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Attitude toward Mobile Advertising

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022275/00001

Material Information

Title: Attitude toward Mobile Advertising An Exploratory Study of How Cultural Dimensions Influence Attitude toward Mobile Advertising
Physical Description: 1 online resource (66 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study tested Triandis' (2001) combination of individualism/collectivism and horizontal/vertical dimensions typology for its ability to detect differences in mobile users' cultural orientations in South Korea, and also examined the role of these cultural orientations in people's general media use, mobile phone use, and attitude toward mobile advertising. The objective of this study is to add to the body of work looking at mobile advertising, while focusing specifically on the relationship between attitude toward mobile advertising and cultural orientations to understand the influence of cultural orientations on consumer response toward mobile communication. Culture is never static; it evolves and changes with the passage of time. Communication plays an important role in facilitating these changes by providing relevant information, motivation, and interaction for people. This study is to frame the attitude toward mobile advertising and culture orientations within an environment that changes rapidly according to the development of technology. Results show that respondents in the vertical collectivism orientation, where people submit to the authorities of the in-group and are willing to sacrifice themselves for their in-group, are more likely to have a positive attitude toward mobile advertising. Implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed. This study also presents limitations and suggestions for future research.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Villegas, Jorge.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022275:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022275/00001

Material Information

Title: Attitude toward Mobile Advertising An Exploratory Study of How Cultural Dimensions Influence Attitude toward Mobile Advertising
Physical Description: 1 online resource (66 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study tested Triandis' (2001) combination of individualism/collectivism and horizontal/vertical dimensions typology for its ability to detect differences in mobile users' cultural orientations in South Korea, and also examined the role of these cultural orientations in people's general media use, mobile phone use, and attitude toward mobile advertising. The objective of this study is to add to the body of work looking at mobile advertising, while focusing specifically on the relationship between attitude toward mobile advertising and cultural orientations to understand the influence of cultural orientations on consumer response toward mobile communication. Culture is never static; it evolves and changes with the passage of time. Communication plays an important role in facilitating these changes by providing relevant information, motivation, and interaction for people. This study is to frame the attitude toward mobile advertising and culture orientations within an environment that changes rapidly according to the development of technology. Results show that respondents in the vertical collectivism orientation, where people submit to the authorities of the in-group and are willing to sacrifice themselves for their in-group, are more likely to have a positive attitude toward mobile advertising. Implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed. This study also presents limitations and suggestions for future research.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Villegas, Jorge.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022275:00001


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1 ATTITUDE TOWARD MO BILE ADVERTISING: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF HO W CULTURAL DIMENSIONS INFLUENCE ATTITUDE TOWA RD MOBILE ADVERTISING By MIJUNG KIM A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Mijung Kim

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3 To Dr. Villegas and the professors of advertising in the College of Journalism and Communications at the Univ ersity of Florida.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would lik e to offer this deeply felt thanks to the following people, without whom this thesis could not have been star ted and certainly would never have been completed. Thanks go to my family in South Korea for continuously bein g there for me and supporting me constantly. I also want to extend my sincere gratitude to my friends for their support. Thanks go to Yasuo Yoshida for helping me realize what research is and how enjoyable it can be. My sincere appreciation goes to Youseung, Elaine, Jun, his wife Hyunmi, and Jiyoung for their wonderful inspiration and help. Last, but not least, I would like to thank Dr. Villegas, my advisor; and Dr. Chan-Olmsted, and Dr. Roberts.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........7ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................................8CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................92 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE........................................................................................ 11Mobile Marketing and Advertising........................................................................................ 11Mobile Market Situation of South Korea...............................................................................12Mobile Consumer Services..................................................................................................... 14Types of Mobile advertising...................................................................................................15Characteristics of M obile Advertising....................................................................................16Attitudes toward Advertising in General................................................................................ 17Attitudes toward Internet Advertising.................................................................................... 19Attitudes toward Mobile Advertising..................................................................................... 19Cultural Orientations..............................................................................................................21Objective.................................................................................................................................24Research Questions............................................................................................................. ....243 METHODOLOGY................................................................................................................. 26Sample....................................................................................................................................26Data Collection and Procedure...............................................................................................27Measures.................................................................................................................................27Media Use........................................................................................................................28Mobile Phones and Services Usage Behavior................................................................. 28Attitude toward Mobile Advertising............................................................................... 28Culture Orientation..........................................................................................................29Demographic Characteristics.................................................................................................. 304 FINDINGS....................................................................................................................... .......32Reliability...............................................................................................................................32Cultural Orientations Groups..................................................................................................34Media Use and Mobile Phone Usage...................................................................................... 35Cultural Orientations and Attitudes toward Mobile Advertising........................................... 36

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6 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS.................................................................................. 39Implications................................................................................................................... .........41Limitations and Future Research............................................................................................ 42APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRES.....................................................................................................................45LIST OF REFERENCES...............................................................................................................61BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................66

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Subscriber growth: Korean mobile telephony market....................................................... 122-2 Mobile phone distribution by age......................................................................................132-3 3G Mobile phone distribution by age................................................................................ 133-1 Independent and dependent variables................................................................................294-1 Sample characteristics..................................................................................................... ...324-2 Specific items for the key measures................................................................................... 334-3 Statistics for cultu re orientation groups.............................................................................344-4 Covariance and correlation matr ix of the cultural dimensions..........................................344-5 Media use.................................................................................................................. .........364-6 Descriptive statistics of mobile services usage.................................................................. 364-7 Mobile advertising atti tude means of the four cultural orientation groups........................ 38

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8 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising ATTITUDE TOWARD MOBILE ADVERTISI NG: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF HOW CULTURAL DIMENSIONS INFLUENCE ATTITUDE TOWARD MOBILE ADVERTISING By Mijung Kim May 2008 Chair: Jorge Villegas Major: Advertising This study tested Triandis (2001) combination of individualism/collectivism and horizontal/vertical dimensions t ypology for its ability to detect differences in mobile users cultural orientations in South Kor ea, and also examined the role of these cultural orientations in peoples general media use, mobile phone use, and attitude toward m obile advertising. The objective of this study is to add to the body of work looking at mobile advertising, while focusing specifically on the relationship be tween attitude toward mobile advertising and cultural orientations to understa nd the influence of cu ltural orientations on consumer response toward mobile communication. Culture is never static; it evolve s and changes with the passage of time. Communication plays an important role in facilitating these changes by providing relevant information, motivation, and interaction for people. This study is to frame the attitude toward mobile advertising and culture orientations with in an environment that changes rapidly according to the development of technology. Results show that respondents in the vertical collectivism orientati on, where people submit to the authorities of the in-gr oup and are willing to sacrifice th emselves for their in-group, are more likely to have a positive attitude toward mo bile advertising. Implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed. This study also presents limitations and suggestions for future research.

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9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION As the penetration rate of m obile phones ha s exceeded those of personal computers in many markets, it is believed that mobile media have become dominant as personal devices for communication. Accordingly, marketers and advertisers are considering th e need for a mobile commerce revolution (Robins, 2003). In this fast-growing mobile communication environment, cell phones are no longer just vo ice communication devices. The Mobile Marketing Association (2007) states that the mobile phone is becomi ng a primary means of communication, not only for voice but also for digital services, such as ema il, digital photos, navigation, and other mobile services. Although this trend is prevalent across the globe, mobile phones are especially gaining popularity in Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, and China. Among these big mobile phone markets, the Korean market has been growing enor mously as its market change and the trends of mobile phone subscriptions show (Kim, 2002; Moom, 2007; KTF mhows Mail Magazine, 2007). The technological convergence of mobile phones with audio, video, computing, telecommunications and television has turned them into increasingly effective media for consumer advertising (Robins, 2003). However, mobile phones are private communication devices unlike other communication media. Because of this differentiating characteristic, the extent of personalization employed in mobile commerce is an issue in the market. On the other hand, mass media and culture are cl osely related because culture is the source of content for mass media; culture influen ces mass media and vice versa (Lee & Chio, 2006; Pollay & Mittal, 1993). All content within the medi a, such as entertainment, news information, and advertisements, is derived from culture. If this were not true, it could not be understood among its audiences (Morris & Lee, 2005). By using individualism and collectivism as dimensions of culture previous researchers were able to understand the way culture relates to

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10 social psychological phenomena in a system atic manner (e.g., Hui, Triandis, & Yee, 1991; Triandis, Brislin, & Hui, 1988). In this regard, the objective of this study is to explore the mobile advertising, the mobile market of South Korea and cultural orientations in literature, in order to discover how the Korean consumers perception and attit ude of mobile advertising ar e related to personal cultural orientations: horizontal and verti cal individualism and collectivism. The results of this study will provide practitioners with direction as to how users perceive mobile advertising differently according to their target audience s cultural orientations and how advertisers should strategically modify their advertising content and messages.

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11 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Mobile Marketing and Advertising The Mobile Marketing Association (2007) stat es that m obile marketing is the use of wireless media as an integrated content delivery system and a direct response vehicle within a cross-media or stand-alone marketing communi cations program. Mobile marketing emerged from the Internet revolution and has become a major issue among marketer s. According to the overview of the mobile industry by the Mobile Ma rketing Association, m obile telephony is one of the first new channels to arise in over 50 ye ars, to have quickly become a primary means of reaching out to our customers (Mobile Marketing Association, 2007 http://www.mmaglobal.com ). Sim ilarly, the Wireless Advert ising Association (WAA) defines mobile marketing as the sending of advertising messages to mobile devices such as mobile phones or PDAs through the wireless network (Zoller, Housen, & Mattews, 2001; XU, 2007). Another definition of mobile advertising is the transmission of promotional messages to consumers in the form of time and location sensitive, personalized information through interactive mobile media (Haghiri an, Madlberger, &Tanuskova, 2005). In short, mobile advertising is the communication of inform ation about products, services, or ideas using mobile devices (Li & Lee, 2006) In particular, Webs interactive and quickresponse capabilities via mobile phones definitely help mobile phones become a direct marketing channel (Barwise & Strong, 2002). Cyriac Roeding, European chair of the Mobile Marketing Association suggests that, Mobi le advertising will be one of the most important revenue generators for mobile operators (DeZoysa, 2002 p.8). Moreover, the high penetration rate of mobile phones has contributed to the increased delivery of advertisements for products and services (Tsang, Ho & Liang, 2004). Therefore, marketers and advertisers are looking for

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12 innovative ways to reach their target market by using mobile phones which is a personal communication device. Mobile Market Situation of South Korea The m obile phone is becoming a primary mean s of communication, not only for voice but also for digital services, such as email, digi tal photos, navigation, and other mobile services (Mobile Marketing Association, 200 7). This trend is prevalent acr oss the globe. However, even though the mobile industry is deve loping all over the world, its growth rate and popularity are higher and more distinguished in Asian countri es such as South Korea, Japan, and China. Particularly, South Korea is said to be one of the leading countries in terms of mobile technology. Among these big mobile phone markets, the Korean market has been growing enormously as its market change and trends of mobile phone s ubscriptions show. While there were only 6 million Korean mob ile service subscribers in 1997, by June 2001 the number had reached around 28 million (57% of the South Korean population). Subsequently, the subscriber base reached to more than 40 million in 2006. Table 2-1. Subscriber growth: Korean mobile telephony market Year The number of subscribers 2001 29,040,000 2002 32,340,000 2003 33,591,758 2004 36,586,052 2005 38,772,123 2006 40,197,115 *Source: inews24.com Koean mobile yearbook and Electronic Newspaper (Oct. 9th 2006) In addition, according to mobile phone dist ribution by age group data, the popularity of mobile phones in South Korea is most evident among the younger generation (Kim, 2002). Furthermore, age group 20 to 29 is about 7 times more likely to have a subscription than age group 50 to 59.

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13 Table 2-2. Mobile phone distribution by ages Age The number of subscribers Percent 13-19 0 0 20-29 7,350,000 43.70 30-39 5,090,000 30.26 40-49 3,020,000 17.95 Over 50 1,360,000 8.9 Total 16,820,000 100 *Source: Cheil Communication (1999) Table 2-3. 3G Mobile phone distribution by ages Age The number of subscribers Percent Under 19 908,000 22.7 20-29 868,000 21.7 30-39 828,000 20.7 Over 40 1,396,000 34.9 Total 4,000,000 100 *Source: KmobileNews (Feb 21st 2008) In recent years, Korean telecommunication co mpanies have changed from 2G to 2.5G and on to 3G networks, and they have improved th eir mobile services (Informa UK Ltd, 2003). In 1999, LG Telecom was the first to offer wireless application protocol (WAP) services. Then KTF followed, along with SK Telecom in 2000. As a result, the Korean mobile phone market has become one of the most advanced in the worl d. Furthermore, Korea is the first country in the world to offer mobile TV content on cellular phones. Within two years of its introduction in Korea, the subscribers of mobile TV reach ed seven million throughout the world (Moon, 2007). Overall, the mobile telephone ma rket in Korea is rapidly increa sing, and subscriber adaptability to technological development is high enough to justify new services. Additionally, the use of digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB) service on mobile phones has increased, so advertising strategies and tactics can be di versified. This, in turn, benefits advertisers and marketers who endeavor to provide more effective advertising messages to their consumers. Furthermore, in 2004 the Korean Marketing Associ ation (KMA) expected that th e Korean mobile advertising

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14 market size would be 190 billion dollars, and wo uld grow to 630 billion dollars in 2005 (KTF mhows Mail Magazine, 2007). Overall, the mobile telephone ma rket in Korea is rapidly incr easing, and the adaptability of technological development among subscribers is high enough to pr ovide new services. Moreover, the use of DMB service on mobile phones has increased such that advertising strategies and tactics can be diversified, which is good for advertisers and marketers who endeavor to give more effective adve rtising messages to their consumers. Mobile Consumer Services Mobile communication services can be categorized into four groups of connectivity: Rich voice, the wireless Internet, m essaging, and content (Steinbock, 2005; Pagani, 2006). Rich Voice: This is a 3G service with al ways-on data communication (Steinbock, 2005 p. 91) provides advanced voice capabilities, voice-a ctivated net access, and Web-initiated voice calls (Pagani, 2006). The wireless Internet: This service allows th e consumer access to the Internet with their mobile devices; it includes mobile internet, mobile intranet, and/ or extran et. Mobile intranet and extranet provide secured mobile access to not only the Internet but also to that business companys local area networks (LANs) and virtual private networks (V PNs) (Steinbock, 2005). Messaging: This service offers short message service (SMS), multimedia message service (MMS), and mobile instant messaging, as well as location-based services (LBS). LBS enables users to find other people or users and buildings or machines (Steinbock, 2005). Content: This service includes information, en tertainment, transactions, and databases (Steinbock, 2005). In the current st udy, this is not online content but the content that is already built-in on mobile users devices or content that they are able to save in the memory of their

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15 mobile devices and use with their mobile de vices. Pagani (2006) names it as customized infotainment (p.16). Types of Mobile Advertising A m obile advertising service is simply a service in which consumers receive merchants persuasive messages, typically SMS or MMS, on their mobile phones (Pagani, 2004). Marketers and advertisers have considered that mobile advertising might be an optimal tool to send the right message to the right person at the right time to affect consumers behaviors (Buckely, 2007). Pagani (2004) classifies mobile adver tising into th ree types: push messaging, pull campaigns, and sponsoring. Push messaging is th e sending of promotional messages to existing customers mobile devices. Second, pull campa igns are the sending of discount coupons or samples to customers if they connect to the in formation by using their mobile device. Lastly, sponsoring is to provide a marke ting message at the end of information that customers request via their mobile phones (Pagani, 2004). Meanwhile, since the mobile phone is a very pe rsonal device that allows an individual to be assessed virtually any time and anywhere, mob ile advertising must be more personalized and may take different forms. Mobile marketing can be permission-based, incentive-based, or location-based (Barnes and Scorna vacca 2004; Barwise and Strong 2002). Permission-based advertising messages are sent only to mob ile service subscribers who have explicitly agreed to receive the mobile advertising messages. Usua lly, mobile phone users often ignore the message when they get an unexpected advertisemen t. By relying on the permission of the target audience, permission-ba sed advertising focuses on reducing the irritation (Tsang, Ho, & Liang, 2004). Incentive-based advertising provides specific rewards to individuals who receive a mobile advertisement, such as free coupons. A nother way of rewarding is for mobile phone

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16 companies to offer free connection time for liste ning to voice advertisements or accessing WAP pages. Both permission-based and incentive-base d advertising mechanisms are feasible for mobile advertising because the wireless technolo gy makes it possible to identify individual users (Tsang, Ho, & Liang, 2004). In addition to individual iden tification, mobile technology also makes it possible to locate a particular consumer. Location-based advertising takes advantage of this f eature to target people in a certain location. Customized advertisements ar e sent based on where the user is or where the user is going. In terms of messaging configuration types, m obile advertising started off with push SMS advertisement on mobile phones (Kim & Jun, 2008). Previous research reports that mobile advertising affects brand recall and brand association, which ultimately leads to purchase intent (Li & Stoller, 2007). As a result, SMS has been widely used (Tsang, Ho, & Liang, 2004; Xu, 2007; Kim & Jun, 2008). The next successful type of mobile advertising is integrating SMS and other channels to help customers pull informa tion (Burkely, 2007). For instance, consumers can participate in a promotional event via mobile phones by accessing established WAP pages or a vote program on television, and then downloa d a coupon. Recently, this type of mobile advertising has been getting popular (Burkely, 2007). Due to technology development, another type of mobile advertising has been getting popul ar. This new type is MMS and is especially popular in Asia and Europe. MMS includes playi ng video clips with audio, which can be more creative and effective (L i & Stoller, 2007). Characteristics of Mobile Advertising Previous studies have discussed the unique characteris tics of mob ile advertising (e.g. Haghirian, Madlberger, & Tanus kova, 2005; Pagani, 2006; Perla do & Barwise, 2005; Stenbock, 2005). Among these studies, Perlado and Barwise (2005) suggest five distinctive features of

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17 mobile advertising: portabilit y, relatively small interface, personal identity, ubiquity, and location sensitivity. The physical characteristics of mobile phones seem to limit mobile advertising because they have tiny screens and keypads as well as limited memory. However, mobile phones are individually identifiable so that they are well suited to provide accurately personalized services and information (Robin 2003). Moreover, mobile phones can be used anywhere and anytime; that is, marketers can have the opportunity to interact with th eir targets wherever they are (Chowdhury, Parvin, Weitenberner, & Becker, 2006). One may expect mobile advertising to be more favorable to consumers for location-sensiti ve and time critical events (Barwise & Strong, 2002; Zoller, Housen, & Mattews, 2001). Based on different strategic applications, m obile advertising can be permission-based, incentive-based, or location-based (Barnes & Scornavacca, 2004; Barwise & Strong, 2002; Chowdhury, Parvin, Weitenberner, & Becker, 2006). However, mobile users may regard mobile advertising as an interruption to their lives. On the other hand, Haghirian, Madlberger, and Tanuskova, (2005) argue that person alization and interact ivity are the main characteristics of mobile advertising. Attitudes toward Advertising in General Previous studies on advertising have b een focused on attitudes for a long tim e (Chowdhury, Parvin, Weitenberner, & Becker, 2006). However, there are two different focuses on attitude toward advertising: the attitude toward the advertising and the general attitude toward advertising. Researchers who focus on the first approach have studied the relationship between the attitude toward the ad and the effectivene ss of advertising, att itudes toward brand, and purchase intentions (Lutz, 1985; MacKenzie & Lutz ,1989; Durvasula, Andrews, Lysonski & Netemeyer, 1993). The past studies of the genera l attitude toward advertising have focused on

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18 the attention consumers pay to it, their eval uations of specific adve rtisements, and their responses to those advertisem ents through the exposure of individuals to advertising (Chowdhury, Parvin, Weitenberner, & Becker, 2006). Lutz (1985) defined attitude toward advertising as a learned predispos ition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner toward advertising in general (p. 5). Pa st researches have sugge sted that consumers attitudes toward advertising tend to affect their responses toward individual advertisements and subsequent purchase behavior (James & Kover, 1992; Lutz, MacKenzie, & Belch, 1983; Lee & Choi, 2006). Moreover, James and Kover (1992) have shown that the overall attitudes toward advertising affect the involvement with specific advertisements in significant but complex ways (Brackett & Carr, 2001; Briggs & Hollis, 1997). Researches of consumer attitudes revealed positive results toward advertising (Chowdhury, Parvin, Weitenberner, & Becker, 2006). Accordin g to Gallup (1959), most respondents of his research had a favorable attitude on general advertising and consid ered it informative. In later studies, consumers reported more positive attitude s toward advertising than negative attitudes (Bauer and Greyser, 1968). However, the literature s revealed that this positive attitude toward advertising changed after 1970 (Tsang, Ho, & Liang, 2004; C howdhury, Parvin, Weitenberner, & Becker, 2006). Zanot (1981; 1984 ) argued that around this time, negative attitude toward advertising increased among consumers. In more recent researches, the unfavorable attitude toward advertising has been found (Alwitt & Probhaker, 1994; Mittal, 1994). On the other hand, Pollay and Mittal (1993) suggest the structure of attitudes toward advertising includes two factors: utilitarian and societal factors. For example, attitudes toward advertising were positive when the advertising provided information and entertainment (utilitarian factors), but attit udes were negative when the advert ising was linked to unfavorable

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19 metaphors (Coulter, Zaltman, &Coulter, 2001). In a ddition, it is assumed that attitudes toward advertising are positivel y related with past behavioral experience (Mackenzie & Luts, 1989; Donthu & Garcia, 1999). Attitudes toward Internet Advertising Many advertising researchers and practitioners ha ve been investigating Internet advertising because of the high degree of interactivity and us er control af forded on the Internet (Lee & Choi, 2006). Therefore, Web advertising is often regarded as an effective marketing communication tool with free samples, or trial offers, billb oard-type logos, graphical displays of products, branded banners, online catalogs, shopper guides, and sponsor identifications for Web sites (Ducoffe, 1996; Lee & Choi, 2006). While researches of genera l attitudes toward advertising among consumers has shown increasing negative and unfavorable attitudes (e.g., Zanot, 1981; 1984; Alwitt & Prabhaker, 1994; Mittal, 1994; Shavitt, Lowrey, & Haefner, 1998), recent studies of attitudes toward Web advertising have found that the public have posit ive attitudes toward on line advertising (Lee & Choi, 2006). Their results report that respondents considered Web advertising to be valuable, informative, hardly irritating and more favorab le than traditional advertising (Ducoffe, 1996; Schlosser, Shavitt, & Kanfer, 1999; Lee & Choi 2006). Specifically, Schlosser, Shavitt and Kanfer (1999) suggest several ke y dimensions of Web advertising such as informativeness, trustworthiness, and confidence. Because of its new forms and interactive communication tactics, Web advertising could get the attention of its audience, and consumers even reported a more favorable attitude toward it (Lee & Choi, 2006). Attitudes toward Mobile Advertising As an extension of the Inte rnet environm ent, the high pe netration of mobile phones in recent years has created a good opportunity for mob ile advertising (Bauer, Barnes, Reichardt, &

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20 Neumann, 2005; Leppaniem, Sinisalo, & Karj aluoto, 2006; Chowdhury, Parvin, Weitenberner, & Becker, 2006). Globally, mobile advertising have been used for marketing and advertising to promote products and brands because it differs from traditional media advertising in many ways (Chowdhury, Parvin, Weitenberner, & Becker, 2 006). Mobile advertis ing and Internet advertising have many features in common: both are emerging media used to deliver digital texts, images, and voices with in teractive, immediate, persona lized, and responsive capabilities (Yoon & Kim, 2001). However, consumers ofte n impatiently ignore the message when interrupted by an advertisement (Barnes, 2002; Denk & Hackl, 2004; Varshney, 2003; Wang & Wang 2005). Meanwhile, according to Bauer (2005), interactivity and specific targeting are the most salient differentiating characteristics. Pagani (2004) suggests a model of consumer adoption of 3G mobile media services and empirically tests it in the Italian market. She states that perceived usefulness, ease of use, price, and speed of use are the most important determin ants of adoption of multimedia mobile services, in that order (Pagani, 2004 p. 58). The results of this study also indicate that the importance of determinants differs by age groups or segments (Pagani, 2004 p.58). According to Okazaki, Katsukura, and Nishiyama (2007), the perceptions of both the mobile medi a and the content of advertising affect a mobile campaign's recall. On the other hand, Drossos, Giaglis, Lekakos, Kokkinaki, & Stavraki (2007) inve stigated the significance of a nu mber of factors associated with SMS advertising effectiveness through an e xperimental study. Their fi ndings indicate that incentive, interactivity, appeal, product involvement, and attit ude toward SMS advertising in general directly influence attit ude toward the advertisement, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention (Drossos, Giaglis, Lekakos, Kokkinaki, & Stavraki, 2007).

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21 Meanwhile, Tsang, Ho, and Liang (2004) suggest that consumers generally have negative attitudes toward mobile advertisi ng unless they have specifically consented to it, and there is a direct relationship between consumer attitudes and consumer behavior (Tsang, Ho & Liang, 2004 p. 65). Consumers are more likely to trust messages coming from their service providers than anywhere else, and so it is important that se rvice providers offer a hi gh level of filtering and protection as reassurance for th eir users (Carroll, Barnes, Scor navacca, & Fletcher, 2007). Chowdhury, Parvin, Weitenberner, and Becker ( 2006) suggest that consumers will not be annoyed, and there is a fair possibility that they will gradually like the mobile advertisements if mobile advertisers can present mobile ads pleasi ngly, with appropriate information. Furthermore, credibility, a construct of this study, has been found to be the most significant of the factors affecting respondents attitudes toward mobile advertis ing (Chowdhury, Parvin, Weitenberner, & Becker, 2006). Cultural Orientations Mass m edia and culture are closely related a nd are not easily separa ted; culture provides mass media with sources for content. All cont ent must be derived fr om culture, including entertainment, news, and advertisements, othe rwise it could not be understood (Morris & Lee, 2005). Specifically, advertising is one form of mass communication, and advertisements are influenced by culture and/or influence the cu lture. However, there is debate about whether culture is reflected in advertisements in pr evious studies on advertising (Holbrook, 1987; Pollay, 1987; Pollay & Gallagher, 1990; Morris & Lee, 2005). In the process of conducting advertisem ents, understanding how people in a group communicate and make purchase de cisions is important. Therefor e, advertisers and marketers research and consider consumers lifestyles, attitudes, perceptions, habits behaviors, wants and

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22 needs to develop effective messages to co mmunicate with them (Morris & Lee, 2005). Furthermore, these consumer profiles are based on the elements of cultu re (Morris & Lee, 2005). From these perspectives, advertising and culture are closely related and ar e not easily separated. In previous culture studies, re searchers were able to understand the way culture relates to social psychological phenomena in a systematic manner by using individualism and collectivism as dimensions of culture (e.g., Hui, Triandis, & Yee, 1991; Triandis, Brislin, & Hui, 1988). Hofstede (1980, 1984, 2001) demonstrated how the c onstructs of individu alism and collectivism can be characterized in peoples social percepti ons and behavior. Accord ing to the author, in individualistic cultures, people are autonomous and independent from their in-groups. Their personal goals are usually valued over the goals of their in-groups. For instance, their behaviors are usually based on their own attitudes rather than the norms of their in-groups. Meanwhile, people in collectivistic cultures are interdependent within their in-groups. Priority is placed on the goals of their in-groups, and they generally behave according to norms of their in-groups. Therefore, collectivists tend to do what they ar e expected to do by other members of their group whereas individualists tend to do what they en joy doing (Triandis, 1995). These two different cultural dimensions have served as a useful means to compare communication style and content across cultures (de Mooij, 1998; Hofstede, 1980, 1983). Meanwhile, in todays global environment, th e notion of a homogene ous population within a culture may no longer be valid (Singlis & Brown, 1995). In other words, not every person in an individualistic culture is an individualist. Nor does it mean that people in a collectivistic culture are all collectivists. Just as nations are compared based on their classification of individualism or collectivism, so should people w ithin a culture be co mpared in this way. However, studies on

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23 cultural differences within a nation are needed to understand and find more effective ways to communicate with consumers. On the other hand, previous researchers also suggest that uni-individualism and collectivism need to be expanded to multidimensional individualism and collectivism (Singlis, Triandis, Bhawuk, & Gelfand, 1995; Triandi s & Gelfand, 1998). Triandis (1995, 2001) suggested that there are, in fact different types of i ndividualism and collectivism. For example, Korean collectivism is not entirely the same as the collectivism of China. The individualism in France is different from that of the American individualism. Gregory and Munch (1996) discuss the i ndividualism-collectivism dimension at the cultural level and at the individual level. They state that individualist societies place value on ones achievements, recognition, etc. (McCar ty & Hattwick, 1992). M eanwhile, collectivist societies emphasize in-group values such as family, community, responsibility, conformity to societal norms (Hofstede, 1980). On the individual level, idiocentrism has been used to refer to personal individualism whereas allocentris m means personal collectivism (Yamaguchi, Kuhlman, & Sugimori, 1995). According to Yamaguc hi (1994), allocentrism is defined as ones tendency to give priority to the collective self over the private self, especially when these two come into conflict. In other words, the pres ent definition of allocentrism focuses on ones behavior in situations in which th e persons interest is in conflict with that of the persons group, leaving aside various other characteristics of allocentrism (Kim, 1994; Triandis, 1994; Yamaguchi, 1994). Among the many dimensions that can further di stinguish individualism and collectivism is the horizontal-vertical aspect. In essence, both individualism and collectivism may be horizontal (emphasizing equality) or vertical (emphasizi ng hierarchy). From Tria ndis conceptualization,

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24 four types of cultures can be identified: (1) Horizontal Individualism (HI-uniqueness), where people strive to be unique and do their own thin g; (2) Vertical Individualism (VI-achievement oriented), where people want to do their own th ing and strive to be the best; (3) Horizontal Collectivism (HC-cooperativeness), where people merge themselves with their in-groups; and (4) Vertical Collectivism (VC-dutifulness), wher e people submit to the authorities of the ingroup and are willing to sacrifice themselves for their in-group (Triandis, 2001; Triandis & Suh, 2002). Although this typology was initially proposed to facilitate between-culture comparisons, it also shows promise for an in-depth unders tanding of variations in individualism and collectivism within a cu lture (Lee & Choi, 2006). Overall, the objective of this study is to e xplore mobile advertising and Korean mobile market in literature and to discover the consumers perception of mobile advertising and attitude toward mobile advertising in terms of persona l culture dimensions: horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. The result of this study will provide practi tioners with direction as to how users perceive persona lized mobile advertising differen tly and how advertisers should strategically modify their advertising content an d message, according to th eir target audiences culture dimension. Objective The objective of this study is to understand how consum ers attitudes toward mobile advertising change according to their cultural orientations and mobile phone usage behavior. Little to no research has been conducted regarding the relationsh ip between cultural dimensions and attitudes toward mobile advertising. Research Questions Based on the literature review, this st udy asks the following research questions:

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25 RQ1. What are the differences between the four cultural orientations (h orizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism) in consumer s attitudes toward mobile advertising? RQ2. What are the differences between the four cultural orientations in terms of perceptions of mobile advertising? RQ3. What are the differences between the four cultural orientations in terms of mobile phone usage behavior?

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26 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY An exploratory study w as conducted in an at tempt to understand the relationship between individuals cultural orientations and their attitudes toward mobile advertising. The data for this study were collected through an on-site, self-administered questionnaire. For collecting data, approval was received from the Inst itutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Florida. A survey was undertaken by mobile phone us ers in Seoul and Daegu, South Korea from January to February 2008. A total of 294 randomly selected people participated in the survey. Since the objective of this study was to examine culture dimensions (the horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism) roles in unders tanding consumers attitudes toward mobile advertising, data were gathered from the popul ation of mobile phone users, especially young users. Sample Prospective participants were recruited on the streets at downtown and subway stations in Seoul and Daegu, South Korea. Currently, m ore than 70% of the Korean population is subscribing mobile phones services (Telecoms & Technology Forecast Asia & Australasia, 2005). In case of the United States, mobile phon e subscribers in 2003 were 60% more likely to be young adults than the overall population of nonsubscribers. It was also found that 35% of young adults (ages 18-24) used more than 500 m obile minutes per month, compared to 20% of all users; 62% of young adults made/received five or more calls per day, versus 37% of all users (Greenspan, 2003). In addition, young adults, especia lly university students, are said to be more open to new information communication technologies (Lightner, Yenisey, Ozok, & Salvendy, 2002; Pijpers, Bemelmans, Heemstra, & van Montfort, 2001). Based on these findings, the researcher assumed that most of all adults in South Korea might have their personal mobile

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27 phones and they did. Therefore, random sampling on the streets was used as the method to collect data. Data Collection and Procedure To refine and clarify survey questions and wordings, a pilot test was done with 25 college students at a church in D aegu, South Korea before the actual survey. Some of the students reported that the given definition of Rich voice as a provided mobile service lacked clear explanation, so an example of rich voice se rvice was added for the actual survey. For the recruitment process, it was determined to c hoose the seventh person who was passing by or standing by popular meeting locations. These selected individuals were then asked to participate in a survey by trained data collectors. Four data collector were trained to sample random people effectively, explain possible que stions from participants, and give a snack as reward for completing the survey. The length of time to complete the survey was about 5 minutes. All participants received a small snack as reward. Measures The questionnaire (Appendix A) co nsisted of seven m ain sections. The measurements to be included were attitude toward mobile advertis ing, cultural orientati on, use of media, and demographic variables. The survey was complete d by Korean mobile phone users so that the questionnaires were translated from Korean into English and re-translated. Most of the measures of the variables were modified or adapted fr om previous studies through a literature review involving all the constructs. The rest of the measures were devel oped specially for this inquiry after a review of the relevant l iterature. Most of the variables in the analysis were measured using a multi-item seven-point Likert-scale rang ing from 7 (Strongly agree) to 1 (Strongly disagree).

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28 Media Use The first part of the questionnaire focuse d on m edia use. Respondents were asked to indicate how much time on an average weekday they were exposed to television, radio, newspapers, magazines, th e Web, and mobile devices. Mobile Phones and Services Usage Behavior The second section of the questionnaire cons isted of the questions about respondents mobile phone usage behavior. Measures of the behavior consisted of two opinion statem ents such as how often do you use your mobile phon e? using a 7-point, Li kert-type scale ranging from (1) never to (7) very often. The third section of the ques tionnaire asked respondents about their mobile service usage behavior. Given an explanation of mobile servi ces, respondents were asked to indicate how often they used these mobile services using a 7-point, Likert-type scale ranging from (1) never to (7) very often. Attitude toward Mobile Advertising The fourth section of the questionnaire a ssessed respondents perceptions of mobile advertising in all its various forms using a 7-point, Likert-type scale ranging from (1) strongly disagree to (7) strongly agree, which was originally developed by Ducoffe (1996). Measures of perceived informativeness consisted of five opi nion statements such as, Mobile advertising is a good source of product information. Perceived en tertainment was measured on a 5-item scale, including statements such as, Mobile advertising is entertaini ng, and perceived irritation of Mobile advertising was assessed using another 5-item scale with statements such as, Mobile advertising insults peoples in telligence. In addition, in th e fifth part of the survey questionnaire, overall attitudes towards mobile a dvertising were measured on a 3-item, semantic

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29 differential scale with endpoints of positiv e/negative, favorable/unfavorable, and good/bad by using the measuremen ts of Lee and Choi (2006). Culture Orientation The sixth part of the survey was designed to determ ine respondents cultural orientations via the four-way typology developed by Triandi s (1995). Table 3-1 shows the independent and dependent variables in this study. Table 3-1. Independent a nd dependent variables Variable Question# Questions References Informativeness 5 1. Mobile advertising supplies relevant product information. 2. Mobile advertising is a convenient source of product information. 3. Mobile advertising is a good source of up-to-date product information. 4. Mobile advertising provides timely information. 5. Mobile advertising provides the information I need. Entertainment 5 1. Mobile advertising is fun to use. 2. Mobile advertising is entertaining. 3. Mobile advertising is enjoyable. 4. Mobile advertising is pleasing. 5. Mobile advertising is exciting. Irritation 5 1. Mobile advertising is annoying. 2. Mobile advertising is confusing. 3. Mobile advertisi ng insults peoples intelligence. 4. Mobile advertising is irritating. 5. Mobile advertising is deceptive. Ducoffe (1996), Lee & Choi (2006), Kim (2006), Tsang, Ho, & Liang (2004), Xu (2007) Personalization 4 1. I feel that mobile advertising displays personalized message to me. 2. I feel that mobile advertising is personalized for my usage. 3. Content in mobile advertising is personalized. 4. I use personalized mobile advertising as a reference for purchasing.

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30 Table 3-1. Continued Credibility 2 1. I trust mobile advertisement. 2. I use mobile advertising as a reference for purchasing. Horizontal Individualism 4 1. Id rather depend on myself than others. 2. I rely on myself most of the time; I rarely rely on others. 3. I often do my own thing. 4. My personal identity, independent of others, is very important to me. Vertical Individualism 4 1. It is important that I do my job better than others. 2. Winning is everything. 3. Competition is the law of nature. 4. When another person does better than I do, I get tense and aroused. Horizontal Collectivism 4 1. If a coworker gets a prize, I would feel proud. 2. The well-being of my coworkers is important to me. 3. To me, pleasure is spending time with others.* 4. I feel good when I cooperate with others. Vertical Collectivism 4 1. Parents and children must stay together as much as possible. 2. It is my duty to take care of my family, even when I have to sacrifice what I want. 3. Family members should stick together, no matter what sacrifices are required. 4. It is important to me that I respect the decisions made by my groups. Attitude toward mobile advertising 3 1.favorable/unfavorable 2. good/bad 3. positive/negative Triandis (1995), Lee & Choi (2006) Using a 4-item, 7-point, Likert-type scale, each of the dimensions was measured: (1) horizontal individualism (H I), (2) vertical individualism (VI), (3) horizontal co llectivism (HC), (4) vertical collectivism (VC). Measures tappi ng the cultural orientations included statements

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31 such as, Id rather depend on myself than others (HI), It is important that I do my job better than others (VI), If a cowork er gets a prize, I would feel proud (HC), and Parents and children must stay together as much as possible (VC) Demographic Characteristics At the end of the questionnaire, inform ati on on respondents demographic characteristics such as gender, age, and occupation, and thei r mobile phone subscription information were obtained.

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32 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS Sample Pro file Of the original 294 surveys completed, a tota l of 253 were included in the sample after eliminating the questionnaires th at did not respond to some questions. Table 4-1 provides a description of the samp le characteristics. Table 4-1. Sample characteristics Characteristics Frequency Percent Male 91 36 Gender Female 162 64 Less than 20 18 7.1 20 29 169 66.8 30 39 31 12.3 Age Over 40 35 13.8 SK telecom 122 48.2 KTF 88 34.8 LG telecom 42 16.6 Telecom Company Others 1 .4 Offered service 55 21.7 Price 69 27.3 Offered mobile phones 51 20.2 Reputation of a company 36 14.2 Choice of telecom company Others 42 16.6 Less than $29.99 54 21.3 $30 $59.99 129 51.2 $60 $89.99 48 19 $90 $119.99 12 4.8 Average payment per a month for mobile phone More than $120 10 4 Among the respondents, 36 % were male and 64 % were female. Respondents ages ranged from 16 to 58 years old with an average of about 29 (28.66) years. On the other hand, more than 66 % participants were 20 years old to 29 years old. The average number of years that participants had been using m obile phones was up to 7 years. As industrial reports showed, 48.2 % respondents were subscribing to SK Telecom, a nd the rest of them (51.8%) were subscribers

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33 of KTF and LG Telecom. The reasons for se lecting a certain telecommunication service company were various. Among five different reasons for choosing a telecommunication company, price was the most important factor a ffecting consumers choi ces. Over 51% of the respondents answered th eir average payment per a month wa s around 30 dollars to 59.99 dollars. Reliability To ensure th e reliability of the measures only established and previously used measures were used to measure all variables in this study. A reliability analysis was conducted on each of the variables. For reliability, Cronbach was used to measured variables. All values were above the 0.6 minimums to ensure reliability. Table 4-2 provides the specific items for the major constructs and their reliability coefficients. Table 4-2. Specific items for the key measures Items Cronbach ( ) Perceived Informativeness of Mobile Advertising .84 Perceived Entertainment of Mobile Advertising .92 Perceived Irritation of Mobile Advertising .76 Perceived Personalization of Mobile Advertising .81 Perceived Credibility of Mobile Advertising .83 Horizontal Individualism .78 Vertical Individualism .73 Horizontal Collectivism .80 Vertical Collectivism .75 Attitudes toward Mobile Advertising .85 For reliability of the four groups of culture orientations, this study was based on the factor analysis of culture orientations done by Lee and Choi (2006). In their result, all of the items significantly loaded on the corr esponding factors that they we re intended to measure and confirmed that the four-way typology can serve as a valid tool for differentiating respondents cultural predispositions. The resu lts of this study also supporte d this four-way typology to

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34 distinguish ones culture orientat ions. Table 4-3 presents the desc riptive statistics of the four cultural dimensions, and Table 4-4 reports the correlations among the constructs. Table 4-3. Statistics for culture orientation groups Variables M SD Horizontal Individualism 5.27 1.04 Vertical Individualism 4.52 1.17 Horizontal Collectivism 3.97 1.15 Vertical Collectivism 4.99 1.11 Note: All items were measured on a 7-point scale (N=253) Table 4-4. Covariance and correlation matrix of the cultural dimensions HI VI HC VC Horizontal Individualism 1.00 .33** .13 .16* Vertical Individualism .33** 1.00 .05 .15 Horizontal Collectivism .13 .05 1.00 .35** Vertical Collectivism .16* .15 .35** 1.00 Note: p < .01, ** p < .0011. Correlations are in the lower triangle and covariances in the upper triangle. Cultural Orientations Groups After the scale validation, further analys es were perform ed to closely examine respondents cultural orientations. Table 4-4 shows the average scores on these four dimensions at the aggregate level, with a sample size of 253. The highest average score is found on the horizontal individualism. Relativel y, high scores on the individualis m orientations occur in the horizontal perspective, but the scores of coll ectivism orientations ar e higher in vertical perspective. The lowest average score is found on the horizontal collectivism. Korean culture has been suggested as collectivism-orientated. The results, however, do not ne cessarily mean that Korea, as an East Asian country, may only be id entified as a collectivismoriented culture, as prior studies have suggested. This outcome might be due to globalization affects the culture orientation within a country. However, the aver age score on the vertical collectivism is the

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35 second highest score; this means that partic ipants have both indivi dualism and collectivism orientations in diffe rent perspectives. In an effort to understand the relationship between a persons dominant cultural orientation and his or her response to mob ile advertising, the sample was further divided into high versus low groups on each of the four cultural orientati ons using a median split. The data analyses followed the steps prescribed by Lee and Choi (2006). The median scores were 4.5 (HI), 5.25 (HC), 4.0 (VI), and 5.0 (VC). This procedure resulted in a tota l of 16 (2x2x2x2) groups. From these 16 groups, 4 representative groups were selected for a closer examination of personal characteristics and attitudes towa rd mobile advertisi ng. Each representative group was classified as a group that displayed the highest score on one dimension among the four. The four groups representing the HI, HC, VI, and VC dimensions consisted of 53, 50, 61, and 47 respondents, respectively. Therefore, the tota l number of responses used for subsequent analyses was 211. Of the remaining respondents, 42 people had the exact same scores in two dimensions or more. Preliminary analyses showed similarities in de mographic compositions between this sample of 211 respondents and the large sample. Since dem ographic variables (e.g. ge nder, age) were not notably skewed across the groups, they were not considered as contribu ting factors in further examinations of cultural orientations. Before investigating the relati onship between cultural orientations and attitudes to ward mobile advertising, media use and mobile phone usage behavior of the respondents in th ese four groups were observed. Media Use and Mobile Phone Usage Respondents were asked to indicate the am ount of time they spent on an average time per a day on each of following media: television, radio, the Internet, mobile phones, newspapers, and magazines. From the results of ANOVA tests, re spondents in the four groups (n = 211) did not show a significant difference in media use except for television (p = .037).

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36 Table 4-5 shows all responde nts average times spent on using media daily. Table 4-5. Media Use M SD TV 94.31* 87.90 Radio 24.29 50.42 Internet 127.11 133.37 Mobile phone 132.65 245.52 Magazines 7.34 23.70 Newspapers 18.74 37.64 in minutes, Note: n = 253, SD = Standard Deviation In the perceived mobile phone usage behavior, all the participants we re mobile phone users with different mobile phone experiences. Howeve r, there was no significant difference on mobile phone usage behavior by groups (M = 5.06, SD = 4.15, p > .01). On the survey, respondents were asked to indicate how they used mobile se rvices such as rich voice, wireless Internet, messaging, and contents. Respondents used messaging service the most (M = 5.46, SD = 1.77), followed by rich voice, wireless Internet, and co ntent services. Table 4-6 shows the descriptive statistics of using mobile services. Table 4-6. Descriptive statistic s of mobile services usage M SD Rich Voice 2.34 1.78 Wireless Internet 2.26 1.77 Messaging 5.46 1.77 Content 1.82 1.33 Note: All items were measured on a 7 point scale (n = 253) Cultural Orientations and Attit udes tow ard Mobile Advertising The main goal of the study is to explor e the relationship betw een the four cultural orientations and attitudes toward mobile advertising. Another set of analyses was performed to examine the respondents responses to mobile ad vertising across the four cultural orientation groups. In testing the differences in respondents attitudes toward mob ile advertising among the groups, the rating on the items for each of the five mobile advertising attitude measures were

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37 averaged to create an index score. ANOVA resu lts indicated a significant overall difference in perceived informativeness of mobile adve rtising (F (3, 207) = 4.97, p = .002). Post hoc comparison showed that respondents in the VC (M = 3.04) group perceived mobile advertising to be significantly more informative than those in the HC (M = 2.28, p = .018) and VI (M = 2.24, p = .007) groups. The ANOVA test for perceived entertainment of mob ile advertising showed that overall the respondents percep tions were significantly differe nt (F (3, 207) = 5.22, p = .002). Post hoc comparison showed that respondents in the VC (M= 2.00) group viewed mobile advertising to be more entertainment than thos e in all other groups. The difference between the VC group and the VI (M= 1.36, p = .004) group was the most significant. Respondents perceived irritation of mobile advertising was also significantly differe nt across groups (F (3, 207) = 4.38, p = .005). Post hoc comparison showed that respondents in the HC (M= 3.09) group perceived mobile advertising to be significantly less irritating than thos e in the HI (M= 3.82, p = .047). However, respondents perceived personalizat ion and credibility of mobile advertising was not significantly different across groups (p > .1). When gene ral attitudes to ward mobile advertising were examined, the overall group difference was significant (F (3, 207) = 9.72, p = .00). Post hoc test results show ed a significant difference between the HC (M = 1.85) and the VC (M= 2.45, p = .003) groups. The VC group was not only significantly different from the HC group, but also from the VI (M= 1.71, p = .000) group. Respondents in th e VC group perceived mobile advertising to be more favorable, good, and positive than those in both the HC and VI groups. On the other hand, post hoc comparison also showed a significant difference between the HI (M= 2.20) group and VI (p=. 011) group. Responde nts in the HI group reported more positive attitudes toward mobile advertis ing than those in the VI group. Mean scores of the attitude measures across the four groups are reported in Table 4-7.

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38 Table 4-7. Mobile advertising attitude means of the four cultural orientation groups HI VI HC VC Total Informativeness 2.51 2.24 2.28 3.04 2.54 Entertainment 1.53 1.36 1.44 2.00 1.58 Irritation* 3.82 3.19 3.09 3.76 3.43 Personalization 2.25 2.40 2.65 2.66 2.54 Credibility 1.80 1.84 2.22 2.20 2.10 Overall Attitude 2.20 1.71 1.85 2.45 2.05 Note: All items were measured on a 7 point scale (N= 211) *A greater score means a more negative response.

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39 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The current study was intended to give insight to m arketers and adve rtisers regarding the effects of mobile advertising in personal mobile phones on perceived informativeness, entertainment, irritation, persona lization, credibility and attitude towards the ads. For this study, cultural dimensions have been considered as the foundation of motive and goal formation for use in persuasive communication. Individualism and colle ctivism have been widely used to compare and find out differences across cu ltures in various fields (Hui, Triandis. & Yee, 1991; Triandis, Brislin & Hui, 1988). Recent researches, however, s uggest a more sophisticat ed classification of this uni-dimensional cultural orient ation by arguing its limitation of the conceptualization: this new classification includes Vert ical and Horizontal Individualism and Collectivism (Triandis, 1995, 2001; Lee & Choi, 2006). This study explored a four-way classificati on to examine peoples cultural orientations within a collectivism culture a nd their general attitudes toward advertising on mobile phones. Specifically, in order to assess the applicability of the typology in detec ting within-culture variations, the measurement scale was examined for its validity. Then, the scale scores were compared to the previous research that had us ed the typology already. Th e results showed that the scale successfully represented the four interr elated but separate dimensions of mobile phone users cultural orientations: horizontal individualism, verti cal individualism, horizontal collectivism and vertical collectivism. This typology offered more comprehensive information on respondents cultural predispos ition within a culture than the traditional dichotomous perspective (Lee & Choi, 2006). Furt hermore, Lee and Choi (2006) suggested that th is four-way classification scheme would serv e as a tool for examining the potential role of the cultural

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40 orientations in peoples attit udinal and behavioral response toward media and persuasive communications. Using the validated measurement scale, re spondents cultural pr edispositions were assessed and those with different orientations were classified in to each of the four groups respectively. Overall, respondent s in the four groups shared similar media use pattern and showed no difference in terms of perceived m obile phone usage behavior. Perhaps the most interesting finding of this study was that people with different dominant cultural orientations indeed seemed to differ in their general attitudes toward mobile advertising. Specifically, the four groups also differed in their perceived info rmativeness, entertainment, and irritation of mobile advertising. It appears th at respondents with a strong vert ical collectivistic orientation tended to express more positive views on mob ile advertising, and thought of it as more informative and as entertainment than other groups. The mobile media, such as cell phones and mobile phones with digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB), personal digital assistants (PDA), and portable multimedia players (PMP), is said to be an ideal medium for personalize d, keen targeting communi cation with a high degree of getting attention and concentration. However, all respondents in the f our cultural orientation groups who might feel that mobile advertising messages are targeted at a mass audience and do not reflect their personal uniqueness as well as are not credible. Overall, these findings illustrate the important role of cultural orientations in consumers differing predispositions toward persuasive communications on mobile phones. In addition to personal char acteristics such as perceived mobile phone usage behavior, cultural values or orientations might serve as a fundamental and stable base in peoples belief and attitude formations In this way, peoples

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41 outlook on a wide range of topics and events an d their motivations and goals might also be considered the results of their cultural predispositions. Implications To answer RQ1, the findings of the study suggest ed that there is a difference between the four cultural orien tation groups in terms of attitu de toward mobile advertising. Respondents with a strong vertical collectivistic orientation reported a higher score on attitude toward mobile advertising, followed by the horizontal individua lism, horizontal collectivism, and finally vertical individualism. It implies that respondent s in the VC group were more likely to have a favorable attitude toward mobile advertising. These findings suggested that these four cu ltural groups perceived different attitudes toward mobile advertising from Web adve rtising. In a study by Lee and Choi (2006), respondents in the HI group had a more favorable attitude on Web advert ising. The theoretical implication of this is that mobile phone users who submit to the authorit ies of the in-group and are willing to sacrifice themselv es for their in-group are more lik ely to have a positive attitude when they receive mobile advertising. As far as managerial implications, when the target market of certain mobile advertising is those who have strong values on their community or family, the advertising agency will be more likely to ge t a response or the atte ntion of its targets. The results of the study also suggested an answ er to RQ2: participants in each cultural group perceived mobile advertising differently. In perceived informativeness and entertainment, respondents in the VC group reported the highest mean score. That is, those in the VC group believe that mobile advertisi ng provides information about products or/and brands, and it entertains them. This result is thought to go hand-in-hand with the results of RQ 1 as far as the idea that people who value their community a nd in-group are more likely to have a positive attitude toward mobile advertising. On the othe r hand, in perceived irrita tion, the results showed

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42 that respondents in the HI group ar e less likely to be irritated by m obile advertising than those in the VC group. However, in personalization and cred ibility of mobile adve rtising, the perception of mobile advertising was not sign ificantly different among the groups. To answer RQ3, according to the results, the mobile phone usage behavior was not significantly different by groups. There was no re lationship between cultur al orientations and perceived mobile phone usage beha vior. Overall, most participants reported themselves as moderately heavy users of mobile phones. However, in assessing use of media, participants use television differently from groups. Respondents in the VC group tended to spend more time watching television than other group s. It is thought that people us e media differently because of the characteristics of each medium. In a study by Lee and Choi (2006), re spondents Web surfing skill was significantly different among the four gr oups. However, in case of mobile phones, there was no significant difference between groups in terms of media usage behavior. Mobile phones especially tend to be a more pe rsonal medium than other media so that the perceived mobile phone usage behavior might be similar in all groups. Limitations and Future Research There are several lim itations to this study. Wh ile this investigation provides preliminary insights into the relationship between cultural dispositions and peoples response to mobile communication, my understanding of the cultural in fluences within cultu res is still at the beginning stage. Continuing efforts are needed to better explain the nature of this relationship and the specific roles of each of the cultural orientations in determining peoples media preferences and response towards technology-medi ated communication. At the same time, the qualitative approach that contextu alizes people, as either individua listic or collectivistic within the realm of the social environment is also n eeded to add depth to empirical observations and enrich our explanations.

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43 Identified as a significant factor for differences between cultures, the role of cultural orientations has been investigated predominan tly in cross-cultural settings. Moreover, the vertical and horizontal indivi dualism and collectivism are used as the typology of cultural dimensions in the current research, and has been validated in cross-cultu ral research. However, little is known about its applicability in differen tiating peoples cultural predispositions within a culture. However, growing attention to people w ith diverse cultural backgrounds residing in the same society further highlights the importance of within-culture investigations of cultural orientations (Lee & Choi, 2006). The results from the present study provide some interesting observations in this regard. Preliminary analysis seems to suggest that cu ltural orientations di ffered by ethnicity. Although further analysis was not possible due to the sm all sample size, the composition of the four cultural orientation groups by ethni city and how that relates to perception and behavior appears to be a worthy topic for future research. The sample was completely composed of Kor eans in South Korea, which may have unique characteristics of nationality or social situati on. Although classified as a collectivistic culture on the whole in prior research, Ko rean people exhibited differences in terms of their cultural orientations which in turn produced differences in their attitudes towa rd mobile advertising. Moreover, more than 50% of participants were between 20 years old to 29 years old. Younger generations or older generations may have different attitudes toward mobile advertising and mobile phone usage behavior. Moreover, the sample size was small for a survey, which helps to explain the large standard deviation found thr oughout the survey. A more diverse and larger sample is recommended for future research. It is thought that a larger sample size may show

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44 more significant results. A larger sample size woul d lead to clearer opini ons and perceptions of the participants. Additional research is needed to disentangle the intricate nature of cultural orientations and better explain within-culture orientations in individuals motiv ations for, use of, and response to other forms of technology-mediated communicati on such as user generated contents (UGC), which include blogs, brand communities, homemade vi deo contents, as well as social networking websites.

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45 APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRES English version 1. How m uch time do you spend using the following media in a day? (Give an average time) Television ( ) hour(s) ( )min. Radio ( ) hour(s) ( )min. Web ( ) hour(s) ( )min. Mobile phone ( ) hour(s) ( )min. Newspaper ( ) hour(s) ( )min. Magazine ( ) hour(s) ( )min. 2-1. Do you have a mobile phone? (1) Yes (2) No 2-2. How often do you use your mobile phone? Never (1) (2) (3) (4) (5 ) (6) (7) Very often Please read the following and answer questions below. Mobile services offered by telecommunicati on companies are classified as following: Rich Voice: Advanced voice capabilities, voic e-activated net access, and Web-initiated voice calls The Internet: Mobile Internet, mobile in tranet (LANs) and/ or extranet (VPNs) Messaging: Short Messaging Service (SMS), Multimedia Message Service (MMS), and mobile instant messaging as well as location-based services (LBS) Content: Information, entertainmen t, transaction and databases 3-1. How often do you use these mobile phone services? (1) Rich Voice Never (1) (2) (3) (4) (5 ) (6) (7) Very often (2) The Internet Never (1) (2) (3) (4) (5 ) (6) (7) Very often (3) Messaging Never (1) (2) (3) (4) (5 ) (6) (7) Very often (4) Content Never (1) (2) (3) (4) (5 ) (6) (7) Very often

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46 Mobile advertising refers to promotional messa ges of information about products, services, or ideas using mobile devices. Mobile advertising is public ly available over the mobile phones and devices through the following formats: Short Messaging Service (SMS): Text message service Picture messaging: Text and graphics message service Multimedia Message Service (MMS): Digital imag e input, e.g. electronic postcards, audio and video clips 3-2. Have you ever been receiv ed any mobile advertising? (1) Yes (2) No The following questions ask about your attitude toward mobile advertising according to its characteristics. Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statements 4-1. Mobile advertising supplie s relevant product information. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 4-2. Mobile advertising is a conve nient source of product information. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 4-3. Mobile advertising is a good sour ce of up-to-date product information. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 4-4. Mobile advertising pr ovides timely information. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 4-5. Mobile advertising provi des the information I need. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 4-6. Mobile advertising is fun to use. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree

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47 4-7. Mobile advertisi ng is entertaining. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 4-8. Mobile advertis ing is enjoyable. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 4-9. Mobile advertising is pleasing. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 4-10. Mobile advertising is exciting. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 4-11. Mobile advertising is annoying. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 4-12. Mobile advertis ing is confusing. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 4-13. Mobile advertising insu lts peoples intelligence. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 4-14. Mobile advertis ing is irritating. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 4-15. Mobile advertising is deceptive. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree

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48 4-16. I feel that mobile advertising di splays personalized message to me. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 4-17. I feel that mobile advertisi ng is personalized for my usage. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 4-18. Content in mobile advertising is personalized. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 4-19. I use personalized mobile advertis ing as a reference for purchasing. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 4-20. I trust mobile advertisement. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 4-21. I use mobile advertising as a reference for purchasing. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree Please rate your attitude towards mobile advertising using the following items. 5-1. I feel mobile advertising is Unfavorable (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Favorable 5-2. I feel mobile advertising is Bad (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Good 5-3. I feel mobile advertising is Negative (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Positive

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49 The following questions are ask about your gene ral characteristics or propensities. Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statements 6-1. Id rather depend on myself than others. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 6-2. I rely on myself most of th e time; I rarely rely on others. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 6-3. I often do my own thing. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 6-4. My personal identity, independent of others, is very important to me. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 6-5. It is important that I do my job better than others. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 6-6. Winning is everything. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 6-7. Competition is the law of nature. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 6-8. When another person does better than I do, I get tense and aroused. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 6-9. If a coworker gets a prize, I would feel proud. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree

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50 6-10. The well-being of my coworkers is important to me. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 6-11. To me, pleasure is spending time with others. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 6-12. I feel good when I cooperate with others. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 6-13. Parents and children must stay together as much as possible. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 6-14. It is my duty to take care of my family, even when I have to sacrifice what I want. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 6-15. Family members should stick together no matter what sacrifices are required. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree 6-16. It is important to me that I re spect the decisions made by my groups. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Strongly agree The following questions are ask about your mobile usage experience. Y our answers for these questions will be used for statistical purpose ONLY. 7. How long have you used mobile phones since you had the first mobile phone? ( ) year(s) ( ) month(s) 8. Which mobile service company (telecommuni cation companies) are you contracting with? (1) SK telecom (2) KTF (3) LG telecom (4) Others

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51 9. Which of these factors most affects your choice of mobile service company (telecommunication companies)? (1) Offered services (2) Price (3) Offered mobile phones (4) Reputation of a company (5) Others 10. How much is your average payment per a month for your mobile phone? (1) Less than $29.99 (2) $30$59.99 (3) $60$89.99 (4) $90$119.99 (5) More than $120 11. What is your gender? (1) Male (2) Female 12. What is your age? ( ) years old 13. What is your occupation? ( ) Korean version 1. ? TV ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2-1. ? (1) (2) 2-2. ?

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52 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) : ) 114 : (LANs), (VPNs) : (SMS), (MMS), (LBS) : 3-1. ? (1) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (2) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (3) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

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53 (4) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (SMS): : (MMS): ) 3-2. ? (1) (2) 4-1. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4-2. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

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54 4-3. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4-4. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4-5. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4-6. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4-7. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4-8. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

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55 4-9. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4-10. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4-11. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4-12. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4-13. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4-14. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4-15. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

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56 4-16. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4-17. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4-18. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4-19. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4-20. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4-21. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

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57 5-1. ( ) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 5-2. ( ) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 5-3. ( ) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 6-1. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 6-2. ; (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 6-3. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 6-4. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

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58 6-5. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 6-6. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 6-7. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 6-8. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 6-9. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 6-10. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

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59 6-11. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 6-12. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 6-13. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 6-14. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 6-15. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 6-16. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

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60 7. ? ( ) ( ) 8. ? (1) SK (2) KTF (3) LG (4) 9. ? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 10. ? (1) W 29,999 (2) W30,000W59,999 (3) W60,000W89,999 (4) W90,000W119,999 (5) W120,000 11. ? (1) (2) 12. ( ) 13. ( )

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61 LIST OF REFERENCES Alwitt, L.F., & Prabhaker, P.R. (1994). Identifyi ng who dislikes television advertising: Not by demographics alone. Journal of Advertising Research 34(6), 17 Barnes, S. J. (2002). Wireless Digital Advertising: Nature and Implications. International Journal of Advertising, 21, 399-420 Barnes, S.J., Reichardt, T. & Neumann, M.M. (2005). Driving Consumer Acceptance of Mobile Marketing: A theoretical framework and empirical study, Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 6(3), 181-192 Barnes, S. J. & Scornavacca, E. (2004). Mobile Ma rketing: the Role of Permission and Acceptance. International Journal of Mobile Communication 2 (2), 128-139 Barwise, P. & Strong, C. (2002). Per mission-based Mobile Advertising, Journal of Interactive Marketing 16 (1), 14-24 Bauer, R. A., & Greyser, S. A. (1968). Advert ising in America: The Consumer View, Boston, MA: Harvard University, Graduate School of Business Administration Buckley R. (2007), Mobile to beat all advertising odds, available at http://mmaglobal.com/modules /article/view.article.php/840 (accessed 10, October, 2007) Carroll, A., Barnes, S. J., Scornavacca, E., & Fletcher, K. (2007). Consum er Perceptions and Attitudes towards SMS Advertising: Recent Evidence From New Zealand, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 26(1), 79-98 Cheltappa, R.K., & R.G. Sin (2005). "Personalizati on versus Privacy: An Empirical Examination of the. Online Consumer's Dilemma," Information Technology and Management 6 Chowdhury, H. K. Parvin, N. Weitenberner, C. & Becker, M. (2006). Consumer Attitude toward Mobile Advertising in an Emerging Market: An Empirical Study, International Journal of Mobile Marke ting, Vol.1 (2), 33-42. de Mooij, M. (1998). Global marketing and adve rtising: Understanding cultural paradoxes. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Denk, M. & Hackl, M. (2004). Where Does Mobile Business Go?, International Journal of Electronic Business 2 (5), 460-470 DeZoysa, S. (2002). Mobile advertising needs to get personal, Telecomm unications (International Edition), 36 (2), 8 Drossos, D., Giaglis, G. M., Lekakos, G., Kokkinaki F., Stavraki, M. G. (2007). Determinants of Effective SMS Advertising: An Experimental Study, Journal of Interactive Advertising Vol. 7 (2), 1-2

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62 Ducoffe, R. H. (1995). How Consumers Assess the Value of Advertising, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising 17(1), 1 18. Gallup O. (1959). A Study of Public Attitude s towards Advertising, Princeton, Princeton University Press Greenspan, R. (2003, March 25). Look whos talking, texting, buying Retrieved February 17, 2007, from http://www.emaillabs.com Haghirian, P ., Madlberger, M., & Tanuskova, A. (2005). Increasing Advertis ing Value of Mobile Marketing An Empirical Study of Antecedents, Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2005 Hofstede, G. (1980). Cultures cons equences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultures consequences: Inte rnational differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Hofstede, G. (2001). Cultures consequences: Co mparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Hui, C. H., H. C, Triandis., & C. Yee (1991). Cultural differences in reward allocation: Is collectivism the explanation?, British Journal of Social Psychology 30, 145. James, W. L., & Kover A. J. (1992). Do Overall Attitudes toward Advertising Affect Involvement with Specific Advertisements?, Journal of Advertising Research 32(5), 78 Kim, S.D.(2002). Korea: personal meanings, in James E. Katz and Mark Aakhus (ed.) Perpetual contact : mobile communication, private talk, public performance, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK ; New York, pp.63-79 KTF mhows Mail Magazine, Vol.21, May. 2007 http://www.mhows.com Lee, W .N. & Choi, S. M. (2006). The Role of Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism in Online Consumers Responses Toward Persuasive Communication on the Web, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 11 (2006), 317 Leppaniemi, M., Sinisalo, J., & Karjaluoto, H. (2 006). A Review of Mobile Marketing Research, International Journal of Mobile Marketing 1(1), 30-42 Li, Hairong & Lee, Ki-Young (2006). Mobile ph ones and mobile advertising: an Asian perspective, International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising 3 (2), 177-192 Li, Hairong & Stoller, Brain (2007 ). Parameters of Mobile Adve rtising: A Field Experiment, International Journal of M obile Marketing, 2 (1), 4-11

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63 Lightner, N.J., Yenisey, M.M., Ozok, A.A., & Salvendy, G. (2002). Shopping behavior and preferences in e-commerce of Turkish and Ameri can university students: Implications from cross-cultural design. Behaviour & Information Technology, 21 (6), 373. Lutz, R.J. (1985). Affective and Cognitive Antecede nts of Attitude Toward the AD: A Conceptual Framwork. In Psychological Processes and Advertising Effects: Theory, Research and Applications, L. Alwitt and A. Mitchell, ed., Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 45-63. Miceli, G. N., F. Ricotta., & M. Costabile ( 2007). Customizing Customization: a Conceptual Framework for Interactive Personalization, J ournal of Interactive Marketing, 21 (2), 6-25 Mittal, B. (1994). Public assessment of TV adve rtising: Faint praise and harsh criticism, Journal of Advertising Research 34(1), 3553 Mittal, B. & M.L. Walfried (1996). "The Role of Personalization in Service Encounters," Journal of Retailing 72(1), 95-109. Mobile Marketing Associat ion (2007) available at http://www.mmaglobal.com (access 10 Sep. 2007) Mobile Marketing Associat ion (2007) available at http://mmaglobal.com/modules /article/view.article.php/1153 (access 10 Sep. 2007) Moon, I. (2007). South Koreans Want Their M-TV!, Business week Online August 6, 2007 Monday available at http://www.businessweek.com/g lobalbiz/content/aug2007/gb2007083_146756.htm Okazaki, S., Katsukura, A., & Nishiyam a, M. (2007). How Mobile advertising Works: The Role of Trust in Improving Attitudes and Recall, Journal of Advertising Research Vol. 47 (2), 165178 Pagani, M. (2004). Full Intern et Mobility in a 3G-4G Environment: Managing New Business paradigms, EGEA, A.gra, Milano Pagani, M. (2004). Determinants of Adoption of Third Generation Mobile Multimedia Services, Journal of Interactive Marketing Vol. 18 (3), 46-59. Perlado, V. R., & Barwise, P. (2005). Mobi le Advertising: A Research Agenda in Advertising, Promotion, and New Media Marla R. Stafford and Ronald J. Faber, M.E. Sharpe, Inc. Armonk, New York Pijpers, G.G.M., Bemelmans, T.M.A., Heemst ra, F.J., & van Montfort, K.A.G.M. (2001). Senior executives use of information technology Information and Software Technology 43, 959.

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64 Pollay, R. W. & Mittal, B. (1993). Here's the beef: factors, determinants, and segments in consumer criticism of advertising. Journal of Marketing Jul93, Vol. 57 Issue 3, p99-115. Robins, F. (2003). The Marketing of 3G, Marketing Intelligence & Planning 21 (6), 370 -378 Schlosser, A. E., Shavitt, S., & Kanfer, A. (1999) Survey of Internet Users Attitudes toward Internet advertising. Journal of Interactive Marketing 13(3), 34. Shavitt, S., Lowrey, P., & Haefner, J. (1998). Public Attitudes Towards Advertising: More Favourable Than You Might Think, Journal of Advertising Research 38(4), 7 22 Singlis, T. M. & W. J. Brown (1995). Culture, se lf, and collectivist comm unication: Linking culture to individual behavior. Human Communication Research, 21, 354 Steinbock, D. (2005), The Mobile Revolution: The Making of Mobile Services Worldwide, Thomson-Shore, Inc., London, U.K. Taylor, S. & P.A. Todd (1995). Understanding In formationTechnology Usage: A Test of Competing Models." Information Systems Research 6(2), 144-176. Telecoms & Technology Forecast Asia & Au stralasia, South Korea, Dec2005, p107-114, 8p Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and Collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Triandis, H. C., Brislin, R., & Hui, C. H. (1988). Cross-cultural training across the individualismcollectivism divide. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 12, 269 Triandis, H. C, McCusker C., & Hui C H. ( 1990). "Multimethod Probes of Individualism and Collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59 (5), 1006-1020. Tsang, M. M.., Ho, S., & Liang, T. (2004). Consumer Attitudes Toward Mobile Advertising: An Empirical Study, International Journal of Electronic Commerce 8, 3, 65. Varshney, U. (2003). Location Management for Mobile Commerce Applications in Wireless Internet Environment, ACM Transactions on Internet Technology 3(3), 236 255 Wang, S. & Wang, H. (2005). A Location-Based Bu siness Service Model for Mobile Commerce, International Journal of Mobile Communications 3 (4), 339-349 Xu, Jingjun D. (2007). The Influence of Personaliz ation in Affecting Consume Attitudes toward Mobile Advertising in China, Journal of Computer Information Systems, 47 (2), 9-19 Yamaguchi, S., Kuhlman, D. M., & Sugimori, S. (1995). Personality correlates of allocentric tendencies in individualist and collectivist cultures. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology 26, 658.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Mi Jung Kim was educated in South Korea until she earned her Bachelor of Arts in Mass communication. Next, she attended th e University of Florida, m a joring in Advertising. After receiving her Master of Adver tising degree from the University of Florida in May 2008, she plans to pursue a Ph.D degree at Michigan State University.