Hayden, as part of Margaret Marshs anthology History of Metropolitan Development (2007), says the growth of American suburbs began in the 1820s, but took full swing with streetcar buildouts beginning at about 1870 ( p. 646). These buildouts followed

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23 public transportation systems and encouraged development near rail stops. Hayden states that the buildouts were followed by mail order and self -built suburbs, which were constructed around the turn of the century (p. 647 ). These suburbs were followed by sitcom suburbs starting in the 1940s; these suburbs were popularized by television sitcoms such as Leave It to Beaver, I Love Lucy, and The Brady Bunch a few years later. According to Marsh, Suburban -like developmen t of rural fringes intensified around 1980, which caused tremendous growth at the edges of urban areas (p. 646). Marsh and Hayden also argue that suburbanization was a middle class ideal that eventually made its way down to the middle class by the 20th century (p. 648). The 1960s and s proved to be a turning point for downtown development and urban growth patterns. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s brought riots and other movement related activity to downtown areas (Isenburg, 2005). If the rise o f the suburbs had not destroyed downtown business, this activity certainly did. The violence that ensued in cities like Detroit, Los Angeles, and other cities across the South led businesses to close and middle class residents to flee to the suburbs (Isenburg, 2005). This exodus to the suburbs left behind an urban population that was less affluent, which, because of social stigmas, kept suburbanites from returning to downtown areas (Isenburg, 2005). Most recent urban planning trends have been the result of suburbanization. As planners began to realize that unregulated land development would lead to environmental problems and other issues, they began to promote in -fill development. This earliest form of this type of development was known as Urban Renewal (Ha ll, 2002). Under this program, governments were able to condemn abandoned or derelict buildings and replace them with public housing. However, the Urban Renewal projects often became slums themselves and simply replaced one downtrodden area with another (H all, 2002). Another recent trend that emerged in the 1990s and

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24 early 21st century has been New Urbanism, which relies on a town -style form of development that emphasizes walkable streets with parking, and a return to the traditional town center form of development (Hall, 2002). The Economy of Cities As cities developed throughout the 20th century, critics of urban planning also began voicing their concerns. One of these critics, Jane Jacobs, became a popular supporter for neighborhood preservation and wro te extensively about the economy of cities. As one of urban plannings most renowned authors and scholars, Jacobs is a significant part of planning literature, as it exists today. In The Economy of Cities (1969), Jacobs argues against agricultural primacy, which suggests that cities are dependent on farmers and rural areas to sustain their economies. Instead, she suggests, rural economies, including agricultural work, are directly built upon city economies and city work (Jacobs, 1969). Jacobs suggests thi s economic system exists because agricultural advancements are often discovered at colleges and universities that are often located in cities. This indicated a dramatic shift in the American economic landscape and is important for this study because of the effects of growth on urban newspapers compared to rural ones. The Economy of Cities also provides several important definitions for the purposes of this study. At the end of her book, Jacobs provides several definitions for some crucial urban planning th emes, including: city, metropolitan area, town, and village. Jacobs defines a city as a settlement that consistently generates its economic growth from its own local economy (1969). She defines a metropolitan area as the same as a city economic ally, but politically, it is a metropolitan area that has grown beyond the citys formal boundaries and

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25 engulfed other neighboring cities (1969). Jacobs defines a town as a settlement that does not generate growth from its own local economy, and a villag e is a smaller town (1969, p. 262). Jacobs' economic outlook for cities presents a unique view in the overall history of urban development and marks a clear shift in the dominance of urban life over that of their rural counterpart. This shift occurred as a dvancements in agriculture yielded more products with less effort, giving more rural residents the opportunity to leave the rural areas and move to the cities. However, this influx of urban residents began to strain inner -city locales, sending higher -class residents to the suburbs. Understanding the economy of cities is important for this study because of the effects urban economics has on newspapers. A strong local economy can signal strong readership and circulation gains for newspapers (Kaniss, 1991). Ka niss describes this type of economic pressure as the result of consolidated business practices in downtown areas. She said that before the 1870s, cities consisted of multiple, small business pockets; but after the 1870s, those pockets moved into urban area s and consolidated into modern downtowns, with centralized business districts and residential neighborhoods (Kaniss, 1991). For newspapers, this evolving urban core meant a change in their economic model was necessary. As development trends progressed, an d other social movements began forcing middle and upper-class residents out of downtown, the urban population became a less powerful purchasing block (Kaniss, 1991). So rather than cater to political or other biased interests, newspapers had to begin focusing on suburban residents to maintain their audience (Kaniss, 1991). However, suburbanization created a fragmented news market. Since the population had shifted from a concentrated urban locale to small, more numerous suburban cities, newspapers had to be gin reaching out to an ever -expanding news market. Kaniss suggests that this growth

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26 pattern created other economic pressures as well, including advertising, the publishers ties to the local community, and a bias toward downtown areas in content. Kaniss sh owed how those businesses that were once located in the downtown areas were moving into the suburbs and taking their advertising dollars with them. With this move to the suburbs, newspapers lost advertising revenue. This decline in revenue is partially att ributed to the focus of newspapers content. Many newspapers often focused their coverage on issues happening in the more urban downtown areas. However, when residents and businesses began moving to the suburbs, coverage did not immediately follow suit. Ka niss also showed that newspaper editors and publishers were often closely socially connected to the the communities they covered. This resulted in greater coverage of the immediate community surrounding the paper rather than the forming communities on the fringe of the city (Kaniss, 1991). Kaniss (1991) argues that newspapers should remain interested in the economic growth of their cities because of the effects this growth has on the publication. Newspaper profits are directly dependent on audience size and advertising dollars, which suggests that the larger the population, and the stronger the economy, the more potential audience members and advertisers the newspaper can reach (Kaniss, 1991). Molotch (1976) called metropolitan newspapers an example of a business whose interests are anchored in the growth of its locality. Molotch said that newspapers are dependent on growth. The history of modern newspapers is wrapped around this economic dependency. Throughout the 20th century, newspaper ownship trends chan ged dramatically. Independent owners were often bought out by media corportations, which led to media conglomeration and chain ownership (Baldasty, 1992). Today, most newspapers are owned by a small number of chain owners, which concentrates information re sources and the creation of news.

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27 National Growth Trends The U.S. has been experiencing steady population growth since the first settlers founded the early colonies. Throughout the countrys three -century -long history, several eras of extreme growth have caused surges in the population. Most of these surges are equated with high amounts of immigration from various parts of the world, including Europe, Asia, and Latin America, as well as times of significant economic change (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000a). The Census Bureau projects the current population of the U.S. to be approximately 303,300,000. The United States crossed the 300 million mark in October 2006, roughly 40 years after it reached 200 million. Current growth models project the population to reach 400 million by 2040 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2007). This population growth pattern suggests that the populations growth rate will continue to grow at a fast pace in the next several decades, surpassing previous growth rates. As previous literature has sugges ted, the American landscape has changed over the years. Early Americans relied on agriculture for their day -to-day livelihood. However, as the 19th century progressed, new advancements in agricultural technology shifted the countrys economy, leading it do wn a more industrial path. This industrialization brought unprecedented amounts of people into American cities. The U.S. Census Bureau (1990) showed that in 1860, less than 20% of the American population lived in cities, and by 1990, more than 75% of the p opulation did. The Eno (2006) reports that in 2006, approximately 80% of Americans either worked or lived in cities or their expanding suburbs. Eno also reports than 50 metropolitan areas now have more than one million people, up from 39 in 1990, which sug gests that this trend of rapid, urban population growth continued throughout the 1990s. While the nation as a whole has been experiencing population growth for more than three centuries, this growth has not been proportional in all parts of the country. The Fannie Mae

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28 Foundation (2001) showed that the Sunbelt States the Southern and Southwestern states, incuding Florida grew at a rate much faster than the rest of the nation. The foundations study showed the U.S. grew by more than 130 million people fr om 1950 to 2000 (Fannie Mae, 2001). Understanding national growth trends is important because of their implications on the state of Florida and the Orlando metropolitan area. These changes in population alter development trends, as well as urban planning practices and other cultural interactions. Figure 1: USA Today article examining population in the United States. This figure shows the population distribution of the United States. It is easy to see from the red dots that most of the population of the United States resides in urban areas. The article originally ran in USA Today on October 27, 2006. Growth in Florida According to the Fannie Mae report (2001), Florida is considered one of the Sunbelt regions big three sta tes, which means that it had some of the fastest population growth rates from the 1950s, until the report was published in 2001. Floridas population grew from about 3 million in 1950, to more than 16 million in 2000 (Fannie Mae, 2001). This is a 477% chan ge in

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29 the population during this time. The U.S. Census Bureau estimates Floridas 2006 population at more than 18 million (2006). Most of this growth has been concentrated in the urban areas of South and Central Florida, specifically near Miami, Fort Laude rdale, West Palm Beach, Tampa, St. Petersburg, and Orlando. Florida is currently the fourth -largest state in the nation, according to the U.S. Census Bureau (2006), and the Florida Statistical Absract (2006) counts 19 metropolitan statistical areas throughout the state. The Abstract also reports significant growth in the Orlano area. Orange County had a 32.3% population increase between 1990 and 2000 (Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 2006). Lake County had a 38.4% increase; Osceola County grew by 60.1%; and Seminole County grew by 27%. Overall, the Orlando -Kissimmee metro area grew by 18.8% (Buruea of Economic and Business Research, 2006). Growth in Orlando Before Disney came to town, Orlando was a wild frontier at the heart of Florida. In many ways, the area resembled a TV Western town more than a Southern city (Dickinson, 2003). Founded in 1875, Orlando quickly became Floridas largest inland city. In the early days, the city relied heavily on the states citrus industry for economic vitality; how ever, the area was also a popular winter vacation spot for snowbirds, Northern tourists who come to Florida to escape the harsh winters of the north. Orlando was a relatively quiet town before Walt Disney opened the Magic Kingdom in 1971. Back then, th e area was home to more orange trees than hotel rooms, and traffic congestion did not plague the areas roads. However, it was the areas well -networked transportation system that influenced Disneys decision to build in the area (Foglesong, 2001). The are as transportation network was advanced throughout the 1960s by the Federal Highway

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30 Act, which built Interstate 4 through the area, and the state of Floridas decision to build the Florida Turnpike through the area. These two roads intersect halfway betwee n downtown Orlando and Walt Disney World. The areas legislative delegates in Tallahassee were influential in bringing these two roads to the area (Foglesong, 2001). Entertainment wasnt the only driving force behind Orlandos booming economy during the l atter half of the 20th century. Prior to Disneys announcement, Orange County had also been awarded a number of military -based programs, including a Naval Training Center under President Johnson, and the Martin Marrietta Corp. (now known as Lockheed Martin ), a defense contractor, also located its headquarters in the area (Foglesong, 2001). Other significant growth came from the areas citrus industry, even though it would begin to decline as more people moved into the area and agricultural land was replaced with homes and other development. The areas newspapers, The Orlando Sentinel Star and The Evening Reporter -Star, played an important role in the areas early growth and in bringing Disney to the area (Fogleson, 2001). The papers publisher, Martin Ander son, came to Orlando in 1931 when a Texan named Charles Marsh purchased both papers. Anderson put the nearly bankrupt newspapers back in the black, and purchased them from Marsh in 1945 (Foglesong, 2001). As owner of the areas largest media outlet, Anders on never wavered and often used his influence to sway public policy. Interstate 4s path is a result of Andersons influence; he believed the highway should slice through downtown Orlando, arguing that it would bring suburbanites into the area. However, personal motives also influenced that stance because the highway would make it easier for his carriers to deliver his newspaper (Foglesong, 2001). Under Andersons leadership, the newspapers readership soon exceeded the population of the city. He eventuall y combined the

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31 two newspapers, making The Sentinel Star one of the states four major newspapers. The name was changed to The Orlando Sentinel in the early 1980s. Anderson often used the editorial pages of his newspapers to sway public opinion and to promote the economic development he thought the area needed. According to Foglesong (2001), Anderson used the newspapers influence to promote local delegates to the State Transportation Board, which was influential in bringing the Florida Turnpike through Orl ando. He also led a group of local businessmen that helped lure Disney into the area. Disneys arrival dramatically transformed the Orlando area. Prior to Disneys opening in the early 1970s, Orlando was a sleepy community with a growing retirement commun ity. Most of Orange County was orange groves. Between Disneys opening in 1971 and 1999, Orange Countys population more than doubled from 344,000 to 846,000 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000a). Now that number is more than 1 million. Orlando has consistently been ranked among the nations ten fastest -growing urban areas, and in 1994, it was the nations fastest growing urban region. Orlando has the second most hotel rooms of any city in the country, only behind Las Vegas. Orange County was not the only Central Flo rida County to experience growth as a result of this boom in the tourism industry. The surrounding counties, Osceola, Seminole, and Lake, have seen significant population increases as well. The four -county Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau (2000a) had a population of 520,000 in 1970. By 2000, the population approached 2 million. As of 2005, Orlando was the seventh -fastest-growing area in the country (Newman, 2005). Other factors have contibuted to the regions growth as well, including an increase in defense contracting, the growth of the University of Central Florida, and the growing service industry.

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32 The area has a high number of temporary residents in its tourists and wintering snow birds that move into the area during t he winter. In 1969, 3.5 million people visited Central Florida. In 1971, the year the Magic Kingdom opened, 10 million people visited the area. By 1982, following the grand opening of Epcot, Orlando was the most popular tourist destination in the world (Foglesong, 2001). When MGM Studios opened in 1989, the number of tourists surpassed 30 million, and by 2001, Disney said that 55 million visitors visited Orlando (Foglesong, 2001). As growth and development transformed the areas culture, environment, and economy, they have also affected the areas crime rate, traffic, and other urban issues such as housing and low-paying jobs resulting from the influx of low-paying service jobs (Foglesong, 2001). Figure 2: Map of the Orlando M etropolitan Statistical Area. This map shows the Orlando Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined by a U.S. Census Bureau map. The MSA includes the four -county region of Lake, Orange, Osceola, and Seminole Counties. In 2007, the Census Bureau estim ated the areas population to be about 1,862,790, making it the 27th largest MSA in the country (Census Bureau, 2007).

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33 Table 1: Population and population percentage change, 1950-Present; *Estimates according to U.S. Census. Year Orange County City of O rlando Four county Region State of Florida 1950 114,950 52,367 189,579 2,771,000 1960 263,540 (129%) 88,135 (68%) 394,899 (108%) 4,952,000 (79%) 1970 344,311 (30.6%) 99,066 (12%) 522,575 (32%) 6,791,000 (37%) 1980 470,865 (36.7%) 128,291 (29.5%) 804,77 4 (54%) 9,747,000 (44%) 1990 677,491 (43.8%) 164,674 (28%) 1,224,844 (52%) 12,938,000 (33%) 2000 896,344 (32.3%) 184,639 (12%) 1,561,715 (28%) 15,982,000 (24%) *2007 1,070,000 (19.4%) 226,000 (22.4%) 1,862,790 (19%) 18,500,000 (16%) Figure 3: A map showing the growth rates of counties across the U.S. (MSNBC, 2007). This map, from an MSNBC news story about growth rates in the U.S., shows that all of the counties in Central Florida reported population growth between July 200 6 and July 2007. A History of Newspapers Tebbel writes that the history of the American newspapers is a record of the Establishments effort to control the news and of private individuals to disclose it without

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34 restriction, (1963, p. 11). The history o f newspapers in the United States is closely connected to the history of the nation. As a fledging nation, the countrys newspapers were often biased, localized reports. By the 20th century, with the emergence of the booming American economy, newspapers became commercialized entities. The first attempt to print a domestic news report in America was in Boston in 1689. The Present State of the New -English Affairs was, like other broadsheet newspapers that followed, a biased piece meant to spread the religious views of the Puritans that had fled England and settled in the United States. During the American Revolution in the late 18th century, newspapers were proliferating (Tebbel, 1963, p. 33). At this time, cities often had multiple newspapers, with a neigh borhood or local focus. Also, ownership patterns were beginning to shift. Instead of being owned by printers, newspapers were being bought by editors (Tebbel, 1963). Tebbel writes that pamphleteering was popular at this time as well. During the war, newspa pers and pamphlets served as propaganda tools for the forming republic and were often used to recruit support for the revolution. This ideal of using newspapers as propaganda continued into the 19th century. By 1820, there were 512 newspapers in the Unite d States. Most were weeklies, and few had circulations above 1,500 (Tebbel, 1963). However, the press during this time was still largely political and helped promote the agendas of the nations political parties. Since newspapers were largely read by educa ted elites, they were the perfect outlet to spread political messages (Tebbel, 1963). In the years following the Civil War, journalists began to take heed of their perceived public servant role (Tebbel, 1963). This can be attributed to the growth of mass media at this time. Tebbel writes that everything contributed to growth of the mass media. The constant expansion of education and the consequent rise in literacy created more potential readers every

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35 years (1963, p. 127). By the turn of the century, medi a moguls such as William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer began to emerge in New York. This started the early phases of newspaper commercialization, a trend that would continue through the 20th century (Tebbel, 1963). When the 20th century began, newspa pers in big cities were already physically larger and had larger circulation and advertising revenue than their rural counterparts. Big-business newspapers gave way to chain ownership in the latter half of the 20th century. This concept was created by Hea rst and E.W. Scripps (Tebbel, 1963). Growth and the Media Growth has had a signifiant effect on rural and weekly newspapers, too. According to Tebbel, weekly newspapers have a high mortality rate because so many of them were used for special purposes and dropped when that purpose was not satisfied (1963, p. 250). Rural journalism reached its peak in 1914 and had become a necessary part of rural life because it recorded life n these areas, including births, deaths, marriages, social events, etc. (Tebbel, 1963). According to Tebbel, crime is rarely covered in rural weeklies and editors are focused primarily on local news. The decline of rural newspapers began in the 1920s when economic and ownership trends favored mergers and suspended production of these newspapers. This trend was accelerated during the Great Depression (Tebbel, 1963). Throughout the 19th century, industrialization and urbanization altered the country. They also created an environment that created a new kind of commercial newspaper. While industrialization created advertising, urbanization created the need for a newspaper that went from being a political advocate and to attempting to make sense of a dispersed community (Baldasty, 1992, p. 139).

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36 Readers also changed their use patterns du ring this time. Urban residents began using the media for a specific set of uses. According to Leo Jeffries, et al. (1999) the basic purposes media serve for society include: information, correlation, continuity, entertainment, and mobilization. However, Jeffries, et al, noted that urban and community newspapers began functioning in very different ways. They suggested that about 35 years ago, community papers began filling the local void that large, urban papers were ignoring. In Jeffries study, Morris Jan owitz noted, The big mass media are less relevant for guiding community -based activities (1999, p. 89) and suggested the urban press should strengthen its decentralized roots and maintain its community focus. This emphasis on national news may be the res ult of commercial factors affecting larger newspapers (Kaniss, 1991). However, as media use in cities began to peak in the 1960s, the medias portrayal of urban life also began to change. Crime became a problem in many urban centers and urban decay began to take hold in certain neighborhoods. As a result of news judgment and newsworthiness, such stories began to occur more frequently than locally based feature stories, thus newspapers began to paint a generally negative picture of urban life (Dreier, 2005). As a result, readers began to associate fear and other, similar emotions to urban areas. When Claudette Artwick and Margaret Gordon (1998) set out to explain how newspapers portray U.S. cities, their study showed this trend of frequent, negative cov erage and concluded that such coverage built an unfavorable image of cities. In 2005, Peter Dreier confirmed Artwick and Gordons study. His study revealed that major news media reinforce an overwhelmingly negative and misleading view of urban Ame rica (2005, p. 193). As all three researchers showed in their studies, this negative coverage creates a negative view of urban life. What contributes to this problem is that readers rarely experience

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37 crime themselves and rely on what they read in the news paper to tell them about a specific area. Thus, if an area is portrayed as crime -ridden, outsiders will view it as such. Part of the reason this cycle persists, Dreier writes, is because newspapers rarely have paid beat reporters assigned to poor neighborh oods and rely on breaking news in these areas. Zelnik (2006) argued that a focus on community, or local, news is what supports newspaper growth. He suggests that newspaper readers are most interested in the news that most directly affects them, which is o ften on the local level. Zelniks (2006) argument suggests that newspapers should focus on local coverage, yet still include some national and international news. Robert Park and the Chicago School At the dawn of the 20th century, Robert Park and his disc iples launched a new study into urban reporting. For their study, Park and the School analyzed how urban coverage is structured and discussed a number of changes taking place in urban media. Rolf Lindner chronicled Park and his colleagues work in The Reportage of Urban Culture: Robert Park and the Chicago School (1996). One of Parks assertions that Lindner (1996) discusses in his book is Parks claim that the press is an invention meant to put people in the place of others. What Park is arguing here, at l east in an urban sense, is that the media portray life in the city for those in the suburbs, giving them a sense of life in an area that they do not live in. Parks most significant contribution to the sociology of culture is his notion of the marginal ma n. This notion places a man on the cusp of two cultures without really belonging to either (Lindner, 1996). Like the marginal man, urban residents live in cities, but are less connected to the city center. On the other hand, they also feel disconnected fr om their neighbors in the suburbs.

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38 Social Capital Putnams Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (2000) examines urban impact on social life. In this book, Putnam launches one of the pivotal theories that transcends both urban plan ning and mass communications studies. The core idea of social capital theory is that social networks have value, and that Social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups (2000, p. 19). Putnams notion of social capital becomes an imp ortant theory when considered within the context of urban development history. According to Putnam (2000), social capital began to decline following the 1960s. At about this time, the American suburbs reached the peak of their isolationism and people began to feel increasingly less connected to the surrounding city. Suburbanites had grown weary of city life because of the negative picture of urban life painted by newspapers (Dreier, 2005). What makes this s -era peak of social capital so significant is that it coincides with the peak of overall newspaper readership. Putnam contributes both of these declines to changes in lifestyle habits, such as television viewing, longer commutes to and from work, and less interaction with ones community. However, no re search has been conducted directly relating this decline in social capital and its link to the decline in newspaper readership. Putnams social capital argument is based on a declining trend of civic participation and organizational membership. Putnam no tes that since the 1960s, Americans have become increasingly less involved in their communities and less engaged in civic duties (such as attending government meetings, etc). Putnams research revealed a peak in involvement at about 1960, which he attribut es to a number of social changes that took place around this time, including: business and time pressures, residential mobility (people were moving at more frequent rates), the civil rights movement, suburbanization and sprawl, and the television.

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39 Putnam believes that these events and social limitations contributed to the decline of social capital because of their isolationist effects. He shows that because people have to spend more time driving from the suburbs to work in urban areas, and because TV is a p rivate activity, people are spending less time interacting and more time on their own. Suburbanization created the need for more automobiles because workers began to have to commute into the central city for work. The time spent driving also hampered commu nity involvement because people were spending the time in the car alone. The impact on social capital as a result of urban growth was not limited to involvement within peoples communities. Other issues such as interpersonal trust and sense of community also felt the negative impact of growth. Lee, Cappella, and Southwell (2003) showed a reported decline in trust Americans have for each other. Lee et al. also showed that the people with the lowest levels of civic engagement and interpersonal trust are youn g people and the less educated (Lee, et al. 2003). Previous research has shown that young people and those with lower education levels do not read newspapers as much as the elderly and better educated (Rattner, 2007). However, newspaper reading is consistently and positively related to trust, talking to neighbors and talking about politics, (Lee, et al., 2003, p. 431). The connectivity provided by newspapers may be explained by the shared information that newspapers provide. Since newspaper readers often live in or near the same metropolitan area, they share the common knowledge found in the newspaper, thus giving them the information necessary to participate in society and increase their social trust (Lee, et al., 2003). However, despite this connectivit y related to newspaper reading, there is a disparity between urban and rural trust. According to a study by Christopher Beaudoin and Esther Thorson (2004), rural communities have higher levels of social integration and attachment than urban

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40 communities do. Being socially connected, according to Beaudoin and Thorson, is expected to spur pro-social behaviors such as voting and volunteering. This expectation can be partly associated with media usage. According to Beaudoin and Thorsons study, television hard news (broadcast stories on breaking news that is non -feature in nature) is positively associated with civic engagement, while newspaper hard news is associated with civic engagement and interpersonal trust. Jane Jacobs suggests that suburbanization and a decline of sidewalk usage have had a profound impact on community trust. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961), Jacobs argues that as the suburbs continued to expand, residents began using sidewalks less and less, and as a result, they bec ame less familiar with their neighbors and stopped participating in community -related activities such as stopping by the bar for a drink and talking with other passers by. Cultural Geography Jordan et al (1994) define cultural geography as the study of cu ltural products and their variation across space and place. Cultural geography focuses on describing and analyzing the ways government, the economy, religion, language, and other issues remain constant from one place to another. It also emphaszied how huma ns act spatially. Cultural geography is important in determining the effects of growth on newspapers because it may account for some of the changes in media habits among urban residents. This is possible because cultural geography studies the theories of c ultural assimilitation and reviews the ways various groups of people interact within a given society. Cultural geography can be paired with Putnams Social Capital Theory to better explain how newspaper define their coverage area. While Putnams (2000) th eory says that people feel a

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41 psychological connection to their immediate community, Jordan says that as cities grow, the cultural identity of the city grows with it, but physically and mentally. For example, during the high-growth period of the 1990s, newspapers began opening burueas in suburbans areas on the fringe of the urban core in an attempt to better cover the news in those areas and to assimilate those growing areas into the larger metropolitan area. By doing this, newspapers hoped to increase circu lation and readership. The Middletown Studies Urban growth and the suburbanization of American cities did not come without its effects. As more people first began to move into urban centers, several sociological changes began to take place among city res idents, as Robert and Helen Lynd revealed in Middletown: a Study in Modern American Culture (1929). The Middletown studies were an attempt by social anthropologists to determine why average Americans do what they do. Although it is not exactly known which city the Lynds decided to examine, it is often understood to be Muncie, Indiana. For the study, the Lynds examined existing documents and statistics, conducted interviews, and surveyed citizens about their day -to-day activities. At the most basic level, th e Lynds realized that almost nothing changes, no matter how much time passes (1929). However, the Lynds did reveal several other conclusions that are crucial to this study of newspaper readership and urban development. Through the Middletown Studies the Lynds learned that by 1929, almost one -third of the children planned to go to college (1929). This was a dramatic increase from the previous century, when students rarely expected to graduate high school, much less attend college. This is crucial for this study of newspaper readership. As Robert Putnam revealed in his 2000 book Bowling

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42 Alone people with higher education levels are more likely to be newspaper readers and be more involved in their communities. Other observations that the Lynd study (19 29) revealed include a rise in radio and automobile use. For Putnam, 70 years later, these increases have significant impact on what Putnam calls social capital, which addresses the benefits of social networking and community involvement. Since listening to the radio is often done alone or in small groups, it does not allow for listeners to engage with others within their communities. Meanwhile, automobile use keeps drivers separated from their communities because of long commute times as a result of subu rbanization. The Lynds noted that this rise in radio and automobile use caused a decline in other, more social activities, such as book clubs, public lectures, and the fine arts, which the Lynds attribute to a breakdown of family ties and neighborhood soci alization (1929). However, the most important observation from the Middletown Studies reveals that newspapers serve as the primary medium for communication in towns and cities. This early reliance found in the Middletown Studies shows a continued dep endency on newspapers for information. As recently as 2006, city residents relied on newspapers to find out what was going on in their communities, and according to the Project for Excellence in Journalisms online 2006 State of the News Media Report, newspapers remain the most effective way to reach a broad audience and deliver results for advertisers (2006). Community Identity and the Media These studies on social capital and community trust all relate back to the ideas of sense of community and co mmunity identity. The term sense of community refers to a personal quality that involves a feeling of involvement between people and their communities (Davidson & Cotter, 1991). Communities, according to Davidson and Cotter, can mean geographic

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43 location s (such as neighborhoods), functional entities (groups), and the workplace. Ellen Shearer (1999) agrees and states that identity and sense of belonging are often defined geographically, particularly by newspapers. However, she also argues that identity a nd sense of community can also deal with race, language, ethnic origin, sexual orientation, stage in life (age), and other commonalities. Tuchman (1978) recognized the role newspapers play in creating this sense of community among the populous. She said t hat newspapers allow geographically dispersed peoples to be able to relate to one another through reporting about common experiences. In doing so, newspapers allow city residents to understand one anothers ethnic and neighbor cultures. While community an d ones identity with it may vary by region, and other characteristics, local media often serve as a uniting factor. Shearer argued, The daily newspaper plays a vital role in reflecting a communitys identity and, in fact, reinforcing readers sense of membership in the community (1999). Ivan Emke, in a presentation to the Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association (2001) agreed, saying that newspapers continue to be a major source for local and regional news. Stempels study (1991) said that 81.5% of editors say that community newspapers are the primary source for local information. Newspapers also are important to fostering ties to the community, Emke argues. He also says that newspapers create ties to place, process, and structure. Newspapers, th en, become a unifying force for a community. They create broader links to the world, and can strengthen links between community members and integrate new people into the community. Jeffries, et al. (2007) supported Putnams notion that newspaper reading p romotes community involvement. They showed that reading the newspaper is not merely a reflection of demographics and the values people hold. Reading the newspaper and talking about things seen

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44 in the media and the interpersonal communication patterns add additional explanatory power. (Jeffries, et al., 2007, p. 17). Their study suggests that for readers, being involved in the community is a value set. Jeffries, et al. (2007) also showed that those who have strong values toward social order and social net works are more open to creating new relationships with strangers and are more likely to talk about current events and other issues discussed in the media. Reader (2006) found that reporters and other newspaper staff members follow the theory of connectivi ty in their jobs. Readers research showed that journalists in small markets are more likely to be more in touch with, and more concerned with, the communities they cover. This raises several questions about the role of newspapers and their relationships w ith the communities they cover. Connectivity deals with the level of intimacy journalists have with their communities, which Reader suggests can affect how journalists do their jobs, specifically when dealing with ethical considerations (2006). Kaniss (1991) admits that finding news that is appealing to all suburbanites has been difficult for newspapers. While 19th-century newspapers could turn to the city and local government for news, modern newspapers must reach out to a larger number of local governments for news. This increase in municipalities has led some newspapers to focus on governments with a regional focus (Kaniss, 1991). This regional sourcing has helped newspapers created an area -wide identity. However, Kaniss also notes that reporters and e ditors believe that the city is still important to suburbanites because, journalists say, cities control the fate of metropolitan areas and the suburbs could not survive without the cities (1991, p. 66). Newspaper Coverage of Growth Crime, pollution, and other urban issues were not the only cultural implications of growth. Local media have also had to deal with this change in population and the resulting development

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45 patterns. While newspaper ownership patterns shifted during the 20th century to reflect th e evolving American economy, other effects were influencing newspapers. When newspapers became the products of chain ownership, their coverage also shifted to focus more on national and international news (Thomas & Nain, 2005). This left a tremendous gap i n local news coverage. Other studies have shown that local coverage began to focus primarily on crime and other negative elements of city life (Artwick & Gordon, 1998). Artwick and Gordon reported that when newspapers did cover city life, it was usually ne gative. This promoted suburban growth because this coverage made affluent suburbanites weary of the city, which led to population declines in urban areas (Isenberg, 2005). Reader (2006) reported that journalists in rural areas face different challenges tha n their urban counter parts. He suggested that many of these issues are related to the journalists connectivity to the communities they report on. These issues can range from ethical concerns, to conflict of interest issues because of the reporters ties with sources and other community members (Reader, 2006). However, this trend of downtown decline seems to be waning. Isenberg (2005) suggests a shift in ideology has created a sense of nostalgia about these inner city, downtown areas. She said Americans a re now experiencing sentimental feelings toward the traditional downtown area often typified as the downtown of the 1940s and s and are coming back downtown to live, work, and play (Isenberg, 2005). This change in perception has led people to move b ack into the once-abandoned inner -city areas. New developments, the New Urbanism movement, and other revitalization efforts have helped contribute to this trend, which promotes walkable streets and a return to street -level business (Isenberg, 2005). Isenbe rg also cited suburban build out as one

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46 reason for this return to the city. Simply put, people do not want to live and commute long distances from work. Growth Effects and Newspaper Readership Urban growth impacts many areas of life in cities. From regulat ions to transportation, urban planners have significant influence over the lives of local residents. During this process of regulation growth, local media may also be affected. The Project for Excellence in Journalism (2007) said that for the third consecu tive year, daily and Sunday newspaper circulation fell sharply in 2006, but noted that losses may level off in 2007. The 2008 State of the News Media 2008 report did not show any leveling off and that the declines continued in 2007. Overall, the Project no ted that circulation was down 2.8% daily and 3.4% on Sunday compared to the year before. The declines in Sunday circulation have been significantly higher than daily circulation, dating back to at least 1990 (Project for Excellence in Journalism, 2007). Part of this decline can be attributed to the closing of evening newspapers. The Project said that morning circulation is as high as it has ever been. The report said that the biggest losers were newspapers in large metro markets like Los Angeles, Boston, San Francisco, and Philadelphia. The top 50 newspapers in circulation lost, on average, 3.6% daily. With these declines in circulation, newspapers have begun looking for a more positive way to market their product to advertisers (Project for Excellence in Journalism, 2007). One way they have done this is by emphasizing online readership and asserting that they are losing subscribers to their own websites and that readers are simply changing platforms. Another way newspapers have kept an upbeat tone is by em phasizing readership over circulation. Readership represents the total number of adults that read the paper, which averages 2.3 times the number of

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47 newspapers printed (Project for Excellence in Journalism, 2007). The Project reported that readership is on the decline too, but it is not declining as fast as circulation. According to The Orlando Sentinel the papers circulation is only about 230,000, but the overall readership is well above 700,000. Readership and subscription varies by age and education lev els as well. In 2006, only 35% of people between 18 and 24 read a newspaper in a given week, while older readers, those over 65, were also reading the newspapers less (Project for Excellence in Journalism, 2007). Sixty four percent of those people with a p ostgraduate degree read a newspaper during the week, while only 47% of high school graduates do. The State of the News Media Report (2007) cites several reasons why people have stopped reading newspapers. In line with Putnams (2000) Social Capital Theory the report suggests that people do not have time to read the newspaper. According to the report, this trend has been growing since the 1960s the same time that Putnam calls the peak of social capital in the United States. The second most common reason for this decline in readership is convenience (Project for Excellence in Journalism, 2007). This may be attributed to increased commutes from the suburbs, as well as traffic congestion and television use. Jock Lauterer (2006) concluded that newspapers rel y on cities for funding, news, and resources to stay relevant in the age of Internet and television news. However, he suggests that this dependency is mutual and that city residents rely on newspapers to stay informed. The Project for Excellence in Journal ism confirms this by arguing, Newspapers remain the most effective way to reach a broad audience and deliver results for advertisers (Project, 2006). Lauterer provides two other relations between newspapers and their cities. First, he says that as

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48 populations grow, so does newspaper readership (although this might not be the case with circulation), and second, he says that newspapers report on growth and development. Based on the studies discussed thus far, it is clear that urban media face a unique set of challenges that their rural counterparts do not. These challenges include economic issues, coverage, content, and connectivity. Newspapers not only contribute to the overall image of a city, but also encourage a sense of community togetherness and stimu late belonging with communities. However, newspaper readership can also be a measurement of urbanization. Robert Park, of the Chicago school, wrote in 1929: Newspaper circulation may be represented schematically in a succession of concentric circles, defin ing a series of zones zones of declining circulation, since newspaper circulation, like land values, tends to decline in regular gradients from the center of the city to its circumference; and from the city itself to the limits of the metropolitan area. These gradients of declining newspaper circulation measure the area or urban influence; they measure, in short, the extent and degree of urbanization. These concentric circles of declining circulation show how social capital and community belonging fade deeper into the suburbs. They are also the focus of this study. However, what Parks study fails to address is why these people on the fringe of the metropolitan area do not read the newspaper. To reach out to these residents on the fringe of coverage area s, newspapers have responded with zoned editions to cater to the needs of these fringe areas. Zoned editions are specialized sections of the newspapers that cater to the needs of specific parts of the community, often focusing coverage on a more narrow are a. Bogart (1989) said that zoned editions were used to reach out to those areas on the periphery of coverage areas and to increase circulation and revenue. However, some newspapers have begun to eliminate zoned editions because of budget and staff cuts.

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49 This decline in readership may be attributed to a number of factors. Previously reviewed studies have suggested that media bias against city life may be an influence. Others implicate a lack of social connection to a community or city. Others still bla me a decline in social capital. According to Rattner (2007), circulation has been on the decline for more than 20 years, and the pace of decline is accelerating. He also attributes a loss of young readers to this decline in circulation. Putnam (2000) would argue that young people do not read newspapers because they do not feel socially connected to their communities. Chan and Goldthrope (2007), showed that newspaper readership is related to social status, stating that educational and income levels often indicate higher levels of newspaper readership. Meanwhile, Rattner also writes that the amount of time spent reading newspapers is also on the decline as more readers get their news on the Internet. Shoemaker and Reese (1996) argue that the kind of community affects media content. They said the media are affected by the defining characterisitics of the community they cover. For example, a more culturally diverse community should have a newspaper with more culturally diverse content. This happens because vario us media must operate within the bounds of their communitys local economy and culture. This includes the physical and social layout of the area. Geographic patterns also have an effect on news coverage and content. Dominick (1997), showed that their is an uneven distribution of news coverage, focusing primarily on the two coasts of the United States. As a result of these two trends, Shoemaker and Reese (1996) showed that larger newspapers and television stations, in more densely populated areas, are forced into a sporadic news-coverage pattern, where they only cover specific events rather than everything that happens within a community.

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50 The Orlando Sentinel s recent growth patterns highlight this nationwide trend of circulation decline. The Orlando Business Journal reported in 2005 that The Sentinel had experienced an 11% drop in circulation during the previous twelve months one of the steepest rates of decline in the country. In 2007, The Senitnel s editor in chief sent a memo to the staff outlining staf f cuts and staffing issues being faced by the newspaper (Romenesko, 2007). The full memo can be read in Appendix H. Theoretical Approach While little research has been conducted that simultaneously examines both mass communications and urban planning theo ries, there has been research that suggests these two distinct areas are more related than the current body of literature suggests. Existing research has a high concentration of study on media representation of urban areas and urban media content. No studies were found that examine growth effects on newspapers. However, several theoretical approaches from both areas of study are crucial to this study of growth effects. To better understand these effects, this study will consider several of these dual -purpose theories, including: Robert Putnams Social Capital Theory (2000), Shoemaker and Reeses hypothesis of media organization (1991), and Lucys (1988) theory about public participation within planning. It will also rely on the Grounded Theory research metho d to develop further theoretical understanding on this topic. While this study draws on a wide -ranging group of theory, its this multiplicity of theoretical approaches that will bridge the gap between communications studies and urban planning theory. Social Capital Theory The underlying theoretical foundation for this research rests on Robert Putnams (2000) Social Capital Theory. Putnams theory is one of the few in the current body of literature that

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51 examines both urban planning and mass communications in relation to social capital. This study does not rely on Putnams specific findings but rather on the broad implications of his theory. In his book, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (2000), Putnam suggests that Americans ha ve been experiencing a decline in civic participation and social connectivity (social capital) since the 1960s. By using data from the Roper Social and Political Trends and the DDB Needham Life Style reports, Putnam (2000) argues that Americans have become more socially disconnected than ever before. Putnams research shows that public participation peaked in the 1950s and s, and has steadily declined ever since (2000). Bowling Alone argues that this decline in social capital is the result of several fac tors, including pressures of time and money, mobility, sprawl, technology, the mass media, and generational differences. Putnam (2000) argues that the federal highway system broke up the traditional city core by allowing residents to move into the suburbs, distorting their sense of place and community. According to Putnam, a strong sense of community is necessary to promote activities that emphasize social capital, such as reading the newspaper. This dismantling of community values made the population more socially mobile. Bowling Alone showed that one in five Americans move each year and are likely to do so again (Putnam, 2000). Also, longer commutes and more time in traffic has contributed to a decline is social capital and newspaper readership the publi c does not have time to participate (Putnam, 2000). Putnams analysis of the mass media showed a steady decline in newspaper readership, which is considered a strong form of social participation and a mark of substantial civic engagements. Only a newspap er can put the same thought at the same time before a thousand readersso hardly any democratic association can carry on without a newspaper (Putnam,

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52 2000, p. 218). Putnams findings suggest that newspaper readership began to decline at the time social ca pital reached its peak in the 1960s, despite significant growth in urban population. Putnams implications of mobility, sprawl, and the mass media are important for this study considering that Interstate 4 was constructed through downtown Orlando at about the time Putnam suggests social capital began to decline. This led to similar trends in suburbanization experienced in other cities around the country; it also made the Orlando area heavily reliant on commuting. Also, The Orlando Sentinel s circulation nu mbers reflect the decline in readership [circulation] that Putnam describes in his study. Cultivation Theory Gerbner and Grosss (1976) Cultivation Theory argues that the media can have significant effects on the attitudes and behavior of the public based on their representation of certain issues in the press. Exposure to media, over time, cultivates the audiences perceptions of reality. Other studies have suggested that newspapers portray cities in a negative light, cultivating an often negative stereoty pe of inner-city areas (Dreier, 2005). This helped contribute to the decline of these inner city areas and the rise of suburban areas by presenting urban areas as crime ridden and in other negative lights (Isenberg, 2005). To meet this changing populace, n ewspapers and other media began catering to the suburban audience, but this population shift does not necessarily affect circulation numbers. These findings are significant for this study because of the growth effects the Orlando area has experienced duri ng the last several decades and The Sentinel s portrayal of those effects. Although this study is not a content analysis of The Sentinel s coverage, the effects of Cultivation Theory may influence the audiences perceptions of the newsappers coverage of growth and its implications.

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53 Media Organization Media Organization Theory suggests that newspaper development and content is the direct reflection of society. Newspapers content reflects the community they cover (Shoemaker and Reese, 1996). Shoemaker and Reese (1996) hypothesize that five factors influence media content: society, socialization and attitudes, media -organizational routines, social institutions outside the media, and ideological positions. Findings from Westley and Maclean (1957) suggest tha t the media are merely information brokers. Gerbner (1969) showed how mass media are operating under pressure from external powers, including clients, advertisers, competitors, and other authorities. McQuail (2005) states that those working within a media organization must be decision makers, despite the varying constraints placed on the media. Many of these decisions are based on relationships with the audience (readers). Research by Weaver and Wilhoit (1986) showed that individual members of the audience were the most active respondents to the media. Other pressures related to media organization are far reaching, and can include: news and entertainment, diversity, etc. Engwall (1978) calls newspapers a hybrid organization because of the dual nature of newspapers as manufacturer-server to the public. Breed (1955) showed that newspaper publishers often set policy that affects newspaper coverage and organization; his study focused on how such policy came to be followed, and showed that such policies co uld circumvent journalistic norms, could be disputed, and not followed by staff members. However, Breed (1955) stated that publishers policy is often followed. Shoemaker and Reese state that the kind of community from which a medium operates also affects content. The community is the environment in which the medium must operate, and

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54 therefore the comunitys economy and culture as well as its physical and social layout will affect the media (1996, p. 211). They report that the size of the market also aff ects the medium. Communicative Planning Theory While mass communications theories are important to this study, several urban planning approaches must also be considered to better understand the relationship between growth and newspaper operation. Accordin g to Habermas (1984), Communicative Planning Theory examines the communications processes for problem structuring and policy development at the local level. At the most basic level, this theory suggests that urban planners must communicate with the public about growth-related problems and development. In Florida, state law requires that planners give public notice of any hearings to land -use code changes or other government action. Often, newspapers are the most common medium for spreading these types of messages aside from direct mail. Though this does not necessarily mean public agreement with planners action is guaranteed, it does suggest that public input is important for the planning process. Although this study does not include interviews with urban planners, it may prove useful for analysis because of the types of coverage contained within the pages of the newspaper. Reporters and editors may have difficulty covering the day -to-day operations of planning and may be forced to limit coverage of such o perations. Another aspect worth noting regarding urban planning is newspapers are often the primary media used by planners to relay information about upcoming meetings and regulatory changes. If growth has affected newspapers in a negative way (i.e. declin ing circulation/readership), planners are not notifying as many people as possible about these changes.

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55 Principles of Broad -based Urban Planning In a 1988 response to the American Planning Associations thirteen principles, William H. Lucy argued that th e APA had too narrowly defined the role of urban planners. Lucy (1988) argued that the planning profession was too broad to be characterized in one -sentence terminology. He suggested that planners should serve a public interest and support public participa tion. However, the broad nature of planning is what makes the impacts of growth so unique. Urban planners must address a wide range of issues in urban settings, ranging from transportation and environmental concerns to land use regulations and zoning. Lucys (1988) criticism raised the alarm of public participation. His argument that the public should take an active role is be reflected in recent trends of reader participation in online newspaper forums and reader responses (Schultz, 2000). This idea of p ublic participation is a digression from Putnams Social Capital Theory (2000), which suggests that public participation is on the decline. Putnam would argue that the more involved citizens are in civic organizations, the more socially connected they are to a community and the more likely they are to subscribe to the local newspaper (2000). Summary The review of the literature shows significant gaps in the literature and theory regarding urban journalism. While some studies have shown that the media portr ay urban areas in a negative light and this portrayal has contributed to the middle -class flight to the suburbs, other research has shown that newspapers serve as a source of community identity by giving a diverse public a way to be united under a common b anner/name. The research shows that this notion of community identity is important in promoting Social Capital among urban residents. However, Social Capital, according to Putnam, has been declining since the 1960s; this decline is attributed

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56 to the increa sed commute time from the suburbs to the commercial areas downtown and because of a decline in newspaper readership. The literature suggests that there is a direct connection between this decline in readership and the expansion of urban areas into the subu rbs. The literature also provided a significant amount of data on the growth and development patterns of the Orlando area. Census Bureau data showed that the Orlando area has tripled in population since Walt Disney World opened in the early 1970s. This ra pid-growth pattern is expexted to slow during the current economic downtown. However, the literature suggests that the region will continue to grow, just at a slower rate. The theoretical approach for this study was fairly broad. Since no theory exists th at directly addresses the concept of urban communication, the researcher felt that it was necessary to discuss theories that may contribute to the grounded theory approach of this study. Research Questions/Hypotheses H1: Urban growth has had an effect on The Orlando Sentinel o R1: How has urban growth affected The Orlando Sentinel? H2: Urban growth has influenced content by being a significant topic within coverage. o R2: Is urban growth a major topic in The Sentinel s pages? H3: Urban growth has caused The Sentinel to change its coverage tactics and patterns for gathering news in the Orlando area. o R3: How has The Sentinel altered its coverage to meet the demands of growth? H4: Urban growth in Orlando has influenced the newspapers circulation patterns, resulting in targeted subscription offers. o R4: How has The Sentinel s circulation been affected by urban growth?

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57 H5: Urban growth has affected the newspapers marketing campaign by requiring varied approaches to marketing the newspaper. o R5: What marketing ap proaches has The Sentinel adopted as a result of growth? H6: Urban growth has affected staff development. o R6: Where does The Sentinel hire most new staff members from?

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58 CHAPTER 3 METHOD This study used qualitative methods to determine the effects of urba n growth on The Orlando Sentinel, a large, local paper in Central Florida with a circulation of roughly 230,000 daily and 335,000 on Sunday. The researcher conducted 18 in -depth interviews with various current and former staff members to determine their pe rceptions of growth and its effects on the newspaper, and then analyzed articles from the newspaper to triangulate the data. The researcher chose a qualitative approach to this study because of the in -depth, personalized analysis that results from such me thods and because qualitative research studies can be used to uncover meaning associated with a trend or personal experience (Hoshman, 1989). This study analyzes personal responses to growth and staff perceptions of the effects of growth on the newspaper. To gather the data, the following methods were used: developing codes, categories, and themes; generating a working hypothesis; and analyzing data collected from in depth interviews with newspaper staff members. This study explores the effects of urban growth on The Orlando Sentinel, specifically analyzing the effects on content, coverage, advertising, marketing, and staff development of the newspaper. This method follows the basic approach as defined by Creswell (1998). Creswell defines qualitative resear ch as an inquiry process of understanding based on distinct methodological traditions of inquiry that explore a social or human problem (1998, p. 15). For this study, the researcher contacted 30 potential participants via e -mail to ask for voluntary par ticipation. Eighteen people responded. Those who agreed to participate were then interviewed over a four -month period regarding their opinions and personal feelings about the effects of growth on The Orlando Sentinel Each participant was also asked to def ine growth in their own way. The interviews were recorded using an audio recorder attachment for an iPod and

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59 later transcribed. The transcribed interviews were then coded and categorized based on prominent themes from the data. These themes were content, coverage, staffing, growth, finances, circulation, relevancy, demographics, local, and newsroom organization. These themes are defined below. After coding and theming the data, the researcher triangulated it by comparing data shared during the interviews to articles published in The Sentinel This triangulation method was chosen to see if the staffs perceptions accurately reflected what has been happening within the newspaper itself. The researcher used this data to generate new theory under the Grounde d Theory method of qualitative research. Grounded Theory Grounded Theory is a research methodology that emphasizes the generation of theory from data during research. This study relies on this approach because of the lack of existing theory regarding urba n growth effects and the media. Creswell defines Grounded Theory as the attempt to generate or discover theory that relates to a particular situation (1998). This study does this by focusing on growths effects on The Orlando Sentinel and the implications for other newspapers across the country. The process of data analysis in a Grounded Theory study is systematic and follows a standard format, which includes: Open coding, in which the research forms initial categories of information about the phenomenon b eing studied, Axial coding, in which the investigator assembles data in new ways following open coding.

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60 Selective coding, in which the reading identifies a story line and integrates the categories from axial coding. Finally, the researcher may create a co nditional matrix (Cresswell, 1998, p. 57). This research method was chosen because of the lack of existing theory in the current body of literature. It was also chosen because current trends in the newspaper industry show that many urban areas are develop ing into one -newspaper markets. This study will lay the foundation for later studies. Long and Active Interviews McCracken (1988) calls the long interview one of the most powerful qualitative methods and states that no other method is more revealing. This method was used to better understand the effects of urban growth on The Orlando Sentinel in hopes that the trends revealed by this study could lay the foundation for future research on other newspapers. By interviewing individuals about their reflections and perceptions of growth effects, this study provides in-depth, personal observations about such trends happening in Orlando. Why Orlando? In a sense, Orlando and its newspaper both came of age in the modern era. The Orlando area was chosen for this study because of its high rate of growth since the 1960s, specifically since the opening of Walt Disney World in South Orange County. Since the parks opening in 1971, the areas population has more than tripled, and the growth rate has consistently ranked as one of the top in the country for the last several decades, often ranking in the top ten nationwide (See Table 1). This growth characteristic is important for this study because some cities around the country are experiencing stagnant or negative growth; an d since this study focuses on the

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61 effects of growth, a community experiencing positive growth was essential. This region was also selected because it is home to a large newspaper ( The Orlando Sentinel ). Why The Orlando Sentinel The Orlando Sentinel was chosen as the sample newspaper for this study because of its location in a fast -growing metropolitan area (see above). Statistics show that The Sentinel has shown signs that signify modern trends in the newspapers business: i.e. rising ad revenue but declini ng circulation numbers ( The New York Times, 2007). As a result of these shifts in media consumerism, The Sentinel may have changed its approach to delivering the news, content, and staff development, making it a primary candidate for analysis. Defining The Sentinels Coverage Area For the purposes on this study, the researcher used The Orlando Sentinel s definition of its coverage area for analysis. The Sentinel s coverage area includes the four -county Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), as defined by the United States Census Bureau, as its core coverage area. The MSA comprises Orange, Osceola, Seminole, and Lake Counties. However, The Sentinel s coverage area extends beyond the four -county region to include areas of Brevard County, West Volusia County, and Northeast Polk County, as is shown by the Orlando Sentinel s coverage area map shown in Appendix A. The Sentinel s coverage area includes the cities of Orlando, Winter Park, Apopka, Altamonte Springs, Sanford, Deland, Deltona, Kissimmee, Haines City, Clermont, and Leesburg, among others (Census, 2000a). According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2000b), the four-county MSA has an estimated population of 2 million people, with Orange County as the center of the region with a population of more than 1 million. Al together, The Sentinel s complete, seven -county coverage area has a population of roughly 3 million.

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62 Participants For this study, the researcher used The Orlando Sentinel s online staff directory to contact staff members for participation in this study. P otential participants were sent an e -mail (See Appendix C) that introduced the researcher and explained the premise of the study. The participants were asked to take part in a short interview to discuss their views and opinions of growth in Orlando and its effects on The Sentinel The e -mail explained the basis of this study as an attempt to better understand the effects of urban growth on the newspaper and the staffs perceptions of the resulting changes. While 30 current and former staff members from The Sentinel were contacted for participation in this study, only 18 agreed to participate. Two of the participants were former employees of the newspaper who had left The Sentinel within the last 12 months. One of these former employees was a former intern a nd eventual staff member at The Sentinel s Volusia and Lake County bureaus. They worked for the newspaper for approximately 15 months. The other former employee was a 20 -year veteran of the newspaper who most recently served as the papers associate managi ng editor for metropolitan news. All other participants are current employees of the newspaper and included two reporters (one business reporter and one city of Orlando reporter), eight editors (including the editor in chief, the Lake County bureau editor, a deputy online editor, the national/state editor, two government editors, the managing editor, the associate managing editor for content development, and the editorial page editor), one advertising representative/marketing services director, the product marketing manager, an online editor/reporter, the circulation director, the staff development editor, and the reader representative (ombudsman).

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63 Participants were chosen based on willingness to participate and not based on professional experience, length of residency in the Orlando area, gender, or age. Some participants had been working in the newspaper industry for more than 40 years, while others were relative newcomers to the business. Many participants began their careers at other newspapers and came to The Sentinel for various reasons. At the beginning of each interview, participants were asked to read and sign the Informed Consent Form (See Appendix D), showing their voluntary participation in the study. Procedure Selecting Participants. The resear cher began searching for potential participants by searching The Orlando Sentinel s online staff directory. After browsing through the entire staff directory, the researcher sent an e -mail to 28 current staff members that outlined the purpose of the study and asked the recipients if they would be willing to participate in the study. The initial e-mail was sent to Sentinel staff members at all levels, including the publisher, editor in chief, managing editor, several beat editors and reporters, as well as me mbers of the production, advertising, circulation and marketing departments. A follow -up e-mail was sent when a potential participant would respond. Several participants were asked to identify any former employees they felt would be willing to participate in the study. Three former employees were contacted by e -mail, and two responded and participated in the study. Data Collection: Qualitative, in -depth interviews were conducted in person with each participant. The researcher conducted and transcribed all of the interview data. The interviews took place at a location designated by the participant to ensure a comfortable environment for the participants. Of the 18 interviews, 15 took place at The Sentinel s downtown Orlando office. Twelve of those 15 interv iews took place in the newsroom or in the participants personal office.

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64 Two were conducted in the newspapers cafeteria, and one was conducted in the lobby of the newspaper at a private cubicle. One interview was conducted at The Sentinel s Lake County Bureau where the participant worked. Another was conducted at a restaurant near the University of Central Florida because the participant was no longer an employee at The Sentinel One interview was conducted over the phone. The interviews were conducted bet ween December 2007 and March 2008. Prior to each interview, the researcher prepared an interview guide to ensure certain research questions were addressed in each interview. See Appendix E for an example of an interview guide. Individual guides were prepa red for each interview so that questions could be targeted based on the participants role at the newspaper. Participants were not asked any questions unrelated to their duties at the newspaper. For example, the online editor was not asked any questions re lated to print advertising. The researcher recorded each interview with an audio -recording iPod attachment, and the researcher took notes during the interviews to highlight the primary points made by each participant. Following each interview, the researc her and the participant debriefed about the interview to clarify any unclear statements or information and to ask any final, follow -up questions. The researcher then debriefed alone and wrote down any thoughts or comments about the interview. No in -person, follow-up interviews were necessary; however, some follow -up emails were sent to several participants to clarify phrasing or other wording. No extra information was gathered from these follow-up e-mails. They were strictly used for clarification purposes The researcher chose to analyze the articles from The Sentinel s Local In-Depth section because it was a commonly referred to during the interviews. Local In -Depth is a Monday

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65 section that was created in January 2006. It has covered a wide variety of growth-related issues from a regional perspective. Data Analysis and Writing : A potential problem for qualitative researchers is evidentiary adequacy. For this study, each interview lasted between 30 minutes and one hour. Once all of the interviews were completed and transcribed, the researcher coded the data for common themes and phrases. The themes and categories were then sorted, compared, and analyzed until they were fully saturated. Saturation: After conducting and analyzing 18 interviews, the resea rcher began to notice common themes emerging from the data. These themes are defined below. Themes The analysis of the data presented in the interviews is divided into ten categories/themes: content, coverage, staffing, growth, finances, circulation, rele vancy, demographics, localized focus, and newsroom organization. Growth: For the purposes of this study, growth will encompass a number of definitions, including the population growth of The Orlando Sentinel s coverage area and the land development in that region Content : Content refers to the actual information printed in The Orlando Sentinel or published on the newspapers website, orlandosentinel.com. Coverage: Coverage refers to the newspapers reporting and news -gathering techniques. It also refers to the emphasis reporters and editors place on certain topics when generating story ideas or drafting content. Staffing : The term "staffing" refers to the development of and hiring of staff members for The Orlando Sentinel

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66 Finances: Finances refers to the newspapers financial and budget outlook. This also encompasses any financial resources at the newspaper. Circulation: Circulation includes the number of newspapers printed each day, as well as the number of home -delivery subscriptions, penetration rate of the paper, and readership, which is the number of people who read the paper each day and is often calculated at 2.5 times the number of papers sold. Relevancy : Relevancy refers to the audiences perceptions of the newspapers content. Demographics: Demographics refer to the changing population of The Sentinel s coverage area. Localized Focus : Localized focus refers to the content of the newspaper and its focus on covering local issues over national and international news. Newsroom Organization: Newsroom organization refers to the structure of The Sentinel s newsroom. The Sentinel reorganized its newsroom staff structure in May 2007.

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67 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS After conducting and transcribing 18 in -depth interviews with various Sentinel employees from December 2007 to March 2008, the researcher found that urban growth does have an effect on newspapers, at least The Orlando Sentinel While qualitative data is not generalizable to broad samples, it can be indicative of a larger trend across the country. Ten overal l themes emerged from the data, including content, coverage, staffing, and circulation, and four of the six hypotheses were fully supported, two were not. An analysis of The Sentinel s Local In-Depth section also showed how growth has affected content at the newspaper. Of the 18 participants, six were women and 12 were men. Sixteen were Caucasian. One was African American. One was Hispanic. The age demographics skewed largely toward the older, with only one participant being under 25. For a biography of each participant, please see Appendix F. H1: Growth H1 said urban growth has affect ed The Orlando Sentinel H1 was supported based on the data collected through the interviews. All of the participants in the study cited at least one way that growth has affected the day -to-day operations of the newspaper and their job within the company. While participants may not have mentioned the same types of effects, all of them reached the conclusion that growth had affected their day -to-day job at Orlando Sentinel Communications and the newspaper in general. In total, 17 of the participants discussed their personal definitions and opinions of growth; all of them talked about the effect of growth on the newspaper. The participants overwhelmingly said that growth was a defining characterisitc of the Orlando area and the newspaper.

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68 Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall called growth a major topic and the most important issue that the newspaper covers because of the resources the paper devotes to it and because it affects every, single aspect of life [in Central Florida]. She said the areas population growth had helped The Sentinel reach more people than ever before and that this increased reach is partly a growth issue because the place has grown, and its also growth i n the way people use media. Editorial Page Editor Jane Healy agreed. Growth drives everything here, not just the local economy, but the states as well, said Healy, who observed that growth is a definitive characteristic of the community, definitive of this newspaper, and that readers are interested in it too, which makes it a frequent topic of conversation in the newspaper. If Orlando had never grown, it would have been a sleepy, kind of orange grove town. So almost everything about it, whether it s the tourism growth, or just the subdivision growth, its totally defined Orlando. Its a different type of growth now. Its getting much more diverse than it ever was before. Halls and Healys views reflect the positive and pragmatic view of urban gro wth found in the data. Other than a few observations about the increase in problems such as crime and traffic, most of the participants cited positive effects of growth on the newspaper. Like Hall and Healy, Product Marketing Manager Lisa Bridges called gr owth a good thing, but, she noted the paper has not benefited from the growth as might be expected because as the areas population has surged in recent years, the newspapers circulation has declined. The participants cited several reasons for this, including changes in reader habit and the shift to the Internet, a lack of reinvestment back into the newspaper for marketing purposes, and content relevancy. John Cutter, a deputy online editor, disagreed with Healys assessment that readers are interested i n growth more than any other topic. He said, I think they [readers] would talk about the effects of growth, but Im not sure that the word growth would come out of their mouths.

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69 All 15 of the participants working as editors and reporters said growth ha d affected the newsgathering process at the newspaper. These responses answered R1, which asked how urban growth had affected The Orlando Sentinel Associate Managing Editor for Content Development Steve Doyle and Government Editor Mark Skoneki said growth has become integrated into the newsroom and the newsgathering process by driving decisions about what stories to cover and how to frame them. Growth seems to be a component in just about everything that were interested in, said Skoneki, who called grow th one of the biggest topics in the newspaper in the last year because of the city of Orlando and Orange Countys new venues project. But, Doyle noted in addition to changing its focus on what it covers as news, the paper has also expanded the areas that i t covers. He pointed to the fact that because The Sentinel s core coverage area (Orange, Seminole, and Osceola counties) has built out. He said most of the available land in those counties is nearly gone and new development is occurring in the suburban fri nge. The paper has expanded the areas where it covers and gathers news in the suburban fringe as part of an effort to increase its circulation, Doyle said. Another government editor, Debbie Salamone, echoed Skonekis and Doyles sentiment about growth, noting that it had molded The Sentinel In other words, Salamone asserted, growth was the number one story at The Sentinel because it affects every aspect of life and has become the engine that drives the paper. Indeed, Orlando government reporter Mark Schlueb called growth the quintessential Florida story. Lake County Bureau Editor Jerry Fallstrom said growth had made Lake County a bedroom community for Orlando because the citys sphere of influence has extended as the area has developed.

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70 Former Assistant Managing Editor for Metropolitan News Sean Holton said growth had caused him to worry about the work habits of reporters. He said when he arrived at The Sentinel in 1987, fears of traffic and commuting to cover stories was a greater concern becaus e the area lacked an integrated highway system. However, as Scott Powers (2006) showed in his Local In Depth article, Building the Beltway, the Orlando area has worked for more than a decade to build a beltway around the Orlando area to meet increasing traffic demands. Other interviews revealed that growth had affected The Sentinel s hiring practices, newsroom organization, marketing efforts, and circulation trends. Staff Development Editor Dana Eagles said that growth had affected staff recruitment be cause as the area has grown, the way the paper covers the region has changed, which has led to different newsroom operations models and two newsroom reoganization efforts in the last two years alone. Circulation Director Norbert Ortiz said the areas popul ation growth is a huge benefit for the newspaper because Florida has a tendency to attract Baby Boomers, who are often newspaper readers and more likely to subscribe to the newspaper. Other participants disagreed with Ortizs conclusion about the regio ns population and readership habit. The business side of the newspaper also sees the effects of growth. Marketing Services Director Gary Winters and Product Marketing Director Lisa Bridges both said that growth has made their individual jobs easier. Wint ers said that being in a high -growth community makes marketing the newspaper to national advertisers easy because it means there are more customers for advertisers to reach. He said: Ive told people that if you cant market Orlando, youve got to get out of the marketing business. Weve got a great market here. Its always growing; usually one of the fastest in the nation and often one of the fastest in the state. Just the population growth, along with the employment growth and all the new industry weve h ad, it is something we can boast about to practically anybody.

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71 Bridges agreed. From her perspective, the growth has brought more people into the region for her team to market the paper to. H2: Effects on Content H2 posited that urban growth has influenced content by being a significant topic within coverage. This hypothesis was supported by all of those interviewed from the editorial staff, including all 11 current and former editors, the reader representative, and three current and former reporters/colum nists. Participants discussed a range of topics related to content that included the scaling back of some of the newspapers sections as well as targeting and focusing news stories around the issue of growth and its effects. Six of the participants cited c hanges in the nature of crime stories as one of the biggest effects of growth on the newspapers content. The interviews also support R2, which asked if urban growth is a major topic in The Sentinel s pages. Both Debbie Salamone, government editor, and Ma rk Russell, managing editor, discussed, in detail, the papers Local In -Depth section. Salamone and Russell both said the section was created as a direct response to the regions growth and as a means to educate the readership about growth -related issues Salamone said the section covers a wide variety of subjects related to growth and may analyze a trend or educate the public. She cited Christopher Shermans October 22, 2007, story titled Governments turn to CRAs to pay for a better future, as an examp le of a story where the paper explained a growth -related topic community redevelopment agencies. Russell said: Weve done a couple of things to try and meet that challenge [growth in the community]. We started this new section, now I guess its not so new now, its more than a year old now, called Local In-Depth. Its a Monday section; it once was part of our Local and State section. So we tried to turn most of the page over to a weekly feature on the growing region. So literally a page that looks at growth in the region, and we look at things ranging from

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72 school population and the prevalence of portables on high school campuses to the exotic animals that populate our region, to impact fees and how they inhibit growth in communities. Russell also said that even writers and columnists at the papers bureaus are encouraged to place an emphasis on growth, because it affects their regions more than it does other areas in a pronounced way. He said the paper tries to place bureaus in high -growth areas so that the paper can adequately cover those areas. Salamone said that she believes the newspaper should reflect the defining characteristics of the community; in this case, growth. Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall said, Growth is a subject we cover intensiv ely. However, she observed, when she arrived at the newspaper in 2004, the coverage of the human side of growth was not there. Government Editor Mark Skoneki agreed. It seems like every time we tackle an issue there is always some sort of, at the very least, an underpinning about growth if thats not the focus of the story, he said. He described how government stories are also often growth related, such as Tamara Lytles February 4, 2008, Local In -Depth story titled things you have at stake in Con gress, which discussed legislation regarding the economy, and Rick McKays March 12, 2007, story Downtowns dirty dozen, which reported on traffic engineers in downtown Orlando. Lake County Editor Jerry Fallstrom said, Almost everything in Lake County is a growth story, or has been, but because of pressure on our reporters to contribute to the main newspaper, as well as the Lake Edition, our bureau has had to broaden our focus. Fallstrom said one way they have done this is through their crime coverage. He said, for example, if a small crime happens in Lake County, it will probably be covered in a news brief. However, large crimes must be covered so that they appeal to a broader Orlando audience.

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73 Nation/State Editor Bob Shaw said that urban areas, like Orlando and Miami, are arguably the craziest areas of the state and make for terrific stories that people enjoy reading. He said urban growth creates a bevy of strange happenings that make for good news to read. Both of the current reporters interviewed Beth Kassab and Mark Schlueb, said editors encourage them to incorporate growth into their stories. [Because of growth], there really is no shortage of topics to write about, said Beth Kassab, a business reporter and columnist. Thats one really good thing, because there seems to be a lot happening here right now. She said that despite the recent economic downtown, Even if growth is booming or if growth is slowing down, both are extremely important stories. Manning Pynn, a 23-year veteran of The Sentinel and the reader representative, said during his tenure at the paper the types of stories The Sentinel pursues has changed. He said that throughout the 1990s, The Sentinel perceived itself as a metropolitan newspaper, much like The New York Times, because it concerned itself with cosmopolitan issues, international issues, national issues, as well as local issues. Pynn used the newspapers September 11 coverage as an example. Following the attacks, we devoted the entire A1 section to New York and Was hington coverage. However, we did not have a Central Florida focus. He said that readers grew accustomed to this approach to news, but the paper could not sustain this expensive coverage because of changes in readership habits. People were not subscribing to the newspaper as much and were reading online, which does not generate as much ad revenue as the print edition of the paper. He said the newspaper began to switch its focus to local news earlier this decade. While all of the editorial employees that participated in the study said that growth was a major topic for the newspaper, eight of the participants said the content must remain relevant to readers and other consumers in order for the newspaper to hold onto its readers and remain

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74 viable. One way se veral of the participants said the paper can do this is by reflecting the areas changing demographics in the newspaper by writing about race issues. I feel as if our content is relevant to people, and were finding new ways to make it more relevant onlin e, Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall said. Mark Russell agreed with Halls assessment about relevancy and local content. Debbie Salamone said readers are looking for local and useful news that is relevant to them. In Orlando, everyone wants a newspaper tha t caters to them, but thats hard to do. Product Marketing Director Lisa Bridges said that the newspapers content must remain relevant in order for her to market it to the community. What we need to do as a product is stay relevant with consumers, and thats the main thing. We need to have stories in there; you can do all the marketing you want, but you need to stay relevant with consumers, and then we can market that, she said. Circulation Director Norbert Ortiz agreed. Nearly all of the respondents w ho discussed the content of the newspaper and its website mentioned an increased demand for more local content. However, two distinct schools of thought emerged: reader demands and an altered focus for the newspaper. Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall said part of the problem The Sentinel has faced as a result of their expanding coverage area is that people have an identity with their area in terms of their schools and traffic issues and infrastructure things. She said readers want local -local coverage, whi ch she defined as coverage with a specifically Central Florida focus rather than national or international. She added that providing such local -local coverage is difficult and costly for the newspaper. Steve Doyle, associate managing editor for content development, agreed with the other participants. He said, Readers in those new communities, and old communities, want a newspaper that, really, is tailored for them. Even The Sentinel s bureaus have placed an

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75 emphasis on local coverage. Were definitely local, Lake County Editor Jerry Fallstrom said. You know, Orlando has got the bigger picture of what theyre trying to cover, but in Lake we have a definite local focus. Government Editor Debbie Salamone said this localized focus is a new trend at the paper. John Cutter, deputy online editor, said the website has incorporated new tools for hyperlocal coverage as a result of the demands from users. He said, We are probably going to tighten the focus because weve built out too many neighborhood places and didnt really have enough ways to get people involved in it. So were probably going to start, a bit more systematically, to try to build up interest and content on different parts of it to see if we can show the sort of the full richness of [the site]. Manning Pynn said the newspaper should be known as the source for all information locally. However, he said that the current online business model has made this mantra difficult to accomplish since readers have come to expect information for free on t he web. He also mentioned the shift in focus from local to regional and back to local. Holton called this localization of the news the future for newspapers. H3: Effects on Coverage H3 suggests that growth has caused The Sentinel to change its coverage ta ctics and patterns for gathering news in the Orlando area, and R3 asked how The Sentinel has altered its coverage to meet the demands of growth. The analysis of the interviews confirmed H3, because all 15 of the participants from the editorial side of the newspaper cited specific changes to the news gathering process at The Sentinel because of the effects of growth, such as traffic, congestion, reporter lifestyle changes, and the changing nature of the types of stories covered by the newspaper.

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76 Editor in C hief Charlotte Hall said the newspaper devotes a lot of resources to covering all of the issues surrounding growth. She said, When I first arrived here four years ago, I thought that we werent covering growth adequately. I mean, the element we were miss ing was coverage of the human side of growth and what that meant for the community. We were covering the infrastructure growth okay, you know, the sort of land use issues, environment, what roads do you build, transportation messes. We were covering school s well, too. I really felt like we had a changing community here because growth here was really about influx of people here from other places, not, you know, all of a sudden everyone having 20 babies. Managing Editor Mark Russell said every reporter, rega rdless of their beat, is encouraged to examine the issue of growth and how people are reacting to it. He also noted a change in the type of story he encourages when reporters are covering national news. He said, I would give them [reporters] specific inst ructions to come back with a Central Florida angle. David Damrons (2007) July 9, 2007, story about local ratification of the Kyoto Protocol highlights this localizing of national/international stories. Russell said the Local In -Depth section one of t he ways the newspaper has addressed the conundrum of covering a growing region. We decided that the land -use function should be a part of every team, almost every team, to have that [growth] really as a focus, especially for this region. But there are s ome regions of our coverage area that are, the development issues are more prominent and more prevalent. One of them is Lake County, which is probably seeing some of the fastest growth rates around here in the last 10 years. Assistant Managing Editor Stev e Doyle said growth has forced us to continually redefine how we cover news, how we circulate the paper, how we understand different communities that spring up. He added: What growth does is create new communities that you have to cover, and you have to go out and learn what they are and how best to reach them. Its hard for newspapers to cover those communities effectively because there are so many of them, and everybody in

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77 new communities and old communities wants a newspaper that is tailored for them. Government Editor Mark Skoneki said growth has caused his reporting staff to have to be more careful when selecting stories because there is more news to cover. Well, we cover less. We have to cherry pick more. We, I think if you go back and look at the paper 15 years ago, we covered much more routine things much more intensively. We were at more city council meetings in the smaller towns. We were involved in many more very local disputes. We do less of that now because we have fewer people to do it. Nation/state Editor Bob Shaw called growth the impetus for everything he and his reporting staff do. He said growth has affected coverage because it creates more news that needs to be covered and we could use more people [reporters] because there are more su burbs to cover, more accidents, more murders, more of everything. He said that since the newspaper is not keeping pace with the number of reporters and editors it employs, its coverage is declining. Lake County Editor Jerry Fallstrom said the bureau is st arting to try to cover news in different ways because there is too much news to cover. We might try to cover things with a brief, or something with a photo, or get something on the web. We started a blog in Lake County. Government Editor Debbie Salamone and former Assistant Managing Editor for Metropolitan News Sean Holton both observed that changes to the local demographics and lifestyle changes had affected the newspapers coverage. Salamone said one of the biggest changes in coverage has been that of the Hispanic community. She also noted that the newspaper had gotten rid of its growth reporter. Orlando Government Reporter Mark Schlueb said he has had to become much more attuned and adept at covering growth issues because of the regions growth and staff cuts. He said he has to use a different layer of sources for coverage because of the role developers and

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78 planning boards play in the areas growth. Now that he is the sole Orlando government reporter, he said he often cannot cover Municipal Planning Board Meetings and other minor committees because of time. I do monitor them, but theyre not closely covered, he said. Certainly theres more stuff now that were not covering that people are noticing, especially in suburban cities like Winter Park and Maitland, where we had spent a lot of time in the past, so they kind of have a sense of entitlement to coverage, he said. Former Sentinel reporter Christine Dellert said, In a growing community like this one, its very important to have reporters that know the community and are familiar with the people, the officials and the area. Sean Holton emphasized the evolving focus of the newspapers coverage during his 20 year tenure at the newspaper. He said the newspaper has retreated from the suburban areas and concentrated its staff at the newspapers downtown newsroom. We had a bureau in Winter Park and Pine Hills; we had a bureau in Apopka; and at one point we had one in South Orange in Edgewood or Belle Isle. But the demands of growth on the region make it a more difficult proposition to cover local news on the micro level because you have too many communities. And you cant grow your reporting staff. So the traditional coverage kind of got lost because the little cities werent really in that, they becam e less important than the giant developments in unincorporated areas. It just turned the old fashioned model on its head. Holton did say coverage is more of a pick and choose effort. He said reporters must choose stories that are of interest to the ent ire region, not just on the local level Twenty years ago you wouldnt have had stories about growth issues in Lake County and how they connect to other areas in the region. However, he said, readers want to know whats going on in their city, but the ex tent of that coverage really started to go away and has diminished.

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79 Manning Pynn said: We cover the things that have come to Orlando and made the area grow. We cover tourism. Of course that was hardly an issue in the 1960s and into the 1970s, but it cert ainly became an issue when Disney arrived. He also said, Well, the obvious thing is that there are new things to be covered here: the growth of the theme parks and all the various attendant industries that have sprung up around it. H4: Circulation H4 said that urban growth in Orlando has influenced the newspapers circulation patterns and resulted in targeted subscription offers. This hypothesis was only partially supported by the interviews. The participants revealed that urban growth has affected the newspapers circulation patterns, however not in the way an outside observer might guess. The interviews showed an inverse effect on advertising. H4 was only partially supported, because the interviews revealed there have not been any targeted subscription efforts as a result of growth. Circulation Director Norbert Ortiz said he may raise subscription rates rather than decrease them. Thirteen of the 18 participants discussed the effects of growth on circulation and readership during their interviews. The p roblem is that growth and the number of people in Central Florida has not been matched by similar growth in advertising and circulation, Bob Shaw said. Former Assistant Managing Editor Sean Holton agreed. The Sentinel was in this really booming area where the newspaper was growing along with it, or trying to grow along with it, and if you look at the numbers at how they have grown, and go back to 1970, and look at the cumulative growth of those counties, and look at the circulation, you can see that the po pulation growth has outstripped the circulation growth, and in recent years the circulation growth has actually slipped a little.

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80 He said that another element contributing to this decline in circulation is the changing news habits of readers. However, he noted, despite the decline in circulation, the newspapers readership has actually increased. Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall supported Shaw and Holtons conclusions. Just because a community grows in population does not mean that the newspaper grows in ci rculation. Our growth sort of peaked out, and then trends began to happen to sort of caused newspaper circulation to go down nationwide. Weve declined some, just as all papers have. She also supported Holtons assertion that The Sentinel s readership has actually increased despite the circulation decline. She said the newspapers readers are primarily white, long -time residents, with higher income and education. Norbert Ortiz, circulation director, said a large percentage of homeowners in the area read th e paper. Managing Editor Mark Russell said that circulation has been in a tailspin in recent years. If you look at our region, because its growing, we havent kept pace with the growth, he said. He added that even though the newspapers circulation h as flatlined recently, the papers penetration rate in the market has actually decreased because there are more people in the Orlando area. Steven Doyle, associate managing editor for content development, and Norbert Ortiz both said circulation was up in 2007, although it increased by only 0.5 -1%. Doyle did not attribute this minor circulation growth to urban growth in the region. He said the circulation declines The Sentinel has experienced in recent years were actually self -inflicted wounds because the newspaper cancelled its Third Party Circulation and hotel programs. For a Third Party Circulation programs the newspaper sends copies to vendors in other parts of the country, who then sell single copies of the newspaper on behalf of The Sentinel Hotel programs involve

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81 providing free copies of the newspaper to hotels throughout the region, which then leave them, free of charge, outside of each hotel room. Despite the minor gains in circulation, Doyle agreed with Russell that the papers penetration rate has decreased. We used to have a 60% penetration on Sundays, but now its down to about 42%, but that is because the market [population] is up. So while our penetration is down, the number of people reading is actually higher because there are more people in the market, he said. He said the paper reaches about 80 to 90% of adults in the area through the newspaper, website, and ads. John Cutter, deputy online editor, said that the newspapers website has had a 20 -40% increase in traffic during the last ye ar. Other participants supported this assertion and noted that there has been a big shift in readers to the website because nationwide reading habits support online news. Circulation Director Norbert Ortiz confirmed that the circulation had experienced mo derate growth in 2007. Weve actually been growing our base of home delivery customers, and that circulation growth has been the result of continuing to improve our service and continuing to develop different features for people. He projected that the newspaper would continue to see small growth in the early parts of 2008 and would flatline in the second half of the year. However, he believes that the circulation will eventually continue to decline at about 1% a year. However, Manning Pynn, the reader representative, said the newspaper has not grown commensurately with the population. He said this trend is the result of growth because the people moving to Orlando are not part of the traditional newspaper reading demographic. Newspaper readers tend to be a little older, a little more highly educated, and wealthier than the average individual. And the growth of Orlando has been a product of the service industry and

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82 tourism interests. He also said that the circulation declines really started in the las t decade and up until that point, the paper had actually been keeping pace with the growth. Product Marketing Director Lisa Bridges said: The fact that our circulation is down versus the trend for the population is huge. We should at least try to be at l east within the same trending line, we might be way below, but trending the same and what not. Marketing Services Director Gary Winters called circulation critical to the papers advertising success. He said the recent declines in circulation have force d his office to press readership numbers over circulation, which means the number of people who actually read the paper, not just those that subscribe to it. He said the national average for calculating readership is two to two -and-a-half times circulati on. H5: Marketing of Products H5 posited that urban growth has affected the newspapers marketing campaign by requiring varied approaches to marketing the newspaper. Based on the interviews with Product Marketing Manager Lisa Bridges and Marketing Service s Director Gary Winters, H5 is supported. Lisa Bridges said the greatest effect of growth on the marketing of the newspaper has been the increase in the number of people to market the product to. She also said her department has tried multiple methods to promote the companys products. We do everything from mass media campaigns, using outdoor billboards, print ads in specific magazines and within our newspaper product. We do radio; we do online ads; we really just kind of do a variety of different things; and then we also do, more specifically, website marketing, she said. Bridges said that they have been able to increase the circulation, partly because theyve dramatically increased the amount of outdoor billboards that we have in the market. She said th at growth has also created a whole

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83 other group of people who focus on. The newspaper has also tried varied approaches to online marketing as well, including e -mail advertising and creating applications on social networking sites such as Facebook and Myspace for people to download. Gary Winters, the marketing services director, said the regions growth has made marketing the Orlando market to potential advertisers easier because advertisers appreciate growing markets because of more potential customers. H e said that with more people moving into the region, advertisers see the potential of reaching more customers. However, both participants said financial problems at the newspaper have also affected the marketing and advertising departments. Both Bridges an d Winters said decreases in staff have limited the types of marketing and recruitment of advertisers their departments have been able to do. Bridges specifically said her team has not been able to participate in many local events because there arent enou gh workers to cover them. While budgets have been cut, Winters said, Weve had really pretty steady growth in advertising revenue, which has been great. Recently its gotten a little tougher and were looking at spreading out and finding new categories o f business to go after. All of the participants cited financial changes at the newspaper as a result of growth. The responses varied, however, and the focus of each conversation varied from advertising revenue to circulation dollars to budget cuts. Some p articipants were hesitant to talk about the financial state of the newspaper and spoke in relatively vague terms. Because of the budget cuts to marketing and the subsequent decline/stagnation of advertising revenue, other parts of the budget have been cut. Steve Doyle, associate managing editor of content development, said, One of the things we try not to do whenever we have to cut

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84 the budget is affect the news gathering group, unless for some reason were not going to do something anymore, but we want to have as many feet on the street as possible. Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall said newspapers have two primary expenses: people and paper. If you get into a situation where you need to make cutbacks, those are the two places you go, she said. R5 asked what marketing approaches has The Sentinel adopted as a result of growth. Based on the interviews, it was found that The Sentinel uses several marketing approaches to promote its products. These include billboard advertisements in the targeted parts of the c ore market, smaller signs at targeted locations, television and radio ads, print ads, and online efforts including e -mail marketing, ads on orlandosentinel.com, and applications on social networking sites. The participants cited financial problems as havin g an effect on the types of marketing their staffs have been able to do, but they have noticed an upswing in circulation in recent months. Business Columnist and Reporter Beth Kassab said growth affects advertising, which affects circulation, and eventual ly you get to a point where it does affect your newsroom resources. H6: Staff Development and Hiring H6 said urban growth has affected staff development at The Orlando Sentinel All of the participants, regardless of their position with the newspaper, sa id growth had affected hiring and staff development. Several of the participants said growth was a contributing factor in the newspapers most recent newsroom reorganization efforts. Other topics related to staffing discussed by the participants included e ditorial staffing, budgetary constraints, hiring, and staff development. A flow chart explaining the staff structure at The Sentinel can be found in Appendix J.

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85 Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall said: [Growth] obviously affects us in the terms of the way we staff, of the way we create beats. She noted that the newsroom had 260 staff members in January 2008. Managing Editor Mark Russell also discussed the size of the newsroom. Theres an old adage that a newspaper should have one staffer for every 1,000 in circulation, if I remember this correctly. So when I got here in 2004, we had a newsroom of 310 staffers, maybe [3]20. So 310 staffers, so by that reckoning, we shouldve had 310,000 daily circulation, but we didnt. We didnt have that, we dont have that now. Our circulation now is down to about 230 or 235,000, and our staff size is still about 270 or 272, so were still higher in terms of staff then the measurement would suggest if youre looking at a strict measurement of one staffer for every 1,000 in circulation. He attributed the high staff size to the papers ambition and the rise in revenue in the 1990s. He said: With that growth of the revenue came more ambition to do serious journalism, to have great packages, greater sports, greater business. So it was a professionalizing of a reporting staff and a newspaper that [had] greater ambition to do investigative reporting, food reporting, you know, become a complete package of topics as a metropolitan paper. Were higher than that and with good reason because we have great ambition as a paper of covering the whole state. Debbie Salamone mentioned the organization of the newspapers beats. We dont have a reporter who is a growth reporter anymore. We had that over many years and that person was supposed to be covering a lot of the growth management issues in terms of growth plans and big developments and all this sort of stuff, but thats a very hard beat for a reporter. She said one reason the paper no longer has a growth reporter is that editors did not see it as a successfully done beat. Its like its a bit of a financial decision to not have that position anymore, she said.

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86 Mark Schlueb said budget cuts forced the company (Tribune) to leave some positions unfilled, which has created additional stress on him as a reporter because he is now the sole reporter covering city government in Orlando. Previously, the newspaper had two reporters covering Orlando government. He said that many smaller government boards do not get covered now because of this reduction in staff. Theres a total of 84 cities in our coverage area, he said. If you think we have a reporter in 84 cities, youre crazy. Staff changes were also found at The Sentinel s bureaus as well as its primary newsroom in downtown Orlando. Jerry Fallstrom, Lake County bureau editor, said, Weve got a limited staff; a staff that has been shrunk because of the realities of the newspaper business. So we have fewer reporters covering more; its a bigger county. Its a lot bigger county. He said that there are more demands for his reporters to write for the mai n paper. He said this decline in reporting staff is mostly financial. I mean weve had positions that we havent been able to fill, this has happened in the last few years, when somebody w ill leave, they might not fill the position. That has happened a couple of times in the last few years. Christine Dellert, who also worked at the Lake County Bureau, said, Its funny, the bureau in Lake shrunk while the population out there grew, so we t he editors had to prioritize their resources. She also noted: We had two reporters leave while I was there. Actually, we shrunk, and then we grew. We had seven reporters and two editors. We lost two reporters, which was tough for a while. We had to work e xtra hours and weekends sometimes to make up for what those two reporters did. Then we grew again and added maybe two or three reporters. While staff changes have been minor at the Lake County Bureau, other bureaus at the paper have been shut down. Sean Holton said, The staffing and bureau structure changed [because of

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87 growth], and so did the actual physical design of the newspaper where there are fewer of those zoned editions. Closing suburban bureaus has been a cost -cutting effort at The Sentinel However, several of the participants discussed how the closings have influenced their day -to-day duties and workload. Most of Orlandos growth has taken place in the suburban areas, which creates more news to be covered in those areas. By closing these bureau s, The Sentinel risks missing out on potential news stories and reporters face longer commutes to cover the news. John Cutter noted that The Sentinel has used citizen journalists to create hyper local content instead of paying for a reporter to do it. So the other way that it [growth] has influenced us is that as this area has gotten bigger, so have these sort of smaller units [communities] within it, and we can do a better job online of covering them [small communities] than print can do. Reliance o n citizen journalists may pose dangerous risks for the newspaper. These citizen journalists are not contracted employees and are not required to follow The Sentinel s code of ethics, (See Appendix G). Several current and former staff members also discusse d the changing staff demographics. Sean Holton said: The biggest story of Orlandos growth as far as demographics has been the growth of the Hispanic population. The paper has done great strides to keep up with that. The newsroom has done pretty well in te rms of Hispanic reporters. The African American portion of the staff has been more challenging to maintain as a reflection of the community and the African American segment of the population in Orlando. Debbie Salamone agreed. She said she can remember th e newsroom having hardly any Hispanic people on our staff. Now, its younger, more Hispanic.

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88 R6 asked if most of The Sentinel s new hires were from the Orlando area. Dana Eagles, the staff development editor in charge of recruitment said growth has had direct implications on staffing. He said that being in a growth market like Orlando, it is easier to recruit potential staff because there is a lot of news, which is an important factor and an attractive thing for journalists. However, Eagles said that growth has had some negative effects on staffing as well. One negative thing about growth for staffing has been the changes in lifestyle factors that come with being bigger He said, The interesting thing about attracting journalists in a growth market is that the very things that make it more interesting to cover might make it not quite as good of a place to live. Because the big city issues also mean that they affect you personally. Eagles said he recruits most new hires from outside of the Orlando area because The Sentinel is the only large newspaper in the region which means there are limited opportunities in Orlando for journalists to receive training and build a career other than The Sentinel Another effect growth has had on The Sentinel is that it has partially contributed to the newspapers two recent newsroom reorganizations. Eight of the participants discussed newsroom reoganization during their interviews. Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall sa id the newsroom should reflect what is going on in the community and that it must be restructured every few years to match changes in the market. Since Orlando is defined by growth, the newsroom and the papers organization should be too. If we just say here and said what we thought was news, we would be disconnected from the community; we wouldnt do a very good job at all. She said one response to the regions growth that came about during a recent reorganization was the creation of a demographics team whose goal is to cover race and other issues, spec ifically Hispanic affairs as part of the Hispanic beat. Hall said that the newspaper has been able to do a better job covering demographic issues

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89 because of its recent reorganization. Its interesting because we have cut staff. Im not going to give you t he numbers because those are pretty confidential, and we have a smaller newsroom today, and weve also cut newshole out of the paper, she said. Mark Russell also mentioned the creation of new beats as a response to growth. Another answer is about a year and a half ago, we created a new beat on the Metro Desk that would now be housed under our Public Service team. It was a growth beat and planning beat. However, that beat was short lived. We had her for about a year and a half and decided we could bette r deploy that reporter on a data team doing computer -assisted reporting, he said. When asked about reorganizing the newsroom, Russell said that the newspaper tries to preserve staff coverage that the newspaper and readers care about the most and that the first areas to be cut are often those who cover non -essential issues for the paper. I think that it has made us more responsive and more nimble, he said. Regarding recent staff changes at the newspaper, Beth Kassab, a business reporter and columnist, s aid: It is never good to see a reduction of the reporting staff, or the editing staff. Last year we did see a reduction in the editing staff that didnt really affect the reporters. Our editor has said she wants to keep, she calls it, feet on the street, people like me and other people sitting out there in those desks. She said that staff reductions create more work for fewer people. She said this reduction in staff has led the paper to cut some of the luxuries it used to have, such as targeted sectio ns, zoned editions, etc. Sean Holton said that the reorganization of the staff was one reason why he decided to retire in the summer of 2007. The newsroom was scaled back because it was smaller, and I just didnt see where my place in the new structure j ust wasnt going to be as challenging as some of the other jobs that Id had, he said.

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90 Few details were revealed during the interviews about the specific changes made to the staff during the reorganization in 2007. Charlotte Hall said those numbers were confidential. To read a memo sent by Hall to The Sentinel s staff about the 2007 reorganization, see Appendix H. However, Manning Pynn said, The entire newsroom had to reapply for their jobs again, and many people changed supervisors and the divisions o f the newsroom changed. Dana Eagles presented a more positive outlook of the reorganization. He said, We also realigned the way the newsroom was organized in order to be able to meet the needs of both the web and the newspaper going forward. He said the areas growth contributed to this reorganization because growth creates more news and different types of news, and the newspaper had to respond to those changing news trends. He affirmed Pynns statement that staff members had to reapply for their jobs when he said: Once the new table of organization was set, a number of newly created jobs were open, and current staff members were invited to apply and we have several rounds of interviews and that sort of thing. So staff members were able to compete for th ose newlycreated jobs that represented not just new management positions, but in some cases new beats that were created to meet the needs of readers and web users. Eagles said: The organizational changes were very much related to how we see the content needs of the newspaper and the website changing. I dont feel thats from content priorities. R6 asked if most of The Sentinel s new hires are from the Orlando area. According to Staff Development Editor Dana Eagles, most new hires are not from the Orland o area because there are little opportunities for professional journalists to gain experience in Orlando because The Sentinel is the only large newspaper in the region. He also mentioned the changing skill set needed in todays journalism market, but did n ot specify any particular skills that he looks for when hiring new employees for the newsroom.

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91 Analysis of Local In-Depth It can be argued that this section is a distillation of The Sentinel s response to growth in terms of coverage and growth. It was ch osen for analysis because all of the participants that discussed Local In-Depth said it was created in direct response to growth in the Orlando area. The researcher analyzed the 71 articles from The Sentinel s online Local In -Depth section. The first article included in the study ran in the newspaper and online on Janurary 30, 2006, and the most recent article included in the study was the April 7, 2008 story on Floridas budget. These articles are the same as those that appeared in the print edition of the newspaper. This section was chosen for analysis because, according to several participants, it was created in response to growth and as a means to educate the region about the areas growth -related problems and concerns. The articles were approximatel y 1,000 words each and began running in the newspaper on Mondays starting in January 2006. The articles were coded for the topic being presented and for their sentiment toward growth. For a sample coding sheet, please see Appendix I. Debbie Salamone said the section was created as a response to growth and that the stories are all growth related. After coding the stories for their topic, word count, and focus, the researcher found this to be true. Of the 71 articles found on The Sentinel s online Local InDepth section, all of them were somehow related to growth or an effect of growth. One story, which focused on highways in the area, called Building the Beltway, began by recounting Orlandos growth since the opening of Walt Disney World. It reads: In the beginning, there was Interstate 4. And it was not good. Back when Walt Disney World was a single park, SeaWorld was its lone competition, and International Drive was a modest collection of hotels, restaurants and gas stations, Orlandos future as a congested metropolis was being written (Powers, 2006).

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92 Salamone described the section as all stories that have to do with how our region is affected by growth and includes topics such as the environment, transportation, urban planning, and any kind of iss ues. She also called it one of the most popular things The Sentinel has done in recent years. Story ideas for the section, she said are generated by the reporters. She works with each reporter to narrow the focus before they begin reporting. Mark Russell said that the Local In -Depth section was one of a couple of things we have done to try and meet the challenge of growth. He described it as a page that looks at growth in the region. He said that the section is more visually appealing than the no rmal Local and State section and is something that you can really sell to readers in a very eye catching way. After analysis, the researcher found that all of the articles in the Local In -Depth section did, in fact, focus on growth or other growth-related issue. The researcher found that the articles focused on 12 primary topics: budget/taxes, education, demographics/race, environment, roads/transportation, history of the community, development, technology, cultural trends, the local economy, crime, a nd housing. Five of the 71 articles were written about budget and other tax issues that have come about because of growth. This represents 7.1% of the Local In -Depth section. However, while Debbie Salamone and Mark Russell said that the section tries to have a local focus, the analysis showed that three of the five budget/tax -related stories were written for a statewide or national perspective. Nine of the stories written were about education, representing 12.7% of the coverage. While the topics of these stories revolved around education, the focus of each story was pointedly different. For example, one story discussed the declining number of students in public

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93 schools in Central Florida, while another had to do with the increasing female -male gender gap at the college level. However, all of these education stories did mention growth as a cause for the topic being discussed. Approximately 11% of the articles studied focused on the demographics of the region, or eight of the stories. Five of them discussed the growth and impact of the changing minority population. Twenty-two of the articles analyzed had to do with the environment and the effects of growth on the local landscape. This represented the largest single topic in the study and was equal to 21.3% o f the overall story total. During her interview, Debbie Salamone mentioned that growth was a personal topic of interest for her. As editor of the section, she has control over the types of stories discussed in the section. Roads and transportation issues were the topic of eight of the stories, or 11% of the sample. However, the focus of these stories was fairly wide in scope. Two of the articles dealt with the construction of new roads in the region, while other analyzed the regions growing traffic problem and congestions. Again, growth was cited as the primary cause of the topic under review in every story. One article, or 1.3% of the sample, discussed preserving the regionals historical landmarks by placing historical markers throughout the region. Th ey reporter suggests that these historical markers are crucial for remembering the past that shaped the region into what it is today. Development was another topic that was covered in eight (11%) of the sample. These articles also covered a wide focus in t heir reporting. One story focused on the city of Orlandos

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94 haphazard annexation policies, while two reported on the attempts by two of the regions smaller communities to control growth. The effects of new technology that resulted from growth were discuss ed in four of the articles, or 5.7% of the sample. The effect of growth on the regions cultural trends was discussed in two of the articles. This represents the second -smallest group of any found in the study. Finally, the local economy, crime, and hous ing were each discussed in one article.

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95 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION H1: Growth affects The Sentinel After analyzing the interviews, it is clear that growth has had an effect on The Orlando Sentinel Although the participants each cited their own observations abo ut the effects of growth, it is clear that urban development does have an effect on newspapers in general. However, this case study of The Orlando Sentinel cannot be generalized to newspapers across the country because growth trends vary from region to reg ion and city to city. For example, newspapers in the Rust Belt cities of the Northeast and Midwest may be facing the effects of negative, or inverse, growth because of economic conditions in their coverage areas. Even newspapers in other high -growth areas may be experiencing different effects that are more reflective of their communities. However, based on the data gathered here, it is clear that growth in the Orlando area has had an effect on The Sentinel and the results may be indicative of trends in some other cities in the United States. The researcher tried to leave the meaning of the term growth open to analysis and relied on personal definitions from the participants. Most of the participants included in this study defined growth broadly rather tha n speaking in specific terms. In fact, most of them referred to growth in terms of population increases and the effects the influx of people in the Orlando region has had on the newspaper. For Sentinel employees, more people living in Central Florida means more news to cover, more crime, more potential readers, more marketing capabilities, and more advertising revenue. Though this increased population has not yielded the expected results of increased circulation, increased ad revenue, and increased circulat ion, it is clear that growth has had an effect on the newspaper. Some participants also discussed economy growth in terms of

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96 diversifying the local economy, and physical growth because of development and new construction. For planners, the influence of growth on the local newspaper is important to monitor. If growth continues to have negative affects on circulation and readership habits, planners will soon have to rely on another medium to inform the public of upcoming meetings, changes to regulations, and other growth management issues. H2: Growth and Content H2 said that growth has had an influence on content by becoming a central topic in the newspaper. This proved true in this study. Growth should continue to be a primary topic in the pages of The Sentinel because growth has become a characteristic that defines the Central Florida region. As Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall said, Growth defines this region, therefore it defines this newspaper. As noted, in response to R2, which asked if urban growth was a major topic in The Sentinel s pages, the interviews suggest that growth is, in fact, a major topic in the newspaper and is encouraged by editors. All of the participants from the editorial side of the newspaper said, in different ways, that growth was the most important issue in Central Florida. This result suggests that The Sentinel should continue having a growth focus in its stories so long as growth is a major issue in Central Florida. However, the editors and reporters must be wary that growth patt erns might change, so the newspapers coverage of growth should reflect that potential change. And the lesson for other newspapers is that they should also be conscious of growth, even if their community is experiencing a different type of growth. Robert Parks 1929 findings that circulation represents growth by a series of concentric circles is not representative of the Orlando area. Several of the participants said the newspapers

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97 core readership is spread out through several counties in Central Florida. Some of those counties are not contiguous. For example, Norbert Ortiz, the vice president of circulation, called the Villages a high -growth area for the newspaper, yet the Villages is located more than an hour away from The Sentinel s core market area of Orange and Seminole Counties. H3: Coverage The decrease in staffing and changing coverage tactics highlights one way that growth has affected The Orlando Sentinel Lauterer (2006) said the growth of cities and newspapers are closely related and as populat ions grow, so does newspaper readership. At The Orlando Sentinel this trend has proved true, despite circulation declines. The areas population has swelled in the last several decades, and readership has followed suit. However, during the last five years the newspapers circulation has declined while readership has increased. This increase is due to increased traffic to the newspapers website. Thus, it appears that growth has an inverse effect on newspaper circulation and readership. Staffing has also b een affected because financial problems at the newspaper have forced the managerial staff to cut some staff members. This creates more work for the remaining editors and reporters. Based on the interviews, H3 is supported. Growth has affected the coverage and newsgathering tactics at The Orlando Sentinel In response to R3, the participants cited several different effects on the newspapers coverage, including: a new, targeted focus on growth when selecting stories to cover; new criteria when determining w hich reporter to send to cover an event; and lifestyle changes as a result of growth (such as traffic congestions, commute times, etc). Longtime staff members of The Sentinel also noted a shift in the coverage of the newspaper, particularly since the 1980s Both Pynn and Holton said the newspaper now focuses much more on local news with a growth angle than national or international news. Jeffries (1999) argues that

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98 community newspapers fill the void that urban newspapers can not fill because of their sheer size and focus. This study shows that The Sentinel is attempting to redefine itself by having a more localized focus rather than the national or international focus the paper had throughout the 1990s. The results suggest that The Sentinel must keep an ope n mind to its news -gathering techniques if it wishes to remain relevant to its readers, especially since its coverage area is constantly adding new residents and new communities. The top -tier editors must continue to encourage lower -level editors and repor ters to cover new communities and other trends that may arise as a result of growth. This type of flexibility from management is important when covering an evolving community. Newspapers in other regions should follow this advice. Charlotte Hall said that newspapers should be reflective of the communities they cover. H4: Circulation The interviews revealed that growth has had an inverse effect on circulation at The Sentinel Several of the participants said despite the regions growth, the papers circulat ion has declined; some participants blamed this decline on the type of people moving to the Central Florida region, characterizing them as non -traditional newspaper readers. So while H4 was partially supported because there have clearly been effects on cir culation that resulted from growth, there have been no targeted subscription offers as a result of the decline. R4 asked how The Sentinel s circulation has been affected by growth. The interviews suggest that there has been an inverse effect because of growth and that the circulation has declined because of the type of people moving to the Orlando area. Instead of offering discounted rates, Ortiz said that he and his team try to target their circulation improvement efforts at core sections of the coverage a rea, including Orange and Seminole counties, as well as high -growth areas such as Lake County, the Four Corners area, and Northeast Polk County. Ortiz said residents in those areas are more

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99 typical newspaper readers. Based on the interviews, if The Sentine l can continue this trend of positive circulation growth, it should not have to implement any type of discount subscription program to encourage more readers to subscribe to the newspaper. However, further attempts to reach out to the changing demographic base of The Sentinel s market area are encouraged. Several pieces of literature report that newspapers grow along with their communities. However, this is not the case in Orlando, where the newspaper has been outstripped by population growth. While severa l factors were cited as reason behind this, including budget and staff cuts, this study shows that the earlier literature is not necessarily valid in every instance. H5: Effects on Marketing The results suggest that to maintain the limited circulation gro wth The Sentinel experienced last year, the newspaper must devote more budgetary resources to marketing and advertising recruitment. With such large numbers of new residents moving into the Orlando area, it is important for the newspaper to market itself a s the primary source of information for the region. This is a universal conclusion based on the interviews gathered in this study. Other newspapers in different parts of the country should consider investing money in their operations to promote their produ cts as well. Circulation Director Norbert Ortiz said The Sentinel had decreased its investment in itself in recent years because of financial trouble, but he also noted that when The Sentinel devoted more money to marketing and customer service improvement s, the newspaper saw marginal gains. Thus, this investment should be encouraged. H6: Effects on Hiring/Staffing Based on the interviews, growth has had an effect on the newspapers staffing and hiring processes as well as been a contributing factor in the newspapers recent newsroom reorganization efforts. Other newspapers may have faced similar changes, depending on their

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100 market and current financial status. Like much of the data found in this study, generalizable results for all newspapers are difficult to determine.

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101 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION From the interviews, it is evident that urban growth has had an effect on The Orlando Sentinel The results showed varying degrees of influence on each of the ten themes analyzed. All of the participants cited growt h as a major influence on the newspaper; they all said that growth has also affected the types of stories covered in the newspaper as well as the way the newspaper goes about covering the news. The three non -editorial participants also cited growth as a factor influencing their day -to-day jobs as promoters of the newspapers and other products at Orlando Sentinel Communications. Growth Growth was cited as a significant influence on the newspaper in multiple ways. Several editorial staff members said growth was a defining characteristic of the newspaper and the community. They also said growth has an effect on virtually every part of the newspapers operation. Since all of the participants cited growth as a significant factor influencing The Sentinel s content, coverage, newsroom structure, etc., the newspapers editorial staff should place a greater emphasis on growth in their day -to-day jobs at the newspaper. Particularly, the effects of growth on the community should play a larger role on the decision maki ng process at every level of the newspaper. For example, editors should remain conscious of the commute time reporters face when covering stories in the suburbs or other fringe areas. Reporters must also be considerate of their target/core readership when developing story ideas. Many of the participants said that growth was influential in nearly all aspects of life in Orlando, and most of the participants said that growth had affected their daily functions at the newspaper. The editors said because of gro wth, there is simply more news to be covered in the area. The two reporters said that growth creates a bevy of news topics to write about. The non

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102 editorial staff said that growth has made the paper easier to promote because there are more people to market the product to. Thus, growth should be a consideration at all levels of the newspaper. Content The interviews also revealed that growth has had an effect on the newspapers content. Many of the participants said growth creates more news and also causes more crime, traffic problems, and other growth -related issues. The two reporters who participated in this study said that this creates more work and stress for them because of the increased amount of work resulting from the growth and due to the declining number of reporters working in the newsroom because of the newspapers financial situation/newsroom reorganizations as a response to growth. The Sentinel s reporters should be aware that growth may be a contributing factor to a news story, even if the story does not seem directly growth -related, such as a crime or education story. Susan Jacobsons story titled Where have all the students gone? discussed why the areas public schools were suffering enrollment declines, while the areas population was growing. This is a strong example of an education story that considers the effects of growth. Other participants said that it is the role of the newspaper to create understanding and explain growth to the various segments of the population. This informative rol e makes including growth as a possible cause for all news stories crucial. One story that exemplifies the newspapers role as explainer is Denise -Marie Balonas February 5, 2007, story titled How growth drives taxes, which explains how growth affects property taxes in the area. As stated before, reporters and editors should consider growth a topic of great import when assigning and drafting stories. Coverage Coverage refers to the practice of gathering news and story ideas. Some, but not all, of the respondents said that growth played a role in determining what types of stories The Sentinel

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103 includes in its pages. Specifically, several of the editors said that growth has impacted crime stories the most. Former Assistant Managing Editor Sean Holton said gro wth also affected how he assigned stories to reporters when he worked at the newspaper. He cited that areas growing traffic problems as one consideration when he assigned stories since reporters do not necessarily live in the communities that they cover. Government Editor Mark Skoneki said growth was a major topic for his five-reporter team. He said that it is a factor in just about every topic his reporters cover. While The Sentinel should not make growth the primary focus of every news story, it should c onsider growth as a cause for the action or event being reported. As a result, editors and reporters should be conscious of growth when assigning and covering stories. Finances All of the participants said the newspaper industry is facing hard times under the current business model. They said The Sentinel is no different and recent budget cuts have forced staff cuts, changes in coverage, and a reduction in the newshole. While cost -cutting efforts are encouraged to promote profitability, the newspapers cont ent should never suffer as a result. Charlotte Hall said that she wants as many feet on the street as possible and that the paper would try to avoid cutting reporting positions. This assertion proved true in the papers most recent newsroom reorganizatio n. Most of the staff cuts that occurred were editor positions. However, based on the interviews, the newspaper must work diligently to develop a new business model that incorporates more revenue from the web to ease fears about job stability and the future of the news industry. Nearly all of the editorial participants in the study seemed fearful that future budget cuts may cost them their jobs if their beat or section is not deemed crucial by the executive editors. Financial problems at the newspaper were also shown to have an effect on the marketing, circulation, and advertising departments as well. All three participants from these sections said

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104 that budget cuts had led to staff reductions in their departments and that fewer resources were available for t hem to promote the product. Norbert Ortiz, the circulation director, said that in order to be successful, and increase circulation, the paper must invest money in itself. Based on the interviews, the newspaper should avoid making any further cost -cutting e fforts in any of these areas. Otherwise, they face further circulation declines. This relates to urban growth because population increases mean that there are more potential customers coming into the region. However, if the paper does not invest in a campa ign to reach those new residents, the potential readers will not utilize the newspaper as a source for local information. Circulation The interviews revealed that growth has had an inverse effect on The Sentinel s circulation during the last few years. Th e literature shows that while the areas population dramatically increased throughout the 1990s and early 21st century, the papers circulation numbers have not kept pace. Several reasons were provided by the participants for this trend. One common one was that those people moving into the Orlando area are not typical newspaper readers. Several participants said that traditional newspaper readers are older people with families who own homes. They cited the areas rising youth population and large number of apartment renters as the cause of this circulation trend. To counter this trend, The Sentinel should develop new marketing and promotional techniques aimed at increasing readership among the non -traditional demographics that are moving into Orlando. Also, a greater emphasis should be placed on the newspapers online content to encourage younger area residents to get into the habit of reading the newspapers content. Circulation Director Norbert Ortiz said that the paper needs to develop a way to encourage re aders to use both products. Gary Winters, the marketing services director, said that circulation plays a crucial role in recruiting national advertisers into the paper because

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105 advertisers are interested in knowing how large the papers reach is. Thus, th e higher the circulation, the more ad revenue that can be generated. Relevancy Eight of the participants cited relevant content as an important factor in a growing regions content. Most of the participants who mentioned relevant content said that The Sentinel must continue to write stories that are relevant to the changing demographics. While this attempt at relevancy may require expanding the depth and breadth of coverage, it is encouraged because readers will find greater value in the product and contin ue to subscribe to the paper or read its online content. Demographics Nearly all of the participants said the areas demographics have changed as a result of growth. Most of the long-time Sentinel employees said the growth of the Hispanic community has most dramatically altered the community and the newspapers staff and coverage. Debbie Salamone, a government editor, said a few years ago it was difficult to find a Spanish -speaking staff member. Now, Dana Eagles, the staff development editor, said, minorit y candidates are preferred because of their ability to communicate with a larger percentage of the population. The newspaper should continue to hire minority staff members to better reflect the committee it covers. Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall said that the newsroom should be a reflection of the community. The interviews suggest that The Sentinel is working to achieve this, but still has a ways to go before it becomes truly representative of the Orlando community. Localized Focus Both reporters and sever al of the editors who participated in the study said that they have seen an increased demand for local coverage. Reader Representative Manning Pynn said that this demand represents a paradigm shift for the newspaper. He said that as the area continued to g row

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106 in population and diversity, the newspaper began to see itself as a metropolitan newspaper and, as such, it required the newspaper to expand its content offerings. However, Pynn said the paper has begun to retarget its focus on local issues in recent y ears. While he said that this has been a nationwide trend, he also said that local readers want more local coverage of their communities. Deputy Online Editor John Cutter emphasized the websites ability for local content because of community journalists a nd bloggers. Several participants said that the newspaper should be the information source for local news because readers can find national and international news on television and online. This local focus should be continued. Since the reporters and edito rs are most familiar with the Orlando area, their frame of reference for coverage certainly has a local bias. Newsroom Organization The interviews revealed that The Sentinel has experienced two major newsroom reorganizations during the last two years. Whi le neither one of the reorganizations resulted in a mass layoff of reporters, the editing staff was cut by almost one-third. These reorganizations were the result of growing economic and financial pressures on the newspaper. Charlotte Hall, The Sentinel s editor in chief, said that the reorganizations were done to make the newsroom more reflective of the changing community and to place greater emphasis on certain beats, such as growth. They can also be attributed to the inverse effect on the newspapers cir culation and advertising revenue that occurred as a result of growth and the changing demographics of the community. However, the interviews suggest that the lower -level staff members are wary of such reorganization effort. The paper should space out large reorganization efforts over longer periods of time to avoid staff fatigue.

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107 Staffing Dana Eagles, the staff development editor, went into great detail about how growth has affected the newspapers hiring, recruitment, and staff development programs. He sa id that because The Sentinel is the only large newspaper in the market, and when a position becomes available he often has to look outside of Orlando to find qualified candidates to fill open positions at the newspaper. To attract top candidates to the new spaper, The Sentinel should target its recruitment efforts at areas facing similar growth as Orlando because he wants to bring people familiar with growth issues to Orlando. This type of recruitment of new staff members would ensure that the new hire was f amiliar with growth -related issues and prepared to cover stories with a growth-related emphasis. Other participants in this study cited growth as a contributing factor to the newspapers budget cuts, which has directly led to the reduction of the number of newsroom employees, such as editors. Charlotte Hall, editor in chief, said the newspaper has tried to preserve the number of reporters on staff by reshuffling them within the new newsroom structure rather than directly laying them off. The Sentinel may wish to consider another staff reorganization effort to guarantee that important growth -related issues are being adequately covered by the staff. Another reorganization could also encourage reporters and editors to continue their emphasis on growth. Another key issue raised regarding staffing at The Sentinel was the decline of the papers bureau system. Several participants said The Sentinel had closed a number of its bureaus in various counties throughout the coverage area. These include the suburban bureau s in Orange County, the bureau in Daytona Beach, and the Haines City Bureau in Polk County. While the cost-saving efforts of these closings are understandable, the paper must be sure to continue to cover these areas to encourage more circulation and reader ship.

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108 Analysis of Local In-Depth The content analysis of The Sentinel s Local In-Depth section supported what many of the participants talked about during their interviews. For example, several of the participants cited an emphasis on local stories in the newspaper. All of the stories in Local In -Depth have a local or regional focus toward Central Florida. Other participants said that growth has become a significant topic and focus of news coverage in The Sentinel All of the stories in Local In Depth address a growth-related issue and cover a wide range of topics, including environmental concerns, property taxes, recycling, technological advancements, and other demographic concerns such as race, gender, and age. This type of content should be encou raged in the newspaper. Not only are the stories written in a clear, explanatory way, but they break down complex issues in an easy -to-understand fashion. Debbie Salamone said the paper cut its growth beat reporter because it is a difficult beat to cover a nd is often viewed as boring and complicated. If The Sentinel decides to bring back the growth beat, the reporter should be encouraged to cover growth issues in a similar fashion. Implications for Planning Though this study did not involve any urban pla nners, its results do present some alarming findings for the planning profession. Based on the data collected, it is clear that urban growth does affect newspapers. However, many planning professionals rely on newspapers as a means of communicating with th e public. Often, public services announcements and other announced changes to local regulations and growth management plans are announced in the newspaper. This presents two potential problems. First, if more and more people are relying on the Internet for information, they are not seeing the printed government ads announcing meetings, proposed changes, etc. Second, if fewer people are reading the newspaper, are planners are successful in making sure that the public is well informed about local issues? If n ewspapers continue to see a

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109 decline in circulation, planners should consider alternative ways to communicate with the public. Habermas Communicative Planning Theory should be adjusted to meet this cultural shift. These geographic and cultural changes resu lting from growth are important for planners to understand. Planners rely on an informed and active citizenry as part of their day -to-day jobs. If the public is not engaging in the primary type of media consumption that planners use to relay information, t here becomes an efficiency issue. Having an informed public is crucial for democracy on any level to succeed. Another planning -related topic that comes out of this data is the notion of cultural geography and newspaper readership. Just because cities grow physically and geographically, the culture does not necessarily follow suit. Jerry Fallstrom, The Sentinel s Lake County Bureau editor, said Orlandos sphere of influence has grown to incorporate Lake County, but Lake County still considers itself a separ ate entity. This cultural identification pattern is crucial for newspapers and planners to understand. Planners must work on a regional level in order to achieve cohesiveness. Newspapers must understand this cultural shifts within their coverage region in order to market their product and plan news coverage. Development of Theory This study examines the effects of urban growth on newspapers through the use of several mass communications and urban planning theories, including Putnams (2000) Social Capital Theory, Gerbner and Grosss Cultivation Theory (1976), Shoemaker and Reeses Media Organization Theory (1996), Habermas Communicative Planning Theory (1984), and Lucys Broad Based Planning Theory (1988). Based on the interviews, several of the particip ants discussed the newspapers role in developing a sense of community in the Orlando area. Particularly, Editor in Chief Charlotte Hall said that the newspaper should try to cover all of the community, even though she also said the

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110 newspaper focuses its coverage toward the interests of its core readership educated, wealthy, whites. This role of community builder plays well into Putnams Social Capital Theory (2000), which suggests that members of the public feel more socially connected to their communi ties when they read the local newspaper. Other editors agreed with Hall that it is the newspapers role to help create a sense of community, particularly in a community in formation such as Orlando. However, none of the participants were able to adequat ely describe how the newspaper actually does this. So while Putnams theory states that newspaper readers have more social capital, newspaper staff members are unable to describe how their work actually encourages this. Gerbner and Gross Cultivation Theor y (1976) deals with television viewership but can be applicable to newspaper readers as well. It suggests that exposure to media coverage, over time, changes the audiences perceptions of reality. All of the reporters and editors that participated in this study said growth has become a central focus at The Sentinel and several said that it is the areas defining characteristic. Although this study did not examine audience response to the newspapers growth coverage, there is a possibility that The Sentinel s coverage of growth promotes a certain view of growth. Further research is needed to draw any conclusions. Based on the interviews, Shoemaker and Reeses newsroom organization theory (1996) proves true at The Orlando Sentinel The theory suggests that new srooms are organized to reflect society. All of the top -tier editors that participated in the study, including the editor in chief, staff development editor, and managing editor, said that the newspapers two recent staff reorganizations were attempts at m aking the newsroom more reflective of the areas changing populace and as a result of growth. Charlotte Hall said because growth has been such an impetus in the Orlando region, the newsroom needed to be restructured to make growth a more widespread topic a t the newspaper.

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111 Habermas Communicative Planning Theory (1984) states that urban planners should communicate with the public about issues in planning policy and practice. However, none of the participants in the study directly mentioned using the paper a s a means of helping urban planners. However, Government Editor Debbie Salamone said the Local In -Depth section has been used as a means of explaining growth topics, such as community redevelopment agencies, to the readers. An October 22, 2007, story tit led Governments turn to CRAs to pay for a better future did just that (Sherman, 2007). Since none of the participants directly mentioned The Sentinel as a medium for government planners to address the public, there was no direct contribution to Habermas theory. Lucys Broad-based Planning Theory (1988) also emphasized public involvement in the planning process. Again, since none of the participants directly cited The Sentinel as a means of promoting public involvement in the planning process, it is diff icult to draw any conclusions about the newspapers contribution to this theory. But, since some of the participants said that part of their job is to educate the public on growth issues, it can be assumed that this could potentially influence public parti cipants. Again, further analysis of audience response to growth coverage is needed to make any further conclusions in those areas. Development of Grounded Theory The purpose of this study was to develop theory regarding the effects of urban growth on newspapers by specifically focusing on the Orlando area and The Orlando Sentinel While this study presents a relatively limited view of the effects of growth on newspapers, it did provide significant data about how a newspaper in a high -growth area has been a ffected. While the theory posited below is indicative of a high -growth area, other newspapers in different parts of the county may be experiencing similar results. For example, The Detroit Free -Press, in Detroit, MI, may have been affected by the decline o f the American auto industry and the resulting

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112 decline in the citys economy. Though it may not be affected by growth in the same way as The Sentinel has, it probably has been affected in some way. Las Vegas, another American urban area that has seen signi ficant urban growth in recent years, may have led to similar effects as Orlando on the newspaper there. Based on the interviews, the following theory can be posited: urban growth will have an effect on newspapers located in urban areas. However, each new spaper will be affected by growth in different ways and will respond to that growth in a way that the newspaper believes best reflects their individual community. Thus, there is not a definitive answer on how newspapers should respond to growth. As shown w ith the examples of Detroit and Las Vegas, different urban areas experience growth at different rates. Cities could be experiencing positive growth (population increases, new construction, etc.) or they could experience negative growth (decreases in popula tion, recessive economy, etc.). Thus, it is difficult to make specific conclusions about the effects of growth on newspapers based on this analysis of The Orlando Sentinel A broad approach to this theory to encompass newspapers in all types of urban areas is needed to address the varying growth trends across the country. The interviews gathered in this study suggest that a newspaper located in a fast -growing area may have to alter its hiring process and newsroom organization more frequently to address the changing demographics in the community. For example, Orlando has seen significant growth in the Hispanic community. As a result, Debbie Salamone mentioned how The Sentinel has worked to hire more minority candidates to better cover this demographic shift. This is evident by the number of Local In-Depth stories dedicated to the Hispanic community. Of the 71 articles, five of the stories dealt with the Hispanic community, including Victor Manuel Ramos April 9, 2007, story called Immigrants see Florida as a path to American dream (2007). It also

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113 suggests that growth is a major issue in high -growth areas and should thus be a major focus in almost any type of story, including crime, education, the economy, etc. The Local In -Depth section as a whole is on e response to growth. Mark Skoneki also cited The Sentinel s coverage of the venues project in downtown Orlando as one way of growth fueling a government story. These stories have been written by multiple authors and can be found under the Downtown Makover section of orlandosentinel.com. Limitations to the Study One limitation of this study was that the interviews were conducted over several months rather than in a short, consecutive period of time. During the four -month span in which the interviews took place, several events occurred nationally and in the Orlando area that dominated local news coverage and were constant examples used during the interviews. For example, those participants whose interviews took place in December 2007 and January 2008 highl ighted Floridas upcoming primary elections as an example of the newspapers coverage. The primary also led to an increase in government -related examples from staff members. Participants whose interviews occurred in February and March often focused on the areas slowing economy and the decline in the housing market as their primary examples. This may have skewed the data since elections and the economy may have different growth -related implications. Had the interviews been conducted closer together, the exa mples used by participants may have been more cohesive rather than disjointed. Also, since most of the participants in the study were white, a greater emphasis on recruiting minority participants would have been helpful. The researcher could have also contacted more former employees. Other demographic challenges faced in this study include a skewed number of staff members on the editorial side of the newspaper. Of the 18 participants,

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114 15 of them were current or former editorial staff members. Only three we re from the business/advertising/marketing side of the papers operations. Further Research Any subject related to urban development and media studies is strongly encouraged since the current body of literature is relatively sparse in this area. There are a number of different types of studies that could arise based on these topics. These include: content analyses to determine the representation of growth by the media; content analyses of urban planning -related stories to see if the media portrays growth i n a positive or negative light; other qualitative studies could be conducted with urban planners to better understand their view of the medias coverage of growth and other growth-related issues/effects. In terms of growth effects on newspapers, a comparative study focusing on a newspaper in a different region of the country would be beneficial to see if the trends found at The Sentinel are replicated in other areas of the county. Other comparative studies that examine newspapers in slow-growth or no-growth areas could also be conducted to see how negative growth affects newspapers in those areas. A content analysis of The Sentinel s, or any other newspaper, coverage of growth could be conducted to determine if newspapers take a pro or anti -growth stance in their pages. Also, a survey of newspaper readers could reveal changes made in reader perceptions about growth. This could contribute to the Cultivation Theory that suggests that with more exposure, the audiences perception of reality will change.

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115 APPENDIX A ORLANDO SENTINEL COVERAGE AREA

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116 APPENDIX B IRB FORMS UFIRB 02 Social & Behavioral Research Protocol Submission Title of Protocol: Newspapers and Urban Growth: How an Old Medium Responds to a Growing Trend Prin cipal Investigator: Gordon Van Owen UFID #: 4978 9190 Degree / Title: MAMC Department: Journalism Mailing Address: 2338 N.W. 38 th Ave. #305 Gainesville, FL 32605 Email Address & Telephone Number: Editor02@ufl.edu, (407) 375 7106 Co Investigator (s): UFID#: Supervisor: Johanna Cleary UFID#: Degree / Title: PhD, Assistant Professor Department: Telecommunications Mailing Address: 3062 Weimer Hall Gainesville, FL 32611 Email Address & Telephone Number: jcleary@jou.ufl.edu, (352) 846 0226 Date of Proposed Research: March/April 2008 Source of Funding (A copy of the grant proposal must be submitted with this protocol if funding is involved): N/A Scientific Purpose of the Study: To analyze the impacts of urban growth on modern mass media, spec ifically newspapers.

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117 Describe the Research Methodology in Non Technical Language: ( Explain what will be done with or to the research participant. ) Qualitative, in depth interviews will be conducted with staff members of The Orlando Sentinel. Each partic ipant will be asked a series of questions about how the areas growth has influenced the newspapers business and staffing decisions as well as influences its print and online content. Participants will include reporters, editors, and other newspaper staff members. Describe Potential Benefits and Anticipated Risks: ( If risk of physical, psychological or economic harm may be involved, describe the steps taken to protect participant.) There are no benefits for participating in this study other than to furth er promote social science research. There is no harm to participants for associating with this study. Describe How Participant(s) Will Be Recruited, the Number and AGE of the Participants, and Proposed Compensation: The researcher will start with the staf f directory on The Orlando Sentinels website. The researcher will call the Sentinels office to arrange interview times with the participants. Each participant will be asked to sign an informed consent form. Approximately 20 interviews will be conducted, but that number may change depending on developing research questions and unexpected discoveries throughout the interview process. No more than 30 interviews will be conducted. The participants are working professionals and may range in age from their mid 20s to their 60s. Describe the Informed Consent Process. Include a Copy of the Informed Consent Document: Prior to each interview date, the researcher will e mail a copy of the informed consent forms to each participant so that they may read over it. Th en, on the interview date, the researcher will present each participant with a copy of the informed consent forms and ask them to sign it before the interview begins. Principal Investigator(s) Signature: Supervisor Signature: Department Chair/Center Dir ector Signature: Date:

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118 APPENDIX C SAMPLE E-MAIL SENT TO PARTICIPANTS Date: Dear (recipient), My name is Gordon Van Owen, and I am master's student at the University of Florida. I am currently working on my thesis, which focuses on how Orlando's ur ban growth has impacted The Orlando Sentinel I am writing to see if you would be willing to participate in a brief, in -person interview to talk about your role at The Sentinel in covering Orlando's growth and what the newspaper has done as a result of tha t growth. The information shared during the interview may be kept anonymous if you so choose, and no identifying information will be used in the data. I would like to audio record the interview to insure accuracy. There is no compensation for participati ng in this study, and your participation is completely voluntary and you are free to withdraw from the study at any time. As (recipients job title) for Orlando Sentinel Communications, your role at the paper and your perspective on growth impacts is cruc ial. I believe that the insight you can provide because of your position at the paper would be invaluable for my study. I will be home, in Orlando, for the holidays and my schedule is wide open. I realize that as an editor, time is of the essence for you, thus I am making myself available to fit your busy schedule. I appreciate your consideration on this matter and understand that your schedule may not permit an in-person interview. If you are not available, is there anyone else at the paper you would recommend for me to speak with? Again, I appreciate your time on this matter. I read The Sentinel's online newspaper every day from Gainesville and always look forward to reading the newspaper's growth -related stories and the neighborhood blogs. As a nearly l ife-long Orlando resident, I've seen firsthand how the city has changed over the years, and now, as a future journalist myself, I appreciate how much work journalists such as your self put in on a daily basis. If you have any questions about your rights a s a participant, please contact UFs IRB02 office at P.O. Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611 -2250 or by phone at (352) 392-0433. Sincerely, Gordon Van Owen Master's Student University of Florida College of Journalism and Communications

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119 APPENDIX D SAMPLE INFORMED CONSENT FORM Please read this document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Protocol Title: Newspapers and Urban Growth: How an Old Medium Responds to a New Trend Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of urban growth on The Orlando Sentinel. What you will be asked to do in the study: You will be engaged in an in -depth interview with the researcher. The interviews should last roughly one hour to two hours, and will be conducted in a place of your choice to guarantee comfort and familiarity. You will be asked a series of warm -up and clarification questions. Following those basic questions, the researcher will then ask you a series of questions to gauge your feelings on urban growth in the Orlando area and how that growth has impacted The Orlando Sentinel. At times, you may be asked to clarify your answer so that the researcher can guarantee accuracy in his report. Following the interview, you may be asked to clarify any points the researchers may be unclear or unsure about. This step is to assure accuracy. Time required: 1 to 2 hours Risks and Benefits: The researcher does not intend for there to be any risks in association with this study. The researcher does not anticipate that you will benefit directly by participating in this study. Compensation: There is no compensation for participating in this study. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential if you wish it to be so. Since this study is grounded in qualita tive research methods, knowing your name and title will provide validation to the information you provide based on your level of expertise and years in the field. Your name may be used in the final report. Voluntary participation: Your participation in t his study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating in this study.

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120 Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Gordon Van Owen, Masters Student, Department of Journalism, College of Journalism and Communications, the University of Florida, G035 Weimer Hall, Gainesville; E -mail: editor02@ufl.edu; Phone: 407-375-7106. You may also contact Dr. Johanna Cleary, Assistant Professor, College of Journalism and Communications, the University of Florida, 3062 Weimer Hall, Gainesville; E -mail: jcleary@jou.ufl.edu; Phone: 352-846-0226. Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; Phone 392-0433. Agreement: I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to partic ipate in the study, and I have received a copy of this description. Participant: ______________________________________ Date: _________________ Principal Investigator: ______________________________ Date: _________________

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121 APPENDIX E SAMPLE INTERVIEW PROTOCOL Participant: Dana Eagles, recruitment and staff development editor, The Orlando Sentinel Date of Interview: Dec. 18, 2007 Location of Interview: Eagles office at The Orlando Sentinel newsroom in downtown Orlando. Setting: Private office with door closed. Shades open on window overlooking the newsroom. Guide/ Questions: Begin by explaining the study to the particiapant and asking them to sign the informed consent form. Explain that by signing the form, they agree to participate in the study. As summary questions as needed. For example, ask about their tenure at The Sentinel, professional background, duties, etc. These questions can be used as an ice breaker. In your own words, explain your day-to-day duties at The Sentinel. How do you define urban growth? In your opinion, how has Orlandos urban growth impacted The Sentinel ? What role do you believe The Sentinel plays in building social capital in Orlando? Has The Sentinel made any changes to hiring process in response to urban growth? Could you please explain those changes? Do you perceive these changes as positive or negative for the newspaper? Explain. What types of changes have been made among the editorial staff/staff structure? What is your role within The Sentinels current business model and how does that position correlate to these growth -related issues? How has urban growth effected the types of staff development and training programs you implement here at The Sentinel ?

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122 APPENDIX F THE PARTICIPANTS Charlotte Hall is the editor in chief of The Orlando Sentinel She has been with the newspaper since 2004. Prior to working at The Sentinel Hall was the vice president of planning for Newsday in Long Island, NY. She is in charge of all of the news gathering at the newspaper, which inclu des all of the reporters, copy editors, editors, photographers, and graphic artists. Jane Healy is the editorial page editor at The Orlando Sentinel She has been with The Sentinel since 1973 and has worked as a metro reporter, editorial writer, managing editor, and editorial page editor. She won the Pulitzer Prize in 1988 for her series Floridas Shame, which focused on Central Floridas growth and environment. Mark Russell is the managing editor of The Orlando Sentinel and is in charge of the day -today operations of the newsroom and the newspapers content. He has been with The Sentinel since 2004. Steve Doyle is a 27 -year employee at The Sentinel and is currently the associate managing editor for content development. He is in charge of the editorial data and information desk, as well as the coordinator for editorial technology. He has also worked as the sports, business, and features section editor. Bob Shaw is the national/state editor at The Sentinel and is in charge of the newspapers bureaus in W ashington, D.C., Tallahassee, and Miami. He also oversees the reporters in charge of covering NASA, hurricanes, and two state rovers. He has been with The Sentinel for seven years. Jerry Fallstrom is an editor at The Sentinel s Lake County Bureau. He is r esponsible for coordinating the bureaus coverage of county government as well as coverage of nearby Marion and Sumter counties and he has been with the newspaper for 15 years.

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123 Mark Skoneki is a government editor at The Orlando Sentinel and has been with the newspaper for 19 years. He works with the team of reporters that covers Orlando and Orange County politics, as well as the environment, transportation, and military affairs. Debbie Salamone is a government editor with The Orlando Sentinel and is in cha rge of the Local and State section of the paper and is the coordinator of the weekly Local In -Depth section. She has been with The Sentinel for 20 years. John Cutter is the deputy online editor for onlandsentinel.com and has been with the newspaper for three years. He is in charge of updating the website throughout the day. He is the first editor in the newsroom each morning. Cutter also helps coordinate The Sentinel s multimedia packages. Mark Schlueb is the Orlando government reporter for The Orlando Sentinel His coverage focuses specifically on government in the city of Orlando. He has been a reporter at The Sentinel since 2001. Beth Kassab is a business reporter and columnist for The Orlando Sentinel Her columns focus on the business community in Orlando, as well as growth and development. She has been with the newspaper for about seven years. Manning Pynn was the reader representative for The Orlando Sentinel and began his career at the newspaper in the 1960s, when he worked as an assistant to the then owner/publisher Martin Andersen. He left the paper for a few years, and returned for good in 1983. He became reader representative in 2001 and retired in March 2008. Dana Eagles is the staff development editor and is in charge of recruiting new staff and coordinating the papers internship and staff -development programs. He also plans all of the

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124 papers staff recognition programs. Part of his duties includes attending job fairs to recruit. He has been in this position for about seven years. Norbert Ortiz is the circulation director at The Orlando Sentinel and is in charge of growing and managing the newspapers circulation. His office also oversees customer service, billing, and delivery of the newspaper. He has been with The Sentinel for 10 months. Lisa Bridges is the product marketing manager. She and her team market the newspaper through billboards, signs, print advertisements, e -mail marketing, etc. She has been with the newspaper for 10 years. Gary Winters oversees the Marketing Services team at The Orlando Sentinel and is in charge of marketing the newspaper to national advertisers, including department stores, auto dealerships, etc. He has worked for The Sentinel for 26 years. Sean Holton retired from The Orlando Sentinel in June 2007 after 20 years at the paper. When he retired, he was the associated managing editor for metropolitan news. He had also worked as an investigative reporter and national correspondent. Christine Dellert is a former reporter at The Sentinel s Lake and Volusia County B ureaus. She began her career with The Sentinel as a student intern while at the University of Central Florida. She was the lead reporter of the Trenton Duckett case in 2006. She left The Sentinel after 15 months as an employee in 2007.

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125 APPENDIX G THE SENTINELS CODE OF ETHICS The Orlando Sentinel s Editorial Code of Ethics (Revised 2006) Journalists' obligation to serve the public by pursuing and reporting the truth independently is more than a lofty principle it is the very foundation of our daily wor k. Our success as a news organization depends absolutely on our credibility, which we maintain by gathering and presenting the news vigorously; by making decisions that are as free as possible of influence from self -interest or special interests; and by co nducting ourselves in ways that earn the trust of our community. This Editorial Code of Ethics for the Orlando Sentinel incorporating Tribune Publishing's Code of Editorial Principles, can help to safeguard our credibility. It applies to all Editorial sta ff members, including those in administrative or clerical roles. By following its guidelines and openly discussing ethical issues as they emerge, each of us can take responsibility for protecting the Sentinel 's reputation as a reliable and trustworthy sour ce of information. 1. Conflicts of Interest Memberships. Editorial staffers should not have membership in, any financial relationship with, or other ties to a business or institution if they have regular and continuing influence over any aspect of coverage of the organization. They should avoid situations in which their activities in connection with any group or cause could be perceived as influencing what the Sentinel publishes or broadcasts. Political activities. Political organizations present particula r challenges. Donor lists are public information, so there are no "private" donations to a party or cause. For that reason and because it would be impractical to police exceptions no Editorial staffer, whether involved in political coverage or not, may donate to or be active in such groups. Family and personal relationships. Editorial staffers should avoid involvement in stories dealing with family members and close friends and the businesses or causes in which friends and relatives take part. Investments. Reporters, columnists and editorial writers should not write about companies or industries in which they or their family members have an investment, nor should they invest in companies or industries about which they report or write regularly. Similarly editors should not make news decisions about companies or industries in which they or their family members have an investment. When recusing themselves is impractical, they should ask another editor to review their decisions. Editorial staffers may inves t in mutual funds if the funds are not limited to the industries about which they make news decisions. In no case should financial information being gathered for publication be used for personal gain.

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126 Gifts and meals. No Editorial staffer should accept any gift or discount of material value offered because of the employee's journalistic responsibilities. This includes promotional items, meals, and tickets to theme parks and shows. Gifts arriving by mail should be returned with a note of explanation. Staffers may accept a cup of coffee or an inexpensive lunch from a source, however, provided that the staffer can return the favor. A reporter covering a banquet or similar event may accept a free soft drink or an hors d'oeuvre but should arrange to pay for a mea l. Reporters covering a news conference where food is served should use their best judgment. If there is no way to pay for the meal at the time, the reporter should attempt to pay for it later. Admission to events. Staffers may accept free admission to eve nts they are assigned to cover but should never insist on free entry; the company will reimburse them for ticket charges. Working journalists also may accept passes to special facilities, such as press boxes or press tables, for which tickets are not sold. Staffers who are not covering an event should not accept tickets from publicists even if they pay for them because doing so can create the appearance of special treatment. Review copies. Books, CDs, DVDs, video games, software and similar products sent to the Sentinel for review are considered news handouts. They may be used by beat writers for review or for office reference. Those not kept for these purposes should be donated to libraries or to charitable organizations, not added to staffers' personal col lections. Personal gain. Editorial staffers must not use their job Terms, professional connections, business cards or letterhead for personal advantage, whether to obtain tickets to a show, settle a dispute or obtain a price break. Discounts made available by the company to all employees may be accepted, however, because they are widely available to employees of large companies. Confidential information. Staff members have access to information that must be held in confidence to prevent other news organizat ions from beating the Sentinel on a story or to otherwise protect the company's interests. Confidential information may include such things as notes and other research material; unpublished stories, editorials and images; the names of anonymous sources; preprinted advertising; and personnel or financial information. In general, company business should not be discussed with outsiders unless it is necessary for the performance of the job, and discretion should be used in sharing information within the company Reporters may, of course, discuss information gathered for a story in order to verify it or to get reaction from other sources. Contests and awards. Staffers should not enter contests sponsored by trade or advocacy groups even if those contests are adm inistered by a journalism organization or school because they may exist primarily to promote those groups' agendas. The Editorial Department maintains a list of approved national, regional and state contests whose central purpose is to recognize journalistic excellence. Staffers who want to enter contests not on the list must first obtain the permission of the Managing Editor or Editorial Page Editor. Staff members also should refrain from accepting unsolicited awards from trade or advocacy organizations. Disclosure of conflicts. When conflicts of interest are unavoidable but not obvious to readers, they should be disclosed in the story. The Sentinel should cover its own businesses and its parent

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127 company as it would any other business, but in stories about the finances of Tribune Co., for example, a sentence explaining that Tribune owns the Sentinel should be included. Collaboration with Advertising It is appropriate for the Editorial and Advertising departments to work together to build audiences and, by extension, the company's financial strength, but never in a way that would give advertisers an opportunity to influence news coverage. Editors also may work with marketing, circulation or other departments to improve the newspaper's business, but they should never do anything that could jeopardize the integrity of the news report. Legal troubles of staff members. The Sentinel should report on the legal troubles of its own employees promptly and fairly, using the same standards of newsworthiness applied to o thers. There should never be the suggestion of a cover -up to keep the spotlight off a Sentinel staff member who is charged with a crime when it would have been focused on others in similar circumstances. 2. Outside Activities Ownership of work. All ideas, research, notes and other work that staffers produce on company time, whether text or images, belong to the company. This material may not be sold to another publication or news service without permission of the Editor or the Editorial Page Editor. Syndication of work or the publication of books based on information gathered on Sentinel time also must be approved in advance by the Editor or Editorial Page Editor. Freelancing. Staffers may perform freelance work on their own time, provided that the Sentinel receives their first and best efforts. Staffers should consider only media that exhibit high journalistic standards. Freelance assignments must be individually approved in advance by the Managing Editor or Editorial Page Editor, and several basic criteria must be met before approval will be considered. The proposed freelance assignment must not: Appear in any medium that competes directly with any Orlando Sentinel Communications or Tribune Co. business. Allow another news outlet to "scoop" the Sentinel. Be published or broadcast by any organization that the journalist covers or one that has the Sentinel as its client for that particular project. Interfere with the staffer's Sentinel duties, create the appearance of a conflict of interest or compromise the s taffer's professional reputation. Staffers who pursue approved freelance assignments should keep their freelancing separate from their Sentinel work, and sources should be clearly told for whom the work is being done. Television and radio appearances. Because the Sentinel produces broadcast programming in partnership with television and radio stations, appearances in all non -Sentinel programs must be approved in advance by the Managing Editor or Editorial Page Editor. Broadcast appearances must meet the fre elancing criteria found above. In addition, editors will consider the promotional value that the appearance may have for the Sentinel.

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128 Personal Web publishing. Staffers who operate their own Web sites or publish personal blogs must not post information on topics they cover for the Sentinel. They also should be mindful that their personal postings can affect their credibility as journalists and, by extension, the Sentinel 's credibility as a news organization. Thus, they should avoid postings that reveal pers onal biases or that otherwise compromise their professionalism. 3. Accuracy and Integrity Breaking the law. Editorial staffers will not engage in illegal activities in pursuit of news, and editors will not encourage or tolerate illegal behavior. Fabricati on. Fabrication has no place in journalism and will not be tolerated. To guard against confusion, fictional and satirical writing should be clearly labeled if there could be any doubt in readers' minds about whether such writing deals with real events and persons. Plagiarism. Plagiarism the taking of wording or ideas from another person or organization without attribution is a cardinal sin of journalism and will not be tolerated. When original information, quotes, ideas and distinctive language from oth er sources are used in our reports, they should clearly be attributed. Sentences or paragraphs taken from wire stories should be attributed either within the text or by a shirttail explaining that wire services were used in compiling the report. Deception in reporting. Misrepresenting one's identity to get information is generally unacceptable, although there may be occasional exceptions. A restaurant critic, for example, may need to make reservations under an alias. Reporters who contact news sources with the intention of gathering material for a story should be candid about who they are and what they are doing. Fictitious names. The use of a fictitious name to protect a subject's privacy should be used only as a last resort. In these rare cases, the use of the pseudonym must be explained to readers and approved by the Managing Editor. Posing and alteration of photographs. Photographers must not stage or direct the content of news photographs or alter the elements of a news scene. This does not preclude a re asonable degree of posing in non-news situations or the art direction of studio photographs. Once taken, a photo must not be altered in any way that turns it into something the photographer did not see in the viewfinder. Changes must be limited to standard quality adjustments applied by imaging technicians. Photo illustrations. The combination of photography and illustration to create a "photo illustration" is acceptable in cases in which the subject matter is complex, abstract or difficult to convey throug h documentary photography. However, all photo illustrations must contain an element of the absurd so exaggerated that the image could not be confused with a documentary photo. These pieces must be labeled as photo illustrations, and their use must be appro ved by a supervising design or photo editor.

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129 Datelines. A dateline should be used only when the bylined reporter has gathered information at that location. It must never be used in a way that misleads the reader about where the reporter has traveled for the story. Excerpts. With proper attribution, we may excerpt brief passages of books, articles and other published works in reviews and in news stories about the work being excerpted. But when using excerpts of more than a few lines from copyrighted works, we must first obtain permission from the publisher. Opinion. Expressing opinion is the privilege of columnists, critics and editorial writers. Other Orlando Sentinel journalists must strive to avoid injecting opinion into their news reports. The same princ iple applies to community speeches, blogs and broadcast appearances. A practical guideline: If you wouldn't write it in your news story, don't say it in these other venues. Correction of errors. When we publish information that is inaccurate or misleading, we will make every effort to publish the correct information as quickly as possible and to prevent the publication of similarly erroneous information in the future. The procedures and format for correcting errors are detailed in the Corrections and Clarif ications Policy. 4. Anonymous Sources "On the record" is the rule. We attribute information we publish in the Sentinel so that readers can judge for themselves the worth of what they read. We avoid attributing information to people we cannot identify in p rint because doing so can undermine our credibility. Sometimes, however, vital information cannot be attributed to identified sources. When we withhold a source's identity, responsibility for the reliability of that information falls to the Sentinel rather than to the person providing it. To limit the use of anonymous sources, we should begin all interviews with the presumption that they are on the record. No statements made on the record can be taken off the record retroactively. We should not grant anonym ity merely because someone asks for it, nor should we offer anonymity unless it is a condition of receiving information we regard as vital. Reporters and sources do not always agree on the definitions of terms used in source negotiations, so we should use this common vocabulary and strive to ensure that sources understand it: On the record: Information can be published and attributed to identified individuals. Background/not for attribution: Information can be published but not attributed to identified individuals. Deep background: Information can be published but not attributed to anyone. It also can be used as the basis for further reporting if the source is not identified.

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130 Off the record: Information cannot be published and cannot be used as the basis for further reporting other than to guide the reporter. Five considerations. Before publishing anonymous information, we should consider these questions: Does the importance of the article outweigh any potential damage to the newspaper's credibility? Is the information to be attributed to an anonymous source necessary? Have all efforts to obtain the information from someone we can identify been exhausted? Does the person providing the information have a legitimate reason for remaining anonymous, and can we exp lain that reason in the story? Are we certain that the person providing the information does not have an ulterior motive? Even when we can answer "yes" to all of these questions, we should follow these additional guidelines in using anonymous sources: We should resort to the use of anonymous sources only for vital never innocuous information, and only to provide information of which they have firsthand knowledge. We should help the reader to evaluate the worth of the information by providing as much des cription of the source as possible without revealing his or her identity; ensure that by shielding the identity of one person we are not putting anyone else in jeopardy; make every effort to find additional sources who are independent of one another to cor roborate the information; and avoid making an anonymous source the sole basis of a story. Conversely, we should not allow someone whose identity we are protecting to level a personal attack; allow the description of an anonymous source to be altered withou t consulting the reporter who gathered the information and agreed to the anonymity; or refer anonymously to other journalists unless they are the subjects of a news report. Approval of editors. Reporters should obtain the approval of supervising editors be fore granting anonymity. In cases where that is impractical, reporters should discuss the agreement with their editors before writing the story. In any case, they must disclose the source's identity to their editors, and sources who are granted anonymity m ust be informed of that requirement. Associate Managing Editors are responsible for knowing the identity of anyone referred to anonymously in a section for which they are responsible or in the reporting of anyone they oversee. The approving editor's initia ls should appear in the copy in notes next to any reference to an anonymous source, but the name of the source should not be entered into the computer system. The Editor, Managing Editor or Editorial Page Editor must also approve the use of any anonymous source. Protection of anonymous sources. Any journalist promising a source anonymity should be aware that he or she may face contempt -of-court penalties imposed by a judge if the journalist refuses to comply with a court order to identify the source. It is the reporter's responsibility to

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131 ensure that all parties involved in an agreement to protect someone's identity understand the level of anonymity being granted and the conditions under which that agreement will not be honored. Wire reports. We have less co ntrol over the use of anonymous sources in wire stories, but these pieces should meet the same basic standards as staff -written stories. Any wire story relying on anonymous sources must be of overriding importance to our readers. Information attributed to anonymous sources must be necessary to the article, must not be available on the record and must not contain personal attacks. Reports from other news organizations that rely on anonymous sources should be limited to information that is plausible and to su bjects on which those organizations have access and expertise. "Phantom" attribution. We should avoid attributing information to vague groups such as "experts," "informed sources," "key officials," "knowledgeable sources," "observers" or "onlookers." We should not refer to anonymous "sources" when, in fact, there is just one. We should not refer anonymously to someone identified elsewhere in an article as if he or she is more than one person. And we should avoid seeming to attribute information through use of nebulous phrases such as "it is believed that" or "it is expected that." 5. Decency, Fairness and Privacy Gruesome images. The newspaper, Web site and television segments we produce should be sensitive in the depiction of uncovered dead bodies, particu larly faces. Caution always is required before publicizing vivid images of dying and death. Children. Reporting on children poses special challenges. Children often are eager to talk and be photographed, but they may have no idea of the potential consequen ces of having their names, pictures and words in the newspaper, on the Web or on television. Whenever possible, we should seek the approval of parents before interviewing, photographing or filming a child especially when dealing with sensitive topics. Wh ether we have permission or not, we must always be mindful that children are not responsible for their words or actions in the same way adults are. Ambushing. "Ambushing" news sources should generally be avoided. Photographs or video from such encounters often appear accusatory merely because the subject was caught off guard. Surreptitious recording. Under some circumstances, Florida law prohibits the use of tape recorders unless all parties consent to the recording of the coversation. Although there are t imes that such consent is not necessary, legal advice should be sought before using hidden tape recorders and cameras in gathering news, and such surreptitious use must be approved in advance by the Editor. Lack of response. Efforts to reach news sources should allow them reasonable time to respond, even if it means delaying a report to include their comment. "No comment." A "no comment" response from an individual in the news should be phrased neutrally. The most neutral way to explain a person's desire no t to be quoted in a news story is to say the person "would not comment." The phrase "refused to comment" should be reserved for

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132 situations in which the person questioned would be expected to respond to a serious allegation because of his or her office or role in the news event but purposely avoids doing so. Quotations. Quotes may be shortened through the use of ellipses and other generally understood and accepted editing devices, but editing should not distort the meaning of the person who is quoted. If a quote includes a slur or a profanity, it should be used only when the value of the story depends on it. Names of sexual assault victims. With rare exceptions, we do not publish or broadcast the names of sexual assault victims without their consent. Exce ptions require the approval of the Managing Editor or Editorial Page Editor. Names of suspects. Generally, adult criminal suspects may be identified only when charges have been filed and juveniles only if they have been charged as adults. Exceptions must b e approved by the Managing Editor or Editorial Page Editor. Uncorroborated reports. We should not violate our own standards by publishing or broadcasting uncorroborated reports about a person just because other organizations have done so. The same applies to identifying people who have said they were sexually assaulted and have been identified elsewhere. Identification of race. Generally, a person's race belongs in a story only if reporters and editors can articulate its relevance. The same principle applie s to religion, ethnic origin and sexual orientation. Political candidates. Individuals running for public office open themselves to particularly close media scrutiny. Reporters and their editors should consult regularly about which pieces of information ab out the candidate are of sufficient importance to warrant publication.

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133 APPENDIX H MEMO FROM CHARLOTTE HALL May 1, 2007 To: All From: Charlotte Hall This morning I announced a new organization for our newsroom and a reduction in staff positions. The new structure is a major step in transforming our newsroom for the digital and print worlds. It will alter the way we do our work and enable us to move more rapidly. It will not change our commitment to excellent journalism or our mission to serve reader s with the most relevant and credible news and information in Central Florida. We also will have to eliminate about two dozen positions in the newsroom over the next month to six weeks. We will offer a voluntary separation program in some areas. I hope th at the voluntary program, along with a handful of open positions, will allow us to keep involuntary terminations to a minimum. The new structure reflects the way we would build our newsroom if we were starting from scratch today with our dual goals of inc reasing Web audience rapidly and maintaining newspaper readership. Our winning edge in the battle for audience will be our superiority in gathering local news for different platforms. This means our priority will be keeping "feet on the street" reporters and photographers. It also means we will flatten the management structure. We would restructure our newsroom even if did not have to reduce our staff. Why? Because we need to change the way we think and act so we can succeed in the new world, both in prin t and online. We need to be quicker, less hierarchical, more entrepreneurial and more flexible. We need to lead change, not resist it. We are facing a watershed in the way readers and advertisers use media, certainly the most difficult period in the histo ry of American newspapers. This requires bold and sometimes painful action to survive and prosper. THE NEW NEWSROOM We will divide the newsroom into teams that gather news and production desks that edit and package the news. As the importance of digital media grows, we need to think of ourselves as a continuous news and information engine not as a "newspaper" organized along the lines of traditional newspaper sections. From the current Metro, Features, Business and National divisions, we will create fiv e newsgathering teams: the Public Service Team, the Breaking News Team, the Communities Team, the How We Live Team and the Business and Consumer Team.

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134 At the same time, we will consolidate news and features production to provide more flexibility and efficiency. The Production Desk will be headed by Ann Hellmuth working with the merged copy desk and three news editors one each for the A-section, the feature sections, and the local and weekend news sections. The news editors will coordinate and choose stor ies for their sections. We will also merge news and features design. Kim Marcum will head the How We Live reporting team. Lisa Cianci will head the Business and Consumer Team, which also will include health writers. Bonita Burton will lead Visuals, includ ing the merged design team. Lynn Hoppes will lead Sports, and Anthony Moor will lead Online. We also will create a Data Team to help us build databases for the Web, and that team will report to Steve Doyle and Anthony. Associate Managing Editor/Metro Sean Holton has decided to leave the Sentinel after 20 years of distinguished service. Sean is one of the great class acts in journalism, and we will sorely miss his leadership, intelligence, honesty and creativity. I also want to thank him personally for his support and guidance since I became editor in 2004. Sean )Tj/TT0 1 Tf(s last day will be June 1. Please see the Newsroom Briefing page for a message from Russ and me about Sean. CONTINUED BELOW Orlando Sentinel cuts jobs, reorganizes newsroom 5/1/2007 1:49:35 PM Today we will post jobs and begin seeking applicants to head the Public Service, Breaking News and Communities teams. After the team leaders are named next week, we will post other editing jobs. There will be fewer editing jobs in the new structure, and all editors in areas affected by the reorganization will nee d to apply for positions. The process will be open, without any preferred candidates. I encourage people to think about trying something new. Some reporting beats also will be eliminated and some new ones will be created, and we will post all available rep orting jobs as well. The new newsroom organization will take effect June 4, after the voluntary separation program ends. WHAT ARE OUR GOALS? As we have thought about the reorganization and the need to operate with a smaller newsroom, three imperatives ha ve guided us: We must grow audience rapidly on the Web. That means changing the way we work. It means gaining new skills and creating new beats. It means becoming a multimedia, 24/7 news operation. It means creating new databases and managing user -generat ed content. We must keep the newspaper strong. That means a sharper emphasis on watchdog journalism, consumer journalism, unique local coverage, personally useful news, innovative storytelling and provocative commentary. We must focus relentlessly on what readers perceive as valuable )Tj/TT0 1 Tf( not on our preconceptions or traditions. We must each take ownership of our work. Every staff member needs to take personal

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135 responsibility for making the newspaper and web site a success. Individual creativity, commitment and energetic action will be re warded. The flatter management structure will require more self-discipline, initiative and self -management. This will be a tumultuous time for each of us. Russ, I and the newsroom leadership team will communicate frequently and candidly with you. The meet ings today are the first step. We are also creating a special area on Newsroom Briefing to share information about the new newsroom and the voluntary separation program. Russ and I need your help, your creativity and your energy in shaping the new newsroo m. We have a huge opportunity to succeed and prosper in the new media world. It is not too late. We still own the local franchise for news and information. Our success is up to us. I know you will ask if this reorganization is the end of change for the fo reseeable future. No, it is the beginning of change. We are living through a media revolution in which change will be continuous. Change is scary for all of us )Tj/TT0 1 Tf( there is risk, there is fear. But not changing is far more risky and a far greater threat to the survival of our company and our craft. Yes, we face tough and challenging days ahead. We will make mistakes, and we will pick ourselves up and fix them. Som e days will be terrifying; some will be exciting. One thing I know for certain: We will pass through this storm with courage, hope and heart, and we will build a newsroom for the future. Thank you.

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136 APPENDIX I SAMPLE CODING SHEET Title of Article: Date Ran in Paper: Focus (This article is about....):

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137 APPENDIX J STAFF STRUCTURE AT THE SENTINEL This flow chart was designed by the researcher based on data collected during the interviews. The Sentinel does not have a public do cument outlining their staff structure. Tribune Company (Owner: Sam Zell) Publisher (Howard Greenberg ) Vice President of Circulation (Norbert Ortiz) Edi tor in Chief (Charlotte Hall) Director of Marketing (Lisa Bridges) Director of Advertising Marketing Services Director (Gary Winters) Managing Editor (Mark Russell) Associa te Managing Editors (Steve Doyle) Assistant Managing Editors (Sean Holton) Section Editors (Debbie Salamone, Mark Skoneki) Assistant Editors (John Cutter) Writers /Reporters (Schlueb, Kassab)

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138 LIST OF REFERENCES Artwick, C., & Gordon M. (1998). Portrayal of U.S. cities by daily newspapers. Newspaper Research Journal, 19, 54-63. Baldasty, G. (1992) The commercialization of news in the nineteenth cen tury. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press. Beaudoin, C., & Thorson, E. (2004). Social capital in rural and urban communities: testing differences in media effects and models. Journalism and Mass Communications Quarterly, 81, 378-399. Blumler J.G. & Katz, E. (1974). The uses of mass communications: current perspectives on gratifications research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Balona, D.M. (2007, Feburary 5). How growth drives taxes. The Orlando Sentinel Bogart, L. (1989). Press and public: Who reads what, when, where, and why in American newspapers. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Breed, W. (1955) Social control of the newsroom: A functional analysis, Social Forces, 33, 326355. Bureau of Economic and Business Research. (2006). The Florida statistical abstract 2006 Gainesville: University Press of Florida. BurrellesLuce. (2007). Top 100 daily newspapers 2007. Retrieved from www.burrellesluce.com February 2008. Chan, T., & Goldthrope, J. (2007). Social status and newspaper readership. American Journal of Sociology 112, 1095-1134. Cresswell, J. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: choosing among five traditions London: Sage. Dalton, R. (2007). Democratic challenges, democratic choices: The erosion of political support in advanced industrial democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Damron, D. (2007, July 9). Only 2 mayors from Central Florida have pledged support for Kyoto Protocol. The Orlando Sentinel Davidson, W., & Cotter, P. (1991). The relationship between sense of community and subjective well -being: a first look. The Journal of Community Psychology 19, 246-253. Dickinson, J. (2006). Orlando: City of dreams. Chicago: Arcadia Publishing.

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139 Dominick, J. (1977). Geographic bias in network TV news. Journal of Commncation 27. Dreier, P. (2005). How the media compound urban problems. Journal of Urban Affairs. 27, 193-201. Emke, I. (2001, May). Community newspapers and commu nity identity. Presentation to the Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association. Engwall, L. (1978) Visible fictions. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. ENO Foundation. (2006). ENO Fall forum examines the future of urban transportation. Transportation Quarterly, 4, 1-2. Fannie Mae. (2001). The hot and cold sunbelts: Comparing state growth rates, 1950 -2000. Retrieved from the Fannie Mae Foundations Census Notes, January 2008. Filistrucchi, L. (2005). The impact of Internet on the market for da ily newspapers in Italy. Retrieved from the European University Institute, February 2008. Fishman, R. (1987). Bourgeois utopias: The rise and fall of Suburbia. New York: Basic Books. Gerbner, G., & Gross, L. (1976). Living with television: The violence p rofile. Journal of Communication, 26, 172-199. Habermas, J. (1984). The theory of communicative action, Vol. l. Reason the Rationalisation of Society Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Hall, P. (2002). Cities of tomorrow: An intellectual history of urban plannin g and design in the Twentieth Century (3rd ed.). New York: Blackwell Publishers. Hoshmand, L. T. (1989). Alternative research paradigms: A review and teaching proposal. The Counseling Psychologist 17, 3-79. Isenberg, A. (2004). Downtown America: A histo ry of the place and the people who made it Chicago: Universtity of Chicago Press. Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great American cities New York: Random House. Jacobs, J. (1969). The economy of cities. New York: Random House. Jacobson, S. (2007, August 20). Where have all the students gone? The Orlando Sentinel Jeffries, L., Cutietta, C., Lee, J., & Sekerka, L. (1999). Differences of community newspaper goals and functions in large urban areas. Newspaper Research Journal, 20, 86-98.

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143 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Gordon Van Owen was born February 5, 1984, in Bad Hersfeld, Germany. His family moved to Orlando, FL, in 1985. He graduated from Pine Castle Christian Academy, near Orlando, in 2002. He earned his B.A. in English and his B.S. in journalism from the University of Florida in 2006. He also spent a semester studying 20th century British history and literature at the University of Cambridge, in England, and wrote an analysis of the recent urban development trends of the City of Cambridge, which earned highest marks from his professors. He is currently a masters degree candidate in the University of Floridas College of Journalism and Communications and is working toward a minor in urban and regional planning from UFs College of Design, Construction, and Planning. As an undergraduate, Gordon worked as a news intern for several newspapers in the Gainesville area, putting the skills he learned at the University of Floridas College of Journalism and Communications to the test. These newspapers include The Independent Florida Alligator, The High Springs Herald, and The Gainesville Sun He was also a contributing writer for several on-campus publications, including the College of Journalism and Communications alumni magazine The Communigator. His editorials from The Independent Florida Alligato r and his stories from The Washington Times have been syndicated in a number of other publications across the country, both online and in print. Since enrolling in graduate school in 2006, Gordon has continued to develop his professional skills by continuing to intern at several different newspapers, including The Gainesville Sun The Alligator and The Washington Times in Washington, DC. While working for The Alligator Gordon served as the freelance editor and a columnist. Throughout his career at the University of Florida, Gordon has also worked for the universitys Office of Admissions, first in the processing office, and later as an Admissions

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144 Ambassador at the Welcome Center, where he greeted more than 30,000 visitors a yea r. Gordon was also an active member in the Greek community and served as a student senator in UFs Student Government. Within the College of Journalism and Communications, he served as vice president of the Journalism and Communications Ambassadors and pre sident of the College of Journalism and Communications College Council. Gordons research interests include urban growth effects on mass media, as well as journalists perceptions of growth and the representation of growth in the media. His other interests include literary journalism, magazine writing, and Social Capital Theory. After completing his degree, Gordon plans to move to New York City and join Teach for America in their efforts to end educational inequality by working at a disadvantaged school in the city. While there, he hopes to continue freelance writing for a newspaper or magazine. After working in the professional world for a few years, Gordon hopes to return to graduate school and earn a Ph.D.