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Floristics and Community Analysis of Silver River State Park Marion County, Florida

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022254/00001

Material Information

Title: Floristics and Community Analysis of Silver River State Park Marion County, Florida
Physical Description: 1 online resource (97 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: botany, florida, floristics
Botany -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Botany thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The floristics and community analysis of the 1711 hectare Silver River State Park, Marion County, Florida was conducted from July 2005 to February 2008. A total of 633 vascular plant species were collected. These include 17 ferns, 7 gymnosperms and 609 angiosperms (representing 380 genera in 124 families). The plant families most represented in the park include the Asteraceae (74 species), Poaceae (70 species), Cyperaceae (48 species), Fabaceae (39 species), and Rubiaceae (15 species). The largest genera include Quercus (14 species), Carex (13 species) Cyperus (12 species), Dichanthelium (8 species), and Paspalum (6 species). Analysis of five selected plant communities in the Silver River State Park shows considerable compositional and structural differences. The sandhill community had the greatest overall Shannon species diversity of all plots, nearly 40% greater than the least diverse plot (pine flatwoods), also the highest shrub diversity, species richness, and species density. The hydric hammock community had the highest diversity, species richness, and species density of trees. The scrub had the highest herb density, but the second lowest diversity.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Judd, Walter S.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-05-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022254:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022254/00001

Material Information

Title: Floristics and Community Analysis of Silver River State Park Marion County, Florida
Physical Description: 1 online resource (97 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: botany, florida, floristics
Botany -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Botany thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The floristics and community analysis of the 1711 hectare Silver River State Park, Marion County, Florida was conducted from July 2005 to February 2008. A total of 633 vascular plant species were collected. These include 17 ferns, 7 gymnosperms and 609 angiosperms (representing 380 genera in 124 families). The plant families most represented in the park include the Asteraceae (74 species), Poaceae (70 species), Cyperaceae (48 species), Fabaceae (39 species), and Rubiaceae (15 species). The largest genera include Quercus (14 species), Carex (13 species) Cyperus (12 species), Dichanthelium (8 species), and Paspalum (6 species). Analysis of five selected plant communities in the Silver River State Park shows considerable compositional and structural differences. The sandhill community had the greatest overall Shannon species diversity of all plots, nearly 40% greater than the least diverse plot (pine flatwoods), also the highest shrub diversity, species richness, and species density. The hydric hammock community had the highest diversity, species richness, and species density of trees. The scrub had the highest herb density, but the second lowest diversity.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Judd, Walter S.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-05-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022254:00001


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1 FLORISTICS AND COMMUNITY ANALYSIS OF SILVER RIVER STATE PARK MARION COUNTY, FLORIDA By JEFFERY R. HUBBARD A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Jeffery R. Hubbard

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3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Firstly, I thank Dr. W alter Judd; as my adviso r, he has provided patient guidance, support, and assistance. As a professor, his dedication to teaching and enthusiasm are outstanding. Since my first undergraduate taxonomy class, I have taken every course he has ta ught. I feel fortunate to have had Walter as my advisor and owe much of what botanical knowledge I have to him. I am also grateful to my other committee me mbers: Dr. Steven Manchester a nd Dr. David Hall; they have both helped immensely in my education through their support and communication of knowledge. I appreciate Dr. Steven Manchesters encourag ement and his courses in paleobotany and plant geography that have had a great influence on my pers pectives of plants in time and space. I thank Dr. Hall for valuable advice in the field and for helping me better appreciate the grasses, with their great, and sometimes confusing, diversity. I also thank Richard Abbot for invaluable assistance on various difficult taxa, and Kurt Neubig for much help with the Asteraceae. This study was greatly aided by facilities at the Florida Muse um of Natural History, the University of Florida Herbarium, and by staff members Kent Perkins, Trudy Linder, and Barry Davis. I also give thanks to park manager Bob Lam ont and the staff at the Silver River State Park for all their courtesy and willingness to help my study of the parks flora and natural communities.

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4 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.............................................................................................................3 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........9 LIST OF FIGURES.......................................................................................................................10 ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................11 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................12 History....................................................................................................................................12 Climate and Weather............................................................................................................ ..14 Geology...................................................................................................................................16 Hydrology...............................................................................................................................18 Topography.............................................................................................................................19 Soils........................................................................................................................................20 Adamsville Sand.............................................................................................................. 20 Anclote Sand...................................................................................................................20 Anclote-Tomoka Association..........................................................................................21 Arredondo Sand............................................................................................................... 21 Astor Sand.......................................................................................................................21 Buff Sandy Clay.............................................................................................................. 22 Candler Sand...................................................................................................................22 Eaton Loamy Sand..........................................................................................................22 Electra Sand.....................................................................................................................23 Eureka Loamy Fine Sand................................................................................................23 Eureka Loamy Fine Sand, Ponded..................................................................................23 Holopaw Sand.................................................................................................................24 Iberia Clay.......................................................................................................................24 Lynne Sand......................................................................................................................24 Paisley Loamy Fine Sand................................................................................................25 Placid Sand......................................................................................................................25 Pomona Sand................................................................................................................... 25 Pompano Sand, Ponded...................................................................................................26 Rains Loamy Fine Sand...................................................................................................26 Sparr Fine Sand............................................................................................................... 26 Tavares Sand...................................................................................................................27 Terra Ceia Muck.............................................................................................................. 27

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5 2 METHODS.............................................................................................................................30 Floristic Inventory............................................................................................................ ......30 Community Analysis............................................................................................................. .31 Data Analysis..........................................................................................................................32 3 PLANT COMMUNITIES...................................................................................................... 33 Mesic Flatwoods................................................................................................................ .....33 Sandhill....................................................................................................................... ............34 Scrub.......................................................................................................................................35 Scrubby Flatwoods.................................................................................................................35 Upland Hardwood Forest........................................................................................................36 Xeric Hammock......................................................................................................................37 Depression Marsh............................................................................................................... ....37 Dome.......................................................................................................................................38 Floodplain Swamp............................................................................................................... ...38 Wet Flatwoods.................................................................................................................. ......39 Blackwater Stream.............................................................................................................. ....39 Spring Run Stream.............................................................................................................. ....40 Disturbed/Ruderal...................................................................................................................40 4 COMMUNITY ANALYSIS.................................................................................................. 44 Sandhill....................................................................................................................... ............44 Hydric Hammock....................................................................................................................45 Mesic Hammock.....................................................................................................................46 Pine Flatwoods........................................................................................................................47 Oak Scrub...............................................................................................................................48 Conclusions.............................................................................................................................49 5 FLORISTICS..........................................................................................................................54 6 ANNOTATED LIST OF SPECIES........................................................................................ 56 Ferns.......................................................................................................................................56 Aspleniaceae....................................................................................................................56 Blechnaceae.....................................................................................................................57 Dennstaedtiaceae.............................................................................................................57 Dryopteridaceae............................................................................................................... 57 Lomariopsid aceae............................................................................................................ 57 Ophioglossaceae..............................................................................................................57 Osmundaceae...................................................................................................................57 Polypodiaceae..................................................................................................................57 Pteridaceae.................................................................................................................... ...57 Salviniaceae................................................................................................................... ..58 Lygodiaceae.................................................................................................................... .58 Thelypteridaceae..............................................................................................................58 Gymnosperms.................................................................................................................... .....58

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6 Cupressaceae...................................................................................................................58 Pinaceae....................................................................................................................... ....58 Zamiaceae...................................................................................................................... ..58 Angiosperms...........................................................................................................................58 Acanthaceae.....................................................................................................................58 Adoxaceae.......................................................................................................................59 Agavaceae........................................................................................................................59 Alismataceae....................................................................................................................59 Alliaceae..........................................................................................................................59 Altingiaceae................................................................................................................... ..59 Amaranthaceae................................................................................................................ 59 Amaryllidaceae................................................................................................................ 60 Anacardiaceae..................................................................................................................60 Annonaceae.....................................................................................................................60 Apiaceae..........................................................................................................................60 Apocynaceae....................................................................................................................61 Aquifoliaceae...................................................................................................................61 Araceae............................................................................................................................61 Araliaceae..................................................................................................................... ...61 Arecaceae........................................................................................................................62 Asteraceae........................................................................................................................62 Betulaceae........................................................................................................................64 Bignoniaceae...................................................................................................................64 Brassicaceae....................................................................................................................65 Bromeliaceae................................................................................................................... 65 Cactaceae.........................................................................................................................65 Campanulaceae................................................................................................................65 Cannabaceae....................................................................................................................65 Cannaceae........................................................................................................................65 Caprifoliaceae..................................................................................................................65 Caryophyllaceae.............................................................................................................. 65 Ceratophyllaceae.............................................................................................................66 Chrysobalanaceae............................................................................................................ 66 Cistaceae..........................................................................................................................66 Commelinaceae............................................................................................................... 66 Convolvulaceae...............................................................................................................66 Cornaceae........................................................................................................................66 Cucurbitaceae..................................................................................................................67 Cyperaceae..................................................................................................................... .67 Dioscoreaceae..................................................................................................................68 Droseraceae.....................................................................................................................68 Ebenaceae...................................................................................................................... ..68 Ericaceae..........................................................................................................................68 Eriocaulaceae...................................................................................................................69 Euphorbiaceae.................................................................................................................69 Fabaceae..........................................................................................................................69 Fagaceae..........................................................................................................................70 Gelsemiaceae................................................................................................................... 71

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7 Gentianaceae....................................................................................................................71 Geraniaceae.....................................................................................................................71 Haemodoraceae............................................................................................................... 71 Haloragaceae...................................................................................................................71 Hydrangeaceae................................................................................................................71 Hydrocharitaceae.............................................................................................................71 Hypericaceae...................................................................................................................71 Hypoxidaceae..................................................................................................................72 Illiciaceae.........................................................................................................................72 Iridaceae...................................................................................................................... ....72 Juglandaceae....................................................................................................................72 Juncaceae.........................................................................................................................72 Krameriaceae................................................................................................................... 72 Lamiaceae...................................................................................................................... ..72 Lauraceae.........................................................................................................................73 Lentibulariaceae..............................................................................................................73 Linderniaceae..................................................................................................................73 Loganiaceae.....................................................................................................................73 Lythraceae.......................................................................................................................74 Magnoliaceae...................................................................................................................74 Malvaceae........................................................................................................................74 Marantaceae.....................................................................................................................74 Melastomataceae............................................................................................................. 74 Moraceae.........................................................................................................................74 Myricaceae..................................................................................................................... .74 Nymphaeaceae................................................................................................................. 74 Nyssaceae........................................................................................................................75 Oleaceae....................................................................................................................... ...75 Onagraceae..................................................................................................................... .75 Orchidaceae.....................................................................................................................75 Orobanchaceae................................................................................................................75 Oxalidaceae.....................................................................................................................76 Papaveraceae...................................................................................................................76 Passifloraceae..................................................................................................................76 Phyllanthaceae.................................................................................................................76 Phytolaccaceae................................................................................................................76 Plantaginaceae.................................................................................................................76 Poaceae............................................................................................................................77 Polemoniaceae................................................................................................................. 79 Polygalaceae....................................................................................................................79 Polygonaceae...................................................................................................................79 Pontederiaceae.................................................................................................................79 Ranunculaceae.................................................................................................................79 Rhamnaceae.....................................................................................................................80 Rosaceae..........................................................................................................................80 Rubiaceae........................................................................................................................80 Ruscaceae........................................................................................................................81 Rutaceae..........................................................................................................................81

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8 Salicaceae..................................................................................................................... ...81 Sapindaceae.....................................................................................................................81 Sapotaceae.......................................................................................................................81 Saururaceae......................................................................................................................81 Smilacaceae.................................................................................................................... .82 Solanaceae.......................................................................................................................82 Tetrachondraceae............................................................................................................. 82 Theaceae....................................................................................................................... ...82 Turneraceae.....................................................................................................................82 Typhaceae........................................................................................................................82 Ulmaceae.........................................................................................................................82 Urticaceae..................................................................................................................... ...82 Verbenaceae....................................................................................................................83 Violaceae.........................................................................................................................83 Viscaceae.........................................................................................................................83 Vitaceae...........................................................................................................................83 Xyridaceae.......................................................................................................................83 APPENDIX COMMUNITY ANALYSIS DATA..................................................................... 84 LIST OF REFERENCES...............................................................................................................94 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................97

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9 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Natural communities and developed areas within the Silv er River State Park.................. 41 4-1 Shannon diversity of vascul ar plants in the selected community plots: Silver River State Park, Ma rion Co., Florida ............................................................................... 51 A-1 Sandhill plot tree and shrub comm unity analysis data....................................................... 84 A-2 Sandhill plot herb/grass community analysis data............................................................. 85 A-3 Hydric hammock tree and shrub community analysis data............................................... 86 A-4 Hydric hammock herb/grass community analysis data..................................................... 87 A-5 Mesic hammock tree and shrub community analysis data................................................. 88 A-6 Mesic hammock herb/grass community analysis data....................................................... 89 A-7 Pine flatwoods tree and shr ub comm unity analysis data...................................................90 A-8 Pine flatwoods herb/grass community analysis data.........................................................91 A-9 Oak scrub tree and shrub community analysis data...........................................................92 A-10 Oak scrub herb/grass community analysis data................................................................. 93

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10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Geographic locations of Marion Count y, Ocala, Silver Riv er State Park, and major bodies of water......................................................................................................... 28 1-2 Soils m ap of the Silver River State Par k. Adapted from: Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Recreation and Pa rks, Silver River State Park Unit Management Plan (2002).................................................................................. 29 3-1 Natural communities of the Silver River State Park. Adapted from Florida Departm ent of Environmental Protecti on, Division of Recreation and Parks Silver River State Park Un it Management Plan (2002)..................................................... 42 3-2 Selected natural communities of th e Silver River Stat e Park. (A) Floodplain swa mp. (B) Sandhill. (C) Scrub. (D) Spring-run stream................................................... 43 4-1 Species richness of vascul ar p lants in the selected community plots River State Park, Marion Co. Florida...................................................................................................52 4-2 Species density of vascular plants in the selected community plots; S ilver RiverState park, Marion County, Florida.......................................................................... 53

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11 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science FLORISTICS AND COMMUNITY ANALYSIS OF SILVER RIVER STATE PARK MARION COUNTY, FLORIDA By Jeffery R. Hubbard May 2008 Chair: Walter S. Judd Major: Botany The floristics and community analysis of the 1711 hectare Silver River State Park, Marion County, Florida was conducted from July 2005 to February 2008. A total of 633 vascular plant species were collected. Thes e include 17 ferns, 7 gymnosperms and 609 angiosperms (representing 380 genera in 124 families). The plant families most represented in the park include the Asteraceae (74 sp ecies), Poaceae (70 species), Cyperaceae (48 species), Fabaceae (39 species), and Rubiaceae ( 15 species). The largest genera include Quercus (14 species), Carex (13 species) Cyperus (12 species), Dichanthelium (8 species), and Paspalum (6 species). Analysis of five selected plant communities in the Silver River State Park shows considerable compositional and structural differe nces. The sandhill community had the greatest over all Shannon species diversity of all plots, nearly 40% greater than the least diverse plot (pin e flatwoods), also the highest sh rub diversity, species richness, and species density. The hydric hammock comm unity had the highest diversity, species richness, and species density of trees. The sc rub had the highest herb density, but the second lowest diversity.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The Silver R iver State Park is located in central Marion County, Florida [29 12 N, 082 1 W] (Fig. 1-1) and comprises 1711.62 h ectares, of which 1192.95 hectares are upland and 518.67 hectares are wetland. The park is largely undeveloped, al though several small areas were cleared for pasture and other agricult ural uses in the past. The dominant feature on the landscape is the Silver River, which originates from the first magnitude artesian Silver Springs and then flows eastward, joining the Oc klawaha River. Most of the upland areas are forested with varying degrees of mature and secondary growth. In 1985, the Board of Trustees Internal Improvement Trust Fund acqui red property constituting the initial area of the Silver River State Park from the St. Johns River Management District through the Conservation and Recreational Lands (CARL) program. Subsequent purchasing of additional parcels through the P2000/CARL and P2000/Acquistion and Inholdings programs added to the present park holdings. The Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Recreation and Parks manages the park for th e conservation and prot ection of Floridas natural and cultural reso urces, and public outdoor recreation. The Silver River State Park is an International Union for the Conservati on of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Category V Protected Landscape/Seascape. History North-cen tral Florida has a rich cultural preh istory and history. The Silver River area saw occupation and/or utilization by a sequen ce of populations from Paleo-Indian and Archaic peoples to the present (Martin 1966) Archaeological surveys indicate successive layers of occupation dating from 12,000-10,000 year s B.P. Historic occupation dating from the Second Seminole War era indicates vari ous, but limited agricultural, military, and industrial uses within the current park boundaries.

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13 Human settlement of the Silver River area dates from at least 10,000 years ago. There is archeological evidence of early hunter-gatherer campsites near the river and spring (Martin 1966). Pre-agricultural Paleo-Indi an groups were drawn to the area by the large spring with its continuous supply of fresh water, and othe r local food resources su ch as fish, shellfish, snails, and game animals. As agriculture became part of the economy, there is evidence of long distance trade between Indian groups fr om as far away as the Great Lakes and Caribbean. Ornaments, tools a nd copper of distant origin ha ve been found in mounds near Silver Springs. When Europeans first arrived in the Florida peninsula, this area was known as Timucua, part of the Kingdom of the Sun, which extended over much of North and Central Florida. Near the springs was a sub-province of Timucua, which had the name Ocali (Martin 1966). The Ocali tribe first had contact with Eu ropeans with the expe dition of Pamfilio de Narvaez in 1528, and then with Hernando De-Soto in 1539. Disease and European technology soon brought about the demise of the Ocali and the Timucuan culture. Several European countries vied for possessi on of Florida. Spanish, French, and British expeditions fought native peoples and each other and established settlements on the peninsula. Remnants of the tribes in Flor ida were variously brought into slavery or incorporated into tribes from the north escap ing the growing European settlements there; these people became known as the Seminoles. Th e first Seminoles that settled the area near the Silver River were known as the Yemassees. The Seminoles did not fare much better than the Timucuans and spent much time fighting th e English, Spanish, and later Americans who invaded their territory. Fort King was established near Silver Spri ngs in 1827 in what was Seminole territory and was the site of the start of the Second Seminole War, when in 1835 it was attacked by Chief Osceola. The Silver River was used to transport military supplies to Fort King;

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14 shipments upriver were then carried overland to Fort Brooke, and other military posts to the south (Gannon 2003). At the end of the S econd Seminole War in 1842, a small group of Miccosukee still lived near Silv er Springs. Two years later they were evicted when James Rodgers purchased 80 acres surrounding Silver Springs, and at about the same time Marion County was established, and the settlement of Ocala in 1846 (Martin 1966). The Silver River soon became an important trade route because ba rges would travel between Silver Springs and Palatka with cargo es of cotton, lumber, and produce (M artin 1966). Several areas within the current park boundaries were cleared for cattle pasture and farm ing during the early settlement of Florida, and the remains of some old homesteads and agricu ltural relics can still be found. In 1852, George Pasteur farmed citrus and cotton in the area, and in 1855 built the Marshall Plantation, containing a sugar mill (W arzeski 2000). Logging of pine and cypress also occurred in this area, as well as the tappi ng of pines in the upland areas for naval stores. The growing population of the Ocala area and S ilver Springs brought increased commercial traffic on the river and tourists soon followed, attracted by the crystal clear waters of the springs (Martin 1966). In 1878 the first glass bottom boats allowed visitors to view the underwater world teeming with life. To this day the springs remains a popular tourist destination in Central Florida, and the area surrounding the springhead is a privately owned attraction bordering the S ilver River State Park. Climate and Weather The Florida peninsula is a unique part of North Am erica due to its warm temperate/subtropical environment, and the influence of large warm bodies of water surrounding it on three sides. The major factors on the weather and climat e of Florida include its latitude of ca. 24 30 N, the distributi on of land and water, ocean currents, and storm systems (Winsberg 1990).

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15 Water is one of the greatest factors driving the climate of Florida. With the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast, Gulf of Mexico on the west, and Caribbean to the south, Floridas weather is as much about the sea as the land. No place in Florida is farther than 130 km from one of these massive bodies of water. These water bodies tend to moderate the temperature for most of the peninsula because the ocean heats up much slower than the land, and evapotranspiration cools the water surface (W insberg 1990). Inland Florida is usually warmer in the summer, and cooler in the winter than coastal Florida. The interior landscape of Florida has numerous lakes, rivers, springs, and wetlands; to some degree they also moderate local conditions. The Gulf Stream influences most of Flor ida by bringing warm tropical water into the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. The main current moves along the east coas t of the peninsula, as a smaller current circulates thr ough the Gulf of Mexico and then rejoins the main current through the Straights of Florida. This massive transfer of heat influences the climate in Florida and eastern North Ameri ca, most notably by moderating the winter temperature and by fueling tropical weather systems in the summer. Floridas latitude places it in the subtr opical high-pressure zone that normally accompanies dry-arid places on most continen ts. Yet Florida escapes this due to the surrounding water bodies that keep humidity and rainfall relatively high. Florida is lush and green because of regular, although seasonally vari able rainfall. Most rain in Florida comes from convectional rainstorms, with an aver age annual rainfall of 135 cm. Large billowing clouds laden with water form frequently dur ing summer days and provide great downpours, usually accompanied by thunder and lightning. Lightning occurs in Central Florida frequently in the summer, with as high as 20 strikes/km2/year, and is a common cause of fires. Most of Floridas preci pitation (ca. 60%) occu rs during the hot summer months (NWS

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16 2007). Cool season rainfall (November to May) is usually due to frontal systems moving over the peninsula. Low-pressure tropical storms frequently impact Florida, usually during late summer into early fall when warm water in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico can fuel storms, depressions, and hurricane s. Hurricanes are a part of Floridas climate and occur with some regularity. Although hurricanes lose strength rapidly over land, inte rior areas like North Central Florida can suffer wind damage and flooding. The Silver River State Park has two distinct seasons: a cool/dry season (NovemberMay) and a warm/wet season (June-October). The dry season is usually cool, sunny, and clear, with rainfall only o ccurring during passing frontal systems. In January, daily temperatures range from 7CC, and the av erage precipitation is about 9 cm/month. Frost is not common, but may occur several times durin g the winter, with average frost dates from ca. mid-November to mid-March. Snow is very ra re and short-lived; th e last snowfall of any significance fell in December 1989. The wet seas on is very warm and humid with nearly daily afternoon thunderstorms. In August daily temperatures range from 24CC, and the average precipitation is about 15 cm/month. Th e average humidity usually ranges from 60% to 90% and is rarely below 50% (NWS 2007). Geology The Florida peninsula rests on what is calle d the Floridian Plateau, a projection of the North American continent separating the Atlantic Ocean from the Gulf of Mexico. The Plateau is much larger than the exposed land surface as much of it is submerged. The center of the plateau roughly corresponds with the west coast of Florida, and thus the state lies on the eastern side of the Plateau (Myers & Ewel 1990). The basement rock of what is now Florida formed during the Paleozoic era wh en the continents were joined into Gondwanaland. Granites and high-feldspar volca nic rocks compose the basement layers,

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17 which are Cambrian in origin. Early Paleoz oic (Ordovician) sedime nts of up to several kilometers overlie them, and are composed of quartz sandstones and shales, along with some marine deposits. Silurian and middle Devonian de posits are mostly dark shales with some thin sandstones (Myers & Ewel 1990). The Mesozoic era saw the breakup of Gondwanaland and Florida became attached to the North Ameri can plate, drifting west with the Americas. Florida had some brief and early volcanic activit y early in the Jurassic as the plateau drifted over an Atlantic hotspot, but then the story is one of deposition of marine sediments from the Jurassic through the Cretaceous and early Cenozoic. Marine deposits form the bulk of Floridas geologic column, with various limestones interlayered with clastic sediments such as sand, silt, and clay from the continent, which moved down the coastal plain and along the shore. The Appalachian Mountains were a ma jor source of these materials. The Ocala limestone formed during the Eocene from marine deposits. Around 30 million years ago, during the Oligocene, parts of the Floridian Plateau rose above the sea. Terrestrial and marine depos its continued to shape the land throughout the Miocene and included phosphatic sands, clays, and lignitic de posits along with carbonate sediments. These fluvial, marine and estuar ine deposits compose the Hawthorne Formation. During the latter Miocene these deposits accumula ted in the northern a nd central parts of the peninsula, and as sea level fluctuations o ccurred, they were subject to erosion and weathering. The sea continued to rise and fall with climatic shifts from the Miocene until today, causing the Florida peninsula to expand a nd contract. Holocene deposits also occur in North Central Florida, and have an origin less than 4500 years before present. Solution (karst) forces also have been important in shaping and reshaping the landscape (Myers & Ewel 1990).

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18 The Silver River State Park is underlain by three different geological formations. In order from youngest to oldest these deposits are Holocene deposits, the Hawthorn Formation, and Ocala Limestone. The Holocene deposits ar e made up of undifferentiated sand, shell, clay, marl, and peat. The Hawthorn Formation, Groveland park facies, originated during the Miocene and consists of deeply weathered cl ayey sand and granular sand with beds of kaolinitic clay. The Ocala Limestone is an Eo cene deposit and is made up of skeletons of fossils in a silt to sand size matrix where skeletons, which were originally aragonite, are now molds. This formation is almost pure calci um carbonate and is usually soft, porous, and brittle. However, massive chert nodules occur near the top portion. The lower portion is rubbly and very small spheroidal fossils are dominant. Hydrology The park lies within the Ocklawaha Rive r drainage basin, which contains som e 2200 km2. The Silver River originates from Silver Springs, a group of arte sian springs in the northwestern corner of the park. The river fl ows through the park to the east boundary of the park, where it joins the Ocklawaha River, which, in turn, flows into the St. Johns River. There are two aquifers in this region (Hyde 1965). The surficial aquifer is composed of Miocene to Holocene sand and sh ell beds. This aquifer is of ten of limited horizontal and vertical extent and generally exists as a wate r-table aquifer. Occasionally it is confined by clay beds that place it under ar tesian pressure. Recharge is by rainfall and discharge occurs by way of evapotranspiration and seepage to su rface water bodies. In the immediate area, the Floridian aquifer consists of the permeable pa rts of the lower Hawthorn formation, the Ocala Limestone, and the underlying Avon Park and Lake City Limestones. The aquifer has an average thickness of 300 m, and its proximity to the surface varies (Fernald and Patton 1984).

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19 East of the Silver Springs, the aquifer is overlain, particularly in the Ocklawaha River valley, by a mantle of Miocene and perhap s younger deposits. West of the springs, considerable erosion of these confining beds has taken place. Here the aquifer receives direct recharge via permeable, thin surfical depos its. The springs complex provides major discharge from the aquifer with a flow that averages 1953 x 104 L/d, (average temperature 22C) however, the river itself doe s not breach the confining be ds and is not an agent of discharge except at its origin (S pechler and Schiffer 1995). Besides the river, there are some semi-permanent ponds and intermittent waterways within the park. In general, the latter drain into the floodplain or othe r aquatic systems. The ponds va ry in size, being marshy or wooded to varying degrees. A small natural cr eek enters the river approximately 1.2 km downstream of the headwater spring. This creek drains several square miles of flatwoods north of State Road 40 and east of the springhead. Topography The park is located on th e eastern edge of th e Ocala Uplift District. Within this district, the western part of the park lies in the Anthony Hills subdivision of the Marion Hills physiographic division. In this area, low hills developed where Miocene clay was thin or nonexistent and sands and clayey sands of Upper Miocene origin rest directly on limestones. The eastern part of the park li es in the Ocklawaha Valley physiographic divi sion. This area is an erosional valley partially backfilled with P lio-Pleistocene estuarine sediments and consists of a poorly drained flatwoods terrace bor dering the river swamp (Brooks 1981). Within the park, relatively flattened uplands gradually slope downward to the floodplain in most areas, but somewhat abruptly in others. A few shallow depressions exist as well, some as seasonal ponds or cypress domes. The highest elevations are generally found in the southwest portion of the park where an elevation of 22.86 m occurs along the northern

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20 boundary along State Road 40. The lowest eleva tions are found in the river floodplain, where elevations of 10.67 m are found in the northern section along the Ocklawaha River (Brooks 1981). Soils The Natural Resources C onservation Servi ce (NRCS) has identifie d 22 different soil types in the park. The NRCS soil surveys desc ribe what natural communities typically occur on various soil types. In general, the natural ar eas of Silver River Stat e Park adhere to the natural community-soil type rela tionship described by the NRCS. However, differences in elevation and slope, and suppres sion of fire have caused some deviation from the norm. Adamsville Sand A som ewhat poorly drained soil that is sandy to a depth of 203 cm or more. This is a nearly level to gently sloping soil that occurs as small and la rge areas in the flatwoods and along the lower slopes of the sandy uplands. In profile, the surface laye r is dark gray sand about 15 cm thick. The underlying material to a depth of 224 cm is sand. The upper 36 cm is gray mottled with light brownish gray, the next 20 cm is gray mottled with brownish yellow, and the lower 152 cm is white mottle d with light gray (Fig. 1-2). Anclote Sand A very poorly drained sandy soil that for med in beds of sandy marine sediments. These soils are in depressions, on low flats, and along poorly de fined drainageways in the flatwoods. In profile the surface layer is sa nd about 51 cm. The upper 41 cm is black, and lower 10 cm is very dark gray. The underlying material to a depth of 203 cm is light gray sand mottled with dark gray (Fig. 1-2).

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21 Anclote-Tomoka Association A very poorly drained, nonacid m ineral and organic soil. It occurs in large areas on the flood plain along the Oklawaha River. It is about 45% Anclote soil and 40% Tomoka soil but the composition differs from area to area. The outer rims of delineated areas are dominantly Anclote soil, and th e flooded areas toward the rive r are dominantly Tomoka soil. In the park are areas where a 61 to 89 cm very dark gray sandy surface layer is underlain to a depth of more than 152 cm by gray or light gray, nonacidic sand; areas where a 20 to 41 cm black surface layer that is more than 20% organi c matter is underlain to a depth of more than 152 cm by sandy material; and many areas of Ok eechobee and Terra Ceia soils (Fig. 1-2). Arredondo Sand A well-drained soil that f ormed in thick beds of sandy and loamy marine material. This is a nearly level to gently sl oping, well-drained soil that occurs as both small and large areas in the upland. In profile the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 18 cm thick. The subsurface layer is mixed yellowish brown and dark yellowish brown sand about 28 cm thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 229 cm or more. In sequence downward, it is 71 cm of yellowish brown sand mottled with strong brown, 48 cm of strong brown sand having a few white mottles, 13 cm of strong brown loam y sand, and 51 cm of strong brown fine sandy loam (Fig. 1-2). Astor Sand A very poorly drained sandy soil that is found in depressions, in low flat areas, and along poorly defined drainageways. These soils form ed in thick beds of marine sedim ents. In profile the surface layer is a dark colored layer 61 to 86 cm thick. Below that is a sandy layer that extends to a depth of 203 cm or more. So me depressed areas are covered with shallow water for 3 to 9 months each year. Included wi th this soil type are a few areas where the

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22 surface layer is loamy and other areas where the surface layer is less than 61 cm thick. Also included are localities where there is a dark co lored, weakly cemented layer below a depth of 76 cm, and spots where there is loamy material or marl that contains shell between 102 and 152 cm below the surface (Fig. 1-2). Buff Sandy Clay A very poorly drained soil form ed in thick beds of alkaline loamy marine sediments. In profile the surface layer is about 43 cm thick. The upper 15 cm is black sandy clay, the next 18 cm is black sandy clay loam, and the lower 10 cm is very dark gray sandy clay. The subsoil is between depths of 43 and 152 cm. Th e upper 30 cm is dark gray sandy clay and has a few medium streaks and pockets of white ca lcium carbonate; and the lower 56 cm is gray sandy clay loam and has common fine streaks an d pockets of white calcium carbonate (Fig. 1-2). Candler Sand An excessively drained soil that formed in thick beds of sandy m arine deposits. These soils occur as broad areas of the sandy uplands. In profile the surface layer is dark gray sand about 13 cm thick. It is underlain by 157 cm of yellow sand. The next 107 cm is very pale brown sand that is mottled with white and has thin lamellae of yellowish brown loamy sand. Below this is 15 cm of brownish yellow sandy loam (Fig. 1-2). Eaton Loamy Sand A poorly drained soil that form ed in thick beds of sandy and clayey marine sediments. These soils occur in broad areas of the flatw oods. In profile, the surf ace layer is dark gray loamy sand about 15 cm thick. The subsurface layer is gray loamy sand about 61 cm thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 198 cm. The upper 8 cm is mottled gray sandy clay loam,

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23 and the lower 114 cm is mottled gray sandy clay. The underlying material to a depth of 234 cm is mottled gray sandy clay that has pockets of light gray loamy sand (Fig. 1-2). Electra Sand A som ewhat poorly drained sandy soil that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy marine sediments. These soils occur in the fl atwoods and in the sandy areas of the upland. In profile, the surface layer is gray sand about 10 cm thick. Next, in sequence downward, is 33 cm of light gray sand; 61 cm of white sand streaked with grayish brown; 10 cm of black, weakly cemented sand that is well coated with organic matter; 13 cm of dark reddish brown, weakly cemented sand that is mottled with black and dark brown and is well coated with organic matter; 10 cm of brown sand; and 15 cm of mottled light brownish gray and pale brown sandy clay loam. Below the sandy clay loam is 30 cm of mottled gray light sandy clay (Fig. 1-2). Eureka Loamy Fine Sand A poorly drained to very poorly drained soil that f ormed in thick beds of clayey marine sediments. These soils occur as low, broad areas of the flatwoods. In profile the surface layer is very dark gray loamy fine sand about 13 cm thick. The subsurface layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand about 20 cm. The subsoil extends to a depth of 206 cm. The upper 142 cm is gray, firm sandy clay mottled with brown and red, and the lower 30 cm is mottled gray, firm sandy clay mixed with fine lenses of sandy loam and loamy sand (Fig. 1-2). Eureka Loamy Fine Sand, Ponded A very poorly drained soil in sm all depressions in the flatwoods. This soil is similar to Eureka loamy fine sand, but the water table is within a depth of 25 cm for more than 6 months during most years and the surface is pon ded for more than 4 months annually (Fig. 12).

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24 Holopaw Sand A poorly drained soil that form ed in thick beds of stratified sandy and loamy marine deposits. These soils occur on low-lying flats in shallow depressions in the flatwoods. In profile the surface layer is dark gray sand about 13 cm thick. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of 150 cm. The upper 18 cm is grayish brown sand, the next 71 cm is gray sand, and the lower 48 cm is gray sand mottled with light gray. The subsoil, between depths of 150 to 183 cm, is mottled gray light sandy clay loam (Fig. 1-2). Iberia Clay A poorly drained clayey soil. These soils ar e in broad areas near lakes and on the flood plains of rivers. They form ed in beds of clay ey marine and fluvial materials. In profile the surface layer is black sandy clay about 38 cm thick. The subsoil is 99 cm thick. The uppermost 64 cm is dark gray sandy clay, and the lower 36 cm is heavy sandy clay mottled with gray, yellowish brown, and yellowish red. At a depth of 137 cm is a layer of white chalky marl and mottled sandy clay that is more than 15 cm thick. The soils are medium acid in the surface layer, sl ightly acid below to a depth of a bout 102 cm, and moderately alkaline in the rest of the profile. The water table is at the surface, and the soils are frequently covered with shallow water (Fig. 1-2). Lynne Sand A poorly drained soil that form ed in thick deposits of sandy and loamy or clayey marine sediments. These soils occur as broad areas of the flatwoods. In profile the surface layer is dark gray sand about 15 cm thick. The subsurface layer is sand about 36 cm. It is light brownish gray in the upper 18 cm and light gray in the lower 18 cm. Next, in sequence downward, is 10 cm of black, weakly cemented loamy sand that is well coated with organic matter; 18 cm of mixed black and dark reddish brown, weakly cemented loamy sand that is

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25 also well coated with organic matter; 5 cm of dark grayish brown sand mottled with gray; and 13 cm of mottled gray sandy clay loam. Belo w this to a depth of 170 cm is mottled gray sandy clay (Fig. 1-2). Paisley Loamy Fine Sand A poorly drained soil that form ed in beds of clayey marine sediments. These soils are in low-lying areas of the flatwoods. In profile the surface layer is very dark gray loamy fine sand about 10 cm thick. The subsurface layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand about 13 cm thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 175 cm. The upper 43 cm is mottled dark gray sandy clay, the next 48 cm is mottled gray sandy cl ay, and the lower 61 cm is mottled gray sandy clay that has a few fine pockets of soft car bonatic nodules. The underl ying material to a depth to 203 cm is mottled gray and yellowish brown sandy clay that has many soft, white carbonatic nodules (Fig. 1-2). Placid Sand A poorly drained sandy soil that formed in th ick beds of sandy m arine deposits. These soils are in small depressions and along poorly defined drainageways of the flatwoods and in shallow depressions on sandy ridges (Fig. 1-2). Pomona Sand A poorly drained soil that form ed in beds of sandy and loamy marine deposits. These soils occur as broad areas of the flatwoods and as areas adjacent to wet depressions on sandy ridges. In profile the surface layer is very dark gray sand about 13 cm thick. The subsurface layer is 53 cm of sand. The upper 18 cm is gray mottled with dark gray, and the lower 36 cm is light gray mottled with light brownish gray. Below this, in sequence downward, is 8 cm of mixed very dark gray and dark reddish brown, weakly cemented sand that is well coated with organic matter; 18 cm of very dark gray, weakly cemented sand that is also well coated with

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26 organic matter; 8 cm of mixed dark brown and dark grayish brown sand mottled with dark reddish brown; 30 cm of brown sand; 18 cm of mottled gray sandy clay loam; and 36 cm of mottled gray sandy clay (Fig. 1-2). Pompano Sand, Ponded A poorly drained soil that form ed in thick beds of sandy marine deposits. This is a very poorly drained soil in shallow depressions and sloughs of the flatwoods and sandy ridges. In profile the surface layer is sand about 13 cm thick. The upper 8 cm is black, and the lower 5 cm is dark gray. The underlying material to a depth of more than 203 cm is sand. The upper 18 cm is gray mottled with grayish brown, the next 157 cm is white, and the lower 15 cm is white streaked with dark grayish brown (Fig. 1-2). Rains Loamy Fine Sand A poorly drained soil that occurs in sm all areas of the flatwoods. Rains loamy fine sand is a nearly level, poorly drained soil that has a loamy subsoil within 51 cm of the surface. In profile the surface layer is very dark gray loamy fine sand about 18 cm thick. The subsurface layer is about 23 cm of grayish-brown loamy fine sand. It is underl ain by 36 cm of gray sandy clay loam and 76 cm of sandy clay loam (Fig. 1-2). Sparr Fine Sand A som ewhat poorly drained soil that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy marine sediments. This is a nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained soil that occurs as small and large areas in the flatwoods and uplands. In profile the su rface layer is about 20 cm thick. The upper 13 cm is dark gray, and the lower 8 cm is mixed dark gray, grayish brown, and pale brown. The subsurface layer is about 79 cm of very pale brown fine sand mottled with gray. It is underlain by 23 cm of yellowish brown sand mottled with light gray. The subsoil is between depths of 122 and 251 cm. The upper 20 cm is yellowish brown sandy

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27 loam that has yellowish red and gray mottles a nd is about 3% plinthite, and the lower 69 cm is mottled gray sandy clay that is about 2% plinthite, and the lower 69 cm is mottled gray sandy clay loam that has lenses of sandy loam (Fig. 1-2). Tavares Sand A m oderately well drained soil that formed in thick beds of sandy marine deposits. These soils occur in the broad sandy flatwoods and along lower slopes of the sandy uplands. In profile the surface layer is sand about 15 cm thick. The upper 8 cm is dark gray, and the lower 8 cm is gray. The underlying material to a depth of 216 cm is sand. It is pale brown between depths of 15 and 84 cm, pale brown mottled with yellowish red between 84 and 107 cm, very pale brown mottled with yellowis h red and light gray between 107 and 135 cm, light gray mottled with very pale brown and yellowish red between 135 and 160 cm, white mottled with yellowish brown between 160 and 170 cm, and white mottled with gray between 170 and 216 cm (Fig. 1-2). Terra Ceia Muck A very poorly drained organic soil that form ed largely in nonwoody fibrous hydrophytic plant remains. This is a very poorly dr ained organic soil that occurs as small and large areas in the swamps and marshes adjacent to the Oklawaha River. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of a very poorly drained, nonacid soil that has an organic layer less than 41 cm deep over sandy material. In profile the upper 155 cm is black muck. Below this to a depth of 173 cm is dark reddish brown mucky peat (Fig. 1-2).

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28 Figure 1-1. Geographic locations of Marion County, Ocala, Silver River State Park, and major bo dies of water. Ocala Ocklawaha River Silver Springs Silver River State Park Marion County

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29 Figure 1-2 Soils map of the Silver River State Park. Adapted from: Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Recreation and Parks, Silver River State Park Unit Management Plan (2002)

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30 CHAPTER 2 METHODS Floristic Inventory Field trips were m ade from the summer of 2005 until the spring of 2008. Initial trips focused on delimiting the plant communities and documenting the majority of the species present. Later trips focused on finding habita t variation and collecting the less frequently occurring species. For all vascular plants, unless necessary for iden tification purposes, only one representative voucher specimen was collect ed for each species. Collections were made and processed following standard field and herbarium techniques (Judd et al. 2002, FLMNH 2007). A complete set of voucher specimens is deposited at FLAS, the herbarium of the Florida Museum of Natural Histor y, University of Florida. For identification of the vascular plants, numerous field guides, floras, and re visionary studies were utilized, and FLAS provided valuable reference material. Among these, Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida, Second Edition (Wunderlin and Hansen 2003) Aquatic and Wetland Plants of the Southeastern United States (Godfrey and W ooten 1981), and the Flora of North America series (Flora of North America Editoria l Committee 1993), were employed as primary sources, but nomenclature was updated (through us e of recent monographs and revisions) as appropriate. The annotated list was compiled for all the species of vasc ular plants, and was arranged by family [following APG II] with scientific names, common names, relative abundance, and indication of plant community (Stevens 2007, Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 2003). The plant communities were delimited based on field observati on. Geographic data for each collection is summarized, including latitude and longitude.

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31 Field methods included random walk, transect and plot sampling techniques. Transect sampling of species composition within plant co mmunities consisted of 50 m x 2 m transects within most plant communities as determined by community maps (Florida DEP 2002), with randomly generated starting points and dire ction. Plot sampling consisted of 1 m2, 100 m2, and 10000 m2 (1 hectare), plots within selected plan t communities, these plots were selected to be representative of that community. Locations were verified with GPS, map, and compass. GPS and park maps were used to insure sampling covered th e entire expanse of the park, and all plant communities were visited several times to ensure reasonably complete sampling (Florida DEP 2002). Disturbance was mi nimized in collecting and survey methods. Community Analysis Species richness, density, diversity, and st ructure were analyzed in five relatively distin ct plant communities/assemblages, and these communities were compared. The plant communities were selected to represent the diversity of ecosystems within the boundaries of the Silver River State Park, and to reflect such community diversity in North Central Florida. Although much has been written about the delin eation of different communities/assemblages, in practice it is always a subjective pro cess involving artificial boundaries between the various communities. Recognizing this, I have used communities as outlined by Ecosystems of Florida (Myers and Ewel 1990), and Guide to the Natural Communities of Florida (FNAI and Florida Department of Natural Resources 1990) along with my observations within the park as the basis for my naming and delimitation of these five distinct areas. I have used slightly more descriptive titles (oak scrub, pine flatwoods, mesic and hydric hammock) to define the plots used in the community analysis. Within each selected community, a one-hectare (10000 m2) plot was established and delineated with marking material. This area was established to survey all tree species with a

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32 diameter at breast height (DBH) of at least 15 cm, and also any large lianas that have reached the canopy. All trees were record ed by species and number. Nested within this larger plot was one 10 m x 10 m (100 m2) plot utilized to record the oc currence (species and number) of all woody or suffrutescent shrubs and smaller vine s. Also nested within the one-hectare plot were 10 1 m x 1 m (1 m2) plots, established to survey th e occurrence (species and number) of all graminoids and forbs. The number of i ndividuals recorded in plots considered clonal species arising from shared rhizome/root syst ems as a single unit, although this is often difficult to discern. Data Analysis Species richness was determined as the num ber of distinct species per unit area (# spp./m2), and Plant density was determined as th e number of all species per unit area (# plants/m2). Species diversity was determined using the Shannon index (H = pilnpi ).

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33 CHAPTER 3 PLANT COMMUNITIES The Silver R iver State Park contains 12 distinct natural communiti es (Table 3-1, Figs. 3-1, 3-2) as classified by the 1990 Florida Natural Areas In ventory (FNAI). This system considers climate, geology, soil, hydrology, and fire frequency as factors determining the species composition of an area, and assumes that areas similar in respect to these factors will tend to have natural communities with similar species compositions. The plant communities currently recognized within the Silver River St ate Park generally follow the descriptions of FNAI (1990) and those of Ecosystems of Florida (Myers and Ewel 1990). The park has a long history of human settlement that has altered and shaped many of these plant communities, and they will likely be affected by anthropogenic forces well into the future despite their occurring in a protected area. The community descriptions given here are quite broad and attempt to reflect the generalized makeup of each community. Variation within each of these assemblages is considerable and the boundaries betw een them are often unclear (Fig. 3-1). The existence and definition of distinct plant communities is still debated, and it seems that they are mostly human constr ucts that are units of convenience (Gleason 1926, Palmer and White 1994). Nonetheless it is useful to include such descriptions as a reflection of the diversity of va rious habitats that ar e found within the confines of the Silver River State Park. Mesic Flatwoods Mesic flatwoods are confined to two lim ited areas, one on the north side of the Silver River near the northwest corner of the park, and one on the south side of the park northeast of the scrubby flatwoods community (Fig 3-1). These areas are dominated by Pinus taeda and P. elliottii which form the canopy, with Serenoa repens and mostly Ericaceous shrubs

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34 below: Bejaria racemosa, Kalmia hirsuta Lyonia ferruginea L. fruiticosa L. lucida and Vaccinium myrsinites Other common shrubs include Hypericum brachyphyllum, Ilex glabra, Myrica cerifera and Rhus copallina The ground cover contains many moisture loving species often found on nutrient poor acidic soils, such as Drosera brevifolia, Erigeron quercifolia Syngonanthus flavidulus Euthamia caroliniana Ludwigia maritima Oenothera biennis, Polygala lutea Rhexia petiolata Solidago petiolaris, Symphiotrichum elliottii Xyris brevifolia, and X. jupicai. Soils in these areas are poorly drained, and may have standing water for several months in the summer to late fa ll. Infrequent fires and fire suppression have brought the invasion of several hardwood species including: Liquidambar styraciflua Quercus hemispaerica and Q. nigra. These areas have been previously logged, and do not contain many mature Pinus. Sandhill Sandhills oc cur in the western third of the park south of the Silver Springs attraction property to the western and s outhern boundaries of the park to the area near the campground and museum (Figs. 3-1, 3-2). Much of the sandh ill community in the park is in a relatively undisturbed state. The canopy is dominated by Pinus palustris along with smaller scattered individuals of Quercus incana, Q. laevis, and Q. margaretta A sparse shrub layer including Asimina pygmaea, A. incana, Opuntia humifusa, Rhus copallina Serenoa repens, and Vaccinium myrsinites The ground cover is dense and diverse. It is dominated by Aristida stricta, with small woody species such as Licania michauxii Toxicodenron pubescens, and T. radicans. The herbaceous ground cover has many species from the Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae, such as, Ageratina juncunda, Berlandiera subacaulis Cirsium horridulum Erechtites hieraciifolius, Eupatorium album, E. compositifolium Palafoxia integrifolia Pityopsis graminifolia Seriocarpus tortifolius Tetragonotheca helianthoides Indigofera

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35 caroliniana Lupinus diffusus Medicago lupulina Pediomelum canescens Rhynchosia reniformis Tephrosia chrysophlla Salivia azurea and Scutellaria multiglandulosa Welldrained sandy buff soils occur throughout most of this habitat. Although logging and clearing of areas for pasture have taken their toll on th e sandhill community within the park, there are many mature trees of Pinus palustris and the controlled burning regime appears to be maintaining much of this habitat. Scrub This comm unity occurs in one small area on th e south side of the S ilver River (Figs. 31, 3-2) on some of the higher elevated deep sands near sandhill and xeric hammocks. The white sand scrub in this area is mostly oak scrub with a low canopy of sparse Quercus geminata with a few Q. laevis and Pinus clausa The shrub layer is de nse with large clonal thickets of mostly Quercus myrtifolia and Q. chapmanii averaging ca. 2 m high. A few other shrub species including Sabal etonia Sideroxylon tenax, and Prunus umbellata are found here. A thin ground cover of grass an d herbs occurs below the trees and shrubs, and exposes much of the bare mineral soil. Ground cover species include Amsonia ciliata Andropogon gyrans Asclepias curtissii, Bulbostylis ciliatifolia Croton michauxii, Dichanthelium aciculare, and Krigia virginica Scrubby Flatwoods Scrubby flatwoods occur in two areas; one sout h of the Silver River near the southern boundary by the cam pground, and one small parcel ne ar the northwest corner of the property (Fig. 3-1). The canopy here is mostly Pinus clausa although not exceptionally dense, and mixed with Quercus geminata and some Q. laevis. The shrub layer averages ca. 1.5 m high, and is dense throughout most of the co mmunity. It is composed mostly of Serenoa repens Sabal etonia and Lyonia ferruginea with some scattered Asimina incana, Callicarpa

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36 americana, and Quercus myrtifolia The ground cover is sparse with only a few herbs such as Linaria floridana and Rhyncospora megalocarpa growing through the dense shrub layer in places where the bare mineral soil is expose d. Soils here are better drained than most flatwoods, are light in color, a nd poor in nutrients. Fire suppr ession in these small habitats has led to some encroachment by weedy species of trees such as Pinus taeda and Quercus laurifolia Upland Hardwood Forest This comm unity compromises most of the ar ea within the park a nd is found in large swaths above the floodplain to the north and south of the Silver Ri ver, and to the east of the Ocklawaha River (Fig 3-1). This large and diverse habitat encompasses dense hardwood forests with large old trees of Carya glabra Celtis laevigata, Magnolia virginiana, Quercus virginiana Q. shumardii and Sabal palmetto and in mixed secondary growth areas with Liquidambar styraciflua Pinus taeda and Quercus hemisphaerica Most of this difference is likely a result of past anthropoge nic disturbance. These forest s are generally found on moist, relatively rich soil. Some of the less common tree species include Aesculus pavia, Carpinus caroliniana Cornus florida Ostrya virginiana Sapindus saponaria Ulmus crassifolia and U. alata. The tall canopies are usually dense and th e understory well shade d, giving to sparse shrub and ground cover layers. The loose, open shrub layer is not dominated by any single species, and is comprised of scattered patche s of single or mixed species. Common shrubs include Osmanthus americanus, Serenoa repens, Vaccinium stamineum and V. arborescens Few herbaceous species colonize the shaded ground here, and never in great abundance. Some of the more common species include Chasmanthium laxum Cyperus tetragonus, Dichondra carolinensis and Mitchella repens Lianas are more frequent here than in other communities, with large specimens of Bignonia capreolata Campsis radicans and Vitis

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37 rotundifolila predominating. Epiphytes are also most abundant here, growing in dense clumps over the trunks and branches of the hardwood trees. Among the epiphytes are Tillandsia bartramii Pleopeltis polypodioides and Epidendrum magnoliae Some of the rarer plants in the park such as Sideroxylon alachuense and Spigelia loganioides, are restricted to these forests Xeric Hammock One s mall area of xeric hammock is found near the main developed area in the park, and is bordered by sandhill and the small scrub habitat (Fig. 3-1). The low canopy in this area is almost completely Quercus geminata with a dense shrub layer of Lyonia ferruginea, Quercus myrtifolia and Serenoa repens What little bare soil exists is often covered with Cladonia and Cladina spp., and a very small number of herbs including Rhyncospora megalocarpa and Krigia virginica The soils here are well-drained and white to buff in color. Depression Marsh This comm unity occurs in several locations near the northern a nd southern boundaries of the park in both flatwoods and upland mixe d forest areas (Fig. 3-1). Seasonally flooded on poorly drained soils, these open areas are mostly dominated by tall grasses and rushes with various aquatic and emergent herbs. Grasses cover most of this open expanse and include Panicum hemitomon Paspalum urvillei, and Saccharum giganteum with the rush Juncus effusus in some areas. There are only a few tr ee and shrub species that border these depressions. Myrica cerifera is common, as is Hypericum mutilum and the tree species Liquidambar styraciflua Pinus taeda Quercus laurifolia and Sabal palmetto The composition of the herbaceous flora in these depressions changes c onsiderably with the seasons, and as water levels fluctuate. Aquatics such as, Azolla caroliniana Lemna

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38 valiviana, Limnobium spongia, Pontedaria cordata Sagittaria platyphylla and Utricularia purpurea occur when summer rains fill the depressions; in turn other herbaceous species like Bacopa caroliniana, Bidens mitis and Rhexia mariana come and go with changing conditions. Dome There are tw o isolated dome areas near the fl oodplain on the northern side of the Silver River (Fig. 3-1). These areas are flooded for much of the year with standing water and support a few floating aquatics such as Salvinia minima and Azolla caroliniana Taxodium distichum is the dominant canopy tree intermixed with Acer rubrum and Fraxinus caroliniana Only a single shrub species, Cephalathus occidentalis, occurrs in these domes, and is not very common. In the dry season, one grass species, Panicum virgatum, colonized the muck soil in one of the domes. Floodplain Swamp Floodplain swa mps occur on both sides of th e Silver and Ocklawaha Rivers, and one relatively large area near the southern border of the park (Figs. 31, 3-2). The floodplains around the Silver River generally become broa der the farther one goes downriver from the springhead and such swamps form a large area around the junction of the Silver and Ocklawaha Rivers. Tall dense canopies of Acer rubrum Carya aquatica, Celtis laevigata Fraxinus caroliniana, Liquidambar styraciflua Magnolia virginiana Sabal palmetto Taxodium distichum, and Ulmus americana border these rivers and shade out the floodplain floor for most of the year. Shrubs and emergent aquatics are mostly f ound at the edge of the floodplain towards or opposite the river, and include Cephalanthus occidentalis Cicuta maculata Colocasia esculentum Cornus foemina Hibiscus coccinea, Hymenocallis rotata, Iris hexagona, Lobelia cardinalis and Osmunda regalis. The ground cover beneath the

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39 canopy varies with the water level, and to some degree seasonally. During the dry season small herbs such as Lactuca floridana, Carex comosa C. stipata, Hydrocotyle verticillata and Pluchea odorata will colonize the drying soil, but when flooded there are only floating aquatics such as Eichornia crassipes, Lemna valdiviana, and Pistia stratiotes. Wet Flatwoods This comm unity occurs as a single continuous swath along a relatively large area along the northern border of the park and SR 40 (Fig 3-1). Most of this area has been very disturbed and it is difficult to define due to extensive second ary growth. Most of the canopy is a varied mixture of Pinus taeda P. elliottii hardwoods such as Acer rubrum Celtis laevigata Diospyros virginiana Liquidambar styraciflua Quercus laurifolia Q nigra, Q. virginiana and many large individuals of Sabal palmetto Much of this area is open and has a dense understory of early succ essional species. Some of the shrubby species found here are Baccharis halimifolia Hypericum tetrapetalum, Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis and Serenoa repens A wide array of weedy herbs are present including Bidens alba Cirsium horridulum Diodia teres, Eupatorium leptophyllum Salvia lyrata Urena lobata, and Vicia floridana. The soil here is very poorly drained and remains wet for most of the year. Blackwater Stream The Ocklawaha River is the only b lackwater st ream in the park, and it runs north and northwest along the eastern border and through th e easternmost portion of the property (Fig 3-1). Although the floodplain swam p bordering the Ocklawaha is similar to that of the Silver River, the dark murky water of the Ocklawah a does not support submerged aquatics, as do the clear waters of the Silver River. Most of the vascular plant life here is comprised of floating aquatics, with Eichornia crassipes, Pistia stratioides and Lemna spp., or plants rooted in the river bottom or edge such as Cephalanthus occidentalis Cicuta maculata

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40 Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Nuphar advena, Pontedaria cordata and Sagittaria platyphylla The densities of these species are generall y lower here than on the Silver River. Spring Run Stream Originating from the artesian Silver Springs the Silver River r uns eastward through the center of the park, eventually joining the Ockl awaha river that flows northward (Figs. 3-1, 32). This is a first magnitude spring comp lex that discharges an average 1953 x 104 L/d. The gin-clear water of the Silver River suppor ts various submerged aquatic plants, e.g. Ceratophyllum demersum and Sagittaria kurziana, as well as a rich variety of floating and emergent wetland plants including Cicuta maculata Eichornia crassipes, Lobelia cardinalis Nuphar advena, Pistia stratioides, and Pontedaria cordata Though short in length, the Silver River is very productive and te ems with fish and other wildlife. Disturbed/Ruderal One central area in the park contains the cam pground, cabins, museum, and workshop areas (Fig 3-1). Three smaller pa rcels contain living a nd working areas for park staff. Within these areas are found cultivated landscape plants with both native and introduced species, and highly disturbed/ruderal areas with early successional and weedy species. A few species, although considered native and within their range, were only found as cultivated plants in these areas, including Agarista populifolia Cercis canadensis Gaillardia pulchella Hamelia patens, Illicium parviflorum Salvia coccinea Tripsacum dactyloides and Zamia floridana Common weedy species occurring here include Bidens alba, Descurainia pinnata Cyperus esculentus, Medicago lupulina Paspalum notatum Richardia brasiliensis, Salvia lyrata and Sida rhombifolia

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41 Table 3-1. Natural communities and developed areas within the Silver River State Park ___________________________________________________________________________ Community Area % ___________________________________________________________________________ Mesic Flatwoods 20 hectares 1.2 Sandhill 322 hectares 18.8 Scrub 1.5 hectares < 0.1 Scrubby Flatwoods 5.4 hectares 0.3 Upland Hardwood Forest 779 hectares 45.5 Xeric Hammock 7.9 hectares 0.5 Depression Marsh 7.6 hectares 0.5 Dome 4.3 hectares 0.2 Floodplain Swamp 345 hectares 20.1 Wet Flatwoods 135 hectares 7.9 Blackwater Stream 1 hectare < 0.1 Spring-run Stream 26 hectares 1.5 Developed Areas 57 hectares 3.3 ____________________________________________________________________________

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42 Figure 3-1. Natural communities of the Silver River State Park. Adapted from Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Recreation and Parks Silver River State Park Unit Management Plan (2002). LEGEND 1 Mesic Flatwoods 2 Sandhill 3 Scrub 4 Scrubby Flatwoods 5 Upland Hardwood Forest 6 Xeric Hammock 7 Depression Marsh 8 Dome 9 Floodplain Swamp 10 Wet Flatwoods 11 Blackwater Stream 12 Spring-Run Stream 13 Developed Outparcel 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 1 6 4 5 5 7 7 8 9 9 9 9 5 10 11 12 13 13 13 9

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43 Figure 3-2. Selected natural communities of the Silver River State Park. (A) Floodpl ain swamp. (B) Sandhill. (C) Scrub. (D) Spr ingrun stream. B A C D

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44 CHAPTER 4 COMMUNITY ANALYSIS This analysis was conducted in order to quantitatively examine differences in some of the plant communities occurring within the Silv er River State Park. Five study plots were selected in which I measured the diversity, dens ity, species richness, and structure. I selected areas that were representative of that comm unity and within a large contiguous area of the community type, so that the one-hectare plot would not include ecotone s/transitional zones. Sandhill The sandhill plot is relatively mature with a high canopy (ca. 20 m) of longleaf pine ( Pinus palustris ), a scattered layer of low shrubs (mos tly below 2 m), and a dense carpet of herbs/grasses. This area has the greatest co mbined species richness of all five plant communities with 33 species (Fig. 4-1). The sandhill plot also has the greatest over all Shannon diversity (Table 4-1). This area is c ontrol burned periodically, and is generally free of the hardwoods that occur following fire suppression. Only three species of trees >15cm DBH occurred in the one hectare plot: Pinus palustris Quercus laevis and Q. margaretta (Fig 4-1). Longleaf pine is the high canopy tree here, and has broad flat topped crowns. Their trunks are well spaced with fewer than 20 indi viduals per hectare, and do not cast a dense shade (Fig 4-2). The two oak species in this plot; Turkey oak ( Quercus laevis ) and Sand post oak ( Quercus margaretta), form a sparse lower canopy beneat h the pines. These oaks are fire resistant, like the longleaf pine, although they are generally shorter lived and smaller. The relatively thin canopy of pine and oak allows much light through to the shrub and herb layer, and it is here that most of the species richness in this habitat resides. These layers also show the greatest shrub di versity and species richness of all community plots (Fig. 4-1, Table 4-1). This 100 m2 plot contained a considerable number of woody or semi-woody

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45 shrubs, excluding saplings of tree species (Fig. 4-1). Because of frequent fires in sandhill communities, many of these shrubby plants st ore considerable resources under the soil and will resprout if the aerial portions are killed back after a fire Consequently some of these shrubs form spreading clones making the determin ation of individual plants difficult. In such cases all the individual stems likely arising from a shared rh izome or root system were considered to be a single unit. The sandhill sh rub layer in this plot is patchy, with no singularly dominant species. With in the shrub plot there was al so considerable variation in growth forms including a prostrate creeping palm, Serenoa repens ; an ascending, sympodial shrub, Rhus copallina ; and the rhizomatous diminutive shrub, Licania michauxii Nearly as diverse, the herb/g rass layer of this plot has th e greatest species richness of any of the five communities (Fig 4-1). Wire grass ( Aristida stricta ) dominates the forest floor and was found in every sub-plot. An important component of the regular fires in sandhills, wiregrass will only flower following a grow ing season burn (Myers and Ewel 1990). The Asteraceae was represented by six species, and wa s the family with the highest diversity in the sandhill plot, followed by the Poaceae with th ree species, and Fabaceae with two species (Appendix). Hydric Hammock The hydric hammock is a seasonally floode d habitat with a tall (ca. 20 m) dense canopy, the shade cast below allows for very few woody shrubs. All the trees here except the cabbage palm ( Sabal palmetto ) are deciduous, thus in the coo l/dry season the increased light gives rise to a scant layer of grasses and herbs, which grow on the exposed rich muck soil. During the warm/wet season up to 0.5m of sta nding water floods the ar ea for several months. This plot had the greatest tree species richness, diversity, and density, and the second greatest species richness of all communities (Figs. 4-1. 4-2, Table 4-1). Bald cypress ( Taxodium

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46 distichum ), pop ash ( Fraxinus caroliniana ), and cabbage palm were the most common of the nine species in this plot, and accounted for over 70% of the mature trees (Appendix). One species of liana (Vitis rotundifolia ) is found here, and four large specimens reached into the canopy. Only two shrub species, blue stem palm ( Sabal minor ) and red buckeye ( Aesculus pavia ), were found in the sub-plot, and both occurred at very low densities. This is the lowest density of all five communities, and equal only to the mesic hammock in shrub species richness (Fig 4-2). The low density is likely a result of the dense shade cast over the forest floor by the high thick canopy, and the periodic flooding, The grass/herb layer is thin and usually seasonal, with th e exception of lizards tail ( Saururus cernuus ), which persists and flowers in the deep shade of summer. Most of the remaining grass/herb species appear to colonize the exposed, but persistently moist soil during the cool/dry winter-early spring when the leafless canopy pe rmits sunlight to penetrate to the forest floor. Densities of these species were low, and none of them occurred in more than five of the sub-plots (Fi g. 4-2). Surprisingly, this plot has the highest Shannon diversity of herbs (Table 4-1). Because of the clonal natu re of many of these herbs it is difficult to ascertain exactly how many indivi duals may be present, but none of them are very abundant. Mesic Hammock Forming broad areas adjacent to the floodplain, the mesic hammocks of the Silver River State Park have a tall to medium height canopy (ca. 1015 m) of mostly hardwood trees and palms that cast a dense shade and are found on some of the richer so ils of the park. The dense shade permits only a very few shrub and gr ass/herb species, sim ilar to the number of understory species in the hydric hammock, altho ugh they occur at slig htly higher densities (Figs. 4-1, 4-2). This plot had the third gr eatest overall species ri chness (equal to the oak

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47 scrub), and second greatest tree species rich ness and density of all compared communities (Figs. 4-1, 4-2). The cabbage palm (Sabal palmetto ) was the dominant tree species with more individuals than all the other species co mbined, and more than three times the number of the next most abunda nt species: sweetgum ( Liquidambar styraciflua ). This area has a greater number of large lianas ( Vitis spp.) reaching the canopy than any other community (Appendix). Shrubs were very few and at very low de nsities with only two species recorded: blue stem palm ( Sabal minor ) and beautyberry ( Callicarpa americana). This plot also had the lowest diversity of shrubs, yet the second highe st overall diversity (Table 4-1). Although the soils are relatively rich and usually moist, the deep shade of this forest seems to prevent most shrub establishment in the mesic hammock, sim ilar to the situation in the hydric hammock, The two communities differ, however, in the lack of seasonal flooding. The grass/herb layer here is sparse, there were no dominant species, and no species occurred in all of the sub-plots (Appendix). Pine Flatwoods The pine flatwoods of the Silver River Stat e Park comprise one of the smallest natural communities in area (ca. 20 hectares) in the pa rk and are limited to two small areas. The tall upper canopy is formed by two pi ne species, loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda ) and slash pine (P. elliottii ), however, one smaller broadleaf tree, swampbay ( Persea palustris ), does provide a limited lower canopy. Densities of these pines are great er than those of the sandhill, although the individual trees are generally smaller and with smaller canopies, a llowing for more light penetration (Fig. 4-2). Shannon di versity of trees here is the lowest for all plots, likely because loblolly pine is the dominant tree and outnumbers slash pine by ten to one (Table 4-

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48 1)(Appendix). Past logging, and thinning of several areas in the park due to an infestation of pine bark beetles may have altered canopy composition. Shrubs in the pine flatwoods form a very dense thicket from 1-3m tall, with the second greatest species richness of the five plant communities (Fig. 4-1). The density of shrubs appears lower than th at of the sandhill community, but is comprised of many woody shrubs and saw palmetto ( Serenoa repens ) that cover most of the open area beneath the pine canopy, forming almost impassable thickets (Fig 4-2). Saw palmetto is by and large the most common species of the shrub layer. Second to that species are several members of the Ericaceae, e.g., Lyonia lucida, L. ferruginea, Vaccinium myrsinites and Kalmia hirsuta which thrive on sandy acidic soils (Appendix). In surveys of grass/herb sub-plots only tw o species were recorde d, giving this area the lowest species richness, diversity, and density of all the plant communities (Figs. 4-1, 4-2, Table 4-1). Seven of the ten plots had no gra ss/herb species, and the greatest number of individuals was four, occurring in only two pl ots (Appendix). This is a result of the very dense shrub layer, which prevents the establis hment of most seedlings. In fact, very few patches of bare soil were seen in this area. Some mosses and lichens did occur in these small patches, and generally seemed to be more successful than herbaceous vascular plants. Oak Scrub Only one small area of oak scrub occurs with in the park. The alm ost pure white sand of this community is very nutrient poor and we ll drained, and gives ri se to a unique and endangered plant community. The oak scrub, as th e name implies, is home to several species of stunted gnarled and shrubby oaks that fo rm a loosely arranged low canopy, with large open areas of bare sand and sparse groundc over. Two species form the upper canopy, sand live oak ( Quercus geminata ), and turkey oak ( Quercus laevis ), though they do not occur at

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49 such densities sufficient to provide much shade. Tree density for all communities is the lowest in the oak scrub (Fig. 4-2). They are generally low in stature (< 10m), and neither species dominates the area. A singular sand pine ( Pinus clausa ) was recorded in the onehectare plot, and though sand pine is a dominant in some scr ub areas, the species does not form large stands in the Silver River State Park. Shrub species include one other oak, myrtle oak ( Q. myrtifolia ), which usually is as broad or broader than tall, forming large clonal clumps. This was the most common shrub species, with five individuals, yet it is not very dominant on the landscape. Despite the abundant light only 11 individual shrubs were re corded in the sub-plot, testifying to other limiting factors such as soil nut rients and water retention (A ppendix). Surprisingly, the grass/herb layer is the second most species rich of the five communities, with nine species, and has the highest species density, although this may be misl eading because 65% of that density is a single grass species ( Triplasis americana) and most others were recorded only a few times (Figs. 4-1, 4-2, Appendix). Most of these herbaceous species are small and shortlived, likely arising during th e rainy season, setting seed, and dying, or persisting with underground storage organs. There was only one obvious perennial: prickly pear ( Opuntia humifusa ). Conclusions The plant communities surveyed here represent some of the diverse habitat types found in north central Florida. Through the examination of the vascular plants comprising these communities we can begin to understand the complex mixture of factors involved in forming and maintaining these ecosystems, and how they may change over time. The differences between these five communities can be seen clearly in their composition, distribution, and structure, but limiting factors place various constraints in all these

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50 communities. Light energy is usually not in short supply on the Florida peninsula, nonetheless when arborescent competitors form such dense shade as to prevent the growth or establishment of understory shrubs or herbs, as in the mesic and hydric hammocks, they struggle to survive. Equally so in the pine flat woods, where a dense shrub layer eliminated all but a very few herbs. Conversely, the open canopy of the sandhill and flatwoods communities did allow for the thriving shrub laye r in these areas, and the high diversity of herbs in the sandhill. Differing soil fertility is perhaps one reas on for the high density and species richness of trees in both the mesic and hydric hammo cks, and conversely the low density of tree species in the oak scrub. Soil mois ture content and retention is also an important factor in these instances. How a particular plant comm unity maintains its dominance in a particular area is perhaps less clear. Ce rtainly, some habitats like sa ndhills and pine flatwoods are perpetuated through regular fires that suppress the growth of hardwood species and promote the fire-adapted flora. Other communities, su ch as hammocks, may shade out sun-loving species, and utilize treefall gaps as nurser ies for progeny. A form of segregation from potential competition is adaptation to specific conditions, as in the oak scrub, where several abiotic factors limit growth and reproduction. None of the species recorded here were found in all five habitats. Only two, cabbage pa lm and saw palmetto, occurred in three communities, and only a very few others occurred in two habitats (Appendix). This suggests that the generalists in this study are limited in number.

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51 Table 4-1. Shannon diversity of vasc ular plants in the selected community plots: Silver River State Park, Marion Co., Florida __________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Community Trees __ Shrubs __ Herbs ___ Total____ Sandhill 0.8385 2.6927 1.4701 5.0014 Hydric hammock 1.7345 0.5623 1.9261 4.2229 Mesic hammock 1.4224 0.4505 1.9045 3.7775 Pine flatwoods 0.3939 1.9521 0.6615 3.0075 Oak scrub 1.1407 1.3667 1.2251 3.7325

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52 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18SANDHILL HYD R IC H A MM OCK M E SI C HA M MOCK PI NE F L A T W OODS OA K SCR UBPLANT COMMUNITYNO. OF SPECIES TREE SHRUB HERB Figure 4-1. Species richness of vascular plants in the selected community plot s River State Park, Marion Co. Florida.

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53 0 50 100 150 200 250 300SA N DHILL HYD RI C H A M MOCK M E SI C HA M MOCK PI NE F L A T W OODS OA K SCR UBPLANT COMMUNITYNO. OF INDIVIDUALS TREE SHRUB HERB Figure. 4-2. Species density of va scular plants in the selected community plots; Silver RiverState park, Marion County, Florida

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54 CHAPTER 5 FLORISTICS A total of 633 species were found in 380 genera, which were included in 124 fam ilies. The largest families, followed by nu mber of species, are Asteraceae (74 spp.), Poaceae (70), Cyperaceae (48), Fabaceae (39), Rubiaceae (15), Plantaginaceae (15), Lamiaceae (15), Ericaceae (15), Fagaceae (14), and Rosaceae (14). The largest genera are Quercus (14 spp.), Carex (13), Cyperus (12), Dichanthelium (8), Paspalum (6), Hypericum (6), Juncus (6), Vaccinium (6), Andropogon (5), and Ludwigia (5). Sixty-six species are new record s for Marion County, these include; Agalinis laxa, Asclepias incarnata, Aureolaria flava, Ba copa innominata, Bambusa multiplex, Butia capitata, Callirhoe papaver, C. glaucescens, C. striatula, Catalpa bignonioides, Cerastium glomeratum, Chamaesyce blodgettii, Chasmant hium latifolium, Citrus x aurantium, C. reticulata, Conradina grandiflora, Crotalaria incana, Croton lobatus, Cuthbertia graminea, Cyperus esculenta, C. involucratus, Dic hanthelium scoparium, D. sphaerocarpon, D. oligosanthes, Dicliptera brachiata, Digitaria ciliaris, D. floridana, D. cognata, Drosera brevifolia, Drymaria cordata, Echinochloa mu ricata, Eleocharis microcarpa, Eriochloa michauxii, Eulophia alta, Gameochaeta falcata, Gratiola virginiana, Crocanthemum georgianum, Helianthus debilis, Hetropogon me lanocarpus, Hypoxis wrightii, Ipomoea sagittata, Juncus coriaceus, Lactuca floridana Lindernia crustacea, Ludwigia erecta, Macfadyena unguis-cati, Matelea florida, M. pubiflora, Morus rubra, Nephrolepis exaltata, Passiflora lutea, Plantago lanceolata, Poly gala grandiflora, Pyrus communis, Ranuculus pusillus, Richardia grandiflora, Sassafras albidum, Setaria pumila, Solidago petiolaris, Spiranthes praecox, Thalia geniculata, Typha domingensis, Urtica chamaedryoides, Verbena brasiliensis, Veronica peregrina, and Yucca aloifolia

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55 Eighteen Florida endemics were also found. They are Asclepias curtissii, Asimina reticulata, Berlanderia subacaulis, Cam panula floridana, Centrosema arenicola, Chapmannia floridana, Conradina grandiflora, Core opis leavenworthii, Digitaria floridana, Echinochloa paludigena, Eustachys neglecta, Phoebanthus grandiflorus, Pluchea longifolia, Rhynchosia cinerea, Sagittaria kurziana, Scut ellaria arenicola, Sideroxylon alachuense, and Spigelia loganioides. Ten species found in the Silver River St ate park are listed as endangered by the Florida Endangered Plant Advisory Council (EPAC), these include, Asclepia curtissii, Carex chapmanii, Callirhoe papaver, Forestiera godfrey i, Illicium parviflorum, Matelea floridana, M. pubiflora, Sideroxylon alachuense, S. lycoides, and Spigelia loganioides Three species are also listed threatened by EPAC, Conradina grandiflora, Lobelia cardinalis and Matelea gonocarpus Of these listed species, three, Callirhoe papaver Illicium parviflorum and Conradina grandiflora were intentionally planted in the park, and were not found outside of cultivation. Eleven species from the Silver River State Pa rk were found to be near or at the northern or southern limits of their geographic range (Wunderlin & Hansen 2004). At or near the southern limit were seven species, including Carya tomentosa, Forestiera godfreyi, Kalmia hirsuta, Quercus austrina, Sagittaria platyphylla, Solidago odora, and Toxicodendron pubescens. The four species at or near their northern limit are Asclepias curtissii, Croton lobatus, Illicium parviflorum and Sabal etonia An interesting disjunction is found in Croton lobatus with the only other Florida records occu rring in Pinellas and Manatee Counties on the west central peninsula, and in Dade Count y on the southeastern end of the peninsula.

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56 CHAPTER 6 ANNOTATED LIST OF SPECIES The species nom enclature follows Wunderlin & Hansen (2003) and as updated in the ISB Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (W underlin & Hansen 2004). Nomenclature and circumscription of angiosperm plant familie s are based on the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II (2003). Fern and gymnosperm families follow Smith et al. (2006), a nd Judd et al. (2008). Recent taxonomic revisions were also cited for several species. The species list is arranged alphabetically by family, genus, and species with in the larger groups of ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. Each entry includes the species name, followed by the author or authors (as used by Wunderlin & Hansen 2003), the common na me of the plant, the habitat in which it was found, its relative abundance, and the co llection number(s). Species introduced to Florida are indicated by an aste rix (*). For abundance, the following categories were used, and were based on the collectors observations of the plants: rare (one or very few occurrences), occasional (sporad ic occurrence), frequent (widespread throughout study area or plant community), and common (dominants in the plant community ). Jeffery Hubbard made all of the collections unle ss indicated otherwise. Some vouc hers for Silver River plants, which were not collected as part of this st udy, are also cited. Mary B. Buckner collected several species at the Silver River State Park between 1989 and 1991 (also deposited at FLAS), and Robert W. Simons collected Sideroxylon alachuense in the park (Deposited at Florida State University Herbarium). Ferns Aspleniaceae Asplenium platyneuron (L.) BSP. Ebony spleenwort. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 627.

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57 Blechnaceae Woodwardia areolata (L.) T. Moore Netted chain fern. Floodplain sw amp, Depression marsh. Occasional. 195. Woodwardia virginica (L.) J. E. Smith Virginia chai n fern. Depression swamp, floodplain swamp. Frequent. 165. Dennstaedtiaceae Pterid ium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. psuedocaudatum (Clute) ex A. Heller Braken fern. Sandhill, upland hardwood forest, xeric hammock. Frequent. 573. Dryopteridaceae Dryopteris ludoviciana (Kunze) Sm all Southern wood fern. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 159. Lomariopsidaceae Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) Schott Sword fern. Upland hardwood forest, Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 456. (Placement problematic, and possibly best condidered in Nephrolepidaceae, see Smith et al. 2006). Ophioglossaceae Botrychium biterna tum (Sav.) Underw. Southern grape fern. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 618. Osmundaceae Osmunda regalis L. Ro yal fern. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 719. Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (L.) C. Presl. Cinnamon fe rn. Depression marsh, floodplain swamp. Frequent. 301,198. (Metzgar et al. 2008). Polypodiaceae Phlebodium aureum (L.) J. Sm Golden polypod y. Epiphyte in floodplain swamp, depression marsh. Occasional. 41. Pleopeltis polypodiodes (L.) E.G. Andrews & Windham var. michauxiana (Weath.) E.G.Andrews & Windham Resurrection fern. Epiphyte in upland hardwood forest, flooplain swamp, depression marsh. Frequent. 556 Pteridaceae *Pteris vitta ta L. Chinese ladder brake. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 457 Vittaria lineata (L.) Sm. Shoestring fern. Epiphyte in floodplain swamp, depression marsh, upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 44.

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58 Salviniaceae Azolla caroliniana W illd. Mosquito fern. Floodplain swamp, dome, and depression marsh. Occasional. 180. *Salvinia minima Baker Water spangles. Floodplain swamp, depression marsh. Frequent. 215. Lygodiaceae *Lygodium japonicum (Thunb.) Sw. Old world clim bing fern. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 461. Thelypteridaceae Thelypteris hispidula (Decne.) C.F. Reed Hairy m aidenfern. Floodplain swamp. Rare. Buckner 144 Gymnosperms Cupressaceae Juniperus virginiana L. Red cedar. Floodplain swa mp, upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 635. Taxodium distichum (L.) L. Rich. Bald cypress. Floodplain swamp, spring-run stream, blackwater stream, dome. Common. 385. Pinaceae Pinus clausa (Chapm an ex Engelm.) Vasey ex Sar g. Sand Pine. Scrubby flatwoods, xeric hammock, scrub. Occasional. 359. Pinus elliottii Engelm. Slash pine. Mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 729. Pinus palustris Mill. Longleaf pine. Sandhi ll, scrubby flatwoods. Common. 358. Pinus taeda L. Loblolly pine. Mesic flatw oods, scrubby flatwoods, upland hardwood forest, depression marsh. Common. 334. Zamiaceae Zamia pumila L. Coontie. Cultivated. Rare. 660. Angiosperms Acanthaceae Dicliptera brachiata (Pursh) Spreng. Branched foldwing. Upland hardw ood forest. Occasional. 295.

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59 Dyschoriste humistrata (Michx.) Kuntze Swamp snakeherb. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 115. Dyschoriste oblongifolia (Michx.) Kuntze Oblongleaf twinflower. Disturbed area, roadside. Rare. Buckner 383. Elytraria caroliniensis (J.F. Gmel.) Pers. Carolina sc alystem. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 518. Ruellia caroliniensis (J.F. Gmel.) Steud. Carolina wild petunia. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 133 28. Adoxaceae Sambucus nigra L. ssp. canadensis (L.) Bolli Elderberry. M esic flatwoods, upland hardwood forest, floodplain swam p, depression swamp. Frequent. 540. Viburnum obovatum Walt. Walterss viburnum. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 316. Agavaceae Yucca aloifolia L. Spanish bayonet. Disturbed area. Rare. 498 Yucca filamentosa L. Adams needle. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 191. Alismataceae Sagittar ia graminea Michx. Grassy arrowhead. Floodpl ain swamp, depression marsh, wet flatwoods, spring-run stream, blackwater stream. Frequent. 725,166. Sagittaria kurziana Gluck Springtape. Sp ring-run stream. Common. 330. Sagittaria platyphylla (Engelm.) J.G. Sm. Delta arrowh ead. Spring-run stream, blackwater stream, depression marsh. Frequent. 611,182. Alliaceae Allium cana dense L. Meadow garlic. Disturbed area. Rare. Buckner 364A Nothoscordum bivalve (L.) Britton False garl ic. Disturbed area. Rare. Buckner 289. Altingiaceae Liquidambar styraciflua L. Sweetgum Upland hardwood forest, floodplain swamp, wet flatwoods, mesic flatwoods. Common. 502. Amaranthaceae *Alternanthera philoxeroides (M art.) Griseb. Alligatorweed. Floodplain swamp, depression marsh, spring-run stream. Frequent. 183 *Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Mexican tea. Sandhill, upl and hardwood forest. Frequent. 641. Froelichia floridana (Nutt.) Moq. Cottonweed. Xeric hammock. Occasional. 57. *Gomphrena serrata L. Globe amaranth. Disturbed area. Rare. Buckner 124 Iresine diffusa Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Jubas bush. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 174.

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60 Amaryllidaceae Hymenocallis rotata (Ker.-Gawl.) Herb. Spring-run spiderlily. Spring-run stream floodplain forest. Occasional. 68. Zephyranthes atamasca (L.) Herb. var. treatiae (S.Watson) Meerow Rainlily. Disturbed area. Rare. Buckner 295 Zephyranthes simpsonii Chapm. Redmargin zephyrlily. Wet flatwoods, upland hardwood forest. Rare. 350. Anacardiaceae Rhus copallina L. W inged sumac. Sandhill, upland hardwood forest, mesic flatwoods. Frequent. 90 Toxicodendron pubescens Mill. Poison oak. Sandhill. Occasional. 752. Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze Poison ivy. Sandhill, upland hardwood forest, mesic flatwoods, wet flatwoods, depression marsh. Common. 380 Annonaceae Asimina incana (Bartr. ) Exell Woolly pawpaw. Sandhill, scrub, scrubby flatwoods. Frequent. 397 Asimina parviflora (Michx.) Dunal Sma llflower pawpaw. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 432. Asimina pygmaea (Bartr.) Dunal Dwarf pawpaw. Sandhill. Occasional. 471. Asimina reticulata Shuttlew. ex Chapm. Netted pawpaw. Mesic flatwoods, upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 739. Apiaceae Centella a siatica (L.) Urban Spadeleaf. Depression marsh, floodplain swamp, wet flatwoods. Frequent. 561 Chaerophyllum tainturieri Hook. Hairyfruit chervil. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 713. Cicuta maculata L. Water hemlock. Spring-run str eam, blackwater stream, floodplain swamp, depression marsh. Frequent. 506. Eryngium baldwinii Spreng. Baldwins eryngo. Upland hardwood forest, wet flatwoods, depression marsh, floodpl ain swamp. Frequent. 177,135. Oxypolis filiformis (Walt.) Britt. var. filiformis Giant water cowbane. Depression marsh. Occasional. 280. Ptilimnium capillaceum (Michx.) Raf. Mock bishopsweed Floodplain forest. Occasional. 671. Sanicula canadensis L. Canadian blacksnakeroot. Floodplain swamp. Rare. Buckner 357 Sium suave Walt. Hemlock waterparsnip. Spring-run stream. Common. 800. Spermolepis divaricata (Walt.) Raf. Roughfruit scaleseed. Disturbed area. Rare. Buckner 254. Spermolepis echinata (Nutt.) A. Heller Bristly scaleseed. Sandhill. Occasional. 371.

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61 Apocynaceae Amsonia ciliata W alt. Fringed bluestar. Scrub. Rare. 742. Asclepias curtissii A. Gray Curtiss milkweed. Scrub. Rare. 1. Asclepias humistrata Walt. Pinewoods milkweed. Sandhill. Occasional. 377. Asclepias incarnata L. Swamp milkweed. Floodpl ain forest. Occasional. 36. Asclepias tuberosa L. Butterfly weed. Upland hard wood forest, sandhill. Occasional. 21. Asclepias verticillata L. Whorled milkweed. Sandhill, upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 596, 644. Cynanchum scoparium Nutt. Leafless swallowwort. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 26. Matelea floridana (Vail) Woodson Florida milkvine. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 488. Matelea gonocarpos (Walt.) Shinners Anglepo d. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 786 Matelea pubiflora (Decne.) Woodson Trailing mil kvine. Disturbed area. Rare. 762. Aquifoliaceae Ilex ambigua (Michx. ) Torr. Sand holly. Upland hardwood hammock. Occasional. 433. Ilex cassine L. Dahoon holly. Floodplain swamp, wet flatwoods. Frequent. 443. Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray Gallberry. Mesic fl atwoods, wet flatwods, upland hardwood hammock. Frequent. 484 Ilex opaca Ait. var. opaca American holly. Upland hardwood hammock. Occasional. 429. Ilex vomitoria Ait. Yaupon. Cultivated. Rare. 797. Araceae Arisaema dracontium (L .) Schott Greendragon. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 535. Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott Jack-in-the-pulpit. Upland hardwood forest, floodplain forest. Occasional. 694. *Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott Taro. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 525. Lemna valdiviana Phil. Duckweed. Depression ma rsh, floodplain swamp, spring-run stream, blackwater stream. Common. 179. Peltandra virginica (L.) Schott & Endl. Green arrow arum. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 654. Pistia stratiotes L. Water lettuce. Spring-run stream floodplain swamp, blackwater stream. Common. 505. Araliaceae Aralia spinosa L. Devils walking stick. Upland hardwood forest, m esic flatwoods. Occasional. 171. Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L. f. Floating marshpennywort. Spring-run stream, blackwater stream, floodplain swamp, depr ession marsh. Frequent. 511. Hydrocotyle umbellata L. Manyflower marshpennywor t. Spring-run stream, floodplain swamps. Occasional. Buckner 165. Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. Whorled marshpennywort. Floodplain swamp, depression marsh, wet flatwoods. Frequent. 39, 362.

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62 Arecaceae *Butia capitata (Mart.) Becc. Jelly palm. Disturbed area. Rare. 541. Sabal etonia Swingle ex Nash Scrub palm. Scrub, xeric hammock. Occasional. 579. Sabal minor (Jacq.) Pers. Bluestem palm. Upla nd hardwood forest, wet flatwoods. Common. 521. Sabal palmetto (Walt.) Lodd. ex Schult. Cabbage palm. Upland hardwood forest, disturbed areas, wet flatwoods, floodplain swamp, depression marsh. Common. 542 Serenoa repens (Bartr.) Small Saw palmetto. Sa ndhill, scrubby flatwoods, scrub, mesic flatwoods. Common. 474 Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Wendl. & Drude Needle palm. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 580. Asteraceae Acmella opp ositifolia (Lam.) R.K. Jansen var. repens (Walt.) R. K. Jansen Oppositeleaf spotflower. Upland hardwood hammock. Occasional. 287,45 Ageratina jucunda (Greene) Clewell & Woot. Hamm ock snakeroot. Sandhill. Frequent. 257. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Common ragweed. Upland ha rdwood forest, floodplain swamp. Frequent. 52 Baccharis glomerulifolia Pers. Silverling. Disturbed area. Occasional. Buckner 18 Baccharis halimifolia L. Groundsel tree. Disturbed areas, floodplain swamp, wet flatwoods, depression marsh. Frequent. 288. Berlandiera subacaulis (Nutt.) Nutt. Greeneyes. Sandhill. Occasional. 366 Bidens alba (L.) DC. Beggarticks. Disturbed area, upland hardwood hammock. Frequent. 749. Bidens bipinnata L. Spanish needles. Disturbed area. Depression marsh. Occasional. 31. Bidens laevis (L.) BSP. Burrmarigold. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 302. Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff Smallfruit beggarticks. Depression marsh. Frequent 275 Carphephorus corymbosus (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray Flor ida paintbrush. Scrub, sandhill. Occasional. Buckner 108 Carphephorus odoratissimus (J.F. Gmel.) Herb. var. odoratissimus Vanillaleaf. Mesic flatwoods, wet flatwoods. Frequent. 156, 201. Cirsium horridulum Michx. Purple thistle. Upland hardwood hammock, disturbed area, sandhill. Occasional. 364 Cirsium nuttallii DC. Nuttals thistle. Upland hardwood forest, floodplain swamp. Occasional. 520. Conoclinium coelestinum (L.) DC. Blue mistflower. Up land hardwood forest. Occasional. 440. Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. var. pusilla (Nutt.) Cr onq. Canadian horseweed. Xeric hammock. Occasional. 71. Coreopsis leavenworthii Torr. & Gray Leavenworths tickseed. Wet flatwoods. Frequent. 517, 188, 105. Croptilon divaricatum (Nutt.) Raf. Slender scratchdaisy. Sandhill. Occasional. 230. Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. False daisy. Depression marsh. Occasional. 614

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63 Elephantopus elatus Bertol. Tall elephantsfoot. Up land hardwood hammock. Frequent. 168. Erechtites hieraciifolius (L.) Raf. Fireweed. Sandhill, mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 83. Erigeron quercifolius Lam. Oakleaf fleabane. Upland hardwood hammock. 175. Erigeron strigosus Muhl. Prairie fleabane. Upland hardwood hammock, mesic flatwoods. Frequent. 428, 567 Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & Gray Early whitetop fleabane. Wet flatwoods, depression marsh. Occasional. 116. Eupatorium album L. White thoroughwort. Sandhill. Occasional. 9. Eupatorium compositifolium Walt. Yankeeweed. Sandhill. Frequent. 255 Eupatorium mohrii Greene Mohrs thoroughwort. Mesic flatwoods, wet flatwoods. Frequent. 606, 566, 209 Eupatorium serotinum Michx. Lateflowering thoroughwor t. Mesic hammock. Occasional. 795. Euthamia caroliniana (L.) Greene ex Porter & Britton Slender goldenrod. Mesic flatwoods, wet flatwoods. Common. 273. Gaillardia pulchella Foug. Firewheel. Cultivated. Rare. 623. Gamochaeta falcata (Lam.) Cabrera Narrowleaf pur ple everlasting. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 708. Gamochaeta pensylvanicum (Willd.) Cabrera Pennsylvani a everlasting. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 709. Gamochaeta purpurea (L.) Cabrera Spoonleaf purple everlasting. Disturbed area. Rare. Buckner 256 Helenium amarum (Raf.) H. Rock Spanish daisy. Sandhill. Occasional. 262. Helenium flexuosum Raf. Purplehead sneezeweed. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 519. Helianthus angustifolius L. Narrowleaf sunflower. Sandhill. Occasional. 11. Helianthus debilis Nutt. West coast dune sunflower. Cultivated. Rare. 620 Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britt. & Rusby Camphorweed. Sandhill. Occasional. 261. Hieracium gronovii L. Queendevil. Sandhill. Occasional. 227, 75. Hieracium megacephalon Nash Coastalplain hawkweed. Sandhill. Occasional. 265. Krigia vir ginica (L.) Willd. Virginia dwarfdande lion. Xeric hammock, scrub. Frequent. 331. Lactuca floridana (L.) Gaertn. Woodland lettuce. Floodplain swamp. Frequent. 590 Lactuca graminifolia Michx. Grassleaf lettuce. Sandhill. Occasional. 374 Liatris elegans (Walt.) Michx. Pinkscale gayfeather. Sandhill, xeric hammock. Occasional. 220. Liatris tenuifolia Nutt. Shortleaf gayfeather. Xeric hammock. Occasional. 206. Lygodesmia aphylla (Nutt.) DC. Rose rush. Sandhill. Occasional. 85. Melanthera nivea (L.) Small Snow squarestem. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 291. Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. Climbing hempvine. Upland hardwood forest, floodplain swamp. Occasional. 293. Packera glabella (Poir.) C. Jeffrey Butterwee d. Disturbed area. Occasional. 778. Palafoxia integrifolia (Nutt.) Torr. & Gray Coastalplain palafox. Sandhill. Frequent. 650, 264.

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64 Phoebanthus grandiflorus (Torr. & Gray) Blake Florid a false sunflower. Sandhill. Occasional. 643, 79. Pityopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Nutt. Narrowleaf silkgrass. Sandhill, scrub, xeric hammock. Common. 254 Pluchea longifolia Nash Longleaf camphorweed. Floodplain swamp. Frequent. 112. Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass Sweetscent. Floodplain swamp. Frequent. 46 Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium (L.) Hilliard & B.L. Burtt Rabbit tobacco. Sandhill, disturbed area. Frequent. 231. Pterocaulon pycnostachyum (Michx.) Elliott Blackr oot. Disturbed area. Rare. Buckner 395 Pyrrhopappus carolinianus (Walt.) DC. Carolina desertchicory. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 435. Rudbeckia mollis Ell. Softhair coneflower. Disturbed area. Occasional. 549, 69. Sericocarpus tortifolius (Michx.) Nees Dixie aster. Sandhill. Occasional. 259. Silphium compositum Michx. Kidneyleaf rosinweed. Sandhill, mesic flatwoods. Frequent. 758. Solidago odora Ait. Chapmans goldenrod. Sandhill. Occasional. 22, 572. Solidago petiolaris Ait. Downy ragged goldenrod. Mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 268 Solidago sempervirens L. Seaside goldenrod. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 460. *Sonchus asper (L.) Hill Spiny sowthistle Floodplain swamp. Frequent. 715. Symphyotrichum carolinianum (walt.) Wunderlin & B.F. Hansen Climbing aster. Floodplain swamp. Frequent. 724. Symphyotrichum concolor (L.) G.L. Nesom Eastern silver aster. Sandhill. Occasional. 266. Symphyotrichum elliottii (Torr. & Gray) G.L. Nesom Elliotts aster. Mesic flatwoods, wet flatwoods. Occasional. 270. Symphyotrichum simmondsii (Small) G. L. Nesom Floodplain forest. Occasional. 304. Symphyotrichum subulatum (Michx.) G.L. Nesom Annual saltmarsh aster. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. Buckner 164 Tetragonotheca helianthoides L. Squarehead. Sandhill. Occasional. 482, 95 Verbesina virginica L. Frostweed. Upland ha rdwood hammock. Frequent. 292. Vernonia angustifolia Michx. Tall ironweed. Sandhill. Frequent. 97. Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Trelease Giant ironweed. Disturbed area. Occasional. 27. *Youngia japonica (L.) DC. Oriental false hawksb eard. Disturbed area, upland hardwood forest, mesic flatwoods. Common. 329. Betulaceae Carpinus caroliniana W alt. Bluebeech. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 655. Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch Eastern hop hornbeam. Upland hardwood hammock. Occasional. 703. Bignoniaceae Bignonia capreolata L. Crossvine. Upland hardwood fo rest, wet flatwoods. Occasional. 395. Campsis radicans (L.) S eemann Trumpet creeper. Upland hardwood forest, wet flatwoods. Occasional. 451. Catalpa bignonioides Walt. Southern catalpa. Cultivated. Rare. 427.

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65 *Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) A. Gentry Cat claw vine. Disturbed area. Rare. 528. Brassicaceae Descurainia pinnata (W alt.) Britt. Western tansymus tard. Disturbed area. Frequent. 661. Lepidium virginicum L. Virginia pepperweed. Sandhill, disturbed area. Occasional. 477. Bromeliaceae Tillandsia bartramii E ll. Bartrams airplant. Ep iphyte in floodplain swamp, upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 524. Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. Ballmoss. Epiphyte in sandhill, floodplain swamp, upland hardwood forest, wet flatwoods, scrubby flatwoods, mesic flatwoods. Frequent. 575. Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. Spanish moss. Epiphyte in sandhill, floodplain swamp, upland hardwood forest, wet flatwoods, scr ubby flatwoods, mesic flatwoods. Frequent. 118. Cactaceae Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. Prickly pear. Sandhill, scrub, scrubby flatwoods, xeric hammock. Frequent. 478 Campanulaceae Campanula floridana S. Wats. Florida bellflower Floodplain swa mp. Occasional. 441 Lobelia cardinalis L. Cardinalflower. Spring-run stream, floodplain swamp. Frequent. 42. Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl. Venus lookinglass. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 712. *Wahlenbergia marginata (Thunb.) A. DC. Southern rockbell. Sandhill. Occasional. 372. Cannabaceae Celtis laev igata Willd. Sugarberry. Floodplain sw amp, upland hardwood forest, wet flatwoods. Frequent. 513 Cannaceae Canna flaccida Salisb. Swa mp canna. Depr ession marsh, floodplain swamp. Occasional. 514. Caprifoliaceae Lonicera sempervirens L. Coral honeysuckle. Disturbed area. Rare. 458 Caryophyllaceae *Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. Sticky chickwe ed. Disturbed area. Frequent. 352. *Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Common chickwee d. Disturbed area. Frequent. 271.

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66 Stipulicida setacea Michx. Pineland scalypink. Xeric hammock, scrub, sandhill. Frequent. 363. Ceratophyllaceae Ceratophyllum demersum L. Coontail. Spring-run stream Common. 500 Chrysobalanaceae Licania michauxii Prance Gopher apple. Sand hill, xeric hammock, mesic flatwoods. Common. 465. Cistaceae Crocanthemum corymbosum Michx. Pinebarren frostweed. Sandhill. Occasional. 241 (Arrington and Kubitzki 2003). Crocanthemum georgianum Chapm. Georgia frostweed. Sandhill. Occasional. 226. (Arrington and Kubitzki 2003). Commelinaceae Callis ia graminea (Small) G. C. Tucker Grassleaf roseling. Sandhill, upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 497. Commelina erecta L. Whitemouth dayflower. Dist urbed area, wet flatwoods, upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 29, 515. Tradescantia ohiensis Raf. Ohio spiderwort. Upland hardwood forest, disturbed area. Occasional. 187. Convolvulaceae Dichondra carolinensis Michx. Coltsfoot. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent 309. Ipomoea cordatotriloba Dennstedt Tievine. Upland ha rdwood forest, disturbed area. Occasional. 516, 173. *Ipomoea macrorhiza Michx. Largeroot morningglory. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 192. Ipomoea pandurata (L.) G.F.W. Meyer Man-of-the-earth. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 603. Ipomoea sagittata Poir. in Lam. Saltmarsh morningglory. Floodplain swamp. Rare. 637. *Merremia dissecta (Jacq.) Hallier f. Noyau vine. Disturbed area. Occasional. Buckner 189 Stylisma patens (Desr.) Myint Coastalplain da wnflower. Sandhill. Occasional. 537. Cornaceae Cornus asperifolia Mich x. Roughleaf dogwood. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. Buckner 381 Cornus florida L. Dogwood. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 360 Cornus foemina Mill. Swamp dogwood. Floodpl ain forest. Occasional. 391.

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67 Cucurbitaceae Melothria pendula L. Creeping cucum ber. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 170 Cyperaceae *Bulbostylis barbata (R ottb.) Clarke Watergrass. Mesic flatwoods, wet flatwoods. Frequent. 141, 20 Bulbostylis ciliatifolia (Ell.) Fern. Capillary hairsedge Sandhill, xeric hammock,upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 59, 745. Bulbostylis stenophylla (Ell.) Clarke Sandyfeild hairy sedge. Sandhill. Occasional. 93 Carex alata Torr. & Gray Broadwing sedge. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 356. Carex blanda Dewey Eastern woodland sedge. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 341. Carex chapmannii Steudel Chapmans sedge Floodplain swamp. Occasional 445. Carex comosa Boott Longhair sedge. Floodplain swamp. Frequent. 591 Carex complanata Torr. & Hook. Blue sedge. Disturbed area. Rare. Buckner 281 Carex dasycarpa Muhl. Sandywoods sedge. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 705. Carex debilis Michx. White edge sedge. Floodplain swamp. Frequent. 414 Carex glaucescens Ell. Clustered sedge. Floodplai n swamp, upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 127 Carex longii Mack. Longs sedge. Fl oodplain swamp. Occasional. 390. Carex lupuliformis Sartwell ex Dewey False hop sedge. Disturbed area. 411. Carex nigromarginata Schwein. Blackedge sedge. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 669, 706. Carex stipata Muhl. Owlfruit sedge. Floodplain swamp. Frequent. 355, 583, 686 Carex striatula Michx. Lined sedge. Depression marsh. Occasional. 677. Cladium jamaicense Crantz Jamaica swamp sawgrass. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 503. Cyperus compressus L. Poorland flatsedge. Mesic flatwoods. Frequent. 142. Cyperus distinctus Steud. Swa mp flatsedge. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 47. *Cyperus esculentus L. Chufa flatsedge. Disturbed area. Frequent. 776. Cyperus filiculmis Vahl Wiry flatsedge. Sandhill. Occasional. 545. *Cyperus involucratus Rottb. Umbrella plant. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 504. Cyperus polystachyos Rottb. Manyspike flatsedge. Wet flatwoods. Occasional. 140. Cyperus plukenetii Fernald Plunkenets flatsedge. Sandhill. Occasional. 646. Cyperus retrorsus Chapm. Pinebarren flatsedge. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 19. *Cyperus rotundus L. Nutgrass. Disturbed area. Frequent. 777 Cyperus strigosus L. Strawcolored flatsedge. Floodplain swamp. Frequent. 34. Cyperus tetragonus Ell. Fourangle flatsedge. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 283 Cyperus virens Michx. Green flatsedge. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 412. Eleocharis baldwinii (Torr.) Chapm. Baldwins spikerush. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 66 Eleocharis microcarpa Torr. Smallfruit spikerush. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 681. Eleocharis montana (Kunth) Roem. & Schult. M ountain spikerush. Occasional. 106. Eleocharis tuberculosa (Michx.) Roem & Schult. Conecup spikerush. Occasional. Depression marsh. 423. Eleocharis vivipara Link Viviparous spikerush. Depression marsh. Occasional. 560, 424.

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68 Fimbristylis autumnalis (L.) Roem. & Schult. Slender fimbry. Wet flatwoods. Frequent. 144, 147. Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) Vahl Forked fimbry. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 107. Fimbristylis puberula (Michx.) Vahl Hairy fimbr y. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 35 601, 109. Kyllinga odorata Vahl. Fragrant spikesedge Wet flatwoods. Frequent. 137. Lipocarpha maculata (Michx.) Torr. American halfchaff sedge. Wet flatwoods. Occasional. 138. Lipocarpha micrantha (Vahl) G.C. Tucker Smallflower halfchaff sedge. Wet flatwoods. Occasional. 143. Rhynchospora colorata (L.) H. Pfeiff. Starrush whitetop. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 032. Rhynchospora corniculata (Lam.) A. Gray Shortbrist le horned beaksedge. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 584 447. Rhynchospora megalocarpa A. Gray Sandyfield beaksedge. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 394 593, 074. Rhynchospora miliacea (Lam.) A. Gray Millet beak sedge. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 415, 63. Scirpus tabernaemontani C.C. Gmel.. Softstem bulrush. Spring-run stream, depression marsh. Occasional. 510. Scirpus lineatus Michx. Drooping bulrush. Depression marsh. Occasional. 339. Scleria ciliata Michx. Fringed nutrush. Sandhill. Occasional. 574. Scleria triglomerata Michx. Tall nutgrass. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 426 Dioscoreaceae *Dioscorea bulbifera L. Air potato. Upland hardwood forest. Disturbed area. Rare. 761 Droseraceae Drosera brevifolia Pursh Sundew. Mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 337. Ebenaceae Diospyros virginiana L. W ild persimmon. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 442 Ericaceae Agarista po pulifolia (Lam.) Judd Pipestem. Cultivated. Rare. 764. Bejaria racemosa Vent. Tarflower. Mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 619, 696 Ceratiola ericoides Michx. Scrub rosemary. Sandhill. Rare. 401. Gaylussacia tomentosa (A. Gray) Small Hairytwig huckl eberry. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 486. (Luteyn et al. 1996). Gaylussacia nana (A. Gray) Small Confederate huckleberry. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 702. (Luteyn et al. 1996). Kalmia hirsuta Walt. Hairy laurel. Mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 695. Lyonia lucida (Lam.) K. Koch Fetterbus h. Mesic flatwoods. Frequent. 421

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69 Lyonia ferruginea (Walt.) Nutt. Rusty staggerbush. Mesic flatwoods. Frequent. 420. Lyonia fruticosa (Michx.) G.S. Torr. Coastalplain staggerbush. Mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 788. Vaccinium arboretum Marsh. Sparkleberry. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 408, 392 Vaccinium corymbosum L. Highbush blueberry. Upland hardwood forest, depression marsh. Frequent. 559. Vaccinium darrowii Camp Darrows blueberry. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 794 Vaccinium elliottii Chapm. Elliotts blueberry. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 801. (Ward 1974, Godfrey 1988). Vaccinium myrsinites Lam. Shiny blueberry. Sandhill upland hardwood forest. Mesic flatwoods. Frequent. 741, 656, 392 Vaccinium stamineum L. Deerberry. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 469, 704, 599. Eriocaulaceae Lachnocaulon beyrichianum Sporl. ex Koern. Southern bogbutton. Xeric hammock. Occasional. 602. Syngonanthus flavidulus (Michx.) Ruhl. Yellow hatpins. Depression marsh. Frequent. 563. Euphorbiaceae Chamaesyce blodgettii (Engelm ex Hitchc.) Small Limestone sandmat. Mesic flatwoods. Frequent. 728 Chamaesyce cordifolia (Ell.) Small Heartleaf sandmat. Sandhill. Occasional. 298. Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp. Pillpod sandmat. Disturbed area. Occasional. 624. Cnidoscolus stimulosus (Michx.) Engelm. & Gray Tread softly. Sandhill. Frequent. 98 Croton argyranthemus Michx. Silver croton. Sandhill. Frequent. 10. Croton lobatus L. Lobed croton. Upland hardwood forest. Rare 626. Croton michauxii G. L. Webster Michauxs croton. Sandhill. Occasional. 4, 61. *Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. Popcorn tree. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 495. Stillingia sylvatica L. Queens delight. Sandhill. Frequent. 6 Tragia urens L. Wavyleaf noseburn. Sandhill. Occasional. 467, 551. Fabaceae *Albizia julibrissin Durazzini Mimosa. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 532 Amorpha fruticosa L. False ind igobush. Mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 96. Centrosema arenicola (Small) F.J. Herm. Pineland butterfly pea. Sandhill. Occasional. 538. Centrosema virginianum (L.) Benth. Spurred butterfly pea. Xeric hammock. Occasional. 3. Cercis canadensis L. Redbud. Cultivated. Rare. 335. Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.) Greene Partridge pea. Sandhill. Occasional. 87. Chapmannia floridana Torr. & Gray Alicia. Sandhill. Occasional. 468, 5. *Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey Lanceleaf rattlebox. Sandhill. Occasional. 228. *Crotalaria pallida Ait. Smooth rattlebox. Sandhill. Frequent. 224. Crotalaria rotundifolia (Walt.) Gmel. Rabbitbells. Sandhill. Frequent. 569, 717, 376 *Crotalaria spectabilis Roth Showy rattlebox. Di sturbed area. Occasional. 234. Dalea pinnata (J.F. Gmel.) Barneby Summer farewell. Sandhill. Frequent. 240.

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70 *Desmodium incanum DC. Creeping beggarweed. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. Buckner 154 Erythrina herbacea L. Coralbean. Upland hard wood forest. Occasional. 448. Galactia elliottii Nutt. Elliotts milkpea. Upland hardwood forest, xeric hammock. Frequent. 23 Galactia mollis Michx. Soft milkpea. Sandhill. Occasional. 570, 754. Galactia regularis (L.) BSP. Eastern milkpea. Sandhill. Occasional. 12, 78. Galactia volubilis (L.) Britt. Downy milkpea. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 55 Indigofera caroliniana Mill. Carolina indigo. Sandhill. Occasional. 8. Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem Hariy lespedeza. Sandhill. Occasional. 127 Lupinus diffuses Nutt. Sky blue lupine. Sandhill. Frequent. 365 *Medicago lupulina L. Black medic. Upland hardwood forest, sandhill, disturbed areas. Frequent. 398 *Melilotus alba Medik. White sweetclover. Disturbed area. Occasional. Buckner 259 Mimosa quadrivalvis L. Florida sensitive brier. Sandhill. Occasional. 747 Orbexilum lupinellus (Michx.) Isely Piedmont leatherroot. Sandhill. Occasional. 470 Pediomelum canescens (Michx.) Rydb. Buckroot Sandhill. Occasional. 466. Rhynchosia cinerea Nash Brownhair snoutbean. Sandhill. Frequent. 80 Rhynchosia reniformis DC. Dollarleaf. Sandhill. Occasional. 100. *Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby Sicklepod. Up land hardwood forest. Occasional. 216. Senna marilandica (L.) Link Maryland wild sensitive plant. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 169. *Senna occidentalis (L.) Link Septicweed. Di sturbed area. Occasional. 639. Tephrosia chrysophylla Pursh Scurf hoarypea. Sandhill. Frequent. 547. Tephrosia florida (F.G. Dietr.) C.E. Wood Florid a hoarypea. Scrub. Occasional. 205 *Trifolium campestre Schreb. Hop clover. Di s turbed area. Occasional. Buckner 265 *Trifolium repens L. White clover. Disturbed area. Occasional. Buckner 284 Vicia acutifolia Ell. Fourleaf vetch. Floodplain swamp. Frequent. 51. Vicia floridana S. Wats. Florida vetch. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 683, 344 *Vicia sativa L. Common vetch. Disturbed area. Occasional. Buckner 294. *Wisteria sinensis (Sims) Sweet Chinese wisteria. Disturbed area. Rare. Buckner 339. Fagaceae Quercus austrina Sm all Bluff oak. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 387, 714. (Ward 2007). Quercus chapmanii Sarg. Chapmans oak. Scrub. Xeric hammock. Occasional. 592. Quercus geminata Small Sand live oak. Xeri c hammock, scrub. Frequent. 425, 595. Quercus hemisphaerica Bartr. ex Willd. Diamond leaf oak. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 378 (Flora North America 1993 2007). Quercus incana Bartr. Bluejack oak. Sandhill. Occasional. 375. Quercus laevis Walt. Turkey oak. Sandhill, scrub, xeric hammock. Common. 368. Quercus laurifolia Michx. Laurel oak. Sandhill. Upla nd hardwood forest, wet flatwoods, Common. 536. Quercus margaretta Ashe ex Small Sand post oak. Sa ndhill, disturbed area. Frequent. 568. Quercus michauxii Nutt. Swamp chestnut oak. Up land hardwood forest. Frequent. 434

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71 Quercus minima (Sarg.) Small Dwarf live oak. Mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 718. Quercus myrtifolia Willd. Myrtle leaf oak. Sandhill, scrub, xeric hammock. Frequent. 419. Quercus nigra L. Water oak. Upland hardwood forest, disturbed area. Frequent. 348. Quercus shumardii Buckl. Shumards oak. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 449 Quercus virginiana Mill. Live oak. Upland hardwood forest. Common. 663. Gelsemiaceae Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) W .T. Aiton. Carolina jessamine. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 312. Gentianaceae Sabatia brevifolia Raf. Shortleaf rosegentian. Up land hardw ood forest. Occasional. 199. Sabatia calycina (Lam.) Heller Coastal rosegent ian. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 581. Geraniaceae Geranium carolinianum L. Carolina cranesbill. Upla nd hardwood forest. Frequent. 690 Haemodoraceae Lachnanthes caroliniana (Lam .) Dandy Carolina redroot. Depression marsh. Occasional. 164, 564. Haloragaceae Proserpinaca palustris L Marsh mermaidweed. Depression marsh, wet flatwoods. Occasional. 243. Proserpinaca pectinata Lam. Combleaf mermaidweed. Depression marsh. Occasional. 160. Hydrangeaceae Decumaria barbara L. Clim bing hydrangea. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 446. Hydrangea quercifolia Bartr. Oakleaf hydrangea. Cultivated. Rare. 768. Hydrocharitaceae Limnobium spongia (Bosc) Steud. Frogs-bit. Depression m arsh. Rare. 178. Hypericaceae Hypericum brachyphyllum (Spach) Steud. Coastalplain St Johns wort. Mesic flatwoods, wet flatwoods, depression m arsh. Occasional. 604 Hypericum cistifolium Lam. Roundpod St. Johns wort. Wet flatwoods. Occasional. 120. Hypericum gentianoides (L.) BSP. Pineweeds. Wet flatwoods. Occasional. 222.

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72 Hypericum hypericoides (L.) Crantz St. Andrews cro ss. Upland hardwood forest, xeric hammock. Occasional. 2. Hypericum mutilum L. Dwarf St. Johns wort. Depression marsh. Occasional. 185. Hypericum tetrapetalum Lam. Fourpetal St. Johns wort. Mesic flatwoods. Frequent. 203. Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis cur tissii Rose Common yellow stargrass. Sandhill. Occasional. 367, 131. Hypoxis juncea J.E. Smith Fringed yellow stargra ss. Mesic flatwoods, wet flatwoods. Occasional. 416. Hypoxis wrightii (Baker) Brackett Bristleseed ye llow stargrass. Upland hardwood hammock. Occasional. 111. Illiciaceae Illicium parviflorum Michx. ex Vent. Star an ise. Cultivated. Rare. 767. Iridaceae Iris hexagona W alt. Dixie iris. Floodplain swamp. Frequent. 388. Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill. Narrowleaf blue-eyed gr ass. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 326. Juglandaceae Carya tomentosa (Michx.) Nutt. Mockernut hic kory. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 493. (Flora North Am erica 1993 2007) Carya aquatica (Michx. f.) Nutt. ex Ell. Water hickory. Upland hardwood forest, depression marsh. Occasional. 455. Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet Pignut hickory. Up land hardwood forest. Frequent. 386. Juncaceae Juncus coriaceus Mack. Leathery rush. Depression marsh. Occasional. 793. Juncus dichotomus Ell. Forked rush. Depression marsh, wet flatwoods. Frequent. 139 Juncus effusus L. Soft rush. Depression marsh, upland hardwood forest (sinkhole). Frequent. 407 Juncus marginatus Rostk. Shore rush. Wet flatwoods. Occasional. 148. Juncus repens Michx. Lesser creeping rush. Depression marsh. Occasional. 327. Juncus scirpoides Lam. Needlepod rush. Wet flatwoods. Occasional. 157 Krameriaceae Krameria la nceolata Torr. Sandspur. Sandhill. Occasional. 464. Lamiaceae Callicarpa a mericana L. Beautyberry. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 25.

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73 Conradina grandiflora Small False rosemary. Cultivated. Rare. 765. Hyptis alata (Raf.) Shinners Musky mint. Depre ssion marsh, wet flatwoods. Frequent184. *Hyptis mutabilis (A. Rich.) Briq. Tropical bushmint. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. All year. 294, 242, 193 *Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R. Br. Lions ear. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. Buckner 185 Lycopus rubellus Moench Taperleaf waterhorehound. Depression marsh, wet flatwoods. Occasional. 277. Monarda punctata L. Spotted horsemint. Disturbed area. Occasional. 235 Piloblephis rigida (Bartr. ex Benth.) Raf. Wild pe nnyroyal. Mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 320. Salvia azurea Lam. Azure blue sage Sandhill. Occasional. 258. Salvia coccinea Buchoz ex Epling Tropical sage. Cultivated. Rare. 770. Salvia lyrata L. Lyreleaf sage. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 342. Scutellaria arenicola Small Florida scrub skullcap. Cultivated. Rare. 625 Scutellaria multiglandulosa (Kearn.) Small Smalls skul lcap. Sandhill. Occasional. 748. Stachys floridana Shuttlew. ex Benth. Florida betony. Upland hardwood forest, wet flatwoods. Frequent. 439 Trichostema dichotomum L. Forked bluecurls. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 249. Lauraceae *Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Nees & Eberm Camphor tree. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 491. Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. Red bay. Mesic flatwoods, upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 485 Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg. Swamp bay. Depression marsh. Occasional. 507, 587. Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees Sassafras. Sandhill. Rare. 490 Lentibulariaceae Utricularia purpurea Walt. Eastern purple bladderw ort. D epression marsh. Rare. 276 Utricularia subulata L. Zigzag bladderwort. Mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 213, 154. Pinguicula pumila Michx. Small butterwort. Wet flatwoods. Occasional. 313. Linderniaceae Lindernia crustacea (L.) F. Muell. Malaysian false pi m pernel. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 108. Loganiaceae Mitreola petiolata (J.F. Gm el.) Torr. & Gray Lax hornpod. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 134 Spigelia loganioides (Torr. & Gray) DC. Florida pi nkroot. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 53

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74 Lythraceae *Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) Macbr. Columbian waxweed. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 126. Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne Toothcup. Mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 153. Magnoliaceae Magnolia gr andiflora L. Southern magnolia. Upla nd hardwood forest. Frequent. 531 Magnolia virginiana L. Sweetbay. Floodplai n swamp. Frequent. 508. Malvaceae Callirhoe pa paver (Cav.) A. Gray Woodland poppymallow. Cultivated. Rare. 755. Hibiscus coccineus (Medic.) Walt. Scarlet rosemallow. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 526. Sida rhombifolia L. Indian hemp. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 190 *Urena lobata L. Caesarweed. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 250 Marantaceae Thalia geniculata L. Allig atorflag. Depression marsh. Occasional. 214. Melastomataceae Rhexia mariana L. Pale m eadowbeauty. Mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 600 Rhexia nashii Small Maid Marian. Depression marsh. Occasional. 248. Rhexia petiolata Walt. Fringed meadowbeauty. Mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 155. Moraceae *Ficus pumila L. Creeping fig. Upland hardwood forest. Disturbed area. Rare. 527. Morus rubra L. Red mulberry. Upland hardwood forest. Occasion al. 533 Myricaceae Myrica cer ifera L. Wax myrtle. Upland hardwood forest, mesic flatwoods, depression marsh. Frequent. 340. Nymphaeaceae Nuphar advena (Aiton) W.T. Aiton Spatterdock. Spring-run stream depression marsh, blackwater stream. Frequent. 512. Nymphaea odorata Sol. American white waterlily. Depression marsh. Rare. 796.

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75 Nyssaceae Nyssa sylva tica Marsh. var biflora (Walt.)Sarg. Blackgum. Floodplain forest, upland hardwood forest (sinkhole). Occasional. 406. Oleaceae Forestiera g odfreyi L.C. Anderson Godfreys swampprivet. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. Buckner 375 Fraxinus caroliniana Mill. Pop ash. Floodplain swamp. Frequent. 697. *Ligustrum lucidum Ait. f. Glossy privet. Disturbed area. Rare. 659. *Ligustrum sinense Lour. Chinese privet. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 323. Osmanthus americana (L.) A. Gray Wild olive. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 333. Onagraceae Ludwigia erecta (L.) Hara Yerba de Jicot ea. Wet flatwoods. Frequent. 245 Ludwigia maritima F. Harper Seaside primrosewillow. Mesic flatwoods. Frequent. 604 Ludwigia microcarpa Michx. Smallfruit primrosewillow. Depression marsh. Occasional. 40. Ludwigia repens Forst. Creeping primrosewill ow. Floodplain swamp. Frequent. 389 Ludwigia suffruticosa Walt. Shrubby primrosewillow. Depression marsh. Occasional. 610. Oenothera biennis L. Common eveningprimrose. Mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 267. Oenothera simulans (Small) W.L. Wagner & Hoch Southern beeblossom. Sandhill. Frequent. 571 (Wagner et al. 2007). Orchidaceae Epidendrum magnoliae Muhl. Greenfly orchid. Epi phyte in upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 56. (Hagsater 2000). Eulophia alta (L.) Fawc. & Rendle W ild coco. Sandhill. Occasional. 597 Habenaria quinqueseta (Michx.) Eaton Michauxs orchi d. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 196, 24. Spiranthes praecox (Walt.) S. Wats.Greenvein ladiestr esses. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 737. *Zeuxine strateumatica (L.) Schlechter Lawn orchid. Wet flatwoods. Rare. 658. Orobanchaceae Agalinis lax a Pennell Twoline false foxgl ove. Sandhill. Occasional. 241 Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell Purple false foxglove. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 247. Aureolaria flava (L.) Farw. Smooth yellow false foxglove. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 202. Buchnera americana L. American bluehearts. Mesic flatwoods. Occasional. Buckner 331 Seymeria pectinata Pursh. Piedmont blacksenna. Sandhill. Occasional. 172

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76 Oxalidaceae Oxalis corniculata L. C reeping woodsorrel. Upland hardwood forests, wet flatwoods, floodplain swamps. Frequent. 691, 281, 306. *Oxalis debilis Kunth Pink woodsorrel. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 710. Papaveraceae Corydalis m icrantha (Engelm.) A. Gray Smallflower fumewort. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 707. Passifloraceae Passiflo ra incarnata L. Purple passionflower. Up land hardwood forest. Occasional. 539. Passiflora lutea L. Whiteflower passionflower. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 674. Phyllanthaceae Phyllanthus caroliniensis W alt. Carolina leafflower. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 186. Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca americana v ar. rigida (Small) Caulkins & Wyatt Pokeweed. Sandhill, upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 229. (Flora North America). Rivina humilis L.Rougeplant. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 290 Plantaginaceae Bacopa caroliniana (Walter) B.L. Rob. Lem on bacopa. Depression marsh. Frequent. 252. Bacopa innominata (M. Gomez) Alain Tropical waterhyssop. Depression marsh. Occasional. 110. Callitriche peploides Nutt. Matted waterstarwort. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 310 Gratiola hispida (Benth. ex Lindl.) Pollard Rough hedgehyssop. Mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 151. Gratiola virginiana L. Roundfruit hedgehyssop. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 303 Linaria canadensis (L.) Chaz. Canada toadflax. Sandhill, mesic flatwoods, upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 373. Linaria floridana Chapm. Apalachicola toadflax. Scrub, sandhill. Occasional. 721. Mecardonia acuminata (Walter) Small Subsp. Peninsularis (Pennell) Rossow Axilflower. Wet flatwoods. Occasional. 114, 251. Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small Baby jumpup. Wet flatwoods. Rare. 130. Penstemon multiflorus (Benth.) Manyflower beardtongue. Upland hardwood forest, mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 13. *Plantago lanceolata L. Narrowleaf plantain. Distur bed area, mesic flatwoods, upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 353. Plantago virginica L. Virginia plantain. Disturbed area, mesic flatwoods, wet flatwoods. Frequent. 735

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77 Scoparia dulcis L. Sweetbroom. Depression marsh, upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 117. *Veronica arvensis L. Corn speedwell. Disturbed area. Rare. Buckner 264 Veronica peregrina L. Neckweed. Disturbed area. Occasional. 693. Poaceae Agrostis hy menalis (Walt.) Britton et al. Spring bentgrass. Sandhill. Frequent. 253. Andropogon floridanus Scribn. Florida bluestem. Sandhill. Occasional. 14, 73. Andropogon glomeratus var. pumilis (Vasey) Vasey ex L. H. Dewey Purple bluestem. Upland hardwood forest. 289. Andropogon gyrans Ashe var. gyrans Elliotts bluestem. Scrub, sandhill. Frequent. 774 Andropogon ternarius Michx. Splitbeard bluest em. Sandhill. Frequent. 649 Andropogon virginicus L. var. virginicus Broomsedge bluestem. Upland hardwood forest, mesic flatwoods, sandhill. Frequent. 675. Anthaenantia villosa (Michx.) Beauv. Green silkyscale. Sandhill. Occasional. 652. Aristida spiciformis Ell. Bottlebrush threeawn. Wet flatwoods. Frequent. 208. Aristida stricta Michx. Wire grass. Sandhill. Frequent. 256. Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Chapm. Switchcane. Depression marsh, floodplain swamp. Occasional. 552. Axonopus furcatus (Fluegge) Hitchc. Big carpet gr ass. Wet flatwoods. Occasional. 792. *Bambusa multiplex (Lour.) Raeusch. ex J.A. & J.W. Schultes Silver stripe bamboo. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 784. *Bromus catharticus Vahl Rescue grass. Di sturbed area. Occasional. 790 Cenchrus echinatus L. Sandbur. Sandhill. Frequent. 260. Chasmanthium latifolium (Michx.) Yates Woodoats. Fl oodplain swamp. Occasional. 780. Chasmanthium laxum (L.) Yates Slender woodoats. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 63. *Dactyloctenium aegyptium L. Orchard grass. Disturbed area. Rare. Buckner 128. Dichanthelium aciculare (Desv. ex Poir.) Gould & Clark Needleleaf witch grass. Scrub, sandhill. Frequent. 60. Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & Clark Tapered witch grass. Depression marsh. Occasional. 565. Dichanthelium dichotomum (L.) Gould Cypress witch gr ass. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 668, 122, 773 Dichanthelium laxiflorum (La m.) Gould Openflower witch grass. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 684 Dichanthelium oligosanthes (Schult.) Gould Helle rs witch grass. Upland hardwood forest, scrub. Occasional. 772. Dichanthelium Portoricense (Desv. ex Ham.) B.F. Hansen & Wunderlin Hemlock witch grass. Wet flatwoods. Occasional. 103 Dichanthelium scoparium (Lam.) Gould Velvet witch grass. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 15. Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon (Ell.) Gould Roundseed witch grass. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 218. Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel. Southern crab gra ss. Disturbed area, upland hardwood hammock. Frequent 751 Digitaria cognata (Schult.) Pilg. Carolina crab grass. Sandhill. Occasional. 88.

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78 Digitaria floridana Hitchc. Florida crab gra ss. Disturbed area. Rare. 783 *Digitaria pentzii Stent Pangola grass. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 18, 82. Digitaria serotina (Walt.) Michx. Blanket crab gr ass. Wet flatwoods. Occasional. 731 *Echinochloa colona (L.) Link Jungle rice. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 129. Echinochloa muricata (Beauv.) Fern. Rough barnya rd grass. Floodplain swamp. 522. Echinochloa paludigena Wiegand Florida cocks pur. Floodplain swamp. Rare. Buckner 166. Eragrostis elliottii S. Wats. Elliotts love grass. Sandhill. Frequent. 218 Eragrostis spectabilis (Pursh) Steud. Purple love grass. Sandhill. Occasional. 94. *Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hackel Centipede grass. Frequent. Sandhill, upland hardwood forest. 647. Eriochloa michauxii (Poir.) Hitchc. var. michauxii Michauxs cup grass. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 509. Eustachys neglecta (Nash) Nash Fourspike finger grass. Disturbed area. Occasional. Buckner 345 Eustachys petraea (Sw.) Desv. Pinewoods fingergrass. Sandhill. Frequent. 7. Gymnopogon ambiguus (Michx.) BSP. Bearded skeleton grass. Sandhill. Occasional. 239. Heteropogon melanocarpus (Ell.) Benth. Sweet tanglehead. Disturbed area. Occasional. 237. *Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Cogon grass. Up land hardwood forest, sandhill. Occasional. 787. Leersia virginica Willd. White grass. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 687 *Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka Rose natal grass. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 272. Muhlenbergia capillaris (Lam.) Trin. Hairawn muhly. Sandhill. Frequent. 253. Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) P. Beauv. Woods grass. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 282. Panicum anceps Michx. Beaked panicum. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 284. Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx. Fall panic grass. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 217. Panicum hemitomon Schult. Maiden cane. Depression m arsh, floodplain swamp, spring-run stream. Frequent. 462. Panicum virgatum L. Switch grass. Upland hardwood forest, depression marsh, floodplain swamp Frequent. 65. Paspalum conjugatum Berg. Sour paspalum. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 58. Paspalum floridanum Michx. Florida paspalum. Sandhill. Frequent. 648 *Paspalum notatum Fluegge Bahiagrass. Sandhill, upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 17. Paspalum praecox Walt. Early paspalum. Distur bed area. Occasional. 782. *Paspalum setaceum Michx. Thin paspalum. Sandhill. Frequent. 84. *Paspalum urvillei Steud. Vasey grass. Depression marsh. Occasional. 613. Phanopyrum gymnocarpon (Elliott) Nash Savannah panicum. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 285. Piptochaetium avenaceum (L.) Parodi Blackseed needle gr ass. Disturbed area. Occasional. 716. *Poa annua L. Annual blue grass. Upla nd hardwood forest. Frequent. 666 Saccharum giganteum (Walter) Pers. Sugarcane plum e grass. Depression marsh. Occasional. 278, 279. Setaria corrugata (Ell.) Schult. Coastal foxtail. Sandhill. Occasional. 642

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79 Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Roem. & Schult. Knotroot foxtail. Disturbed area. Occasional. 615. *Setaria pumila (Poir.) Kerguelen Yellow foxtail. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 128. Sorghastrum secundum (Ell.) Nash Lopsided Indian grass. Sandhill. Frequent. 775. Sphenopholis obtusata (Michx.) Scribn. Prairie we dgescale. Floodplain swamp. Occasional. 781. *Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. Smut grass. Dist urbed area, upland hardwood hammock, wet flatwoods. Frequent. 779. Sporobolus junceus (Michx.) Kunth Pineywoods dropseed. Sandhill. Frequent. 744. Tridens flavus (L.) Hitchc. Tall redtop. Di sturbed area. Occasional. 238 Triplasis americana Beauv. Perennial sand gr ass. Sandhill. Frequent. 791 Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L. Eastern gama grass. Cultivated. Rare. 757 Polemoniaceae Ipomopsis rubra (L.) W herry Standingcypress. Sandhill. Rare. 99. *Phlox drummondii Hook. Annual phlox. Sandhill, disturbed area. Occasional. 404. Polygalaceae Polygala gr andiflora Walt. Showy milkwort. Sandhill. Occasional. 89, 483, 558. Polygala incarnata L. Procession flower. Sandhill. Occasional. 86. Polygala lutea L. Orange milkwort. Mesic flatwoods, wet flatwoods. Occasional. 605 Polygala nana (Michx.) D.C. Candyroot. Scrubby flatwoods. Rare. Buckner 308B Polygama polygama Walt. Racemed milkwort. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 798. Polygonaceae Eriogonum tomentosum Michx. Dogtongue wild buckwheat. Sandhill. O ccasional. 77 Polygonella gracilis (Nutt.) Meisn. Tall jointweed. Sandhill. Occasional. 223. Persicaria hirsuta (Walt.) Small Hairy smartweed. Depression marsh. Rare. 736. (Kim and Donoghue 2008). Persicaria punctata (Ell.) Small Dotted smartweed. Depression marsh, floodplain swamp. Occasional. 48. (Kim and Donoghue 2008). Rumex hastatulus Baldw. ex Ell. Heartwing do ck. Disturbed area. Frequent. 733. Rumex verticillatus L. Swamp dock. Floodplain forest, depression marsh. 361. Pontederiaceae *Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solm s-Laubach in deCandolle Water hyacinth. Floodplain swamp, spring-run stream, blackwater stream. Frequent. 523. Pontederia cordata L. Pickerelweed. Depression marsh, floodplain swamp spring-run stream, blackwater stream. Frequent. 453. Ranunculaceae Clematis re ticulata Walt. Netleaf leatherflower. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 550.

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80 Clematis catesbyana Pursh Satincurls. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 629. Ranunculus pusillus Poir. Low spearwort. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 682. Rhamnaceae Berchemia scandens (Hill) K. Koch Rattan vin e. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 379. Sageretia minutiflora (Michx.) Mohr Smallflower mock buckthorn. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 379. Rosaceae Aronia arbu tifolia (L.) Pers. Red chokeberry. Scrubby flatwoods. Rare. Buckner 307 (Kalkman 2004). Crataegus marshallii Eggl. Parsley hawthorne. Upland hardwood forest, wet flatwoods. Occasional. 346. Crataegus michauxii Pers. Michauxs hawthorne. Sandhill. Occasional. 400. *Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke Indian strawberry. Disturbed area. Rare. 628, 543. Photinia pyrifolia (Lam) K.R. Robertson & J. B. Phipps Red chokeberry. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 697. Prunus angustifolia Marsh. Chickasaw plum. Cultivated. Rare. 769. Prunus caroliniana Ait. Cherry laurel. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 322. Prunus serotina Ehrh. Black cherry. Sandhill, disturbed area. Occasional. 332. Prunus umbellata Ell. Hog plum. Xeric hammock, upl and hardwood forest. Occasional. 319. *Pyrus communis L. Common pear. Cultivated. Rare. 336. Rosa palustris Marsh. Swamp rose. Floodplain swamp. Rare. 636. Rubus argutus Link Sawtooth blackberry. Upland ha rdwood forest, mesic flatwoods, depression marsh. Frequent. 680. Rubus cuneifolius Pursh Sand blackberry. Sandhill. Frequent. 402. Rubus trivialis Michx. Deerberry. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 328 Rubiaceae Cephalanthus occidentalis L. Buttonbush. Depression m arsh, floodplain swamp. Occasional. 67, 496. Diodia teres Walt. Poor Joe. Upland hardwood forest, mesic flatwoods. Frequent. 150 Diodia virginiana L. Virginia buttonweed. Wet flatwoods. Frequent. 49. Galium aparine L. Stickywilly. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 711. Galium hispidulum Michx. Coastal bedstraw. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 91. Galium pilosum Ait. Hairy bedstraw. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 554. Galium tinctorium L. Stiff marsh bedstraw. Depression marsh. Frequent. 612. Hamelia patens Jacq. Firebush. Cultivated. Rare. 622. Houstonia procumbens (J.F. Gmel.) Standl. Roundleaf bluet. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 311 Mitchella repens L. Twinberry. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 354. *Mitracarpus hirtus (L.) DC. Tropical girdlepod. Up land hardwood forest. Occasional. 125.

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81 *Oldenlandia corymbosa L. Flattop mille graines. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 296. Oldenlandia uniflora L. Clustered mille graines. Depression marsh. Frequent. 197. *Richardia brasiliensis Gomes Tropical Mexican cl over. Xeric hammock, upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 578. *Richardia grandiflora Steud. Largeflower Mexican clov er. Disturbed area. Occasional. 763. Ruscaceae Polygonatu m biflorum (Walter) Elliott Smooth solomons seal. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 673. Rutaceae *Citrus reticulata Blanco Tangerine. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 324 *Citrus x aurantium L. Sweet orange. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 325 *Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. Hardy orange. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 529. Ptelea trifoliata L. Common hoptree. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. 396 Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L. Hercules-club. Disturbed area, upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 617. Salicaceae Salix caroliniana Mich x. Carolina willow. Depression marsh, floodplain swamp. Frequent. 454. Sapindaceae Aesculus pavia L. Red buckeye. Upland hardwo od forest. Occasional 463. Acer negundo L. Box elder. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 321. Acer rubrum L. Red maple. Upland hardwood forest, floodplain swamp. Frequent. 308. Sapindus saponaria L. Soapberry. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 555. Sapotaceae Sideroxylon alachuense L.C. Anderson Silver buckthorn. Upland hardwood forest. Rare. Simons 12083. Sideroxylon lycioides L. C. Anderson Buckthorn bully. Upland hardwood hammock. Rare. 785. Sideroxylon reclinatum Michx. Florida bully. Upland hardwood hammock. Rare. 450 Sideroxylon tenax L. Tough bully. Upland hardwood hammock, scrub. Occasional. 430. Saururaceae Saururus cernuus L. Lizards tail. Depression m arsh, floodplain swamp. Frequent. 413

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82 Smilacaceae Smilax auriculata W alt. Earleaf greenbriar. Upland hardwood forest, sandhill, mesic flatwoods. Frequent. 431 577, 588. Smilax bona-nox L. Saw greenbriar. Upland hardwood forest, sandhill. Frequent. 682 Smilax glauca Walt. Cat greenbriar. Upland hardwood forest, mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 586. Smilax pumila Walt. Sasparilla vine. Upla nd hardwood forest. Frequent. 300. Smilax tamnoides L. Bristly greenbriar. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 589. Solanaceae Physalis walteri Nutt. Walters gro undcherry. Disturbed area. Occasional. 436. Solanum americanum Mill. American black nightshade. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 381. Solanum carolinense L. Carolina horsenettle. Disturbed area. Occasional. 640. *Solanum viarum Dunal Tropical soda apple. Up land hardwood forest. Occasional. 167. Tetrachondraceae Polypremum procumbens L. Rustweed. W et flatwoods. Frequent. 104. Theaceae Gordonia lasianthus (L.) Ellis Lob lolly bay. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 207 Turneraceae Piriqueta caroliniana (W alter)Urb. Pitted stripeseed. Sandhill. Occasional. 557, 225, 101. Typhaceae Typha domingensis Pers Southern catail. De pression marsh. Occasional. 452. Ulmaceae Ulmus alata Michx. Winged elm Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 345. Ulmus americana L. American elm. Upland hardwood forest, floodplain swamp. Occasional. 678, 383, 501. Ulmus crassifolia Nutt. Cedar elm. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 685, 662. Urticaceae Boehmeria cylindrical (L .) Sw. Bog hemp. Wet flatwoods, frequent. 38. Parietaria floridana Nutt. Florida pellitory. Distur bed area, upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 318 Parietaria praetermissa Hinton Clustered pellitory. Upla nd hardwood forest. Occasional. 799.

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83 Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm. Artillery plant. Up land hardwood forest, floodplain swamp. Occasional. 194. Urtica chamaedryoides Pursh Heartleaf nettle. Wet hammock. Occasional. 317. Verbenaceae *Lantana camara L. Lantana. Dis turbed area. Occasional. 548. Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene Matchweed. Disturbed area, wet flatwoods, upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 30. Stylodon carneum (Medic.) Moldenke Carolina false vervain. Sandhill. Occasional. 479. *Verbena brasiliensis Vell. Brazilian vervain. Upla nd hardwood forest. Occasional. 124. Verbena officinalis L. Herb-of-the-cross. Disturbed area. Rare. Buckner 317 Verbena scabra Vahl Sandpaper vervain. Disturbe d area, wet flatwoods. Frequent. 50. Violaceae Viola lanceolata L. Bog blue violet. W et flatwoods upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 347. Viola palmata L. Early blue violet. Disturbed area, upland hard wood forest. Occasional. 351. Viola sororia Willd. Common blue violet. Up land hardwood forest. Frequent. 305. Viscaceae Phoradendron leucarpum (Raf.) Re v. & M.C. Johnston parasite in wet flatwoods, upland hardwood forest, mesic flatwoods. Frequent. 349. Vitaceae Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Koehne Peppervine. Up land hardwood forest. Occasional. 534. Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. Virginia creeper. Upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 544. Vitis rotundifolia Michx. Muscadine. Upland hardwood forest. Frequent. 456, 489. Vitis aestivalis Michx. Summer grape. Sandhill, upland hardwood forest. Occasional. 480. Xyridaceae Xyris brev ifolia Michx. Shortleaf yellow-eyed-gra ss. Depression marsh. Frequent. 338, 418 Xyris caroliniana Walter Carolina yellow-eyed-grass. Scrubby flatwoods. Occasional. Buckner 306. Xyris difformis Chapm. Bog yellow-eyed-grass. De pression marsh, mesic flatwoods. occasional. 163. *Xyris jupicai Rich. Richards yellow-eyed-gra ss. Mesic flatwoods. Occasional. 145.

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84 APPENDIX COMMUNITY ANALYSIS DATA Table A-1. Sandhill p lot tree and shrub community analysis data. ___________________________________________________________________________ Trees [1 hectare plot] Pinus palustris 17 Quercus laevis 5 Quercus margaretta 3 Total 25 Shrubs [100 m2 plot] Serenoa repens 4 Rubus cunifolius 4 Diospyros virginiana 1 Asimina pygmea 2 Vaccinium stamineum 3 Smilax auriculata 3 Asimina incana 3 Callicarpa americana 1 Crataegus michauxii 1 Croton agryanthemus 1 Vitis rotundifolia 1 Toxicodendron radicans 4 Lespedeza hirta 1 Scutellaria arenicola 2 Rhus copallina 2 Licania michauxii 3 Total 36 ___________________________________________________________________________

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85 Table A-2. Sandhill plot herb/grass community analysis data. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Herbs/grasses [10 1 m2 plots] Cumulative Plot 1 Plot 2 Plot 3 Plot 4 Plot 5 Plot 6 Plot 7 Pl ot 8 Plot 9 Plot 10 Aristida stricta 39 5 4 4 6 3 3 6 4 1 3 Ageratina jucunda 6 0 0 3 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 Lupinus diffusus 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Liatris elegans 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Pityopsis graminifolia 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Paspalum floridanum 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 Opuntia humifusa 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Symphyotrichum concolor 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Matlea pubiflora 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Andropogon gyrans 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Eupatorium capillifolium 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Rhynchosia cinerea 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 Solidago odora 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Total 61 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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86 Table A-3. Hydric hammock tree and shrub community analysis data. ______________________________________________________________________________ Trees [1 hectare plot] Sabal palmetto 39 Fraxinus caroliniana 71 Liquidambar styraciflua 29 Taxodium distichum 74 Quercus laurifolia 5 Carya glabra 3 Acer rubrum 25 Celtis laevigata 1 Ulmus americana 4 Vitis rotundifolia 4 Total 255 Shrubs [100 m2 plot] Sabal minor 4 Aesculus pavia 4 Total 8 ____________________________________________________________________________

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87 Table A-4. Hydric hammock herb/grass community analysis data. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Herbs/grasses [10 1 m2 plots] Cumulative Plot 1 Plot 2 Plot 3 Plot 4 Plot 5 Plot 6 Plot 7 Pl ot 8 Plot 9 Plot 10 Sarurus cernuus 10 7 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Carex longii 4 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Hydrocotyle verticillata 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Panicum virgatum 5 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Parietaria floridana 6 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Oxalis corniculata 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 Eupatorium serotinum 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 Panicum hemitomon 4 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 Total 36

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88 Table A-5. Mesic hammock tree and shrub community analysis data ___________________________________________________________________________ Trees [1 hectare plot] Sabal palmetto 121 Liquidambar styraciflua 38 Juniperus virginiana 3 Quercus virginiana 11 Celtis laevigata 10 Ulmus crassifolia 17 Quercus laurifolia 5 Vitis spp. 11 Total 216 Shrubs [100 m2 plot] Sabal minor 5 Callicarpa americana 1 Total 8 ___________________________________________________________________________

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89 Table A-6. Mesic hammock herb/grass community analysis data. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Herbs/grasses [10 1 m2 plots] Cumulative Plot 1 Plot 2 Plot 3 Plot 4 Plot 5 Plot 6 Plot 7 Pl ot 8 Plot 9 Plot 10 Oplismenus hirtellus 16 4 0 3 2 1 1 2 0 1 2 Viola sororia 6 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 Elephantopus carolinianus 16 2 0 0 7 2 4 1 0 0 0 Carex debilis 12 2 1 1 1 5 0 0 0 0 2 Spigelia loganioides 8 1 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 2 0 Dichondra caroliniensis 6 1 0 0 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 Toxicodendron radicans 6 0 0 2 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 Salvia lyrata 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Total 71 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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90 Table A-7. Pine flatwoods tree and shrub community analysis data. ___________________________________________________________________________ Trees [1 hectare plot] Pinus taeda 76 Persea palustris 2 Pinus elliottii 7 Total 85 Shrubs [100 m2 plot] Quercus minima 1 Lyonia lucida 3 Gaylussacia frondosa 1 Bejaria racemosa 1 Vaccinium myrsinites 1 Serenoa repens 5 Ilex glabra 4 Lyonia ferruginea 1 Total 18 ___________________________________________________________________________

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91 Table A-8. Pine flatwoods herb/g rass community analysis data. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Herbs/grasses [10 1 m2 plots] Cumulative Plot 1 Plot 2 Plot 3 Plot 4 Plot 5 Plot 6 Plot 7 Pl ot 8 Plot 9 Plot 10 Piloblephis rigida 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 Carphephorus odoratissimus 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 Total 8 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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92 Table A-9. Oak scrub tree and shrub community analysis data. ______________________________________________________________________________ Trees [1 hectare plot] Quercus geminata 6 Quercus laevis 8 Pinus clausa 1 Sabal palmetto 2 Total 17 Shrubs [100 m2 plot] Quercus myrtifolia 5 Myrica cerifera 1 Serenoa repens 3 Callicarpa americana 1 Asimina incana 1 Total 11 ______________________________________________________________________________

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93 Table A-10. Oak scrub herb/grass community analysis data. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Herbs/grasses [10 1 m2 plots] Cumulative Plot 1 Plot 2 Plot 3 Plot 4 Plot 5 Plot 6 Plot 7 Pl ot 8 Plot 9 Plot 10 Triplasis americana 82 7 5 9 0 9 11 14 13 9 5 Opuntia humifusa 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Krigia virginica 7 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 3 0 0 Stipulicida setacea 13 5 0 0 2 0 3 0 3 0 0 Eremochloa ophiuroides 15 1 0 5 0 4 1 1 1 0 2 Dichanthelium aciculare 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 Tephrosia chrysophylla 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Eupatorium capilifolium 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Helianthemum corymbosum 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 126 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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94 LIST OF REFERENCES Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2003. An update of the angiosperm phylogeny group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 399-436. Arrington, J. M., and K. Kubitzki. 2003. Cistaceae Pages 62 71 In K Kubitzki, ed. The families and genera of vascular plants. V. Floweri ng plants. Dicotyledons. Malvales, Capparales, and Non-betalin Caryophyllales. Springer, Berlin. Brooks, H.K. 1981. Physiographic Regions. Florida C ooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science. University of Florida. Gain esville, Florida. Fernald, E. A. and D. J. Patton. 1984. Water Resour ces Atlas of Florida. Institute of Science and Public Affairs, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida. Flora of North America Editorial Committee, Ed s. 1993 2007. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 7+ vols. Oxford Universi ty Press. New York and Oxford. Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP): Division of Recreation and Parks. 2002. Silver River State Park Unit Management Pl an. Department of Environmental Protection. Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) and Flor ida Department of Natural Resources. 1990. Guide to the Natural Communities of Florida. FNAI and Florida Department of Natural Resources. Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH). Kent Perkins. 2007. Website: Preparation of Plant Specimens for deposit as herbarium vouchers (.http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herbarium/voucher.htm, cited 7 October, 2007). Gannon, M. 2003. Florida: A Short History, Revise d Edition. University Press of Florida. Gainesville, Florida. Gleason, H. A. 1926. The Individualistic Concept of the Plant Associat ion. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 53: 7-26. Godfrey, R., and J. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and Wetla nd Plants of Southeastern United States. University of Georgia Pr ess. Athens, Georgia. Godfrey, R. K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vi nes on northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. University of Georgia press. Athens, Georgia. Hyde, L. W. 1965. Principle Aquifers in Florida. U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Tallahassee, Florida. Hagsater, E. 2000. New Names for Florida Ep idendrums. North American Native Orchid Journal 6: 300-310.

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95 Judd, W. S., C. S. Campbell, E. A. Kellogg, P. F. Stevens, and M. J. Donoghue. 2008. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. Third Edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, Massachusetts. Kalkman, C. 2004. Rosaceae. Pages 343 In K Kubitzki, ed. The families and genera of vascular plants. VI. Flowering plants. Dicotyledons. Celastrales, Oxalidales, Rosales, Cornales Ericales. Springer. Berlin. Kim, S., and M. J. Donoghue. 2008. Molecular phylogeny of Persicaria (Persicarieae, Polygonaceae). Systematic Botany 31: 77-86. Luteyn, J. L., W. S. Judd, S. P. Vander Kloe t, L. J. Dorr and G. D. Wallace 1996. Ericaceae of the southeastern United States. Castanea 61: 101-144. Martin, R. A. 1966. Eternal Spri ng: Mans 10,000 Years of History at Floridas Silver Springs. Great Outdoors Publishing, St. Petersburg, Florida. Metzgar, J. S., J. E. Skog, E. A. Zimmer and K. M. Pryer. 2008. The paraphyly of Osmunda is confirmed by phylogenetic analyses of seven plastid loci. Systematic Botany 33: 31-36. Myers, R. L., and J. J. Ewel. 1990. Ecosystems of Florida. University Press of Florida. Gainesville, Florida. National Weather Service (NWS), National O ceanic and Atmospheric Administration.NWS Internet Services Team. 2007. Florida climate data ( http://www.nws.noaa.gov/ cited 13 July, 2007). Palm er, M. W., and P. S. White. 1994. On the Ex istence of Ecological Co mmunities. Journal of Vegetation Science 5: 279-282. Smith, A. R., K. M. Pryer, E. Schuettpelz, P. H. Korall, Schneider, and P. G. Wolf. 2006. A Classification for Extant Ferns. Taxon 55: 705-731. Spechler, R. M. and D. M. Schiffer 1995. Sp rings of Florida. Fact Sheet FS-151-95. U.S. Geological Survey. Tallahassee, Florida. Stevens, P. F. 2001onwards. APG II. Angios perm Phylogeny Website. Version 8, June 2007. ( http://www.mobot.org/MO BOT/research/APweb/ ., cited 23 January 2008). Wagner, W L., P. C. Hoch, and P. H. Rave n. 2007. Revised classification of the Onagraceae. Systematic Botany Monographs 83: 1-240. Ward, D.B. 1974. Contributions to the flora of Fl orida 6, Vaccinium (Ericaceae). Castenea 39: 191-205. Ward, D. B. 2007. Scientific Note: Quercus sinuata Walter the Hybrid of Q. falcata and Q. phellos Rediscovered and Neotypified. Castanea 72: 177-182.

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96 Warzeski, J. M. 2000. Unpublished memo. Florid a Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Park Service. Winsberg, M. D., 1990. Florida Weather. University of Central Florida Press. Orlando, Florida. Wunderlin, R. P. and B. F. Hansen. 2003. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida, 2nd ed University Press of Florida. Gainesville, Florida. Wunderlin, R. P., and B. F. Hansen. 2004. A tlas of Florida Vascular Plants Website ( http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/ cited 5 March 2008).[S. M. Landry and K. N. Ca mpbell (application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research.] Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.

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97 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jeffery R. Hubbard was born in St. Pete rsburg, Florida on April 19, 1966, to Merle and Sarah Hubbard. His interest in biology arose from time spent outdoors camping, fishing, surfing, and gardening. He graduated from Largo Se nior High School in 1984, and then engaged in various activities and occupations including army ranger, musician, and business owner. Wishing to pursue a formal education in botany, he enrolled at St. Petersburg College in 1999, and received an associates degree in 2002. He then transferred to the University of Florida and received a Bachelors of Science in botany in 2004. Accepted into the University of Floridas Botany Department graduate program in 2005, he completed his Master of Science degree with Dr. Walter Judd.